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Search results - "fertility"
phallus1.JPG
45 viewsROME
PB Tessera (16mm, 2.92 g, 12 h)
Horse standing right; C above
Erect phallus; A V flanking
Rostovtsev -

Rostovtsev1 gathers into one group all tesserae depicting the phallus, various iterations of the word Amor, and the extremely rare pieces depicting sexual acts. He assumes that these pieces were entrance tickets to the Lupanaria, ancient brothels. This association has caused many scholars to refuse to accept tesserae as currency, as they feel that such crude themes would never have been depicted on currency. Thornton2, however, convincingly argues that, as Mercury is sometimes depicted as a herm, a statuary type consisting of a bust set on a square pedestal adorned with only genitalia, the phallus is in fact an emblem of the god in his guise as a fertility deity.


1. Rostovtzev, Mikhail. 1905. Römische Bleitesserae. Ed. C.F. Lehmann and E Kornemann. Beiträge z. Liepzig: Theodor Weicher.

2. Thornton, M. K. 1980. “The Roman Lead Tesserae : Observations on Two Historical Problems Author.” Historia: Zeitschrift für Alte Geschichte 29 3: 341-3
1 commentsArdatirion
00009x00~0.jpg
11 viewsROME
PB Tessera (23mm, 6.90 g, 12h
Rudder
Flaccid male genitals (or leaf?)
Rostovtsev –

The obverse type differs from the phallic imagery sometimes scene on Roman tesserae. This example depicts a flaccid, rather than engorged penis, often conservatively described in numismatics as a "pudenda virilia." The unusual shape of this piece, combined with the differing obverse type, makes me think this may be a fertility amulet.
Ardatirion
Bar-Kochba-Hendin-734.jpg
053. 2'nd Jewish (bar Kokhba) Revolt.16 viewsZuz (denarius), attributed to Year 3 (134-35 AD).
Obverse: (Shim'on) / Bunch of Grapes.
Reverse: (For the Freedom of Jerusalem) / Lyre with three strings.
3.19 gm., 18.5 mm.
Mildenberg #205.19 (this coin); Hendin #734.

This coin likely started out as a denarius of one of the Roman emperors between Vespasian and Hadrian. Many coins of the Second Jewish Revolt show traces of the earlier Roman coin. This coin is no exception, and traces of the previous coin can be seen on the obverse in and around the bunch of grapes.

The bunch of grapes on the obverse is an ancient symbol of blessing and fertility. As such it occasionally appears on ancient coins of other areas besides this series. Given the messianic nature of the Bar Kokhba revolt, the bunch of grapes takes on added significance because in Jewish prophetic literature, grapes (and the vine or vineyard) are often symbolic of the restoration of Israel, or even symbolic of Israel itself.

The lyre on the reverse is associated with temple worship, as are trumpets, which are also found on coins of the Bar Kokhba Revolt. King David is mentioned as playing a lyre, and there are numerous Biblical references to praising the Lord with the lyre and trumpets. (The word "kinnor," sometimes translated as "harp," is really a type of lyre.) Even today the lyre is an important Jewish symbol and the state of Israel has chosen to portray it on the half New Israeli Sheqel coin.
Callimachus
Crispina-RIC-281.jpg
071. Crispina.12 viewsDenarius, 180 -182 AD, Rome mint.
Obverse: CRISPINA AVGVSTA / Bust of Crispina.
Reverse: DIS GENITALIBVS / Lighted altar.
3.49 gm., 18 mm.
RIC #281; Sear #5999.

This coin of Crispina has an unusual reverse type: an altar dedicated to the gods of childbirth. We know of no children born to Crispina and Commodus. Stevenson says of this reverse (p. 332): "It would seem that the empress had dedicated an altar to the dii genitales, either for having had children, or that she might obtain fertility from them, or that she might commend the child with which she was pregnant to their care and protection.
Callimachus
1188_P_Hadrian_RPC--.jpg
1550B MYSIA. Lampsacus Hadrian, Priapus standing13 viewscf RPC III, -- 1550 Trajan; same SNG France 1272; BMC Mysia -, SNG BnF -, SNG Cop

Obv. AΔIANOC KAICAP
Laureate and cuirassed bust of Hadrian right

Rev. ΛΑΜΨΑΚΗΝωΝ
ithyphallic Priapus standing left, right hand raised, left hand on hip

1.55 gr
15 mm
6h

Note.
Priapus or Priapos was a minor rustic fertility god, protector of livestock, fruit plants, gardens and male genitalia. Priapus is marked by his absurdly oversized permanent erection, which gave rise to the medical term priapism. He became a popular figure in Roman erotic art and Latin literature, and is the subject of the often humorously obscene collection of verse called the Priapeia. Statues of Priapus were sometimes placed on boundaries and hung with signs which threatened sexual assault on trespassers.
FORVM coin
okidoki
AntoSe08-2~0.jpg
Antoninus Pius, RIC 612, Sestertius of AD 140-144 (Ops)62 viewsÆ sestertius (24.0g, 33mm, 6h) Rome mint. Struck AD 140-144
ANTONINVS AVG PI VS P P TR P COS III laureate head of Antoninus Pius facing right
OPI AVG ()around S C [in ex.] Ops seated left, holding sceptre, left hand drawing back drapery.
RIC 612 (Scarce); Cohen 569 (fr.8); BMC 1258-62; Strack 842; Banti (I Grandi Bronzi Imperiali II-3) 245 (17 spec.); Foss (Roman Historical Coins) 130:67; Sear (Roman Coins & Their Values II) 4197
ex D.Ruskin (said to have been found near Abingdon, Oxfordshire, UK, 1994)

Ops stands for plenty, properity, power, fertility... Her cult goes back to the earliest times, supposedly founded by Romulus. She is the wife of Saturn, sometimes equated with Cybele. Appears on Roman coins only twice (second appearance on issues of Pertinax). The issue under A. Pius is probably associated with the 900th anniversary of Rome.
Charles S
gordianIII_SNGlev774~0.jpg
Aphrodite521 viewsAphrodite is the greek goddess of beauty and love. She is much older and more primordial than Venus. Venus was a more local goddess and came to Rome not before the 4th century. Aphrodite is melted together of indoeuropean-hellenistic, aegaean-anatolean and semitic-oriental elements. The origin of her name is unknown, perhaps it is related to the sem.*asthart. Her relation to Cyprus is referring to that origin. Possibly the name of the month April comes from etruscan *aprodita. So there could be an etruscan intermediation. She seems to be a conglomerate of old fertility goddesses. Her attributes dolphin and shell points to marine, dove, sparrow and and swane to caelestic and apple, rose and pomegranat to herbal sexual spheres. With Homer Aphrodíte replaces the dark weird deities as a light goddess of charm and gracefulness. She was called 'philommeides', the smiling, and she was the mistress of the Graces.
On the rev. of this coin we see Aphrodite as a later depiction as goddess of grace and seduction. She holds a mirror as the symbol of vanity. Her companions are two Erotes with torches to ignite love.
2 commentsJochen
Bactria,_Diodotos_II,_AE_22_.jpg
Baktrian Kingdom, Diodotos II, ca. 240-230 BC, Æ Double Unit 13 viewsLaureate head of Zeus right.
ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΔIOΔITOY Artemis right holding transverse torch; star to right.

