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NERO-4~0.jpg
92 viewsNero Dupondius - 65 A.D. - Mint of Rome
Obv. NERO CLAVD CAESAR AVG GER P M TR P IMP P P
Radiate head left
Rev. PACE P R VBIQ PARTA IANVM CLVSIT
Temple of Janus with doors closed.
Cohen 174, RIC 290.
1 commentsMaxentius
NERO-3.jpg
35 viewsNero - As - 65/66 - Mint of Rome
Ob.: NERO CAESAR AVG GERM IMP; laureate head right
Rev.: PACE P R VBIQ PARTA IANVM CLVSIT S C; janus temple with doors closed.
gs. 10 mm. 27,8
Cohen 171, RIC 306
Maxentius
AJB_92.JPG
169 viewsA cabinet I built for a collector, featuring 18 trays and locking doors.

www.CabinetsByCraig.net
1 commentscmcdon0923
PICT0242.JPG
122 viewsAn 18 tray cabinet with doors. This was one of five cabinets I built for this collector to house his collection of ancient electrum and gold.

www.CabinetsByCraig.net
cmcdon0923
XP_004.JPG
128 viewsAn 18 tray cabinet with locking doors, built to hold a collection of ancients.

www.CabinetsByCraig.net
cmcdon0923
100_3660.jpg
27 viewsAn 18 tray cabinet with brushed nickel finish hardware and locking doors. The collector specifically requested no felts in the trays, as he was going to look into a custom material for lining them.

CabinetsByCraig.net
cmcdon0923
Nero_As_RIC_306.jpg
6 Nero AE As27 viewsNERO
AE As
NERO CAESAR AVG GERM IMP, laureate head right / PACE P R VBIQ PARTA IANVM CLVSIT S-C, the Temple of Janus, latticed window to l., garland hung across closed double doors on the right.
RIC 306, Sear5 #1974

On the rare occasions when Rome was not at war with a foreign enemy the doors of the 'Twin Janus' temple were ceremonially closed, an event which Nero commemorated extensively on the coinage of 65-67 A.D. -- David R. Sear, Roman Coins and Their Values, Vol 1
RI0042
Sosius
rjb_2010_01_06~0.jpg
293cf21 viewsCrispus, Caesar 317-326 AD
AE Follis
Obv: CRISPVS NOB CAES
Laureate, cuirassed bust right
Rev: VIRTVS CAESS
Camp gate with open doors
TA crescent RL
Arelate Mint
LRBC I - (cf293-4)
RIC (VII) Arles -
mauseus
rjb_nero_06_09.jpg
5431 viewsNero 54-68 AD
AE as
Obv "NERO CAESAR AVG GERM IMP"
Laureate head right
Rev "PACE P R VBIQ PARTA IANVM CLVSIT SC"
Temple of Janus with doors closed
Rome mint
RIC 306
mauseus
rjb_2012_05_32.jpg
5420 viewsNero 54-68 AD
AE as
Obv "NERO CAESAR AVG GERM IMP"
Laureate head right
Rev "PACE P R TERRA MARIQ PARTA IANVM CLVSIT SC"
Temple of Janus with doors closed
Rome mint
RIC 300
mauseus
rjb_2019_08_02.jpg
813 viewsDomitian 81-96 AD
AE as
Obv "IMP CAES DOMITIAN AVG GERM COS X"
Laureate bust right, aegis on shoulder
Rev "SALVTI AVGVSTI SC"
Tetrastyle altar precinct with closed doors
Rome mint
RIC 224
mauseus
conicmg.jpg
Constantine I, RIC 24 Cyzicus19 viewsConstantine I Follis
Obverse: CONSTAN-TINVS AVG, laureate head right.
Reverse: PROVIDEN-TIAE AVGG, camp-gate sith one door, six rows of blocks and two turrits on top. One star above.
SMKB in ex. Cyzicus mint. 20.2 mm., 2.52 g.
NORMAN K
conscamp~0.jpg
Constantine II, AE3, Thessalonica, RIC VII, 157, 326-328 CE27 views

Constantine II, AE3, 326-328, Thessalonica, Officina 4
Obverse: CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C, Laureate, draped, cuirassed bust left
Reverse: PROVIDEN_TIAE CAESS, Campgate with six rows, two turrets, no doors, star above, top and bottom rows empty blocks
SMTSD in exergue
19.5mm, 2.7g
RIC VII, 157 nearly full silvering
NORMAN K
32264q00~0.jpg
County of Tripoli, Raymond III, 1152 - 1187 Bronze pougeoise47 views County of Tripoli, Raymond III, 1152 - 1187 Bronze pougeoise
O : + CIVITAS fortified gateway, five rows of masonry, five crenellations, large divided door
R : + TRIPOLIS, St. Andrew's cross pommetée, circle in center, crescent and pellet in each quarter
CCS 13
Ex FORUM ; Ex Malloy
Vladislavs D
Italy- Pompeii- The Basilaca.jpg
Italy- Pompeii- The Basilaca315 viewsBASILICA
Forum of Pompeii c. 120 B.C. These more massive columns are from the basilica, the most important public building in Pompeii. Constructed prior to the Roman period, the basilica had three aisles and five entrance doors onto the forum. In the rear we see a two-tiered colonnade which has columns in the Doric style on the bottom and slender Ionic columns on top of a cross beam. In Pompeii many columns were made of brick and covered with stucco.

BASILICA (VIII,1,1)
Built in the second half of the 2nd cent. BC, as part of the plan to create monuments throughout the city. It has a rectangular layout, with three naves, with a ceiling sloping straight down in both directions from the central columns and half columns at the top of the walls, where there are still remains of decorations in ‘first style’: at the back is the tribunal, where the magistrates sat, reached by a wooden staircase. The building was dedicated to administering justice and for business negotiations.




John Schou
rjb_2009_09_07.jpg
Romulus8 viewsRomulus
Ostia mint
Obv: DIVO ROMVLO N V BIS CONS
Head right
Rev: AETERNAE MEMORIAE
Domed temple with open doors, eagle on roof
-/-//MOSTT
RIC (VI) Ostia 59
mauseus
constantin1-provavgg-plc.JPG
RIC.225 Constantine I (AE3, Providentiae Avgg)16 viewsConstantine I, caesar (306-307), emperor (307-337)
AE3: Providentiae Avgg (324-325, Lyon mint)

bronze, 20mm diameter, 3.13 g, die axis: 12h

A/ CONSTAN-TINVS AVG; pearl-diademed head right
R/ PROVIDEN-TIAE AVGG / PLC in exergue; open camp gate, two turrets, no door and a star above

Ferrando II 479 (C2)
Droger
constantin1-provavgg-arls.JPG
RIC.309 Constantine I (AE3, Providentiae Avgg)19 viewsConstantine I, caesar (306-307), emperor (307-337)
AE3: Providentiae Avgg (327-328, Arles mint)

bronze, 18mm diameter, 2.66 g, die axis: 7h

A/ CONSTAN-TINVS AVG; pearl-diademed head right
R/ PROVIDEN-TIAE AVGG / ARLS in exergue/S|F in field; open camp gate, two turrets, no door and a star above

Ferrando II 479 (C2)
Droger
constantin2-prov-ROT.JPG
RIC.289 Constantine II (AE3, Providentiae Caess)19 viewsConstantine II, caesar (317-337), western emperor (337-340)
AE3 : Providentiae Caess (326, Rome mint)

bronze, 18mm diameter, 2.80 g, die axis: 6h

A/ CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C; pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right
R/ PROVIDEN-TIAE CAESS / R(wreath)T in exergue; open camp gate, two turrets, no door and a star above
Droger
constantin2-virtvs-arles-tconst-sf.JPG
RIC.322 Constantine II (AE3, Virtvs Caess)11 viewsConstantine II, caesar (317-337), western emperor (337-340)
AE3 : Providentiae Caess (328-329, Arles mint, 3rd officine)

bronze, 19mm diameter, 3.14 g, die axis: 12h

A/ CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C; pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right
R/ VIRTVS - CAESS / TCONST in exergue, S | F in the field; gateway wide wide open doors, four turrets and a star above
Droger
louis3-denier-tours.JPG
D.1041 Louis III (denier, Tours)31 viewsLouis III, king of the Franks (879-882)
Denier (Tours)

Silver, 1.78 g, 19 mm diameter, die axis 12h

O/ +IIISIRICORDIΛ DI REX; Louis' monogram (legend beginning at 3h)
R/ +HTVR◊NES CIVITAS; croix pattée

Louis III became king of West Francia at 16 after his father Louis II died quite young. As he was the only living son of Charles II, Louis II had inherited the full kingdom of West Francia from his father. At opposite, when Louis II died, his sons Louis III and Carloman II divided the kingdom into a northern part for Louis III and a southern part for his brother Carloman II. During his reign, Louis III (in alliance with his brother) achieved military successes, especially against Vikings. However, Louis III's reign didn't last long. Louis III died inadvertently at 19 while chasing a girl on his horse. He hit violently the lintel of a door with his head.
Louis III's coinage is hard to distinguish from Louis II's. Both bear the same name et both reigns were very short. Three kinds of coins can be found:
* coins with legend LVDOVICS REX and a KRLS monogram : these coins have been found for northern and southern mints and are consequently given for Louis II;
* coins with a LVDOVICVS monogram ; they have only been found for the northern mints, and are consequently supposed to be Louis III's;
* coins of Toulouse with LV/DO, imitating the ones of Charles emperor with CA/RL. The attribution to Louis II seems to be straightforward due to the southern position.
The legend of the coin is different from the traditional Gratia di Rex, but still shows a religious origin. However its success remained very limited, with some scare coins of Louis III and Eudes.
3 commentsDroger
elagabal_tripolis_res.jpg
(0218) ELAGABALUS41 views218 - 222 AD
AE 23.51 mm, 9.48 g
O: AVΩN, T KM AVP A[NTΩ NINOC] Laureate draped bust right
R: Three-part (decastyle temple) temple of Astarte, with center arch, two tetrastyle wings, curved roof line from wings to top of pediment, Astarte standing facing in doorway, ... ΓΛΦ (Seleukid year 532) in ex;
Phoenicia, Tripolis; BMC 223, 120.
1 commentslaney
gordian_hadrianop_gate_b.jpg
(0238) GORDIAN III25 views238 - 244 AD
AE 27 mm; 11.30 g
O: AΥT K M ANT ΓOΡΔIANOC AΓ, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right, from behind;
R: AΔΡIANOΠOΛEITΩN, city gate with two towers, conical roofs, no doors
Thrace, Hadrianopolis mint; cf Varbanov 3757/3759, Moushmov 2701
d.s.
laney
constantine_ii_cg_res.jpg
(0317) CONSTANTINE II (as Caesar)29 views317 - 337 AD (as Caesar)
337 - 340 AD (as Augustus)
Struck 326-328 AD
O: CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C, laureate, draped & cuirassed bust left
R: PROVIDENTIAE CAESS, campgate with six rows, two turrets, no doors and star above; SMTSD in exe
Thessalonica mint; RIC VII 157
laney
constantius_ii_cg_l_1_res.jpg
(0324) CONSTANTIUS II (as Caesar)31 views324 - 337 AD as Caesar
337 - 361 AD as Augustus
AE 19.5 mm 2.62 g
O: FL IVL CONSTANTIVS NOB C laureate draped bust left
R: PROVIDENTIAE CAESS campgate with 6 rows, 2 turrets, star above, pellet over doorway.
Trier mint

laney
constantius_ii_cg_r_1_res.jpg
(0324) CONSTANTIUS II (as Caesar)13 views324 - 337 AD as Caesar
337 - 361 AD as Augustus
AE 18.5 mm 3.11 g
O: CONSTANTIVS NOB C bust right
R: PROVIDENTIAE CAE SS campgate, 7 rows with dots in top row; 2 turrets, no door, star above
laney
crispus_campgate.jpg
(0326) CRISPUS12 views326-327 AD
AE follis 19mm, 3.15g
O: FL IVL CRISPVS NOB CAES, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust left
R: PROVIDENTIAE CAESS, Campgate, two turrets, seven layers, star above,no doors, dot in doorway, SMANTZ in exe.
Antioch mint; RIC VII 72
laney
nero_janus.jpg
(06) NERO49 views54-68 AD
struck ca 65 AD
Æ As 29.5 mm 9.38 g
O: NERO CAESAR AVG GERM IMP, laureate head right
R: Temple of Janus, doors to the right; S/C
RIC I 306
laney
nero_altar_b.jpg
(06) NERO19 views54 - 68 AD
AE 27 mm; 11.38 g
O: NERO CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG GERM PM TRP, laureate head left
R: S-C across fields, large altar with two doors and surmounted by ornaments, PROVIDENT in ex.
Balkan mint, possibly Perinthos
RIC (1923) 440; RPC 1761; Cohen 255; WCN p. 245, Moesia 2
laney
LonginusDenarius.jpg
(504c) Roman Republic, L. Cassius Longinus, 63 B.C.68 viewsSilver denarius, Crawford 413/1, RSC I Cassia 10, SRCV I 364, aVF, struck with worn dies, Rome mint, weight 3.867g, maximum diameter 20.3mm, die axis 0o, c. 63 B.C. Obverse: veiled bust of Vesta left, kylix behind, L before; Reverse: LONGIN III V, voter standing left, dropping tablet inscribed V into a cista.

The reverse of this Longinus denarius captures a fascinating moment when a Roman citizen casts his ballot. "The abbreviation III V [ir] indentifies Longinus as one of the three annually appointed mintmasters (officially called tres viri aere argento auro flando feriundo). A citizen is seen casting his vote into the urn. On the ballot is the letter 'U', short for uti rogas, a conventional formula indicating assent to a motion. The picture alludes to the law, requested by an ancestor of the mintmaster, which introduced the secret ballot in most proceedings of the popular court" (Meier, Christian. Caesar, a Biography. Berlin: Severin and Siedler, 1982. Plate 6).

The date that this denarius was struck possesses unique significance for another reason. Marcus Tullius Cicero (politician, philosopher, orator, humanist) was elected consul for the year 63 BC -- the first man elected consul who had no consular ancestors in more than 30 years. A "new man," Cicero was not the descendant of a "patrician" family, nor was his family wealthy (although Cicero married "well"). Cicero literally made himself the man he was by the power of the words he spoke and the way in which he spoke them. A witness to and major player during the decline of the Roman Republic, Cicero was murdered in 43 BC by thugs working for Marc Antony. But Cicero proved impossible to efface.

Cicero's words became part of the bed rock of later Roman education. As Peter Heather notes, every educated young man in the late Roman Empire studied "a small number of literary texts under the guidance of an expert in language and literary interpretation, the grammarian. This occupied the individual for seven or more years from about the age of eight, and concentrated on just four authors: Vergil, Cicero, Sallust and Terence" (Heather, Peter. The Fall of the Roman Empire: A New History of Rome and the Barbarians. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006. 17).


Plutarch: Cicero's Death

But in the meantime the assassins were come with a band of soldiers, Herennius, a centurion, and Popillius, a tribune, whom Cicero had formerly defended when prosecuted for the murder of his father. Finding the doors shut, they broke them open, and Cicero not appearing, and those within saying they knew not where he was, it is stated that a youth, who had been educated by Cicero in the liberal arts and sciences, an emancipated slave of his brother Quintus, Philologus by name, informed the tribune that the litter was on its way to the sea through the close and shady walks. The tribune, taking a few with him, ran to the place where he was to come out. And Cicero, perceiving Herennius running in the walks, commanded his servants to set down the litter; and stroking his chin, as he used to do, with his left hand, he looked steadfastly upon his murderers, his person covered with dust, his beard and hair untrimmed, and his face worn with his troubles. So that the greatest part of those that stood by covered their faces whilst Herennius slew him. And thus was he murdered, stretching forth his neck out of the litter, being now in his sixty-fourth year. Herennius cut off his head, and, by Antony's command, his hands also, by which his Philippics were written; for so Cicero styled those orations he wrote against Antony, and so they are called to this day.

When these members of Cicero were brought to Rome, Antony was holding an assembly for the choice of public officers; and when he heard it, and saw them, he cried out, "Now let there be an end of our proscriptions." He commanded his head and hands to be fastened up over the rostra, where the orators spoke; a sight which the Roman people shuddered to behold, and they believed they saw there, not the face of Cicero, but the image of Antony's own soul. And yet amidst these actions he did justice in one thing, by delivering up Philologus to Pomponia, the wife of Quintus; who, having got his body into her power, besides other grievous punishments, made him cut off his own flesh by pieces, and roast and eat it; for so some writers have related. But Tiro, Cicero's emancipated slave, has not so much as mentioned the treachery of Philologus.

Translation by John Dryden: http://intranet.grundel.nl/thinkquest/moord_cicero_plu.html

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
rjb_2009_09_20.jpg
(VII)29627 viewsConstantine II
CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C
Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right viewed from the rear
PROVIDENTIAE CAESS
Camp gate with two turrets, star between, pellet in doorway
-/-//PLON
RIC (VII) 296 note
mauseus
Constantine_I.jpg
*SOLD*32 viewsConstantine the Great AE3

Attribution: RIC VII 153, Nicomedia
Date: AD 328-329
Obverse: CONSTAN-TINVS AVG; head r. w/ pearl diadem
Reverse: RPVIDEN-TIAE AVGG; camp gate, two turrets, no doors, star above
Size: 18.54 mm
Weight: 3.1 grams
Noah
Crispus.jpg
*SOLD*44 viewsCrispus AE3

Attribution: RIC VII 201, Siscia, 4th officina
Date: AD 326-327
Obverse: IVL CRISPVS NOB C, laureate bust r.
Reverse: PROVIDEN-TIAE CAESS, campgate with two turrets, no doors & star above,
* Δ SIS * in exergue
Size: 18.4 mm
1 commentsNoah
coin282.JPG
002. Augustus (31 BC- 14 AD)48 viewsAugustus

He suffered but two severe and ignominious defeats, those of Lollius [15 B.C.] and Varus [9 A.D.], both of which were in Germany. Of these the former was more humiliating than serious, but the latter was almost fatal, since three legions were cut to pieces with their general, his lieutenants, and all the auxiliaries. In fact, they say that he was so greatly affected that for several months in succession he cut neither his beard nor his hair, and sometimes he would dash his head against a door, crying: "Quintilius Varus, give me back my legions!" And he observed the day of the disaster each year as one of sorrow and mourning.

Lyons mint, 2 BC - ca 13 AD. CAESAR AVGVSTVS DIVI F PATER PATRIAE. laureate head right / AVGVSTI F COS DESIG PRINC IVVENT, C L CAESARES below, Gaius & Lucius standing front, each with a hand resting on a round shield, a spear, & in field above, a lituus right & simpulum left ("b9"). BMC 533, RSC 43

This is one of my first 12 caesar coins. I got this from an all text list from M&R coins.
ecoli
Nero_janus.jpg
006 - Nero (54-68 AD), As - RIC 34738 viewsObv: IMP NERO CAESAR AVG GERM, laureate head right.
Rev: PACE P R VBIQ PARTA IANVM CLVSIT, S - C in fields, temple of Janus with closed doors on right.
Minted in Rome c. 66 AD.

(Sold)
pierre_p77
coin191.JPG
006. Nero (54 AD - 68 AD) 47 viewsNero, last of the Julio-Claudians, had been placed in the difficult position of absolute authority at a young age coupled with the often-contradictory efforts of those in a position to manipulate him. Augustus, however, had not been much older when he began his bid for power, and so a great deal of the responsibility for Nero's conduct must also rest with the man himself. Nero's reign was not without military operations (e.g., the campaigns of Corbulo against the Parthians, the suppression of the revolt of Boudicca in Britain), but his neglect of the armies was a critical error.

Nero As, 26x27 mm, 10.0 g. Obverse: Nero laureate right, NERO CAESAR AVG GERM IMP. Reverse: Temple of Janus, with latticed window to left and closed double doors to right, PACE PR VBIQ PARTA IANVM CLVSIT, SC.

Check
1 commentsecoli
antioch1a.jpg
008 Costantine I32 viewsobv: CONSTAN_TINVS AVG laur. bust r.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE AVGG campgate with two turrents star above
fld:/ex: dot in doorway / SMANT(r=gamma=3)
1 commentshill132
antioch2a.jpg
009 Constantine II 27 viewsobv: CONSTANTINUS IVN NOB C laur.,dr. and cuir. bust l.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE CAESS campgate with to turrents star above
fld:/ex: dot in doorway / SMANT(delta=4)
hill132
antioch4a.jpg
011 Constantine II 18 viewsobv: CONSTANTINVS IVN OB C laur.drp and cuir. bust l.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE CAESS campgate with two turrents star above
fld:/ex: dot in doorway / SMANT(B=beta=2)
hill132
antioch5a.jpg
012 Constantine II 18 viewsobv: CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C laur. drp. and cuir.bust l.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE CAESS campgate with two turrents star above
fld:/ex: dot in doorway / SMANT(delta=4)
hill132
antioch7a.jpg
014 Constanine I11 viewsobv: CONSTAN_TINUS AVG laur bust r.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE AVGG campgate with two turrents star above
fld/ex: delta-dot in doorway-epsilon / SMANT
hill132
Nero_AE-AS_IMP-NERO-CAESAR-AVG-GERM_PACE-PR-VBIQ-PARTA-IANVM-CLVSIT_S-C_RIC-348_C-_Rome_66-AD_Q-001_6h_27mm_11,14g-s.jpg
014 Nero (54-68 A.D.), RIC I 0348, Rome, AE-As, PACE PR VBIQ PARTA IANVM CLVSIT, S-C,113 views014 Nero (54-68 A.D.), RIC I 0348, Rome, AE-As, PACE PR VBIQ PARTA IANVM CLVSIT, S-C,
avers: IMP-NERO-CAESAR-AVG-GERM, Laureate head left.
revers: PACE-PR-VBIQ-PARTA-IANVM-CLVSIT, View of one front of the temple of Janus, with latticed window to left, and garland hung across closed double doors on the right, S C across fields.
exe: S/C//--, diameter: 27mm, weight: 11,14g, axis: 6h,
mint: Rome, date: 66 AD., ref: RIC-348, C-,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
0156.jpg
0156 - Nummus Constantine II 324-5 AC30 viewsObv/ CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust of C. r.
Rev/ PROVIDEN-TIAE CAESS, camp gate with two turrets, star above, no door; PLON in ex.

AE, 19.2 mm, 3.59 g
Mint: Londinium.
RIC VII/296 [C3]
ex-Harlan J Berk, auction 176, lot 499
dafnis
antioch10a.jpg
017 Constantine II13 viewsobv: CONSTANTINVS IVN NOC C laur. drp. cuir. bust l.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE AVGG campgate with two turrents star above
fld:/ex: dot in doorway / SMANTS
hill132
antioch11b.jpg
018 Crispus22 viewsobv: FL IVL CRISPVS NOB CAES laur. drp. cuir. bust l.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE CAESS campgate with two turrents star above
fld:/ex: dot in doorway / SMANTZ
hill132
antioch13.jpg
020 Constantine I12 viewsobv: CONSTAN_TINVS AVG laur. bust r.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE AVGG campgate with two turrents star above, base
ex: delta-dot in doorway-epsilon / SMANT
hill132
antioch14.jpg
021 Constantine I39 viewsobv: CONSTAN_TINVS AVG rosetta dia. bust r.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE AVGG campgate with two turrents star above
ex: delta-dot in doorway-epsilon / SMANT
1 commentshill132
antioch15.jpg
022 Constantine I 23 viewsobv: CONSTAN_TINVS AVGG rosetta dia. bust r.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE AVGG campgate with two turrents star above
ex: delta-dot in doorway-epsilon/SMANT
hill132
antioch18.jpg
025 Constantine I14 viewsobv: CONSTAN_TINVS AVGG laur. bust r.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE AVGG campgate with two turrents star above
fld:ex: dot in doorway / SMANTS
hill132
arles1.jpg
028 Constantine I48 viewsobv: CONSTAN_TINVS AVGG pearl dia. bust r.
rev: VIRTV_S AVGG campgate with four turrents star above, wide open doors
fld:/ex: SF/ARLS
4 commentshill132
arles2.jpg
029 Constantine I13 viewsobv: CONSTAN_TINVS AVG pearl dia.bust r.
rev: VIRTV_S AVGG campgate with four turrents star above,wide open doors
fld:/ex: SF/ARLP
hill132
arles3.jpg
030 Constantius II18 viewsobv: FL IVL CONSTANTIVS NOB C laur. drp. and cuir. bust l.
rev: VIRTVS CAESS campgate with four turrents star above,wide open doors
ex: SF/ARLQ
hill132
arles4.jpg
031 Constantius II15 viewsobv: FL IVL CONSTANTIVS laur. drp. cuir.bust l.
rev: VIRTVS CAESS campgate with four turrents star above, wide open doors
ex: QA(cressent)RL
hill132
arles5.jpg
032 Constantine I13 viewsobv: CONSTAN_TINVS AVG peal dia. bust r.
rev: VIRTV_S AVGG campgate with four turrents star above,wide open doors
ex: SF/SCONST
hill132
arles6.jpg
033 Constantine I12 viewsobv: CONSTAN_TINUS AVG pearl dia. bust r.
rev: VIRTV_S AVGG campgate with four turrents star above,wide open doors
ex: SF/SCONST
hill132
arles7.jpg
034 Constantine I 12 viewsobv: CONSTAN_TINVS AVG pearl dia. bust r.
rev: VIRTV_S AVGG campgate with four turrents star above, wide open doors
ex: SF/SCONST
hill132
arles8.jpg
035 Constantine II17 viewsobv: CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C laur. drp. cuir. bust l.
rev: VIRTVS CAESS campgate with four turrents star above, wide open doors
ex: SF/TCONST
hill132
Ant_Pius_DIVVS_ANTONINVS_CONSECRAIO_RIC-438(Marc-Avr)_BMC-60_C-164a_Rome-161-AD_Q-001_6h_16,4-17,7mm_2,57g-s.jpg
035a Antoninus Pius (138-161 A.D.), RIC III 0438 (Marc. Aur.), Rome, AR-Denarius, CONSECRAIO, Funeral pyre,95 views035a Antoninus Pius (138-161 A.D.), RIC III 0438 (Marc. Aur.), Rome, AR-Denarius, CONSECRAIO, Funeral pyre,
avers:- DIVVS-ANTONINVS, Bare-headed bust right, folds of cloak on front shoulder and wrapped around neck.
revers:- CONSECRAIO, Four tiered funeral pyre, decorated with garlands and statues, door in second tier, facing quadriga on top.
exerg: -/-//--, diameter: 16,4-17,7mm, weight: 2,57g, axis: 6h,
mint: Rome, date: Consecration issue, struck after Pius' death in 161 A.D., ref: RIC-III-(Marcus Aurelius)-438-p-247, C-164a, BMC-60,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Antoninus-Pius_DIVVS-ANTONINVS_DIVO-PIO_Q-001_3_25g.jpg
035a Antoninus Pius (138-161 A.D.), RIC III 0441 (Marc. Aur.), Rome, AR-Denarius, DIVO PIO, Altar,99 views035a Antoninus Pius (138-161 A.D.), RIC III 0441 (Marc. Aur.), Rome, AR-Denarius, DIVO PIO, Altar,
"DIVO" Altar Marcus Aurelius A.D. 139-180
Silver Denarius "Divine father Antoninus Pius."
avers:- DIVVS-ANTONINVS, Bare head right.
revers:- DIVO-PIO, Square altar with double doors.
exerg: -/-//--, diameter: 17-18mm, weight: 3,25g, axis: h,
mint: Rome, date: 162 A.D., ref: RIC-III-(Marcus Aurelius)-441-p-247, C-357,
Q-001
quadrans
Ant_Pius_AR-Ant_DIVO-PIO_CONSECRATIO_RIC-Tr-Dec-90_Mediolanum_250-51-AD_Q-001_axis-7h_21-22mm_2,56g-s.jpg
035d Antoninus Pius (138-161 A.D.), RIC IV-III 0090 (Traj.Dec.), Mediolanum, AR-Antoninianus, CONSECRATIO, Flaming Altar,202 views035d Antoninus Pius (138-161 A.D.), RIC IV-III 0090 (Traj.Dec.), Mediolanum, AR-Antoninianus, CONSECRATIO, Flaming Altar,
Silver Denarius "Divine father Antoninus Pius."
avers:- DIVO-PIO, Radiate, head right.
revers:- CONSECRATIO, Square altar with double doors.
exerg: -/-//--, diameter: 21-22mm, weight: 2,56g, axis: 7h,
mint: Mediolanum, date: 250-251 A.D., ref: RIC-IV-III-(Traianus Decius)-90-p-, C-357,
Q-001
quadrans
arles10.jpg
037 Constantine II13 viewsobv: CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C laur. drp. cuir. bust l.
rev: VIRTVS CAESS campgate with four turrents star above, wide open doors
ex: SF/TCONST
hill132
arles11.jpg
038 Constantinus II16 viewsobv: CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C laur. drp. cuir. bust l.
rev: VIRTVS CAESS campgate with four turrents star above, wide open doors
ex: SF/ TCONST
hill132
arles22.jpg
049 Constantine I. AE324 viewsobv: CONSTAN_TINVS AVG pearl dia. bust r.
rev: VIRTV_S AVGG campgate with four turrents star above wide open doors
fld:/ex: SF/ARLP
1 commentshill132
arles23.jpg
050 Constantine I. AE312 viewsobv: CONSTAN_TINUS AVG laur. bust r.
rev: VIRTVS AVGG campgate with four turrents star above wide open doors
fld:/ex: SF/ARLS
hill132
arles26.jpg
053 Constantine I. AE311 viewsobv: CONSTAN_TINVS AVG laur. bust r.
rev: VIRTV_S AVGG campgate with four turrents star above wide open doors
ex: PA(crescent)RL
hill132
arles27.jpg
054 Constantinus II. AE314 viewsobv: CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C laur. drp. cuir. bust l
rev: VIRTVS CAESS campgate with four turrents star above, wide open doors
fld:/ex: SF/ARLT
hill132
arles28.jpg
056 Constantine I. AE312 viewsobv: CONSTAN_TINUS AVG pearl dia. bust r.
rev: VIRTV_S AVGG campgate with four turrents star above,wide open doors
fld:/ex:SF/PCONST
hill132
arles29.jpg
057 Constantius II. AE315 viewsobv: FL IVL CONSTANTIVS NOB C laur. drp. cuir. bust l.
rev: VIRTVS CAESS campgate with four turrents star above, wide open doors
ex: QR(crescent)RL
hill132
arles31.jpg
059 Constantine II. AE331 viewsobv: COSTANTINVS IVN NOB C laur. drp. cuir bust l.
rev: VIRTVS CAESS campgate with four turrents star above wide open doors
ex: TA(crescent)RL
1 commentshill132
antoninus-pius_divus-antoninus_altar_2_99gr_obv_14.JPG
06 - Antoninus Pius - AR Denarius - Posthumous Issue - Altar 11 viewsImperial Rome
Antoninus Pius ( 138-161 AD.)
Silver Denarius. Rome Mint.
Posthumous Issue struck under Emperor Marcus Aurelius.

obv: DIVVS ANTONINVS - Bare head right.
rev: DIVO PIO - Altar/Shrine with doors closed.

RIC III-441 (Marcus Aurelius).

2.99gr.
rexesq
antoninus-pius_divus-antoninus_altar_2_99gr_obv_13.JPG
06 - Antoninus Pius - AR Denarius - Posthumous Issue - Altar 10 viewsImperial Rome
Antoninus Pius ( 138-161 AD.)
Silver Denarius. Rome Mint.
Posthumous Issue struck under Emperor Marcus Aurelius.

obv: DIVVS ANTONINVS - Bare head right.
rev: DIVO PIO - Altar/Shrine with doors closed.

RIC III-441 (Marcus Aurelius).

2.99gr.
rexesq
antoninus-pius_divus-antoninus_altar_2_99gr_obv_01_rev_02.JPG
06 - Antoninus Pius - AR Denarius - Posthumous Issue - Altar 33 viewsImperial Rome
Antoninus Pius ( 138-161 AD.)
Silver Denarius. Rome Mint.
Posthumous Issue struck under Emperor Marcus Aurelius.

obv: DIVVS ANTONINVS - Bare head right.
rev: DIVO PIO - Altar/Shrine with doors closed.

RIC III-441 (Marcus Aurelius).

2.99gr.
3 commentsrexesq
antoninus-pius_divus-antoninus_altar_2_99gr_00.JPG
06 - Antoninus Pius - AR Denarius - Posthumous Issue - Altar.21 viewsImperial Rome
Antoninus Pius ( 138-161 AD.)
Silver Denarius. Rome Mint.
Posthumous Issue struck under Emperor Marcus Aurelius.

obv: DIVVS ANTONINVS - Bare head right.
rev: DIVO PIO - Altar/Shrine with doors closed.

RIC III-441 (Marcus Aurelius).

2.99gr.
--------
Seller Photo.
2 commentsrexesq
066.jpg
062 CONSTANTINUS II14 viewsEMPEROR: Constantinus II
DENOMINATION: AE reduced follis
OBVERSE: CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right
REVERSE: PROVIDENTIAE CAESS, campgate, 5 layers, two turrets, no door, star above.
EXERGUE: SMHΓ.
DATE: 325-326 AD
MINT: Heraclea
WEIGHT: 2.05 g
RIC: VII Heraclea 77
Barnaba6
arles35.jpg
063 Constantine I. AE313 viewsobv: CONSTAN_TINUS AVG laur. bust r.
rev: VIRTV_S AVGG campgate with four turrents star above,wide open doors
fld:/ex: SF/ARLS
hill132
arles38.jpg
066 Constantine I. AE317 viewsobv: CONSTAN_TINUS AVG pearl dia. head r.
rev: VIRTV_S AVGG campgate with four turrents star above wide open doors
ex: SF/PCONST
hill132
arles39.jpg
067 Constantine I. AE318 viewsobv: CONSTAN_TINUS AVG pearl dia. head r.
rev: VIRTV_S AVGG campgate with four turrents star above wide open doors
ex: SF/PCONST
hill132
arles40.jpg
068 Constantine II. AE314 viewsobv: CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C laur. drp. cuir. bust l
rev: VIRTVS CAESS campgate with four turrents star above wide open doors
ex: TA(crescent)RL
hill132
arles41.jpg
069 Constantine I. AE322 viewsobv: CONSTAN_TINUS AVG pearl dia. head r.
rev: VIRTV_S AVGG campgate with four turrents star above wide open doors
ex: SF/ARLP
hill132
A-11_Rep_AR-Den_M_Volteius-M_f_-Laur-Head-Jupiter-r__Capitolin-Temple-M_VOLTEI_M_F_-below_Crawford-385-1_Syd-774_Rome_78-BC_Q-001_axis-10h_16,5-17,5mm_3,69g-s.jpg
078 B.C., M.Volteius M.f., Republic AR-Denarius, Crawford 385/1, Rome, Capitoline temple, M•VOLTEI•M•F, 115 views078 B.C., M.Volteius M.f., Republic AR-Denarius, Crawford 385/1, Rome, Capitoline temple, M•VOLTEI•M•F,
avers: Laureate head of Jupiter right, border of dots.
reverse: M•VOLTEI•M•F, Temple of Jupiter Capitolinus with closed doors, thunderbolt on the pediment.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 17mm, weight: 3,69g, axis: 4h,
mint: Rome, date: 78 B.C., ref: Crawford 385/1, Sydenham 774,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
025~2.JPG
110 Domitian 87 viewsDomitian AE As. 85 AD. IIMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM COS XI CENS PER PP, laureate bust right, wearing aegis / SALVTI AVGVSTI above and below facade of the altar-enclosure of the Ara Salutis Augusti with detailed double-paneled door & horns above, S-C across fields.

