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Search results - "children"
aajudaeabrit.jpg
31 viewsCaesarea, Paneas. AE23.
Obv : head of Claudius
Rev : His 3 children : Antonia, Britannicus and Octavia

Ref : RPC 4842
Hen-567
This coin type seems questionable to place under the coinage of Agrippa II since the legends do not mention Agrippa and the time of minting does not conform to the other Agrippa II coins. We will notice the absence of Agrippa's name in other issues as well. At the very least, though, it was struck at Caesarea-Paneas, so it is definitely part of the city coinage. It is catalogued in The Numismatic Legacy of the Jews in the city coinage section as #208.
R. Smits, Numismatist for Numismall
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20 viewsJULIA DOMNA
AR Denarius
17.8 mm, 3.1 grams

OBV: IVLIA AVGVSTA, draped bust right.
REV: HILARITAS, Hilaritas standing left with palm & cornucopiae, children to either side of her.
RIC-IVa – 557
ziggy9
Faustina_Sear_1494.jpg
18.5 Faustina II11 viewsFAUSTINA II
AR Denarius
FAVSTINA AVGVSTA, draped bust right / FECVND AVGVSTAE, Fecunditas standing left between two children, holding two more in arms.
RSC 95, RIC 676, Sear5 #5251
RI0089
Sosius
Julia_Domna_Den_RIC_557.jpg
24.5 Julia Domna11 viewsJULIA DOMNA
AR Denarius (3.2g), 196 AD

IVLIA AVGVSTA, Draped bust right / HILARITAS, Hilaritas standing left between two children (Caracalla and Geta) holding palm frond and cornucopia

RIC 557 (Sept Sev); Sear 1840, Cohen 79; aVF/F
Ex. Ancient Roman Coins, Fort Collins, CO
Sosius
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4110 viewsClaudius 41-54 AD
Tetradrachm
Alexandria in Egypt
Year 6
Rev: Messalina, 3rd wife of Claudius, holding two small children (Claudia Octavia and Britannicus) in outstretched hand
RPC I 5164
mauseus
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69 viewsUNITED STATES TOKENS, Hard Times. New York, New York. Henry Law, baker.
CU Token (29mm, 8.60 g, 12 h)
Belleville (New Jersey) mint. Struck 1834-1835
ENGLISH BREAD/ TWIST & FANCY CAKES
Bushel of wheat
H. LAW BAKER/ 187 CANAL St NEW YORK
Eagle standing right, with wings spread and head left, shield on breast and olive branch in talons
Rulau HT 286; Low 261

Henry Law was married to Charlotte (née Stephens), the sister of William Stephens, a partner in one of the two firms that comprised the Belleville mint. Henry's bakery moved to Canal St. in 1834 and was closed in late 1834 or early 1835, when its proprietor died. Charlotte and her children later moved to Belleville.
Ardatirion
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"As de Nîmes" or "crocodile" Ӕ dupondius of Nemausus (9 - 3 BC), honoring Augustus and Agrippa35 viewsIMP DIVI F , Heads of Agrippa (left) and Augustus (right) back to back, Agrippa wearing rostral crown and Augustus the oak-wreath / COL NEM, crocodile right chained to palm-shoot with short dense fronds and tip right; two short palm offshoots left and right below, above on left a wreath with two long ties streaming right.

Ӕ, 24.5 x 3+ mm, 13.23g, die axis 3h; on both sides there are remains of what appears to be gold plating, perhaps it was a votive offering? Rough edges and slight scrapes on flan typical for this kind of coin, due to primitive technology (filing) of flan preparation.

IMPerator DIVI Filius. Mint of COLonia NEMausus (currently Nîmes, France). Known as "As de Nîmes", it is actually a dupontius (lit. "two-pounder") = 2 ases (sometimes cut in halves to get change). Dupondii were often made out of a golden-colored copper alloy (type of brass) "orichalcum" and this appears to be such case.

Key ID points: oak-wreath (microphotography shows that at least one leaf has a complicated shape, although distinguishing oak from laurel is very difficult) – earlier versions have Augustus bareheaded, no PP on obverse as in later versions, no NE ligature, palm with short fronds with tip right (later versions have tip left and sometimes long fronds). Not typical: no clear laurel wreath together with the rostral crown, gold (?) plating (!), both features really baffling.

But still clearly a "middle" kind of the croc dupondius, known as "type III": RIC I 158, RPC I 524, Sear 1730. It is often conservatively dated to 10 BC - 10 AD, but these days it is usually narrowed to 9/8 - 3 BC.

It is a commemorative issue, honoring the victory over Mark Antony and conquest of Egypt in 30 BC. The heads of Augustus and Agrippa were probably positioned to remind familiar obverses of Roman republican coins with two-faced Janus. Palm branch was a common symbol of victory, in this case grown into a tree, like the victories of Augustus and Agrippa grown into the empire. The two offshoots at the bottom may mean two sons of Agrippa, Gaius and Lucius, who were supposed to be Augustus' heirs and were patrons of the colony. Palm may also be a symbol of the local Nemausian deity, which was probably worshiped in a sacred grove. When these coins were minted, the colony was mostly populated by the settled veterans of Augustus' campaigns, hence the reminiscence of the most famous victory, but some of the original Celtic culture probably survived and was assimilated by Romans. The crocodile is not only the symbol of Egypt, like in the famous Octavian's coins AEGYPTO CAPTA. It is also a representation of Mark Antony, powerful and scary both in water and on land, but a bit slow and stupid. The shape of the crocodile with tail up was specifically chosen to remind of the shape of ship on very common "legionary" denarius series, which Mark Antony minted to pay his armies just before Actium. It is probably also related to the popular contemporary caricature of Cleopatra, riding on and simultaneously copulating with a crocodile, holding a palm branch in her hand as if in triumph. There the crocodile also symbolized Mark Antony.

Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa was born c. 64-62 BC somewhere in rural Italy. His family was of humble and plebeian origins, but rich, of equestrian rank. Agrippa was about the same age as Octavian, and the two were educated together and became close friends. He probably first served in Caesar's Spanish campaign of 46–45 BC. Caesar regarded him highly enough to send him with Octavius in 45 BC to train in Illyria. When Octavian returned to Rome after Caesar's assassination, Agrippa became his close lieutenant, performing many tasks. He probably started his political career in 43 BC as a tribune of the people and then a member of the Senate. Then he was one of the leading Octavian's generals, finally becoming THE leading general and admiral in the civil wars of the subsequent years.

In 38 as a governor of Transalpine Gaul Agrippa undertook an expedition to Germania, thus becoming the first Roman general since Julius Caesar to cross the Rhine. During this foray he helped the Germanic tribe of Ubii (who previously allied themselves with Caesar in 55 BC) to resettle on the west bank of the Rhine. A shrine was dedicated there, possibly to Divus Caesar whom Ubii fondly remembered, and the village became known as Ara Ubiorum, "Altar of Ubians". This quickly would become an important Roman settlement. Agrippina the Younger, Agrippa's granddaughter, wife of Emperor Claudius and mother of Emperor Nero, would be born there in 15 AD. In 50 AD she would sponsor this village to be upgraded to a colonia, and it would be renamed Colonia Claudia Ara Agrippinensium (colony of Claudius [at] the Altar of Agrippinians – Ubii renamed themselves as Agrippinians to honor the augusta!), abbreviated as CCAA, later to become the capital of new Roman province, Germania Inferior.

In 37 BC Octavian recalled Agrippa back to Rome and arranged for him to win the consular elections, he desperately needed help in naval warfare with Sextus Pompey, the youngest son of Pompey the Great, who styled himself as the last supporter of the republican cause, but in reality became a pirate king, an irony since his father was the one who virtually exterminated piracy in all the Roman waters. He forced humiliating armistice on the triumvirs in 39 BC and when Octavian renewed the hostilities a year later, defeated him in a decisive naval battle of Messina. New fleet had to be built and trained, and Agrippa was the man for the job. Agrippa's solution was creating a huge secret naval base he called Portus Iulius by connecting together lakes Avernus, Avernus and the natural inner and outer harbors behind Cape Misenum at the northern end of the Gulf of Naples. He also created a larger type of ship and developed a new naval weapon: harpax – a ballista-launched grapnel shot with mechanisms that allowed pulling enemy ships close for easy boarding. It replaced the previous boarding device that Romans used since the First Punic War, corvus – effective, but extremely cumbersome. A later defence against it were scythe blades on long poles for cutting ropes, but since this invention was developed in secret, the enemy had no chance to prepare anything like it. It all has proved extremely effective: in a series of naval engagements Agrippa annihilated the fleet of Sextus, forced him to abandon his bases and run away. For this Agrippa was awarded an unprecedented honour that no Roman before or after him received: a rostral crown, "corona rostrata", a wreath decorated in front by a prow and beak of a ship.

That's why Virgil (Aeneid VIII, 683-684), describing Agrippa at Actium, says: "…belli insigne superbum, tempora navali fulgent rostrata corona." "…the proud military decoration, gleams on his brow the naval rostral crown". Actium, the decisive battle between forces of Octavian and Mark Antony, may appear boring compared to the war with Sextus, but it probably turned out this way due to Agrippa's victories in preliminary naval engagements and taking over all the strategy from Octavian.

In between the wars Agrippa has shown an unusual talent in city planning, not only constructing many new public buildings etc., but also greatly improving Rome's sanitation by doing a complete overhaul of all the aqueducts and sewers. Typically, it was Augustus who later would boast that "he had found the city of brick but left it of marble", forgetting that, just like in his naval successes, it was Agrippa who did most of the work. Agrippa had building programs in other Roman cities as well, a magnificent temple (currently known as Maison Carrée) survives in Nîmes itself, which was probably built by Agrippa.

Later relationship between Augustus and Agrippa seemed colder for a while, Agrippa seemed to even go into "exile", but modern historians agree that it was just a ploy: Augustus wanted others to think that Agrippa was his "rival" while in truth he was keeping a significant army far away from Rome, ready to come to the rescue in case Augustus' political machinations fail. It is confirmed by the fact that later Agrippa was recalled and given authority almost equal to Augustus himself, not to mention that he married Augustus' only biological child. The last years of Agrippa's life were spent governing the eastern provinces, were he won respect even of the Jews. He also restored Crimea to Roman Empire. His last service was starting the conquest of the upper Danube, were later the province of Pannonia would be. He suddenly died of illness in 12 BC, aged ~51.

Agrippa had several children through his three marriages. Through some of his children, Agrippa would become ancestor to many subsequent members of the Julio-Claudian dynasty. He has numerous other legacies.
Yurii P
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(0117) HADRIAN36 views117 - 138 AD
struck 128 - 129 AD
AE sestertius 31 mm 21.90 g
O: Laureate head right. Reverse - HILARITAS P R, S C in fields, COS III in exergue,
R: Hilaritas standing facing holding palm & cornucopia, two small children flanking her, S - C
COS III IN EXE.
ROME
RCV 3602, RIC 970
laney
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000b. Pompey the Great54 viewsThe Pompeians. Sextus Pompey. 37/6 BC. AR Denarius (19mm, 3.49 g, 9h). Uncertain Sicilian mint, possibly Catana. Bare head of Pompey the Great right; capis to left, lituus to right / Neptune, holding aplustre and resting right foot on prow, standing left between the Catanaean brothers Anapias and Amphinomus running in opposite directions, bearing their parents on their shoulders. Crawford 511/3a; CRI 334; Sydenham 1344; RSC 17 (Pompey the Great). Fine, lightly toned, bankers’ marks on obverse.

AMPHINOMUS and ANAPIS (or Anapias), two brothers, of Silicy, respecting whom it is related that they saved their parents, at the peril of their own lives, from the flames of Etna, at the moment when an eruption of that volcano threatened their immediate destruction. This was a favourite subject with the ancients, in symbolising filial piety; and is often represented on Greek coins of Catana (Catania), where this noble action is alleged to have been performed. Of these two Sicilian brothers, types of that devoted love, which is ever cherished by good children towards the earthly anthors of their being, Cornelius Severus, alluding to Mount Edna, thus expresses himself: "Amphinomus and his brother, both equally courageous in the performance of a duty, whilst the flames murmured their threats against the neighbouring houses, rescue their decrepid father, and their aged mother."
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001a. Cleopatra VII and Mark Antony50 viewsSYRIA, Coele-Syria. Chalcis ad Libanum. Mark Antony, with Cleopatra VII. 36-31 BC. Æ 19mm (5.45 g, 12h). Dated RY 21 (Egyptian) and 6 (Phoenician) of Cleopatra (32/1 BC). Draped bust of Cleopatra right, wearing stephane / Bare head of Mark Antony right; dates in legend. RPC I 4771; Rouvier 440 (Berytus); SNG München 1006; SNG Copenhagen 383 (Phoenicia). Near Fine, green patina.