HGC 12, 27; SNG ANS 9, 96; Mitchiner 82; Holt Ι2; Kritt Ι2; Sear GCV 7504 var. (hound at Artemis feet). Ai Khanoum mint.

(22 mm, 9.6 g, 6h).
Sayles & Lavender.

Artemis depicted on the reverse of this coin was the twin sister of Apollo and goddess of the Moon. A huntress with legendary skills in archery, she brought fertility to the land and special protection to women in childbirth. The historian Frank Holt wrote ‘A better patron goddess for a city such as Ai Khanoum could not have been found. It may only be coincidence, but the choice of Artemis as one female type for this city has a faint echo down through the ages. The ancient Greek name of the polis has vanished from history, but its current appellation derives from Turko-Uzbek and means “Lady Moon”. Local legends offer several explanations and identify various important women as the eponymous hero of the site. For example, local village women still bring votive offerings to a “Lady Moon”, protector of mothers and infants. Another “Lady Moon” was associated with irrigation canals and yet another with control over the rivers that flowed by the walls of the city. Such “modern” folktales reverberate with ancient echoes of Artemis/Anahita, goddess of the moon, mistress of the fertilizing waters, and guardian of women in childbirth.’
n.igma
IMG_6231_zpsa08aedba.jpg
Byzantine Fertility Bracelet27 viewsBronze
Size 2.75 in.
90.9 grams
DarkRain
Carthage.jpg
Carthage, Second Punic War (220-215 BC)28 viewsAE Trishekel

29 mm, 18.21 g

Obverse: Head of Tanit left, wearing wreath of grain ears and single-pendant earring

Reverse: Horse standing right; palm tree in background to left.

MAA 84; Müller, Afrique 147; SNG Copenhagen 344.

The Second Punic War formally began when the Carthaginian general Hannibal and his army crossed the Alps in November of 218 BC and descended into Northern Italy. Battles raged on Italian soil for nearly 15 years until Hannibal and what remained of his army sailed for North Africa in the summer or fall of 203 BC. Shown above is a typical example of what would have been a lower-value coin issued by the Carthaginians in the early stages of the war.

Carthage was a Phoenician colony, and as such the Carthaginians were related to the Hebrews and the Canaanites (among others). Culturally they had much in common, including the use of the shekel as the primary unit of money. Likewise, the Carthaginians worshipped a variety of deities from the ancient Middle East. One in particular was the goddess Tanit. A Phoenician (Punic) goddess of war, Tanit was also a virgin mother goddess and a fertility symbol.
2 commentsNathan P
valerianI_anemeurion_ lev513.jpg
Cilicia, Anemourion, Valerian I SNG Lev. 513105 viewsValerian I, AD 253-260
AE - AE 28, 11.71g
Anemourion (Anamurium), Year 2 = AD 254/5
obv. AVK PO LI OYALEPIANON
bust, draped and cuirassed, laureate, r.
rev. ET B ANE - MOY - REWN
Cult-statue of Artemis standing facing on pedestal, with great veil, both hands
outstretched, holding r. branch(?) and l. sistrum, crescent on left below
SNG Levante 513
good F
added to www.wildwinds.com

It seems to be an unknown local cult-statue in the style of the Artemis of Ephesos. Her body is completely covered with rows of breasts denoting her fertility. Another interpretation: That may be testicles of castrated adherants.
3 commentsJochen
commodus_649.jpg
Commodus RIC III, 64985 viewsCommodus 177 - 192, son of Marcus Aurelius
AR - Denar, 3.65g, 16mm
Rome (?) AD 178
obv. L AVREL COM - MODVS AVG
draped, cuirassed bust, laureate head r.
rev. TRP III IMP II COS PP
Salus seated l. on throne, holding r. poppy to snake coming
out of altar, resting l. arm on chair
RIC III, Marcus Aurelius 649; C. 762 var.; BMCR 777
VF
added to www.wildwinds.com

There is an oddity in the description of this coin between RIC and Cohen:
RIC: holding branch, snake to her feet
Cohen: holding poppy to snake coming out of altar

POPPY, because of the freedom with which it flowers (or the thousands of
semen it produces?) the poppy is sometimes used as a symbol of fertility or prosperity
1 commentsJochen
safe.jpg
Cornelia Salonina RIC 5d, sole reign 260-268 CE14 viewsObverse: : SALONINA AVG, diademed and draped bust right, crescent below.
Reverse: FECVNDITAS AVG, Fecunditas (The fertility) standing left , holding a cornucopia in left hand and extending right hand to a child. it. Officina D in right field.
22.4 mm., 4.06 g.
NORMAN K
imgonline-com-ua-twotoone-nx7sxByvkB46in-Faustina_I.jpg
Faustina I (Augusta) Coin: Wife of Antoninus Pius- Brass Sestertius 5 viewsDIVA FAVSTINA - Draped bust right, hair coiled on top of head.
CERES - Ceres standing left, holding corn-ears and long, vertical torch; S-C across fields.
Exergue:


Mint: Rome (after 141 AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 21.65g / 32mm / 12h
References:
RIC 1128
Sear 4621
Acquisition/Sale: indalocolecciones eBay $0.00 12/18
Notes: Jan 1, 19 - The Gary R. Wilson Collection

Ceres a goddess of agriculture, grain crops, fertility and motherly relationships, was listed among the Di Consentes, Rome's equivalent to the Twelve Olympians of Greek mythology. The Romans saw her as the counterpart of the Greek goddess Demeter, whose mythology was reinterpreted for Ceres in Roman art and literature.
Gary W2
Faustina_Junior,_Augusta___Wife_of_Marcus_Aurelius.jpg
Faustina Junior, Augusta 146 - Winter 175/176 A.D., Wife of emperor Marcus Aurelius64 viewsSilver Denarius, BMCRE II p. 404, 148; RSC II 195; SRCV II 5262; RIC III MA689 var. (no stephane); Hunter II 8 var. (same), Choice Very Fine , excellent centering, unusual artistic portrait for empress Faustina,toned, Rome mint, weight 2.655g, maximum diameter 17.8mm, die axis 0o, struck under Marcus Aurelius, 161 - 175 A.D.; obverse FAVSTINA AVGVSTA, draped bust right, wearing stephane and earring, bun in the back; reverse SALVS, Salus seated left, feeding snake rising up from altar, from patera in right hand, resting left elbow on throne, feet on footstool.
Rare with this grade.