C. 419, RIC 304b? RIC 2 418
6 commentsRandygeki(h2)
Constantinus-I__AE-Follis_CONSTAN-TINVS-AVG-1_PROVIDEN-TIAE-AVG-G-B1-6layers_dot_SMANTA_RIC-63-p-688_Antioch_326-327-AD_S_Q-001_h_mm_g-s.jpg
136 Constantinus I. (306-309 A.D. Caesar, 309-910 A.D. Filius Augustorum, 307-337 A.D. Augustus), Antioch, RIC VII 063, AE-3 Follis, -/-//SMANTA, PROVIDENTIAE AVG G, Campgate with two turrets, Scarce!65 views136 Constantinus I. (306-309 A.D. Caesar, 309-910 A.D. Filius Augustorum, 307-337 A.D. Augustus), Antioch, RIC VII 063, AE-3 Follis, -/-//SMANTA, PROVIDENTIAE AVG G, Campgate with two turrets, Scarce!
avers: CONSTAN TINVS AVG, 1, B1, Laureate, bust right.
reverse: PROVIDEN TIAE AVG G, 6 layers, Campgate, no door, with two turrets star above.
exergue: -/-//SMANTA, diameter: mm, weight: g, axis:h,
mint: Antioch, date: 325-326 A.D., ref: RIC VII 063, p-688, Scarce!
Q-001
quadrans
Constantinus-I__AE-Follis_CONSTAN-TINVS-AVG-1_PROVIDEN-TIAE-AVG-G-B1-8layers_dot_SMANTZ_RIC-71-p-690_Antioch_326-327-AD_R2_Q-001_h_mm_gx-s.jpg
136 Constantinus I. (306-309 A.D. Caesar, 309-910 A.D. Filius Augustorum, 307-337 A.D. Augustus), Antioch, RIC VII 071, AE-3 Follis, •//SMANTA, PROVIDENTIAE AVG G, Campgate with two turrets, R2!!63 views136 Constantinus I. (306-309 A.D. Caesar, 309-910 A.D. Filius Augustorum, 307-337 A.D. Augustus), Antioch, RIC VII 071, AE-3 Follis, •//SMANTA, PROVIDENTIAE AVG G, Campgate with two turrets, R2!!
avers: CONSTAN TINVS AVG, 1, B1, Laureate, bust right.
reverse: PROVIDEN TIAE AVG G, 8 layers, Campgate, no door, with two turrets star above.
exergue: •//SMANTA, diameter: mm, weight: g, axis:h,
mint: Antioch, date: 326-327 A.D., ref: RIC VII 071, p-690, R2!!
Q-001
quadrans
Constantinus-I__AE-Follis_CONSTAN-TINVS-AVG-1_PROVIDEN-TIAE-AVG-G-B1-6layers_SACrescRL_RIC-_p-_Arles_326-327-AD_Q-001_h_mm_g-s.jpg
136 Constantinus I. (306-309 A.D. Caesar, 309-910 A.D. Filius Augustorum, 307-337 A.D. Augustus), Arleate, RIC VII 286, AE-3 Follis, -/-//SAᴗRL, PROVIDENTIAE AVG G, Campgate with two turrets, Scarce!78 views136 Constantinus I. (306-309 A.D. Caesar, 309-910 A.D. Filius Augustorum, 307-337 A.D. Augustus), Arleate, RIC VII 286, AE-3 Follis, -/-//SAᴗRL, PROVIDENTIAE AVG G, Campgate with two turrets, Scarce!
avers: CONSTAN TINVS AVG, 1, B1, Laureate, bust right.
reverse: PROVIDEN TIAE AVG G, Campgate, two turrets, no doors, star above 6th levels of stone layers.
exergue: -/-//SAᴗRL, diameter: mm, weight: g, axis:h,
mint: Arleate, date: 326-327 A.D., ref: RIC VII 286, p-264, Scarce!
Q-001
quadrans
Constantinus-I__AE-Follis_CONSTAN-TINVS-AVG-1_PROVIDEN-TIAE-AVG-G-B1-6layers_SMKDelta_RIC-24-p-647_Cyzicus_324-5-AD_Q-001_h_mm_g-s.jpg
136 Constantinus I. (306-309 A.D. Caesar, 309-910 A.D. Filius Augustorum, 307-337 A.D. Augustus), Cyzicus, RIC VII 024, AE-3 Follis, -/-//SMKΔ, PROVIDENTIAE AVG G, Campgate with two turrets,61 views136 Constantinus I. (306-309 A.D. Caesar, 309-910 A.D. Filius Augustorum, 307-337 A.D. Augustus), Cyzicus, RIC VII 024, AE-3 Follis, -/-//SMKΔ, PROVIDENTIAE AVG G, Campgate with two turrets,
avers: CONSTAN TINVS AVG, 1, B1, Laureate, bust right.
reverse: PROVIDEN TIAE AVG G, 6 layers, Campgate, no door, with two turrets star above.
exergue: -/-//SMKΔ, diameter: mm, weight: g, axis:h,
mint: Cyzicus, date: 325-326 A.D., ref: RIC VII 024, p-647,
Q-001
quadrans
Constantinus-I__AE-Follis_CONSTAN-TINVS-AVG-1_PROVIDEN-TIAE-AVG-G-B1-8layers_SMKGamm-dot_RIC-34-p-648_Cyzicus_325-6-AD_Q-001_h_mm_g-s.jpg
136 Constantinus I. (306-309 A.D. Caesar, 309-910 A.D. Filius Augustorum, 307-337 A.D. Augustus), Cyzicus, RIC VII 034, AE-3 Follis, -/-//SMKΓ•, PROVIDENTIAE AVG G, Campgate with two turrets,66 views136 Constantinus I. (306-309 A.D. Caesar, 309-910 A.D. Filius Augustorum, 307-337 A.D. Augustus), Cyzicus, RIC VII 034, AE-3 Follis, -/-//SMKΓ•, PROVIDENTIAE AVG G, Campgate with two turrets,
avers: CONSTAN TINVS AVG, 1, B1, Laureate, bust right.
reverse: PROVIDEN TIAE AVG G, 8 layers, Campgate, no door, with two turrets star above.
exergue: -/-//SMKΓ•, diameter: mm, weight: g, axis:h,
mint: Cyzicus, date: 325-326 A.D., ref: RIC VII 034, p-648,
Q-001
quadrans
136_Constantinus_I_,_,_RIC_VII_34A,_Cyzicus_,_AE-Follis,_CONSTAN_TINVS_AVG,_PROVIDENTIAE_AVGG,_SMKAdot,_325-6_AD,_Q-001,_11h,_17,5-18,5mm,_3,05g-s.jpg
136 Constantinus I. (306-309 A.D. Caesar, 309-910 A.D. Filius Augustorum, 307-337 A.D. Augustus), Cyzicus, RIC VII 034A, AE-3 Follis, -/-//SMKA•, PROVIDENTIAE AVG G, Campgate with two turrets, #1122 views136 Constantinus I. (306-309 A.D. Caesar, 309-910 A.D. Filius Augustorum, 307-337 A.D. Augustus), Cyzicus, RIC VII 034A, AE-3 Follis, -/-//SMKA•, PROVIDENTIAE AVG G, Campgate with two turrets, #1
avers: CONSTAN TINVS AVG, 1, B1, Laureate, bust right.
reverse: PROVIDEN TIAE AVG G, 8 layers, Campgate, no door, with two turrets star above.
exergue: -/-//SMKA•, diameter: 17,5-18,5mm, weight: 3,05g, axis:11h,
mint: Cyzicus, date: 325-326 A.D., ref: RIC VII 034A, p-648,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Constantinus-I__AE-Follis_IMP-CONSTA-NTINVS-AVG-1_PROVIDEN-TIAE-AVG-G-J1_l_-6-layers_MHTA_RICVII-16v(or38v)-not-off-A_Heraclea_317-320-AD_Q-001_6h_19,5-20mm_3,25g-s.jpg
136 Constantinus I. (306-309 A.D. Caesar, 309-910 A.D. Filius Augustorum, 307-337 A.D. Augustus), Heraclea, RIC VII 016var.(or 038var.), AE-3 Follis, -/-//MHTA, PROVIDEN TIAE AVG G, Campgate with 3 turrets, "A" off not in RIC !!!72 views136 Constantinus I. (306-309 A.D. Caesar, 309-910 A.D. Filius Augustorum, 307-337 A.D. Augustus), Heraclea, RIC VII 016var.(or 038var.), AE-3 Follis, -/-//MHTA, PROVIDEN TIAE AVG G, Campgate with 3 turrets, "A" off not in RIC !!!
avers: IMP CONSTA NTINVS AVG, 1, J1 l., Laureate, draped bust left, holding mappa and sceptre on globe.
reverse: PROVIDEN TIAE AVG G, Campgate with 3 turrets, 6 layers, no doors, no star above.
exergue: -/-//MHTA, diameter: 19,5-20mm, weight: 3,25g, axis: 6h,
mint: Heraclea, date: 317-320 A.D., ref: RIC VII 16ver.(or38ver.???), p-544, "A" off not in RIC !!!
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Constantinus-I__AE-Follis_CONSTA-N-TINVS-AVG-1-D6_VIRTV-S-AVG-G_3-turrets-6-layers_P-R_RT_3-off_RIC-VII-166-p-315_Rome_318-319-AD_R5_Q-001_5h_17,5-18mm_2,75ga-s.jpg
136 Constantinus I. (306-309 A.D. Caesar, 309-910 A.D. Filius Augustorum, 307-337 A.D. Augustus), Rome, RIC VII 166, AE-3 Follis, P/R//R-T, VIRTVS AVG G, Campgate with three turrets, R5!!! 123 views136 Constantinus I. (306-309 A.D. Caesar, 309-910 A.D. Filius Augustorum, 307-337 A.D. Augustus), Rome, RIC VII 166, AE-3 Follis, P/R//R-T, VIRTVS AVG G, Campgate with three turrets, R5!!!
avers: CONSTA N TINVS AVG, Laureate helmeted cuirassed bust right. 1-D6,
reverse: VIRTV S AVG G, Campgate, three turrets, six layers no doors; P-R across fields, RT in ex.
exergue: P/R//R-T, diameter: 17,5-18mm, weight: 2,75g, axes: 5h,
mint: Rome, date: 318-319 A.D., ref: RIC VII 166, p-315, R5!!!,
Q-001
3 commentsquadrans
Constantinus-I__AE-Follis_CONSTAN-TINVS-AVG-1_PROVIDEN-TIAE-AVG-G-B1-9layers_GammaSISCrecincresc_RIC-214_p-452_Siscia_326-327-AD_Q-001_h_mm_g-s.jpg
136 Constantinus I. (306-309 A.D. Caesar, 309-910 A.D. Filius Augustorum, 307-337 A.D. Augustus), Siscia, RIC VII 214, AE-3 Follis, -/-//ΓSISᴗ in ᴗ, PROVIDENTIAE AVG G, Campgate with two turrets, #162 views136 Constantinus I. (306-309 A.D. Caesar, 309-910 A.D. Filius Augustorum, 307-337 A.D. Augustus), Siscia, RIC VII 214, AE-3 Follis, -/-//ΓSISᴗ in ᴗ, PROVIDENTIAE AVG G, Campgate with two turrets, #1
avers: CONSTAN TINVS AVG, 1, B1, Laureate head right.
reverse: PROVIDEN TIAE AVG G, 9 layers, Campgate, no door, with two turrets star above.
exergue: -/-//ΓSISᴗ in ᴗ, diameter: mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Siscia, date: 328-329 A.D., ref: RIC VII 214, p-452, 2nd.-off.,
Q-001
quadrans
Constantinus-I__AE-Follis_CONSTAN-TINVS-AVG-1_PROVIDEN-TIAE-AVG-G-B1-9layers_B-SIS-crescincresc_RIC-_Siscia_326-327-AD_Q-001_h_mm_g-s.jpg
136 Constantinus I. (306-309 A.D. Caesar, 309-910 A.D. Filius Augustorum, 307-337 A.D. Augustus), Siscia, RIC VII 214, AE-3 Follis, -/-//BSISᴗ in ᴗ, PROVIDENTIAE AVG G, Campgate with two turrets, #169 views136 Constantinus I. (306-309 A.D. Caesar, 309-910 A.D. Filius Augustorum, 307-337 A.D. Augustus), Siscia, RIC VII 214, AE-3 Follis, -/-//BSISᴗ in ᴗ, PROVIDENTIAE AVG G, Campgate with two turrets, #1
avers: CONSTAN TINVS AVG, 1, B1, Laureate head right.
reverse: PROVIDEN TIAE AVG G, 9 layers, Campgate, no door, with two turrets star above.
exergue: -/-//BSISᴗ in ᴗ, diameter: mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Siscia, date: 328-329 A.D., ref: RIC VII 214, p-452, 2nd.-off.,
Q-001
quadrans
Constantinus-I__AE-Follis_CONSTAN-TINVS-AVG-1_PROVIDEN-TIAE-AVG-G-B1-9layers_BSISCrecincresc_RIC-214_p-452_Siscia_326-327-AD_Q-001_h_mm_gx-s.jpg
136 Constantinus I. (306-309 A.D. Caesar, 309-910 A.D. Filius Augustorum, 307-337 A.D. Augustus), Siscia, RIC VII 214, AE-3 Follis, -/-//BSISᴗ in ᴗ, PROVIDENTIAE AVG G, Campgate with two turrets, #267 views136 Constantinus I. (306-309 A.D. Caesar, 309-910 A.D. Filius Augustorum, 307-337 A.D. Augustus), Siscia, RIC VII 214, AE-3 Follis, -/-//BSISᴗ in ᴗ, PROVIDENTIAE AVG G, Campgate with two turrets, #2
avers: CONSTAN TINVS AVG, 1, B1, Laureate head right.
reverse: PROVIDEN TIAE AVG G, 9 layers, Campgate, no door, with two turrets star above.
exergue: -/-//BSISᴗ in ᴗ, diameter: mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Siscia, date: 328-329 A.D., ref: RIC VII 214, p-452, 2nd.-off.,
Q-002
quadrans
Constantinus-I__AE-Follis_CONSTAN-TINVS-AVG-1_PROVIDEN-TIAE-AVG-G-B1-6layers_dot-SMTSE_RIC-153_p-518_Thesalonica_326-327-AD_Q-001_h_mm_gx-s.jpg
136 Constantinus I. (306-309 A.D. Caesar, 309-910 A.D. Filius Augustorum, 307-337 A.D. Augustus), Thessalonica, RIC VII 153, AE-3 Follis, -/•//SMTSЄ, PROVIDENTIAE AVG G, Campgate with two turrets, #162 views136 Constantinus I. (306-309 A.D. Caesar, 309-910 A.D. Filius Augustorum, 307-337 A.D. Augustus), Thessalonica, RIC VII 153, AE-3 Follis, -/•//SMTSЄ, PROVIDENTIAE AVG G, Campgate with two turrets, #1
avers: CONSTAN TINVS AVG, 1, B1, Laureate, bust right.
reverse: PROVIDEN TIAE AVG G, 6 layers, Campgate, no door, with two turrets star above.
exergue: -/•//SMTSЄ, diameter: mm, weight: g, axis:h,
mint: Thessalonica, date: 326-327 A.D., ref: RIC VII 153, p-518,
Q-001
quadrans
tiberius memorial as.jpg
14-37 AD - AUGUSTUS memorial AE as - struck under Tiberius (22/23-(?)30 AD)53 viewsobv: DIVVS AVGVSTVS PATER (radiate head of Augustus left)
rev: Altar with double panelled door, uncertain ornaments in top, S-C either side of altar, PROVIDENT in ex.
ref: RIC I 81 (Tiberius), BMC146, C.228 (5frcs)
10.33gms, 26mm
Scarce
berserker
142_Crispus,_Cyzicus,_RIC_VII_025,_AE-3_Follis,_FL_IVL_CRISPUS_NOB_CAES,_PROVIDEN-TIAE_CAESS,_SMK__#916;,_324-5AD,_Q-001,_0h,_19mm,_3,6g-s.jpg
142 Crispus (317-326 A.D.), Cyzicus, RIC VII 025, AE-3 Follis, -/-//SMKΔ, PROVIDENTIAE CAESS, Campgate with two turrets, #1161 views142 Crispus (317-326 A.D.), Cyzicus, RIC VII 025, AE-3 Follis, -/-//SMKΔ, PROVIDENTIAE CAESS, Campgate with two turrets, #1
avers: FL IVL CRISPUS NOB CAES, Laureate bust left, draped and cuirassed.
reverse: PROVIDEN TIAE CAESS, Campgate with two turrets, 6 layers, no door and one star above.
exergue: -/-//SMKΔ, diameter: 19,0mm, weight: 3,60g, axis: 0h,
mint: Cyzicus, 4th. off., date: 324-325 AD., ref: RIC VII 25,
Q-001
quadrans
Thessalonica_RIC_VII_155,_142_Crispus_AE-3-Follis_IVL-CRISPVS-NOB-C_PROVIDEN-TIAE-CAESS_SMTSGamma_326-AD_S_Q-001_h_mm_gx-s.jpg
142 Crispus (317-326 A.D.), Thessalonica, RIC VII 155, AE-3 Follis, -/-//SMTSΓ, PROVIDENTIAE CAES S, Campgate, Scarce! #189 views142 Crispus (317-326 A.D.), Thessalonica, RIC VII 155, AE-3 Follis, -/-//SMTSΓ, PROVIDENTIAE CAES S, Campgate, Scarce! #1
avers: IVL CRISPVS NOB C, Laureate, cuirassed bust right.
reverse: PROVIDEN TIAE CAES S, Campgate with two turrets and star above. Closed doors, six rows of bricks.
exergue: -/-//SMTSΓ, diameter: 18-19mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Thessalonica, date: 326 A.D., ref: RIC VII 155, Sear 16803, Scarce!
Q-001
quadrans
Constantinus-II__AE-3-Follis_CONSTANTINVS-IVN-NOB-C_PROVIDEN-TIAE-CAESS_TACrescentRL_RIC-VII-289_3rd-off_-7-B4l__C-_Arles_325-6-AD_Scarce_Q-001_axis-0h_19,5mm_3,09g-s.jpg
145 Constantinus II. (316-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-340 A.D. Augustus), Arleate, RIC VII 289, AE-3 Follis, -/-//TAᴗRL, PROVIDENTIAE CAES S, Campgate with two turrets, Scarce!112 views145 Constantinus II. (316-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-340 A.D. Augustus), Arleate, RIC VII 289, AE-3 Follis, -/-//TAᴗRL, PROVIDENTIAE CAES S, Campgate with two turrets, Scarce!
avers: CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C, 7, B4l., Laureate, draped and cuirassed head left.
reverse: PROVIDEN TIAE CAES S, Campgate, two turrets, no doors, star above 6th levels of stone layers.
exergue: -/-//TAᴗRL, diameter: 19,5mm, weight: 3,09g, axis: 0h,
mint: Arleate, date: 325-326 A.D., ref: RIC VII 289, p-265, 3rd-off, Scarce,
Q-001
quadrans
Constantinus-II__AE-3-Follis_CONSTANTINVS-IVN-NOB-C_VIRTVS-CAESS_TACrescentRL_RIC-VII-294_3rd-off_-7-B4l__C-_Arles_294-p-265_325-6-AD_Q-001_h_mm_gx-s.jpg
145 Constantinus II. (316-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-340 A.D. Augustus), Arleate, RIC VII 294, AE-3 Follis, -/-//TAᴗRL, VIRTVS CAESS, Campgate with four turrets,71 views145 Constantinus II. (316-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-340 A.D. Augustus), Arleate, RIC VII 294, AE-3 Follis, -/-//TAᴗRL, VIRTVS CAESS, Campgate with four turrets,
avers: CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C, 7, B4l., Laureate, draped and cuirassed head left.
reverse: VIRTVS CAES S, Campgate, four turrets, open doors, star above 9th levels of stone layers.
exergue: -/-//TAᴗRL, diameter: mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Arleate, date: 325-326 A.D., ref: RIC VII 294, p-265,
Q-001
quadrans
Constantinus-II__AE-3-Follis_CONSTANTINVS-IVN-NOB-C_VIRTVS-CAESS_S-F_ARLT_RIC-VII-315_Arles_327-AD_Q-001_h_mm_gx-s.jpg
145 Constantinus II. (316-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-340 A.D. Augustus), Arleate, RIC VII 315, AE-3 Follis, S/F//ARLT, VIRTVS CAESS, Campgate with four turrets,118 views145 Constantinus II. (316-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-340 A.D. Augustus), Arleate, RIC VII 315, AE-3 Follis, S/F//ARLT, VIRTVS CAESS, Campgate with four turrets,
avers: CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C, Laureate, draped and cuirassed head left.
reverse: VIRTVS CAES S, Campgate, four turrets, open doors, star above 6th levels of stone layers.
exergue: S/F//ARLT, diameter: mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Arleate, date: 327 A.D., ref: RIC VII 315, p-265,
Q-001
quadrans
Constantinus-II__AE-3-Follis_CONSTANTINVS-IVN-NOB-C_PROVIDEN-TIAE-CAES___CONS_RIC-VII-27-var_3rd-off_-7-B4-not-listed-bust_Costantinoplis_327-8-AD__Q-001_axis-0h_19mm_3,55g-s.jpg
145 Constantinus II. (316-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-340 A.D. Augustus), Constantinopolis, RIC VII 020, AE-3 Follis, Γ/-//CONS, PROVIDENTIAE CAES S, Campgate with two turrets, R3!!!172 views145 Constantinus II. (316-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-340 A.D. Augustus), Constantinopolis, RIC VII 020, AE-3 Follis, Γ/-//CONS, PROVIDENTIAE CAES S, Campgate with two turrets, R3!!!
avers: CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C, 7, B4, Laureate, draped and cuirassed head right.
reverse: PROVIDEN TIAE CAES S, Campgate, two turrets, no doors, star above 6th levels of stone layers, Γ in left fields.
exergue: Γ/-//CONS, diameter: 19mm, weight: 3,03g, axis: 0h,
mint: Constantinopolis, date: 327 AD., ref: RIC VII 020, p-572, 3rd-off, R3 !!!
Q-001
quadrans
Constantinus-II__AE-3-Follis_DN-FL-CL-CONSTANTINVS-NOB-C_PROVIDEN-TIAE-CAES__SMHDelta_RIC-VII-46_p-547_Heraclea_316-17-AD_R4_Q-001_6h_18mm_2,97g-s.jpg
145 Constantinus II. (316-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-340 A.D. Augustus), Heraclea, RIC VII 046, AE-3 Follis, -/-//•SMHΔ, PROVIDENTIAE CAESS, Campgate with three turrets, R4!!! #161 views145 Constantinus II. (316-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-340 A.D. Augustus), Heraclea, RIC VII 046, AE-3 Follis, -/-//•SMHΔ, PROVIDENTIAE CAESS, Campgate with three turrets, R4!!! #1
avers: D N FL CL CONSTANTINVS NOB C, (7, J1l.), Laureate, draped bust left, globe and sceptre in left hand, mappa in right hand.
reverse: PROVIDEN TIAE CAES S, Campgate with three turrets, no doors, 6 layers of stones.
exergue: -/-//•SMHΔ, diameter: 18mm, weight: 2,97g, axis: 6h,
mint: Heraclea, date: 325-326 A.D., ref: RIC VII 046, p-547, R4!!!,
Q-001
quadrans
Constantinus-II__AE-3-Follis_CONSTANTINVS-IVN-NOB-C_PROVIDEN-TIAE-CAES_SMHGamma_RIC-VII-77_p-551_Heraclea_325-6-AD_R1_Q-001_h_mm_gx-s.jpg
145 Constantinus II. (316-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-340 A.D. Augustus), Heraclea, RIC VII 077, AE-3 Follis, -/-//SMHΓ, PROVIDENTIAE CAES S, Campgate with two turrets, #161 views145 Constantinus II. (316-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-340 A.D. Augustus), Heraclea, RIC VII 077, AE-3 Follis, -/-//SMHΓ, PROVIDENTIAE CAES S, Campgate with two turrets, #1
avers: CONSTANTIVS IVN NOB C, (7, B4), Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right.
reverse: PROVIDEN TIAE CAES S, Campgate with two turrets, no doors, 7 layers of stones.
exergue: -/-//SMHΓ, diameter: mm, weight:g, axis: h,
mint: Heraclea, date: 325-326 A.D., ref: RIC VII 077, p-551,
Q-001
quadrans
Constantinus-II__AE3-Follis_CONSTANTINVS-IVN-NOB-C_PROVIDEN-TIAE-CAES_SMHA_RIC-VII-77_p-551_Heraclea_325-6-AD_R1_Q-001_5h_19-17,5mm_2,79ga-s.jpg
145 Constantinus II. (316-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-340 A.D. Augustus), Heraclea, RIC VII 077, AE-3 Follis, -/-//SMHA, PROVIDENTIAE CAES S, Campgate with two turrets, R1! #161 views145 Constantinus II. (316-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-340 A.D. Augustus), Heraclea, RIC VII 077, AE-3 Follis, -/-//SMHA, PROVIDENTIAE CAES S, Campgate with two turrets, R1! #1
avers: CONSTANTIVS IVN NOB C, (7, B4), Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right.
reverse: PROVIDEN TIAE CAES S, Campgate with two turrets, no doors, 8 layers of stones.
exergue: -/-//SMHA, diameter: 19-17,5mm, weight: 2,79g, axis: 5h,
mint: Heraclea, date: 325-326 A.D., ref: RIC VII 077, p-551, 3rd-off, R1!
Q-001
quadrans
Constantinus-II__AE-3-Follis_CONSTANTINVS-IVN-NOB-C_PROVIDEN-TIAE-CAES_RwreathT_RIC-VII-288_p-330_Roma_326-AD_R2_Q-001_h_mm_gx-s.jpg
145 Constantinus II. (316-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-340 A.D. Augustus), Rome, RIC VII 289, AE-3 Follis, -/-//R wreath T, PROVIDENTIAE CAES S, Campgate, two turrets, #165 views145 Constantinus II. (316-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-340 A.D. Augustus), Rome, RIC VII 289, AE-3 Follis, -/-//R wreath T, PROVIDENTIAE CAES S, Campgate, two turrets, #1
avers: CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C, (7, B4l), Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust left.
reverse: PROVIDEN TIAE CAES S, Campgate, two turrets, no doors, star above 6th. levels of stone layers.
exergue: -/-//R wreath T, diameter: mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Rome, date: 326 A.D., ref: RIC VII 289, p-330,
Q-001
quadrans
Constantinus-II__AE-3-Follis_CONSTANTINVS-IVN-NOB-C_PROVIDEN-TIAE-CAES_ESIS-CrescinCresc_RIC-VII-216_p-452_Siscia_328-29-AD_Q-001_h_mm_gx-s.jpg
145 Constantinus II. (316-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-340 A.D. Augustus), Siscia, RIC VII 216, AE-3 Follis, -/-//ЄSISᴗ in ᴗ, PROVIDENTIAE CAES, Campgate, two turrets, #161 views145 Constantinus II. (316-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-340 A.D. Augustus), Siscia, RIC VII 216, AE-3 Follis, -/-//ЄSISᴗ in ᴗ, PROVIDENTIAE CAES, Campgate, two turrets, #1
avers: CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C, 7, B1, Laureate, head right.
reverse: PROVIDEN TIAE CAES, Campgate, two turrets, no doors, star above 10th levels of stone layers.
exergue: -/-//ЄSISᴗ in ᴗ, diameter: mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Siscia, date: 325-326 A.D., ref: RIC VII 216, p-551, 3rd-off, R1!
Q-001
quadrans
Constantinus-II__AE-3-Follis_CONSTANTINVS-IVN-NOB-C_PROVIDEN-TIAE-CAES_ANT___RIC-VII-_p-__-AD__Q-001_11h_19-20mm_3,28gx-s.jpg
145 Constantinus II. (316-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-340 A.D. Augustus), Thessalonica, RIC VII 157, AE-3 Follis, -/-//SMTSΔ, PROVIDENTIAE CAES S, Campgate, two turrets, #161 views145 Constantinus II. (316-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-340 A.D. Augustus), Thessalonica, RIC VII 157, AE-3 Follis, -/-//SMTSΔ, PROVIDENTIAE CAES S, Campgate, two turrets, #1
avers: CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust left.
reverse: PROVIDEN TIAE CAES S, Campgate, two turrets, no doors, star above 6th. levels of stone layers.
exergue: -/-//SMTSΔ, diameter: 19-20mm, weight: 3,28g, axis: 11h,
mint: Thessalonica, date: 326-328 A.D., ref: RIC VII 157, p-519,
Q-001
quadrans
Constantius-II_RIC-VII-316_Arleate_11h_18,3mm_2,73g-s.jpg
147 Constantius II. (324-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-361 A.D. Augustus), Arleate, RIC VII 316, AE-3 Follis, S/F//ARLQ, VIRTVS CAESS, Campgate with four turrets and wide open doors,126 views147 Constantius II. (324-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-361 A.D. Augustus), Arleate, RIC VII 316, AE-3 Follis, S/F//ARLQ, VIRTVS CAESS, Campgate with four turrets and wide open doors,
avers: FL IVL CONSTANTIVS NOB C, 8, B4-l., Laureate, draped and cuirassed head left.
reverse: VIRTVS CAES S, Campgate with four turrets, wide open doors, star above, 6 layers of stones, the open doors have dots.
exergue: S/F//ARLQ, diameter: 18,3mm, weight: 2,73g, axis: 11h,
mint: Arleate, date: 327 A.D., ref: RIC VII 316, p-268, 4th.-off.,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Constantius-II__AE-3_FL-IVL-CONSTANTIVS-NOB-C-8_B4-l__PROVIDEN-TIAE-CAES-S_6layer_SMKGamma_RIC-VII-27-p-647_3rd_off__Cyzicus_324-5-AD_R2_Q-001_5h_17-19,5mm_3,01ga-s.jpg
147 Constantius II. (324-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-361 A.D. Augustus), Cyzicus, RIC VII 027, AE-3 Follis, -/-//SMKΓ, PROVIDENTIAE CAES S, Campgate with two turrets, R2!!69 views147 Constantius II. (324-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-361 A.D. Augustus), Cyzicus, RIC VII 027, AE-3 Follis, -/-//SMKΓ, PROVIDENTIAE CAES S, Campgate with two turrets, R2!!
avers: FL IVL CONSTANTIVS NOB C, 8, B4-l., Laureate, draped and cuirassed head left.
reverse: PROVIDEN TIAE CAES S, Campgate with two turrets, no doors, star above, 6 layers of stones.
exergue: -/-//SMKΓ, diameter: 17,0-19,5mm, weight: 3,01g, axis:5h,
mint: Cyzicus, date: 324-325 A.D., ref: RIC VII 027, p-647, 3rd.-off., R2!!,
Q-001
quadrans
Constantius-II__AE-Follis-silvered_FL-IVL-CONSTANTIVS-NOB-C-8_PROVIDEN-TIAE-CAES-S-B4-l_7lay_SMKB-dot_RIC-VII-38-p649_2nd_off__Cyzicus_325-6-AD_Q-001_axis-1h_18mm_2,67g-s.jpg
147 Constantius II. (324-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-361 A.D. Augustus), Cyzicus, RIC VII 038, AE-3 Follis, -/-//SMKB•, PROVIDENTIAE CAES S, Campgate with two turrets, #1196 views147 Constantius II. (324-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-361 A.D. Augustus), Cyzicus, RIC VII 038, AE-3 Follis, -/-//SMKB•, PROVIDENTIAE CAES S, Campgate with two turrets, #1
avers: FL IVL CONSTANTIVS NOB C, 8, B4-l., Laureate, draped and cuirassed head left.
reverse: PROVIDEN TIAE CAES S, Campgate with two turrets, no doors, star above, 7 layers of stones.
exergue: -/-//SMKB•, diameter: 18mm, weight: 2,67g, axis: 1h,
mint: Cyzicus, date: 325-326 A.D., ref: RIC VII 038, p-649, 2nd.-off., c1,
Q-001
quadrans
Constantius-II__AE-Follis-silvered_FL-IVL-CONSTANTIVS-NOB-C-8_B4-l__PROVIDEN-TIAE-CAES-S_6layer_SMHDelta_RIC-VII-78-p-551_4th_off__Heracleia_325-6-AD_S_Q-001_h_mm_g-s.jpg
147 Constantius II. (324-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-361 A.D. Augustus), Heraclea, RIC VII 078, AE-3 Follis, -/-//SMHΔ, PROVIDENTIAE CAES S, Campgate with two turrets, #164 views147 Constantius II. (324-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-361 A.D. Augustus), Heraclea, RIC VII 078, AE-3 Follis, -/-//SMHΔ, PROVIDENTIAE CAES S, Campgate with two turrets, #1
avers: FL IVL CONSTANTIVS NOB C, 8, B4l., Laureate, draped and cuirassed head left.
reverse: PROVIDEN TIAE CAES S, Campgate with two turrets, no doors, star above, 6 layers of stones.
exergue: -/-//SMHΔ, diameter: mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Heraclea, date: 326 A.D., ref: RIC VII 078, p-551,
Q-001
quadrans
Constantius-II__AE-Follis_FL-IVL-CONSTANTIVS-NOB-C-8_B4-l__PROVIDEN-TIAE-CAES-S_5layer_SMHGamma-dot_RIC-VII-84-p-552_3rd_off__Heracleia_326-AD_c1_Q-001_11h_19mm_3,75g-s.jpg
147 Constantius II. (324-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-361 A.D. Augustus), Heraclea, RIC VII 084, AE-3 Follis, -/-//SMHΓ•, PROVIDENTIAE CAES S, Campgate with two turrets, #166 views147 Constantius II. (324-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-361 A.D. Augustus), Heraclea, RIC VII 084, AE-3 Follis, -/-//SMHΓ•, PROVIDENTIAE CAES S, Campgate with two turrets, #1
avers: FL IVL CONSTANTIVS NOB C, 8, B4l., Laureate, draped and cuirassed head left.
reverse: PROVIDEN TIAE CAES S, Campgate with two turrets, no doors, star above, 5 layers of stones.
exergue: -/-//SMHΓ•, diameter: 1,0mm, weight: 3,75g, axis: 11h,
mint: Heraclea, date: 326 A.D., ref: RIC VII 084, p-552, 3rd.-off., c1,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Constantius-II__AE-Follis-silvered_FL-IVL-CONSTANTIVS-NOB-C-7_PROVIDEN-TIAE-CAES-S-B4-l__dot-epsilon-SIS-dot_RIC-203_5th_-off_-R3_C-x_Siscia_326-327-AD__Q-001_18mm_2,67g-s.jpg
147 Constantius II. (324-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-361 A.D. Augustus), Siscia, RIC VII 203, AE-3 Follis, -/-//•ЄSIS•, PROVIDENTIAE CAES S, Campgate with two turrets, R3!!! 92 views147 Constantius II. (324-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-361 A.D. Augustus), Siscia, RIC VII 203, AE-3 Follis, -/-//•ЄSIS•, PROVIDENTIAE CAES S, Campgate with two turrets, R3!!!
avers: FL IVL CONSTANTIVS NOB C, 8, B4l., Laureate, draped and cuirassed head left.
reverse: PROVIDEN TIAE CAES S, Campgate with two turrets, no doors, star above, 6 layers of stones, upper and downer layer with dots.
exergue: -/-//•ЄSIS•, diameter: 18mm, weight: 2,67g, axis: h,
mint: Siscia, date: 326-327 AD., ref: RIC VII 203, p-450, 5th.-off., R3!!!
Q-001
quadrans
Constantius-II__AE-Follis_FL-IVL-CONSTANTIVS-NOB-C-8_PROVIDEN-TIAE-CAES-S-B4-l_-9lay_dor-Delta-SIS-dot_RIC-VII-203-p-450_4th_off_Siscia_326-27AD_Q-001_0h_mm_gx-s.jpg
147 Constantius II. (324-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-361 A.D. Augustus), Siscia, RIC VII 203, AE-3 Follis, -/-//•ΔSIS•, PROVIDENTIAE CAES S, Campgate with two turrets, #166 views147 Constantius II. (324-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-361 A.D. Augustus), Siscia, RIC VII 203, AE-3 Follis, -/-//•ΔSIS•, PROVIDENTIAE CAES S, Campgate with two turrets, #1
avers: FL IVL CONSTANTIVS NOB C, 8, B4l., Laureate, draped and cuirassed head left.
reverse: PROVIDEN TIAE CAES S, Campgate with two turrets, no doors, star above, 7 layers of stones, upper and downer layer with dots.
exergue: -/-//•ΔSIS•, diameter: mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Siscia, date: 326-327 A.D., ref: RIC VII 203, p-450, 4th.-off.,
Q-001
quadrans
Constantius-II__AE-Follis-silv_FL-IVL-CONSTANTIVS-NOB-C-8_PROVIDEN-TIAE-CAES-S-B4l_9lay_Delta-SIS-Cresincres_RIC-VII-217-p452_4th_off_Siscia_328-9AD_Q-001_axis-0h_19mm_3,12g-s.jpg
147 Constantius II. (324-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-361 A.D. Augustus), Siscia, RIC VII 217, AE-3 Follis, -/-//ΔSISᴗ in ᴗ, PROVIDENTIAE CAES S, Campgate with two turrets, #1210 views147 Constantius II. (324-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-361 A.D. Augustus), Siscia, RIC VII 217, AE-3 Follis, -/-//ΔSISᴗ in ᴗ, PROVIDENTIAE CAES S, Campgate with two turrets, #1
avers: FL IVL CONSTANTIVS NOB C, 8, B4l., Laureate, draped and cuirassed head left.
reverse: PROVIDEN TIAE CAES S, Campgate with two turrets, no doors, star above, 9 layers of stones, upper and downer layer with dots.
exergue: -/-//ΔSISᴗ in ᴗ, diameter: 19mm, weight: 3,12g, axis: 0h,
mint: Siscia, date: 328-329 A.D., ref: RIC VII 217, p-452, 4th.-off., c3,
Q-001
quadrans
Constantius-II__AE-Follis_FL-IVL-CONSTANTIVS-NOB-C-8_PROVIDEN-TIAE-CAES-S-B4-l_-9lay_Delta-SIS-Crescincresc_RIC-VII-217-p452_4th_off_Siscia_328-29AD_Q-002_axis-0h_19mm_2,73g-s.jpg
147 Constantius II. (324-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-361 A.D. Augustus), Siscia, RIC VII 217, AE-3 Follis, -/-//ΔSISᴗ in ᴗ, PROVIDENTIAE CAES S, Campgate with two turrets, #1110 views147 Constantius II. (324-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-361 A.D. Augustus), Siscia, RIC VII 217, AE-3 Follis, -/-//ΔSISᴗ in ᴗ, PROVIDENTIAE CAES S, Campgate with two turrets, #1
avers: FL IVL CONSTANTIVS NOB C, 8, B4l., Laureate, draped and cuirassed head left.
reverse: PROVIDEN TIAE CAES S, Campgate with two turrets, no doors, star above, 7 layers of stones, upper and downer layer with dots.
exergue: -/-//ΔSISᴗ in ᴗ, diameter: 19mm, weight: 3,12g, axis: 0h,
mint: Siscia, date: 328-329 A.D., ref: RIC VII 217, p-452, 4th.-off., c3,
Q-001
quadrans
RI_153a_img.jpg
153 - Romulus - Follis - RIC VI Ostia 33 15 viewsFollis
Obv:- IMP MAXENTIVS DIVO ROMVLO N V FILIO, bare headed bust of Romulus right
Rev:- AETERNA MEMORIA, eagle with spread winfs standing right on domed hexastyle temple, its’ right door ajar
Struck in Ostia. //MOSTP. ca. late 309 – 312 A.D.
References:- RIC VI Ostia 33 (Rated C)

24.13mm. 6.21 gms. 180 degrees,
maridvnvm
RI 155o img.jpg
155 - Licinius - RIC VII Heraclea 017 (MHTΓ)21 viewsObv:– IMP LICINIVS AVG, Laureate bust left wearing Imperial mantle and holding mappa, sceptre and globe
Rev:– PROVIDENTIAE AVGG, Campgate with 3 turrets, no door, 2 stars above, 7 rows of bricks
Minted in Heraclea (MHTΓ in exe.) in A.D. 317
References:– RIC VII Heraclea 17 (R2)
maridvnvm
RI 155b img.jpg
155 - Licinius - RIC VII Heraclea 017 (MHTΔ)71 viewsObv:– IMP LICINIVS AVG, Laureate bust left wearing Imperial mantle and holding mappa, sceptre and globe
Rev:– PROVIDENTIAE AVGG, Campgate with 3 turrets, no door, 2 stars above, 7 rows of bricks
Minted in Heraclea (MHTΔ in exe.) in A.D. 317
References:– RIC VII Heraclea 17 (R2)
maridvnvm
RI 155p img.jpg
155 - Licinius - RIC VII Heraclea 017 (MHTE)19 viewsObv:– IMP LICINIVS AVG, Laureate bust left wearing Imperial mantle and holding mappa, sceptre and globe
Rev:– PROVIDENTIAE AVGG, Campgate with 3 turrets, no door, 2 stars above, 7 rows of bricks
Minted in Heraclea (MHTE in exe.) in A.D. 317
References:– RIC VII Heraclea 17 (R4)
maridvnvm
RI 155q img.jpg
155 - Licinius - RIC VII Heraclea 043 (•SMHB)20 viewsObv:– IMP LICINIVS AVG, Laureate, draped bust left, globe and sceptre in left hand, mappa in right hand
Rev:– PROVIDENTIAE AVGG, Campgate with 3 turrets, no door & 6 rows of stone layers
Minted in Heraclea (•SMHB in exe.)
References:– RIC VII Heraclea 43 (R4)
maridvnvm
RI 155m img.jpg
155 - Licinius - RIC VII Heraclea 048 (SMHB)19 viewsObv:– IMP LICINIVS AVG, Laureate, draped bust right, globe and sceptre in left hand, mappa in right hand
Rev:– PROVIDENTIAE AVGG, Campgate with 3 turrets, no door & 6 rows of stone layers
Minted in Heraclea (Λ in right field, SMHB in exe.)
References:– RIC VII Heraclea 48 (C1)
maridvnvm
RI 155r img.jpg
155 - Licinius - RIC VII Heraclea 048 (SMHB)21 viewsObv:– IMP LICINIVS AVG, Laureate, draped bust right, globe and sceptre in left hand, mappa in right hand
Rev:– PROVIDENTIAE AVGG, Campgate with 3 turrets, no door & 6 rows of stone layers
Minted in Heraclea (Λ in right field, SMHB in exe.)
References:– RIC VII Heraclea 48 (C1)

(SOLD)
maridvnvm
RI_160ge_img.jpg
160 - Constantime the Great - AE3 - RIC VII Alexandria 045 14 viewsAE3
Obv:– CONSTAN-TINVS AVG; Laureate head right
Rev:– PROVIDEN-TIAE AVGG; Camp gate with two turrets, no doors, 7 stone layers, star above
Minted in Alexandria (Wreath|B// SMAL).A.D. 327-328
Reference:– RIC VII Alexandria 45 (R2).
maridvnvm
RI_160dv_img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - Follis - RIC VII Arles 28626 viewsAE3
Obv:– CONSTANTINVS AVG, Laureate head right
Rev:– PROVIDENTIAE AVGG, Campgate with five rows, two turrets, no doors, star above
Minted in Arles (//PA crescent RL).
Reference:– RIC VII Arles 286
maridvnvm
RI_160fk_img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - Follis - RIC VII Thessalonica 153 10 viewsObv:– CONSTANTINVS AVG, Laureate head right
Rev:– PROVIDENTIAE AVGG, Campgate with six rows, two turrets, no doors, star above, top and bottom rows blocks.
Minted in Thessalonica. • in right field, SMTSE in exe.
Reference:– RIC VII Thessalonica 153
maridvnvm
RI 160ah img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VII Alexandria 03419 viewsObv:– CONSTAN-TINVS AVG, Laureate bust right
Rev:–.PROVIDEN-TIAE AVGG, Campgate with five rows, two turrets, no doors, star above.
Minted in Alexandria (SMALB in exe.)
Reference:– RIC VII Alexandria 34
maridvnvm
RI_160fr_img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VII Alexandria 34 25 viewsAE3
Obv:– CONSTAN-TINVS AVG, Laureate bust right
Rev:– PROVIDEN-TIAE AVGG, Campgate with five rows, two turrets, no doors, star above.
Minted in Alexandria (SMALA).
Reference:– RIC VII Alexandria 34 (S)
maridvnvm
RI_160gp_img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VII Antioch 08115 viewsObv:- CONSTAN-TINVS AVG, Rosette, diademed head right
Rev:- PROVIDENTIAE AVGG Campgate with eight rows, two turrets, no doors, star above, Dot in archway
Minted in Antioch. SMANTA in exe. A.D. 327-328
Reference:- RIC VII Antioch 81 (R4)

Partially silvered
2.40g. 20mm.
maridvnvm
RI 160k img.JPG
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VII Cyzicus 04446 viewsObv:– CONSTANTINVS AVG, Laureate head right
Rev:– PROVIDENTIAE AVGG, Campgate with six rows, two turrets, no doors, star above, top and bottom row blocks
Minted in Cyzicus. •SMKG• in exe.
Reference:– RIC VII Cyzicus 44
maridvnvm
RI 160bn img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VII Lugdunum 22530 viewsObv:–CONSTAN-TINVS AVG, Laureate bust right
Rev:–. PROVIDEN-TIAE AVGG, Campgate with six rows, two turrets, no doors, star above
Minted in Lugdunum (PLG in exe).end A.D. 325 – A.D. 325
Reference:– RIC VII Lugdunum 225 (Scarce), Bastien XIII 184
maridvnvm
RI 160a img.JPG
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VII Siscia 20035 viewsObv:– CONSTA-NTIVS AVG, Laureate head right
Rev:– PROVIDEN-TIAE AVGG, Campgate with six rows, two turrets, no doors, star above, top and bottom row blocks.
Minted in Siscia. •BSIS• in exe. A.D. 326-327
Reference:– RIC VII Siscia 200
maridvnvm
RI 160h img.JPG
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VII Siscia 21440 viewsObv:– CONSTANTINVS AVG, Laureate head right
Rev:– PROVIDENTIAE AVGG, Campgate with nine rows, two turrets, no doors, star above, top row dots in blocks, bottom row blocks.
Minted in Siscia. ASIS double crescent in exe.
Reference:– RIC VII Siscia 214
maridvnvm
RI 160m img.JPG
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VII Thessalonica 15332 viewsObv:– CONSTANTINVS AVG, Laureate head right
Rev:– PROVIDENTIAE AVGG, Campgate with six rows, two turrets, no doors, star above, top and bottom rows blocks.
Minted in Thessalonica. • in right field, SMTSB in exe.
Reference:– RIC VII Thessalonica 153
maridvnvm
RI 160w img.JPG
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VII Thessalonica 153 (Γ)36 viewsObv:– CONSTAN-TINVS AVG, Laureate head right
Rev:– PROVIDEN-TIAE AVGG, Campgate with six rows, two turrets, no doors, star above, top and bottom rows blocks, pellet in right field.
Minted in Thessalonica. • in right field, SMTSΓ in exe.
Reference:– RIC VII Thessalonica 153
maridvnvm
Theodosius-I_AE-12_DN-THEODOSIVS-PF-AVG_GLORIA____TES_RIC-IX-62_Q-001_axis-0h_12,5mm_1,56g-s.jpg
160 Theodosius I. (379-395 A.D.), Thessalonica, RIC IX 062b.1.3, AE-4, Δ/-//TES, GLORIA REIPVBLICE, Campgate with two turrets, #1269 views160 Theodosius I. (379-395 A.D.), Thessalonica, RIC IX 062b.1.3, AE-4, Δ/-//TES, GLORIA REIPVBLICE, Campgate with two turrets, #1
avers: D N THEODOSIVS P F AVG, Diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right.
reverse: GLORIA REIPVBLICE, Campgate, 2 turrets, 5 layers, no doors, Δ in left field, mintmark TES in ex.
exergue: Δ/-//TES, diameter: 12,5mm, weight: 1,56g, axes: 0h,
mint: Thessalonica, date: 383-388 A.D., ref: RIC IX 062b.1.3,
Q-001
quadrans
Flavius-Victor_DN-FL-VIC-TOR-P-F-AVG_SPES-ROMA-NORVM_P-CON_RIC-IX-47a_p-_5th-em_Arleate_387-388-AD_Q-001_11h_14mm_1,29ga-s.jpg
163 Flavius Victor (387-388 A.D.), AE-4 Follis, RIC IX 047a, Arleate, SPES ROMANORVM, Campgate, Rare! Modern Fake !!!105 views163 Flavius Victor (387-388 A.D.), AE-4 Follis, RIC IX 047a, Arleate, SPES ROMANORVM, Campgate, Rare! Modern Fake !!!
Avers:- DN-FL-VIC-TOR-P-F-AVG, Diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right.
revers:- SPES-ROMA-NORVM, Campgate, 2 turrets, 4 layers plus 1 layer on turrets, star above, no doors.
exerg:-|-//P-CON, diameter: 14mm, weight: 1,29g, axes: 11h,
mint: Arleate, date: 387-388 A.D., ref: RIC IX 47a, Rare !
Q-001
by "postvmvs":
"Identified in the Forvm thread on the eBay seller 'Romanseller' (ca. Aug. 2005) but never listed here. An example struck from the same dies (but not the same coin) appeared as Lot 788 of Auction 384-385 (Nov. 2005) by Dr. Busso Peus Nachfolger estimated at 175 EUR, where it was identified as a fake before the end of the sale."

Thank you postvmvs, maridvnvm and Pscipio !!!
quadrans
RI 165e img.jpg
165 - Crispus - RIC VII Heraclea 01827 viewsObv:– DN FL IVL CRISPVS NOB CAES, Laureate and draped bust of Crispus facing left, holding globe and sceptre with left hand and mappa in right
Rev:– PROVIDENTIAE CAESS, Camp gate with three turrets, no doors, 6 rows of bricks
Minted in Heraclea. MHTΓ in exe.
Reference:– RIC VII Heraclea 18 (C2)

(SOLD)
maridvnvm
RI 165v img.jpg
165 - Crispus - RIC VII Lugdunum 22711 viewsObv:– FL IVL CRISPVS NOB CAES, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:– PROVIDENTIAE CAESS, Camp gate with two turrets, no doors, star above, 6 rows of bricks
Minted in Lugdunum (PLG in exe).
Reference:– RIC VII Lugdunum 227 (R3).
maridvnvm
RI 170j img.jpg
170 - Constantius II - RIC VII Arles 32341 viewsObv:– FL IVL CONSTANTIVS NOB C, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust left
Rev:– VIRTVS CAESS, Campgate, 6 rows of bricks, four turrets, doors open, star above
Minted in Arles. S in left field, F in right field, QCONST in exe.
Reference:– RIC VII Arles 323
maridvnvm
Banda_Quran_Manuscript_A001.JPG
1790 Large Gold Banda Koran Leaf Blue Border Medallion 23 viewsA magnificent leaf from a Koran fragment, probably Banda, before AH 1208/1790-1 AD, on paper (387 x 230 mm.). There are eleven lines of strong black natkh script within gold clouds, gold roundels between verses, illuminated marginal medallions, marking every tenth verse, red Persian interlinear translation, sura headings in red, margins with Tafsir written in black and red, final folio with commentary dated 1205.. Verso: eleven lines of strong black natkh script within gold clouds, gold roundels between verses, illuminated marginal medallions, marking every tenth verse, red Persian interlinear translation, sura headings in red, margins with Tafsir written in black and red. The opening flyleaf is inscribed with a note reading: this copy of the Koran, formally the property of the Bahadoor, Nawab of Banda was delivered after the great victory obtained over Rebels and Mutineers by Major General Whitlocks Troops on the 19th of April 1858 to the Reverend A Kinloch, the Chaplain of the Horse and present to him as a slight token of affectionate remembrance to the Reverend George Gleed the Vicar of Chalfont St. Peters, Bucks Branda Palace. April 29th 1858. A further note on the final flyleaf reads: This Copy of the Koran was taken from the apartments of Ali Bahadoor, Nawab of Banda after the occupation of his City and Palace by the Madras Column under Major General Whitlock.SpongeBob
1794_(UNDATED)_BATH_HALFPENNY.JPG
1794 Undated AE Halfpenny Token. Bath, Somerset.23 viewsObverse: IOHN HOWARD F•R•S• HALFPENNY•. Bust of John Howard facing left.
Reverse: REMEMBER THE DEBTORS IN GOAL (sic) ✤. A female figure, the personification of Benevolence, seated facing left, a variety of vessels at her feet and beside her. She is holding a laurel-branch in her left arm and pointing towards a building with a barred window (Ilchester Prison) directing the small figure of a cherub or a child carrying a key to open the prison doors. "GO FORTH" in small letters emanating amid rays from the sky above the small figure.
Edge: PAYABLE AT LONDON OR DUBLIN • + • + • +.
Diameter 29mm | Die Axis 6
Dalton & Hamer: 36d

Thomas Wyon engraved the dies for this token and it was manufactured by William Lutwyche at his works in Birmingham. Lutwyche, besides being a major supplier of genuine tokens, is also known to have made large amounts of spurious coin.

This token was struck in the name of John Howard, who was an expert in prisons and published the book "The State of the Prisons in England & Wales" in 1777, but he did not issue it. The token was issued by William Gye, born in 1750, who worked in his father’s printing works at 4 Westgate Buildings, Bath, before opening an establishment at 13 Market Place. He was an active and successful printer and bookseller, and sometime publisher of the “Bath Courant”, he was highly respected for his attempts to improve the conditions of the city’s poor. His greatest philanthropic endeavours were connected with the relief of the prisoners in the county gaol at Ilchester, which he visited every week with food, clothing and money. He issued trade tokens, and when they were redeemed in his shop, it was his custom to point out the inscription on them (“Remember the debtors”) in order to elicit donations. He died of an apoplectic fit in 1802, and was remembered for his ‘strict integrity and unblemished reputation’. His wife Mary, whom he had married in 1774, inherited his printing and stationery business. Mary managed the business herself before it was passed on to the couple's third son, Henry.
*Alex
1797_(Undated)_MAIL_COACH_HALFPENNY.JPG
1797 Undated AE Halfpenny Token. London, Middlesex27 viewsObverse: Mail Coach, with GR cypher on it's door, drawn by four horses galloping right; above, HALFPENNY PAYA-BLE IN LONDON; below, TO TRADE EXPEDIN & TO PROPERTY PROTECTION.
Reverse: THIS IS INSCRIBED ✤ TO J. PALMER ESQ. around AFH cypher within palm branches.
Edge: Plain.
Diameter 28mm | Die Axis 12
Dalton & Hamer: 366

There were several issues of Mail Coach halfpennies, the last dated issue being in 1797. This, the final token in the series is undated, its Mail Coach obverse is similar, but the inscription is different and the reverse has the cypher AFH which has been linked to Anthony Francis Holdinhand, a merchant of 51 St. Mary-Axe in London. St. Mary-Axe is now the site of the well-known "Gherkin" skyscraper which was opened there in 2004.

Though these “Mail Coach” tokens are associated with John Palmer, he did not issue them. Famous in his day the story goes that, on 2nd. August 1784 at 4.00 pm, Palmer began an experimental journey from the "Rummer" Tavern in Bristol. The coach reached the "Three Tuns" in Bath at 5.20 pm and, travelling overnight, arrived at "The Swan with Two Necks" Inn in London at 8.00 am. Palmer, who knew how to operate a fast system of chaises between Bath and Bristol in order to get a quick exchange of actors and properties, had predicted the sixteen hour journey which the Post Office surveyors had said was impossible. The Post Office's mounted 'Post Boys' were taking nearly two days to carry the mail from Bath to London at the time. Palmer's successful experiment led to his appointment as Comptroller-General of the Post Office and, helped by road improvements, a network of routes served by dedicated Mail Coaches spread rapidly.
1 comments*Alex
1825_annuale.jpg
182523 viewsModesti Annuale 293.

A "stock" reverse type featuring Pope Leo entering the opened Holy Door. This medal is a "twofor" in that it not only commemorates the 1825 Jubilee Year, but is also the annual medal for year II/1825.
stlnats
lyons2.jpg
195 Crispus13 viewsobv: FL IVL CRISPVS NOB CAES laur. drp. cuir. bust r.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE CAESS campgate with two turrents star above
ex: dot in doorway//PLG
hill132
ClaudiusAsLibertas.jpg
1ap Claudius29 views41-54

As
Bare head, left, TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP
Libertas, LIBERTAS AVGVSTA SC

RIC 97

According to Suetonius: Claudius was born at Lugdunum (Lyon) on the 1st of August 10BC in the consulship of Iullus Antonius and Fabius Africanus, on the day when the very first altar to Augustus was dedicated there, the child being given the name Tiberius Claudius Drusus. When his elder brother Germanicus was adopted into the Julian family (in 4 AD), he added the name Germanicus also. He lost his father when still an infant (in 9 BC), and throughout his childhood and youth was severely afflicted by various stubborn ailments so that his mind and body lacked vigour, and even when he attained his majority he was not considered capable of a public or private career.

Nevertheless, he applied himself to liberal studies from his earliest youth, and often published examples of his proficiency in each area, though even so he was excluded from public office and failed to inspire any brighter hopes for his future. His mother Antonia the Younger often condemned him as an unfinished freak of Nature, and when accusing someone of stupidity would say: ‘He’s a bigger fool than my son Claudius.’ His grandmother Augusta (Livia) always treated him with utter contempt, and rarely even spoke to him, admonishing him, when she chose to do so, in brief harsh missives, or via her messengers. When his sister Livilla heard the prophecy that he would be Emperor some day, she prayed openly and loudly that Rome might be spared so cruel and unmerited a fate.

Having spent the larger part of his life in such circumstances, he became emperor at the age of fifty (in AD41) by a remarkable stroke of fate. Caligula’s assassins had dispersed the crowd on the pretext that the Emperor wished for solitude, and Claudius, shut out with the rest, retired to a room called the Hermaeum, but shortly afterwards, terrified by news of the murder, crept off to a nearby balcony and hid behind the door-curtains. A Guard, who was wandering about the Palace at random, spotting a pair of feet beneath the curtain where Claudius was cowering, dragged the man out to identify him, and as Claudius fell to the ground in fear, recognised him, and acclaimed him Emperor.

Eutropius summarizes: His reign was of no striking character; he acted, in many respects, with gentleness and moderation, in some with cruelty and folly. He made war upon Britain, which no Roman since Julius Caesar had visited; and, having reduced it through the agency of Cnaeus Sentius and Aulus Plautius, illustrious and noble men, he celebrated a magnificent triumph. Certain islands also, called the Orcades, situated in the ocean, beyond Britain, he added to the Roman empire, and gave his son the name of Britannicus. . . . He lived to the age of sixty-four, and reigned fourteen years; and after his death was consecrated3 and deified.

This was the first "good" coin I ever bought and therefore marks the begiining of an addiction.
Blindado
JulianIIAE3VotX.jpg
1en Julian II "Apostate"26 views360-363

AE3

Pearl-diademed, helmeted, cuirassed bust left, holding shield & spear, D N FL CL IVLIANVS P F AVG
VOT X MVLT XX in four lines within wreath, palm branch-BSIS-palm branch in ex [?].

RIC 415

According to Zosimus: Constantius, having so well succeeded in his design against Vetranio, marched against Magnentius, having first conferred the title of Caesar on Gallus, the son of his uncle, and brother to Julian who was afterwards emperor, and given him in marriage his sister Constantia. . . . CONSTANTIUS, after having acted towards Gallus Caesar in the manner I have related, left Pannonia to proceed into Italy. . . . He scarcely thought himself capable of managing affairs at this critical period. He was unwilling, however, to associate any one with himself in the government, because he so much desired to rule alone, and could esteem no man his friend. Under these circumstances he was at a loss how to act. It happened, however, that when the empire was in the greatest danger, Eusebia, the wife of Constantius, who was a woman of extraordinary learning, and of greater wisdom than her sex is usually endowed with, advised him to confer the government of the nations beyond the Alps on Julianus Caesar, who was brother to Gallus, and grandson to Constantius. As she knew that the emperor was suspicious of all his kindred, she thus circumvented him. She observed to him, that Julian was a young man unacquainted with the intrigues of state, having devoted himself totally to his studies; and that he was wholly inexperienced in worldly business. That on this account he would be more fit for his purpose than any other person. That either he would be fortunate, and his success would be attributed to the emperor's conduct, or that he would fail and perish; and that thus Constantius would have none of the imperial family to succeed to him.

Constantius, having approved her advice, sent for Julian from Athens, where he lived among the philosophers, and excelled all his masters in every kind of learning. Accordingly, Julian returning from Greece into Italy, Constantius declared him Caesar, gave him in marriage his sister Helena, and sent him beyond the Alps. . . .

Constantius, having thus disposed of Julian, marched himself into Pannonia and Moesia, and having there suppressed the Quadi and the Sarmatians, proceeded to the east, and was provoked to war by the inroads of the Persians. Julian by this time had arrived beyond the Alps into the Gallic nations which he was to rule. Perceiving that the Barbarians continued committing the same violence, Eusebia, for the same reasons as before, persuaded Constantius to place the entire management of those countries into the hands of Julian. . . . Julian finding the military affairs of Gallia Celtica in a very ruinous state, and that the Barbarians pased the Rhine without any resistance, even almost as far as the sea-port towns, he took a survey of the remaining parts of the enemy. And understanding that the people of those parts were terrified at the very name of the Barbarians, while those whom Constantius had sent along with him, who were not more than three hundred and sixty, knew nothing more, as he used to say, than how to say their prayers, he enlisted as many more as he could and took in a great number of volunteers. He also provided arms, and finding a quantity of old weapons in some town he fitted them up, and distributed them among the soldiers. The scouts bringing him intelligence, that an immense number of Barbarians had crossed the river near the city of Argentoratum (Strasburg) which stands on the Rhine, he no sooner heard of it, than he led forth his army with the greatest speed, and engaging with the enemy gained such a victory as exceeds all description.

