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3.jpg
21 viewshttp://www.forumancientcoins.com/gallery/albums/edit/preview_6c615484.jpgdjmacdo
forumlicinus2.jpg
15 viewshelcaraxe
forumlicinus1.jpg
14 viewshelcaraxe
hadrian_denarius_clementia.jpg
118 viewsHadrian, 11 August 117 - 10 July 138 A.D.
Silver denarius, BMCRE III 536, RIC II 206, RSC 218, EF, 3.046g, 19.9mm, 180o, Rome mint, 132 - 134 A.D.; obverse HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS, bare head right; reverse CLEMENTIA AVG COS III P P, Clementia standing half left, patera in right, long vertical scepter in left
Coin and photo ex. Forum
3 commentspaul1888
1a.jpg
18 viewshttp://www.forumancientcoins.com/gallery/albums/edit/preview_5a096499.jpg
Deviant style; reverse legend retrograde
djmacdo
p2.jpg
57 viewsstill could use improvement, but thought I'd share.


Heres a link to a better photo
http://www.forumancientcoins.com/gallery/displayimage.php?pos=-65336
5 commentsRandygeki(h2)
Pseudo_Rhodian.jpg
93 viewsMacedonian Kingdom, Perseus, 179 - 168 B.C., Pseudo-Rhodian Coinage; Silver drachm, Ashton Pseudo-Rhodian Mainland pp. 29 - 30, Larissa Hoard p. 241 (N. Greece), SNG Keckman 793 - 795 (Thessaly), SNG Cop suppl. 358 (Peraea Rodia), EF, rose toning on luster, uncertain Thessaly mint, weight 2.675g, maximum diameter 16.8mm, die axis 180o, magistrate Hermias, c. 171 - 170 B.C.; obverse head of Helios facing slightly right; reverse ERMIAS (magistrate), rose, with bud right, I - W flanking stem

Ex: Forum (coin and picture)
6 commentspaul1888
Hadrianden.jpg
92 viewsHADRIANVS AVG COS III PP
Laureate head of Hadrian right

FORTVNA AVG
Fortuna stg left holding rudder set on globe and cornucopiae

Rome 134 AD

3.07g

Sear 3494
RIC 244

Sold Forum Auction April 2016
1 commentsJay GT4
Philip_I_antelope_right_VI_june_22_2018.jpg
25 viewsSilver antoninianus, RIC IV 22 (R2), RSC IV 188, SRCV III 8959 var. (antelope left), Hunter III 48 var. (same), Choice aEF, excellent centering on a broad flan, excellent portrait, light toning, some luster, strike slightly soft/flat, some die wear, 6th officina, Rome mint, weight 4.402g, maximum diameter 23.8mm, die axis 0o, 248 A.D.; obverse IMP PHILIPPVS AVG, radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right, from behind; reverse SAECVLARES AVGG, antelope walking right, VI in exergue; very rare with antelope right (only two on Coin Archives and one sold for $700!; ex Beast Coins; Ex Forum coin and picture1 commentspaul1888
cjd.jpg
Caracalla & Julia Domna, AE 27 Pentassarion of Markianopolis, Moesia Inferior21 viewsCaracalla & Julia Domna AE27 Pentassarion of Markianopolis, Moesia Inferior.
Obverse: ANTWNINOC AVGOVCTOC IOVLIA DOMNA, laureate, draped, cuirassed bust of Caracalla right facing draped bust of Julia Domna left.
Reverse: UP KUNTILIANOU MARKIANOPOLITWN, Tyche standing left, holding rudder and cornucopiae, Epsilon in upper left field.
Varbanov 1054 ; AMNG 678. 26.3 mm diam., 12.3 g
Previously a Forum coin RP63352
NORMAN K
Vindex_denarius.jpg
6.75 Revolt of Vindex56 viewsRevolt Against Nero, Gaius Iulius Vindex, Governor of Gallia Lugdunensis, c. Late 67 - May 68 A.D.

Struck by Gaius Iulius Vindex, the Roman governor of Gallia Lugdunensis, who rebelled against Nero's tax policy and declared allegiance to Galba, the governor of Hispania Tarraconensis, as the new emperor. Vindex was defeated and killed in battle near Vesontio (modern Besançon), but the military continued to support Galba. On 9 June 68, deserted by the Praetorian Guard, Nero stabbed himself in the throat.

Silver denarius, Unpublished, civil war restitution of Augustus, gF, porosity, marks, uncertain (Lugdunum?) mint, weight 3.167g, maximum diameter 19.0mm, die axis 180o, c. late 67 - May 68 A.D.; obverse CAESAR, bare head of Augustus right; reverse AVGVSTVS, young bull walking right, head turned facing; ex Roma Numismatics e-auction 6, lot 321; only two examples known to Forum

Purchased from FORVM
2 commentsSosius
rjb_car_cf121.jpg
121cf51 viewsCarausius 287-93 AD
AE antoninianus
Obv "IMP CARAVSIVS PF AVG"
Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev "PAX AVG"
Pax standing left with transverse sceptre
Uncertain mint
V/star//-
RIC - (cf 121)
This coin clearly copies the coins of Victorinus from Mint I (Trier), third issue.
mauseus
rjb_car_188cf_05_05.jpg
18858 viewsCarausius 287-93
Antoninianus
Obv"IMP CARAVSIVS PF AVG"
Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev "[PM T]RP II COS PP"
Emperor togate seated left in curule chair
Camulodunum mint
-/-//C
RIC 188?
This is the only known coin with "TRP II COS", all other extant specimens except the coin below are "TRP IIII COS". A discussion of this coin in relation to the other dated coins of Carausius can be found here.
mauseus
rjb_car_fratrescf198.jpg
202cf189 viewsCarausius 287-93AD
Antoninianus
Obv "CARAVSIVS ET FRATRES SVI"
Jugate busts of Diocletian, Maximianus and Carausius left, Carausius holding spear over shoulder
Rev "COMES AVGGG"
Victory walking left holding wreath and branch
Camulodunum mint
S/P//C
RIC - (cf 202-3)
An interesting variant of the bust type with the spear, compare with the jugate Carausius in the “Best of Type” gallery.
2 commentsmauseus
Roman_Prov.jpg
26 Geta?21 viewsNever nailed this one down. It was discussed here:

http://www.forumancientcoins.com/board/index.php?topic=70693.msg443086#msg443086

From FORVM member Pscipio:
"Probably Geta as Caesar rather than Caracalla, cf. SNG Aulock 7165 for what looks like an obverse die match (different reverse type). Note that a similar left facing portrait also exists for Caracalla, but laureate, thus as Augustus: SNG Aulock 7162, which is clearly from the same hand and therefore probably belongs to the same emission.

The countermark appears to be Howgego 68."
Sosius
rjb_car_982cf_02_05.jpg
82238 viewsCarausius 287-93AD
Antoninianus
Obv "IMP C CARAVSIVS PF AVG"
Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev "LAETITI AVG"
Laetitia standing left holding wreath and baton
Unmarked mint
RIC 822
This coin is an obverse and reverse die duplicate of the coin illustrated in "Some Stratified Coins Of c. AD 390-400 From Bourton-On-The-Water" by O'neil in Numismatic Chronicle 1935 pp 275-81. The Bourton specimen plus an obverse brockage die duplicate of this coin can be seen here.
mauseus
39792q00.jpg
AHG 234 . The Antioch Hoard of Gallienus . Gallienus, August 253 - 24 March 268 A.D.23 viewsGallienus, August 253 - 24 March 268 A.D.
Billon antoninianus . 2.927g, 19.7mm, 180o, Antioch mint, 254 - 255 A.D.
Obverse : IMP C P LIC GALLIENVS AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Reverse VICTORIAE AVGG, soldier standing right, vertical spear in right, resting left on shield
Göbl MIR 1566d (Antioch), SRCV III 10397 (Antioch), RIC V 300 (Viminacium), AHG 234 (this coin)
From the Antioch Hoard of Gallienus . Ex Forum
Vladislav D
55535q00.jpg
AHG 272 . The Antioch Hoard of Gallienus . Salonina, August 254 - c. September 268 A.D.22 viewsSalonina, August 254 - c. September 268 A.D.
Billon antoninianus . 2.763g, 20.1mm, 0o, Syrian mint, 258 - 260 A.D.
Obverse : CORN SALONINA AVG, diademed and draped bust right, crescent behind
Reverse : CONCORDIA AVGG, emperor and empress standing confronted, clasping hands
Göbl MIR 1691p (Samosata), SRCV III 10630 (uncertain Syrian mint), RIC V 63 (Antioch), Cohen 31, AHG 272 (this coin)
From the Antioch Hoard of Gallienus . Ex Forum
Vladislav D
Intaglio.jpg
Asclepius Intaglio48 viewsMale figure Asclepius? holding two snakes.

Asclepius was the god of healing though he, like Heracles, was born as a mortal. Athena gave Asclepius two types of blood to help with his healing work, both from the gorgon, Medusa. One took life quickly but the other restored life. When Asclepius used this life restoring blood he encroached on the preserve of the gods and Zeus struck him down with a thunderbolt. One of the most famous centres for Asclepius worship was at Epidaurus on the Peloponnese. Snakes were sacred to the god and when the Romans embraced him as one of theirs his cult was supposedly taken to Rome in the body of a snake. He was preserved in the heavens as the constellation Ophiuchus, the serpent holder. The Romanised version of his name is Aesculapius.

0.34g

Greek or more likely Roman Provincial

Ex-Time Machine

Sold Forum Auctions December 2017
2 commentsJay GT4
AUGUSTUS_Cistophorus_Pergamum.JPG
AUGUSTUS. AR Cistophorus (3 denarii) of Pergamum. Struck c.19 - 18 B.C.604 viewsObverse: IMP IX TR PO V. Bare head of Augustus facing right.
Reverse: Triumphal arch surmounted by Augustus in facing triumphal quadriga; IMP IX TR POT V on architrave; S P R SIGNIS RECEPTIS in three lines within arch opening, standards at either side.
RIC I : 510 | BMC : 703 | RSC : 298.

This coin commemorates Augustus' triumphant agreement with the Parthians in 20 B.C. under which they returned the legionary standards captured from Crassus who was defeated and killed at Carrhae thirty-three years earlier (53 B.C.) Augustus installed these standards in the Temple of Mars Ultor.
The reverse of the coin shows the triumphal arch which was awarded to Augustus on the occasion of his recovery of the standards. This was the second triumphal arch awarded to Augustus and, like the earlier arch which had been constructed in 29 BC to honour his victory over Cleopatra, this second arch, which archaeological evidence suggests may actually have incorporated the first arch, stood in close proximity to the Temple of Divus Julius at the southern entrance to the Roman Forum.

This is the rarest cistophorus struck during the reign of Augustus with the exception of the exceedingly rare issues featuring a sphinx.
6 commentsdivvsavgvstvs
32264q00~0.jpg
County of Tripoli, Raymond III, 1152 - 1187 Bronze pougeoise48 views County of Tripoli, Raymond III, 1152 - 1187 Bronze pougeoise
O : + CIVITAS fortified gateway, five rows of masonry, five crenellations, large divided door
R : + TRIPOLIS, St. Andrew's cross pommetée, circle in center, crescent and pellet in each quarter
CCS 13
Ex FORUM ; Ex Malloy
Vladislavs D
Italy- Pompeii- The Basilaca.jpg
Italy- Pompeii- The Basilaca315 viewsBASILICA
Forum of Pompeii c. 120 B.C. These more massive columns are from the basilica, the most important public building in Pompeii. Constructed prior to the Roman period, the basilica had three aisles and five entrance doors onto the forum. In the rear we see a two-tiered colonnade which has columns in the Doric style on the bottom and slender Ionic columns on top of a cross beam. In Pompeii many columns were made of brick and covered with stucco.

BASILICA (VIII,1,1)
Built in the second half of the 2nd cent. BC, as part of the plan to create monuments throughout the city. It has a rectangular layout, with three naves, with a ceiling sloping straight down in both directions from the central columns and half columns at the top of the walls, where there are still remains of decorations in ‘first style’: at the back is the tribunal, where the magistrates sat, reached by a wooden staircase. The building was dedicated to administering justice and for business negotiations.




John Schou
Lysimachos_Alexander_the_Great_Portrait_Coin~0.JPG
Lysimachos Alexander the Great Portrait Coin124 viewsLysimachos, Portrait of Alexander the Great, Kingdon of Thrace, Silver tetradrachm, (Posthumous issue c. 280 - 200 BC), 16.675g, 30.6mm, die axis 0o, Müller 460, Thompson -, SNG Cop -, SNG UK -, uncertain mint,
OBV: Diademed head of Alexander the Great wearing the horn of Ammon
REV: BASILEWS LUSIMACOU, Athena enthroned left, holding Nike crowning name with wreath in right,
resting left arm on shield at side, transverse spear behind, bow case inner left

EX: Heritage Long Beach Signature Sale (18 Sep 2008), lot 20015; EX: Forum Ancient Coins
3 commentsRomanorvm
sear1966clipped.jpg
Manuel I Komnenus clipped billion aspron trachy SB196666 viewsObverse: IC-XC (bar above) in field, Christ bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and colobion, seated upon throne without back; holds gospels in left hand.
Reverse: MAN(monogram)HA AECIIOT or var, MP OV bar above in upper right field, Full-length figure of emperor, bearded on left, crowned by Virgin nimbate. Emperor wears stemma, divitision, collar-peice, and jewelled loros of simplified type; holds in right hand labarum-headed scepter, and in left globus cruciger. Virgin wears tunic and maphorion.
four main varieties:
Mint: Constantinople
Date: 1167-1183?
Sear 1966 Var d, Fourth coinage; H 16.14,15; 17.1-4
rev: Jewel within circle on loros waist
16mm .89gm
As discussed in the Byzantine forumThese are the "neatly clipped" trachies.
During the reign of Manuel I the silver content of the trachy was dropped from c.6% to c.3%, but later types were sometimes issued with the higher silver content.
In Alexius III's time these high silver types were clipped down to half size, probably officially, presumably so as to match the lower silver content of the later issues.
Of course this would only have worked as long as the populace accepted the idea that the clipped coins were all high silver versions to start with. Once smarties started clipping ordinary coins these types would soon have have fallen out of favour and been withdrawn.

Ross G.


During the reign of Alexius III were reused coins of previous releases, clipping its border in a very regular mode and thus reducing to half their weight. Regularity of shearing and the fact that they were found to stock uniforms, suggesting that this clipping is a formal issuance of mint. Based on the stocks found in Constantinople , some of which consist only of clipped coins, it may safely be dated between 1195 and 1203.
Hendy and Grierson believe that this shearing was a consequence of the devaluation of trachy mixture during the reign of Isaac II and Alexius III. They reduced by half the already low silver content of this coin: shearing coins of previous emperors, still widely in circulation, made their trachy consistent with the intrinsic value of current emissions. Of course, this does not justify the clipping of coins already degraded of Isaac II and Alexius III. Therefore, reason for their declassification is not understood. I think that reason of Ross is right!
The structure of their dispersion in hoards indicates that, however, were made after the other emissions. Clipped trachys appear in small amounts along with regular trachy in hoards, represents a rarity. Were clipped trachys of Manuel I, Andronicus I, Isaac II and Alexius III, and perhaps of John II; those of Manuel are less scarce. In principle, we must believe that all trachys after Manuel I have been clipped, although many have not yet appeared.

Antvwala
wileyc
Pupeinus ric 10a.jpg
RIC-10(a) Pupienus Clasped Hands829 viewsIMP CAES M CLOD PVPIENVS AVG - Radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right
CARITAS MVTVA AVGG - (Mutual Clarity of the Emperors), clasped hands

This is the scarcer variant of RIC 10. Superb portrait. David Sear ANCCS certified.
From Forum ancient Coins
12 commentsjimwho523
PB_Roman_Tessera_DP_2.jpg
56 viewsROME
PB Tessera (11 mm, 1.35 g, 12 h)
Fortuna seated left, holding rudder and cornucopia
DP
Rostowzew 2307; Kircheriano 809-9

Cast from same mold as:
http://www.forumancientcoins.com/gallery/displayimage.php?pos=-42319
Ardatirion
PB_Roman_Tessera_DP_1.jpg
62 viewsROME
PB Tessera (11 mm, 1.24 g, 12 h)
Fortuna seated left, holding rudder and cornucopia
DP
Rostowzew 2307; Kircheriano 809-9

Cast from same mold as:
http://www.forumancientcoins.com/gallery/displayimage.php?pos=-42318
1 commentsArdatirion
nerva.jpg
(0096) NERVA15 views96 - 98 AD
struck 97 AD
Copper as, 28.3 mm; 10.735 g RIC II 83, BMCRE III 130, Cohen II 68, BnF III 116, Hunter I -, SRCV II
O: IMP NERVA CAES AVG P M TR P COS III P P, laureate head right;
R: FORTVNA AVGVST (good fortune of the Emperor), Fortuna standing left, rudder held by tiller in right hand, cornucopia in left hand, S - C (senatus consulto) flanking across field;
Rome mint; RIC II 83, BMCRE III 130, Cohen II 68, BnF III 116, Hunter I -, SRCV II --from the Butte College Foundation, ex Lindgren
(ex Forum)
laney
hadrian_alexandria_agath_b.jpg
(0117) HADRIAN--Alexandria21 views117 - 138 AD
Struck 120-121 AD
Billon Tetradrachm 23.5 mm, 14.3 g
O: AVT KAI TPAI CEB Laureate bust right, slight drapery on left shoulder, crescent before
R: Agathodaemon serpent erect right, wearing skhent and entwining caduceus and grain ears in coils; LE (date) in exe.
Egypt, Alexandria; Ref: Emmett 803.5 koln 804/805 var. Dattari 1547 Milne 982 RPC 3, 5270
laney
agathodae_hadrian_alexandria.jpg
(0117) HADRIAN--Alexandria23 views117 - 138 AD
Struck 120-121 AD
Billon Tetradrachm 23.5 mm, 14.3 g
O: AVT KAI TPAI CEB Laureate bust right, slight drapery on left shoulder, crescent before
R: Agathodaemon serpent erect right, wearing skhent and entwining caduceus and grain ears in coils; LE (date) in exe.
Egypt, Alexandria; Ref: Emmett 803.5 koln 804/805 var. Dattari 1547 Milne 982 RPC 3, 5270
laney
a_pius_shewolf_2.jpg
(0138) ANTONINUS PIUS31 views138 - 161 AD
Struck 140 - 144 AD
AE Sestertius 31/32 mm, 27.79 g
O: Laureate head right
R: --COS III" She-wolf in cave standing right with head left, suckling the twins Romulus and Remus, S-C in ex
(struck to commemorate 900th year of founding of Rome)
Rome mint ;, RIC III 603b Banti 86. (scarce)
1 commentslaney
pertinax_denarius.jpg
(0193) PERTINAX22 views193 AD
AR Denarius
16.9 mm max.; 3.10 g
O: IMP CAES P HELV PERTIN AVG, laureate head right;
R: OPI DIVIN TR P COS II, Ops (plenty) seated left on throne with ornamented back, two stalks of grain in right hand, leaning back on left hand resting on the edge of the seat behind; rare
Rome mint; RIC IV 8a (R2); RSC III 33; BMCRE V p. 4, 19; Hunter III 6; SRCV II 6045
(ex Forum)
laney
carac_herac_apples.jpg
(0198) CARACALLA27 views198 - 217 AD
struck 201 - 203 AD (under legatus consularis Aurelius Gallus)
AE26 Tetrassarion 25 x 26 mm; 9.92 g
O: AV K M AV ANTΩNINO Laureaet bust of Caracalla draped in paludamentum, right
R: VΠ AV ΓAΛΛOV NIKOΠOΛIT Herakles Farnese standing right, right hand behind back (hides the "Apples of the Hesperides"), resting on club set on rock, ΠPOCI beneath
Moesia Inferior, Nikopolis ad Istrum mint; Hristova/Jekov No.8.18.14.6, not listed in AMNG also not listed in Varbanov. Rare

laney
cap_scorp_red_res.jpg
(02) AUGUSTUS31 views27 BC - 14 AD
AE 18.8 mm; 2.73 g
O: Capricorn right, star above
R: Scorpion left, star in field
Cyprus mint; RPC I 3916; SNG Cop.-
(ex Forum)
laney
max_thrax_denarius_x.jpg
(0235) MAXIMINUS I THRAX14 views235 - 238 AD
Struck 236 AD--2nd emission
Silver denarius, 20.0 mm; 2.909 g
O: IMP MAXIMINVS PIVS AVG, laureate and draped bust right (no cuirass?), from behind;
R: PAX AVGVSTI (to the peace of the emperor), Pax standing facing, head left, raising olive branch in right hand, transverse scepter in left
Rome mint; RSC III 31b (no cuirass), RIC IV 12 var. (cuirassed), BMCRE VI 70 var. (same), Hunter III 8 var. (same), SRCV III 8310 var. (same)
(ex FORUM)
laney
tranq_deult_wolf_-_Copyb.jpg
(0241) TRANQUILLINA25 views(wife of Gordian III)
241-244 AD
AE 7.108g, 23.7mm max.
O: SAB TRANQVILLINA AVG, draped bust right, wearing stephane, elaborate hairstyle with hair in ridges, and in plait looped below her ear and then up the back of her head;
R: COL FL PA-C, DEVLT (starting above, ending in exergue), she-wolf standing right, head turned back left, suckling the infant twins Romulus and Remus
Thrace, Deultum (Debelt, Bulgaria) mint
Jurukova Deultum 414; SNG Deultum 1526 (O148/R67); Draganov Deultum 1527a (O148/R67);
Varbanov II 2957 (R4); Moushmov 3744; MPR II-4 2083um
(ex Forum)
laney
quietus_a.jpg
(0260) QUIETUS17 views260 - 261 AD
Billon antoninianus 4.576g, 20.6mm max.
O:IMP C FVL QVIETVS P F AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right;
R: ROMAE AETERNAE, Roma seated left on shield, holding Victory in right and scepter in left, two dots in exergue;
Antioch mint; RSC IV 11b, RIC V 9, rare (R2)
(ex Forum)
laney
numerian_clement_res.jpg
(0283) NUMERIAN35 views283 - 284 AD
Billon Antoninianus 20 mm 3.4 g
O: NVMERIANVS NOB CAES radiated, draped and cuirassed bust right
R: CLEMENTIA TEMP Emperor standing right holding scepter and receiving Victory on a globe from Jupiter standing left holding spear; A between; XXI in exe
Cyzicus mint; RIC V ii 372 p 190; VM-3 p. 264; c: VB1
(ex-Forum)
laney
numerian_athena.jpg
(0283) NUMERIAN16 views283 - 284 AD
Billon tetradrachm 19.3 mm max., 7.732 g
O: A K M A NOVMEPIANOC CEB, laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right, from behind;
R: Athena seated left on high backed throne, wearing crested helmet, Nike in right, shield leaning against throne, L - B* (year 2) across fields
Alexandria mint; Milne 4719; Curtis 1939; Dattari 5608; BMC Alexandria p. 319, 2464 var. (star)
(ex FORUM)
laney
allectus_b.jpg
(0293) ALLECTUS28 views293 - 296 AD
Billon quinarius 20.2 mm max.; 2.877 g
O: IMP C ALLECTVS P AVG, radiate and cuirassed bust right;
R: VIRTVS AVG, Galley left, with mast, no waves below, QC in exergue;
Camulodunum (Colchester, England) mint; Rogiet 1043, Burnett, Coinage 216, RIC V 130 var (steersman standing aft); ex Robert T. Golan (Warrenton, NC); scarce
(ex Forum)
laney
galerius_genio.jpg
(0293) GALERIUS24 views293 - 305 AD (as Caesar)
305 - 311 AD (as Augustus)
struck 297 AD
AE 27.4 mm, 10.53 g
O: GAL VAL MAXIMIANVS NOBC CAES laureate head right
R: GENIO POPVLI ROMANI Genius standing left holding poatera dn cornucopia, crescent over A at right; ANT in exe.
Antioch mint; RIC 49b
(ex-Forum)
laney
licin_ii_prov_res.jpg
(0317) LICINIUS II38 views317 - 324 AD (Caesar)
AE 19.1 mm 2.78 g
O D N VAL LICIN LICINIVS NOB C, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right;
R: PROVIDENTIAE CAESS, Jupiter standing left, scepter in left, Victory on globe presenting wreath in right, palm frond left, pellet over Δ right, SMN in ex;
Nicomedia mint; RIC VII 34; scarce
(ex-Forum)
laney
DELMATIUS.jpg
(0335) DELMATIUS26 viewsCAESAR 18 SEP. 335 - MID 337 AD
AE 16.2 mm 1.312 g
O: FL DELMATIVS NOB C
LAUREATE DRAPED AND CUIRASSED BUST R
R:
GLOR-IA EXERC-ITVS
TWO SOLDIERS HOLDING SPEARS AND SHIELDS ON GROUND FLAKING SINGLE STANDARD
BSIS IN EXE
SISCIA RIC 256
(ex Forum)
laney
nero_alex_r_2res.jpg
(06) NERO27 views54 - 68 AD
Struck 65 - 66 AD
Billon tetracrachm 24 mm 11.78 g
O: NERWKLAYKAISSEBGER Radiatebust of Nero right, wearing aegis
R: AYIGO-KRA Bust of Alexandria right, wearing elephant head headdress, L IB (year 12) right
Alexandria, Provincial Egypt
Milne 238, SRCV I 2004, Emmett 109, Koln 172, Dattari 204, BMC 163, RPC 5289
(ex Forum)
laney
nero_alexandria_b.jpg
(06) NERO16 views54 - 68 AD
Struck 65 - 66 AD
Billon tetracrachm 24 mm 11.78 g
O: NERWKLAYKAISSEBGER Radiatebust of Nero right, wearing aegis
R: AYIGO-KRA Bust of Alexandria right, wearing elephant head headdress, L IB (year 12) right
Alexandria, Provincial Egypt
Milne 238, SRCV I 2004, Emmett 109, Koln 172, Dattari 204, BMC 163, RPC 5289
(ex Forum)
laney
vitellius_denarius_res.jpg
(09) VITELLIUS33 views69 AD
3.110g, maximum diameter 18.8mm
O: A VITELLIVS GERMANICVS IMP, bare head right
R: CONCOR-DIA P R, Concordia enthroned left, patera in right, cornucopia in left
Rome mint; RIC I 66, RSC II 21, BMCRE I 1, BnF III 3 (Scarce)
(ex-Forum)
1 commentslaney
domitian_ascalon_resb.jpg
(12) DOMITIAN31 views81 - 96 AD
struck 85 - 86 AD
AE 23.4 mm max., 14.03 g
O: ΣΕΒΑΣΤΟΣ, laureate head right
R: ASKAΛΩ, ΘΠΡ, Tyche standing left, on prow of galley, holding standard in right, aphlaston in left, incense altar in left field, dove in right
Ascalon mint; RPC II 2212; Rosenberger 114; SNG ANS 697; BMC Palestine p. 121
(ex Forum)
laney
LPisoFrugiDenarius_S235.jpg
(502a) Roman Republic, L. Calpurnius Piso Frugi, 90 B.C.157 viewsSilver denarius, S 235, Calpurnia 11, Crawford 340/1, Syd 663a, VF, rainbow toning, Rome mint, 3.772g, 18.5mm, 180o, 90 B.C. obverse: laureate head of Apollo right, scorpion behind; Reverse naked horseman galloping right holding palm, L PISO FRVGI and control number CXI below; ex-CNA XV 6/5/91, #443. Ex FORVM.


A portion of the following text is a passage taken from the excellent article “The Calpurnii and Roman Family History: An Analysis of the Piso Frugi Coin in the Joel Handshu Collection at the College of Charleston,” by Chance W. Cook:

In the Roman world, particularly prior to the inception of the principate, moneyers were allotted a high degree of latitude to mint their coins as they saw fit. The tres viri monetales, the three men in charge of minting coins, who served one-year terms, often emblazoned their coins with an incredible variety of images and inscriptions reflecting the grandeur, history, and religion of Rome. Yet also prominent are references to personal or familial accomplishments; in this manner coins were also a means by which the tres viri monetales could honor their forbearers. Most obvious from an analysis of the Piso Frugi denarius is the respect and admiration that Lucius Calpurnius Piso Frugi, who minted the coin, had for his ancestors. For the images he selected for his dies relate directly to the lofty deeds performed by his Calpurnii forbearers in the century prior to his term as moneyer. The Calpurnii were present at many of the watershed events in the late Republic and had long distinguished themselves in serving the state, becoming an influential and well-respected family whose defense of traditional Roman values cannot be doubted.

Lucius Calpurnius Piso Frugi, who was moneyer in 90 B.C., depicted Apollo on the obverse and the galloping horseman on the reverse, as does his son Gaius. However, all of L. Piso Frugi’s coins have lettering similar to “L-PISO-FRVGI” on the reverse, quite disparate from his son Gaius’ derivations of “C-PISO-L-F-FRV.”

Moreover, C. Piso Frugi coins are noted as possessing “superior workmanship” to those produced by L. Piso Frugi.

The Frugi cognomen, which became hereditary, was first given to L. Calpurnius Piso, consul in 133 B.C., for his integrity and overall moral virtue. Cicero is noted as saying that frugal men possessed the three cardinal Stoic virtues of bravery, justice, and wisdom; indeed in the Thesaurus Linguae Latinae, a synonym of frugalitas is bonus, generically meaning “good” but also implying virtuous behavior. Gary Forsythe notes that Cicero would sometimes invoke L. Calpurnius Piso’s name at the beginning of speeches as “a paragon of moral rectitude” for his audience.

L. Calpurnius Piso Frugi’s inclusion of the laureled head of Apollo, essentially the same obverse die used by his son Gaius (c. 67 B.C.), was due to his family’s important role in the establishment of the Ludi Apollinares, the Games of Apollo, which were first instituted in 212 B.C. at the height of Hannibal’s invasion of Italy during the Second Punic War. By that time, Hannibal had crushed Roman armies at Cannae, seized Tarentum and was invading Campania.

Games had been used throughout Roman history as a means of allaying the fears
of the populace and distracting them from issues at hand; the Ludi Apollinares were no different. Forsythe follows the traditional interpretation that in 211 B.C., when C. Calpurnius Piso was praetor, he became the chief magistrate in Rome while both consuls were absent and the three other praetors were sent on military expeditions against Hannibal.

At this juncture, he put forth a motion in the Senate to make the Ludi Apollinares a yearly event, which was passed; the Ludi Apollinares did indeed become an important festival, eventually spanning eight days in the later Republic. However, this interpretation is debatable; H.H. Scullard suggests that the games were not made permanent until 208 B.C. after a severe plague prompted the Senate to make them a fixture on the calendar. The Senators believed Apollo would serve as a “healing god” for the people of Rome.

Nonetheless, the Calpurnii obviously believed their ancestor had played an integral role in the establishment of the Ludi Apollinares and thus prominently displayed
the head or bust of Apollo on the obverse of the coins they minted.

The meaning of the galloping horseman found on the reverse of the L. Calpurnius Piso Frugi coin is more complicated. It is possible that this is yet another reference to the Ludi Apollinares. Chariot races in the Circus Maximus were a major component of the games, along with animal hunts and theatrical performances.

A more intriguing possibility is that the horseman is a reference to C. Calpurnius Piso, son of the Calpurnius Piso who is said to have founded the Ludi Apollinares. This C. Calpurnius Piso was given a military command in 186 B.C. to quell a revolt in Spain. He was victorious, restoring order to the province and also gaining significant wealth in the process.

Upon his return to Rome in 184, he was granted a triumph by the Senate and eventually erected an arch on the Capitoline Hill celebrating his victory. Of course
the arch prominently displayed the Calpurnius name. Piso, however, was not an infantry commander; he led the cavalry.

The difficulty in accepting C. Calpurnius Piso’s victory in Spain as the impetus for the galloping horseman image is that not all of C. Piso Frugi’s coins depict the horseman or cavalryman carrying the palm, which is a symbol of victory. One is inclined to believe that the victory palm would be prominent in all of the coins minted by C. Piso Frugi (the son of L. Calpurnius Piso Frugi) if it indeed signified the great triumph of C. Calpurnius Piso in 186 B.C. Yet the palm’s appearance is clearly not a direct reference to military feats of C. Piso Frugi’s day. As noted, it is accepted that his coins were minted in 67 B.C.; in that year, the major victory by Roman forces was Pompey’s swift defeat of the pirates throughout the Mediterranean.

Chrestomathy: Annual Review of Undergraduate Research at the College of Charleston. Volume 1, 2002: pp. 1-10© 2002 by the College of Charleston, Charleston SC 29424, USA.All rights to be retained by the author.
http://www.cofc.edu/chrestomathy/vol1/cook.pdf


There are six (debatably seven) prominent Romans who have been known to posterity as Lucius Calpurnius Piso:

Lucius Calpurnius Piso Frugi: (d. 261 A.D.) a Roman usurper, whose existence is
questionable, based on the unreliable Historia Augusta.

Lucius Calpurnius Piso Licinianus: deputy Roman Emperor, 10 January 69 to15 January
69, appointed by Galba.

Lucius Calpurnius Piso: Consul in 27 A.D.

Lucius Calpurnius Piso: Consul in 1 B.C., augur

Lucius Calpurnius Piso: Consul in 15 B.C., pontifex

Lucius Calpurnius Piso Caesoninus: Consul in 58 B.C. (the uncle of Julius Caesar)

Lucius Calpurnius Piso Frugi: Moneyer in 90 B.C. (our man)


All but one (or two--if you believe in the existence of "Frugi the usurper" ca. 261 A.D.) of these gentlemen lack the Frugi cognomen, indicating they are not from the same direct lineage as our moneyer, though all are Calpurnii.

Calpurnius Piso Frugi's massive issue was intended to support the war against the Marsic Confederation. The type has numerous variations and control marks.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lucius_Calpurnius_Piso
http://www.forumancientcoins.com/catalog/indexfrm.asp?vpar=55&pos=0

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.


2 commentsCleisthenes
Nero.jpg
002 - Nero (54-68 AD), as - RIC 54369 viewsObv: IMP NERO CAESAR AVG P MAX TR P P P, laureate head left.
Rev: S - C, Victory flying left holding shield inscribed S P Q R.
Minted in Lugdunum c. 66 AD.

The shield held by Victory is the golden shield that was dedicated to Augustus by the Senate and Roman People (S. P. Q. R.) in recognition of his classic, cardinal virtues. By placing the shield and Victory on his coin, Nero was claiming these same virtues were part of his regime. (From: Forum Ancient Coin´s catalog nr 28743, after Roman History from Coins by Michael Grant).
3 commentspierre_p77
Aigina_turtle.jpg
002a, Aigina, Islands off Attica, Greece, c. 510 - 490 B.C.85 viewsSilver stater, S 1849, SNG Cop 503, F, 12.231g, 22.3mm, Aigina (Aegina) mint, c. 510 - 490 B.C.; Obverse: sea turtle (with row of dots down the middle); Reverse: incuse square of “Union Jack” pattern; banker's mark obverse. Ex FORVM.


Greek Turtles, by Gary T. Anderson

Turtles, the archaic currency of Aegina, are among the most sought after of all ancient coins. Their early history is somewhat of a mystery. At one time historians debated whether they or the issuances of Lydia were the world's earliest coins. The source of this idea comes indirectly from the writings of Heracleides of Pontus, a fourth century BC Greek scholar. In the treatise Etymologicum, Orion quotes Heracleides as claiming that King Pheidon of Argos, who died no later than 650 BC, was the first to strike coins at Aegina. However, archeological investigations date the earliest turtles to about 550 BC, and historians now believe that this is when the first of these intriguing coins were stamped.

Aegina is a small, mountainous island in the Saronikon Gulf, about midway between Attica and the Peloponnese. In the sixth century BC it was perhaps the foremost of the Greek maritime powers, with trade routes throughout the eastern half of the Mediterranean. It is through contacts with Greeks in Asia Minor that the idea of coinage was probably introduced to Aegina. Either the Lydians or Greeks along the coast of present day Turkey were most likely the first to produce coins, back in the late seventh century. These consisted of lumps of a metal called electrum (a mixture of gold and silver) stamped with an official impression to guarantee the coin was of a certain weight. Aegina picked up on this idea and improved upon it by stamping coins of (relatively) pure silver instead electrum, which contained varying proportions of gold and silver. The image stamped on the coin of the mighty sea power was that of a sea turtle, an animal that was plentiful in the Aegean Sea. While rival cities of Athens and Corinth would soon begin limited manufacture of coins, it is the turtle that became the dominant currency of southern Greece. The reason for this is the shear number of coins produced, estimated to be ten thousand yearly for nearly seventy years. The source for the metal came from the rich silver mines of Siphnos, an island in the Aegean. Although Aegina was a formidable trading nation, the coins seemed to have meant for local use, as few have been found outside the Cyclades and Crete. So powerful was their lure, however, that an old proverb states, "Courage and wisdom are overcome by Turtles."

The Aeginean turtle bore a close likeness to that of its live counterpart, with a series of dots running down the center of its shell. The reverse of the coin bore the imprint of the punch used to force the face of the coin into the obverse turtle die. Originally this consisted of an eight-pronged punch that produced a pattern of eight triangles. Later, other variations on this were tried. In 480 BC, the coin received its first major redesign. Two extra pellets were added to the shell near the head of the turtle, a design not seen in nature. Also, the reverse punch mark was given a lopsided design.

Although turtles were produced in great quantities from 550 - 480 BC, after this time production dramatically declines. This may be due to the exhaustion of the silver mines on Siphnos, or it may be related to another historical event. In 480 BC, Aegina's archrival Athens defeated Xerxes and his Persian armies at Marathon. After this, it was Athens that became the predominant power in the region. Aegina and Athens fought a series of wars until 457 BC, when Aegina was conquered by its foe and stripped of its maritime rights. At this time the coin of Aegina changed its image from that of the sea turtle to that of the land tortoise, symbolizing its change in fortunes.

The Turtle was an object of desire in ancient times and has become so once again. It was the first coin produced in Europe, and was produced in such great quantities that thousands of Turtles still exist today. Their historical importance and ready availability make them one of the most desirable items in any ancient coin enthusiast's collection.

(Greek Turtles, by Gary T. Anderson .
1 commentsCleisthenes
2CrXTmC384gPtZ9JYce56FzdZ8pRzK.jpg
002d. Julia and Livia, Pergamon, Mysia43 viewsBronze AE 18, RPC I 2359, SNG Cop 467, aF, weight 3.903 g, maximum diameter 18.3 mm, die axis 0o, Pergamon mint, obverse ΛIBIAN HPAN CAPINOΣ, draped bust of Livia right; reverse IOYΛIAN AΦPO∆ITHN, draped bust of Julia right; ex Forum, ex Malter Galleries

Julia was Augustus' only natural child, the daughter of his second wife Scribonia. She was born the same day that Octavian divorced Scribonia, to marry Livia.

Julia's tragic destiny was to serve as a pawn in her father's dynastic plans. At age two, she was betrothed to Mark Antony's ten-year-old son, but the fathers' hostility ended the engagement. At age 14, she was married to her cousin but he died two years later. In 21 B.C., Julia married Agrippa, nearly 25 years her elder, Augustus' most trusted general and friend. Augustus had been advised, "You have made him so great that he must either become your son-in-law or be slain." Agrippa died suddenly in 12 B.C. and Julia was married in 11 B.C. to Tiberius.

During her marriages to Agrippa and Tiberius Julia took lovers. In 2 B.C., Julia was arrested for adultery and treason. Augustus declared her marriage null and void. He also asserted in public that she had been plotting against his own life. Reluctant to execute her, Augustus had her exiled, with no men in sight, forbidden even to drink wine. Scribonia, Julia's mother, accompanied her into exile. Five years later, she was allowed to move to Rhegium but Augustus never forgave her. When Tiberius became emperor, he cut off her allowance and put her in solitary confinement in one room in her house. Within months she died from malnutrition.
ecoli
0047.jpg
0047 - Denarius Domitian 85 AC45 viewsObv/IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM P M TR P V, Domitian laureate head r.
Rev/IMP VIIII COS XI CENS POT P P, Minerva standing r. on Columna Rostrata, holding shield and brandishing javelin, owl at feet.

Ag, 20.9mm, 3.45g
Mint: Rome.
RIC IIa/343 [R2] - Cohen 187
ex-Forum Ancient Coins, art.#15705
1 commentsdafnis
01-Durotriges.jpg
01. Durotriges stater.29 viewsStater, 58-45 BC, possibly minted at Hengistbury Head.
Obverse: devolved head of Apollo.
Reverse: devolved horse.
5.04 gm., 19 mm.
VA #1235-1; Seaby #367.

From the Blandford Forum Hoard, 1998.
Callimachus
coin317.JPG
010. Vespasian13 viewsSpes

In Roman mythology, Spes was the goddess of hope. She was traditionally defined as "the last goddess" (Spes, ultima dea), meaning that hope is the last resource available to men.
There was a temple to her in the Forum Holitorium. In art, Spes was depicted hitching her skirt while holding a cornucopia and flowers. Spes personified hope for good harvests, and for children, and was invoked at births, marriages, and other important times.

Her Greek equivalent was Elpis.

Vespasian Ae As REVERSE: Spes standing;

Check
ecoli
Brutus-Syd-907.jpg
013. M. Junius Brutus.58 viewsDenarius, 54 BC, Rome mint.
Obverse: BRVTVS / Bust of L. Junius Brutus.
Reverse: AHALA / Bust of C. Servilius Ahala.
4.09 gm., 19 mm.
Syd. #907; RSC #Junia 30; Sear #398.

The moneyer of this coin is the same Brutus who killed Julius Caesar. However, this coin was minted about a decade earlier. It portrays two ancestors of Brutus:

1. L. Junius Brutus lead the Romans to expel their king L. Tarquinius Superbus. He was one of the founding fathers of the Roman Republic, and was elected one of the first consuls in 509 BC.

2. C. Cervilius Ahala. In 439 BC, during a food shortage in Rome, Spurius Maelius, the richest patrician, bought as much food as he could and sold it cheaply to the people. The Romans, always fearful of kings, thought he wanted to be king. So an emergency was declared and L. Cincinnatus was proclaimed Dictator. Maelius was ordered to appear before Cincinnatus, but refused. So Ahala, as Magister Equitam, killed him in the Forum. Ahala was tried for this act, but escaped condemnation by voluntary exile.
4 commentsCallimachus
Anjou_Károly-Robert_(1307-1342_AD),_Denar,_H-473,_C2-029,_U-374b,_Pohl_31-2,__M_REGIS_KARVLI,_Lily_L-I,_Lippa,_1330-AD,_Q-001,_6h,_14,5-14,8mm,_0,63g-s.jpg
029 Károly Róbert., (Charles Robert of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1307-1342 A.D.) AR-Denarius, H-473, CNH-2-029, U-374.b, #01128 views029 Károly Róbert., (Charles Robert of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1307-1342 A.D.) AR-Denarius, H-473, CNH-2-029, U-374.b, #01
avers: ✠•M•REGIS KARVLI, King, facing, helmeted; border of dots.
reverse: Large Lily, L-I, line border.
exergue, mint mark: L/I//--, diameter: 14,5-14,8mm, weight: 0,63g, axis:6h,
mint: Hungary, Lipa, (today Lipova, Romania), date: 1330 (by Pohl) A.D., ref: Huszár-473, CNH-2-029, Unger-374.b, Pohl-31-03,
Q-001


Charles Robert of Anjou
2 commentsquadrans
Anjou_Károly-Robert_(1307-1342_AD),_Denar,_H-488,_C2-044,_U-385,_Pohl_45,__M_REGIS_KAROLI,_Dragon,_1335_AD,_Q-001,_2h,_11mm,_0,33g-s.jpg
029 Károly Róbert., (Charles Robert of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1307-1342 A.D.) AR-Denarius, H-488, CNH-2-044, U-385, P-45, #0173 views029 Károly Róbert., (Charles Robert of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1307-1342 A.D.) AR-Denarius, H-488, CNH-2-044, U-385, P-45, #01
avers: ✠ M REGIS KARVLI, Inside of the line circle, a shield with Angevin fleur-de-lis and Árpádian stripes, annulets flanking and above, line border.
reverse: Winged dragon advancing right the cross above, the border of dots.
exergue, mint mark: -/-//--, diameter: 11,0mm, weight: 0,33g, axis:2h,
mint: Hungary, date: 1335 (by Pohl) A.D., ref: Huszár-488, CNH-2-044, Unger-385, Pohl-45,
Q-001


Charles Robert of Anjou
2 commentsquadrans
030__Lajos_I__AR-Gross,_U-413d,_C2-68,_H-522,_1359-64_AD_Q-001_h,_28,0mm,_g-s.jpg
030 Lajos I. -Nagy Lajos-, (Lodovicus I. (the great) of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1342-1382 A.D.) AR-Gross, U-413-e, #01182 views030 Lajos I. -Nagy Lajos-, (Lodovicus I. (the great) of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1342-1382 A.D.) AR-Gross, U-413-e, #01
avers: ✠ LODOVICVS DЄI GRACIA RЄX hVnGARIЄ; king enthroned, facing, on the gothic throne in circle of dots, holding sceptre and orb, mint-mark below or by the throne; border of dots. The Saracen's head between the legs under.
reverse: ✠ DALMACIЄ : CROACIЄ : ЄTC; Anjou-Hungarian shield in circle of dots, amongst six arches, no mint-mark above the shield, emission-marks around the arches; border of dots.
exergue, mint mark: Saracen's head, were struck by Jacobus Saracenus (by Pohl), diameter: 28,0mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Hungary, Pécs/Syrmien (by Pohl), date: 1359-1364 A.D. (by Pohl), ref: Unger-413-e, CNH-2-068, Huszár-522, Pohl-59-4-a.,
Q-001


Lodovicus I. (the great) of Anjou
1 commentsquadrans
Lodovicus-I__(1342-1382_AD),_H-538,_C2-86,_U-436,_P-77,_AR-Obulus,_R-E-X,_Lily,_1346-57_AD,_Q-001,_10h,_11,5mm,_0,19g-s.jpg
030 Lajos I. -Nagy Lajos-, (Lodovicus I. (the great) of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1342-1382 A.D.) AR-Obulus, H-538, C2-86, U-436, P-77, Rare! #0169 views030 Lajos I. -Nagy Lajos-, (Lodovicus I. (the great) of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1342-1382 A.D.) AR-Obulus, H-538, C2-86, U-436, P-77, Rare! #01
avers: R Є X, Hungarian-Anjou shield, the border of dots.
reverse: Large lily, the border of dots.
exergue, mint mark: -/-//--, diameter: 11,5mm, weight: 0,19g, axis: 10h,
mint: Hungary, , date: 1346-1367 A.D.(by Pohl), ref: Huszár-538, CNH-2-086, Unger-436, Pohl-77,
Q-001

Lodovicus I. (the great) of Anjou
1 commentsquadrans
Maria,_H-565,_C2-113,_U-441,_mARIE_D_R_VnGARIE,_S_LADIS_LAVS_R,_A,_1382_AD,_Q-001,_7h,_14,5-15mm,_0,48g-s.jpg
031 Mária, (Maria of Anjou, Angevin)., Queen of Hungary, (1382-1387(1395) A.D.) AR-Denarius, H-565., S LADIS LAVS R, Saint Ladislas standing facing, Rare!, #1120 views031 Mária, (Maria of Anjou, Angevin)., Queen of Hungary, (1382-1387(1395) A.D.) AR-Denarius, H-565., S LADIS LAVS R, Saint Ladislas standing facing, Rare!, #1
avers: ✠ mARIЄ•D•R VnGARIЄ, Anjou-Hungarian shield in a circle of dots, the lily on each side and above, the border of dots.
reverse: S LADIS LAVS R, Saint Ladislas standing facing, holding halberd and orb, mint-mark on the right side, the border of dots.
exergue, mint mark: -/A//--, diameter: 14,5-15,0mm, weight: 0,48g, axis: 7h,
mint: Hungary, Székesfehérvár(by Pohl), date: 1382 A.D. (by Pohl), ref: Huszár-565, CNH-2-113, Unger-441., Pohl-111, Rare!
Q-001

Mária (Mary) of Anjou
quadrans
Maria-(1382-1387(1395)_AD)_U-443-l-var-1_C2-116_H-569_cross-mARIA_R_VnGARI_cross-mOnETA_mARIE_S_Q-001_7h_14mm_0,44g-s.jpg
031 Mária, (Maria of Anjou, Angevin)., Queen of Hungary, (1382-1387(1395) A.D.) AR-Denarius, U-443-l., #01114 views031 Mária, (Maria of Anjou, Angevin)., Queen of Hungary, (1382-1387(1395) A.D.) AR-Denarius, U-443-l., #01
avers: ✠ mOnЄTA•mARIЄ, Patriarchal cross (inside of border of dots) with dots each corner, border, border of dots.
reverse: ✠ mARIA•R•VnGARI, Crown in circle of dots, mint-master's mark (S) below, border of dots.
exergue, mint mark: -/-//S, diameter: 14,0mm, weight: 0,44g, axis: 7h,
mint: Hungary, Syrmien?, (by Pohl), date: 1386-1395A.D.(by Pohl), ref: Unger-443-l., CNH-2-116, Huszár-569, Pohl-114-11,
Q-001

Mária (Mary) of Anjou
quadrans
Maximian_unlist.jpg
032 - Maximian (286-305 AD), Antoninianus - RIC 404, 407 (hybrid unlisted in RIC)44 viewsObv: IMP MAXIMIANUS AVG, radiate bust left in imperial mantle, holding globe.
Rev: PAX AVGG, Minerva standing left, leaning on shield, holding olive branch and spear.
Minted in Lugdunum (C in exe, * in left field) 292-294 AD.

This coin is a hybrid between RIC 404 (as above but without the * and C(?)) and 407 (with * and C) and not listed in RIC. However Bastien lists this coin (vol 7, nr 488) with five examples cited. Not a very pretty coin but somehow interesting anyway as it turned out. Thanks to Jochen and maridvnvm of the FORUM´s classical numismatics discussion board for the info.