Salus was the Roman goddess of health. She was Hygieia to the Greeks, who believed her to be the daughter of Aesculapius, the god of medicine and healing, and Epione, the goddess of soothing of pain. Her father Asclepius learned the secrets of keeping death at bay after observing one serpent bringing another healing herbs. Woman seeking fertility, the sick, and the injured slept in his temples in chambers where non-poisonous snakes were left to crawl on the floor and provide healing.

*The logo of Pharmacology was taken from Salus 's Patera and snake .

From The Sam Mansourati Collection. / Item number RI 75220 (F)/ 20469 (S).

Given as a souvenir to a dear friend and a great Pharmacist on 9/8/2017.
Sam
FAUSTJR-4~0.jpg
Fecunditas, goddess of fertility268 viewsFaustina Junior, wife of Marcus Aurelius. Augusta, 147-175/6 CE.
AR Denarius (19mm, 3.16g), Rome mint, 161-175 CE.
Obv: FAVSTINA AVGVSTA, draped bust right, a double band of pearls around her head.
Rev: FECVNDITAS, Fecunditas standing right, holding scepter & child.
RIC 677; RSC 99; BMC 91; Sear 5252; Cohen 99.

Although many coin reference books classify Fecunditas as a personification of fertility rather than as an actual deity, Fecunditas was recognized as a Roman divinity by Nero, who erected a statue to her. Tacitus notes that upon the birth of Claudia Neronis, the senate decreed the construction of a temple of Fertility to be built at Antium.

Fecunditas is always portrayed as a female figure holding a child, or children and often a scepter, cornucopia, palm branch or caduceus. Sometimes the children are depicted standing at her feet. Coins portraying her usually advertise the fertility of the imperial family who issued the coin.
EmpressCollector
RIC_Gallienus_RIC_V-S_287_var_vberitas_E.jpg
Gallienus (Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus) (253-268 A.D.)9 viewsSRCV 10368, RIC V-S 585 var. (grape-bunch and without E) or 287 var. (different obverse legend, same reverse), Göbl 583a, Van Meter 278.

BI Antoninianus, 2.77 g., 18.62 mm. max., 270°

Siscia mint (per RIC), Rome mint (per Göbl and Sear), fifth officina, ninth emission, struck during solo reign (260-268 A.D.), in 265-267 A.D.

Obv: GALLIENVS AVG, radiate head right.

Rev: VBERITAS [AVG], Uberitas standing facing, head left, holding purse in right hand and cornucopia in left, E to right.

Uberitas was the personification of fruitfulness, primarily agricultural fertility.

Although this obverse legend is not listed in RIC for the type, there were over 400 examples in the Cunetio hoard.

RIC rarity C, Van Meter VB1.
Stkp
RIC_Gallienus_RIC_V-S__585_var_vberitas.jpg
Gallienus (Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus) (253-268 A.D.)8 viewsSRCV 10368, RIC V-S 585 var. (grape-bunch and without E), Göbl 582a, Van Meter 278.

BI Antoninianus, 4.15 g., 22.64 mm. max., 0°

Siscia mint (per RIC), Rome mint (per Göbl and Sear), struck during solo reign (260-268 A.D.), in 265-267 A.D.

Obv: GALLIENVS AVG, radiate head right.

Rev: VBERITAS AVG, Uberitas standing facing, head left, holding purse in right hand and cornucopia in left.

Uberitas was the personification of fruitfulness, primarily agricultural fertility.

RIC rarity C, Van Meter VB1.
Stkp
Gallienus 78.jpg
Gallienus, Gobl. 583a, Rome16 viewsObv: GALLIENVS AVG
Bust: Radiate head right
Rev: VBERTAS AVG
Fertility standing left holding cornucopia and emptying patera
Exe: epsilon in field right
Date: 264-268 AD
Denom: Antoninianus
Bluefish
Greece,_Mysia,_Pergamum,_Cistophoric_Tetradrachm,_12_57g,_28mm,_166-67_BC,_issued_76_BC.jpg
GREEK, Mysia, Pergamon, Cistophoric Tetradrachm80 viewsGreece, Mysia, Pergamon, Cistophoric Tetradrachm, 12.57g, 28mm, 166-67 BC, issued 76 BC

Obv: Cista Mystica containing serpent escaping, all within an ivy wreath.

Rev: Bow case between 2 serpents. Pergamon monogram at left. Snake entwined Asklepian staff at right. "AP" above.

Near the West coast of present day Turkey, Pergamon, in the province of Mysia, was an insignificant city under the Persian empire. After Alexander the Great died, his bodyguard "Lysimachus" was given Thrace and north western Asia. After the battle of Ipsus "Lysimachus" secured Alexander's treasury worth over 25,000 talents. Pergamon was located in a natural fortress and "Lysimachus" strengthened the city and deposited his Asian treasure (9000 talents) in the city along with a military guard under his loyal follower "Philetaerus". "Lysimachus" died in 281 BC and Pergamon officially fell under Seulcid control. "Philetaerus" played the part of a faithful governor, but all the time he used the money to strengthen the city's defenses and founded the Attalid dynasty of the kingdom of "Pergamon". The kingdom successfully withstood attempts by Seulicid rulers to regain control. In 190 BC, Pergamon assisted the Romans to defeat Antiochus III of Syria. At this time, Rome had no territorial desires in Asia and they gave all the territories to Pergamon. Pergamon prospered and soon ranked as one of the major Greek cultural centers. Pergamon's library ranked second only to the library of Alexandria. But, to Rome's surprize the Pergamon King Attalus III (138 - 133 BC) gave the kingdom to Rome upon his death in 133 BC. During the confusion a certain "Aristonicus" seized the throne and changed his name to "Eumenes III". This forced the Romans to intervene and they seized the kingdom and made it the capital of the Roman province of Asia.

Pergamon first issued this coin under Eumenes II, who likely required a new currency after the treaty with Apameia in 188 BC expanded his economic and political territory. The new coinage is the first time a king’s portrait and name are omitted from Hellenistic currency. The cistophori (basket bearers) were the chief currency in Asia Minor for about 300 years. Originally introduced by king Eumenes II of Pergamon around 166 BCE, the obverse of these coins shows a cista mystica, i.e., a woven basket containing the sacred objects of a mystery cult. In the case of the cistophori, the basket contains snakes associated with the worship of Dionysus (Bacchus), the Greek god of wine and ecstasy. In the Dionysian mysteries a serpent, representing the god, was carried in a box called a cista on a bed of vine leaves. This may be the Cista mentioned by Clement of Alexandria which was exhibited as containing the phallus of Dionysus. The depiction on this famous type is what gives the coin its name - the Cistophorus. It was one of the most widely minted coin types in the ancient world. It seems that the Asian Greek states in what is now Turkey minted this coin in unison from around 150 BC. Some scholars believe this was undertaken for the common good, so traders could be confident in a coin of uniform weight and value, representing the collective wealth of Asian Greekdom.