After these events he raised a great army to make war on the whole German nation; He was opposed however by the Barbarians in vast numbers. Caesar therefore would not wait while they came up to him, but crossed the Rhine, preferring that their country should be the seat of war, and not that of the Romans, as by that means the cities would escape being again pillaged by the Barbarians. A most furious battle therefore took place; a great number of the Barbarians being slain on the field of battle, while the rest fled, and were pursued by Caesar into the Hercynian forest, and many of them killed. . . .

But while Julian was at Parisium, a small town in Germany, the soldiers, being ready to march, continued at supper till midnight in a place near the palace, which they so called there. They were as yet ignorant of any design against Caesar [by Constantius], when some tribunes, who began to suspect the contrivance against him, privately distributed a number of anonymous billets among the soldiers, in which they represented to them, that Caesar, by his judicious conduct had so managed affairs, that almost all of them had erected trophies over the Barbarians ; that he had always fought like a private soldier, and was now in extreme danger from the emperor, who would shortly deprive him of his whole army, unless they prevented it. Some of the soldiers having read these billets, and published the intrigue to the whole army, all were highly enraged. They suddenly rose from their seats in great commotion, and with the cups yet in their hands went to the palace. Breaking open the doors without ceremony, they brought out Caesar, and lifting him on a shield declared him emperor and Augustus. They then, without attending to his reluctance, placed a diadem upon his head. . . .

Arriving at Naisus, he consulted the soothsayers what measures to pursue. As the entrails signified that he must stay there for some time, he obeyed, observing likewise the time that was mentioned in his dream. When this, according to the motion of the planets, was arrived, a party of horsemen arrived from Constantinople at Naisus, with intelligence that Constantius was dead, and that the armies desired Julian to be emperor. Upon this he accepted what the gods had bestowed upon him, and proceeded on his journey. On his arrival at. Byzantium, he was received with joyful acclamations. . . .

[After slashing through Persia and crossing the Tigris,] they perceived the Persian army, with which they engaged, and having considerably the advantage, they killed a great number of Persians. Upon the following day, about noon, the Persians drew up in a large body, and once more attacked the rear of the Roman army. The Romans, being at that time out of their ranks, were surprised and alarmed at the suddenness of the attack, yet made a stout and spirited defence. The emperor, according to his custom, went round the army, encouraging them to fight with ardour. When by this means all were engaged, the emperor, who sometimes rode to the commanders and tribunes, and was at other times among the private soldiers, received a wound in the heat of the engagement, and was borne on a shield to his tent. He survived only till midnight. He then expired, after having nearly subverted the Persian empire.

Note: Julian favored the pagan faith over Christianity and was tarred by the church as "the apostate."
Blindado
DSC05467.JPG
1st- 4th Century C.E. Iron Key 12 views88mm long key, possibly for a door lock.Fiorenza21
s53~0.JPG
202. Caracalla; Anchialus, Thrace27 viewsCaracalla AE28 of Anchialus, Thrace. AVT M AVR ANTWNEINOC, laureate cuirassed bust right / OVLPIANWN AGCIA-LEWN, city gate, no door, with two crenulated towers. Moushmov 2853. No.2591. ecoli
geta_RIC79.jpg
211 AD - GETA Augustus denarius28 viewsobv: P SEPT GETA PIVS AVG BRIT (laureate head right)
rev: TR P III COS II P P (Janus standing facing left & right, holding spear & thunderbolt)
ref: RIC IVi 79, RSC 197,197a
mint: Rome
3.1 gms, 19.5 mm

Geta was killed in late December 211. His memory was condemned, his name removed from inscriptions, his face removed from sculptures and paintings. Official restoration of Geta's reputation came with the arrival of the emperor Elagabalus to Rome in 219, when Geta's remains were translated into the Mausoleum of Hadrian to join those of his father and brother.
Janus was the Roman god of doors, and of beginnings and endings. Of course, the month we know today as January was also named for Janus.
berserker
22013.jpg
22013 Constantine I /Campgate10 viewsConstantine I/Campgate
AE Follis of Antioch. AD 331 and 333-334.

Obv:CONSTAN-TINVS AVG,
laureate head right.
Rev:PROVIDEN-TIAE AVGG,
Campgate with nine layers, two turrets,
star above, no doors. officina letters
Delta-Epsilon across fields.
SMANT in Exergue
Mint:Antioch
RIC VII Antioch 63.
Blayne W
22042.jpg
22042 Licinius 1/Campgate15 viewsLicinius 1/Campgate
Obv: IMP LICI-NIVS AVG
Laureate bust left, wearing imperial mantle, globe and scepter in
left hand, mappa in right
Rev: PROVIDEN-TIAE AVGG
3 Turrets above, no stars, no door
?T Gamma in Exergue
Mint:Heraclea 19.8mm 3.1g
RIC VII Heraclea 15; Sear 15264 Rated R2
Blayne W
22110.jpg
22110 Constantine/Campgate8 viewsConstantine I/Campgate
Obv: CONSTAN_TINVS AVG
Pearl-diademed head right
Rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE AVGG
Campgate with six rows, two turrets, no doors, star above, 5 Rows
SMNS in exergue
Mint:Nicomedia 19.7mm 2.89g
AE3, 328-329, Nicomedia, Officina 6
RIC VII, 153
Ex Frascatius
Blayne W
rome11.jpg
229 Crispus15 viewsobv: FL IVL CRISPVS NOB CAES laur. drp. cuir. bust l.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE CAESS campgate with two turrents star above
ex: dot in door// R S
hill132
rome12.jpg
230 Crisus 9 viewsobv: FL IVL CRISPVS NOB CAES laur. drp. cuir. bust l.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE CAESS campgate with two turrents star above
ex: dot in door//R S
hill132
siscia21a.jpg
252 Constantine I14 viewsobv: CONSTAN_TINVS AVG laur. head r.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE AVGG campgate with two turrents star above, dots at top and bottom
ex: dot above doorway/ ASIS(double crescent)
hill132
siscia41.jpg
27212 viewsobv: CONSTANTI_NVS MAX AVG rosetta dia. drp. ust r.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE AVGG campgate with two turrents star above, arches and dots at top
ex: dot in doorway//ASIS(double crescent)
hill132
ConVIINico90~0.jpg
307-337 AD - Constantine I - RIC VII Nicomedia 090 - PROVIDENTIAE AVGG48 viewsEmperor: Constantine I (r. 307-337 AD)
Date: 324-325 AD
Condition: Very Fine
Size: AE3

Obverse: CONSTAN-TINVS AVG
Emperor Constantine
Bust right; laureate

Reverse: PROVIDEN-TIAE AVGG
The Emperors have foresight.
Camp gate, two turrets, no doors, star above, six stone layers.
Exergue: SMNE (Nicomedia mint, fifth officina)

RIC VII Nicomedia 90; VM 85
2.41g; 19.3mm; 330°
Pep
ConVM85.jpg
307-337 AD - Constantine I - Van Meter 85 - PROVIDENTIAE AVGG41 viewsEmperor: Constantine I (r. 307-337 AD)
Date: 324-330 AD
Condition: Fine
Size: AE3

Obverse: CONSTAN-TINVS AVG
Emperor Constantine
Bust right; laureate

Reverse: PROVIDEN-TIAE AVGG
The Emperors have foresight.
Camp gate, two turrets, no doors, star above, ten stone layers.
Exergue: ?SMK? (Cyzicus mint, unknown officina)

VM 85
2.83g; 18.8mm; 165°
Pep
rjb_fol10_01_09.jpg
30913 viewsRomulus d. 309 AD
AE Follis
Obv: DIVO ROMVLO N V BIS CONS
Head right
Rev: AETERNAE MEMORIAE
Domed temple with open doors, eagle on roof
-/-//RBS
Rome Mint
RIC (VI) Rome 207
mauseus
rjb_fol11_01_09.jpg
30912 viewsRomulus d. 309 AD
AE Quarter Follis
Obv: DIVO ROMVLO N V BIS CONS
Head right
Rev: AETERNAE MEMORIAE
Domed temple with open doors, eagle on roof
-/-//MOSTT
Ostia Mint
RIC (VI) Ostia 59
mauseus
ConIIVIICyz52.jpg
316-337 AD - Constantine II as Caesar - RIC VII Cyzicus 052 - PROVIDENTIAE CAESS22 viewsCaesar: Constantine II (Caes: 316-337 AD)
Date: 327-328 AD
Condition: Fine
Size: AE3

Obverse: CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C
Constantine Junior Noble Caesar
Bust left; laureate, draped and cuirassed

Reverse: PROVIDEN-TIAE CAESS
The Caesars have foresight.
Camp gate, two turrets, no doors, star above, nine stone layers.

"●" in left field
Exergue: SMKΔ (Cyzicus mint, fourth officina)

RIC VII Cyzicus 52; VM 38
3.15g; 19.3mm; 0°
Pep
CsIIVIIHera97.jpg
324-337 AD - Constantius II as Caesar - RIC VII Heraclea 097 - PROVIDENTIAE CAESS28 viewsCaesar: Constantius II (Caes. 324-337 AD)
Date: 327-329 AD
Condition: aFine
Size: AE3

Obverse: FL IVL CONSTANTIVS NOB C
Flavius Julius Constantius Noble Caesar
Bust left; laureate, draped and cuirassed

Reverse: PROVIDEN-TIAE CAESS
The Caesars have foresight.
Camp gate with two turrets, no doors; eight stone layers; star above.
"●" in left field
Exergue: SMHΓ (Heraclea mint, third officina)

RIC VII Heraclea 97; VM 70
2.35g; 19.5mm; 195°
Pep
CsIIVIIRome268.jpg
324-337 AD - Constantius II as Caesar - RIC VII Rome 268 - PROVIDENTIAE CAESS32 viewsCaesar: Constantius II (Caes. 324-337 AD)
Date: 324-325 AD
Condition: Very Fine
Size: AE3

Obverse: FL VAL CONSTANTIVS NOB C
Flavius (VAL?) Julius Constantius Noble Caesar
Bust right; laureate, draped and cuirassed, seen from back

Reverse: PROVIDEN-TIAE CAESS
The Caesars have foresight.
Camp gate, two turrets, no doors, star above, nine stone layers.
Exergue: RP (Rome mint, fourth officina)

RIC VII Rome 268; VM 70
2.85g; 19.2mm; 195°
Pep
coin266.JPG
501. Constantine I Siscia Campgate51 viewsConstantine the Great AE3. 328-9 AD. CONSTANTINVS AVG, diademed head right / PROVIDENTIAE AVGG, campgate with two turrets & no doors, star above, BSIS(double-crescent) in ex. RIC VII Siscia 214
2 commentsecoli
VA15864LG.jpg
504. CONSTANTIUS II Campgate Nicomedia22 viewsCONSTANTIUS II, as Caesar. 324-337 AD. Æ Follis (19mm - 3.21 g). Nicomedia mint. Struck 328-9 AD. FL IVL CONSTANTIVS NOB C, bare-headed, draped and cuirassed bust left / PROVIDEN-TIAE CAESS•, camp-gate with no doors and two turrets, star above; SMNB. RIC VII 158 note; LRBC -. Good VF, green patina with some spotty silvering. R5
1 commentsecoli
57- Galerius Posthumous.JPG
57- Galerius Posthumous104 viewsAE Follis, 311 AD, Thessalonica mint.
Obv: DIVO MAXIMIANO, Veiled head right.
Rev: MEM DIVI MAXIMIANI, Eagle surmounting domed shrine with closed doors, (Gamma) in right field. SMTS in exergue.
23mm , 4.9gm
RIC 48 variant, Very Rare!
2 commentsjdholds
CLAUD34LG.jpg
705a, Claudius, 25 January 41 - 13 October 54 A.D.62 viewsClaudius. 42-43 AD. AE As.
Claudius. 42-43 AD. AE As (29 mm, 10.87 g). Obverse: TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP P P, bare head right; Reverse: CONSTANTIAE AVGVSTI / S - C, Constantiae in military dress standing left, holding spear; RIC I, 111; aVF. Ex Imperial Coins.



De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

CLAUDIUS (41-54 A.D.)

Garrett G. Fagan
Pennsylvania State University

Ti. Claudius Nero Germanicus (b. 10 BC, d. 54 A.D.; emperor, 41-54 A.D.) was the third emperor of the Julio-Claudian dynasty. His reign represents a turning point in the history of the Principate for a number of reasons, not the least for the manner of his accession and the implications it carried for the nature of the office. During his reign he promoted administrators who did not belong to the senatorial or equestrian classes, and was later vilified by authors who did. He followed Caesar in carrying Roman arms across the English Channel into Britain but, unlike his predecessor, he initiated the full-scale annexation of Britain as a province, which remains today the most closely studied corner of the Roman Empire. His relationships with his wives and children provide detailed insights into the perennial difficulties of the succession problem faced by all Roman Emperors. His final settlement in this regard was not lucky: he adopted his fourth wife's son, L. Domitius Ahenobarbus, who was to reign catastrophically as Nero and bring the dynasty to an end. Claudius's reign, therefore, was a mixture of successes and failures that leads into the last phase of the Julio-Claudian line.

Robert Graves' fictional characterization of Claudius as an essentially benign man with a keen intelligence has tended to dominate the wider public's view of this emperor. Close study of the sources, however, reveals a somewhat different kind of man. In addition to his scholarly and cautious nature, he had a cruel streak, as suggested by his addiction to gladiatorial games and his fondness for watching his defeated opponents executed. He conducted closed-door (in camera ) trials of leading citizens that frequently resulted in their ruin or deaths -- an unprecedented and tyrannical pattern of behavior. He had his wife Messalina executed, and he personally presided over a kangaroo court in the Praetorian Camp in which many of her hangers-on lost their lives. He abandoned his own son Britannicus to his fate and favored the advancement of Nero as his successor. While he cannot be blamed for the disastrous way Nero's rule turned out, he must take some responsibility for putting that most unsuitable youth on the throne. At the same time, his reign was marked by some notable successes: the invasion of Britain, stability and good government in the provinces, and successful management of client kingdoms. Claudius, then, is a more enigmatic figure than the other Julio-Claudian emperors: at once careful, intelligent, aware and respectful of tradition, but given to bouts of rage and cruelty, willing to sacrifice precedent to expediency, and utterly ruthless in his treatment of those who crossed him. Augustus's suspicion that there was more to the timid Claudius than met the eye was more than fully borne out by the events of his unexpected reign.

The possibility has to be entertained that Claudius was a far more active participant in his own elevation than traditional accounts let on. There is just reason to suspect that he may even have been involved in planning the murder of Gaius (Caligula). Merely minutes before the assassination of Gaius, Claudius had departed for lunch; this appears altogether too fortuitous. This possibility, however, must remain pure speculation, since the ancient evidence offers nothing explicit in the way of support. On the other hand, we can hardly expect them to, given the later pattern of events. The whole issue of Claudius's possible involvement in the death of Gaius and his own subsequent acclamation by the Praetorian Guard must, therefore, remain moot . . . yet intriguing

Copyright 1998, Garrett G. Fagan.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

Cleisthenes
VitelliusARdenariusVesta.jpg
709a, Vitellius, 2 January - 20 December 69 A.D.42 viewsVITELLIUS AR silver denarius. RSC 72, RCV 2200. 19mm, 3.2 g. Obverse: A VITELLIVS GERM IMP AVG TR P, laureate head right; Reverse - PONT MAXIM, Vesta seated right, holding scepter and patera. Quite decent. Ex. Incitatus Coins. Photo courtesy of Incitatus Coins.

De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Vitellius (69 A.D.)

John F. Donahue
College of William and Mary


It is often difficult to separate fact from fiction in assessing the life and reign of Vitellius. Maligned in the ancient sources as gluttonous and cruel, he was also a victim of a hostile biographical tradition established in the regime of the Flavians who had overthrown him. Nevertheless, his decision to march against Rome in 69 was pivotal, since his subsequent defeat signalled the end of military anarchy and the beginning of an extended period of political stability under Vespasian and his successors.

Early Life and Career

Aulus Vitellius was born in September, 15 AD, the son of Lucius Vitellius and his wife Sestilia. One of the most successful public figures of the Julio-Claudian period, Lucius Vitellius was a three-time consul and a fellow censor with the emperor Claudius. Aulus seems to have moved with equal ease in aristocratic circles, successively winning the attention of the emperors Gaius, Claudius, and Nero through flattery and political skill.

Among his attested public offices, Vitellius was a curator of public works, a senatorial post concerned with the maintenance and repair of public buildings in Rome, and he was also proconsul of North Africa, where he served as a deputy to his brother, perhaps about 55 A. D. In addition, he held at least two priesthoods, the first as a member of the Arval Brethren, in whose rituals he participated from 57 A.D., and the second, as one of the quindecemviri sacris faciundis, a sacred college famous for its feasts.

With respect to marriage and family, Vitellius first wed a certain Petroniana, the daughter of a consul, sometime in the early to mid thirties A.D. The union produced a son, Petronianus, allegedly blind in one eye and emancipated from his father's control as a result of being named his mother's heir. Tradition records that Vitellius killed the boy shortly after emancipation amid charges of parricide; the marriage soon ended in divorce. A second marriage, to Galeria Fundana, daughter of an ex-praetor, was more stable than the first. It produced another son, who was eventually killed by the Flavians after the overthrow of Vitellius, as well as a daughter. Galeria is praised by Tacitus for her good qualities, and in the end it was she who saw to Vitellius' burial.

Rise to Power and Emperorship

Without doubt, the most fortuitous moment in Vitellius' political career was his appointment as governor of Lower Germany by the emperor Galba late in 68. The decision seemed to have caught everybody by surprise, including Vitellius himself, who, according to Suetonius, was in straitened circumstances at the time. The choice may have been made to reduce the possibility of rebellion by the Rhine armies, disaffected by Galba's refusal to reward them for their part in suppressing the earlier uprising of Julius Vindex. Ironically, it was Vitellius' lack of military achievement and his reputation for gambling and gluttony that may have also figured in his selection. Galba perhaps calculated that a man with little military experience who could now plunder a province to satisfy his own stomach would never become disloyal. If so, it was a critical misjudgement by the emperor.

The rebellion began on January 1, 69 ("The Year of the Four Emperors"), when the legions of Upper Germany refused to renew their oath of allegiance to Galba. On January 2, Vitellius' own men, having heard of the previous day's events, saluted him as emperor at the instigation of the legionary legate Fabius Valens and his colleagues. Soon, in addition to the seven legions that Vitellius now had at his command in both Germanies, the forces in Gaul, Britain, and Raetia also came over to his side. Perhaps aware of his military inexperience, Vitellius did not immediately march on Rome himself. Instead, the advance was led by Valens and another legionary general, Aulus Caecina Alienus, with each man commanding a separate column. Vitellius would remain behind to mobilize a reserve force and follow later.

Caecina was already one hundred fifty miles on his way when news reached him that Galba had been overthrown and Otho had taken his place as emperor. Undeterred, he passed rapidly down the eastern borders of Gaul; Valens followed a more westerly route, quelling a mutiny along the way. By March both armies had successfully crossed the Alps and joined at Cremona, just north of the Po. Here they launced their Batavian auxiliaries against Otho's troops and routed them in the First Battle of Bedriacum. Otho killed himself on April 16, and three days later the soldiers in Rome swore their allegience to Vitellius. The senate too hailed him as emperor.

When Vitellius learned of these developments, he set out to Rome from Gaul. By all accounts the journey was a drunken feast marked by the lack of discipline of both the troops and the imperial entourage. Along the way he stopped at Lugdunum to present his six-year-old son Germanicus to the legions as his eventual successor. Later, at Cremona, Vitellius witnessed the corpse-filled battlefield of Otho's recent defeat with joy, unmoved by so many citizens denied a proper burial.

The emperor entered Rome in late June-early July. Conscious of making a break with the Julio-Claudian past, Vitellius was reluctant to assume the traditional titles of the princes, even though he enthusiastically made offerings to Nero and declared himself consul for life. To his credit, Vitellius did seem to show a measure of moderation in the transition to the principate. He assumed his powers gradually and was generally lenient to Otho's supporters, even pardoning Otho's brother Salvius Titianus, who had played a key role in the earlier regime. In addition, he participated in Senate meetings and continued the practice of providing entertainments for the Roman masses. An important practical change involved the awarding of posts customarily held by freedmen to equites, an indication of the growth of the imperial bureaucracy and its attractiveness to men of ambition.

In other matters, he replaced the existing praetorian guard and urban cohorts with sixteen praetorian cohorts and four urban units, all comprised of soldiers from the German armies. According to Tacitus, the decision prompted a mad scramble, with the men, and not their officers, choosing the branch of service that they preferred. The situation was clearly unsatisfactory but not surprising, given that Vitellius was a creation of his own troops. To secure his position further, he sent back to their old postings the legions that had fought for Otho, or he reassigned them to distant provinces. Yet discontent remained: the troops who had been defeated or betrayed at Bedriacum remained bitter, and detachments of three Moesian legions called upon by Otho were returned to their bases, having agitated against Vitellius at Aquileia.

Flavian Revolt

The Vitellian era at Rome was short-lived. By mid-July news had arrived that the legions of Egypt under Tiberius Julius Alexander had sworn allegiance to a rival emperor, Titus Flavius Vespasianus, the governor of Judaea and a successful and popular general. Vespasian was to hold Egypt while his colleague Mucianus, governor of Syria, was to invade Italy. Before the plan could be enacted, however, the Danube legions, former supporters of Otho, joined Vespasian's cause. Under the leadership of Antonius Primus, commander of the Sixth legion in Pannonia, and Cornelius Fuscus, imperial procurator in Illyricum, the legions made a rapid descent on Italy.

Although his forces were only half of what Vitellius commanded in Italy, Primus struck first before the emperor could muster additional reinforcements from Germany. To make matters worse for the Vitellians, Valens was ill, and Caecina, now consul, had begun collaborating with the Flavians. His troops refused to follow his lead, however, and arrested him at Hostilia near Cremona. They then joined the rest of the Vitellian forces trying to hold the Po River. With Vitellius still in Rome and his forces virtually leaderless, the two sides met in October in the Second Battle of Bedriacum. The emperor's troops were soundly defeated and Cremona was brutally sacked by the victors. In addition, Valens, whose health had recovered, was captured while raising an army for Vitellius in Gaul and Germany; he was eventually executed.

Meanwhile, Primus continued towards Rome. Vitellius made a weak attempt to thwart the advance at the Apennine passes, but his forces switched to the Flavian side without a fight at Narnia in mid-December. At Rome, matters were no better. Vespasian's elder brother, Titus Flavius Sabinus, the city prefect, was successful in an effort to convince Vitellius to abdicate but was frustrated by the mob in Rome and the emperor's soldiers. Forced to flee to the Capitol, Sabinus was set upon by Vitellius' German troops and soon killed, with the venerable Temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus set ablaze in the process. Within two days, the Flavian army fought its way into Rome. In a pathetic final move, Vitellius disguised himself in dirty clothing and hid in the imperial doorkeeper's quarters, leaning a couch and a mattress against the door for protection. Dragged from his hiding place by the Flavian forces, he was hauled off half-naked to the Forum, where he was tortured, killed, and tossed into the Tiber. The principate could now pass to Vespasian.

Assessment

Vitellius has not escaped the hostility of his biographers. While he may well have been gluttonous, his depiction as indolent, cruel, and extravagant is based almost entirely on the propaganda of his enemies. On the other hand, whatever moderating tendencies he did show were overshadowed by his clear lack of military expertise, a deficiency that forced him to rely in critical situations on largely inneffective lieutenants. As a result he was no match for his Flavian successors, and his humiliating demise was perfectly in keeping with the overall failure of his reign.

Copyright (C) 1999, John Donahue.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
57-Romulus-Ost-33.jpg
99 Romulus: Ostia follis.18 viewsFollis, 309 - 312 AD, Ostia mint.
Obverse: IMP MAXENTIVS DIVO ROMVLO N V FILIO / Bust of Romulus.
Reverse: AETERNA MEMORIA / Domed hexastyle shrine, doors ajar, eagle on top.
Mint mark: MOSTP
5.87 gm., 25.5 mm.
RIC #33; PBCC #605; Sear #15045.
Callimachus
Bacchivs.jpg
A. Plautius70 viewsA. Plautius 54 BCE, denarius, 21mm., Rome mint. O: Turreted head of Cybele right, A PLAVTIVS before, AED CVR SC behind. R: Bacchius (Aristobulus II) kneeling right, extending olive branch, camel at side, BACCHIVS in exergue, IVDAEVS on right. Hendin 1443

The 'Bacchius the Jew' kneeling on the reverse is most likely Judah Aristobulus II, who usurped the throne of Judea from his brother John Hyrcanus II between 67 and 63 BC. In 63 BCE, Pompey the Great sided with Hyrcanus and subjected Jerusalem to a brutal siege and sacking, deposing Aristobulus II. Pompey went so far as to enter the Holy of Holies, defiling the sanctuary and marking the end of the great Hasmonean dynasty.

The Romans now had a foot in the door and were not about to remove it. Hyrcanus became a Roman ethnarch, one who ruled by the grace of the Romans, dependent on their goodwill and support to retain his throne.

Aristobulus was permitted to live as a hostage in Rome, but later escaped and tried to resume the throne, only to be defeated again by M. Aemilius Scaurus. This issue celebrates this unsuccessful attempt to regain control of Judaea.

Behind the scenes, a rich Idumaean chieftain named Antipater continued to manipulate Hyrcanus and to pander to Rome, building influence and power. This set the stage for the eventual rise to power of his infamous son, Herod the Great.

Except for the inscription, this coin is of the same reverse type as Hendin 1441.
2 commentsNemonater
1087.jpg
abilaspijk0246 viewsElagabalus
Abila

Obv: Laureate draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from behind.
Rev: In exergue, CεABIΛ. Left downward, IεACV. Right upward, NWNKC. Above, BΠ C. Hexastyle temple with central arch and pediment on top of which figure is standing; flaming altar within temple; on either side square towers with doors below and three windows on upper floors; steps in front.
24 mm, 10.70 gms

Spijkerman 24
Charles M
crispusnir2.jpg
AE3 Crispus. PROVIDENTIAE CAESS. Nicomedia. Officinae NOT IN RIC13 viewsFL IVL CRISPVS NOB C, laureate, draped & cuirassed bust left.

PROVIDENTIAE CAESS, campgate with 2 turrets, 6 layers, star above, no doors.

Mintmark: SMN delta

RIC VII 92 Officinae NOT IN RIC
Weir D
ANTONINUS_PIUS_ALTAR.JPG
ALTAR, Antoninus Pius157 viewsAR Denarius of Rome, struck A.D.161 - 164 under Marcus Aurelius.
Obverse: DIVVS ANTONINVS. Bare head of Antoninus Pius facing right.
Reverse: DIVO PIO. Monumental altar enclosure, with double panelled doors and horns visible above.
Diameter: 18mm | Weight: 3.1gms | Die Axis: 12
RIC III : 441 | VM : 137/3 | Sear : 5196
1 comments*Alex
Constantius_I_Altar.JPG
ALTAR, CONSTANTIUS I126 viewsStruck A.D.307 - 308 under Maxentius, AE Follis of Aquileia.
Obverse: DIVO CONSTANTIO AVG. Veiled head of Constantius I facing right.
Reverse: MEMORIA DIVI CONSTANTI. Monumental altar enclosure, doors embellished with handles in the shape of a ring held in the mouth of a bucranium, surmounted by eagle with wings spread standing facing, head turned to left and holding wreath in its beak; in exergue, AQS.
Diameter: 25mm | Weight: 5.3gms | Die Axis: 6
RIC VI : 127
SCARCE

"Cohen 24 (not giving mintmark) and Voetter, Gerin Cat., p. 62, have AVG only in the obv. legend of this type at Aquileia." - source Curtis Clay.
*Alex
FAUSTINA_II_ALTAR.JPG
ALTAR, Faustina Junior133 viewsAR denarius of Rome, struck A.D.176-180 under Marcus Aurelius.
Obverse: DIVA FAVSTINA PIA. Draped bust of Faustina Junior facing right.
Reverse: CONSECRATIO. Monumental altar enclosure with closed doors.
Diameter: 19mm
RIC III : 746
*Alex
Constantinus-I__AE-Follis_CONSTAN-TINVS-AVG-1_PROVIDEN-TIAE-AVG-G-B1-8layers_dot_SMANTA_RIC-71-p-690_Antioch_326-327-AD_R2_Q-001_h_mm_g-s~0.jpg
Antioch, 136 Constantinus I. (306-309 A.D. Caesar, 309-910 A.D. Filius Augustorum, 307-337 A.D. Augustus), RIC VII 063, AE-3 Follis, -/-//SMANTA, PROVIDENTIAE AVG G, Campgate with two turrets, Scarce!62 viewsAntioch, 136 Constantinus I. (306-309 A.D. Caesar, 309-910 A.D. Filius Augustorum, 307-337 A.D. Augustus), RIC VII 063, AE-3 Follis, -/-//SMANTA, PROVIDENTIAE AVG G, Campgate with two turrets, Scarce!
avers: CONSTAN TINVS AVG, 1, B1, Laureate, bust right.
reverse: PROVIDEN TIAE AVG G, 6 layers, Campgate, no door, with two turrets star above.
exergue: -/-//SMANTA, diameter: mm, weight: g, axis:h,
mint: Antioch, date: 325-326 A.D., ref: RIC VII 063, p-688, Scarce!
Q-001
quadrans
Constantinus-I__AE-Follis_CONSTAN-TINVS-AVG-1_PROVIDEN-TIAE-AVG-G-B1-8layers_dot_SMANTZ_RIC-71-p-690_Antioch_326-327-AD_R2_Q-001_h_mm_gx-s~0.jpg
Antioch, 136 Constantinus I. (306-309 A.D. Caesar, 309-910 A.D. Filius Augustorum, 307-337 A.D. Augustus), RIC VII 071, AE-3 Follis, •//SMANTA, PROVIDENTIAE AVG G, Campgate with two turrets, R2!!65 viewsAntioch, 136 Constantinus I. (306-309 A.D. Caesar, 309-910 A.D. Filius Augustorum, 307-337 A.D. Augustus), RIC VII 071, AE-3 Follis, •//SMANTA, PROVIDENTIAE AVG G, Campgate with two turrets, R2!!
avers: CONSTAN TINVS AVG, 1, B1, Laureate, bust right.
reverse: PROVIDEN TIAE AVG G, 8 layers, Campgate, no door, with two turrets star above.
exergue: •//SMANTA, diameter: mm, weight: g, axis:h,
mint: Antioch, date: 326-327 A.D., ref: RIC VII 071, p-690, R2!!
Q-001
quadrans
collage9 8-27-2006 1-47-15 PM-12.jpg
Antioch, Constantine I29 viewsCONSTAN-TINVSAVG
Laureate head right

PROVIDEN-TIAEAVGG
Campgate, 10 rows, 2 turrets, star above, pellet in door

SMANTB
Antioch Mint

RIC VII Antioch 71
Ae;2.99g;18-19mm
arizonarobin
collage9 8-27-2006 1-47-15 PM-1.jpg
Antioch, Constantine I35 viewsCONSTAN-TINVS
Laureate head right

PROVIDEN-TIAEAVGG
Campgate, 12 rows, 2 turrets, star above, pellet in door

SMANT(gamma)
Antioch Mint

RIC VII Antioch 71
Ae;3.61g;19mm
1 commentsarizonarobin
collage9 8-27-2006 1-47-15 PM-25.jpg
Antioch, Constantine I64 viewsCONSTAN-TINVSAVG
Laureate head right

PROVIDEN-TIAEAVGG
Campgate, 9 rows, 2 turrets, star above, pellet in door

SMANT / (delta in left field, epsilon in right field)
Antioch Mint

RIC VII Antioch 71
Ae;2.64g;18-19mm
2 commentsarizonarobin
collage9 8-27-2006 1-47-15 PM.jpg
Antioch, Constantine II36 viewsCONSTANTINVSIVNNOBC
Diademed, draped and cuirassed bust left

PROVIDEN-TIAECAESS
Campgate, 10 rows, 2 turrets, star above, pellet in door

SMANTS
Antioch Mint

RIC VII Antioch 73
Ae; 2.59g;19mm
arizonarobin
Divo_Pio.JPG
Antoninus AR denarius Divo Pio31 viewsAntoninus Pius (138 – 161 AD)

Struck under Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus, Rome 162 AD

Obv: DIVVS ANTONINVS bare head right with drapery on far shoulder.
Rev: DIVO PIO altar with double panelled doors.
RIC III 441a

Weight: 2.8g.
Diameter: 18mm
Jose Polanco
divopio.jpg
Antoninus Pius - DIVO PIO17 viewsDivus Antoninus Pius Denarius.
Struck under Marcus Aurelius, 162 AD. DIVVS ANTONINVS, bare head right /
DIVO PIO, square altar with double doors.
xokleng
Antoninus_Pius_RIC_441a.jpg
Antoninus Pius - [RIC 441a]93 viewsSilver Denarius, 3.25g, 17mm, 165 degree, Struck Under Marcus Aurelius 162 A.D.

Obv. - DIVVS ANTONINVS, bare head right, drapery on left shoulder with fold behind neck and wrapped around neck

Rev. - DIVO PIO, square altar with double doors

Excellent centering, full legends, great portrait, and fine alter
___________

Purchased from Newgate Numismatics on vcoins.com

Ex. Dwayne Clark Collection
3 commentsrenegade3220
DIVO_PIO.jpg
Antoninus Pius by Marcus Aurelius93 viewsDIVVS ANTONINVS
Bare head of Antoninus Pius right

DIVO PIO
Alter-enclosure with double panelled door and horns visible above

Rome 162 AD

Sear 5196, RIC 441
High relief strike.

Sold Forum Auction March 2016
Jay GT4
77.jpg
Antoninus Pius Denarius - Altar (RIC II 357)60 viewsAR Denarius
Rome 162 AD
3.01g


Obv: Bare bust of Antoninus Pius (R)
DIVUS ANTONINUS

Rev: SQUARE ALTER with double doors. DIVO PIO in exergue. Minted under Marcus Aurelius after Pius' death.


RIC II 357 RSC 441
Kained but Able
Pius_RIC_1272.jpg
Antoninus Pius Sestertius RIC 1272 [Aurelius]22 viewsDIVVS ANTONINVS, bare head right / Altar with doors closed. DIVO PIO, S C in fields.
Maximum Diameter: 31.3 mm
Weight: 25.47 g
1 commentsTheEmpireNeverEnded
10994q00.jpg
Antoninus Pius Sestertius, DIVO PIO88 viewsOrichalcum sestertius, gF, Rome mint, 162 A.D.
21.172g, 31.88mm, 0°
Obv.: DIVVS ANTONINVS, bare head right, drapery on left shoulder
Rev.: DIVO PIO, square altar with closed doors, S - C

RIC M. Aur. 1273, S 1308

ex FORVM
areich
Antoninus_Pius_RIC_III_441.jpg
Antoninus Pius, AR Denarius, Shrine, RIC III 4418 viewsAntoninus Pius
Augustus, 138 – 161 A.D.

Coin: AR Denarius

Obverse: DIVVS-ANTONINVS, Bare-headed bust facing right.
Reverse: DIVO-PIO, Large Shrine, with the doors closed.

Weight: 2.61 g, Diameter: 16.5 x 17 x 1.5 mm, Die axis: 330°, Mint: Rome, struck in 162 A.D., issued during the reign of Marcus Aurelius, Reference: RIC III 441
Masis
markianopolis_19_caracalla_domna_HrJ(2013)6_19_46_27.jpg
ARCH, Caracalla & Julia Domna, Moesia inferior, Markianopolis, 19. HrJ (2013) 6.19.46.27150 viewsCaracalla & Julia Domna, AD 198-217
AE26, 11.43g, 26.27mm, 45°
struck under governor Quintilianus
obv. [ANTWNINOC] AVGOVCTOC IOVLIA - DOMNA
confronted busts of the Imperial pair
rev. VP KVNTILIANOV MARKIANOPOLITWN
Triumphal arch, with two floors, three doors, two windows; above four figures, from
l. to r.: Caracalla with sceptre(?), Severus, Julia Domna, and - a bit smaller - Geta
on r. side E (for Pentassarion)
ref. a) AMNG I/1, 695 (1 ex., Mandl)
b) Varbanov (engl.) 1041
c) Hristova/Jekov (2013) No.6.19.46.27
d) BMC 20
rare, about VF/superb EF

This type seems to depict a triumphal arch erected in Marcianopolis. For the 4 figures on top will be no other interpretation possible than that suggested by A.v.Sallet (Cat. Berlin 58, 11) of the Imperial family...So we have in te middle Severus and Domna, on the l. side Caracalla and on the r. side a bit smaller Geta. The triumphal arch seems to be erected under Severus but appears not until Caracalla's sole reign, probably at the beginning because Geta is depicted too (Pick).
1 commentsJochen
markianopolis_24_macrinus_diadum_HrJ(2013)6_24_46_02+.jpg
ARCH, Macrinus & Diadumenian, Moesia inferior, Markianopolis, 24. HrJ (2013) 6.24.46.02 (plate coin)125 viewsMacrinus, AD 217-218
AE 27, 12.49g, 26.91mm, 195°
struck under governor Furius Pontianus
obv. AVT K OPEL CEV MAKREIN[OC KM] OPEL ANTWNEINOC
confronted heads of Macrinus, laureate, r., and Diadumenianus, bare-headed, l.
rev. VP PONTIAN - OV MARKIANO / POLEITW / N (OV ligate)
Triumphal arch with three doors, the door in the midth much higher, four figures
on postaments above. The outer two are Victories holding wreath in upraised
hand, the other two male figures, draped, the left holding up his r. hand, the
right one holding spear in his l. hand.
E in l. field (for pentassarion)
ref. a) not in AMNG
b) Varbanov (engl.) 1220
c) Hristova/Jekov (2013) No.6.24.46.2 (plate coin)
d) Price/Trell p.51, fig. 85 var.
very rare, F+/VF
added to www.wildwinds.com
Jochen
Architectural_AE26_of_Elagabalus_(218-222_AD)_from_Nikopolis,_Moesia_Inferior.jpg
Architectural AE26 of Elagabalus (218-222 AD) from Nikopolis, Moesia Inferior41 viewsArchitectural AE26 of Elagabalus (218-222 AD) from Nikopolis, Moesia Inferior
Notes: Elagabalus facing right on obverse, Castle with two tourettes on reverse. Rare! Excellent quality for these. These large provincial bronzes are usually very worn, and not often seen in such a nice condition as this one. 26 mm, 13.1grams. Elagabalus AE24 of Nikopolis ad Istrum. Laureate head right / UP NOBIOU ROUFOU NIKOPOLITWN PROC ICTPON, city gate with two wide towers and a arched door. _5000
Antonio Protti
Constantinus-I__AE-Follis_CONSTAN-TINVS-AVG-1_PROVIDEN-TIAE-AVG-G-B1-6layers_SACrescRL_RIC-286_p-_Arles_326-327-AD_Q-001_h_mm_g-s~0.jpg
Arleate, 136 Constantinus I. (306-309 A.D. Caesar, 309-910 A.D. Filius Augustorum, 307-337 A.D. Augustus), RIC VII 286, AE-3 Follis, -/-//SAᴗRL, PROVIDENTIAE AVG G, Campgate with two turrets, Scarce!65 viewsArleate, 136 Constantinus I. (306-309 A.D. Caesar, 309-910 A.D. Filius Augustorum, 307-337 A.D. Augustus), RIC VII 286, AE-3 Follis, -/-//SAᴗRL, PROVIDENTIAE AVG G, Campgate with two turrets, Scarce!
avers: CONSTAN TINVS AVG, 1, B1, Laureate, bust right.
reverse: PROVIDEN TIAE AVG G, Campgate, two turrets, no doors, star above 6th levels of stone layers.
exergue: -/-//SAᴗRL, diameter: mm, weight: g, axis:h,
mint: Arleate, date: 326-327 A.D., ref: RIC VII 286, p-264, Scarce!
Q-001
quadrans
Constantinus-II__AE-3-Follis_CONSTANTINVS-IVN-NOB-C_PROVIDEN-TIAE-CAESS_TACrescentRL_RIC-VII-289_3rd-off_-7-B4l__C-_Arles_325-6-AD_Scarce_Q-001_axis-0h_19,5mm_3,09g-s~0.jpg
Arleate, 145 Constantinus II. (316-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-340 A.D. Augustus), RIC VII 289, AE-3 Follis, -/-//TAᴗRL, PROVIDENTIAE CAES S, Campgate with two turrets, Scarce!62 viewsArleate, 145 Constantinus II. (316-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-340 A.D. Augustus), RIC VII 289, AE-3 Follis, -/-//TAᴗRL, PROVIDENTIAE CAES S, Campgate with two turrets, Scarce!
avers: CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C, 7, B4l., Laureate, draped and cuirassed head left.
reverse: PROVIDEN TIAE CAES S, Campgate, two turrets, no doors, star above 6th levels of stone layers.
exergue: -/-//TAᴗRL, diameter: 19,5mm, weight: 3,09g, axis: 0h,
mint: Arleate, date: 325-326 A.D., ref: RIC VII 289, p-265, 3rd-off, Scarce,
Q-001
quadrans
Constantinus-II__AE-3-Follis_CONSTANTINVS-IVN-NOB-C_VIRTVS-CAESS_TACrescentRL_RIC-VII-289_3rd-off_-7-B4l__C-_Arles_294-p-265_325-6-AD_Q-001_h_mm_gx-s~0.jpg
Arleate, 145 Constantinus II. (316-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-340 A.D. Augustus), RIC VII 294, AE-3 Follis, -/-//TAᴗRL, VIRTVS CAESS, Campgate with four turrets,65 viewsArleate, 145 Constantinus II. (316-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-340 A.D. Augustus), RIC VII 294, AE-3 Follis, -/-//TAᴗRL, VIRTVS CAESS, Campgate with four turrets,
avers: CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C, 7, B4l., Laureate, draped and cuirassed head left.
reverse: VIRTVS CAES S, Campgate, four turrets, open doors, star above 9th levels of stone layers.
exergue: -/-//TAᴗRL, diameter: mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Arleate, date: 325-326 A.D., ref: RIC VII 294, p-265,
Q-001
quadrans
Constantinus-II__AE-3-Follis_CONSTANTINVS-IVN-NOB-C_VIRTVS-CAESS_S-F_ARLT_RIC-VII-311_Arles_327-AD_Q-001_h_mm_gx-s.jpg
Arleate, 145 Constantinus II. (316-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-340 A.D. Augustus), RIC VII 315, AE-3 Follis, S/F//ARLT, VIRTVS CAESS, Campgate with four turrets,136 viewsArleate, 145 Constantinus II. (316-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-340 A.D. Augustus), RIC VII 315, AE-3 Follis, S/F//ARLT, VIRTVS CAESS, Campgate with four turrets,
avers: CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C, Laureate, draped and cuirassed head left.
reverse: VIRTVS CAES S, Campgate, four turrets, open doors, star above 6th levels of stone layers.
exergue: S/F//ARLT, diameter: mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Arleate, date: 327 A.D., ref: RIC VII 315, p-265,
Q-001
quadrans
Constantius-II__AE-Follis_FL-IVL-CONSTANTIVS-NOB-C-8_VIRTVS-CAES-S-B4-l_-6lay-4turr_S_F_ARL-Q_RIC-VII-316-p268_4th_off_Arleate_327AD_Q-001_axis-11h_18,3mm_2,73g-s.jpg
Arleate, 147 Constantius II. (324-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-361 A.D. Augustus), RIC VII 316, AE-3 Follis, S/F//ARLQ, VIRTVS CAESS, Campgate with four turrets and wide open doors,66 viewsArleate, 147 Constantius II. (324-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-361 A.D. Augustus), RIC VII 316, AE-3 Follis, S/F//ARLQ, VIRTVS CAESS, Campgate with four turrets and wide open doors,
avers: FL IVL CONSTANTIVS NOB C, 8, B4-l., Laureate, draped and cuirassed head left.
reverse: VIRTVS CAES S, Campgate with four turrets, wide open doors, star above, 6 layers of stones, the open doors have dots.
exergue: S/F//ARLQ, diameter: 18,3mm, weight: 2,73g, axis: 11h,
mint: Arleate, date: 327 A.D., ref: RIC VII 316, p-268, 4th.-off.,
Q-001
quadrans
C16 8-16-2006 6-55-08 PM.jpg
Arles, Constantine I52 viewsCONSTAN-TINVS AVG
Pearl diademed head right

VIRTV-S AVGG
Campgate, 6 rows, 4 turrets, star above, Open door

ARLP (S in left field, F in right field)
Arles Mint

RIC VII Arles 314
Ae;2.34g;19mm
arizonarobin
collage2~12.jpg
Arles, Constantine I92 viewsConstantine I

CONSTAN-TINVS AVG,
Laureate head right

VIRTV-S AVGG,
campgate with ornate open doors, crescent shaped knob on each door

SA (crescent) RL

RIC VII 291 Arles S
325-326 AD
3 commentsarizonarobin
C18 8-16-2006 6-55-09 PM.jpg
Arles, Constantine II62 viewsCONSTANTINVSIVNNOBC
Laureate draped and cuirassed bust left

VIRTVS-CAESS
Campgate, 6 rows, 4 turrets, star above, Open door

TCONS(gamma) - S in left field, F in right field
Arles Mint

RIC VII Arles 322
Ae;2.50g;19mm
arizonarobin
C2 8-16-2006 6-55-09 PM.jpg
Arles, Constantius II41 viewsFLIVLCONSTANTIVSNOBC
Laureate draped and cuirassed bust left

VIRTVS-CAESS
Campgate, 9 rows, 4 turrets, Open doors

QA(crescent)RL
Arles Mint

RIC VII Arles 290
Ae;3.09;20mm *reverse double struck
arizonarobin
campgate090508a.jpg
Arles, Constantius II44 viewsConstantius II
Ae 19; 2.30g

FL IVL CONSTANTIVS NOBC
laureate draped and cuirassed bust left

VIRTVS-CAESS
Campgate, 4 turrets, star above, open doors, 8 rows

QA (crescent) RL

RIC VII Arles 290
1 commentsarizonarobin
Nero_As_Janus.JPG
As, Temple of Janus with closed doors5 viewsNero As, struck 66-68 AD in Rome. 27mm, 10.4g. Obverse: IMP NERO CAESAR AVG GERM; laureate head right. Reverse: PACE P R VBIQ PARTA IANVM CLVSIT / S - C; view of one front of the temple of Janus, with latticed window to l. and garland hung across closed double doors to r. Attribution: RIC² 347 (C); BMC 230; WCN 294, Romanatic-ID: 1314. ex areich, photo credit areichPodiceps
Avgvstvs.jpg
Augustus174 viewsAugustus, Copper As struck under Tiberius.
This type was struck by Tiberius to commemorate Augustus.
Denomination : Copper As. Mint : Rome.
Date : AD 22 to 23
Size : 26.4 x 27.0 mm Weight : 10.42 grams.
Reference : RIC I, page 99, #81. Sear-1789
Obverse : Radiate head of Augustus left, with DIVVS AVGVSTVS PATER around.
Reverse : Altar with doors closed, with PROVIDENT below, and S C in the fields.
b70
00055.jpg
Augustus (RIC 81, Coin #55)12 viewsRIC 81 (C), AE AS, Rome, 22-30AD.
Obv: DIVVS AVGVSTVS PATER Radiate head left.
Rev: PROVIDENT S C Altar with double panelled door, ornaments on top.
Size: 32.2mm 10.16gm
MaynardGee
Auguste 21 D.jpg
Augustus As35 viewsPosthumous issues by Tiberius
Copper As. Obv.:DIVVS AVGVSTVS PATER ; rad. hd. of Augustus l.
Rev.: PROVIDENT S C , facade of altar-enclosure of the Ar Providentiae Augusti, with double panelled door and horns of the altar visible above.
RIC 81
Tanit
Tibere.jpg
Augustus As28 viewsPosthumous issues by Tiberius
Copper As.
Obv.:DIVVS AVGVSTVS PATER ; rad. hd. of Augustus l.
Rev.: PROVIDENT S C , facade of altar-enclosure of the Ar Providentiae Augusti, with double panelled door and horns of the altar visible above.

