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Search results - "cow"
Pella_bull.jpg
16 viewsMacedonia under Roman rule. Gaius Publius Quaestor. 148-146BC. AE19mm. Obv. Athena in crested helmet. Rev. Grazing cow right. GAIOY TAMIOU. SNG ´Cop. 1323Lee S
rjb_car_587cf_02_06.jpg
587cf81 viewsCarausius 287-93AD
"Denarius"
Obv "......AVSIVS PE A"
Laureate, draped & cuirassed bust right
Rev "VBERVTA ....."
Cow standing right being milked
London mint (?)
-/-/RSR
RIC - (cf 587-8)
mauseus
rjb_car_584cf_07_05.jpg
617-8cf54 viewsCarausius 287-93
Antoninianus
Obv "IMP CARAVS....."
Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev "VVEBTAS AVG"
Cow standing right being milked
London Mint (?)
-/-/RSR
RIC - (cf 617-8, also 581-8 for variant reverse spellings on the "denarius")
mauseus
1-apolonia-ceka_115.jpg
Apollonia - Ceka 115.24 viewsIllyria, Apollonia After 229 BC
AR Drachm.
TIMHN, Cow standing left, looking back at suckling calf, Gamma AK monogram below.
APOL DAMOFWNTOS around square with double stellate pattern.
xokleng
Dyrrhachion_Dracma.jpg
ILIRIA - DIRRAQUIO/EPIDAMNOS20 viewsAR dracma 18X16 mm 2.4 gr.

Anv: "MENIΣ [KOΣ ]" (Nombre de la Autoridad Monetaria que la acuña), sobre una Vaca a der. mirando a su ternero que se amanta a izq.
Rev: "AYP / ΔIO / [NY] / [ΣIOY]" – Doble Forma estrellada, dividida por dos líneas y rodeada por una doble línea formando un contorno cuadrado.
Los diseños del reverso de Korkyra así como de sus colonias, Apollonia (Apolonia) y Dyrrhachion (Dirraquio), han sido objeto de mucha especulación numismática. Eckhel (Doctrina numorum veterum [Vienna, 1792/3], II:155) aceptó la opinión de Laurentius Beger (Observationes Et Conjecturae In Numismata Quaedam Antiqua [Brandenburg, 1691]), que argumentó que el diseño del reverso representa el jardín de Alkinoos, el mítico rey de Phaiakia, descrito en detalle por el poeta Homero (Od. 7.112-133). Basado en el supuesto de que mítica Phaiakia era la isla de la antigua Korkyra (mod. Corfú), y sabiendo que Korkyrans colonizaron tanto Apollonia y Dyrrhachion, Beger (ya través de él, Eckhel) concluyeron que los elementos centrales eran flores y que el diseño general debe representar tanto el diseño del jardín, o las puertas que conducen a ella. Más tarde, la mayoría de los numismáticos, como Böckh, Müller, Friedlander, y von Sallet, argumentaron que los elementos centrales del diseño eran más como la estrella, mientras que Gardner favoreciendo una interpretación floral, aunque sea como una referencia a Apolo Aristaios o Nomios, no el jardín de ALKINOOS. Más recientemente, Nicolet-Pierre volvió a examinar la cuestión del diseño del reverso en su artículo sobre la moneda arcaica de Korkyra ("À props du monnayage archaïque de Corcyre," SNR 88 [2009], pp. 2-3) y ofreció una nueva interpretación. Tomando nota de un pasaje de Tucídides (3.70.4) en la que ese autor citó la existencia en la isla de un recinto sagrado (temenos) dedicado a Zeus y ALKINOOS, sugirió que el diseño del reverso podría haber sido inspirada por esto, y no en el jardín de ALKINOOS que detalla Homero.

Acuñación: 200 - 30 A.C.
Ceca: Dyrrhachion - Illyria (Hoy Durré en Albania)

Referencias: Sear GCTV Vol.I #1900 var Pag.187 – BMC Vol.7 #62-64 Pag.69 – SNG Copenhagen #467 - Maier #201 - Ceka #320
mdelvalle
AUG_ox_blk.jpg
(02) AUGUSTUS (Posthumous restoration issue)30 viewsStruck under Trajan, 98–102 AD,
Æ 23 mm, 13.16 g
o: DIVOS AVGVSTVS – Bare head of Augustus
R: COL·/IVL in upper field, on r., AVG and on l. BER; Founder, veiled, ploughing to r. with ox and cow
Phoenicia, Berytus
cf. Sawaya 2009, p. 37, No, 565; cf. BMC Phoenicia 53 ff
laney
BMC_XXVI__62_Augusto_BERYTOS_FENICIA.jpg
01-80 - Beritos - Fenicia - AUGUSTO (27 A.C. - 14 D.C.)19 viewsAE22 22 mm 12.0 gr.
Acuñada a Divo Augusto durante el reinado de Trajano.
La Colonia Iulia Augusta Felix Berytus fue fundada por veteranos de las 5ta. y 8va. legione, probablemente en el 14 A.C.

Anv: " DIVOS AVGVSTVS " Cabeza desnuda de Augusto viendo a derecha.
Rev: "COL·/ IVL " (en campo centro alto), "AVG" (en campo derecho) y , "BER" (en campo izquierdo), rodeando a Fundador velado, arando a derecha con un buey y una vaca .

Acuñada probablemente 98–102 D.C.
Ceca: Beritos - Fenicia

Referencias: RPC I #1651 Pag.308 - Sawaya 2009 #565 Pag.37 - BMC Phoenicia #65-5 Pag.60
mdelvalle
Vespasian_AR-Den_IMP-CAESAR-VESPASIANVS-AVG_COS-VII_RIC-II-96_p-25_RIC-new-841_C-117_Rome_75-76-AD_Q-001_axis-5h_18,5-19mm_3,22g-s.jpg
020 Vespasian (69-79 A.D.), RIC 0841, RIC (1962) 096, Rome, AR-Denarius, COS VII, Cow right, #1178 views020 Vespasian (69-79 A.D.), RIC 0841, RIC (1962) 096, Rome, AR-Denarius, COS VII, Cow right, #1
avers:- IMP-CAESAR-VESPASIANVS-AVG, Laureate head right.
revers:- COS-VII, Cow advancing right.
exerg: -/-//--, diameter: 18,5-19mm, weight: 3,22g, axes: 5h,
mint: Rome, date: 75-76 A.D., ref: RIC 0841, RIC (1962) 096, C-117,
Q-001
quadrans
RIC-944_Vespasian_AR-Den_IMP-CAESAR-VESPASIANVS-AVG_COS-VIII_RIC-II-107_RIC-new-944_RSC-134a_BMCRE-209_Rome_77-78-AD_Q-001_6h_16,7-17,3mm_3,32g-s.jpg
020 Vespasian (69-79 A.D.), RIC 0944, RIC (1962) 107, Rome, AR-Denarius, -/-//COS VIII, Cow right, #1126 views020 Vespasian (69-79 A.D.), RIC 0944, RIC (1962) 107, Rome, AR-Denarius, -/-//COS VIII, Cow right, #1
avers: IMP-CAESAR-VESPASIANVS-AVG, Laureate head left.
revers: COS-VIII, Pair of Oxen, under yoke left.
exerg: -/-//COS VIII, diameter: 16,7-17,3mm, weight: 3,32g, axes: 6h,
mint: Rome, date: 77-78 A.D., ref: RIC 0944, RIC (1962) 107, RSC-134a, BMCRE-209,
Q-001
4 commentsquadrans
RIC-944_Vespasian_AR-Den_CAESAR-VESPASIANVS-AVG_COS-VIII_RIC-II-107_RIC-new-944_RSC-134a_BMCRE-209_Rome_77-78-AD_Q-002_6h_16,7-17,6mm_3,27g-s.jpg
020 Vespasian (69-79 A.D.), RIC 0944, RIC (1962) 107, Rome, AR-Denarius, -/-//COS VIII, Cow right, #2109 views020 Vespasian (69-79 A.D.), RIC 0944, RIC (1962) 107, Rome, AR-Denarius, -/-//COS VIII, Cow right, #2
avers: IMP-CAESAR-VESPASIANVS-AVG, Laureate head left.
revers: COS-VIII, Pair of Oxen, under yoke left.
exerg: -/-//COS VIII, diameter: 16,7-17,6mm, weight: 3,27g, axes: 6h,
mint: Rome, date: 77-78 A.D., ref: RIC 0944, RIC (1962) 107, RSC-134a, BMCRE-209,
Q-002
1 commentsquadrans
1205_-_1216_John_AR_Penny_Dublin.JPG
1199-1216, John, AR Penny, Struck 1207 – 1211 at Dublin, Ireland10 viewsObverse: IOHANNES REX around triangle enclosing a crowned and draped facing bust of King John holding, in his right hand, a sceptre tipped with a cross pommée which extends through the side of the triangle into the legend. Quatrefoil to right of bust.
Reverse: ROBERD ON DIVE around triangle containing sun over crescent moon and a star in each angle. Cross pattée at apex of each point of the triangle and above legend on each of the three sides. Moneyer: Roberd, cognate with the modern English name of Robin.
Third issue “REX” coinage, struck to the same weight and fineness as the English standard.
This was the only coinage struck by King John in his own name.
Diameter: 18mm | Weight: 1.2gms | Die Axis: 4
SPINK: 6228

John was King of England from 1199 until his death in 1216. The baronial revolt at the end of John's reign led to the sealing of the first Magna Carta, a document sometimes considered an early step in the evolution of the constitution of the United Kingdom.
John, the youngest of the five sons of Henry II and Eleanor of Aquitaine, was not expected to inherit significant lands which resulted in him being given the nickname John Lackland. However, after the failed rebellion of his elder brothers between 1173 and 1174, John became Henry's favourite child. He was appointed Lord of Ireland in 1177 and given lands in England and on the continent. John's elder brothers William, Henry and Geoffrey died young and when Richard I became king in 1189, John was the potential heir to the throne. John unsuccessfully attempted a rebellion against Richard's administration whilst his brother was participating in the Third Crusade but despite this, after Richard died in 1199, John was proclaimed King of England.
King John contracted dysentery at Lynn in 1216 but, just before his death, he managed to dictate a brief will. This will still survives and as part of it John requested: "I will that my body be buried in the church of St. Mary and St. Wulfstan of Worcester".
Some of King John's favourite hunting grounds were in Worcester, at Kinver and Feckenham, and he had a special affection for Saint Wulfstan, one of the two great Anglo-Saxon saints whose shrines and tombs were also at Worcester. Both Saint Wulfstan and Saint Oswald can be seen in miniature beside the head of the effigy of King John on his tomb.
Medieval effigies usually show the subject in the prime of life, however the effigy on King John's tomb is unique in that not only is it a life-like image of him, it is also the oldest royal effigy in England.
King John's tomb has been opened twice, once in 1529 and again in 1797. At the first opening it was said that John's head was covered with a monk's cowl, however it is now thought that this was probably his coronation cap. When the tomb was opened for the second time the antiquarians responsible discovered that a robe of crimson damask had originally covered the king's body but, by 1797, most of the embroidery had deteriorated. They also found the remains of a sword which lay down the left side of the body along with parts of its scabbard.
3 comments*Alex
RI 136f img~2.jpg
136 - Numerian - RIC unlisted - Bust Type F (Lugdunum) (//C)46 viewsObv:– IMP C NVMERIANVS AVG, Radiate, cuirassed bust right
Rev:– PACATO-R ORBIS, Emperor advancing right, holding shield and sword, captive, cowering beneath
Minted in Lugdunum (C in exe) Emission 9 Officina 3. Summer A.D. 284
Reference:– Cohen 41 (30 F). Bastien 618 (2 examples). RIC Unlisted.

The coin appears to be billon rather than silvered and is the ONLY occurence of this reverse type.
1 commentsmaridvnvm
1795_NORTH_WALES_HALFPENNY.JPG
1795 AE Halfpenny, North Wales, Anglesey.17 viewsObverse: No legend. Druid's head wearing cowl facing left, surrounded by oak wreath; engraver's initial "W" (for Wyon) in raised letters at bottom of bust (see inset).
Reverse: RULE BRITANNIA. Britannia facing left, seated on globe, her right hand holding spear, her left arm holding laurel-branch and resting on shield at her side; in exergue, 1795.
Edge: PAYABLE IN LONDON, the rest engrailed.
Diameter: 29mm
Dalton & Hamer: 429
RARE

The diesinker for this token was Thomas Wyon and it was probably manufactured by Peter Kempson at his works in Birmingham.
The Druid's head was a feature of the Parys Mine in Anglesey, North Wales and was used on some of the earliest issues of 18th century Tokens.
This piece was issued for general circulation.
*Alex
ClaudiusAsLibertas.jpg
1ap Claudius29 views41-54

As
Bare head, left, TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP
Libertas, LIBERTAS AVGVSTA SC

RIC 97

According to Suetonius: Claudius was born at Lugdunum (Lyon) on the 1st of August 10BC in the consulship of Iullus Antonius and Fabius Africanus, on the day when the very first altar to Augustus was dedicated there, the child being given the name Tiberius Claudius Drusus. When his elder brother Germanicus was adopted into the Julian family (in 4 AD), he added the name Germanicus also. He lost his father when still an infant (in 9 BC), and throughout his childhood and youth was severely afflicted by various stubborn ailments so that his mind and body lacked vigour, and even when he attained his majority he was not considered capable of a public or private career.

Nevertheless, he applied himself to liberal studies from his earliest youth, and often published examples of his proficiency in each area, though even so he was excluded from public office and failed to inspire any brighter hopes for his future. His mother Antonia the Younger often condemned him as an unfinished freak of Nature, and when accusing someone of stupidity would say: ‘He’s a bigger fool than my son Claudius.’ His grandmother Augusta (Livia) always treated him with utter contempt, and rarely even spoke to him, admonishing him, when she chose to do so, in brief harsh missives, or via her messengers. When his sister Livilla heard the prophecy that he would be Emperor some day, she prayed openly and loudly that Rome might be spared so cruel and unmerited a fate.

Having spent the larger part of his life in such circumstances, he became emperor at the age of fifty (in AD41) by a remarkable stroke of fate. Caligula’s assassins had dispersed the crowd on the pretext that the Emperor wished for solitude, and Claudius, shut out with the rest, retired to a room called the Hermaeum, but shortly afterwards, terrified by news of the murder, crept off to a nearby balcony and hid behind the door-curtains. A Guard, who was wandering about the Palace at random, spotting a pair of feet beneath the curtain where Claudius was cowering, dragged the man out to identify him, and as Claudius fell to the ground in fear, recognised him, and acclaimed him Emperor.

Eutropius summarizes: His reign was of no striking character; he acted, in many respects, with gentleness and moderation, in some with cruelty and folly. He made war upon Britain, which no Roman since Julius Caesar had visited; and, having reduced it through the agency of Cnaeus Sentius and Aulus Plautius, illustrious and noble men, he celebrated a magnificent triumph. Certain islands also, called the Orcades, situated in the ocean, beyond Britain, he added to the Roman empire, and gave his son the name of Britannicus. . . . He lived to the age of sixty-four, and reigned fourteen years; and after his death was consecrated3 and deified.

This was the first "good" coin I ever bought and therefore marks the begiining of an addiction.
Blindado
MagnentiusCentenionalis.jpg
1ek Magnentius18 views350-353

Centenionalis

Bare-headed, draped & cuirassed bust, right, D N MAGNEN-TIVS P F AVG
Two victories, VICTORIAE DD NN AVG ET CAES

RIC 173

Zosimus recorded: Magnentius thus gained the empire, and possessed himself all the nations beyond the Alps, and the whole of Italy. Vetranio, general of the Pannonian army, upon hearing of the good fortune of Magnentius, was himself inflamed with the same desire, and was declared emperor by the legions that were with him, at Mursa, a city of Pannonia. While affairs were thus situated, the Persians plundered the eastern countries, particularly Mesopotamia. But Constantine, though he was defeated by the Persians, yet resolved to subdue the factions of Magnentius and Vetranio. . . . Constantius advanced from the east against Magnentius, but deemed it best first to win over Vetranio to his interest, as it was difficult to oppose two rebels at once. On the other hand, Magnentius used great endeavours to make Vetranio his friend, and thus to put an end to the war against Constantius. Both therefore sent agents to Vetranio, who chose to adopt the friendship of Constantius rather than that of Magnentius. The ambassadors of Magnentius returned without effecting their purpose. Constantius desired that both armies might join, to undertake the war against Magnentius. To which proposal Vetranio readily assented. . . . When the soldiers heard this, having been previously corrupted by valuable presents, they cried out, that they would have no mock emperors, and immediately began to strip the purple from Vetranio, and pulled him from the throne with the determination to reduce him to a private station. . . . Constantius, having so well succeeded in his design against Vetranio, marched against Magnentius, having first conferred the title of Caesar on Gallus, the son of his uncle, and brother to Julian who was afterwards emperor, and given him in marriage his sister Constantia. . . .

Constantius now gaining the victory, by the army of Magnentius taking to flight, a terrible slaughter ensued. Magnentius, therefore being deprived ofall hope, and apprehensive lest the remnant of his army should deliver him to Constantius, deemed it best to retire from Pannonia, and to enter Italy, in order to raise an army there for another attempt. But when he heard that the people of Rome were in favour of Constantius, either from hatred to himself, or because they had heard of the event of the battle, he resolved to cross the Alps, and .seek for himself a refuge among the nations on that side. Hearing however that Constantius had likewise engaged the Barbarians near the Rhine against him, and that |65 he could not enter Gaul, as some officers had obstructed his passage thither in order to make their court to Constantius, nor through Spain into Mauritania, on account of the Roman allies there who studied to please Constantius. In these circumstances he preferred a voluntary death to a dishonourable life, and chose rather to die by his own hand than by that of his enemy.

Thus died Magnentius, having been emperor three years and six months. He was of Barbarian extraction, but lived among the Leti, a people of Gaul. He understood Latin, was bold when favoured by fortune, but cowardly in adversity, ingenious in concealing his natural evil disposition, and deemed by those who did not know him to be a man of candour and goodness. I have thought it just to make these observations concerning Magnentius, that the world may be acquainted With his true character, since it has been the opinion of some that he performed much good, who never in his life did any thing with a good intention.
Blindado
cow & Stellate.jpg
229 BC- Epidamos-Dyrrhachium, Illyria AR Drachm128 viewsCow standing Right, looking back at suckling calf, MENIEKOS in greek above, nike flying right above legend, monogram/thunderbolt below
Square containing stellate pattern, legend around square.

after 229 BC, 3.23 gms, Sear Greek Coins and their Values sg1900 variant

Meniskos-Kallenos name combination, Class 5 drachm, issued in year -5 (last issue = year -1) that can be around the 70's of the first century BC.
Well centered, well struck specimens are rare. Here you can identify both obverse symbols, flying Nike (=Victory) above Meniskos (wreath in hand off-flan) and thunderbolt in the exergue. The legend on the reverse is DYP KA[L] [LH] NOS (lower segment off-flan).
jimwho523
merged~1.jpg
2x Illyrian drachm40 viewsDyrrhachium, Illyria, AR drachm. AΛKAIOΣ, cow standing right, head left, suckling calf, grain-ear below / DUR NIKOMACOU around double stellate pattern.

Dyrrhachium, Illyria. AR Stater. Circa 450-350 BC. Cow standing left suckling calf, small Δ on cow's rump / Δ Y P, double stellate pattern; club beneath.

Both weight: 6.1g

(NEED TO ADDITIONALLY MORE PRECISELY IDENTIFY)
Flamur H
405_P_Hadrian.jpg
3912 Phoenicia, Acco-Ptolemaïs. Hadrian. Æ 21 Hadrian, as founder plowing44 viewsReference.
RPC III, 3912; Kadman 103; cf. Rosenberger 48 (head right); cf. Rouvier 1000 (same).; Hendin 819

Obv. IMP TRA HADRIA[NO CAESAR]
Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from front.