The ivy wreath and the thyrsos staff on the reverse are also references to this god whom the Attalid kings of Pergamon claimed as their ancestor. The bow case (gorytos) on the reverse points to Herakles, the father of Telephos, the legendary founder and first king of Pergamon. Taken together, the obverse and reverse scenes appear to capture allegorical acts one and two of the Dionysian Cista fertility mythology in progress.

When the last Attalid king, Attalos III, died in 133 BCE, he left his entire kingdom to the Roman people. At the same time, his last will declared Pergamon and the other important cities of his realm "free cities", which meant that they did not have to pay tribute to Rome. Not surprisingly, Pergamon and the other cities continued to mint cistophori in grateful tribute to their former ruler. The city of Pergamum continued issue of cistophoric tetradrachm for eight decades after the city was willed to Rome in 133 BC.

1 cistophor equaled 3 Attic drachms, the currency of Athens, which had become the world's key currency during the campaigns of Alexander the Great. Later, 1 cistophor was equivalent to 3 Roman denarii. Because they were so easy to convert into the key currencies, 16 Anatolian towns soon minted cistophors, forming a kind of monetary union. When Pergamum became Roman about 133 BC, the Romans continued to mint cistophors.

Under the Attalids, Pergamon was not only the capital of an empire that soon stretched over most of Asia Minor, but also the seat of the second most famous library of the ancient world with more than 200,000 book rolls. When the kings of Egypt, the Ptolemies, whose capital, Alexandria, boasted the only comparable library, cut off Pergamene access to papyrus, the most important writing material, the Pergamenes invented pergamentum, i.e., parchment or vellum made from animal skins.

Today, the city is called Bergama and belongs to Turkey.
mitresh
IranKang1.jpg
Iran, The Anahita temple in Kangavar (Kermanshah)39 viewsor what is left of it. It dates back to Sasanian times (around 500 AD) and was dedicated to the goddess of water and fertility, Anahita, the only female in the Old Persian pantheon. Originally built on a square base, the temple must have been an impressive structure. As late as 1840, a traveler reported having seen 8 massive intact columns.
Schatz
Italy- Pompeii- Brothel.jpg
Italy- Pompeii- Brothel59 viewsSome of the most fascinating clues about the lives of the ancient peoples who made their lives in Pompeii can be found in the numerous brothels in the city. It is an indication of the prosperity of the city -- people had money to burn. Here is one example of the Pompeian "houses of ill repute". I chose this one because of its unusual architecture and fine frescoes.

Ancient Pompeii was full of erotic or pornographic frescoes, symbols, inscriptions, and even household items. The ancient Roman culture of the time was much more sexually permissive than most present-day cultures.

When the serious excavation of Pompeii began in the 18th century, a clash of the cultures was the result. A fresco on a wall that showed the ancient god of sex and fertility, Priapus with his extremely enlarged penis, was covered with plaster and only rediscovered because of rainfall in 1998.[1] In 1819, when king Francis I of Naples visited the exhibition at the National Museum with his wife and daughter, he was so embarrassed by the erotic artwork that he decided to have it locked away in a secret cabinet, accessible only to "people of mature age and respected morals." Re-opened, closed, re-opened again and then closed again for nearly 100 years, it was made briefly accessible again at the end of the 1960s (the time of the sexual revolution) and has finally been re-opened in the year 2000. Minors are not allowed entry to the once secret cabinet without a guardian or a written permission.As previously mentioned, some of the paintings and frescoes became immediately famous because they represented erotic, sometimes explicit, sexual scenes. One of the most curious buildings recovered was in fact a Lupanare (brothel), which had many erotic paintings and graffiti indicating the services available -- patrons only had to point to what they wanted. The Lupanare had 10 rooms (cubicula, 5 per floor), a balcony, and a latrina. It was one of the larger houses, perhaps the largest, but not the only brothel. The town seems to have been oriented to a warm consideration of sensual matters: on a wall of the Basilica (sort of a civil tribunal, thus frequented by many Roman tourists and travelers), an immortal inscription tells the foreigner, If anyone is looking for some tender love in this town, keep in mind that here all the girls are very friendly (loose translation).

The function of these pictures is not yet clear: some authors say that they indicate that the services of prostitutes were available on the upper floor of the house and could perhaps be a sort of advertising, while others prefer the hypothesis that their only purpose was to decorate the walls with joyful scenes (as these were in Roman culture). The Termae were, however, used in common by males and females, although baths in other areas (even within Pompeii) were often segregated by sex.

John Schou
Italy- Rome- Largo (di Torre) Argentina.jpg
Italy- Rome- Largo (di Torre) Argentina47 viewsLargo di Torre Argentina is a square in Rome that hosts four Republican Roman temples, and the reminings of Pompey's Theater. It is located in the ancient Campus Martius.

Common knowledge refers the name of the square to a Torre Argentina, which is not related to the South American country, but to the city of Strasbourg, whose original name was Argentoratum. In 1503, in fact, John Burckhardt from Strasbourg built in via del Sudario a palace (now at number 44), Casa del Bucardo, annexing a tower, called Torre Argentoratina from the name of his hometown.

After Italian unification, it was decided to reconstruct part of Rome (1909), demolishing the zone of Torre Argentina, where the remainings of a medieval tower, Torre Papito or Torre Boccamazzi, and of one temple were to be included in the new buildings. During the works (1927), however, the colossal head and arms of a marble statue were discovered. The archeological investigation brought to light the presence of a holy area, dating to the Republican era, with four temples and part of Pompey's Theater.

The buildings
The four temples, designated today by the letters A, B, C, and D, front onto a paved street, which was reconstructed in the imperial era, after 80 AD fire.

Temple A was built in the 3rd century BC, and is probably the Temple of Juturna built by Gaius Lutatius Catulus after his victory against Carthaginians in 241 BC. It was later rebuilt into a church, whoes aprses are still present.

Temple B, a circular temple with six columns remaining, was built by Quintus Lutatius Catulus in 101 BC to celebrate his victory over Cimbri; it was Aedes Fortunae Huiusce Diei, a temple devoted to the Luck of the Current Day. The colossal statue found during excavations and now kept in the Capitoline Museums was the statue of the goddess herself. Only the head, the arms, and the legs were of marble: the other parts, covered by the dress, were of bronze.

Temple C is the most ancient of the three, dating back to 4th or 3rd century BC, and was probably devoted to Feronia the ancient Italic goddess of fertility. After the fire of 80 AD, this temple was restored, and the white and black mosaic of the inner temple cell dates back to this restoration.

Temple D is the largest of the four, dates back to 2nd century BC with Late Republican restorations, and was devoted to Lares Permarini, but only a small part of it has been excavated (a street covers the most of it).