[Sold]
2 commentspierre_p77
Zsigmond,_(1387-1437_AD),_AR-Den,_H-575,_C2-120A,_U-448,_P-116,_mOnETSIGISmVnDI,_REGISVnGARIE,_1387-9AD,_Q-001,_4h,_13,2-14,2mm,_0_62g-s.jpg
032 Sigismund, ( Sigismund of Luxemburg)., King of Hungary, (1387-1437 A.D.) AR-Denar, H-575, C2-120A, U-448, P-116, Rare! #0164 views032 Sigismund, ( Sigismund of Luxemburg)., King of Hungary, (1387-1437 A.D.) AR-Denar, H-575, C2-120A, U-448, P-116, Rare! #01
avers: ✠mOnЄT SIGISmVnDI, Patriarchal (short!) cross.
reverse: ✠•RЄGIS•VnGARIЄ, Four-part shield, Árpádian stripes, and Brandenburg eagle.
exergue, mint mark: -/-//--, diameter: 13,2-14,2mm, weight: 0,62g, axis:4h,
mint: Hungary, Buda, Moneyer: Onforio Bardi(?) (by Pohl), date: 1387-1389 A.D. (by Pohl), ref: Huszár-575, CNH-2-120A, Unger-448, Pohl-116, Rare!
Q-001

Sigismund of Luxemburg
quadrans
Zsigmond,_(1387-1437_AD),_AR-Den,_H-575,_C2-120A,_U-448,_P-116,_mOnETSIGISmVnDI,_REGISVnGARIE_ET_C_,_1387-9AD,_Q-001,_6h,_13,5mm,_0_39g-s.jpg
032 Sigismund, ( Sigismund of Luxemburg)., King of Hungary, (1387-1437 A.D.) AR-Denar, H-575/576, C2-120A/121A, U-448/449, P-116/117, Hybrid variation, Very Rare!!! #0163 views032 Sigismund, ( Sigismund of Luxemburg)., King of Hungary, (1387-1437 A.D.) AR-Denar, H-575/576, C2-120A/121A, U-448/449, P-116/117, Hybrid variation, Very Rare!!! #01
avers: ✠mOnЄT SIGISmVnDI, Patriarchal (short!) cross.
reverse: ✠•RЄGIS VnGARIЄ ЄT C, Four-part shield, Árpádian stripes and Brandenburg eagle. The reverse legend is the same as the Huszár-576, CNH-2-121A, Unger-449, Pohl-117,
exergue, mint mark: -/-//--, diameter: 13,5mm, weight: 0,39g, axis:6h,
mint: Hungary, Buda, Moneyer: Onforio Bardi(?) (by Pohl), date: 1387-1389 A.D. (by Pohl), ref: Huszár-575/576, CNH-2-120A/121, Unger-448/449, Pohl-116/117, Hybrid denar, Very Rare !!!
Q-001

Sigismund of Luxemburg
1 commentsquadrans
Zsigmond,_(1387-1437_AD),_H-578,_C2-124A,_U-450-fvar_,_P-118-2,_AR-Den,_mOn_SIG-ISmVnDI,_REGIS_VnGARIE_ET_C_,_B-_L,_1436_AD,_Q-001,_8h,_15-16mm,_0,61g-s.jpg
032 Sigismund, ( Sigismund of Luxemburg)., King of Hungary, (1387-1437 A.D.) AR-Denar, H-578, C2-124A, U-450-fvar., P-118-02, #0177 views032 Sigismund, ( Sigismund of Luxemburg)., King of Hungary, (1387-1437 A.D.) AR-Denar, H-578, C2-124A, U-450-fvar., P-118-02, #01
avers: mOn•SIG ISmVnDI, Patriarchal cross, mint-mark on each side B-•L.
reverse: ✠•RЄGIS•VnGARIЄ•ЄT•C•, Shield with Árpadian(Hungarian) stripes.
exergue, mint mark: B/•L//--, diameter: 14,5-15,5mm, weight: 0,68g, axis:8h,
mint: Hungary, Buda, Moneyer: Leonardo Bardi, date: after 1436 A.D. (by Pohl), ref: Huszár-578, CNH-2-124A, Unger-450-fvar., Pohl-118-02,
Q-001

Sigismund of Luxemburg
1 commentsquadrans
Zsigmond,_(1387-1437_AD),_H-578,_C2-124A,_U-450-k,_P-118-4,_AR-Den,_mOn_SIG-ISmVnDI,_REGIS_VnGARIE_ET_C_,_C-L,_1436_AD,_Q-001,_11h,_14,5-15,5mm,_0_68g-s.jpg
032 Sigismund, ( Sigismund of Luxemburg)., King of Hungary, (1387-1437 A.D.) AR-Denar, H-578, C2-124A, U-450-k., P-118-04, #0166 views032 Sigismund, ( Sigismund of Luxemburg)., King of Hungary, (1387-1437 A.D.) AR-Denar, H-578, C2-124A, U-450-k., P-118-04, #01
avers: mOn•SIG ISmVnDI, Patriarchal cross, mint-mark on each side C-L.
reverse: ✠•RЄGIS•VnGARIЄ•ЄT•C•, Shield with Árpadian(Hungarian) stripes.
exergue, mint mark: C/L//--, diameter: 14,5-15,5mm, weight: 0,68g, axis:11h,
mint: Hungary, Kassa (today Slovakia : Kosice), Moneyer: Ladislaus Csápy or Leonardo Bardi, date: after 1434-1436 A.D. (by Pohl), ref: Huszár-578, CNH-2-124A, Unger-450-k., Pohl-118-04,
Q-001

Sigismund of Luxemburg
1 commentsquadrans
Zsigmond,_(1387-1437_AD),_AR-Den,_U-450-g,_C2-124A,_H-578,_mOn_SIG-ISmVnDI,_REGIS_VnGARIE_ET_C_,_Q-001,_5h,_16mm,_0_53g-s.jpg
032 Sigismund, ( Sigismund of Luxemburg)., King of Hungary, (1387-1437 A.D.) AR-Denar, H-578, C2-124A, U-450.g., P-118-18, #01175 views032 Sigismund, ( Sigismund of Luxemburg)., King of Hungary, (1387-1437 A.D.) AR-Denar, H-578, C2-124A, U-450.g., P-118-18, #01
avers: mOn•SIG ISmVnDI, Patriarchal cross, mint-mark on each side n-*.
reverse: ✠•RЄGIS•VnGARIЄ•ЄT•C•, Shield with Árpadian(Hungarian) stripes.
exergue, mint mark: n/*//--, diameter:15,0-16,0mm, weight: 0,53g, axis:5h,
mint: Hungary, Nagybánya (today Romania : Baia Mare), date: after 1430 A.D. (by Pohl), ref: Unger-450.g., CNH-2-124A, Huszár-578, Pohl-118-18,
Q-001

Sigismund of Luxemburg
1 commentsquadrans
032_Albert_(1437-1439_AD),_AR-Den,_H-592,_C2-135B,_U-461_h_,_P-127-7,_m_ALBERTI_R_VnGARIE,_K-R_over_cross,_1440_AD,_Q-001,_1h,_14-14,5mm,_0,47g-s.jpg
033 Albert., King of Hungary, (1437-1439 A.D.) AR Denarius, H-592, C2-135B, U-461.h., P-127-07, #0155 views033 Albert., King of Hungary, (1437-1439 A.D.) AR Denarius, H-592, C2-135B, U-461.h., P-127-07, #01
avers: ✠ m•ALBЄRTI•R•VnGARIЄ••, Patriarchal Cross, K-R over +, in a circle, line border.
reverse: Four-part shield (Hungarian stripes in the middle, Czech lion, Austrian band, Moravian eagle around), the border of dots,
exergue, mint mark: K/R over +//-- , diameter: 14,0-14,5mm, weight: 0,47g, axis: 1h,
mint: Hungary, Körmöcbánya (Kremnitz, today Slovakia: Kremnica, Konrad Rudel by Pohl), date:1439 A.D. (by Pohl), ref: Huszár-592, CNH-2-135B, Unger-461.h., Pohl-127-07,
Q-001
This coin was struck under the Interregnum I. (1439-1440 A.D.) with the name of Abert!
2 commentsquadrans
033_Albert_(1437-1439_AD)_Den_U-461-i_C2-135B_H-592_m_ALBERTI_R_VnGARIE_-_n-S_1438-40_AD,_Q-001_6h_13,5-14,2mm_0,44g-s.jpg
033 Albert., King of Hungary, (1437-1439 A.D.) AR Denarius, H-592, C2-135B, U-461.i., P-127-08, #01110 views033 Albert., King of Hungary, (1437-1439 A.D.) AR Denarius, H-592, C2-135B, U-461.i., P-127-08, #01
avers: ✠ m•ALBERTI•R•VnGARIЄ, Patriarchal Cross, n-S, in a circle, line border.
reverse: Four-part shield (Hungarian stripes in the middle, Czech lion, Austrian band, Moravian eagle around), a border of dots,
exergue, mint mark: n/S//-- , diameter: 13,5-14,2mm, weight: 0,44g, axis:6h,
mint: Hungary, Nagybánya (today Romania: Baia Mare, Stephanus Remetei by Pohl), date:1439 A.D. (by Pohl),
ref: Unger-461-i., CNH-2-135B, Huszár-592, Pohl-127-08,
Q-001
quadrans
032_Albert_(1437-1439_AD),_AR-Den,_H-592,_C2-135B,_U-461_i_,_P-127-8,_m_ALBERTI_R_VnGARIE,_n-S,_1440_AD,_Q-002,_11h,_14-14,5mm,_0,39g-s.jpg
033 Albert., King of Hungary, (1437-1439 A.D.) AR Denarius, H-592, C2-135B, U-461.i., P-127-08, #0255 views033 Albert., King of Hungary, (1437-1439 A.D.) AR Denarius, H-592, C2-135B, U-461.i., P-127-08, #02
avers: ✠ m•ALBERTI•R•VnGARIЄ, Patriarchal Cross, n-S, in a circle, line border.
reverse: Four-part shield (Hungarian stripes in the middle, Czech lion, Austrian band, Moravian eagle around), a border of dots,
exergue, mint mark: n/S//-- , diameter: 14,0-14,5mm, weight: 0,39g, axis:11h,
mint: Hungary, Nagybánya (today Romania: Baia Mare, Stephanus Remetei by Pohl), date:1439 A.D. (by Pohl),
ref: Unger-461-i., CNH-2-135B, Huszár-592, Pohl-127-08,
Q-002
1 commentsquadrans
033_Albert_(1437-1439_AD),_AR-Den,_H-592,_C2-135B,_U-461_q_,_P-127-9,_m_ALBERTI_R_VnGARIE,_C-Lily,_1440_AD,_Q-001,_7h,_13,5-14,5mm,_0,39g-s~0.jpg
033 Albert., King of Hungary, (1437-1439 A.D.) AR Denarius, H-592, C2-135B, U-461.q., P-127-09, #0166 views033 Albert., King of Hungary, (1437-1439 A.D.) AR Denarius, H-592, C2-135B, U-461.q., P-127-09, #01
avers: ✠ m•ALBЄRTI•R•VnGARIЄ••, Patriarchal Cross, C-⚜, in a circle, line border.
reverse: Four-part shield (Hungarian stripes in the middle, Czech lion, Austrian band, Moravian eagle around), the border of dots,
exergue, mint mark: C/⚜//-- , diameter: 13,5-14,5mm, weight: 0,39g, axis: 7h,
mint: Hungary, Kassa (today Slovakia: Kosice, City coin by Pohl), date:1440 A.D. (by Pohl), ref: Huszár-592, CNH-2-135B, Unger-461.q., Pohl-127-09,
Q-001
This coin was struck under the Interregnum I. (1439-1440 A.D.) with the name of Abert!
1 commentsquadrans
033_Albert_(1437-1439_AD),_AR-Den,_H-592,_C2-135B,_U-461_s_,_P-127-11,_m_ALBERTI_R_VnGARIE,_K-P,_1440_AD,_Q-001,_4h,_13,5-14,0mm,_0,48g-s.jpg
033 Albert., King of Hungary, (1437-1439 A.D.) AR Denarius, H-592, C2-135B, U-461.s., P-127-11, #0167 views033 Albert., King of Hungary, (1437-1439 A.D.) AR Denarius, H-592, C2-135B, U-461.s., P-127-11, #01
avers: ✠ m•ALBЄRTI•R•VnGARIЄ••, Patriarchal Cross, K-P, in a circle, line border.
reverse: Four-part shield (Hungarian stripes in the middle, Czech lion, Austrian band, Moravian eagle around), the border of dots,
exergue, mint mark: K/P//-- , diameter: 13,5-14,0mm, weight: 0,48g, axis: 4h,
mint: Hungary, Körmöcbánya (Kremnitz, today Slovakia: Kremnica, Konrad Polner by Pohl), date:1440 A.D. (by Pohl), ref: Huszár-592, CNH-2-135B, Unger-461.s., Pohl-127-11,
Q-001
This coin was struck under the Interregnum I. (1439-1440 A.D.) with the name of Abert!
1 commentsquadrans
033_Albert_(1437-1439_AD)_Den_U-459-a_C2-134_H-591_MOnETA-ALBERTI_REGIS-_-VnGARIE-_-ETC_Q-001_16mm_0,63g-s.jpg
033 Albert., King of Hungary, (1437-1439 A.D.) AR Denarius, U-459-a., #0182 views033 Albert., King of Hungary, (1437-1439 A.D.) AR Denarius, U-459-a., #01
avers: mOnЄTA ALBЄRTI, Patriarchal Cross, C-K, circle; border of dots.
reverse: ✠ RЄGIS•VnGARIЄ•ЄT•C•, circle; border of dots.
exergue, mint mark: C/K//--, diameter: 16mm, weight: 0,63g, axis:h,
mint: Hungary, Kassa (Kaschau, today Kosice by Pohl), date:1438 A.D. (by Pohl),
ref: Unger-459-a., CNH-2-134, Huszár-591, Pohl-126-01,
Q-001
quadrans
Antonia_03_portrait.jpg
036 BC - AD 037 - ANTONIA10 viewsAntonia

Antonia 36 BC - 37 was the younger of two daughters of Mark Antony and Octavia Minor. She was a niece of the Emperor Augustus, sister-in-law of the Emperor Tiberius, paternal grandmother of the Emperor Caligula and Empress Agrippina the Younger, mother of the Emperor Claudius, and both maternal great-grandmother and paternal great-aunt of the Emperor Nero

for obverse, reverse and coin details click here
shanxi
Faustina_sen_Ag-Den_DIVA-AVG-FAVSTINA_DEDICATIO-AEDIS_RIC-III-AP-388_RSC-191_Rome_141-AD_Q-001_7h_19-17mm_3,03g-s.jpg
036 Faustina Senior (100-141 A.D.), RIC III 0388 (A.Pius), Rome, AR-Denarius, DEDICATIO AEDIS, Hexastyle temple,88 views036 Faustina Senior (100-141 A.D.), RIC III 0388 (A.Pius), Rome, AR-Denarius, DEDICATIO AEDIS, Hexastyle temple,
Wife of Antoninus Pius.
avers:- DIVA-AVG-FAVSTINA, Draped bust right.
revers:- DEDICATIO-AEDIS, Frontal view of a hexastyle temple, Victories in corners.
exerg: , diameter: 17-19mm, weight: 3,03g, axis: 7h,
mint: Rome, date: 141-161 A.D., ref: RIC-III-388 (Antoninus Pius)p- , RSC-191, BMCRE-306 (Pius),
Q-001
This coin type records the dedication of the
temple of Divus Antoninus and Diva Faustina. The
dedication ceremonies took place in 142 AD, and
construction was completed in 150 AD. The temple
still stands today, overlooking the Forum.
quadrans
Julia_Pergamon_R694.jpg
039 BC - AD 014 - IVLIA8 viewsJulia

Julia the Elder, known to her contemporaries as Julia Caesaris filia or Julia Augusti filia was the daughter of Augustus, and his second wife, Scribonia.


for obverse, reverse and coin details click here
shanxi
foto5.jpg
04-07 - Aretas IV (9 A.C. - 40 D.C.)23 viewsAE 14 mm 3.4 gr.

Anv: Cabeza laureada de Aretas con pelo largo viendo a derecha. Monograma en arameo al frente derecha "H" (Het).
Rev: Dos cornucopias cruzadas. Entre ellos monograma en arameo "H" (Het).

Meshore indicates het right on the obverse. Schmitt-Korte, NC 1990, indicates the het right is not present but also identifies a new varitey (Schmitt-Korte 43) with het left on the obverse. The het right on the obverse is clear on this specimen. (Forum Catalog)

Ceca: Petra

Referencias: B.M.C. Vol.28 #30 Pag 9 - SNG ANS 6.1432 - Meshorer #70 - Sear GICTV #5701 Pag.560
mdelvalle
foto6.jpg
04-09 - Aretas IV (9 A.C. - 40 D.C.)26 viewsAE 12 x 13 mm 1.2 gr.

Anv: Cabeza laureada de Aretas con pelo largo viendo a derecha. Sin Monograma al frente derecha.
Rev: Dos cornucopias cruzadas. Entre ellos monograma en arameo "H" (Het).

Meshore indicates het right on the obverse. Schmitt-Korte, NC 1990, indicates the het right is not present and also identifies a new varitey (Schmitt-Korte 43) with het left on the obverse. We have had all three types - het left, het right and none at all. The het right on the obverse is not present on this specimen. (Forum catalog)

Ceca: Petra

Referencias: Sear GICTV #5701 Pag.560 - B.M.C. Vol.28 #30 Pag 9 - Meshorer #70 var.
mdelvalle
AnasISear14.jpg
0491-0518 AD - Anastasius I - Sear 14 - Follis (small module)6 viewsEmperor: Anastasius I (r. 491-518 AD)
Date: ca. 498-507 AD
Condition: Fine
Denomination: Follis (small module)

Obverse: -
Bust right; diademed, draped and cuirassed.

Reverse: Large ""; Above, cross.
Exergue:

Constantinople mint
Sear 14
7.77g; 24.3mm; 195°
Pep
AnasISear19.jpg
0491-0518 AD - Anastasius I - Sear 19 - Follis (large module)5 viewsEmperor: Anastasius I (r. 491-518 AD)
Date: 498-518 AD
Condition: aFine
Denomination: Follis (large module)

Obverse: -
Bust right; diademed, draped and cuirassed.

Reverse: Large ""; Above, cross; To left and right, star; Beneath, .
Exergue:

Constantinople mint, fourth officina
Sear 19
16.27g; 33.3mm; 195°
Pep
051_Caracalla_AE-17_MAP-AV-KA-ANT_NI_Bareheaded-bust-r__NIKO_O_IT-_POC-ICTP_Bust-of-Serapis-r_-wearing-Kalathos_Varbanov-2918-legend-var-R4_320-324-AD__Q-001_h_17mm_2,85g-s.jpg
051p Caracalla (196-198 A.D. Caesar, 198-217 A.D. Augustus ), Moesia, Nicopolis Ad Istrum, HHJ-08.18.06.05, AE-17, Serapis,63 views051p Caracalla (196-198 A.D. Caesar, 198-217 A.D. Augustus ), Moesia, Nicopolis Ad Istrum, HHJ-08.18.06.05, AE-17, Serapis,
avers:- MAP-AV-KA-ANTΩNI, Bareheaded-bust-r.
revers:- NIKOΠOΛIT-ΠPOC-ICTP, Bust-of-Serapis-r.-wearing-Kalathos
exe: -/-//--, diameter: 17mm, weight: 2,85g, axis: 8h,
mint: Moesia, Nicopolis Ad Istrum,date: 196 (195?)-197.-AD, under Caracalla as Caesar, by Jochen ! Thank you Jochen:)
ref: Varbanov-2918, R4!! + legend var., Hristova/Hoeft/Jekov HHJ-8.18.6.5,
Q-001
#465 A correction
Caracalla as Caesar, AD 196-197, AE 17, 2.85g
obv. MAR AV KA - ANTWNI bare head r.
rev. NIKOPOLIT PROC ICTR bust of Serapis, draped and wearing kalathos
ref. a) not in AMNG
b) not in Varbanov (engl.)
c) Hristova/Jekov (2011) No. 8.18.6.4 corr. (writes in error ANTWNINO)
coll. quadrans, Forum Ancient Coins
by Jochen ,
http://www.forumancientcoins.com/board/index.php?topic=60706.525
thank you Jochen
quadrans
051_Caracalla_AE-18_AVR-M-A-ANTONIN_NIKOPOLITON-PROC-ICT_Nikopolis_HHJ-8_18_48_--_p-_Q-001_2h_17,5mm_3,83ga-s~0.jpg
051p Caracalla (196-198 A.D. Caesar, 198-217 A.D. Augustus ), Moesia, Nicopolis Ad Istrum, HHJ-08.18.48. ???, AE-17, 8 pointed star in crescent,62 views051p Caracalla (196-198 A.D. Caesar, 198-217 A.D. Augustus ), Moesia, Nicopolis Ad Istrum, HHJ-08.18.48. ???, AE-17, 8 pointed star in crescent,
avers:- AVP-M-A-ANTΩNIN, Laureate head right.
revers:- NIKOΠOΛITΩN-ΠPOC-ICT, 8 pointed star in crescent.
exe: -/-//--, diameter: 17,5mm, weight: 3,83g, axis: 2h,
mint: Moesia, Nicopolis Ad Istrum, date: A.D., ref: Hristova/Hoeft/Jekov HHJ-8.18.48.???, p-221-or -222,
Q-001

"I have added your coin to Nikopolis Addenda III under:
A new rev. for Caracalla
Caracalla, AD 198-217
AE 18, 3.83g, 17.5mm, 60°
obv. AV K M A - ANTWNIN
laureate head r.
rev. NIKOPOLITWN PROC ICT
Crescent with 8-pointed star in the cavity
ref. a) not in AMNG
b) not in Varbanov (engl.)
c) not in Hristova/Hoeft/Jekov (2013):
rev. No. 8.18.48.2 var. (has ICTRO)
obv. e.g. No. 8.18.53.4
coll. quadrans, Forum Ancient Coins
AV K M A - ANTWNIN with "laureate head r." is a rare obv."
by Jochen Thank you Jochen
quadrans
56_4_PanoramaBlack1.jpg
056/4 Subgroup 85 & 86A AE Triens60 viewsAnonymous. Ae Triens. Apulia. 212-208 BC. (9.08 g, 23.72 g) Obv: Helmeted head of Minerva right, four pellets above. Rev: ROMA, prow right, four pellets below.

Originally defined as Crawford 56/4, this type of Triens have been assigned to subgroup 85 & 86A. This is a Q or H triens, that is missing the Q or H. Andrew McCabe gives the subgroup the number F1 which has the following characteristics:

"Mint: Apulia. Second Punic war. Related to RRC 85 H, and RRC 86 anchor and Q. Obverses are in high relief. The general style, for examples Janus, or Hercules’ truncation, or the regular reverse prow, is like RRC 86 anchor and Q. Reverses of Sextans and Quadrans have either regular, or Luceria style, prows with a club in an elevated fighting platform. On regular reverses, the top and central keel lines join half way across prow. Flans are thin and broad akin to late issues of Luceria. All denominations As through Sextans are known."

"The regular reverse prow is tall (height/width) with a fighting platform and deck structure elevated more than usual, and there is always a line extending either side of the deck structure. The keel-lines are also distinctive, with the middle of the three lines always converging with the top line half way across the prow... These specific design features – especially the middle keel line converging with the upper line half way across the prow – are identical with and typical of the RRC 86A Q series from Apulia58... The obverses of all denominations are in high relief, and show high quality engraving."

"So a close geographic and timing link between the Anchor Q, H, L, L-T, CA and P coins can be posited. These coins are certainly a second Punic war issue from Apulia. It remains open for discussion which city minted these group F1 coins, presumably alongside the RRC 85 and RRC 86 issues."

This is one out of six specimens: "F1 Triens: 6 coins, mean 9.4 grams, heaviest 10.5 grams".

All quotes are from the work of Andrew McCabe.

Link to thread at Forvm Ancient Coins: http://www.forumancientcoins.com/board/index.php?topic=90604.0

On this topic at Andrew McCabe's homepage: http://andrewmccabe.ancients.info/RRC056.html

I would strongly recommend anyone who wants to learn more about Roman Republican coins to give Andrew McCabe's homepage a visit.


1 commentsPaddy
Livia_Pergamon_R694.jpg
058 BC - AD 026 - LIVIA DRVSILLA8 viewsLivia

Livia Drusilla was the wife of the Roman emperor Augustus throughout his reign, as well as his adviser.


for obverse, reverse and coin details click here
shanxi
RI_064ng_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - O3 - RIC -44 viewsObv:– IMP CA L SEP SEV - PER AVG COS II, Laureate head right
Rev:– BONI EVENTVS, Fides (Bonus Eventus - RIC) standing left, basket of fruit in right, two heads of grain in left
Minted in Emesa. A.D. 194 – A.D. 195
Reference:– BMCRE -. RIC - (369 var.). RSC 68 var.

A nice example from this unusual obverse legend variant.

Ex- Forum Ancient Coins
2 commentsmaridvnvm
Otho_RIC_I_12~0.jpg
08 02 Otho RIC I 1221 viewsOtho. 15 Jan. to April 69 A.D. AR Denarius. Rome Mint. 69 A.D. (3.23, 18.5mm, 6h). Obv: IMP M OTHO CAESAR AVG TR P, bare head left. SECVRITAS P R, Securitas standing left, wreath in right, scepter in left. RIC I 12, RSC 19. Ex Forum.

While coins of Otho are fairly rare given the short length of his reign, this issue is perhaps more so with the left facing bust. (RIC 3). Otho supported Galba’s revolt, and then turned on Galba when he wasn't named Galba's heir. He committed suicide after his forces were defeated by those of Vitellius during the Year of the Four Emperors. A nicely centered and well toned coin.
Lucas H
TheopSB1667.jpg
0829-0842 AD - Theophilus - Sear 1667 - Follis39 viewsEmperor: Theophilus (r. 829-842 AD)
Date: 829-842 AD
Condition: VF
Denomination: Follis

Obverse: ΘEOFIL' bASIL'
Three-quarter length figure facing, wearing loros and crown surmounted by tufa (which is ornamented with pellets); he holds labarum in right hand and globus cruciger in left hand.

Reverse: +ΘEO / FILE AV / OVSE SV/ ICAS in four lines.

Constantinople mint
Sear 1667
6.49g; 27.0mm; 195°
Pep
096-BC-A_Postumius_S_f_Albinus_Republica_AR-Den_Star-R_Head-of-Apollo-r__A_ALBINVS_S_F_Dioscuri-watering-horse_left-Crescent_Syd_612b_Crawford-335-10b_Q-001_3h_16-22mm_3,67g-s.jpg
096 B.C. A.Postumius S.f. Albinus AR-Denarius, Crawford 335/10b, Rome, Dioscuri watering horse left, Crescent above, A•ALBINVS•S•F•, Rare !!!147 views096 B.C. A.Postumius S.f. Albinus AR-Denarius, Crawford 335/10b, Rome, Dioscuri watering horse left, Crescent above, A•ALBINVS•S•F•,
avers: - Laureate head of Apollo right, behind star below R, before X, border of dots.
revers: - Dioscuri watering horse (left) at fountain of Juturna, in left field crescent above, border of dots.
exerg: -/-// A•ALBINVS•S•F•, diameter: 17-19mm, weight: 3,76g, axis: 5h,
mint: Rome, date:096 B.C., ref: Syd-612b, Crawford-335/10b, Postumia 6., Rare !!!
Q-001
"This issue is said to relate to the battle of Lake Regillius; the Roman army was commanded by A. Postumius Albus. Legend says that the Dioscuri were said to have assisted the Romans in obtaining victory; the reverse of shows the Dioscuri watering their horses at the fountain of Futurna in the Roman Forum, where they were supposed to have arrived on the eve of the battle."
3 commentsquadrans
BasIISear1813.jpg
0976-1025 AD - Basil II (Bulgaroktonos) - Anonymous Follis, Class A213 viewsEmperor: Basil II (Bulgaroktonos) (r. 976-1025 AD)
Date: 976-1025 AD
Condition: Fair
Denomination: Anonymous Follis, Class A2

Obverse: -
Bust of Christ facing, bearded, with nimbus cross having in each arm, wearing tunic and himation; right hand raised in blessing in sling of cloak, left holds book with probable in jeweled border. In field, - .

Reverse: ///
above and beneath.

Sear 1813; probable DO A2.25
15.47g; 35.3mm; 30°
Pep
BasIIDOA2_24.jpg
0976-1025 AD - Basil II (Bulgaroktonos) - Anonymous Follis, Class A2.2420 viewsEmperor: Basil II (Bulgaroktonos) (r. 976-1025 AD)
Date: 976-1025 AD
Condition: aVF
Denomination: Anonymous Follis, Class A2

Obverse: -
Bust of Christ facing, bearded, with nimbus cross having in each arm, wearing tunic and himation; right hand raised in blessing in sling of cloak, left holds book with in jeweled border. In field, - .

Reverse: ///
above and beneath.

DO A2.24; Sear 1813
13.40g; 29.0mm; 180°
Pep
LarryW1853.jpg
100 Constantius II, AD 337-36172 viewsGold solidus, 20mm, 4.00g, gF
Struck AD 355-360 at Arles
FL IVL CONSTAN-TIVS PERP AVG, helmeted, diademed and cuirassed facing bust, spear across shoulder in right, shield on left arm / GLORIA REI-PVBLICAE, Roma and Constantinopolis enthroned, holding wreath with VOT XXX MVLT XXXX in four lines, */KONSTAN in ex (TAN in monogram). Graffiti on obverse fields
Ex: Forum Ancient Coins
RIC 238
Lawrence Woolslayer
60304LG.jpg
102a. Plotina136 viewsPlotina, wife of Trajan.

Under Trajan, his female relations played enormously important roles in the empire's public life, and received honors perhaps unparalleled. Trajan's wife, Pompeia Plotina, is reported to have said, when she entered the imperial palace in Rome for the first time, that she hoped she would leave it the same person she was when she entered. She received the title Augusta no later than 105. She survived Trajan, dying probably in 121, and was honored by Hadrian with a temple, which she shared with her husband, in the great forum which the latter had built.

Æ trial strike of denarius dies (23 mm, 7.42 g). Rome. [PL]OTINA AVG IMP TRAIANI, diademed and draped bust right, hair in queue down neck / CAES AVG GERMA [D]A[C] COS V[I P P], Vesta seated left, holding palladium in right hand, sceptre in left. Cf. RIC 730 (Trajan); cf. BMC 526 (Trajan); cf. RSC 3. VF, rough green patina. Very unusual and probably unique. Ex Spink 160 (9-10 October 2002), 852.
ecoli73
Thermus.jpg
103 BC Q. Minucius M.f. Thermus100 viewsHead of young Mars left, wearing crested helmet

Q THERM MF (THE and MF in monogram)
Roman soldier advancing right, fighting with uplifted sword a barbarian soldier before him and protecting with shield a fallen comrade at his feet

Rome 103 BC
3.71g

Sear 197

Sold Forum Auction December 2017
2 commentsJay GT4
coin193.JPG
103b. Aelius25 viewsAelius was adopted by an aging and ailing Hadrian in 136 and named successor to the throne, although he had no military experience; he had served as a senator. He had powerful political connections, but was in poor health. His tastes were luxurious and extravagant and his life said to have been frivolous. Hadrian's choice seems to have been an error in judgement. Some scholars have suggested that Aelius may have been Hadrian's bastard son, but there is no reason to believe this. Aelius himself was never to become emperor, dying shortly before Hadrian.

Copper as, S 3993, RIC 1067, gF, 10.88g, 27.9mm, 180o, Rome mint, 137 A.D.; obverse L AELIVS CAESAR, bare head right; reverse TR•POT COS II S C, Spes advancing right, holding flower and raising drapery; attractive translucent brown toning, ex Scott Collection, ex Forum

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ecoli
NicIIIDOI.jpg
1078-1081 AD - Nicephorus III (Botaniates) - Anonymous Follis, Class I11 viewsEmperor: Nicephorus III (Botaniates) (r. 1078-1081 AD)
Date: 1078-1081 AD
Condition: Fine
Denomination: Anonymous Follis, Class I

Obverse: No legend
Bust of Christ facing, having long, slightly forked beard and cross nimbus with one pellet in each arm, wearing tunic and himation; right hand blessing inwards in sling of cloak, left holds book, with on cover, from beneath. In field, - .

Reverse: No legend
Latin cross with one large and two small pellets at each extremity, small cross at intersection, and pellet with floral ornaments to left and right at base. Above, crescents to left and right.

DO I; Sear 1889
5.13g; 22.9mm; 195°
Pep
NiceIIISB1889.jpg
1078-1081 AD - Nicephorus III - Sear 1889 - Anonymous Follis39 viewsEmperor: Nicephorus III (r. 1078-1081 AD)
Date: 1078-1081 AD
Condition: Fair
Denomination: Anonymous Follis (Class I)

Obverse: Bust of Christ facing, wearing nimbus cruciger, pallium and colobium, and raising right hand in benediction; in left hand, book of Gospels; to left, ; to right, ; normal border.

Reverse: Latin cross, with X at centre, and globule and two pellets at each extremity; in lower field, on either side, floral ornament; in upper field, on either side, crescent.

Constantinople mint
Sear 1889
3.35g; 25.6mm; 180°
Pep
AlexISear1909.jpg
1081-1118 AD - Alexius I Comnenus - Follis - Thessalonica mint17 viewsEmperor: Alexius I Comnenus (r. 1081-1118 AD)
Date: 1081-1092 AD
Condition: aFair
Denomination: Follis

Obverse: No legend
Bust of the Virgin facing, nimbate and wearing pallium and maphorium; She holds before Her the infant Christ whose nimbate head facing is represented; to left, ; to right, ; on either side of Virgin's head, uncertain wedge-shaped object.

Reverse: - ]
Alexius standing facing, wearing crown and loros, and holding labarum and globus cruciger.

Thessalonica mint
Sear 1909
4.27g; 26.1mm; 165°
Pep
rjb_car_1093_06_06.jpg
109339 viewsCarausius 287-93AD
Antoninianus
Obv “IMP CARAVSIVS PF AVG”
Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev “SALVS AVG”
Salus standing left feeding serpent rising from altar
London mint?
-/-//BRI
RIC 1093
The BRI coins are rare, Shiel (1977) listed only seven in total of both reverse types. This coin is a reverse die duplicate of Shiel 6, a specimen from the F Baldwin collection, the whereabouts are unknown today and was not in the 1969 sale of his collection, a cast of which is in the Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge. It appears to be a new obverse die for the series.

More information on the "BRI" coins of Carausius can be found here.
mauseus
JohnIISB1954.jpg
1118-1143 AD - John II - Sear 1954 - Half Tetarteron37 viewsProbable Emperor: John II (r. 1118-1143 AD)
Date: 1118-1143 AD
Condition: Fair
Denomination: Half Tetarteron

Obverse: IC-XC
Christ standing facing on footstool, wearing nimbus cruciger, pallium & colobium, and holding book of Gospels in left.

Reverse: I ΔECΠOT
John standing facing, wearing crown, divitision and loros, and holding labarum and globus cruciger.

Thessalonica mint
Sear 1954
1.67g; 15.7mm; 180°
Pep
JohnIISB1954_2.jpg
1118-1143 AD - John II - Sear 1954 - Half Tetarteron - 2nd Example29 viewsProbable Emperor: John II (r. 1118-1143 AD)
Date: 1118-1143 AD
Condition: Fair
Denomination: Half Tetarteron

Obverse: IC-XC
Christ standing facing on footstool, wearing nimbus cruciger, pallium & colobium, and holding book of Gospels in left.

Reverse: I ΔECΠOT
John standing facing, wearing crown, divitision and loros, and holding labarum and globus cruciger.

Thessalonica mint
Sear 1954
2.14g; 16.3mm; 210°
Pep
ManISB1980.jpg
1143-1180 AD - Manuel I - Sear 1980 - Half Tetarteron37 viewsProbable Emperor: Manuel I (r. 1143-1180 AD)
Date: 1143-1180 AD
Condition: Fair
Denomination: Half Tetarteron

Obverse: to left, /Γ/E; to right, /ΓI/O/S (or similar)
Bust of St. George facing, beardless, wearing nimbus, tunic, cuirass and sagion, and holding spear and shield.

Reverse: MANHΛ ΔECΠOT (or similar)
Bust facing, wearing crown and loros, and holding labarum and globus cruciger.

Uncertain Greek mint
Sear 1980; DOC 23
2.32g, 16.1mm; 180°
Pep
ManISear1966.jpg
1143-1180 AD - Manuel I Comnenus - Sear 1966 - Billon Aspron Trachy26 viewsEmperor: Manuel I Comnenus (r. 1143-1180 AD)
Date: 1143-1180 AD
Condition: Fine/VF
Denomination: Billon Aspron Trachy

Obverse: -
Christ, bearded, seated facing on throne without back, wearing nimbus cruciger, pallium and colobium; in left hand, book of Gospels.

Reverse: -
The Virgin, nimbate (on right) and Manuel (on left), both standing facing; the Virgin wears pallium and maphorium, and with Her right hand crowns the emperor, who wears divitision and loros, and holds labarum and globus cruciger; between their heads, ; to right, .

Constantinople mint
Sear 1966
4.49g; 31.3mm; 180°
Pep
ManISear1966_2.jpg
1143-1180 AD - Manuel I Comnenus - Sear 1966 - Billon Aspron Trachy - 2nd Example10 viewsEmperor: Manuel I Comnenus (r. 1143-1180 AD)
Date: 1143-1180 AD
Condition: Fine/VF
Denomination: Billon Aspron Trachy

Obverse: -
Christ, bearded, seated facing on throne without back, wearing nimbus cruciger, pallium and colobium; in left hand, book of Gospels.

Reverse: -
The Virgin, nimbate (on right) and Manuel (on left), both standing facing; the Virgin wears pallium and maphorium, and with Her right hand crowns the emperor, who wears divitision and loros, and holds labarum and globus cruciger; between their heads, ; to right, .

Constantinople mint
Sear 1966
3.96g; 30.4mm; 180°
Pep
HENRY_II_Tealby_AR_Penny.JPG
1154 - 1189, HENRY II, AR 'Tealby' Penny, Struck 1158 - 1163 at Canterbury (?), England33 viewsObverse: (HE)NRI • R(EX• A -). Crowned facing bust of Henry II, his head facing slightly to the left, holding sceptre tipped with a cross potent in his right hand. Crown has three vertical uprights each topped by a fleur-de-lis.
Reverse: + (ROGI)ER : ON : (C)A(NT) surrounding short cross potent within beaded circle, small cross potents in each quarter. Moneyer: Rogier, cognate with the modern English name of Roger. Mintmark: Cross potent.
Uncommonly clear Class A bust
Diameter: 20mm | Weight: 1.3gms | Die Axis: 4
Flan chipped and cracked
SPINK: 1337

For the first few years of Henry II's reign the coins of King Stephen continued to be produced, but in 1158, in order to restore public confidence in the currency, a new 'cross and crosslet' coinage was introduced in England which was of sufficient importance for the contemporary chroniclers to record that 'a new money was made, which was the sole currency of the kingdom.' While this coinage was acceptable in terms of weight and silver quality, it is notorious for its ugly appearance, bad craftsmanship and careless execution. In fact the 'Tealby' coinage is among the worst struck of any issue of English regal coinage, so much so that collectors consider it something of a bonus if they are able to make out the name of the moneyer, or the mint, from the letters showing.
The cross and crosslet type coinage of King Henry II is more often called 'Tealby' because of the enormous hoard of these coins which was found in late 1807 at Bayons Manor farm near Tealby in Lincolnshire. This hoard, which originally amounted to over 5,700 pieces, was first reported in the Stamford Mercury of the 6th November 1807, but unfortunately the majority of the coins, more than 5,000 of them, were sent to be melted at the Tower of London and only some 600 pieces were saved for national and important private collections.
A total of 30 mints were employed in the initial 'Tealby' recoinage, however once the recoinage was completed only 12 mints were permitted to remain active and this marks the beginning of the gradual decline in the number of mints which were used to strike English coins.
The 'Tealby' issue continued until 1180 when a new style coin of much better workmanship, the short-cross penny, was introduced.
2 comments*Alex
Sergius_Silius.jpg
116-115 BC M. Sergius Silus262 viewsHelmeted head of Roma right
EX SC before, ROMA and XVI in monogram gehind

Helmeted horseman galloping left, holding sword and severed Gallic head in left hand
M SERGI below, SILVS in ex, Q below horses's forelegs

Rome 116-115 BC

3.91g
VF+

Sear 163, RRC 286/1

This issuer strikes as a quaestor and by special decree of the Senate (EX Senatus Consulto). Quaestors were the immediate superiors of the moneyers and under unusual circumstances occasionally utilized their authority to produce coins.

Ex-Lucernae

2011 Forum Best of Type winner
8 commentsJay GT4
0010-060np_noir.jpg
1163 - D. Junius L.F. Silanus, As114 viewsAs minted in Rome, 91 BC
No legend, Head of Janus
D SILANVS L F, Prow of galley right
12.08 gr
Ref : RCV # 738

The following comment from : http://www.forumancientcoins.com/historia/historia.htm

"Decimus Junius Silanus was the son of M. Junius Silanus, who commanded the army that was defeated by the Germanic Cimbri in Transalpine Gaul.

Decimus was the stepfather of Marcus Brutus, the murderer of Caesar, having married his mother Servilia. He was elected consul in 63 for the following year ; and in consequence of his being consul designatus, he was first asked for his opinion by Cicero in the debate in the senate on the punishment of the Catilinarian conspirators. He was consul 62, with L. Licinius Morena, along with whom he proposed the Lex Licinia Julia".
Potator II
William_the_lion_AR_penny.JPG
1169 - 1214, William I “the lion”, AR Penny, Struck 1205 - 1230 at Perth or Edinburgh, Scotland20 viewsObverse: + LE REI WILAM•: Head of William I facing left, wearing crown of pellets, sceptre to left, within inner circle of pellets. All surrounded by outer circle of pellets. Cross potent in legend.
Reverse: + hVE WALTER: Voided short cross, six pointed star in each angle, within inner circle of pellets. All surrounded by outer circle of pellets. Cross potent in legend. (No mint name on coin. Moneyers: Hue (cognate with the modern English name of Hugh) and Walter, the Edinburgh and Perth moneyers working jointly)
Short cross, phase B. Late William I and posthumous issue struck c.1205 to c.1230.
William I died in 1214 but it would appear that although Alexander II was 16 years old when he came to the throne he continued his father's issues for some 15 years and struck no coins in his own name until around 1230.
Diameter: 21mm | Weight: 1.3gm | Die Axis: 6
SPINK: 5029

William I was not known as "the Lion" during his own lifetime, the title was attached to him because of his flag or standard, a red lion rampant on a yellow background which went on to become the Royal Banner of Scotland which is still used today.

William I was crowned on 24th December 1165, he came to the throne when his elder brother Malcolm IV died at the age of 24 on 9th December 1165.
Early in his reign William attempted to regain control of Northumbria which had been lost, in 1157 during the reign of Malcolm IV, to the Anglo-Normans under Henry II. He thereby lent support to the English barons who rebelled against Henry II in 1173. In 1174 however, while actively assisting the rebels at the Battle of Alnwick, William was captured by Henry's forces and taken to Falaise in Normandy. He was forced, under the terms of the Treaty of Falaise which he signed in December, to do homage for the whole of Scotland and also to hand over the castles of Roxburgh, Berwick and Edinburgh. Edinburgh, however, was later returned to him as part of the dowry of Ermengarde, a cousin of Henry II, whom William married in 1186.
The Treaty of Falaise remained in force for the next fifteen years until the new English King Richard the Lionheart, needing money for the Third Crusade, agreed to terminate it in return for 10,000 marks. William also attempted to purchase Northumbria from Richard, however his offer of 15,000 marks was rejected due to him wanting all the castles within the lands, something Richard was not willing to concede.
Relations between Scotland and England remained tense during the first decade of the 13th century and in August 1209 King John decided to exploit the weakening leadership of the ageing Scottish monarch by marching a large army to Norham on the south side of the River Tweed. William bought John off with the promise of a large sum of money, and later, in 1212, he agreed to his only surviving son Alexander, marrying John's eldest daughter, Joan.
William I died in Stirling in 1214 and lies buried in Arbroath Abbey, which he is credited with founding in 1178. He was succeeded by his son, who reigned as Alexander II.
3 comments*Alex
HadrSe46.jpg
118 AD: Hadrian relinquishes public debt worth 900 million sestertii 311 viewsOrichalcum sestertius (24.91g, 34mm, 6h). Rome mint. Struck AD 119-121
IMP CAESAR TRAIANVS HADRIANVS AVG P M TR P COS III laureate bust right, drapery on far shoulder
RELIQVA VETERA IIS NOVIES MILL ABOLITA / S C Lictor standing left, holding fasces, setting fire to heap of bonds on the ground to left with brand
RIC 552 [R]; Cohen 914; Foss (Roman Historic Coins) 112/15
CNG EAuction 202; ex White Mountain Collection; ex Mazzini Collection
While Hadrian was on a mission in AD 118, four high ranking senators were executed by the senate for conspiring against Hadrian, despite a promise by Hadrian not to execute members of the Senate. To calm the public, Hadrian granted an extra public largesse and relinquished the public debt to the state equaling 900 million sestertii. In a ceremony held in the Forum Trajanum, all records of these debts were set on fire
1 commentsCharles S
IssacIISB2005.jpg
1185-1195 AD - Isaac II - Sear 2005 - Tetarteron47 viewsEmperor: Isaac II (r. 1185-1195 AD)
Date: 1185-1195 AD
Condition: Fine
Denomination: Tetarteron

Obverse: Facing bust of Archangel Michael, beardless and nimbate, wearing loros and holding jewelled sceptre (sometimes surmounted by trefoil device) and globus cruciger; to left, O//AP; to right, /MI (or similar)

Reverse: Bust of Issac facing, wearing crown and loros, and holding cruciform sceptre and akakia; to left, ICA/AKI/OC; to right, ΔE/CΠO/TH/C (or similar).

Thessalonica mint
Sear 2005
1.89g; 17.9mm; 150°
Pep
1189_-_1199_Richard_I_AR_Denier.JPG
1189 - 1199, RICHARD I (the lionheart), AR Denier minted at Melle, Poitou, France43 viewsObverse: +RICARDVS REX. Cross pattée within braided inner circle, all within braided outer circle.
Reverse: PIC / TAVIE / NSIS in three lines within braided circle.
Diameter: 20mm | Weight: 1.0gms | Die Axis: 2
SPINK: 8008 | Elias: 8

Poitou was an Anglo-Gallic province in what is now west-central France and its capital city was Poitiers, the mint at this time was however located at Melle. Melle was an active centre of minting during the early Middle Ages due to the important silver mines located under and around the city. This is the only coin issue struck during the reign of Richard I to bear his own name and titles as King of England.

Richard I was King of England from 1189 until his death on 6th April 1199. He also ruled several territories outwith England, and was styled as Duke of Normandy, Aquitaine and Gascony, Lord of Cyprus, Count of Poitiers, Anjou, Maine, and Nantes, as well as being overlord of Brittany at various times during the same period. He was the third of five sons of King Henry II of England and Duchess Eleanor of Aquitaine. He was known as Richard the Lionheart (Richard Cœur de Lion) because of his reputation as a great military leader and warrior when, at the age of 16 and commanding his own army, he had put down rebellions against his father in Poitou.
Richard was a commander during the Third Crusade, and led the campaign after the departure of Philip II of France. However, although he scored several notable victories against the Muslims led by Saladin, he failed to retake Jerusalem from them.
Although Richard was born in England and spent his childhood there before becoming king, he lived most of his adult life in the Duchy of Aquitaine. Following his accession, his life was mostly spent on Crusade, in captivity, or actively defending his lands in France. Rather than regarding England as a responsibility requiring his presence as ruler, he appears to have used it merely as a source of revenue to support his armies. Nevertheless, he was seen as a pious hero by his subjects and he remains one of the few kings of England who is remembered by his epithet rather than by his regnal number, and even today he is still an iconic figure in both England and France.
3 comments*Alex
King_John_AR_Penny.JPG
1199 – 1216, John, AR Short cross penny, Struck 1205 - 1216 at Winchester, England22 viewsObverse: HENRICVS REX around central circle enclosing a crowned, draped and bearded facing bust of the king holding a sceptre tipped with a cross pommee in his right hand, bust extending to edge of flan.
Reverse: +ANDREV•ON•WI around voided short cross within circle, crosslets in each quarter. Moneyer: Andrev, cognate with the modern English name of Andrew.
Diameter: 19mm | Weight: 1.2gms | Die Axis: 4
Class 5b
SPINK: 1351

The class four type short cross pennies of Henry II continued to be struck during the early years of John's reign, but in 1205 a recoinage was begun and new short cross pennies of better style replaced the older issues. Sixteen mints were initially employed for this recoinage but they were reduced to ten later on. All John's coins continued to bear his father's (Henry II) title of henricvs rex.

John was King of England from 1199 until his death in 1216. The baronial revolt at the end of John's reign led to the sealing of the first Magna Carta, a document sometimes considered an early step in the evolution of the constitution of the United Kingdom.
John, the youngest of the five sons of Henry II and Eleanor of Aquitaine, was not expected to inherit significant lands which resulted in him being given the nickname John Lackland. However, after the failed rebellion of his elder brothers between 1173 and 1174, John became Henry's favourite child. He was appointed Lord of Ireland in 1177 and given lands in England and on the continent. John's elder brothers William, Henry and Geoffrey died young and when Richard I became king in 1189, John was the potential heir to the throne. John unsuccessfully attempted a rebellion against Richard's administration whilst his brother was participating in the Third Crusade but despite this, after Richard died in 1199, John was proclaimed King of England.
Contemporary chroniclers were mostly critical of John's performance as king, and his reign has been the subject of much debate by historians from the 16th century onwards. These negative qualities have provided extensive material for fiction writers since the Victorian era, and even today John remains a recurring character within popular culture, primarily as a villain in films and stories regarding the Robin Hood legends.
2 comments*Alex
1205_-_1216_John_AR_Penny_Dublin.JPG
1199-1216, John, AR Penny, Struck 1207 – 1211 at Dublin, Ireland10 viewsObverse: IOHANNES REX around triangle enclosing a crowned and draped facing bust of King John holding, in his right hand, a sceptre tipped with a cross pommée which extends through the side of the triangle into the legend. Quatrefoil to right of bust.
Reverse: ROBERD ON DIVE around triangle containing sun over crescent moon and a star in each angle. Cross pattée at apex of each point of the triangle and above legend on each of the three sides. Moneyer: Roberd, cognate with the modern English name of Robin.
Third issue “REX” coinage, struck to the same weight and fineness as the English standard.
This was the only coinage struck by King John in his own name.
Diameter: 18mm | Weight: 1.2gms | Die Axis: 4
SPINK: 6228

John was King of England from 1199 until his death in 1216. The baronial revolt at the end of John's reign led to the sealing of the first Magna Carta, a document sometimes considered an early step in the evolution of the constitution of the United Kingdom.
John, the youngest of the five sons of Henry II and Eleanor of Aquitaine, was not expected to inherit significant lands which resulted in him being given the nickname John Lackland. However, after the failed rebellion of his elder brothers between 1173 and 1174, John became Henry's favourite child. He was appointed Lord of Ireland in 1177 and given lands in England and on the continent. John's elder brothers William, Henry and Geoffrey died young and when Richard I became king in 1189, John was the potential heir to the throne. John unsuccessfully attempted a rebellion against Richard's administration whilst his brother was participating in the Third Crusade but despite this, after Richard died in 1199, John was proclaimed King of England.
King John contracted dysentery at Lynn in 1216 but, just before his death, he managed to dictate a brief will. This will still survives and as part of it John requested: "I will that my body be buried in the church of St. Mary and St. Wulfstan of Worcester".
Some of King John's favourite hunting grounds were in Worcester, at Kinver and Feckenham, and he had a special affection for Saint Wulfstan, one of the two great Anglo-Saxon saints whose shrines and tombs were also at Worcester. Both Saint Wulfstan and Saint Oswald can be seen in miniature beside the head of the effigy of King John on his tomb.
Medieval effigies usually show the subject in the prime of life, however the effigy on King John's tomb is unique in that not only is it a life-like image of him, it is also the oldest royal effigy in England.
King John's tomb has been opened twice, once in 1529 and again in 1797. At the first opening it was said that John's head was covered with a monk's cowl, however it is now thought that this was probably his coronation cap. When the tomb was opened for the second time the antiquarians responsible discovered that a robe of crimson damask had originally covered the king's body but, by 1797, most of the embroidery had deteriorated. They also found the remains of a sword which lay down the left side of the body along with parts of its scabbard.
3 comments*Alex
LatinByzSB2024.jpg
1204-1261 AD - Latin Occupation of Constantinople - Sear 2024 - AE Trachy60 viewsLatin Occupation of Constantinople (1204-1261 AD)
Date: 1204-1261 AD
Condition: Mediocre
Denomination: AE Trachy

Obverse: -
Bust of Christ.

Reverse: MANHCΛ ΔECΠOTHC
Emperor standing, holding sceptre cruciger.

Sear 2024
1.39g; 16.7mm; 180?°
Pep
LatinByzSB2047.jpg
1204-1261 AD - Latin Occupation of Constantinople - Sear 2047 - AE Trachy58 viewsLatin Occupation of Constantinople (1204-1261 AD)
Date: 1204-1261 AD
Condition: Mediocre/Fair
Denomination: AE Trachy

Obverse: -
Christ seated.

Reverse: no legend
Half-length figure of emperor.

Sear 2047
1.12g; 19.4mm; 180°
Pep
Henry_III_short_cross_penny.JPG
1216 – 1272, Henry III, AR Penny, Struck 1217 - 1242 at London, England (Short cross type)2 viewsObverse: HENRICVS REX around central circle enclosing a crowned, draped and bearded facing bust of Henry III holding a sceptre tipped with a cross pommee in his right hand.
Reverse: + GIFFREI ON LVND. Voided short cross dividing legend into quarters, crosslets in each quarter of inner circle. Cross pattée in legend. Moneyer: Giffrei, cognate with the modern English name of Geoffrey.
Issue type 7c, distinguished by the degraded portrait and large lettering.
Diameter: 19mm | Weight: 1.1gms | Die Axis: 4
SPINK: 1356C

Henry III was the eldest son of King John and came to the throne at the age of nine. He was king of England from 1216 until his death in 1272, ruling longer than any other English monarch until the reign of George III.
Henry expressed a lifelong interest in architecture and much of what constitutes the Tower of London today is a result of Henry’s work, he added several towers and a curtain wall to expand the White Tower beginning in 1238. Westminster Abbey however, is considered to be Henry's greatest building work. The project began in 1245, when Henry sent his architect Henry de Reynes to visit the French cities of Rheims, Chartres, Bourges and Amiens and Paris’s royal chapel Sainte-Chapelle to learn the Gothic technique that he much admired.
The Westminster Abbey that stood previously on the site had been erected by Edward the Confessor in 1042. Edward the Confessor was a hero of Henry’s, and he probably named his son (the future Edward I) after him. The foundations and crypt are still those of Edward the Confessor’s Abbey, but everything above ground today is the building begun by Henry III. The tomb of Edward the Confessor was moved to a new position of honour in 1269 at the very centre of the new abbey, and when Henry III died in 1272 he was buried beside Edward’s shrine in the exact position the bones of his hero had lain for 200 years.
*Alex
HENRY_III.JPG
1216 – 1272, Henry III, AR Penny, Struck 1248 - 1250 at London, England (Long cross type)44 viewsObverse: HENRICVS REX : III. Crowned bust of Henry III facing within circle of pellets. Mintmark: Six pointed star.
Reverse: NICOLE ON LVND. Voided long cross dividing legend into quarters, trefoil in each quarter of inner circle. Moneyer: Nicole, cognate with the modern English name of Nicholas. The surname Nicole originates in the Netherlands where it was notable for its various branches, and associated status or influence. The modern given name Nicole is a French feminine derivative of the masculine given name Nicolas.
Diameter: 19mm | Weight: 1.3gms | Die Axis: 6
SPINK: 1363

The First Barons' War (1215–1217) was a civil war in England in which a group of rebellious barons led by Robert Fitzwalter and supported by a French army under the future Louis VIII of France, waged war against King John of England. The war resulted from King John's refusal to accept and abide by the Magna Carta, which he had been forced to put his seal to on 15th June 1215, as well as from Louis' own ambitions regarding the English throne.
It was in the middle of this war that King John died leaving his son, the nine year old Henry III (who had been moved to safety at Corfe Castle in Dorset along with his mother, Queen Isabella) as his heir.
On his deathbed John appointed a council of thirteen executors to help Henry reclaim the kingdom, requesting that his son be placed into the guardianship of William Marshal, 1st Earl of Pembroke. The loyalists decided to crown Henry immediately to reinforce his claim to the throne. William knighted the boy, and Cardinal Guala Bicchieri, the papal legate to England, then oversaw his coronation at Gloucester Cathedral on 28th October 1216. In the absence of the archbishops of either Canterbury or York, Henry was anointed by the bishops of Worcester and Exeter, and crowned by Peter des Roches, bishop of Winchester. During the civil war the royal crown had been lost, so instead, the ceremony used a simple gold corolla belonging to Queen Isabella. In 1217, Henry's forces, led by William Marshal, finally defeated the rebels at the battles of Lincoln and Sandwich.
Henry's early rule was dominated first by Hubert de Burgh, 1st Earl of Kent and Justiciar of England and Ireland, then by Peter des Roches, and they re-established royal authority after the war. In 1225 Henry promised to abide by the final and definitative version of the Magna Carta, freely authenticated by the great seal of Henry III himself, which protected the rights of the major barons and placed a limit on royal power. It is the clauses of this, the 1225 Magna Carta signed by Henry III, not the King John Magna Carta of 1215, which are on the Statute Books of the United Kingdom today.
4 comments*Alex
1280_-1286_Alexander_III_AR_Penny_SCOTLAND.JPG
1249 - 1286, Alexander III, AR Penny, Struck 1280 - 1286 at Roxburgh, Scotland16 viewsObverse: + ALEXANDER DEI GRA . Crowned head of Alexander III facing left within circle of pellets; sceptre topped with fleur-de-lis before. Cross potent in legend.
Reverse: REX SCOTORVM +. Long cross pattée dividing legend into quarters, with three pierced mullets of six points and one mullet of seven points in quarters of inner circle. The total of 25 points is indicative of the mint of Roxburgh.
Class Mb with unbarred “A”, wider portrait and cross potent mintmark in legend.
Roxburgh only accounts for some 9% of Alexander's second coinage so issues from this mint are quite rare.
Diameter: 18mm | Weight: 1.0gm | Die Axis: 3
SPINK: 5054

Alexander III's reign saw the introduction of the round halfpenny and farthing to Scottish medieval coinage.
Following the English recoinage of Edward I in 1279, Alexander introduced his second coinage which began in 1280 and ended when he died in 1286. This coin was therefore struck between those dates.