Chalcis was given by Antony to Cleopatra in 36 BC. At the culmination of his spectacular triumph at Alexandria two years later, further eastern territories - some belonging to Rome - were bestowed on the children of the newly hailed “Queen of Kings” (referred to as the “Donations of Alexandria”). Shortly after, Antony formally divorced Octavia, the sister of Octavian. These actions fueled Octavian’s propagandistic efforts to win the support of Rome’s political elite and ultimately led to the Senate’s declaration of war on Cleopatra in 32 BC.

Ex-CNG
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002c. Gaius and Lucius Caesars65 viewsJulia, daughter of Augustus, who has had no child by Marcellus (she is only sixteen when he dies), is married to Agrippa, a soldier who has long been the emperor's most trusted supporter. They have two sons, Gaius and Lucius, born in 20 and 17 BC. The boys are adopted by the emperor. The intention now, if Augustus dies, is that Agrippa should rule until one of these grandsons is of an age to take control. But Agrippa dies in 12 BC.

Julia has had a total of five children by Agrippa (the two sons adopted by the emperor, two daughters, and another posthumous son, Agrippa Posthumus). She now has one son by Tiberius, but the child dies in infancy.

By 6 BC it is evident that Tiberius is being set aside. Julia refuses to live with him, and her eldest son Gaius (at the age of fourteen) is given a nominal high appointment as consul. Gaius and Lucius Caesar, grandsons and adopted sons of the emperor, are now clearly the family members in line for the succession. But they die young, Lucius Caesar in AD 2 and then Gaius in AD 4.

LYDIA, Magnesia ad Sipylum. Augustus. 27 BC-AD 14. Æ 19mm (4.93 g). Jugate heads of Augustus and Livia right / Confronted heads of Gaius and Lucius Caesars. RPC 2449. Fair. Rare. Ex-Cng
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005a. Antonia35 viewsAntonia

she exposed a plot between her daughter Livilla and Sejanus, Tiberius's Praetorian Prefect. This led to Sejanus's downfall and to the death of Livilla. Claudius, her biggest disappointment (she once called him a "monster") was the only one of her children to survive her.

She committed suicide in 37 AD on Caligula's orders after expressing unhappiness over the murder of her youngest grandson, Tiberius Gemellus. There is a passage in Suetonius's "Life of Gaius" that mentions how Caligula may have given her poison himself. Renowned for her beauty and virtue, Antonia spent her long life revered by the Roman people and enjoyed many honors conferred upon her by her relatives.

Æ Dupondius (10.61 gm). Struck by Claudius. Draped bust right / Claudius standing left, holding simpulum. RIC I 92 (Claudius); BMCRE 166 (same); Cohen 6. Ex-CNG

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005bb. Antonia, daughter of Claudius 7 viewsJUDAEA, Roman Administration. Claudius, with Britannicus, Antonia, and Octavia. AD 41-54. Æ (23mm, 12.02 g, 12h). Caesarea Panias mint. Struck before 49 CE. Laureate head of Claudius left / The children of Claudius: from left to right, Antonia, Britannicus, and Octavia, the two daughters each holding a cornucopia. Meshorer 350; Hendin 1259; Sofaer 83; RPC I 4842. Fair, green and brown patina with touches of red. Rare.ecoli
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0066 - Denarius Septimius Severus 210 AC12 viewsObv/SEVERVS PIVS AVG BRIT, laureate head of Septimius r.
Rev/PM TR P XVIII COS III PP, Jupiter standing l., holding thunderbolt and sceptre; two children standing by him, l. and r.

Ag, 19.9mm, 2.77g
Mint: Rome.
RIC IVa/240 [C] - RSC 540.
ex-Helios Numismatik, auction 1, lot 305 (ex-colln. F.Kovacs, lot 1833)
dafnis
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006a. Claudia19 viewsEGYPT, Alexandria. Nero, with Claudia. AD 54-68. BI Tetradrachm (22mm, 10.74 g, 12h). Dated RY 3 (AD 56/57). Laureate head of Nero right / Draped bust of Claudia Octavia right; L Γ (date) below chin. Köln 122-4; Dattari (Savio) 190; K&G 14.7; RPC I 5202; Emmett 127.3. Near VF. Ex - CNG

Furthermore, the carefully contrived marriage between Octavia and Nero was a disaster on a personal level. Nero soon embarked on a serious relationship with a freedman named Acte, and more importantly developed an active dislike for his wife. "Quickly feeling aversion to intimacy with Octavia, he replied to his friends who were finding fault with him that she ought to be satisfied with the outward trappings of a wife." This antipthy was not likely to produce offspring who would unite the Julian and Claudian lines. By 58 Nero was becoming involved with a freeborn mistress, Poppaea, whom he would want to make his empress in exchange for Octavia. But the legitimacy of his principate derived from his relationship with his predecessor, and he was not so secure that he could do without the connection with Claudius provided through his mother and his wife. In 59 he was able to arrange for Agrippina's death, but it was not until 62 that he felt free to divorce Octavia and marry Poppaea. The initial grounds for putting Octavia aside was the charge that she was barren because she had had no children. But a more aggressive attack was needed when opposition arose from those who still challenged Nero's prncipate and remained loyal to Octavia as the last representative of her family. With the connivance of Poppaea, charges of adultery were added, Octavia was banished to Campania and then to the island of Pandataria off the coast, and finally killed. Her severed head was sent to Rome.
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010. Vespasian16 viewsSpes

In Roman mythology, Spes was the goddess of hope. She was traditionally defined as "the last goddess" (Spes, ultima dea), meaning that hope is the last resource available to men.
There was a temple to her in the Forum Holitorium. In art, Spes was depicted hitching her skirt while holding a cornucopia and flowers. Spes personified hope for good harvests, and for children, and was invoked at births, marriages, and other important times.

Her Greek equivalent was Elpis.

Vespasian Ae As REVERSE: Spes standing;

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012_Claudius-I_(41-54_A_D_),_Billon-Tetradrachm,_Milne_0077,_Alexandria,_ME__A_I-NA_KAI___EBA_,_Messalina_standing_facing_Q-001_axis-0h_25mm_11,50ga-s.jpg
012p Claudius I. (41-54 A.D.), Egypt, Alexandria, RPC I 5131, G-075, D-123, AR-Tetradrachm, MEΣΣAΛI-NA KAIΣ ΣEBAΣ, Messalina standing facing left, #184 views012p Claudius I. (41-54 A.D.), Egypt, Alexandria, RPC I 5131, G-075, D-123, AR-Tetradrachm, MEΣΣAΛI-NA KAIΣ ΣEBAΣ, Messalina standing facing left, #1
avers: TI KΛAΥΔI KAIΣ ΣEBA ΓERMANI AΥTOK, laureate head of Claudius right, LΓ before
reverse: MEΣΣAΛI-NA KAIΣ ΣEBAΣ, Messalina standing facing, head left, leaning on draped column, holding figures of two children in the extended right hand and cradling two-grain ears in the left arm.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 25mm, weight: 11,50g, axis: 0h,
mint: City: Alexandria, Region: Egypt, Province: Egypt,
date: Year (LΓ) 3 = 42-43 A.D.,
ref: Geissen 075, Dattari 123, Kapmann-Ganschow 12.22 p-5½, RPC I 5131, Milne 77,
Q-001
quadrans
038b_Faustina_(II)_Filia,_RIC_III_0711_(Marc_Aur_),_Rome,_AR-Den,_FAVSTINA_AVGVSTA,_SAECVLI_FELICIT,_161_AD,_Q-002,_6h,_16,7-17mm,_3,35g-s.jpg
038b Faustina (II) Filia (128-175 A.D.), RIC III 0711 (Marc.Aur.), Rome, AR-Denarius, SAECVLI FELICIT, Throne with two children, #1143 views038b Faustina (II) Filia (128-175 A.D.), RIC III 0711 (Marc.Aur.), Rome, AR-Denarius, SAECVLI FELICIT, Throne with two children, #1
"Daughter of Antoninus Pius and Faustina Sr. and wife of Marcus Aurelius. She was also the mother of Commodus and Lucilla, wife of Lucius Verus."
avers: FAVSTINA AVGVSTA, Draped bare-headed, bust right.
reverse: SAECVLI FELICIT, Throne with two children.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 16,7-17,0mm, weight: 3,35g, axis: 6h,
mint: Rome, date: 161 A.D., ref: RIC III 711 (Marcus Aurelius), p-271 , RSC 191, BMC 139,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Faustina_jun_FAVSTINA-AVGVSTA_SAECVLI-FELICIT_Q-002_axis-5h_17-17,5mm_3,28g-s.jpg
038b Faustina (II) Filia (128-175 A.D.), RIC III 0712 (Marc.Aur.), Rome, AR-Denarius, SAECVLI FELICIT, Throne with two children, #1109 views038b Faustina (II) Filia (128-175 A.D.), RIC III 0712 (Marc.Aur.), Rome, AR-Denarius, SAECVLI FELICIT, Throne with two children, #1
"Daughter of Antoninus Pius and Faustina Sr. and wife of Marcus Aurelius. She was also the mother of Commodus and Lucilla, wife of Lucius Verus."
avers: FAVSTINA AVGVSTA, Draped diademed, bust right.
reverse: SAECVLI FELICIT, Throne with two children.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 17-17,5mm, weight: 3,28g, axis: 5h,
mint: Rome, date: 161 A.D., ref: RIC-III-712 (Marcus Aurelius), p-271 , C-191,
Q-001
quadrans
Faustina_jun_FAVSTINA_AVGVSTA_SAECVLI-FELICIT_Q-001_axis-h_x,xxmm_2_70g-s.jpg
038b Faustina (II) Filia (128-175 A.D.), RIC III 0712 (Marc.Aur.), Rome, AR-Denarius, SAECVLI FELICIT, Throne with two children, #287 views038b Faustina (II) Filia (128-175 A.D.), RIC III 0712 (Marc.Aur.), Rome, AR-Denarius, SAECVLI FELICIT, Throne with two children, #2
"Daughter of Antoninus Pius and Faustina Sr. and wife of Marcus Aurelius. She was also the mother of Commodus and Lucilla, wife of Lucius Verus."
avers: FAVSTINA AVGVSTA, Draped diademed, bust right.
reverse: SAECVLI FELICIT, Throne with two children.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 17mm, weight: 3,18g, axis: h,
mint: Rome, date: 161 A.D., ref: RIC-III-712 (Marcus Aurelius), p-271 , C-191,
Q-002
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038b_Faustina_(II)_Filia,_RIC_III_0712_(Marc_Aur_),_Rome,_AR-Den,_FAVSTINA_AVGVSTA,_SAECVLI_FELICIT,_161_AD,_Q-001,_6h,_17-18mm,_3,25g-s.jpg
038b Faustina (II) Filia (128-175 A.D.), RIC III 0712 (Marc.Aur.), Rome, AR-Denarius, SAECVLI FELICIT, Throne with two children, #3158 views038b Faustina (II) Filia (128-175 A.D.), RIC III 0712 (Marc.Aur.), Rome, AR-Denarius, SAECVLI FELICIT, Throne with two children, #3
"Daughter of Antoninus Pius and Faustina Sr. and wife of Marcus Aurelius. She was also the mother of Commodus and Lucilla, wife of Lucius Verus."
avers: FAVSTINA AVGVSTA, Draped diademed, bust right.
reverse: SAECVLI FELICIT, Throne with two children.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 17,0-18,0mm, weight: 3,25g, axis: 6h,
mint: Rome, date: 161 A.D., ref: RIC III 712 (Marcus Aurelius), p-271 , RSC 191, BMC 139,
Q-003
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RIC_IV-I_557,_Julia-Domna,_AR-Den,_IVLIA_AVGVSTA,_HILARITAS,_Roma,_RSC-79,_BMC-34,_Sear-6587,_196-211_AD,_Q-001,_0h,_19-21,3mm,_3,02g-s.jpg
050 Julia Domna (170-217 A.D.), RIC IV-I 557, Rome, AR-Denarius, HILARITAS, Hilaritas standing left, two children at her feet, #161 views050 Julia Domna (170-217 A.D.), RIC IV-I 557, Rome, AR-Denarius, HILARITAS, Hilaritas standing left, two children at her feet, #1
avers: IVLIA AVGVSTA, Bust draped right.
reverse: HILARITAS, Hilaritas standing left, holding palm in right hand, cornucopiae in left; two children at her feet.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter:19,0-21,3mm, weight: 3,02g, axis: 0h,
mint: Rome, date: 196-211 A.D., ref: RIC IV-I 557, RSC 79, BMC 79, Sear 6587,
Q-001
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065 - Julia Domna denarius - RIC 55738 viewsObv– IVLIA AVGVSTA, Draped bust right
Rev:– HILARITAS, Hilaritas standing left, holding palm in right hand, cornucopiae in left; two children at her feet
Minted in Rome, A.D. 208
References:– BMCRE 34, RIC 557, RSC 79
maridvnvm
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071. Crispina.13 viewsDenarius, 180 -182 AD, Rome mint.
Obverse: CRISPINA AVGVSTA / Bust of Crispina.
Reverse: DIS GENITALIBVS / Lighted altar.
3.49 gm., 18 mm.
RIC #281; Sear #5999.