RIC 81
Tanit
augustus_comme.jpg
Augustus Commemorative minted by Tiberius, Countermarked by Vespasian14 viewsAugustus, 16 January 27 B.C. - 19 August 14 A.D., Commemorative minted by Tiberius, Countermarked by Vespasian. Copper as, RIC I Tiberius 81, Pangerl 94, coin Fair, countermark Fine, Rome mint, 8.935g, 28.8mm, 0o, c. 22 - 30 A.D.; obverse DIVVS AVGVSTVS PATER, radiate head left, capricorn in rectangular countermark right; reverse PROVIDENT S C, altar with double panelled door, ornaments on top. Vespasian used the Capricorn countermark, as had Augustus. It was his birth-sign too. ex FORVMPodiceps
augustus_providntj.jpg
Augustus under Tiberius18 viewsCopper as Commemorative minted by Tiberius 22 - 30 A.D
Obverse: DIVVS AVGVSTVS PATER, radiate head left
Reverse: PROVIDENT S C, altar with double panelled door, ornaments on top
1 commentsDk0311USMC
P5270003.JPG
Caesarea maritima mint Hostilian AE2183 views Caesarea Maritima. Hostilian AE21
OBV:bust r, radiate wearing paludamentum and cuirass
HOSTILIANOQVINTOC
REV:Tyche L, turreted with door inside drapery over shoulder leaving bosom partly bare
COLPFAVFG CAESMETRP
Maritima
48.jpg
Caesarea maritima mint Hostilian AE2162 viewsOB: Bust r wearing paludamentum and cuirass
HOSTILIANOQVINTOC
R:Tyche to R, turreted with door inside drapery over sholder leaving bosom partly bare
COLPFAVFG CAESMETRP
Maritima
Caligula_and_Agripin.jpg
Caligula (Augustus) Coin: Bronze Fourre Denarius Fourree6 viewsC CAESAR AVG PON M TR POT III COS III - Laureate head right
AGRIPPINA MAT C CAES AVG GERM - Draped bust of Agrippina right
Mint: Rome (40AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 2.85g / 18mm / 180
Rarity: Rare
References:
RIC I 22 (official)
Lyon 179 (official)
RSC 6 (official)
Acquisition/Sale: numismaticaprados Ebay

The Gary R. Wilson Collection

The reverse legend translates: 'Agrippina mother of Gaius Caesar Augustus Germanicus'

ODERINT, DUM METUANT (LET THEM HATE, SO LONG AS THEY FEAR). — CALIGULA

The accession of Gaius (Caligula) to the imperial throne on the death of his great-uncle Tiberius signalled a kind of "golden age" in that for the first time, not only did a direct biological descendant of Augustus become emperor, but one who could also claim a direct link with several important Republican figures. Through his mother, Agrippina Sr., Gaius was descended from Augustus, and also Agrippa, the victor of Actium. Gaius' father Germanaicus was the son of Nero Claudius Drusus and nephew of Tiberius, sons of Augustus' widow, Livia. Through his mother Antonia, Germanicus was the grandson of Mark Antony and Octavia, the sister of Augustus. Accordingly, many of his coins recall his dynastic connections to both the Julians and the Claudians as well as his own family, and included in their designs his mother and his three sisters.

“TO MAKE AN INEXPERIENCED AND ALMOST UNKNOWN YOUNG MAN, BROUGHT UP UNDER A SERIES OF AGED AND REPRESSIVE GUARDIANS, MASTER OF THE WORLD, ALMOST LITERALLY OVERNIGHT, ON THE SOLE RECOMMENDATION THAT HIS FATHER HAD BEEN A THOROUGHLY DECENT FELLOW WAS TO COURT DISASTER IN A QUITE IRRESPONSIBLE FASHION.”
–BARRETT, CALIGULA: THE CORRUPTION OF POWER (1990)

THE ASSASSINATION OF CALIGULA
THE emperor Caligula came to his death in the following manner:

Of course his wanton and remorseless tyranny often awakened very deep feelings of resentment, and very earnest desires for revenge in the hearts of those who suffered by it; but yet so absolute and terrible was his power, that none dared to murmur or complain. The resentment, however, which the cruelty of the emperor awakened, burned the more fiercely for being thus restrained and suppressed, and many covert threats were made, and many secret plots were formed, from time to time, against the tyrant's life.

Among others who cherished such designs, there was a man named Cassius Chærea, an officer of the army, who, though not of high rank, was nevertheless a man of considerable distinction. He was a captain, or, as it was styled in those days, a centurion. His command, therefore, was small, but it was in the prætorian cohort, as it was called, a sort of body-guard of the commander-in-chief, and consequently a very honorable corps. Chærea was thus a man of considerable distinction on account of the post which he occupied, and his duties, as captain in the life guards, brought him very frequently into communication with the emperor. He was a man of great personal bravery, too, and was on this account held in high consideration by the army. He had performed an exploit at one time, some years before, in Germany, which, had gained him great fame. It was at the time of the death of Augustus, the first emperor. Some of the German legions, and among them one in which Chærea was serving, had seized upon the occasion to revolt. They alledged many and grievous acts of oppression as the grounds of their revolt, and demanded redress for what they had suffered, and security for the future. One of the first measures which they resorted to in the frenzy of the first outbreak of the rebellion, was to seize all the centurions in the camp, and to beat them almost to death. They gave them sixty blows each, one for each of their number, and then turned them, bruised, wounded, and dying, out of the camp. Some they threw into the Rhine. They revenged themselves thus on all the centurions but one. That one was Chærea. Chærea would not suffer himself to be taken by them, but seizing his sword he fought his way through the midst of them, slaying some and driving others before him, and thus made his escape from the camp. This feat gained him great renown.

One might imagine from this account that Chærea was a man of great personal superiority in respect to size and strength, inasmuch as extraordinary muscular power, as well as undaunted courage, would seem to be required to enable a man to make his way against so many enemies. But this was not the fact. Chærea was of small stature and of a slender and delicate form. He was modest and unassuming in his manners, too, and of a very kind and gentle spirit. He was thus not only honored and admired for his courage, but he was generally beloved for the amiable and excellent qualities of his heart.

The possession of such qualities, however, could not be expected to recommend him particularly to the favor of the emperor. In fact, in one instance it had the contrary effect. Caligula assigned to the centurions of his guard, at one period, some duties connected with the collection of taxes. Chærea, instead of practicing the extortion and cruelty common on such occasions, was merciful and considerate, and governed himself strictly by the rules of law and of justice in his collections. The consequence necessarily was that the amount of money received was somewhat diminished, and the emperor was displeased. The occasion was, however, not one of sufficient importance to awaken in the monarch's mind any very serious anger, and so, instead of inflicting any heavy punishment upon the offender, he contented himself with attempting to tease and torment him with sundry vexatious indignities and annoyances.

It is the custom sometimes, in camps, and at other military stations, for the commander to give every evening, what is called the parole or password, which consists usually of some word or phrase that is to be communicated to all the officers, and as occasion may require to all the soldiers, whom for any reason it may be necessary to send to and fro [38] about the precincts of the camp during the night. The sentinels, also, all have the password, and accordingly, whenever any man approaches the post of a sentinel, he is stopped and the parole is demanded. If the stranger gives it correctly, it is presumed that all is right, and he is allowed to pass on,—since an enemy or a spy would have no means of knowing it.

Now, whenever it came to Chærea's turn to communicate the parole, the emperor was accustomed to give him some ridiculous or indecent phrase, intended not only to be offensive to the purity of Chærea's mind, but designed, also, to exhibit him in a ridiculous light to the subordinate officers and soldiers to whom he would have to communicate it. Sometimes the password thus given was some word or phrase wholly unfit to be spoken, and sometimes it was the name of some notorious and infamous woman; but whatever it was, Chærea was compelled by his duty as a soldier to deliver it to all the corps, and patiently to submit to the laughter and derision which his communication awakened among the vile and wicked soldiery.

If there was any dreadful punishment to be inflicted, or cruel deed of any kind to be performed, Caligula took great pleasure in assigning the duty to Chærea, knowing how abhorrent to his nature it must be. At one time a senator of great distinction named Propedius, was accused of treason by one of his enemies. His treason consisted, as the accuser alledged, of having spoken injurious words against the emperor. Propedius denied that he had ever spoken such words. The accuser, whose name was Timidius, cited a certain Quintilia, an actress, as his witness. Propedius was accordingly brought to trial, and Quintilia was called upon before the judges to give her testimony. She denied that she had ever heard Propedius utter any such sentiment as Timidius attributed to him. Timidius then said that Quintilia was testifying falsely: he declared that she had heard Propedius utter such words, and demanded that she should be put to the torture to compel her to acknowledge it. The emperor acceded to this demand, and commanded Chærea to put the actress to the torture.

It is, of course, always difficult to ascertain the precise truth in respect to such transactions as those that are connected with plots and conspiracies against tyrants, since every possible precaution is, of course, taken by all concerned to conceal what is done. It is probable, however, in this case, that Propedius had cherished some hostile designs against Caligula, if he had not uttered injurious words, and that Quintilia was in some measure in his confidence. It is even possible that Chærea may have been connected with them in some secret design, for it is said that when he received the orders of Caligula to put Quintilia to the torture he was greatly agitated and alarmed. If he should apply the torture severely, he feared that the unhappy sufferer might be induced to make confessions or statements at least, which would bring destruction on the men whom he most relied upon for the overthrow of Caligula. On the other hand, if he should attempt to spare her, the effect would be only to provoke the anger of Caligula against himself, without at all shielding or saving her. As, however, he was proceeding to the place of torture, in charge of his victim, with his mind in this state of anxiety and indecision, his fears were somewhat relieved by a private signal given to him by Quintilia, by which she intimated to him that he need feel no concern,—that she would be faithful and true, and would reveal nothing, whatever might be done to her.

This assurance, while it allayed in some degree Chærea's anxieties and fears, must have greatly increased the mental distress which he endured at the idea of leading such a woman to the awful suffering which awaited her. He could not, however, do otherwise than to proceed. Having arrived at the place of execution, the wretched Quintilia was put to the rack. She bore the agony which she endured while her limbs were stretched on the torturing engine, and her bones broken, with patient submission, to the end. She was then carried, fainting, helpless, and almost dead, to Caligula, who seemed now satisfied. He ordered the unhappy victim of the torture to be taken away, and directed that Propedius should be acquitted and discharged.

Of course while passing through this scene the mind of Chærea was in a tumult of agitation and excitement,—the anguish of mind which he must have felt in his compassion for the sufferer, mingling and contending with the desperate indignation which burned in his bosom against the author of all these miseries. He was wrought up, in fact, to such a state of frenzy by this transaction, that as soon as it was over he determined immediately to take measures to put Caligula to death. This was a very bold and desperate resolution. Caligula was the greatest and most powerful potentate on earth. Chærea was only a captain of his guard, without any political influence or power, and with no means whatever of screening himself from the terrible consequences which might be expected to follow from his attempt, whether it should succeed or fail.

So thoroughly, however, was he now aroused, that he determined to brave every danger in the attainment of his end. He immediately began to seek out among the officers of the army such men as he supposed would be most likely to join him,—men of courage, resolution, and faithfulness, and those who, from their general character or from the wrongs which they had individually endured from the government, were to be supposed specially hostile to Caligula's dominion. From among these men he selected a few, and to them he cautiously unfolded his designs. All approved of them. Some, it is true, declined taking any active part in the conspiracy, but they assured Chærea of their good wishes, and promised solemnly not to betray him.

The number of the conspirators daily increased. There was, however, at their meetings for consultation, some difference of opinion in respect to the course to be pursued. Some were in favor of acting promptly and at once. The greatest danger which was to be apprehended, they thought, was in delay. As the conspiracy became extended, some one would at length come to the knowledge of it, they said, who would betray them. Others, on the other hand, were for proceeding cautiously and slowly. What they most feared was rash and inconsiderate action. It would be ruinous to the enterprise, as they maintained, for them to attempt to act before their plans were fully matured.

Chærea was of the former opinion. He was very impatient to have the deed performed. He was ready himself, he said, to perform it, at any time; his personal duties as an officer of the guard, gave him frequent occasions of access to the emperor, and he was ready to avail himself of any of them to kill the monster. The emperor went often, he said, to the capitol, to offer sacrifices, and he could easily kill him there. Or, if they thought that that was too public an occasion, he could have an opportunity in the palace, at certain religious ceremonies which the emperor was accustomed to perform there, and at which Chærea himself was usually present. Or, he was ready to throw him down from a tower where he was accustomed to go sometimes for the purpose of scattering money among the populace below. Chærea said that he could easily come up behind him on such an occasion, and hurl him suddenly over the parapet down to the pavement below. All these plans, however, seemed to the conspirators too uncertain and dangerous, and Chærea's proposals were accordingly not agreed to.

At length, the time drew near when Caligula was to leave Rome to proceed to Alexandria in Egypt, and the conspirators perceived that they must prepare to act, or else abandon their design altogether. It had been arranged that there was to he a grand celebration at Rome previous to the emperor's departure. This celebration, which was to consist of games, and sports, and dramatic performances of various kinds, was to continue for three days, and the conspirators determined, after much consultation and debate, that Caligula should be assassinated on one of those days.

After coming to this conclusion, however, in general, their hearts seemed to fail them in fixing the precise time for the perpetration of the deed, and two of the three days passed away accordingly without any attempt being made. At length, on the morning of the third day, Chærea called the chief conspirators together, and urged them very earnestly not to let the present opportunity pass away. He represented to them how greatly they increased the danger of their attempts by such delays, and he seemed himself so full of determination and courage, and addressed them with so much eloquence and power, that he inspired them with his own resolution, and they decided unanimously to proceed.

The emperor came to the theater that day at an unusually early hour, and seemed to be in excellent spirits and in an excellent humor. He was very complaisant to all around him, and very lively, affable, and gay. After performing certain ceremonies, by which it devolved upon him to open the festivities of the day, he proceeded to his place, with his friends and favorites about him, and Chærea, with the other officers that day on guard, at a little distance behind him.

The performances were commenced, and every thing went on as usual until toward noon. The conspirators kept their plans profoundly secret, except that one of them, when he had taken his seat by the side of a distinguished senator, asked him whether he had heard any thing new. The senator replied that he had not. "I can then tell you something," said he, "which perhaps you have not heard, and that is, that in the piece which is to be acted to-day, there is to be represented the death of a tyrant." "Hush!" said the senator, and he quoted a verse from Homer, which meant, "Be silent, lest some Greek should overhear."

It had been the usual custom of the emperor, at such entertainments, to take a little recess about noon, for rest and refreshments. It devolved upon Chærea to wait upon him at this time, and to conduct him from his place in the theater to an adjoining apartment in his palace which was connected with the theater, where there was provided a bath and various refreshments. When the time arrived, and Chærea perceived, as he thought, that the emperor was about to go, he himself went out, and stationed himself in a passage-way leading to the bath, intending to intercept and assassinate the emperor when he should come along. The emperor, however, delayed his departure, having fallen into conversation with his courtiers and friends, and finally he said that, on the whole, as it was the last day of the festival, he would not go out to the bath, but would remain in the theater; and then ordering refreshments to be brought to him there, he proceeded to distribute them with great urbanity to the officers around him.

In the mean time, Chærea was patiently waiting in the passage-way, with his sword by his side, all ready for striking the blow the moment that his victim should appear. Of course the conspirators who remained behind were in a state of great suspense and anxiety, and one of them, named Minucianus, determined to go out and inform Chærea of the change in Caligula's plans. He accordingly attempted to rise, but Caligula put his hand upon his robe, saying, "Sit still, my friend. You shall go with me presently." Minucianus accordingly dissembled his anxiety and agitation of mind still a little longer, but presently, watching an opportunity when the emperor's attention was otherwise engaged, he rose, and, assuming an unconcerned and careless air, he walked out of the theater.

He found Chærea in his ambuscade in the passage-way, and he immediately informed him that the emperor had concluded not to come out. Chærea and Minucianus were then greatly at a loss what to do. Some of the other conspirators, who had followed Minucianus out, now joined them, and a brief but very earnest and solemn consultation ensued. After a moment's hesitation, Chærea declared that they must now go through with their work at all hazards, and he professed himself ready, if his comrades would sustain him in it, to go back to the theater, and stab the tyrant there in his seat, in the midst of his friends. Minucianus and the others concurred in this design, and it was resolved immediately to execute it.

The execution of the plan, however, in the precise form in which it had been resolved upon was prevented by a new turn which affairs had taken in the theater. For while Minucianus and the two or three conspirators who had accompanied him were debating in the passage-way, the others who remained, knowing that Chærea was expecting Caligula to go out, conceived the idea of attempting to persuade him to go, and thus to lead him into the snare which had been set for him. They accordingly gathered around, and without any appearance of concert or of eagerness, began to recommend him to go and take his bath as usual. He seemed at length disposed to yield to these persuasions, and rose from his seat; and then, the whole company attending and following him, he proceeded toward the doors which conducted to the palace. The conspirators went before him, and under pretense of clearing the way for him they contrived to remove to a little distance all whom they thought would be most disposed to render him any assistance. The consultations of Chærea and those who were with him in the inner passage-way were interrupted by the coming of this company.

Among those who walked with the emperor at this time were his uncle Claudius and other distinguished relatives. Caligula advanced along the passage, walking in company with these friends, and wholly unconscious of the fate that awaited him, but instead of going immediately toward the bath he turned aside first into a gallery or corridor which led into another apartment, where there were assembled a company of boys and girls, that had been sent to him from Asia to act and dance upon the stage, and who had just arrived. The emperor took great interest in looking at these performers, and seemed desirous of having them go immediately into the theater and let him see them perform. While talking on this subject Chærea and the other conspirators came into the apartment, determined now to strike the blow.

Chærea advanced to the emperor, and asked him in the usual manner what should be the parole for that night. The emperor gave him in reply such an one as he had often chosen before, to insult and degrade him. Chærea instead of receiving the insult meekly and patiently in his usual manner, uttered words of anger and defiance in reply; and drawing his sword at the same instant he struck the emperor across the neck and felled him to the floor. Caligula filled the apartment with his cries of pain and terror; the other conspirators rushed in and attacked him on all sides; his friends,—so far as the adherents of such a man can be called friends,—fled in dismay. As for Caligula's uncle Claudius, it was not to have been expected that he would have rendered his nephew any aid, for he was a man of such extraordinary mental imbecility that he was usually considered as not possessed even of common sense; and all the others who might have been expected to defend him, either fled from the scene, or stood by in consternation and amazement, leaving the conspirators to wreak their vengeance on their wretched victim, to the full.

In fact though while a despot lives and retains his power, thousands are ready to defend him and to execute his will, however much in heart they may hate and detest him, yet when he is dead, or when it is once certain that he is about to die, an instantaneous change takes place and every one turns against him. The multitudes in and around the theater and the palace who had an hour before trembled before this mighty potentate, and seemed to live only to do his bidding, were filled with joy to see him brought to the dust. The conspirators, when the success of their plans and the death of their oppressor was once certain, abandoned themselves to the most extravagant joy. They cut and stabbed the fallen body again and again, as if they could never enough wreak their vengeance upon it. They cut off pieces of the body and bit them with their teeth in their savage exultation and triumph. At length they left the body where it lay, and went forth into the city where all was now of course tumult and confusion.

The body remained where it had fallen until late at night. Then some attendants of the palace came and conveyed it away. They were sent, it was said, by Cæsonia, the wife of the murdered man. Cæsonia had an infant daughter at this time, and she remained herself with the child, in a retired apartment of the palace while these things were transpiring. Distracted with grief and terror at the tidings that she heard, she clung to her babe, and made the arrangements for the interment of the body of her husband without leaving its cradle. She imagined perhaps that there was no reason for supposing that she or the child were in any immediate danger, and accordingly she took no measures toward effecting an escape. If so, she did not understand the terrible frenzy to which the conspirators had been aroused, and for which the long series of cruelties and indignities which they had endured from her husband had prepared them. For at midnight one of them broke into her apartment, stabbed the mother in her chair, and taking the innocent infant from its cradle, killed it by beating its head against the wall.
Atrocious as this deed may seem, it was not altogether wanton and malignant cruelty which prompted it. The conspirators intended by the assassination of Caligula not merely to wreak their vengeance on a single man, but to bring to an end a hated race of tyrants; and they justified the murder of the wife and child by the plea that stern political necessity required them to exterminate the line, in order that no successor might subsequently arise to re-establish the power and renew the tyranny which they had brought to an end. The history of monarchies is continually presenting us with instances of innocent and helpless children sacrificed to such a supposed necessity as this.
Gary W2
arcadius-12mm.jpg
CAMPGATE, Arcadius384 viewsThis unusual reverse may depict a tall wall with a door and 2 windows, or the upper layer could be a building that was actually within the city walls. Another possibility is that the lower layer represents the main gate in the city wall and the upper layer represents a section of the wall elsewhere that had 2 doors. (Ray Wilk)1 commentsraywilk
Untitled-Stitched-0701.jpg
CAMPGATE, Constantine I265 viewsTitle: Constantinvs CampGate
Date: Struck 326-327 A.D.
Obverse: CONSTAN-TINVS AVG
Reverse: PROVIDEN-TIAE AVGG
Discription: Laureate head right
Discription: Campgate with six rows, two turrets, no doors, star above, top and bottom rows empty blocks.
Mint: •SMK Γ• in exergue
Cyzicus Mint Size: 19mm
Reference: Ref: RIC VII, 44 G
Rarity: c3
2 commentsracerx
Z1795LG.jpg
CAMPGATE, Constantine I, AE3 Cyzicus118 viewsAttribution: RIC 24 (RIC VII)

Mint: Cyzicus, Officina 2, SMKB

Date: 324-325 AD

Obverse: CONSTAN-TINVS AVG; laureate head right

Reverse: PROVIDEN-TIAE AVGG; Campgate with six rows, two turrets, no doors, star above, top and bottom rows empty blocks, SMKB in exergue

Size: 19mm x 20mm

Weight: 2.86 grams
1 commentsAnemicOak
Z4750LG.jpg
CAMPGATE, Constantine I, AE3 Siscia141 viewsAttribution: RIC 214 (RIC VII)

Mint: Siscia, Officina 3, ΓSIS double crescent

Date: 328-329 AD

Obverse: CONSTAN-TINVS AVG
Laureate head right

Reverse: PROVIDEN-TIAE AVGG
Campgate with eight rows, two turrets, no doors, star above, top row arches and dots in blocks, bottom row empty blocks ΓSIS double crescent in exergue

Size: 18mm x 19mm

Weight: 3.19 grams
2 commentsAnemicOak
Z5367LG.jpg
CAMPGATE, Constantine I, Arles156 viewsAttribution: RIC 313 (RIC VII)

Mint: Arles, Officina 2, ARLS

Date: 327 AD

Obverse: CONSTAN_TINVS AVG, Laureate head right

Reverse: VIRTV_S AVGG, Campgate with five rows, four turrets, open doors with four panels, top three panels each with two pellets, bottom panel with one pellet, star above, top and bottom rows empty blocks, S | F across fields, ARLS in exergue

Size: 19mm x 20mm

Weight: 3.50 grams

3 commentsAnemicOak
constantineI_RICvii225s_plg.jpg
CAMPGATE, Constantine I, Lugdunum711 viewsConstantine I:
CONSTAN_TINVS AVG
PROVIDEN_TAE AVGG
PLG - Lugdunum (Lyons, FR); 6 rows, 2 turrets, star
RIC vii225 Scarce,rarer varient with pellet in doorway, page 136; 20 mm, 3.1 grams
3 commentsbruce61813
Z4723LG.jpg
CAMPGATE, Constantine I, Nicomedia112 viewsAttribution: RIC 153 (RIC VII)

Mint: Nicomedia, Officina 3, SMNΓ

Date: 328-329 AD

Obverse: CONSTAN-TINVS AVG
Pearl-diademed head right

Reverse: PROVIDEN-TIAE AVGG
Campgate with six rows, two turrets, no doors, star above, top and bottom rows empty blocks
SMNΓ in exergue

Size: 18mm x 19mm

Weight: 2.99 grams
AnemicOak
ConVIINico90.jpg
CAMPGATE, Constantine I, Nicomedia RIC 90253 viewsEmperor: Constantine I (r. 307-337 AD)
Date: 324-325 AD
Condition: Very Fine
Size: AE3

Obverse: CONSTAN-TINVS AVG
Emperor Constantine
Bust right; laureate

Reverse: PROVIDEN-TIAE AVGG
The Emperors have foresight.
Camp gate, two turrets, no doors, star above, six stone layers.
Exergue: SMNE (Nicomedia mint, fifth officina)

RIC VII Nicomedia 90; VM 85
2.41g; 19.3mm; 330°
Pep
Constantine I PROVIDEN-TIAE AVGG RIC 286~0.jpg
CAMPGATE, Constantine I, PROVIDENTIAE AVGG RIC VII Arles 286304 viewsAE3, 19mm, 2.65g

Obverse: CONSTAN-TINVS AVG, ; Laureate head R.

Reverse: PROVIDEN-TIAE AVGG, gate with no door, five rows, two turrets, star above.

Exe: PA crescent RL (Arles, officina 1)

RIC V286, 325-6, S.
Robert_Brenchley
Paul5343_coin26.jpg
CAMPGATE, CONSTANTINE I, Siscia RIC VII 214285 viewsConstantine the Great AE3. 328-9 AD. CONSTANTINVS AVG, diademed head right / PROVIDENTIAE AVGG, campgate with two turrets & no doors, star above, ASIS(double-crescent) in ex. Paul5343
moneta 165~0.jpg
CAMPGATE, Constantine I, Thessalonica, RIC VII 475289 viewsAE3
obv: CONSTANTINVS AVG. Laureate bust right.
rev: PROVIDENTIAE AVGG. Campgate with no doors, six stone layers, two turrets, star above.
exergue: PTR dot in crescent
Struck 326 A.D. at Trier
RIC VII 475
Jericho
campgate2_ric216.jpg
CAMPGATE, Constantine II158 viewsAes, folles, 328-9 AD
obv. CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C
head laur.
rev. PROVIDEN-TIAE CAESS
Camp gate, two turrets; no doors; star above; varying number of layers
exe: epsilon SIS two crescents
Ref.: RIC VII 216 Siscia
Rarity: common
JaniO
constatinus_campgate_mini.jpg
CAMPGATE, Constantine II 325-326 AD 112 viewsAes, folles 325-326 AD
obv. CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C
bust laur., dr., cuir.
rev. PROVIDEN-TIAE CAESS
Campgate with two turrets, no doors; varying number of stone layers; star above.
exe: SMH gamma (Heraclea)
Ref.: RIC VII Heraclea 77
Rarity: C1 (common)
JaniO
10639LG.jpg
CAMPGATE, Constantine II, AE3 from Killingholme Hoard121 viewsAttribution: RIC 322 (RIC VII)

Mint: Constantina (Arles), Officina 3, TCONST

Date: 328 AD

Obverse: CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C; Laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust left

Reverse: VIRTVS CAESS; Campgate with open doors and four braziers, star above, S | F across field, TCONST in exergue

Size: 20.48mm

Weight: 3.1 grams

Ex Spinks from the Killingholme hoard
1 commentsAnemicOak
12716.jpg
CAMPGATE, Constantine II, Cyzicus101 viewsAttribution: RIC 63 (RIC VII)

Mint: Cyzicus, SMKΓ

Date: 329-330 AD

Obverse: CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C, Bust left

Reverse: PROVIDEN-TIAE CAESS, Camp gate with two turrets, no doors, star above

Size: 19.66mm

Weight: 3.3 grams
AnemicOak
130248LG.jpg
CAMPGATE, Constantine II, Heraclea122 viewsAttribution: RIC 67 (RIC VII)

Mint: Heraclea, Officina 3, .SMHΓ.

Date: 324 AD

Obverse: CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C, Laureate, draped, cuirassed bust right

Reverse: PROVIDEN_TIAE CAESS, Campgate with six rows, two turrets, no doors, star above, top and bottom rows empty blocks
.SMHΓ. in exergue
1 commentsAnemicOak
Con2 2~0.jpg
CAMPGATE, Constantine II, RIC VII 67, Heraclea251 viewsObv: CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C
Bust: Laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right
Rev: PROVIDENTIAE CAESS
Campgate, no door, 3 turrets, star above. 6 layers.
Exe: (dot) SMHA (dot)
Date: 317-329 AD
Denom: Ae3
Rated "R4"
From the collection of Bluefish
Bluefish
rm0403siliqua1.jpg
CAMPGATE, Constantius I, AR Argenteus295 viewsConstantius I AR Argenteus. 294-305 AD.

Obverse: CONSTANT[I]-VS CAESAR (Laureate head right).
Reverse: PROVIDEN-T[I]A AVGG* or dot (4 Turrets on Campgate w/ Open Doors and
Star over doors)
Exergue: SMNT
Diameter: 19mm
Weight: 2.52 Grams
Condition: F/aF - Flan crack at 11:00, strong portrait, weak reverse.
Attribution: RSC 240b
Gunner
ArlesDoors.jpg
CAMPGATE, Constantius II, Arles101 viewsCampgate with open doorsAnemicOak
Paul5343_coin28s.jpg
CAMPGATE, Crispus, Cyzicus RIC VII 25244 viewsCrispus AE3. FL IVL CRISPVS NOB CAES, laureate bust left, draped and cuirassed / PROVIDEN-TIAE CAESS, campgate with two

turrets, no door and one star above, SMKB in ex.
Paul5343
Z5200LG.jpg
CAMPGATE, Crispus, Heraclea97 viewsAttribution: RIC 75 (RIC VII)

Mint: Heraclea, Officina 3, SMHΓ

Date: 325-326 AD

Obverse: CRISPVS-NOB CAES, Laureate, draped, cuirassed bust right

Reverse: PROVIDEN-TIAE CAESS, Campgate with six rows, two turrets, no doors, star above, top and bottom rows empty blocks
SMHΓ in exergue

Size: 19mm x 20mm

Weight: 2.97 grams

ex Beast
AnemicOak
CJSII-0430h.jpg
CAMPGATE, Crispus, RIC VII 266 Rome - RS223 viewsFL IVL CRISPVS NOB CAES; PROVIDENTIAE CAESS; Laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust left; two turrets, eight rows, star above, pellet in doorway; RS in exerguecscoppa
CJSII-0660H.jpg
CAMPGATE, Crispus, RIC VII 292 Arelate (Arles)279 viewsCRISPVS NOB CAES; VIRTVS CAESS; Laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust left; four turrets (pellet over each turret), with star above, open doors, six rows of blocks, with TA "crescent" RL in ex.
from the collection of cscoppa
cscoppa
licinius_campgate_mini.jpg
CAMPGATE, Licinius I, AE3 318-320 AD118 viewsLicinius I AE3.
obv. IMP LICI-NIVS AVG,
laureate, draped bust left holding eagle-tipped sceptre & mappa
rev. PROVIDEN-TIAE AVGG,
campgate, 3 turrets, 6 layers, no star above, no doors; Right field: dot
Mintmark: SMHA
Ref.: RIC VII Heraclea 29
Rarity: R2
Janus
RI 155b img~0.jpg
CAMPGATE, Lininius I, Heraclea, RIC 17213 viewsObv:– IMP LICINIVS AVG, Laureate bust left wearing Imperial mantle and holding mappa, sceptre and globe
Rev:– PROVIDENTIAE AVGG, Campgate with 3 turrets, no door, 2 stars above, 7 rows of bricks
Minted in Heraclea (MHTΔ) in A.D. 317
Reference:– RIC VII 17 (R2)
maridvnvm
1Arcadio_porta_angolo_acuto.jpg
Campgate: Arcadio, zecca di Tessalonica, III officina. Porta ad angolo acuto14 viewsArcadius, AE4, campgate, Thessalonica mint
AE, 1.215 gr, 11.9mm, 0°, aVF, S
D/ D N ARCADIVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right
R/ GLORIA REI-PVBLICE, campgate with tall door and two turrets, Γ left, TES in ex
RIC IX Thessalonica 62(c)
Provenienza: collezione Berardengo (Roma, Italia, dal 30 gennaio 2015, numero catalogo 232), ex FAC 2014
paolo
Arcadio_campagate.jpg
Campgate: Arcadio, zecca di Tessalonica, III officina. Porta ad angolo tondo28 viewsArcadius (383 - 408 A.D), Thessalonica mint
AE 4, 1.211 gr. 11.8 mm, 180°, aVF, R
D/ D N ARCADIVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right
R/ GLORIA REI-PVBLICE, campgate with tall door, two arched windows on mid-level and two turrets, G (3rd officina) in left field, TES in ex;
RIC IX 62(c) var, LRBC 1866 var
Provenienza: ex FAC (novembre 2012)
paolo
1rubata_Costantino_I_London.jpg
Campgate: Constantine I, AE3, Londinum mint, I officina 10 viewsConstantine I, AE3, Londinum mint, I officina (c. AD 324-325)
AE, 19mm, 3.11gm, 6h, C3
D/ CONSTANTINVS AVG, laureate head right
R/ PROVIDENTIAE AVGG, campgate with two turrets, star above, pellet in doorway; in ex PLON
RIC VII, p. 116, 293n; LRBC I, 2v (without pellet)
Provenienza: collezione Berardengo, Roma Italia (acquistata il 1 marzo 2013, DISPERSA NEL TRASPORTO POSTALE), ex David L. Tranbarger collection (Anderson, IN Usa, fino al 2013)
paolo
Costantino_I_open.jpg
Campgate: Costantino I , AE3 porte aperte, zecca di Arlate30 viewsConstantine I (327 AD), Arles mint
AE, 2.05 gr, 18.5 mm., S
D/ CONSTANTINVS AVG, Constantine pearl-diadem right
R/ VIRTVS AVGG, S/F in fields, ARLS in ex, campgate with 4 turrets, star above, open doors
RIC VII Arles 314
Provenienza: collezione Berardengo, Roma Italia (11 febbraio 2013, numero catalogo 174); ex Ron Bude collection (Roman Lode, Plymouth, Michigan Usa, fino al 2013).
paolo
Costantino_I_Costantinopoli.jpg
Campgate: Costantino I, AE follis, zecca di Costantinopoli22 viewsConstantine I, AE follis, Constantinople mint
AE, 3.74 gr, 18 mm, S
D/ CONSTAN-TINVS AVG, laureate head right
R/ PROVIDEN-TIAE AVGG, camp-gate with no doors and two turrets, on a base, star above; A in left field, mintmark in ex CONS
RIC VII 7 Constantinople type 2
Provenienza: collezione Berardengo, Roma Italia (1 marzo 2013, numero catalogo 182); ex Hussam M. Zurqieh collection (Dubai, United Arab Emirates, fino al 2013)
paolo
Costantino_I_Antiochia.jpg
Campgate: Costantino I, AE3, zecca di Antiochia, II officina16 viewsConstantine I, AE3, Antiochia mint, II officina
AE, 2,7 gr, 19 mm, R3
D/ CONSTANTINVS AVG, head right wearing diadem decorated with square rosettes
R/ PROVIDEN-TIAE AVGG, campgate, 2 turrets, 13 layers, star above, no doors, SMANTB(beta) in ex
RIC VII Antioch 78
Provenienza: collezione Berardengo, Roma Italia (1 marzo 2013, numero catalogo 184), ex David Connors collection (Mount Vernon, WA Usa, fino al 2013)
paolo
Costantino_I_Haeraclea_Tammaro.jpg
Campgate: Costantino I, AE3, zecca di Heraclea II officina27 viewsConstantine AE Follis, (struck 317 AD), Haeraclea mint, II officina
AE, 2,9 gr, 19 mm, R1
D/ IMP CONSTA-NTINVS AVG, laureate and draped bust left, holding mappa in right hand & globe with sceptre in left hand
R/ PROVIDEN-TIAE AVGG, campgate with three turrets, no door, six layers. Mintmark SMHB.
RIC VII 28 Haeraclea
Nota: la H in ex assomiglia a una N (Nicomedia) , ma è senz'altro H perché Haeraclea è l'unica zecca che ha prodotto un campgate associato a questo tipo di busto rivolto a sx
Provenienza: collezione Berardengo, Roma Italia (8 marzo 2013, numero catalogo 187); ex collezione Nicola Tammaro (Napoli, Italia, fino al 2013), ex Alistair MacKay collection (Rothwell, Northamptonshire, Uk, fino al 2012)
paolo
1Costantino_I_Nicomedia_unite.jpg
Campgate: Costantino I, AE3, zecca di Nicomedia, II officina 20 viewsConstantine I AE3. Nicomedia mint, II officina (324-325 AD)
AE, 2,6 gr, 18 mm
D/ CONSTAN-TINVS AVG, laureate head right
R/ PROVIDEN-TIAE AVGG, campgate with two turrets & star above, no door, SMNB in ex
Ric VII 90b Nicomedia
Provenienza: collezione Berardengo, Roma Italia (8 marzo 2013, numero catalogo 188); ex collezione Nicola Tammaro (Napoli, Italia, fino al 2013)
paolo
Costantino_campgate.jpg
Campgate: Costantino I, zecca di Lugdunum, Officina 116 viewsConstantine I, AE3, 324-325, Lugdunum, Officina 1
AE, 17,91 mm, 2,9 gr, B
CONSTAN_TINVS AVG, Laureate head right
PROVIDEN_TIAE AVGG, Campgate with six rows, two turrets, no doors, star above, top and bottom rows empty blocks
PLG in exergue
RIC VII, 225
Provenienza: collezione Berardengo (Roma Italia, dal 20/12/2013, numero catalogo 191), ex collezione Nicola Tammaro (Napoli, dal dicembre 2010 al dicembre 2013), ex Gert Boersema (Olanda, dall'ottobre al dicembre 2010), ex Cng 242, lotto 401 (13 ottobre 2010), ex White Mountain collection (Pierre A.Zanchi, Le Lode Svizzera, prima del 2010).
paolo
Costantino_II_Antiochia.jpg
Campgate: Costantino II zecca di Antiochia I officina15 viewsCostantino II, AE3, zecca di Antiochia, I officina, (326-327 d.C.)
AE, 3.251 gr, 19.9 mm, 315°, aVF
D/ CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust left
R/ PROVIDENTIAE CAESS, campgate with two turrets and star above, dot in doorway, SMANTA in ex;
RIC VII 73
Provenienza. collezione Berardengo (Roma, Italia 14 febbraio 2014, numero catalogo 198), ex FAC (Morehead City, NC, Usa, dal 2013)
paolo
1Costantino_II_Arles_unito.jpg
Campgate: Costantino II, AE follis, zecca di Arles (327 d.C.)14 viewsConstantine II, campgate, Arles mint, (327 AD)
AE, 2,45 gr, 20 mm
D/ CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust left
R/ PROVIDENTIAE CAESS, campgate with six rows, two turrets, no doors, star above, top and bottom rows empty blocks, S-F across fields. Mintmark ARLT
Ric VII 311
Provenienza: collezione Berardengo (Roma, Italia dal 3 giugno 2017, numero catalogo 281), ex Serge Billet (Nemesis) collection (Saint Omer, France, fino al giugno 2017)
paolo
Costantino_II_VIRTVS_a_posto.jpg
Campgate: Costantino II, AE follis, zecca di Arles R/ VIRTVS12 viewsConstantine II, Arles, (325-326 d.C.)
AE3, 19 mm; 2.6 gr.
D/ CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C, laureate, draped, cuirassed bust left
R/ VIRTVS CAESS, Campgate with eleven rows, four turrets, open doors with three panels each, star above. Mintmark TA crescent RL.
RIC VII Arles 294.
Provenienza: collezione Berardengo (Roma, Italia, dal 31 agosto 2016, numero catalogo 257); ex collezione Fjorald Bleta (Anguillara Sabazia, Roma, fino all'agosto 2016)
paolo
Costantino_II_massip_zecca_Londra.jpg
Campgate: Costantino II, AE follis, zecca di Londinium15 viewsConstantine II as Caesar, AE follis, Londinium mint (324-325 AD)
AE, 2.06 gr, 18,5 mm, 160°
D/ CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust facing to the right, seen from behind
R/ PROVIDEN✴TIAE CAESS, campgate with two turrets, an open door and six layers of masonry. PLON in ex
RIC VII Londinum 296
Provenienza: collezione Berardengo, Roma Italia (21 febbraio 2013, numero catalogo 176); ex Masis Panos collection (Leyton, London, fino al 2013)
paolo
Costantino_II_Trier_unita.jpg
Campgate: Costantino II, AE Follis, zecca di Treviri18 viewsConstantine II as Caesar (317-337). AE, Treveri mint.
AE. gr. 3.77 19mm., AboutEF
D/ CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C, laureate, draped, cuirassed bust left
R/ PROVIDENTIAE CAESS, campgate with two turrets, six layers, star above, no doors, STRE in ex
RIC 505 Trier
Provenienza: collezione Berardengo (Roma, Italia dal 9 febbraio 2014, numero catalogo 197), ex Artemide aste (San Marino, 9 febbraio 2014, lotto 506), ex "The collection of an english gentleman" fino al 2013.
paolo
Costantino_II_Lione.JPG
Campgate: Costantino II, AE18, zecca di Lugdunum16 viewsConstantine II AE18, Lugdunum mint (324-325 AD)
AE, 2.96 gr, 17.99 mm, R
D/ CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C, laureate, draped, cuirassed bust left
R/ PROVIDEN-TIAE CAESS, campgate, six layers, two turrets, star above, no doors. PLG (resembling PLC) in ex
RIC VII Lyons 231; cf Sear 3948 (bust type)
Origin: collezione Berardengo (Roma, Italia dal 13 maggio 2014, numero catalogo 213), ex Timeline originals (Upminster, Essex, dal maggio 2010)
Remark: published (this coin) on wildwinds.com
paolo
1inattr.jpg
Campgate: Costantino II, AE3, zecca di Nicomedia13 viewsCostantino II, AE3, zecca di Nicomedia
AE, 2,727 gr, 19,8 mm, 180°
D/ CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C, laureate, draped & cuirassed bust left
R/ PROVIDENTIA CAESS, campgate with two turrets, star above, no door, SMNgamma
RIC VII 93 Nicomedia
Provenienza: collezione Berardengo (Roma, Italia, 17 febbraio 2014, numero catalogo 196), ex FAC (Morehead City, Usa, fino al 2013)
paolo
1Costantino_II_Alexandria.jpg
Campgate: Costantino II, AE4, zecca di Alessandria9 viewsConstantine II, AE4, R2
AE, 2,7 gr, 18,84 mm
D/ CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust left
R/ PROVIDEN-TIAE CAESS, campgate, 2 turrets, 6 layers, star above, no doors, SMALB in ex (officina letter B in ex)
RIC VII 36 Alexandria
Provenienza: collezione Berardengo (Roma Italia, dall'8/1/2014, numero catalogo 194), ex Michael Godier collection (Ecin Associates, O' Fallon MO Usa, fino al 2013)
paolo
1Constantino_II_Ticinum.JPG
Campgate: Costantino II, zecca di Ticinum12 viewsCONSTANTINE II, as Caesar. (317-337 AD). Ticinum mint, Struck 326 AD
Æ Follis, 18 mm, 3.26 gr, R3
D/ CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right
R /PROVIDEN-TIAE CAESS, camp-gate with no doors and two turrets, star above; S palm T
RIC VII 200, LRBC 497
Provenienza: collezione Berardengo (Roma, Italia, dal 4 luglio 2015, numero catalogo 247), ex Antonio Hinojosa Pareja collection (Ceuta y Melilla
España, fino al luglio 2015)
paolo
1costanzo_II_Tessalonica_V_officina.jpg
Campgate: Costanzo II Cesare, zecca di Tessalonica 5° officina29 viewsConstantius II (326-328 AD), follis, Thessalonica mint, 5° officina
AE, 2,42 gr, 20 mm, S
D/ FL IVL CONSTANTIVS NOB C, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust facing to the right
R/ PROVIDEN-TIAE CAESS, campgate with two turrets, no doors and a ✵ above, SMTSepsilon (Thessalonica) in ex
RIC VII Thessalonica 158
Provenienza: collezione Berardengo (Roma, Italia, dall' 8 giugno 2015, numero catalogo 242), ex Richard De Marco collection (Apsley, Hemel Hempstead, UK, Hertfordshire fino al 7 giugno 2015)
1 commentspaolo
Costanzo_II_massisp_london.JPG
Campgate: Costanzo II Cesare, zecca di Tessalonica II officina23 viewsConstantius II As Cæsar (324 - 337 A D), follis, Thessalonica mint, II officina
AE, 2.43 gr, 17.9 x 17.3 mm, 150°
D/ FL IVL CONSTANTIVS NOB C, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust facing to the right. Seen from the front.
R/ PROVIDEN-TIAE CAESS, campgate with two turrets, seven layers of masonry, a base, a ● in five windows, no doors and a ✵ above, SMTSB (Thessalonica) in ex
RIC VII Thessalonica 158 type 2
Provenienza: collezione Berardengo, Roma Italia (19 dicembre 2012, numero catalogo 166); ex Masis Panos collection (Leyton, London, fino al 2012)
paolo
Costanzo_Alessandria.jpg
Campgate: Costanzo II, AE follis, zecca di Alessandria33 viewsConstantius II, AE Follis (c. 325-326 AD), Alexandria
AE, 3.20 gr, 19,01 mm, R2
D/ FL IVL CONSTANTIVS NOB C, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust l.
R/ PROVIDENTIAE CAESS, camp gate with two turrets, no doors; star above; SMALB in ex
RIC VII Alexandria 37
Provenienza: collezione Berardengo (Roma, Italia, 6 marzo 2014, numero catalogo 208), ex Hussam M. Zurqieh collection (Dubai, United Arab Emirates, fino al 2014)
paolo
Costanzo_II_Roma_unita.jpg
Campgate: Costanzo II, AE3, Rome mint20 viewsConstantius II, AE3, zecca di Roma (326 d.C.)
AE, 2.94 gr, 17.5 mm, 20°, R1
D/ FL VAL CONSTANTIVS NOB C, laureate, draped & cuirassed bust left
R/ PROVIDENTIAE CAESS, campgate with 2 turrets, 6 layers, star above, & no doors, R(wreath)Q in ex
RIC VII Roma 290
Provenienza: collezione Berardengo, Roma Italia (dal 2 marzo 2014, numero catalogo 202), ex Masis Panos collection (Leyton, London, Uk fino al marzo 2014)
paolo
1Costanzo_Arles.jpg
Campgate: Costanzo II, AE3, zecca di Arles13 viewsConstantius II as Caesar, Arles mint (328 d.C.)
AE, 19.9 mm, 2.99 gr
D/ FL IVL CONSTANTIVS NOB C, Costanzo a sx
R/ VIRTVS CAESS, S/F in fields, QCONST in ex, Campgate with 4 turrets and open doors
RIC VII 323 for Arles
Provenienza: collezione Berardengo (Roma, Italia, dal 1 marzo 2015, numero catalogo 239), ex Ron Bude collection (Roman Lode, Plymouth, MI, Usa, fino al 2015)
paolo
Costanzo_II_Heraclea_unita.jpg
Campgate: Costanzo II, AE3, zecca di Heraclea , I officina21 viewsConstantius II AE3. 325-326 AD.
3.16 g, 19 x 18.9 x 1.2 mm, 330°
FL IVL CONSTANTIVS NOB C, laureate, draped & cuirassed bust left / PROVIDEN-TIAE CAESS, Camp gate with two turrets, no doors; above, star; SMHA in ex
RIC VII Heraclea 78
Provenienza: collezione Berardengo, Roma Italia (dal 2 marzo 2014, numero catalogo 201), ex Masis Panos collection (Leyton, London, Uk fino al marzo 2014)
paolo
1Crispo_Treviri.jpg
Campgate: Crispus, AE follis, zecca di Treviri, II officina17 viewsCrispus AE Follis, Trier mint (326 AD)
AE, 3.66 gr, 19 mm
D/ FL IVL CRISPVS NOB CAES, laureate bust left
R/ PROVIDEN-TIAE CAESS, Campgate with 2 turrets, 6 layers, no doors; STR dot-in-crescent in ex
RIC VII 477
Provenienza: collezione Berardengo (Roma, Italia, 24 giugno 2014, numero catalogo 214), ex Richard Beale collection (Roma Numismatics, Mayfair, London, Uk, fino al 2014)
paolo
1crispolondinum.JPG
Campgate: Crispus, zecca di Londinium, (324-325 d.C.)9 viewsCrispus as Caesar, (317-326 AD). Londinum mint
Æ Follis, 3,63 gr., 20 mm.
D/ FL IVL CRISPVS NOB CAES, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right
R/ PROVIDEN-TIAE CAESS, camp-gate with no doors and two turrets, star above; PLON in ex
RIC VII 295
Provenienza: collezione Berardengo (Roma, Italia dal 23 febbraio 2015, numero catalogo 237); ex Antonio Hinojosa Pareja collection (Alcalá la Real, España, fino al 2015)
paolo
1FV_unito.jpg
Campgate: Flavius Victor, AE3, zecca di Lugdunum (?)14 viewsFlavius Victor (AD 387-388), AE3, Lugdunum (?) mint
AE, 0,95 gr, 13 mm, R
D/ DN FL VIC-TOR PF AVG, pearl-diademed, draped, cuirassed bust right
R/ SPES RO-MA-NORVM, campgate, four layers, two turrets, no doors, LVGP in ex.
RIC IX Lugdunum 36b
Nota: l'identificazione della zecca è dubbia per le condizioni dell'ex. Compatibile con: SMAQP (Aquileia)
Provenienza: collezione Berardengo, Roma Italia (20 marzo 2013, numero catalogo 181), ex Ludovic Dellery collection (Dijon France, fino al 2013)
paolo
1rubata_Licinio_I.jpg
Campgate: Licinius I, AE3, reduced follis, Haeraclea mint13 viewsLicinius I, AE3, 317 AD, reduced follis, Haeraclea mint
AE, 20mm, 2.91gr
D/ IMP LICI-NIVS AVG, Laureate draped bust left with globe, sceptre & mappa
R/ PROVIDENTIAE AVGG, three-turreted camp gate, 7 layers, no doors; MHTA in ex
RIC VII 17 Haeraclea
Provenienza: collezione Berardengo, Roma Italia ( acquistata il 28 marzo 2013, DISPERSA NEL TRASPORTO POSTALE); ex De La Fè collection (Imperial, New York Usa, fino al 2013)
paolo
valentiniano_II_Beasley.jpg
Campgate: Valentiniano II, zecca di Tessalonica I officina, Beasley collection35 viewsValentinian II, AE4 (383-388, Fifth Period), Thessalonica mint, I Officina
AE, 12mm, 1.75 gr, S
D/ D N VALENTINIANVS [P F AVG], pearl-diademed, draped, cuirassed bust right
R/ [GLORIA REI_]PVBLICE, Campgate with four rows, two turrets, no doors, no star above, top and bottom rows empty blocks
A in left field, TES in ex
RIC IX, 62(a)2
Provenienza: collezione Berardengo, Roma Italia (26 agosto 2010, numero archivio 2), ex Bill Puetz & Barry Murphy collection - Vcoins (Gainesville, Missouri Usa, 2010), ex Zachary Beasley collection of camp gates (prima del 2010)
paolo
Constantine_the_Great.jpg
Campgate; RIC 81 Antioch16 viewsConstantine the Great Antioch campgate, Bronze AE 3, RIC VII 81, choice aEF, 3.344g, 19.2mm, 0o, Antioch mint, 327 - 328 A.D.; obverse CONSTAN-TINVS AVG, diademed head right; reverse PROVIDEN-TIAE AVGG, campgate with two turrets, star above, dot in doorway, SMANTG in ex; scarce (RIC R3); ex FORVM, photo credit FORVM

1 commentsPodiceps
gordian_hadrianop_gate_b~0.jpg
CITY-GATE, GORDIAN III -- HADRIANOPOLIS88 viewsGORDIAN III
238 - 244 AD
AE 27 mm; 11.30 g
O: AΥT K M ANT ΓOΡΔIANOC AΓ, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right, from behind;
R: AΔΡIANOΠOΛEITΩN, city gate with two towers, conical roofs, no doors
Thrace, Hadrianopolis mint; cf Varbanov 3757/3759, Moushmov 2701
d.s.
laney
nikopolis_23_macrinus_HrHJ(2013)8_23_46_04corr+.jpg
CITY-GATE, Macrinus, Moesia inferior, Nikopolis ad Istrum, 23. HrHJ (2013) 8.23.46.04 corr. (plate coin)110 viewsMacrinus, AD 217-218
AE 27, 14.01g, 27.34mm, 45°
struck under governor Marcus Claudius Agrippa
obv. AV K OPPEL CE - VH MAKRINOC
bust, laureate, r.
rev. VP AGRIPPA NIKOPOLITWN PROC / C ICTRW
city-gate with three towers, all with three pinnacles, closed double-door
ref. a) not in AMNG:
cf. AMNG I/1, 1826 (for Diadumenian)
b) Varbanov (engl.) 3383
c) Hristova/Hoeft/Jekov (2013) No. 8.23.46.4 corr. (plate coin)
writes NIKOPOLEITWN
very rare, VF/EF, dark-brown patina, a wunderful coin!
2 commentsJochen
106727q00.jpg
CITY-GATE, Septimius Severus, MOESIA INFERIOR, Nicopolis.193-211 AD 19 viewsMOESIA INFERIOR, Nicopolis. Septimius Severus. 193-211 AD. Æ 26mm (10.18 gm: h 8). Aurelius Gallus, magistrate. AVT L CEPT CEVHP PER, laureate head right / UP AUP GALLOU NIKOPOLEITWN PROC ICTP, city gate, small temple seen through doorway, ornate large colonnaded building above. AMNG I 1331; BMC Thrace pg. 42, 7; SNG Copenhagen -; Price & Trell 45 (fig. 26). Sear GIC 2124. H&J 8.14.46.1 (R7); Varbanov 2733 (R6)
Very rare, dark green patina, near extremely fine.
Ex Gorny & Mosch 186, 8 March 2010, lot 1524
2 commentsAncient Aussie
Commodus.png
Commodus Sestertius9 viewsI got this this spring in Paris while attending a conference. I had a few hours to kill around 'Bourse' and visited to coin shops there. Of the few stores I went in, this one had the grumpiest owner/clerk. The guy was inspecting some coins of his very carefully as I rang the bell, and seemed annoyed that me, a customer, had wondered in and disturbed him, that he had to buzz the door open. He was eager to get back to his coins... I liked that and it made me like the store even more.
Alex F
collage3~11.jpg
Constantina, Constantius II44 viewsConstantius II

FL IVL CONSTANTIVS NOB C
Laureate, draped, cuirassed bust left

VIRTVS- CAESS
Campgate with six rows, four turrets, open doors with two pellets, star above
S | F across fields

QCONST


RIC 323
arizonarobin
017~1.JPG
Constantine 62 viewsConstantine AE3. 328-9 AD. CONSTANTINVS AVG, diademed head right / PROVIDENTIAE AVGG, campgate with two turrets & no doors, star above, BSIS(double-crescent) in ex. Siscia
RIC VII 214,B (C3)
2 commentsRandygeki(h2)
constantinocamp~0.jpg
CONSTANTINE18 viewsÆ Follis. Antioch, 326-7 AD . 2,20grs. 12h. Rosette diademed head right. CONSTANTINVS AVG / Camp gate with two turrets, no door, star above, ten stone layers, • in doorway. PROVIDENTIAE AVGG. In exergue SMANTA.
RIC 81.
benito
constantinocamp.jpg
CONSTANTINE I19 viewsÆ Follis. Antioch, 326-7 AD . 2,20grs. 12h. Rosette diademed head right. CONSTANTINVS AVG / Camp gate with two turrets, no door, star above, ten stone layers, • in doorway. PROVIDENTIAE AVGG. In exergue SMANTA.
RIC 81.
benito
Constantine_I_RIC_287.JPG
Constantine I "the Great," 307 - 337 AD 34 viewsObv: CONSTANTINVS AVG, laureate head of Constantine I facing right.