Alexander III was born at Roxburgh, he came to the throne when he was just 7 years old following the death of his father, Alexander II.
At the age of ten, in 1251, Alexander married Margaret, daughter of Henry III of England. Henry seized the opportunity to demand from his son-in-law homage from the Scottish kingdom. Alexander did not comply but In 1255, after a meeting between the English and Scottish kings at Kelso, he was compelled to consent to the creation of a regency representative of both monarchs.
The early years of Alexander III’s reign were dominated by a power struggle between the two factions, but when he reached the age of 21 he was able to rule in his own right. His first action was to claim control of the Western Isles which were then under the domination of Norway. The Norwegian King Haakon rejected the claim, and in 1263, responded with a formidable invasion force which sailed around the west coast of Scotland and halted off the Isle of Arran. Alexander craftily delayed negotiations until the autumn storms began which resulted in the Norwegian ships being greatly damaged. Haakon, losing patience, attacked the Scots at Largs, but the battle proved indecisive and his position became hopeless. The Norwegians set sail for home but Haakon died en route, on Orkney, towards the end of the year. In 1266, at the Treaty of Perth, Norway formally ceded the Western Isles and the Isle of Man to Scotland in return for a monetary payment.
Alexander, when only 44 years old, met his end on the night of 19th March 1286. After entertaining guests at Edinburgh Castle he decided that night that he would return home to his wife near Kinghorn. His aides advised against it because there was a storm and the party would have to travel in darkness for many miles along a treacherous coastal path. Alexander was determined to travel anyway and ignored his advisors. It is not clear what happened, but it seems he got separated from the rest of his group and his horse lost its footing in the dark. The following day Alexander's body, and that of his horse, was found on the shore at the foot of the cliffs, the King's neck was broken. In 1886, a monument to him was erected in Kinghorn, on the side of the cliffs, at the approximate location of Alexander's death.
Alexander had no heirs, which ultimately led to a war with England that lasted almost thirty years.
1 comments*Alex
Edward_I_AR_Penny_Berwick.JPG
1272 - 1307, EDWARD I, AR Penny, Struck 1296 - 1306 at Berwick-on-Tweed, England7 viewsObverse: + EDWAR ANGL DNS HYB. Crowned bust of Edward I facing within circle of pellets. Cross pattée in legend.
Reverse: VILLA BEREVVICI. Long cross dividing legend into quarters, trefoil in each quarter of inner circle.
Undated Penny, Class 10 Berwick Type II (Local dies). Issues from this mint are quite rare.
Diameter: 21.5mm | Weight: 1.0gms | Die Axis: 2
SPINK: 1415

Edward I began a major recoinage in 1279 which consisted not only of pennies and new round half-pennies and farthings, but also introduced a new denomination, a fourpenny piece called the "Groat".

In September 1290, upon the death of Margaret, Maid of Norway, there arose a number of claimants to the throne of Scotland. The Guardians of Scotland, who were the de facto heads of state until a king was chosen, asked Edward I of England to conduct the court proceedings in the dispute because the late King Alexander III had been married to Edward's sister, Margaret of England.
John Balliol, a descendant of King David I, was chosen and he was inaugurated at Scone, on St. Andrew's Day, 30 November 1292. But Edward I treated both Baliol and Scotland with contempt and demanded military support for his war against France. The Scottish response was to form an alliance with the French, invade England, and launch an attack on Carlisle.
After the failure of the Scottish attack on Carlisle, Edward I marched north and, on 28th March 1296, he crossed the river Tweed which borders the two countries, with his troops. On the following day he marched on the town of Berwick, which was Scotland's most important trading port and second only to London in economic importance in medieval Britain at that time.
Contemporary accounts of the number slain range anywhere from 4,000 to 20,000. ”When the town had been taken in this way and its citizens had submitted, Edward spared no one, whatever the age or sex, and for two days streams of blood flowed from the bodies of the slain, for in his tyrannous rage he ordered 7,500 souls of both sexes to be massacred...So that mills could be turned by the flow of their blood.” - Account of the Massacre of Berwick, from Bower’s Scotichronicon.
Berwick's garrison was commanded by William the Hardy, Lord of Douglas, whose life and those of his garrison were spared after he surrendered and the English took the castle.
Berwick was recaptured by the Scots in 1318 but the town changed hands between the two countries several times during the following years until it was finally captured for the English by Richard, Duke of Gloucester, the future Richard III of England, in 1482. The Scots however, did not accept this conquest for at least two centuries after this date as is evidenced by innumerable charters.
2 comments*Alex
1305_-1306_Edward_I_LONDON_PENNY.JPG
1272 - 1307, EDWARD I, AR Penny, Struck 1305 - 1306 at London, England14 viewsObverse: + EDWAR ANGL DNS HYB. Crowned bust of Edward I facing within circle of pellets. Cross pattée in legend.
Reverse: CIVITAS LONDON. Long cross dividing legend into quarters, trefoil in each quarter of inner circle.
Undated Penny, type 10cf1
Diameter: 18.5mm | Weight: 1.2gms | Die Axis: 9
SPINK: 1410

Edward I began a major recoinage in 1279 which consisted not only of pennies and new round half-pennies and farthings, but also introduced a new denomination, a fourpenny piece called the "Groat".

Edward I was King of England from 1272 – 1307. He was the eldest surviving son of Henry III and Eleanor of Provence. The contests between his father and the barons led by Simon de Montfort called Edward early into active life when he restored the royal authority within months by defeating and killing de Montfort at the battle of Evesham in 1265. He then proceeded to Palestine, where no conquest of any importance was achieved. After further campaigns in Italy and France he returned to England on his father's death and was crowned at Westminster Abbey in 1274.
Edward was popular because he identified himself with the growing tide of nationalism sweeping the country, displayed later in his persecution and banishment of the Jews which was the culmination of many years of anti-semitism in England.
Edward now turned his attention to the mountainous land to the west which had never been completely subdued. So, following a revolt in the Principality of Wales against English influence, Edward commenced a war which ended in the annexation of the Principality to the English Crown in 1283. He secured his conquest by building nine castles to watch over it and created his eldest son, Edward the Prince of Wales in 1301.
Edward's great ambition, however, was to gain possession of Scotland, but the death of Margaret, the Maid of Norway, who was to have been married to Edward's son, for a time frustrated the king's designs. However the sudden death of the King of Scotland, Alexander III, and the contested succession soon gave him the opportunity to intervene. He was invited by the Scots to arbitrate and choose between the thirteen competitors for the Scottish throne. Edward's choice, John Balliol, who he conceived as his puppet, was persuaded to do homage for his crown to Edward at Newcastle but was then forced to throw off Edward's overlordship by the indignation of the Scottish people. An alliance between the French and the Scots now followed, and Edward, then at war with the French king over possession of Gascony, was compelled to march his army north. Edward invaded Scotland in 1296 and devastated the country, which earned him the sobriquet 'Hammer of the Scots'. It was at this time that the symbolic Stone of Destiny was removed from Scone. Edward's influence had tainted Balliol's reign and the Scottish nobility deposed him and appointed a council of twelve to rule instead. Balliol abdicated and was eventually sent to France where he retired into obscurity, taking no more part in politics. Scotland was then left without a monarch until the accession of Robert the Bruce in 1306.
Meanwhile Edward assumed the administration of the country. However the following summer a new opposition to Edward took place under William Wallace whose successes, notably at Stirling Bridge, forced Edward to return to Scotland with an army of 100,000 men. Although he defeated Wallace's army at Falkirk, and Wallace himself was betrayed, Edward's unjust and barbaric execution of him as a traitor in London made Wallace a national hero in Scotland, and resistance to England became paramount among the people. All Edward's efforts to reduce the country to obedience were unravelling, and after the crowning of Robert Bruce, Earl of Carrick, as Robert I of Scotland in 1306 an enraged Edward assembled another army and marched yet again against the Scots. However, Edward only reached Burgh-on-Sands, a village near Carlisle, when he died. His body was taken back to London and he was buried at Westminster Abbey.
Edward I was married twice: to Eleanor of Castile, by whom he had sixteen children, and Margaret of France by whom he had three. Twelve memorials to his first wife stood between Nottingham and London to mark the journey taken by her funeral cortege. Three of those memorials, known as “Eleanor Crosses”, can still be seen today at Geddington, Hardingstone near Northampton and Waltham Cross. London's Charing Cross is also named after one, but the original was demolished in 1647 and the monument seen there today is a Victorian replica.
1 comments*Alex
14-Gordian-III-RIC-116.jpg
13. Gordian III / RIC 116.24 viewsDenarius, 240 AD, Rome mint.
Obverse: IMP GORDIANVS PIVS FEL AVG / Laureate bust of Gordian.
Reverse: VIRTVTI AVGVSTI / Hercules standing, resting right hand on hip and left hand club set on rock; lion-skin beside club.
3.58 gm., 20 mm.
RIC #116; Sear #8684.

The chronology of the denarii coinage of Gordian III has been poorly understood because Roman Imperial Coinage (RIC) has it mixed up in its listings. For example, it will tell you that 5 denarii (Diana, Pietas, Salus, Securitas, and Venus) were issued in the summer of 241 to commemorate the marriage of Gordian and Tranquillina. Recent thinking tells another entirely different story. The following summary is based on a posting by Curtis Clay, November 25, 2011, on the Forum Ancient Coins Classical Numismatics Discussion Board.
Although antoniniani were issued for a while under Caracalla and Elagabalus, the denarius was the standard silver denomination throughout the reigns of Severus Alexander, Maximinus Thrax, and into the first part of the joint reign of Balbinus & Pupienus. (This, by the way, is when the PIETAS AVGG denarius of Gordian as Caesar was issued.) Sometime during the short reign of Balbinus & Pupienus, the antoninianus supplanted the denarius as the standard silver denomination. When Gordian III became emperor (July 238), his administration continued to follow the then current practice of issuing only antoniniani.

Early in 240, Gordian apparently decided to revert back to the traditional coinage of the Empire and began to issue only denarii. The denarii issued at this time were the following:

P M TR P III COS P P / Horseman
DIANA LVCIFERA
PIETAS AVGVSTI
SALVS AVGVSTI
SECVRITAS PVBLICA
VENVS VICTRIX

No antoniniani exist with these reverse types.

The next issue of denarii was issued in the summer of 240 after Gordian became COS II, and consists of these types:

P M TR P III COS II P P / Emperor standing
P M TR P III COS II P P / Apollo seated
AETERNITATI AVG
IOVIS STATOR
LAETITIA AVG N
VIRTVTI AVGVSTI

Within a short time, however, it was decided to go back to having the antoninianus as the standard silver denomination. Antoniniani were issued again, at first with the same reverse types as the second issue of denarii. That is why these reverse types exist on denarii and antoniniani even though they were not issued at the same time.

So the period the mint issued denarii rather than antoniniani as the standard silver denomination lasted from about March through August, 240. This was the last time denarii were issued for general circulation. The antoninianus lasted until Diocletian’s coinage reform of 295, after which Roman coinage was so vastly different that there was no question of returning to the denarius.

The 13 denarii of Gordian III are presented in this album in this order:
Gordian III as Caesar denarius - 1 coin.
First issue of denarii - 6 coins.
Second issue of denarii - 6 coins.
Callimachus
LarryW1852.jpg
130 Theodosius II, AD 402-450102 viewsGold solidus, 20.8mm, 4.48g, FDC
Struck AD 408-419 at Constantinople
D N THEODO-SIVS P F AVC, helmeted and cuirassed facing bust holding spear and shield decorated with horseman / CONCORDI-A AVCC Θ, Constantinopolis enthroned facing, head right, foot on prow, holding sceptre and Victory on globe, star left, CONOB in exergue
Ex: Forum Ancient Coins
RIC X, 202
1 commentsLawrence Woolslayer
Edward_II_AR_Penny_Bury_St_Edmunds.JPG
1307 - 1327, EDWARD II, AR Penny, Struck 1307 at Bury St. Edmunds, England2 viewsObverse: + EDWAR R ANGL DNS hYB. Crowned and draped bust of Edward II facing within circle of pellets. Cross pattee in legend.
Reverse: VILL SCI EDMVNDI. Long cross dividing legend into quarters, trefoil in each quarter of inner circle.
Diameter: 19mm | Weight: 1.37gms | Die Axis: 12
Rare mint
SPINK: 1465

Class 11c penny with angular backs to C and E's in legends.

Edward II was born on 25 April 1284, the fourth son of Edward I of England and when Edward I died in July 1307 Edward II became king because his three elder brothers were already dead. Edward II was the first English prince to hold the title prince of Wales, which was bestowed on him by his father in 1301.
Unfortunately Edward II had few of the qualities that made a successful medieval king. He surrounded himself with favourites, the best known being Piers Gaveston who he recalled from exile, Edward I having banished him to France due to his bad influence on his son. Furthermore, Edward II gave Gaveston the earldom of Cornwall, a title which had previously only been conferred on royalty.
Opposition to the king and his favourite began almost immediately, and in 1311 the nobles issued the 'Ordinances', in an attempt to limit royal control of finance and appointments. Gaveston was twice exiled at the demand of the barons, only for him to return to England shortly afterwards. However, in 1312, he was captured by the barons and executed.
In 1314, Edward invaded Scotland where he was decisively defeated by Robert the Bruce at Bannockburn. So bad was this for Edward's rule that by the following year parts of England had fallen into anarchy and power was in the hands of the barons headed by Edward's cousin Thomas of Lancaster, who had virtually made himself the real ruler of England.
By 1318, Edward and Lancaster had been partly reconciled, but the king now had two new favourites, Hugh le Despenser and his son. When Edward supported the two Despensers' ambitions in Wales the barons banished both father and son. This prompted Edward to fight back and he defeated Lancaster at Boroughbridge in March 1322, Lancaster was executed him and the Despensers were called back to Edward's court.
But now, Edward's wife, Isabella of France, emerged as a focus of opposition. In 1325, she was sent on a diplomatic mission to France where she met and became the mistress of Roger Mortimer, an exiled opponent of Edward. In September 1326, Isabella and Mortimer invaded England. There was virtually no resistance and the Despensers were captured and executed. Defeated, Edward was made to renounce the throne in favour of his son Edward who was crowned Edward III in January 1327.
Edward II was imprisoned at Berkeley Castle and later murdered there.
*Alex
Edward_2_Crozier.JPG
1307 - 1327, EDWARD II, AR Penny, Struck 1311 - 1316 at Durham, England21 viewsObverse: + EDWAR ANGL DNS hYB. Crowned and draped bust of Edward II facing within circle of pellets. Cross pattee in legend.
Reverse: CIVITAS DVNELM. Long cross, the upper limb of which is in the form of a bishop's crozier, dividing legend into quarters, trefoil in each quarter of inner circle.
Diameter: 18mm | Weight: 1.2gms | Die Axis: 7
Rare
SPINK: 1469

Undated Penny, Class 11a, struck under Bishop Kellawe. Bishop Kellawe was enthroned as Bishop of Durham in 1311 but he died in 1316 so this coin was struck during the five years between those two dates. These coins were sometimes called “poker pennies” because the shape of the crozier on the reverse is reminiscent of an old iron fireside poker. It's an unfortunate nickname considering the reputed manner of the King's death.

Edward II
Edward II was crowned King of England when his father, Edward I, died in 1307. However Edward II caused discontent among the barons by his close relationship with Piers Gaveston and in 1311 the barons pressured the King into agreeing to wide-ranging reforms which included Gaveston being banished. Angered, Edward responded by revoking the reforms and recalling his favourite, but in 1312 a group of barons, led by the Earl of Lancaster, seized and executed Gaveston.
The war with Scotland was not going well either, the English forces were pushed back and in 1314 Edward was decisively defeated by the Scottish King, Robert the Bruce, at the Battle of Bannockburn.
When this was followed by a widespread famine in England opposition to Edward II's reign grew until, in 1325, when Edward's wife, Isabella, was sent to France to negotiate a peace treaty she turned against Edward, allied herself with the exiled Roger Mortimer, and refused to return. In 1326, Mortimer and Isabella invaded England with a small army. Edward's regime collapsed and he fled into Wales, but he was soon captured and in January 1327 he was forced to relinquish his crown in favour of his fourteen-year-old son, Edward III. Edward II died in Berkeley Castle on 21 September the same year, reputedly horrifically murdered on the orders of the new regime by having a red hot poker inserted into his rectum.

Bishop Kellawe, Bishop of Durham
Richard de Kellawe was sub-prior at St. Cuthbert's, Durham, and on the death of Antony Bek in 1311, Kellawe was chosen to replace him as Bishop of Durham by the monks. The palatinate of Durham was at this time in a deplorable condition owing to the Scottish wars, and in 1312 Kellawe even received a papal dispensation for not attending the council at Vienne in consideration of the state of his province. Troubles with the Scots continued after Bannockburn and the Palatinate was now so exhausted that it could not even provide for its own defence and Bishop Kellawe had to purchase peace with a levy of fifteen hundred men and a gift of one thousand marks.
On 10th October 1316, at Middleham, Bishop Kellawe died. He was buried in the chapter-house at Durham. His grandly adorned tomb was destroyed when the chapter house was demolished in 1796.
2 comments*Alex
Edward_III_AR_Penny.JPG
1327 - 1377, EDWARD III, AR Penny, Treaty Period, struck 1361 – 1369 at London, England8 viewsObverse: + EDWARDVS REX ANGLI. Crowned bust of Edward III facing within circle of pellets. Cross pattée in legend.
Reverse: CIVITAS LONDON. Long cross dividing legend into quarters, trefoil and annulet in each quarter of inner circle.
This coin was struck during the period of the Treaty of Brétigny under which Edward III renounced his claim to the French throne.
Diameter: 19mm | Weight: 1.0gms | Die Axis: 10
SPINK: 1630

Edward III was King of England from January 1327 until his death. He is noted for his military success and for restoring royal authority after the disastrous and unorthodox reign of his father, Edward II. During his long reign Edward III transformed the Kingdom of England into one of the most formidable military powers in Europe. His reign also saw vital developments in legislation and government, in particular the evolution of the English parliament, though it also saw the ravages of the Black Death.
Edward was crowned at the age of fourteen after his father was deposed by his mother, Isabella of France, and her lover Roger Mortimer. But at the age of seventeen he led a successful coup d'état against Mortimer, whom he executed, and began his personal reign.
In 1337, after a successful campaign in Scotland, Edward declared himself the rightful heir to the French throne which started what was to become known as the Hundred Years' War. Following some initial setbacks, the first part of this war went exceptionally well for England, the victories at Crécy and Poitiers led to the highly favourable Treaty of Brétigny in which, though Edward renounced his claim to the French throne, England made great territorial gains. However Edward's later years were marked by international failure and domestic strife, largely as a result of his inactivity and poor health.
Around 29 September 1376 Edward fell ill with a large abscess and, after a brief period of recovery, the king died of a stroke at Sheen on 21 June. He was succeeded by his ten-year-old grandson, King Richard II, since the Black Prince, Edward's son and Richard's father, had predeceased Edward on 8 June 1376.
2 comments*Alex
1327_-_1377_Edward_III_billon_denier_au_leopard.JPG
1327 - 1377, EDWARD III, Billon Denier au Leopard, struck 1327 - 1362 at Bordeaux, France6 viewsObverse: + EDVARDVS : REX around beaded inner circle containing legend ANGL between two lines, Leopard facing left above, trefoil of pellets below. Cross pattée in legend.
Reverse: + DVX AQITANIE around beaded inner circle containing cross pattée. Cross pattée in legend.
Diameter: 18mm | Weight: 0.70gms | Die Axis: 3
Second type issue. Scarce
SPINK: 8090

Unlike English silver coins which, with few exceptions were maintained at sterling fineness, these small denomination continental coins were often debased. At the time of issue they would have had a good silver appearance, but after some use their color darkened, hence they became known as “Black Money”.
Black money coins were hastily produced in large numbers and often poorly struck. They were the common circulating medium at the time and consequently they became very worn so that, during the ensuing years during which there were frequent re-coinages, they were the first into the melting pot. Surviving examples are therefore now quite rare and most of those that have survived are of a low grade.

*Alex
Constantinus-I__AE-Silvered-Follis_IMP-CONSTAN-TINVS-MAX-AVG-_VICTORIA-AVGG-NN-D2-_dot-TS-dot-_-dot-_Not-in-RIC_Thessalonica_3rd_-off__320-AD__Q-001_axis-0h_19mm_3,28g-s.jpg
136 Constantinus I. (306-309 A.D. Caesar, 309-910 A.D. Filius Augustorum, 307-337 A.D. Augustus), Thessalonica, RIC VII ???, AE-3 Follis, -/-//TS•Γ•, VICTORIA AVGG NN, Victoria advancing left, Not in RIC !!!, R!!!106 views136 Constantinus I. (306-309 A.D. Caesar, 309-910 A.D. Filius Augustorum, 307-337 A.D. Augustus), Thessalonica, RIC VII ???, AE-3 Follis, -/-//TS•Γ•, VICTORIA AVG G N N, Victoria advancing left, Not in RIC !!!, R!!!
avers:- IMP CONSTAN TINVS MAX AVG, ,D6, Laurate, helmeted, cuirassed bust right.
rever:- VICTORIA AVG G N N, Victoria advancing left holding wreath in right hand.
exergo: -/-//TS•Γ•, diameter: 19mm, weight: 3,28g, axis: 0h,
mint: Thessalonica, date: 319 A.D., ref: RIC VII after 59, p-506, 3rd.-off.,
RIC VII, THESSALONICA [before 59], CONSTANTINE I, UNLISTED OBVERSE LEGEND AND BUST TYPE, OFFICINA Γ
http://www.forumancientcoins.com/notinric/7the-59_g.html
Q-001
quadrans
Constantinus-I__AE-Follis_CONSTANTINVS-PF-AVG-_SOLI-INVICTO-COMITI-_RIC-VI-893_Trier_-AD_Q-001_axis-6h_20-22,5mm_3,87g-s.jpg
136 Constantinus I. (306-309 A.D. Caesar, 309-910 A.D. Filius Augustorum, 307-337 A.D. Augustus), Ticinum, RIC VI ???, AE-3 Follis, -/-//--, SOLI INVICTO COMITI, Radiate Sol head right, Not in RIC !!!, R!!!418 views136 Constantinus I. (306-309 A.D. Caesar, 309-910 A.D. Filius Augustorum, 307-337 A.D. Augustus), Ticinum, RIC VI ???, AE-3 Follis, -/-//--, SOLI INVICTO COMITI, Radiate Sol head right, Not in RIC !!!, R!!!
avers:- CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, Laureate, cuirassed bust right.
revers:- SOLI INVICTO COMITI, Sol radiate, draped bust right.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 20-22,5mm, weight: 3,87g, axis: 6h,
mint: Ticinum !!!, date: 310-313 A.D., ref: RIC-VI-???, Not in RIC !!!, R!!!
RIC VI, TICINUM [before 115], CONSTANTINE, UNLISTED ISSUE [SOLI INVICTO COMITI]
http://www.forumancientcoins.com/notinric/6tic-115_unm3.html
Q-001
quadrans
Constantinus-I__AR-Argenteus_IMP-CONSTANTI-NVS-AVG_VICTORIA-LAETAE-PRINC-PERP-VOT_PR_PTR_RIC-not_C-not_Trier_318-319-AD__Q-001_19mm_2,73g-s.jpg
136 Constantinus I. (306-309 A.D. Caesar, 309-910 A.D. Filius Augustorum, 307-337 A.D. Augustus), Trier, RIC VII ???, AR-Argenteus, -/-//PTR, VICTORIA LAETAE PRINC PERP, Not in RIC !!!161 views136 Constantinus I. (306-309 A.D. Caesar, 309-910 A.D. Filius Augustorum, 307-337 A.D. Augustus), Trier, RIC VII ???, AR-Argenteus, -/-//PTR, VICTORIA LAETAE PRINC PERP, Not in RIC !!!
avers:- IMP CONSTANTI NVS AVG, bust l., high-crested helmet, cuir., dr., spear across r. shoulder..
rever:- VICTORIA LAETAE PRINC PERP, two Victories stg. facing one another, together holding shield inscribed VOT/PR on altar. PTR in exergue.
"UNLISTED ISSUE. This issue is listed erroneously in RIC VII as regular follis (TRIER 208A, p. 181), but in fact it is "billon argenteus" (c. 25% of silver) and belongs to the group of TREVERI 825-826 in RIC VI. Note that only PTR mark is correct, because of only one officina working at that time at Treveri. Note also that the bust type is similar to H11 from RIC VII, but there are also a few differences: bust is usually larger, half-length, and could be described as cuirassed and draped. Coin should be listed after TREVERI 826. See: Bastien, P., "L’émission de monnaies de billon de Treves au début de 313", Quaderni Ticinesi (Numismatica e Antichità Classiche) 1982, XI, p. 271-278. See: CORRIGENDA, VOL. VII, p. 181, CORRIGENDA, VOL. VI, p. 224" by Lech Stepniewski, in "Not in RIC" , thank you Lech Stepniewski,
http://www.forumancientcoins.com/notinric/6tre-826.html
exergo: -/-//PTR, diameter: 19mm, weight: 2,73g, axis: h,
mint: Trier, date: 318-319 A.D., ref: RIC VI Trier 825-6?, RIC VI, "TREVERI [after 826], CONSTANTINE I, UNLISTED ISSUE" by Lech Stepniewski,
Q-001
quadrans
ROBERT_II_AR_Groat_of_Perth.JPG
1371 – 1390, Robert II, AR Groat minted at Perth, Scotland3 viewsObverse: + ROBERTVS DEI GRA REX SCOTORVM. Crowned bust of Robert II facing left, sceptre topped with a lis and with a star at its base before, within double tressure of six arches broken at the king's neck, small trefoils in spandrels, surrounded by beaded inner circle. Mintmark, cross pattée in legend and small crosses in spaces between words. The whole within beaded outer circle.
Reverse: + DnS PTECTOR MS ┼ LIBATOR MS (God is my protector and redeemer) / VILLA DE PERTh X. Long cross pattée dividing two concentric legends separated by two beaded circles into quarters, pierced mullet in each quarter of inner circle. Mintmark, cross pattées in both inner and outer legends, but cross set as saltire in inner legend, small cross over crescent after DnS in outer legend. The whole within beaded outer circle.
Diameter: 30mm | Weight: 3.87gms | Die Axis: 12
SPINK: 5136 | SCBI: 35, 460-72

Robert II's coinage was maintained at the same standard and in the same general style as that of David’s last issue, but coins were struck at Perth and Dundee in addition to those of the Edinburgh mint.

Robert II was the first Scottish king of the Stewart line, he was the son of Walter, the sixth hereditary High Steward of Scotland, and of Marjorie Bruce, daughter of Robert the Bruce. Robert II acted as regent during part of the period of imprisonment in England of David II and was himself imprisoned in England when Edward III was declared to be David’s successor. The Scots never accepted this arrangement and, after several years of secret negotiations between David II and Edward III, in 1370 Robert was released. He peacefully succeeded to the throne on David II's death the following year.
Robert II succeeded to the throne at the age of 54 and was viewed by many in his kingdom as past his best. In November 1384 he was effectively deposed by his eldest son John, Earl of Carrick. John, however, was seriously injured after being kicked by a horse, and Robert II's second son, Robert, Earl of Fife, later the Duke of Albany, was appointed as Guardian of Scotland instead. Robert II died at Dundonald Castle on 19 April 1390, and was buried at Scone. He was succeeded by his son John, who confusingly took the name Robert III, probably because in Scotland "John" was a name too closely associated with John Balliol, the erstwhile protégé of Edward I.
*Alex
Richard_II_halfpenny.JPG
1377 - 1399, Richard II, AR Halfpenny struck at London, England7 viewsObverse: + RICARD : REX : ANGL. Crowned facing bust of Richard II within circle of pellets. Cross pattée in legend.
Reverse: CIVITAS LONDON. Long cross pattée dividing legend around inner circle of pellets into quarters, trefoil in each quarter of circle.
Type II, intermediate style, lombardic n's in 'LONDON'
Diameter: 13mm | Weight: 0.55gms | Die Axis: 1
SPINK: 1699 | North: 1331b

Richard II was King of England from 1377 until he was deposed in 1399. Edward III's heir, Edward the Black Prince, was Richard's father but he died in 1376, leaving Richard as heir apparent. When Edward III died the following year, the 10-year-old Richard succeeded to the throne.
During Richard's first years as king the government was in the hands of a series of regency councils which were under the control of Richard's uncles John of Gaunt and Thomas of Woodstock. England then faced various problems, most notably the Hundred Years' War. Another major challenge of the reign was the Peasants' Revolt in 1381, a crisis which the young king played a central part in suppressing.
Richard sought to restrain the power of the aristocracy and this caused so much discontent that, in 1387, a group of aristocrats known as the Lords Appellant took control of the government. But by 1389 Richard had regained control and for the next eight years governed in apparent harmony with his former opponents. However, in 1397, Richard took his revenge on the Appellants, many of whom were executed or exiled. In 1399, after John of Gaunt died, the king disinherited Gaunt's son, Henry of Bolingbroke, who he had previously exiled. Henry invaded England in June 1399 with a small force that quickly grew in numbers. Meeting little resistance, Bolingbroke deposed Richard and had himself crowned as King Henry IV.
Henry had agreed to let Richard live after his abdication but this all changed when Henry discovered that Lord Despenser, the earls of Huntingdon, Kent and Salisbury, and possibly also the Earl of Rutland, who had all been demoted from the ranks they had been given by Richard, were conspiring to murder him and restore Richard to the throne. Although averted, the plot highlighted the danger of allowing Richard to live and he is reported to have been starved to death in captivity in Pontefract Castle on or around 14 February 1400.
Richard's body was then taken south from Pontefract and displayed in the old St Paul's Cathedral, London until the 6th of March after which it was taken for burial in King's Langley Priory, Hertfordshire. Sometime later, by the order of King Henry V, Richard's body was moved from the Priory to Westminster Abbey.
1 comments*Alex
antpius-RIC70.jpg
138-161 AD - ANTONINUS PIUS AR denarius - struck 140-143 AD26 viewsobv: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P COS III (bare head right)
rev: GENIVS POP ROMANI (Genius standing front, head right, with scepter & cornucopiae)
ref: RIC III 70, RSC 405 (6frcs), BMC 207
3.15gms, 18mm

The Roman genius, representing man's natural optimism, always endeavoured to guide him to happiness; that man was intended to enjoy life is shown by the fact that the Roman spoke of indulging or cheating his genius of his due according as he enjoyed himself or failed to do so, when he had the opportunity. The genius publicus Populi Romani - probably distinct from the genius Urbis Romae, to whom an old shield on the Capitol was dedicated, stood in the forum near the temple of Concord, in the form of a bearded man, crowned with a diadem, and carrying a cornucopiae and sceptre. In imperial times the genius of Augustus and of the reigning emperor, as part of the sacra of the imperial family, were publicly worshipped. The reverse probably commemorate this (the scepter as Genius attributum is unusual).
berserker
LarryW1833.jpg
140 Marcian, AD 450-45764 viewsGold solidus, 20.8mm, 4.48g, brilliant, gEF
Struck at Constantinople
D N MARCIA-NVS P F AVG, diademed, helmeted and cuirassed bust facing, head slightly to right, holding spear and shield decorated with horseman spearing a fallen enemy / VICTORI-A AVCCC Z, Victory standing half left holding a long jeweled cross resting on ground, star in right field, CON OB in exergue
Certificate of Authenticity by David R. Sear, ACCS
Ex: Forum Ancient Coins
DOC 481; RIC 510; Sear 4322v
Lawrence Woolslayer
Julian2VotXConstantinople.jpg
1409a, Julian II "the Philosopher," February 360 - 26 June 363 A.D.143 viewsJulian II, A.D. 360-363; RIC 167; VF; 2.7g, 20mm; Constantinople mint; Obverse: DN FL CL IVLIANVS P F AVG, helmeted & cuirassed bust right, holding spear & shield; Reverse: VOT X MVLT XX in four lines within wreath; CONSPB in exergue; Attractive green patina. Ex Nemesis.


De Imperatoribus Romanis,
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors

Julian the Apostate (360-363 A.D.)

Walter E. Roberts, Emory University
Michael DiMaio, Jr., Salve Regina University

Introduction

The emperor Flavius Claudius Julianus reigned from 360 to 26 June 363, when he was killed fighting against the Persians. Despite his short rule, his emperorship was pivotal in the development of the history of the later Roman empire. This essay is not meant to be a comprehensive look at the various issues central to the reign of Julian and the history of the later empire. Rather, this short work is meant to be a brief history and introduction for the general reader. Julian was the last direct descendent of the Constantinian line to ascend to the purple, and it is one of history's great ironies that he was the last non-Christian emperor. As such, he has been vilified by most Christian sources, beginning with John Chrysostom and Gregory Nazianzus in the later fourth century. This tradition was picked up by the fifth century Eusebian continuators Sozomen, Socrates Scholasticus, and Theodoret and passed on to scholars down through the 20th century. Most contemporary sources, however, paint a much more balanced picture of Julian and his reign. The adoption of Christianity by emperors and society, while still a vital concern, was but one of several issues that concerned Julian.

It is fortunate that extensive writings from Julian himself exist, which help interpret his reign in the light of contemporary evidence. Still extant are some letters, several panegyrics, and a few satires. Other contemporary sources include the soldier Ammianus Marcellinus' history, correspondence between Julian and Libanius of Antioch, several panegyrics, laws from the Theodosian Code, inscriptions, and coinage. These sources show Julian's emphasis on restoration. He saw himself as the restorer of the traditional values of Roman society. Of course much of this was rhetoric, meant to defend Julian against charges that he was a usurper. At the same time this theme of restoration was central to all emperors of the fourth century. Julian thought that he was the one emperor who could regain what was viewed as the lost glory of the Roman empire. To achieve this goal he courted select groups of social elites to get across his message of restoration. This was the way that emperors functioned in the fourth century. By choosing whom to include in the sharing of power, they sought to shape society.

Early Life

Julian was born at Constantinople in 331. His father was Julius Constantius, half-brother of the emperor Constantine through Constantius Chlorus, and his mother was Basilina, Julius' second wife. Julian had two half-brothers via Julius' first marriage. One of these was Gallus, who played a major role in Julian's life. Julian appeared destined for a bright future via his father's connection to the Constantinian house. After many years of tense relations with his three half-brothers, Constantine seemed to have welcomed them into the fold of the imperial family. From 333 to 335, Constantine conferred a series of honors upon his three half-siblings, including appointing Julius Constantius as one of the consuls for 335. Julian's mother was equally distinguished. Ammianus related that she was from a noble family. This is supported by Libanius, who claimed that she was the daughter of Julius Julianus, a Praetorian Prefect under Licinius, who was such a model of administrative virtue that he was pardoned and honored by Constantine.

Despite the fact that his mother died shortly after giving birth to him, Julian experienced an idyllic early childhood. This ended when Constantius II conducted a purge of many of his relatives shortly after Constantine's death in 337, particularly targeting the families of Constantine's half-brothers. ulian and Gallus were spared, probably due to their young age. Julian was put under the care of Mardonius, a Scythian eunuch who had tutored his mother, in 339, and was raised in the Greek philosophical tradition, and probably lived in Nicomedia. Ammianus also supplied the fact that while in Nicomedia, Julian was cared for by the local bishop Eusebius, of whom the future emperor was a distant relation. Julian was educated by some of the most famous names in grammar and rhetoric in the Greek world at that time, including Nicocles and Hecebolius. In 344 Constantius II sent Julian and Gallus to Macellum in Cappadocia, where they remained for six years. In 351, Gallus was made Caesar by Constantius II and Julian was allowed to return to Nicomedia, where he studied under Aedesius, Eusebius, and Chrysanthius, all famed philosophers, and was exposed to the Neo-Platonism that would become such a prominent part of his life. But Julian was most proud of the time he spent studying under Maximus of Ephesus, a noted Neo-Platonic philospher and theurgist. It was Maximus who completed Julian's full-scale conversion to Neo-Platonism. Later, when he was Caesar, Julian told of how he put letters from this philosopher under his pillows so that he would continue to absorb wisdom while he slept, and while campaigning on the Rhine, he sent his speeches to Maximus for approval before letting others hear them. When Gallus was executed in 354 for treason by Constantius II, Julian was summoned to Italy and essentially kept under house arrest at Comum, near Milan, for seven months before Constantius' wife Eusebia convinced the emperor that Julian posed no threat. This allowed Julian to return to Greece and continue his life as a scholar where he studied under the Neo-Platonist Priscus. Julian's life of scholarly pursuit, however, ended abruptly when he was summoned to the imperial court and made Caesar by Constantius II on 6 November 355.

Julian as Caesar

Constantius II realized an essential truth of the empire that had been evident since the time of the Tetrarchy--the empire was too big to be ruled effectively by one man. Julian was pressed into service as Caesar, or subordinate emperor, because an imperial presence was needed in the west, in particular in the Gallic provinces. Julian, due to the emperor's earlier purges, was the only viable candidate of the imperial family left who could act as Caesar. Constantius enjoined Julian with the task of restoring order along the Rhine frontier. A few days after he was made Caesar, Julian was married to Constantius' sister Helena in order to cement the alliance between the two men. On 1 December 355, Julian journeyed north, and in Augusta Taurinorum he learned that Alamannic raiders had destroyed Colonia Agrippina. He then proceeded to Vienne where he spent the winter. At Vienne, he learned that Augustudunum was also under siege, but was being held by a veteran garrison. He made this his first priority, and arrived there on 24 June 356. When he had assured himself that the city was in no immediate danger, he journeyed to Augusta Treverorum via Autessioduram, and from there to Durocortorum where he rendezvoused with his army. Julian had the army stage a series of punitive strikes around the Dieuse region, and then he moved them towards the Argentoratum/Mongontiacum region when word of barbarian incursions reached him.

From there, Julian moved on to Colonia Agrippina, and negotiated a peace with the local barbarian leaders who had assaulted the city. He then wintered at Senonae. He spent the early part of the campaigning season of 357 fighting off besiegers at Senonae, and then conducting operations around Lugdunum and Tres Tabernae. Later that summer, he encountered his watershed moment as a military general. Ammianus went into great detail about Julian's victory over seven rogue Alamannic chieftains near Argentoratum, and Julian himself bragged about it in his later writing. After this battle, the soldiers acclaimed Julian Augustus, but he rejected this title. After mounting a series of follow-up raids into Alamannic territory, he retired to winter quarters at Lutetia, and on the way defeated some Frankish raiders in the Mosa region. Julian considered this campaign one of the major events of his time as Caesar.

Julian began his 358 military campaigns early, hoping to catch the barbarians by surprise. His first target was the Franks in the northern Rhine region. He then proceeded to restore some forts in the Mosa region, but his soldiers threatened to mutiny because they were on short rations and had not been paid their donative since Julian had become Caesar. After he soothed his soldiers, Julian spent the rest of the summer negotiating a peace with various Alamannic leaders in the mid and lower Rhine areas, and retired to winter quarters at Lutetia. In 359, he prepared once again to carry out a series of punitive expeditions against the Alamanni in the Rhine region who were still hostile to the Roman presence. In preparation, the Caesar repopulated seven previously destroyed cities and set them up as supply bases and staging areas. This was done with the help of the people with whom Julian had negotiated a peace the year before. Julian then had a detachment of lightly armed soldiers cross the Rhine near Mogontiacum and conduct a guerilla strike against several chieftains. As a result of these campaigns, Julian was able to negotiate a peace with all but a handful of the Alamannic leaders, and he retired to winter quarters at Lutetia.

Of course, Julian did more than act as a general during his time as Caesar. According to Ammianus, Julian was an able administrator who took steps to correct the injustices of Constantius' appointees. Ammianus related the story of how Julian prevented Florentius, the Praetorian Prefect of Gaul, from raising taxes, and also how Julian actually took over as governor for the province of Belgica Secunda. Hilary, bishop of Poitiers, supported Ammianus' basic assessment of Julian in this regard when he reported that Julian was an able representative of the emperor to the Gallic provincials. There is also epigraphic evidence to support Julian's popularity amongst the provincial elites. An inscription found near Beneventum in Apulia reads:
"To Flavius Claudius Julianus, most noble and sanctified Caesar, from the caring Tocius Maximus, vir clarissimus, for the care of the res publica from Beneventum".

Tocius Maximus, as a vir clarissimus, was at the highest point in the social spectrum and was a leader in his local community. This inscription shows that Julian was successful in establishing a positive image amongst provincial elites while he was Caesar.

Julian Augustus

In early 360, Constantius, driven by jealousy of Julian's success, stripped Julian of many troops and officers, ostensibly because the emperor needed them for his upcoming campaign against the Persians. One of the legions ordered east, the Petulantes, did not want to leave Gaul because the majority of the soldiers in the unit were from this region. As a result they mutinied and hailed Julian as Augustus at Lutetia. Julian refused this acclamation as he had done at Argentoratum earlier, but the soldiers would have none of his denial. They raised him on a shield and adorned him with a neck chain, which had formerly been the possession of the standard-bearer of the Petulantes and symbolized a royal diadem. Julian appeared reluctantly to acquiesce to their wishes, and promised a generous donative. The exact date of his acclamation is unknown, but most scholars put it in February or March. Julian himself supported Ammianus' picture of a jealous Constantius. In his Letter to the Athenians, a document constructed to answer charges that he was a usurper, Julian stated that from the start he, as Caesar, had been meant as a figurehead to the soldiers and provincials. The real power he claimed lay with the generals and officials already present in Gaul. In fact, according to Julian, the generals were charged with watching him as much as the enemy. His account of the actual acclamation closely followed what Ammianus told us, but he stressed even more his reluctance to take power. Julian claimed that he did so only after praying to Zeus for guidance.

Fearing the reaction of Constantius, Julian sent a letter to his fellow emperor justifying the events at Lutetia and trying to arrange a peaceful solution. This letter berated Constantius for forcing the troops in Gaul into an untenable situation. Ammianus stated that Julian's letter blamed Constantius' decision to transfer Gallic legions east as the reason for the soldiers' rebellion. Julian once again asserted that he was an unwilling participant who was only following the desire of the soldiers. In both of these basic accounts Ammianus and Julian are playing upon the theme of restoration. Implicit in their version of Julian's acclamation is the argument that Constantius was unfit to rule. The soldiers were the vehicle of the gods' will. The Letter to the Athenians is full of references to the fact that Julian was assuming the mantle of Augustus at the instigation of the gods. Ammianus summed up this position nicely when he related the story of how, when Julian was agonizing over whether to accept the soldiers' acclamation, he had a dream in which he was visited by the Genius (guardian spirit) of the Roman state. The Genius told Julian that it had often tried to bestow high honors upon Julian but had been rebuffed. Now, the Genius went on to say, was Julian's final chance to take the power that was rightfully his. If the Caesar refused this chance, the Genius would depart forever, and both Julian and the state would rue Julian's rejection. Julian himself wrote a letter to his friend Maximus of Ephesus in November of 361 detailing his thoughts on his proclamation. In this letter, Julian stated that the soldiers proclaimed him Augustus against his will. Julian, however, defended his accession, saying that the gods willed it and that he had treated his enemies with clemency and justice. He went on to say that he led the troops in propitiating the traditional deities, because the gods commanded him to return to the traditional rites, and would reward him if he fulfilled this duty.

During 360 an uneasy peace simmered between the two emperors. Julian spent the 360 campaigning season continuing his efforts to restore order along the Rhine, while Constantius continued operations against the Persians. Julian wintered in Vienne, and celebrated his Quinquennalia. It was at this time that his wife Helena died, and he sent her remains to Rome for a proper burial at his family villa on the Via Nomentana where the body of her sister was entombed. The uneasy peace held through the summer of 361, but Julian concentrated his military operations around harassing the Alamannic chieftain Vadomarius and his allies, who had concluded a peace treaty with Constantius some years earlier. By the end of the summer, Julian decided to put an end to the waiting and gathered his army to march east against Constantius. The empire teetered on the brink of another civil war. Constantius had spent the summer negotiating with the Persians and making preparations for possible military action against his cousin. When he was assured that the Persians would not attack, he summoned his army and sallied forth to meet Julian. As the armies drew inexorably closer to one another, the empire was saved from another bloody civil war when Constantius died unexpectedly of natural causes on 3 November near the town of Mopsucrenae in Cilicia, naming Julian -- the sources say-- as his legitimate successor.

Julian was in Dacia when he learned of his cousin's death. He made his way through Thrace and came to Constantinople on 11 December 361 where Julian honored the emperor with the funeral rites appropriate for a man of his station. Julian immediately set about putting his supporters in positions of power and trimming the imperial bureaucracy, which had become extremely overstaffed during Constantius' reign. Cooks and barbers had increased during the late emperor's reign and Julian expelled them from his court. Ammianus gave a mixed assessment of how the new emperor handled the followers of Constantius. Traditionally, emperors were supposed to show clemency to the supporters of a defeated enemy. Julian, however, gave some men over to death to appease the army. Ammianus used the case of Ursulus, Constantius' comes sacrum largitionum, to illustrate his point. Ursulus had actually tried to acquire money for the Gallic troops when Julian had first been appointed Caesar, but he had also made a disparaging remark about the ineffectiveness of the army after the battle of Amida. The soldiers remembered this, and when Julian became sole Augustus, they demanded Ursulus' head. Julian obliged, much to the disapproval of Ammianus. This seems to be a case of Julian courting the favor of the military leadership, and is indicative of a pattern in which Julian courted the goodwill of various societal elites to legitimize his position as emperor.

Another case in point is the officials who made up the imperial bureaucracy. Many of them were subjected to trial and punishment. To achieve this goal, during the last weeks of December 361 Julian assembled a military tribunal at Chalcedon, empanelling six judges to try the cases. The president of the tribunal was Salutius, just promoted to the rank of Praetorian Prefect; the five other members were Mamertinus, the orator, and four general officers: Jovinus, Agilo, Nevitta, and Arbetio. Relative to the proceedings of the tribunal, Ammianus noted that the judges, " . . . oversaw the cases more vehemently than was right or fair, with the exception of a few . . .." Ammianus' account of Julian's attempt at reform of the imperial bureaucracy is supported by legal evidence from the Theodosian Code. A series of laws sent to Mamertinus, Julian's appointee as Praetorian Prefect in Italy, Illyricum, and Africa, illustrate this point nicely. On 6 June 362, Mamertinus received a law that prohibited provincial governors from bypassing the Vicars when giving their reports to the Prefect. Traditionally, Vicars were given civil authority over a group of provinces, and were in theory meant to serve as a middle step between governors and Prefects. This law suggests that the Vicars were being left out, at least in Illyricum. Julian issued another edict to Mamertinus on 22 February 362 to stop abuse of the public post by governors. According to this law, only Mamertinus could issue post warrants, but the Vicars were given twelve blank warrants to be used as they saw fit, and each governor was given two. Continuing the trend of bureaucratic reform, Julian also imposed penalties on governors who purposefully delayed appeals in court cases they had heard. The emperor also established a new official to weigh solidi used in official government transactions to combat coin clipping.

For Julian, reigning in the abuses of imperial bureaucrats was one step in restoring the prestige of the office of emperor. Because he could not affect all elements of society personally, Julian, like other Neo-Flavian emperors, decided to concentrate on select groups of societal elites as intercessors between himself and the general populace. One of these groups was the imperial bureaucracy. Julian made it very clear that imperial officials were intercessors in a very real sense in a letter to Alypius, Vicar of Britain. In this letter, sent from Gaul sometime before 361, the emperor praises Alypius for his use of "mildness and moderation with courage and force" in his rule of the provincials. Such virtues were characteristic of the emperors, and it was good that Alypius is representing Julian in this way. Julian courted the army because it put him in power. Another group he sought to include in his rule was the traditional Senatorial aristocracy. One of his first appointments as consul was Claudius Mamertinus, a Gallic Senator and rhetorician. Mamertinus' speech in praise of Julian delivered at Constantinople in January of 362 is preserved. In this speech, Claudius presented his consular selection as inaugurating a new golden age and Julian as the restorer of the empire founded by Augustus. The image Mamertinus gave of his own consulate inaugurating a new golden age is not merely formulaic. The comparison of Julian to Augustus has very real, if implicit, relevance to Claudius' situation. Claudius emphasized the imperial period as the true age of renewal. Augustus ushered in a new era with his formation of a partnership between the emperor and the Senate based upon a series of honors and offices bestowed upon the Senate in return for their role as intercessor between emperor and populace. It was this system that Julian was restoring, and the consulate was one concrete example of this bond. To be chosen as a consul by the emperor, who himself had been divinely mandated, was a divine honor. In addition to being named consul, Mamertinus went on to hold several offices under Julian, including the Prefecture of Italy, Illyricum, and Africa. Similarly, inscriptional evidence illustrates a link between municipal elites and Julian during his time as Caesar, something which continued after he became emperor. One concrete example comes from the municipal senate of Aceruntia in Apulia, which established a monument on which Julian is styled as "Repairer of the World."

Julian seems to have given up actual Christian belief before his acclamation as emperor and was a practitioner of more traditional Greco-Roman religious beliefs, in particular, a follower of certain late antique Platonist philosophers who were especially adept at theurgy as was noted earlier. In fact Julian himself spoke of his conversion to Neo-Platonism in a letter to the Alexandrians written in 363. He stated that he had abandoned Christianity when he was twenty years old and been an adherent of the traditional Greco-Roman deities for the twelve years prior to writing this letter.

(For the complete text of this article see: http://www.roman-emperors.org/julian.htm)

Julian’s Persian Campaign

The exact goals Julian had for his ill-fated Persian campaign were never clear. The Sassanid Persians, and before them the Parthians, had been a traditional enemy from the time of the Late Republic, and indeed Constantius had been conducting a war against them before Julian's accession forced the former to forge an uneasy peace. Julian, however, had no concrete reason to reopen hostilities in the east. Socrates Scholasticus attributed Julian's motives to imitation of Alexander the Great, but perhaps the real reason lay in his need to gather the support of the army. Despite his acclamation by the Gallic legions, relations between Julian and the top military officers was uneasy at best. A war against the Persians would have brought prestige and power both to Julian and the army.

Julian set out on his fateful campaign on 5 March 363. Using his trademark strategy of striking quickly and where least expected, he moved his army through Heirapolis and from there speedily across the Euphrates and into the province of Mesopotamia, where he stopped at the town of Batnae. His plan was to eventually return through Armenia and winter in Tarsus. Once in Mesopotamia, Julian was faced with the decision of whether to travel south through the province of Babylonia or cross the Tigris into Assyria, and he eventually decided to move south through Babylonia and turn west into Assyria at a later date. By 27 March, he had the bulk of his army across the Euphrates, and had also arranged a flotilla to guard his supply line along the mighty river. He then left his generals Procopius and Sebastianus to help Arsacius, the king of Armenia and a Roman client, to guard the northern Tigris line. It was also during this time that he received the surrender of many prominent local leaders who had nominally supported the Persians. These men supplied Julian with money and troops for further military action against their former masters. Julian decided to turn south into Babylonia and proceeded along the Euphrates, coming to the fortress of Cercusium at the junction of the Abora and Euphrates Rivers around the first of April, and from there he took his army west to a region called Zaitha near the abandoned town of Dura where they visited the tomb of the emperor Gordian which was in the area. On April 7 he set out from there into the heart of Babylonia and towards Assyria.