This coin of Crispina has an unusual reverse type: an altar dedicated to the gods of childbirth. We know of no children born to Crispina and Commodus. Stevenson says of this reverse (p. 332): "It would seem that the empress had dedicated an altar to the dii genitales, either for having had children, or that she might obtain fertility from them, or that she might commend the child with which she was pregnant to their care and protection.
Callimachus
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098-117 AD - TRAJAN AR denarius - struck 112-114 AD132 viewsobv: IMP TRAIANO AVG GER DAC P M TR P COS VI PP (laureate bust right, slight drapery on left shoulder)
rev: SPQR OPTIMO PRINCIPI (Abundantia standing left, holding cornucopiae and grain ears; at her feet, a child holding a roll), in ex. ALIM ITAL [Alimenta Italiae]
ref: RIC II 243, C.9 (3frcs)
mint: Rome
2.91gms, 19mm

The Alimenta was a welfare program for poor children and orphans. Credit for designing the program is usually attributed to Nerva, but it was increased and formally organized under Trajan. The Alimenta was funded from several sources. Probably, money from the Dacian Wars was used to initially underwrite the program; however, the long-term existence of the program was insured through 5% interest paid by wealthy landowners on loans and estate taxes. Philanthropy was also encouraged and contributed to the total funding.
Under Alimenta, boys of freemen received 16 sesterces monthly, girls received 12, while children borne out of wedlock received a bit less. The Alimenta was supplemented with a special young girls foundation initiated by Antoninus Pius in honor of his deceased wife Faustina. Municipal magistrates administered the alimentary funds and in turn were supervised by imperial clerks who had the status of knights.
1 commentsberserker
MariusFundania1Denarius.jpg
0aa Caius Marius40 viewsC. Fundanius, moneyer
101-91 BC

Denarius

Helmeted head of Roma right, control-mark C behind

"Triumphator" (Marius) in quadriga right, holding laurel-branch and staff; a rider sits on near horse, holding laurel-branch, Q above, C FVNDAN in exergue

The reverse shows Marius as triumphator in the quadriga. He holds sceptre and laurel branch. On one of the horses rides his son. The children of the triumphator were - according to tradition - allowed to share the triumph of their father. The Q above refers to the office as quaestor the mintmaster held while minting these coins. FORVM Ancient Coins says of a similar piece, "The reverse refers to Marius triumph after victories over the Cimbri and Teutones. The rider on the near horse is Marius's son, at that time eight years old." Andrew McCabe comments, "The Triumphator on the Fundania denarius is usually taken to be Marius, with his young son on horseback. This would make it the first Roman coin to explicitly portray a living Roman politician. "

Seaby Fundania 1

Marius rose from common origins to become the First Man in Rome. Plutarch in his Life writes: There is a likeness of Marius in stone at Ravenna, in Gaul, which I myself saw quite corresponding with that roughness of character that is ascribed to him. Being naturally valiant and warlike, and more acquainted also with the discipline of the camp than of the city, he could not moderate his passion when in authority. . . . He was born of parents altogether obscure and indigent, who supported themselves by their daily labour; his father of the same name with himself, his mother called Fulcinia. He had spent a considerable part of his life before he saw and tasted the pleasures of the city; having passed previously in Cirrhaeaton, a village of the territory of Arpinum, a life, compared with city delicacies, rude and unrefined, yet temperate, and conformable to the ancient Roman severity. He first served as a soldier in the war against the Celtiberians, when Scipio Africanus besieged Numantia; where he signalized himself to his general by courage far above his comrades, and particularly by his cheerfully complying with Scipio's reformation of his army, being almost ruined by pleasures and luxury. It is stated, too, that he encountered and vanquished an enemy in single combat, in his general's sight. In consequence of all this he had several honours conferred upon him; and once when at an entertainment a question arose about commanders, and one of the company (whether really desirous to know, or only in complaisance) asked Scipio where the Romans, after him, should obtain such another general, Scipio, gently clapping Marius on the shoulder as he sat next him, replied, "Here, perhaps. . . ."

The consul Caecilius Metellus, being declared general in the war against Jugurtha in Africa took with him Marius for lieutenant; where, eager himself to do great deeds and services that would get him distinction, he did not, like others, consult Metellus's glory and the serving his interest, and attributing his honour of lieutenancy not to Metellus, but to fortune, which had presented him with a proper opportunity and theatre of great actions, he exerted his utmost courage. . . . Marius thus employed, and thus winning the affections of the soldiers, before long filled both Africa and Rome with his fame, and some, too, wrote home from the army that the war with Africa would never be brought to a conclusion unless they chose Caius Marius consul. . . .He was elected triumphantly, and at once proceeded to levy soldiers contrary both to law and custom, enlisting slaves and poor people; whereas former commanders never accepted of such, but bestowed arms, like other favours, as a matter of distinction, on persons who had the proper qualification, a man's property being thus a sort of security for his good behavior. . . .

[In Marius' fourth consulship,] The enemy dividing themselves into two parts, the Cimbri arranged to go against Catulus higher up through the country of the Norici, and to force that passage; the Teutones and Ambrones to march against Marius by the seaside through Liguria. . . . The Romans, pursuing them, slew and took prisoners above one hundred thousand, and possessing themselves of their spoil, tents, and carriages, voted all that was not purloined to Marius's share, which, though so magnificent a present, yet was generally thought less than his conduct deserved in so great a danger. . . . After the battle, Marius chose out from amongst the barbarians' spoils and arms those that were whole and handsome, and that would make the greatest show in his triumph; the rest he heaped upon a large pile, and offered a very splendid sacrifice. Whilst the army stood round about with their arms and garlands, himself attired (as the fashion is on such occasions) in the purple-bordered robe, and taking a lighted torch, and with both hands lifting it up towards heaven, he was then going to put it to the pile, when some friends were espied with all haste coming towards him on horseback. Upon which every one remained in silence and expectation. They, upon their coming up, leapt off and saluted Marius, bringing him the news of his fifth consulship, and delivered him letters to that effect. This gave the addition of no small joy to the solemnity; and while the soldiers clashed their arms and shouted, the officers again crowned Marius with a laurel wreath, and he thus set fire to the pile, and finished his sacrifice.
Blindado
coin224.JPG
103a. Sabina25 viewsSabina

Vibia Sabina was born in 86 CE was the daughter of Salonia Matidia, daughter of Trajan's sister Marciana, and her first husband Lucius Vibius Sabinus. Hence she was a grand niece of emperor Trajan. By the intervention of Trajan's wife Plotina she married Hadrian in 100 CE, thus reinforcing Hadrian's claim to the throne.

The marriage was not happy and she didn't bear him any children. She did, however, follow Hadrian on his many travels, and she received the title of Augusta in 128 CE. She died in 136 or 137 CE and was dutifully deified after her death

AR denarius. SABINA AVGVSTA HADRIANI AVG Diademed and draped bust right, hair in plait behind / VES TA Vesta seated left, holding Palladium and scepter. RIC 410, RSC 81.
ecoli
1305_-1306_Edward_I_LONDON_PENNY.JPG
1272 - 1307, EDWARD I, AR Penny, Struck 1305 - 1306 at London, England16 viewsObverse: + EDWAR ANGL DNS HYB. Crowned bust of Edward I facing within circle of pellets. Cross pattée in legend.
Reverse: CIVITAS LONDON. Long cross dividing legend into quarters, trefoil in each quarter of inner circle.
Undated Penny, type 10cf1
Diameter: 18.5mm | Weight: 1.2gms | Die Axis: 9
SPINK: 1410

Edward I began a major recoinage in 1279 which consisted not only of pennies and new round half-pennies and farthings, but also introduced a new denomination, a fourpenny piece called the "Groat".

Edward I was King of England from 1272 – 1307. He was the eldest surviving son of Henry III and Eleanor of Provence. The contests between his father and the barons led by Simon de Montfort called Edward early into active life when he restored the royal authority within months by defeating and killing de Montfort at the battle of Evesham in 1265. He then proceeded to Palestine, where no conquest of any importance was achieved. After further campaigns in Italy and France he returned to England on his father's death and was crowned at Westminster Abbey in 1274.
Edward was popular because he identified himself with the growing tide of nationalism sweeping the country, displayed later in his persecution and banishment of the Jews which was the culmination of many years of anti-semitism in England.
Edward now turned his attention to the mountainous land to the west which had never been completely subdued. So, following a revolt in the Principality of Wales against English influence, Edward commenced a war which ended in the annexation of the Principality to the English Crown in 1283. He secured his conquest by building nine castles to watch over it and created his eldest son, Edward the Prince of Wales in 1301.
Edward's great ambition, however, was to gain possession of Scotland, but the death of Margaret, the Maid of Norway, who was to have been married to Edward's son, for a time frustrated the king's designs. However the sudden death of the King of Scotland, Alexander III, and the contested succession soon gave him the opportunity to intervene. He was invited by the Scots to arbitrate and choose between the thirteen competitors for the Scottish throne. Edward's choice, John Balliol, who he conceived as his puppet, was persuaded to do homage for his crown to Edward at Newcastle but was then forced to throw off Edward's overlordship by the indignation of the Scottish people. An alliance between the French and the Scots now followed, and Edward, then at war with the French king over possession of Gascony, was compelled to march his army north. Edward invaded Scotland in 1296 and devastated the country, which earned him the sobriquet 'Hammer of the Scots'. It was at this time that the symbolic Stone of Destiny was removed from Scone. Edward's influence had tainted Balliol's reign and the Scottish nobility deposed him and appointed a council of twelve to rule instead. Balliol abdicated and was eventually sent to France where he retired into obscurity, taking no more part in politics. Scotland was then left without a monarch until the accession of Robert the Bruce in 1306.
Meanwhile Edward assumed the administration of the country. However the following summer a new opposition to Edward took place under William Wallace whose successes, notably at Stirling Bridge, forced Edward to return to Scotland with an army of 100,000 men. Although he defeated Wallace's army at Falkirk, and Wallace himself was betrayed, Edward's unjust and barbaric execution of him as a traitor in London made Wallace a national hero in Scotland, and resistance to England became paramount among the people. All Edward's efforts to reduce the country to obedience were unravelling, and after the crowning of Robert Bruce, Earl of Carrick, as Robert I of Scotland in 1306 an enraged Edward assembled another army and marched yet again against the Scots. However, Edward only reached Burgh-on-Sands, a village near Carlisle, when he died. His body was taken back to London and he was buried at Westminster Abbey.
Edward I was married twice: to Eleanor of Castile, by whom he had sixteen children, and Margaret of France by whom he had three. Twelve memorials to his first wife stood between Nottingham and London to mark the journey taken by her funeral cortege. Three of those memorials, known as “Eleanor Crosses”, can still be seen today at Geddington, Hardingstone near Northampton and Waltham Cross. London's Charing Cross is also named after one, but the original was demolished in 1647 and the monument seen there today is a Victorian replica.
1 comments*Alex
MaxHercRIC5iiRome.jpg
1302a, Maximian, 285 - 305, 306 - 308, and 310 A.D.50 viewsMaximianus AE Antoninianus. RIC V Part II 506 Bust Type C. Cohen 355; VF; Minted in Rome A.D. 285-286. Obverse: IMP MAXIMIANVS P F AVG, radiate, draped & cuirassed bust right; Rverse: IOVI CONSERVAT AVGG, Jupiter standing left holding thunderbolt & scepter, XXIZ in exergue. Ex maridvnvm.