Teatro Argentina is a 18th century theater, where Gioachino Rossini's The Barber of Seville debuted in 1816, as well as Giuseppe Verdi's I due Foscari (1844) and La battaglia di Legnano (1849).

Located in the Largo Argentina is the Torre Argentina Cat Sanctuary, a no-kill shelter for homeless cats (of which Rome has many). The presence of the shelter proves to be a point of interest for both tourists and locals, as the historical area abounds with various breeds of cat, cavorting and lounging about on the ancient (and semi-ancient) ruins.
John Schou
L_Thorius_Balbus.jpg
L. Thorius Balbus - AR denarius9 viewsRome
²102 BC
¹105 BC
head of Juno Sospita right, wearing goat skin headdress
I·S·M·R (Ivno Seispes Mater Regina)
bull charging right
B
L·THORIVS
BALBVS
¹Crawford 316/1, SRCV I 192, Sydenham 598, RSC I Thoria 1 British Museum: R.7899
²Mark Passehl - Roman moneyer & coin type chronology, 150 – 50 BC
3,8g
ex Aurea auctions

Juno Sospita (=Savior) was goddes of fertility and protector of women. She was main deity in Lanuvium.
Bull - Taurus - is pun for moneyer's name Thorius.
Moneyer served as legate under Q. Caecilius Metellus in Spain 79 BC. Cicero wrote that he had lived as there was no pleasure in life.
Johny SYSEL
Comb21112018160554.jpg
Lucilla, Augusta c. 164 - 182 A.D., Wife of Lucius Verus, Sestertius Rome mint 168/9 AD7 viewsObv. LVCILLA AVGVSTA, draped bust right, hair elaborately waived and knotted in chignon low at back.
Rev. FECVNDITAS, Fecunditas (fertility) seated right, nursing child, one boy behind and one before her, S C in exergue.
Ref. RIC III 1736, BMCRE IV 1197, Cohen III 21, Hunter II 48, MIR 18 29, SRCV II 5499, 32.0mm, 20.1 grams.
Canaan
metapontum.jpg
Metapontion, Lucania, Italy, c. 330 - 290 B.C.90 viewsSilver stater, HN Italy 1581; SGCV I 416 var; Noe-Johnston 3, class C 1.2-72, VF, obverse off center, weight 7.851g, maximum diameter 20.2mm, die axis 150o, c. 330 - 290 B.C.; obverse head of Demeter right; reverse head of grain, META on left, plough above leaf on right, M[AX] lower right; ex CNG; ex FORVM

Demeter in Greek mythology is the goddess of grain and fertility, the pure; nourisher of the youth and the green earth, the health-giving cycle of life and death; and preserver of marriage and the sacred law. In the Homeric Hymn to Demeter, dated to about the seventh century B.C. she is invoked as the "bringer of seasons," a subtle sign that she was worshipped long before she was made one of the Olympians. She and her daughter Persephone were the central figures of the Eleusinian Mysteries that also predated the Olympian pantheon.
3 commentsAdrian S
lydia1.jpg
Nacrasa, Lydia, c. 138 - 161 A.D. 7 views Bronze AE 16, RPC III 1812; SNG Cop 295; BMC Lydia p. 166, 7; SNG Munchen 335; SNGvA 3033 var. (magistrate); Imhoof-Blumer Lydien -, aVF/F, well centered, green patina, light corrosion, Nakrasa (near Kirkagach, Turkey) mint, 2.749 grams, 15.9 mm, die axis 0o, Marcus Junianus strategos, c. 98 - 150 A.D.; obverse EΠI CTPA MAP IOVNIANOV, bearded head of Herakles right; reverse NAKPACITΩN, snake coiled around omphalos, head left; from the Dr. Sam Mansourati Collection; rare; From Forum Ancient coins auction NORMAN K
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Ops138 viewsorichalcum sestertius (24.0g, 33mm, 6h) Rome mint. Struck AD 140-144
ANTONINVS AVG PI[-]VS P P TR P COS III laureate head of Antoninus Pius facing right
OPI AVG / S C [in ex.] Ops seated left, holding sceptre, left hand drawing back drapery.
RIC 612 (Scarce); Cohen 569 (fr.8); BMC 1258-62; Foss (Roman Historical Coins) 130:67

Ops stands for plenty, properity, power, fertility... Her cult goes back to the earliest times, supposedly founded by Romulus. She is the wife of Saturn, sometimes equated with Cybele. Appears on Roman coins only twice (also on issues of Pertinax). The issue under A. Pius is most probably associated with the 900th anniversary of Rome.
1 commentsCharles S
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Phoenicia, Arados. Uncertain king. Circa 420-350 BC.6 viewsAR Shekel

18.5 mm, 10.45 g

Obverse: Laureate head of Ba'al-Arwad? right, with frontal eye

Reverse: Galley right above waves with row of shields along the bulwark; M A (in Aramaic) above;

E&E-A Group III.1.1; HGC 10, 28.

Settled in the 2nd millennium BC by the Phoenicians, Arados (Greek name) was located three kilometers off the Syrian shore between Lattaquie and Tripolis. Under Phoenician control, it became an independent kingdom called Arvad or Jazirat (the latter term meaning "island"). The island was a barren rock covered with fortifications and houses several stories in height. Just 800m long by 500m wide, it was surrounded by a massive wall with an artificial harbor constructed on the east toward the mainland.

Like most of the Phoenician cities on this coast, it developed into a trading city. Arados had a powerful navy, and its ships are mentioned in the monuments of Egypt and Assyria. In ancient times, it was in turn subject to the Egyptians, Assyrians, and then Persians (539 BC). But local dynasts were maintained until Straton, son of Gerostratos, king of Arados, submitted to Alexander the Great in 333 B.C.

The earliest coins of Arados (430-410 BC) depict a marine deity, human to the waist, bearded with plaited hair, with the lower body of a fish. Scholars aren't sure exactly who this deity is. Some believe the merman is Dagôn, associated with being the god of grain in the middle Euphrates and old Babylonia. Another option is Yamm (Yam), an ancient god from the semitic word meaning sea. He was worshipped by the semitic religions including Phoenicia and the Canaanites. Today, Elavi and Elayi's (2005) identification of the deity as Ba’al Arwad - a local manifestation of the ubiquitous Semitic god of weather and fertility - seems to be the most commonly accepted interpretation. In later Aradian coinage (like the example above) a Hellenized depiction of the deity’s head replaces the half-man, half-fish figure.