Ammianus then stated that Julian and his army crossed into Assyria, which on the face of things appears very confusing. Julian still seems to be operating within the province of Babylonia between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. The confusion is alleviated when one realizes that,for Ammianus, the region of Assyria encompassed the provinces of Babylonia and Assyria. On their march, Julian's forces took the fortress of Anatha, received the surrender and support of several more local princes, and ravaged the countryside of Assyria between the rivers. As the army continued south, they came across the fortresses Thilutha and Achaiachala, but these places were too well defended and Julian decided to leave them alone. Further south were the cities Diacira and Ozogardana, which the Roman forces sacked and burned. Soon, Julian came to Pirisabora and a brief siege ensued, but the city fell and was also looted and destroyed. It was also at this time that the Roman army met its first systematic resistance from the Persians. As the Romans penetrated further south and west, the local inhabitants began to flood their route. Nevertheless, the Roman forces pressed on and came to Maiozamalcha, a sizable city not far from Ctesiphon. After a short siege, this city too fell to Julian. Inexorably, Julian's forces zeroed in on Ctesiphon, but as they drew closer, the Persian resistance grew fiercer, with guerilla raids whittling at Julian's men and supplies. A sizable force of the army was lost and the emperor himself was almost killed taking a fort a few miles from the target city.
Finally, the army approached Ctesiphon following a canal that linked the Tigris and Euphrates. It soon became apparent after a few preliminary skirmishes that a protracted siege would be necessary to take this important city. Many of his generals, however, thought that pursuing this course of action would be foolish. Julian reluctantly agreed, but became enraged by this failure and ordered his fleet to be burned as he decided to march through the province of Assyria. Julian had planned for his army to live off the land, but the Persians employed a scorched-earth policy. When it became apparent that his army would perish (because his supplies were beginning to dwindle) from starvation and the heat if he continued his campaign, and also in the face of superior numbers of the enemy, Julian ordered a retreat on 16 June. As the Roman army retreated, they were constantly harassed by guerilla strikes. It was during one of these raids that Julian got caught up in the fighting and took a spear to his abdomen. Mortally wounded he was carried to his tent, where, after conferring with some of his officers, he died. The date was 26 June 363.

Conclusion

Thus an ignominious end for a man came about who had hoped to restore the glory of the Roman empire during his reign as emperor. Due to his intense hatred of Christianity, the opinion of posterity has not been kind to Julian. The contemporary opinion, however, was overall positive. The evidence shows that Julian was a complex ruler with a definite agenda to use traditional social institutions in order to revive what he saw as a collapsing empire. In the final assessment, he was not so different from any of the other emperors of the fourth century. He was a man grasping desperately to hang on to a Greco-Roman conception of leadership that was undergoing a subtle yet profound change.
Copyright (C) 2002, Walter E. Roberts and Michael DiMaio, Jr. Used by permission.

In reality, Julian worked to promote culture and philosophy in any manifestation. He tried to reduce taxes and the public debts of municipalities; he augmented administrative decentralisation; he promoted a campaign of austerity to reduce public expenditure (setting himself as the example). He reformed the postal service and eliminated the powerful secret police.
by Federico Morando; JULIAN II, The Apostate, http://www.forumancientcoins.com/NumisWiki/view.asp?key=Julian%20II

Flavius Claudius Iulianus was born in 331 or maybe 332 A.D. in Constantinople. He ruled the Western Empire as Caesar from 355 to 360 and was hailed Augustus by his legions in Lutetia (Paris) in 360. Julian was a gifted administrator and military strategist. Famed as the last pagan emperor, his reinstatement of the pagan religion earned him the moniker "the Apostate." As evidenced by his brilliant writing, some of which has survived to the present day, the title "the Philosopher" may have been more appropriate. He died from wounds suffered during the Persian campaign of 363 A.D. Joseph Sermarini, FORVM.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.




2 commentsCleisthenes
Henry_V_AR_Penny_of_York.JPG
1413 - 1422, Henry V, AR Penny struck at York, England2 viewsObverse: + HENRICVS REX ANGLIE. Crowned facing bust of Henry V, mullet (left) and trefoil (right) at each side of crown, all within circle of pellets. Pierced cross in legend.
Reverse: CIVITAS ‡ EBORACI. Long cross pattée dividing legend around inner circle of pellets into quarters, trefoil in each quarter of circle, incuse quatrefoil in centre of cross.
York, Class F (Local dies)
Diameter: 18mm | Weight: 0.8gms | Die Axis: 10
SPINK: 1788

Henry V was King of England from 1413 until his sudden death on 31st August 1422. He is thought to have died from dysentery contracted during the siege of Meaux in France. He was 36 years old and had reigned for nine years. He was the second English monarch of the House of Lancaster.
During the reign of his father, King Henry IV, Henry had acquired an increasing share in England's government due to his father's declining health. After his father's death in 1413, Henry assumed control of the country and asserted the pending English claim to the French throne.
In 1415, Henry embarked on war with France in the ongoing Hundred Years' War between the two countries. Despite his relatively short reign, Henry's outstanding military successes, most notably in his famous victory at the Battle of Agincourt in 1415, made England one of the strongest military powers in Europe.
*Alex
1421_Henry_V_AR_Double-Turnois.JPG
1413 - 1422, Henry V, Billon Niquet (Double Tournois) struck in 1421 at Rouen, France25 viewsObverse: + H REX ANGL HERES FRANC. Crowned lion passant facing left, fleur-de-lis above. Pellet mintmark below first letter of legend = Rouen mint.
Reverse: + SIT NOME DNI BENEDICTV. Cross pattée with lis in angles and lombardic 'h' in centre.
Diameter: 24mm | Weight: 1.9gms | Die Axis: 9
SPINK: 8162 | Duplessy: 441

This Anglo-Gallic coin, colloquially called a “leopard” after its obverse design, bears the titles of Henry V as king of England and heir to the French kingdom.

Henry V was King of England from 1413 until his sudden death on 31st August 1422. He is thought to have died from dysentery contracted during the siege of Meaux in France. He was 36 years old and had reigned for nine years. He was the second English monarch of the House of Lancaster.
During the reign of his father, King Henry IV, Henry had acquired an increasing share in England's government due to his father's declining health. After his father's death in 1413, Henry assumed control of the country and asserted the pending English claim to the French throne.
In 1415, Henry embarked on war with France in the ongoing Hundred Years' War between the two countries. Despite his relatively short reign, Henry's outstanding military successes, most notably in his famous victory at the Battle of Agincourt in 1415, made England one of the strongest military powers in Europe.
In 1420, after months of negotiation with Charles VI of France, the Treaty of Troyes was signed recognising Henry V as regent and heir apparent to the French throne. To seal the pact Henry married Charles' daughter, Catherine of Valois. Henry's sudden death however, prevented the prospect of the English King taking the French throne from ever taking place.
Immortalised in the plays of Shakespeare, Henry V is known and celebrated as one of the great warrior kings of medieval England.
2 comments*Alex
Henry_VI_AR_Halfpenny.JPG
1422 - 1461, HENRY VI (First Reign), AR Halfpenny, Struck 1430 - 1434 at Calais, France29 viewsObverse: HENRICVS (pinecone) REX (mascle) ANGL. Crowned facing bust of Henry VI within circle of pellets. Mintmark: Cross patonce in legend.
Reverse: VIL(mascle)LA CALISIE (pinecone). Long cross pattée dividing legend around inner circle of pellets into quarters, trefoil in each quarter of circle.
Diameter: 15mm | Weight: 0.45gms
SPINK: 1885

This issue of coins is known as the pinecone-mascle issue because these symbols are incorporated in the obverse and reverse legends. This issue was struck between 1430 and 1434 at the mints of London and Calais.

Henry VI was King of England from 1422 to 1461 and again from 1470 to 1471. The only child of Henry V, he succeeded to the English throne at the age of nine months when his father died.
This was during the period of the long-running Hundred Years' War (1337–1453) and Henry is the only English monarch to also have been crowned King of France (as Henri II), in 1431. During his early reign several people were ruling for him and by the time Henry was declared fit to rule in 1437 he found his realm in a difficult position, faced with setbacks in France and divisions among the nobility at home. Henry is described as timid, shy, passive, well-intentioned, and averse to warfare and violence; he was also at times mentally unstable. Partially in the hope of achieving peace, Henry married the ambitious and strong-willed Margaret of Anjou in 1445. The peace policy failed and the war recommenced with France taking the upper hand such that by 1453 Calais was Henry's only remaining territory on the continent.
With Henry effectively unfit to rule, Queen Margaret took advantage of the situation to make herself an effective power behind the throne. Starting around 1453 Henry began suffering a series of mental breakdowns and tensions mounted between Margaret and Richard of York, not only over control of the incapacitated king's government, but over the question of succession to the throne. Civil war broke out in 1459, leading to a long period of dynastic conflict, now known as the Wars of the Roses. Henry was deposed on 29th March 1461 after a crushing defeat at the Battle of Towton by Richard of York's son, who took the throne as Edward IV. Margaret continuing to resist Edward, but Henry was captured by Edward's forces in 1465 and imprisoned in the Tower of London.
Queen Margaret, who was first exiled in Scotland and then in France, was still determined to win back the throne on behalf of her husband and son. So, when Edward IV fell out with two of his main supporters, Richard Neville the Earl of Warwick and George the Duke of Clarence, Margaret formed a secret alliance with them backed by Louis XI of France. Warwick returned with an army to England, forced Edward IV into exile, and restored Henry VI to the throne on 30th October 1470, though Henry's position was nominal as Warwick and Clarence effectively ruled in his name.
But Henry's return to the throne lasted less than six months. Warwick overreached himself by declaring war on Burgundy, whose ruler responded by giving Edward IV the assistance he needed to win back his throne by force. Edward retook power in 1471, killing Warwick at the Battle of Barnet and Henry's only son at the Battle of Tewkesbury. Henry was again imprisoned in the Tower where, during the night of 21st May he died, possibly killed on Edward's orders.
2 comments*Alex
JohnVIIISear2564.jpg
1423-1448 AD - John VIII Palaeologus - Stavraton - Constantinople mint13 viewsEmperor: John VIII Palaeologus (r. 1423-1448 AD)
Date: 1423-1448 AD
Condition: aVF
Denomination: Stavraton

Obverse: -
Facing bust of Christ Pantokrator.

Reverse: / or variants in two lines around crowned facing bust of John with pellets flanking.

Constantinople mint
DO 1706; Sear 2564; Bendall 348.20, sigla 18
6.59g; 23.8mm; 225°

Ex CNG
Pep
James_III_AE_Crux_Pellit_Threepenny_Penny.JPG
1460 – 1488, JAMES III, AE Threepenny Penny struck c.1470–1480 at an unidentified mint, Scotland7 viewsObverse: + IACOBVS ‡ DEI ‡ GRA ‡ REX ‡ . Orb with rosette at centre, tilted upwards, within pelleted circle. Cross hummetty in legend.
Reverse: + CRVX ‡ PELLIT ‡ OIE ‡ CRI (Crux pellit omne crimen = The cross drives away all sin). Latin cross within quatrefoil with trefoils on cusps, within pelleted circle. Cross hummetty in legend.
Diameter: 20mm | Weight: 1.9gms | Die Axis: 9
SPINK: 5311 Type III
Very Rare

Once regarded as Ecclesiastical and connected to Bishop James Kennedy of St Andrews by earlier scholars, these coins are now, after extensive research in the second half of the twentieth century by J E L Murray of the British Numismatic Society, believed to have been a regal issue whose place of mintage has not as yet been certainly identified. During his reign James III took an interest in the coinage and introduced several new denominations. The thistle-head made its first appearance as a Scottish emblem on coins during his reign and a further innovation of his coinage were coins bearing a likeness of the king himself in the new renaissance style which predated similarly styled English coins by several years.
The 'Crux pellit' coins are often known as ‘Crossraguel’ issues, so called after a hoard containing 51 of them was found in a drain at Crossraguel Abbey, Ayrshire in 1919. J E L Murray identified these coins with those referred to in contemporary documents as “three-penny pennies” or “Cochrane's Placks”, which appear to have been greatly devalued in 1482. Cochrane's Placks comes from Robert Cochrane, one of James III's main favourites. Cochrane played a major part in the government during the 1470's and he is said to have advised the king to debase the coinage in order to raise cash.

James III was crowned at Kelso Abbey in 1460 at the age of 9, he was the son of James II and Mary of Guelders. During his childhood, the government was led by successive factions until 1469 when he began to rule for himself. That same year he married Princess Margaret of Denmark. Margaret's father, King Christian I of Denmark and Norway was unable to raise the full amount of her dowry so pledged his lands and rights in Orkney and Shetland as security for the remainder. But Christian I was never able to redeem his pledge, and Orkney and Shetland have remained Scottish possessions ever since.
Soon after his marriage, James faced great difficulties in restoring a strong central government. His preference for the company of scholars, architects and artists coupled with his extravagance and partiality to favourites alienated him from the loyalty of his nobles. Even his own brothers, Alexander, Duke of Albany and John, Earl of Mar regarded him with jealousy verging on hatred. In 1479, James' brothers were arrested on suspicion of conspiring against the Crown. John Stewart, the Earl of Mar, died in suspicious circumstances, whilst Alexander Stewart, the Duke of Albany, escaped and fled to England.
The ever-present English threat had been temporarily solved by a truce with Edward IV in 1463 but James' estrangement from his brothers and a strong faction within the Scottish nobility led to the final loss of Berwick.
Although James had tried to settle his differences with Alexander, Duke of Albany, his brother again tried to take his throne in a coup after Edward IV recognised him as Alexander IV of Scotland in 1482. Some minor members of James III's household were hanged, including Robert Cochrane, the king's favourite. But James was removed to Edinburgh Castle where he survived and Alexander was exiled to France.
After his queen's death in 1486, James lived in increasing isolation amidst the growing resentment of the nobility. Finally, in 1488, the Scottish nobles seized James' eldest son, also called James, placed him at their head, and rose against the king. At the Battle of Sauchieburn, three miles from Stirling, James III, defeated, was thrown from his horse as he fled from the field. He was carried into a nearby cottage where he was set upon and stabbed to death.
James III was buried at Cambuskenneth Abbey near Stirling and his son, the figurehead of the revolt against him, was hailed as James IV.
1 comments*Alex
Edward_IV_AR_Groat_London.JPG
1471 - 1483, EDWARD IV (Second Reign), AR Groat, Struck 1477 - 1480 at London, England24 viewsObverse: EDWARD DEI GRA REX ANGL (Z FRANC +). Crowned bust of Edward IV facing within tressure of arches, trefoils on cusps, all within beaded circle. Small crosses in spaces between words in legend. Mintmark, off-flan, pierced cross.
Reverse: POSVI DEVM ADIVTORE MEVM +/ CIVITAS LONDON. Long cross dividing two concentric legends separated by two beaded circles into quarters, trefoil in each quarter of inner circle. Mintmark, pierced cross, small crosses between words in outer legend.
Diameter: 25mm | Weight: 2.7gms | Die Axis: 11
SPINK: 2096 var. (DEI rather than DI in obverse legend)

Edward IV was King of England from March 1461 to October 1470, and again from April 1471 until his sudden death in 1483. He was the first Yorkist King of England. The first half of his rule was marred by the violence associated with the Wars of the Roses, but he overcame the Lancastrian challenge to the throne at Tewkesbury in 1471 and there were no further rebellions in England during the rest of his reign.
In 1475, Edward declared war on France, landing at Calais in June. However, his ally Charles the Bold, Duke of Burgundy, failed to provide any significant military assistance leading Edward to undertake negotiations with the French, with whom he came to terms under the Treaty of Picquigny. France provided him with an immediate payment of 75,000 crowns and a yearly pension of 50,000 crowns, thus allowing him to "recoup his finances.” Edward also backed an attempt by Alexander Stewart, 1st Duke of Albany and brother of King James III of Scotland, to take the Scottish throne in 1482. Edward's younger brother, the Duke of Gloucester (and future King Richard III) led an invasion of Scotland that resulted in the capture of Edinburgh and the Scottish king himself. Alexander Stewart, however, reneged on his agreement with Edward. The Duke of Gloucester then withdrew from his position in Edinburgh, though he did retain Berwick-upon-Tweed.
Edward became subject to an increasing number of ailments when his health began to fail and he fell fatally ill at Easter in 1483. He survived long enough though to add some codicils to his will, the most important being to name his brother Richard, Duke of Gloucester as Protector after his death. He died on 9th April 1483 and was buried in St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle. He was succeeded first by his twelve-year-old son Edward V of England, who was never crowned, and then by his brother who reigned as Richard III.
It is not known what actually caused Edward's death. Pneumonia, typhoid and poison have all been conjectured, but some have attributed his death to an unhealthy lifestyle because he had become stout and inactive in the years before his death.
2 comments*Alex
1485_-_1509_Henry_VII_AR_Penny.JPG
1485 - 1509, HENRY VII, AR Penny, Struck 1485 - 1500 under Archbishop Rotherham at York, England24 viewsObverse: HENRIC DI GRA REX AN. Crowned and robed figure of Henry VII holding a lis topped sceptre in his right hand and a globus cruciger in his left, seated facing on throne, the one visible pillar of which is topped with a lis, all except the king's crown within a circle of pellets.
Reverse: CIVITAS EBORACI. Shield bearing coat-of-arms of England and France on cross fourchée, two keys below shield.
Diameter: 17mm | Weight: 0.6gms | Die Axis: 3
SPINK: 2237

Thomas Rotherham, also known as Thomas (Scot) de Rotherham, was an English cleric and statesman. He served as bishop of several dioceses, most notably as Archbishop of York and, on two occasions as Lord Chancellor. Rotherham was educated at King's College, Cambridge, he graduated as a Bachelor of Divinity and became a Fellow of his college where he lectured on Grammar, Theology, and Philosophy. After his ordination as a priest, he became a prebendary of Lincoln in 1462 and then of Salisbury in 1465. He moved on to powerful positions in the Church, being appointed as Bishop of Rochester in 1468, Bishop of Lincoln in 1472, and then Archbishop of York in 1480, a position he held until his death in 1500.
In 1467, King Edward IV appointed Rotherham as Keeper of the Privy Seal. He was sent as ambassador to France in 1468 and as joint ambassador to Burgundy in 1471, and in 1475 was entrusted with the office of Lord Chancellor. When Edward IV died in April 1483, Rotherham was one of the celebrants of the funeral mass on 20th April 1483 and immediately after Edward's death he sided with the dowager queen, Elizabeth Woodville, in her attempt to deprive Richard, Duke of Gloucester of his role as Lord Protector of her son, the new King Edward V. When Elizabeth sought sanctuary after Richard had taken charge of the king, Rotherham released the Great Seal to her (though he later recovered it and handed it over to Thomas Bourchier, the Archbishop of Canterbury).
Rotherham's mishandling of the seal was perceived as indicative of questionable loyalty and led to his dismissal as Lord Chancellor. He was replaced by John Russell, who earlier had also been his successor as Bishop of Lincoln. On 13th June 1483, Rotherham was charged with being involved in a conspiracy between Lord Hastings and the Woodvilles against Richard and imprisoned in the Tower of London, but he was released a few weeks later, around the middle of July, after Richard's coronation as King Richard III. Rotherham was re-instated as Chancellor in 1485, however he was dismissed shortly afterwards by Henry VII and retired from public work.
Rotherham died of the plague in Cawood near York on 29th May 1500. His remains were transferred to a magnificent marble tomb in York Minster in 1506.
2 comments*Alex
1488-1513_JAMES_IV_PLACK.JPG
1488 - 1513, James IV, Billon Plack (Groat), Struck 1488 - 1513 at Edinburgh, Scotland24 viewsObverse: + IACOBVS ★ 4 : DEI ★ GRACIA ★ REX ★ SCOTTO. Crowned shield bearing lion rampant within a tressure of four arcs, crown on each side of the shield and fleur-de-lis in all the spandrels. Star stops and old English lettering in legend.
Reverse: + VILLA ★ DE EDINBVRG. Floriate cross fourchée with a saltire in the centre. Crown in each quarter of the cross. Star stops and old English lettering in legend.
Type IV issue. Scarce
Diameter: 25mm | Weight: 2.4gm | Die Axis: 3
SPINK: 5352

James IV was the King of Scotland from June 1488 until his death in battle at the age of 40 on the 9th September, 1513.
James IV's mother, Margaret of Denmark, was more popular than his father, James III, and though somewhat estranged from her husband she raised their sons at Stirling Castle until she died in 1486. Two years later, a rebellion broke out, where the rebels set up the 15-year-old Prince James as their nominal leader. The rebels fought James III at the Battle of Sauchieburn where, on 11th June 1488, the king was killed. Prince James assumed the throne as James IV and was crowned at Scone on 24th of June. However he continued to bear an intense guilt for the indirect role which he had played in the death of his father.
James maintained Scotland's traditional good relations with France, and this occasionally created diplomatic problems with England, but James recognised nonetheless that peace between Scotland and England was in the interest of both countries, and established good diplomatic relations with England as well. First he ratified the Treaty of Ayton in 1497, then, in 1502 James signed the Treaty of Perpetual Peace with Henry VII which was sealed by his marriage to Henry's daughter Margaret Tudor the next year. Anglo-Scottish relations generally remained stable until the death of Henry VII in 1509.
James saw the importance of building a fleet that could provide Scotland with a strong maritime presence, he founded two new dockyards and acquired a total of 38 ships for the Royal Scots Navy. These including the “Great Michael” which, built at great expense, was launched in 1511 and was at that time the largest ship in the world.
When war broke out between England and France, James found himself in a difficult position as an ally by treaty to both countries. But relations with England had worsened since the accession of Henry VIII, and when Henry invaded France, James reacted by declaring war on England.
James sent the Scottish navy, including the “Great Michael”, to join the ships of Louis XII of France and, hoping to take advantage of Henry's absence at the siege of Thérouanne, he himself led an invading army southward into Northumberland. However, on 9th September 1513 at the disastrous Battle of Flodden James IV was killed, he was the last monarch in Great Britain to be killed in battle. His death, along with many of his nobles including his son the archbishop of St Andrews, was one of the worst military defeats in Scotland's history and the loss of such a large portion of the political community was a major blow to the realm. James IV's corpse was identified after the battle and taken to Berwick, where it was embalmed and placed in a lead coffin before being transported to London. Catherine of Aragon, wife of Henry VIII, sent the dead king's slashed, blood-stained surcoat to Henry, who was fighting in France, with the recommendation that he use it as a war banner.
James IV's son, James V, was crowned three weeks after the disaster at Flodden, but he was not yet two years old, and his minority was to be fraught with political upheaval.
2 comments*Alex
1526_-_1530_Henry_VIII_AR_Halfgroat.JPG
1509 - 1547, HENRY VIII, AR Half-groat, Struck 1515 - 1530 at York, England under Archbishop Thomas (Cardinal) Wolsey3 viewsObverse: HENRIC•VIII•D•G•R•AGL•Z•F•. Youthful profile crowned bust of Henry VIII facing right within circle of pellets. Mint-mark: Voided cross.
Reverse: CIVITAS EBORACI. Shield bearing coat-of-arms on cross fourchée; T - W in upper field divided by shield; galero (cardinal's hat) below.
Diameter: 19mm | Weight: 1.0gm | Die Axis: 8
Virtually uncirculated but with a dark, almost black, tone
SPINK: 2346

The T W on the reverse of this coin refers to Thomas Wolsey, known to posterity as Cardinal Wolsey, one of the most powerful figures at the court of Henry VIII. Although this coin is undated, the issue of Henry VIII's second coinage only began in 1526 and so, since Cardinal Wolsey died in 1530, it must have been struck between those two dates.

Cardinal Wolsey
When Henry VIII became King of England in 1509 he appointed Thomas Wolsey to the post of Almoner, a position that gave him a seat on the Privy Council and an opportunity for establishing a personal rapport with the King to such an extent that by 1514 Wolsey had become the controlling figure in virtually all matters of state. In 1515, he was awarded the title Archbishop of York and this, followed by his appointment that same year as Cardinal by Pope Leo X, gave him precedence over all other English clerics. His ecclesiastical power advanced even further in 1523 when the Bishop of Durham, a post with wide political powers, was added to his titles.
After Wolsey attained the position of Lord Chancellor, the King's chief adviser, he had achieved more power than any other Crown servant in English history and during his fourteen years of chancellorship Wolsey, who was often alluded to as an alter rex (other king), used his power to neutralise the influence of anyone who might threaten his position..
In spite of having made many enemies, Cardinal Wolsey retained Henry VIII's confidence until, in 1527, the King decided to seek an annulment of his marriage to Catherine of Aragon so that he could marry Anne Boleyn. Henry asked Wolsey to negotiate the annulment with the Pope and in 1528 the Pope decided to allow two papal legates, Wolsey himself and Cardinal Campeggio, to decide the outcome in England. Wolsey was confident of the outcome, but Campeggio took a long time to arrive, and then he delayed proceedings so much, that the case had to be suspended and the Pope decided that the official decision should therefore be made in Rome and not in England.
After his failure to negotiate the annulment, Wolsey fell out of favour with Henry and in 1529 he was stripped of his government office and property, including the magnificent Palace of Hampton Court, which Henry took as his own main London residence.
Wolsey was however permitted to retain the title of Archbishop of York and so he travelled to Yorkshire, for the first time in his career, to carry out those duties.
Now that he was no longer protected by Henry, Wolsey's enemies, including it is rumoured, Ann Boleyn, conspired against him and Henry had him arrested and recalled to London to answer to charges of treason. But Wolsey, now in great distress, fell ill on the journey back to the capital and at Leicester, on 29 November 1530, aged about 57, he died from natural causes before he could be beheaded.
*Alex
ANTPIUS_BRIT_BRIT_MNT.JPG
154 - 155 A.D. ANTONINUS PIUS AE AS (Britannia mint)17 viewsObverse: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P XVIII, laureate and draped bust of Antoninus Pius facing right.
Reverse: BRITANNIA COS IIII, Britannia seated facing left on rock, shield and vexillum in background; in exergue, S C.
Diameter: 26mm | Weight: 9.4gms | Die Axis: 7h
RIC III: 934 | RCV: 4296 | Cohen: 117
SCARCE

The bronze coins of Antoninus Pius bearing the "Britannia" reverse type have been found in considerable quantities in Britain, but are not generally recorded from Roman sites in France and Germany. The old theory that the "Britannia" issues of Antoninus Pius were minted in Britain is therefore not improbable, the many "Britannia" issues of Antoninus Pius found in Coventina's Well, Carrawburgh, seem to have come from only a few dies suggesting that the place of mintage for them was not far distant. It is possible though that the issue was struck at Rome and produced locally in Britannia as well.
The reverse type of Britannia seated on a rock, eventually adorned Great Britain's coinage many centuries later when the design was reintroduced by Charles II in 1672.

Dedications to Coventina and votive deposits were found in a walled area, now called “Coventina's Well”, which had been built to contain the outflow from a spring near the site of a Roman fort and settlement, on Hadrian's Wall. Now called Carrawburgh, the site is named as Procolita in the 5th century “Notitia Dignitatum”. The remains of a Roman Mithraeum and Nymphaeum were also found near the site.
*Alex
ANTPIUS_BRIT_ROM_MNT.JPG
154 - 155, ANTONINUS PIUS, AE AS23 viewsObverse: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P XVIII, laureate and draped bust of Antoninus Pius facing right.
Reverse: BRITANNIA COS IIII, Britannia seated facing left on rock, shield and vexillum in background; in exergue, S C.
Diameter: 26mm | Weight: 12.7gms | Die Axis: 6h
RIC III: 934 | RCV: 4296 | Cohen: 117 | BMC: 1971
SCARCE

The bronze coins of Antoninus Pius bearing the "Britannia" reverse type have been found in considerable quantities in Britain, but are not generally recorded from Roman sites in France and Germany. The old theory that the "Britannia" issues of Antoninus Pius were minted in Britain is therefore not improbable, though it is possible that the issue was both issued at Rome and produced locally in Britannia. The many "Britannia" issues of Antoninus Pius found in Coventina's Well, Carrawburgh, seem to have come from only a few dies, suggesting that the place of mintage for them was not far distant.
The reverse type of Britannia seated on a rock, eventually adorned Great Britain's coinage many centuries later when the design was reintroduced by Charles II in 1672.

Dedications to Coventina and votive deposits were found in a walled area, now called “Coventina's Well”, which had been built to contain the outflow from a spring near the site of a Roman fort and settlement, on Hadrian's Wall. Now called Carrawburgh, the site is named as Procolita in the 5th century “Notitia Dignitatum”. The remains of a Roman Mithraeum and Nymphaeum were also found near the site.
1 comments*Alex
1542_-1548_MARY_Queen_of_Scots_AR_Bawbee.JPG
1542 - 1567, Mary I “Queen of Scots”, AR billon Bawbee (sixpence), Struck 1542 - 1558 at Edinburgh, Scotland20 viewsObverse: +MARIA•D•G•R•SCOTORVM. Crowned thistle, M to left, R to right, beaded circles and legend surrounding. Greek cross in legend.
Reverse: OPPIDVM•EDINBVRGI, retrograde N in legend. Crown over voided saltire cross, cinquefoil on either side, beaded circles and legend surrounding, fleur-de-lis within legend above.
Diameter: 22mm | Weight: 1.8gms | Die Axis: 10
SPINK: 5433

First period issue, before Mary's marriage to the French Dauphin, Francis. The cinquefoils refer to the Earl of Arran who acted as Regent until Mary came of age.

Mary I is one of the most well known, romantic and tragic figures in Scottish history. She was the only surviving child of King James V of Scotland and became queen on the death of her father when she was only six or seven days old. Mary was brought up in the Catholic faith and educated in France along with the French royal children, while Scotland was ruled in her name by regents, principally the Earl of Arran. In 1558 Mary married the French Dauphin, Francis, and following his accession in 1559 she became Queen consort of France and he King consort of Scotland. However, when Francis died in 1560 Mary was devastated and in 1561 she returned to Scotland. Four years later, in 1565, she married her half-cousin, Lord Darnley and the following year she bore him a son, who would later become James I of England. When in 1567, Darnley's house in Edinburgh was destroyed by an explosion and he was found murdered in the grounds, suspicion implicated Mary and her favourite, the Earl of Bothwell. When later that same year Mary married Bothwell those suspicions were not allayed, and following an uprising against her, she was imprisoned in Loch Leven Castle and forced to abdicate in favour of her one year old son. After an unsuccessful attempt to regain her throne and defeat at the battle of Langside in 1568, Mary fled south to England, only to be imprisoned by Elizabeth I who perceived her as a threat to the throne of England. For over eighteen years Elizabeth had Mary confined in various castles and manor houses throughout England until, in 1587, after being accused of numerous intrigues and plots against Elizabeth, Mary was beheaded at Fotheringhay Castle.
3 comments*Alex
Edward_VI_AR_Shilling.JPG
1547 - 1553, EDWARD VI, AR Shilling, Struck 1551 - 1553 at London, England44 viewsObverse: EDWARD:VI:D:G:AGL:FRA:Z:HIB(:R)EX•Y: Crowned facing bust of Edward VI head turned slightly to left. Tudor rose to left of bust and XII to right; mintmark Y, in legend after REX above.
Reverse: POSV(I) DEV:ADIVTORE:MEVM:Y. Square topped shield, bearing the arms of England and France, quartered by long cross fourchee; mintmark Y, in legend after MEVM.
Diameter: 33mm | Weight: 5.8gms | Die Axis: 2 | Holed
SPINK: 2482

In 1551 Edward VI issued a new fine silver coinage, his previous silver issues having been very debased. The sixpence denomination was first introduced at this time. It was similar to the new shilling above in having a facing portrait of the king with a tudor rose to the left, but the denomination value to the right of the King's portrait was VI on the sixpence instead of the XII seen on the shilling.
3 comments*Alex
Mary_Tudor___as_found.JPG
1553 - 1558, Mary I Tudor, AR Groat, Struck 1553 - 1554 at London, England3 viewsObverse: MARIA D G ANG FRA Z HIB REGI. Crowned bust of Mary I, wearing pearl necklace with pendant, facing left. Mintmark in legend after MARIA, pomegranate.
Reverse: VERITAS TEMPORIS FILIA. Long cross fourchée over quartered royal arms. Mintmark in legend after VERITAS, pomegranate.
Diameter: 25mm | Weight: 1.7gms | Die Axis: 10
SPINK: 2492

Although this coin is undated, Mary married Philip of Spain on the 25th of July, 1554 and thereafter his name appears along with Mary's in the inscriptions on the coinage. Mary only came to the throne on 1st October 1553 and, since Philip's name is absent on this coin, it would appear that it was struck during the ten months of her reign prior to her marriage.

*Alex
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1558 - 1603, ELIZABETH I, AR Sixpence struck in 1594 at London, England17 viewsObverse: ELIZAB•D•G•ANG•FR•ET•HIB•REGI• Crowned bust of Elizabeth I of England facing left. Tudor rose behind bust and mintmark (woolpack) in legend above.
Reverse: POSVI DEV:ADIVTOREM:MEV: Square topped shield, bearing the arms of England and France, quartered by long cross fourchee; 1594 above; mintmark (woolpack) in legend above.
Diameter: 26mm | Weight: 2.5gms | Die Axis: 2
SPINK: 2578A

The sixpence was first introduced during the reign of Edward VI in 1551, it had a facing portrait of the king with a rose to the left and the denomination VI to the right.
1 comments*Alex
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1567 - 1625, JAMES VI (James I of England), Billon Hardhead (Twopence) struck in 1588 at Edinburgh, Scotland2 viewsObverse: •IACOB•6•D•G•R•SCOTO•. Crown above IR within inner circle of pellets. Quatrefoil mintmark in legend.
Reverse: •VINCIT•VERITAS• Crowned lion rampant facing left, two pellets (mark of value = twopence) behind, all within inner circle of pellets. Quatrefoil mintmark in legend.
Second issue, November 1588.
Diameter: 21mm | Weight: 1.2gms | Die Axis: 3
SPINK: 5518

James VI issued billon and copper coins in much smaller quantities than that of previous monarchs, none at all being struck during the first sixteen years of his reign. After his accession to the English throne, James established a currency of similar weight and fineness in both countries although a 12:1 ratio between the Scottish and English denominations was still maintained.

James VI acceded to the throne of Scotland when only 1 year old on his mother’s abdication in 1567. A council of regency was established and his good education was largely due to George Buchanan. He married Anne of Denmark in 1589. The death of Elizabeth I left James as her nearest heir and he inherited the throne of England in 1603 and ruled both England and Scotland until his death in 1625. Following the gunpowder plot of 1605 James ordered severe sanctions against Roman Catholic priests and it was during his reign that the King James, or ‘authorised’ version of the Bible, still used today, was first published.

*Alex
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1603 - 1625, JAMES I (JAMES VI of Scotland), AR Sixpence struck in 1605 at London2 viewsObverse: IACOBVS•D:G:MAG:BRIT:FRA:ET•HIB:REX. Crowned and armoured bust of James I of England facing right, VI in field behind bust and mintmark (Rose) in legend above.
Reverse: •QUAE•DEVS•CONIVNXIT•NEMO•SEPARET• Square topped shield bearing the arms of England, Scotland and Ireland; 1605 above. Mintmark (rose) in legend.
Second coinage (1604 – 1619) and fourth bust with long square cut beard.
Diameter: 26mm | Weight: 2.8gms | Die Axis: 10
SPINK: 2658

The sixpence was first introduced during the reign of Edward VI in 1551, it had a facing portrait of the king with a rose to the left and the denomination VI to the right.
With the accession of James VI of Scotland to the throne of England, reigning there as James I, the royal titles and the coat of arms were altered on the coinage. The Scottish lion rampant and the Irish harp now made their appearance in the second and third quarters of the royal coat of arms of the newly formed United Kingdom and, from 1604, MAG BRIT replaced ANG SCO in the King's titles.

The infamous “Gunpowder Plot” took place on November the fifth in the year this coin was struck. The plot, to blow up the English Houses of Parliament, was foiled when a Justice of the Peace, Sir Thomas Knyvet, was secretly informed of a Catholic plot and, after giving orders for a search of the area, discovered Guy Fawkes in a cellar below the Parliament building. Thirty-six barrels of gunpowder were found and Guy Fawkes was arrested for treason and charged with trying to kill King James along with the members of Parliament who were scheduled to sit together next day.
Guy Fawkes, also known as Guido Fawkes, was tortured and questioned over the next few days and eventually confessed. He was sentenced to being hung, drawn and quartered. However, immediately before his execution on the 31st of January 1606 he fell from the scaffold where he was about to be hanged and broke his neck, so avoiding the agony of the mutilation that followed.
Guy Fawkes has become synonymous with the Gunpowder Plot which has been commemorated in Britain on the 5th of November ever since. His effigy is traditionally burned on a bonfire, usually accompanied by a fireworks display.
When I was young, on the run-up to “bonfire night”, children used to make their own “Guy” and then tout it through the streets with cries of “Penny for the Guy” something like today's Hallowe'en “trick or treat”. But this has pretty much died out now having been replaced by officially staged events.
*Alex
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1608 - Lepidus and Octavian, Denarius148 viewsDenarius minted in Italy, 42 BC
LEPIDVS PONT MAX III V R P C, bare head of Lepidus right (NT and MA in monograms)
C CAESAR IMPIII VIR R P C, bare head of Octavian right (MP in monogram)
3.78 gr
Ref : HCRI # 140, RCV # 1523, Cohen # 2

The following from forum catalog :
"Lepidus was a faithful follower of Julius Caesar, and he served as Praetor and Consul. When Caesar was assassinated, Lepidus was in charge of the cavalry and commanded a legion. This position secured him a place in the Second Triumvirate along Marc Antony and Octavian. His cut was Africa. When Octavian attacked Sextus Pompey's Sicily, Lepidus' ships and troops supported him. In an uninspired move, Lepidus thought he could force Octavian to leave him the island. The two armies separated and isolated skirmishes occurred, but soon the soldiers sick of yet another civil war, acknowledging Octavian's superiority deserted Lepidus en-masse. Lepidus left the island as a simple civilian, retaining only his priesthood, but he was the only defeated Imperator not to suffer a violent death."
2 commentsPotator II
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1625 - 1649, CHARLES I, AR Twenty Pence, Struck 1637 - 1638 at Edinburgh, Scotland22 viewsObverse: CAR•D:G•SCOT•ANG•FR•ET•HIB•R•. Crowned bust of Charles I, which goes to the edge of the coin, facing left, XX with a small lozenge above and below behind bust; small B (for Briot) below.
Reverse: IVSTITIA•THRONVM•FIRMAT• small B (off flan, for Briot) at end of legend. Thistle with Scottish crown above. The reverse legend translates as 'Justice strengthens the Throne'.
This coin was produced using Briot's new coining press during the third coinage period which ran from 1637 to 1642.
Diameter: 17mm | Weight: 0,8gms | Die Axis: 6
SPINK: 5581

Nicholas Briot, a Frenchman previously employed by the French and English mints, was appointed Master of the Scottish mint in August 1634. He was later joined by his son-in-law John Falconer, who succeeded him in 1646.
Briot's work was of the highest calibre, and his introduction of the mill and screw press gave the Scottish series of coins a technical excellence previously unknown.
After Briot's departure from Scotland in 1638 there was a rapid falling off from his high standard of workmanship. Although considerable use was made of Briot's punches for Falconer's third coinage issues, many of the dies were badly executed, and there was even more of a deterioration during the fourth coinage period which resulted in poorly produced coins of no artistic merit.

After his succession, Charles quarrelled with the Parliament of England, which sought to curb his royal prerogative. Charles believed in the divine right of kings and thought he could govern according to his own conscience. Many of his subjects opposed his policies, in particular the levying of taxes without parliamentary consent, and perceived his actions as those of a tyrannical absolute monarch. His religious policies, coupled with his marriage to a Roman Catholic, generated the antipathy and mistrust of Reformed groups such as the English Puritans and the Scottish Covenanters, who thought his views were too Catholic. He supported high church Anglican ecclesiastics and his attempts to force the Church of Scotland to adopt high Anglican practices led to the Bishops' Wars, and helped precipitate his own downfall.
From 1642, Charles fought the Parliamentary army in the English Civil War. After his defeat in 1645, he surrendered to a Scottish force that eventually handed him over to the English Parliament. Charles refused to accept his captors' demands for a constitutional monarchy, and after temporarily escaping captivity in November 1647, he was re-imprisoned on the Isle of Wight. Although Charles had managed to forge an alliance with Scotland, by the end of 1648 Oliver Cromwell's New Model Army had consolidated its control over England and Charles was tried, convicted, and executed for high treason in January 1649. The monarchy was abolished and a republic called the Commonwealth of England was declared. The Parliament of Scotland however, proclaimed Charles I's son as King Charles II on the 5th of February 1649.
The political crisis in England that followed the death of Cromwell in 1658 resulted in the restoration of the monarchy whereby Charles II was invited to return and, on the 29th of May 1660, he was received in London to public acclaim. After 1660 all Charles II's legal documents in Britain were dated from 1649, the year when he had succeeded his father as king in Scotland.
2 comments*Alex
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1649 - 1660, THE COMMONWEALTH OF ENGLAND, AR Half-groat, Struck 1651 - 1653 at London, England18 viewsObverse: No legend. Shield bearing the Cross of Saint George between palm branch to left and laurel branch to right.
Reverse: • II • above two conjoined shields side by side, that on the left bearing the Cross of Saint George, that on the right bearing the Harp of Ireland.
Diameter: 17mm | Weight: 0.9gms | Die Axis: 11
SPINK: 3221

The Commonwealth coinage was once referred to as "breeches money", because the reverse design of two conjoined shields was reminiscent of the shape of a pair of the breeches which were worn at the time. This coinage was minted in England after a period of civil war which culminated in the execution of King Charles I in London in 1649. Commonwealth coins bear no portrait of a monarch because after Charles I was beheaded there wasn't one, instead the coins have a simple puritan design. The language of the legends on the coins also changed, traditionally it was in Latin, giving the name of the monarch and their titles, but now this was replaced with ‘THE COMMONWEALTH OF ENGLAND’ on the obverse and ‘GOD WITH US’ on the reverse. These simple statements not only did away with all references to royal power, they also replaced the Catholic-sounding Latin with Protestant English laying claim to God’s favour and support in true Puritan style.
There appear to be no surviving records of the exact amount of Commonwealth coinage which was produced. Although Samuel Pepys in his Diaries suggested that during the Commonwealth period from 1649 to 1660 some 750,000 pounds worth of coins were minted in total and that after the restoration in 1660 much of this, some 650,000 pounds, was recovered and melted down. This leaves an outstanding 100,000 pounds which it is believed was exported as bullion.
It seems, too, that during the Commonwealth Period 46.8% of the silver coinage from the mint was produced between December 1651 and November 1653, which would tally with the treasure trove which was captured from foreign ships and brought to London during that period. A second coining period occurred in 1656 when more foreign ships were captured by the navy, brought to London and their precious metal offloaded to the Tower.
This particular coin denomination is undated, but it has been suggested that the coin above can probably be attributed to the first coinage period on stylistic grounds.
1 comments*Alex
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1713 Anne AE Pattern Farthing5 viewsObverse: ANNA DEI GRATIA. Draped bust of Anne facing left.
Reverse: BRITANNIA • 1713 •. Britannia seated facing left, left arm holding spear and resting on shield, raised right hand holding olive-branch; exergue blank.
Diameter: 22mm on thick flan. | Weight: 5.1gms. | Die axis: 6h
PATTERN - EXTREMELY RARE

All of Anne's farthings are patterns, no farthings were issued for general circulation during her reign. The portrait of Anne on this example was designed by John Coker (1670 - 1741). Coker joined the Royal Mint in 1697 and became chief engraver there in 1705.

Although Anne farthings are generally very rare, there are at least six distinct pattern varieties known to exist and there is one variety, dated 1714, of which, according to Peck, between 300 and 500 coins may have been produced. The fact that such a large number of these farthings were released in the last year of Anne's reign may be because the type was about to be produced for general circulation at the time of Anne's death on the 1st of August. Sir Isaac Newton was Master of the Mint, and he had high ideals about the quality of the coinage, and the Anne farthing is certainly vastly superior in striking and design to the pieces of William III. The old figure of Britannia used since Charles II's time was discarded in favour of a sharper high relief design in which the bare leg on the former figure of Britannia is covered up, reportedly on the orders of the Queen.
All the other farthing varieties are certainly patterns, and were never struck as currency for circulation.

This particular coin is of good weight and metal and it appears to be a die match for another Anne pattern farthing, in this instance struck in silver, which was sold at the 12th September 2011 Heritage Long Beach Signature World & Ancient Coins Auction. It was Lot 27289 and, for comparison purposes, I have illustrated it below.
*Alex
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1843 "BENJAMIN NIGHTINGALE" AE Halfpenny Token. London, Middlesex17 viewsObverse: VILIUS EST ARGENTUM AURO, VIRTUTIBUS AURUM. Female, leaning on books behind her, holding a cornucopia from which coins are spilling, seated facing right in front of an open coin cabinet; in exergue, tudor rose on shield between two branches.
Reverse: BENJAMIN NIGHTINGALE LONDON * PRIVATE TOKEN * 1843 surrounding “BN” monogram in script.
Edge: Plain.
Diameter: 30mm | Weight: 14.2gms | Die Axis: 12
Bell (Middlesex) A3
VERY RARE (Only 72 of these bronzed copper halfpenny tokens were struck)

Privately issued in London by Benjamin Nightingale, the die sinker for this token was William Joseph Taylor (whose initials WJT can be seen to the left below the books on the obverse), following a similar design for halfpennies that he had produced for Matthew Young, a British merchant. Taylor was born in Birmingham in 1802 and was apprenticed to Thomas Halliday in 1818 as the first die-sinker to be trained by him. He set up his own business as a die-sinker, medallist and engraver at 5 Porter Street, Soho, London in 1829, later moving to 3 Lichfield Street, Birmingham. In 1843 the business moved to 33 Little Queen Street and finally, in 1869, to 70 Red Lion Street where, in 1885, Taylor died.
The Soho Mint at Birmingham (founded by Matthew Boulton) closed in 1848, and it's plant and equipment was sold via auction in April 1850. Taylor purchased many of the Soho Mint's hubs and dies from this auction and used them to restrike many of the coins & patterns that the Soho Mint had struck between the 1790's and the 1840's, though he nearly always re-polished or re-engraved elements of the original dies before re-using them.

Benjamin Nightingale was a wine and spirit merchant who lived at 17 Upper Stamford Street, Blackfriars Road in London. He was born in 1806 and died on March 9th, 1862. He was a well known Antiquarian and was a member of the Numismatic Society of London.
In 1863, after his death, Benjamin Nightingale's collection, consisting of 359 lots, was sold over a two day period by Sotheby's. This is from the February 13, 1863 edition of the London Daily News (page 8, column 6).

THE VALUABLE CABINET of COINS and MEDALS of the late BENJAMIN NIGHTINGALE, Esq.
MESSRS S. LEIGH SOTHEBY and WILKINSON, auctioneers of literary property and works illustrative of the fine arts, will SELL BY AUCTION, at their house, No. 13 (late 3), Wellington-street, Strand, W.C., on WEDNESDAY, Feb. 25, and following day, at 1 precisely, the valuable CABINET OF COINS and MEDALS of the late Benjamin Nightingale, Esq.; comprising a few Roman coins in gold, silver, and copper, in the highest state of preservation; a most valuable collection of English medals in all metals; rare and curious jetons, including a very perfect set of those struck to illustrate the history of the low countries; a few remarkable foreign medals, a choice library of numismatic books, several well-made cabinets, & c. – May be viewed two days previous, and catalogues had on receipt of two stamps.

According to Manville and Robertson, prior to his death, Benjamin Nightingale had sold off part of his collection at an auction by Sotheby's on 29th Nov. 1855.
"Benjamin NIGHTINGALE" in ANS copy; Greek, Roman, Tavern Tokens, Town Pieces, 17-18c Tokens, English and Foreign Medals, Books; 165 lots. -Curtis Clay.

The inspiration for these tokens might have been Pye's 1797 halfpenny (Warwickshire 223) which is of a similar design.
*Alex
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1953 JOHN II AE TETARTERON S-1953 DOC 14 CLBC 3.4.3 27 views
OBV Bust of Christ, bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion; holds gospels open in l. hand

REV. Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision and chlamys; holds in r. hand jeweled scepter on a long shaft and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 19/22mm

Weight 4.1gm

This is a Thessalonica minted coin, it contains no silver. It is believed to be valued at 1/864 Hyperpyron and the Metropolitan (Constantinople) issues at 1/288 Hyperpyron. This coins are much more common than Metropolitan coins and very abundant in today’s marketplace.

DOC list 9 examples with weights ranging from 2.63gm to 4.19gm and sizes ranging from 19mm to 24mm

A personal favorite that has been in my collection for at least ten years. An ex Forum Coin.
1 commentsSimon
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1953 JOHN II AE TETARTERON Thessalonica SBCV-1953 DOC IV 14 CLBC 3.4.3 13 viewsOBV Bust of Christ, bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion; holds gospels open in l. hand

REV. Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision and chlamys; holds in r. hand jeweled scepter on a long shaft and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 22mm

Weight 4.1gm

DOC list 9 examples with weights ranging from 2.63gm to 4.19gm and sizes ranging from 19mm to 24mm

A personal favorite that has been in my collection for at least ten years. An ex Forum Coin.
Simon
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1977a MANUEL AE HALF TETARTERON S-1977 DOC 20 CLBC 4.4.7 19 viewsOBV Small neat letters Monogram Sear 57

REV Bust of emperor, beardless, wearing stemma, divitision, collar piece ( Most frequently decorated 5 jewels) and paneled loros of simplified type; holds in r. hand labarum on long shaft and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 18.88

Weight 2.89gm

This is a Thessalonica minted coin, it contains no silver. It is believed to be valued at 1/864 Hyperpyron and the Metropolitan (Constantinople) issues at 1/288 Hyperpyron.The half tetartera at 1/1728 Hyperpyron. These coins are much more common than Metropolitan coins and very abundant in today’s marketplace.

DOC lists 12 examples with weights ranging from 2.04gm to 2.77 gm with sizes from 18mm to 21mm.

Ex forum coin!
Simon
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19831 viewsCaracalla 198-217 AD
AE 22 mm
Stobi
Nike walking right stepping onto globe
Same reverse die (R146) as Josifovski 452
Displays the same obverse error as whited49's specimen HERE.
mauseus
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1981 MANUEL AE HALF TETARTERON S-1981 DOC 24 CLBC 4.4.12 11 views

OBV Bust of Christ bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion; holds scrolls in l. hand. Pellet in each limb of nimbus cross.

REV Full length figure of emperor, bearded, wearing uncertain dress (stemma, short military tunic, breastplate and sagion?) holds in r. hand scepter cruciger and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 17.8mm

Weight 2.0gm

This is a Thessalonica minted coin, it contains no silver. It is believed to be valued at 1/864 Hyperpyron and the Metropolitan (Constantinople) issues at 1/288 Hyperpyron. The half tetartera at 1/1728 Hyperpyron.These coins are much more common than Metropolitan coins and very abundant in today’s marketplace.

DOC lists 19 examples with weights ranging from 1.28 gm to 2.75 gm with sizes from 16mm to 18mm.