Rev: PROVIDENTIAE AVGG, a camp-gate with seven rows, two turrets, no door, star above; R-wreath-P in exergue.

Billon Centenionalis, Rome mint, 1st Officina, 326 AD

2.7 grams, 18 mm, 180°

RIC VII Rome 287, S16250, VM 85
1 commentsSPQR Coins
00223.jpg
Constantine I (RIC 313, Coin #223)10 viewsRIC 313, Silvered AE3, Arles, 327 AD.
Obv: CONSTANTINVS AVG Laureate bust right.
Rev: VIRTVS AVG (ARLS) Campgate with open doors, 4 turrets, star above, S F in fields.
Size: 20.0mm 2.50gm
MaynardGee
00224.jpg
Constantine I (RIC 71, Coin #224)13 viewsRIC 71, AE3, Antioch, 326-327 AD.
Obv: CONSTANTINVS AVG Laureat head right.
Rev: PROVIDENTIAE AVGG (SMANT epsilon) Campgate with dot in door.
Size: 19.6mm 2.68gm
MaynardGee
00380.jpg
Constantine I (RIC 71, Coin #380)14 viewsRIC 71, AE3, Antioch, 326 - 327 AD.
Obv: CONSTANTINVS AVG Laureate head right.
Rev: PROVIDENTIAE AVGG (SMANT Gamma) Campgate with two turrets, star above, dot in door-way.
Size: 19.5mm 3.00gm
MaynardGee
con_i_doorway_camp_res.jpg
CONSTANTINE I -- CAMPGATE38 viewsAE 19 X 20 mm 2.71 g
307 - 337 AD
OBV: CONSTANTINVS AVG
DIAD DR BUST R
REV: PROVIDENTIAE AVGG
CAMPGATE, 2 TURRETS, 10 ROWS, STAR ABOVE, D/E IN FIELDS, PELLET IN DOORWAY
SMANTG IN EXE
ANTIOCH
RIC 71 (R2 Rare)
(especially rare with officina mark in fields)
laney
constantine_smantg.jpg
CONSTANTINE I -- CAMPGATE52 views307 - 337 AD
AE 18.5 mm max. 2.90 g
O: CONSTANTINVS AVG, laureate head right
R: PROVIDENTIAE AVGG, campgate with two turrets, no door, star above,
SMANTG in exe
Antioch
RIC VII 63 (R1 Rare)

1 commentslaney
constantine_smkd.jpg
CONSTANTINE I -- CAMPGATE28 views307 - 337 AD
AE 20 mm 2.95 g
O: CONSTANTINVS AVG, laureate head right
R: PROVIDENTIAE AVGG, campgate, no doors, two turrets, star above
Dot SMKA Dot in exe
Cyzicus
RIC VII 44
laney
constantine_smantz.jpg
CONSTANTINE I -- CAMPGATE44 views307 - 337 AD
AE 19 mm 3.1 g
O: CONSTANTINVS AVG, diademed head right
R: PROVIDENTIAE AVGG, campgate with two turrets, star above, no doors
SMANTZ in exe.
Antioch
RIC VII 78 (R3 Rare)
2 commentslaney
constantine_smanta.jpg
CONSTANTINE I -- CAMPGATE40 views307 - 337 AD
Struck 327 - 328 AD
AE 18.5X21 mm 2.84 g
Constantine I, AE3, 327-328, Antioch, Officina 2
O: CONSTAN_TINVS AVG
Laurel and ladder diademed head right
R: PROVIDEN_TIAE AVGG
Campgate with nine rows, two turrets, no doors, star above
Pellet in doorway
SMANTA in exergue
RIC VII, 81 (R4, Rare)
1 commentslaney
constantine_campgate_r_10_10.jpg
CONSTANTINE I -- CAMPGATE37 views CONSTANTINE I--CAMPGATE
307 - 337 AD
AE 18.5 mm 2.96 g
O: CONSTANTINVS AVG, laureate head right
R: PROVIDENTIAE AVGG, campgate with two turrets, no door, dot in doorway, star above, D in left field, E in right
SMANT in exe Antioch RIC VII 71 (R2 Rare)
1 commentslaney
cons_camp_1_9_24_res.jpg
CONSTANTINE I -- CAMPGATE13 views307 - 337 AD
struck 328 -329 AD
AE Follis 19.5 mm; 2.57 g
O: CONSTANTINVS AVG, laureate head right
R: PROVIDENTIAE AVGG, camp gate with two turrets, no door, star above, seven stone layers, SMNB in exergue.
Nicomedia mint
laney
con_cg_c_9_res.jpg
CONSTANTINE I -- CAMPGATE19 views307 - 337 AD
AE Follis 18.5 mm; 2.09 g
CONSTAN-TINVS AVG Laureate bust right
PROVIDEN-TIAE AVGG camp gate, two turrets, no doors, star above
In ex. R wreath S
Rome mint

laney
const_camdr.jpg
Constantine I AE follis. 325-326 AD.15 viewsConstantine I AE follis. 325-326 AD. CONSTANTINVS AVG, laureate head right / PROVIDENTIAE AVGG, campgate with five to twelve rows, two turrets, no doors, star above. Mintmark SA-crescent-RL. RIC VII Arles 286; Sear 16244.Britanikus
coin18.jpg
Constantine I AE3 Antioch RIC VII 71 21 viewsConstantine I AE3 Antioch RIC VII 71
Constantine I AE3. 326 AD. CONSTAN-TINVS AVG
laureate head right / PROVIDEN-TIAE AVGG,
camp gate, two turrets & star aboves, (dot) in doorway,
SMANTZ in ex. Antioch mint Coin #18
cars100
Constantine_I_26.jpg
CONSTANTINE I AE3 Follis, RIC VII 215G, Campgate25 viewsOBV: CONSTANTINVS MAX AVG, diademed head right
REV: PROVIDENTIAE AVGG, campgate with two turrets & no doors, star above, GSISdouble-crescent in ex.
3.3g, 19mm

Minted at Siscia, 328-9 AD
Legatus
Constantine_I_22.jpg
CONSTANTINE I AE3 Follis, RIC VII 504, Campgate21 viewsOBV: CONSTAN-TINVS AVG, laureate head right
REV: PROVIDEN-TIAE AVGG, campgate, 2 turrets, 6 layers, star above, no doors, PTRE in ex.


Minted at Trier, 327-8 AD
Legatus
constantine-i-campgate-reshoot.jpg
Constantine I AE3, 326-328 AD19 viewsRoman Imperial, Constantine I AE3, (326-328 AD), 19mm, 2.5g

Obverse: CONSTANTINVS AVG, Laureate head right.

Reverse: PROVIDENTIAE AVGG, campgate with eight rows, two turrets, no doors, star above, top row arches and dots in blocks, bottom row empty blocks, ramp at base, pellet in right field, SMTSE in ex. "Providence of the Two Emperors"

Reference: RIC VII Thessalonica 153
Gil-galad
Constantine_I_9_opt.jpg
CONSTANTINE I AE3, RIC VII 153, Campgate19 viewsOBV: CONSTANTINVS AVG, laureate head right
REV: PROVIDENTIAE AVGG, campgate with two turrets, no doors, star above, SMTSE in ex.
2.4g, 19mm

Minted at Thessalonica, 226-8 AD
Legatus
Constantine_I_20_opt.jpg
CONSTANTINE I AE3, RIC VII 291, Campgate17 viewsOBV: CONSTANTINVS AVG, laureate head right
REV: VIRTVS AVGG, campgate with 4 turrets, 5 layers, star above, open panelled doors, PA crescent RL in ex.
3.1g, 20mm

Minted at Arelate, 326-8 AD
Legatus
Constantine_I_5_opt.jpg
CONSTANTINE I AE3, RIC VII 90,B, Campgate10 viewsOBV: CONSTAN-TINVS AVG, laureate head right
REV: PROVIDEN-TIAE AVGG, campgate with two turrets & star above, no door, SMNB in ex
2.9g, 19mm

Minted at Nicomedia, 324-5 AD
Legatus
Constantine_Antioch_A.png
Constantine I Antioch A13 viewsConstantine I, AE follis of Antioch. 329-30 AD. 18mm, 2.5 g. CONSTANTI-NVS MAX AVG, rosette-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / PROVIDENTIAE AVGG, campgate with ten layers, two turrets, no doors, star above. Mintmark SMANTA. RIC VII 84Ajax
H10b.jpg
Constantine I AR Quinarius78 viewsConstantine I AR Quinarius. Treveri mint. 307 AD. IMP CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, laureate and cuirassed bust right / VIRTVS MILITVM, four turreted gateway, with no doors. RIC 758

VERY RARE - R2
GOOD EXTREMELY FINE

Ex. Bank Leu AG, Zurich 33 (1983), 147
Ex. Numismatica Ars Classica AG, Zurich 8 (1995), 946.
Ex. Hess-Divo 2007
2 commentsTrajan
Screenshot_2019-07-29_19_06_47.png
Constantine I as Augustus, AE Follis.12 viewsArles 327 A.D. 3.02g - 21.1mm, Axis 5h.

Obv: CONSTAN-TINVS AVG - Diademed head right.

Rev: VIRTVS AVGG - Campgate with open doors and four turrets, star above, S-F across fields. Mintmark ARLP.

RIC VII 114.
scarli
coins188.JPG
Constantine I Campgate Arles10 viewsConstantine I Arles

O: CONSTANTINVS AVG; Diademed head facing right.
R: VIRTVS AVGG; Campgate with 4 turrets and doors open; S (F) fields, SCO(N)S(T) in exergue. RIC VII Arles 321c
, c. AD 326-7,
ecoli
combined~36.jpg
Constantine I Providentiae15 viewsConstantine I, AE3, 326-328, Thessalonica, Officina 4
CONSTAN_TINVS AVG
Laureate head right
PROVIDEN_TIAE AVGG
Campgate with six rows, two turrets, no doors, star above, top and bottom row empty blocks
Pellet in right field
SMTSD in exergue
RIC VII, 153
17,3 mm, 2,1 g.
Flamur H
Constantine I PROVIDEN-TIAE AVGG RIC 286.jpg
Constantine I PROVIDENTIAE AVGG RIC VII Arles 286125 viewsAE3, 19mm, 2.65g

Obverse: CONSTAN-TINVS AVG, ;aureate head R.

Reverse: PROVIDEN-TIAE AVGG, gate with no door, five rows, two turrets, star above.

Exe: PA crescent RL (Arles, officina 1)

RIC V286, 325-6, S.
2 commentsRobert_Brenchley
Constantine I PROVIDENTIAE AVGG RIC 59~1.jpg
Constantine I PROVIDENTIAE AVGG RIC VII Cyzicus 5959 viewsAe3, 19mm, 2.96g.

Obverse: CONSTANTI-NVS MAX AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust R.

Reverse: PROVIDEN-TIAE AVGG, gate, 2 turrets, no door, 7 rows, star above.

Exe: SMK delta (Cyzicus, Officina 4).

RIC VII 59, 329-30, R3.
Robert_Brenchley
Constantine I PROVIDENTIAE AVGG RIC 61.jpg
Constantine I PROVIDENTIAE AVGG RIC VII Cyzicus 6149 viewsAE3, 18x20mm, 2.93g.

Obverse: CONSTANTI-NVS MAX AVG, rosette-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust R.

Reverse: PROVIDEN-TIAE AVGG, gate, 2 turrets, no door, 7 layers, star above.

Exe: SMKB (Cyzicus, Officina 2).

RIC VII 61, 329-30, R2.
Robert_Brenchley
Constantine I PROVIDENT-IAE AVGG RIC 28.jpg
Constantine I PROVIDENTIAE AVGG RIC VII Heraclea 2865 viewsAE3, 21x19mm, 3.10g.

Obverse: CONSTA-NTINVS AVG, laureate and draped bust L holding mappa and sceptre.

Reverse: PROVIDEN-TIAE AVGG, gate with 3 turrets, no door, 6 rows. Dot in R field.

Exe: SMHB (Heraclea, Officina 2).

RIC VII 28, 318-20, R1.

This example is interesting in that the silvering clogs detail such as the hair, suggesting that it was applied afer striking.
Robert_Brenchley
Constantine I PROVIDENTIAE AVGG RIC 90.jpg
Constantine I PROVIDENTIAE AVGG RIC VII Nicomedia 9045 viewsAE3, 20mm, 2.50g.

Obverse: CONSTAN-TINVS AVG, laureate head R.

Reverse: PROVIDEN-TIAE AVGG, gate with 2 turrets, 6 rows, no door, star above.

Exe: SMNB (Nicomedia, Officina 2).

RIC VII 90, 324-5, R1.
Robert_Brenchley
Constantine I PROVIDENTIAE AVGG RIC 200.jpg
Constantine I PROVIDENTIAE AVGG RIC VII Siscia 200105 viewsAE3, 19m, 2.94g.


Obverse: CONSTAN-TINVS AVG, laureate head R.

Reverse: PROVIDEN-TIAE AVGG, gate with two turrets, no door, 8 rows, with a row of arches with central dots above, and hatched base below. Star above.

Exe: dot gamma SIS dot (Siscia, Officina 3).

RIC VII 200, C3.
2 commentsRobert_Brenchley
Constantine I PROVIDEN-TIAE AVGG RIC 153.jpg
Constantine I PROVIDENTIAE AVGG RIC VII Thessalonica 15356 viewsAE3, 19mm, 3.15g.

Obverse: CONSTAN-TINVS AVG, laureate bust R.

Reverse: PROVIDEN-TIAE AVGG, gate, two turrests, no door, 6 layers, star above. Dot in R field.

Exe: SMTS gamma (Thessalonica, Officine 3).

RIC VII 153, 326-8, C3.
Robert_Brenchley
CONTINE1-27.jpg
Constantine I RIC VII 7132 viewsObv: CONSTANTINVS AVG
Laureate head right
Rev: PROVIDENTIAE AVGG
campgate with two turrets & star,
D left, E right, (dot) in doorway
SMANT in ex
19mm 3.1gm
OWL365
CONTINE1-28.jpg
Constantine I RIC VII 8132 viewsObv: CONSTANTINVS AVG
Diademed head right
Rev: PROVIDENTIAE AVGG
Camp gate with two
turrets and star above
• in doorway SMANTB in ex.
20 mm 2.6 gm
OWL365
cons camp smantb com.JPG
Constantine I RIC VII Antioch 6332 viewsConstantine I
AE 18 mm 2.8 grams
OBV :: CONSTAN-TINVS AVG Laureate head right
REV :: PROVIDEN-TIAE AVGG Campgate with 2 turrets, no door, seven rows and star above
EX :: SMANTB ( Antioch )
RIC VII Antioch 63
RIC rated R2
from uncleaned lot 10/2007
modern patina
Johnny
constantine  campgate smante com.JPG
Constantine I RIC VII Antioch 8456 viewsAE 19 mm 4.2 grams
OBV :: CONSTANTI-NVS MAX AVG. Rosette diadem, draped and cuirassed bust right
REV :: PROVIDEN-TIAE AVGG . Campgate with 2 turrets, 12 rows of blocks, no door and star above
EX :: SMANT Ε
RIC VII Antioch 84
RIC Rated R4
From uncleaned lot 02/2008
3 commentsJohnny
consmaxavgg campgate com.JPG
Constantine I RIC VII Antioch 8477 viewsAE 18-22mm 2.8 grams 329-330 AD
OBV :: CONSTANTI-NVS MAX AVG. rosette-diadem draped, cuirassed
REV :: PROVIDEN-TIAE AVGG. Campgate with 2 turrets, 11 rows of blocks, no door and single star above
EX :: SMANT epsilon ( Antioch )
RIC VII Antioch 84
RIC rated R4
this camgate has several engraving error . The first is a deformed star above the campgate wich make the star look like a nike or victory. the second is a miss-aligned rim in wich a dot and a faint line can be seen at the top just above the star
3 commentsJohnny
concamcom.JPG
Constantine I RIC VII Cyzicus 2415 viewsConstantine I
AE 19 mm 2.7 grams
OBV :: CONSTAN-TINVS AVG Laureate head right
REV :: PROVIDEN-TIAE AVGG Campgate with 2 turrets, no door , 8 rows and star above
EX :: SMK delta Cyzicus
RIC VII Cyzicus 24
RIC rated Scarce
from uncleaned lot 10/2007
Johnny
cons_camp_com.JPG
Constantine I RIC VII Cyzicus 2410 viewsAE 18 mm 3.1 grams
OBV :: CONSTAN-TINVS AVG,. Laureate head right
REV :: PROVIDEN-TIAE AVGG. Campgate with 2 turrets, no door, 8 rows and star above.
EX :: SMK delta ( Cyzicus )
RIC VII Cyzicus 24
RIC rated S
from uncleaned lot 06/2008
Johnny
constantine campgate silvered com.JPG
Constantine I Ric VII Cyzicus 5816 viewsSilvered AE 18 mm 2.0 grams
OBV :: CONSTAN-TINVS AVG. pEARLED DIADEM, BUST RIGHT
rev :: pROVIDEN-TIAE AVGG. Campgate with 7 rows, 2 turrets, no door and star above
EX :: SMK Gamma
RIC VII Cyzicus 58
RIC rated R5
from uncleaned lot 10/2007
Johnny
constantine campgate com.JPG
constantine I RIC VII Nicomedia 15348 viewsAe 18mm 2.8g
OBV :: CONSTAN-TINVS AVG. Pearled diademed without rosette, head right
REV :: PROVIDEN-TIAE AVGG. Campgate with 6 rows, no door, 2 turrets and star above
EX :: SMN Gamma (Nicomedia)
RIC VII Nicomedia 153
RIC rated Scarce
from unclean lot 10/07
2 commentsJohnny
060808campgate01.jpg
Constantine I RIC VII Nicomedia 15329 viewsConstantine I
Ob: CONSTAN-TINVS AVG, Pearl diademed head right
Rv: PROVIDEN-TIAE AVGG, 2 turret camp gate, 6 layers, star above, no door
Ex: SMN delta
Nicomedia
RIC VII Nicomedia 153

From Helvetica: RIC describes the diadem as "triple pearl diadem with rosette at front" although coins of this type sometimes do not have the rosette at the front (examples in the collections of cscoppa and Mayadigger of the Forvm, plus one sold on ebay in March 07 by biggyg2)
Scotvs Capitis
ConstantineI_RIC_VII_Thessalonica_154.jpg
Constantine I RIC VII Thessalonica 15431 viewsConstantine I
AE3, 326-328, 20mm, 3.3g, 170°
Obv: CONSTAN-TINVS AVG, rosette-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rv: PROVIDEN-TIAE AVGG, campgate with seven rows, two turrets, no doors, star above, top row arches and dots, bottom row empty blocks, ramp at base, pellet in right field
SMTSA in exergue
RIC VII Thessalonica 154
ex Beast Coins
areich
constantineI_rome_287.jpg
Constantine I RIC VII, Rome 28767 viewsConstantine I, the Great, AD 307-337
AE - AE 3 (Follis), 2.7g, 21mm
Rome, 2nd officina, AD 326
obv. CONSTAN - TINVS AVG
Bust, laureate, r.
rev. PROVIDEN - TIAE AVGG
Campgate with six layers, two turrets, no doors, star above
ex. R wreath S
RIC VII, Rome 287
good VF, wonderful sand-patina

Found near Petra/Jordan
Jochen
coins159.JPG
Constantine I Thessalonica Campgate10 viewsObv:– CONSTANTINVS AVG, Laureate head right
Rev:– PROVIDENTIAE AVGG, Campgate with six rows, two turrets, no doors, star above, top and bottom rows blocks.
Minted in Thessalonica. • in right field, SMTSB in exe.
Reference:– RIC VII Thessalonica 153
ecoli
camp_doors_k.jpg
Constantine I, AD 306-3371 viewsÆ Follis, 19mm, 2.3g, 6h; Arles mint, 325-6.
Obv.: CONSTANTINVS AVG, laureate head right.
Rev.: VIRTV-S AVGG, campgate with 4 turrets, 5 layers, star above, open panelled doors // PA crescent RL
Reference: RIC VII Arles 291, p. 265.
John Anthony
camp_alex_k.jpg
Constantine I, AD 306-3372 viewsÆ follis, 19mm, 3.6g, 6h; Alexandria mint, AD 327-8
Obv.: CONSTAN-TINVS AVG; Laureate head right.
Rev.: PROVIDEN-TIAE AVGG; Camp gate with two turrets, no doors, 7 stone layers, star above; wreath in left field, B in right (second officina) // SMAL
Reference: RIC VII 45, r2, p. 710, 16-276-20
John Anthony
const3.jpg
Constantine I, AD 307-33727 viewsAE follis, 18mm (2.65 gm).

CONSTAN-TINVS AVG, laureate head right / PROVIDEN-TIAE AVGG, camp gate, two turrets, no doors, star above, • in right field and 6 stone layers; SMTSE in exergue. Thessalonica mint, struck AD 326-328.

RIC VII, 153 Thessalonica (pg. 518).
1 commentssocalcoins
const2.jpg
Constantine I, AD 307-33744 viewsAE follis, 18.41 mm (3.23 gm).

CONSTAN-TINVS AVG, laureate head right / PROVIDEN-TIAE AVGG, camp gate, two turrets, no doors, star above and 6 stone layers; STRE in exergue. Trier mint, struck AD 327-328.

RIC VII, 504 Trier (pg. 212).

From the Killingholme hoard.

2 commentssocalcoins
const4.jpg
Constantine I, AD 307-33733 viewsAE follis, 19mm (3.09 gm),

CONSTAN-TINVS AVG, laureate head right / PROVIDEN-TIAE AVGG, camp gate, two turrets, no doors, star above and 6 stone layers; NE in exergue. Nicomedia mint, Struck AD 326-327.

RIC VII, 144 Nicomedia (pg. 623).
socalcoins
CONTINE1-38-ROMAN.jpg
Constantine I, Alexandria RIC VII-045.A38 viewsAE3
Alexandria mint, 327-328 A.D.
19mm, 4.03g
RIC VII-45

Obverse:
CONSTANTINVS AVG
Laureate head right.

Reverse:
PROVIDENTIAE AVGG
Wreath in left field
A in right field
SMAL
Camp gate with two turrets, no doors, varying number of stone layers; star above.
rubadub
CONTINE1-32-ROMAN.jpg
Constantine I, Cyzicus RIC VII-024.Δ20 viewsAE3
Cyzicus mint, 324-325 A.D.
19mm, 2.53g
RIC VII-24

Obverse:
CONSTANTINVS AVG
Laureate head right.

Reverse:
PROVIDENTIAE AVGG
SMKΔ
Camp gate, two turrets, no doors, star above, varying number of stone layers.
rubadub
CONTINE1-33-ROMAN~0.jpg
Constantine I, Cyzicus RIC VII-044.Γ17 viewsAE3
Cyzicus mint, 326-327 A.D.
2.15g, 20mm
RIC VII-44

Obverse:
CONSTANTINVS AVG
Laureate head right.

Reverse:
PROVIDENTIAE AVGG
.SMKΓ.
Camp gate, two turrets, no doors, star above, varying number of stone layers.
rubadub
CONTINE1-34-ROMAN~0.jpg
Constantine I, Cyzicus RIC VII-055.A19 viewsAE3
Cyzicus mint, 328-329 A.D.
19mm, 3.12g
RIC VII-55

Obverse:
CONSTANTINVS AVG
Diademed head right.

Reverse:
PROVIDENTIAE AVGG
SMKA.
Camp gate, two turrets, no doors, star above, varying number of
stone layers.
rubadub
CONTINE1-35-ROMAN~0.jpg
Constantine I, Cyzicus RIC VII-055.S17 viewsAE3
Cyzicus mint, 328-329 A.D.
17mm, 2.56g
RIC VII-55

Obverse:
CONSTANTINVS AVG
Diademed head right.

Reverse:
PROVIDENTIAE AVGG
SMKS.
Camp gate, two turrets, no doors, star above, varying number of stone layers.
rubadub
CONTINE1-37-ROMAN~1.jpg
Constantine I, Cyzicus RIC VII-055.S14 viewsAE3
Cyzicus mint, 328-329 A.D.
19mm, 3.71g
RIC VII-55

Obverse:
CONSTANTINVS AVG
Diademed head right.

Reverse:
PROVIDENTIAE AVGG
SMKS.
Camp gate, two turrets, no doors, star above, varying number of stone layers.
rubadub
1367_1368.jpg
Constantine I, Follis, PROVIDENTIAE AVGG6 viewsAE Follis
Constantine I
Caesar: 306 - 307AD
Augustus: 307 - 337AD
Issued: 326 - 327Ad
20.0mm
O: CONSTANTINVS AVG; Laureate head, right.
R: PROVIDENTIAE AVGG; City gate with two turrets, star above. Doors, dots in top layer; five layers.
Exergue: (dot)ASIS(dot)
Siscia Mint
Aorta: 1523: B59, O4, R148, T12, M16.
RIC VII Siscia 200, A
numis_kimel 282157768236
9/8/16 1/20/17
Nicholas Z
6103_6104.jpg
Constantine I, Follis, PROVIDENTIAE AVGG6 viewsAE Follis
Constantine I
Caesar: 306 - 307AD
Augustus: 307 - 337AD
Issued: 326AD
16.5mm 2.30gr
O: CONSTANTINVS AVG; Laureate head, right.
R: PROVIDENTIAE AVGG; City gate with two turrets, star above, no doors, seven layers of bricks.
Exergue: R(Wreath)S
Rome Mint
Aorta: 1519: B59, O4, R148, T12, M13.
RIC VII, 287, S.
olympiacoins 351659592236
2/28/16 1/29/17
Nicholas Z
5317_5318.jpg
Constantine I, Follis, PROVIDENTIAE AVGG4 viewsAE Follis
Constantine I
Caesar: 306 - 307AD
Augustus: 307 - 337AD
Issued: 328 - 329AD
18.0mm 3.00gr
O: CONSTANTINVS AVG; Laureate head, right.
R: PROVIDENTIAE AVGG; City gate with two turrets, star above. No door, seven layers of bricks, dots in each of the bricks in the top layer.
Exergue: BSIS(Two Crescents, nestled one inside of the other, concave sides facing upwards.)
Siscia Mint
Aorta: 1531: B59, O4, R148, T12, M16.
RIC VII, 214, B.
okta2000-2013 281781586964
9/4/15 1/31/17
Nicholas Z
5054_5055.jpg
Constantine I, Follis, PROVIDENTIAE AVGG7 viewsAE Follis
Constantine I
Caesar: 306 - 307AD
Augustus: 307 - 337AD
Issued: 326 - 328AD
19.0mm 3.39gr
O: CONSTANTINVS AVG; Laureate head, right.
R: PROVIDENTIAE AVGG; City gate with two turrets, star above; no door, six layers of brick.
Exergue: (Dot), right field; SMTSA, below line.
Thessalonica Mint
Aorta: 1535: B59, O4, R148, T12, M17.
zurqieh_dubai 291380498694
6/26/15 2/3/17
Nicholas Z
4968_4969.jpg
Constantine I, Follis, PROVIDENTIAE AVGG5 viewsAE Follis
Constantine I
Caesar: 306 - 307AD
Augustus: 307 - 337AD
Issued: 325 - 326AD
20.5 x 18.5mm
O: CONSTANTINVS AVG; Laureate head, right.
R: PROVIDENTIAE AVGG; City gate with two turrets, star above; no door, seven layers of brick.
Exergue: MNA
Nicomedia Mint
Aorta: 1502: B59, O4, R148, T12, M11.
ancientcollectibles 221797664812
6/17/15 2/3/17
Nicholas Z
4800_4801.jpg
Constantine I, Follis, PROVIDENTIAE AVGG7 viewsAE Follis
Constantine I
Caesar: 306 - 307AD
Augustus: 307 - 337AD
Issued: 326 - 328AD
21.0 x 20.0mm
O: CONSTAN-TINVS AVG; Laureate head, right.
R: PROVIDEN-TIAE AVGG; City gate with two turrets, star above. Six layers of bricks; no doors.
Exergue: (Dot), right field; SMTSB, below line.
Thessalonica Mint
Aorta: 1536: B59, O4, R148, T12, M17.
RIC VII Thessalonica 153, B, rated c3; Sear 16254.
lucernae 350801324343
5/30/13 2/19/17
Added to WildWinds, February, 2017.
Nicholas Z
3975_(1)_3976_(1).jpg
Constantine I, Follis, PROVIDENTIAE AVGG10 viewsAE Follis Fouree
Constantine I
Caesar: 306 - 307AD
Augustus: 307 - 337AD
17.5mm
O: CONSTANTINVS ?; Laureate head, right.
R: PROVIDENTIAE AVGG ?; City gate, with two turrets, star above; five layers of brick, no doors.
Exergue: SMNS?
rpslc11 292053920874
3/19/17 4/1/17
Nicholas Z
6427_6428.jpg
Constantine I, Follis, PROVIDENTIAE AVGG9 viewsAE Follis
Constantine I
Caesar: 306 - 307AD
Augustus: 307 - 337AD
Issued: 326 - 327AD
18.5mm 3.10gr 6h
O: CONSTAN-TINVS AVG; Laureate head, right.
R: PROVIDEN-TIAE AVGG; City gate with two turrets, star above, 7 layers of brick, dots in top layer of bricks, doors closed.
Exergue: (Dot)ASIS(Dot)
Siscia Mint
RIC VII Siscia 200; Sear 16252; Rarity: C3
Aorta: 1523: B59, O4, R148, T12, M16.
imp.philippus.avg 222907110238
4/8/18 4/24/18
Nicholas Z
6603_6604.jpg
Constantine I, Follis, PROVIDENTIAE AVGG7 viewsAE Follis
Constantine I
Caesar: 306 - 307AD
Augustus: 307 - 337AD
Issued: 326 - 328AD
20.0mm 3.30gr 0h
O: CONSTAN-TINVS AVG; Diademed (pearls) bust, right.
R: PROVIDEN-TIAE AVGG; City gate with two turrets, star above; dots in top layer, seven layers total, doors closed.
Exergue: (Dot), right field; SMTSΓ, below line.
Thessalonica Mint
RIC 153, Γ var. (Bust type)
Aorta: B10, O34, R148, T12, M17.
sjbcoins/Stoian Belkin 401528826687
5/13/18 8/8/18
Nicholas Z
6446_6447.jpg
Constantine I, Follis, PROVIDENTIAE AVGG6 viewsAE Follis
Constantine I
Caesar: 306 - 307AD
Augustus: 307 - 337AD
Issued: 324 - 325AD
18.5 x 17.0mm 3.30gr 8h
O: CONSTAN-TINVS AVG; Laureate head, right.
R: PROVIDEN-TIAE AVGG; City gate with two turrets, star above; six layers of bricks, doors closed.
EXERGUE: STR
Trier Mint
Rarity: C3
RIC VII Trier 449; Sear 16238.
Aorta: 1547: B59, O4, R148, T12, M19.
numis-kimel/Anna Kimelova 282904449347
4/11/18 8/8/18
Nicholas Z
6450_6451.jpg
Constantine I, Follis, PROVIDENTIAE AVGG7 viewsAE Follis
Constantine I
Caesar: 306 - 307AD
Augustus: 307 - 337AD
Issued: 324AD
20.0 x 19.0mm 3.70gr 1h
O: CONSTAN-TINVS AVG; Laureate head, right.
R: PROVIDEN-TIAE AVGG; City gate with two turrets, star above; six layers of brick, doors closed.
Exergue: PLG
Lyons Mint
Rarity: S
RIC VII Lyons 225; Sear 16241.
Aorta: 1501: B59, O4, R148, T12, M10.
numis-kimel/Anna Kimelova 273151384050
4/11/18 8/8/18
Nicholas Z
9154_9155.jpg
Constantine I, Follis, PROVIDENTIAE AVGG, (Dot)/STMSΓ7 viewsAE Follis
Constantine I
Caesar: 306 - 307AD
Augustus: 307 - 337AD
Issued: 326 - 328AD
19.5 x 18.0mm 2.60gr 6h
O: CONSTAN-TINVS AVG; Laureate head, right.
R: PROVIDENTIAE AVGG; Campmate with two turrets, star above, six layers of brick, doors closed.
Exergue: (Dot), right field; SMTSΓ, below line.
Thessalonica Mint
Rarity: C3
RIC VII Thessalonica 153, Γ; Sear 16254.
Aorta: 1538: B59, O4, R148, T12, M17.
rfbookman/Ron Sloan 183840823390
6/18/19 7/6/19
Nicholas Z
CONTINE1-28-ROMAN~0.jpg
Constantine I, Nicomedia RIC VII-090.A21 viewsAE3
Nicomedia mint, 324-325 A.D.
19mm, 3.27g
RIC VII-90

Obverse:
CONSTANTINVS AVG
Laureate head right.

Reverse:
PROVIDENTIAE AVGG
SMNA
Campgate , two turrets, no doors, Star above, varying number of stone layers.
rubadub
constantinI_antiochia_84.jpg
Constantine I, RIC VI, Antiochia 8440 viewsConstantine I, the Great, AD 307-337
AE 3, 2.6g, 19mm
Antiochia, 9th officina, ADS 329-330
obv. CONSTANT - INVS MAX AVG
Bust, draped and cuirassed, rosetten-diademed, r.
rev. PROVIDEN - TIAE AVGG
Camp-gate with ten layers of bricks, no door, two towers; star above
in l. and r. field Delta - Epsilon
in ex. SMANT
ref. RIC VI, Antiochia 84
R5!, about VF, sandpatina

After attribution I found that this type was regarded by RIC as R5! Delta+Epsilon in the field means 9. The usual Greek letter for 9, Theta, was taboo because it was the 1st letter of thanatos = death.
1 commentsJochen
Const1 110.jpg
Constantine I, RIC VII 44, Cyzicus28 viewsObv: CONSTANTINVS AVG
Bust: Laureate head right
Rev: PROVIDENTIAE AVGG
Campgate, no door, two turrets, star above. 8 rows.
Exe: (dot) SMK gamma (dot)
Date: 326-327 AD
Denom: Follis
Rated "C3"
Bluefish
s-l1600[1]~0.jpg
Constantine I, RIC VII 78 Antioch24 views AE3, 327-328 CE., Antioch
Obverse; CONSTAN_TINVS AVG, Laurel and ladder diademed head right
Reverse: PROVIDEN_TIAE AVGG, Campgate with nine rows, two turrets, no doors, star above, top and bottom rows empty blocks Pellet in doorway
SMANTA in exergue
NORMAN K
constantineI_antiochia_78.jpg
Constantine I, RIC VII, Antiochia 7878 viewsConstantine I, the Great, AD 307-337
AE - AE 3 (Follis), 3.1g, 19mm
Antiochia, 1st officina, AD 324-325
obv. CONSTAN - TINVS AVG
Bust, laureate, r.
rev. PROVIDEN - TIAE AVGG
campgate with twelve layers, two turrets, no doors, star above
ex. SMANTA
RIC VII, Antiochia 78
Very rare (R3), EF+/VF+, beautiful sand-patina
From Salem, thanks!

Found near Petra/Jordan
Note in RIC: The basic form ... is a ladder-shaped diadem with stylized laurel leaves in every second divsion.
Jochen
coin36.jpg
Constantine I, Rome RIC VII 287 18 viewsConstantine I, Rome RIC VII 287
Constantine AE3. CONSTANTIVS AVG,
Laureate head right / PROVIDENTIAE AVGG,
Campgate with nine rows, two turrets, no doors,
star above. R(wreath)P in ex. Coin #36
cars100
RIC_Constantine_I_RIC_VII_Thessalonica_153_Campgates_silvered.jpg
Constantine I, The Great (Flavius Valerius Constantinus) (Caesar, 306-307 A.D.; Augustus 307 A.D. in the West and 310 A.D. in the East – 337 A.D.)28 viewsRIC VII Thessalonica 153, Sear 3878, Van Meter 85

AE3 18-18.5 mm

Thessalonica mint, third officina, struck 326-328 A.D.

Obv: CONSTAN-TINVS AVG, laureate bust right

Rev: PROVIDEN-TIAE AVGG, campgate (six layers of bricks, no door) with two turrets and star between, dot to right, SMTSΓ in exergue

RIC rarity C3. Fully silvered!
1 commentsStkp
RIC_Constantine_I_Campgate_RIC_VII_Cyzicus_55.JPG
Constantine I, The Great (Flavius Valerius Constantinus) (Caesar, 306-307 A.D.; Augustus, 307 A.D. in the West and 310 A.D. in the East – 337 A.D.)24 viewsRIC VII Cyzicus 55

AE3 18 mm

Cyzicus mint, first officina, struck 328-329 A.D.

Obv: CONSTAN-TINVS AVG, Diadamed head right

Rev: PROVIDEN-TIAE AVGG, Campgate (eight layers of bricks, no door) with two turrets with star between, SMKA• in exergue

RIC rarity S

My first ancient coin, purchased ca. 1969
Stkp
CONTINE1-23-ROMAN~0.jpg
Constantine I, Thessalonica RIC VII-153.Δ39 viewsAE3
Thessalonica mint, 326-328 A.D.
19mm, 2.50g
RIC VII-153

Obverse:
CONSTANTINVS AVG
Laureate head right

Reverse:
PROVIDENTIAE AVGG
. in right field
SMTSΔ
Campgate, two turrets, no doors, star above; varying number of stone layers.
rubadub
AAEYb_small.png
Constantine I. AE reduced follis9 viewsConstantine I. 307-337 AD.

Antioch. 325-326.

18 mm., 2,70g.

CONSTAN-TINVS AVG. Head of Constantine I, laureate, right

PROVIDEN-TIAE AVGG. Camp gate with two turrets, without doors, with varying number of stone layers; star above. MintMark: -/-//SMANT. OfficinaMark: B.

References: RIC VII Antioch 63

AAEY
RL
8A9C8B76-BD72-49B5-A31F-84E3223FC830.jpeg
Constantine I/Campgate AE follis. 328-9 AD8 viewsAE 19, 2.9g. Obverse: Diademed head right, CONSTANTINVS AVG. Reverse: Campgate, 10 layers with dots in arches in the top layer, 2 turrets, no door, star above. PROVIDENTIAE AVGG. Exergue: GammaSIS double crescent. Some silvering remaining, both sides. Siscia RIC VII 214, G.Celticaire
00constantinusIIcampgate.jpg
CONSTANTINE II31 viewsAE 3. Arles. 327 AD. 3,00 grs. Laureate draped and cuirassed bust left. CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C / Campgate with four towers,open doors,star above. S F across fields. VIRTVS CAESS. In exergue ARL T.
RIC 315.
benito
00constantinusIIcampgate~0.jpg
CONSTANTINE II15 viewsAE 3. Arles. 327 AD. 3,00 grs. Laureate draped and cuirassed bust left. CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C / Campgate with four towers,open doors,star above. S F across fields. VIRTVS CAESS. In exergue ARL T.
RIC 315.
benito
constantinoIIcamp~0.jpg
CONSTANTINE II19 viewsÆ Follis. Constantinople, 327 AD . 3.25grs, 6h. Laureate, and cuirassed bust right. CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C / Camp gate with two turrets, no door, star above, seven stone layers, Gamma in left field, CONS in exergue. PROVIDENTIAE CAESS.
RIC 27.

benito
constantinoIIcamp.jpg
CONSTANTINE II21 viewsÆ Follis. Constantinople, 327 AD . 3.25grs, 6h. Laureate, and cuirassed bust right. CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C / Camp gate with two turrets, no door, star above, seven stone layers, Gamma in left field, CONS in exergue. PROVIDENTIAE CAESS.
RIC 27.
1 commentsbenito
IMG_2476.JPG
Constantine II33 viewsConstantine II AE follis. AD 317. D N FL CL CONSTANTINVS NOB C, laureate draped bust left, holding globe, sceptre and mappa / PROVIDEN-TIAE CAESS, Campgate with three turrets, no door and two stars above. Mintmark MHT epsilon.
Heraclea
RIC VII 20 Cohen 167
3 commentsRandygeki(h2)
constantine II campgate com.JPG
Constantine II RIC VII Antioch 6532 viewsAE 19 mm 3.8 grams
OBV :: CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C. LDC left
REV :: PROVIDEN-TIAE CAESS. Campgate with 2 turrets, no door 11 rows and star above
EX :: SMANTS (Antioch)
RIC VII Antioch 65
RIC rated R1
From uncleaned lot 02/2008
1 commentsJohnny
lg_campgateSMHgam.jpg
Constantine II (Caesar) AE Follis36 viewsConstantine II (Caesar)
AE Follis 3.32g / 20.75mm / -
CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C - Laureate draped and curiassed bust right
PROVIDEN-TIAE CAESS - Seven layer, two turret camp gate, star above, no doors
Exergue: SMH gamma dot
Mint: Heraclea (326 AD)
References: RIC VII Heraclea 83, R2
1 commentsScotvs Capitis
Constantine_II_15_opt.jpg
CONSTANTINE II AE3 Follis RIC VII 52, Campgate39 viewsOBV: CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C, laureate (resembles pearl diadem), draped, cuirassed bust left
REV: PROVIDEN-TIAE CAESS, campgate, 2 turrets, 8 layers, star above, no door. Mintmark: SMKB, dot in left field
3.7g, 19m
R3
Minted at Cyzicus, 229-30 AD
2 commentsLegatus
Constantine_II_Antioch.png
Constantine II Antioch 21 viewsConstantine II AE follis, Antioch. 326-7 AD. CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust, left / PROVIDEN-TIAE CAESS, campgate, 2 turrets, 10 layers, star above, dot in doorway. Mintmark SMANTI. RIC VII 73.
Ex Warren Etsy
1 commentsAjax
con_ii_camp_cons_k.jpg
Constantine II as Caesar, AD 317-337.12 viewsÆ Follis, 20mm, 3.9g, 6h; Constantinople mint. Struck 326/7 AD.
Obv.: CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right.
Rev.: PROVIDEN-TIAE CAESS, camp-gate with no doors and two turrets, star above; B // CONS.
Reference: RIC VII 9, r2, p. 571 / 17-105-35
John Anthony
Constantine_II_Campgate_RIC_26.jpg
Constantine II Campgate RIC 2629 viewsConstantine II, Heraclea, RIC VII page 545, 26,
OBV: DN FL CL CONSTANTINVS NOB C, laureate and draped consular bust left, holding scepter and mappa
REV: PRIVIDENTIAE CAESS, Campgate, 3 turrets, 6 layers, no doors
.MHTE. in exergue

RIC rates it as Extremely Rare (R5) but it is probably not as rare as RIC states.
Romanorvm
coin118.jpg
Constantine II Nicomedia RIC VII 93 Scarce15 viewsConstantine II Nicomedia RIC VII 93 Scarce
AE3. 324-325 AD. CONSTANTINVS IVN
NOB C, laureate, draped & cuirassed bust left
/ PROVIDENTIAE CAESS, campgate with
two turrets, star above, no door, SMNgamma in ex.
Coin #118
cars100
campcom.JPG
Constantine II RIC VII Antioch 6526 viewsAE 20 mm 3.3 grams
OBV :: CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C. Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust left
REV :: PROVIDEN-TIAE CAESS. Campgate with 10 rows, 2 turrets, no door and star above
EX :: SMANTI (Antioch)
RIC VII Antioch 65
RIC rated R3
from uncleaned lot 10/2007
Johnny
const campgate 1 com.JPG
Constantine II Ric VII Cyzicus 3748 viewsAE 18 mm 3.0 g 325-326 AD
OBV :: CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C . Laureated draped nad cuirassed bust left
REV :: PROVIDEN-TIAE CAESS. Campgate with 2 turrets, no door, star above. 7 rows of blocks
EX :: SMK Epsilon Dot
Ric VII Cyzicus 37
RIC Rated R2
from uncleaned lot 10/2007
1 commentsJohnny
CONSTANTINE CAMPGATE smnd com.JPG
Constantine II RIC VII Heraclea 37 unlisted32 viewsAE 19 mm 3.9 grams
OBV :: DN FL CL CONSTANTINVS NOB C Laureate and draped bust left. Globe and sceptre in left hand, mappa in right hand
REV :: PROVIDEN-TIAE CAESS. Campgate with 3 turrets, 6 rows, no door , no star above. Dot over dot in right field
EX ::SMHA
RIC VII Heraclea 37 unlisted
RIC rated R5
from uncleaned lot 02/2008
Johnny
concampcom.JPG
Constantine II RIC VII Heraclea 7728 viewsAE 18 mm 3.5 grams
OBV :: CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C. laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right
REV :: PROVIDEN-TIAE CAESS. Campgate with 2 turrets, 5 rows, no door, and star above ( die break to right of door)
EX :: SMH delta (Heraclea)
RIC VII Heraclea 77
RIC rated C2
from unclreaned lot 02/2008
Johnny
Constantine_II_RIC_VII_Trier_479.jpg
Constantine II RIC VII Trier 47934 viewsobv.CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C, laureate, draped, cuirassed bust left
rv.PROVIDEN-TIAE CAESS, campgate, 2 turrets, 6 layers, star above, no doors
in exergue. STR dot in crescent.
mint Trier
Holger G
5126_5127.jpg
Constantine II, AE3, PROVIDENTIAE CAESS4 viewsAE3
Constantine II
Caesar: 317 - 337AD
Augustus: 337 - 340AD
Issued: 324 - 325AD
19.0mm 3.00gr
O: CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C; Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust, left.
R: PROVIDENTIAE CAESS; City gate with two turrets, star above; no door, six layers of brick.
Exergue: SMKA
Cyzicus Mint
Aorta: 816: B33, O7, R40, T7, M6.
okta2000-2013 271946265950
8/11/15 2/3/17
Nicholas Z
CONTINE2-12-ROMAN~0.jpg
Constantine II, Cyzicus RIC VII-037(A)14 viewsAE3
Cyzicus mint, 325-326 A.D.
19mm, 1.76g
RIC VII-37

Obverse:
CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C
Laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust left.