Rev. DIVOS CLAV above, C-O-L/PT-OL in two lines across field. (COL PTOL=Colonia Ptolemais)
Claudius, as founder plowing right with yoked bull and cow; in background, four standards.

11.02 gr
21 mm
12 h

Agora Auctions.
From the Kenneth Miller Collection of Ake-Ptolemaïs and Related Biblical Coins.
2 commentsokidoki
150_P_Hadrian__BMC_31.jpg
4025 JUDAEA, Gaza Hadrian 132 AD Tyche of Gaza27 viewsReference.
RPC III, 4025; Rosenberger 60; SNG ANS 916; BMC Palestine 31

Obv. AVT KAI TPA AΔPIANOC CE
laureate and draped bust right.

Rev. ΓAZA Γ EΠ I, BYP
Tyche of Gaza standing left, holding scepter and cornucopia; heifer (Cow) standing to left; date in upper left field; Marnas symbol in right.

10.41 gr
26 mm
12 h
okidoki
sear_1932.jpg
AE tetarteron Alexios I SB 193216 viewsObverse: Patriarchal cross on two steps; in field A-Delta/K-theta.
Reverse: Bust facing earing cown and loros, holding labarum and gl. cr.
Mint: Thessalonica
Date: post reform 1092-1118 CE
Sear 1932 H 8.13-15
14mm 1.81gm
wileyc
6F4CA33E-8629-4475-BD9F-283D2A5B4056.jpeg
Ancient China5 viewsStone imitation of Cowrie shellsecoli
29758394-E2F2-42AF-BA5C-EEA1371BF37D.jpeg
Ancient China7 viewsStone copy of cowrie shellsecoli
1924BE0E-8CE4-4F4A-9D61-78CF39816CFA.jpeg
Ancient China, 5 viewsBone imitation of cowrie shellecoli
Hartill-1_1.jpg
Ancient China: Shou and Zhang Dynasty (18th-6th Century BCE) Cowrie Shells (Hartill-1.1)21 viewsSpongeBob
Ancient_Greek_Zoo.jpg
Ancient Greek Bestiary376 viewsClockwise: Lion of Chersonessos, Dyrrhachion Cow, Calf and Wasp; Dove of Sikyon; Pegasos of Leukas (mythical); Lion and Bull of Tarsos; Macedonian Horse and Human.
Center: Owl of Athens.
Of the animals listed above, it is said that the human animal is the most violent and destructive of all.
4 commentsJason T
Antpiuspan.jpg
Antoninus Pius, 10Jul. 138-7 to Mar. 161 AD, Rome mint34 viewsOrichalcum sestertius, Sear RCV II 4252, RIC 967, (BMCRE 2016), (Cowen 1008); Weight 21.4 gr., Max Diameter 32.3 mm; Rome mint, 156-7 AD; Obv. ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P IMP II, laureate head right, Rev. TR POT XX COS IIII S C, Justitia (?) seated left on chair formed by 2 crossed cornuacopiae, holding sceptre; Thin olive patina with with brass showing through in areas, very worn, pitted and corrosion spots mainly on rev.Steve E
apollonia-ceka_24.jpg
Apollania - Ceka 249 viewsApollonia, Illyria.
AR drachm.
ARISTWN, Cow standing left her head looking back suckling her calf /
APOL and AINEA around Double stellar pattern in square.
xokleng
1-apolonia-1.jpg
Apollonia - Ceka 2418 viewsApollonia, Illyria.
AR drachm 16 mm, 3.1 g.
ARISTWN, Cow standing left her head looking back suckling her calf /
APOL and AINEA around Double stellar pattern in square. BMC 4
xokleng
2-apolonia-2.jpg
Apollonia - Ceka 8321 viewsIllyria, Apollonia,
AR Drachm. 19X17 mm, 3,2 g.
NIKANDROS above cow standing left suckling calf, monogram below /
APOL ANDRISKOY around double stellate pattern.
xokleng
apollonia_cow.jpg
Apollonia cow & calf: ARISTWN46 viewsIllyria, Apollonia, Greece, c. 200 - 80 B.C. Silver drachm, BMC Illyria p. 56, 4, Apollonia, 3.061g, 18.2mm, 0o; obverse ARISTWN, cow left, head turned, suckling calf right; reverse APOL-AI-NE-A, double stellate pattern within double linear square with sides curved inwards; ex FORVMkaitsuburi
greek11.JPG
Apollonia Drachm after 229 BC39 viewsSilver Greek drachm
NIKANDROS. Cow left, suckling calf
APOL ANDRISKOY.
Illyria
CGPCGP
apollonia.jpg
Apollonia drachm; ΑΡΙΣΤΩΝ/ (ΛΥΣ)ΗΝΟΣ. Ceka 2716 viewsIllyria, Apollonia, Greece, c. 200 - 80 B.C. Silver drachm, obverse “ΑΡΙΣΤΩΝ”, cow left, head turned, suckling calf right; reverse, double stellate pattern within double linear square with sides curved inwards; (ΛΥΣ)ΗΝΟΣ. Ceka 27.Podiceps
apollonia_nikandros.jpg
Apollonia, ΝΙΚΑΝΔΡΟΣ11 viewsIllyria, Apollonia, Greece, c. 200 - 80 B.C. Silver drachm, BMC Illyria p. 56, 5, aVF, Apollonia mint, 2.989g, 20.8mm, 135o, c. 200 - 80 B.C.; obverse ΝΙΚΑΝΔΡΟΣ, cow left, head turned, suckling calf right, monogram in ex; reverse ΑΠΟΛ − ΑΝ−ΔΡΙΣ−ΚΟΥ, double stellate pattern within double linear square with sides curved inwards; ex FORVMPodiceps
apollonia2.jpg
Apollonia, Cow & calf: NIKHN33 viewsIllyria, Apollonia, Greece, c. 200 - 80 B.C. 27607. Silver drachm, BMC Illyria p. 57, 11; SNG Cop 380, 3.081 g, 17.1. mm, 270 o, Obverse “NIKHN”, cow left, head turned, suckling calf right; reverse “APOL – AUTO-BOU-OLOU”, double stellate pattern within double linear square with sides curved inwards. ex FORVM.1 commentskaitsuburi
006.JPG
Apollonia, Illyria29 views229 - 80 B.C.
Silver drachm 3.09 gm, 18.5 mm
Obv.: Cow left, head turned, suckling calf right, AΓIAΣ above (magistrate AGIAS)
Rev.: AΠOΛ – EΠI-KA-ΔOY around double stellate pattern within
double linear square with sides curved inwards
BMC vii Illyria p. 56, 5,
D. Sear Greek Coins and Their Values. Vol. I, p. 185, 1878-1879
Apollonia mint
Jaimelai
12200830873.jpg
Apollonia, Illyria23 views229 - 80 B.C.
Silver drachm 3.22 gm, 17 mm
Obv.: Cow left, head turned, suckling calf right, NIKANΔPOΣ above (Magistrate Nikandros)
Rev.: AΠOΛ – AN-ΔPIΣ-KOY around double stellate pattern within
double linear square with sides curved inwards
BMC vii Illyria p. 56, 5
Apollonia mint
Jaimelai
Apollonia_GCV_1878~0.JPG
Apollonia, Illyria27 viewsObv: NIKHN, Cow standing left, looking back at a calf which it suckles.

Rev: AΠOΛ AYTOBOYΛOY, a square containing a double stellate pattern.

Silver Drachm, Apollonia, Illyria, 3rd - 2nd Century BC, after 229

3.1 grams, 17.75 mm

GCV 1878 (var.)
SPQR Coins
apo2_33.jpg
Apollonia, Illyria16 views229 - 80 B.C.
Silver drachm
2.72 gm, 15.5 mm
Obv.: Cow left, head turned, suckling calf right, TIMHN above (worn), monogram (ΠΑΝΚ) in exergue
Rev.: AΠOΛ – ΔAMO- ΦΩΝ-ΤΟΣ around double stellate pattern within double linear square with sides curved inwards
Petrányi Class A7ALc2b Year -4 (51 BC),
Ceka 115,
BMC Illyria p. 57, 14
Jaimelai
greek-illyria-appolonia.jpg
Apollonia, Illyria (229-30 BC BC) AR Drachm29 viewsAncient Greek, Apollonia, Illyria (229-30 BC BC) AR Drachm, 17.8mm, 3.11g, 6h

Obverse: AΓIAΣ, Above cow standing left suckling calf.

Reverse: AΠOΛ - ƐΠI - KA - ΔOY, Double stellate pattern.

Reference: Ceka 3, BMC 15

Ex: Tom Mullally
Gil-galad
Illyria-Apollonia-Drachm.jpg
Apollonia, Illyria, Autonomous AR Drachm. ca (229-30 BC)17 viewsAncient Greek, Apollonia, Illyria, Autonomous AR Drachm. ca (229-30 BC), Agias (Moneyer), Epikadou (Magistrate), 3.3g, 18mm

Obverse: AΓIAΣ, Cow standing left suckling calf.

Reverse: AΠOΛ ƐΠI KA ΔOY, Legend around double stellate pattern. A control mark outside of first circle border.

Reverse: BMC 15-16 (pending)
Gil-galad
4245_(1)_4246_(1).jpg
Apollonia, Illyria, Drachm, ΑΠΟΛ ΑΙΝΕΑ9 viewsAR Drachm
Greek Provincial
Apollonia, Illyria
Issued: 2nd Century BC
16.5mm
O: ΑΡΙΣΤΩΝ; Cow standing left, head looking right, suckling calf, right.
R: ΑΠΟΛ ΑΙΝΕΑ; Double stellate pattern within double linear square, with sides curved inwards.
Mionnet Supp. 9; BMC 4; Ceka 24.
Holding History VCoins Inventory # C458
11/21/14 4/30/17
Nicholas Z
4253_(1)_4254_(1).jpg
Apollonia, Illyria, Drachm, ΑΠΟΛ ΑΝΔΡΙΣΚΟΥ10 viewsAR Drachm
Greek Provincial
Apollonia, Illyria
Issued: After 229BC
17.0mm
O: ΝΙΚΑΝΔΡΟΣ; Cow standing left, head looking right, suckling calf, right.
R: ΑΠΟΛ ΑΝΔΡΙΣΚΟΥ; Double stellate pattern within linear double square with sides curved inwards.
BMC 5; Ceka 83.
Holding History
12/7/14 4/30/17
Nicholas Z
4243_(1)_4244_(1).jpg
Apollonia, Illyria, Drachm, ΑΠΟΛ ΑΥΤΟΒΟΥΛΟΥ7 viewsAR Drachm
Greek Provincial
Apollonia, Illyria
17.0mm
O: NIKHN; Cow standing left, suckling calf, right.
R: ΑΠΟΛ ΑΥΤΟΒΟΥΛΟΥ; Double stellate pattern within double linear square with sides curved inwards.
Mionnet Supp. 18; BMC 11-12; Ceka 88.
Holding History VCoins Inventory # C456
11/21/14 4/30/17
Nicholas Z
4241_4242_(1).jpg
Apollonia, Illyria, Drachm, ΑΠΟΛ ΑΥΤΟΒΟΥΛΟΥ7 viewsAR Drachm
Greek Provincial
Apollonia, Illyria
16.5mm
O: ΞΕΝΩΝ; Cow standing right, head looking left, suckling calf, left.
R: ΑΠΟΛ ΑΥΤΟΒΟΥΛΟΥ; Double stellate pattern within double linear square with sides curved inwards.
Exergue: Obverse: Eagle standing right, head left, top center.
Ceka 92.
Holding History VCoins Inventory # C459
11/21/14 4/30/17
Nicholas Z
4249_(1)_4250_(1).jpg
Apollonia, Illyria, Drachm, ΑΠΟΛ ΔΑΜΟΦΩΝΤΟΣ10 viewsAR Drachm
Greek Provincial
Apollonia, Illyria
Issed: After 229BC
16.0mm
O: ΤΙΜΗΝ; Cow standing left, head looking right, calf suckling, right.
R: ΑΠΟΛ ΔΑΜΟΦΩΝΤΟΣ; Double stellate pattern within double linear square, with sides curved inwards.
Exergue: ΓΛΚ monogram, obverse, left field.
Mionnet 19; SNG Cop 381; BMC 14; Ceka 115.
Holding History
12/7/14 4/30/17
Nicholas Z
4247_(1)_4248_(1).jpg
Apollonia, Illyria, Drachm, ΑΠΟΛ ΕΠΙΚΑΔΟΥ9 viewsAR Drachm
Greek Provincial
Apollonia, Illyria
Issued: 230 - 229BC
19.5 x 17.0mm
O: ΑΓΙΑΣ; Cow standing left, looking right, suckling calf, right.
R: ΑΠΟΛ ΕΠΙΚΑΔΟΥ; Double stellate pattern within double linear square with sides curved inwards.
BMC 15-16; Ceka 3.
Holding History VCoins Inventory #: C452
11/21/14 4/30/17
Nicholas Z
4251_(1)_4252_(1).jpg
Apollonia, Illyria, Drachm, ΑΠΟΛ ΚΑΙΡΗΝΟΣ8 viewsAR Drachm
Greek Provincial
Apollonia, Illyria
19.0 x 16.5mm
O: ΞΕΝΟΚΛΗΣ; Cow standing left, head looking right, suckling calf, right.
R: ΑΠΟΛ ΚΑΙΡΗΝΟΣ; Double stellate pattern within double linear square, with sides curved inwards.
Mionnet Supp. 22; BMC 39; Ceka 91.
Holding History
12/7/14 4/30/17
Nicholas Z
satecow.jpg
Apollonia, Illyria, Greece, (200 - 80 B.C.)69 viewsAR Drachm
Ariston (Moneyer), Ainea (Magistrate),
O: APIΣTΩN (moneyer), cow left, head turned, suckling calf right.
R: AI/NE/A Curved, double-stellate pattern, no center device line, petal rays, seven dots, line border
3.2g
17.5mm
3 commentsMat
26087q00.jpg
Apollonia, Illyria, Greece, c. 200 - 80 B.C.144 viewsSilver drachm, BMC 14, SNG Cop 382, VF, 2.947g, 18.3mm, 135o, Apollonia mint, c. 200 - 80 B.C.; obverse TIMHN, cow left, head turned, suckling calf right, monogram below; reverse APOL / DAMO-FWN-TOS, double stellate pattern within double linear square with sides curved inwards;1 commentsJoshua B
BCC_CM36_Caracalla_Founder.jpg
BCC CM3621 viewsRoman Provincial
Caesarea Maritima
Caracalla 211-217CE
Obv: IM C M AV ANTONINVS
Laureate, draped bust right.
Rev: CO I FL AV FC CAESAR
Founder plowing to right with
bull and cow yoked.
AE 22mm 10.81gm. Axis:210
Kadman #71 (Same die?)
Surface find, 1971
J. Berlin Caesarea Collection
1 commentsv-drome
valerian_tyre_thebes.jpg
BCC rgp1731 viewsRoman Provincial - Tyre
Valerian I 253-260 CE
Obv: IMP C P LIC VALERIANVS AVG
luar. bust rt.
Rev: COL TYR[O METR]
Cadmus standing before edifice,
holding patera and hasta. Cow, Murex shell at feet.
Greek letters in field: ΘΗ/ΒΕ [THEBE]
AE 26x27mm. 14.42gm. Axis:0
Commemorates the mythological figure of Cadmus
founding Thebes as a colony of ancient Phoenicia-Tyre,
where the sacred cow lay down. ( He was looking for his sister, Europa).
I love this coin for its connection to ancient mythology and history.
Stevenson's Dictionary of Roman Coins gives an excellent
description of this same reverse for a coin of Gallienus, on page 825.
v-drome
Brutt_0010_Ns.jpg
Bruttium, AE26 73 viewsBrettian league, c. 215-205 BC
Head of Ares left
BPETTIWN, Hera Hoplosmia going right, holding spear and shield, cow's head ? under shield
14.44 gr, 26 mm
Ref : Sear #702v
3 commentsPotator II
Brettian_HN1970.jpg
Bruttium, The Bretti, drachm28 viewsDiademed, draped and winged bust of Nike right, bird? behind

BPETTIΩN
River-god Aisaros/Dionysos standing, crowning himself, holding cloak and scepter, monogram and shield to right

216-214 BC Punic war issue

4.81g

Rare with these control marks. Only 2 on acsearch including this one, both from same dies and die flaws.
Struck with worn obverse die.

Arslan dies 81/107’; Scheu S65; HN Italy 1970

Ex-CNG 452 Lot 48; From the John L. Cowan Collection; Ex-Pegasi, 31 May 2012 Auction 24 lot 44.
2 commentsJay GT4
Byzantion_hemidrachm.jpg
Byzantion - AR Hemidrachm6 views387-340 BC
forepart of cow left, below dolphin swimming left
(BY)
wide ornamented trident
Schönert-Geiss Byzantion 778; SNG BM 17; Klein 88; SNG Cop 484 var. (monogram); BMC Thrace p. 94, 23 var. (same), SGCV I 158
Johny SYSEL
Byzantion_drachm,_cow_and_dolphin.JPG
Byzantion bull13 viewsByzantion, Circa 340-320 BC. Byzantion drachm (siglos?), Schonert-Geiss 1–235; SNGBMC 21-33; SNG Ashmolean 3569–3571; SNG Copenhagen 476. 16 mm, 4.45 g. Obverse: cow standing left on dolphin, ΠY above. Reverse: reverse incuse square of mill-sail pattern, punched surfaces textured with dots. ex Numismatik Lanz and ex areich, photo credit areichPodiceps
005_(2).JPG
Byzantion, Thrace46 views357 - 340 B.C.
Silver Tetrobol
2.51 gm, 14 mm
Obverse: Cow standing left on dolphin foreleg raised, ΠΥ above (the first letter is an archaic form of "B" used at Byzantium)
Reverse: Incuse square of mill-sail pattern, punched surfaces textured with dots
Sear 1582; BMC Thrace pg. 94, 15/16
1 commentsJaimelai
IMG_3226.JPG
Caesarea, Septimus Severus, 193-211 AD, 17.77g, AE27.574 viewsObverse: Bust to r
Reverse: Severus as founder, wearing toga, ploughing with bull and cow; above, Nike. Latin inscription: COL P[R FL] AVG F C. Kadman, 1957, 63; Rosenberger II, 48.
rare
Maritima
211114_l.jpg
Calabria. Tarentum. Nomos (Circa 302-280 BC)27 viewsAR Nomos

21 mm, 7.78 g

Obv: Youth, holding shield, on horse rearing left; ΣΛ to right, ΦΙΛΩΝ below.
Rev: TAPAΣ.
Phalanthos, holding crowning Nike, riding dolphin left; waves below.

Vlasto 684-5; HN Italy 964.

In Greek mythology, Phalanthos (Φάλανθος) is a divine hero, the leader of the Spartan Partheniae and the founder of Taranto. In Ancient Greece, the Partheniae or Parthenians were a lower ranking Spartiate population which, according to tradition, left Laconia to go to Magna Graecia and founded Taras, modern Taranto, in the current region of Apulia, in southern Italy. In Greek mythology, Phalanthos is a divine hero, and the leader of the Spartan Partheniae.

At least three distinct traditions carry the origins of the Parthenians. The oldest is that of Antiochus of Syracuse, according to which the Spartiates, during the first Messenian war (end of the 8th century BC), had rejected like cowards those who had not fought, along with their descendants:

"Antiochus says that, during the Messenian war, those Lacedemonians which did not take part with the mission shall be declared as slaves and called Helots; as for the children born during the mission, we shall call them Parthenians and deny them of all legal rights."