Most Aradian coins bear the same two Phoenician letters mem (M) and aleph (A or ´). In addition, during the first half of the fourth century (until 333 BC), the inscription M A was followed by a letter, some eight or nine in total. The most logical option is that this third letter represents different Aradian kings. This, plus parallels with contemporary Salaminian coinage, suggests that M A stands for “King” of Arwad rather than “Kingdom” (the more common interpretation). Because the coin above lacks a third letter designating a specific king, it’s most likely an earlier example. On the other hand, the more Hellenized portrait argues for a later date.
Nathan P
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Phoenicia, Byblos, Diadumenian, Rouvier 69968 viewsDiadumenian, Caesar, mid May 218 - 8. June 218
AE 24, 10.81g
obv. M OP DIADYMENIANOC KAI
bare head, bust, cuirassed, r.
rev. BYB - LOY / IERAC (in exergue)
distyle temple, covered by an arch decorated by shell-like swags, in which Astarte is standing r., with polos on head, spear in r. hand and foot on prow, crowned with wreath by Nike, standing on column r. before her.
BMC 40-43; Rouvier 699
scarce, about VF(?)
added to www.wildwinds.com

ASTARTE, a major Northwest-Semitic goddess, was cognate with the East-Semitic goddess Ishtar. She was connected with fertility, sexuality and war. She was accepted by the Greeks under the name of Aphrodite. Cyprus, one of Aphrodite's main cult centers supplied the name Cypris as Aphrodite's most common byname.

BYBLOS , one of her important cult centers and therefore called 'the Holy Byblos', in ancient times was the most important port of export for Egyptian papyros to Greece. Therefore Greek biblos = book, and The Holy Bible!

For more information look at the thread 'Coins of mythological interest'
2 commentsJochen
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Precolumbian figurines from El Salvador30 viewsThese type of clay figurines, probably Maya, are found in large quantities in the soil in west, central and eastern parts of El Salvador. They date from the classic period. Their use is unknown, but due to the large quantities found in agricultural soil and the fact that they are practically all female - clearly pregnant females in older figurines from the pre-classical period - it seems likely that they were used as fertility dolls in agriculture.
[A] height: 17 cm. Adorned with headdress, earrings and neck-less. Hollow body with two holes on the legs and two on the back. Back of the head restored.
[B] height: 11.5 cm. Adorned with headdress, earrings and neck-less. Massive body.
[C] height: 11 cm. Adorned with headdress and earrings. Massive body. Remnants of white and red-orange paint.
[D] height: 10 cm. Adorned with with headdress, earrings and neck-less. Massive body. Black paint
[E] height: 11 cm. Remnants of white, red and black paint
[F] height: 9 cm.
1 commentsCharles S
NIC AD ISTRUM Elagabalus Priapus rev~1.jpg
Priapus, god of gardens and fruitfulness305 viewsThe god of gardens and fruitfulness is shown here holding a lapful of fruit, or, if you prefer to see it that way, balancing the fruit on his personal fertility symbol. A much scarcer coin than the standard Nicopolis "Look what I've got!" issues.Britannicus
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ROMAN EMPIRE , Co- Emperor Philip II, July or August 247 - Late 249 A.D., Hieropolis, Cyrrhestica, Syria.100 viewsNew to my Lions Collection ;

Bronze AE 29, SNG München 485; SNG Cop 64; SNG Righetti 1883 corr. (Philip I); Lindgren-Kovacs 1926; BMC Galatia p. 145, 57, F, well centered, nice style, Cyrrhestica, Hierapolis-Bambyce (Membij, Syria) mint, weight 15.624g, maximum diameter 28.5mm, die axis 0o, Jul/Aug 247 - Late 249 A.D.; obverse AYTO K K M IOYΛI ΦIΛIΠΠOC CEB, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust of Philip II right, from behind; reverse ΘEAC C-YPIAC IEPOΠOΛ/ΛITΩN (ending in exergue), Atergatis riding lion right, wearing tall headdress, chiton and peplos, scepter in right hand, left hand in lap.

Atargatis was the chief goddess of northern Syria in Classical Antiquity. Ctesias also used the name Derceto for her, and the Romans called her Dea Syriae ("Syrian goddess"). Primarily she was a goddess of fertility, but, as the baalat ("mistress") of her city and people, she was also responsible for their protection and well-being. Her chief sanctuary was at Hierapolis, modern Manbij, northeast of Aleppo, Syria.
From The Sam Mansourati Collection / FORVM Ancient Coins.
Sam
Julia_Domna,_Augusta_194_-_8_April_217_A_D_.jpg
Roman Empire , empress Julia Domna, Augusta 194 - 8 April 217 A.D. (Wife of emperor Septimius Severus , mother of emperor Caracalla and co-emperor Geta.)91 viewsSilver Denarius, RIC IV S546, RSC III 14, BMCRE V S10, SRCV II 6576, Choice VF, excellent portrait, well centered, 3.253 gr, 18.9 mm , 0o, Rome mint, struck in year 200 A.D.
Obverse : IVLIA AVGVSTA, draped bust right.
Reverse : CERERI FRVGIF, Ceres seated left, heads of grain in right hand, long torch behind in left hand.
Scarce.
Gorgeous portrait.

The most powerful woman in Roman Empire history.

FORVM Ancient Coins/ The Sam Mansourati Collection / Given as a Christmas present to a superb dear friend.

*Ceres a goddess of agriculture, grain crops, fertility and motherly relationships, was listed among the Di Consentes, Rome's equivalent to the Twelve Olympians of Greek mythology. The Romans saw her as the counterpart of the Greek goddess Demeter, whose mythology was reinterpreted for Ceres in Roman art and literature.

***Julia Domna was the second wife of Septimius Severus and mother of Caracalla and Geta. An intelligent, talented and beautiful woman, Julia Domna exercised great influence during her husband's reign and practically administered the empire for her sons. In 217 A.D. after the assassination of Caracalla, she possibly committed suicide by starvation or she died of breast cancer.
2 commentsSam
Gordianus_III_AR_Denarius_Salus.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE / Emperor Gordian III , AD ( 238 – 244 )86 viewsSilver Denarius , Rome mint , 3.18 gr .
Obverse ; IMP GORDIANVS PIVS FEL AVG { IMP[erator] GORDIANVS PIVS FEL[ix] AVG[vstvs] / Emperor Gordianus, Dutiful Wise Augustus } , laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right, from behind.
Reverse ; SALVS AVGVSTI, ( [Dedicated to] To the health of the Emperors ) Salus standing right, draped, from patera held in left hand, feeding snake held in right hand .
References ; RIC IV 129A (R), RSC IV 325, Hunter III 62, SRCV III 8681.

Choice EF example , excellent portrait, and artistic well executed dies.

From The Sam Mansourati Collection./ NO. RI 20610.
Given as a souvenir to a dear friend. ( 8/18/2016 )
Salus was the Roman goddess of health. She was Hygieia to the Greeks ( Her name is the source of the word "hygiene." ) , who believed her to be the daughter of Aesculapius, the god of medicine and healing, and Epione, the goddess of soothing of pain. Her father Asclepius learned the secrets of keeping death at bay after observing one serpent bringing another healing herbs. Woman seeking fertility, the sick, and the injured slept in his temples in chambers where non-poisonous snakes were left to crawl on the floor and provide healing.