Reverse:
PROVIDENTIAE CAESS
SMKA.
Camp gate, two turrets, no doors, star above, varying number of stone layers.
rubadub
CONTINE2-8-ROMAN~0.jpg
Constantine II, Heraclea RIC VII-096(E)20 viewsAE3
Heraclea mint, 327-328 A.D.
20mm, 2.65g
RIC VII-96

Obverse:
CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C
Laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right.

Reverse:
PROVIDENTIAE CAESS
. in left field
SMHE in exergue
Camp gate with two turrets, no doors; varying number of stone layers; star above.
rubadub
241 Constantius II.jpg
Constantine II, RIC VII 216, Siscia65 viewsObv: CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C
Bust: Laurerate head right
Rev: PROVIDENTIAE CAESS
Campgate, no doors, 10 rows, with arches and dots in top row. 2 turrets, star above.
Exe: epsilon SIS (double crescent)
Date: 321-329 AD
Denom: Ae3
Rated "C3"
Bluefish
310 Constantine II.jpg
Constantine II, RIC VII 231, Lugdunum47 viewsObv: CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C
Bust: Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust left
Rev: PROVIDENTIA CAESS
Campgate, two turrets, star above, no door. 6 rows, 6 bricks each
Exe: PLG
Date: 317-329 AD
Mint: Lugdunum
Denom: Ae3
Ref: RIC VII 231
Rated "R1"
Bluefish
Con2 2.jpg
Constantine II, RIC VII 67, Heraclea62 viewsObv: CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C
Bust: Laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right
Rev: PROVIDENTIAE CAESS
Campgate, no door, 3 turrets, star above. 6 layers.
Exe: (dot) SMHA (dot)
Date: 317-329 AD
Denom: Ae3
Rated "R4"
1 commentsBluefish
Con2 131.jpg
Constantine II, RIC VII 96, Heraclea39 viewsObv: CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C
Bust: Laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right
Rev: PROVIDENTIAE CAESS
Campgate with two turrets, no door, star above. 7 layers, 7 bricks per row.
Exe: SMH gamma. (dot) in field left.
Date: 327-329 AD
Denom: Ae3
Rated "C2"
Bluefish
CONTINE2-3-ROMAN~0.jpg
Constantine II, Siscia RIC VII-216(E)23 viewsAE3
Siscia mint, 328-329 A.D.
18mm, 2.83g
RIC VII-216

Obverse:
CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C
Laureate head right.

Reverse:
PROVIDENTIAE CAESS
ESIS double crescent
Camp gate, two turrets, no doors, star above; varying number of stone layers.
rubadub
Constantine_Nicomedia_A.png
Constantine Nicomedia A9 viewsConstantine I AE follis. 324-325 AD. CONSTAN-TINVS AVG, laureate head right / PROVIDEN-TIAE AVGG, campgate with two turrets and star above, no door. Mintmark SMNA. RIC VII 90Ajax
50906.jpg
Constantine the Great233 viewsConstantine I, AE3, 324-325, Rome, Officina 1
CONSTAN_TINVS AVG
Laureate head right
PROVIDEN_TIAE AVGG
Campgate with seven rows, two turrets, no doors, star above, top and bottom rows empty blocks, one pellet in doorway, two pellets above
RP in exergue
18mm x 19mm, 2.84g
RIC VII, 264, sub-issue d
Note: RIC 264-269 includes a sub-issue, delineated by the number of dots on the reverse, with:
a = no dots; b = dot in arch; c = dot in arch, one dot above; d = dot in arch, two dots above; e = dot in arch, three dots above.
9 commentsb70
Const_I_Camp.JPG
Constantine the Great58 viewsConstantine I - Nicomedia Mint - AE3 - RIC VII 90,E

O: CONSTAN-TINVS AVG, laureate head right

R: PROVIDEN-TIAE AVGG, campgate with two turrets & star above, no door, SMNε in ex.

3.2g, 18.5mm, 180 degree die axis, 324-325AD.
1 commentsBiancasDad
CONST_9_LEVEL_CAMP.JPG
Constantine the Great35 viewsConstantine I - Antioch Mint - Officina 1 - AE3 - RIC VII 71

O: CONSTANTINVS AVG, laureate head right

R: PROVIDENTIAE AVGG, camp gate, 8 levels, two turrets & star above, dot in doorway, SMANTA in exergue

2.8g, 18.7/19/7mm, 180 degree die axis, 326 AD
BiancasDad
CONST_CAMPY_DOOR.JPG
Constantine the Great35 viewsConstantine I - Arles Mint - Officina 1 - AE3 - RIC VII 321

O: CONSTANTINVS AVG, pearl-diademed bust right

R: VIRTVS AVGG, campgate, 6 layers with wide open doors, four turrets & star above, S-F in left/right fields, PCONST in exergue

3.3g, 19.0/21.0mm, 330 degree die axis, 328AD
1 commentsBiancasDad
Constantine_The_Great_PROVIDENTIAE_AVGG.jpg
Constantine The Great PROVIDENTIAE AVGG12 viewsObverse:
Diademed head right
CONSTANTINVS AVG
CONSTANTINVS: Constantine
AVG: Augustus, emperor

Reverse:
PROVIDENTIAE AVGG, Foresight of our emperors
PROVIDENTIAE: Foresight of our
AVGG: Augustus, more than one emperor
Campgate with two turrets and no door, star above, 6 (8) layers stones in the turrets.
Domination: Bronce AE 3, size 17 mm
Exergue: BSIS(double-crescent) in ex. Siscia
John S
Constantine.jpg
Constantine the Great, (307-337)40 viewsConstantine the Great, Cyzicus mint 326-327
Obv: CONSTAN-TINVS AVG, laureate head right
Rev: PROVIDEN-TIAE AVGG, camp-gate with no doors and two turrets, star above
SMKG• in ex.
RIC VII 55
1 commentsblot-sven
Constantine2.jpg
Constantine the Great, (307-337)66 viewsConstantine the Great, Nicomedia mint 324-325
Obv: CONSTANTINVS AVG, laureate head right
Rev: PROVIDEN-TIAE AVGG, camp-gate with no doors and two turrets, star above
SMNA in ex.
RIC VII 154
2 commentsblot-sven
Constantine3.jpg
Constantine the Great, (307-337)49 viewsConstantine the Great, Heraclea mint 317
Obv: IMP CONSTANTINVS AVG, laureate & draped bust left, holding mappa in right hand & globe with scepter in left hand
Rev: PROVIDENTIA AVGG, campgate with three turrets, no door, MHTB in ex
RIC VII 16
blot-sven
w4~0.JPG
Constantinople CONSS66 viewsConstantine had altogether more ambitious plans. Having restored the unity of the empire, now overseeing the progress of major governmental reforms and sponsoring the consolidation of the Christian church, Constantine was well aware that Rome had become an unsatisfactory capital for several reasons. Located in central Italy, Rome lay too far from the eastern imperial frontiers, and hence also from the legions and the Imperial courts. Moreover, Rome offered an undesirable playground for disaffected politicians; it also suffered regularly from flooding and from malaria.

It seemed impossible to many that the capital could be moved. Nevertheless, Constantine identified the site of Byzantium as the correct place: a city where an emperor could sit, readily defended, with easy access to the Danube or the Euphrates frontiers, his court supplied from the rich gardens and sophisticated workshops of Roman Asia, his treasuries filled by the wealthiest provinces of the empire.

Constantine laid out the expanded city, dividing it into 14 regions, and ornamenting it with great public works worthy of a great imperial city. Yet initially Constantinople did not have all the dignities of Rome, possessing a proconsul, rather than a prefect of the city. Furthermore, it had no praetors, tribunes or quaestors. Although Constantinople did have senators, they held the title clarus, not clarissimus, like those of Rome. Constantinople also lacked the panoply of other administrative offices regulating the food supply, police, statues, temples, sewers, aqueducts or other public works. The new program of building was carried out in great haste: columns, marbles, doors and tiles were taken wholesale from the temples of the empire and moved to the new city. Similarly, many of the greatest works of Greek and Roman art were soon to be seen in its squares and streets. The emperor stimulated private building by promising householders gifts of land from the imperial estates in Asiana and Pontica, and on 18 May 332 he announced that, as in Rome, free distributions of food would be made to citizens. At the time the amount is said to have been 80,000 rations a day, doled out from 117 distribution points around the city.

Constantinople was a Greek Orthodox Christian city, lying in the most Christianised part of the Empire. Justinian ordered the pagan temples of Byzantium to be deconstructed, and erected the splendid Church of the Holy Wisdom, Sancta Sophia (also known as Hagia Sophia in Greek), as the centrepiece of his Christian capital. He oversaw also the building of the Church of the Holy Apostles, and that of Hagia Irene.

Constantine laid out anew the square at the middle of old Byzantium, naming it the Augusteum. Sancta Sophia lay on the north side of the Augusteum. The new senate-house (or Curia) was housed in a basilica on the east side. On the south side of the great square was erected the Great Palace of the emperor with its imposing entrance, the Chalke, and its ceremonial suite known as the Palace of Daphne. Located immediately nearby was the vast Hippodrome for chariot-races, seating over 80,000 spectators, and the Baths of Zeuxippus (both originally built in the time of Septimius Severus). At the entrance at the western end of the Augusteum was the Milion, a vaulted monument from which distances were measured across the Eastern Empire.

From the Augusteum a great street, the Mese, led, lined with colonnades. As it descended the First Hill of the city and climbed the Second Hill, it passed on the left the Praetorium or law-court. Then it passed through the oval Forum of Constantine where there was a second senate-house, then on and through the Forum of Taurus and then the Forum of Bous, and finally up the Sixth Hill and through to the Golden Gate on the Propontis. The Mese would be seven Roman miles long to the Golden Gate of the Walls of Theodosius.

Constantine erected a high column in the middle of the Forum, on the Second Hill, with a statue of himself at the top, crowned with a halo of seven rays and looking towards the rising sun.

RIC VII Constantinople 61 C1
ecoli
Constantinus-II__AE-3-Follis_CONSTANTINVS-IVN-NOB-C_PROVIDEN-TIAE-CAES___CONS_RIC-VII-27-var_3rd-not-listed-bust_C-x_Costantinoplis_327-8-AD__Q-001_0h_19mm_3,55ga-s.jpg
Constantinopolis, 145 Constantinus II. (316-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-340 A.D. Augustus), RIC VII 020, AE-3 Follis, Γ/-//CONS, PROVIDENTIAE CAES S, Campgate with two turrets, R3!!!61 viewsConstantinopolis, 145 Constantinus II. (316-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-340 A.D. Augustus), RIC VII 020, AE-3 Follis, Γ/-//CONS, PROVIDENTIAE CAES S, Campgate with two turrets, R3!!!
avers: CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C, 7, B4, Laureate, draped and cuirassed head right.
reverse: PROVIDEN TIAE CAES S, Campgate, two turrets, no doors, star above 6th levels of stone layers, Γ in left fields.
exergue: Γ/-//CONS, diameter: 19mm, weight: 3,03g, axis: 0h,
mint: Constantinopolis, date: 327 AD., ref: RIC VII 020, p-572, 3rd-off, R3 !!!
Q-001
quadrans
00420-Constantius_II.JPG
Constantius II15 viewsConstantius II AE3
19.5 mm 3.05 gm
O: CONSTANTIVS AVG
Head perlee With large naked bust
R: VIRTVS AVGG
Campgate, doors open
1 commentsJohn Campbell
00constantiuscamgate.jpg
CONSTANTIUS II55 viewsAE 3. Nicomedia 324-325 AD. 3,17 grs. Laureate draped and cuirassed bust right. FL IVL CONSTANTIUS NOB C / Campgate with two turrets,six layers ,no doors,star above. PROVIDENTIAE CAESS. In exergue SMN delta.
RIC VII 94.
1 commentsbenito
00constantiuscamgate~0.jpg
CONSTANTIUS II20 viewsAE 3. Nicomedia 324-325 AD. 3,17 grs. Laureate draped and cuirassed bust right. FL IVL CONSTANTIUS NOB C / Campgate with two turrets,six layers ,no doors,star above. PROVIDENTIAE CAESS. In exergue SMN delta.
RIC VII 94.
benito
CONSTANTIUS_2_CAMPGATE.JPG
Constantius II35 viewsConstantius II - Nicomedia Mint - Officina 4 - AE3 - RIC VII 94

O: FL IVL CONSTANTIVS NOB C, laureate, draped, cuirassed bust left

R: PROVIDEN_TIAE CAESS, campgate with six rows, two turrets, no doors, star above, top and bottom rows empty blocks, SMNΔ in exergue

3.9g, 19.4mm, 30 degree die axis, 324-325AD
1 commentsBiancasDad
CONSTANTIUS_II_CAMPGATE.JPG
Constantius II41 viewsConstantius II - Nicomedia Mint - Officina 1 - AE3 - RIC VII 124

O: F L IVL CONSTANTIVS NOB C, laureate draped, cuirassed bust left

R: PROVIDEN-TIAE CAESS, campgate, 2 turrets, 6 layers, star above, no doors, MNA in exergue

3.3g, 18mm, 180 degree die axis, 325-326AD
BiancasDad
12312.jpg
CONSTANTIUS II6 viewsCONSTANTIUS II, as Caesar. 324-337 AD. Æ Follis (20mm - 3.5 g). Arles/Constantia mint. Struck 329 AD. FL IVL CONSTANTIVS NOB C, diademed, draped and cuirassed bust left / VIRTVS CAESS, camp-gate with open doors and four turrets, star above; T-F//PCONST. RIC VII 335 (r4); LRBC 345. Good VF, RareAncient Aussie
RIC_Constantius_II_RIC-VII_Siscia_203_campgate.jpg
Constantius II (Caesar, 324-337 A.D.; Augustus 337-361 A.D.) (Flavius Julius Constantius)8 viewsRIC VII Siscia 203, Van Meter 70.

AE3 2.92 g., 19.28 mm max., 180°

Siscia mint, fourth officina, struck 326-327 A.D. as Caesar

Obv: FL IVL CONSTANTINVS NOB C, laureate draped and cuirassed bust left.

Rev: PROVIDEN-TIAE CAESS, campgate (nine layers of bricks, no door) with two turrets and star between, •ΔSIS• in exergue.

RIC rarity C3. Partially silvered.
Stkp
constantius-II_bust-left-frontal_campgate-open-doors_QCONST_obv_02_rev_01.JPG
Constantius II - AE - Campgate - QCONST - Four tiers, open doors. Bust Left.22 viewsConstantius II as Caesar - AD 337 - 347.
AE Follis 'VIRTUS CAESS'
QCONST in exergue on reverse - Arles of Constantina Mint.

obv: FL JUL CONSTANTIUS NOB C - Laureate bust facing left, draped and cuirassed, seen from the front.

rev: VIRTUS CAESS - Four tiered campgate, five levels of brick, doors open. Star above.
'S F' - in either field. QCONST in exergue.


2.5 grams
-------------
Ex Old Pueblo Coin Exchange, Southern Arizona.
2 commentsrexesq
constantius-II_bust-left-frontal_campgate-open-doors_QCONST_obv_03_rev_04.JPG
Constantius II - AE - Campgate - QCONST - Four tiers, open doors. Bust Left.15 viewsConstantius II as Caesar - AD 337 - 347.
AE Follis 'VIRTUS CAESS'
QCONST in exergue on reverse - Arles of Constantina Mint.

obv: FL JUL CONSTANTIUS NOB C - Laureate bust facing left, draped and cuirassed, seen from the front.

rev: VIRTUS CAESS - Four tiered campgate, five levels of brick, doors open. Star above.
'S F' - in either field. QCONST in exergue.

2.5 Grams
-------------
Ex Old Pueblo Coin Exchange, Southern Arizona.
rexesq
Cons_II_campgate_opt.jpg
CONSTANTIUS II AE3 RIC VII 290, Campgate15 viewsOBV: FL VAL CONSTANTIVS NOB C, laureate, draped & cuirassed bust left
REV: PROVIDENTIAE CAESS, campgate with 2 turrets, 6 layers, star above, & no doors, R(wreath)Q in ex.
3.31 g, 20 mm

Minted at Rome, 355-361 AD
Legatus
constantius-ii-caesar-antioch.jpg
Constantius II as Caesar (330-334 AD), Antioch mint9 viewsRoman Imperial, Constantius II as Caesar (330-334 AD), Antioch mint

Obverse: FL IVL CONSTANTIVS NOB C, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust left.

Reverse: PROVIDEN-TIAE CAESS, Campgate, two turrets, one star above, seven layers, • in doorway. Mintmark: SMANTΔ

Reference: RIC VII Antioch 74

Ex: Bryan Aaker
Gil-galad
Campgate.jpg
Constantius II camp gate, Arles mint, RIC VII Arles 290.29 viewsConstantius II, AE3, 19mm. 325-326 AD, Arles.

Obverse: FL IVL CONSTANTIVS NOB C, laureate, draped, cuirassed bust left
Reverse: PROVIDEN-TIAE CAESS, Campgate with five layers, two turrets, no doors, star above. Mintmark QA crescent RL.

RIC VII Arles 290.
EvaJupiterSkies
canstantius II campgate.jpg
Constantius II RIC VII Arles 320 56 viewsConstantius II, AE3, 328, Constantina, Officina 4
FL IVL CONSTANTIVS NOB C
Laureate, draped, cuirassed bust left
PROVIDEN_TIAE CAESS
Campgate with six rows, two turrets, no doors, star above, top and bottom rows empty blocks
S | F across fields
QCONST in exergue
18mm x 21mm, 2.79g
RIC VII Arles 320
RIC rated C1
Ex Keith Metzer Collection
ex-Beastcoins
purchased 09/09/2007
2 commentsJohnny
const campgate 2 com.JPG
Constantius II RIC VII Nicomedia 9463 viewsAe 20 mm 3.1g 324-325 AD

OBV :: FL IVL CONSTANTIVS NOB C . Laureated draped and cuirassed bust left
REV :: PROVIDEN-TIAE CAESS. Campgate with 2 turrets, no door. star above. 7 rows of blocks
EX :: SMN Delta ( Nicomedia )
RIC VII Nicomedia 94
RIC rated R1
from uncleaned lot 10/2007
1 commentsJohnny
constantiusII_trier_480.jpg
Constantius II RIC VII, Trier 48065 viewsConstantius II 324-361, son of Constantine I
AE - reduced Follis (AE 3)
Trier 1st officina, AD 326, 3.02g, 18.15mm, 4h
obv. FL IVL CONSTANTIVS IVN NOB C
bust laureate, draped and cuirassed, l.
rev. PROVIDEN - TIA CAESS
camp-gate, without doors, with two turrets, one star above
exergue: PTR dot above crescent
RIC VII, Trier 480
near mint state, brown patina

The emperor wears at his left shoulder a fur trimming, called in German 'Trierer Pelzchen', i.e. 'small fur from Trier', due to the cold climate in this part of Germany.
From the Killingholme hoard (deposited around 333-334), found 1993
2 commentsJochen
constantiusII_trier_514.jpg
Constantius II RIC VII, Trier 51456 viewsConstantius II 324-361, son of Constantine I
AE - reduced Follis (AE 3)
Trier 1st officina, AD 327-328, 2.93g, 18.27mm, 4h
obv. FL IVL CONSTANTIVS IVN NOB C
bust laureate, draped and cuirassed, l.
rev. PROVIDEN - TIA CAESS
camp-gate, without doors, with two turrets, one star above
exergue: PTRE
RIC VII, Trier 514
near mint state, brown patina
added to www.wildwinds.com

The emperor wears at his left shoulder a fur trimming, called in German 'Trierer Pelzchen', i.e. 'small fur from Trier', due to the cold climate in this part of Germany.
From the Killingholme hoard (deposited around 333-334), found 1993
2 commentsJochen
constantius.jpg
Constantius II, 317-361 AD16 viewsAE3, 19mm, 3.4g, 12h; Heraclea mint: 326
Obv.: FL IVL CONSTANTIVS NOB C; Laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust left.
Rev.: PROVIDEN-TIAE CAESS; Camp-gate with two turrets, no doors; 6 stone layers; star above // SMH epsilon dot
Reference: RIC VII Heraclea 84
Notes: ex-Roman Lode, electronic sale, 2/16/13, 17.
John Anthony
8874_8875.jpg
Constantius II, AE3, PROVIDENTIAE CAES (dot), NS2 viewsAE3
Constantius II
Caesar: 324 - 337AD
Augustus: 337 - 361AD
Issued: 326 - 327AD
21.0 x 19.5mm 2.30gr 6h
O: FL IVL CONSTANTIVS NOB C; Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust, left.
R: PROVIDEN-TIAE CAES (dot); City gate with two turrets, star above, seven layers of bricks, doors closed.
Exergue: NS, below line.
Nicomedia Mint
Sear 17649; RIC VII Nicomedia 147; Aorta: 2327: B42, O25, R41, T2, M12.
numis-kimel/Anna Kimelova 283447423000
4/12/19 5/14/19
Nicholas Z
5042_5043.jpg
Constantius II, AE3, PROVIDENTIAE CAESS2 viewsAE3
Constantius II
Caesar: 324 - 337AD
Augustus: 337 - 361AD
Issued: 326 - 327AD
19.0 x 18.0mm 3.14gr
O: FL IVL CONSTANTIVS NOB C; Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust, left.
R: PROVIDENTIAE CAESS; City gate with two turrets, star above; no door, eight layers of bricks, dots within top and bottom layers of bricks.
Exergue: (Dot)ΔSIS(Dot)
Siscia Mint
Aorta: 2368: B42, O25, R42, T2, M15.
RIC 203
davis-ancients 221812793973
7/5/15 2/3/17
Nicholas Z
CONTIUS2-20-ROMAN.jpg
Constantius II, Heraclea RIC VII-078(B)21 viewsAE3
Heraclea mint, 325-326 A.D.
18mm, 2.92g
RIC VII-78

Obverse:
FL IVL CONSTANTIVS NOB C
Laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust left.

Reverse:
PROVIDENTIAE CAESS
SMHB
Camp gate, with two turrets, no doors; varying number of stone layers; star above.
rubadub
CONTIUS2-31-ROMAN~0.jpg
Constantius II, Nicomedia RIC VII-94(Δ)27 viewsAE3
Nicomedia mint, 324-325 A.D.
20mm, 2.31g
RIC VII-94

Obverse:
FL IVL CONSTANTIVS NOB C
Laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust left.

Reverse:
PROVIDENTIAE CAESS
SMNΔ
Camp gate, two turrets, no doors, star above, varying number of stone layers.
rubadub
188.jpg
Constantius II, RIC VII 158, Nicomedia36 viewsObv: FL IVL CONSTANTIVS NOB C
Bust: Laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust left
Rev: PROVIDENTIAE CAES (DOT)
Campgate, no door, two turrets, star above. 7 layers.
Exe: SMN delta
Date: 324-361 AD
Denom: Ae3
Rated "R1"
Bluefish
168.jpg
Constantius II, RIC VII 78, Heraclea31 viewsObv: FL IVL CONSTANTIVS NOB C
Bust: Diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust left
Rev: PROVIDENTIAE CAESS
Campgate, no door, two turrets, star above. 5 layers.
Exe: SMH gamma
Date: 324-329 AD
Denom: Ae3
Rated "C2"
Bluefish
tr_rmd.jpg
County of Tripoli, Raymond III (1152-87), Æ Pougeoise, (c.1173-1187)26 viewsCounty of Tripoli, Raymond III (1152-87), Æ Pougeoise, (c.1173-1187)
O : + CIVITAS fortified gateway, five rows of masonry, five crenellations, large divided door
R : + TRIPOLIS, St. Andrew's cross pommetée, circle in center, crescent and pellet in each quarter
CCS 13
Vladislav D
trr.jpg
County of Tripoli, Raymond III, 1152 - 1187 Bronze pougeoise46 viewsCounty of Tripoli, Raymond III, 1152 - 1187 Bronze pougeoise 16-17 mm
O : + CIVITAS fortified gateway, five rows of masonry, five crenellations, large divided door
R : + TRIPOLIS, St. Andrew's cross pommetée, circle in center, crescent and pellet in each quarter
County of Tripoli 'Castle' copper type 1 (var), Metcalf 525-528.
Vladislav D
tripoli_r.jpg
County of Tripoli, Raymond III, 1152 - 1187 Bronze pougeoise40 viewsCounty of Tripoli, Raymond III, 1152 - 1187 Bronze pougeoise 17 mm
O : + CIVITAS fortified gateway, five rows of masonry, five crenellations, large divided door
R : + TRIPOLIS, St. Andrew's cross pommetée, circle in center, crescent and pellet in each quarter
County of Tripoli 'Castle' copper type 1 (var), Metcalf 525-528.
Vladislav D
CRISPUS_CAMPGATE.JPG
Crispus91 viewsCrispus - Alexandria Mint - Officina 1 - AE3 - RIC VII 35

O:FL IVL CRISPVS NOB CAES Laureate, draped, cuirassed bust left

R: PROVIDEN TIAE CAESS Campgate with five rows, two turrets, no doors, star above, top and bottom rows empty blocks, SMALA in exergue

3.7g, 18.5/19.2mm, 0 degree die axis, 325-326AD
6 commentsBiancasDad
Crispus_Antioch_SMANTZ.png
Crispus Antioch Z16 viewsCrispus AE follis (19mm, 3.56g). Antioch. 326-7 AD. FL IVL CRISPVS NOB CAES, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust left / PROVIDENTIAE CAESS, Campgate, two turrets, seven layers, star above, no doors, dot in doorway. Mintmark SMANTZ. RIC VII 72Ajax
crispus_k2.jpg
Crispus Caesar, AD 317-3265 viewsÆ Follis, 18mm, 2.8g, 6h; Trier mint, AD 326.
Obv.: FL IVL CRISPVS NOB CAES; Laureate, draped, cuirassed bust left.
Rev.: PROVIDEN-TIAE CAESS, camp-gate with no doors and two turrets, star above; STR (pellet in crescent).
Reference: RIC VII Trier 477, p. 209
John Anthony
Crispus_Campgate_Rome_RIC_266~0.jpg
Crispus Campgate Rome RIC 26627 viewsCrispus as Caesar, AE Follis, Rome, 324 - 325 AD, 19.05mm, 2.6g, RIC VII 266 (R1)
OBV: F L IVL CRISPVS NOB CAES, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust left
REV: PROVIDEN-TIAE AVGG, Camp gate, two turrets, no doors, star above

RARE
Romanorvm
crispvs_jg_101.jpg
Crispus R3 - Uncleaned Find62 viewsCrispus AE3. FL IVL CRISPUS NOB CAES, laureate bust left, draped and cuirassed / PROVIDEN-TIAE CAESS, campgate with two turrets, no door and one star above, SMK(Delta) in ex.
1 commentsTkonnova
crispus cam com.JPG
Crispus RIC VII Arles 26952 viewsSilvered AE 20 mm 3.2 grams
OBV :: CRISPVS-NOB CAES. Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust left
REV :: PROVIDEN-TIAE CAESS. Cqampgate with 6 rows , no door, 2 turrets and star above
EX :: T star AR (Arles)
RIC VII Arles 269
RIC rated R2
From uncleaned lot 02/2008
Johnny
CRISPUS-5-ROMAN~0.jpg
Crispus, Antioch RIC VII-064(Z)16 viewsAE3
Antioch mint, 325-326 A.D.
19mm, 2.58g
RIC VII-64

Obverse:
FL IVL CRISPVS NOB CAES
Laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust left.

Reverse:
PROVIDENTIAE CAESS
SMANTZ
Camp gate, two turrets, no doors, star above; varying number of stone layers.
rubadub
Constantinus-I__AE-Follis_CONSTAN-TINVS-AVG-1_PROVIDEN-TIAE-AVG-G-B1-6layers_SMKDelta_RIC-24-p-647_Cyzicus_324-5-AD_Q-001_h_mm_g-s~0.jpg
Cyzicus, 136 Constantinus I. (306-309 A.D. Caesar, 309-910 A.D. Filius Augustorum, 307-337 A.D. Augustus), RIC VII 024, AE-3 Follis, -/-//SMKΔ, PROVIDENTIAE AVG G, Campgate with two turrets,64 viewsCyzicus, 136 Constantinus I. (306-309 A.D. Caesar, 309-910 A.D. Filius Augustorum, 307-337 A.D. Augustus), RIC VII 024, AE-3 Follis, -/-//SMKΔ, PROVIDENTIAE AVG G, Campgate with two turrets,
avers: CONSTAN TINVS AVG, 1, B1, Laureate, bust right.
reverse: PROVIDEN TIAE AVG G, 6 layers, Campgate, no door, with two turrets star above.
exergue: -/-//SMKΔ, diameter: mm, weight: g, axis:h,
mint: Cyzicus, date: 325-326 A.D., ref: RIC VII 024, p-647,
Q-001
quadrans
Constantinus-I__AE-Follis_CONSTAN-TINVS-AVG-1_PROVIDEN-TIAE-AVG-G-B1-8layers_SMKGamm-dot_RIC-34-p-648_Cyzicus_325-6-AD_Q-001_h_mm_g-s~0.jpg
Cyzicus, 136 Constantinus I. (306-309 A.D. Caesar, 309-910 A.D. Filius Augustorum, 307-337 A.D. Augustus), RIC VII 034, AE-3 Follis, -/-//SMKΓ•, PROVIDENTIAE AVG G, Campgate with two turrets,77 viewsCyzicus, 136 Constantinus I. (306-309 A.D. Caesar, 309-910 A.D. Filius Augustorum, 307-337 A.D. Augustus), RIC VII 034, AE-3 Follis, -/-//SMKΓ•, PROVIDENTIAE AVG G, Campgate with two turrets,
avers: CONSTAN TINVS AVG, 1, B1, Laureate, bust right.
reverse: PROVIDEN TIAE AVG G, 8 layers, Campgate, no door, with two turrets star above.
exergue: -/-//SMKΓ•, diameter: mm, weight: g, axis:h,
mint: Cyzicus, date: 325-326 A.D., ref: RIC VII 034, p-648,
Q-001
quadrans
136_Constantinus_I_,_,_RIC_VII_34A,_Cyzicus_,_AE-Follis,_CONSTAN_TINVS_AVG,_PROVIDENTIAE_AVGG,_SMKAdot,_325-6_AD,_Q-001,_11h,_17,5-18,5mm,_3,05g-s~0.jpg
Cyzicus, 136 Constantinus I. (306-309 A.D. Caesar, 309-910 A.D. Filius Augustorum, 307-337 A.D. Augustus), RIC VII 034A, AE-3 Follis, -/-//SMKA•, PROVIDENTIAE AVG G, Campgate with two turrets, #199 viewsCyzicus, 136 Constantinus I. (306-309 A.D. Caesar, 309-910 A.D. Filius Augustorum, 307-337 A.D. Augustus), RIC VII 034A, AE-3 Follis, -/-//SMKA•, PROVIDENTIAE AVG G, Campgate with two turrets, #1
avers: CONSTAN TINVS AVG, 1, B1, Laureate, bust right.
reverse: PROVIDEN TIAE AVG G, 8 layers, Campgate, no door, with two turrets star above.
exergue: -/-//SMKA•, diameter: 17,5-18,5mm, weight: 3,05g, axis:11h,
mint: Cyzicus, date: 325-326 A.D., ref: RIC VII 034A, p-648,
Q-001
quadrans
142_Crispus,_Cyzicus,_RIC_VII_025,_AE-3_Follis,_FL_IVL_CRISPUS_NOB_CAES,_PROVIDEN-TIAE_CAESS,_SMK__#916;,_324-5AD,_Q-001,_0h,_19mm,_3,6g-s~0.jpg
Cyzicus, 142 Crispus (317-326 A.D.), RIC VII 025, AE-3 Follis, -/-//SMKΔ, PROVIDENTIAE CAESS, Campgate with two turrets, #1134 viewsCyzicus, 142 Crispus (317-326 A.D.), RIC VII 025, AE-3 Follis, -/-//SMKΔ, PROVIDENTIAE CAESS, Campgate with two turrets, #1
avers: FL IVL CRISPUS NOB CAES, Laureate bust left, draped and cuirassed.
reverse: PROVIDEN TIAE CAESS, Campgate with two turrets, 6 layers, no door and one star above.
exergue: -/-//SMKΔ, diameter: 19,0mm, weight: 3,60g, axis: 0h,
mint: Cyzicus, 4th. off., date: 324-325 AD., ref: RIC VII 25,
Q-001
quadrans
Constantius-II__AE-3_FL-IVL-CONSTANTIVS-NOB-C-8_B4-l__PROVIDEN-TIAE-CAES-S_6layer_SMKGamma_RIC-VII-27-p-647_3rd_off__Cyzicus_324-5-AD_R2_Q-001_5h_17-19,5mm_3,01ga-s~0.jpg
Cyzicus, 147 Constantius II. (324-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-361 A.D. Augustus), RIC VII 027, AE-3 Follis, -/-//SMKΓ, PROVIDENTIAE CAES S, Campgate with two turrets, R2!!62 viewsCyzicus, 147 Constantius II. (324-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-361 A.D. Augustus), RIC VII 027, AE-3 Follis, -/-//SMKΓ, PROVIDENTIAE CAES S, Campgate with two turrets, R2!!
avers: FL IVL CONSTANTIVS NOB C, 8, B4-l., Laureate, draped and cuirassed head left.
reverse: PROVIDEN TIAE CAES S, Campgate with two turrets, no doors, star above, 6 layers of stones.
exergue: -/-//SMKΓ, diameter: 17,0-19,5mm, weight: 3,01g, axis:5h,
mint: Cyzicus, date: 324-325 A.D., ref: RIC VII 027, p-647, 3rd.-off., R2!!,
Q-001
quadrans
Constantius-II__AE-Follis-silvered_FL-IVL-CONSTANTIVS-NOB-C-8_PROVIDEN-TIAE-CAES-S-B4-l_7lay_SMKB-dot_RIC-VII-38-p649_2nd_off__Cyzicus_325-6-AD_Q-001_axis-1h_18mm_2,67ga-s.jpg
Cyzicus, 147 Constantius II. (324-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-361 A.D. Augustus), RIC VII 038, AE-3 Follis, -/-//SMKB•, PROVIDENTIAE CAES S, Campgate with two turrets, #168 viewsCyzicus, 147 Constantius II. (324-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-361 A.D. Augustus), RIC VII 038, AE-3 Follis, -/-//SMKB•, PROVIDENTIAE CAES S, Campgate with two turrets, #1
avers: FL IVL CONSTANTIVS NOB C, 8, B4-l., Laureate, draped and cuirassed head left.
reverse: PROVIDEN TIAE CAES S, Campgate with two turrets, no doors, star above, 7 layers of stones.
exergue: -/-//SMKB•, diameter: 18mm, weight: 2,67g, axis: 1h,
mint: Cyzicus, date: 325-326 A.D., ref: RIC VII 038, p-649, 2nd.-off., c1,
Q-001
quadrans
2012-02-028.jpg
Cyzicus, Constantine I16 viewsConstantine I

CONSTAN-TINVSAVG
Laureate head right

PROVIDEN-TIAEAVGG
Campgate, star above, 7 rows, open door

SMKr (pellet)

RIC VII Cyzicus 34
Ae 19mm; 3.06g
Robin Ayers
Faustina_II_31.jpg
Denar, RIC 3, p.273, 746 - Faustina II, CONSECRATIO, Altar 21 viewsFaustina II
AR-Denar
Obv.: DIVA FAVSTINA PIA, draped bust right (hairstyle variation)
Rev.: CONSECRATIO, Altar enclosure with door in front and horns above
Ag, 2.64g, 17.5x18.9mm
Ref.: RIC III 746, CRE 158 [C] var. [minor hairstyle variation]
shanxi
Faustina_R595~0.jpg
Denar, RIC 3, p.273, 746 - Faustina II, CONSECRATIO, Altar16 viewsFaustina II
AR-Denar
Obv.: DIVA FAVSTINA PIA, draped bust right
Rev.: CONSECRATIO, Altar enclosure with door in front and horns above
Ag, 2.77g, 19mm
Ref.: RIC III 746, CRE 158 [C]
shanxi
LT-KKUT.jpg
DIOCLETIAN Argenteus42 viewsDIOCLETI-ANVS AVG, laureate head right / VICTORIAE SARMATICAE, camp-gate with open doors, surmounted by four turrets; star above door.

*, SMNG = Nicomedia.

AR Argenteus, c295, c18mm, c3.0g.

RIC25a(R3), RSC492a.

Ex. I Jones collection.
2 commentsTLP
Diocletian__AR_Argenteus.jpg
Diocletian, 284-305 AD. AR Argenteus, Thessalonica105 viewsObverse: DIOCLETI-ANVS AVG - Laureate bust of Diocletian Facing Right
Reverse: VIRTVS MILITVM - 3 Turreted Campgate With No Doors , .T.S.B. in ex.

Thessalonica mint, struck c. 302 AD.
Attribution: R.I.C. VI Thessalonica 15a , Rare.
Weight: 2.96 Gr , Max Diameter:  20 mm
Die Axis: 11 H , Ch gVF.

From The Sam Mansourati Collection./ NO. RI 3001
5 commentsSam
FSr13.jpg
DIVA AVGVSTA FAVSTINA 25 viewsAE As 27mm after 141AD
Obv - DIVA AVGVSTA FAVSTINA - draped bust right
Rev - PIET AVG S-C - Altar with closed doors
Reference - RIC III (Antoninus Pius) 1191A
Mint - Rome
aragon6
Antose83-2~0.jpg
Divus Antoninus, RIC (Marcus Aurelius) 1266, sestertius of AD 16138 viewsOrichalcum sestertius (21.73, 31mm, 12h). Rome mint, Struck under Marcus Aurelius, AD 161.
Obv.: DIVVS ANTONINVS, bear head of Antoninus Pius facing right
Rev.: CONSECRATIO (around) S C (field) Four tiered funeral pyre or rather an ustrinum surmounted by a statue of Antoninus in a quadriga, facing. The lowest tier is hung with wreaths, the second has a door in the centre with two niches at each side with a statue in each; the third has six niches each with a statue; the fourth is hung with draperies and flanked by torches.
RIC (M. Aurelius) 1266; BMC (M. Aurelius) 872; Cohen 165; Banti (I Grandi Bronzi Imperiali II-3) 74 (31 spec.); Sear (Roman Coins & Their Values II) 5198; Foss (Roman Historical Coins) 136:15
ex Roma Numismatics; ex Künker

Minted under Marcus Aurelius in joint reign with Verus, in honour of the funeral and deification of Antoninus Pius. Traditionally the structure on the reverse is called a Funeral Pyre, but there are good arguments to believe this is in fact a stone pyramide building called "ustrinum" where the ashes were kept: see an article at BeastCoins.
Charles S
AntoSe73-scan.jpg
Divus Antoninus, RIC (Marcus Aurelius) 1272, Sestertius of AD 161-169 (Altar)12 viewsÆ Sestertius (26.30g, , 12h). Rome mint. Struck AD 161-169 (under Marcus Aurelius).
Obv.: DIVVS ANTONINVS, bare head right.
Rev.: DIVO PIO around, S C across field, rectangular altar set on five steps, with double panelled door and horns l. and r. above.
RIC (Marcus Aurelius) 1272; BMCRE (M. Aurelius) 886; Cohen 358; Banti (I Grandi Bronzi Imperiali II-3) 147 (14 spec.); Sear (Roman Coins & their Values II) 5200; Foss (Roman Historical Coins) 136/19
Ex Jean Elsen, Auction 95 (2008); ex coll. A. Senden: l'architecture des monnaies Romaines.

Coin issued posthumously by Marcus Aurelius commemorating the funeral & deification of Antoninus Pius.
Charles S
Augustus_Provident_SC_2b.jpg
Divus Augustus | Altar & PROVIDENT * AD. Æ As - 27 BC-14 AD127 views
Divus Augustus | Altar & PROVIDENT * AD. Bronze As.

Obv: Radiate head of Divus Augustus, left-facing: DIVVS AVGVSTVS PATER
Rev: Altar-enclosure with double panelled doors, closed; uncertain ornaments at the top, PROVIDENT beneath.

Exergue: None.

Mint: Rome
Struck: 31-37 AD
(Struck under Tiberius)

Size: 29.15 mm.
Weight: 9.71 grm.
Die axis: 180°

Condition: Quite worn but with yet clearly visible images both sides; most obverse legend visible & legible, showing: [DIVV]S AVGVSTVS [P]ATER. Some light red-ish encrustration on the upper-right of the obverse, behind top of portrait.

Refs:*
BN, 132
Cohen, 228
RIC I, 81 (Tiberius)
BMCRE, 146 (Tiberius)

AUGUSTUS: Gaius Octavius Thurinus, later Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus, was born Sept. 23, 63 BC. After defeating his rivals he is given the title 'Augustus' by which he became known thenceforth.
Tiathena
Divo_Galerius.jpg
Divus Galerius7 viewsDivus Galerius

A.D. 311, 23x25mm 4.5gm
DIVO MAXIMIANO; veiled head right.
MEM DIVI M-AXIMIANI; Eagle surmounting domed shrine with closed doors. B in right field.
In ex. •SM•TS•
RIC VI Thessalonica 48
Posthumous issue struck under Licinius
Ancient Aussie
Divo_Maximian.jpg
DIVUS MAXIMIANUS 3 viewsDIVUS MAXIMIANUS DIED 310.
AE Follis. Ostia 22mm, 5.59gm, RIC 26
Struck under Maxentius, AD 309-312. Veiled head right / Eagle standing right on domed hexastyle temple, right door ajar; MOSTS. RIC VI 26
Ancient Aussie
Romulus.jpg
Divus Romulus.21 viewsDivus Romulus. Died AD 309. Æ Quarter Follis (17mm, 2.01 g, 12h). Rome mint, 3rd officina. Struck under Maxentius, circa AD 310. Bare head right / Domed shine with doors ajar, surmounted by eagle; RT. RIC VI 239. VF, dark green patina, flan flaws on obverse.1 commentsAncient Aussie
Domitian_AE_AS__Rome_Mint__Double_Doors_Altar_Reverse__6.jpg
Domitian (Augustus) Coin: Bronze As 5 viewsIMP CAES DOMITIAN AVG GERM COS X - Laureate head right, aegis on shoulder
SALVTI AVGVST - Front view of an altar of Salus with double-paneled doors.
Exergue: SC


Mint: Rome (84 AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 10.74g / 27mm / 12h
References:
RIC II 224
BMCRE 291
Sear 2808

Acquisition/Sale: veni_vidi_vici_coins eBay $0.00 08/19
Notes: Aug 25, 19 - The Gary R. Wilson Collection
Gary W2
Domitian_RIC305.jpg
Domitian - As - RIC 30526 viewsObv: IMP CAES DOMITIAN AVG GERM COS XI - Bust of Domitian, laureate, right with aegis
Rev: SALVTI AVGVSTI S C - Rectangular altar with three steps, door with four panels, horns at ends
Size: 25-27 mm
Weight: 9,13 g
Mint: Rome
Date: 92-94 AD
Ref: RIC II 305, Cohen 417, BMC 316
2 commentsvs1969
T517.jpg
Domitian as Caesar RIC-517115 viewsAR Cistophorus, 10.77g
Rome mint (for Asia), 80-81 AD (Titus)
Obv: CAES DIVI F•DOMITIANVS COS VII; Head of Domitian, laureate, bearded, r.
Rev: DIVO VESP across field; Altar shrine
RIC 517 (R). BMC 150. RSC 95. RPC 862 (6 spec.). BNC 112.
Acquired from NumisCorner, July 2017.

A fairly scarce Domitian Caesar cistophorus struck under Titus. The reverse honours the divine Vespasian and shows what catalogues have traditionally called a 'large altar' - in fact what the reverse depicts is a shrine in the shape of an altar. The doors, columns, and steps are strong evidence that what we are seeing is a building and not an altar. How the shrine related to the Temple of the Divine Vespasian is unknown.

Struck in good metal and fine Roman style.
9 commentsDavid Atherton
D385a.jpg
Domitian RIC-38538 viewsÆ As, 10.60g
Rome mint, 85 AD
Obv: IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM COS XI CENS POT P P; Head of Domitian, laureate, bearded, r., with aegis
Rev: SALVTI above, AVGVSTI below; S C in field; Altar
RIC 385 (C2). BMC 358. BNC 379.
Acquired from Praefectus Coins, August 2019.

The SALVTI AVGVSTI altar type was first introduced on Domitian's aes coinage in 84 after a brief hiatus of the Senatorial mint's production in 82-83, presumably for re-organisational purposes. The structure on the reverse has been traditionally described as an altar, however, Marvin Tameanko has convincingly argued it is actually a sacellum, or small shrine. He states the steps at the base leading to two doors with handles are overwhelming evidence that the structure was much larger than an altar. As far as the shrine's significance - H. Mattingly in BMCRE II interprets the type as commemorating the Senate's dedication of an altar shrine celebrating Domitian's safe return from the Germanic Wars of 82-83. Alternately, the shrine may have been dedicated as an appeal to Salus for the emperor's continued good health. In any case, no trace of the shrine has survived antiquity.