The Parthenians were therefore the first tresantes ("trembling"), a category which gathers the cowards and thus excludes themselves from the community of the Homoioi, the Peers. Thereafter, Parthenians plotted against the Peers and, discovered, would have been driven out of Sparta, from which they departed for Italy and founded Taras, whose date is traditionally fixed in 706 BC - which archaeology does not deny.

In the second tradition, according to Ephorus (4th century BC), the Spartiates swore during the Messenian War, not to return home as long as they had not attained victory. The war prolonged and Sparta's demography being threatened, the Spartiates let the young Spartans who had not sworn the oath return home. These were ordered to copulate with all the girls available. The children who were born from these unions were named Parthenians. Their mothers, since they were compelled by the state to procreate, were legally considered unmolested and fit to marry once the war was over.

Lastly, a third tradition, made the Parthenians bastards who had resulted from the unions of Spartan women and their slaves, always during the Messenian war. The same tradition is told to explain the origins of Locri, also in Magna Graecia.
Nathan P
002257LG.jpg
Caracalla, 198–217 CE45 viewsAR denarius, Rome, 213 CE; 3.43g., 19.4mm., BMCRE 48–9, RIC 206a, RSC 220. Obv: ANTONINVS PIVS AVG BRIT; head laureate right. Rx: PM TR P XVI COS IIII PP; Hercules, naked, standing half-left, holding branch and club with lion's skin.

Notes: Second issue of the sole reign of Caracalla. Perhaps the bearded figure on the reverse is intended to represent Caracalla as Hercules; its head bears a strong resemblance to Caracalla's "angry scowl" portrait as shown on the obverse.
2 commentsMichael K5
00484q00.jpg
Carausius13 viewsAE-Antoninianus
IMP CARAVSIVS PF AVG; Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust to right.
VBERETAS A; Cow stg. right being milked.
Ex: RSR
Londinium
RIC: --
Julianus of Pannonia
jade_cowry.jpg
China - Zhou Dynasty - Jade imitation cowry28 viewsZhou Dynasty
Jade imitation cowry
Holes at top and bottom, single channel carved down center
Filed reverse
Hartill –
Ardatirion
Cowrie.jpg
Cowrie5 viewsWestern Zhou dynasty (1046-771 BCE)

Primitive deer-bone cowrie-shell imitation.

19mm, 2.40 grammes. Hartill type #1.2.
Belisarius
domitian_egypt.jpg
Domitian, diobol, Isis12 viewsDomitian, 13 September 81 - 18 September 96 A.D., Roman Provincial Egypt. Bronze diobol, Dattari 502; Geissen 329; BMC Alexandria p. 37, 302; Milne 467; Emmet 296, F, dark patina, Alexandria mint, 5.401g, 24.3mm, 0o, 29 Aug 82 - 28 Aug 83 A.D.; obverse “ΑΥΤΟΚ ΚΑΙΣΑΡ ΔΟΜΙΤΙΑΝΟΣ ΣΕΒ”, laureate bust right; reverse “ΕΤΟΥΣ ΔΕΥΤΕΡΟΥ”, bust of Isis right, wearing crown of the sun disk, cow horns, and heads of grain, knot on breast. ex FORVMPodiceps
4309_4310.jpg
Dyrrachium, Illyria, Drachm, DYP AYKIΣKOY10 viewsAR Drachm
Greek Provincial Dyrrhachium, Illyria
Magistrate Meniskos
Issued: After 229BC
18.0mm 3.21gr
O: MENIΣKOΣ; Cow standing right, looking left, calf suckling left; statue of diety, right.
R: DYP AYKIΣKOY; Double stellate pattern within double linear square with sides curved inwards.
Mionnet 122; BMC 94 - 95; Ceka 325.
alexandra.numismatics 111470669741
7/30/14 4/23/17
Nicholas Z
69_Dyrrhachion.jpg
Dyrrhachion - AR drachm8 viewsRoman Protectorate
92-48 BC
cow standing right, calf standing left, ivy-wreath, tripod right
ΦIΛΩTAΣ
(AΓ)
double stellate pattern within double linear square
ΔYP_KΛEI_TOPI_OY
Ceka 454
3,29g
Johny SYSEL
Dyrrhachion-illyria-1.jpg
Dyrrhachion, Illyria, Autonomous c. (250-200 BC), AR Drachm27 viewsAncient Greek, Dyrrhachion, Illyria, Autonomous c. (250-200 BC), AR Drachm

Obverse: MƐNIΣKOΣ, Meniskos and Kallonos, magistrates. Cow standing right, looking back at suckling calf standing left below; above, Nike with wreath flying right; thunderbolt in exergue, all within dotted circle border.

Reverse: Double stellate pattern; ΔYP-KAΛ-ΛΩ-NOΣ around; all within linear circle border.

Reference: Ceka 322; Maier 256; SNG Copenhagen 476. VF- grade.
Gil-galad
Dyrrachium_Drachm_-_Ceka_431.jpg
DYRRHACHIUM9 viewsDYRRHACHIUM, ILLYRIA
AR drachm. After 229 B.C.

O: FILOSTRATOS, cow standing right, head left, suckling calf, ivy wreath above, tripod to right (monogram below).

R: DUR KLEITORIOU around double stellate pattern.

Ceka 431; BMC 90
This coin pictured and described as example of Ceka 431 on wildwinds.com

Ex Tony Owens, Nov 2012
Sosius
dyrrhachium.jpg
Dyrrhachium drachm, ΦΙΛΩΝ/ ΔYP- ME − ΝΙ. – ΣΚΟΥ, Ceka 43830 viewsIllyria, Dyrrhachium, 200 - 30 B.C. AR Drachm. Obv: ΦΙΛΩΝ, Cow standing left suckling calf, but of Helios above. Rx: ΔYP- ME − ΝΙ. – ΣΚΟΥ, Double stellate pattern within square. As SNGCop492 but Helios instead of Isis. Ceka 438.Podiceps
Dyrrhachium_Illyria_Cow_and_Calf.jpg
Dyrrhachium Illyria Cow and Calf34 viewsDyrrhachium, Illyria, Greece, silver drachm, 200 - 30 BC, 18mm, 3.3g, Maier 309
OBV: MACATAS, Cow suckling calf right
REV: Νε (βρίσ) κου, double stellate pattern within double linear square with sides curved inwards
2 commentsRomanorvm
028.JPG
Dyrrhachium, Illyria25 views229 - 30 B.C.
Silver drachm
2.81 gm, 17 mm
Obv.: Cow right, head turned, suckling calf left, AKAIOΣ above (moneyer Alkaios?) border of dots, grain/corn ear in exergue
Rev.: ΔYP – magistrate's name - around double stellate pattern within double linear square with straight sides, horizontal single device line, horizontal rays with triple dots
BMC vii Illyria p. 74, 139 var.;
Sear 1899-1901 var.
Jaimelai
greek-illyiria-dyrrhachion.jpg
Dyrrhachium, Illyria AR Drachm (250-200 BC), Magistrates; Theodotos36 viewsAncient Greek, Dyrrhachium, Illyria AR Drachm (250-200 BC), Magistrates; Theodotos, Philonos 19.6 mm, 3.37, 3h

Obverse: ΘƐOΔOTOΣ, Cow standing right, looking left, suckling calf, vine branch, leaves and bunches of grapes below.

Reverse: ΔΥΡ ΦI-ΛΩ-NOΣ, Double stellate pattern.

Reference: Ceke 230, Maier 392

Ex: Tom Mullally
Gil-galad
DyrrhachiumIllyria.jpg
Dyrrhachium, Illyria, AR drachm. After 229 BC.32 viewsObverse :  EUNOUS, cow standing right, head left, suckling calf, head of Isis right above.  
Reverse :DUR FANISKOU around double stellate pattern. Struck after 229 B.C.   19mm.
Ref: Ceka 177.
Same coin is listed at Wildwinds.


From the Sam Mansourati Collection.
Sam
Dyrrhachium_drachm.jpg
Dyrrhachium, Illyria, Greece, c. 200 - 30 B.C.129 viewsSilver drachm, BMC 112, SNG Cop 495 var, VF, 2.636g, 16.8mm, 225o, Dyrrhachium mint, obverse XENWN, cow suckling calf right, eagle above; reverse DUR above, PUR left, double stellate pattern within double linear square;1 commentsb70
dyr.jpg
Dyrrhachium, XENWN27 viewsIllyria, Dyrrhachium AR Drachm. 200-30 BC. XENWN, cow & calf, eagle on scepter above / DUR XARO PIN OU around stellate pattern. SNG Cop 498.
Podiceps
EB0019_scaled.JPG
EB0019 Cow, Dolphin / Incuse Square6 viewsByzantion, Thrace, Silver Tetrobol, 357 - 340 BC.
Obverse: Cow standing left on dolphin foreleg raised, ΠΥ above (the first letter is an archaic form of "B" used at Byzantium).
Reverse: Granulated mill-sail incuse square.
References: Sear 1582; BMC Thrace pg. 94, 15/16.
Diameter: 13.5mm, Weight: 2.002g.
Ex: Harold F. Donald.
EB
EB0024b_scaled.JPG
EB0024 Cow / Stellate Square6 viewsDyrrhachium, Illyria AR Drachm, Philemos and Aristenos, 229 BC.
Obverse: ΦIΛHMΩN, cow standing right, looking back at calf which it suckles, head of Hera right above, holding sceptre over shoulder; owl in exergue.
Reverse: AΡIΣTHNOΣ, square containing double stellate pattern.
References: Cf. Ceka 424 (without owl).
Diameter: 19mm, Weight: 3.408g.
EB
EB0025b_scaled.JPG
EB0025 Cow and calf / Stellate square6 viewsCorcyra, Epieros, Stater, 450-400 BC.
Obverse: Cow standing left, head right, with suckling calf, pellet above.
Reverse: Double stellate pattern divided by two lines, pellet between, in square frame with double border; K to right; all within linear circle within shallow incuse disk. The corners of the outer square border are cropped by the circle.
References:
Diameter: 11mm, Weight: 10.873g.
Ex: Harlan J. Berk.
EB
20170502_112909.jpg
Elagabalus. Petra, 218–222 AD, Æ22 viewsObv. [IMP C M AV ANTωN] – Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust of Elagabalus r., seen from behind.
Rev. The Emperor as founder plowing r. with cow and ox; above, PETR and in exergue, COLONI.
References: Spijkerman 1978, 56. Rosenberger 35; SNG ANS 1373-7.
21mm, 3.82 grams.
Canaan
dyrra.jpg
Epidamnos,Dyrrhachium51 viewsEpidamnos,Dyrrhachium,Illyria After 229 b.c
Silver Drachm

Obverse:FILOTAS;Cow standing right, looking back at calf which is suckles;Head of Helios up; owl right.
Reverse:DYP ZW PYROY;around square containing double stellate pattern

18.34mm 3.28gm

SEAR GCV 1 page 187 var ,CEKA 451
1 commentsmaik
eryx.jpg
Eryx - Litra - Punic Occupation17 viewsEryx (Erice)
Litra
Silver
Punic Occupation
400-380 BC.
Av.: Male head left
Rev.: Cow standing left, Punic 'Ark above
0,54 Gr.
Jenkins I pl. 24, 24; SNG ANS 1348; SNG Copenhagen -, HGC 2 - 324 (R2)
nummis durensis
euboi_leag_cow.jpg
EUBOIAN LEAGUE19 views304 - 290 BC
AE 16.5 mm; 2.96 g
O: Cow standing left, star above, magistrate's monogram below, in a circle of dots
R: EY-BO-[EWN] Two bunches of grapes, and three tendrils, star above
EUBOEA, Eretria
Ref: Wallace S. 128, 2; also cf BMC 34,Taf. XVII, 15. Picard S. 169, Em. 17
laney
Severus_Alexander_35.jpg
G164 viewsSeverus Alexander Denarius

Attribution: RIC 212, RSC 556
Date: AD 228-231
Obverse: IMP SEV ALEXAND AVG, laureate head r.
Reverse: VICTORIA AVG, Victory stg. l., holding wreath and palm
Size: 19.4 mm
Weight: 3.30 grams
(Bust of Severus Alexander: Louvre, Paris)

After being granted the title of Caesar in AD 221, Severus Alexander was elevated to Augustus a year later upon the murder of Elagabalus. To be sure, however, the true power of Alexander’s reign did not lie in his hands, but rather in the cunning of his mother, Julia Mamaea. So much influence and persuasion did she have over her feeble son, that she arranged his marriage to a patrician girl named Orbiana, and then, fearing her father, had her exiled to North Africa and had her father killed. Although Alexander cared for his wife, he did nothing to oppose his mother. Throughout his entire reign, military unrest was a constant. Nevertheless, Alexander needed the military to face a resurging foe, the Persians. In AD 226, Persian king Ardashir or Artaxerxes, rose up against and defeated the Parthian king Artabanus. The great Persian Empire had returned and placed its attention on the territories recently conquered by the Romans in northern Mesopotamia. Alexander launched a campaign to fend off the invading Persians. The Persian War in AD 232 saw heavy losses on both sides and was not viewed as a great victory. No sooner had Alexander returned to Rome when he was brought news of the Germans breaching the Rhine frontier in numerous places. In AD 234, he mustered his troops to confront this new invasion. Alexander preferred diplomacy tried to bribe the Germans into leaving. His troops saw him as a coward and further despised him for limiting their pay and bonuses. They sought new leadership in a Thracian soldier named Maximinus. One morning in AD 235, Maximinus exited his tent and was adorned with the purple imperial cloak over his shoulders and declared emperor by the army. He pretended to be surprised, but this was a staged performance carefully planned out to shift power. Alexander was encamped nearby at Vicus Britannicus and became enraged at the news. Upon the approach of Maximinus and his troops the next day, Alexander’s troops abandoned him and changed sides. “Trembling and terrified out of his wits, Alexander just managed to get back to his tent. There, the reports say, he waited for his executioner, clinging to his mother and weeping and blaming her for his misfortunes…They burst into the tent and slaughtered the emperor, his mother, and all those thought to be his friends or favorites.” – Herodian VI.9
8 commentsNoah
Gaza Hadrien.jpg
Gaza - Hadrian30 viewsRev.: ΓAZA / B EΠI : Year 2 of the "epidemia" (imperial visit to the city) = 131 AD ; Tyche standing left holding sceptre and cornucopia, a cow at her feet. To the right : Mim (the phoenician letter one can see on all Gaza coins).Ginolerhino
LarryW8026.jpg
GG, Ptolemaic, Arsinoe II, died c. 268 BC89 viewsGold oktadrachm, 28mm, 27.7g, VF
Postumous strike by Ptolemy Philadelphos at Alexandria, c. 268 - 250 BC
Veiled head of Arsinoe right, wears stephane and cow's horn, holds sceptre; K behind, circle of dots around / APΣINOHΣ ΦIΛAΔEΛΦOY, double cornuacopiae with fillets; circle of dots around
Svoronos 475
1 commentsLawrence Woolslayer
GRAND_DUCHY_OF_MOSCOW_VASILY_III_DENGA.jpg
GRAND DUCHY OF MOSCOW - Vasily III52 viewsGRAND DUCHY OF MOSCOW - Vasily III Ioannovich (1505-1533). AR Denga. Obverse: Horseman with raised saber to the right, "M" under the horse. Reverse: GSDARVSEARUSI”, in very elaborate monogram-like design. Reference: ГАРОСТ #11. Vasilly III was the father of Ivan IV "The Terrible".dpaul7
cowdolphinII.jpg
GREEK19 viewsAR siglos. Byzantion (Thrace) 340-320 BC. 5,26 grs. Heifer standing left over dolphin. Monogram for Byzantion above / Quadripartite mill-sail pattern incuse punch textured with dots.
SNG Copenhagen 476. SNG BM Black Sea 21.
benito
Illyria.jpg
Greek - Illyria, Dyrrhachinon7 viewsMetal/Size: AR17; Weight: 3.12 grams; Denomination: Drachm; Mint: Dyrrhachinon, Illyria; Date: 1st-2nd C. BCE; Obverse: Cow standing right, looking back, suckling her calf; name of magistrate above - ΞENΩN (XENON), possibly name of moneyer between eagle and cow. Reverse: Double stellate pattern in square - ΔYP XAIPIΛΛOY. Reference: Sear #1879v.museumguy
Illyria_Apollonia_Lc2a.jpg
GREEK, ILLYRIA, Apollonia - Drachm12 viewsType Lc2a

Av : "NIKANDROS" above Cow standing left suckling calf, monogram below
Rv : "APOL ANDRISKOY" around double stellate Pattern

20 mm, 3.0g

BMC 5; Ceka 88
Nikandros
xenon1.jpg
GREEK, Illyria, Apollonia, AR Drachm41 viewsIllyria-Dyrrhachium, AR Drachm, Xenon (Moneyer), Filodamou (Magistrate), Class D4
O: XENWN Cow right, calf left, eagle above, hound right in exergue, dot border
R: DUR-FILO_DA_MOU Straight, double-stellate pattern, vertical single device line, tadpole rays, triple dots, line border
Dimensions: 19 mm Weight: 3.35 g
superflex
Dyrrachion~0.jpg
GREEK, Illyria, Dyrrachion. AR Stater87 viewsCirca 340-280 BC (21mm, 10.71 g, 4h). Maier 23 var. (lizard on rev.); Meadows, Coin Hoard (forthcoming) 175 (this coin); SNG Copenhagen –; BMC 17 var. (same). Obverse Cow standing right, looking back at suckling calf standing left below; above, wasp right. Reverse Double stellate pattern, divided by line, in double linear square border (single on one side); DYP retrograde, club below; all within linear circle border. Good VF, bright surfaces, some porosity. Well centered. Very rare.

Ex Classical Numismatic Group 93rd Printed Auction, lot 190.