De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Maximian, 285-305, 306-308, and 310 A.D.

Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Salve Regina University

Perhaps born ca. 249/250 A.D. in Sirmium in the area of the Balkans, Marcus Aurelius Valerius Maximianus, more commonly known as Maximianus Herculius (Maximian), had been a soldier before he put on the purple. A fellow soldier with the Emperor Diocletian, he had served in the military during the reigns of Aurelian and Probus.

When the Emperor Diocletian determined that the empire was too large for one man to govern on his own, he made Maximian his Caesar in 285/6 and elevated him to the rank of Augustus in perhaps the spring of 286. While Diocletian ruled in the East, Maximian ruled in the West. In 293, in order to maintain and to strengthen the stability of the empire, Diocletian appointed Constantius I Chlorus to serve Maximian as a Caesar in the West, while Galerius did the same job in the East. This arrangement, called the "Tetrarchy", was meant not only to provide a stronger foundation for the two emperors' rule, but also to end any possible fighting over the succession to the throne once the two senior Augusti had left the throne--a problem which had bedeviled the principate since the time of the Emperor Augustus. To cement the relationship between Maximian and his Caesar, Constantius married Maximian's elder daughter Theodora. A decade later, Constantius' son Constantine would marry Maximia's younger daughter Fausta.

On 1 May 305 Diocletian, at Nicomedeia, and Maximian, at Mediolanum, divested themselves of the purple. Their resignations seem largely due to the almost fatal illness that Diocletian contracted toward the end of 304. Diocletian seems to have forced his colleague to abdicate. In any case, Herculius had sworn an oath at the temple of Capitoline Jupiter to carry out the terms of the abdication. Constantius and Galerius were appointed as Augusti, with Maximinus Daia and Severus as the new Caesars. The retired emperors then returned to private life. Diocletian's retirement was at Salonae in Dalmatia, while Herculius' retreat was either in Lucania or Campania.

Maximian's retirement, however, was of short duration because, a little more than a year later on 28 October 306, his son Maxentius was proclaimed emperor at Rome. To give his regime an aura of legitimacy, Maximian was forced to affirm his son's acclamation. When Galerius learned of Maxentius' rebellion, he sent Severus against him with an army that had formerly been under his father's command. Maxentius invested his father with the purple again to win over his enemy's troops, a ruse which succeeded. Perhaps to strengthen his own position, in 307 Maximian went to Gaul and married his daughter Fausta to Constantine. When Constantine refused to become embroiled in the civil war between Galerius and Maxentius, Maximian returned to Rome in 308 and attempted to depose his son; however, he did not succeed. When Maximian was unable to convince Diocletian to take up the purple again at a meeting in Carnuntum in late 308, he returned to his son-in-law's side in Gaul.

Although Maximian was treated with all of the respect due a former emperor, he still desired to be more than a figurehead. He decided to seize the purple from Constantine when his son-in-law least expected it. His opportunity came in the summer of 310 when the Franks revolted. When Constantine had taken a small part of his army into enemy territory, Maximian proclaimed himself again emperor and paid the soldiers under his command a donative to secure their loyalty. As soon as Constantine received news about Maximian's revolt in July 310, he went south and reached Arelate before his father-in-law could mount a defense of the city. Although Maximian fled to Massilia, his son-in-law seized the city and took Maximian prisoner. Although he was deprived of the purple, he was granted pardon for his crimes. Unable to endure the humiliation of his defeat, he attempted to have Constantine murdered in his bed. The plot failed because he tried to get his daughter Fausta's help in the matter; she chose to reveal the matter to her husband. Because of this attempt on his son-in-law's life Maximian was dead by the end of July either by his own hand or on the orders of his intended victim.

Eutropia was of Syrian extraction and her marriage to Maximian seems to have been her second. She bore him two children: Maxentius and Fausta. An older daughter, Theodora, may have been a product of her first marriage. Fausta became the wife of Constantine I , while her sister Theodora was the second spouse of his father Constantius I Chlorus . Eutropia apparently survived all her children, with the possible exception of her daughter Fausta who seems to have died in 326. Eutropia is also said to have become a Christian.

By Michael DiMaio, Jr., Salve Regina University
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
Max.jpg
1302b, Maximian, 285-305, 306-308, and 310 A.D., commemorative issued by Constantine the Great (Siscia)59 viewsMaximian, 285-305, 306-308, and 310 A.D., commemorative issued by Constantine the Great. Bronze AE3, RIC 41, VF, Siscia, 1.30g, 16.1mm, 0o, 317-318 A.D. Obverse: DIVO MAXIMIANO SEN FORT IMP, laureate and veiled head right; Reverse: REQVIES OPTIMO-RVM MERITORVM, Emperor seated left on curule chair, raising hand and holding scepter, SIS in exergue; scarce (R3).


De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Maximian, 285-305, 306-308, and 310 A.D.

Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Salve Regina University

Perhaps born ca. 249/250 A.D. in Sirmium in the area of the Balkans, Marcus Aurelius Valerius Maximianus, more commonly known as Maximianus Herculius (Maximian), had been a soldier before he put on the purple. A fellow soldier with the Emperor Diocletian, he had served in the military during the reigns of Aurelian and Probus.

When the Emperor Diocletian determined that the empire was too large for one man to govern on his own, he made Maximian his Caesar in 285/6 and elevated him to the rank of Augustus in perhaps the spring of 286. While Diocletian ruled in the East, Maximian ruled in the West. In 293, in order to maintain and to strengthen the stability of the empire, Diocletian appointed Constantius I Chlorus to serve Maximian as a Caesar in the West, while Galerius did the same job in the East. This arrangement, called the "Tetrarchy", was meant not only to provide a stronger foundation for the two emperors' rule, but also to end any possible fighting over the succession to the throne once the two senior Augusti had left the throne--a problem which had bedeviled the principate since the time of the Emperor Augustus. To cement the relationship between Maximian and his Caesar, Constantius married Maximian's elder daughter Theodora. A decade later, Constantius' son Constantine would marry Maximia's younger daughter Fausta.

On 1 May 305 Diocletian, at Nicomedeia, and Maximian, at Mediolanum, divested themselves of the purple. Their resignations seem largely due to the almost fatal illness that Diocletian contracted toward the end of 304. Diocletian seems to have forced his colleague to abdicate. In any case, Herculius had sworn an oath at the temple of Capitoline Jupiter to carry out the terms of the abdication. Constantius and Galerius were appointed as Augusti, with Maximinus Daia and Severus as the new Caesars. The retired emperors then returned to private life. Diocletian's retirement was at Salonae in Dalmatia, while Herculius' retreat was either in Lucania or Campania.

Maximian's retirement, however, was of short duration because, a little more than a year later on 28 October 306, his son Maxentius was proclaimed emperor at Rome. To give his regime an aura of legitimacy, Maximian was forced to affirm his son's acclamation. When Galerius learned of Maxentius' rebellion, he sent Severus against him with an army that had formerly been under his father's command. Maxentius invested his father with the purple again to win over his enemy's troops, a ruse which succeeded. Perhaps to strengthen his own position, in 307 Maximian went to Gaul and married his daughter Fausta to Constantine. When Constantine refused to become embroiled in the civil war between Galerius and Maxentius, Maximian returned to Rome in 308 and attempted to depose his son; however, he did not succeed. When Maximian was unable to convince Diocletian to take up the purple again at a meeting in Carnuntum in late 308, he returned to his son-in-law's side in Gaul.

Although Maximian was treated with all of the respect due a former emperor, he still desired to be more than a figurehead. He decided to seize the purple from Constantine when his son-in-law least expected it. His opportunity came in the summer of 310 when the Franks revolted. When Constantine had taken a small part of his army into enemy territory, Maximian proclaimed himself again emperor and paid the soldiers under his command a donative to secure their loyalty. As soon as Constantine received news about Maximian's revolt in July 310, he went south and reached Arelate before his father-in-law could mount a defense of the city. Although Maximian fled to Massilia, his son-in-law seized the city and took Maximian prisoner. Although he was deprived of the purple, he was granted pardon for his crimes. Unable to endure the humiliation of his defeat, he attempted to have Constantine murdered in his bed. The plot failed because he tried to get his daughter Fausta's help in the matter; she chose to reveal the matter to her husband. Because of this attempt on his son-in-law's life Maximian was dead by the end of July either by his own hand or on the orders of his intended victim.

Eutropia was of Syrian extraction and her marriage to Maximian seems to have been her second. She bore him two children: Maxentius and Fausta. An older daughter, Theodora, may have been a product of her first marriage. Fausta became the wife of Constantine I , while her sister Theodora was the second spouse of his father Constantius I Chlorus . Eutropia apparently survived all her children, with the possible exception of her daughter Fausta who seems to have died in 326. Eutropia is also said to have become a Christian.

By Michael DiMaio, Jr., Salve Regina University
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
Glass_miniature_juglet_roman.jpg
1355 Roman, Eastern Mediterranean, Glass Miniature Juglet, Mid 2nd - 4th Century A.D.14 viewsReference.
cf. Isings 88b,

Dimensions / quality
Choice, complete and intact, much weathering, some iridescence, glass miniature juglet,
8.5 cm (3 3/8") tall, 4.1 cm (1 5/8") diameter,
finely made, free blown thin near colorless glass, bell shaped body tapering to bottom, trail handle attached below the rim and on the shoulder, kicked bottom; from the collection of Alex G. Malloy,

Note.
Miniature pottery juglets, invariably decorated with scenes involving young children, have been found in graves of Hellenistic and Roman children. Perhaps they were also used as toys in life. The purpose of this beautiful tiny juglet is uncertain but it seems quite delicate for a child's toy.
1 commentsokidoki
CrispusRIC17.jpg
1404a, Crispus, Caesar 317 - 326 A.D. 39 viewsBronze AE 3, RIC 17, aEF, Cyzicus mint, 3.196g, 19.9mm, 315o, 321 - 324 A.D.; Obverse: D N FL IVL CRISPVS NOB CAES, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right; Reverse: IOVI CONSERVATORI, Jupiter standing left holding Victory on globe in right and scepter in left, eagle with wreath in beak to left, X / IIG and captive right, SMKD in exergue; scarce (RIC R3). Ex FORVM.


De Imperatoribus Romanis;
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors and their Families

Crispus Caesar (317-326 A.D.)

Hans Pohlsander
SUNY Albany

Crispus was the oldest son of the emperor Constantine I and played a fairly important role in the political and military events of the early fourth century. The regular form of his full name is Flavius Iulius Crispus, although the forms Flavius Claudius Crispus and Flavius Valerius Crispus also occur. His mother was a woman named Minervina, with whom Constantine had a relationship, probably illegitimate, before he married Fausta in 307. When Minervina died or when Constantine put her aside we do not know. Nor do we know when she gave birth to Crispus; we may assume, of course, that it was before 307. Some modern authorities, on good grounds, think that it was in 305. Crispus' place of birth must have been somewhere in the East, and it is not known when he was brought to Gaul and when, where, or under what circumstances he was separated from his mother.

Constantine entrusted the education of his son to the distinguished Christian scholar Lactantius, thereby giving a clear sign of his commitment to Christianity. We are not told when Lactantius assumed his duties, but a date before 317 seems likely. Nor do we know how successful he was in instilling Christian beliefs and values in his imperial pupil. No later than January of 322 Crispus must have married a woman named Helena -- not to be confused with Constantine's mother or daughter by the same name- and this woman bore him a child in October of 322. Constantine, we learn, was pleased.