This As with its aegis, large flan (30mm), and elegant idealised style are all hallmarks of the new direction introduced after the Senatorial mint's overhaul.
4 commentsDavid Atherton
D841.JPG
Domitian RIC-841152 viewsAR Cistophorus, 9.81g
Rome mint (for Asia), 82 AD
Obv: IMP CAES DOMITIAN AVG P M COS VIII; Head of Domitian, laureate, bearded, r.
Rev: CAPIT across field, RESTIT in exergue; Temple of Capitoline Jupiter with 4 columns enclosing figures of Juno, seated Jupiter and Minverva
RIC 841 (C). BMC 251. RSC 23. RPC 864 (8 spec.). BNC 221.
Acquired from Tom Cederlind, February 2013.

In 80 AD while Titus was away in Campania surveying the damage Vesuvius had caused in the region the previous Fall, a devastating fire broke out in Rome, damaging much of the city center. One of the most important buildings affected by the fire was the Temple of Capitoline Jupiter, rebuilt recently by Vespasian. It being the most sacred and important building in Rome, Titus began rebuilding it immediately. Construction was still ongoing when Titus died of natural causes in September of 81. Domitian completed the structure the following year and it was said no expense was spared. The building Domitian dedicated was a lavish structure, magnificent in appearance featuring Pentelic marble, gold plated doors, and a roof of gilded bronze.

This cistophorus minted in Rome for export to Asia Minor commemorates the new Temple of Jupiter Domitian bestowed on Rome. Curiously, although the building featured six columns, only four are seen here. Statues of the deities Juno, Jupiter (seated) and Minverva can be seen between the columns.

A most wonderful coin in hand.
8 commentsDavid Atherton
EB0389_scaled.JPG
EB0389 Nero / Temple of Janus16 viewsNero, AE Sestertius, ca 65 AD.
Obv: NERO CLAVD CAESAR AVG GER P M TR P IMP P P, laureate head right, aegis on left shoulder
Rev: PACE P R TERRA MARIQ PARTA IANVM CLVSIT S-C, Temple of Janus with latticed windows & garland hung across doors; closed double doors on the right.
References: RIC 264; Cohen 146.
Diameter: -, Weight: -.
EB
EB0410_scaled.JPG
EB0410 Domitian / Ara Salutis Augusti3 viewsDomitian, AE As, 85 AD.
Obv: IMP CAES DOMITIAN AVG GERM COS XI, laureate bust right, wearing aegis.
Rev: SALVTI AVGVSTI above and beneath facade of the altar-enclosure of the Ara Salutis Augusti with detailed double-paneled door and horns above, S-C across fields.
References: RIC 305; BMCRE 316-317; Cohen 417.
Diameter: 29mm, Weight: 11.727 grams.
EB
EB0772_scaled.JPG
EB0772 Constantine I / Camp Gate9 viewsConstantine I 307-337, AE follis, Nicomedia, 330-335.
Obverse: CONSTANTINVS AVG, rosette-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right.
Reverse: PROVIDENTIAE AVGG, campgate with two turrets, no door, star above, mintmark SMNΔ.
References: Cf. RIC VII 156 (MAX AVG on obverse).
Diameter: 19.5mm, Weight: 3.347g.
EB
EB0774_scaled.JPG
EB0774 Constantine I / Camp Gate9 viewsConstantine I, 307-337, Nicomedia, AE Follis.
Obverse: CONSTANTINVS AVG, laureate head right.
Reverse: PROVIDENTIAE AVGG, Camp gate, two turrets, no doors, star above. Mintmark MNA.
References: RIC VII 121.
Diameter: 18.5mm, Weight: 2.277g.
EB
EB0780_scaled.JPG
EB0780 Constantine I / Camp Gate12 viewsConstantine I 307-337, Heraclea, AE follis.
Obverse: IMP CONSTANTINVS AVG, laureate and draped bust left holding eagle-tipped sceptre and mappa.
Reverse: PROVIDENTIAE AVGG, campgate with 3 turrets, 7 layers, no doors, no star above. Mintmark SMHB.
References: RIC VII 16 (mintmark MHT_).
Diameter: 19.5mm, Weight: 2.618g.
EB
EB0791_scaled.JPG
EB0791 Crispus Caesar / Camp Gate11 viewsCrispus Caesar 317-326, Antioch, Officina 5, AE follis 325-326.
Obverse: FL IVL CRISPVS NOB CAES, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust left.
Reverse: PROVIDENTIAE CAESS, campgate with two turrets and star above, no doors. Mintmark SMANTE.
References:RIC VII Antioch 64; Sear 16811.
Diameter: 19.5mm, Weight: 3.134g.
EB
EB0792_scaled.JPG
EB0792 Crispus Caesar / Camp Gate14 viewsCrispus Caesar 317-326, AE follis, Heraclea?
Obverse: FL IVL CRISPVS NOB CAES, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust left.
Reverse: PROVIDENTIAE CAESS, campgate with two turrets and star above, no doors. Mintmark SMHA?
References: -.
Diameter: 20.5mm, Weight: 3.488g
EB
EB0793_scaled.JPG
EB0793 Crispus Caesar / Camp Gate10 viewsCrispus Caesar 317-326, AE follis, Rome, 324-325.
Obverse: FL IVL CRISPVS NOB CAES, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust left.
Reverse: PROVIDENTIAE CAESS, campgate with two turrets, 8 layers, star above, no doors, dot in doorway, two dots above doorway. Mintmark RQ.
References: Cf. RIC VII 266 (7 layers).
Diameter: 19mm, Weight: 3.349g.
EB
EB0795_scaled.JPG
EB0795 Constantine II / Camp Gate13 viewsConstantine II as Caesar 317 – 337, AE Follis, Antioch 330-334.
Obverse: CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C, laureate, draped, cuirassed bust left.
Reverse: PROVIDEN-TIAE CAESS, campgate, 11 layers, two turrets, star above. Dot in doorway. Mintmark SMANTR.
References: RIC VII Antioch 73, R.
Diameter: 19.5mm, Weight: 2.704g.
EB
EB0797b_scaled.JPG
EB0797 Constantine II / Campgate6 viewsConstantine II, AE 19.
Obverse: CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust left.
Reverse: PROVIDEN-TIAE CAESS, Campgate, eight layers, two turrets, star above, no doors. Mintmark P wreath dot T?
References:-.
Diameter: 19mm, Weight: 3.076g.
EB
Elagabalus_Ae26_Nikopolis_ad_Istrum.JPG
Elagabalus, 218-222 AD. AE24 of Nikopolis ad Istrum.16 viewsAV K M AVPE ANTWNINOC, laureate head right / UP NOBIOU ROUFOU NIKOPOLITWN PROC ICTPON, city gate with two wide towers and a arched door. Varbanov 3015 Antonivs Protti
elagabal_astarte.jpg
Elagabalus, Tripolis, Phoenicia45 viewsBronze AE 25, Tripolis mint, 220 - 221 A.D.
12.154g, 25.0mm, 0°
Obv.: AVT KM AVP ANTW NINOC, laureate head right
Rev.: TRI PO LI TWN, temple, center arch, two tetrastyle wings, curved roof line from wings to top of pediment, Astarte stands facing in doorway, ΓΛΦ (Seleukid year 532) in exergue
BMC Phoenicia p. 223, 120; SNG Cop 291
http://www.forumancientcoins.com/catalog/zoompg.asp?param=08634q00.jpg&id=6141
Not sure if this is correct.
areich
FaustinaSr1.jpg
Faustina Senior, Altar49 viewsDIVA AVGVS-TA FAVSTINA
Obverse: Draped bust right, hair coiled on top of head

PIET-AVG
Reverse: Altar with closed doors

SC under altar


RIC 1191, S 4654, C258
AE As;11.82g / 27mm
2 commentsarizonarobin
Flavius_Victor_RIC_55b.JPG
Flavius Victor, RIC 55b13 viewsDN FL VICTOR PF AVG
SPES ROMANORVM
AE-4, 13mm, 0.96g
Pearl diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right
Campgate with four rows and two turrets, no doors, star above
Aquileia mint
SMAQS in ex.
novacystis
flavius_victor_aquileia_55(b).jpg
Flavius Victor, RIC IX, Aquileia 55(b)23 viewsFlavius Victor, 387-388, son of Magnus Maximus
AE 4, 0.9g, 13mm
Aquileia, 1st officina
obv. DN FL VIC - TOR PF AVG
Bust, draped and cuirassed, pearl-diademd, r.
rev. SPES RO - MA - NORVM
City gate with 2 towers, star between, open door
in wx. SMAQP
ref. RIC IX, Aquileia 55(b); C. 3
Scarce, VF

In spite of his depiction Flavius Victor was 4-5 years old when his coins were struck.
Jochen
CHARLES VIII.jpg
FRANCE - CHARLES VIII180 viewsFrance Charles VIII 1483-97 AD Denier Tournois. VF, creased. Charles VIII died oddly by striking his head while passing through a doorway, seemingly this caused a severe concussion and he died within hours of slipping into a coma. Size: 16 mmdpaul7
DSCN8001.JPG
Gordian III and Tranquillina, Anchialus, Thrace. 238-244 AD. AE27mm 15 viewsGordian III and Tranquillina, Anchialus, Thrace. 238-244 AD.

Obv. AYT K M ANT GORDIANOC AYG CEB TRANKYLLINA, laureate and draped bust of Gordian right, facing draped bust of Tranquillina left.

Rev. OVLPIANWN AGXIALEWN, City gate with towers, arched doorway with wall and towers, with three arches along the wall and one pinnacle on top of the wall.

Ref. Varbanov 67
Lee S
gordianIII-RIC156.jpg
GORDIAN III AR antoninianus - struck July-Dec. 243 AD18 viewsobv: IMP GORDIANVS PIVS FEL AVG (radiate draped bust right)
rev: VICTORIA AETERNA (Victory standing left with palm, resting sheild on captive at foot)
ref: RIC IViii 156, RSC 353
mint: Rome
4.02gms, 22mm
12th Issue, 5th Officina

History: In AD 240 the Persians under Shapur I invaded Mesopotamia. Gordian, the young emperor opened the doors of the Temple of Janus for the last time in Roman history, and sent a huge army to the East. This coin probably commemorate the victory in the Battle of Resaena or Resaina (today Ras al-Ayn, Syria) in AD 243, when the Roman army -led by Praetorian Prefect Timesitheus- defeated the Sassanid Empire army, led by King Shapur I.
berserker
nummuseum.jpg
Greece, Athens - Entrance to the Athens Numismatic Museum731 viewsThe former mansion of noted amateur archaeologist Heinrich Schliemann. What was inside those doors was truly marvelous.1 commentsmemphius
Dyrrachion~0.jpg
GREEK, Illyria, Dyrrachion. AR Stater87 viewsCirca 340-280 BC (21mm, 10.71 g, 4h). Maier 23 var. (lizard on rev.); Meadows, Coin Hoard (forthcoming) 175 (this coin); SNG Copenhagen –; BMC 17 var. (same). Obverse Cow standing right, looking back at suckling calf standing left below; above, wasp right. Reverse Double stellate pattern, divided by line, in double linear square border (single on one side); DYP retrograde, club below; all within linear circle border. Good VF, bright surfaces, some porosity. Well centered. Very rare.

Ex Classical Numismatic Group 93rd Printed Auction, lot 190.

Dyrrhachion was founded as Epidamnos in the ancient region of Illyria in 627 BC by ancient Greek colonists from Corinth and Korkyra. The city's geographical position was highly advantageous, as it was situated around a natural rocky harbor which was surrounded by inland swamps and high cliffs on the seaward side, making the city very difficult to attack from either land or sea. The city, together with Corinth’s conflict with Korkyra was one of the causes in precipitating the Peloponnesian War. Dyrrhachion was noted for being a politically advanced society, prompting Aristotle to praise its political system in controlling trade between the Greek colonists and the locals. The Romans prefer calling the city Dyrrhacium since the last two syllables of the city’s name “–damnos” connotes a different meaning and inauspicious to Roman ears. The designs of the staters of Korkyra as well as its colonies, Apollonia and Dyrrhachion, have been the subject of much numismatic speculation. Eckhel (Doctrina numorum veterum [Vienna, 1792/3], II:155) accepted the view of Laurentius Beger (Observationes Et Conjecturae In Numismata Quaedam Antiqua [Brandenburg, 1691]), who argued that the design represented the garden of Alkinöos, the mythical king of Phaiakia, described in detail by the poet Homer (Od. 7.112-133). Based on the assumption that mythical Phaiakia was the island of ancient Korkyra (mod. Corfu), and knowing that Korkyrans colonized both Apollonia and Dyrrhachion, Beger (and through him, Eckhel) concluded that the central elements were flowers and that the overall design must represent either the layout of the garden, or the doors leading to it. Other numismatists argued that the central elements of the design were more star-like. While Böckh and Müller (in P. Gardner, "Floral patterns on Archaic Greek coins," NC 1881, p. 1) felt this to be the case, they considered the elements to be nothing more than a fortuitous series of random strokes. Friedlander and von Sallet (Das königliche Münzkabinett [Berlin, 1877], coins 72-75) viewed them as symbols of the Dioskouri. Proponents of either interpretation continue to argue their views (see Alfred Maier, "Die Silberprägung von Apollonia und Dyrrhachion," NZ 41 [1908], p. 2 and note 4 [garden]; Traité, Part II, Volume I, column 931 [garden]; Michael E. Marotta, "Dyrrachium: Rome's doorway to Greece," Celator [April 1997], pp. 6-7 [garden]; Gyula Petrányi, “Gardens of Alkinoos: Fact or Fiction?” on the reverse pattern of the silver coins from Corcyra, Apollonia and Dyrrachium," Celator [November 1998], pp. 22-24 [Dioskouroi]). Gardner (op. cit.) was convinced that the reverse design had a religious meaning, but was unconvinced that the symbols were either a garden layout, or stars. Instead, he favored a floral interpretation. He argued that this was indicated not only by their general shape, but in some particular instances by an intentional modification to make them appear more floral. Noting a similarity between the reverse types of Korkyran staters – the model for the staters of Apollonia and Dyrrhachion – and those of other Greek city-states, most notably Miletos and Kyrene, he argued that this was due to a common religious cult between them, since he believed that Greek coin types were primarily religious in origin. Arguing that the most probable deity was Apollo, Gardner concluded that the reference was to Apollo Aristaios or Nomios, a pastoral version of that god who was worshiped (among other places) both at Kyrene and throughout northern Greece and was known to be the protectors of flocks (cf. Pind. Pyth. 9.64-65). Most recently, Nicolet-Pierre revisited the issue of the reverse design in her article on the archaic coinage of Korkyra ("À props du monnayage archaïque de Corcyre," SNR 88 (2009), pp. 2-3), and offered a novel interpretation. Noting a passage of Thucydides (3.70.4) in which that author cited the existence on the island of a sacred precinct (temenos) and dedicated to Zeus and Alkinöos, she suggested that the reverse design might have been inspired by this, and not Homer's garden of Alkinöos. Since Apollonia and Dyrrhachion, as colonies of Korkyra, employed that island's designs in their own coinage, it is necessary to explain why Korkyra used such symbols on its coinage. The archaic staters of Korkyra were the first issues to employ a cow standing right (or left), suckling its calf on the obverse. (BMC 1-8 [for cow right]; BMC 9-16 [for cow left]). A similar obverse design appears on the coinage of Karystos in Euboia and, according to Plutarch (Quaest. Graec.), Korkyra was settled by Euboians, whose coinage symbol was a bovine. Several dedications in the form of a bronze bull are attested for the Korkyrans and the island's patron god was Apollo. The reverse design of the archaic staters consists of a pair of incuse punches, consisting of stars (BMC 1 and pl. XXI, 1). That the symbol was a star is certain, as fractions of this series and subsequent issues with a star on the obverse make plain. One stater (BMC 10 and pl. XXI, 2), puts the star design in a more abstract arrangement, becoming the precursor of the reverse design type employed in later stater issues (BMC 39 and pl. XXI, 9). The striking lines formed by the incuse punches are retained in the later design as lines of the frame. Thus, the staters of Apollonia, Dyrhachion, and Korkyra demonstrate a meticulous progressive recopying of an archaic coin type that continued under its colonies, and not an allusion to a possible Homeric past.


Jason T
Portus_Traiani-2.jpg
HARBOUR, TRAJAN, AE Sestertius (Portus Trajani)173 viewsPortus Trajani
Æ Sestertius (26.66g, Ø35mm, 6h). Rome mint. Struck AD 104-111.
Obv.: IMP CAES NERVAE TRAIANO AVG GER DAC P M TR P COS V P P laureate draped bust of Trajan facing right.
Rev.: (PORTVM TRAIANI around, S C in ex.), Basin of Trajan's harbour (Portus Traiani), near Ostia, surrounded by warehouses, ships in centre.
RIC 471 (R2); Cohen 305; BMC 770A; Foss (Roman Historical Coins) 104:59
ex Jean Elsen Auction 95; ex coll. A. Senden: "L'architecture des monnaies Romaines".

Due to the vulnarability of Portus Claudii, witness the events of 62 AD when a violent storm destroyed some 200 ships in the port, Trajan built a second one farther inland behind the port of Claudius. The work was carried out in the years 100-112 AD, and included improvements of the Claudian harbour. It was a hexagonal basin enclosing an area of 39 hectares, and communicating by canals with the harbour of Claudius, with the Tiber directly, and with the sea. The capacity of the harbour was much enlarged, and many new warehouses were built around it, remains of which may still be seen: The fineness of the brickwork of which they are built is remarkable. The sides of the hexagonal basin were over 350 m, the maximum diameter more than 700 m., and 5m deep. The bottom was covered with stones, at the north end gradually sloping upwards, to reach a depth of only one meter at the edge of the basin.

The basin could contain more than 100 ships that did not moor alongside the quays, but at a straight angle. It was surrounded by a few wide treads (total width c. 6 m.). On the quays was a wall, with five narrow doorways (1.80) on each side of the hexagon. The doorways are too narrow for wagons. Apparently the goods were unloaded and carried by slaves. This can also be seen on several reliefs and mosaics. The wall facilitated the control of the flow of goods, for the Customs Service and the levying of import duties (the portorium).

The hexagon may have been designed by Apollodorus of Damascus, the architect of Trajan's Market in Rome. No other harbours are known with this shape, suggesting that it was chosen not only for practical purposes, but also for aesthetic reasons.

Portus was the main port of ancient Rome for more than 500 years and provided a conduit for everything from glass, ceramics, marble and slaves to wild animals caught in Africa and shipped to Rome for spectacles in the Colosseum.
3 commentsCharles S
coin97.jpg
Heraclea RIC VII 15 Licinius I AE3. 9 viewsHeraclea RIC VII 15 Licinius I AE3.
IMP LICINIVS AVG, laureate
draped bust left / PROVIDENTIAE AVGG,
campgate with three turrets & no door,
HTA in ex. Coin #97
cars100
Constantinus-I__AE-Follis_IMP-CONSTA-NTINVS-AVG-1_PROVIDEN-TIAE-AVG-G-J1_l_-6-layers_MHTA_RICVII-16v(or38v)-not-off-A_Heraclea_317-320-AD_Q-001_6h_19,5-20mm_3,25g-s~0.jpg
Heraclea, 136 Constantinus I. (306-309 A.D. Caesar, 309-910 A.D. Filius Augustorum, 307-337 A.D. Augustus), RIC VII 016var.(or 038var.), AE-3 Follis, -/-//MHTA, PROVIDEN TIAE AVG G, Campgate with 3 turrets, "A" off not in RIC !!!64 viewsHeraclea, 136 Constantinus I. (306-309 A.D. Caesar, 309-910 A.D. Filius Augustorum, 307-337 A.D. Augustus), RIC VII 016var.(or 038var.), AE-3 Follis, -/-//MHTA, PROVIDEN TIAE AVG G, Campgate with 3 turrets, "A" off not in RIC !!!
avers: IMP CONSTA NTINVS AVG, 1, J1 l., Laureate, draped bust left, holding mappa and sceptre on globe.
reverse: PROVIDEN TIAE AVG G, Campgate with 3 turrets, 6 layers, no doors, no star above.
exergue: -/-//MHTA, diameter: 19,5-20mm, weight: 3,25g, axis: 6h,
mint: Heraclea, date: 317-320 A.D., ref: RIC VII 16ver.(or38ver.???), p-544, "A" off not in RIC !!!
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Constantinus-II__AE-3-Follis_DN-FL-CL-CONSTANTINVS-NOB-C_PROVIDEN-TIAE-CAES__SMHDelta_RIC-VII-46_p-547_Heraclea_316-17-AD_R4_Q-001_6h_18mm_2,97g-s~0.jpg
Heraclea, 145 Constantinus II. (316-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-340 A.D. Augustus), RIC VII 046, AE-3 Follis, -/-//•SMHΔ, PROVIDENTIAE CAESS, Campgate with three turrets, R4!!! #161 viewsHeraclea, 145 Constantinus II. (316-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-340 A.D. Augustus), RIC VII 046, AE-3 Follis, -/-//•SMHΔ, PROVIDENTIAE CAESS, Campgate with three turrets, R4!!! #1
avers: D N FL CL CONSTANTINVS NOB C, (7, J1l.), Laureate, draped bust left, globe and sceptre in left hand, mappa in right hand.
reverse: PROVIDEN TIAE CAES S, Campgate with three turrets, no doors, 6 layers of stones.
exergue: -/-//•SMHΔ, diameter: 18mm, weight: 2,97g, axis: 6h,
mint: Heraclea, date: 325-326 A.D., ref: RIC VII 046, p-547, R4!!!,
Q-001
quadrans
Constantinus-II__AE-3-Follis_CONSTANTINVS-IVN-NOB-C_PROVIDEN-TIAE-CAES_SMHGamma_RIC-VII-77_p-551_Heraclea_325-6-AD_R1_Q-001_h_mm_gx-s~0.jpg
Heraclea, 145 Constantinus II. (316-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-340 A.D. Augustus), RIC VII 077, AE-3 Follis, -/-//SMHΓ, PROVIDENTIAE CAES S, Campgate with two turrets, #168 viewsHeraclea, 145 Constantinus II. (316-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-340 A.D. Augustus), RIC VII 077, AE-3 Follis, -/-//SMHΓ, PROVIDENTIAE CAES S, Campgate with two turrets, #1
avers: CONSTANTIVS IVN NOB C, (7, B4), Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right.
reverse: PROVIDEN TIAE CAES S, Campgate with two turrets, no doors, 7 layers of stones.
exergue: -/-//SMHΓ, diameter: mm, weight:g, axis: h,
mint: Heraclea, date: 325-326 A.D., ref: RIC VII 077, p-551,
Q-001
quadrans
Constantinus-II__AE-3-Follis_CONSTANTINVS-IVN-NOB-C_PROVIDEN-TIAE-CAES_SMHA_RIC-VII-77_p-551_Heraclea_325-6-AD_R1_Q-001_5h_19-17,5mm_2,79ga-s.jpg
Heraclea, 145 Constantinus II. (316-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-340 A.D. Augustus), RIC VII 077, AE-3 Follis, -/-//SMHA, PROVIDENTIAE CAES S, Campgate with two turrets, R1! #161 viewsHeraclea, 145 Constantinus II. (316-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-340 A.D. Augustus), RIC VII 077, AE-3 Follis, -/-//SMHA, PROVIDENTIAE CAES S, Campgate with two turrets, R1! #1
avers: CONSTANTIVS IVN NOB C, (7, B4), Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right.
reverse: PROVIDEN TIAE CAES S, Campgate with two turrets, no doors, 8 layers of stones.
exergue: -/-//SMHA, diameter: 19-17,5mm, weight: 2,79g, axis: 5h,
mint: Heraclea, date: 325-326 A.D., ref: RIC VII 077, p-551, 3rd-off, R1!
Q-001
quadrans
Constantius-II__AE-Follis-silvered_FL-IVL-CONSTANTIVS-NOB-C-8_B4-l__PROVIDEN-TIAE-CAES-S_6layer_SMHDelta_RIC-VII-78-p-551_4th_off__Heracleia_325-6-AD_S_Q-001_h_mm_g-s~0.jpg
Heraclea, 147 Constantius II. (324-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-361 A.D. Augustus), RIC VII 078, AE-3 Follis, -/-//SMHΔ, PROVIDENTIAE CAES S, Campgate with two turrets, #163 viewsHeraclea, 147 Constantius II. (324-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-361 A.D. Augustus), RIC VII 078, AE-3 Follis, -/-//SMHΔ, PROVIDENTIAE CAES S, Campgate with two turrets, #1
avers: FL IVL CONSTANTIVS NOB C, 8, B4l., Laureate, draped and cuirassed head left.
reverse: PROVIDEN TIAE CAES S, Campgate with two turrets, no doors, star above, 6 layers of stones.
exergue: -/-//SMHΔ, diameter: mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Heraclea, date: 326 A.D., ref: RIC VII 078, p-551,
Q-001
quadrans
Constantius-II__AE-Follis_FL-IVL-CONSTANTIVS-NOB-C-8_B4-l__PROVIDEN-TIAE-CAES-S_5layer_SMHGamma-dot_RIC-VII-84-p-552_3rd_off__Heracleia_326-AD_c1_Q-001_11h_19mm_3,75g-s~0.jpg
Heraclea, 147 Constantius II. (324-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-361 A.D. Augustus), RIC VII 084, AE-3 Follis, -/-//SMHΓ•, PROVIDENTIAE CAES S, Campgate with two turrets, #162 viewsHeraclea, 147 Constantius II. (324-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-361 A.D. Augustus), RIC VII 084, AE-3 Follis, -/-//SMHΓ•, PROVIDENTIAE CAES S, Campgate with two turrets, #1
avers: FL IVL CONSTANTIVS NOB C, 8, B4l., Laureate, draped and cuirassed head left.
reverse: PROVIDEN TIAE CAES S, Campgate with two turrets, no doors, star above, 5 layers of stones.
exergue: -/-//SMHΓ•, diameter: 1,0mm, weight: 3,75g, axis: 11h,
mint: Heraclea, date: 326 A.D., ref: RIC VII 084, p-552, 3rd.-off., c1,
Q-001
quadrans
39.jpg
HERENNIA ETRUSCILLA CAESAREA MARITIMA MINT43 viewsObv:bust r.hair in plait tiad up at back of head
REV:Tyche R, turreted with door inside drapery over shoulder leaving bosom partly bare
Maritima
Copy_of_IMAG0110-1.jpg
HERENNIA ETRUSCILLA CAESAREA MARITIMA MINT31 viewsHERENNIA ETRUSCILLA CAESAREA MARITIMA MINT

Obv:bust r.hair in plait tiad up at back of head
REV:Tyche L, turreted with door inside drapery over shoulder leaving bosom partly bare
Maritima
lg_etrus_caesaraea.jpg
Herennia Etruscilla, Samaria, Caesarea28 viewsHerennia Etruscilla (Augusta)
Samaria, Caesarea
AE 6.91g / 20mm / -
ERENNIA ETRVSCILLA AVG - Bust right
COL PF AVFC CAE METROP - Bust of turetted Tyche, door in crown, draped l. shoulder,
Ref: Ros-134
Scotvs Capitis
fausta_camp.jpg
Horrible Fausta Campgate Mule64 viewsFausta (Augusta)
AE (Found harshly over cleaned in coin shop junk box)
Ob: FLAV MAX - FAVSTA AVG - Draped bust right, hair tied in bun on back of head
Rv: PROIDEN-TIAE AVGG - 6 Layer, two turrent camp gate (!) with star above, no doors
Exergue: PTR? (epsilon or dot in crescent, can't tell)
Mint: Trier (ca. 326 AD)
References: * Unique Mule w/ Obv. of Fausta RIC VII Trier 466 and rev. of Constantine I RIC VII Trier 461

Though in exceedingly poor shape, this coin was purchased from a junk bin because it didn't look plausible. It had been overcleaned and was aparently discarded by its previous owner as a badly cleaned coin. At first I thought someone had attempted to "convert" by crude tooling a standard campgate into a Fausta obverse, but the obverse legend (FLAV MAX - FAVSTA AVG) is clearly not tooled and the portrait style with the small bun at the back of the neck is a valid style of portraiture for Fausta.

Ugly as it is, it is a unique mint error. Coins of Fausta were indeed being struck alongside coins of the emperors and Caesars in this Campgate issue.

Issues with this PTR crescent reverse include:

Constantine I RIC VII Trier 461 (PROIDEN-TIAE AVGG)
Crispus RIC VII Trier 462 (PROIDEN-TIAE CAESS)
Constantine II RIC VII Trier 463 (PROIDEN-TIAE CAESS)

With a reverse legend of PROIDEN-TIAE AVGG, this coin is a combination of an R4 reverse (RIC 461) and an obverse intended for an R5 reverse - Fausta SPES REIPVBLICAE RIC 466 R5
2 commentsScotvs Capitis
lg2_quart_sm.jpg
IMP CAES M ANT GORDIANVS AVG / P M S COL VIM / Ӕ30 (239-240 AD)18 viewsIMP CAES M ANT GORDIANVS AVG, laureate, draped, cuirassed bust right / P M S CO - L VIM, personification of Moesia standing facing, head left, arms outstretched over a lion (right) and a bull (left). AN • I • in exergue.

Ӕ, 29-30+mm, 16.75g, die axis 1h (slightly turned medal alignment), material: looks like red copper.

IMP CAES M ANT GORDIANVS AVG = Imperator Caesar Marcus Antonius Gordianus Augustus, P M S COL VIM = Provinciae Moesiae Superioris Colonia Viminacium = Colony of Viminacium, in the province of Upper Moesia, AN•I• = the first year. 238 AD was the infamous "year of the 6 emperors", so 239-240 was the first sole ruling year of Gordian III. The bull is the symbol of Legio VII Claudia, based in the capital of Moesia Superior, Viminacium itself, and the lion is the symbol of Legio IV Flavia Felix based in another city of Moesia Superior, Singidunum (modern Belgrade). Due to size this is most probably a sestertius, but large dupondius is another possibility, since it is clearly made of red copper and sestertii were typically made of expensive "gold-like" orichalcum, a kind of brass (but in this time of civil strife they could have used a cheaper replacement). Literature fails to clearly identify the denomination of this type.

A straightforward ID due to size and clear legends, this is AMNG 71; Martin 1.01.1 minted in Viminacium, Moesia Superior (Kostolac, Serbia).

Gordian III was Roman Emperor from 238 AD to 244 AD. At the age of 13, he became the youngest sole legal Roman emperor throughout the existence of the united Roman Empire. Gordian was the son of Antonia Gordiana and an unnamed Roman Senator who died before 238. Antonia Gordiana was the daughter of Emperor Gordian I and younger sister of Emperor Gordian II. Very little is known of his early life before his acclamation. Gordian had assumed the name of his maternal grandfather in 238 AD.

In 235, following the murder of Emperor Alexander Severus, Maximinus Thrax was acclaimed Emperor. In the following years, there was a growing opposition against Maximinus in the Roman senate and amongst the majority of the population of Rome. In 238 (to become infamous as "the year of six emperors") a rebellion broke out in the Africa Province, where Gordian's grandfather and uncle, Gordian I and II, were proclaimed joint emperors. This revolt was suppressed within a month by Cappellianus, governor of Numidia and a loyal supporter of Maximinus Thrax. The elder Gordians died, but public opinion cherished their memory as peace-loving and literate men, victims of Maximinus' oppression.

Meanwhile, Maximinus was on the verge of marching on Rome and the Senate elected Pupienus and Balbinus as joint emperors. These senators were not popular and the population of Rome was still shocked by the elder Gordians' fate, so the Senate decided to take the teenage Gordian, rename him Marcus Antonius Gordianus like his grandfather, and raise him to the rank of Caesar and imperial heir. Pupienus and Balbinus defeated Maximinus, mainly due to the defection of several legions, particularly the II Parthica, who assassinated Maximinus. However, their joint reign was doomed from the start with popular riots, military discontent and an enormous fire that consumed Rome in June 238. On July 29, Pupienus and Balbinus were killed by the Praetorian Guard and Gordian proclaimed sole emperor.

Due to Gordian's age, the imperial government was surrendered to the aristocratic families, who controlled the affairs of Rome through the Senate. In 240, Sabinianus revolted in the African province, but the situation was quickly brought under control. In 241, Gordian was married to Furia Sabinia Tranquillina, daughter of the newly appointed praetorian prefect, Timesitheus. As chief of the Praetorian Guard and father in law of the Emperor, Timesitheus quickly became the de facto ruler of the Roman Empire.

In the 3rd century, the Roman frontiers weakened against the Germanic tribes across the Rhine and Danube, and the Sassanid Empire across the Euphrates increased its own attacks. When the Persians under Shapur I invaded Mesopotamia, the young emperor opened the doors of the Temple of Janus for the last time in Roman history, and sent a large army to the East. The Sassanids were driven back over the Euphrates and defeated in the Battle of Resaena (243). The campaign was a success and Gordian, who had joined the army, was planning an invasion of the enemy's territory, when his father-in-law died in unclear circumstances. Without Timesitheus, the campaign, and the Emperor's security, were at risk.

Gaius Julius Priscus and, later on, his own brother Marcus Julius Philippus, also known as Philip the Arab, stepped in at this moment as the new Praetorian Prefects and the campaign proceeded. Around February 244, the Persians fought back fiercely to halt the Roman advance to Ctesiphon. Persian sources claim that a battle occurred (Battle of Misiche) near modern Fallujah (Iraq) and resulted in a major Roman defeat and the death of Gordian III. Roman sources do not mention this battle and suggest that Gordian died far away from Misiche, at Zaitha (Qalat es Salihiyah) in northern Mesopotamia. Modern scholarship does not unanimously accept this course of the events. One view holds that Gordian died at Zaitha, murdered by his frustrated army, while the role of Philip is unknown. Other scholars have concluded that Gordian died in battle against the Sassanids.
Philip transferred the body of the deceased emperor to Rome and arranged for his deification. Gordian's youth and good nature, along with the deaths of his grandfather and uncle and his own tragic fate at the hands of the enemy, earned him the lasting esteem of the Romans.
Yurii P
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Innocent XII jubilee issue 170037 viewsAR GIULIO 26mm INNOCENT XII Rome (12 July 1691-27 September 1700)

Obv: Obv: ∙ CLEM ∙ XIII. PONT ∙ M ∙ A ∙ IX ∙
Pignatelli arms with crossed keys and tiara above
Rev: ANNO ∙ IVBEI / LEI ∙ MDCC
Holy door with four Corinthian columns

Nice tone, from Italy; holed

Berman 2255 (CNI 141; S. 104-105; M52)

A holy year issue
1 commentsPetrus Elmsley
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Italy, Herculaneum, College of the Augustales22 viewsThe side walls of the sacellum in the College of the Augustales are painted with doors either side of a central porch which opens onto architectural elements on a white ground. Above the doors and porch are further windows containing bronze chariots driven by winged victories, placed on pedestals. The central fresco on the left wall is of Hercules standing next to Juno and Minerva

From my visit to Herculaneum in August 2015
maridvnvm
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Italy, Herculaneum, College of the Augustales23 viewsThe side walls of the sacellum in the College of the Augustales are painted with doors either side of a central porch which opens onto architectural elements on a white ground. Above the doors and porch are further windows containing bronze chariots driven by winged victories, placed on pedestals. The fresco in the middle of the right wall shows Hercules fighting Achelous who kidnapped Deianira.

From my visit to Herculaneum in August 2015
maridvnvm
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Italy, Pompeii - Vesuvius still looms large10 viewsA view from the inside of one of themany buildings, through the doorway with Vesuvius in the background still looming large over Pompeii

From my visit to Pompeii in August 2015
maridvnvm
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Italy, Rome, Basilica of Santi Cosma e Damiano, Roman bronze doors40 viewsThe original bronze doors of the Temple of Divus Romulus still survive and are pictured above. They are set between two porphyry columns that support a reused marble architrave and open into a rotunda fifty Roman feet in diameter covered by a cupola which is accessible from the rear through the Basilica of Santi Cosma e Damiano. The temple was converted into a vestibule for the church early in the 6th century.*Alex
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Italy, Rome, Original ancient door from Curia205 viewsnow it is in Basilica of St. John Lateran ... seat of Pope until he moved to Vatican1 commentsJohny SYSEL
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Italy- Forum Romanum- Basilica Emilia- Frisco with everyday life89 viewsThe Basilica Julia was built in 54-48 BCE by Julius Caesar as a part of his reorganisation of the Forum Romanum, where it replaced the Basilica Sempronia. It is located on the S. side of the main square of the Forum Romanum, between the Temple of Saturn and the Temple of Castor and Pollux.

Julius Caesar started construction in 54 BCE, but it was still unfinished at his death. It was built on the site of the Basilica Sempronia and a series of shops, the tabernae veteres, that were all demolished.

Augustus finished the building after Caesar's death, but had to reconstruct it again shortly after, due to its destruction by fire in 9 BCE. It was dedicated again in 2 BCE, this time in the name of Gaius Caesar and Lucius Caesar, Augustus' designated heirs at the time.

The basilica was later damaged much by the fire in 283 CE, and restored a few years after by Diocletian. It was again destroyed when Alaric sacked the city in 410 CE.

The Basilica Julia was of huge proportions. The basilica rested on a low podium, seven steps high on the E. side and just one on the W. side, due to the sloping terrain. Of outer dimensions 101×49m, the central nave of the basilica was 82×18m. The four lateral aisles, two on each side, were two storeys high, with vaulted ceiling and arches decorated by semi-columns. The central nave was three storeys high.

A series of shops stood behind the basilica towards the Velabrum. A Temple of Augustus was also built in the area behind the basilica by Tiberius.

The function of the Basilica Julia was to house tribunals and other activities from the Forum when weather didn't permit outdoor meetings. The central nave probably divided in four by wooden removable structures to allow the hearing of more cases at a time. The basilica also housed some administrative offices of the city.

Game boards and graffiti are incised in the steps and in the pavement of the side aisles by idling visitors to the Forum. Some of this can still be seen on the side of the main square of the forum.

The building was in ruin already in late Antiquity, and subsequently stripped of all reusable material, i.e., almost everything.

Very little of the building remains now. The basic floor plan can be seen, and some parts of brick walls remain towards the Temple of Saturn, some bases of statues still in their original position, and the four step podium remain. The brick column bases are reconstructions of the 19th century.
John Schou
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Italy- Forum Romanum- The basilica of Majencius front and back100 viewsThe Basilica of Maxentius (Basilica Maxentii) or the Basilica of Constantine (Basilica Constantini) was the last of the great civilian basilicas on the Roman Forum. The ruins of the basilica is located between the Temple of Amor and Roma and the Temple of Romulus, on the Via Sacra.

The construction of the basilica was initiated by Maxentius in 308 CE, and finished by Constantine after he had defeated Maxentius in the battle of the Milvian Bridge in 312 CE. As other similar buildings, it was destined for commercial and administrative activities. It is likely that the basilica housed the offices of the Prefect of the City, the highest imperial official in late antiquity.

The site chosen for the basilica was on the Velia, a low ridge connecting the Esquiline Hill and the Palatine Hill. Large parts of the Velia was levelled in preparation for the construction of the basilica. Literary sources tell that earlier the site was occupied by the Horrea Piperatica, the central market and storage facility for pepper and spices, built in the time of Domitian. Also on the site was a sanctuary of the penates publici which had to be moved.

The Basilica of Maxentius is built with arches, which is very atypical. All the other public basilicas had flat ceilings supported by wooden beams. The construction techniques used borrowed more from the great imperial baths than from the traditional basilica.
The basilica is one of the most impressive buildings on the Forum Romanum. The ground plan is rectangular, oriented E.-W., covering an area of 100×65m divided into a central nave and to lateral aisles and an atrium on the E. side where the original entrance was.

The central nave measured 80×25m and was covered by three groin vaults with a maximum height of 35m, supported by eight monolithic Corinthian columns of 14.5m. Each of the two aisles was made up of three interconnected coffered vaults, 20.5m wide and 24m high, communicating with the central nave by three huge openings.

Light was provided by two rows of three large windows in five of the six lateral vaults, and by windows in the sides of the now collapsed cross vaults over the central nave. The windows in two of the vaults in the surviving N. side of the building give a good idea of the amount of light inside the building.

The floor in both the central and the lateral spaces were a geometric pattern of squares with circles and lozenges of multi-coloured marble, similar to the floor in the Pantheon.

The walls were in opus latericium, originally with a marble veneer. The vaults were in opus caementicium with a gilded stucco finish. The roof was covered with gilded bronze tiles.

The entrance of the original project of Maxentius was to the east, from a branch of the old Via Sacra behind the Temple of Amor and Roma. It lead into an elongated atrium, connected to the central nave and the lateral aisles by five gateways.

In the W. end was a huge apse, 20m in diameter, where a colossal seated statue of Maxentius stood. This statue was later changed to look like Constantine. The statue was an acrolith (the head, hands and feet were of marble, while the rest was of other materials), and the remains of the statue were found in 1486 in the apse.

Constantine changed the plan when he took over the unfinished basilica. He had a another entrance added on the S. side, on the Via Sacra, where a monumental stairway led to a porch of four porphyry columns and via three double doorways into the central part of the S. aisle. In front of this new entrance, in the central vault of the N. aisle, another apse was added, smaller than the apse in the W. end. In back of this apse a niche held a standing statue of Constantine, and smaller, square-headed niches, two rows of four niches on each side, which might have housed a gallery of Constantine's relatives and lieutenants. This room could be closed by wooden doors, and it is likely the central part of the office of the Prefect of the City was there.

Of the original building only the three vaults of the N. aisle remain, devoid of all decorations. The vaults of the S. and central nave probably collapsed under an earthquake in c. 847. The floor plan is clearly visible, however, and the remaining structures give a vivid impression of the grandeur of the original edifice.

The remains of the Colossal Statue of Constantine I are in the courtyard of the Palazzo dei Conservatori on the Campidoglio, and one of the columns from the central nave was moved to the Piazza Santa Maria Maggiore in 1614. The remaining columns have disappeared. The bronze tiles from the roof were reused for the first Basilica of Saint Peter.

John Schou
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Italy- Napoli- Mount_vesuvius67 viewsOn August 24 of 79 A.D., the area around Mount Vesuvius shook with a huge earthquake. The mountain's top split open and a monstrous cloud raced upward. The inhabitants of Pompeii were showered with ash, stones, and pumice. A river of mud was beginning to bury the city of Herculaneum. The uncle of Pliny the Younger, known as Pliny the Elder, was a commander of a fleet of war ships at Misenum (see map). He decided to use his ships to rescue people close to the volcano. The nephew describes the huge cloud towering over the area (Radice, 1969):

. . . its general appearance can best be expressed as being like a pine rather than any other tree, for it rose to a great height on a sort of trunk and then split off into branches, I imagine because it was thrust upwards by the first blast and then left unsupported as the pressure subsided, or else it was borne down by its own weight so that it spread out and gradually dispersed. Sometimes it looked white, sometimes blotched and dirty, according to the amount of soil and ashes it carried with it. (p. 427)

Pliny the Elder's ship approached the shore near Pompeii.

Ashes were already falling, hotter and thicker as the ships drew near, followed by bits of pumice and blackened stones, charred and cracked by the flames . . . Meanwhile on Mount Vesuvius broad sheets of fire and leaping flames blazed at several points, their bright glare emphasized by the darkness of night. (pp. 429, 431)

But they could not land because the shore was blocked by volcanic debris, so they sailed south and landed at Stabiae. Hoping to quiet the frightened people, the uncle asked to be carried to the bath house. Afterward he lay down and ate. Next, hoping to quiet the inhabitants, he went to bed. The volcano did not do likewise, however.

By this time the courtyard giving access to his room was full of ashes mixed with pumice-stones, so that its level had risen, and if he had stayed in the room any longer he would never had got out. . . . They debated whether to stay indoors or take their chance in the open, for the buildings were now shaking with violent shocks, and seemed to be swaying to and fro as if they were torn from their foundations. Outside on the other hand, there was the danger of falling pumice-stones, even though these were light and porous. . . . As a protection against falling objects they put pillows on their heads tied down with cloths. (pp. 431, 433)

Finally, the uncle decided to leave. The level of ash and pumice-stone had risen to the point that a hasty departure seemed the best option.

. . . the flames and smell of sulphur which gave warning of the approaching fire drove the others to take flight and roused him to stand up . . . then [he] suddenly collapsed, I imagine because the dense fumes choked his breathing by blocking his windpipe which was constitutionally weak and narrow and often inflamed . . . his body was found intact and uninjured, still fully clothed and looking more like sleep than death. (p. 433)

Later, Pliny the Younger and his mother leave Misenam to escape from the approaching volcanic conflagration. They travel across country to avoid being trampled by the crowds of people on the road.

We also saw the sea sucked away and apparently forced back by the earthquake: at any rate it receded from the shore so that quantities of sea creatures were left stranded on dry sand. On the landward side a fearful black cloud was rent by forked and quivering bursts of flame, and parted to reveal great tongues of fire, like flashes of lightning magnified in size. . . . We had scarcely sat down to rest when darkness fell, not the dark of a moonless or cloudy night, but as if the lamp had been put out in a closed room. You could hear the shrieks of women, the wailing of infants, and the shouting of men; some were calling their parents, others their children or their wives, trying to recognize them by their voices. People bewailed their own fate or that of their relatives, and there were some who prayed for death in their terror of dying
John Schou
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Italy- Pompeii- Big House and house with drain in the corner33 viewsWhat strikes you most about Pompeii - and also Herculaneum for that matter - is that they are both very neatly laid-out cities, very elegant and very orderly. There was running water in the houses, as the numerous indoor fountains would testify. There were public baths - Roman style - with separate entrances for men and women; while the walls of both were decorated with terracotta statues, the women's baths were much more elegant with exquisite floral mosaics. There were separate dressing rooms called apodyterium, cold bath - frigidairium - warm bath - tepidarium - and hot bath - calidarium. The calidarium was heated by a system of double walls and a hollow floor, which provided circulation for hot air and steam. The large cold water basin has inscriptions with names of the donors who funded its construction. There was also the palaestra or the gymnasium and separate areas for ablutions. There were public latrines with running water channels. In fact, the baths take up quite a bit of space in Pompeii and Herculaneum, pointing to the fastidiousness of early Romans when it came to personal hygiene. In Herculaneum, there is even a bronze bath-tub that is still intact.

John Schou
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Italy- Pompeii- Entrance to the house of Fauno39 viewsHOUSE OF THE FAUN (VI,12,2)
With its 3000m² it is the largest house in Pompeii: built over a previous dwelling at the beginning of the 2nd century BC, its current form is the result of subsequent alterations. The entrance on the left leads directly into the public section, the door on the right to the private rooms: an atrium whose roof is supported by four columns, stalls, latrine, baths, kitchen. In the entrance is the Latin message HAVE. The ‘first style’ decoration, the floors of sectile opus, and the mosaic threshold (now at the Naples Museum) highlight the dignity of this house, more similar to the aristocratic Roman domus than local upper class dwellings. In the center of the impluvium is a bronze statue of the ‘faun’ (2nd cent. BC: original in Naples); around it are rooms that held mosaic paintings on the floor and ‘first style’ decorations on the walls. Between the two porticoed gardens is the exedra, the core of the dwelling, with Corinthian columns, stuccoed and painted capitals, a splendid mosaic (now at the N
aples Museum) depicting the victory of Alexander the Great over Darius, King of Persia, which has helped to suggest a connection between the Macedonian ruler and the unknown, educated, and wealthy owner of the
FLOOR PLAN OF THE HOUSE OF THE FAUN Pompeii 2nd Century Courtesy of Professor Barbette Spaeth, Tulane University (Excerpted from Professor Spaeth's accompanying text) This house was among the largest and most elegant of the houses of Pompeii. It took up an entire city block (c. 80 m. long by 35 m. wide or 315 by 115 ft.) and was filled with beautiful works of art, including the famous mosaic depicting Alexander the Great at the Battle of Issus, and wall paintings of the First, Second and Fourth Styles. The decoration of the house is heavily influenced by Hellenistic models. The House of the Faun was originally built in the early second century. In this period, the house was focused around two atria, one a large Tuscan atrium (3), and the other a smaller tetrastyle atrium (10), while the back of the house had a large kitchen garden. The two-atria plan represented an attempt to separate the formal functions of the atrium, i.e., the reception of clients and conduct of business by the patron of the house, from its private functions, i.e., the course of everyday family life. This type of plan is an intermediate step between the simple atrium house, with a single atrium complex, and the atrium and peristyle house. Apparently, the two-atria plan did not prove ultimately satisfactory for the owners of the House of the Faun. In the late second century B.C. they added a peristyle (8) to the north of the original two-atria nucleus, along with a service quarter to the eastern side (12-16), and reception rooms to the north. The rear of the house contained the kitchen garden. To this later period of the house belong its wall decorations in First Style and its famous mosaics. Finally, another peristyle was added around the time of the Early Roman Colony (20), that is, in the early first century B.C. This peristyle included more reception rooms along the south side (17 & 18), and smaller rooms, perhaps for servants, to the north (22) . The center of the new peristyle was occupied by the kitchen garden (19). With these renovations, the house acquired a new focus around the peristyles. The peristyles represented a private retreat for the family, a place where they could relax and entertain special guests. The front part of the house was kept for more formal occasions. The addition of service quarters reflects a further differentiation of function in the house, again separating the daily life of the family from the more public reception areas. The House of the Faun, with its elaborate decoration and extensive plan, represents one of the most important examples of Roman domus architecture of the second to first century B.C.
John Schou
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Italy- Pompeii- The Basilica and The Forum 43 viewsBASILICA
Forum of Pompeii c. 120 B.C. These more massive columns are from the basilica, the most important public building in Pompeii. Constructed prior to the Roman period, the basilica had three aisles and five entrance doors onto the forum. In the rear we see a two-tiered colonnade which has columns in the Doric style on the bottom and slender Ionic columns on top of a cross beam. In Pompeii many columns were made of brick and covered with stucco.