Dyrrhachion was founded as Epidamnos in the ancient region of Illyria in 627 BC by ancient Greek colonists from Corinth and Korkyra. The city's geographical position was highly advantageous, as it was situated around a natural rocky harbor which was surrounded by inland swamps and high cliffs on the seaward side, making the city very difficult to attack from either land or sea. The city, together with Corinth’s conflict with Korkyra was one of the causes in precipitating the Peloponnesian War. Dyrrhachion was noted for being a politically advanced society, prompting Aristotle to praise its political system in controlling trade between the Greek colonists and the locals. The Romans prefer calling the city Dyrrhacium since the last two syllables of the city’s name “–damnos” connotes a different meaning and inauspicious to Roman ears. The designs of the staters of Korkyra as well as its colonies, Apollonia and Dyrrhachion, have been the subject of much numismatic speculation. Eckhel (Doctrina numorum veterum [Vienna, 1792/3], II:155) accepted the view of Laurentius Beger (Observationes Et Conjecturae In Numismata Quaedam Antiqua [Brandenburg, 1691]), who argued that the design represented the garden of Alkinöos, the mythical king of Phaiakia, described in detail by the poet Homer (Od. 7.112-133). Based on the assumption that mythical Phaiakia was the island of ancient Korkyra (mod. Corfu), and knowing that Korkyrans colonized both Apollonia and Dyrrhachion, Beger (and through him, Eckhel) concluded that the central elements were flowers and that the overall design must represent either the layout of the garden, or the doors leading to it. Other numismatists argued that the central elements of the design were more star-like. While Böckh and Müller (in P. Gardner, "Floral patterns on Archaic Greek coins," NC 1881, p. 1) felt this to be the case, they considered the elements to be nothing more than a fortuitous series of random strokes. Friedlander and von Sallet (Das königliche Münzkabinett [Berlin, 1877], coins 72-75) viewed them as symbols of the Dioskouri. Proponents of either interpretation continue to argue their views (see Alfred Maier, "Die Silberprägung von Apollonia und Dyrrhachion," NZ 41 [1908], p. 2 and note 4 [garden]; Traité, Part II, Volume I, column 931 [garden]; Michael E. Marotta, "Dyrrachium: Rome's doorway to Greece," Celator [April 1997], pp. 6-7 [garden]; Gyula Petrányi, “Gardens of Alkinoos: Fact or Fiction?” on the reverse pattern of the silver coins from Corcyra, Apollonia and Dyrrachium," Celator [November 1998], pp. 22-24 [Dioskouroi]). Gardner (op. cit.) was convinced that the reverse design had a religious meaning, but was unconvinced that the symbols were either a garden layout, or stars. Instead, he favored a floral interpretation. He argued that this was indicated not only by their general shape, but in some particular instances by an intentional modification to make them appear more floral. Noting a similarity between the reverse types of Korkyran staters – the model for the staters of Apollonia and Dyrrhachion – and those of other Greek city-states, most notably Miletos and Kyrene, he argued that this was due to a common religious cult between them, since he believed that Greek coin types were primarily religious in origin. Arguing that the most probable deity was Apollo, Gardner concluded that the reference was to Apollo Aristaios or Nomios, a pastoral version of that god who was worshiped (among other places) both at Kyrene and throughout northern Greece and was known to be the protectors of flocks (cf. Pind. Pyth. 9.64-65). Most recently, Nicolet-Pierre revisited the issue of the reverse design in her article on the archaic coinage of Korkyra ("À props du monnayage archaïque de Corcyre," SNR 88 (2009), pp. 2-3), and offered a novel interpretation. Noting a passage of Thucydides (3.70.4) in which that author cited the existence on the island of a sacred precinct (temenos) and dedicated to Zeus and Alkinöos, she suggested that the reverse design might have been inspired by this, and not Homer's garden of Alkinöos. Since Apollonia and Dyrrhachion, as colonies of Korkyra, employed that island's designs in their own coinage, it is necessary to explain why Korkyra used such symbols on its coinage. The archaic staters of Korkyra were the first issues to employ a cow standing right (or left), suckling its calf on the obverse. (BMC 1-8 [for cow right]; BMC 9-16 [for cow left]). A similar obverse design appears on the coinage of Karystos in Euboia and, according to Plutarch (Quaest. Graec.), Korkyra was settled by Euboians, whose coinage symbol was a bovine. Several dedications in the form of a bronze bull are attested for the Korkyrans and the island's patron god was Apollo. The reverse design of the archaic staters consists of a pair of incuse punches, consisting of stars (BMC 1 and pl. XXI, 1). That the symbol was a star is certain, as fractions of this series and subsequent issues with a star on the obverse make plain. One stater (BMC 10 and pl. XXI, 2), puts the star design in a more abstract arrangement, becoming the precursor of the reverse design type employed in later stater issues (BMC 39 and pl. XXI, 9). The striking lines formed by the incuse punches are retained in the later design as lines of the frame. Thus, the staters of Apollonia, Dyrhachion, and Korkyra demonstrate a meticulous progressive recopying of an archaic coin type that continued under its colonies, and not an allusion to a possible Homeric past.


Jason T
Illyria_Dyrrhachium_1.jpg
GREEK, ILLYRIA, Dyrrhachium - Drachm13 viewsAv : "ECEFRWN" above Cow standing right suckling calf, head of Sol above, owl to right
Rv : "DUR ZWPUROU" around double stellate Pattern

20 mm, 3.25g

BMC 70,71; Ceka 196, Maier 215, SNG Copenhagen 465
Nikandros
Illyria_Dyrrhachium_2.jpg
Greek, ILLYRIA, Dyrrhachium - Drachm100 viewsAv : "XENWN" above Cow standing right suckling calf, caps of Dioscuri above
Rv : "?" around double stellate Pattern

19 mm, 2.92g

Note: Maybe an imitative type
1 commentsNikandros
Dyrrachium_moeda_2.jpg
GREEK, Illyria, Epidamos-Dyrrachium 3rd-2nd cent BC26 viewsIllyria, Epidamos-Dyrrachium 3rd-2nd cent BC
Ar Drachm
Metal: silver
Weight: 3,12 g
Size: 22 mm
Condition: EF/EF
Obv: Cow standing left, looking back at calf, which it suckles; above NIKON; below caduceus.
Rev: APOA APISTIPPOY around square containing double stellar pattern.
Ref: Sear 1878, B.M.C 7,7
Jorge C
Dyrrachuim_moeda_1.jpg
GREEK, Illyria, Epidamos-Dyrrachium 3rd-2nd cent BC20 viewsIllyria, Epidamos-Dyrrachium 3rd-2nd cent BC
Ar Drachm
Metal: silver
Weight: 3,09 g
Size: 15 mm
Condition: EF/EF
Obv: Cow standing left, looking back at calf, which it suckles; above NIKON; below caduceus.
Rev: APOA APISTIPPOY around square containing double stellar pattern.
Ref: Sear 1878, B.M.C 7,7
Jorge C
Dyrrachium_moeda_3.jpg
GREEK, Illyria, Epidamos-Dyrrachium 3rd-2nd cent BC21 viewsIllyria, Epidamos-Dyrrachium 3rd-2nd cent BC moeda 2
Ar Drachm
Metal: silver
Weight: 3,49 g
Size: 20 mm
Condition: VF/VF
Obv: Cow standing left, looking back at calf, which it suckles; above NIKON; below caduceus.
Rev: APOA APISTIPPOY around square containing double stellar pattern.
Ref: Sear 1878, B.M.C 7,7
Jorge C
Dikaia,_Macedonia,_c__360_B_C_.jpg
Greek, Macedonia, Dikaia mint, c. 360 B.C.162 viewsMacedonia. Dikaia mint, c. 360 B.C. Bronze AE 15, F-VF, 1.758g, 13.6mm. Rugged dark patina. Obv: head of nymph right. Ref: forepart of cow standing right; DI. Ref: S 1405 (AE17 obol with entire cow). Rare1 commentsBard Gram Okland
Byzantion.jpg
Hemidrachm; Cow standing left on dolphin / Incuse square5 viewsThrace, Byzantion. 357-340 B.C. AR Hemidrachm. 11mm x15mm, 2.50g. Cow standing left on dolphin / Incuse square with granulated surface. Sear GCV 1581. Podiceps
Illyaia_circa_3_-_2nd_century_BC__silver_drachm.jpg
Illyaia Silver Drachm, circa 3 - 2nd century BC 80 views2.0 gram
Obverse: Cow standing Left with calf
Reverse: Square With stellate pattern _3750
Antonivs Protti
illyria fouree.jpg
ILLYRIA - DYRRHACHIUM62 viewsFOUREE DRACHM -- Cekas 94 to 98. c. 200-30 B.C.E. Cow suckles calf, ARISTON. Reverse: double stellate pattern. dpaul7
Illyria.jpg
ILLYRIA Dyrrachium AR Drachm Ceka 322, Cow & Calf16 viewsOBV: MENISKOS, cow & calf, Nike flying above with wreath, thunderbolt in ex
REV: DYR KAL LW NOS around double stellate pattern
3.22g, 17mm

Minted at Dyrrachium, 70-60 BC
Legatus
illyria.jpg
Illyria Dyrrhachion11 viewsILLYRIA, Dyrrhachion
229-100 BC
AR drachm/victoriatus, issued under Xenon and Pyrba-, magistrates
3.18g
17mm
Obv: ΞΕΝΩΝ, cow standing right, looking back at suckling calf standing left below, above, eagle standing right with wings open
Rev: ΔΥΡ, ΠΥΡ-ΒΑ, and club around double-lined quadrilateral containing stellate pattern
BMC 112
From the JB (Edmonton) collection
Adam P2
illyria.jpg
ILLYRIA DYRRHACIUM86 viewsILLYRIA Dyrrhachium AR drachm MENISKOS and CROW ILLYRIA Epidammnos-Dyrrhachium Under Roman protectorate (after 229 B.C.), 2.50 g. Obv.: Cow standing right, looking back at calf which is suckles. Legend in Greek - MENISKOS, Crow above. Rev.: Square containing double stellate pattern. Legend in Greek around the square. Ref.: D. Sear Greek coins and their values Vol. I, p. 187, 1899-1901. CEKAS 320, SNG Cop. 4671 commentsdpaul7
GRK_Apollonia_Ceka_115.JPG
Illyria, Apollonia 18 viewsSear 1878, BMC 14, Ceka 115

AR Drachm (16 mm.), struck after 208-48 B.C. (Petrányi relative year -4), Class 2c2b (being the latest period of the coinage).

Obv: Cow standing left, looking back at calf, which it suckles, [TI]MHN (= Timen, the moneyer) above, ΓΚΠΑ; monogram in exergue, all within linear border.

Rev: ΑΠOΛ above square with concave sides containing one separation line and vertically-oriented petal-shaped rays, ΔΑΜΟ-ΦΩΝ-ΤΟΣ (= Demophon, the magistrate); around square in three parts clockwise, all within a linear border.
Stkp
ill022.JPG
Illyria, Apollonia46 viewsIllyria, Apollonia 229-100 BC, Drachm

Cow standing left, looking back at a suckling calf APIΣTΩN
Double stellite pattern AΠOΛ-AI-NE-A
Ceka 24
3 commentsRandygeki(h2)
ILLYRIA,_APOLLONIA.jpg
ILLYRIA, APOLLONIA AR Drachm16 viewsOBVERSE: Zenokles and Chaienos. XENOKLHS, Cow standing left, looking back, suckling her calf
REVERSE: APOL CAIRHNOS around double stellar pattern in square
Struck at APOLLONIA, after 29BC as a Roman Protectorate
3.0g, 17mm
Ceka 91; BMC 39; Mionnet Supp. 22
1 commentsLegatus
Greek-AR-Drachm_TIMHN_APOL-DAMO-FON-TOS_Apollonia-Illyria_CEKA-115_Mono-PANK_SNG-Cop-_Maier-_51BC_18x18_Q-001_11h_16,5-17mm_2,89g-s.jpg
Illyria, Apollonia, (200-30 B.C.), AR-Drachm, Ceka 115, SNG Cop 381, 78 viewsIllyria, Apollonia, (200-30 B.C.), AR-Drachm, Ceka 115, SNG Cop 381,
avers: TIMHN above, Cow standing left, looking back at calf which it suckles, Monogram belove (ΠANK).
revers: AΠOΛ-ΔAMO-ΦΩN-TOΣ, Square containing double stellate pattern.
exe:-/-//--, diameter: 16,5-17mm, weight: 2,89g, axis: 11h,
mint: Illyria, Apollonia, date: 51 B.C., ref: Ceka-115, SNG-Cop-381,
Q-001
quadrans
Apollonia_01.jpg
Illyria, Apollonia, cow, suckling calf, stellate pattern 12 viewsIllyria, Apollonia
AR drachm
Obv.: AΓIAΣ, cow left, head turned, suckling calf right
Rev.: AΠOΛ EΠI [KA] [Δ]OΥ around double stellate pattern within double linear square with sides curved inwards
Ag, 3.29g, 17.9x16.6mm
Ref.: BMC 15
shanxi
Illyria,_Apollonian.jpg
Illyria, Apollonian22 viewsAR Drachm
200-30 B.C.
18mm, 2.73g

Obverse:
NIKHN
Cow standing left, looking back at suckling calf.

Reverse:
AΠOΛ AYTOBOYΛOY
Square containing double stellate pattern.
rubadub
28F7FB08-320E-40FC-A285-837AE735B564.jpeg
ILLYRIA, DYRRACHION AR DRACHM, ETRATONIKOS & PARMENISKOU MAGISTRATES6 views

BMC 110, Centered Very Fine, 18.3mm, 3.22 grams, Struck Circa. Late 3rd to 2nd Century B.C.E.

Obverse: Cow standing right suckling calf; head of Helios above, ETRATONIKOS between

Reverse: Double stellate pattern within linear borders, DUR PAR MENIS KOU around
Mark R1
Illyria,_Dyrrachium_(after_229_BCE)_drachm_(AR).png
Illyria, Dyrrachium (after 229 BCE) drachm (AR)29 viewsObv.: XENWN (Cow suckling her calf, eagle above, dog below) Rev.: [DYR] FILODAMO[S] (Double stellate pattern) Diameter: 19,45 mm Weight: 3,30 mm Ceka 362

Birthday gift.
Nick.vdw
Dyrrhachium.jpg
Illyria, Dyrrachium AR Drachm. c.70-60 BC. MENISKOS18 viewsIllyria, Dyrrachium AR Drachm. c.70-60 BC. MENISKOS, cow suckling calf, Nike flying above with wreath, thunderbolt in ex / DUR KALLWNOS around double stellate pattern. SNG Tubingen 1424, SNG Cop 476, BMC 81.Britanikus
Illyriadrachm.JPG
Illyria, Dyrrachium, AR Drachm126 viewsCow, right, suckling calf, XENON above, eagle above, hound running in ex.
Double stellate pattern, DYP FILO [DA] MOY around.
BMC 131, 132; Ceba 362
229-100 BC
See this excellent site to identify these:
http://home.hetnet.nl/~fschinkel/dyrrhachium.htm
6 commentswhitetd49
Illyria,_Dyrrhachion_Amyntas.png
Illyria, Dyrrhachion11 viewsIllyria, Dyrrhachion as Roman Protectorate. 3rd-2nd century B.C. AR drachm (18.77 mm, 3.36 g, 8 h). Kthtos / Amyntas, struck after 229 B.C. magistrate / moneyer. KTHTOΣ, cow standing right, looking back at calf she suckles; to right, cornucopiae; in exergue, rudder / ΔYP / A / MY[N / TA], legend around the 4 sides of double square containing two stellate patterns . BMC 34; MS 186; Maier 107Rob D
greek35.jpg
Illyria, Dyrrhachion Ar Drachm17 views(229-100 BC)
Obv.: Cow suckling calf.
Rev.: Double stellate pattern.
Minos
Illyria_Dyrrhachion.jpg
Illyria, Dyrrhachion AR drachm13 viewsPhrenikos , magistrate
O: Cow standing right with suckling calf, legend above ear of grain to right
R: double stellate pattern, inscription around
3.45 grams, 16-18 mm
JBGood
dyr_k.jpg
ILLYRIA, Dyrrhachion, Xenon, magistrate3 viewsAR Drachm, 19mm, 3.2g, 12h; after 229 BC.
Obv.: ΞΕΝΩΝ; Cow standing right, looking back at calf which it suckles, [eagle above], hound running right below.
Rev.: ΔYP ΦΙΛ[O-ΔA-M]OY; double stellate pattern.
Reference: Ceka 362, BMC 131, 132
John Anthony
Illyria,_Dyrrhachion.png
Illyria, Dyrrhachion.14 viewsIllyria, Dyrrhachion. Ca. 250-200 B.C. AR drachm (18.6 mm, 3.32 g, 9 h). Esefron and Asklepio, magistrates. EXEΦPΩN, Cow standing right with suckling calf; club to left, grain ear to right, bunch of grapes below / ΔYP AΣ KΛA ΠOY, double stellate pattern. Ceka 193; Mc Clean 5060; Maier 145Rob D
Dyrrachion.jpg
Illyria, Dyrrhachion. AR Stater.55 viewsCirca 340-280 BC. AR Stater (21mm, 10.71 g, 4h). Maier 23 var. (lizard on rev.); A. Meadows, Coin Hoards (forthcoming) 175 (this coin); SNG Copenhagen –; BMC 17 var. (same). Obverse Cow standing right, looking back at suckling calf standing left below; above, wasp right. Reverse Double stellate pattern (or stylized double thunderbolts of Zeus), divided by line, in double linear square border (single on one side); DYR retrograde, club below; all within linear circle border. Good VF, bright surfaces, some porosity. Well centered. Very rare (R2).

Ex CNG 93rd Printed Auction, lot 190.

Dyrrhachion was founded as Epidamnos in the ancient region of Illyria along the Adriatic coast in 627 BC by ancient Greek colonists from Corinth and Korkyra. The city's geographical position was highly advantageous, as it was situated around a natural rocky harbor which was surrounded by inland swamps and high cliffs on the seaward side, making the city very difficult to attack from either land or sea. The city, together with Corinth’s conflict (a "tipping point") with Korkyra was one of the causes of precipitating the Peloponnesian War. Dyrrahchion was noted for being a politically advanced society, prompting Aristotle to praise its political system in controlling trade between the Greek colonists and the locals. The Romans prefer calling the city Dyrrhacium since the last two syllables of the city’s name “–damnos” connotes a different meaning and inauspicious to Roman ears.

1 commentsJason T
dyr_drachm_k.jpg
ILLYRIA, Dyrrhachion. Meniskos, magistrate.4 viewsAR Drachm, 18mm, 3.2g, 6h; c. 200-30 BC.
Obv.: MENIΣKOΣ; Cow standing right, looking back at calf which it suckles, raven above.
Rev.: ΔYP ΔIONYΣIOY around double stellate pattern.
Reference: SNG Cop 467, Maier 201.
John Anthony
illyria2.jpg
ILLYRIA, DYRRHACHIUM34 viewsCeka 331 Illyria, Dyrrhachium AR Drachm. After 229 BC. MENISKOS, cow standing left, looking back at calf which is suckles, hound running right below, torch right / DUR FILWTA, square containing double stellate pattern. BMC 135. dpaul7
illyria.jpg
Illyria, Dyrrhachium181 viewsDyrrhachium, Illyria, Silver Drachm
Full Brockage
200- 80 B.C.
18mm 3.3g
Obv: Cow standing right, loocking back at suckling calf. ANTIOXO∑ above, grain stock below.
Rev: Incuse obverse image and legend.
8 commentsmihali84
coins115.JPG
Illyria, Dyrrhachium30 viewsGR2. Illyria, Dyrrhachium. After 229 BC. Silver drachm

Obverse : Cow with suckling calf,and the moneyers name MENISKOS above the cow's back, with a small eagle above the name.
Reverse : Double star pattern in a square, with an inscription naming the city around.

In 229 BCE, when the Romans seized the city the "-damnos" part of the name was inauspicious to Latin ears, and its name, as it was refounded, became Dyrrhachium. Pausanias (6.x.8) says "the modern Roman city is not the ancient one, being at a short distance from it. The modern city is called Dyrrhachium from its founder." The name Dyrrachion is found on coins of the fifth century BCE; in the Roman period Dyrrachium was more common. However, the city maintained a semi-autonomy and was turned into a Roman colony.

Dyrrachium was the landing place for Roman passengers crossing the Ionian Sea from Brundisium, which made it a fairly busy way-station. Here commenced the Via Egnatia, the Roman military road to Thessalonica that connected Roman Illyria with Macedonia and Thrace. The city itself was part of Macedonia, more specifically Epirus Nova. In 48 BCE Pompey was based at Dyrrachium and beat off an attack by Julius Caesar (see Battle of Dyrrhachium). In 345 BCE the city was levelled by an earthquake and rebuilt on its old foundations. In the 4th century CE, Dyrrachium was made the capital of the Roman province of Epirus nova.

The name "Epidamnos" was still used by the Byzantines, as for example in the 13th-century Synopsis Chronike, referring to contemporary events.

ecoli
Illyria,_Dyrrhachium-2.jpg
Illyria, Dyrrhachium11 viewsAR Drachm
200-30 B.C.
18mm, 2.97g

Obverse:
MENIΣKOΣ
Cow standing right, looking back at suckling calf. Female statue to right.

Reverse:
ΔYP ΛYKIΣKOY
Square containing double stellate pattern.
rubadub
Illyria,_Dyrrhachium.jpg
Illyria, Dyrrhachium18 viewsAR Drachm
200-30 B.C.
18mm, 3.36g

Obverse:
MENIΣKOΣ
Cow standing right, looking back at suckling calf. Nike flying above, thunderbolt below.

Reverse:
ΔYP KAΛ ΛΩ NOΣ
Square containing double stellate pattern.
rubadub
GRK_Dyrrhachium.jpg
Illyria, Dyrrhachium (Durrës/Durazzo, Albania)9 viewsSGCV 1899-1901 var., Ceka 278, Meta IV/74

AR Drachm, 3.01 gr., 19.82 mm. max., 0◦; struck 61 B.C., Petrányi Class D4 (struck 92-60 BC).