Ex Forum Coin.
Simon
1997-161-1_SesGordianRIC_266-Forum.jpg
1997.161.1 Rome, RIC 26615 viewsSestertius, 19.03 g

Obverse: IMP CAES M ANT GORDIANVS AVG; Laureate, draped, cuirassed right
Reverse: P M TR P II COS PP S C; Gordian, with head bare, advancing right, holding spear and shield.
Ref: RIC 266 [2nd Issue, End of AD 239]; C 218, 20 fr;
gordian_guy
1997-161-164_AurelianIoviConser-Forum.jpg
1997.161.16412 viewsSiscia, 4.00 g

Obverse: IMP AVRELIANVS AVG; Radiate, cuirassed, bust right.
Reverse: IOVI CON-SER; -/-//*Q; Emperor, in military dress, on left, standing right, holding short scepter in left, extending right hand to receive a globe from Jupiter, on right, standing left, extending globe in right hand, holding scepter in left.
Ref: RIC 225; RIC V,1 online, T-2220; LV 7036-7049; BnF XII.1, 1172-1173; (Autumn 272 – 273 – Early 274)
gordian_guy
1997-161-165_AurelianRestitutorOrbis-Forum.jpg
1997.161.16526 viewsCyzicus, 3.65 g

Obverse: IMP C AVRELIANVS AVG; Radiate, cuirassed, bust right.
Reverse: RESTITVTOR OR-BIS; -/-//*B; Emperor, on right, standing left, holding scepter in left and extending right hand to receive wreath from Female, on left, standing right; captive between, kneeling right, raising hands.
Ref: RIC V,1 online T-2981; LV 10312-10325; (Autumn 272 – Early 273)
gordian_guy
1997-161-166_AurelianOriensAug-Forum.jpg
1997.161.16621 viewsCyzicus, 4.47 g

Obverse: IMP C AVRELIANVS AVG; Radiate, cuirassed, bust right.
Reverse: ORIE-N-S AVG; -/-//ΔC; Sol, radiate and nude, except for chlamys, wrapped around shoulders and draped off left arm, standing left; right hand raised; globe in extended right hand; bound captive seated left on ground to left.
Ref: RIC 360; RIC V,1 online, T-3029; LV 10588-10591; BnF XII.1 1200; (Spring 273 – Spring 274)
gordian_guy
1997-161-167_ProbusMarsVictor-Forum.jpg
1997.161.16716 viewsLugdunum (Lyon), 3.04 g

Obverse: IMP C M AVR PROBVS AVG; Radiate, cuirassed bust right.
Reverse: MARS VICTOR; II; Mars advancing right, carrying transverse spear in right and trophy in left, over left shoulder.
Ref: RIC 37; Rhodes 167; Bastien 166 [The difference is stated by Bastien on pp. 52-4: nos. 164-173 have portraits resembling Florian, while nos. 176-182 have proper Probus portraits, no longer resembling Florian. Translation complement of Curtis Clay]
gordian_guy
1997-161-168_ProbusAdventusAug-Forum.jpg
1997.161.16813 viewsRome, 3.95 g

Obverse: IMP PROBVS AVG; Radiate, cuirassed bust right.
Reverse: ADVENTVS AVG; R*Delta in exergue; Emperor on horseback left, raising right hand and holding scepter in left; bound captive seated on left before horse.
Ref: RIC 157; Pink VI/1, pg 56, 3rd emission, 278 AD.
gordian_guy
1997-161-169_ProbusAdventusAug-Forum.jpg
1997.161.16923 viewsRome, 4.09 g

Obverse: IMP PROBVS AVG; Radiate, wearing Imperial Mantle, left, holding scepter surmounted by eagle.
Reverse: ADVENTVS AVG; RDotCrescentGamma in exergue; Emperor on horseback left, raising right hand, scepter in left, bound captive seated before on left.
Ref: cf RIC 157 [This bust, H, not listed]; Pink VI/1, pg 56, 4th emission, 279 AD
gordian_guy
1997-161-170_ProbusIoviConsProbAvg-Forum.jpg
1997.161.17019 viewsRome, 3.85 g

Obverse: PROBVS PF AVG; Radiate, cuirassed bust right.
Reverse: IOVI CONS PROB AVG; RThunderboltB in exergue; Jupiter standing left holding thunderbolt in raised right hand and scepter in left.
Ref: RIC 175; Pink VI/1, pg 58, 6th emission, 281 AD
1 commentsgordian_guy
1997-161-171_ProbusIoviConsProbAvg-Forum.jpg
1997.161.17114 viewsRome, 3.50 g

Obverse: PROBVS PF AVG; Radiate, cuirassed bust right.
Reverse: IOVI CONS PROB AVG; REB in exergue; Jupiter standing left holding thunderbolt in raised right hand and scepter in left. Part of AEQVITI series of coins for Rome.
Ref: cf RIC 175 [This type not listed for this Mint Mark]; Pink VI/1, pg 59, 7th emission, 282 AD
gordian_guy
1997-161-172_ProbusRomaeAeter-Forum.jpg
1997.161.17211 viewsRome, 3.43 g

Obverse: IMP PROBVS AVG; Radiate, cuirassed bust right.
Reverse: ROMAE AETER; RCrescentB in exergue; Roma seated in hexastyle temple, holding Victory and scepter.
Ref: RIC 185; Pink VI/1, pg 57, 4th emission, 279 AD;
gordian_guy
1997-161-173_ProbusRomaeAeter-Forum.jpg
1997.161.17322 viewsRome, 3.46 g

Obverse: IMP PROBVS AVG; Radiate, wearing Imperial Mantle, left, holding scepter surmounted by eagle.
Reverse: ROMAE AETER; RDotCrescentB in exergue; Roma seated in hexastyle temple, holding Victory and scepter.
Ref: RIC 185; Pink VI/1, pg 57, 4th emission, 279 AD;
gordian_guy
1997-161-174_ProbusRomaeAeter-Forum.jpg
1997.161.17430 viewsRome, 4.01 g

Obverse: PROBVS PF AVG; Radiate, wearing Imperial Mantle, left, holding scepter surmounted by eagle.
Reverse: ROMAE AETER; RThunderboltDelta in exergue; Roma seated in hexastyle temple, holding Victory and scepter.
Ref: RIC 187; Pink VI/1, pg 58, 6th emission, 281 AD;
1 commentsgordian_guy
1997-161-175_ProbusSoliInvicto-Forum.jpg
1997.161.1759 viewsRome, 3.76 g

Obverse: IMP PROBVS AVG; Radiate, wearing Imperial Mantle, bust left, holding in right hand scepter surmounted by eagle.
Reverse: SOLI INVICTOR; RThunderboltE in exergue; Sol, in quadriga galloping left; right hand raised; globe and whip in left;
Ref: RIC 202; Pink, pg 58, 6th emission, 281 AD;
gordian_guy
1997-161-176_ProbusVictoriaGerm-Forum.jpg
1997.161.1767 viewsRome, 3.65 g

Obverse: IMP PROBVS PF AVG; Radiate, cuirassed bust right.
Reverse: VICTORIA GERM; RThunderboltA; Trophy between two bound captives seated back to back.
Ref: RIC 220; Pink, pg 58, 6th emission, 218 AD;
gordian_guy
1997-161-177_ProbusConcordMilit-Forum.jpg
1997.161.17718 viewsTicinum, 3.38 g

Obverse: IMP C PROBVS AVG; Radiate, wearing Imperial Mantle, bust left, holding in right hand scepter surmounted by eagle.
Reverse: CONCORD MILIT; E|/PXXI; Concordia standing left holding an ensign in each hand.
Ref: RIC 480; Pink VI/1, pg 67, 9th emission, 281 AD, part of EQVITI series for Ticinum.
gordian_guy
1997-161-178_ProbusProvidentAvg-Forum.jpg
1997.161.17818 viewsTicinum, 3.47 g

Obverse: IMP C PROBVS AVG; Radiate, wearing Imperial Mantle, bust left, holding in right hand scepter surmounted by eagle.
Reverse: PROVIDENT AVG; Q|*/SXXI; Providentia, standing left, holding globe in extended right hand and transverse scepter in left.
RIC 490; Pink VI/1, pg 67, 10th emission, 282 AD, part of EQVITI series for Ticinum.
gordian_guy
1997-161-179_ProbusMartiPacif-Forum.jpg
1997.161.17919 viewsTicinum, 4.29 g

Obverse: IMP C PROBVS AVG; Radiate, wearing Imperial Mantle, bust left, holding in right hand scepter surmounted by eagle.
Reverse: MARTI PACIF; I| /QXXI; Mars advancing left, holding olive branch in raised right hand and carrying spear in left; shield over left shoulder.
Ref: RIC 508; Pink VI/1, pg 67, 9th emission, 281 AD, part of EQVITI series for Ticinum.
1 commentsgordian_guy
1997-161-180_ProbusMartiPacif-Forum.jpg
1997.161.18013 viewsTicinum, 3.55g

Obverse: VIRTVS PROBI AVG; Radiate, helmet, cuirassed, burst right; spear in right hand over right shoulder; shield on left shoulder.
Reverse: MARTI PACIF; I|*/QXXI; Mars advancing left, holding olive branch in raised right hand; spear in left hand and shield over left shoulder.
Ref: RIC 509; Pink, pg 67, 10th emission, 282 AD, part of EQVITI series for Ticinum.
gordian_guy
1997-161-181_ProbusConcordMilit-Forum.jpg
1997.161.18135 viewsSiscia, 3.93 g

Obverse: IMP C M AVR PROBVS PF AVG; Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from back.
Reverse: CONCORD MILIT; P/XXI; Emperor, on left, standing right, clasping hands with Concordia, on right, standing left.
Ref: RIC 650; Alfoldi Type 26, no. 121; Pink, pg 53, 7th emission, 280 AD;
1 commentsgordian_guy
1997-161-182_ProbusConcordMilit-Forum.jpg
1997.161.18217 viewsSiscia, 3.38 g

Obverse: IMP PROBVS INV AVG; Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from front.
Reverse: CONCORD MILIT; Gamma/XXI; Emperor, on left, standing right, clasping hands with Concordia, on right, standing left.
Ref: RIC 657; Alfoldi Type 26, no. 168; Pink, pg 48, 2nd emission, 277 AD;
gordian_guy
1997-161-183_ProbusFelicitasAvg-Forum.jpg
1997.161.18310 viewsSiscia, 4.40 g

Obverse: IMP C M AVR PROBVS AVG; Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from back.
Reverse: FELICITAS AVG; |Delta/XXI; Felicitas, standing left, holding in right hand a long caduceus and a cornucopia in left.
Ref: RIC 682; Alfoldi Type 30, no. 7; Pink, pg 47, 1st emission, 276 AD;
gordian_guy
1997-161-184_ProbusPaxAugusti-Forum.jpg
1997.161.18412 viewsSiscia, 3.79 g

Obverse: IMP PROBVS PF AVG; Radiate, cuirassed bust right.
Reverse: PAX AVGVSTI;_|VI/XXI; Pax, standing left; olive branch in raised right hand and transverse scepter in left.
Ref: RIC 713; Alfoldi Type 42, no. 29;
gordian_guy
1997-161-185_ProbusRestitutOrbis-Forum.jpg
1997.161.18513 viewsSiscia 3.43 g

Obverse: IMP C M AVR PROBVS PF AVG; Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from back.
Reverse: RESTITVT ORBIS; */XXIZ; Female figure, on left, standing right, presenting wreath to Emperor, on right, standing left, holding globe in extended right hand and scepter in left.
Ref: RIC 731; Alfoldi Type 57, no. 84, but without the dots in XXIZ;
gordian_guy
1997-161-186_ProbusRomaeAeternae-Forum.jpg
1997.161.18614 viewsSiscia, 3.62 g

Obverse: IMP C M AVR PROBVS PF AVG; Radiate, wearing Imperial Mantle, bust right; in right hand scepter surmounted by eagle.
Reverse: ROMAE AETERNAE; XXIS in exergue; Roma seated left in temple; holds globe in extended right hand and scepter in left.
Ref: RIC 739; Alfoldi Type 60, no. 2;
gordian_guy
1997-161-187_ProbusVirtusProbiAvg-Forum.jpg
1997.161.18717 viewsSerdica, 3.92 g

Obverse: IMP C M AVR PROBVS AVG; Radiate, wearing helmet, bust right; in right hand spear, over right shoulder, shield on left shoulder.
Reverse: VIRTVS PROBI AVG; KA•Δ •; Emperor on horseback, shield on left shoulder, spear in right hand, charging right, spearing enemy on ground facing left, hands raised in defense, his oval shield beneath horse.
Ref: RIC 878; Pink VI/1, pg 45, 4th emission, 277 AD;
gordian_guy
1997-161-188_ProbusCyzicusSoliInvicto-Forum.jpg
1997.161.18818 viewsCyzicus, 3.07 g

Obverse: IMP C M AVR PROBVS PF AVG; Radiate, wearing Imperial Mantle, bust right; in right hand scepter surmounted by eagle.
Reverse: SO-LI INVICT-O; CM//XXIΓ; Sol, facing, head left, in quadriga facing; right hand raised, left holding whip.
Ref: RIC 911
gordian_guy
1997-161-189_ProbusAntiochClementiaTemp-Forum.jpg
1997.161.18912 viewsAntioch, 3.74 g

Obverse: IMP C M AVR PROBVS PF AVG; Radiate, draped and cuirassed, bust right, seen from the back.
Reverse: CLEMENTIA TEMP; ͼΔ/XXI; Emperor, on left standing right, holding scepter in left, receiving Victory from Jupiter on right, standing left, holding scepter in left.
Ref: RIC 922;
gordian_guy
1997-161-190_ProbusAntiochRestitutOrbis-Forum.jpg
1997.161.19024 viewsAntioch, 4.07 g;

Obverse: IMP C M AVR PROBVS PF AVG; Radiate, draped and cuirassed, bust right, seen from the back.
Reverse: RESTITVT OR-BIS; Γ//XXI; Emperor on right, standing left, holding globe in extended right hand and scepter in left, receiving wreath from Female figure, on left, standing right.
Ref: RIC 925;
gordian_guy
1997-161-191_ProbusAntiochRestitutOrbis-Forum~0.jpg
1997.161.19112 viewsAntioch, 4.18 g;

Obverse: IMP C M AVR PROBVS PF AVG; Radiate, draped and cuirassed, bust right, seen from the back.
Reverse: RESTITVT OR-BIS; S//XXI; Emperor on right, standing left, holding globe in extended right hand and scepter in left, receiving wreath from Female figure, on left, standing right.
Ref: RIC 925;
gordian_guy
1997-161-2_SesGordianRIC_266-Forum.jpg
1997.161.2 Rome, RIC 26615 viewsSestertius, 19.86 g

Obverse: IMP CAES M ANT GORDIANVS AVG; Laureate, draped, cuirassed right
Reverse: P M TR P II COS PP S C; Gordian, with head bare, advancing right, holding spear and shield.
Ref: RIC 266 [2nd Issue, End of AD 239]; C 218, 20 fr;
gordian_guy
1997-161-3_SesGordianRIC_300a-Forum.jpg
1997.161.3 Rome, RIC 300a21 viewsSestertius, 20.06 g

Obverse: IMP GORDIANVS PIVS FEL AVG; Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right.
Reverse: LAETITIA AVG N S C; Laetitia standing left, holding wreath and anchor.
Ref: RIC 300a [Fourth Issue]; C 122, 100 fr
gordian_guy
1997-161-4_SesGordianRIC_306a-Forum.jpg
1997.161.4 Rome, RIC 306a10 viewsSestertius, 17.65 g

Obverse: IMP GORDIANVS PIVS FEL AVG; Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right.
Reverse: P M TR P IIII COS II P P S C; Gordian, in military dress, standing right, holding transverse spear and globe.
Ref: RIC 306a [Fourth Issue]; C 245, 80 fr;
gordian_guy
1997-161-5_SesGordianRIC_335a-Forum.jpg
1997.161.5 Rome, RIC 335a14 viewsSestertius, 18.36 g

Obverse: IMP GORVIANVS PIVS FEL AVG; Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right.
Reverse: SECVRIT PERPET S C; Securitas standing left, legs crossed, holding scepter and resting left arm on column.
Ref: RIC 335a [Fifth Issue]; C 329, 80 fr;
gordian_guy
1997-161-6_SesGordianRIC_3-Forum.jpg
1997.161.6 Gordian Caesar; Rome, RIC 315 viewsSestertius, 17.72 g

Obverse: M ANT GORDIANVS CAES; Bare head, draped bust right.
Reverse: PIETAS AVGG S C in exergue; Priestly emblems, Jug between lituus, knife, and patera on left, simpulum and sprinkler on right.
Ref: RIC 3; C 183, 20 fr; BMC 64
gordian_guy
JuliusCaesarDenEleph.jpg
1af Julius Caesar Wages Civil War12 viewsJulius Caesar

Denarius
49-48 BC

Elephant right, trampling on serpent [probably], CAESAR in ex
Simpulum, sprinkler, axe and priest's hat

Evidently a military issue, no agreement exists on the meaning of the coin's imagery (see e.g. http://www.forumancientcoins.com/board/index.php?topic=88757.msg552803#msg552803)

Seaby 49

Given the chance that the coin was minted to pay Caesar's armies in the civil war, here is a description of the beginning, according to Suetonius: He then overtook his advanced guard at the River Rubicon, which formed the boundary between Gaul and Italy. There he paused for a while and, realising the magnitude of the step he was taking, turned to his staff, to remark: ‘We could turn back, even now; but once over that little bridge, and it will all come down to a fight.’ . . . As he stood there, undecided, he received a sign. A being of marvellous stature and beauty appeared suddenly, seated nearby, and playing on a reed pipe. A knot of shepherds gathered to listen, but when a crowd of his soldiers, including some of the trumpeters, broke ranks to join them, the apparition snatched a trumpet from one of them, ran to the river, and sounding the call to arms blew a thunderous blast, and crossed to the far side. At this, Caesar exclaimed: ‘Let us follow the summons, of the gods’ sign and our enemy’s injustice. The die is cast.’ And crossing with the army, he welcomed the tribunes of the people, who had fled to him from Rome. Then, in tears, he addressed the troops and, ripping open the breast of his tunic, asked for their loyalty.
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Lepidus_Antony_Quinarius.jpg
1af Lepidus_214 viewsQuinarius

M LEP IMP, simpulum, aspergillum, axe (surmounted by wolf's head) & ape

M ANT IMP, lituus, capis (jug) and raven

Military mint with Marcus Aemilius Lepidus & Antony in Transalpine Gaul, 44-42 BC

Cr489/3, Syd 1158a

Lepidus was a member of the Second Triumvirate.

According to Plutarch's Life of Pompey: Sulla, however, was annoyed at seeing to what a height of reputation and power Pompey was advancing, but being ashamed to obstruct his career, he kept quiet. Only, when in spite of him and against his wishes Pompey made Lepidus consul, by canvassing for him and making the people zealously support him through their goodwill towards himself, seeing Pompey going off through the forum with a throng, Sulla said: "I see, young man, that you rejoice in your victory; and surely it was a generous and noble thing for Lepidus, the worst of men, to be proclaimed consul by a larger vote than Catulus, the best of men, because you influenced the people to take this course. Now, however, it is time for you to be wide awake and watchful of your interests; you have made your adversary stronger than yourself." But Sulla showed most clearly that he was not well-disposed to Pompey by the will which he wrote. For whereas he bequeathed gifts to other friends, and made some of them guardians of his son, he omitted all mention of Pompey. And yet Pompey bore this with great composure, and loyally, insomuch that when Lepidus and sundry others tried to prevent the body of Sulla from being buried in the Campus Martius, or even from receiving public burial honours, he came to the rescue, and gave to the interment alike honour and security.

Soon after the death of Sulla, his prophecies were fulfilled, and Lepidus tried to assume Sulla's powers. He took no circuitous route and used no pretence, but appeared at once in arms, stirring up anew and gathering about himself the remnants of faction, long enfeebled, which had escaped the hand of Sulla. His colleague, Catulus, to whom the incorrupt and sounder element in the senate and people attached themselves, was the great Roman of the time in the estimate set upon his wisdom and justice, but was thought better adapted for political than military leadership. The situation itself, therefore, demanded Pompey, who was not long in deciding what course to take. He took the side of the nobility, and was appointed commander of an army against Lepidus, who had already stirred up a large part of Italy and was employing Brutus to hold Cisalpine Gaul with an army.

Other opponents against whom Pompey came were easily mastered by him, but at Mutina, in Gaul, he lay a long while besieging Brutus. Meanwhile, Lepidus had made a hasty rush upon Rome, and sitting down before it, was demanding a second consulship, and terrifying the citizens with a vast throng of followers. But their fear was dissipated by a letter brought from Pompey, announcing that he had brought the war to a close without a battle. For Brutus, whether he himself betrayed his army, or whether his army changed sides and betrayed him, put himself in the hands of Pompey, and receiving an escort of horsemen, retired to a little town upon the Po. Here, after a single day had passed, he was slain by Geminius, who was sent by Pompey to do the deed. And Pompey was much blamed for this. For as soon as the army of Brutus changed sides, he wrote to the senate that Brutus had surrendered to him of his own accord; then he sent another letter denouncing the man after he had been put to death. The Brutus who, with Cassius, killed Caesar, was a son of this Brutus, a man who was like his father neither in his wars nor in his death, as is written in his Life. As for Lepidus, moreover, as soon as he was expelled from Italy, he made his way over to Sardinia. There he fell sick and died of despondency, which was due, as we are told, not to the loss of his cause, but to his coming accidentally upon a writing from which he discovered that his wife was an adulteress.
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CaligulaAsVesta.jpg
1ao Caligula30 views37-41

As
Bare head, left, C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT
Vesta std, VESTA SC

RIC 38

The son of Germanicus, modern research suggests, was not as bad a ruler as history generally supposes, but the winners write the history, and Caligula had the dubious honor of being the first loser to die in the purple at the hand of assassins.

Suetonius recorded: Gaius Caesar (Caligula) was born on the 31st of August AD12, in the consulship of his father, Germanicus, and Gaius Fonteius Capito. The sources disagree as to his place of birth. Gnaeus Lentulus Gaetulicus claims it was Tibur (Tivoli), Pliny the Elder, says it was among the Treveri in the village of Ambitarvium, above Confluentes (the site of Koblenz) at the junction of the Moselle and Rhine. . . . His surname Caligula (‘Little Boot’) was bestowed on him affectionately by the troops because he was brought up amongst them, dressed in soldier’s gear.

Caligula accompanied his father, Germanicus, to Syria (in AD 19). On his return, he lived with his mother, Agrippina the Elder until she was exiled (in 29 AD), and then with his great-grandmother Livia. When Livia died (in 29 AD), he gave her eulogy from the rostra even though he was not of age. He was then cared for by his grandmother Antonia the Younger, until at the age of eighteen Tiberius summoned him to Capreae (Capri, in AD 31). On that day he assumed his gown of manhood and shaved off his first beard, but without the ceremony that had attended his brothers’ coming of age.

On Capraea, though every trick was tried to lure him, or force him, into making complaints against Tiberius, he ignored all provocation, . . . behaving so obsequiously to his adoptive grandfather, Tiberius, and the entire household, that the quip made regarding him was well borne out, that there was never a better slave or a worse master.

Even in those days, his cruel and vicious character was beyond his control, and he was an eager spectator of torture and executions meted out in punishment. At night, disguised in wig and long robe, he abandoned himself to gluttony and adulterous behaviour. He was passionately devoted it seems to the theatrical arts, to dancing and singing, a taste in him which Tiberius willingly fostered, in the hope of civilizing his savage propensities.

And came near to assuming a royal diadem at once, turning the semblance of a principate into an absolute monarchy. Indeed, advised by this that he outranked princes and kings, he began thereafter to claim divine power, sending to Greece for the most sacred or beautiful statues of the gods, including the Jupiter of Olympia, so that the heads could be exchanged for his own. He then extended the Palace as far as the Forum, making the Temple of Castor and Pollux its vestibule, and would often present himself to the populace there, standing between the statues of the divine brothers, to be worshipped by whoever appeared, some hailing him as ‘Jupiter Latiaris’. He also set up a special shrine to himself as god, with priests, the choicest sacrificial victims, and a life-sized golden statue of himself, which was dressed each day in clothes of identical design to those he chose to wear.

He habitually committed incest with each of his three sisters, seating them in turn below him at large banquets while his wife reclined above. . . . His preferred method of execution was by the infliction of many slight wounds, and his order, issued as a matter of routine, became notorious: ‘Cut him so he knows he is dying.’
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GalbaDenVictory.jpg
1at Galba31 views68-69

Denarius

Laureate head, right, SER GALBA IMP CAESAR AVG P M TR P
Victory standing on globe, VICTORIA PR

RIC 111

Suetonius recorded: Servius Galba, the future emperor was born on the 24th of December, 3BC, in the consulship of Marcus Valerius Messala and Gnaeus Lentulus, at a hillside mansion near Terracina, on the left of the road to Fundi (Fondi). He was formally adopted by his stepmother Livia Ocellina, and took the name Livius and the surname Ocella, also changing his forename to Lucius, until he became Emperor.

It is common knowledge that when calling on Augustus to pay his respects, with other boys of his age, the Emperor pinched his cheek, and said in Greek: ‘You too will have a taste of power, my child.’ And when Tiberius heard the prophecy that Galba would be emperor in old age, he commented: ‘Well let him be, it’s no concern of mine.’

Galba achieved office before the usual age and as praetor (in 20AD), controlling the games at the Floralia, he was the first to introduce a display of tightrope-walking elephants. He next governed Aquitania, for almost a year, and not long afterwards held the consulship for six months (in 33AD). When Caligula was assassinated (in 41AD), Galba chose neutrality though many urged him to seize the opportunity for power. Claudius expressed his gratitude by including him among his intimate friends, and Galba was shown such consideration that the expedition to Britain was delayed to allow him to recover from a sudden but minor indisposition. Later he was proconsul in Africa for two years (44/45AD), being singled out, and so avoiding the usual lottery, to restore order in the province, which was riven by internecine rivalry and an indigenous revolt. He re-established peace, by the exercise of ruthless discipline, and the display of justice even in the most trifling matters. . . .

But when word from the City arrived that Nero was dead and that the people had sworn allegiance to him, he set aside the title of governor and assumed that of Caesar. He then began his march to Rome in a general’s cloak, with a dagger, hanging from his neck, at his chest, and did not resume the toga until his main rivals had been eliminated, namely the commander of the Praetorian Guard in Rome, Nymphidius Sabinus, and the commanders in Germany and Africa, Fonteius Capito and Clodius Macer. . . . His prestige and popularity were greater while winning power than wielding it, though he showed evidence of being a more than capable ruler, loved less, unfortunately, for his good qualities than he was hated for his bad ones.

He was even warned of the danger of imminent assassination, the day before his death, by a soothsayer, as he offered the morning sacrifice. Shortly afterwards he learnt that Otho had secured the Guards camp, and when his staff advised him to carry the day by his presence and prestige, by going there immediately, he opted instead to stay put, but gather a strong bodyguard of legionaries from their billets around the City. He did however don a linen corselet, though saying that frankly it would serve little against so many weapons. False reports, put about by the conspirators to lure him into appearing in public, deceived a few of his close supporters, who rashly told him the rebellion was over, the plotters overthrown, and that the rest of the troops were on their way to congratulate him and carry out his orders. So he went to meet them, with such confidence, that when a soldier boasted of killing Otho, he snapped out: ‘On whose authority?’ before hastening on to the Forum. The cavalrymen who had been ordered to find and kill him, who were spurring through the streets scattering the crowds of civilians, now caught sight of him in the distance and halted an instant before galloping towards him and cutting him down, while his staff ran for their lives.
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VitelliusDenVesta.jpg
1av Vitellius42 views69

Denarius
Portrait, right, A VITELLIVS GERMAN IMP TR P
Vesta std., PONT MAX

RIC 107

According to Suetonius: Lucius’s son Aulus, the future emperor, was born on the 24th of September 15AD, or according to some authorities on the 7th, during the consulship of Drusus Caesar and Norbanus Flaccus. . . . His boyhood and early youth were spent on Capreae (Capri) among Tiberius’s creatures, he himself being marked by the nickname of ‘Spintria’ (sex-token) throughout his life, and suspected of having secured his father’s first promotion to office by surrendering his own chastity. As he grew older, though contaminated by every kind of vice, Vitellius gained and kept a prominent place at court, winning Caligula’s friendship by his devotion to chariot-racing and Claudius’s by his love of dice. With Nero he was even closer. . . .

Honoured, as these emperors’ favourite, with high office in the priesthood, as well as political power, he governed Africa (under Nero, in 60/61AD) as proconsul, and was then Curator of Public Works (in 63AD), employing a contrasting approach, and with a contrasting effect on his reputation. In his province he acted with outstanding integrity over two successive years, since he served as deputy also to his brother who succeeded him (61/62AD) yet during his administration of the City he was said to have stolen various temple offerings and ornaments, and substituted brass and tin for the gold and silver in others. . . .

Contrary to all expectations, Galba appointed Vitellius to Lower Germany (in 68AD). Some think it was brought about by Titus Vinius, whose influence was powerful at that time, and whose friendship Vitellius had previously won through their mutual support for the ‘Blues’ in the Circus. But it is clear to everyone that Galba chose him as an act of contempt rather than favour, commenting that gluttons were among those least to be feared, and Vitellius’s endless appetite would now be able to sate itself on a province. . . .

He entered Rome to the sound of trumpets, surrounded by standards and banners, wearing a general’s cape, sword at his side, his officers in their military cloaks also, and the men with naked blades. With increasing disregard for the law, human or divine, he then assumed the office of High Priest on the anniversary of the Allia (18th July), arranged the elections for the next ten years, and made himself consul for life. . . .

Vitellius’s worst vices were cruelty and gluttony. . . . By the eighth month of his reign (November 69AD) the legions in Moesia and Pannonia had repudiated Vitellius, and sworn allegiance to Vespasian despite his absence, following those of Syria and Judaea who had done so in Vespasian’s presence. . . .

The vanguard of Vespasian’s army had now forced its way into the Palace, unopposed, and the soldiers were ransacking the rooms, in their usual manner. They hauled Vitellius, unrecognised, from his hiding place, asked his name and where the Emperor might be. He gave some lying answer, but was soon identified, so he begged for safe custody, even if that meant imprisonment, claiming he had important information for Vespasian regarding his security. However his arms were bound behind him and a noose flung over his head, and he was dragged along the Sacred Way to the Forum, amid a hail of mockery and abuse, half-naked, with his clothes in tatters. His head was held back by the hair, like a common criminal and, with a sword-point under his chin so that he was forced to look up and reveal his face, he was pelted with filth and dung, denounced as arsonist and glutton, and taunted with his bodily defects by the crowd. For, Vitellius was exceptionally tall, and his face was usually flushed from some drinking bout. He had a huge belly, too, and one thigh crippled by a blow from a four-horse chariot which struck him when he was in attendance on Caligula who was driving. At last, after being tormented by a host of cuts from the soldiers’ swords, he was killed on the Gemonian Stairs, and his body dragged with a hook to the Tiber.
1 commentsBlindado
DomitianAsMoneta.jpg
1az Domitian20 views81-96

As

Laureate head right, IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM COS XV CENS PER P P
Moneta std, MONETA AVGVSTI S C

RIC 708

Suetonius wrote: Domitian was born on the 24th of October AD51, a month before his father Vespasian took up office as consul. . . . When Vespasian died, Domitian considered granting his soldiers twice the bounty offered by his brother Titus, and had no qualms in claiming that his father’s will had been tampered with, since he had been due a half-share of the Empire. From then on, he plotted continually against his brother, openly and in secret. When Titus was gripped by his fatal illness, Domitian ordered him to be left for dead, before he had actually breathed his last. . . .

He governed inconsistently, displaying a mixture of virtue and vice, but after some time his virtues too gave way to vice, since he seems to have been made avaricious through lack of funds, and cruel through fear, contrary to his natural disposition. . . . Domitian was diligent and conscientiousness in his administration of justice, often holding special sittings on the tribunal in the Forum. . . . [I]n his private life, and even for some time after becoming Emperor, he was considered free of greed and avarice; and indeed often showed proof not only of moderation, but of real generosity. . . . His moderation and clemency however were not destined to last, his predilection to cruelty appearing somewhat sooner than his avarice. . . . In this way he became an object of terror to all, and so hated that he was finally brought down by a conspiracy of his companions and favourite freedmen, which also involved his wife, Domitia Longina.

Domitian was tall, and of a ruddy complexion, with large rather weak eyes, and a modest expression. He was handsome and attractive when young, his whole body well-made except for his feet with their short toes. Later, he lost his hair, and developed a protruding belly, while his legs became thin and spindly after a long illness. . . . He found exercise intolerable, seldom walked when in Rome and while travelling and on campaign rarely rode but used a litter. Weaponry in general held no interest for him, though he was exceptionally keen on archery. There are plenty of witnesses to his killing a hundred wild creatures or more at a time on his Alban estate, bringing them down with successive arrows planted so deftly as to give the effect of horns. . . .

At the beginning of his reign, he had the libraries, which had been damaged by fire, restored at great expense, instituting a search for copies of lost works, and sending scribes to Alexandria to transcribe and edit them. Yet he himself neglected liberal studies, and never bothered to interest himself in history or poetry, or even to acquire a decent writing style.
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TrajanSestCeres~0.jpg
1bc Trajan48 views98-117

Sestertius
Laureate head, right, IMP CAES NERVAE TRAIANO AVG GER DAC P M TR P COS V PP
Roma and kneeling Dacian, SPQR OPTIMO PRINCIPI SC

RIC 485

Eutropius enthused: To [Nerva] succeeded ULPIUS CRINITUS TRAJANUS, born at Italica in Spain, of a family rather ancient than eminent for his father was the first consul in it. He was chosen emperor at Agrippina, a city of Gaul. He exercised the government in such a manner, that he is deservedly preferred to all the other emperors. He was a man of extraordinary skill in managing affairs of state, and of remarkable courage. The limits of the Roman empire, which, since the reign of Augustus, had been rather defended than honourably enlarged, he extended far and wide. He rebuilt some cities in Germany; he subdued Dacia by the overthrow of Decebalus, and formed a province beyond the Danube, in that territory which the Thaiphali, Victoali, and Theruingi now occupy. This province was a thousand miles in circumference.

He recovered Armenia, which the Parthians had seized, putting to death Parthamasires who held the government of it. He gave a king to the Albani. He received into alliance the king of the Iberians, Sarmatians, Bosporani, Arabians, Osdroeni, and Colchians. He obtained the mastery over the Cordueni and Marcomedi, as well as over Anthemusia, an extensive region of Persia. He conquered and kept possession of Seleucia, Ctesiphon, Babylon, and the country of the Messenii. He advanced as far as the boundaries of India, and the Red Sea, where he formed three provinces, Armenia, Assyria, and Mesopotamia, including the tribes which border on Madena. He afterwards, too, reduced Arabia into the form of a province. He also fitted out a fleet for the Red Sea, that he might use it to lay waste the coasts of India.

Yet he went beyond his glory in war, in ability and judgment as a ruler, conducting himself as an equal towards all, going often to his friends as a visitor, either when they were ill, or when they were celebrating feast days, and entertaining them in his turn at banquets where there was no distinction of rank, and sitting frequently with them in their chariots; doing nothing unjust towards any of the senators, nor being guilty of any dishonesty to fill his treasury; exercising liberality to all, enriching with offices of trust, publicly and privately, every body whom he had known even with the least familiarity; building towns throughout the world, granting many immunities to states, and doing every thing with gentleness and kindness; so that during his whole reign, there was but one senator condemned, and he was sentenced by the senate without Trajan's knowledge. Hence, being regarded throughout the world as next to a god, he deservedly obtained the highest veneration both living and dead. . . .

After having gained the greatest glory both in the field and at home, he was cut off, as he was returning from Persia, by a diarrhoea, at Seleucia in Isauria. He died in the sixty-third year, ninth month, and fourth day of his age, and in the nineteenth year, sixth month, and fifteenth day of his reign. He was enrolled among the gods, and was the only one of all the emperors that was buried within the city. His bones, contained in a golden urn, lie in the forum which he himself built, under a pillar whose height is a hundred and forty-four feet. So much respect has been paid to his memory, that, even to our own times, they shout in acclamations to the emperors, "More fortunate than Augustus, better than Trajan!"
Blindado
Caracala-ll-RIC-346.jpg
201 AD - Caracalla 198-217 AD - Trophy with captives147 viewsANTONINVS AVGVSTVS, laureate draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse
PART MAX PONT TR P IIII COS, two captives seated at sides of trophy

Silver denarius, RIC 346, BMC 730, RSC 177, EF, 3.72g, 18.9mm, 0o, Laodicea ad Mare mint, 201 A.D. light toning

I've been looking for a good "Trophy" reverse for a while, and this one fit the bill perfectly. Ex Forum
1 commentsjimwho523
coins124.JPG
201. Septimius Severus14 viewsPax

In Roman mythology, Pax (Latin for peace) (she had the Greek equivalent Eirine) was recognized as a goddess during the rule of Augustus. On the Campus Martius, she had a temple called the Ara Pacis, and another temple on the Forum Pacis. She was depicted in art with olive branches, a cornucopia and a scepter. There was a festival in her honor on January 3.

Septimius Severus 193-211AD

Denarius 3.15g Obv: Head of Septimius Severus right 'L SEPT SEV PERT AVG IMP VIII' Rev: Pax seated left holding a branch and scepter 'P M TR P V COS II PP'

ecoli
BOTLAUREL_2011.JPG
201161 viewsTHIS YEAR'S WINNERS
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*Alex
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201242 viewsTHIS YEAR'S WINNERS
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*Alex
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201343 viewsTHIS YEAR'S WINNERS
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201452 viewsTHIS YEAR'S WINNERS
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*Alex
2014-051-1_ProbusAdventusAvg-Forum.jpg
2014.051.126 viewsCyzicus; 4.60 g

Obverse: VIRTVS PROBI AVG Probus, radiated, wearing helmet, cuirassed with drapery on right shoulder, facing left, holding spear in right hand and shield decorated with Emperor on horseback right surrounded by soldiers carrying shields.
Reverse: ADVENTUS PROBI AVG; A in exergue; Emperor on horseback left, r. hand raised, l. holding scepter, captive on ground before (on left) seated left.
Ref: RIC 904; Pink VI/I pg 43.
gordian_guy
2014-051-2_ProbusVirtusProbiAvgMars-Forum.jpg
2014.051.247 viewsSiscia, 3.66 g

Obverse: IMP C M AVR PROBVS P AVG; Probus radiate with helmet left, seen from the back, holding spear, decorated shield slung over back; strap across right shoulder; shield decorated with Emperor on horseback charging left, holding spear appearing to impale bound captive seated left.
Reverse: VIRTVS PROBI AVG XXIS in exergue; Mars striding left holding spear in right, and trophy over left shoulder.
Ref: cf RIC 816 [bust type not listed in RIC]; This bust type not listed in Alfoldi under Type 96, for this Officina
gordian_guy
2014-051-3_ProbusRomaeAternaeRomaTemple-Forum.jpg
2014.051.341 viewsSiscia, 3.25 g

Obverse: IMP C M AVR PROBVS PF AVG; Radiate, wearing helmet, cuirassed bust right; holding spear in right over right shoulder; shield with Pegasus left and other decorations on left shoulder.
Reverse: ROMAE AETERNAE; XXIP in exergue; Roma seated left in hexa-style temple; holding globe(?) in extended right; scepter in left; shield beneath seat; wreath in pediment.
Ref: RIC 739; Alfoldi Type 60, no 14, though type 14 does not show the same decorated shield, only Pegasus shown and not additional decorations.
gordian_guy
2014-051-4_ProbusRomaeAternaeRomaTemple-Forum.jpg
2014.051.428 viewsSiscia; 3.90 g

Obverse: IMP C M AVR PROBVS AVG; Probus, radiated, helmet, cuirassed bust right; spear in right hand over right shoulder; shield decorated with Medusa head (Gorgon) on left shoulder, strap across chest;
Reverse: ROMAE AETERNAE; XXIS in exergue; Roma seated left in hexa-style temple; holding in extended right hand Victory standing left; scepter in left; shield beneath seat; wreath in pediment.
Ref: RIC 737; Alfoldi Type 61, no 27
gordian_guy
2014-051-5_ProbusAdventusProbiAvg-Forum.jpg
2014.051.521 viewsSerdica; 4.48 g

Obverse: VIRTVS PROBI AVG; Probus, radiate, helmet, cuirassed, Medusa (Gorgon) head on breast plate, bust right; spear in right hand over right shoulder; shield decorated with Pegasus left and globules, over left shoulder.
Reverse: ADVENTVS PROBI AVG; KADelta in exergue; Probus on horseback left; right hand raised in salute; scepter in left; captive on ground before on left.
Ref: RIC 837; cf Pink, Gysen, 4th Emission
gordian_guy
2014-054-1_ProbusSalusAvg-Forum.jpg
2014.054.114 viewsRome, 4.00 g

Obverse: IMP C M AVR PROBVS AVG; Radiate, cuirassed bust right.
Reverse: SALVS AVG; XXIS in exergue; Salus standing left, holding scepter in left and feeding snake rising from altar from patera in right.
Ref: RIC 744 (under Siscia); Re-attributed to Rome by Pink V1/1, 1st Emission.
gordian_guy
2014-054-2_ProbusSalusAvg-Forum.jpg
2014.054.217 viewsTicinum, 4.13 g

Obverse: VIRTVS PROBI AVG; Radiate, helmeted, cuirassed burst left; in right hand spear, over right shoulder; Shield on left shoulder.
Reverse: SALVS AVG; V|*/TXX; Salus standing right holding snake and feeding it from patera in left hand. [Snake has an interesting beaded neck!]
Ref: RIC 500. Pink V1/1, pg 67, 10th Emission 282 AD [One of the EQVITI coins]
gordian_guy
2014-054-3_ProbusSalusAvg-Forum.jpg
2014.054.314 viewsSiscia, 4.30 g

Obverse: IMP C PROBVS AVG; Radiated, cuirassed bust right.
Reverse: SALVS AVG; XXIS in exergue; Salus seated left, feeding snake from patera in right; altar before on left.
Ref: RIC 754; Alfoldi Type 63, no 1.
gordian_guy
2014-054-4_ProbusSalusAvg-Forum.jpg
2014.054.417 viewsSiscia, 4.03 g

Obverse: IMP PROBVS PF AVG; Radiate, cuirassed bust right.
Reverse: SALVS AVG; |Q/XXI; Salus standing right holding snake and feeding it from patera in left hand.
Ref: RIC 748; Alfoldi Type 65, no 19
gordian_guy
2014-054-5_ProbusComitiProbiAvg-Forum.jpg
2014.054.512 viewsLugdunum (Lyon), 3.48 g

Obverse: IMP C PROBVS PF AVG; Radiate, cuirassed, bust right.
Reverse: COMITI PROBI AVG; I in exergue; Minerva standing left; holds branch in raised right hand; spear in left, which is resting on shield set on ground.
Ref: RIC 69; Bastien 316
gordian_guy
2014-054-6_ProbusMarsVictor-Forum.jpg
2014.054.613 viewsLugdunum (Lyon); 4.11 g

Obverse: IMP C PROBVS PF AVG; Radiate, draped, bust right.
Reverse: MARS VICTOR; III in exergue; Mars nude, striding right; holds spear in right and trophy in left over left shoulder.
Ref: 84; Bastien 287
gordian_guy
2014-054-7_ProbusVictoriaAvg-Forum.jpg
2014.054.719 viewsRome; 4.18 g

Obverse: IMP PROBVS PF AVG; Radiate, cuirassed bust right.
Reverse: VICTORIA AVG; RWreathS in exergue; Victory walking left holding wreath in extended right hand and trophy in left.
Ref: RIC 213; Pink V1/1 pg 57, 5th emission.
gordian_guy
2014-054-8_ProbusRomaeAeter-Forum.jpg
2014.054.812 viewsRome; 3.74 g

Obverse: IMP PROBVS PF AVG; Radiate, wearing Imperial Mantle, right; holding eagle tipped scepter in right.
Reverse: ROMAE AETER; RThunderboldDelta in exergue; Roma seated in hexa-style temple; holding victory in left and scepter in right.
Ref: RIC 183; Pink V1/1 pg 46, 6th emission
gordian_guy
2014-054-9_ProbusTemporumFelicitas-Forum.jpg
2014.054.912 viewsLugdunum (Lyon), 4.41 g

Obverse: IMP C M AVR PROBVS AVG; Radiate, cuirassed, bust right.
Reverse: TEMPORVM FELICITAS; I in exergue; Felicitas in a long gown, standing facing, head right; caduceus in right; cornucopia in left.
Ref: RIC 52; Bastien 176.
gordian_guy
2014-058-1_ProbusVirtusAugusti-Forum.jpg
2014.058.122 viewsRome, 4.71 g

Obverse: IMP C M AVR PROBVS AVG; Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right.
Reverse: VIRTVS AVGVSTI; RB in exegue; Emperor, in military dress, standing left, spear in right hand, crowning trophy on left, captive on left seated left, looking back.
Ref: cf RIC 243 [Bust type not listed]; Pink V1/1, pg 55, 2nd emission, 277 AD
gordian_guy
2014-058-2_ProbusVirtusAug-Forum.jpg
2014.058.215 viewsTicinum, 3.39 g

Obverse: IMP C PROBVS PF AVG; Radiate, cuirassed bust right.
Reverse: VIRTVS AVG; QXXT in exergue; Soldier standing left; holds Victory in extended right hand; spear in left, resting on shield.
Ref: RIC 436; Pink V1/1, pg 63, 4nd emission 278 AD
gordian_guy
2014-058-3_ProbusConcordiaMilitum-Forum.jpg
2014.058.37 viewsCyzicus, 3.81 g

Obverse: IMP C M AVR PROBVS AVG; Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from back.
Reverse: CONCORDIA MILITVM; T/XXIMC; Emperor, on right, standing left; holds spear in left and extending right hand, receiving wreath from Victory on left, standing right; wreath in raised right hand and palm in left.
Ref: cf RIC 908 [Bust/Inscription combination not listed]
gordian_guy
2014-058-4_ProbusConcordMilit-Forum.jpg
2014.058.412 viewsSiscia, 4.89 g

Obverse: IMP PROBVS INV AVG; Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from back.
Reverse: CONCORD MILIT; e/XXI; Emperor on left, facing right, clasping hands with Concordia on right standing left.
Ref: RIC 657; Alfoldi Type 26, no 178
gordian_guy
2014-058-5_ProbusConcordiaAug-Forum.jpg
2014.058.511 viewsSiscia, 3.80 g

Obverse: IMP PROBVS PF AVG; Radiate, cuirassed bust right.
Reverse: CONCORDIA AVG; |T/XXI; Concordia, standing left, holding patera in extended right hand and double cornucopia in left.
Ref: RIC 661; Alfoldi Type 22, no 23
gordian_guy
2014-058-6_ProbusPMTRPCOSPP-Forum.jpg
2014.058.615 viewsRome, 2.71 g

Obverse: IMP C M AVR PROBVS AVG; Radiate, cuirassed bust right.
Reverse: P M TR P COS PP; XXIGamma in exergue; Emperor standing left between two ensigns, right hand raised; scepter in left.
Ref: RIC 607; Pink V1/1, pg 55, 1st emission, 277 AD
gordian_guy
2014-060-1_ProbusAdventusAug-Forum.jpg
2014.060.112 viewsSiscia, 3.67 g

Obverse: IMP C M AVR PROBVS P AVG; Radiate, wearing Imperial Mantle, left; holding scepter surmounted by eagle.
Reverse: ADVENTVS AVG; XXIVI; Emperor on horseback left, right hand raised spear in left.
Ref: Ric 629; Alfoldi Type 5, no. 70;
gordian_guy
2014-060-10_ProbusClementiaTemp-Forum.jpg
2014.060.1019 viewsTripolis, 3.50 g

Obverse: IMP C M AVR PROBVS PF AVG; Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from back.
Reverse: CLEMENTIA TEMP •; */XXI; Emperor on right, standing left, holding scepter in left and receiving globe from Jupiter on left, standing right, holding scepter.
Ref: RIC 927;
gordian_guy
2014-060-11_ProbusRestitutOrbis-Forum.jpg
2014.060.1114 viewsAntioch, 3.70g

Obverse: IMP C M AVR PROBVS PF AVG; Radiated, draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from back.
Reverse: RESTITVT ORBIS; E/XXI; Female on left, standing right, presenting wreath to Emperor, on right, standing left, holding globe in extended right and scepter in left.
Ref: RIC 925; Pink V1/1, pg 28, 2nd emission, 280 AD
gordian_guy
2014-060-2_ProbusProvidentAug-Forum.jpg
2014.060.218 viewsTicinum, 4.08 g

Obverse: IMP C PROBVS AVG; Radiate, cuirassed burt right.
Reverse: PROVIDENT AVG; BXXI; Providential standing left, holding globe in extended right and transverse scepter in left.
Ref: RIC 552;
gordian_guy
2014-060-3_ProbusRomaeAeter-Forum.jpg
2014.060.315 viewsRome, 4.01 g

Obverse: PROBVS PF AVG; Radiated, wearing Imperial Mantle, left, holding scepter surmounted by eagle.
Reverse: ROMAE AETER; RThunderboldDelta; Roma Seated in hexastyle temple, holding Victory and scepter.
Ref: RIC 187; Pink V1/1 pg 57, 6th Emission, 280 AD
gordian_guy
2014-060-4_ProbusRomaeAeter-Forum.jpg
2014.060.441 viewsRome, 4.64 g

Obverse: IMP PROBVS AVG; Radiated, wearing Imperial Mantle, left, holding scepter surmounted by eagle.
Reverse: ROMAE AETER; RCrescentB; Roma Seated in hexastyle temple, holding Victory and scepter.
Ref: RIC 185; Pink V1/1 pg 57, 4th Emission, 279 AD
gordian_guy
2014-060-5_ProbusConcordiaMilit-Forum.jpg
2014.060.516 viewsSiscia, 3.96 g

Obverse: IMP PROBVS PF AVG; Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from back.
Reverse: CONCORDIA MILIT; T/XXI; Emperor on left facing right, clasping hands with Concordia on right standing left.
Ref: RIC 666; Alfoldi Type 23, no. 43;
gordian_guy
2014-060-6_ProbusRestitutOrbis-Forum.jpg
2014.060.615 viewsSiscia, 3.54 g

Obverse: IMP C PROBVS PF AVG; Radiate, cuirassed bust right.
Reverse: RESTITVT ORBIS; */XXIT; Emperor on right standing left, holding globe in extended right and scepter in left; on left, standing right, female presenting wreath.
Ref: RIC 733; Alfoldi Type 57, no. 50;
gordian_guy
2014-060-7_ProbusAequitasAug-Forum.jpg
2014.060.710 viewsRome, 3.62 g

Obverse: IMP C M AVR PROBVS AVG; Radiate, cuirassed bust right.
Reverse: AEQVITAS AVG; |Gamma/XXI; Aequitas, standing left, holding scales in right and cornucopia in left.
Ref: RIC 150; Pink V1/1, pg 42, 1st emission, 276 AD
gordian_guy
2014-060-8_ProbusMarsVictor-Forum.jpg
2014.060.814 viewsLugdunum (Lyon), 3.96 g

Obverse: IMP C PROBVS PF AVG; Radiate, cuirassed bust right.
Reverse: MARS VICTOR; III; Mars striding right; holds spear in right and trophy in left, over left shoulder.
Ref: RIC 84; Bastien 288;
gordian_guy
2014-060-9_ProbusConcordiaAug-Forum.jpg
2014.060.918 viewsSiscia, 4.00g

Obverse: IMP PROBVS PF AVG; Radiate, helmeted, bust left; in right hand spear over right shoulder, shield on left shoulder.
Reverse: CONCORDIA AVG; |VII/XXI; Concordia standing left, holding patera in extended right hand and double cornucopia in left.
Ref: RIC 661; Alfoldi Type 22, no. 50;
gordian_guy
2014-061-1_ProbusVirtusProbiAug-Forum.jpg
2014.061.150 viewsSiscia, 3.78 g

Obverse: IMP C M AVR PROBVS PF AVG; Radiate, cuirassed, bust left, seen from back, spear in right hand, to right, shield over left shoulder;
Reverse: VIRTVS PROBI AVG; XXIT in exergue; Trophy, 2 oval shields, standing between two captives seated back-to-back.
Ref: RIC 820; cf Alfoldi Type 101, no. 55 (For officiana 4)
2 commentsgordian_guy
2014-061-10_ProbusSoliInvicto-Forum.jpg
2014.061.1015 viewsSerdica, 3.85 g

Obverse: IMP C M AVR PROBVS AVG; Radiate, wearing Imperial Mantle, bust left, holding in right scepter surmounted by eagle.
Reverse: SOLI INVICTO; KAA in exergue; Sol, facing, head left, in quadriga; right hand extended; whip in left; wheels visible.
Ref: RIC 862; Pink VI/1, pg 45, 4th emission, 277 AD;
gordian_guy
2014-061-2_ProbusSisciaProbiAug-Forum.jpg
2014.061.245 viewsSiscia, 3.80 g

Obverse: IMP C M AVR PROBVS AVG; Radiate, cuirassed bust right.
Reverse: SISCIA PROBI AVG; XXIT in exergue; Siscia, seated left, holding out the ends of her drapery, flanked by two river gods (Savus and Colapis) holding urns and emerging from the water.
Ref: RIC 765; Alfoldi Type 69, no 3;
3 commentsgordian_guy
2014-061-3_ProbusPMTRIPCOSIIPP-Forum.jpg
2014.061.321 viewsSiscia, 3.64 g

Obverse: IMP C M AVR PROBVS PF AVG; Radiate, wearing Imperial Mantle, bust left, holding scepter surmounted by eagle.
Reverse: P M TRI P COS II PP; XXIS in exergue; Lion, walking left, before him, on left, an ox head.
Ref: RIC 611; Alfoldi Type 44, no. 22;
gordian_guy
2014-061-4_ProbusConservatAug-Forum.jpg
2014.061.423 viewsSiscia, 4.28 g

Obverse: IMP C M AVR PROBVS PF AVG; Radiate, cuirassed bust left, spear in right hand over right shoulder; shield on left shoulder.
Reverse: CONSERVAT AVG; XXIVI in exergue; Sol standing right, head left; right hand raised; globe in left hand.
Ref: RIC 670; cf Alfoldi Type 27, no. 71 [For officiana 5]
gordian_guy
2014-061-5_ProbusConcordiaMilit-Forum.jpg
2014.061.540 viewsSiscia, 3.61 g

Obverse: IMP C M AVR PROBVS PF AVG; Radiated, cuirassed bust left; spear in right hand over right shoulder.
Reverse: CONCORD MILIT; V/XXI; Emperor, on left, standing right, clasping hand with Concordia, on right standing left.
Ref: RIC 650; Alfoldi Type 26, no 133;
gordian_guy
2014-061-6_ProbusFidesMilit-Forum.jpg
2014.061.615 viewsTicinum, 4.21 g

Obverse: VIRTVS PROBI AVG; Radiated, helmet, cuirassed bust left; spear in right hand over right shoulder; shield on left shoulder.
Reverse: FIDES MILIT; VIXXT in exergue; Fides, standing left, with two ensigns.
Ref: RIC 366;
gordian_guy
2014-061-7_ProbusPMTRIPCOSIIPP-Forum.jpg
2014.061.738 viewsSiscia, 3.25 g

Obverse: IMP C M AVR PROBVS PF AVG; Radiate, cuirassed bust left; spear in right hand over right shoulder; shield on left shoulder.
Reverse: P M TRI P COS II PP; XXIS in exergue; Lion, radiate, walking right with thunderbolt in mouth.
Ref: RIC 611; Alfoldi Type 45, no. 10;
2 commentsgordian_guy
2014-061-8_ProbusSoliInvicto-Forum.jpg
2014.061.824 viewsSiscia, 3.89 g