*The logo of Pharmacology was taken from Salus 's Patera and snake .

Sam
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ROMAN EMPIRE / Emperor Maximinus I (AD 235 - 238) Silver Denarius Salus 89 viewsMaximinus I, 235 - 238 AD
Silver Denarius, Rome Mint, struck Mar 235 - Jan 236 A.D.
20mm, 3.23 gr.
Obverse: IMP MAXIMINVS PIVS AVG, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust of Maximinus right.
IMP[erator] MAXIMINVS PIVS AVG[vstvs] Emperor Maximinus Dutiful Augustus

Reverse: SALVS AVGVSTI ( [Dedicated to] To the health of the Emperors ) , Salus ( Hygieia - Greek - ), seated left, feeding snake rising up from altar, from Patera in right hand, resting left elbow on throne.

References ; RIC 85
A superb Choice EF masterpiece example , artistic and well executed dies.

From The Sam Mansourati Collection./ NO. RI 20450
Given as a souvenir to a dear friend. ( 8/18/2016 )

Salus was the Roman goddess of health. She was Hygieia to the Greeks (Her name is the source of the word "hygiene." ) , who believed her to be the daughter of Aesculapius, the god of medicine and healing, and Epione, the goddess of soothing of pain. Her father Asclepius learned the secrets of keeping death at bay after observing one serpent bringing another healing herbs. Woman seeking fertility, the sick, and the injured slept in his temples in chambers where non-poisonous snakes were left to crawl on the floor and provide healing.

*The logo of Pharmacology was taken from Salus 's Patera and snake .
1 commentsSam
Caracalla.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Caracalla, Silver Antoninianus65 viewsStruck 213-217 AD, Rome mint, 23mm, 6.4g, RIC IV 311c, EF

OBVERSE: Radiate head of Caracalla, bearded, draped, cuirassed, right. ANTONINVS PIVS AVG[USTUS] GER[MANICUS] (Antoninus Pius, the Revered One, Conqueror of the Germans).

REVERSE: Goddess of love, beauty, desire, sex, fertility, prosperity, and victory, Venus, draped, standing left, holding Victory in extended right hand and spear in left hand, leaning on shield set on helmet. VENUS VICTRIX (Venus Victorius).
3 commentsMichael H4
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ROMAN, Maximinus I (AD 235 - 238) Silver Denarius Salus 209 viewsMaximinus I, 235 - 238 AD
Silver Denarius, Rome Mint, struck Mar 235 - Jan 236 A.D.
20mm, 3.22 grams
Obverse: IMP MAXIMINVS PIVS AVG, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust of Maximinus right.
IMP[erator] MAXIMINVS PIVS AVG[vstvs] Emperor Maximinus Dutiful Augustus

Reverse: SALVS AVGVSTI ( [Dedicated to] To the health of the Emperors ) , Salus ( Hygieia - Greek - ), seated left, feeding snake rising up from altar, from Patera in right hand, resting left elbow on throne.

References ; RIC 85
A superb Choice EF masterpiece example , artistic and well executed dies.

From The Sam Mansourati Collection./ NO. RI 20450.
Given as a souvenir to a dear friend. ( 8/18/2016 )


Salus was the Roman goddess of health. She was Hygieia to the Greeks ( Her name is the source of the word "hygiene." ), who believed her to be the daughter of Aesculapius, the god of medicine and healing, and Epione, the goddess of soothing of pain. Her father Asclepius learned the secrets of keeping death at bay after observing one serpent bringing another healing herbs. Woman seeking fertility, the sick, and the injured slept in his temples in chambers where non-poisonous snakes were left to crawl on the floor and provide healing.

*The logo of Pharmacology was taken from Salus 's Patera and snake .
5 commentsSam
Vlasto_855.JPG
Taras, Calabria52 views272-235 BC (Period VIII - The Roman Alliance I)
AR Didrachm (18.5mm, 6.50g)
O: Nude youth on horseback right, placing wreath on horse's head; ΦI behind, I-ΩΠ-YPO-[Σ] (magistrate) below.
R: Taras riding dolphin left, holding cornucopiae and trident; bee to right, Τ-ΑΡΑΣ below.
Vlasto 855; Evans VIII, B2; McGill II, 99; Cote 490-92; HN Italy 1029 SNG ANS 1183
ex Dr. Busso Peus; ex Germania Inferior Numismatics

Evans calls the insect on this reverse a cicada, a very important symbol in ancient times (see J.C.B Petropolous’ marvelous work ‘Heat and Lust; Hesiod’s Midsummer Festival Scene Revisited’, a very insightful look at ancient agricultural and fertility practices). However Vlasto lists this as a bee, and I tend to think this is likely. It sure looks more like a bee to me.
It’s a real pity that the obverse is struck off-center here, as the artistic and natural rendering of the horse is not typical of these late period didrachms.
3 commentsEnodia
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Thrace, Pantikapaion, Tauric Chersonesos, 2nd - 1st Century B.C23 viewsPan is the Greek god of shepherds and flocks, fields, groves, mountain wilderness, and wooded glens, hunting, rustic music, theatrical criticism, and companion of the nymphs. He is connected to fertility and the season of spring. He has the hindquarters, legs, and horns of a goat and is usually represented in the form of a satyr, with a cloak of goat's skin, playing the Syrinx, or flute of seven pipes, and holding the pedum or pastoral staff.

GB88294. Bronze AE 18, MacDonald Bosporus 67, SNG Cop 32, SNG BM 890, SNG Stancomb 557, Anokhin 132, HGC 7 84, gVF, beveled obverse edge, casting sprue remnant, edge crack, scratches, reverse slightly off center, Pantikapaion (Kerch, Crimea) mint, weight 4.854g, maximum diameter 17.7mm, die axis 0o, c. 2nd - 1st century B.C.; obverse head of Pan left; reverse ΠAN, head of bull left; ex Frascatius Ancient Coins
4 commentsMark R1
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Thracia, Deultum, Diadumenian Yurukova 8839 viewsDiadumenian AD 218
AE 18, 3.45g
obv. M OPEL ANTONINVS DIADV [CAES]
draped bust right
rev. C F P D
Telesphoros standing facing in hooded cloak
Yurukova 88; SNG Bulgaria 239-240; Moushmov 3579
VF, a rare representation of Telesphorus with a visible face
added to www.wildwinds.com