Obv: Cow standing right, looking back at calf, which it suckles, ΚΤΗΤΟΣ (=Ktitos, the moneyer) and wreath above, tripod to right, [A in exergue], all within beaded border.

Rev: ΔYP (= DYR, for Dyrrhachium) above square with concave sides containing two separation lines and vertically-oriented petal-shaped rays, ΚΛΕΙ-ΤΟΡΙ-ΟΥ (= of Kleitorios, the magistrate), around square in three parts clockwise, all within a linear border.

Apollonia and Dyrrhachium were founded by Corcyra, and produced parallel series of similar coins during the first four centuries B.C. The drachma series was minted from the end of the 3rd century B.C. until the mid-1st century under Roman protectorate, and shows devices adopted from Corcyra: the cow with suckling calf on the obverse and a symmetrical geometrical pattern on the reverse.
Stkp
illyria_dyrrhachium.jpg
Illyria, Dyrrhachium AR Drachm. After 229 BC. MENISKOS19 viewsObv MENISKOS, cow standing right, looking back at calf which it suckles
Rev. DUR DIONUSIOU, square containing double stellate pattern
Skyler
Dyrrhachium_zpseceec4c2.jpg
Illyria, Dyrrhachium Drachm17 views200-30 BC. AR
MENISKOS Cow and suckling right, statue of female deity right/ DYP-AY-KIS-KOY around double stellate pattern
CEKA 325
DarkRain
ilcowcalf2ORweb.jpg
Illyria, Dyrrhachium Drachm, BMC 112, 11371 viewsIllyria, Dyrrhachium Drachm, minted under magistrate Xenon after 229 B.C. AR, 19mm 3.07g, BMC 112, 113
O: ΞENΩN, cow standing right, looking back at calf which is suckles, eagle standing right above
R: ΔYP ΠYPBA, square containing double stellate pattern, club to left.
1 commentscasata137ec
Greek-AR-Drachm_EXEFRWN_DYR-LI-KO-Y_Dyrrhachium-Illyria_CEKA-197_rudder-club_SNG-Cop-_Maier-_c_30BC_Q-001_2h_18,5mm_3,18ga-s.jpg
Illyria, Dyrrhachium, (200-30 B.C.), AR-Drachm, Ceka 197, ΔΥΡ ΛΙ ΚO Y,91 viewsIllyria, Dyrrhachium, (200-30 B.C.), AR-Drachm, Ceka 197, ΔΥΡ ΛΙ ΚO Y,
avers: ΕΧΕΦΡΟΝ, Cow standing right, looking back at calf which it suckles, rudder below, club right.
revers: ΔΥΡ-ΛΙ-ΚO-Y, Square containing double stellate pattern.
exe:-/-//--, diameter: 18,5mm, weight: 3,18g, axis: 2h,
mint: Illyria, Dyrrhachium, date: 200-30 B.C., ref: Ceka-197, SNG-Cop-, Maier-,
Q-001
quadrans
Greek-AR-Drachm_MENISKOS_DYR-DIO-NY-SIOY_Dyrrhachium-Illyria_CEKA-320_Raven_SNG-Cop-467_Maier-201_c_200-30BC_Q-002_axis-7h_17-17,5mm_3,10g-s.jpg
Illyria, Dyrrhachium, (200-30 B.C.), AR-Drachm, Ceka 320, SNG Cop 467, 113 viewsIllyria, Dyrrhachium, (200-30 B.C.), AR-Drachm, Ceka 320, SNG Cop 467,
avers:- ΜΕΝΙΣΚΟΣ, Cow standing right, looking back at calf which it suckles, raven above.
revers:- ΔΥΡ-ΔΙO-NY-ΣIOY, Square containing double stellate pattern.
exe:-/-//--, diameter: 17-17,5mm, weight: 3,10g, axis: 7h,
mint: Illyria, Dyrrhachium, date: 200-30 B.C., ref: Ceka-320, SNG-Cop-467, Maier-201,
Q-001
quadrans
Greek-AR-Drachm_XENON_DYR-FIL-LI-A_Dyrrhachium-Illyria_Ceka-361_SNG-Cop-493_BMC-126_229-100-BC_Q-001_axis-7h_17,5mm_3,04g.jpg
Illyria, Dyrrhachium, (229-100 B.C.), AR-Drachm, Ceka 361, SNG Cop 493,104 viewsIllyria, Dyrrhachium, (229-100 B.C.), AR-Drachm, Ceka 361, SNG Cop 493,
avers:- ΞΕΝΟΝ, Cow standing right, looking back at calf which it suckles, caps of the Dioscuri on stars above, ear of corn to left, torch (resembling an inverted bunch of grapes) to right.
revers:- ΔΥΡ-ΦΙΛ-ΛΙ-Α, Square containing double stellate pattern.
exe:-/-//--, diameter: 17,5mm, weight: 3,04g, axis: 7h,
mint: Illyria, Dyrrhachium, date: 229-100 B.C., ref: Ceka-361, SNG-Cop-493, BMC-126,
Q-001
quadrans
Dyrrhachium_01.jpg
Illyria, Dyrrhachium, cow, suckling calf, stellate pattern 9 viewsIllyria, Dyrrhachium
AR drachm
Obv.: ΞENΩN, cow suckling calf right, eagle above
Rev.: ΔΥΡ above, XAP[O], [ΠI], [NO]Y, around double stellate pattern within double linear square
Ag, 3.24g, 18.1
Ref.: SNG Cop 498
shanxi
Illyria_Dyrrachium_SNG_465_(fourree).JPG
Illyria, Epidamnos-Dyrrachium61 viewsObv: EXEΦPΩN, cow standing right, looking back at a calf which it suckles, radiate head of Helios facing right above, owl on right, facing.

Rev: ΔYP ZΩΠYPOY, square containing a double stellate pattern.

Plated Drachm, Illegal mint, c. 250 - 200 BC

2.8 grams, 19 mm, 0°

Maier 215, SNG Copenhagen 465
3 commentsSPQR Coins
Illyrium_Epidamnos-Dyrrhachium_Maier_301_bg.jpg
Illyria, Epidamnos-Dyrrhachium. AR Victoriatus or drachm 0 viewsEpidamnos-Dyrrhachium. c. 229-100 BC. AR Victoriatus or drachm (3.20 gm). Cow r. w/ suckling calf l. ΑΛΚΩΝ (Magistrate) above. / Double stellate pattern in square, 'Alkinoo's Garden.' ΔΥΡ (ethnic) - ΜΕΝΕ-ΚΡΑ-ΤΕΟΣ (magistrate) around. VF. HGC 3.1 #40; Maier Silberpragung #301. cf. SNG Cop 3 #480 (tripod), #499 (half victoriatus). None in acsearch.info.
Anaximander
Illyrium_Epidamnos-Dyrrhachium_Maier_388_bg.jpg
Illyria, Epidamnos-Dyrrhachium. Victoriatus.0 viewsEpidamnos-Dyrrhachium. c. 229-100 BC. AR Victoriatus or drachm (2.78 gm). Cow r. w/ suckling calf l. ΞΕΝΩΝ (Magistrate Xenon) & eagle above, vestiges of running dog r. in ex. / Double stellate pattern in double-lined quadrilateral square, 'Alkinoo's Garden' ΔΥΡ (ethnic) - ΦΙΛΟ-ΔΑ-ΜΟΥ (magistrate Philodamos) around. aVF. BMC p.74 #131-132; HGC 3.1 #40; Maier Silberpragung #388. cf. SNG Cop 495 (dog in ex.).
Anaximander
44_Ivan_IV.jpg
Ivan IV the Terrible (1547 - 1584)8 viewsAR Denga, 1543 - 1584, Moscow?, 10mm, 0.33g, 180°.
Obv: Horseman right, brandishing sabre on galloping horse.
Rev: KNYAZ/VELIKI/IVAN.
Marti Vltori
KIEV_DENAR.jpg
KIEV - Vladimir Olgerdovich39 viewsKIEV - Vladimir Olgerdovich (1362-1394). Denarius, Type II, Obv.: Tamgha in shield. Rev.: I S, legend (Gum 440; Kot type II, I/D 10:10). Rare!

Vladimir Olgerdovich (Belarusian: Уладзімер Альгердавіч, Lithuanian: Vladimiras Algirdaitis, Ukrainian: Володимир Ольгердович; died after 1398) was a son of Algirdas, Grand Duke of Lithuania, and his first wife Maria of Vitebsk. He was Grand Prince of Kiev from 1362 to 1394. His sons Ivan and Alexander started the Belsky and Olelkovich families.

After the battle of Blue Waters in 1362, the Principality of Kiev fell permanently into the hands of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. It is believed that Vladimir was installed in Kiev right after the battle and replaced Fiodor of Kiev. Vladimir conducted independent politics and minted his own coins. Initially the coins were heavily influenced by the numismatic traditions of the Golden Horde and copied symbolism from coins minted by Khans Jani Beg and Muhammad Bolak. However, later the coins replaced the Tatar symbols (i.e. tamga) with letter K (for Kiev) and a cross (for Eastern Orthodox faith). This could indicate that for a while the Principality still had to pay tribute to the Horde. These were the first coins minted in the territory of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania.

In late 1384, Vladimir's troops detained Dionysius I, Metropolitan of Moscow, who died in captivity a year later. This was part of the power struggle between Dionysius, Pimen, and Cyprian for the title of Metropolitan of Moscow.

When Jogaila became King of Poland in 1386, Vladimir swore loyalty to him. After the 1392 Ostrów Agreement, Vytautas became the Grand Duke of Lithuania and began to eliminate regional dukes replacing them with appointed regents. This campaign could have been launched to discipline disloyal dukes, but turned into a systematic effort to centralize the state. In 1393, Vytautas confiscated Volodymyr-Volynskyi from Feodor, son of Liubartas, Novhorod-Siverskyi from Kaributas, Vitebsk from Švitrigaila. In 1394, Vytautas and Skirgaila marched against Vladimir, who surrendered without a battle. Skirgaila was installed in Kiev while Vladimir received the Duchy of Slutsk–Kapyl. Vladimir was last mentioned in written sources in October 1398.
dpaul7
15010LG.jpg
Lion and Cow182 viewsLesbos Mytilene EL Hekte 521-478BC 2,59g Bodenstedt 13 SNG Kjøpenhavn 3012 commentsKarsten K
LV_dupondius.jpg
Lucius Verus 7 Mar. 161 - Feb. 169 A.D. Rome mint65 viewsOrichalcum dupondius; RIC III 1292, (BMC 867, Cowen 33); Rome mint; Weight 9.1gr., Max. Diameter 25.13mm; 161 A.D.; Obv. IMP CAES L AVREL VERVS AVG, radiate head right, Rev. CONCORD AVGVSTOR TR P (COS II in ex off flan), Lucius Verus and Marcus Aurelius, both togate, standing facing each other, clasping hands, (refers to their joint accession as coemperors, first time in Roman history); very dark green patina, corrosion spot on rev.

Ex. Mark Zema
2 commentsSteve E
LV_RIC_1379.jpg
Lucius Verus 7 Mar. 161 - Feb. 169 A.D. Rome mint99 viewsOrichalcum sestertius; RIC III 1379, Sear RCV 5376, (BMCRE 1109), (Cowen 224); Rome mint; Weight 21.4gr., Max. Diameter 30.56mm; 164 A.D.; Obv. L AVREL VERVS AVG ARMENIACVS, laureate head right, Rev. TR P IIII IMP II COS II S C, Mars advancing r., carrying spear and trophy. Thin black patina, worn on high spots.

Ex. Andreas Kohn
5 commentsSteve E
LV_pan.jpg
Lucius Verus, 7 Mar. 161 to Feb. 169 AD, Rome mint55 viewsOrichalcum sestertius; RIC III 1479, Sear RCV 5387, (BMCRE 1341), (Cowen 214); Rome mint; Weight 21.5gr., Max. Diameter 30.45mm; 168 A.D.; Obv. L VERVS AVG ARM PARTH MAX, laureate head right, Rev. TR POT VIII IMP V COS III S C, Aequitas seated left, holding scales and cornucopiae. Bright green patina with some corrosion.

Ex. Andreas Kohn
2 commentsSteve E
DSC02508.JPG
Macedon, Pella. AE 18. Bronze. 187-31BC38 viewsLaur. hd. of Poseidon r.
Rev. P E L Cow standing r., monograms below and to right. nice green patina.
Moushmov 6442.1. SNG Cop 259.
CGPCGP
Macedonia_Gamioy.jpg
Macedonia - AE 1924 views148-146 BC
helmeted head of Athena right
feeding cow right
ΓΑMIOY / TAMIOY
SNG Copenhagen 1323
5,67g 18,5 mm
Johny SYSEL
Macedonian_Kingdom_15.PNG
Macedonia, Pella4 viewsMacedonia, Pella 187-31 BC.

Obverse.Veiled facing head of Demeter

Reverse. cow grazing right feeding on ear of grain; monograms above ?EN,Under cow a C

17mm
Macedonian Warrior
GRK_Macedonia_Pella_Sear_1446.JPG
Macedonia. Pella.10 viewsSear 1446, cf. SNG Cop 266 ff. (various monograms); SNG ANS 598-617 (various monograms), BMC Macedonia p. 91,
Moushmov 6453 (different monogram)

AE unit, 6.63 g., 18.80 mm. max., 0°

Struck under Roman rule, ca. 187-31 B.C. (per Forum Ancient Coin listings) or 187-168/7 BC. (per CNG Coin listings) or 158-149 B.C. and later (per Sear).

Obv.: Helmeted head of Athena facing right.

Rev.: Cow grazing right, [Π]EΛ / ΛHΣ above and below, K below belly.

In 187 B.C. (a frequently-used start date for this coinage) the Roman-Seleucid War ended with the signing of the Treaty of Apamea. As a result, the Roman Republic gained hegemony over Greece. In 168 B.C. (one of the end dates used for this coinage) the Third Macedonian War ended at the Battle of Pydna, following which King Perseus was taken captive by the Romans and the kingdom was divided into four client states. In 149 B.C. (a date used in Sear), Andriscos the last king of Macedonia, ascended to the throne, only to be overthrown in the Fourth Macedonian War in 148 B.C., when Macedonia formally became a Roman Province.
Stkp
PellaAE.JPG
MACEDONIA: Pella14 viewsMacedon, Pella, under Gaius Publius, AE 20, 6.76g, ca. 168-167 B.C. Obv: Deity facing right in helm. Rev: Cow grazing, ΤΑΜΡΟΥ. Dark green patina, aVF. SNG 1169, Morkholm 600.Molinari
Macedonian_Kingdom,_Alexander_the_Great,_336_-_323_B_C_,_Lifetime_Issue~0.jpg
Macedonian Kingdom, Alexander the Great, 336 - 323 B.C., Lifetime Issue. Tarsos Mint, Struck Between 333 - 327 B.C. 23 viewsSilver Tetradrachm, Price 2995, Müller 1293, Newell Tarsos 6, Demanhur 2045 - 2061, SNG Saroglos 505, SNG Cop 774, SNG München 692, SNG Alpha Bank -, VF, high relief, a little rough, porosity on reverse, 16.663g, 24.1mm, die ax., 45o, Tarsos mint, c. 333 - 327 B.C..
Obverse : head of Herakles right, clad in Nemean Lion scalp headdress tied at neck.
Reverse : Zeus Aëtophoros seated left on throne without back, nude to the waist, himation around hips and legs, right leg forward (archaic lifetime style), feet on footstool, eagle in extended right hand, long scepter vertical behind in left hand, AΛEΞAN∆POY , ( " Of Alexander " in Ancient Greek ) , 4 pellets under seat above strut over A below strut.


Lifetime issue. Alexander the Great passed through Tarsos, Cilicia, with his armies in 333 B.C. Darius' confidence increased, because Alexander spent so much time there, which he imputed to cowardice. In truth, Alexander had fallen seriously ill after bathing in the exceedingly cold river Cydnus. No physician would treat him, they thought his case so desperate, and his recovery unlikely. They feared the punishment for failure. Finally, Philip, the Acarnanian, relying on his own well-known friendship for Alexander, resolved to try. At this very time, Alexander received a letter, warning him that Philip had been bribed by Darius to kill him, with great sums of money, and a promise of his daughter in marriage. After Alexander read the letter, he put it under his pillow, without showing it to anyone. When Philip came in with the potion, Alexander drank it with great cheerfulness and assurance, at the same time giving Philip the letter to read. Alexander's looks were cheerful and open, to show his kindness to and confidence in his physician, while Philip was full of surprise and alarm at the accusation, appealing to the gods to witness his innocence, sometimes lifting up his hands to heaven, and then throwing himself down by the bedside, and beseeching Alexander to lay aside all fear, and follow his directions without apprehension. The medicine worked so strongly at first that at first Alexander lost his speech, and falling into a swoon, had scarce any sense or pulse left. However, after a short time, his health and strength returned, and he showed himself in public to the Macedonians, who had been in continual fear until they saw him again.


FORVM Ancient Coins. / From The Sam Mansourati Collection.
Sam
Macedonian_Kingdom,_Alexander_the_Great,_336_-_323_B_C_,_Lifetime_Issue.jpg
Macedonian Kingdom, Alexander the Great, 336 - 323 B.C., Lifetime Issue. Tarsos Mint, Struck Between 333 - 327 B.C. 31 viewsSilver Tetradrachm, Price 2995, Müller 1293, Newell Tarsos 6, Demanhur 2045 - 2061, SNG Saroglos 505, SNG Cop 774, SNG München 692, SNG Alpha Bank -, VF, high relief, a little rough, porosity on reverse, 16.663g, 24.1mm, die ax., 45o, Tarsos mint, c. 333 - 327 B.C..
Obverse : head of Herakles right, clad in Nemean Lion scalp headdress tied at neck.
Reverse : Zeus Aëtophoros seated left on throne without back, nude to the waist, himation around hips and legs, right leg forward (archaic lifetime style), feet on footstool, eagle in extended right hand, long scepter vertical behind in left hand, AΛEΞAN∆POY , ( " Of Alexander " in Ancient Greek ) , 4 pellets under seat above strut over A below strut.

Lifetime issue. Alexander the Great passed through Tarsos, Cilicia, with his armies in 333 B.C. Darius' confidence increased, because Alexander spent so much time there, which he imputed to cowardice. In truth, Alexander had fallen seriously ill after bathing in the exceedingly cold river Cydnus. No physician would treat him, they thought his case so desperate, and his recovery unlikely. They feared the punishment for failure. Finally, Philip, the Acarnanian, relying on his own well-known friendship for Alexander, resolved to try. At this very time, Alexander received a letter, warning him that Philip had been bribed by Darius to kill him, with great sums of money, and a promise of his daughter in marriage. After Alexander read the letter, he put it under his pillow, without showing it to anyone. When Philip came in with the potion, Alexander drank it with great cheerfulness and assurance, at the same time giving Philip the letter to read. Alexander's looks were cheerful and open, to show his kindness to and confidence in his physician, while Philip was full of surprise and alarm at the accusation, appealing to the gods to witness his innocence, sometimes lifting up his hands to heaven, and then throwing himself down by the bedside, and beseeching Alexander to lay aside all fear, and follow his directions without apprehension. The medicine worked so strongly at first that at first Alexander lost his speech, and falling into a swoon, had scarce any sense or pulse left. However, after a short time, his health and strength returned, and he showed himself in public to the Macedonians, who had been in continual fear until they saw him again.