Obverse: IMP C M AVR PROBVS PF AVG; Radiate, wearing Imperial Mantle, bust left, holding scepter surmounted by eagle.
Reverse: SOLI INVICTO; T/XXI; Sol, facing front, in quadriga; right hand raised; in left globe and whip.
Ref: RIC 776; Alfoldi Type 73, no 37;
2 commentsgordian_guy
2014-061-9_ProbusVictoriaGerm-Forum.jpg
2014.061.912 viewsRome, 4.66 g

Obverse: IMP PROBVS PF AVG; Radiate, cuirassed bust right.
Reverse: VICTORIA GERM; RWreathA in exergue; Trophy standing between two captive seated back to back;
Ref: RIC 220; Pink VI/1, pg 57, 5th Emission, 280 AD;
gordian_guy
2014-080-2_DenSeptSevEmesaTPRIIIIMPVCOSIICaptive-Forum.jpg
2014.080.236 viewsEmesa, Syria; 2.84 g

Obverse: IMP CAE L SEP SEV • PER[T] • AVG COS II; Laureate, bust right.
Reveres: • T • R• P• III • IMP • V • COS • ΓI • [First I looks like a Gamma]; Captive, wearing peaked hat, seated right, slightly bent forward, right leg extended, left leg drawn back, arms bound behind, (or just right, with left arm resting on left knee and head on left hand); at feet, bow, quiver, round shield and left shield.
Ref: cf RIC 433 and 434; cf BMC 405-407
Different obverse die from RIC and BMC examples.
Per discussions with Maridvnvm I have added a T tentatively to the end of PERT.
1 commentsgordian_guy
2014-080-5_ProbusTicinumConservatAvgSol-Forum.jpg
2014.080.534 viewsTicinum, 3.76 g

Obverse: VIRTVS PROBI AVG; Radiate, wearing helmet, cuirassed bust left, seen from back; in right hand pointing left a spear; shield decorated with floret, slung across left shoulder.
Reverse: CONSERVAT AVG; TXXT in exergue; Sol, radiate and nude but for chlamys draped over shoulder and left arm, standing facing, head left; right hand raised, holding globe in extended left hand.
Ref: RIC 351;
2 commentsgordian_guy
2014-084-1_AurelianMilanRomaeAeternae-Forum.jpg
2014.084.122 viewsMilan, 4.07 g; 6h

Obverse: IMP AVRELIANVS AVG; Radiate, cuirassed, bust right.
Reverse: ROMAE AETE-RNAE; -/-//Q; Emperor, on left, standing right, before Roma, on right seated left on shield, holding Victory in extended right hand; in left hand scepter.
Ref: RIC 142; BnF XII 480-483, Emission 3 (Autumn 271-Autumn 272); RIC V,1 online, T-1476;
1 commentsgordian_guy
2014-084-2_AurelianSerdicaSoliInvictoMedusa-Forum.jpg
2014.084.251 viewsSerdica, 4.31 g; 12h

Obverse: IMP AVRELIANVS AVG; Radiate, cuirassed, bust right; breastplate decorated with head of Medusa.
Reverse: SOLI - I-NVICTO; -/-//XXI•T •; Sol, nude, but for chlamys wrapped around shoulders and left arm, trailing behind, walking left, right hand raised, left holding whip, on each side bound captives, in oriental dress, seated back to back; captive on right looking back to left.
Ref: cf RIC 311 for type but different obverse inscription; BnF pg. 398; RIC V,1 online T-2715; Emission 7 (April-November 274)
Notes: This obverse die is a match to RIC V,1 online T-2723 Medusa-head example.
3 commentsgordian_guy
2014-084-3_AurelianCyzicusOriensAvg-Forum.jpg
2014.084.321 viewsCyzicus, 3.32 g; 6h

Obverse: AVRELIANVS AVG; Radiate, cuirassed, bust right.
Reveres: ORIE-N-S AVG; -/-//ΓC; Sol, nude, but for chlamys draped around shoulders and left arm, advancing left; right hand raised; globe in extended left hand; on each side bound captives seated back to back.
Ref: RIC 365; RIC V,1 online T-3024, Emission 8 (Spring 273-Spring 274);
gordian_guy
2014-088-1_CarinusRomeAequitasAvg-Forum.jpg
2014.088.128 viewsRome, 3.28 g; 12h

Obverse: IMP CARINVS PF AVG; Radiate, cuirassed, bust right.
Reverse: AEQVITAS AVG; -/-//KAZ; Aequitas, standing left, holding scales in right hand and cornucopia in left.
Ref: RIC V,2 236
gordian_guy
2014-096-2_AurelianSisciaFortunaReduxFortuna-Forum.jpg
2014.096.228 viewsSiscia, 6.25 g; 1h

Obverse: IMP AVRELIANVS AVG; Radiated, cuirassed bust right, seen from back.
Reverse: FORTVNA - REDVS; -/-//*T; Fortuna, seated left on a wheel, holding rudder in right and cornucopia in left.
Ref: RIC 220; Estiot LV 6143-6173; BnF XII, 738-740; LV 1046; RIC V,1 online T-2061;
gordian_guy
2014-105-4_AE18MacedoniaAlexanderIIIClubBowInCase-Forum.jpg
2014.105.441 viewsAlexander III, The Great, Uncertain Macedonian Mint (336-323 BC)

AE18; 5.91 g; 6h

Obverse: Head of Heracles right, wearing lion's skin.
Reverse: ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ, between club and bow in case.
Ref: Price 266; SNG Munich Part 10/11 827;
1 commentsgordian_guy
2014-105-5_AE15MacedoniaAlexanderIIIHorseRight-Forum.jpg
2014.105.537 viewsAlexander III, The Great, Uncertain Macedonian Mint (336-323 BC)

AE15; 3.66 g; 7h

Obverse: Male head right, wearing Taenia.
Reverse: ΑΛΕΞΑΝ[ΔΡΟΥ]; Horse advancing right. Below E.
Ref: Price 356;
2 commentsgordian_guy
2014-105-6_AE18AsiaMinorAlexanderTheGreatBowInCaseClub-Forum.jpg
2014.105.637 viewsAlexander III, The Great, Uncertain Mint Western Asia Minor (c. 323 - c. 310 BC)

AE18; 5.71 g; 3h

Obverse: Head of Heracles right, wearing lion's skin.
Reverse: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ, between bow in decorated case and club, torch to left in exergue.
Ref: Price 2800(f); SNG Munich 919;
1 commentsgordian_guy
2014-141-10_AntProbusLugdunumPAXAVGPax-Forum.jpg
2014.141.1049 viewsLugdunum 3.71 g

Obverse: IMP C PROBVS AVG; Radiate, cuirassed bust, right.
Reverse: PA-X - A-VG; IIII, in exegure; Pax, standing left, holding olive branch and scepter.
Ref: RIC 91; Bastien 367;
2 commentsgordian_guy
2014-141-11_AntProbusLugdunumPIETASAVGPietas-Forum.jpg
2014.141.1134 viewsLugdunum; 3.00 g

Obverse: IMP C PROBVS •P•F•AVG; Radiate, cuirassed bust, right.
Reverse: PIETAS AVG; III in exergue; Pietas standing left by altar, holding patera and box of perfumes.
Ref: RIC 93; Bastien 354;
gordian_guy
2014-141-2_ARDrachmMiletosAlexanderTheGreatZerus-Forum.jpg
2014.141.245 viewsAlexander III, The Great, Miletos

AR Drachm; 20 mm; 4.00 g; 3h

Obverse: Head of Heracles right, wearing lion's skin.
Reverse: ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ; downward in right filed, Monogram in left field; Zeus seated left, holding eagle, standing right, in extended right hand; scepter in left.
Ref: Price 2151(a) [3h die axis]
1 commentsgordian_guy
2014-141-3_AE18_TarsusAlexanderTheGreatClubBowinBowcase-Forum.jpg
2014.141.329 viewsAlexander III, The Great, Tarsus

AE18; 5.60 g; 9h

Obverse: Head of Heracles right, wearing lion's skin, before Caduceus.
Reverse: ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ, between club and bow in case; above Caduceus, to left.
Ref: Price 3058; cf SNG Cop 1046-1047;
gordian_guy
2014-246-4_AE22ElaiousaSebasteHeadZeusNike-Forum.jpg
2014.246.426 viewsElaiousa-Sebaste (c. 150-50 BC)

AE22; 7.90 g; 12h;
Obverse: Head of Zeus right; ΑΡ behind.
Reverse: ΕΛΑ-ΙΟΥΣΙΩΝ downward in left field; Monogram off left edge of flan; Nike advancing right, holding wreath in extended right hand.
Ref: cf SNG France 1151;
gordian_guy
2014-246-5_AE23KelenderisCityGoddessApollo-Forum.jpg
2014.246.524 viewsKelenderis (2nd - 1st Century BC)

AE23; 7.29 g; 12h
Obverse: Turreted head of City Goddess right; ΙΣ, behind.
Reverse: ΚΕΛΕΝΔΕΡΙΤΩΝ, downward in right field; ΛΕ, in left field, uncertain Monogram left field(?); Apollo, nude, standing left, holding laurel branch in extended right hand; left elbow leaning on column surmounted by tripod.
Ref: cf SNG France 727-728, for similar types.
gordian_guy
2014-246-6_AE21KorykosCityGoddesHermes-Forum.jpg
2014.246.628 viewsCorycus (c. 150-50 BC)

AE21; 7.58 g; 12h
Obverse: Turreted head of City Goddess right. ΑΝ, behind
Reverse: ΔΙ/ΝΙ/ΑΝ, in three lines in left field magistrates initials; ΚΩΡΥΚΙΩΤΩΝ, downward in right field; Hermes, nude except for chlamys fastened around neck and hanging over left arm, and wearing petasos, and winged sandals, standing left; pater in extended right hand; caduceus in left.
Ref: cf SNG France 1086-1093;
gordian_guy
BOTLAUREL_2015.JPG
201545 viewsTHIS YEAR'S WINNERS
CLICK ON A COIN FOR ITS DETAILS

*Alex
Elizabeth_2_2_Pounds_2015.JPG
2015 ELIZABETH II DECIMAL Bimetallic TWO POUNDS7 viewsObverse: ELIZABETH II DEI.GRA.REG.FID.DEF.2015. Diademed head of Elizabeth II facing right.
Reverse: TWO POUNDS. Three quarter helmeted bust of Britannia facing right, shield at her side, right hand holding trident over her shoulder.
Edge: QUATUOR MARIA VINDICO.
Diameter 28.4mm | Weight 15.97gms

This is the fifth portrait of Queen Elizabeth II to be used on circulating UK coinage since she was crowned in 1953. It was designed by (Mr) Jody Clark and was introduced in March 2015 to replace the previous portrait on all circulating UK coins. The Royal diadem which the Queen is shown wearing on this coin is the one she wears on her way to and from the State Opening of Parliament.

This 2015 two pound coin welcomed Britannia back onto circulating UK coinage, Britannia having not featured on any UK circulating coin after she was removed from the reverse of 50p coins in 2008. The new portrait of Britannia was designed by sculptor Antony Dofort and is meant to present Britannia in a modern era.
The edge legend of "QUATUOR MARIA VINDICO" meaning "I claim the four seas" first appeared as a reverse legend on coins bearing a Britannia design during the reign of Charles II, but those coins were patterns or prototypes which were never issued for general circulation.
*Alex
2015_highlights.jpg
2015 Highlights56 viewsHere are a few of my favorite acquisitions from 2015. To see detailed descriptions of each coin, click on a title below. Thanks for checking out my gallery and may everyone have a happy and safe New Year!

Lucius Marcius Philippus, RSC Marcia 28
Vespasian, RIC 1558
Domitian, RIC Vesp 957
Trajan, RIC 212
Trajan, RIC 222
Hadrian, RIC 129c
Hadrian, RIC 247i
Marcus Aurelius, RIC 291
Septimius Severus, RIC 494
Caracalla, RIC 120
Elagabalus, RIC 88
Severus Alexander, RIC 178
Volusian, McAlee 1192/1193 variety

Matt Inglima
BOTLAUREL_2016.JPG
201654 viewsTHIS YEAR'S WINNERS
CLICK ON A COIN FOR ITS DETAILS

*Alex
BOTLAUREL_2017.JPG
201767 viewsTHIS YEAR'S WINNERS
CLICK ON A COIN FOR ITS DETAILS

*Alex
BOTLAUREL_2018.JPG
201874 viewsTHIS YEAR'S WINNERS
CLICK ON A COIN FOR ITS DETAILS



*Alex
BOTLAUREL_2019.JPG
201939 viewsTHIS YEAR'S WINNERS
CLICK ON A COIN FOR ITS DETAILS

*Alex
coins127.JPG
201a. Julia Domna11 viewsVesta

Vesta was introduced in Rome by King Numa Pompilius. She was a native Roman deity (some authors suggest received from the Sabine cults), sister of Zeus, Poseidon, Hades, Hera and Demeter, and presumably the daughter of Saturn and Ops (or Rea). However, the similarity with the cult of Greek Hestia is notable. Vesta too protected familial harmony and the res publica. Apollo and Neptune had asked for her in marriage, but she refused both, preferring to preserve her virginity, whose symbol was the perpetually lit fire in her circular fane next to the Forum which the Romans always distinguished from a temple by calling it her "house".

As Goddess of the Hearth she was the symbol of the home, around which a newborn child must be carried before it could be received into the family. Every meal began and ended with an offering to her:

Vesta, in all dwellings of men and immortals
Yours is the highest honor, the sweet wine offered
First and last at the feast, poured out to you duly.
Never without you can gods or mortals hold banquet.

Landscape with Vesta temple in Tivoli, Italy, c. 1600.Each city too had a public hearth sacred to Vesta, where the fire was never allowed to go out. If a colony was to be founded, the colonists carried with them coals from the hearth of the mother-city with which to kindle the fire on the new city's hearth.

The fire was guarded by her priestesses, the Vestales. Every March 1 the fire was renewed. It burned until 391, when the Emperor Theodosius I forbade public pagan worship. One of the Vestales was Rea Silvia, who with Mars conceived Romulus and Remus (see founding of Rome).

3070. Silver denarius, RIC 538, RSC 221, VF, 2.30g, 17.5mm, 0o, Rome mint, 193-196 A.D.; obverse IVLIA DOMNA AVG, draped bust right; reverse VESTA, Vesta seated left, holding palladium and scepter. Ex Forum
ecoli
rjb_diad1_04_06.jpg
21836 viewsDiadumenian 218 AD
AE 28 mm
Nikopolis in Moesia Inferior
Apollo standing left
AMNG 1810 (for obv.), AMNG 1688 var. (for rev., Macrinus)
[Thanks to Jochen for the ref, I came across his die duplicate example in the gallery here

mauseus
22088.jpg
22088 Antonius Pius/Providentia8 viewsAntoninus Pius/Providentia
AE Dupondius. 156-157 AD.
Obv: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS PP IMP II,
radiate head right
Rev: TR POT XIX COS IIII S-C,
Providentia, standing left, pointing with right hand at large globe and holding scepter
Mint: Rome
Believe similar to Philoromaos on Forums Gallery reverse.
RIC 953, Cohen 978.
Blayne W
Max-I-Pax-Ric12.jpg
235 AD - Maximinus I - 235-236 AD - Pax Denarius341 viewsIMP MAXIMINVS PIVS AVG, laureate draped and cuirassed bust right;
PAX AVGVSTI, Pax standing left holding branch and scepter;

Silver denarius, RIC 12, choice EF, 2.62g, 20.6mm, 0o, Rome mint, 235-236 A.D. nicely centered, flat area on obverse drapery ex Scott Collection; from Forum
4 commentsjimwho523
RIC_293_AR_Denario_TRAJANO_FORUM_b.jpg
24-05 - TRAJANO (98 - 171 D.C.) 13 viewsAR Denario 21 mm 3,22 gr. 6 hr.

Anv: "IMP TRAIANO AVG GER DAC P M TR P COS VI P P" - Busto laureado viendo a derecha, leve ropaje en hombro izquierdo.
Rev: "SPQR OPTIMO PRINCIPI" - Columna de Trajano

La Columna de Trajano fue la gloria suprema del Foro Traiani, construido con el botín de las Guerras de Dacia. Cubierto por un continuo friso de los acontecimientos de la guerra, la columna fue coronada con una estatua heroica dorada del emperador, mientras que una inscripción en la base relataba la proeza de la ingeniería en la construcción del foro. Después de la muerte de Trajano, la columna se convirtió en el depósito de sus cenizas.

Acuñada 112 - 114 D.C.
Ceca: Roma

Referencias: RIC Vol.II #293 Pag.264 - RSC Vol.II #558a Pag. 100 - BMCRE #451 Pag.94 - Cohen Vol.II #558 var Pag.76 - DVM #32/30 Pag.121 - Sear RCTV Vol.II #3106 var Pag.98 - Hill #618 - Bauten Roms #50 - MIR #425b - CBN #746
mdelvalle
249-3_Maenia.jpg
249/3. Maenia - quadrans (133 BC)13 viewsAE Quadrans (Rome, 132 BC)
O/ Head of Hercules right, wearing lion's skin; 3 pellets behind.
R/ P MAE ANT M F above prow right; 3 pellets before; ROMA below.
4.65g, 19mm
Crawford 249/3 (28 specimens in Paris)
- Ex-Thersites Collection (bought on 18 April 1986)
- Roma Numismatics, e-sale 33, lot 336.

* Publius Maenius M.f. Antiaticus:

Antiaticus belonged to the plebeian gens Maenia, but his relatives are not known. Other Maenii are recorded in the 2nd century, such as Titus, Gaius, and Quintus Maenius, Praetors respectively in 186, 180, and 170, or Publius Maenius, moneyer in 194-190. However, Antiaticus mentioned on his coins that he was the son of Marcus, who is not known, and none of the aforementioned Maenii shared his cognomen.

Antiaticus must have therefore belonged to another branch of the gens, which descended from Gaius Maenius, Consul in 338, Dictator in 320 and 314, who defeated the Volsci by taking their city of Antium in 338, thus putting an end to the Second Latin War and also the conquest of Latium. The cognomen Antiaticus comes from this victory, for which Gaius Maenius was also rewarded by a statue on the Forum, possibly at the top of a column (Cicero, Pro Sestio, 58; Livy, VIII, 13).

The life of Antiaticus is still very obscure, and it seems he did not hold other office. He is only known through his coins.

Eckel read ME at the end of this legend and conjectured that it might have been the first letters of an agnomen Megellus or Medulinus (V, p. 240-1), but it seems very unlikely that a moneyer could have received an agnomen so early in his career. Perhaps Eckhel could not see good examples of this type; in any case, the legend on this coin clearly reads as MF, for "Marcus filius".
Joss
Conway-1-SEVERINA.jpg
274-275 AD - Severina Concordia69 viewsSEVERINA AVG - Diademed and draped bust right, resting on crescent
CONCORDIA AVGG - Emperor standing left, clasping hand of empress standing right, in exe sXXIR

Rome Mint; Ric-003
Nicely silvered, won the providentia award in the first Forum Cleaning Contest!

Ric-3 Cohen-2
jimwho523
355Hadrian_RIC290.jpg
290 Hadrian Denarius Roma 134-38 AD Hadrian standing not veiled28 viewsReference.
RIC 290var;

Obv. HADRIANVS-AVG COS III P P
Laureate head right

Rev. VOTA PVBLICA
Hadrian, standing facing, NOT veiled left, sacrificing out of patera over tripod.

3.23 gr
17 mm
6h

Note.
mostly he is standing veiled
http://www.forumancientcoins.com/gallery/displayimage.php?pos=-136433
1 commentsokidoki
53Hadrian__RIC290~0.jpg
290 Hadrian Denarius Roma 134-38 AD Hadrian standing veiled20 viewsReference.
RIC 290

Obv. HADRIANVS-AVG COS III P P
Laureate head right

Rev. VOTA PV_BLICA
Hadrian, standing facing, veiled left, sacrificing out of patera over tripod

3.29 gr
19 mm
6h

Note.
sometimes Hadrians without being vieled
http://www.forumancientcoins.com/gallery/displayimage.php?pos=-120404
okidoki
1293_P_Hadrian_Strack--_eastern.jpg
2995A Hadrian Denarius 125-28 AD Roma seated left Eastern Mint36 viewsReference.
RIC III, 2995A; RIC II -; BMC -; Strack *-- cf (Taf. XIX, 40 und XX, 14).

Bust B1

Obv. HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS
Laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right.

Rev. COS III
Roma seated left on curule chair holding Victory and sceptre

2.82 gr
17 mm
6h

Note.
Same obverse die as http://www.forumancientcoins.com/gallery/displayimage.php?pos=-149088
3 commentsokidoki
3_IMG_2423.JPG
3 Constans43 viewsBillon centenionalis of Constans
Antioch, officina 10; 348-350 CE
9mm x 21mm, 4.41g
D N CONSTA-NS P F AVG Pearl-diademed, draped, cuirassed bust left, globe in right hand.
FEL TEMP REPA-RATIO Helmeted soldier, spear in left hand, advancing right, head left; with his right hand he leads a small bare-headed figure from a hut beneath a tree. The spear points downwards, between the soldier's legs. Star in upper left field, ANI in ex
RIC VIII Antioch 128; LRBC 2615 BW Ref: 188 026 120

Ex moonmoth
forumancientcoins.com/moonmoth/coins/constans_188.html
3 commentsRandygeki(h2)
IMG_2291.JPG
3 Constans56 viewsConstans
Billon centenionalis 21mm, 4.3g
D N CONSTA-NS P F AVG Pearl diademed, draped, cuirassed bust left, globe in right hand./ FEL•TEMP•REPA-RATIO Helmeted soldier, spear in left hand, advancing right, head left; with his right hand he leads a small bare-headed figure from a hut beneath a tree. The spear points upwards and to the right.
Exergue: ΔSIS(Symbol 4)M

Siscia, officina 4; 348-350 CE

Ref: RIC VIII Siscia 218; LRBC 1121
BW Ref: 107 024 079

Ex Moonmoth collection
forumancientcoins.com/moonmoth/coins/constans_107.html
4 commentsRandygeki(h2)
IMG_2353.JPG
3 Constantius II35 viewsConstantius II
Billon centenionalis
Siscia, officina 3; 348-350 CE
22mm x 23mm, 4.74g
D N CONSTAN-TIVS P F AVG Pearl-diademed, draped, cuirassed bust left, globe in right hand.
Reverse: FEL•TEMP•REPA-RATIO
Helmeted soldier, spear in left hand, advancing right, head left; with his right hand he leads a small bare-headed figure from a hut beneath a tree. The spear points upwards and to the right.
Exergue: ΓSISR•

Ref: RIC VIII, similar to Siscia 221 but (a) different emperor; (b) the officina is unlisted and (c) this spear position is not listed for any mintmark ending in a dot.
BW Ref: 073 040 137

Ex Moonmoth
forumancientcoins.com/moonmoth/coins/constantius_ii_073.html
1 commentsRandygeki(h2)
IMG_2409.JPG
3 Constantius II35 viewsBillon centenionalis of Constantius II
Arelate, officina 1; 348-350 CE
19mm x 21mm, 2.78g.
D N CONSTAN-TIVS P F AVG Pearl-diademed, draped, cuirassed bust left, globe in right hand.
FEL TEMP REPAR-ATIO Helmeted soldier, spear in left hand, advancing right, head left; with his right hand he leads a small bare-headed figure from a hut beneath a tree. The spear points upwards and to the right. Star in upper left field.
Ex. PARL

RIC VIII Arles 108; LRBC 400 BW Ref: 089 054 169

ex moonmoth
forumancientcoins.com/moonmoth/coins/constantius_ii_089.html
1 commentsRandygeki(h2)
ConVIIAnt86.jpg
307-337 AD - Constantine I - RIC VII Antioch 086 - GLORIA EXERCITVS35 viewsEmperor: Constantine I (r. 307-337 AD)
Date: 330-335 AD
Condition: Very Fine
Size: AE4

Obverse: CONSTANTI-NVS MAX AVG
Bust right; rosette-diadem, draped and cuirassed

Reverse: GLOR-IA EXERC-ITVS
Two soldiers, helmeted, standing looking at one another, reversed spear in outer hand, inner hand on shield resting on ground; between them, one standard.
Exergue: SMAN; (Antioch mint, third officina)

RIC VII Antioch 86; VM 94
1.35g; 15.1mm; 135°
Pep
ConVIIIConst52.jpg
307-337 AD - Constantine I Posthumous - RIC VIII Constantinople 052 - Quadriga Reverse35 viewsEmperor: Constantine I (r. 307-337 AD)
Date: 337-340 AD
Condition: Fair
Size: AE4

Obverse: DV CONSTANTI-NVS PT AVGG
Posthumous issue
Bust right; veiled

Reverse: (no legend)
Emperor, veiled, to left in quadriga; the hand of God reaches down to him.
in field.
Exergue: CONS(?) (Constantinople mint, third officina?)

RIC VIII Constantinople 52; VM 95
1.27g; 14.8mm; 165°
Pep
03382z00.jpg
315. Quintillus110 viewsQuintillus, August or September - October or November 270 A.D.

Marcus Aurelius Claudius Quintillus (d. 270) was brother of the Roman Emperor Claudius II, and became the Emperor himself in 270.

Historia Augusta reports that he became Emperor in a coup d'état. Eutropius reports Quintillus to have been elected by soldiers of the Roman army immediately following the death of his brother. The choice was reportedly approved by the Roman Senate. Joannes Zonaras however reports him elected by the Senate itself.

Records however agree that the legions which had followed Claudius in campaigning along the Danube were either unaware or disapproving of Quintillus' elevation. They instead elevated their current leader Aurelian to the rank of Augustus. Historia Augusta reports Aurelian to have been chosen by Claudius himself as a successor, apparently in a deathbed decision.

The few records of Quintillus' reign are contradictory. They disagree on the length of his reign, variously reported to have lasted as few as 17 days and as many as 177 days (about six months). Records also disagree on the cause of his death. Historia Augusta reports him murdered by his own soldiers in reaction to his strict military discipline. Jerome reports him killed, persumably in conflict with Aurelian. John of Antioch and Joannes Zonaras reported Quintillus to have committed suicide by opening his veins and bleeding himself to death. John reports the suicide to have been assisted by a physician. Claudius Salmasius pointed that Dexippus recorded the death without stating causes. All records however agree in placing the death at Aquileia.

Quintillus was reportedly survived by his two sons.

Historia Augusta reports Claudius and Quintillus having another brother named Crispus and through him a niece, Claudia. who reportedly married Eutropius and was mother to Constantius Chlorus. Historians however suspect this account to be a genealogical fabrication to flatter Constantine the Great.

Surviving Roman records considered Quintillus a moderate and capable Emperor. He was seen as a champion of the Senate and thus compared to previous Emperors Servius Sulpicius Galba and Publius Helvius Pertinax. All three were highly regarded by Senatorial sources despite their failure to survive a full year of reign.

Bronze antoninianus, RIC 58, C-47, S 3246, EF, 3.37g, 19.9mm, 180o, Mediolanum mint, obverse IMP QVINTILLVS AVG, radiate and draped bust right; reverse MARTI PACI, Mars holding olive branch and spear, P in ex; found in England; Ex Forum
1 commentsecoli
CrisVIIArles235.jpg
316-326 AD - Crispus - RIC VII Arles 235 - CAESARVM NOSTRORVM29 viewsCaesar: Crispus (Caes. 316-326 AD)
Date: 321 AD
Condition: Very Fine
Denomination: Follis

Obverse: CRISPVS - NOB CAES
Crispus Noble Caesar
Bust right; laureate

Reverse: CAESARVM NOSTRORVM
VOT / V in laurel wreath.
The Prince of our people offers vows so that he may serve for a prosperous five years.
Exergue: TA (Arles mint, third officina)

RIC VII Arles 235; VM 9
3.44g; 19.6mm; 0°
Pep
CrisVIISis181.jpg
316-326 AD - Crispus - RIC VII Siscia 181 - CAESARVM NOSTRORVM25 viewsCaesar: Crispus (Caes. 316-326 AD)
Date: 321-324 AD
Condition: Fine/VF
Denomination: Follis

Obverse: IVL CRIS-PVS NOB C
Julius Crispus Noble Caesar
Bust right; laureate
Possible damnatio mark

Reverse: CAESARVM NOSTRORVM
VOT X in two lines inside laurel wreath.
The Prince of our people offers vows so that he may serve for a prosperous ten years.
Exergue: ASIS (Siscia mint, first officina)

RIC VII Siscia 181; VM 10
2.84g; 19.4mm; 195°
Pep
00103q00.jpg
316a. Severina75 viewsSilvered antoninianus, RIC 4, S 3285, VF, 3.60g, 23.2mm, Rome mint, obverse SEVERINA AVG, diademed and draped bust right on crescent; reverse CONCORDIAE MILITVM, Concordia holding two standards, A in right field, XXIR in ex; Ex-Forumecoli73
constantine II - ric.jpg
334 - 335 AD - Constantine II166 viewsConstantine II Bronze AE 3
Siscia mint, RIC 236, 334 - 335 A.D.
2.332g, 18.19mm, 180o
CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C, laureate and cuirassed bust right
GLOR-IA EXERC-ITVS, two soldiers, each holding spear and shield on ground, flanking two standards, (dot)ESIS(dot)in exe
beautiful green patina, aEF, Ex-Forum
4 commentsjimwho523
CtVIIIRome52.jpg
337-350 AD - Constans - RIC VIII Rome 052 - GLORIA EXERCITVS32 viewsEmperor: Constans (r. 337-350 AD)
Date: 337-340 AD
Condition: Fine
Size: AE3

Obverse: D N FL CONSTANS AVG
Our Lord Flavius Constans Emperor
Bust right; laurel and rosette-diademed, draped and cuirassed

Reverse: GLOR-IA EXERC-ITVS
Glory of the Army.
Two helmeted soldiers facing, heads turned towards each other; each holds an inverted spear and rests on a shield; between them, a standard.
Exergue: RS (Rome mint, second officina)

RIC VIII Rome 52
0.92g; 17.0mm; 165°
Pep
CtVIIISis93.jpg
337-350 AD - Constans - RIC VIII Siscia 093 - GLORIA EXERCITVS24 viewsEmperor: Constans (r. 337-350 AD)
Date: 337-340 AD
Condition: aVF
Size: AE3

Obverse: CONSTAN-S P F AVG
Constans Dutiful and Wise Emperor
Bust right; rosette-diademed, draped and cuirassed

Reverse: GLOR-IA EXERC-ITVS
Glory of the Army.
Two helmeted soldiers standing facing; heads turned towards each other; each holds an inverted spear and rests on a shield; between them, a standard with a Chi-Rho on the banner.
Exergue: ΓSIS (Siscia mint, third officina)

RIC VIII Siscia 93; VM 51
1.55g; 17.8mm; 15°
Pep
CtVIIISis192.jpg
337-350 AD - Constans - RIC VIII Siscia 192 - VICTORIAE DD AVGGQ NN26 viewsEmperor: Constans (r. 337-350 AD)
Date: 347-348 AD
Condition: Fine
Size: AE4

Obverse: CONSTAN-S P F AVG
Constans Dutiful and Wise Emperor
Bust right; rosette-diademed, draped and cuirassed

Reverse: VICTORIAE DD AVGGQ NN
The victories of our Lords and Emperors.
Two Victories standing facing one another, each holding wreath and palm.
"" in center field.
Exergue: ΓSIS (Siscia mint, third officina)

RIC VIII Siscia 192; VM 57
1.41g; 16.5mm; 15°
Pep
CSIIVIIIRome310.jpg
337-361 AD - Constantius II - RIC VIII Rome 310 - FEL TEMP REPARATIO34 viewsEmperor: Constantius II (r. 337-361 AD)
Date: 355-358 AD
Condition: VF
Size: AE3

Obverse: D N CONSTAN-TIVS P F AVG
Our Lord Constantius Dutiful and Wise Emperor
Bust right; laurel and rosette-diademed, draped and cuirassed

Reverse: FEL TEMP - REPARATIO
The restoration of happy times.
Helmeted soldier to left, shield on left arm, spearing fallen bare-headed horseman, shield on ground to right, horseman turns to face soldier and extends left arm.
Exergue: RQ (Rome mint, fourth officina)

RIC VIII Rome 310; VM 100
1.77g; 17.9mm; 195°
Pep
CsIIVIIISis194.jpg
337-361 AD - Constantius II - RIC VIII Siscia 194 - VICTORIAE DD AVGGQ NN39 viewsEmperor: Constantius II (r. 337-361 AD)
Date: 347-348 AD
Condition: Fine
Size: AE4

Obverse: CONSTANTI-VS P F AVG
Constantius Dutiful and Wise Emperor
Bust right; rosette-diademed, draped and cuirassed

Reverse: VICTORIAE DD AVGGQ NN
Two Victories standing facing one another, each holding wreath and palm.
in center field
Exergue: ?SIS (Siscia mint, unknown officina)

RIC VIII Siscia 194; VM 81
1.56g; 16.2mm; 30°
Pep
JulVIIISis370.jpg
355-360 AD - Julian II as Caesar - RIC VIII Siscia 370 - FEL TEMP REPARATIO21 viewsCaesar: Julian II (Caes. 355-360 AD)
Date: 355-358 AD
Condition: aFine
Size: AE4

Obverse: DN IVLIANVS NOB CAES
Our Lord Julian Noble Caesar
Bust right; bare-headed, draped and cuirassed

Reverse: FEL TEMP - REPARATIO
The restoration of happy times.
Helmeted soldier to left, shield on left arm, spearing falling horseman, shield on ground at right, horseman wears pointed cap, turns to face soldier and extends left arm.
"M" in left field
Exergue: ?SIS (Siscia mint, unknown officina)

RIC VIII Siscia 370
2.00g; 16.7mm; 30°
Pep
ValIIXSis5(a)v.jpg
364-375 AD - Valentinian I - RIC IX Siscia 05(a)[v] - GLORIA ROMANORVM37 viewsEmperor: Valentinian I (r. 364-375 AD)
Date: 364-367 AD
Condition: aVF
Size: AE3

Obverse: DN VALENTINI-ANVS PF AVG
Our Lord Valentinian Dutiful and Wise Emperor
Bust right; pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed

Reverse: GLORIA RO-MANORVM
Glory of the Romans.
Emperor advancing right, dragging captive with right hand and holding labarum (with ) in left.
"* / A" in right field
Exergue: ●ΓSISC (Siscia mint, third officina)

RIC IX Siscia 5(a)[v]; VM 42
2.50g; 17.4mm; 180°
Pep
ValensIXSis14(b)xxx.jpg
364-378 AD - Valens - RIC IX Siscia 14(b)xxx - GLORIA ROMANORVM35 viewsEmperor: Valens (r. 364-378 AD)
Date: 367-375 AD
Condition: aFine
Size: AE3

Obverse: DN VALEN-S PF AVG
Our Lord Valens Dutiful and Wise Emperor
Bust right; pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed

Reverse: GLORIA RO-MANORVM
Glory of the Romans.
Emperor advancing right, dragging captive with right hand and holding labarum in left.
"A" over "" in left field
"Q" in right field
Exergue: ASISE (Siscia mint, first officina)

RIC IX Siscia 14(b)xxx; VM46
2.45g; 17.8mm; 30°
Pep
GrIXSis31(a).jpg
367-383 AD - Gratian - RIC IX Siscia 31(a) - VOT | XV | MVLT | XX17 viewsEmperor: Gratian (r. 367-383 AD)
Date: 378-383 AD
Condition: Fine
Size: AE4

Obverse: DN GRATIA-NVS PF AVG
Our Lord Gratian Dutiful and Wise Emperor
Bust right; pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed

Reverse: VOT | XV | MVLT | XX in wreath.
Because of the vows, 15 years; through more
vows, 20 years.
Exergue: (?)(A?)SISC (Siscia mint, first officina?)

RIC IX Siscia 31(a); VM 52
1.37g; 14.9mm; 30°
Pep
ValIIIXAquil58(a).jpg
375-392 AD - Valentinian II - RIC IX Aquileia 58(a) - SALVS REIPVBLICAE38 viewsEmperor: Valentinian II (r. 375-392 AD)
Date: 388-392 AD
Condition: VF
Size: AE4

Obverse: DN VALENTINI-ANVS PF AVG
Our Lord Valentinian Dutiful and Wise Emperor
Bust right; pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed

Reverse: SALVS REI-PVBLICAE
The Republic is safe.
Victory advancing left, holding trophy on shoulder with right hand, dragging captive with left hand.
in left field.
Exergue: AQ(P or S) (Aquileia mint, first or second officina)

RIC IX Aquileia 58(a); VM 47
1.25g; 14.1mm; 210°
Pep
379-1_Procilia.jpg
379/1. Procilia - denarius (80 BC)8 viewsAR Denarius (Rome, 80 BC)
O/ Laureate head of Jupiter right; S C downwards behind.
R/ Juno Sospita standing right, holding shield and hurling spear; snake before; L PROCILI/F downwards behind.
3.57g
Crawford 379/1 (104 obverse dies/116 reverse dies)

* Lucius Procilius:

The life of Procilius is sparsely known. Besides, he is the only recorded member of the gens Procilia for the Republic and the lack of a cognomen further indicates a humble origin. Dictionaries often record two different Procilius (a historian and a politician), but they were possibly the same person. Since there are 35 years between this denarius and the dated events of Procilius' life, the moneyer could have been the father of the politician and historian.

Regarding Procilius the historian, none of his writings has survived, even as fragments, but he is quoted by Varro about the origin of the Lacus Curtius on the Forum (Latin Language, v. 148), Pliny the Elder on a text related to Pompey (Natural History, viii. 2), and Cicero alludes that he wrote on Greek constitutions (Atticus, ii. 2). The scope of his works must have therefore been quite extensive. In the aforementioned letter, Cicero shows his dislike for Procilius, which is perhaps related to Procilius' political role.

Indeed, in other letters, Cicero mentions that Procilius was also a Tribune of the Plebs in 56, and that he was allied to Gaius Porcius Cato (Cato the Younger's cousin) and Marcus Nonius Sufenas, also Tribunes that year. They supported Publius Clodius Pulcher, Tribune in 59 and Aedile in 56, who -- as Tribune -- had banned Cicero from Rome for his repression of the Catiline Conspiracy, hence the animosity of Cicero towards Procilius. In 56, Pulcher and the three tribunes, including Procilius, prevented the elections from taking place, in order to force an interregnum, so that Crassus and Pompey could be chosen consuls for 55 (Cassius Dio, Roman History, xxxix. 27-33).

They used violence and bribery to prevent this election and were therefore sued. Cato and Sufenas were acquitted, but Procilius was found guilty on 4 July 54 (Cicero, Atticus, iv. 15). Apparently, he was not condemned for the complete illegality of his deeds, but because he had killed a man in his house; and Cicero complains that 22 judges on 49 still wanted to absolve him. In the following letter to Atticus (ii. 16), Cicero adds that there are rumors about Sufenas and his judges, possibly about corruption, but does not give more details.

The use of Juno Sospita refers to the town of Lanuvium, where she was worshiped, probably the hometown of Procilius.

Joss
ArcIXConst86c.jpg
383-408 AD - Arcadius - RIC IX Constantinople 86(c) - SALVS REIPVBLICAE25 viewsEmperor: Arcadius (r. 383-408 AD)
Date: 388-392 AD
Condition: Fine
Size: AE4

Obverse: DN ARCADIVS PF AVG
Our Lord Arcadius Dutiful and Wise Emperor
Bust right; pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed

Reverse: SALVS REI-PVBLICAE
The Republic is safe.
Victory advancing left, with right hand carrying trophy over shoulder and dragging captive with left. in left field.
Exergue: CONS? (Constantinople mint, unknown officina)

RIC IX Constantinople 86(c); VM 39
0.91g; 13.1mm; 0°
Pep
ArcIXConst86(c)3.jpg
383-408 AD - Arcadius - RIC IX Constantinople 86(c)3 - SALVS REIPVBLICAE32 viewsEmperor: Arcadius (r. 383-408 AD)
Date: 388-392 AD
Condition: Fine
Size: AE4

Obverse: DN ARCADIVS PF AVG
Our Lord Arcadius Dutiful and Wise Emperor
Bust right; pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed

Reverse: SALVS REI-PVBLICAE
The Republic is safe.
Victory advancing left, with right hand carrying trophy over shoulder and dragging captive with left. in left field.
Exergue: CONS (Constantinople mint, third officina)

RIC IX Constantinople 86(c)3; VM 39
0.96g; 13.3mm; 210°
Pep
ArcIXThes61(c).jpg
383-408 AD - Arcadius - RIC IX Thessalonica 61(c) - VIRTVS AVGGG35 viewsEmperor: Arcadius (r. 383-408 AD)
Date: 384-388 AD
Condition: Fair
Size: AE3

Obverse: DN ARCAD-IVS PF AVG
Our Lord Arcadius Dutiful and Wise Emperor
Bust right; pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed

Reverse: VIRTVS - AVGGG
The Emperors are militarily virtuous.
Emperor standing left, head right, on ship, holding phoenix on globe and standard. His right foot on captive; Victory on helm.
"" in left field.
Exergue: TES (Thessalonica mint, third officina)

RIC IX Thessalonica 61(c); VM 34
2.53g; 17.7mm; 135°
Pep
Mark_and_Lucius_Antony_2.jpg
4) Antony: Mark Antony and Lucius Antony32 viewsMARC ANTONY & LUCIUS ANTONY
AR Denarius, 41 B.C.
Military mint traveling with Antony in Asia Minor, M. Cocceius Nerva, proquaestor pro praetore.

M ANT IMP AVG III VIR R P C M NERVA PRO Q P, bare head of Mark Antony right, capis behind / L ANTONIVS COS, bare head of Lucius Antony right.

Crawford 517/5c; CRI 247; Sydenham 1186; RSC 2b.

This coin discussed and authenticated on Forum Ancient Coins board (by former owner and others)

It's ugly, but it's rare!
RM0033
2 commentsSosius
coin409.JPG
405b. Theodora23 viewsFlavia Maximiana Theodora (known as Theodora) was the step-daughter of Maximian. Her parents were Afanius Hannibalianus and Eutropia, later wife of Maximian. Theodora's father was consul in 292, and praetorian prefect under Diocletian. In 293, Theodora married Flavius Valerius Julius Constantius (later known as Constantius Chlorus), after he had divorced from his first wife, Helena, to strengthen his political position.

Copper AE4, RIC 36, S 3911, VM 1, VF, 1.4g, 15.2mm, 180o, Constantinople mint, 337-340 A.D.; obverse FL MAX THEODORAE AVG, diademed and draped bust right; reverse PIETAS ROMANA, Pietas standing right holding child in her arms;Ex Forum
ecoli
Longus.jpg
42 BC L. Mussidius Longus130 viewsCONCORDIA
Veiled and diad. head of Concordia right star below chin

L. MVSSIDIVS LONGVS
Shrine of Venus Cloacina consisting of circular platform, inscribed CLOACIN, surmounted by two statues of the goddess

Rome
42 BC

3.42g
Sear 494, RRC 494/42

ex-Canadian Coin

In Roman mythology, Cloacina (Latin, cloaca: "sewer" or "drain") was the goddess who presided over the Cloaca Maxima the main sewer drain in Rome. The Cloaca Maxima is traditionally said to have beeen started by one of Rome's Etruscan kings, Tarquinius Priscus. Despite her Etruscan origins, she later became identified with Venus.

Titus Tatius, who reigned with Romulus, erected a statue to Cloacina as the spirit of the "Great Drain". As well as controlling sewers, she was also a protector of sexual intercourse in marriage. The Romans believed that a good sewage system was important for the success of Rome, as a good sewer system was necessary for the physical health of Roman citizens. Additionally, Romans worshipped Cloacina as the goddess of purity. Cloacina was worshipped as an aspect of Venus at the small Shrine of Venus Cloacina, located in front of the Basilica Aemilia in the Roman Forum and directly above the Cloaca Maxima. The depiction on the reverse of this coin is that shrine.

The image of Concordia could be interpreted to convey the thought of Unity between the triumvirs to defeat Brutus and Cassius. Venus Cloacina on the reverse conveys the thought of purification for the treacherous murder of the dictator Julius Caesar by men who claimed to be his friends.
4 commentsJay GT4
MarX565.jpg
450-457 AD - Marcian - RIC X 565 - Monogram Reverse123 viewsEmperor: Marcian (r. 450-457 AD)
Date: 450-457 AD
Condition: Fine
Size: AE4

Obverse: D N MARCIANVS P F AVG
Our Lord Marcian Dutiful and Wise Emperor
Bust right; pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed

Reverse: no legend
Monogram of Marcian () with "+" above within wreath.
Exergue: CVZ (Cyzicus mint)

RIC X 565; VM 12
1.38g; 12.3mm; 180°
Pep
1Marcian450AD.JPG
450-457 AD, Marcian17 viewsAe; 1.34g; 10-11mm

DN MARCIANVS PF AVG
diademed, draped bust right

Monogram within wreath


Robin Ayers
1LeoI457AD.JPG
457-494 AD, Leo I26 viewsAe; 10 mm; 1.26g

DN LEONS PF AVG
pearl diademed draped and cuirassed bust right

Monogram in wreath


Vagi 3793; RIC X 694
monogram 1b
1 commentsRobin Ayers
Caesar~0.jpg
46-45 BC Gauis Julius Caesar91 viewsDiademed head of Venus right, small cupid at shoulder behind


CAESAR
trophy of Gallic arms between two seated male and female captives

Spain 46-45 BC

3.71g
Sear 1404

ex-Calgary coins

Minted for the Spanish campaign against the Pompey brothers, the obverse of this series is occupied by the head of Venus, ancestress of the Julia gens along with a small Cupid identifying her as Venus Genetrix. Caesar had recently dedicated a temple in the forum to her. The reverse revives the theme of victory in Gaul probably to remind his veteran legions of the glory and success in years past. These veterans who were overdue for discharge were now being called on to face the Pompeian threat for the third time in two and a half years.


SOLD Forum Auction May 2016
2 commentsJay GT4
coins446.JPG
501. Constantine I Ostia Sol16 viewsOstia
Although Ostia was probably founded for the sole purpose of military defence — since through the Tiber's mouths armies could eventually reach Rome by water — in time the port became a commercial harbour, and a very important one too. Many of the goods that Rome received from its colonies and provinces passed through Ostia. In this role, Ostia soon replaced Pozzuoli (Puteoli, near Naples).

In 87 BC, the town was razed by Marius, and again in 67 BC it was sacked by pirates. After this second attack, the town was re-built and provided with protective walls by Cicero. The town was then further developed during the 1st century AD, mainly under the influence of Tiberius, who ordered the building of the first Forum. The town was also soon enriched by the construction of a new harbour on the northern mouths of the Tiber (which reaches the sea with a larger mouth in Ostia, Fiumara Grande, and a narrower one near to the current Fiumicino international airport). The new harbour, not surprisingly called Portus, was excavated from the ground at the orders of the emperor Claudius; it has an hexagonal form, in order to reduce the waves strength. The town was provided with all the services a town of the time could require; in particular, a famous lighthouse. Archaeologists also discovered the public latrinas, organised for collective use as a series of seats that lets us imagine today that the function was also a social moment. In addition, Ostia had a large theatre, public baths and a fire fighting service. You can still see the mosaic floors of the baths near today's entrance to the town.

Trajan too, required a widening of the naval areas, and ordered the building of another harbour, again pointing towards the north. It must be remembered that at a relatively short distance, there was also the harbour of Civitavecchia (Centum Cellae), and Rome was starting to have a significant number of harbours, the most important remaining Portus.

Ostia grew to 50,000 inhabitants in the 2nd century AD and in time focused its naval activities on Portus. With the end of the Roman Empire, Ostia fell slowly into decay, and was finally abandoned in the 9th century due to the fall of the Roman empire in combination with repeated invasions and sackings by Arab pirates; the inhabitants moved to Gregoriopolis. In the Middle Ages, bricks from buildings in Ostia were used for several other occasions. The Leaning Tower of Pisa was entirely built of material originally belonging to Ostia. A "local sacking" was carried out by baroque architects, who used the remains as a sort of marble store for the palazzi they were building in Rome. Soon after, foreign explorers came in search of ancient statues and objects. The Papacy started organising its own investigations with Pope Pius VII and the research still continues today. It has been estimated that two thirds of the ancient town have currently been found.

001. Constantine I Ostia

RIC VI Ostia 85 S

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coins209.JPG
502. Constantine II Siscia GLORIA EXERCITVS24 viewsSiscia

All that remains from prehistoric inhabitants on this area are small statues of idols and tools. Indigenous Illyrian tribes were conquered in the 4th century by the Celts. Celts ethically and culturally mixed with Illyric tribes and established on the right bank of the river Kupa a settlement called Segestica. Illyric and Celtic tribes succeeded in withstanding Roman pressures until the year 35 BC when Emperor Octavian with 12,000 soldiers conquered Segestica after a thirty - day siege.

After Romans had conquered Segestica, they built Siscia on the left bank of the river Kupa (right below the centre of today's Sisak). Siscia was the capital town of the Province of Pannonia Savia, where 40,000 inhabitants resided. The town had the forum, basilicas, temples, an empire mint, a theatre and two ports.
Christianity was spreading unstoppably and encompassed the town of Sisak. The first known Bishop of Sisak was Kvirin from 284 AD until his martyr's death, probably in the year 303 AD.
With gradual collapse of the Roman Empire, the importance of Sisak declined and the great migration brought to Sisak Huns, Gauls, Avars and Slavs. Slav tribes remained in this area and eventually the Slav language became dominant.

RIC VII Siscia 253 R3
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coins171.JPG
504. Constantius II Campgate Nicomedia18 viewsNicomedia

Titular see of Bithynia Prima, founded by King Zipoetes. About 264 B.C. his son Nicodemes I dedicated the city anew, gave it his name, made it his capital, and adorned it with magnificent monuments. At his court the vanquished Hannibal sought refuge. When Bithynia became a Roman province Nicomedia remained its capital. Pliny the Younger mentions, in his letters to Trajan, several public edifices of the city — a senate house, an aqueduct which he had built, a forum, the temple of Cybele, etc. He also proposed to join the Black Sea with the Sea of Marmora by a canal which should follow the river Sangarius and empty the waters of the Lake of Sabandja into the Gulf of Astacus. A fire then almost destroyed the town. From Nicomedia perhaps, he wrote to Trajan his famous letter concerning the Christians. Under Marcus Aurelius, Dionysius, Bishop of Corinth, addressed a letter to his community warning them against the Marcionites (Eusebius, "Hist. Eccl.", IV, xxiii). Bishop Evander, who opposed the sect of the Ophites (P.L., LIII, 592), seems to have lived at the same time. Nicomedia was the favorite residence of Diocletian, who built there a palace, a hippodrome, a mint, and an arsenal. In 303 the edict of the tenth persecution caused rivers of blood to flow through the empire, especially in Nicomedia, where the Bishop Anthimus and a great many Christians were martyred. The city was then half Christian, the palace itself being filled with them. In 303, in the vast plain east of Nicomedia, Diocletian renounced the empire in favour of Galerius. In 311 Lucian, a priest of Antioch, delivered a discourse in the presence of the judge before he was executed. Other martyrs of the city are numbered by hundreds. Nicomedia suffered greatly during the fourth century from an invasion of the Goths and from an earthquake (24 Aug., 354), which overthrew all the public and private monuments; fire completed the catastrophe. The city was rebuilt, on a smaller scale. In the reign of Justinian new public buildings were erected, which were destroyed in the following century by the Shah Chosroes. Pope Constantine I visited the city in 711. In 1073 John Comnenus was there proclaimed emperor and shortly afterwards was compelled to abdicate. In 1328 it was captured by the Sultan Orkhan, who restored its ramparts, parts of which are still preserved.

RIC VII Nicomedia 158 R2

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504. CONSTANTIUS II GLORIA EXERCITVS Antioch18 viewsAntioch

Under the empire we chiefly hear of the earthquakes which shook Antioch. One, in AD 37, caused the emperor Caligula to send two senators to report on the condition of the city. Another followed in the next reign; and in 115, during Trajan's sojourn in the place with his army of Parthia, the whole site was convulsed, the landscape altered, and the emperor himself forced to take shelter in the circus for several days. He and his successor restored the city; but in 526, after minor shocks, the calamity returned in a terrible form; the octagonal cathedral which had been erected by the emperor Constantius II suffered and thousands of lives were lost, largely those of Christians gathered to a great church assembly. We hear also of especially terrific earthquakes on November 29, 528 and October 31, 588.

At Antioch Germanicus died in AD 19, and his body was burnt in the forum. Titus set up the Cherubim, captured from the Jewish temple, over one of the gates. Commodus had Olympic games celebrated at Antioch, and in 266 the town was suddenly raided by the Persians, who slew many in the theatre. In 387 there was a great sedition caused by a new tax levied by order of Theodosius, and the city was punished by the loss of its metropolitan status. Zeno, who renamed it Theopolis, restored many of its public buildings just before the great earthquake of 526, whose destructive work was completed by the Persian Chosroes twelve years later. Justinian I made an effort to revive it, and Procopius describes his repairing of the walls; but its glory was past.

The chief interest of Antioch under the empire lies in its relation to Christianity. Evangelized perhaps by Peter, according to the tradition upon which the Antiochene patriarchate still rests its claim for primacy (cf. Acts xi.), and certainly by Barnabas and Paul, who here preached his first Christian sermon in a synagogue, its converts were the first to be called Christians

004. CONSTANTIUS II Antioch

RIC VII Antioch 88 C3

From Uncleaned Lot

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coin394.JPG
514. Valentinian II34 viewsValentinian II (371 - 392) was elevated as Western Roman Emperor at the age of four in 375, along with his half-brother Gratian.