Crispus' official career began at an early age and is well documented. On March 1 of 317, at Serdica (modern Sofia), his father appointed him Caesar. The consulship was his three times, in 318, 321, and 324. While nominally in charge of Gaul, with a prefect at his side, he successfully undertook military operations against the Franks and Alamanni in 320 and 323.

In 324, during the second war between Constantine and Licinius, he excelled as commander of Constantine's fleet in the waters of the Hellespont, the Propontis, and the Bosporus, thus making a significant contribution to the outcome of that war. The high points of his career are amply reflected in the imperial coinage. In addition to coins, we have his portrait, with varying degrees of certainty, in a number of sculptures, mosaics, cameos, etc. Contemporary authors heap praises upon him. Thus the panegyrist Nazarius speaks of Crispus' "magnificent deeds," and Eusebius calls him "an emperor most dear to God and in all regards comparable to his father."

Crispus' end was as tragic as his career had been brilliant. His own father ordered him to be put to death. We know the year of this sad event, 326, from the Consularia Constantinopolitana, and the place, Pola in Istria, from Ammianus Marcellinus. The circumstances, however, are less clear. Zosimus (6th c.) and Zonaras (12th c.) both report that Crispus and his stepmother Fausta were involved in an illicit relationship. There may be as much gossip as fact in their reports, but it is certain that at some time during the same year the emperor ordered the death of his own wife as well, and the two cases must be considered together. That Crispus and Fausta plotted treason is reported by Gregory of Tours, but not very believable. We must resolutely reject the claim of Zosimus that it was Constantine's sense of guilt over these deeds which caused him to accept Christianity, as it alone promised him forgiveness for his sins. A similar claim had already been made by Julian the Apostate. We must also, I think, reject the suggestion of Guthrie that the emperor acted in the interest of "dynastic legitimacy," that is, that he removed his illegitimate first-born son in order to secure the succession for his three legitimate younger sons. But Crispus must have committed, or at least must have been suspected of having committed, some especially shocking offense to earn him a sentence of death from his own father. He also suffered damnatio memoriae, his honor was never restored, and history has not recorded the fate of his wife and his child (or children).

Copyright (C) 1997, Hans A. Pohlsander. Published on De Imperatoribus Romanis;An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors and their Families:
http://www.roman-emperors.org/crispus.htm


What If?

St. Nectarios, in his book, The Ecumenical Synods, writes "Hellenism spread by Alexander paved the way for Christianity by Emperor Constantine the Great."

Constantine's upward gaze on his "Eyes to Heaven" coins recall the coin portraits of Alexander the Great (namely coins struck by the Diodochi), which served as prototypes for the divine ruler portraiture of much of the Hellenistic age. The diadem, of which this is the most elaborate type, was adopted by Constantine and the members of his house as a new symbol of sovereignty.

In the Greek Orthodox Church, Constantine the Great is revered as a Saint.

Is it just possible? Constantine, knowing what happened (or thinking that he does) to Phillip II of Macedon—assassinated on the eve of his greatness, in a plot that most likely involved his wife—and possibly his son. . . isn’t it just possible that Constantine is growing obsessively jealous of his ever more successful and adulated son? Imagine the Constantine who has proven time and again (think: Licinius) that he is a completely self-serving liar and a murderer, decides to murder again? Why "must we resolutely reject the claim of Zosimus that it was Constantine's sense of guilt over these deeds which caused him to accept Christianity, as it alone promised him forgiveness for his sins [?] (see: above). A similar claim had already been made by Julian the [Philosopher]."

Perhaps it is time to cease being apologists for the sometime megalomaniacal Constantine. As Michael Grant notes, "It is a mocking travesty of justice to call such a murderer Constantine the Great . . ." (Grant, Michael. The Emperor Constantine. London: Phoenix Press, 1998. 226).


Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.


Cleisthenes
crispus_votV.jpg
1404b, Crispus, Caesar 317 - 326 A.D. (Thessalonica)35 viewsBronze AE 3, RIC 118, VF, Thessalonica mint, 2.740g, 18.0mm, 180o, 320 - 321 A.D. Obverse: FL IVL CRISPVS NOB CAES, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust left; Reverse: CAESARVM NOSTRORVM, VOT V in wreath, TSDVI in exergue.

Flavius Julius Crispus was the son of Constantine I by his first wife. A brilliant soldier, Crispus was well loved by all until 326 A.D., when Constantine had him executed. It is said that Fausta, Crispus stepmother, anxious to secure the succession for her own sons falsely accused Crispus of raping her. Constantine, learning of Fausta`s treachery, had her executed too.


De Imperatoribus Romanis;
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors and their Families

Crispus Caesar (317-326 A.D.)

Hans Pohlsander
SUNY Albany

Crispus was the oldest son of the emperor Constantine I and played a fairly important role in the political and military events of the early fourth century. The regular form of his full name is Flavius Iulius Crispus, although the forms Flavius Claudius Crispus and Flavius Valerius Crispus also occur. His mother was a woman named Minervina, with whom Constantine had a relationship, probably illegitimate, before he married Fausta in 307. When Minervina died or when Constantine put her aside we do not know. Nor do we know when she gave birth to Crispus; we may assume, of course, that it was before 307. Some modern authorities, on good grounds, think that it was in 305. Crispus' place of birth must have been somewhere in the East, and it is not known when he was brought to Gaul and when, where, or under what circumstances he was separated from his mother.

Constantine entrusted the education of his son to the distinguished Christian scholar Lactantius, thereby giving a clear sign of his commitment to Christianity. We are not told when Lactantius assumed his duties, but a date before 317 seems likely. Nor do we know how successful he was in instilling Christian beliefs and values in his imperial pupil. No later than January of 322 Crispus must have married a woman named Helena -- not to be confused with Constantine's mother or daughter by the same name- and this woman bore him a child in October of 322. Constantine, we learn, was pleased.

Crispus' official career began at an early age and is well documented. On March 1 of 317, at Serdica (modern Sofia), his father appointed him Caesar. The consulship was his three times, in 318, 321, and 324. While nominally in charge of Gaul, with a prefect at his side, he successfully undertook military operations against the Franks and Alamanni in 320 and 323.

In 324, during the second war between Constantine and Licinius, he excelled as commander of Constantine's fleet in the waters of the Hellespont, the Propontis, and the Bosporus, thus making a significant contribution to the outcome of that war. The high points of his career are amply reflected in the imperial coinage. In addition to coins, we have his portrait, with varying degrees of certainty, in a number of sculptures, mosaics, cameos, etc. Contemporary authors heap praises upon him. Thus the panegyrist Nazarius speaks of Crispus' "magnificent deeds," and Eusebius calls him "an emperor most dear to God and in all regards comparable to his father."

Crispus' end was as tragic as his career had been brilliant. His own father ordered him to be put to death. We know the year of this sad event, 326, from the Consularia Constantinopolitana, and the place, Pola in Istria, from Ammianus Marcellinus. The circumstances, however, are less clear. Zosimus (6th c.) and Zonaras (12th c.) both report that Crispus and his stepmother Fausta were involved in an illicit relationship. There may be as much gossip as fact in their reports, but it is certain that at some time during the same year the emperor ordered the death of his own wife as well, and the two cases must be considered together. That Crispus and Fausta plotted treason is reported by Gregory of Tours, but not very believable. We must resolutely reject the claim of Zosimus that it was Constantine's sense of guilt over these deeds which caused him to accept Christianity, as it alone promised him forgiveness for his sins. A similar claim had already been made by Julian the Apostate. We must also, I think, reject the suggestion of Guthrie that the emperor acted in the interest of "dynastic legitimacy," that is, that he removed his illegitimate first-born son in order to secure the succession for his three legitimate younger sons. But Crispus must have committed, or at least must have been suspected of having committed, some especially shocking offense to earn him a sentence of death from his own father. He also suffered damnatio memoriae, his honor was never restored, and history has not recorded the fate of his wife and his child (or children).

Copyright (C) 1997, Hans A. Pohlsander. Published on De Imperatoribus Romanis;An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors and their Families:
http://www.roman-emperors.org/crispus.htm


What If?

St. Nectarios, in his book, The Ecumenical Synods, writes "Hellenism spread by Alexander paved the way for Christianity by Emperor Constantine the Great."

Constantine's upward gaze on his "Eyes to Heaven" coins recall the coin portraits of Alexander the Great (namely coins struck by the Diodochi), which served as prototypes for the divine ruler portraiture of much of the Hellenistic age. The diadem, of which this is the most elaborate type, was adopted by Constantine and the members of his house as a new symbol of sovereignty.

In the Greek Orthodox Church, Constantine the Great is revered as a Saint.

Is it just possible? Constantine, knowing what happened (or thinking that he does) to Phillip II of Macedon—assassinated on the eve of his greatness, in a plot that most likely involved his wife—and possibly his son. . . isn’t it just possible that Constantine is growing obsessively jealous of his ever more successful and adulated son? Imagine the Constantine who has proven time and again (think: Licinius) that he is a completely self-serving liar and a murderer, decides to murder again? Why "must we resolutely reject the claim of Zosimus that it was Constantine's sense of guilt over these deeds which caused him to accept Christianity, as it alone promised him forgiveness for his sins [?] (see: above). A similar claim had already been made by Julian the [Philosopher]."

Perhaps it is time to cease being apologists for the sometime megalomaniacal Constantine. As Michael Grant notes, "It is a mocking travesty of justice to call such a murderer Constantine the Great . . ." (Grant, Michael. The Emperor Constantine. London: Phoenix Press, 1998. 226).


Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
jovian.jpg
1410a, Jovian, 27 June 363 - 17 February 364 A.D.78 viewsBronze AE 3, RIC 179, aVF, Constantinople, 3.126g, 21.6mm, 180o. Obverse: D N IOVIANVS P F AVG, pearl diademed, draped and cuirassed bust left; Reverse: VOT V MVLT X within wreath, CONSPG in exergue; scarce.

Flavius Jovianuswas born in 331 at Singidunum, modern Belgrade. His distinguished father, Varronianus, had been a tribune of the legion Ioviani and a comes domesticorum, perhaps under Constantius II, who had retired to private life shortly before Jovian's elevation to the purple. Jovian married a daughter of Lucillianus, perhaps named Charito, and by her produced at least two children.

Jovian himself was a protector domesticus under Constantius II and Julian and, under Julian, primicerius domesticorum. Various Christian sources maintain that Jovian's Christianity led to his deposition by Julian, though most modern scholars dismiss this as ex post facto Christian apologetic. Jovian, recalled to the ranks if he had ever been dismissed, marched with Julian against Sapor in 363, and on 27 June, the day after that emperor's death, was acclaimed Augustus.

Ammianus and Zosimus, among others, detail the difficult straits of the Roman army during its withdrawal from Persian territory, Ammianus from the perspective of a proud soldier confident even in defeat of the superiority of Roman arms, Zosimus, in a much shorter and confused version, concentrating on the predicament of Jovian's troops and on the dire effects to the empire of the peace terms agreed to with Sapor. These terms entailed the cessation to Persia of Roman territory beyond the Tigris -- the cities of Singara and Nisibis, however, to be surrendered on the condition of the safe passage of their inhabitants -- and the guarantee of the neutrality of Rome's ally Arsaces, King of Armenia, in the event of future hostilities between Roman and Persia. Ammianus asserts that in agreeing to these terms Jovian misjudged his tactical strength and wasted an opportunity presented by negotiations with Sapor to move his forces closer to supplies at Corduena, and that Jovian acted on the advise of flatterers to preserve the fighting strength of his forces in the event of an attempt by Julian's relative Procopius to seize the throne. Others present the treaty terms as unavoidable given the Roman predicament.

Jovian appears to have treaded cautiously with regard to religious matters during the early months of his reign. Eunapius says that Jovian continued to honor Maximus and Priscus, the Neoplatonist advisors of Julian, and, upon reaching Tarsus, Jovian performed funeral rites for Julian. Nonetheless, various Christians, most notably Athanasius, took the initiative in an effort to gain Jovian's favor and support. An adherent of the Nicaean creed, Jovian did eventually recall various bishops of homoousian disposition and restore to their followers churches lost under earlier emperors. But in spite of such measures, unity among various Christian sects seems to have been the foremost concern of Jovian, whose ipsissima verba Socrates Scholasticus purports to give: "I abhor contentiousness, but love and honor those hurrying towards unanimity" (Hist. Eccl. 3.25).