FORVM Ancient Coins. / From The Sam Mansourati Collection.
3 commentsSam
IMG_4766.JPG
MACRINUS. 217-218. Samaria, Caesarea Maritima. AE-26 53 viewsMACRINUS. 217-218. Samaria, Caesarea Maritima. AE-26
Caesarea Maritima, Judaea.IMP CAE MACRINVS AVG, laureate, draped, cuirassed bust right, with long beard
Rev. COLI FL AVF C / CAESAR Togate and veiled city founder ploughing to r. with bull and cow yoked
1 commentsMaritima
Maximinus_I_pan.jpg
Maximinus I, 19 Mar.235 to May/Jun. 238 AD, Rome mint49 viewsOrichalcum sestertius, RIC IV 43, Sear RCV 8327, (BMCRE 2, 63), (Cowen 10); Rome mint; Weight 27.13gr., Max. Diameter 30.58mm; 235-6 A.D.; Obv. IMP MAXIMINUS PIVS AVG, laureate and draped and cuirassed bust right, Rev. FIDES MILTVM S C, Fides Militum stg. l., holding standard in each hand. Thin brown/green patina worn on high spots.
Pleasant portrait without the usual exagerrated chin and nose!

Ex. Roma Numismatics
1 commentsSteve E
maximusprincRIC3.jpg
Maximus / Princeps89 viewsMaximus (Caesar, 235/6-238). AR Denarius Rome mint, 236-7.
O: MAXIMVS CAES GERM; Bareheaded and draped bust right
R: PRINC IVVENTVTIS; Maximus standing left, holding baton and spear; two signa to right
- RIC IV 3; RSC 10

Gaius Julius Verus Maximus (Maximvs Caesar) was the son of Maximinus I Thrax. Maximus was most likely given the rank of Caesar at the same time or shortly after his father assumed the rank of Augustus. He was reportedly a very handsome youth. Maximvs Caesar was loyal to his father and remained by his side during his campaign on the Danube. He was also present at the disastrous siege of Aquileia in 238 AD.

After the revolt of Gordian I and Gordian II and ascension of Balbinus and Pupienus, Maximinus and Maximus marched on Rome. They first reached the city of Aquileia, expecting an easy victory as the city's walls had long been in disrepair. However, under the leadership of senators Rutilius Pudens Crispinus and Tullus Menophilus, the walls had been repaired and the city rallied to defend itself in a siege. The Aquileians had plenty of food and good morale.

According to Herodian of Antioch, "The army of Maximinus grew depressed and, cheated in its expectations, fell into despair when the soldiers found that those whom they had not expected to hold out against a single assault were not only offering stout resistance but were even beating them back. The Aquileians, on the other hand, were greatly encouraged and highly enthusiastic, and, as the battle continued, their skill and daring increased. Contemptuous of the soldiers now, they hurled taunts at them. As Maximinus rode about, they shouted insults and indecent blasphemies at him and his son. The emperor became increasingly angry because he was powerless to retaliate. Unable to vent his wrath upon the enemy, he was enraged at most of his troop commanders because they were pressing the siege in cowardly and halfhearted fashion. Consequently, the hatred of his supporters increased, and his enemies grew more contemptuous of him each day."

Condemned by the Senate, Maximus and his father were murdered by their own troops just outside Aquileia on June 24th, 238 AD.
2 commentsNemonater
GI 064g img~0.jpg
Men227 viewsSeptimius Severus Ae23
Obv:– L SEPT SEV PERT AVG IMP, Radiate bust right
Rev:– ANTIOCH COLONIA CCA, Mên standing facing, head right, wearing phrygian head, holding sceptre and Nike, left foot on bucranium (cowhead); to left, a rooster
Minted in Pisidia, Antioch.
The temple of Mên was situated on a hill three and a half kilometres to the south-east of Antioch in Pisidia, on a small mountain, 2,000 metres high. The temple was also dedicated to Cybele. Antioch in Pisidia is mentioned in the bible as one of the locations that St. Paul visited.
maridvnvm
nikopolis_caracalla_AMNG1503.jpg
Moesia inferior, Nikopolis ad Istrum, 18. Caracalla, HrHJ (2018) 8.18.53.01 (plate coin)26 viewsCaracalla as Caesar, AD 196-198
AE 17, 2.78g, 16.72mm, 180°
obv. M AV [KAI] - ANTWNNOC(sic!)
Youthful bust, draped and cuirassed, bare-headed, r.
rev. NIKOP - OLIT PROC ICTR
grazing cow(?) l.
ref. a) AMNG I/1, 1503, pl. XX, 3 (2 ex., Berlin, Sestini)
b) Varbanov (engl.) 2950
c) Hristova/Hoeft/Jekov (2018) No. 8.18.53.1 (plate coin)
F+/about VF, black-green patina
pedigree:
ex. CCE

note: Revers legend unusually beginning in ex.
Jochen
nikopolis_caracalla_HrHJ(2015)8_18_53_2corr.jpg
Moesia inferior, Nikopolis ad Istrum, 18. Caracalla, HrHJ (2018) 8.18.53.02 (plate coin)11 viewsCaracalla, AD 198-217
AE 16, 2.20g, 16.12mm, 210°
obv. AV K M A - ANTWN
Bust, draped and cuirassed, laureate, r.
rev. NIKOPOLIT / PROC IC
Cow(?) grazing r.
ref. a) AMNG I/1, 1600 (1 ex., Turin)
b) not in Varbanov (engl.)
c) Hristova/Hoeft/Jekov (2018) No. 8.18.53.2 (this coin)
scarce, F+, black green patina

The rev. is usually described as "cow grazing r." But it is a very strange cow! It has a mane and with its long neck it looks rather like a horse than a cow.
Jochen
kopek14.jpg
Moscow Mint, Tsar Ivan IV Vasiljevich (Ivan The Terrible) 1535-1547 Silver Wire Denga ND.29 viewsMoscow Mint, Tsar Ivan IV Vasiljevich (Ivan The Terrible) 1535-1547 Silver Wire Denga ND. Horseman with an upraised saber, the horse going on foot / tilde line is positioned above the 3-line legend, engraved in old cyrillic letters, which reads: "КНS / ВЕЛIК / IВАN" ("Grand Prince Ivan"), circular dotted line.
Weight: 0.38 gram
Mint: Moscow
oneill6217
Schmitt-Korte_II_26-27.jpg
Nabataea: Syllaeus and Aretas IV (9-6 BCE) Æ Quadrans (Schmitt-Korte II 26/27; Me-43 var)13 viewsObv: Diademed head of Obodas III facing right; Nabataean shin to left
Rev: Crossed cornucopias; Nabataean shin (Syllaeus) and ḥēth (Aretas) across field

References

Schmitt-Korte, K. and Cowell, M., Nabatean Coinage - Part I. The Silver Content Measured by X-ray Fluorescence Analysis, Numismatic Chronicle, Vol. 149, 1989
Schmitt-Korte, K., Nabatean Coinage - Part II. New Coin Types and Variants, Numismatic Chronicle, Vol. 150, 1990
Schmitt-Korte, K. and Price, M., Nabatean Coinage - Part III. The Nabatean Monetary System, Numismatic Chronicle, Vol. 154, 1994
SpongeBob
Pella,_Athena___cow,_AE20.JPG
Pella cow30 viewsMacedonia, Pella, c. 187 - 31 B.C. 20mm, 6.7g. Obverse: helmeted head of Athena right. Reverse: reverse PELLHS, cow grazing right, monograms. Moushmov 6453. ex areich, photo credit areichPodiceps
Pella~0.JPG
Pella, Macedon31 views187-131 BC
AE 18 (18mm, 6.24g)
O: Veiled head of Demeter facing.
R: Cow grazing right, monograms above and below; ΠEΛΛΗΣ in ex.
SNG ANS 572; SNG Cop 257; BMC Macedonia 92, 29
ex Gitbud & Naumann
Enodia
Pella.JPG
Pella, Macedon10 views187-131 BC
AE 18 (18mm, 6.24g)
O: Veiled head of Demeter facing.
R: Cow grazing right, monograms above and below; ΠEΛΛΗΣ in ex.
SNG ANS 572; SNG Cop 257; BMC Macedonia 92, 29
ex Gitbud & Naumann
Enodia
King_Philip_II_2.jpg
PHILIP II AE18 9 viewsOBVERSE: Apollo facing right with tania binding hair
REVERSE: Youth naked on horseback - Filippos (in Greek) above, symbol - bull or cow head facing right - underneath.
Struck at Macedonia 359-336 BC
5.5g, 18mm
SNG ANS #850-851; Le Rider #24; Sear 6698v
Legatus
berytus_augustus_BMC52.jpg
Phoenicia, Berytos, Augustus, BMC 5211 viewsAugustus, 27 BC - AD 14
AE 21, 7.80g, 20.93mm, 330°
obv. IMP CAESAR AVGVCTVS
Bare head r.
ref. COL IVL
Veiled figure plowing with pair of ox and cow l., holding reins in l. hand and in raised r. hand Switch
ref. BMC 52; RPC 4540; Lindgren I 2252; Rouvier 491
F+, light green Patina with earthen encrustations

Usually called "Plowing with oxen". But here you can clearly see that these are 2 different kinds of cattle.
Jochen
POLAND_-_2010_KAYN_2_ZL.jpg
POLAND - 2010 Katyn Massacre Commemorative78 viewsPOLAND - 2010 2-Zloty, Aluminum-copper-zinc alloy. Commemorative coin '70th Anniversary of the Katyń Crime'.
Obverse: An image of the Eagle established as the State Emblem of the Republic of Poland. On the sides of the Eagle, the notation of the year of issue: 20 – 10. Below the Eagle, an inscription: ZŁ 2 ZŁ in the rim, an inscription: RZECZPOSPOLITA POLSKA, preceded and followed by six pearls. The Mint’s mark: M/W, under the Eagle’s left leg. Reverse: Centrally, an inscription: KATYŃ. Below, a stylized image of the military forage cap with the Polish military Eagle. At the top, a semicircular inscription: 70. ROCZNICA ZBRODNI KATYŃSKIEJ (70 TH ANNIVERSARY OF THE KATYN MASSACRE). Diameter – 27 mm, weight – 8.15 g., edge plain with the inscription, NBP, repeated eight times, every second one inverted by 180 degrees, separated by stars.
Put in circulation since April 8, 2010. Mintage: 1 000 000. The coin was struck at the National Bank of Poland.
In light of the recent tragedy of Poland losing her president and top leaders, this coin is sold out in Poland, I have been told.
On September 17, 1939 the Red Army invaded the territory of Poland from the east. This invasion took place while Poland had already sustained serious defeats in the wake of the German attack on the country that started on September 1, 1939; thus Soviets moved to safeguard their claims in accordance with the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact.
In the wake of the Red Army's quick advance that met little resistance, between 250 000 and 454 700 Polish soldiers had become prisoners and were interned by the Soviets. About 250 000 were set free by the army almost on the spot, while 125 000 were delivered to the internal security services (the NKVD).
The NKVD in turn quickly released 42 400 soldiers. The approximately 170 000 released were mostly soldiers of Ukrainian and Belarusian ethnicity serving in the Polish army. The 43 000 soldiers born in West Poland, now under German control, were transferred to the Germans. By November 19, 1939, NKVD had about 40 000 Polish POWs: about 8 500 officers and warrant officers, 6 500 police officers and 25 000 soldiers and NCOs who were still being held as POWs.
As early as September 19, 1939, the People's Commissar for Internal Affairs and First Rank Commissar of State Security, Lavrenty Beria, ordered the NKVD to create a Directorate for Prisoners of War to manage Polish prisoners. The NKVD took custody of Polish prisoners from the Red Army, and proceeded to organize a network of reception centers and transit camps and arrange rail transport to prisoner-of-war camps in the western USSR. The camps were located at Jukhnovo (Babynino rail station), Yuzhe (Talitsy), Kozelsk, Kozelshchyna, Oranki, Ostashkov (Stolbnyi Island on Seliger Lake near Ostashkov), Tyotkino rail station (90 km from Putyvl), Starobielsk, Vologda (Zaenikevo rail station) and Gryazovets.
The approximate distribution of men throughout the camps was as follows: Kozelsk – 5 000; Ostashkov – 6 570; and Starobelsk – 4 000. They totalled 15 570 men.
On March 5, 1940, pursuant to a note to Joseph Stalin from Lavrenty Beria, the members of the Soviet Politburo – Stalin, Vyacheslav Molotov, Lazar Kaganovich, Mikhail Kalinin, Kliment Voroshilov, Anastas Mikoyan and Beria – signed an order to execute 25,700 Polish 'nationalists and counterrevolutionaries' kept at camps and prisons in occupied western Ukraine and Belarus.
Up to 99% of the remaining prisoners were subsequently murdered. People from Kozelsk were murdered in the usual mass murder site of Smolensk country, called Katyn forest; people from Starobilsk were murdered in the inner NKVD prison of Kharkiv and the bodies were buried near Pyatikhatki; and police officers from Ostashkov were murdered in the inner NKVD prison of Kalinin (Tver) and buried in Miednoje (Mednoye).
Estimates of the number of executed persons ranges from 15 000 to 21 768. Polish POWs and prisoners were murdered in Katyn forest, Kalinin (Tver) and Kharkiv prisons and elsewhere. About 8 000 of the victims were officers taken prisoner during the 1939 invasion of Poland, the rest being Polish citizens who had been arrested for allegedly being 'intelligence agents, gendarmes, spies, saboteurs, landowners, factory owners and officials'.
The term 'Katyn massacre' originally referred to the massacre, at Katyn Forest near villages of Katyn and Gnezdovo (about 12 miles (19 km) west of Smolensk, Russia), of Polish military officers confined at the Kozelsk prisoner-of-war camp. It is applied now also to the execution of prisoners of war held at Starobelsk and Ostashkov camps, and political prisoners in West Belarus and West Ukraine, shot on Stalin's orders at Katyn Forest, at the NKVD (Narodny Komissariat Vnutrennikh Del) Smolensk headquarters and at a slaughterhouse in the same city, as well as at prisons in Kalinin (Tver), Kharkiv, Moscow, and other Soviet cities.
The 1943 discovery of mass graves at Katyn Forest by Germany, after its armed forces had occupied the site in 1941, precipitated a rupture of diplomatic relations between the Soviet Union and the Polish government-in-exile in London. The Soviet Union continued to deny responsibility for the massacres until 1990, when it acknowledged that the NKVD secret police had in fact committed the massacres and the subsequent cover-up. The Russian government has admitted Soviet responsibility for the massacres, although it does not classify them as war crimes or as acts of genocide, as this would have necessitated the prosecution of surviving perpetrators, which is what the Polish government has requested. It also does not classify the dead as the victims of Stalinist repressions, in effect barring their formal posthumous rehabilitation.
On 13 April 1990, the forty-seventh anniversary of the discovery of the mass graves, the USSR formally expressed 'profound regret' and admitted Soviet secret police responsibility.
That day is also an International Day of Katyn Victims Memorial (Światowy Dzień Pamięci Ofiar Katynia).
After Poles and Americans discovered further evidence in 1991 and 1992, Russian President Boris Yeltsin released and transferred to the new Polish president, former Solidarity leader Lech Wałęsa, top-secret documents from the sealed package no. 1.
In June 2008, Russian courts consented to hear a case about the declassification of documents about Katyn and the judicial rehabilitation of the victims. In an interview with a Polish newspaper, Vladimir Putin called Katyn a 'political crime'.
dpaul7
JCT_Chaim_Berlin.JPG
Rabbi Chaim Berlin High School (Brooklyn, New York)119 viewsAE token, 31.5 mm., 10.98 gr., dated 1928

Obv: RABBI CHAIM BERLIN HIGH SCHOOL and ישובת ר״ חיים ברלין [Yeshivot Rabbeinu Chaim Berlin] along rim, EVERY/DOLLAR HELPS above building, תרפח [year 5688] and 1928 in fields to the sides, WHITEHEAD HOAG in tiny letters at 3-4 o’clock along rim.

Rev: – HELP BUILD THE FIRST JEWISH HIGH SCHOOL – and BROWNSVILLE & EAST NEW YORK along rim, $1.00 beneath building.

Ref: Kenny, So-Called Dollars 208; Friedenberg, Jewish Minters [?] 572; ANS Database 2000.1.374.

Note: Named after Rabbi Chaim Berlin (1832-1912), chief rabbi of Moscow (1865-1889), head of rabbinical court in Volozhin, Belarus (1889-1892), chief rabbi of Kobrin, Belarus (1892-1897) and Elizavetgrad, Ukraine (1897-1906), and co-chief rabbi of the Ashkenazi community in Jerusalem (1906-1912).

Note: The first yeshiva in Brooklyn, founded in 1904. The yeshivot are Lithuanian-style Haredi men’s yeshivot and now include elementary, high school, post-high school and rabbinical divisions. The high school division is now at 1571 Coney Island Avenue, Brooklyn.

Note: Minted by The Whitehead & Hoag Company, Newark, NJ (1880-1955).
Stkp
RI 136f img~0.jpg
Roman Empire, Numerian - PACATOR ORBIS - Bust Type F - RIC unlisted (Lugdunum)694 viewsObv:– IMP C NVMERIANVS AVG, Radiate, cuirassed bust right
Rev:– PACATO-R ORBIS, Emperor advancing right, holding shield and sword, captive, cowering beneath
Minted in Lugdunum (C in exe) Emission 9 Officina 3. Summer A.D. 284
Reference:– Cohen 41 (30 F). Bastien 618 (2 examples). RIC Unlisted.
4 commentsmaridvnvm
RI 136f img~1.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Numerian - PACATOR ORBIS - Bust Type F - RIC unlisted (Lugdunum)421 viewsObv:– IMP C NVMERIANVS AVG, Radiate, cuirassed bust right
Rev:– PACATO-R ORBIS, Emperor advancing right, holding shield and sword, captive, cowering beneath
Minted in Lugdunum (C in exe) Emission 9 Officina 3. Summer A.D. 284
Reference:– Cohen 41 (30 F). Bastien 618 (2 examples). RIC Unlisted.
2 commentsmaridvnvm
brutustripod.jpg
ROMAN IMPERATORIAL, Brutus, AR Denarius - Crawford 502/214 viewsRome. The Imperators.
Brutus, 44-42 BCE.
AR Denarius (3.76g; 17mm).
Military Mint, Spring-Summer 42 BCE.

Obverse: L·SESTI - PRO·Q; Veiled and draped bust of Libertas, facing right.

Reverse: Q·CAEPIO·BRVTVS·PRO·COS; Tripod with axe on left and simpulum on right.

References: Crawford 502/2; HCRI 201; Syd 1290; BMCRR East 41; Junia 37; Sestia 2.

Provenance: Ex Alan J. Harlan Collection [Triton XXII (9 Jan 2019), Lot 951]; Kunker 288 (13 Mar 2017) Lot 314; Theodor Prowe Collection [Hess (20 May 1912) Lot 933].

Marcus Junius Brutus was posthumously adopted by his maternal uncle, Quintus Servilius Caepio. Afterward, Brutus sometimes used the name Quintus Servilius Caepio Brutus, which both honored his uncle and advertised his maternal descent from Gaius Servilius Structus Ahala. Ahala was a Roman Republican hero who had killed someone with regal aspirations. In his early political career, Brutus issued coins with the portrait of Ahala on one side (see Crawford 433/2; http://www.forumancientcoins.com/gallery/displayimage.php?pos=-144687). Following the assassination of Caesar, Brutus resurrected his use of the name Quintus Servilius Caepio Brutus, as on this coin, again alluding to this Servilian connection in his family tree. Combined with the bust of Liberty on the obverse of this coin, the message is clear: that the assassins were liberators from monarchy in the old Republican tradition of their ancestors. The reverse shows the symbols of Brutus’ membership in the college of priests.

This example comes from the collection of Theodor Prowe of Moscow, one of the great collections of the early 20th century, which was auctioned in three separate 1912 sales by Bruder Egger (Greek) and Hess (Roman).
2 commentsCarausius
Vespasian r103-o.jpg
Roman, Vespasian578 viewsI love this portrait! The sneer/scowl seems so real!