The Forum
ENTRANCE TO THE FORUM Forum of Pompeii After 80 B.C. One of the two arches originally covered with marble which flank the Temple of Jupiter and are the main entrances to the forum. The temple was built under the Samnites in the second century B.C.
FORUM OF POMPEII After 80 B.C. The Forum of Pompeii has a central rectangular space, 466 feet long by 124 feet wide, surrounded by the most important public buildings in the city. Like other forums, it is set up on an axial plan. A colonnade lines three sides. In the center of the fourth side, visible in the distance, is the Temple of Jupiter, known as the Capitolium. The forum was paved with travertine stone and only pedestrians were permitted in its precinct. Situated on an old site, it was largely rebuilt after 80 B.C. when Pompeii became a Roman colony. The forum was again in the process of rebuilding after the earthquake of 62 AD. It was buried under the eruption of Vesuvius seen in the distance in 79.

John Schou
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Italy- Pompeii- The BUILDING OF EUMACHIA40 viewsBUILDING OF EUMACHIA
Forum of Pompeii Under reconstruction in 79 Headquarters of the guild of fabric washers and dyers, known as fullones. Fabrics also were sold and stored here. To be located on the forum the guild had clearly achieved a prominence in city life. Here we see the brick columns faced with stucco. The doorway in the rear is decorated with spiral acanthus leaves. The building was badly damaged in 62 and was still not rebuilt in 79.

John Schou
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Italy- Rome- Coliseum constructed by Flavius and seen from outside53 viewsColosseum
The Colosseum or Coliseum, originally known as the Flavian Amphitheatre (lat. Amphitheatrum Flavium), is an amphitheatre in Rome, capable of seating 50,000 spectators, which was once used for gladiatorial combat. It was built by Emperor Vespasian and his son, Titus, between AD 72 and AD 90. It was built at the site of Nero's enormous palace, the Domus Aurea. The Colosseum's name is derived from a colossus (a 130-foot or 40-metre statue) of Nero which once stood nearby.

Construction
The construction of the Colosseum began under the Emperor Vespasian in AD 72 and was completed by his son, Titus, in the 80s AD. It was built at the site of Nero's enormous palace, the Domus Aurea, which had been built after the great fire of Rome in AD 64. Some historians are of the opinion that the construction of the Colosseum might have been financed by the looting of King Herod the Great's Temple in Jerusalem which occurred about AD 70. Dio Cassius said that 9,000 wild animals were killed in the one hundred days of celebration which inaugurated the amphitheatre opening. The arena floor was covered with sand to sop up the blood.

The Colosseum hosted large-scale spectacular games that included fights between animals (venationes), the killing of prisoners by animals and other executions (noxii), naval battles (naumachiae, via flooding the arena), and combats between gladiators (munera). It has been estimated that between 500,000 and 1,000,000 people died in the Colosseum games.

History of the name Colosseum
The Colosseum's name is derived from a colossus (a 130-foot or 40-metre statue) of Nero nearby. This statue was later remodeled by Nero's successors into the likeness of Sol, the sun god, by adding the appropriate solar crown. The link to Nero's colossus seems to have been forgotten over time, and the name was corrupted to Coliseum in the Middle Ages. Both names are frequently used in modern English, but "Flavian Amphitheatre" is generally unknown. In Italy, it is still known as il colosseo, but other Romance languages have gone for forms such as le colisée and el coliseo.

Description
The Colosseum measured 48 metres high, 188 metres long, and 156 metres wide. The wooden arena floor was 86 metres by 54 metres, and covered by sand. Its elliptical shape kept the players from retreating to a corner, and allowed the spectators to be closer to the action than a circle would allow.

The Colosseum was ingeniously designed. It has been said that most spectacle venues (stadiums, and similar) have been influenced by features of the Colosseum's structure, even well into modern times. Seating (cavea) was divided into different sections. The podium, the first level of seating, was for the Roman senators, and the emperor's private, cushioned, marble box was also located on this level. Above the podium was the maenianum primum, for the other Roman aristocrats who were not in the senate. The third level, the maenianum secundum, was divided into three sections. The lower part (the immum) was for wealthy citizens, while the upper part (the summum) was for poor citizens. A third, wooden section (the maenianum secundum in legneis) was a wooden structure at the very top of the building, added by Domitian. It was standing room only, and was for lower class women.

Underneath the arena was the hypogeum (literally, "underground"), a network of tunnels and cages where gladiators and animals were held before contests began. There were also numerous trap doors in the arena floor for the various animals hidden underneath. The arena floor no longer exists, and the hypogeum walls and corridors are clearly visible in the ruins of the building. The entire base of the Colosseum was equivalent to 6 acres (160,000 m²).

A most ingenious part of the Colosseum was its cooling system. It was roofed using a canvas covered net-like structure made of ropes, with a hole in the center. This roof sloped down towards the center to catch the wind and provide a breeze for the audience. Sailors manipulated the ropes. The Colosseum also had vomitoria - passageways that open into a tier of seats from below or behind. The vomitoria of the Colosseum in Rome were designed so that the immense venue could fill in 15 minutes, and be evacuated in 5 minutes. Each entrance and exit was numbered, as was each staircase. There were 80 entrances at ground level, 76 for ordinary spectators, two for the imperial family, and two for the gladiators. The vomitoria quickly dispersed people into their seats and upon conclusion of the event disgorged them with abruptness into the surrounding streets - giving rise, presumably, to the name.

Later history
The Colosseum was in continuous use until 217, when it was damaged by fire after it was struck by lightning. It was restored in 238 and gladiatorial games continued until Christianity gradually put an end to those parts of them which included the death of humans. The building was used for various purposes, mostly venationes (animal hunts), until 524. Two earthquakes (in 442 and 508) caused a great damage to the structure. In the Middle Ages, it was severely damaged by further earthquakes (847 and 1349), and was then converted into a fortress. The marble that originally covered it was burned to make quicklime. During the Renaissance, but mostly in the Baroque age, the ruling Roman families (from which many popes came) used it as a source of marble for the construction of St. Peter's Basilica and the private Palazzi. A famous description is in the saying Quod non fecerunt Barbari, fecerunt Barberini; what the Barbarians weren't able to do, was done by the Barberinis (one such family).

The Venerable Bede (c. 672-735) wrote

Quandiu stabit coliseus, stabit et Roma; (As long as the Colosseum stands, so shall Rome)
Quando cadit coliseus, cadet et Roma (When the Colosseum falls, so shall Rome)
Quando cadet Roma, cadet et mundus. (When Rome falls, so shall the world)
Note that he used coliseus, i.e. he made the name a masculine noun. This form is no longer in use.

In 1749, as a very early example of historic preservation, Pope Benedict XIV forbade the use of the Colosseum as a quarry. He consecrated the building to the Passion of Christ and installed Stations of the Cross, declaring it sanctified by the blood of the Christian martyrs who were thought to have perished there. Later popes initiated various stabilization and restoration projects. Every Good Friday the pope leads a procession within the ellipse in memory of Christian martyrs. However, there is no historical evidence that Christians were tortured and killed in the Colosseum [2]. It is presumed that the majority of Christian martyrdom in Rome took place at the Circus Maximus.

In recent years, the local authorities of Rome have illuminated the Colosseum all night long whenever someone condemned to the death penalty gets commuted or released.

John Schou
Italy- Rome- Coliseum seen from outside~0.jpg
Italy- Rome- Coliseum seen from outside48 viewsColosseum
The Colosseum or Coliseum, originally known as the Flavian Amphitheatre (lat. Amphitheatrum Flavium), is an amphitheatre in Rome, capable of seating 50,000 spectators, which was once used for gladiatorial combat. It was built by Emperor Vespasian and his son, Titus, between AD 72 and AD 90. It was built at the site of Nero's enormous palace, the Domus Aurea. The Colosseum's name is derived from a colossus (a 130-foot or 40-metre statue) of Nero which once stood nearby.

Construction
The construction of the Colosseum began under the Emperor Vespasian in AD 72 and was completed by his son, Titus, in the 80s AD. It was built at the site of Nero's enormous palace, the Domus Aurea, which had been built after the great fire of Rome in AD 64. Some historians are of the opinion that the construction of the Colosseum might have been financed by the looting of King Herod the Great's Temple in Jerusalem which occurred about AD 70. Dio Cassius said that 9,000 wild animals were killed in the one hundred days of celebration which inaugurated the amphitheatre opening. The arena floor was covered with sand to sop up the blood.

The Colosseum hosted large-scale spectacular games that included fights between animals (venationes), the killing of prisoners by animals and other executions (noxii), naval battles (naumachiae, via flooding the arena), and combats between gladiators (munera). It has been estimated that between 500,000 and 1,000,000 people died in the Colosseum games.

History of the name Colosseum
The Colosseum's name is derived from a colossus (a 130-foot or 40-metre statue) of Nero nearby. This statue was later remodeled by Nero's successors into the likeness of Sol, the sun god, by adding the appropriate solar crown. The link to Nero's colossus seems to have been forgotten over time, and the name was corrupted to Coliseum in the Middle Ages. Both names are frequently used in modern English, but "Flavian Amphitheatre" is generally unknown. In Italy, it is still known as il colosseo, but other Romance languages have gone for forms such as le colisée and el coliseo.

Description
The Colosseum measured 48 metres high, 188 metres long, and 156 metres wide. The wooden arena floor was 86 metres by 54 metres, and covered by sand. Its elliptical shape kept the players from retreating to a corner, and allowed the spectators to be closer to the action than a circle would allow.

The Colosseum was ingeniously designed. It has been said that most spectacle venues (stadiums, and similar) have been influenced by features of the Colosseum's structure, even well into modern times. Seating (cavea) was divided into different sections. The podium, the first level of seating, was for the Roman senators, and the emperor's private, cushioned, marble box was also located on this level. Above the podium was the maenianum primum, for the other Roman aristocrats who were not in the senate. The third level, the maenianum secundum, was divided into three sections. The lower part (the immum) was for wealthy citizens, while the upper part (the summum) was for poor citizens. A third, wooden section (the maenianum secundum in legneis) was a wooden structure at the very top of the building, added by Domitian. It was standing room only, and was for lower class women.

Underneath the arena was the hypogeum (literally, "underground"), a network of tunnels and cages where gladiators and animals were held before contests began. There were also numerous trap doors in the arena floor for the various animals hidden underneath. The arena floor no longer exists, and the hypogeum walls and corridors are clearly visible in the ruins of the building. The entire base of the Colosseum was equivalent to 6 acres (160,000 m²).

A most ingenious part of the Colosseum was its cooling system. It was roofed using a canvas covered net-like structure made of ropes, with a hole in the center. This roof sloped down towards the center to catch the wind and provide a breeze for the audience. Sailors manipulated the ropes. The Colosseum also had vomitoria - passageways that open into a tier of seats from below or behind. The vomitoria of the Colosseum in Rome were designed so that the immense venue could fill in 15 minutes, and be evacuated in 5 minutes. Each entrance and exit was numbered, as was each staircase. There were 80 entrances at ground level, 76 for ordinary spectators, two for the imperial family, and two for the gladiators. The vomitoria quickly dispersed people into their seats and upon conclusion of the event disgorged them with abruptness into the surrounding streets - giving rise, presumably, to the name.

Later history
The Colosseum was in continuous use until 217, when it was damaged by fire after it was struck by lightning. It was restored in 238 and gladiatorial games continued until Christianity gradually put an end to those parts of them which included the death of humans. The building was used for various purposes, mostly venationes (animal hunts), until 524. Two earthquakes (in 442 and 508) caused a great damage to the structure. In the Middle Ages, it was severely damaged by further earthquakes (847 and 1349), and was then converted into a fortress. The marble that originally covered it was burned to make quicklime. During the Renaissance, but mostly in the Baroque age, the ruling Roman families (from which many popes came) used it as a source of marble for the construction of St. Peter's Basilica and the private Palazzi. A famous description is in the saying Quod non fecerunt Barbari, fecerunt Barberini; what the Barbarians weren't able to do, was done by the Barberinis (one such family).

The Venerable Bede (c. 672-735) wrote

Quandiu stabit coliseus, stabit et Roma; (As long as the Colosseum stands, so shall Rome)
Quando cadit coliseus, cadet et Roma (When the Colosseum falls, so shall Rome)
Quando cadet Roma, cadet et mundus. (When Rome falls, so shall the world)
Note that he used coliseus, i.e. he made the name a masculine noun. This form is no longer in use.

In 1749, as a very early example of historic preservation, Pope Benedict XIV forbade the use of the Colosseum as a quarry. He consecrated the building to the Passion of Christ and installed Stations of the Cross, declaring it sanctified by the blood of the Christian martyrs who were thought to have perished there. Later popes initiated various stabilization and restoration projects. Every Good Friday the pope leads a procession within the ellipse in memory of Christian martyrs. However, there is no historical evidence that Christians were tortured and killed in the Colosseum [2]. It is presumed that the majority of Christian martyrdom in Rome took place at the Circus Maximus.

In recent years, the local authorities of Rome have illuminated the Colosseum all night long whenever someone condemned to the death penalty gets commuted or released.

John Schou
Italy- Rome- Coliseum seen from outside 1~0.jpg
Italy- Rome- Coliseum seen from outside 145 viewsColosseum
The Colosseum or Coliseum, originally known as the Flavian Amphitheatre (lat. Amphitheatrum Flavium), is an amphitheatre in Rome, capable of seating 50,000 spectators, which was once used for gladiatorial combat. It was built by Emperor Vespasian and his son, Titus, between AD 72 and AD 90. It was built at the site of Nero's enormous palace, the Domus Aurea. The Colosseum's name is derived from a colossus (a 130-foot or 40-metre statue) of Nero which once stood nearby.

Construction
The construction of the Colosseum began under the Emperor Vespasian in AD 72 and was completed by his son, Titus, in the 80s AD. It was built at the site of Nero's enormous palace, the Domus Aurea, which had been built after the great fire of Rome in AD 64. Some historians are of the opinion that the construction of the Colosseum might have been financed by the looting of King Herod the Great's Temple in Jerusalem which occurred about AD 70. Dio Cassius said that 9,000 wild animals were killed in the one hundred days of celebration which inaugurated the amphitheatre opening. The arena floor was covered with sand to sop up the blood.

The Colosseum hosted large-scale spectacular games that included fights between animals (venationes), the killing of prisoners by animals and other executions (noxii), naval battles (naumachiae, via flooding the arena), and combats between gladiators (munera). It has been estimated that between 500,000 and 1,000,000 people died in the Colosseum games.

History of the name Colosseum
The Colosseum's name is derived from a colossus (a 130-foot or 40-metre statue) of Nero nearby. This statue was later remodeled by Nero's successors into the likeness of Sol, the sun god, by adding the appropriate solar crown. The link to Nero's colossus seems to have been forgotten over time, and the name was corrupted to Coliseum in the Middle Ages. Both names are frequently used in modern English, but "Flavian Amphitheatre" is generally unknown. In Italy, it is still known as il colosseo, but other Romance languages have gone for forms such as le colisée and el coliseo.

Description
The Colosseum measured 48 metres high, 188 metres long, and 156 metres wide. The wooden arena floor was 86 metres by 54 metres, and covered by sand. Its elliptical shape kept the players from retreating to a corner, and allowed the spectators to be closer to the action than a circle would allow.

The Colosseum was ingeniously designed. It has been said that most spectacle venues (stadiums, and similar) have been influenced by features of the Colosseum's structure, even well into modern times. Seating (cavea) was divided into different sections. The podium, the first level of seating, was for the Roman senators, and the emperor's private, cushioned, marble box was also located on this level. Above the podium was the maenianum primum, for the other Roman aristocrats who were not in the senate. The third level, the maenianum secundum, was divided into three sections. The lower part (the immum) was for wealthy citizens, while the upper part (the summum) was for poor citizens. A third, wooden section (the maenianum secundum in legneis) was a wooden structure at the very top of the building, added by Domitian. It was standing room only, and was for lower class women.

Underneath the arena was the hypogeum (literally, "underground"), a network of tunnels and cages where gladiators and animals were held before contests began. There were also numerous trap doors in the arena floor for the various animals hidden underneath. The arena floor no longer exists, and the hypogeum walls and corridors are clearly visible in the ruins of the building. The entire base of the Colosseum was equivalent to 6 acres (160,000 m²).

A most ingenious part of the Colosseum was its cooling system. It was roofed using a canvas covered net-like structure made of ropes, with a hole in the center. This roof sloped down towards the center to catch the wind and provide a breeze for the audience. Sailors manipulated the ropes. The Colosseum also had vomitoria - passageways that open into a tier of seats from below or behind. The vomitoria of the Colosseum in Rome were designed so that the immense venue could fill in 15 minutes, and be evacuated in 5 minutes. Each entrance and exit was numbered, as was each staircase. There were 80 entrances at ground level, 76 for ordinary spectators, two for the imperial family, and two for the gladiators. The vomitoria quickly dispersed people into their seats and upon conclusion of the event disgorged them with abruptness into the surrounding streets - giving rise, presumably, to the name.

Later history
The Colosseum was in continuous use until 217, when it was damaged by fire after it was struck by lightning. It was restored in 238 and gladiatorial games continued until Christianity gradually put an end to those parts of them which included the death of humans. The building was used for various purposes, mostly venationes (animal hunts), until 524. Two earthquakes (in 442 and 508) caused a great damage to the structure. In the Middle Ages, it was severely damaged by further earthquakes (847 and 1349), and was then converted into a fortress. The marble that originally covered it was burned to make quicklime. During the Renaissance, but mostly in the Baroque age, the ruling Roman families (from which many popes came) used it as a source of marble for the construction of St. Peter's Basilica and the private Palazzi. A famous description is in the saying Quod non fecerunt Barbari, fecerunt Barberini; what the Barbarians weren't able to do, was done by the Barberinis (one such family).

The Venerable Bede (c. 672-735) wrote

Quandiu stabit coliseus, stabit et Roma; (As long as the Colosseum stands, so shall Rome)
Quando cadit coliseus, cadet et Roma (When the Colosseum falls, so shall Rome)
Quando cadet Roma, cadet et mundus. (When Rome falls, so shall the world)
Note that he used coliseus, i.e. he made the name a masculine noun. This form is no longer in use.

In 1749, as a very early example of historic preservation, Pope Benedict XIV forbade the use of the Colosseum as a quarry. He consecrated the building to the Passion of Christ and installed Stations of the Cross, declaring it sanctified by the blood of the Christian martyrs who were thought to have perished there. Later popes initiated various stabilization and restoration projects. Every Good Friday the pope leads a procession within the ellipse in memory of Christian martyrs. However, there is no historical evidence that Christians were tortured and killed in the Colosseum [2]. It is presumed that the majority of Christian martyrdom in Rome took place at the Circus Maximus.

In recent years, the local authorities of Rome have illuminated the Colosseum all night long whenever someone condemned to the death penalty gets commuted or released.

John Schou
Italy- Rome- Forum Romanum and original door of the temple of Divo Romolo~0.jpg
Italy- Rome- Forum Romanum and original door of the temple of Divo Romulo43 views1 commentsJohn Schou
Italy- Rome- Forum Romanum and the Basilica of Majencio.jpg
Italy- Rome- Forum Romanum and the Basilica of Majencio38 viewsThe Basilica of Maxentius (Basilica Maxentii) or the Basilica of Constantine (Basilica Constantini) was the last of the great civilian basilicas on the Roman Forum. The ruins of the basilica is located between the Temple of Amor and Roma and the Temple of Romulus, on the Via Sacra.

The construction of the basilica was initiated by Maxentius in 308 CE, and finished by Constantine after he had defeated Maxentius in the battle of the Milvian Bridge in 312 CE. As other similar buildings, it was destined for commercial and administrative activities. It is likely that the basilica housed the offices of the Prefect of the City, the highest imperial official in late antiquity.

The site chosen for the basilica was on the Velia, a low ridge connecting the Esquiline Hill and the Palatine Hill. Large parts of the Velia was levelled in preparation for the construction of the basilica. Literary sources tell that earlier the site was occupied by the Horrea Piperatica, the central market and storage facility for pepper and spices, built in the time of Domitian. Also on the site was a sanctuary of the penates publici which had to be moved.

The Basilica of Maxentius is built with arches, which is very atypical. All the other public basilicas had flat ceilings supported by wooden beams. The construction techniques used borrowed more from the great imperial baths than from the traditional basilica.
The basilica is one of the most impressive buildings on the Forum Romanum. The ground plan is rectangular, oriented E.-W., covering an area of 100×65m divided into a central nave and to lateral aisles and an atrium on the E. side where the original entrance was.

The central nave measured 80×25m and was covered by three groin vaults with a maximum height of 35m, supported by eight monolithic Corinthian columns of 14.5m. Each of the two aisles was made up of three interconnected coffered vaults, 20.5m wide and 24m high, communicating with the central nave by three huge openings.

Light was provided by two rows of three large windows in five of the six lateral vaults, and by windows in the sides of the now collapsed cross vaults over the central nave. The windows in two of the vaults in the surviving N. side of the building give a good idea of the amount of light inside the building.

The floor in both the central and the lateral spaces were a geometric pattern of squares with circles and lozenges of multi-coloured marble, similar to the floor in the Pantheon.

The walls were in opus latericium, originally with a marble veneer. The vaults were in opus caementicium with a gilded stucco finish. The roof was covered with gilded bronze tiles.

The entrance of the original project of Maxentius was to the east, from a branch of the old Via Sacra behind the Temple of Amor and Roma. It lead into an elongated atrium, connected to the central nave and the lateral aisles by five gateways.

In the W. end was a huge apse, 20m in diameter, where a colossal seated statue of Maxentius stood. This statue was later changed to look like Constantine. The statue was an acrolith (the head, hands and feet were of marble, while the rest was of other materials), and the remains of the statue were found in 1486 in the apse.

Constantine changed the plan when he took over the unfinished basilica. He had a another entrance added on the S. side, on the Via Sacra, where a monumental stairway led to a porch of four porphyry columns and via three double doorways into the central part of the S. aisle. In front of this new entrance, in the central vault of the N. aisle, another apse was added, smaller than the apse in the W. end. In back of this apse a niche held a standing statue of Constantine, and smaller, square-headed niches, two rows of four niches on each side, which might have housed a gallery of Constantine's relatives and lieutenants. This room could be closed by wooden doors, and it is likely the central part of the office of the Prefect of the City was there.

Of the original building only the three vaults of the N. aisle remain, devoid of all decorations. The vaults of the S. and central nave probably collapsed under an earthquake in c. 847. The floor plan is clearly visible, however, and the remaining structures give a vivid impression of the grandeur of the original edifice.

The remains of the Colossal Statue of Constantine I are in the courtyard of the Palazzo dei Conservatori on the Campidoglio, and one of the columns from the central nave was moved to the Piazza Santa Maria Maggiore in 1614. The remaining columns have disappeared. The bronze tiles from the roof were reused for the first Basilica of Saint Peter.

John Schou
Italy- Rome- Forum Romanum Basilica Julia.jpg
Italy- Rome- Forum Romanum Basilica Julia97 viewsThe Basilica Julia was built in 54-48 BCE by Julius Caesar as a part of his reorganisation of the Forum Romanum, where it replaced the Basilica Sempronia. It is located on the S. side of the main square of the Forum Romanum, between the Temple of Saturn and the Temple of Castor and Pollux.

Julius Caesar started construction in 54 BCE, but it was still unfinished at his death. It was built on the site of the Basilica Sempronia and a series of shops, the tabernae veteres, that were all demolished.

Augustus finished the building after Caesar's death, but had to reconstruct it again shortly after, due to its destruction by fire in 9 BCE. It was dedicated again in 2 BCE, this time in the name of Gaius Caesar and Lucius Caesar, Augustus' designated heirs at the time.

The basilica was later damaged much by the fire in 283 CE, and restored a few years after by Diocletian. It was again destroyed when Alaric sacked the city in 410 CE.

The Basilica Julia was of huge proportions. The basilica rested on a low podium, seven steps high on the E. side and just one on the W. side, due to the sloping terrain. Of outer dimensions 101×49m, the central nave of the basilica was 82×18m. The four lateral aisles, two on each side, were two storeys high, with vaulted ceiling and arches decorated by semi-columns. The central nave was three storeys high.

A series of shops stood behind the basilica towards the Velabrum. A Temple of Augustus was also built in the area behind the basilica by Tiberius.

The function of the Basilica Julia was to house tribunals and other activities from the Forum when weather didn't permit outdoor meetings. The central nave probably divided in four by wooden removable structures to allow the hearing of more cases at a time. The basilica also housed some administrative offices of the city.

Game boards and graffiti are incised in the steps and in the pavement of the side aisles by idling visitors to the Forum. Some of this can still be seen on the side of the main square of the forum.

The building was in ruin already in late Antiquity, and subsequently stripped of all reusable material, i.e., almost everything.

Very little of the building remains now. The basic floor plan can be seen, and some parts of brick walls remain towards the Temple of Saturn, some bases of statues still in their original position, and the four step podium remain. The brick column bases are reconstructions of the 19th century.



John Schou
Italy- Rome- Forum Romanum Cloaca Maxima.jpg
Italy- Rome- Forum Romanum Cloaca Maxima163 viewsDoor leading to the Cloaca Maxima, situated in the eastern stairs of the Basilica Julia at the Roman Forum. Here, you can sometimes hear (and smell) the sewer.

The outlet of the Cloaca maxima ("greatest sewer"). This drain was built as a canal through the Forum Romanum in the sixth century and its construction is generally attributed to king Tarquinius Priscus. In the second century BCE, the canal was covered.

The Cloaca Maxima was one of the world's earliest sewage systems. Constructed in ancient Rome in order to drain local marshes and remove the waste of one of the world's most populous cities, it carried effluent to the River Tiber, which ran beside the city.

The name literally means Great Sewer. According to tradition it may have been initially constructed around 600 BC under the orders of the king of Rome, Lucius Tarquinius Priscus.

This public work was largely achieved through the use of Etruscan engineers and large amounts of semi-forced labour from the poorer classes of Roman citizens.

Although Livy describes it as being tunnelled out beneath Rome, he was writing a great deal after the event. From other writings and from the path that it takes, it seems more likely that it was originally an open drain, formed from streams from three of the neighbouring hills, that were channeled through the main Forum and then on to the Tiber. This open drain would then have been gradually built over, as building space within the city became more valuable. It is possible that both theories are correct, and certainly some of the lower parts of the system suggest that they would have been below ground level even at the time of the supposed construction.

There were many branches off from the main sewer, but all seem to be 'official' drains that would have served public toilets, bath-houses and other public buildings. Private residences in Rome, even of the rich, would have relied on some sort of cess-pit arrangement for sewage.

The Cloaca Maxima was well maintained throughout the life of the Roman Empire and there is evidence to suggest it was still working long after the traditional fall of the Western Empire. In 33 BC it is known to have received an inspection and overhaul from Agrippa, and archaeology reveals several building styles and material from various ages, suggesting that the systems received regular attention. In more recent times, the remaining passages have been connected to the modern-day sewage system, mainly to cope with problems of backwash from the river.

The Cloaca Maxima was thought to be presided over by the goddess Cloacina.

The Romans are recorded — the veracity of the accounts depending on the case — to have dragged the bodies of a number of people to the sewers rather than give them proper burial, among them the emperor Elagabalus and Saint Sebastian: the latter scene is the subject of a well-known artwork by Lodovico Carracci.

The outfall of the Cloaca Maxima into the river Tiber is still visible today near the bridge Ponte Rotto, and near Ponte Palatino. There is a stairway going down to it visible next to the Basilica Julia at the Forum.

It is often said that it is still in use; this is not untrue, but the whole truth is that only a trickle of water flows through the age-old sewer. The exit shown on this picture is just south of the ancient Roman bridge now known as Ponte Rotto.


1 commentsJohn Schou
Italy- Rome- Forum Romanum and the temple of Vesta and the Basilica of Majencio.jpg
Italy- Rome- Forum Romanum The Basilica of Majencio and the temple of Castors46 viewsThe Basilica of Maxentius (Basilica Maxentii) or the Basilica of Constantine (Basilica Constantini) was the last of the great civilian basilicas on the Roman Forum. The ruins of the basilica is located between the Temple of Amor and Roma and the Temple of Romulus, on the Via Sacra.

The construction of the basilica was initiated by Maxentius in 308 CE, and finished by Constantine after he had defeated Maxentius in the battle of the Milvian Bridge in 312 CE. As other similar buildings, it was destined for commercial and administrative activities. It is likely that the basilica housed the offices of the Prefect of the City, the highest imperial official in late antiquity.

The site chosen for the basilica was on the Velia, a low ridge connecting the Esquiline Hill and the Palatine Hill. Large parts of the Velia was levelled in preparation for the construction of the basilica. Literary sources tell that earlier the site was occupied by the Horrea Piperatica, the central market and storage facility for pepper and spices, built in the time of Domitian. Also on the site was a sanctuary of the penates publici which had to be moved.

The Basilica of Maxentius is built with arches, which is very atypical. All the other public basilicas had flat ceilings supported by wooden beams. The construction techniques used borrowed more from the great imperial baths than from the traditional basilica.
The basilica is one of the most impressive buildings on the Forum Romanum. The ground plan is rectangular, oriented E.-W., covering an area of 100×65m divided into a central nave and to lateral aisles and an atrium on the E. side where the original entrance was.

The central nave measured 80×25m and was covered by three groin vaults with a maximum height of 35m, supported by eight monolithic Corinthian columns of 14.5m. Each of the two aisles was made up of three interconnected coffered vaults, 20.5m wide and 24m high, communicating with the central nave by three huge openings.

Light was provided by two rows of three large windows in five of the six lateral vaults, and by windows in the sides of the now collapsed cross vaults over the central nave. The windows in two of the vaults in the surviving N. side of the building give a good idea of the amount of light inside the building.

The floor in both the central and the lateral spaces were a geometric pattern of squares with circles and lozenges of multi-coloured marble, similar to the floor in the Pantheon.

The walls were in opus latericium, originally with a marble veneer. The vaults were in opus caementicium with a gilded stucco finish. The roof was covered with gilded bronze tiles.

The entrance of the original project of Maxentius was to the east, from a branch of the old Via Sacra behind the Temple of Amor and Roma. It lead into an elongated atrium, connected to the central nave and the lateral aisles by five gateways.

In the W. end was a huge apse, 20m in diameter, where a colossal seated statue of Maxentius stood. This statue was later changed to look like Constantine. The statue was an acrolith (the head, hands and feet were of marble, while the rest was of other materials), and the remains of the statue were found in 1486 in the apse.

Constantine changed the plan when he took over the unfinished basilica. He had a another entrance added on the S. side, on the Via Sacra, where a monumental stairway led to a porch of four porphyry columns and via three double doorways into the central part of the S. aisle. In front of this new entrance, in the central vault of the N. aisle, another apse was added, smaller than the apse in the W. end. In back of this apse a niche held a standing statue of Constantine, and smaller, square-headed niches, two rows of four niches on each side, which might have housed a gallery of Constantine's relatives and lieutenants. This room could be closed by wooden doors, and it is likely the central part of the office of the Prefect of the City was there.

Of the original building only the three vaults of the N. aisle remain, devoid of all decorations. The vaults of the S. and central nave probably collapsed under an earthquake in c. 847. The floor plan is clearly visible, however, and the remaining structures give a vivid impression of the grandeur of the original edifice.

The remains of the Colossal Statue of Constantine I are in the courtyard of the Palazzo dei Conservatori on the Campidoglio, and one of the columns from the central nave was moved to the Piazza Santa Maria Maggiore in 1614. The remaining columns have disappeared. The bronze tiles from the roof were reused for the first Basilica of Saint Peter.

John Schou
Italy- Rome- Part of the city wall.jpg
Italy- Rome- Part of the city wall38 viewsRome is the city in the world with the longest set of ancient walls still partly standing.
This unique relic of roman history, though, is somewhat neglected by the thousands of tourist who visit the city every day: very few of them pay attention to these massive structures, as their interest is mainly caught by famous buildings and sites such as the Roman Forum, the Pantheon, or the Colosseum.
Certainly less beautiful than these gems, the walls proved more useful to the city than any other well-known monument or building. And still today they stand as an important memory of the city's ancient boundaries.

The several restoration works carried out through the ages, in order to keep them strong and steady, give reason for the good state of preservation of the set of walls built in the 3rd century AD: unlike other ancient buildings, they mantained their original function until the end of the 1800s. Many of the original gates are still in place, as well, and some of them have witnessed important historical facts.
Besides their importance during wartime, the city walls enabled the local authorities to keep under control the many people who every day entered or left Rome, as the only way in or out was through the gates: the doors were usually kept under sentry during daylight, and closed after dusk. And since a tax was usually imposed on people and goods entering the city, the gates yielded also a considerable income for the municipality.
Since its foundation, Rome has always adopted defensive means, to prevent the several populations surrounding the original nucleus from invading the city.
They are not one single structure, but several walls belonging to many periods. They were built with different techniques, according to the different weapons they had to face, from early enemies' stones, to catapults, to more powerful cannon balls.
Each of them will be therefore dealt with separately, as individual structures.
All of them are conventionally named after the ruler (king, emperor or pope) who had them built.
ROMULUS' WALLS
We know little about the very first defensive structures that protected Rome's original nucleus, over 2700 years ago; the top of two adjoining hills, the Capitolium and the Palatine, was enclosed by two separate walls; the one on the Palatine was probably rebuilt over a pre-roman structure, and protected Romulus's House, claimed to be the dwelling site of the mythical founder and first king of Rome.
Only few visible traces, both of the Palatine's and of the Capitolium's wall, now survive (the latter is shown on the left). Therefore, these are the only walls not dealt with by the following pages.
SERVIAN WALLS
(or REPUBLICAN WALLS)
They are named after Rome's sixth king Servius Tullius: by tradition, he was the first ruler to order the construction of an early defensive structure around the city. Also in this case it is impossible to state a precise date. According to reliable sources, by the 6th century BC the city of Rome could indeed rely on some sort of protection; nevertheless, there is enough proof that an actual wall was not built until the late 4th century BC (during Rome's republic, whence the other name). And a further extension, beyond the left banks of the river Tiber up to the top of the Janiculum hill, was built two centuries later.
Therefore, the evolution of this set of walls must have been rather complicated.The older defensive technique probably consisted of a sort of mound dug in the ground; the earth coming from the latter was simply used to make a long heap on the inside, as a further protection.
Later in time, a real set of walls was built in place of this primitive boundary. But along the north-eastern part of its perimeter, a deep mound with earth and stones piled by the inner base of the wall was still in use: this structure was called an agger (from the Latin ad gerere, "to bring, move towards").
The actual wall was built according to the dry-stone technique, i.e. without any mortar, large blocks were piled one on top of the other, in multiple rows. The porous stone is tufa (which in Rome was used for the making of buildings up to the early 1930s!).
Unfortunately, of these walls no more than a few fragments scattered in various parts of the city is now left.
Further data based on historical sources and archaeological excavations have enabled to define more or less precisely their full perimeter: by the end of the 4th century BC, the city boundaries enclosed the famous seven hills, or Septimontium, over which the city was originally built: the Capitolium and the Palatine (i.e. the early nucleus), the Aventine, the Esquiline, the Quirinal, the Viminal and the Coelian.
John Schou
Italy- Rome- Part of the city wall 2.jpg
Italy- Rome- Part of the city wall 261 viewsRome is the city in the world with the longest set of ancient walls still partly standing.
This unique relic of roman history, though, is somewhat neglected by the thousands of tourist who visit the city every day: very few of them pay attention to these massive structures, as their interest is mainly caught by famous buildings and sites such as the Roman Forum, the Pantheon, or the Colosseum.
Certainly less beautiful than these gems, the walls proved more useful to the city than any other well-known monument or building. And still today they stand as an important memory of the city's ancient boundaries.

The several restoration works carried out through the ages, in order to keep them strong and steady, give reason for the good state of preservation of the set of walls built in the 3rd century AD: unlike other ancient buildings, they mantained their original function until the end of the 1800s. Many of the original gates are still in place, as well, and some of them have witnessed important historical facts.
Besides their importance during wartime, the city walls enabled the local authorities to keep under control the many people who every day entered or left Rome, as the only way in or out was through the gates: the doors were usually kept under sentry during daylight, and closed after dusk. And since a tax was usually imposed on people and goods entering the city, the gates yielded also a considerable income for the municipality.
Since its foundation, Rome has always adopted defensive means, to prevent the several populations surrounding the original nucleus from invading the city.
They are not one single structure, but several walls belonging to many periods. They were built with different techniques, according to the different weapons they had to face, from early enemies' stones, to catapults, to more powerful cannon balls.
Each of them will be therefore dealt with separately, as individual structures.
All of them are conventionally named after the ruler (king, emperor or pope) who had them built.
ROMULUS' WALLS
We know little about the very first defensive structures that protected Rome's original nucleus, over 2700 years ago; the top of two adjoining hills, the Capitolium and the Palatine, was enclosed by two separate walls; the one on the Palatine was probably rebuilt over a pre-roman structure, and protected Romulus's House, claimed to be the dwelling site of the mythical founder and first king of Rome.
Only few visible traces, both of the Palatine's and of the Capitolium's wall, now survive (the latter is shown on the left). Therefore, these are the only walls not dealt with by the following pages.
SERVIAN WALLS
(or REPUBLICAN WALLS)
They are named after Rome's sixth king Servius Tullius: by tradition, he was the first ruler to order the construction of an early defensive structure around the city. Also in this case it is impossible to state a precise date. According to reliable sources, by the 6th century BC the city of Rome could indeed rely on some sort of protection; nevertheless, there is enough proof that an actual wall was not built until the late 4th century BC (during Rome's republic, whence the other name). And a further extension, beyond the left banks of the river Tiber up to the top of the Janiculum hill, was built two centuries later.
Therefore, the evolution of this set of walls must have been rather complicated.The older defensive technique probably consisted of a sort of mound dug in the ground; the earth coming from the latter was simply used to make a long heap on the inside, as a further protection.
Later in time, a real set of walls was built in place of this primitive boundary. But along the north-eastern part of its perimeter, a deep mound with earth and stones piled by the inner base of the wall was still in use: this structure was called an agger (from the Latin ad gerere, "to bring, move towards").
The actual wall was built according to the dry-stone technique, i.e. without any mortar, large blocks were piled one on top of the other, in multiple rows. The porous stone is tufa (which in Rome was used for the making of buildings up to the early 1930s!).
Unfortunately, of these walls no more than a few fragments scattered in various parts of the city is now left.
Further data based on historical sources and archaeological excavations have enabled to define more or less precisely their full perimeter: by the end of the 4th century BC, the city boundaries enclosed the famous seven hills, or Septimontium, over which the city was originally built: the Capitolium and the Palatine (i.e. the early nucleus), the Aventine, the Esquiline, the Quirinal, the Viminal and the Coelian.
John Schou
Italy- Rome- The Arch of Constantine The Great.jpg
Italy- Rome- The Arch of Constantine The Great71 viewsArch of Constantine
The Arch of Constantine is a triumphal arch in Rome, situated between the Colosseum and the Palatine Hill. It was erected to commemorate Constantine's victory over Maxentius at the Battle of Milvian Bridge on October 28, 312 AD. Dedicated in 315 AD, it is the latest of the extant triumphal arches in Rome, from which it differs by the extensive re-use of parts of earlier buildings.

General Description
The arch is 21 m high, 25.7 m wide and 7.4 m deep. It has three archways, the central one being 11.5 m high and 6.5 m wide, the lateral archways 7.4 m by 3.4 m each. The lower part of the monument is built of marble blocks, the top (called attic) is brickwork revetted with marble. A staircase formed in the thickness of the arch is entered from a door at some height from the ground, in the end towards the Palatine Hill. The general design with a main part structured by detached columns and an attic with the main inscription above is modelled after the example of the Arch of Septimius Severus on the Forum Romanum. It has been suggested that the lower part of the arch is re-used from an older monument, probably from the times of the emperor Hadrian (Conforto et al., 2001; for a defence of the view that the whole arch was constructed in the 4th century, see Pensabene & Panella). The arch spans the Via Triumphalis, the way taken by the emperors when they entered the city in triumph. This route started at the Campus Martius, led through the Circus Maximus and around the Palatine Hill; immediately after the Arch of Constantine, the procession would turn left and march along the Via Sacra to the Forum Romanum and on to the Capitoline Hill, passing both the Arches of Titus and Septimius Severus. During the Middle Ages, the Arch of Constantine was incorporated into one of the family strongholds of ancient Rome. Works of restoration were first carried out in the 18th century; the last excavations have taken place in the late 1990s, just before the Great Jubilee of 2000.

Decoration
The decoration of the arch heavily uses parts of older monuments, which are given a new meaning in the context of the Constantinian building. As it celebrates the victory of Constantine, the new "historic" friezes illustrating his campaign in Italy convey the central meaning: the praise of the emperor, both in battle and in his civilian duties. The other imagery supports this purpose: decoration taken from the "golden times" of the Empire under Trajan, Hadrian and Marcus Aurelius places Constantine next to these "good emperors", and the content of the pieces evokes images of the victorious and pious ruler. Another explanation given for the re-use is the short time between the start of construction (late 312 at the earliest) and the dedication (summer 315), so the architects used existing artwork to make up for the lack of time to create new one. As yet another possible reason, it has often been suggested that the Romans of the 4th century lacked the artistic skill to produce acceptable artwork and therefore plundered the ancient buildings to adorn their contemporary monuments. This interpretation has become less prominent in more recent times, as the art of Late Antiquity has been appreciated in its own right. It is, of course, possible that a combination of two or all three of those explanations are correct, as they are not mutually exclusive.

Attic
Above the middle archway, the main inscription (see below) takes the most prominent place of the attic. It is identical on both sides of the arch. Flanking the inscription on both sides, there are pairs of relief panels above the minor archways, 8 in total. They were taken from an unknown monument erected in honour of Marcus Aurelius, and show (north side, left to right) the emperor's return to Rome after the campaign (adventus), the emperor leaving the city and saluted by a personification of the Via Flaminia, the emperor distributing money among the people (largitio), the emperor interrogating a German prisoner, (south side, left to right) a captured enemy chieftain led before the emperor, a similar scene with other prisoners, the emperor speaking to the troops (adlocutio), and the emperor sacrificing pig, sheep and bull. Together with three panels now in the Capitoline Museum, the reliefs were probably taken from a triumphal monument commemorating Marcus Aurelius' war against the Sarmatians from 169 - 175, which ended with his triumphant return in 176. On the largitio panel, the figure of Marcus Aurelius' son Commodus has been eradicated after the latter's damnatio memoriae. On top of each of the columns stand marble statues of Dacian prisoners from the times of Trajan, probably taken from the Forum of Trajan. From the same time date the two large (3 m high) panels decorating the attic on the small sides of the arch, showing scenes from the emperor's Dacian Wars. Together with the two reliefs on the inside of the central archway, they came from a large frieze celebrating the Dacian victory. The original place of this frieze was either the Forum of Trajan, as well, or the barracks of the emperor's horse guard on the Caelius.

Main Section
The general layout of the main facade is identical on both sides of the arch. It is divided by four columns of Corinthian order made of Numidian yellow marble (giallo antico), one of which has been transferred into the Basilica di San Giovanni in Laterano and was replaced by a white marble column. The columns stand on bases showing victory figures on front, and captured barbarians and Roman soldiers on the sides. The spandrels of the main archway are decorated with reliefs depicting victory figures with trophies, those of the smaller archways show river gods. Column bases and spandrel reliefs are from the times of Constantine. Above each lateral archway are pairs of round reliefs dated to the times of emperor Hadrian. They display scenes of hunting and sacrificing: (north side, left to right) hunt of a boar, sacrifice to Apollo, hunt of a lion, sacrifice to Hercules, (south side, left to right) departure for the hunt, sacrifice to Silvanus, hunt of a bear, sacrifice to Diana. The head of the emperor (originally Hadrian) has been reworked in all medaillons: on the north side, into Constantine in the hunting scenes and into Licinius or Constantius I in the sacrifice scenes; on the south side, vice versa. The reliefs, c. 2 m in diameter, were framed in porphyry; this framing is only extant on the right side of the northern facade. Similar medaillons, this time of Constantinian origin, are placed on the small sides of the arch; on the eastern side, showing the Sun rising, and on the western side, the Moon, both on chariots. The main piece from the time of Constantine is the "historical" relief frieze running around the monument under the round panels, one strip above each lateral archway and at the small sides of the arch. These reliefs depict scenes from the Italian campaign of Constantine against Maxentius which was the reason for the construction of the monument. The frieze starts at the western side with the "Departure from Milan". It continues on the southern, "outward" looking face, with the siege of a city, probably Verona, which was of great importance to the war in Northern Italy; also on that face, the Battle of Milvian Bridge with Constantine's army victorious and the enemy drowning in the river Tiber. On the eastern side, Constantine and his army enter Rome; the artist here has avoided to use the imagery of the triumph, as Constantine probably did not want to be shown triumphant over the Eternal City. On the northern face, looking "towards" the city, two strips with the emperor's actions after taking possession of Rome: Constantine speaking to the citizens on the Forum Romanum, and distributing money to the people.

Inner Sides of the Archways
In the central archway, there is one of the large panels of Trajan's Dacian War on either wall. Inside the lateral archways, eight portraits busts (two on each wall), destroyed to such an extent that it is not possible to identify them any more.

Inscriptions
The main inscription reads:

IMP · CAES · FL · CONSTANTINO · MAXIMO · P · F · AVGUSTO · S · P · Q · R · QVOD · INSTINCTV · DIVINITATIS · MENTIS · MAGNITVDINE · CVM · EXERCITV · SVO · TAM · DE · TYRANNO · QVAM · DE · OMNI · EIVS · FACTIONE · VNO · TEMPORE · IVSTIS · REM-PUBLICAM · VLTVS · EST · ARMIS · ARCVM · TRIVMPHIS · INSIGNEM · DICAVIT

Which means in English:

To the Emperor Caesar Flavius Constantinus, the greatest, pious, and blessed Augustus: because he, inspired by the divine, and by the greatness of his mind, has delivered the state from the tyrant and all of his followers at the same time, with his army and just force of arms, the Senate and People of Rome have dedicated this arch, decorated with triumphs.

The words instinctu divinitatis ("inspired by the divine") have been much commented. They are usually read as sign of Constantine's shifting religious affiliation: The Christian tradition, most notably Lactantius and Eusebius of Caesarea, relate the story of a vision of the Christian god to Constantine during the campaign, and that he was victorious in the sign of the cross at the Milvian Bridge. The official documents (esp. coins) still prominently display the Sun God until 324 AD, while Constantine started to support the Christian church from 312 on. In this situation, the vague wording of the inscription can be seen as the attempt to please all possible readers, being deliberately ambiguous, and acceptable to both pagans and Christians. As was customary, the vanquished enemy is not mentioned by name, but only referred to as "the tyrant", drawing on the notion of the rightful killing of a tyrannical ruler; together with the image of the "just war", it serves as justification of Constantine's civil war against his co-emperor Maxentius.

Two short inscriptions on the inside of the central archway transport a similar message: Constantine came not as conqueror, but freed Rome from occupation:

LIBERATORI VRBIS (liberator of the city) - FUNDATORI QVIETIS (founder of peace)

Over each of the small archways, inscriptions read:

VOTIS X - VOTIS XX SIC X - SIC XX

They give a hint on the date of the arch: "Solemn vows for the 10th anniversary - for the 20th anniversary" and "as for the 10th, so for the 20th anniversary". Both refer to Constantine's decennalia, i.e. the 10th anniversary of his reign (counted from 306), which he celebrated in Rome in the summer of 315 AD. It can be assumed that the arch honouring his victory was inaugurated during his stay in the city.




John Schou
Italy- Rome- The Pantheon of Marco V Agripa and Hadrian.jpg
Italy- Rome- The Pantheon of Marco V Agripa and Hadrian45 views</