Jovian died at the age of thirty-two on 17 February 364 at Dadastana on the boundary of Bithynia and Galatia. The cause of his death was most probably natural and is variously attributed to overeating, the consumption of poisonous mushrooms, or suffocation from fumes of charcoal or of the fresh paint on the room in which he was sleeping. Ammianus' comparison of the circumstances of Jovian's death to those of Scipio Aemilianus suggest the possibility of foul play, as does John of Antioch's reference to a poisoned rather than a poisonous mushroom, while John Chrysostom -- in a highly suspect literary context of consolatio-- asserts outright that the emperor was murdered. Eutropius records that he was enrolled among the gods, inter Divos relatus est. Zonaras says he was buried in the Church of the Holy Apostles and that his wife, Charito, was eventually laid to rest beside him.

Ancient authors agree that Jovian was of modest intellect but imposing physique and disposed to excessive eating and drinking.

By Thomas Banchich, Canisius College
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited By J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

Cleisthenes
Theo1Ae3Ant.jpeg
1505b, Theodosius I, 19 January 379 - 17 January 395 A.D. (Antioch)75 viewsTheodosius I, 19 January 379 - 17 January 395 A.D. Bronze AE 3, RIC 44(b), VF, Antioch, 2.17g, 18.1mm, 180o, 9 Aug 378 - 25 Aug 383 A.D. Obverse: D N THEODOSIVS P F AVG, rosette-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; Reverse: CONCORDIA AVGGG, Constantinopolis enthroned facing, r. foot on prow, globe in l., scepter in r., Q and F at sides, ANTG in ex; scarce.


De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

THEODOSIUS I (379-395 A.D.)
David Woods
University College of Cork


Origin and Early Career
Flavius Theodosius was born at Cauca in Spain in about 346 to Thermantia and Theodosius the Elder (so-called to distinguish him from his son). Theodosius the Elder was a senior military officer serving in the Western empire and rose to become the magister equitum praesentalis under the emperor Valentinian I from late 368 until his execution in early 375. As the son of a soldier, Theodosius was legally obliged to enter upon a military career. He seems to have served under his father during his expedition to Britain in 367/8, and was the dux Moesiae Primae by late 374. Unfortunately, great controversy surrounds the rest of his career until Gratian had him hailed as his imperial colleague in succession to the emperor Valens at Sirmium on 19 January 379. It is clear that he was forced to retire home to Spain only to be recalled to active service shortly thereafter, but the circumstances of his forced retirement are shrouded in mystery. His father was executed at roughly the same time, and much speculation has centred on the relationship between these events.

[For a very detailed and interesting discussion of the Foreign Policy of Theodosius and the Civil Wars that plagued his reign, please see http://www.roman-emperors.org/theo1.htm]

Family and Succession
Theodosius married twice. His first wife was the Spanish Aelia Flavia Flaccilla. She bore him Arcadius ca. 377, Honorius on 9 September 384, and Pulcheria ca. 385. Theodosius honoured her with the title of Augusta shortly after his accession, but she died in 386. In late 387 he married Galla, daughter of Valentinian I and full-sister of Valentinian II. She bore him Gratian ca. 388, Galla Placidia ca. 388/390, and died in childbirth in 394, together with her new-born son John. Of his two sons who survived infancy, he appointed Arcadius as Augustus on 19 January 383 and Honorius as Augustus on 23 January 393. His promotion of Arcadius as a full Augustus at an unusually young age points to his determination right from the start that one of his own sons should succeed him. He sought to strengthen Arcadius' position in particular by means of a series of strategic marriages whose purpose was to tie his leading "generals" irrevocably to his dynasty. Hence he married his niece and adoptive daughter Serena to his magister militum per Orientem Stilicho in 387, her elder sister Thermantia to a "general" whose name has not been preserved, and ca. 387 his nephew-in-law Nebridius to Salvina, daughter of the comes Africae Gildo. By the time of his death by illness on 17 January 395, Theodosius had promoted Stilicho from his position as one of the two comites domesticorum under his own eastern administration to that of magister peditum praesentalis in a western administration, in an entirely traditional manner, under his younger son Honorius. Although Stilicho managed to increase the power of the magister peditum praesentalis to the disadvantage of his colleague the magister equitum praesentalis and claimed that Theodosius had appointed him as guardian for both his sons, this tells us more about his cunning and ambition than it does about Theodosius' constitutional arrangements.

Theodosius' importance rests on the fact that he founded a dynasty which continued in power until the death of his grandson Theodosius II in 450. This ensured a continuity of policy which saw the emergence of Nicene Christianity as the orthodox belief of the vast majority of Christians throughout the middle ages. It also ensured the essential destruction of paganism and the emergence of Christianity as the religion of the state, even if the individual steps in this process can be difficult to identify. On the negative side, however, he allowed his dynastic interests and ambitions to lead him into two unnecessary and bloody civil wars which severely weakened the empire's ability to defend itself in the face of continued barbarian pressure upon its frontiers. In this manner, he put the interests of his family before those of the wider Roman population and was responsible, in many ways, for the phenomenon to which we now refer as the fall of the western Roman empire.


Copyright (C) 1998, David Woods.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

There is a nice segue here, as we pick-up John Julius Norwich's summation of the reign of Theodosius, "Readers of this brief account of his career may well find themselves wondering, not so much whether he deserved the title of 'the Great' as how he ever came to acquire it in the first place. If so, however, they may also like to ask themselves another question: what would have been the fate of the Empire if, at that critical moment in its history after the battle of Adrianople, young Gratian had not called him from his Spanish estates and put the future of the East into his hands? . . . the probability is that the whole Empire of the East would have been lost, swallowed up in a revived Gothic kingdom, with effects on world history that defy speculation.

In his civil legislation he showed, again and again, a consideration for the humblest of his subjects that was rare indeed among rulers of the fourth century. What other prince would have decreed that any criminal, sentenced to execution, imprisonment or exile, must first be allowed thirty days' grace to put his affairs in order? Or that a specified part of his worldly goods must go to his children, upon whom their father's crimes must on no account be visited? Or that no farmer should be obliged to sell his produce to the State at a price lower than he would receive on the open market?

Had he earned his title? Not, perhaps, in the way that Constantine had done or as Justinian was to do. But, if not ultimately great himself, he had surely come very close to greatness; and had he reigned as long as they did his achievements might well have equalled theirs. He might even have saved the Western Empire. One thing only is certain: it would be nearly a century and a half before the Romans would look upon his like again" (Norwich, John Julius. Byzantium, the Early Centuries. London: Penguin Group, 1990. 116-7;118).

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.



Cleisthenes
Theod1GlrMan.jpg
1505c, Theodosius I, 379 - 395 A.D. (Constantinople)84 viewsTheodosius I (379 - 395 AD) AE3. 388-394 AD, RIC IX 27(a)3, Third Officina. Seventh Period. 20.27 mm. 4.8gm. Near VF with black and earthen patina. Constantinople. Obverse: DN THEODO-SIANVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped, & cuirassed bust right; Reverse: GLORIA-ROMANORVM, Theodosius I standing, facing, holding labarum and globe, CONSB in exergue (scarcer reverse). A Spanish find.



De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

THEODOSIUS I (379-395 A.D.)
David Woods
University College of Cork


Origin and Early Career
Flavius Theodosius was born at Cauca in Spain in about 346 to Thermantia and Theodosius the Elder (so-called to distinguish him from his son). Theodosius the Elder was a senior military officer serving in the Western empire and rose to become the magister equitum praesentalis under the emperor Valentinian I from late 368 until his execution in early 375. As the son of a soldier, Theodosius was legally obliged to enter upon a military career. He seems to have served under his father during his expedition to Britain in 367/8, and was the dux Moesiae Primae by late 374. Unfortunately, great controversy surrounds the rest of his career until Gratian had him hailed as his imperial colleague in succession to the emperor Valens at Sirmium on 19 January 379. It is clear that he was forced to retire home to Spain only to be recalled to active service shortly thereafter, but the circumstances of his forced retirement are shrouded in mystery. His father was executed at roughly the same time, and much speculation has centred on the relationship between these events.

[For a very detailed and interesting discussion of the Foreign Policy of Theodosius and the Civil Wars that plagued his reign, please see http://www.roman-emperors.org/theo1.htm]

Family and Succession
Theodosius married twice. His first wife was the Spanish Aelia Flavia Flaccilla. She bore him Arcadius ca. 377, Honorius on 9 September 384, and Pulcheria ca. 385. Theodosius honoured her with the title of Augusta shortly after his accession, but she died in 386. In late 387 he married Galla, daughter of Valentinian I and full-sister of Valentinian II. She bore him Gratian ca. 388, Galla Placidia ca. 388/390, and died in childbirth in 394, together with her new-born son John. Of his two sons who survived infancy, he appointed Arcadius as Augustus on 19 January 383 and Honorius as Augustus on 23 January 393. His promotion of Arcadius as a full Augustus at an unusually young age points to his determination right from the start that one of his own sons should succeed him. He sought to strengthen Arcadius' position in particular by means of a series of strategic marriages whose purpose was to tie his leading "generals" irrevocably to his dynasty. Hence he married his niece and adoptive daughter Serena to his magister militum per Orientem Stilicho in 387, her elder sister Thermantia to a "general" whose name has not been preserved, and ca. 387 his nephew-in-law Nebridius to Salvina, daughter of the comes Africae Gildo. By the time of his death by illness on 17 January 395, Theodosius had promoted Stilicho from his position as one of the two comites domesticorum under his own eastern administration to that of magister peditum praesentalis in a western administration, in an entirely traditional manner, under his younger son Honorius. Although Stilicho managed to increase the power of the magister peditum praesentalis to the disadvantage of his colleague the magister equitum praesentalis and claimed that Theodosius had appointed him as guardian for both his sons, this tells us more about his cunning and ambition than it does about Theodosius' constitutional arrangements.

Theodosius' importance rests on the fact that he founded a dynasty which continued in power until the death of his grandson Theodosius II in 450. This ensured a continuity of policy which saw the emergence of Nicene Christianity as the orthodox belief of the vast majority of Christians throughout the middle ages. It also ensured the essential destruction of paganism and the emergence of Christianity as the religion of the state, even if the individual steps in this process can be difficult to identify. On the negative side, however, he allowed his dynastic interests and ambitions to lead him into two unnecessary and bloody civil wars which severely weakened the empire's ability to defend itself in the face of continued barbarian pressure upon its frontiers. In this manner, he put the interests of his family before those of the wider Roman population and was responsible, in many ways, for the phenomenon to which we now refer as the fall of the western Roman empire.


Copyright (C) 1998, David Woods.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

There is a nice segue here, as we pick-up John Julius Norwich's summation of the reign of Theodosius, "Readers of this brief account of his career may well find themselves wondering, not so much whether he deserved the title of 'the Great' as how he ever came to acquire it in the first place. If so, however, they may also like to ask themselves another question: what would have been the fate of the Empire if, at that critical moment in its history after the battle of Adrianople, young Gratian had not called him from his Spanish estates and put the future of the East into his hands? . . . the probability is that the whole Empire of the East would have been lost, swallowed up in a revived Gothic kingdom, with effects on world history that defy speculation.

In his civil legislation he showed, again and again, a consideration for the humblest of his subjects that was rare indeed among rulers of the fourth century. What other prince would have decreed that any criminal, sentenced to execution, imprisonment or exile, must first be allowed thirty days' grace to put his affairs in order? Or that a specified part of his worldly goods must go to his children, upon whom their father's crimes must on no account be visited? Or that no farmer should be obliged to sell his produce to the State at a price lower than he would receive on the open market?

Had he earned his title? Not, perhaps, in the way that Constantine had done or as Justinian was to do. But, if not ultimately great himself, he had surely come very close to greatness; and had he reigned as long as they did his achievements might well have equalled theirs. He might even have saved the Western Empire. One thing only is certain: it would be nearly a century and a half before the Romans would look upon his like again" (Norwich, John Julius. Byzantium, the Early Centuries. London: Penguin Group, 1990. 116-7;118).