TITVS FLAVIVS VESPASIANVS, born in 9 AD to Vespasia Polla and Flavius Sabinus, entered public service and was serving as Governor of Judaea in 68 when Nero committed suicide. The eastern legions resented the quick succession of Nero, Galba, Otho, and Vitellius, since the Rhine legions had caused it all. In July of 69 the eastern legions proclaimed Vespasian, and the legions of Illyricum followed. Vitellius was killed on December 20, 69 and Vespasian reigned mildly for the next ten years. He died of illness on June 23, 79, was succeeded by his older son Titus, and was deified by the Senate.
4 commentsjimwho523
RUSSIA_ALEXEI_I_CU_KOPEK.JPG
RUSSIA - Alexis I27 viewsRUSSIA - Alexis I (1645-1676) Copper Kopek, 1662 - This minting of copper coins resulted in the "Copper Riots" - Alexei Mikhailovich Romanov (Russian: Алексей Михайлович) (March 9, 1629 (O.S.) – January 29, 1676 (O.S.)) was the Tsar of Russia during some of the most eventful decades of the mid-17th century. On the eve of his death in 1676, the Tsardom of Russia spanned almost 2 billion acres (8 million square kilometres).
The Copper Riot, also known as the Moscow Uprising of 1662 (Russian: Медный бунт, Московское восстание 1662 года) was a major riot in Moscow, which took place on July 25 of 1662.
dpaul7
RUSSIA_IVAN_IV_DENGA_1.jpg
RUSSIA - Ivan IV 21 viewsRUSSIA - Ivan IV (The Terrible) (1533-1584) AR Denga. Pre-Reform issue, 1533-1535. Moscow mint. Obv.: Rider riding right, raised sword in hand. Rev.: Inscription, KNS . / BEΛII / IBAN Reference: Grishin-Kleishnikov 7.dpaul7
RUSSIA_Mikhail_Feodorovich_Romanov_kopek.jpg
RUSSIA - Mikhail Feodorovich Romanov53 viewsRUSSIA - Mikhail Feodorovich Romanov (1613-1645) AR Kopek, Moscow Mint. Obv.: Horseman with spear; cyrillic for Moscow below. Reverse: Cyrillic letters. Reference: Grishin-Kleshcninov #367: Obv. #6, Rev. #10.1 commentsdpaul7
RUSSIA_MICHAEL_III.jpg
RUSSIA - Mikhail Feodorovich Romanov28 viewsRUSSIA - Mikhail Feodorovich Romanov (1613-1645) AR Kopek, Moscow Mint. Obv.: Horseman with spear; cyrillic for Moscow below, O above. Reverse: Cyrillic letters. VERY complete legend! Reference: GN #28dpaul7
Ivan_IV_Russian_Wire_Money_.jpg
Russia - Silver Wire Money15 viewsRUSSIA
IVAN IV VASSILIJEVITCH
AR denga, Moscow, struck 1535-1538, 10mm, 0.33g

Horseman brandishing saber / Legend in 4 lines

Melnikova, 6-5

Thanks to rover1.3 for his help identifying this coin.
Sosius
RUSSIA_VASILY_SHUISKY_MOSCOW.jpg
RUSSIA - Vasily Shuiski28 viewsRUSSIA - Vasily Shuiski (1606-1610) AR Kopek, 1606-1607, Moscow Mint. Obv.: Horseman with spear riding right. Rev.: Cyrillic inscription, with Czar's name and title. Reference: Grishin & Kleishnikov 249.dpaul7
russia_1700s_silver-wire-money.JPG
Russia 1645 - 1676 Silver Wire Money - Moscow Mint.36 views-
---
I am told this particular "wire money" is from the reign of Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich 1645 - 1676 .
Minted in Moscow.
---
-
rexesq
MISC_Russia_Mikhail_Fyodorovich_GK_338.jpg
Russia. Mikhail Fyodorovich Romanov (1613-1665)15 viewsGrishin-Kleishnikov 338 (Knight die 1, text die 10), Group I

AR wire kopek; Moscow mint, struck 1614. .49 g., 12.46 mm. max., 180◦

Obv: Horse rider with spear, MOC / [KBA] (=Moscow) below.

Rev: Cyrillic legend in six lines, ЦРЬ-I[BE] / Л-KIKИS[Ь] / МИХЯI[ЛO-Ф] / EДО[POBIЧ] / Ь-BCEѦ-P[W] / • C[IИ] (Czar and Grand Prince Mikhail Fyodorovich of all Russia).
Stkp
cxcxcxcxcxc.jpeg
Russia. Anna. Ruble 1733.7 viewsMoscow, Kadashevsky mint . Bit.65, Uzd 0706, Sev.1127.Ruslan K
wiredenga.jpg
Russia. Czar Mikhail Fedorovich (A.D. 1613-1645) Silver-wire Denga (8.36mm, 0.3g) Moscow mint. pre-1620.16 viewsRussia. Czar Mikhail Fedorovich (A.D. 1613-1645) Silver-wire Denga (8.36mm, 0.3g) Moscow mint. pre-1620. Horseman (St. George) armed with spear, slaying dragon / Tsar and Grand Prince Mikhail Fedorovitch of All Russia.
oneill6217
ya1.jpg
Russia. Czar Mikhail Fedorovich (A.D. 1613-1645) Silver-wire Kopeck (12.27mm, 0.6g) Moscow mint. pre-1620.24 viewsRussia. Czar Mikhail Fedorovich (A.D. 1613-1645) Silver-wire Kopeck (12.27mm, 0.6g) Moscow mint. pre-1620. Horseman armed with spear / Tsar and Grand Prince Mikhail Fedorovitch of All Russia.
A.S.Melnikova, 3-9.
Kleschshinov and Grishin 340, 1-12.
oneill6217
MISC_Russia_Ivan_IV_denga_Moscow.jpg
Russia. Ivan IV Vasilyevich, the Terrible (1530-1584)17 viewsGrishin-Kleshchinov 60 (Knight die 11, text die 16), Group III

AR wire denga; Moscow mint, struck ca. 1547: .34 g., 11.09 mm. max., 180◦

Obv: Knight on horseback with saber, ДЕ (= DE =moneyer's initials) below.

Rev.: Cyrillic legend in four lines,~ / • ЦРЬ • / [I]KHЯSЬ / [BE]ЛIKI / [• IBA]N (=Tsar / and Grand / Prince / Ivan)

Attribution and transcription assistance courtesy of Alex Koifman and cmcdon0923.
2 commentsStkp
kaoskd.jpg
Russia. Mikhail Fedorovich A.D. 1613-45 Silver-wire kopek (12.56mm, 0.5 grams).10 viewsRussia. Mikhail Fedorovich A.D. 1613-45 Silver-wire kopek (12.56mm, 0.5 grams). Horseman With A Spear / King's name and titles. Moscow Mint.

Coin blanks for these types were not needed, since it was possible to strike heated silver wire with dies and subsequently cutting out the sheeted coins. Although often crudely struck, these coins were some of the most efficiently made of their time, an innovation that began largely at the Moscow mint During Ivan's rule.

After Ivan "the terrible" died, Civil War broke out across Russia in order to fill the power-vacuum Ivan's death left open.
Mikhail Fedorovich was elected Czar by the Russian council in 1613, in an attempt to reorganize government and stabilize social upheavals. Although expected to fail by many, Fedorovich developed a firm rule across Russia, avoided European conflicts, and established the Romanov dynasty, which lasted 300 years until the Russian revolution of 1917.
oneill6217
KBA.jpg
Russia. Mikhail Fedorovich Romanov 1613 - 1645 silver-wire kopek.31 viewsRussia. Mikhail Fedorovich Romanov 1613 - 1645 silver-wire kopek. Horseman right, armed with spear. Mint-mark MOC/KBA (Moscow) below / Ruler's name and title.

oneill6217
MISC_Russia_Mikhial_Fyodorovich_kopek_2.jpg
Russia. Mikhail Fyodorovich Romanov (1613-1645) 7 viewsGrishin-Kleishnikov __ (Knight die 10 or 12, text die __), Group I

AR wire kopek; Moscow mint, struck 1617 or 1618. .53 g., 13.64 mm. max., 180

Obv: Horse rider with spear, m (= moneyer's mark) below.

Rev: Cyrillic legend in five or six lines, roughly: ~ / ЦРЬIBE / ЛIKIИKHS / МИХЯIЛO / ФEДОPOBIЧЬ BCEѦ PW CIИ (Czar and Grand Prince Mikhail Fyodorovich of all Russia).
Stkp
MISC_Russia_Mikhail_Fyodorovich_kopek_3.jpg
Russia. Mikhail Fyodorovich Romanov (1613-1645)5 viewsGrishin-Kleishnikov __ (Knight die 8 or 11 or 13-21 or 23 or 26-38, text die __), Group I

AR wire kopek; Moscow mint, struck 1616-16__. .48 g., 13.20 mm. max., 0

Obv: Horse rider with spear, °/m (= moneyer's mark) below.

Rev: Cyrillic legend in five lines, roughly: ~ ЦРЬIBE ЛIKIИKHS МИХЯIЛO ФEДОPOB / I ЧЬ BCEѦ / PW CIИ (Czar and Grand Prince Mikhail Fyodorovich of all Russia).
Stkp
wirekopk2.jpg
Russia. Peter I "the Great" 1689 - 1725. Silver-wire kopeck ND.14 viewsRussia. Peter I "the Great" 1689 - 1725. Silver-wire kopeck ND. Crowned horseman carrying a spear with a pointed tip / 6-line legend engraved in old cyrillic "ЦРЬИBE / ЛИКIИKHЯ / ЗЬПЕТРЬЯ / ЛЕЗIЕВИЧЬ. / ВCEЯРω / ССIИ" ("Tsar and Grand Prince Peter Alekseevich of Entire Russia").
Weight: 0.29 gram
Mint: Moscow
oneill6217
MISC_Russia_Peter_I_kopeck_1701_Moscow.jpg
Russia. Peter I Alekseevich, the Great (1689-1725)19 viewsGrishin-Kleshchinov __ (Knight die __, text die __), Group __

AR wire kopek; Moscow mint, dated 1701 (Variety IV; ЯѱЯ): .24 g., 11.66 mm. max., 90◦

Obv: Knight on horseback with spear, ~ / ЯѱЯ (= 1701) below.

Rev.: Cyrillic legend in six lines,~ / [ЦР]Ь-И-[ВЕ] / [ЛИ]КІИ-К[НЯ] / [ЗЬ]-ПЕТPЬ-[A] / [ЛЕ]ЗИЕB[ИЧЬ] / [ВС]ЕЯ-[РѠ] / [ССІИ](= Tsar and Grand Prince Peter Alekseevich of All Russia)
2 commentsStkp
KopekA.jpg
Russia. Tsar Ivan IV Vasiljevich (Ivan the Terrible). Silver wire denga 1535 - 1547 A.D.13 viewsRussia. Tsar Ivan IV Vasiljevich (Ivan the Terrible). Silver wire denga 1535 - 1547 A.D. .4 grams. horseman with an upraised saber / tilde line positioned above 3-line legend, engraved in old cyrillic letters: "КНSЬ / ВЕЛIК / IВАN" ("Grand Prince Ivan").
Moscow mint
oneill6217
silverire.jpg
Russia. Tsar Peter I Alekseevich (Peter The Great). c. 1701 A.D. Silver wire kopek. 9 viewsRussia. Tsar Peter I Alekseevich (Peter The Great). c. 1701 A.D. Silver wire kopek. Crowned horseman carrying a spear with a pointed tip, date mark "ЯΨЯ" ("1701") under the galloping horse, dotted circular line / 6-line coin legend in old cyrillic "ЦРЬИBE / ЛИКIИKHЯ / ЗЬПЕТРЬЯ / ЛЕЗIЕВИЧЬ. / ВCEЯРω / ССIИ" ("Tsar and Grand Prince Peter Alekseevich of Entire Russia").
Weight: 0.28 gram
Mint: Moscow
oneill6217
Sacrate_Cow.JPG
SACRED COW! 187 viewsHorseman right, holding banner; Nagari Bhi in the upper left, Adl (?) in Arabic in the upper right / śri samanta deva in Nagari, recumbent zebu bull to left with symbol on rump; to left, star above pellet above crescent. Uncertain mint in (Kabul or Ohind?). 19mm, 2.98 grams. Tye #21. SKU 42564

Samanta Deva just meant "The Feudatory Chief" - it was the title assumed by the Kabul Shahi and their Islamic successors, and was probably not a personal name. Hundreds of types of jitals inscribed "Samanta Deva" (in imitation of this type) were struck by numerous dynasties in the later period. The Kabul Shahi dynasties also called Shahiya ruled the Kabul Valley (in eastern Afghanistan) and the old province of Gandhara (northern Pakistan) during the Classical Period of India, from the decline of the Kushan Empire in the 3rd century to the early 9th century. They are split into two eras the Buddhist-Shahis and the later Hindu-Shahis with the change-over occurring around 870. These coins are of full size and weight, but were probably not minted by Samanta Deva but can be considered anonymous issues of his successors

800-1026 AFGHANISTAN SILVER DRACHM _2600
3 commentsAntonivs Protti
GI 064g img.jpg
Septimius Severus, AE23, Pisidia, Antioch, M̻n54 viewsObv:РL SEPT SEV PERT AVG IMP, Radiate bust right
Rev:– ANTIOCH COLONIA CCA, Mên standing facing, head right, wearing phrygian head, holding sceptre and Nike, left foot on bucranium (cowhead); to left, a rooster
maridvnvm
SevAlexXIIII.jpg
Severus Alexander TR P XIIII160 viewsSeverus Alexander. AD 222-235. AR Denarius 3.42 g, 6h. Rome mint. 18th emission, January–February/March AD 235. Last issue of reign.
O: IMP ALEXANDER PIVS AVG, Laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right
R: P M TR P XIIII COS III P P, Sol, radiate, standing left, raising hand and holding whip.
RIC IV 125 var. (without cuirass); BMCRE 962; RSC 453a.

This coin was struck in the last months of Alexander's reign, and is the sole dated type among those of his last issue. Alexander was assassinated by his soldiers while campaigning along the Rhine frontier. He is said to have been killed while cowering in the arms of his domineering mother, Julia Mamaea, who was also murdered.
Although he is typically depicted on the coins as a military emperor with an idealized countenance, in reality he detested warfare, which was a major fault in the turbulent third century. Also, he was constantly under the dominance of other, more powerful personalities, particularly his mother. Eventually, Alexander’s weak leadership proved fatal, and he became one of many emperors murdered on campaign by his own soldiers.
6 commentsNemonater
eryxA.jpg
SICILY, Eryx37 viewsSICILY, Eryx. Punic Occupation. Circa 400-340 BC. AR Litra (0.57 gm). Head of nymph left, wearing triple-pendant earring and necklace / Bull standing left, Punic 'Ark above. RARE. Jenkins I pl. 24, 24; SNG ANS 1348; SNG Copenhagen -, HGC 2, 324 (R2).

SNG ANS describes the reverse figure as a cow, whereas Oliver Hoover describes it as a man-faced bull. CNG uses "river god" for its description, based off of Jenkins, and understand "river god" to mean a man-faced bull.

Ex. Rutten & Weiland (misidentified as a silver litra of Panormos)
Ex. Andreas Reich (misidentified as a silver litra of Panormos)
Ex. CNG eAuction 240, lot57 (misidentified as a silver litra of Panormos)
Molinari
Byzantion2B.jpg
Thrace, Byzantion. Ar Tetrobol. c. 357-340bc170 viewsThrace, Byzantion. Ar Tetrobol. c. 357-340bc. - Cow standing left on dolphin / Incuse square of "mill-sail" pattern. 12mm, 2.5grm.Adrian S
Dikaia_res_c.jpg
THRACE, DIKAIA16 viewsca 360 BC
AE 12.25 mm, 1.93 g
O: Head of nymph right
R: ∆Ι, forepart of cow standing right
cf. SGC V I 1405 (AE17 obol with entire cow) Rare


laney
cow_plow_2.jpg
THRACE, PANTIKAPAION17 views200-150 BC
AE 11 mm 2.26 g
O: Bull’s head facing slightly right
R: Grain ear and plow. MacDonald 140; SNG BM Black Sea –; HGC 7, 142.
Thrace, CIMMERIAN BOSPOROS, Pantikapaion; cf. MacDonald 140; SNG BM Black Sea –; HGC 7, 142.
(Black Sea)
laney
cow_plow_1.jpg
THRACE, PANTIPAKAION31 views200-150 BC
AE 13 mm 2.04 g
O: Head of bull right
R: Plow
Thrace, Pantikapaion
(Black Sea)
laney
ByzantionCowDolphin.jpg
THRACE. Byzantion. Siglos (Circa 340-320 BC)14 viewsObv: Heifer standing left on dolphin swimming to left
Rev: Incuse mill-sail pattern
SNG BM Black Sea 21
Weight: 5.0 g
Diameter: 17 mm

Had to get one of these because the depiction of a cow riding a dolphin cracked me up :)
TIF
titus_bull1a.jpg
Titus as Caesar RIC 858109 viewsAR Denarius, 3.25g
Rome mint, 76 AD (Vespasian)
Obv: T CAESAR IMP VESPASIAN; Head of Titus, laureate, bearded, r.
Rev: COS V (high in field); bull stg. r.
RIC 858 (R). BMC 186. RSC 52. BNC 163.
Ex Harry N. Sneh Collection.

This denarius of Titus as Caesar from 76 AD obviously shows a bull (even those with a passing knowledge of farm animal anatomy can tell the difference) and not a cow, but the question is why was this type minted with both sexes portrayed, sometimes ambiguously?

The BMCRE proffers this type as a reference to the famous 'Cow of Myron' statue and the coin commemorates the placing of it in Vespasian's new Temple of Peace. If this is so, why do some of the types show a bull?

Perhaps the type is nothing more than an agricultural reference like so many of the other denarii the Flavians issued in the last half of Vespasian's reign.

Decent coin with good metal and a well rendered bull on the reverse.
1 commentsDavid Atherton
Titus_as_Caesar_RIC_II_V858.jpg
Titus as Caesar RIC II V085837 viewsTitus as Caesar. 69-79 A.D. AR Denarius. Rome Mint. 76 A.D. (3.28g, 20.4m, 6h). Obv: T CAESAR IMP VESPASIAN, laureate head right. Rev: COS V high in field; Cow, or bull, stg. r. RIC II V858 (R), BMC V186; RSC 52.

There is some debate about the meaning of this type. Mattingly describes the reverse as a heifer or cow, and relates it to the “Cow” of Myron. Some examples, however, seem to show a bull. The Flavians did issue an agricultural series, but that came in 77-78 A.D., after this series.

While this example has some wear, it has a wonderfully wide flan, and is well centered with complete legends.
1 commentsLucas H
tituslcap.jpg
Titus RIC 20111 viewsAR Denarius, 3.27g
Rome Mint, 79 AD, after July 1st
Obv: IMP TITVS CAES VESPASIAN AVG P M; Head of Titus, laureate, bearded, l.
Rev: TR P VIIII IMP XIIII COS VII P P; Capricorn l.; below, globe
RIC 20 (R2). BMC p. 227 note. RSC 282. BNC 17.
Ex Harry N. Sneh Collection.

Much rarer than the right facing portrait.

Though considered by the ancient writers as "the darling of the world", Titus is scowling in this portrait.

3 commentsDavid Atherton
Vespasian_RIC_1060~0.jpg
Titus RIC 2045 viewsTitus RIC 20
AR denarius
Rome Mint, 79 AD, after July 1st
RIC 20 (R2), BMC pg. 227 note, RSC 282
Obv: IMP TITVS CAES VESPASIAN AVG P M; Head of Titus, laureate, bearded, l.
Rev: TR P VIIII IMP XIIII COS VII P P; Capricorn l.; below, globe


Much rarer than the right facing portrait.