Valentinian and his family lived in Milan, and the empire was nominally divided between them. Gratian took the trans- Alpine provinces, while Italy, Illyricum in part, and Africa were to be under the rule of Valentinian, or rather of his mother, Justina. Justina was an Arian, and the imperial court at Milan struggled against the Catholics of that city, led by their bishop Ambrose. The popularity of Ambrose was so great that the emperors' authority was materially shaken. In 387, Magnus Maximus, a Roman consul who had commanded an army in Briton, and in 383 (the year of Gratian's death) had declared himself emperor of Western Rome, crossed the Alps into the valley of the Po and threatened Milan.

The emperor Valentinian II and his mother fled to Theodosius I, the Eastern Roman Emperor and Valentinian's brother in law. Valentinian was restored in 388 by Theodosius, following the death of Magnus Maximus.

On May 15, 392, Valentinian was found hanged in his residence in the town of Vienne in Gaul. The Frankish soldier Arbogast, Valentinian's protector and magister militum, maintained that it was suicide. Arbogast and Valentinian had frequently disputed rulership over the Western Roman Empire, and Valentinian was also noted to have complained of Arbogast's control over him to Theodosius. Thus when word of his death reached Constantinople Theodosius believed, or at least suspected, that Arbogast was lying and that he had engineered Valentinian's demise. These suspicions were further fueled by Arbogast's elevation of a Eugenius, pagan official to the position of Western Emperor, and the veiled accusations which Ambrose, the Bishop of Milan, spoke during his funeral oration for Valentinian.

Valentinian II's death sparked a civil war between Eugenius and Theodosius over the rulership of the West in the Battle of the Frigidus. The resultant Eastern victory there led to the final brief unification of the Roman Empire under Theodosius, and the ultimate irreparable division of the Empire after his death.

Bronze AE3, RIC 22, VF, 2.19g, 17.7mm, 0o, Arelate mint, 378-383 A.D.; obverse D N VALENTINIANVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse VICTORIAE AVGGG, Victory advancing left holding wreath in right and palm frond in left, [S]CON in ex;Ex Aiello;Ex Forum
ecoli
coin410.JPG
517. Arcadius32 viewsFlavius Arcadius (377/378–May 1, 408) was Roman Emperor in the Eastern half of the Roman Empire from 395 until his death.

Arcadius was the elder son of Theodosius I and Aelia Flaccilla, and brother of Honorius, who would become a Western Roman Emperor. His father declared him an Augustus in January, 383. His younger brother was also declared an Augustus in 393.

As Emperors, Honorius was under the control of the Romanized Vandal magister militum Flavius Stilicho while Arcadius was dominated by one of his ministers, Rufinus. Stilicho is alleged by some to have wanted control of both emperors, and is supposed to have had Rufinus assassinated by Gothic mercenaries in 395, but definite proof of these allegations is lacking. In any case, Arcadius' new advisor Eutropius simply took Rufinus' place as the power behind the Eastern imperial throne. Arcadius was also dominated by his wife Aelia Eudoxia, who convinced her husband to dismiss Eutropius in 399. Eudoxia was strongly opposed by John Chrysostom, the Patriarch of Constantinople, who felt that she had used her family's wealth to gain control over the emperor. Eudoxia used her influence to have Chrysostom deposed in 404, but she died later that year.

Arcadius was dominated for the rest of his rule by Anthemius, the Praetorian Prefect, who made peace with Stilicho in the West. Arcadius himself was more concerned with appearing to be a pious Christian than he was with political or military matters, and he died, only nominally in control of his empire, in 408.

Bronze AE 4, RIC 67d and 70a, choice aEF, 1.14g, 13.8mm, 180o, Antioch mint, 383-395 A.D.; obverse D N ARCADIVS P F AVG, pearl diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse SALVS REIPVBLICE, Victory advancing left holding trophy over right shoulder, dragging captive with left, staurogram left, ANTG in ex; Ex Aiello; Ex Forum
ecoli
622Hadrian_RIC535b.JPG
535b Hadrian Sestertius, Roma 117 AD Concordia77 viewsReference.
RIC cf535b; BMC cf1104; Strack cf502; Banti 145 ( 1 example)

Obv. IMP CAES DIVI TRAIAN AVG F TRAIAN HADRIAN OPT AVG GER,
Laureate, heroically nude bust right, baldric (sword) strap around neck and across chest, loop on shoulder, seen from front

Rev DAC PARTHICO P M TR P COS P P, CONCORDIA and S C in field
Concordia seated left on throne, cornucopia at side, holding patera and resting elbow on statuette of Spes standing left set on low basis.

24.78 gr
35 mm
6h


When he became emperor following the death of Trajan in 117 AD, questions immediately arose regarding the validity of Hadrian's succesion. Although it is clear from Hadrian's early career and marriage to Sabina (Trajan's grand-niece) that the emperor brought his young kinsman within the imperial court, Trajan, unlike Nerva before, made no move to adopt Hadrian formally, instead possibly preferring others. This fact prompted Hadrian, in the early days of his reign to emphasize his legitimacy to the succession. Hadrian declared Trajan divus and ordered his ashes installed in the Column of his newly complete Forum. Trajan's name and titles were incorporated into the new imperial nomenclature, a privilege reserved solely for legitimate heirs. At the same time, coins were struck to associate the new reign with the previous administration and declare a peaceful transferral of power. The legend DAC PARTHICO (in the dedicatory dative), clearly refers to Trajan, while the Concordia reverse type (to date, uncommon with the addition of Spes), emphasized by the inclusion of CONCORDIA in the exergue, demonstrated Hadrian's potential willingness for the time to continue Trajan's policies, thereby insuring continued political harmony, something which disintegrated as Hadrian's reign progressed.
1 commentsokidoki
698Hadrian_RIC590.jpg
590 Hadrian Sestertius Roma 119-21 AD Lictor standing57 viewsReference.
RIC 590b; Banti 620; Strack 555; C 1210

Obv. IMP CAES TRAIANVS HADRIANVS AVG P M TR P COS III
Laureate heroic bust right, slight drapery

Rev. RELIQVA VETERA HS NOVIES MILL ABOLITA / S - C
Lictor standing left, holding fasces, setting fire to heap of bonds with torch.

25.59 gr
32 mm
6h

Notes.
https://www.forumancientcoins.com/numiswiki/view.asp?key=RELIQVA%20VETERA%20HS%20NOVIES%20MILL%20ABOLITA

From the estate of Thomas Bentley Cederlind. Ex Classical Numismatic Group 47 (16 September 1998), lot 1611.

In July of AD 118 Hadrian made his first appearance in Rome as emperor to celebrate a Parthian triumph in the name of Trajan. He was quickly called away to Moesia to subdue the Sarmatians and Roxolani. While away, four high ranking senators – Lucius Quietus, Cornelius Palma, L. Publius Celsus and C. Avidius – were executed by the senate for an alleged conspiracy against Hadrian, despite a promise by Hadrian not to execute members of the Senate. To calm a suspicious public, Hadrian held a week long gladiatorial show, granted an extra public largesse, and, as this coin advertises, relinquished the public debt to the state equaling 900 million sestertii. This event culminated in an elaborate ceremony held in the Forum of Trajan where all records of these debts were set on fire.
4 commentsokidoki
coin406.JPG
602. Theodosius II30 viewsFlavius Theodosius II (April, 401 - July 28, 450 ). The eldest son of Eudoxia and Arcadius who at the age of 7 became the Roman Emperor of the East.

He was heavily influenced by his eldest sister Pulcheria who pushed him towards Eastern Christianity. Pulcheria was the primary driving power behind the emperor and many of her views became official policy. These included her anti-Semitic view which resulted in the destruction of synagogues.

On the death of his father Arcadius in 408, he became Emperor. In June 421 Theodosius married the poet Aelia Eudocia. They had a daughter, Licinia Eudoxia, whose marriage with the Western Roman Emperor Valentinian III marked the re-unification of the two halves of the Empire, even if for a short time. Theodosius created the University of Constantinople, and died in 450 as the result of a riding accident.

Bronze AE4, S 4297, VG, .96g, 12.3mm, 0o, uncertain mint, 408-450 A.D.; obverse D N THEODOSIVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse no legend, cross in wreath, obscure mintmark in exergue; ex Forum
ecoli
01860q00.jpg
604. Leo I385 viewsImperator Caesar Flavius Valerius Leo Augustus or Leo I of the Byzantine Empire (401–474), reigned from 457 to 474, also known as Leo the Thracian, was the last of a series of emperors placed on the throne by Aspar, the Alan serving as commander-in-chief of the army. His coronation as emperor on February 7, 457, was the first known to involve the Patriarch of Constantinople. Leo I made an alliance with the Isaurians and was thus able to eliminate Aspar. The price of the alliance was the marriage of Leo's daughter to Tarasicodissa, leader of the Isaurians who, as Zeno, became emperor in 474.

During Leo's reign, the Balkans were ravaged time and again by the West Goths and the Huns. However, these attackers were unable to take Constantinople thanks to the walls which had been rebuilt and reinforced in the reign of Theodosius II and against which they possessed no suitable siege engines.

Leo's reign was also noteworthy for his influence in the Western Roman Empire, marked by his appointment of Anthemius as Western Roman Emperor in 467. He attempted to build on this political achievement with an expedition against the Vandals in 468, which was defeated due to the treachery and incompetence of Leo's brother-in-law Basiliscus. This disaster drained the Empire of men and money.

Leo's greatest influence in the West was largely inadvertent and at second-hand: the great Goth king Theodoric the Great was raised at the Leo's court in Constantinople, where he was steeped in Roman government and military tactics, which served him well when he returned after Leo's death to become the Goth ruler of a mixed but largely Romanized people.

Leo also published a New Constitutions or compilation of Law Code[1], Constitution LV concerned Judaism: "JEWS SHALL LIVE IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE RITES OF CHRISTIANITY. Those who formerly were invested with Imperial authority promulgated various laws with reference to the Hebrew people, who, once nourished by Divine protection, became renowned, but are now remarkable for the calamities inflicted upon them because of their contumacy towards Christ and God; and these laws, while regulating their mode of life, compelled them to read the Holy Scriptures, and ordered them not to depart from the ceremonies of their worship. They also provided that their children should adhere to their religion, being obliged to do so as well by the ties of blood, as on account of the institution of circumcision. These are the laws which I have already stated were formerly enforced throughout the Empire. But the Most Holy Sovereign from whom We are descended, more concerned than his predecessors for the salvation of the Jews, instead of allowing them (as they did) to obey only their ancient laws, attempted, by the interpretation of prophesies and the conclusions which he drew from them, to convert them to the Christian religion, by means of the vivifying water of baptism. He fully succeeded in his attempts to transform them into new men, according to the doctrine of Christ, and induced them to denounce their ancient doctrines and abandon their religious ceremonies, such as circumcision, the observance of the Sabbath, and all their other rites. But although he, to a certain extent, overcame the obstinacy of the Jews, he was unable to force them to abolish the laws which permitted them to live in accordance with their ancient customs. Therefore We, desiring to accomplish what Our Father failed to effect, do hereby annul all the old laws enacted with reference to the Hebrews, and We order that they shall not dare to live in any other manner than in accordance with the rules established by the pure and salutary Christian Faith. And if anyone of them should be proved to, have neglected to observe the ceremonies of the Christian religion, and to have returned to his former practices, he shall pay the penalty prescribed by the law for apostates."

Leo died of dysentery at the age of 73 on January 18, 474.

Bronze AE4, RIC 671, S 4340 var, VG, 1.17g, 10.3mm, 180o, Alexandria mint, obverse D N LEO P F AVG (or similar), pearl diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse Lion standing left, head right, cross above, ALEA in ex; very rare (R3); ex Forum
ecoli73
Philip-II-RIC-238var.jpg
70. Philip II as Augustus.57 viewsAntoninianus, 249 AD, Antioch mint.
Obverse: IMP M IVL PHILIPPVS AVG / Radiate bust of Philip II facing right.
Reverse: PM TR P VI COS P P / Radiate lion walking right.
4.40 gm., 21.5 mm.
RIC 238 / 239 var; Sear 9272 / 9273 var.

This is an apparently unpublished coin. The RIC / Sear numbers above refer to coins with the bust facing left & the lion walking right; or the bust facing right & the lion walking left. Roger Bland, in his unpublished listing of Roman imperial coins from Antioch, lists a coin with bust right & lion walking right (#97); however Curtis Clay at Harlan J Berk Ltd. feels there is an error in the listing of #97 and that it refers to a coin in Paris with a left-facing bust. Details can be found at the web site of Forum Ancient Coins (http://www.forumancientcoins.com/board/index.php?topic=47620.0).

The portrait on this coin is a superbly engraved portrait, but it is not the portrait of a 11 or 12 year old boy. A radiate lion is a symbol not often seen on Roman imperial coinage. It is associated with solar cults of the East and likely has the same meaning as the radiate crown on the emperor's portrait: the power and authority of the emperor is equated with the power and authority of the sun god. The radiate lion on this coin was certainly the invention of the mint of Antioch since the prototype on which this reverse is based -- the millennium coin with a lion on the reverse, RIC 12 -- is not a radiate lion.
1 commentsCallimachus
VitelliusARdenariusVesta.jpg
709a, Vitellius, 2 January - 20 December 69 A.D.42 viewsVITELLIUS AR silver denarius. RSC 72, RCV 2200. 19mm, 3.2 g. Obverse: A VITELLIVS GERM IMP AVG TR P, laureate head right; Reverse - PONT MAXIM, Vesta seated right, holding scepter and patera. Quite decent. Ex. Incitatus Coins. Photo courtesy of Incitatus Coins.

De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Vitellius (69 A.D.)

John F. Donahue
College of William and Mary


It is often difficult to separate fact from fiction in assessing the life and reign of Vitellius. Maligned in the ancient sources as gluttonous and cruel, he was also a victim of a hostile biographical tradition established in the regime of the Flavians who had overthrown him. Nevertheless, his decision to march against Rome in 69 was pivotal, since his subsequent defeat signalled the end of military anarchy and the beginning of an extended period of political stability under Vespasian and his successors.

Early Life and Career

Aulus Vitellius was born in September, 15 AD, the son of Lucius Vitellius and his wife Sestilia. One of the most successful public figures of the Julio-Claudian period, Lucius Vitellius was a three-time consul and a fellow censor with the emperor Claudius. Aulus seems to have moved with equal ease in aristocratic circles, successively winning the attention of the emperors Gaius, Claudius, and Nero through flattery and political skill.

Among his attested public offices, Vitellius was a curator of public works, a senatorial post concerned with the maintenance and repair of public buildings in Rome, and he was also proconsul of North Africa, where he served as a deputy to his brother, perhaps about 55 A. D. In addition, he held at least two priesthoods, the first as a member of the Arval Brethren, in whose rituals he participated from 57 A.D., and the second, as one of the quindecemviri sacris faciundis, a sacred college famous for its feasts.

With respect to marriage and family, Vitellius first wed a certain Petroniana, the daughter of a consul, sometime in the early to mid thirties A.D. The union produced a son, Petronianus, allegedly blind in one eye and emancipated from his father's control as a result of being named his mother's heir. Tradition records that Vitellius killed the boy shortly after emancipation amid charges of parricide; the marriage soon ended in divorce. A second marriage, to Galeria Fundana, daughter of an ex-praetor, was more stable than the first. It produced another son, who was eventually killed by the Flavians after the overthrow of Vitellius, as well as a daughter. Galeria is praised by Tacitus for her good qualities, and in the end it was she who saw to Vitellius' burial.

Rise to Power and Emperorship

Without doubt, the most fortuitous moment in Vitellius' political career was his appointment as governor of Lower Germany by the emperor Galba late in 68. The decision seemed to have caught everybody by surprise, including Vitellius himself, who, according to Suetonius, was in straitened circumstances at the time. The choice may have been made to reduce the possibility of rebellion by the Rhine armies, disaffected by Galba's refusal to reward them for their part in suppressing the earlier uprising of Julius Vindex. Ironically, it was Vitellius' lack of military achievement and his reputation for gambling and gluttony that may have also figured in his selection. Galba perhaps calculated that a man with little military experience who could now plunder a province to satisfy his own stomach would never become disloyal. If so, it was a critical misjudgement by the emperor.

The rebellion began on January 1, 69 ("The Year of the Four Emperors"), when the legions of Upper Germany refused to renew their oath of allegiance to Galba. On January 2, Vitellius' own men, having heard of the previous day's events, saluted him as emperor at the instigation of the legionary legate Fabius Valens and his colleagues. Soon, in addition to the seven legions that Vitellius now had at his command in both Germanies, the forces in Gaul, Britain, and Raetia also came over to his side. Perhaps aware of his military inexperience, Vitellius did not immediately march on Rome himself. Instead, the advance was led by Valens and another legionary general, Aulus Caecina Alienus, with each man commanding a separate column. Vitellius would remain behind to mobilize a reserve force and follow later.

Caecina was already one hundred fifty miles on his way when news reached him that Galba had been overthrown and Otho had taken his place as emperor. Undeterred, he passed rapidly down the eastern borders of Gaul; Valens followed a more westerly route, quelling a mutiny along the way. By March both armies had successfully crossed the Alps and joined at Cremona, just north of the Po. Here they launced their Batavian auxiliaries against Otho's troops and routed them in the First Battle of Bedriacum. Otho killed himself on April 16, and three days later the soldiers in Rome swore their allegience to Vitellius. The senate too hailed him as emperor.

When Vitellius learned of these developments, he set out to Rome from Gaul. By all accounts the journey was a drunken feast marked by the lack of discipline of both the troops and the imperial entourage. Along the way he stopped at Lugdunum to present his six-year-old son Germanicus to the legions as his eventual successor. Later, at Cremona, Vitellius witnessed the corpse-filled battlefield of Otho's recent defeat with joy, unmoved by so many citizens denied a proper burial.

The emperor entered Rome in late June-early July. Conscious of making a break with the Julio-Claudian past, Vitellius was reluctant to assume the traditional titles of the princes, even though he enthusiastically made offerings to Nero and declared himself consul for life. To his credit, Vitellius did seem to show a measure of moderation in the transition to the principate. He assumed his powers gradually and was generally lenient to Otho's supporters, even pardoning Otho's brother Salvius Titianus, who had played a key role in the earlier regime. In addition, he participated in Senate meetings and continued the practice of providing entertainments for the Roman masses. An important practical change involved the awarding of posts customarily held by freedmen to equites, an indication of the growth of the imperial bureaucracy and its attractiveness to men of ambition.

In other matters, he replaced the existing praetorian guard and urban cohorts with sixteen praetorian cohorts and four urban units, all comprised of soldiers from the German armies. According to Tacitus, the decision prompted a mad scramble, with the men, and not their officers, choosing the branch of service that they preferred. The situation was clearly unsatisfactory but not surprising, given that Vitellius was a creation of his own troops. To secure his position further, he sent back to their old postings the legions that had fought for Otho, or he reassigned them to distant provinces. Yet discontent remained: the troops who had been defeated or betrayed at Bedriacum remained bitter, and detachments of three Moesian legions called upon by Otho were returned to their bases, having agitated against Vitellius at Aquileia.

Flavian Revolt

The Vitellian era at Rome was short-lived. By mid-July news had arrived that the legions of Egypt under Tiberius Julius Alexander had sworn allegiance to a rival emperor, Titus Flavius Vespasianus, the governor of Judaea and a successful and popular general. Vespasian was to hold Egypt while his colleague Mucianus, governor of Syria, was to invade Italy. Before the plan could be enacted, however, the Danube legions, former supporters of Otho, joined Vespasian's cause. Under the leadership of Antonius Primus, commander of the Sixth legion in Pannonia, and Cornelius Fuscus, imperial procurator in Illyricum, the legions made a rapid descent on Italy.

Although his forces were only half of what Vitellius commanded in Italy, Primus struck first before the emperor could muster additional reinforcements from Germany. To make matters worse for the Vitellians, Valens was ill, and Caecina, now consul, had begun collaborating with the Flavians. His troops refused to follow his lead, however, and arrested him at Hostilia near Cremona. They then joined the rest of the Vitellian forces trying to hold the Po River. With Vitellius still in Rome and his forces virtually leaderless, the two sides met in October in the Second Battle of Bedriacum. The emperor's troops were soundly defeated and Cremona was brutally sacked by the victors. In addition, Valens, whose health had recovered, was captured while raising an army for Vitellius in Gaul and Germany; he was eventually executed.

Meanwhile, Primus continued towards Rome. Vitellius made a weak attempt to thwart the advance at the Apennine passes, but his forces switched to the Flavian side without a fight at Narnia in mid-December. At Rome, matters were no better. Vespasian's elder brother, Titus Flavius Sabinus, the city prefect, was successful in an effort to convince Vitellius to abdicate but was frustrated by the mob in Rome and the emperor's soldiers. Forced to flee to the Capitol, Sabinus was set upon by Vitellius' German troops and soon killed, with the venerable Temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus set ablaze in the process. Within two days, the Flavian army fought its way into Rome. In a pathetic final move, Vitellius disguised himself in dirty clothing and hid in the imperial doorkeeper's quarters, leaning a couch and a mattress against the door for protection. Dragged from his hiding place by the Flavian forces, he was hauled off half-naked to the Forum, where he was tortured, killed, and tossed into the Tiber. The principate could now pass to Vespasian.

Assessment

Vitellius has not escaped the hostility of his biographers. While he may well have been gluttonous, his depiction as indolent, cruel, and extravagant is based almost entirely on the propaganda of his enemies. On the other hand, whatever moderating tendencies he did show were overshadowed by his clear lack of military expertise, a deficiency that forced him to rely in critical situations on largely inneffective lieutenants. As a result he was no match for his Flavian successors, and his humiliating demise was perfectly in keeping with the overall failure of his reign.

Copyright (C) 1999, John Donahue.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
VespasianPax_RICii10.jpg
710a, Vespasian, 1 July 69 - 24 June 79 A.D.134 viewsSilver denarius, RIC II, 10, aVF, 3.5 g, 18mm, Rome mint, 69-71 AD; Obverse: IMP CAESA[R] VESPASIANV[S AV]G - Laureate head right; Reverse: COS ITER [T]R POT - Pax seated left holding branch and caduceus. Ex Imperial Coins.


De Imperatoribus Romanis:
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Titus Flavius Vespasianus (A.D. 69-79)

John Donahue
College of William and Mary

Introduction

Titus Flavius Vespasianus (b. A.D. 9, d. A.D. 79, emperor A.D. 69-79) restored peace and stability to an empire in disarray following the death of Nero in A.D. 68. In the process he established the Flavian dynasty as the legitimate successor to the Imperial throne. Although we lack many details about the events and chronology of his reign, Vespasian provided practical leadership and a return to stable government - accomplishments which, when combined with his other achievements, make his emperorship particularly notable within the history of the Principate.

Early Life and Career

Vespasian was born at Falacrina near Sabine Reate on 17 November, A.D. 9, the son of T. Flavius Sabinus, a successful tax collector and banker, and Vespasia Polla. Both parents were of equestrian status. Few details of his first fifteen years survive, yet it appears that his father and mother were often away from home on business for long periods. As a result, Vespasian's early education became the responsibility of his paternal grandmother, Tertulla. [[1]] In about A.D. 25 Vespasian assumed the toga virilis and later accepted the wearing of the latus clavus, and with it the senatorial path that his older brother, T. Flavius Sabinus, had already chosen. [[2]] Although many of the particulars are lacking, the posts typically occupied by one intent upon a senatorial career soon followed: a military tribunate in Thrace, perhaps for three or four years; a quaestorship in Crete-Cyrene; and the offices of aedile and praetor, successively, under the emperor Gaius. [[3]]

It was during this period that Vespasian married Flavia Domitilla. Daughter of a treasury clerk and former mistress of an African knight, Flavia lacked the social standing and family connections that the politically ambitious usually sought through marriage. In any case, the couple produced three children, a daughter, also named Flavia Domitilla, and two sons, the future emperors Titus and Domitian . Flavia did not live to witness her husband's emperorship and after her death Vespasian returned to his former mistress Caenis, who had been secretary to Antonia (daughter of Marc Antony and mother of Claudius). Caenis apparently exerted considerable influence over Vespasian, prompting Suetonius to assert that she remained his wife in all but name, even after he became emperor. [[4]]

Following the assassination of Gaius on 24 January, A.D. 41, Vespasian advanced rapidly, thanks in large part to the new princeps Claudius, whose favor the Flavians had wisely secured with that of Antonia, the mother of Germanicus, and of Claudius' freedmen, especially Narcissus. [[5]] The emperor soon dispatched Vespasian to Argentoratum (Strasbourg) as legatus legionis II Augustae, apparently to prepare the legion for the invasion of Britain. Vespasian first appeared at the battle of Medway in A.D. 43, and soon thereafter led his legion across the south of England, where he engaged the enemy thirty times in battle, subdued two tribes, and conquered the Isle of Wight. According to Suetonius, these operations were conducted partly under Claudius and partly under Vespasian's commander, Aulus Plautius. Vespasian's contributions, however, did not go unnoticed; he received the ornamenta triumphalia and two priesthoods from Claudius for his exploits in Britain. [[6]]

By the end of A.D. 51 Vespasian had reached the consulship, the pinnacle of a political career at Rome. For reasons that remain obscure he withdrew from political life at this point, only to return when chosen proconsul of Africa about A.D. 63-64. His subsequent administration of the province was marked by severity and parsimony, earning him a reputation for being scrupulous but unpopular. [[7]] Upon completion of his term, Vespasian returned to Rome where, as a senior senator, he became a man of influence in the emperor Nero's court. [[8]] Important enough to be included on Nero's tour of Greece in A.D. 66-67, Vespasian soon found himself in the vicinity of increasing political turbulence in the East. The situation would prove pivotal in advancing his career.

Judaea and the Accession to Power

In response to rioting in Caesarea and Jerusalem that had led to the slaughter in the latter city of Jewish leaders and Roman soldiers, Nero granted to Vespasian in A.D. 66 a special command in the East with the objective of settling the revolt in Judaea. By spring A.D. 67, with 60,000 legionaries, auxiliaries, and allies under his control, Vespasian set out to subdue Galilee and then to cut off Jerusalem. Success was quick and decisive. By October all of Galilee had been pacified and plans for the strategic encirclement of Jerusalem were soon formed. [[9]] Meanwhile, at the other end of the empire, the revolts of Gaius Iulius Vindex, governor of Gallia Lugdunensis, and Servius Sulpicius Galba , governor of Hispania Tarraconensis, had brought Nero's reign to the brink of collapse. The emperor committed suicide in June, A.D. 68, thereby ensuring chaos for the next eighteen months, as first Galba and then Marcus Salvius Otho and Aulus Vitellius acceded to power. Each lacked broad-based military and senatorial support; each would be violently deposed in turn. [[10]]

Still occupied with plans against Jerusalem, Vespasian swore allegiance to each emperor. Shortly after Vitellius assumed power in spring, A.D. 69, however, Vespasian met on the border of Judaea and Syria with Gaius Licinius Mucianus, governor of Syria, and after a series of private and public consultations, the two decided to revolt. [[11]] On July 1, at the urging of Tiberius Alexander, prefect of Egypt, the legions of Alexandria declared for Vespasian, as did the legions of Judaea two days later. By August all of Syria and the Danube legions had done likewise. Vespasian next dispatched Mucianus to Italy with 20,000 troops, while he set out from Syria to Alexandria in order to control grain shipments for the purpose of starving Italy into submission. [[12]] The siege of Jerusalem he placed in the hands of his son Titus.

Meanwhile, the Danubian legions, unwilling to wait for Mucianus' arrival, began their march against Vitellius ' forces. The latter army, suffering from a lack of discipline and training, and unaccustomed to the heat of Rome, was defeated at Cremona in late October. [[13]] By mid-December the Flavian forces had reached Carsulae, 95 kilometers north of Rome on the Flaminian Road, where the Vitellians, with no further hope of reinforcements, soon surrendered. At Rome, unable to persuade his followers to accept terms for his abdication, Vitellius was in peril. On the morning of December 20 the Flavian army entered Rome. By that afternoon, the emperor was dead. [[14]]

Tacitus records that by December 22, A.D. 69, Vespasian had been given all the honors and privileges usually granted to emperors. Even so, the issue remains unclear, owing largely to a surviving fragment of an enabling law, the lex de imperio Vespasiani, which conferred powers, privileges, and exemptions, most with Julio-Claudian precedents, on the new emperor. Whether the fragment represents a typical granting of imperial powers that has uniquely survived in Vespasian's case, or is an attempt to limit or expand such powers, remains difficult to know. In any case, the lex sanctioned all that Vespasian had done up to its passing and gave him authority to act as he saw fit on behalf of the Roman people. [[15]]

What does seem clear is that Vespasian felt the need to legitimize his new reign with vigor. He zealously publicized the number of divine omens that predicted his accession and at every opportunity he accumulated multiple consulships and imperial salutations. He also actively promoted the principle of dynastic succession, insisting that the emperorship would fall to his son. The initiative was fulfilled when Titus succeeded his father in A.D. 79.[[16]]

Emperorship

Upon his arrival in Rome in late summer, A.D. 70, Vespasian faced the daunting task of restoring a city and a government ravaged by the recent civil wars. Although many particulars are missing, a portrait nevertheles emerges of a ruler conscientiously committed to the methodical renewal of both city and empire. Concerning Rome itself, the emperor encouraged rebuilding on vacated lots, restored the Capitol (burned in A.D. 69), and also began work on several new buildings: a temple to the deified Claudius on the Caelian Hill, a project designed to identify Vespasian as a legitimate heir to the Julio-Claudians, while distancing himself from Nero ; a temple of Peace near the Forum; and the magnificent Colosseum (Flavian Amphitheatre), located on the site of the lake of Nero 's Golden House. [[17]]

Claiming that he needed forty thousand million sesterces for these projects and for others aimed at putting the state on more secure footing, Vespasian is said to have revoked various imperial immunities, manipulated the supply of certain commodities to inflate their price, and increased provincial taxation. [[18]] The measures are consistent with his characterization in the sources as both obdurate and avaricious. There were occasional political problems as well: Helvidius Priscus, an advocate of senatorial independence and a critic of the Flavian regime from the start, was exiled after A.D. 75 and later executed; Marcellus Eprius and A. Alienus Caecina were condemned by Titus for conspiracy, the former committing suicide, the latter executed in A.D. 79.
As Suetonius claims, however, in financial matters Vespasian always put revenues to the best possible advantage, regardless of their source. Tacitus, too, offers a generally favorable assessment, citing Vespasian as the first man to improve after becoming emperor. [[19]] Thus do we find the princeps offering subventions to senators not possessing the property qualifications of their rank, restoring many cities throughout the empire, and granting state salaries for the first time to teachers of Latin and Greek rhetoric. To enhance Roman economic and social life even further, he encouraged theatrical productions by building a new stage for the Theatre of Marcellus, and he also put on lavish state dinners to assist the food trades. [[20]]

In other matters the emperor displayed similar concern. He restored the depleted ranks of the senatorial and equestrian orders with eligible Italian and provincial candidates and reduced the backlog of pending court cases at Rome. Vespasian also re-established discipline in the army, while punishing or dismissing large numbers of Vitellius ' men. [[21]]
Beyond Rome, the emperor increased the number of legions in the East and continued the process of imperial expansion by the annexation of northern England, the pacification of Wales, and by advances into Scotland and southwest Germany between the Rhine and the Danube. Vespasian also conferred rights on communities abroad, especially in Spain, where the granting of Latin rights to all native communities contributed to the rapid Romanization of that province during the Imperial period. [[22]]

Death and Assessment

In contrast to his immediate imperial predecessors, Vespasian died peacefully - at Aquae Cutiliae near his birthplace in Sabine country on 23 June, A.D. 79, after contracting a brief illness. The occasion is said to have inspired his deathbed quip: "Oh my, I must be turning into a god!" [[23]] In fact, public deification did follow his death, as did his internment in the Mausoleum of Augustus alongside the Julio-Claudians.

A man of strict military discipline and simple tastes, Vespasian proved to be a conscientious and generally tolerant administrator. More importantly, following the upheavals of A.D. 68-69, his reign was welcome for its general tranquility and restoration of peace. In Vespasian Rome found a leader who made no great breaks with tradition, yet his ability ro rebuild the empire and especially his willingness to expand the composition of the governing class helped to establish a positive working model for the "good emperors" of the second century.

Bibliography

Since the scholarship on Vespasian is more comprehensive than can be treated here, the works listed below are main accounts or bear directly upon issues discussed in the entry above. A comprehensive modern anglophone study of this emperor is yet to be produced.

Atti congresso internazionale di studi Flaviani, 2 vols. Rieti, 1983.

Atti congresso internazionale di studi Vespasianei, 2 vols. Rieti, 1981.

Bosworth, A.B. "Vespasian and the Provinces: Some Problems of the Early 70s A.D." Athenaeum 51 (1973): 49-78.

Brunt, P. A. "Lex de imperio Vespasiani." JRS (67) 1977: 95-116.

D'Espèrey, S. Franchet. "Vespasien, Titus et la littérature." ANRW II.32.5: 3048-3086.

Dudley, D. and Webster, G. The Roman Conquest of Britain. London, 1965.

Gonzalez, J. "The Lex Irnitana: A New Copy of the Flavian Municipal Law." JRS 76 (1986): 147-243.

Grant, M. The Roman Emperors: A Biographical Guide to the Rulers of Rome, 31 B.C. - A.D. 476. New York, 1985.

Homo, L. Vespasien, l'Empereur du bons sens (69-79 ap. J.-C.). Paris, 1949.

Levi, M.A. "I Flavi." ANRW II.2: 177-207.

McCrum, M. and Woodhead, A. G. Select Documents of the Principates of the Flavian Emperors Including the Year of the Revolution. Cambridge, 1966.

Nicols, John. Vespasian and the Partes Flavianae. Wiesbaden, 1978.

Scarre, C. Chronicle of the Roman Emperors. The Reign-by-Reign Record of the Rulers of Imperial Rome. London, 1995.

Suddington, D. B. The Development of the Roman Auxiliary Forces from Caesar to Vespasian, 49 B.C. - A.D. 79. Harare: U. of Zimbabwe, 1982.

Syme, R. Tacitus. Oxford, 1958.

Wardel, David. "Vespasian, Helvidius Priscus and the Restoration of the Capitol." Historia 45 (1996): 208-222.

Wellesley, K. The Long Year: A.D. 69. Bristol, 1989, 2nd ed.


Notes

[[1]] Suet. Vesp. 2.1. Suetonius remains the major source but see also Tac. Hist. 2-5; Cass. Dio 65; Joseph. BJ 3-4.

[[2]] Suetonius (Vesp. 2.1) claims that Vespasian did not accept the latus clavus, the broad striped toga worn by one aspiring to a senatorial career, immediately. The delay, however, was perhaps no more than three years. See J. Nicols, Vespasian and the Partes Flavianae (Wiesbaden, 1978), 2.

[[3]] Military tribunate and quaestorship: Suet. Vesp. 2.3; aedileship: ibid., 5.3, in which Gaius, furious that Vespasian had not kept the streets clean, as was his duty, ordered some soldiers to load him with filth;,they complied by stuffing his toga with as much as it could hold. See also Dio 59.12.2-3; praetorship: Suet. Vesp. 2.3, in which Vespasian is depicted as one of Gaius' leading adulators, an account consistent with Tacitus' portrayal (Hist 1.50.4; 2.5.1) of his early career. For a more complete discussion of these posts and attendant problems of dating, see Nicols, Vespasian, 2-7.

[[4]] Marriage and Caenis: Suet. Vesp. 3; Cass. Dio 65.14.

[[5]] Nicols, Vespasian, 12-39.

[[6]] Suet. Vesp. 4.1 For additional details on Vespasian's exploits in Britain, see D. Dudley and G. Webster, The Roman Conquest of Britain (London, 1965), 55 ff., 98.

[[7]] Concerning Vespasian's years between his consulship and proconsulship, see Suet. Vesp. 4.2 and Nicols, Vespasian, 9. On his unpopularity in Africa, see Suet. Vesp. 4.3, an account of a riot at Hadrumentum, where he was once pelted with turnips. In recording that Africa supported Vitellius in A.D. 69, Tacitus too suggests popular dissatisfaction with Vespasian's proconsulship. See Hist. 2.97.2.

[[8]] This despite the fact that the sources record two rebukes of Vespasian, one for extorting money from a young man seeking career advancement (Suet. Vesp. 4.3), the other for either leaving the room or dozing off during one of the emperor's recitals (Suet. Vesp. 4.4 and 14, which places the transgression in Greece; Tac. (Ann. 16.5.3), who makes Rome and the Quinquennial Games of A.D. 65 the setting; A. Braithwaite, C. Suetoni Tranquilli Divus Vespasianus, Oxford, 1927, 30, who argues for both Greece and Rome).

[[9]] Subjugation of Galilee: Joseph. BJ 3.65-4.106; siege of Jerusalem: ibid., 4.366-376, 414.

[[10]] Revolt of Vindex: Suet. Nero 40; Tac. Ann. 14.4; revolt of Galba: Suet. Galba 10; Plut. Galba, 4-5; suicide of Nero: Suet. Nero 49; Cass. Dio 63.29.2. For the most complete account of the period between Nero's death and the accession of Vespasian, see K. Wellesley, The Long Year: A.D. 69, 2nd. ed. (Bristol, 1989).

[[11]] Tac. Hist. 2.76.

[[12]] Troops in support of Vespasian: Suet. Vit. 15; Mucianus and his forces: Tac. Hist. 2.83; Vespasian and grain shipments: Joseph. BJ 4.605 ff.; see also Tac. Hist. 3.48, on Vespasian's possible plan to shut off grain shipments to Italy from Carthage as well.

[[13]] On Vitellius' army and its lack of discipline, see Tac. Hist. 2.93-94; illness of army: ibid., 2.99.1; Cremona: ibid., 3.32-33.

[[14]] On Vitellius' last days, see Tac. Hist. 3.68-81. On the complicated issue of Vitellius' death date, see L. Holzapfel, "Römische Kaiserdaten," Klio 13 (1913): 301.

[[15]] Honors, etc. Tac. Hist. 4.3. For more on the lex de imperio Vespasiani, see P. A. Brunt, "Lex de imperio Vespasiani," JRS (67) 1977: 95-116.

[[16]] Omens: Suet. Vesp. 5; consulships and honors: ibid., 8; succession of sons: ibid., 25.

[[17]] On Vespasian's restoration of Rome, see Suet. Vesp. 9; Cass. Dio 65.10; D. Wardel, "Vespasian, Helvidius Priscus and the Restoration of the Capitol," Historia 45 (1996): 208-222.

[[18]] Suet. Vesp. 16.

[[19]] Ibid.; Tac. Hist. 1.50.

[[20]] Suet. Vesp. 17-19.

[[21]] Ibid., 8-10.

[[22]] On Vespasian's exploits in Britain, see esp. Tac., Agricola, eds. R. M. Ogilvie and I. A. Richmond (1967), and W. S. Hanson, Agricola and the Conquest of the North (1987); on the granting of Latin rights in Spain, see, e.g., J. Gonzalez, "The Lex Irnitana: a New Copy of the Flavian Municipal Law." JRS 76 (1986): 147-243.

[[23]] For this witticism and other anecdotes concerning Vespasian's sense of humor, see Suet. Vesp. 23.

Copyright (C) 1998, John Donahue. Published on De Imperatoribus Romanis, an Online Encyplopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families.
http://www.roman-emperors.org/vespasia.htm
Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.





Cleisthenes
1212Hadrian_RIC783.jpg
783 Hadrian Sestertius Roma 134-38 AD Decastyle Temple27 viewsReference.
RIC II 783; Strack 696; c. 1422; BMC 1554

Obv. HADRIANVS AVG COS III P P
Laureate head right

Rev. [SPQR] S-C
Decastyle temple set on base; temple is flanked by two columns, each decorated with a statue on top columns surmounted by statues and set on pedestals on either side

22.71 gr
31 mm
12h

Note.
The great temple of Venus and Rome, was actually two temples that were built back-to-back. Dedigned by Hadrian, the temple of Venus faced the Flavian ampitheatre and that of Rome overlooked the Forum. Construction began in 121 AD, but was not completed until 141 AD under Antoninus Pius. The temple was destroyed by fire in 307 AD, and later rebuilt by Maxentius. Its remains can still be seen in Rome today.
3 commentsokidoki
Piso~0.jpg
90 BC Calpurnius Piso65 viewsLaureate head of Apollo right

L PISO FRVGI
Naked horseman galloping to the right holding palm-branch
CXXXI ? in exergue

Rome 90 BC

3.71g

Sear 235

"This extraordinarily large and complex issue represents one of the principal war coinages of the Romans during the conflict with the Marsic Confederation. The control-Marks are legion and consist of letters, mumerals and symbols in a multitude of combinations on the obverse and reverse" SEAR Millenium Edition

Sold Forum auction January 2018
3 commentsJay GT4
Antoniniano Tetrico II Hibrido.jpg
93-08 - TETRICO II Como Cesar de Tetrico I (273 - 274 D.C.)33 viewsQUIZÁS HIBRIDO con anverso de Tetrico II y reverso de Victorino o Tetrico I, o también puede ser una muy buena copia bárbara.
Ver reverso [http://www.forumancientcoins.com/gallery/displayimage.php?album=1610&pos=3]

Billon Antoniniano 16 x 15 mm 1.4 gr.
Hijo de Tetrico I.

Anv: "[C PIV E]SV TETRICVS CA[ES]" - Busto radiado y vestido, viendo a derecha.
Rev: "[I]NVICTV[S]" - Sol radiado y desnudo corriendo hacia la izquierda, su capa flota sobre su hombro izquierdo, levantando su brazo derecho y portando un látigo en el izquierdo.

Acuñada 4ta. Emisión 273 D.C.
Ceca: Treveri - Hoy Trier Alemania

Referencias: RIC Vol.V Parte II #234 Pag.421 - Cohen Vol.VI #19 Pag.121.
mdelvalle
RIC_Incierta_Tetrico_II_1.jpg
93-08 - TETRICO II Como Cesar de Tetrico I (273 - 274 D.C.)13 viewsQUIZÁS HIBRIDO con anverso de Tetrico II y reverso de Victorino o Tetrico I, o también puede ser una muy buena copia bárbara.
Ver reverso [http://www.forumancientcoins.com/gallery/displayimage.php?album=1610&pos=3]

AE Antoniniano (Minimus) 16 x 15 mm 1.4 gr.
Hijo de Tetrico I.

Anv: "[C PIV E]SV TETRICVS CA[ES]" - Busto radiado y vestido, viendo a derecha.
Rev: "[I]NVICTV[S]" - Sol radiado y desnudo corriendo hacia la izquierda, su capa flota sobre su hombro izquierdo, levantando su brazo derecho y portando un látigo en el izquierdo.

Acuñada 4ta. Emisión 273 D.C.
Ceca: Treveri - Hoy Trier Alemania

Referencias: RIC Vol.V Parte II #234 Pag.421 (S) - Cohen Vol.VI #19 Pag.121.
mdelvalle
train ric 49.jpg
98-117 AD Trajan Denarius Hercules168 viewsIMP CAES NERVA TRAIAN AVG GERM, laureate head right
P M TR P COS IIII P P, statue of Hercules holding club and lion skin, set on low base; mint luster, light toning,

Rome mint, 101-102 A.D, 3.54g, 18.6mm, 180o Reference:RIC 49, RSC 234, BMC 86.
exceptionally well struck reverse for the issue. Ex-Forum
1 commentsjimwho523
horseman_mod.jpg
A Fallen Horseman17 viewsEnlarged and corrected for perspective reverse fragment of
http://www.forumancientcoins.com/gallery/displayimage.php?pos=-147594
Yurii P
Theta.jpg
A strange "theta" device?17 viewsA panorama of two microscopic images of the reverse of
http://www.forumancientcoins.com/gallery/displayimage.php?pos=-147634

What looks like a "theta" is probably just a dot inside an oval. UPD: found a mention of this variation in one of the catalogs, indeed some of the Caesar Constans coins from Thessalonica have "dot inside o" device.
Yurii P
RIC_34_Follis_ROMULO_FORUM.jpg
A118-01 - ROMULO (309 - 312 D.C.)21 viewsAE Follis 16 mm 6,47 gr.
Hijo de Majencio y nieto de Galerio, muere a la edad de 14 años. A su muerte, fue deificado y su padre le dedicó el Templo del divo Rómulo en el Foro romano.

Anv: "DIVO ROMVLO N V BIS CONS" – Cabeza desnuda viendo a derecha.
Rev: "AETERNAE - MEMORIAE” – Águila estante a derecha, viendo a izquierda, sobre el domo de un templo con la puerta derecha abierta. "MOSTP" en exergo.

Acuñada 309 – 312 D.C.
Ceca: Ostia – (Ostia Antica, viejo puerto de Roma) -Italia

Referencias: RIC Vol.VI (Ostia) 34 Pag.404 - DVM #1 Pag.285 - Salgado MRBI Vol.III #7801.b Pag.93 – Cohen Vol.VII #6 Pag.183 - Sear RCTV IV #15050 Pag.356 - DROST #72 - Bauten S.26 f - Hill Monuments S.13 ff
mdelvalle
21312p00.jpg
Abbaitis-Mysoi 96 viewsBronze AE 18, BMC 1, SNG Von Aulock 3330, VF, mint, 6.957g, 19.4mm, 225o, 2nd Century B.C.; obverse laureate head of Zeus right; reverse MUSWN / ABBAITWN, thunderbolt and legend in wreath; dark patina

purchased 09/09/2007 Forum e-bay auctions
1 commentsJohnny
Thrace_1a_img~0.jpg
Abdera, Silver Drachm103 viewsSilver drachm
Obv:– Griffin springing left.
Rev:– GR-W-TH-S, laureate head of Apollo left in linear square, within incuse square
Minted in Abdera, 365 - 345 B.C.
Reference:– May 324

Ex-Forum
6 commentsmaridvnvm
Dyme~0.jpg
Achaean league - AR hemidrachm7 viewsDyme
c. 86 BC
head of laureate Zeus right
fish under (AX) monogram all within wreath
(APT) left / ΔY up
Clerk 55; BCD Peloponnesos 482
2,20g

ex Forum Ancient Coins
ex Jiří Militký
Johny SYSEL
Silver_Coin.jpg
Achaean League - Sparta (Laconia) 192/146 BC26 viewsSparta (Laconia) Hemidrachm - Achaean League 192/146 BC. Ae 14, Weight 2.48g. Obv: Head of Zeus / monograms, Dioscuri caps all within wreath. Clerk, Achaean League pl. XIII, 6 http://www.acsearch.info/record.html?id=166481
Also listed an almost identical coin by Forum Member (Lloyd T) as:
Lakonia, Lakedaimon (Sparta), ca. 85 BC, AR Hemidrachm: in the style of the Achaean League
Laureate and bearded head of Zeus right . / Central AX monogram, pilei of the Dioskouri flanking, ΛAI monogram above and ΩΠMY monogram below, all within laurel wreath.
HGC 5, 643 (S); Clerk 319; BCD Peloponnesos 865.4; SNG Copenhagen 320.
(13 mm, 2.36 g, 6h)
ex-BCD Collection; ex- Johan Chr. Holm (Denmark) 1976.
ddwau
elisco.jpg
ACHAIA, Achaean League, Elis. c. 188-180 B.C.70 viewsSilver hemidrachm, BMC Peloponnesus p. 4, 46; S 3003 var, VF, Elis mint, 2.312g, 12.8mm, 315o, c. 196 - 146 B.C.; obverse laureate head of Zeus right; reverse large AX monogram in laurel wreath, F - A at sides, CW/CIAC below; Agrinion 334a; BCD 665.1; Benner-Elis-5. ex Coin Galleries auction, 23 November 1963, #423; ex Forum.CGPCGP
R656_Julia_Titi_portrait.jpg
AD 064-091 - IVLIA TITI FLAVIA12 viewsJulia Flavia

Julia Flaviawas the daughter and only child to Roman Emperor Titus.

for obverse, reverse and coin details click here
shanxi
R_667_Vitellia_Portrait.jpg
AD 069 - VITTELIA7 viewsVitellia


Vitellia was the daughter of Roman Emperor Vittelius.


for obverse, reverse and coin details click here
shanxi
R_667_Vitellius_Portrait.jpg
AD 069 - VITTELIUS6 viewsVitellius

Vitellius was Roman Emperor for eight months, from 16 April to 22 December 69 AD.


for obverse, reverse and coin details click here
shanxi
R_667_Vitellius_Germanicus_Portrait.jpg
AD 069 - VITTELIUS GERMANICVS6 viewsVitellius Germanicus


Vitellius Germanicus was the son of Roman Emperor Vittelius.



for obverse, reverse and coin details click here
shanxi
R658_Domitia_portrait.jpg
AD 082-096 - DOMITIA12 viewsDomitia Longina

Domitia Longina (c. AD 53-55–c. AD 126-130) was a Roman empress and wife to the Roman emperor Domitian.


for obverse, reverse and coin details click here
shanxi
Plotina_R681_Portrait.jpg
AD 112-117 - PLOTINA6 viewsPlotina

Pompeia Plotina Claudia Phoebe Piso was a Roman Empress and wife of Roman Emperor Trajan.

for obverse, reverse and coin details click here
shanxi
Sabina_R675_portrait.jpg
AD 128-137 - SABINA4 viewsVibia Sabina (83–136/137) was a Roman Empress, wife and second cousin to Roman Emperor Hadrian.

for obverse, reverse and coin details click here
shanxi
Faustina_I_R674_portrait.jpg
AD 138-141 - FAVSTINA I6 viewsAnnia Galeria Faustina was a Roman empress and wife of the Roman emperor Antoninus Pius.

for obverse, reverse and coin details click here

shanxi
Antoninus_Pius_R617_portrait.jpg
AD 138-161 - ANTONINVS PIVS9 viewsAntoninus Pius

Titus Aelius Hadrianus Antoninus Augustus Pius, 19 September 86 – 7 March 161, was Roman emperor from 138 to 161. He was one of the "Five Good Emperors".

for obverse, reverse and coin details click here
shanxi
Faustina_II_15_portrait.jpg
AD 147-176 - FAVSTINA II10 viewsFaustina II

Annia Galeria Faustina Minor (130 - winter 175 or spring of 176]) was a daughter of Roman Emperor Antoninus Pius and Roman Empress Faustina the Elder. She was a Roman Empress and wife to her Roman Emperor Marcus Aurelius.

for obverse, reverse and coin details click here
shanxi
Lucilla_02_portrait.jpg
AD 166-169 - LVCILLA9 viewsLucilla

Annia Aurelia Galeria Lucilla (148 or 150 – 182) was the second daughter and third child of Roman Emperor Marcus Aurelius and Roman Empress Faustina II. She was the wife of her father's co-ruler Lucius Verus.

for obverse, reverse and coin details click here
shanxi
R652_Crispina_portrait.jpg
AD 178-191? - CRISPINA10 viewsCrispina

Roman Empress from 178 to 191? as the consort of Roman Emperor Commodus.

for obverse, reverse and coin details click here
shanxi
Didia_Clara_01_portrait.jpg
AD 193 - DIDIA CLARA3 viewsDidia Clarawas a daughter and only child to the Roman Emperor Didius Julianus and Empress Manlia Scantilla.

for obverse, reverse and coin details click here
shanxi
Julia_Domna_04_portrait.jpg
AD 193–211 - IVLIA DOMNA4 viewsJulia Domna (AD 160–217) was a Roman empress and wife of Septimius Severus.

for obverse, reverse and coin details click here
shanxi
Plautilla_03_portrait.jpg
AD 202-205 - PLAVTILLA5 viewsPublia Fulvia Plautilla was the wife of the Roman emperor Caracalla.

for obverse, reverse and coin details click here
shanxi
Julia_Mamaea_R696_portrait.jpg
AD 225–235 - IVLIA MAMAEA3 viewsJulia Avita Mamaea was a Syrian noble woman and a Roman regent of the Severan dynasty. She was the mother of Roman Emperor Severus Alexander and served as regent of Rome during his reign.

for obverse, reverse and coin details click here
shanxi
Volusian_01_Portrait.jpg
AD 251-253 - VOLVSIANVS11 viewsVolusianus was a Roman Emperor from November 251 to August 253.



for obverse, reverse and coin details click here
2 commentsshanxi
R662_Postumus_portrait.jpg
AD 260-269 - POSTVMVS6 viewsPostumus

Marcus Cassianius Latinius Postumus was a Roman commander of Batavian origin who ruled as emperor in the west "founding" the "Gallic Empire".

for obverse, reverse and coin details click here
shanxi
513ForumNaso.jpg
AE 216 views Bronze AE 21, c. 241 - 50 BCE Panormus (Palermo) mint, (4.595g, maximum diameter 20.9mm, die axis 315o)
magistrate (L. Axius?) Naso
o: laureate head of Zeus left
r: warrior standing left, sword in extended right, spear vertical behind in left, grounded shield behind leaning on spear, NAS/O left
very rare magistrate

per Forum notes: NASO named on this coin could be Lucius Axius L. f. Naso, who was a moneyer in Rome, c. 73 - 70 B.C. Two inscriptions discovered at Cordoba dedicated to a Lucio Axio Luci filio Polia tribu Nasoni, indicate his honors. He was first decemvir stlitibus iudicandis, then tribunus militum pro legato, then quaestor. Or, this NASO could be completely unrelated.
Calciati I p. 351, 125 (one specimen); HGC 2 1071 (C)
PURCHASED FROM FORUM ANCIENT COINS
PMah
Faustina_II_R699.jpg
AE As, RIC 3, p.347, 1680 - Faustina II, Venus, Mars4 viewsFaustina II
Bronze As
Obverse: FAVSTINA AVGVSTA, draped bust right, hair in waves and bun at the back
Reverse: VENERI VICTRICI (to victorious Venus), Venus standing right, nude to the waist, both hands holding the right arm of Mars, Mars standing front, nude, helmeted head left, shield on his left arm, parazonium at left side, S - C (senatus consulto) across field.
AE, 11.911g, maximum diameter 26.5mm, die axis 195°
Ref.: RIC III MA1680 (R); BMCRE IV p. 543, MA999; Cohen III 241; SRCV II 5305; Hunter II p. 360, 78,
Ex Errett Bishop Collection
Ex Forum Ancient Coins
shanxi
R670_Faustina_II_fac.jpg
AE Dupondius, RIC 3, p.194, 1405 (a) - Faustina II, Diana20 viewsFaustina II
Dupondius or As, AD 145-161
Obv.: FAVSTINA AVG PII AVG FIL, draped bust right
Rev.: S - C, Diana standing left with bow and arrow.
AE, 12.4g, 26mm
Ref.: RIC 1405 (a) [C]
This coin was found in 2006 close to the Fleischstraße in Trier, Germany. The find was presented to the Landesmuseum (State Museum).

for the same type, with different hairstyle, click here
3 commentsshanxi
Faustina_II_22.jpg
AE Dupondius, RIC 3, p.194, 1405a - Faustina II, Diana 29 viewsFaustina II
Dupondius, Rome mint, AD 154-156
Obv.: FAVSTINA AVG PII AVG FIL, draped bust right, head bare, hair waived and coiled on back of head
Rev.: S-C, Diana standing facing, head left, examining arrow in right hand, resting left hand on grounded bow, S - C flanking across below center field
AE, 11.83g, 26.0mm
Ref.: RIC III 1405a
Ex Forvm Ancient Coins Shop

for the same type, with different hairstyle, click here
shanxi
aelius_(hadrian)430.jpg
Aelius, RIC II, (Hadrian) 43026 viewsAelius, Caesar 136-138
AR - denarius, 3.36g, 18.6mm, 180°
Rome, AD 137
obv. L AELIVS - CAESAR
Bare head r.
rev. TR POT - COS III
Felicitas, in long garment and mantle, stg. l., holding cornucopiae in l. arm and in raised r. hand caduceus
ref. RIC II, (Hadrian) 430; C. 50; BMRC II, 969; SRCV II, 3973
scarce, VF
From Forum Ancient Coins, thanks!
Jochen
Kyme_Hemiobol.jpg
Aeolis, Kyme - [SNG Kayhan 84; SNG von Aulock 1623; SNG von Aulock 7690; SGCV II 4174; BMC 11; Klein 333; Rosen Collection 538]58 viewsSilver Hemiobol, 0.48g, 8mm, Kyme mint, ca.450-400 B.C.