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
1542_-1548_MARY_Queen_of_Scots_AR_Bawbee.JPG
1542 - 1567, Mary I “Queen of Scots”, AR billon Bawbee (sixpence), Struck 1542 - 1558 at Edinburgh, Scotland20 viewsObverse: +MARIA•D•G•R•SCOTORVM. Crowned thistle, M to left, R to right, beaded circles and legend surrounding. Greek cross in legend.
Reverse: OPPIDVM•EDINBVRGI, retrograde N in legend. Crown over voided saltire cross, cinquefoil on either side, beaded circles and legend surrounding, fleur-de-lis within legend above.
Diameter: 22mm | Weight: 1.8gms | Die Axis: 10
SPINK: 5433

First period issue, before Mary's marriage to the French Dauphin, Francis. The cinquefoils refer to the Earl of Arran who acted as Regent until Mary came of age.

Mary I is one of the most well known, romantic and tragic figures in Scottish history. She was the only surviving child of King James V of Scotland and became queen on the death of her father when she was only six or seven days old. Mary was brought up in the Catholic faith and educated in France along with the French royal children, while Scotland was ruled in her name by regents, principally the Earl of Arran. In 1558 Mary married the French Dauphin, Francis, and following his accession in 1559 she became Queen consort of France and he King consort of Scotland. However, when Francis died in 1560 Mary was devastated and in 1561 she returned to Scotland. Four years later, in 1565, she married her half-cousin, Lord Darnley and the following year she bore him a son, who would later become James I of England. When in 1567, Darnley's house in Edinburgh was destroyed by an explosion and he was found murdered in the grounds, suspicion implicated Mary and her favourite, the Earl of Bothwell. When later that same year Mary married Bothwell those suspicions were not allayed, and following an uprising against her, she was imprisoned in Loch Leven Castle and forced to abdicate in favour of her one year old son. After an unsuccessful attempt to regain her throne and defeat at the battle of Langside in 1568, Mary fled south to England, only to be imprisoned by Elizabeth I who perceived her as a threat to the throne of England. For over eighteen years Elizabeth had Mary confined in various castles and manor houses throughout England until, in 1587, after being accused of numerous intrigues and plots against Elizabeth, Mary was beheaded at Fotheringhay Castle.
3 comments*Alex
James_I_AR_Sixpence.JPG
1603 - 1625, JAMES I (JAMES VI of Scotland), AR Sixpence struck in 1605 at London2 viewsObverse: IACOBVS•D:G:MAG:BRIT:FRA:ET•HIB:REX. Crowned and armoured bust of James I of England facing right, VI in field behind bust and mintmark (Rose) in legend above.
Reverse: •QUAE•DEVS•CONIVNXIT•NEMO•SEPARET• Square topped shield bearing the arms of England, Scotland and Ireland; 1605 above. Mintmark (rose) in legend.
Second coinage (1604 – 1619) and fourth bust with long square cut beard.
Diameter: 26mm | Weight: 2.8gms | Die Axis: 10
SPINK: 2658

The sixpence was first introduced during the reign of Edward VI in 1551, it had a facing portrait of the king with a rose to the left and the denomination VI to the right.
With the accession of James VI of Scotland to the throne of England, reigning there as James I, the royal titles and the coat of arms were altered on the coinage. The Scottish lion rampant and the Irish harp now made their appearance in the second and third quarters of the royal coat of arms of the newly formed United Kingdom and, from 1604, MAG BRIT replaced ANG SCO in the King's titles.

The infamous “Gunpowder Plot” took place on November the fifth in the year this coin was struck. The plot, to blow up the English Houses of Parliament, was foiled when a Justice of the Peace, Sir Thomas Knyvet, was secretly informed of a Catholic plot and, after giving orders for a search of the area, discovered Guy Fawkes in a cellar below the Parliament building. Thirty-six barrels of gunpowder were found and Guy Fawkes was arrested for treason and charged with trying to kill King James along with the members of Parliament who were scheduled to sit together next day.
Guy Fawkes, also known as Guido Fawkes, was tortured and questioned over the next few days and eventually confessed. He was sentenced to being hung, drawn and quartered. However, immediately before his execution on the 31st of January 1606 he fell from the scaffold where he was about to be hanged and broke his neck, so avoiding the agony of the mutilation that followed.
Guy Fawkes has become synonymous with the Gunpowder Plot which has been commemorated in Britain on the 5th of November ever since. His effigy is traditionally burned on a bonfire, usually accompanied by a fireworks display.
When I was young, on the run-up to “bonfire night”, children used to make their own “Guy” and then tout it through the streets with cries of “Penny for the Guy” something like today's Hallowe'en “trick or treat”. But this has pretty much died out now having been replaced by officially staged events.
*Alex
lucilla sestertius.jpg
161-169 AD - LUCILLA AE sestertius49 viewsobv: LVCILLA AVGVSTA (draped bust right)
rev: FECVNDITAS / S.C. (Fecunditas - or Lucilla seated right, nursing child in arms, two children at feet)
ref: RIC III 1736 (M.Aurelius), Cohen 21, BMC 1197
22.42g, 26-28mm
Scarce

Annia Lucilla, daughter of Marcus Aurelius and Faustina Junior, wife of Lucius Verus. She conspired against Commodus, by whom she was exiled to Capreae, where she was put to death (perhaps together Crispina in 183 AD).
berserker
RI_162e_img.jpg
162 - Fausta - AE3 - RIC VII Alexandria 40 17 viewsAE3
Obv:– FLAV MAX FAVSTA AVG, Draped bust right
Rev:– SPES REIPVBLICAE, Spes standing left with two children in her arms
Minted in Alexandria (//SMALA), A.D. 325 – A.D. 326
Reference(s) – RIC VII Alexandria 40 (R4)
maridvnvm
RI_162d_img.jpg
162 - Fausta - Ae3 - RIC VII Lugdunum 235 12 viewsObv:– FLAV MAX FAVSTA AVG, Draped bust right
Rev:– SPES REIPVBLICAE, Spes standing left with two children in her arms
Minted in Lugdunum (//PLC), end A.D. 324 – A.D. 325
Reference:– Bastien 193 (20 examples cited). RIC VII Lugdunum 235 (R2).
maridvnvm
RI 162a img.jpg
162 - Fausta - RIC VII Heraclea 086 var. (unlisted officina)42 viewsObv:– FLAV MAX FAVSTA AVG, Draped bust right
Rev:– SPES REIPVBLICAE, Spes standing left with two children in her arms
Minted in Heraclea. SMHΔ• in exe. A.D. 326
Reference:– RIC Heraclea 86 var (RIC records only officina A)
maridvnvm
RI_162b_img.jpg
162 - Fausta - RIC VII Lugdunum 23526 viewsObv:– FLAV • MAX • FAVSTA AVG, Draped bust right
Rev:– SPES REIPVBLICAE, Spes standing left with two children in her arms
Minted in Lugdunum. PLG in exe. end A.D. 324 – A.D. 325
Reference:– RIC VII Lugdunum 235 (R2). Bastien Vol. XIII 193 (20 examples cited)
Martin Griffiths
RI_162c_img.jpg
162 - Fausta - RIC VII Lugdunum 23511 viewsObv:– FLAV • MAX • FAVSTA AVG, Draped bust right
Rev:– SPES REIPVBLICAE, Spes standing left with two children in her arms
Minted in Lugdunum. PLG in exe. end A.D. 324 – A.D. 325
Reference:– RIC VII Lugdunum 235 (R2). Bastien Vol. XIII 193 (20 examples cited)
Martin Griffiths
JOHN_OF_GAUNT_1794-circa__LANCASTER_HALFPENNY.JPG
1794 (?) Undated AE Halfpenny. Lancaster, Lancashire.41 viewsObverse: IOHN OF GAUNT DUKE OF LANCASTER ★. Bust of John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster, facing left.
Reverse: SUCCESS TO THE COMMERCE OF BRITAIN. Britannia standing on the shore facing left, holding a spray of leaves in her outstretched right hand, and a shield and spear in her left; three ships at sea to the left in front of her and another vessel in the distance behind her; two men ploughing the ground behind her to the right. Below, in exergue, lion facing right and sprig of three leaves.
Edge: Plain.
Diameter: 29mm
Dalton & Hamer: 54
RARE

This token was probably manufactured by Peter Kempson in Birmingham, the dies were engraved by J.G.Hancock.
In the 18th century, token manufacturers often used their dies to their own advantage by striking “mules”, solely with the object of creating rare varieties which were sold to the collectors of the day.
The Britannia design has been copied from a silver medal commemorating the Treaty of Utrecht by John Croker which was originally struck under Queen Anne in 1713

JOHN OF GAUNT
John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster, was a member of the House of Plantagenet, he was the third surviving son of King Edward III of England and Philippa of Hainault. He was called "John of Gaunt" because he was born in Ghent, then anglicised as Gaunt.
John of Gaunt's legitimate male heirs, the Lancasters, included Kings Henry IV, Henry V, and Henry VI. John fathered five children outside marriage, one early in life by a lady-in-waiting to his mother, and four surnamed "Beaufort" (after a former French possession) by Katherine Swynford, Gaunt's long-term mistress and third wife. The Beaufort children, three sons and a daughter, were legitimised by royal and papal decrees after John and Katherine married in 1396; a later proviso that they were specifically barred from inheriting the throne was inserted with dubious authority by their half-brother Henry IV. The three succeeding houses of English sovereigns from 1399, the Houses of Lancaster, York and Tudor, were descended from John through Henry Bolingbroke, Joan Beaufort and John Beaufort, respectively.
John of Gaunt's eldest son and heir, Henry Bolingbroke, Duke of Hereford, was exiled for ten years by King Richard II in 1398. When John of Gaunt died at the age of 58 on 3rd February, 1399, his estates and titles were declared forfeit to the crown because King Richard II named Henry Bolingbroke a traitor and sentenced him to exile for life, but Henry returned from exile to reclaim his inheritance and depose Richard. Henry Bolingbroke then reigned as King Henry IV of England from 1399 to 1413, the first of the descendants of John of Gaunt to hold the throne of England.
John of Gaunt, due to his land grants, was one of the wealthiest men to have ever lived, his estates are estimated to have been worth a modern equivalent of $110 billion.
*Alex
FulviaQuinariusLion.jpg
1ae2 Fulvia45 viewsFirst wife of Marc Antony

ca 83-40 BC

AR Quinarius
Bust of Victory right with the likeness of Fulvia, III VIR R P C
Lion right between A and XLI; ANTONI above, IMP in ex

RSC 3, Syd 1163, Cr489/6

Fulvia was the first Roman non-mythological woman to appear on Roman coins. She gained access to power through her marriage to three of the most promising men of her generation, Publius Clodius Pulcher, Gaius Scribonius Curio, and Marcus Antonius. All three husbands were politically active populares, tribunes, and supporters of Julius Caesar. Fulvia married Mark Antony in 47 or 46 BC, a few years after Curio's death, although Cicero suggested that Fulvia and Antony had had a relationship since 58 BC. According to him, while Fulvia and Antony were married, Antony once left a military post to sneak back into Rome during the night and personally deliver a love letter to Fulvia describing his love for her and how he had stopped seeing the famous actress Cytheris. Cicero also suggested that Antony married Fulvia for her money. At the time of their marriage, Antony was an established politician. He had already been tribune in 49 BC, commanded armies under Caesar and was Master of the Horse in 47 BC. As a couple, they were a formidable political force in Rome, and had two sons together, Marcus Antonius Antyllus and Iullus Antonius.

Suetonius wrote, "[Antony] took a wife, Fulvia, the widow of Clodius the demagogue, a woman not born for spinning or housewifery, nor one that could be content with ruling a private husband, but prepared to govern a first magistrate, or give orders to a commander-in-chief. So that Cleopatra had great obligations to her for having taught Antony to be so good a servant, he coming to her hands tame and broken into entire obedience to the commands of a mistress. He used to play all sorts of sportive, boyish tricks, to keep Fulvia in good-humour. As, for example, when Caesar, after his victory in Spain, was on his return, Antony, among the rest, went out to meet him; and, a rumour being spread that Caesar was killed and the enemy marching into Italy, he returned to Rome, and, disguising himself, came to her by night muffled up as a servant that brought letters from Antony. She, with great impatience, before received the letter, asks if Antony were well, and instead of an answer he gives her the letter; and, as she was opening it, took her about the neck and kissed her."