Though considered by the ancient writers as "the darling of the world", Titus is scowling in this portrait.
_________________

Purchased from eBay

Sold 25Apr2015 to Lucas Harsh Collection
3 commentsrenegade3220
RIC_Trajan_Decius_RIC_IV-3_28a.jpg
Trajan Decius (Caius Messius Quintus Decius) (249-251 A.D.)6 viewsRIC IV-3 28b, Sear 9384, Van Meter 20

AR Antoninianus, 3.28 g., 22.78 mm. max., 0°

Rome mint, Group II, struck 250-251 A.D.

Obv.: IMP C M Q TRAIANVS DECIVS AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from behind.

Rev.: VBERITAS AVG, Uberitas standing left, holding purse/cow's udder and cornucopia.

Uberitas was the personification of fruitfulness, primarily agricultural fertility.

RIC rarity C, Van Meter VB1. Harshly cleaned (not by me), perhaps by electrolysis, which might explain the lightness of the coin.
Stkp
tra_pan.jpg
Trajan, 25 Jan. 98 - Aug. 117 A.D.110 viewsOrichalcum sestertius, RIC II 500, (Cowen 477), weight 21.1 g, maximum diameter 34 mm, Rome mint, obverse IMP CAES NERVAE TRAIANO AVG GER DAC P M TR P COS V P P, laureate bust right, drapery on left shoulder; reverse S P Q R OPTIMO PRINCIPI S C, Fortuna standing left, rudder on prow in right, cornucopia in left. Mottled green patina.

EX. Incitatus Coins
6 commentsSteve E
TrajSe60-2.jpg
Trajan, RIC 567, Sestertius of AD 107 (Trajan ploughing)44 viewsÆ Sestertius (22,55g, Ø 33mm, 6h). Rome, AD 107.
Obv.: IMP CAES NERVAE TRAIANO AVG GER DAC P M TR P COS V P P, laureate head right.
Rev.: S P Q R OPTIMO PRINCIPI around, S C in ex., Trajan as priest, veiled, togate, ploughing right with two oxen (or cow and ox).
RIC 567 (R); BMC 829; Cohen 539 (fr.40); Strack 384; Banti 257 (4 spec.); Roman Historical Coins 102/45; MIR 14: 310
Ex Boule (Paris), Mail Bid Auction 107, Oct. 2015.

The ritual act of founding by drawing the sulcus primigenius (original furrow): Trajan as city founder
Charles S
TVER_-_Cu_PULO.JPG
TVER - PRINCIPALITY Ivan III – Vasiliy III (1462-1533)28 viewsTVER - PRINCIPALITY Ivan III – Vasiliy III (1462-1533) Copper Pulo. Obverse: Bird to the left with flower. Reverse: 4-line legend: ПY/ЛOTB/EPЬCK/OE, circle around. Gaidukov catalogue # 358*.
Coins of XIV-XVIth century are RARE or EXTREMELY RARE. The total number of this type coins 2630. Only 242 coins are known to be in private collections. The rest are found in government museums (The Hermitage, Moscow Historical Museum, etc.).
dpaul7
claudiusII_193.jpg
Uberitas254 viewsClaudius II Gothicus 268 - 270
AR - Antoninian, 2.78g, 19mm
Siscia 1. officina
obv. IMP CLAVDIVS AVG
cuirassed bust, radiate head r.
rev. VBER[IT]AS AVG
Uberitas standing l., holding cornucopiae and purse
RIC V, 193; C.286
good F, portrait!
UBERITAS, personification of richness and abundance,
go on from the idea of fertility goddesses. Introduced AD 249
by Decius. The object in her r. hand is interpreted as
1 purse,
2 bundle of grapes, or
3 udder of a cow
Jochen
Urbs_Roma_(commemorative_issue_under_Constantine)_follis_(AE3).png
Urbs Roma (commemorative, struck under Constantine) follis (AE3)14 viewsObv.: VRBS ROMA (Helmeted bust of Roma wearing imperial cloak) Rev.: She-wolf suckling Romulus and Remus, two stars above Exergue: dot GSIS dot Diameter 18.1 mm Weight: 2,87 RIC VII 240,G

Rome, la città eterna, has had a profound cultural impact on Western culture, felt even today in the Roman Catholic Church. It is not strange then that the idea of 'Eternal Rome' was transplanted first to Constantinople, then to Moscow. Still, when one visits Rome, one cannot shake the feeling that nothing really compares.
Nick.vdw
vesp heifer.JPG
Vespasian RIC-841135 viewsAR Denarius, 3.60g
Rome Mint, 76 AD
Obv: IMP CAESAR VESPASIANVS AVG; Head of Vespasian, laureate, r.
Rev: COS VII (high in field); Cow stg. r.
RIC 841 (C). BMC 177. RSC 118. BNC 153.
Acquired from Old Roman Coins, March 2004.

A reverse that may be part of Vespasian's agrarian series promoting the agricultural productivity of Italia and his responsibility for it (a sacrificial cow?). Alternatively, Mattingly has conjectured the reverse depicts the famous 'Cow of Myron' that was placed in the Temple of Peace. With many specimens of the type the sex is of the animal is unclear. This one appears to be a cow.

A denarius in good condition and no major flaws. A welcomed addition to the collection.
Vespasian70
Probus_-_Victoria_Germ.jpg
Victoria Germanica65 viewsVictoria Germanica
Obv. PROBVS PF AVG, radiate and cuirassed bust right,
Rev. VICTORIA GERM, trophy with weapons and two prisoners, RAA in exergue
Rome Mint
22 mm, 4,06 gr.
Refs: RIC 222

Historia Augusta, 13-14: "his gestis cum ingenti exercitu Gallias petiit, quae omnes occiso Postumo turbatae fuerant, interfecto Aureliano a Germanis possessae. tanta autem illic proelia et tam feliciter gessit, ut a barbaris sexaginta per Gallias nobilissimas reciperet civitates, praedam deinde omnem, qua illi praeter divitias etiam efferebantur ad gloriam. et cum iam in nostra ripa, immo per omnes Gallias, securi vagarentur, caesis prope quadringentis milibus, qui Romanum occupaverant solum, reliquos ultra Nicrum fluvium et Albam removit. tantum his praedae barbaricae tulit quantum ipsi Romanis abstulerant. (...) nec cessatum est umquam pugnari, cum cottidie ad eum barbarorum capita deferrentur, iam ad singulos aureos singula, quamdiu reguli novem ex diversis gentibus venirent atque ad pedes Probi iacerent. quibus ille primum obsides imperavit, qui statim dati sunt, deinde frumentum, postremo etiam vaccas atque oves."

"This done, he set out with a huge army for the provinces of Gaul, which since the death of Postumus had all been in turmoil, and after the murder of Aurelian had been seized by the Germans. There, moreover, he fought battles so great and successful that he took back from the barbarians sixty most famous communes of Gaul, besides all the booty, by which the Germans, even apart from the actual wealth, were puffed up with glory. And whereas they were wandering at large on our bank, or rather through all the country of Gaul, Probus, after slaying about four hundred thousand who had seized upon Roman soil, drove all the rest back beyond the river Neckar and the district of Alba, getting from them as much barbarian booty as they themselves had seized from the Romans. (...) All the while the heads of barbarians were brought in to him daily, now at the price of an aureus apiece, and he never ceased fighting until nine princes of different tribes came before him and prostrated themselves at his feet. From these he demanded, first hostages, which they gave him at once, then grain, and last of all their cows and their sheep."
Syltorian
KopekD.jpg
Wire Kopeck of Tsar Peter I Alekseevich (Peter The Great). 1598 - 1605 A.D.24 viewsWire Kopeck of Tsar Peter I Alekseevich (Peter The Great). 1598 - 1605 A.D. crowned horseman carrying a spear with a pointed tip, date mark "ЯΨЯ" ("1701") under the galloping horse, dotted circular line. 6-line coin legend engraved in old cyrillic "ЦРЬИBE / ЛИКIИKHЯ / ЗЬПЕТРЬЯ / ЛЕЗIЕВИЧЬ. / ВCEЯРω / ССIИ" ("Tsar and Grand Prince Peter Alekseevich of Entire Russia").
Weight: 0.4 gram
Mint: Moscow
oneill6217
Justinan1Nikomedia.jpg
[1611a] Justinian I, 4 April 527 - 14 November 565 A.D.68 viewsBronze follis, S 201, choice VF, 22.147g, 43.8mm, 180o, 2nd officina, Nikomedia mint, 541 - 542 A.D.; Obverse: D N IVSTINIANVS PP AVG, helmeted and cuirassed bust facing, globus cruciger in right, shield decorated with a horseman brandishing a spear, cross right; Reverse: large M, cross above, ANNO left, Xu (= year 15) right, B below, NIKO in ex; full circle strike on a huge flan. Ex FORVM.



De Imperatoribus Romanis
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors

Justinian (527-565 A.D.).

James Allan Evans
University of British Columbia

Introduction
The reign of Justinian was a turning-point in Late Antiquity. It is the period when paganism finally lost its long struggle to survive, and when the schism in Christianity between the Monophysite east and the Chalcedonian west became insurmountable. From a military viewpoint, it marked the last time that the Roman Empire could go on the offensive with hope of success. Africa and Italy were recovered, and a foothold was established in Spain. When Justinian died, the frontiers were still intact although the Balkans had been devastated by a series of raids and the Italian economy was in ruins. His extensive building program has left us the most celebrated example of Byzantine ecclesiastical architecture that still survives: Hagia Sophia in modern Istanbul. His reign was a period when classical culture was in sharp decline and yet it had a last flowering, with historians such as Procopius and Agathias working within the tradition inherited from Herodotus and Thucydides, and poets such as Paul the Silentiary who wrote some of the most sensuous poems that the classical tradition has ever produced. The Codex Justinianus, the Institutes and the Digest of Roman jurisprudence, all commissioned by Justinian, are monuments to the past achievements of Roman legal heritage. Justinian's reign sums up the past. It also provides a matrix for the future. In particular, there was the bubonic plague, which appeared in Constantinople in 542, for the first time in Europe, and then travelled round the empire in search of victims, returning to the capital for a new crop in 558. The plague ended a period of economic growth and initiated one of overstrained resources.

The 'Nika' Revolt
The 'Nika' Revolt which broke out in January, 532, in Constantinople, was an outburst of street violence which went far beyond the norms even in a society where a great deal of street violence was accepted. Every city worth notice had its chariot-racing factions which took their names from their racing colors: Reds, Whites, Blues and Greens. These were professional organizations initially responsible for fielding chariot-racing teams in the hippodromes, though by Justinian's time they were in charge of other shows as well. The Blues and the Greens were dominant, but the Reds and Whites attracted some supporters: the emperor Anastasius was a fan of the Reds. The aficionados of the factions were assigned their own blocs of seats in the Hippodrome in Constantinople, opposite the imperial loge, and the Blue and Green "demes" provided an outlet for the energies of the city's young males. G. M. Manojlovic in an influential article originally published in Serbo-Croat in 1904, argued that the "demes" were organized divisions of a city militia, and thus played an important role in the imperial defense structure. His thesis is now generally disregarded and the dominant view is that of Alan Cameron, that demos, whether used in the singular or plural, means simply "people" and the rioting of the "demes", the "fury of the Hippodrome", as Edward Gibbon called it, was hooliganism, which was also Gibbon's view. Efforts to make the Greens into supporters of Monophysitism and the Blues of Orthodoxy founder on lack of evidence. However, in support of Manojlovic's thesis, it must be said that, although we cannot show that the Blue and Green "demes" were an organized city militia, we hear of "Young Greens" both in Constantinople and Alexandria who bore arms, and in 540, when Antioch fell to the Persians, Blue and Green street-fighters continued to defend the city after the regular troops had fled.

Justinian and Theodora were known Blue supporters, and when street violence escalated under Justin I, Procopius claims that they encouraged it. But since Justinian became emperor he had taken a firmer, more even-handed stand. On Saturday, January 10, 532, the city prefect Eudaemon who had arrested some hooligans and found seven guilty of murder, had them hanged outside the city at Sycae, across the Golden Horn, but the scaffold broke and saved two of them from death, a Blue and a Green. Some monks from St. Conon's monastery nearby took the two men to sanctuary at the church of St Lawrence where the prefect set troops to watch. The following Tuesday while the two malefactors were still trapped in the church, the Blues and Greens begged Justinian to show mercy. He ignored the plea and made no reply. The Blues and Green continued their appeals until the twenty-second race (out of twenty-four) when they suddenly united and raised the watchword 'Nika'. Riots started and the court took refuge in the palace. That evening the mob burned the city prefect's praetorium.

Justinian tried to continue the games next day but only provoked more riot and arson. The rioting and destruction continued throughout the week; even the arrival of loyal troops from Thrace failed to restore order. On Sunday before sunrise, Justinian appeared in the Hippodrome where he repented publicly and promised an amnesty. The mob turned hostile, and Justinian retreated. The evening before Justinian had dismissed two nephews of the old emperor Anastasius, Hypatius and Pompey, against their will, from the palace and sent them home, and now the mob found Hypatius and proclaimed him emperor in the Hippodrome. Justinian was now ready to flee, and perhaps would have done so except for Theodora, who did not frighten easily. Instead Justinian decided to strike ruthlessly. Belisarius and Mundo made their separate ways into the Hippodrome where they fell on Hypatius' supporters who were crowded there, and the 'Nika' riot ended with a bloodbath.

A recent study of the riot by Geoffrey Greatrex has made the point that what was unique about it was not the actions of the mob so much as Justinian's attempts to deal with it. His first reaction was to placate: when the mob demanded that three of his ministers must go, the praetorian prefect of the East, John the Cappadocian, the Quaestor of the Sacred Palace Tribonian and the urban prefect Eudaemon, Justinian replaced them immediately. He hesitated when he should have been firm and aggravated the situation. It may well have been Theodora who emboldened him for the final act of repression. Procopius imagines Theodora on the last day engaging in formal debate about what should be done, and misquoting a famous maxim that was once offered the tyrant of Syracuse, Dionysius the Elder "Tyranny is a good shroud." Theodora emends it to "Kingship is a good shroud" and readers of Procopius may have thought wryly that the emendation was unnecessary. The formal debate, and Theodora's great scene, was probably a creation of Procopius' imagination, but a splendid one.

The 'Nika' revolt left Justinian firmly in charge. The mob was cowed and the senatorial opposition that surfaced during the revolt was forced underground. The damage to Constantinople was great, but it cleared the way for Justinian's own building program. Work in his new church of Hagia Sophia to replace the old Hagia Sophia that was destroyed in the rioting, started only forty-five days after the revolt was crushed. The two leaders of the Hippodrome massacre, Mundo and Belisarius, went on to new appointments: Mundo back to Illyricum as magister militum and Belisarius to make his reputation as the conqueror of the Vandals in Africa. The 530s were a decade of confidence and the 'Nika' riot was only a momentary crisis.

(for a detailed account of the reign of Justinian I, see: http://www.roman-emperors.org/justinia.htm)

Last Years
Misfortune crowded into the final years of Justinian's reign. There was another Samaritan revolt in midsummer, 556. Next year, in December, a great earthquake shook Constantinople and in May of the following year, the dome of Justinian's new Hagia Sophia collapsed, and had to be rebuilt with a new design. About the same time, the plague returned to the capital. Then in early 559 a horde of Kutrigur 'Huns' (proto-Bulgars) crossed the frozen Danube and advanced into the Balkans. It split into three columns: one pushed into Greece but got no further than Thermopylae, another advanced into the Gallipoli peninsula but got no further than the Long Wall, which was defended by a young officer from Justinian's native city, while the third, most dangerous spearhead led by the 'Hun' khan, Zabergan himself, made for Constantinople. Faced with this attack and without any forces for defense, Justinian called Belisarius out of retirement, and Belisarius, using a scratch force, the core of which was 300 of his veterans, ambushed the Kutrigur horde and routed it. Once the immediate danger was over, however, Justinian recalled Belisarius and took charge himself. The news that Justinian was reinforcing his Danube fleet made the Kutrigurs anxious and they agreed to a treaty which gave them a subsidy and safe passage back across the river. But as soon as they were north of the Danube, they were attacked by their rivals the Utigurs who were incited by Justinian to relieve them of their booty. The Kutrigurs raided Thrace again in 562, but they and the Utigurs were soon to fall prey to the Avars who swept out of the Asian steppes in the early 560s.

There was discontent in the capital. Street violence was on the increase again. There were bread shortages and water shortages. In late 562, there was a conspiracy which almost succeeded in killing the emperor. The chief conspirator was Marcellus, an argyroprates, a goldsmith and banker, and the conspiracy probably reflected the dissatisfaction of the business community. But Justinian was too old to learn to be frugal. He resorted to forced loans and requisitions and his successor found the treasury deeply in debt.

What remained of the great emperor's achievement? His successor Justin II, out of a combination of necessity and foolhardiness, denied the 'barbarians' the subsidies which had played a major role in Justinian's defense of the frontiers, and, to be fair, which had also been provided by emperors before him. Subsidies had been part of Anastasius' policy as well, but that was before the plague, while the imperial economy was still expanding. The result of Justin II's change of policy was renewed hostility with Persia and a shift of power in the Balkans. In 567 the Avars and Lombards joined forces against the Gepids and destroyed them. But the Lombards distrusted their allies and next year they migrated into Italy where Narses had just been removed from command and recalled, though he disobeyed orders and stayed in Rome until his death. By the end of the century only a third of Italy was in Byzantine hands. On the eastern frontier, Justin alienated the Ghassanid allies and lost the fortress of Daras, a reverse which overwhelmed his frangible sanity. For this Justinian can hardly be blamed. No one can deny his greatness; a recent study by Asterios Gerostergios even lionizes him. But if we look at his reign with the unforgiving eye of hindsight, it appears to be a brilliant effort to stem the tide of history, and in the end, it was more a failure than a moderate success.

Copyright (C) 1998, James Allan Evans. Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

The Church we know today as Hagia Sophia - or Divine Wisdom, its true name - was dedicated by the Emperor Justinian in 537AD. Through many visitudes Justinian's cathedral church of Constantinople still stands, its soring vaults and amazing dome testiments to the human spirit, the engineering talents of its builders and Divine inspiration. In the same fashion that Vespasian's Collesium (the Flavian Amphitheatre) is symbolic of Rome, Justinian's Hagia Sophia is a symbol of Byzantium.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
ApolloniaARdrachmBMC39.jpg
[318apo] Apollonia, Illyria, Greece, c. 200 - 80 B.C.63 viewsSilver drachm, BMC 39, VF, Apollonia mint, 3.052g, 17.4mm, 180o, c. 200 - 80 B.C.; Obverse: XENOKLHS, cow left, head turned, suckling calf right; Reverse: APOL / CAI-RH-NOS, double stellate pattern, within a slightly curved double linear square. Ex FORVM.

"This type circulated alongside, and presumably at parity with, Roman Republican denarii," Joe Sermarini, FORVM.

Apollonia in Illyria (modern Albania), known as Apollonia (Aπολλωνία κατ' Επίδαμνον or Απολλωνία προς Επιδάμνω), was located on the right bank of the Aous, the ruins of which are situated in the Fier region, near the village of Pojan (Pojani). It was founded in 588 BC by Greek colonists from Kerkyra (Corfu) and Corinth, and was perhaps the most important of the several classical towns known as Apollonia (Απολλωνία). The site was already used by Corinthian traders and the Taulantii, an Illyrian tribe, who remained closely involved with the settlement for centuries and lived alongside the Greek colonists. The city was said to have originally been named Gylaceia after Glyax, its founder, but the name was later changed to honour the god Apollo.

Apollonia flourished under Roman rule and was noted by Cicero in his Philippics as magna urbs et gravis, a great and important city.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollonia,_Illyria

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
 
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