Obv. - KY (retrograde K), head of eagle left

Rev. - incuse square of mill-sail pattern

Very life-like eagle

Possible Die Match: http://www.acsearch.info/record.html?id=499715
___________

Purchased Through FORVM Auction Catalog from Andreas Reich [Areich on Forum Ancient Coins]

Ex. Andreas Reich Collection and Photo
2 commentsrenegade3220
Kyme_tetradrachm_a.jpg
Aeolis, Kyme, ca. 151-145 BC, AR Tetradrachm 57 viewsHead of the Amazon Kyme right, hair bound with tainia.
KYMAIΩN METROΦANHZ Bridled horse standing right, left foreleg raised above an oinochoe (one-handled jug), all within laurel wreath.

Oakley obverse die 1; BMC Aeolis p111, 74, SNG Copenhagen 104 (same obverse die).

(33 mm, 16.77 g, 12h).
Forum Ancient Coins.

Dating to 151-145 BC based on the analysis of recent hoards: Commerce (“Demetrius I” Hoard), 2003 (CH 10.301) by Lorber and Gaziantep Hoard (CH 9.257; 10.308) by Meadows and Houghton date the stenophoric civic issues of Kyme to the interval ca. 151-145 BC.
3 commentsn.igma
aes_rude_SRCV505.jpg
Aes rude, SRCV 50523 viewsRoman Republic, 5th - 4th century BC
Aes rude, length 32.5mm, 14.23g
ref. SRCV I, 505; Thurlow-Vecchi pl. 2
From Forum Ancient Coins, thanks!

Aes Rude is the earliest type of money used by the population of central Italy. They are actually irtregular pieces of bronze with no marks or designs. More advanced types were used later: Aes Signatum or Aes Grave, and in the end, normal struck coins (FAC).
Jochen
60245p00.jpg
Agrippa Copper As32 viewsFrom Forum:RIC I Caligula 58, BMC II 161; SRCV I 556, aVF, corrosion, 11.123g, 29.7mm, 180o, Rome mint, struck under Caligula 38 A.D.; obverse M AGRIPPA L F COS III, bare head right; reverse Neptune standing half left, dolphin in right, trident in left, S - C across fields;

This is the coin that convinced me that I'd rather pay more for quality rather than less for quantity.
1 commentsMagisterRiggs
48320q00.jpg
Ahenobarbus Denarius104 viewsAR Denarius:
Condition: toned F
Ref: Crawford 519/2, Sydenham 1177, RSC I Domitia 21
Adriatic or Ionian mint.
weight 3.546g, maximum diameter 18.4mm, die axis 270o, 41 - 40 B.C
OBV: AHENOBAR, bare head of Ahenobarbus right
REV: CN DOMITIVS IMP, trophy on prow right

Ex Forum RS48320. Recycled photo.
cliff_marsland
39713q00.jpg
AHG 562 . The Antioch Hoard of Gallienus . Claudius II Gothicus , September 268 - August or September 270 A.D.23 viewsClaudius II Gothicus, September 268 - August or September 270 A.D.
Silvered antoninianus . 3.630g, 21.1mm, 0o, Antioch mint, 268 - 269 A.D
Obverse : IMP C CLAVDIVS AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right, from behind
Reverse : IVVENTVS AVG, Hercules standing slightly right, head left, nude, resting right on grounded club, lion skin in right, “D” in ex
RIC V 213, Cohen 137, SRCV III 11344 var, AHG 562 (this coin)
From the Antioch Hoard of Gallienus . Ex Forum
Vladislav D
elaia_commodus_SNGcop199.jpg
Aiolis, Elaia, Commodus, SNG Copenhagen 19919 viewsCommodus, AD 177-192
AE 21, 2.46g
obv. AV KAI - KOMMODO
Bust, draped and cuirassed, seen from behind, laureate, r.
rev. ELAIT - WN
Bust of Crispina as Demeter or Persephone, drsped and diademed, r., holding in l. hand poppy and 2
grain-ears
ref. SNG Copenhagen 199; SNG von Aulock 1641; SNG München 431; SNG Leypold 515; BMC Aiolis p.131, 47
about VF, nice green patina, elegant depiction
From Forum Ancient Coins, thanks!

Elaia was the harbour of Pergamon.
Jochen
kyme_SNGcop113.jpg
Aiolis, Kyme, SNG Copenhagen 113-114201 viewsAiolis, Kyme, 2nd century BC (after 190)
AE 17, 3.25g, 16.6mm
obv. K - Y
Artemis, in long garment, quiver over r. shoulder, stg. r., holding bow and long torch in l. hand, clasping
hands with amazone Kyme(?), in short military cloak, stg. l., with l. hand holding shield set on ground
behind.
rev. 2 female figures, in quadriga r., one holding transverse spear
SNG Copenhagen 113-114; SNG von Aulock 1644; BMC 96; Grose 7908
VF, unusual depiction
From Forum Ancient Coins, thanks
1 commentsJochen
acanth_50.jpg
Akanthos, Macedonia15 views500 - 470 B.C.
Silver Tetrobol
2.317 gm, 15.3 mm
Obv.: Forepart of lioness right, head turned so the top of the head is seen, floral ornament (acanthus) above, dotted line at truncation, dotted ground line
Rev.: Quadripartite incuse square
HGC 3, 386; Sear 1363a; Rosen 84; BMC Macedonia p. 33, 10/12; Weber II 1875;
[SNG Cop 7; SNG ANS 18/23; SNG Berry 4; AMNG III/2 13]

Ex Forum GA85066, ex Gorny & Mosch auction 245, part of lot 1906
Jaimelai
p1_1.jpg
Akanthos, Macedonia 22 views500 - 470 B.C.
Silver Tetrobol
2.317 gm, 15.3 mm
Obv.: Forepart of lioness right, head turned so the top of the head is seen, floral ornament (acanthus) above, dotted line at truncation, dotted ground line
Rev.: Quadripartite incuse square
HGC 3, 386; Sear 1363a; Rosen 84; BMC Macedonia p. 33, 10/12; Weber II 1875;
[SNG Cop 7; SNG ANS 18/23; SNG Berry 4; AMNG III/2 13]

Ex Forum GA85066, ex Gorny & Mosch auction 245, part of lot 1906

Different lighting on this shot - bounced off walls on light table.
Jaimelai
a3881.JPG
Alexander III154 viewsNew photo.

http://www.forumancientcoins.com/gallery/displayimage.php?pos=-40517


Alexander III AR Tetradrachm. ‘Amphipolis’ mint. Struck under Kassander, circa 316-314 BC. Head of Herakles right, wearing lion skin headdress / Zeus Aëtophoros seated left; shield in left field, pellet-in-Π below throne.

Price 136; Troxell, Studies, issue L8.

Thanks for the atribution Lloyd!
6 commentsRandygeki(h2)
Alexander_III_-_countermark.jpg
Alexander III - AR drachm14 viewsmint ?
323-200 BC ?
head of young Heracles in lionskin right
countermark: Kalchedon ? - head of Demeter ?, bee below, (KA) right
Zeus enthroned left, holding eagle and scepter
AΛEΞANΔPOY
zum Gegenstempel vgl. Price, Alexander, S. 69
probably same as: http://www.forumancientcoins.com/gallery/displayimage.php?pos=-10207
ex Sol numismatic
Johny SYSEL
Alexander_TG.jpg
Alexander III - Tarsos79 viewsObv: Head of Herakles right wearing lionskin headdress
Rev: ALEXANDROU between club above, quiver and bow below. No symbols
Size: 17 mm, 5,47 g
Mint: Tarsos, 323-317 BC
Ref: Likely Price 3056
Notes: Discussion on this coin at http://www.forumancientcoins.com/board/index.php?topic=91693.msg569052#new
2 commentsickster
alexander_miletos.jpg
Alexander III AR Drachm 118 viewsKings of Macedon Alexander III the Great, 336-323 BC

Head of Herakles in lion skin facing right

AΛEΞANΔPOY in right field, Zeus enthroned facing left holding eagle and sceptre; double-head (bipennis) axe beneath throne, circled ΠPYA monogram in left field.

Price 2148; Thompson DM 260; Newell 49.

3.97g

Struck under Demetrios Poliorketes ca. 300-294 BC at Ionia, Miletos Mint.

Some encrustations remain around Zeus

Sold Forum Auction May 2019
2 commentsJay GT4
Alexander.jpg
Alexander III Tetradrachm Price 299979 viewsKINGS OF MACEDON. Alexander III ‘the Great’, 336-323 BC. Tetradrachm (Silver, 25 mm, 17.13 g, 12 h), Tarsos, struck under Balakros or Menes, circa 333-327.
O: Head of Herakles to right, wearing lion skin headdress.
R: AΛEΞANΔPOY Zeus seated left on low throne, holding long scepter in his left hand and eagle standing right with closed wings in his right.
- Price 2999. A rare early and unusual issue from Tarsos, "Officina B", bearing no symbol.

By comparing these early Tarsos tetradrachms to the staters of Mazaios (Pictured below) it is easy to see the identical forms of the throne, scepter, footstool and other details. The drapery is rendered in a similar manner, the Aramaic inscription of the one and the Greek inscription of the other share the same curve following the dotted border. This evidence indicates the two series of coins were the common product of a single mint.

2 commentsNemonater
Lifetime_Issue!_Signed_by_the_artist_EX_FORVM~0.jpg
Alexander III The Great Lifetime Issue Drachm ! Signed by the artist 123 viewsMacedonian Kingdom, Alexander III The Great, 336 - 323 B.C.




Silver drachm, Price 2090A, ADM I 80 (same dies), VF, 4.214g, 16.0mm, 0o, Miletos mint, lifetime issue, c. 325 - 323 B.C.; obverse Herakles' head right, clad in Nemean lion scalp headdress tied at neck, K on lion's jaw behind Herakles' ear; reverse ALEXANDROU, Zeus seated left, legs uncrossed, right leg forward, feet on footstool, eagle in extended right, long scepter vertical behind in left, monogram before;

EX; FORVM Ancient Coins ' Shop.


Lifetime Issue! Signed by the artist!(?) The K behind Herakles ear had traditionally been identified as the signature of the artist. Matt Kreuzer, however, believes the K (the Greek numeral 20) was used c. 325 B.C. to introduce the Attic drachm to Miletos by indicating either that 20 of these was equal to a gold stater, or that one of these drachm was equal to 20 of the 3 to 4 gram bronzes circulating at the time.


*With my sincere thank and appreciation , Photo and Description courtesy of FORVM Ancient Coins Staff.

**This coin is considered as Best of The Type :
http://www.forumancientcoins.com/gallery/displayimage.php?pos=-108526


From The Sam Mansourati Collection.
Sam
Macedonian_Kingdom_1a_img.jpg
Alexander III The Great, Macedonian Kingdom, 336 - 323 B.C., Lifetime Issue, Silver tetradrachm, Price 3599 (same dies)96 viewsSilver tetradrachm
Obv:- Head of (Alexander the Great as) Herakles right, wearing lion skin headdress knotted at base of neck
Rev:- ALEXANDROU, Zeus seated left, holding eagle in right hand and scepter in left, monogram and M below throne;
Price 3599 (same dies), Müller 67, 17.206g, 25.9mm, 255o, Babylon mint, lifetime issue, c. 325 - 323 B.C.;
EF, obverse off-center;

Dies by 'The Alexander Dekadrachm Master'. From the same highly-skilled hand as the famous dekadrachms, including Price 3598, with which this shares all symbols and their arrangement. A massive issue of coinage was struck for the mass-weddings of the soldiers of Alexander the Great to Persian women, and their subsequent return to Macedonia. The best style of the lengthy issue of Alexander coinage

Ex-Forum

Old coin - new photo.

Click to zoom.
2 commentsmaridvnvm
Macedonian_Kingdom_1a_img~0.jpg
Alexander III The Great, Macedonian Kingdom, 336 - 323 B.C., Lifetime Issue, Silver tetradrachm, Price 3599 (same dies)53 viewsSilver tetradrachm
Obv:- Head of (Alexander the Great as) Herakles right, wearing lion skin headdress knotted at base of neck
Rev:- ALEXANDROU, Zeus seated left, holding eagle in right hand and scepter in left, monogram and M below throne;
Price 3599 (same dies), Müller 67, 17.206g, 25.9mm, 255o, Babylon mint, lifetime issue, c. 325 - 323 B.C.;
EF, obverse off-center;

Dies by 'The Alexander Dekadrachm Master'. From the same highly-skilled hand as the famous dekadrachms, including Price 3598, with which this shares all symbols and their arrangement. A massive issue of coinage was struck for the mass-weddings of the soldiers of Alexander the Great to Persian women, and their subsequent return to Macedonia. The best style of the lengthy issue of Alexander coinage

Ex-Forum

Updated image using new photography setup.
maridvnvm
73678q00.jpg
Alexander Severus5 viewsSilver denarius, RIC IV 188, RSC III 29a, BMCRE IV 674, SRCV II 7859, Hunter III -, aEF, both sides slightly off-center but broad flan so only the tops of a few letters off flan, some die wear, die break below bust, 3.168g, 19.3mm, 180o, Rome mint, 231 A.D.; obverse IMP SEV ALEXAND AVG, laureate head right, with neatly trimmed beard; reverse ANNONA AVG, Annona standing left, two heads of grain downward in right hand over modius overflowing with grain at feet left, grounded anchor in left hand;

ex Forum (2004)
arash p
Alexander_the_Great_002.png
Alexander the Great65 viewsIssuer: Alexander III "the Great"
Date ruled: 336-323 BC

Date struck: 332-326 BC (lifetime)
Mint: Amphipolis, Macedon

Denomination: Tetradrachm
Reference: Price 13

Size: 25 mm
Weight: 17.2 g

Obv: Head of Herakles wearing lion's scalp right
Rev: Zeus Aëtophoros seated left, legs open, ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ to right; amphora in left field

Appears in: Lighting - which one's better?

Click here to see the new photo. (Please comment/rate there.)
4 commentsViriathus
IMG_4652_+_4655.jpg
Alexander the Great85 viewsIssuer: Alexander III "the Great"
Date ruled: 336-323 BC

Date struck: 332-326 BC (lifetime)
Mint: Amphipolis, Macedon

Denomination: Tetradrachm
Reference: Price 13

Size: 25 mm
Weight: 17.2 g

Obv: Head of Herakles wearing lion's scalp right
Rev: Zeus Aëtophoros seated left, legs open, ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ to right; amphora in left field

Appears in: Lighting - which one's better?

Click here to see the old photo.
2 commentsViriathus
allectus_76~0.jpg
Allectus RIC V, 76186 viewsAllectus 293 - 296, British Empire
AR - Antoninianus, 3.97g, 22.6mm
Camulodunum 293 - 296
obv. IMP C ALLECTVS PF AVG
draped, cuirassed bust, radiate head r.
rev. LAETI - T [A]VG
Laetitia standing l., holding wreath r. and anchor l.
field: S and P
exergue: C
RIC V, 76; C.16
about VF, portrait!
from Forum Ancient Coins, thanks!
added to www.wildwinds.com

ANCHOR, because the power of Allectus based on his fleet
5 commentsJochen
IM002342.JPG
Amman - Citadel - Temple of Hercules and View of City11 viewsThe remains of the 2nd century AD Temple of Hercules on the Amman citadel high above the Forum. otlichnik
IM002367.JPG
Amman - Forum - Odeon13 viewsThe Odeon in the Roman Forum in Amman, Jordan. Dating to the 2nd century AD the Odeon was once covered with a wooden roof and was used for musical performances, speeches, etc. otlichnik
IM002362.JPG
Amman - Forum - Temple at top of Theatre13 viewsA photo of me (from ten years ago) looking at the remains of the small temple at the back of the Roman Theatre in Amman. Though the appearance of a temple was no longer required at this time - unlike during the late Republican era when they were included to avoid the legal prohibition against building permanent temples - the tradition of including a small temple at the top rear of Roman theatres prevailed in many cases. otlichnik
IM002361.JPG
Amman - Forum - View Towards Orchestra of Theatre12 viewsA view down from the top of the theatre in the Roman Forum in Amman. This beautiful and well preserved theatre was built in the reign of Antoninus Pius in the 2nd century AD. It seats 6000. otlichnik
19711q00.jpg
Amphipolis, Macedonia102 viewsBronze AE 21, S 1394, VF, Amphipolis mint, 6.847g, 21.2mm, 0o, obverse diademed head of Artemis Tauropolis right, bow and quiver at shoulder; reverse , two goats on their hind legs, contending, facing;
ex-Wallace Widtman collection .
ex-Forum Ancient Coins
Purchased 09/2007
1 commentsJohnny
55068.JPG
Anatolia, (Uncertain City)48 viewsc. 400 B.C.
Silver Obol
0.59 gm, 8.2 mm
Obv.: Facing head of panther
Rev.: Quadripartite incuse square
- uncertain mint -
SNG Keckman II 340;
Forum Purchase GA55058

Experts are uncertain which city struck this type.
1 commentsJaimelai
Map_Ancient_City_of_Athens.jpg
Ancient Athens: map13 viewsOne element in this map that I find intriguing is the clearly delineated walls running from the city 'proper' to the port. After instigating the Peloponnesian War, Pericles' plan was to 'wage' a battle of attrition with Sparta. Athenians would 'hunker down' behind her walls, be re-supplied by sea and simply, as it were, wait until Spartan resources and resolve had been depleted. Pericles' plan seemed to be working until the ships supplying Athens delivered a terrible cargo: the plague. It did not take very long for the plague to ravage the walled-in city, and Pericles was one of its victims.

This interesting map is one of many on FORVM's Resources page.
See: http://forumancientcoins.com/forvm/Collectors_Resources.html
Cleisthenes
caracalla_combined_1.jpg
ANCIENT FORGERY -Dilver - Caracalla - Nobilitas44 viewsBearded Caracalla looking - apparently - clearly not ancient.
Obverse legend (probably intended as): ANTONINIVSPIVSAVG
Reverse legend (most likely): NOBILITAS
Reverse (again, probably): Nobilitas standing right, holding scepter and palladium, shield to right
(as per Aorta)

Above reflects the best, most likely attribution that I had but it did seem odd that the only attribution that I could come up with was for a 'Quinarius' as it's about the same size as my not-a-quinarius Elagabalus silver coin. I posted it in good faith thinking I'd done a good job to ID it given its condition. Below you can read the comments from other Forum members who told me it was most likely an ancient forgery.

It looks like that rather than go with a recognised, common coin that would stand out against the real thing, the forgers took a chance with a design known to be on the quinarius, but not on the denari. I suppose that they figured that folks would just assume that the mint was making denari with the same features as the quinarius (beared Caracalla, NOBILITAS etc) and not ask too many questions. OR, NOBILITAS was just the shortest reverse legend and the easiest picture to replicate. Why knows? A relic of the otherwise unpublished seedy underbelly of Rome... I like it. Hope you do to.
5 commentsBanjaxed
KlazoAthenaSheepPigasus1med.jpg
ANIMALS/PINK FLOYD, Track 1. Pigs on the Wing (part I); Klazomenai bronze19 viewsIONIA, Klazomenai
4th century BC
AE10.7, 1.53 gm.
Obv: helmeted head of Athena right
Rev: ram lying left, winged boar above, phi-ANOK
Ref: Not in literature consulted.

Composite picture of the collection:
http://www.forumancientcoins.com/gallery/displayimage.php?pos=-104363

Interactive presentation:
http://prezi.com/q7mw1k1zur65/?utm_campaign=share&utm_medium=copy&rc=ex0share

TIF
KlazoPigasusGMMed.jpg
ANIMALS/PINK FLOYD, Track 1. Pigs on the Wing (part I); Klazomenai diobol26 viewsIONIA, Klazomenai
499-494 BC
AR diobol, 10 mm, 1.0 gm
Obv: forepart of winged boar right
Rev: quadripartite incuse square, K
Rev: SNG München 451

Composite picture of the collection:
http://www.forumancientcoins.com/gallery/displayimage.php?pos=-104363

Interactive presentation:
http://prezi.com/q7mw1k1zur65/?utm_campaign=share&utm_medium=copy&rc=ex0share


TIF
RRPostumiusMed~0.jpg
ANIMALS/PINK FLOYD, Track 2, Dogs.47 viewsRoman Republic
moneyer L. Caesius, 74 BC, Rome.
AR denarius, 18.74 mm, 3.6 gm
Obv: bust of Diana right, bow and quiver over shoulder
Rev: hound running right, spear below; C. POSTVMI, TA in exergue
Ref: Crawford 394/1a

Composite picture of the collection:
http://www.forumancientcoins.com/gallery/displayimage.php?pos=-104363

Interactive presentation:
http://prezi.com/q7mw1k1zur65/?utm_campaign=share&utm_medium=copy&rc=ex0share


2 commentsTIF
RRCaesiusLarge.jpg
ANIMALS/PINK FLOYD, Track 2. Dogs.43 viewsRoman Republic, Moneyer L. Caesius, 112-111 BC
AR denarius, 3.92 gm
Obv: Vejovis facing left, from behind; holding thunderbolt; monogram AP.
Rev: Two Lares Praestites seated, facing left, holding spears, dog between; bust of Vulcan above; legend LA-RE.
Ref: Crawford 298/1. Sydenham 564. RSC Caesia 1.

Composite picture of the collection:
http://www.forumancientcoins.com/gallery/displayimage.php?pos=-104363

Interactive presentation:
http://prezi.com/q7mw1k1zur65/?utm_campaign=share&utm_medium=copy&rc=ex0share


2 commentsTIF
ThraceMadytosMED.jpg
ANIMALS/PINK FLOYD, Track 2. Dogs.24 viewsTHRACE, Madytos. c. 350 BC
AE13, 1.86 gm
Obv: bull butting right.
Rev: dog seated right, ear of grain behind. M-A
Reference: Sear 1624 cf.; Copenhagen 923-6

Composite picture of the collection:
http://www.forumancientcoins.com/gallery/displayimage.php?pos=-104363

Interactive presentation:
http://prezi.com/q7mw1k1zur65/?utm_campaign=share&utm_medium=copy&rc=ex0share


TIF
CelticPotinBaldBoarMed.jpg
ANIMALS/PINK FLOYD, Track 3. Pigs (Three Different Ones)26 viewsCeltic potin, Leuci tribe
80-20 BC
AE17.6, 3.43 gm
Obv: bald warrior head left
Rev: boar standing left, three half-circles below
Ref: BN 9100-9104

Composite picture of the collection:
http://www.forumancientcoins.com/gallery/displayimage.php?pos=-104363

Interactive presentation:
http://prezi.com/q7mw1k1zur65/?utm_campaign=share&utm_medium=copy&rc=ex0share


TIF
RRVeturiusMED.jpg
ANIMALS/PINK FLOYD, Track 3. Pigs (Three Different Ones)27 viewsRoman Republic
moneyer Ti. Veturius, 137 BC, Rome
AR denarius, 3.85 gm
Obv: helmeted bust of Mars right
Rev: youth kneeling left, holding pig; at either side, two soldiers standing holding spear and touching pig with swords. ROMA above.
Ref: Crawford 234/1. Sydenham 527. RSC Veturia 1.

Composite picture of the collection:
http://www.forumancientcoins.com/gallery/displayimage.php?pos=-104363

Interactive presentation:
http://prezi.com/q7mw1k1zur65/?utm_campaign=share&utm_medium=copy&rc=ex0share


TIF
AtticaEleusisTriptolemosMed.jpg
ANIMALS/PINK FLOYD, Track 3. Pigs (Three Different Ones)22 viewsATTICA, Athens.
Eleusinian festival coinage, 360-330 BC
AE16
Obv: Triptolemos, holding grain ear in right hand, seated left in winged chariot being drawn by two serpents
Rev: pig standing right on mystic staff; bucranium below
Ref: SNG Cop. 415

Composite picture of the collection:
http://www.forumancientcoins.com/gallery/displayimage.php?pos=-104363

Interactive presentation:
http://prezi.com/q7mw1k1zur65/?utm_campaign=share&utm_medium=copy&rc=ex0share


TIF
IoniaKlazWingedBoar.jpg
ANIMALS/PINK FLOYD. Track 1, Pigs on the Wing (part I); Klazomenai winged boar16 viewsIONIA, Klazomenai. 499-494 BC.
AR Diobol, 9mm, 1.18 g
Obv: forepart of winged boar left
Rev: incuse square.
Ref: Cf. BMC 9-10 (drachm); cf. Traité I 488 (drachm). Very rare with boar left, apparently unpublished as a diobol.
ex Daniel Koppersmith Collection

Composite picture of the collection:
http://www.forumancientcoins.com/gallery/displayimage.php?pos=-104363

Interactive presentation:
http://prezi.com/q7mw1k1zur65/?utm_campaign=share&utm_medium=copy&rc=ex0share

TIF
antonino_piohonos2.jpg
ANONINUS PIUS43 viewsAE dupondius. Rome. 145-147 AD. 12,82 grs. 0 h. Radiate head right. ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P / Honos standing facing,head left,togate,branch in right cornucopiae in left. HONORI AVG COS IIII.
RIC 802. Cohen 415.
Ex. Forum Ancient Coins
3 commentsbenito
Antigonus_I_Monophthalmus.jpg
Antigonus I Monophthalmus30 viewsAntigonus I Monophthalmus, Silver drachm, Ionia, Magnesia ad Maeandrum mint, 17.9mm, 4.120g, Price 1979, Müller Alexander 555, SNG Cop,
OBV: Herakles' head right, clad in lion-skin head-dress;
REV: AΛEΞAN∆POY, Zeus enthroned left, eagle raised high in extended right,
long scepter vertical behind in left, A within wreath over B left, IAY monogram under throne;

EX: Forum Ancient Coins

RARE

Antigonos I Monophthalmos ("the One-eyed") (382 B.C. - 301 B.C.) was a nobleman, general, and governor under Alexander the Great. Upon Alexander's death in 323 B.C.,
he established himself as one of the successors and declared himself King in 306 B.C. The most powerful satraps of the empire, Cassander, Seleucus, Ptolemy and Lysimachus,
answered by also proclaiming themselves kings. Antigonus found himself at war with all four, largely because his territory shared borders with all of them. He died in battle at Ipsus in 301 B.C.
Antigonus' kingdom was divided up, with Seleucus I Nicator gaining the most. His son, Demetrius I Poliorcetes, took Macedon, which the family held, off and on, until it was conquered by Rome in 168 B.C. - Wikipedia
1 commentsRomanorvm
CROSSBOW_BROOCH.JPG
ANTIQUITIES, Roman, Crossbow Brooch - 4th Century50 viewsLarge (92mm) complete Roman crossbow brooch dating from circa A.D.320 - 400.

Typology: Keller 4a; Pröttel 3/4a; Soupault III1
Distribution: Upper Danube, NE Gaul

The brooch would have been worn as shown in the inset, which is a detail from this ivory diptych of the Roman general Stilicho.
1 comments*Alex
clown_3_illisible.jpg
Antoninianus Gordian III Imitation "Barbarous" VIRTVS AVG ????28 viewsIMP CAES MANT GORDIANVS AVG
????? maybe VIRTVS or VICTORIA

Weight : 2,90 gr

Fourree

A very unusual style. The portrait is very strange and typical.
The style is touching and a bit clumsy.

I think it's the same celator as for this other imitations (from my collection ) :
http://www.forumancientcoins.com/gallery/displayimage.php?pos=-58496
http://www.forumancientcoins.com/gallery/displayimage.php?pos=-58496
Chut
Anto_FIDES_MILITVMs_FAC.jpg
Antoninianus Gordian III Imitation FIDES MILITVM41 viewsIMP CAES MANT GORDIANVS
FIDES MILITVM

RIC : No number, but the prototype is RIC 1

Coin : fourree

Weight : 3,46gr

A very unusual style. The portrait is very strange and typical. The reverse is also strange : FIDES looks like a man with a crown.

I think it's the same celator as for this other imitations (also from my collection ) :
http://www.forumancientcoins.com/gallery/displayimage.php?pos=-58496
http://www.forumancientcoins.com/gallery/displayimage.php?pos=-58585
1 commentsChut
anto_clown_virtus_FAC.jpg
Antoninianus Gordian III Imitation VIRTVS AVG41 viewsIMP CAES MANT GORDIANVS AVG
VIRTVS AVG

This coin was fourree.
Weight : 3,57 gr

RIC: No number but the Prototype is RIC 6

A very unusual style. The portrait is very strange and typical.
The style is touching and a bit clumsy.

I think it's the same celator as for this other imitations (from my collection ) :
http://www.forumancientcoins.com/gallery/displayimage.php?pos=-58496
http://www.forumancientcoins.com/gallery/displayimage.php?pos=-58585
Chut
apiohonsest.jpg
ANTONINUS PIUS41 viewsAE sestertius. Rome 145 AD. 27,16 grs. 0 h. Laureate head right. ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P /
Honos standing facing,togate,head left,holding branch in right hand,cornucopiae in left. SC across fields.
HONORI AVG COS IIII.
RIC 772. Cohen414.
Ex Fórum Ancient Coins
1 commentsbenito
Roma.jpg
Antoninus Pius 28 views
Antoninus Pius. AD 138-161. Æ Sestertius (32mm, 25.3g, 10h). Rome mint. Struck circa AD 141-143. Laureate head right / Decastyle temple, with statues on roof and in pediment. RIC II 622. Good Fine.

The great temple of Venus and Roma was actually composed of two temples back to back. The temple of Venus faced the Flavian ampitheatre and that of Rome overlooked the Forum - both were designed by Hadrian himself. Construction began in 121 AD and and remained unfinished on the emperor’s death in 138 AD. Work was at last completed in 141 AD under Antoninus Pius, the event commemorated on this coin. The temple would be destroyed by fire in 307 and later rebuilt by Maxentius, the remains of which can still be seen in Rome today.
Ancient Aussie
2015-01-07_01_08_08-9.jpg
Antoninus Pius 3 views
Antoninus Pius. AD 138-161. Æ Dupondius (27mm, 10.58 g, 11h). Rome mint. Struck AD 159. Radiate head right / TEMPLVM DIV AVG REST, octastyle temple within which are the seated figures of Divus Augustus and Livia. RIC III 1017. VF, dark brown surfaces with touches of green, some pitting and minor smoothing.


The second Temple of Divus Augustus, commenced under Tiberius and dedicated by Caligula in August AD 37, suffered during the great fire of 80, which began on the Capitoline Hill and spread into the Forum and onto the Palatine. It was possibly restored or rebuilt under Domitian, although it is not mentioned in the Chronographia. It received further restoration under Antoninus Pius in 158. The temple under Antoninus was Corinthian octastyle and contained the seated figures of Divus Augustus and Livia within, generally drawn on the coinage at an elevated level to suggest perspective.
Ancient Aussie
Antoninus_Pius___Marcus_Aurelius_RIC_III_415b.jpg
Antoninus Pius & Marcus Aurelius RIC III 415b20 viewsAntoninus Pius & Marcus Aurelius, Silver denarius, RIC III 415b, RSC II 21, Hunter II 6, BMCRE IV 148 var (...CAES AVG..., noted), SRCV II 4523 var (same), gF, nice style, light corrosion, small spots of encrustation, Rome mint, weight 3.032g, maximum diameter 17.9mm, die axis 0o, 140 A.D.; OBV: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P COS III, bare of Antoninus Pius right;
REV: AVRELIVS CAESAR AVG PII F COS, draped young bare-headed and beardless bust of Marcus Aurelius Caesar right;

EX: Forum Ancient Coins

In 140, Antoninus Pius and Marcus Aurelius Caesar were the two Roman Consuls. Marcus Aurelius was married to Antoninus Pius' daughter Faustina the Younger and was made Caesar in 139. This was the third consulship for Antoninus Pius and the first consulship for Marcus Aurelius.
SRukke
DSC03031_forum.JPG
Antoninus Pius AR Denarius15 viewsObv: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P - Laureate head right.
Rev: COS IIII - Concordia standing left, holding patera and scepter.
Mint: Rome
Year: 147 AD
Ref: RIC III 129
oa
DIVO_PIO.jpg
Antoninus Pius by Marcus Aurelius93 viewsDIVVS ANTONINVS
Bare head of Antoninus Pius right

DIVO PIO
Alter-enclosure with double panelled door and horns visible above

Rome 162 AD

Sear 5196, RIC 441
High relief strike.

Sold Forum Auction March 2016
Jay GT4
Pius.jpg
Antoninus Pius denarius132 viewsANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P XVII
Laureate bust right of

COS IIII
Vesta sacrifices left over altar, holding palladium

Rome 153/4 AD

3.13g

RIC 238; Cohen 201

Amazing dark "as found" patina


SOLD! Forum Auctions January 2017
4 commentsJay GT4
Antoninus_Pius_RIC_III_171a.jpg
Antoninus Pius RIC III 171a16 viewsAntoninus Pius, Silver denarius, RIC III 171a, RSC II 670, BMCRE IV p. 91, 632, VF, scratches, closed flan crack, Rome mint, weight 2.320g, maximum diameter 18.1mm, die axis 180o, 148 A.D.; OBV: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P XI, laureate head right;
REV: PRIMI / DECEN / COS IIII, inscription in three lines within oak wreath;
rare;

EX: Forum Ancient Coins

The primi decennales (first period of ten years) of Antoninus ended on the tenth of July, A.D. 148, and then second term of ten years began.
SRukke
Forum_Rome_Antoninus_Ses_Dacia.Jpg
Antoninus Pius Sestertius Dacia22 viewsWilliamBoyd
Forum_Rome_Antoninus_Strack.Jpg
Antoninus Pius Sestertius Dacia - Strack Plate IX No. 78620 viewsWilliamBoyd
Antoninus_Pius_RIC_III_765.jpg
Antoninus Pius, AE Sestertius, Antoninus, RIC III 765, Scarce4 viewsAntoninus Pius
Augustus, 138 - 161 A.D.

Coin: AE Sestertius

Obverse: ANTONINVS AVG - PIVS P P TR P, laureate bust facing right.
Reverse: COS - III-I, Antoninus, standing, facing left, wearing a Radiate nimbus, holding a Laurel branch with his right hand and a Spear with his left. S - C across the fields.

Weight: 26.71 g, Diameter: 29.6 x 29.5 x 4.5 mm, Die axis: 340°, Mint: Rome, struck between 145 - 161 A.D. Reference: RIC III 765, Note: Sold to Forum member Frans Diederik in 2013
Rated Scarce
Masis
APiusSestRIC621.JPG
Antoninus Pius, RIC 621, Sestertius of AD 140-144 (Roma)163 viewsÆ Sestertius (28.4g, Ø 33-34mm, 12h) Rome mint. Struck AD 140-144.
Obv.: ANTONINVS AVG PI-VS P P TR P COS III, laurate head right
Rev.: ROMA AETERNA (around), S C (in ex.), Roma seated left on throne, holding palladium and spear; shield at side.
RIC 621; BMCRE 1276; C. 694; Strack 846; Banti (I Grandi Bronzi Imperiali II-3) 330 (7 spec.); Foss (Roman Historical Coins) 24b; Sear (Roman Coins and their Values II) 1276
ex CNG Auction #29, lot 62687, May 2001

Issued to celebrate the completion in AD141 of the temple of Venus and Rome, designed and begun by Hadrian. This could also belong to the series of ancient Roman legends issued in this same period, as the Palladium held by Roma is the statue of Pallas Athena, stolen from Troy and brought to Italy by Aeneas. It was regarded by the Romans as guardian of their city.
2 commentsCharles S
AntoSef0-2.jpg
Antoninus Pius, RIC 622c, Sestertius of AD 140-144 (Temple of Venus & Roma)33 viewsÆ Sestertius (29,1g, Ø 33mm, 10h). Rome mint. Struck AD 140-144.
Obv.: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P COS III, laureate head left.
Rev.: ROMAE AETERNAE (around) S C (ex.), decastyle temple on podium of four steps with statues on roof and in pediment.
RIC 622(c) (scarce); BMCRE 1345v. (hd. r.); Cohen 702 (12 fr.); Strack 848 (2 spec. for left-headed var.); Banti (I Grandi Bronzi Imperiali II-3) 335 (1 spec. w/o illustration); Sear (Roman Coins and their Values II) 4212v. (hd. r.)
Ex Guy BRAUN collection (France, 2015).
very rare left headed variety

The temple of Roma, designed by Hadrian in 121 and completed by Antoninus Pius in 141, facing the forum, was built back to back with the temple of Venus, which faced the Flavian Amphitheater. The building containing the two temples was referred to as the Temple of Venus and Roma ("Templum Veneris et Romae"). The remains are still visible and show that both temples consisted of ten colums. The coins suggest many decorative details.
Charles S
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Antoninus Pius, RIC 623, Sestertius of AD 141-144 (Temple of Venus and Roma)45 viewsÆ sestertius (25.11, 6h) Rome mint. Struck AD 141-144.
ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P COS III laureate head of Antoninus Pius facing right
ROMAE AETERNAE (around) S C (in field below) ornamented dekastyle temple with the statue of Roma inside; tympanum adorned with high relief statues; quadriga (suggested) at top and statues at each side.
RIC 623 (scarce); Cohen 703 (12 Fr.); BMCRE 1279; Strack 849; Banti (I Grandi Bronzi Imperiali III) 336 (4 spec.); Foss (Roman Historical Coins) 125:24a
ex CNG EAuction 52 (2002)

The temple of Roma was designed by Hadrian (himself) in AD 121 and completed by Antoninus Pius in 141. It stood facing the forum, and was built back to back with the temple of Venus, which faced the Flavian Amphitheater. The two temples in one building were referred to as the Temple of Venus and Roma ("Templum Veneris et Romae"). Hadrian had to have the colossal statue of Nero removed in order to make room for the temples, which were built on the site of the vestibule of Nero's golden house. (He had Nero's statue placed near the entrance to the Ampitheater, and this provided the nickname, "Colloseum".) Their ruins prove both temples consisted of ten colums, and the coins suggest many decorative details.
Charles S
AntoSe63-2.jpg
Antoninus Pius, RIC 623, Sestertius of AD 141-144 (Temple of Venus and Roma)35 viewsÆ sestertius (25.11g, 31.5mm 6h) Rome mint. Struck AD 141-144.
ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P COS III laureate head of Antoninus Pius facing right
ROMAE AETERNAE (around) S C (ex.) ornamented dekastyle temple with the statue of Roma inside; tympanum adorned with high relief statues; quadriga (suggested) at top and statues at each side.
RIC 623 (scarce); Cohen 703 (12 Fr.); BMCRE 1279; Strack 849; Banti (I Grandi Bronzi Imperiali II-3) 336 (4 spec.); Sear(Roman Coins and their Values II) 4212 var. (rev. no figure of Roma); Foss (Roman Historical Coins) 125:24a
ex CNG EAuction 52 (2002)

The temple of Roma was designed by Hadrian (himself) in AD 121 and completed by Antoninus Pius in 141. It stood facing the forum, and was built back to back with the temple of Venus, which faced the Flavian Amphitheater. The building with the two temples was referred to as the Temple of Venus and Roma ("Templum Veneris et Romae"). Hadrian had to have the colossal statue of Nero (Colossus) removed in order to make room for the temples, which were built on the site of the vestibule of Nero's golden house. (He had the Colossus placed near the entrance to the amphitheater, and this provided the nickname, "Colosseum".) The ruins show that both temples consisted of ten colums, and the coins suggest many decorative details.
1 commentsCharles S
AntoSe69~0.jpg
Antoninus Pius, RIC 629, Sestertius of AD 140-144 (Sow) 66 viewsÆ Sestertius (25.9g, Ø32mm, 12h). Rome mint. Struck AD 140-144.
Obv.: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P COS III laureate head of Antoninus Pius facing right
Rev.: S C (in ex.), Sow standing under holm-oak, suckling seven young, an eighth to right.
RIC 629 (S), Cohen 775, BMC 1298, Strack 870; Banti 385 (11 spec.); Sear (Roman Coins & Their Values II) 4226
ex CNG list sale 74; ex CNG list sale 69; ex Tony Hardy collection.

This is part of a series that was minted to commemorate the 900th anniversary of the founding of Rome (April 21, A.D. 147). A white sow nursing thirty piglets, was a good omen for Aeneas to found a settlement on that site, which became the town of Lanuvium, the precursor to Rome. See also Scrofa
Charles S
AntoSee2.jpg
Antoninus Pius, RIC 629, Sestertius of AD 140-144 (Sow)39 viewsÆ Sestertius (24,30g, Ø 32mm, 12h). Rome mint. Struck AD 140-144.
Obv.: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P COS III, laureate head right.
Rev.: S C in ex, Sow standing under holm-oak, suckling seven young, an eighth to right.
RIC 629; BMCRE 1298; Cohen 775; Strack 870 (3 coll.); Banti (I Grandi Bronzi Imperiali II-3) 385 (11 spec.); Sear (Roman Coins & Their Values II) 4226
Ex Numphil (June 2014)

This is part of a series that was minted to commemorate the 900th anniversary of the founding of Rome (April 21, A.D. 147). According to Vergil, The Trojan exile Aeneas sailed up the Tibur until he came upon a white sow nursing thirty piglets, and was to found a settlement on the site of this good omen, the town of Lanuvium, the precursor to Rome. See also scrofa
1 commentsCharles S
ANTOSEc1-2.jpg
Antoninus Pius, RIC 914, Sestertius of AD 153-154 (Indulgentia) 31 viewsÆ sestertius (26.1g, Ø33mm, 12h), Rome mint, struck AD 153-154.
Obv.: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P XVII , laureate head of Antoninus Pius facing right.
Rev.: INDVLGENTIA AVG COS IIII (around) (S C in ex.), Indulgentia seated left, holding patera and sceptre.
RIC 914; Cohen 454
ex Forum Ancient Coins

This type celebrates Antoninus Pius' disposition to acts of indulgence and favour. See indvlgentia in Dictionary of Roman Coins.
Charles S
AntoAs25.jpg
Antoninus Pius, RIC 952(=dup.), As of AD 155-156 (Pax)18 viewsÆ As (9.3g, Ø24.7mm, 6h). Rome mint. Struck AD 155-156.
Obv.: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P IMP II, laurate head of Antoninus Pius facing right.
Rev.: TR POT XIX COS IIII (around), S C (in field), Pax standing left holding branch and cornucopiae.
RIC 952(=dupondius)*
ex Forum Ancient Coins
*This type is not listed in RIC, Cohen, BMC nor Strack. These references all list this type as Sestertius and Dupondius only. Another example of this As-issue is listed in this Forum's "Gallery of Unlisted and Unpublished Coins". It was also published by Bakes, James R. (2003): An Apparently Unpublished As of Antoninus Pius, The Journal of the Classical and Medieval Numismatic Society 4.3 (September 2003), pp. 127-128, illus. : (The author describes a new as of Antoninus Pius with Pax reverse and the legends ANTONINVS AVG PI VS PP IMP II and TR POT XIX COS IIII SC. (Oliver D. Hoover))
Charles S
AntoSe65-4.jpg
Antoninus Pius, RIC 1004, Sestertius of AD 159 (Temple of Divus Augustus)25 viewsÆ Sestertius (22.23g, Ø30mm, 12h). Rome mint. Struck AD 159.
Obv.: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P XXII laureate head of Antoninus Pius facing right.
Rev.: TEMPLVM DIV AVG REST (around) COS IIII (in ex.) S C (in field), Octastyle temple of Divus Augustus with statues of Augustus and Livia. The temple stands on a podium of three steps. Both statues in the centre, standing on a base, have the right arms raised. There are statues to the left near the foot of the steps and other statues of soldiers on pedestals at each side of the top step. The statuary on the roof can be identified as Augustus in quadriga flanked by Romulus on the right and Aeneas carrying Anchises on the left. Unidentified statuary in the pediment.

RIC 1004 (S); BMCRE 2063; Cohen 805; Strack 1167; Banti (I Grandi Bronzi Imperiali II-3) 406; Sear (Roman Coins and their Values II) 4235.
ex Triton VI (2003)

The second Temple of Divus Augustus, commenced under Tiberius and dedicated by Caligula in August AD 37, suffered during the great fire of 80 which began on the Capitoline Hill and spread into the Forum and onto the Palatine. It was possibly restored or rebuilt under Domitian, although it is not mentioned in the Chronographia, and it certainly received further restoration under Antoninus Pius in 158. The temple under Antoninus was Corinthian octastyle and contained the seated figures of Divus Augustus and Livia within, generally drawn on the coinage at an elevated level to suggest perspective.
Charles S
Apollo_Delphios.jpg
Apollo Delphios214 viewsApollo seated on the omphalos (Apollo Delphios) was the patron god of the Seleukids from the time of Antiochos I Soter who established this reverse coin image, which was to become emblematic of the early Seleukid dynasty.

This coin was issued by Antiochos II Theos 261-241 BC and is a previously undocumented emission of Antioch on the Orontes

Further background and attribution http://www.forumancientcoins.com/gallery/displayimage.php?pos=-62107
1 commentsLloyd T
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Apollonia Pontica Drachm - Thracian Imitation24 viewsAnd now I have 6 of these from the same broken reverse die. Two of these were Forum purchases, one of which Dr. Prokopov has identified this as a tribal (Celtic?) imitative.Jaimelai
Thrace_1c_img.jpg
Apollonia Pontika, Drachm, SNG Cop 454 65 viewsSilver drachm
Obv:– Facing Gorgoneion, wearing taenia?.
Rev:– Inverted anchor, crayfish left, A right
Minted in Apollonia Pontika. 450 – 400 B.C.
Reference:– SNG Cop 454
Forum graded VF.

Ex-Forum
1 commentsmaridvnvm
esbus_elagabal_Spijkerman3.jpg
Arabia, Esbus, Elagabal, Spijkerman 325 viewsElagabal, AD 218-222
AE 22, 9.49g, 22.34mm, 210°
mint of Esbus
obv. AVT M AVR ANTONINVS
Bust, draped and cuirassed, seen from behind, laureate, r.
rev. tetrastyle temple with central arch and side-wings with flat roofs; in the center Tyche as City-Goddes with short chiton and turreted, stg. half left, r. foot set on unknown object (head of bull?), holding in raised l. hand long sceptre and in extended r. hand unknown object (bust of emperor?)
l. and r. on the flat roofs A - V (Aurelia)
in ex. ECBOVC
ref. Spijkerman 3; Rosenberger IV, 3; Sofaer Collection 4; BMC Arabia p.29, 3
very rare, F+, dark green patina with sand incrustations which strengthen the contour
From Forum Ancient Coins, thanks!

Note: The obv. legend is a mix of Greek and Latin expressions: After AVT (Greek for Imperator) follows the name of the emperor in Latin.

Aurelia Esbus was situated near today's Amman/Jordan and is mentioned several times in the Bible under the name Heshbon. Originally it was a city of the Moabites which was conquered by the Israelites. During the Roman Empire it was known for its excellent springs.

Esbus has minted only under Elagabal. There are known only 6 types with no more than 3 obv. dies (Catalog of the BM).
1 commentsJochen
arcadius_cyzicus_26(c).jpg
Arcadius, RIC IX, Cyzicus 26(c)128 viewsArcadius AD 383-408
AE - AE 4, 1.40g, 14.0mm
Cyzicus 3. officina 28 Aug. 388-15 May 392
obv. D N ARCADIVS P F AVG
pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right
rev. SALVS REI - PVBLICAE
Victory advancing left, holding trophy over r. shoulder, dragging
captive with l.
field: l. cross-Rho
ex. SMK Gamma
RIC IX, Cyzicus 26(c); S.4; LRBC. 2578
EF
added to www.wildwinds.com
from Forum Ancient Coins, thanks!

CROSS-RHO, or TAU-RHO, is an early Christian symbol. Probably it is the sign described by Lactantius which Constantine I put on the shields of his soldiers at the Milvian bridge. It is an abbreviation of the Greek 'stauros', meaning 'cross', therefore called often 'staurogram'.
2 commentsJochen
arch of Titus.jpg
arch of Titus59 viewsPart of the Arch of Titus showing the spoils from the destruction of the Temple in JerusalemTitus Pullo
AUGUSTUS_ARCH_Cistophorus.JPG
ARCH, AUGUSTUS, RIC I : 510.159 viewsAR Cistophorus (Cistophoric Tetradrachm = 3 denarii) of Pergamum. Struck 19 - 18 B.C.
Obverse: IMP•IX•TR•PO•V. Bare head of Augustus facing right.
Reverse: Triumphal arch surmounted by Augustus in facing triumphal quadriga; IMP IX TR POT V on architrave; S P R SIGNIS RECEPTIS in three lines within arch opening, standards at either side.
Diameter: 24 - 25mm | Weight: 11.7gms | Die Axis: 12
RIC I : 510 | BMC : 703 | RSC : 298

This coin commemorates Augustus' triumphant agreement with the Parthians in 20 B.C. under which they returned the legionary standards captured from Crassus who was defeated and killed at Carrhae thirty-three years earlier (53 B.C.). Augustus installed these standards in the Temple of Mars Ultor.
The reverse of the coin shows the triumphal arch which was awarded to Augustus on the occasion of his recovery of the standards. This was the second triumphal arch awarded to Augustus and, like the earlier arch which had been constructed in 29 BC to honour his victory over Cleopatra, this second arch, which archaeological evidence suggests may actually have incorporated the first arch, stood in close proximity to the Temple of Divus Julius at the southern entrance to the Roman Forum.
2 comments*Alex
Levon_armenia_silver.jpg
Armenia - Levon IV silver Takvorin10 viewsSis mint 1320 - 1342
Obverse, crowned equestrian king, advancing right. Sceptre with fleur de lis
field mark to rear of king.
Reverse; Lion advancing right. Cross in background.

My attribution is based on what I think is this same coin on page 55 of David Rucksers' work at
http://www.numismatas.com/Forum/Pdf/David%20Ruckser/Coins%20of%20Cilician%20Armenia.pdf

Banjaxed
G_285_Kyme_Artemis.jpg
Artemis, Aiolis, Kyme8 viewsAiolis, Kyme
Obv.: Diademed and draped bust of Artemis right, hair in sphendone, bow and quiver over shoulder
AE, 16 mm, 4.28g

for obverse, reverse and coin details click here
shanxi
G_323_Mopsus_single.jpg
Artemis, Cilicia, Mopsus24 viewsCilicia, Mopsos
Rev.: ΜΟΨΕΑΤΩΝ ΤΗΣ ΙΕΡΑΣ / KAI / AYTONOMOY, Artemis standing facing, head right, holding bow and drawing arrow.
AE, 15 mm, 3.19g

for obverse, reverse and coin details click here