He is a companion of Asklepios. It is a talking name (the completer) of a greek healing god, who belongs to the most problematic figures of the greek religious history. Late as 'new twig' and 'son of Asklepios' coming to the circle of Asklepos, Telesphoros was introduced by an oracle at the end of the 1st century AD in Pergamon. His earliest inscription is from AD 98-102. From here his cult spread out quickly. Because of is child-shape and his hood cloak Telesphoros is identical with the genii cucullati, which were fertility, healing but death gods too.
Jochen
imgonline-com-ua-twotoone-V7wOu24E4Q74a-Tiberius_sestertius_capracorn.jpg
Tiberius (Augustus) Coin: Orichalcum Sestertius 6 viewsDIVO AVGVSTO S P Q R - Shield inscribed OB CIVES SER in three lines within oak-wreath supported by two capricorns; below, globe
TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVST P M TR POT XXXVII - Legend surrounding large S C
Exergue:



Mint: Rome (35-36 AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 25.20g / 33mm / 12
Rarity: R2
References:
BMCRE 109 (Tiberius)
RIC I 63 (Tiberius)
Cohen 303 (Augustus)
Provenances:
Münzhandlung André Cichos
Acquisition/Sale: Münzhandlung André Cichos MA-Shops

The Gary R. Wilson Collection

From Roma:
The significance of the constellation Capricorn to Augustus is subject to debate, with some ancient sources reporting that it was his birth sign and others relating that he was conceived under the sign - the latter tying in with his official birthday on 23rd-24th September. Although we now view conception and birth as two separate events, the Romans viewed conception through to birth as a continuous process. Under the tropical zodiac, the sun transits Capricorn from late December to late January, marking midwinter and the shortest day of the year. For this reason, often it was considered a hostile sign but Augustus chose to interpret it positively since it had governed two major events in his life - the granting of imperium to him by the Senate in January 43 BC, and the acceptance of the title Augustus on 16 January 27 BC. The capricorn is represented as a goat with a fish tail, and is often thought to be a representation of Pan escaping an attack by the monster Typhon. Having jumped into the Nile, the half of Pan's body which was submerged was transformed into a fish.

An alternative interpretation is that the goat is Amalthea, who suckled the infant Zeus after Rhea rescued him from being devoured by his father Cronus. The broken horn of Amalthea transformed into the cornucopiae. It is a symbol of fertility and abundance.
Gary W2
imgonline-com-ua-twotoone-V7wOu24E4Q74a-Tiberius_sestertius_capracorn~0.jpg
Tiberius (Augustus) Coin: Orichalcum Sestertius13 viewsDIVO AVGVSTO S P Q R - Shield inscribed OB CIVES SER in three lines within oak-wreath supported by two capricorns; below, globe
TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVST P M TR POT XXXVII - Legend surrounding large S C
Exergue:



Mint: Rome (35-36 AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 25.20g / 33mm / 12
Rarity: R2
References:
BMCRE 109 (Tiberius)
RIC I 63 (Tiberius)
Cohen 303 (Augustus)
Provenances:
Münzhandlung André Cichos
Acquisition/Sale: Münzhandlung André Cichos MA-Shops

From Roma:
The significance of the constellation Capricorn to Augustus is subject to debate, with some ancient sources reporting that it was his birth sign and others relating that he was conceived under the sign - the latter tying in with his official birthday on 23rd-24th September. Although we now view conception and birth as two separate events, the Romans viewed conception through to birth as a continuous process. Under the tropical zodiac, the sun transits Capricorn from late December to late January, marking midwinter and the shortest day of the year. For this reason, often it was considered a hostile sign but Augustus chose to interpret it positively since it had governed two major events in his life - the granting of imperium to him by the Senate in January 43 BC, and the acceptance of the title Augustus on 16 January 27 BC. The capricorn is represented as a goat with a fish tail, and is often thought to be a representation of Pan escaping an attack by the monster Typhon. Having jumped into the Nile, the half of Pan's body which was submerged was transformed into a fish.

An alternative interpretation is that the goat is Amalthea, who suckled the infant Zeus after Rhea rescued him from being devoured by his father Cronus. The broken horn of Amalthea transformed into the cornucopiae. It is a symbol of fertility and abundance.

Per RIC-Rarity 2
Gary W2
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Trajan Decius (Caius Messius Quintus Decius) (249-251 A.D.)6 viewsRIC IV-3 28b, Sear 9384, Van Meter 20

AR Antoninianus, 3.28 g., 22.78 mm. max., 0°

Rome mint, Group II, struck 250-251 A.D.

Obv.: IMP C M Q TRAIANVS DECIVS AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from behind.

Rev.: VBERITAS AVG, Uberitas standing left, holding purse/cow's udder and cornucopia.

Uberitas was the personification of fruitfulness, primarily agricultural fertility.

RIC rarity C, Van Meter VB1. Harshly cleaned (not by me), perhaps by electrolysis, which might explain the lightness of the coin.
Stkp
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Tyche of Antioch232 viewsThe Tyche of Antioch was a cult statue of the city goddess (fortune) of Antioch, venerated in a temple called the Tychaion. The statue was made by Eutychides of Sicyon (c. 335 - c. 275), a pupil of the great Lysippus. It was the best-known piece of Seleucid art, remarkable because it was sculpted to be viewed from all directions, unlike many statues from the period. Although the original has been lost, many copies exist, including the one in the photograph right, now at the Vatican. The goddess is seated on a rock (Mount Sipylus), has her right foot on a swimming figure (the river Orontes), wears a mural crown (the city’s walls), and has grain in her right hand (the city's fertility).2 commentsJoe Sermarini
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Uberitas254 viewsClaudius II Gothicus 268 - 270
AR - Antoninian, 2.78g, 19mm
Siscia 1. officina
obv. IMP CLAVDIVS AVG
cuirassed bust, radiate head r.
rev. VBER[IT]AS AVG
Uberitas standing l., holding cornucopiae and purse
RIC V, 193; C.286
good F, portrait!
UBERITAS, personification of richness and abundance,
go on from the idea of fertility goddesses. Introduced AD 249
by Decius. The object in her r. hand is interpreted as
1 purse,
2 bundle of grapes, or
3 udder of a cow
Jochen
V980a.jpg
Vespasian RIC-980 (3)67 viewsAR Denarius, 2.92g
Rome mint, 77-78 AD
Obv: CAESAR VESPASIANVS AVG; Head of Vespasian, laureate, right.
Rev: IMP XIX across field; Modius, standing on three legs, containing one ear of corn upright, then two ears of corn bending r. and l. with poppy in between and two ears of corn hanging over the sides
RIC 980 (C). BMC 217 corr. RSC 219. BNC 191.
Acquired from Münzen & Medaillen, July 2018. 'From an old Swiss collection'.

A rare variant of the modius type with poppies in between the corn ears. The BNC notes this variant (BNC 191). The variants with poppies tend to have longer corn ears than the common examples without them. The poppy in the Roman world was often a symbol of abundance and fertility, so it is quite fitting to see them symbolically stored in a modius alongside corn ears. NB: BMC 217 has the poppies on either side of the upright corn ear.

Well centred on a ragged flan.
2 commentsDavid Atherton
 
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