After Julius Caesar was assassinated, Antony became the most powerful man in Rome. Fulvia was heavily involved in the political aftermath. After Caesar's death, the senate realized his popularity and declared that they would pass all of Caesar's planned laws. Antony had attained possession of Caesar's papers, and with the ability to produce papers in support of any law, Fulvia and Antony made a fortune and gained immense power. She allegedly accompanied Antony to his military camp at Brundisium in 44 BC. Appian wrote that in December 44 and again in 41 BC, while Antony was abroad and Cicero campaigned for Antony to be declared an enemy of the state, Fulvia attempted to block such declarations by soliciting support on Antony's behalf.

Antony formed the second triumvirate with Octavian (the future emperor Augustus) and Marcus Aemilius Lepidus on 43 BC and began to conduct proscriptions. To solidify the political alliance, Fulvia's daughter Clodia was married to the young Octavian. Appian and Cassius Dio describe Fulvia as being involved in the violent proscriptions, which were used to destroy enemies and gain badly needed funds to secure control of Rome. Antony pursued his political enemies, chief among them being Cicero, who had openly criticized him for abusing his powers as consul after Caesar's assassination. Though many ancient sources wrote that Fulvia was happy to take revenge against Cicero for Antony's and Clodius' sake, Cassius Dio is the only ancient source that describes the joy with which she pierced the tongue of the dead Cicero with her golden hairpins, as a final revenge against Cicero's power of speech.

In 42 BC, Antony and Octavian left Rome to pursue Julius Caesar's assassins, Marcus Junius Brutus and Gaius Cassius Longinus. Fulvia was left behind as the most powerful woman in Rome. According to Cassius Dio, Fulvia controlled the politics of Rome. Dio wrote that "the following year Publius Servilius and Lucius Antonius nominally became consuls, but in reality it was Antonius and Fulvia. She, the mother-in‑law of Octavian and wife of Antony, had no respect for Lepidus because of his slothfulness, and managed affairs herself, so that neither the senate nor the people transacted any business contrary to her pleasure."

Shortly afterwards, the triumvirs then distributed the provinces among them. Lepidus took the west and Antony went to Egypt, where he met Cleopatra VII. When Octavian returned to Rome in 41 BC to disperse land to Caesar's veterans, he divorced Fulvia's daughter and accused Fulvia of aiming at supreme power. Fulvia allied with her brother-in-law Lucius Antonius and publicly endorsed Mark Antony in opposition to Octavian.

In 41 BC, tensions between Octavian and Fulvia escalated to war in Italy. Together with Lucius Antonius, she raised eight legions in Italy to fight for Antony's rights against Octavian, an event known as the Perusine War. Fulvia fled to Greece with her children. Appian writes that she met Antony in Athens, and he was upset with her involvement in the war. Antony then sailed back to Rome to deal with Octavian, and Fulvia died of an unknown illness in exile in Sicyon, near Corinth, Achaea.
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AgrippaAsNeptune.jpg
1ah Marcus Agrippa37 viewsDied 12 BC
As, minted by Caligula.

Head left wearing rostral crownt, M AGRIPPA L F COS III
Neptune standing facing, head left, naked except for cloak draped behind him & over both arms, holding small dolphin in right hand & vertical trident in left, SC

RIC 58

Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa (c 63 BC–12 BC) was a close friend, and defence minister of the future emperor Augustus. He was responsible for many of his military victories, most notably Actium against the forces of Mark Antony and Cleopatra VII of Egypt. He was son-in-law to Augustus, maternal grandfather of the Emperor Caligula, father-in-law of the Emperors Tiberius and Claudius, and maternal great-grandfather of the Emperor Nero. He probably served in Caesar’s campaign of 46/45 BC against Pompey and Caesar regarded him highly enough to send him with Octavius in 45 BC to study at Apollonia. From then on Agrippa played a major part in Augustus’ career, as military commander and admiral, also undertaking major public works, and writing works on geography (following his survey of the Empire) and other subjects. He erected many fine buildings in Rome, including the original Pantheon on the Campus Martius (during his third consulship 27 BC). He married Claudia Marcella the Elder, daughter of Octavia the Younger in 28 BC, and Julia the Elder in 21 BC, with whom he had five children. His daughter Agrippina Vipsania the Younger the married Tiberius, and his daughter Agrippina Vipsania the Elder married Germanicus. His last campaign initiated the conquest of the upper Danube region, which would become the Roman province of Pannonia in 13 BC. Augustus had Agrippa’s remains placed in his own mausoleum. Ronald Syme offers a compelling case that Agrippa was much more co-ruler of the empire with Augustus than he was a subordinate.
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GermanicusAsSC.jpg
1an Germanicus37 viewsAdopted by Tiberius in 4 AD, died mysteriously in 19

As, struck by Caligula

Bare head, left, GERMANICVS CAESAR TI AVGVST F DIVI AVG N
C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT SC

RIC 57

Germanicus Julius Caesar (c16 BC-AD 19) was was born in Lugdunum, Gaul (modern Lyon). At birth he was named either Nero Claudius Drusus after his father or Tiberius Claudius Nero after his uncle. He received the agnomen Germanicus, in 9 BC, when it was posthumously awarded to his father in honour of his victories in Germania. Germanicus was the grandson-in-law and great-nephew of the Emperor Augustus, nephew and adoptive son of the Emperor Tiberius, father of the Emperor Caligula, brother of the Emperor Claudius, and the maternal grandfather of the Emperor Nero. He married his maternal second cousin Agrippina the Elder, a granddaughter of Augustus, between 5 and 1 BC. The couple had nine children. Two died very young; another, Gaius Julius Caesar, died in early childhood. The remaining six were: Nero Caesar, Drusus Caesar, the Emperor Caligula, the Empress Agrippina the Younger, Julia Drusilla, and Julia Livilla.

According to Suetonius: Germanicus, who was the son of Drusus the Elder and Antonia the Younger, was adopted (in 4AD) by Germanicus’s paternal uncle, Tiberius. He served as quaestor (in7AD) five years before the legal age and became consul (in12AD) without holding the intermediate offices. On the death of Augustus (in AD14) he was appointed to command the army in Germany, where, his filial piety and determination vying for prominence, he held the legions to their oath, though they stubbornly opposed Tiberius’s succession, and wished him to take power for himself.

He followed this with victory in Germany, for which he celebrated a triumph (in 17 AD), and was chosen as consul for a second time (18 AD) though unable to take office as he was despatched to the East to restore order there. He defeated the forces of the King of Armenia, and reduced Cappadocia to provincial status, but then died at Antioch, at the age of only thirty-three (in AD 19), after a lingering illness, though there was also suspicion that he had been poisoned. For as well as the livid stains which covered his body, and the foam on his lips, the heart was found entire among the ashes after his cremation, its total resistance to flame being a characteristic of that organ, they say, when it is filled with poison.

All considered Germanicus exceptional in body and mind, to a quite outstanding degree. Remarkably brave and handsome; a master of Greek and Latin oratory and learning; singularly benevolent; he was possessed of a powerful desire and vast capacity for winning respect and inspiring affection.

His scrawny legs were less in keeping with the rest of his figure, but he gradually fleshed them out by assiduous exercise on horseback after meals. He often killed enemy warriors in hand-to-hand combat; still pleaded cases in the courts even after receiving his triumph; and left various Greek comedies behind amongst other fruits of his studies.

At home and abroad his manners were unassuming, such that he always entered free or allied towns without his lictors.

Whenever he passed the tombs of famous men, he always offered a sacrifice to their shades. And he was the first to initiate a personal search for the scattered remains of Varus’s fallen legionaries, and have them gathered together, so as to inter them in a single burial mound.

As for Germanicus, Tiberius appreciated him so little, that he dismissed his famous deeds as trivial, and his brilliant victories as ruinous to the Empire. He complained to the Senate when Germanicus left for Alexandria (AD19) without consulting him, on the occasion there of a terrible and swift-spreading famine. It was even believed that Tiberius arranged for his poisoning at the hands of Gnaeus Calpurnius Piso, the Governor of Syria, and that Piso would have revealed the written instructions at his trial, had Tiberius not retrieved them during a private interview, before having Piso put to death. As a result, the words: ‘Give us back Germanicus!’ were posted on the walls, and shouted at night, all throughout Rome. The suspicion surrounding Germanicus’ death (19 AD) was deepened by Tiberius’s cruel treatment of Germanicus’s wife, Agrippina the Elder, and their children.
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Caligula_Drusilla_AE20.jpg
1ao3 Julia Drusilla33 viewsAE 20 of Smyrna (Izmir, Turkey)
Laureate head of Caligula, right, ΓAION KAICAPA EΠI AOYIOΛA
Drusilla as Persephone seated left, poppies between two stalks of grain in right hand, long scepter vertical behind in left hand, ∆POYCIΛΛAN ZMYPNAIΩN MHNOΦANHC

Caligula’s sister

Klose XXVIII, 27 (Vs4/Rs10); RPC I 2472; SNG Cop 1343; SNGvA 2202; BMC Ionia p. 269, 272

According to Suetonius’ salacious account: Germanicus had married Agrippina the Elder, daughter of Marcus Agrippa and Julia the Elder, and she had borne him nine children. Two died in infancy, another in early childhood. . . .

The other children survived their father: three girls, Agrippina the Younger, Drusilla and Livilla, born in successive years; and three boys, Nero, Drusus, and Gaius Caesar (Caligula). . . . [Caligula] habitually committed incest with each of his three sisters, seating them in turn below him at large banquets while his wife reclined above. It is believed that he violated Drusilla’s virginity while a minor, and been caught in bed with her by his grandmother Antonia, in whose household they were jointly raised. Later, when Drusilla was married to Lucius Cassius Longinus, an ex-consul, he took her from him and openly treated her as his lawful married wife. When he fell ill he made her heir to his estate and the throne.

When Drusilla died (in 38AD) he declared a period of public mourning during which it was a capital offense to laugh, or bathe, or to dine with parents, spouse or children. Caligula himself was so overcome with grief that he fled the City in the middle of the night, and travelled through Campania, and on to Syracuse, returning again with the same degree of haste, and without cutting his hair or shaving. From that time forwards whenever he took an important oath, even in public or in front of the army, he always swore by Drusilla’s divinity.
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ClaudiusMessalinaAE20.jpg
1ap_2 Messalina36 viewsThird wife of Claudius, married in 38 (?)

AE 20, Knossos mint

Bare head of Claudius left, CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS

Draped bust of Messalina right, VALERIA MESSALINA [CAPITONE CYTHERONTE IIVIR] or [CYTHERO CAPITONE] (end of legend off flan)

According to Suetonius: [Claudius] was betrothed twice at an early age: to Aemilia Lepida, great-granddaughter of Augustus, and to Livia Medullina, who also had the surname of Camilla and was descended from the ancient family of Camillus the dictator. He put away the former before their marriage, because her parents had offended Augustus; the latter was taken ill and died on the very day which had been set for the wedding. He then married Plautia Urgulanilla, whose father had been honoured with a triumph, and later Aelia Paetina, daughter of an ex-consul. He divorced both these, Paetina for trivial offences, but Urgulanilla because of scandalous lewdness and the suspicion of murder. Then he married Valeria Messalina, daughter of his cousin Messala Barbatus. But when he learned that besides other shameful and wicked deeds she had actually married Gaius Silius, and that a formal contract had been signed in the presence of witnesses, he put her to death and declared before the assembled praetorian guard that inasmuch as his marriages did not turn out well, he would remain a widower, and if he did not keep his word, he would not refuse death at their hands. . . . [He later married Agrippina Jr.]

He had children by three of his wives: by Urgulanilla, Drusus and Claudia; by Paetina, Antonia; by Messalina, Octavia and a son, at first called Germanicus and later Britannicus. . . .

But it is beyond all belief, that at the marriage which Messalina had contracted with her paramour Silius he signed the contract for the dowry with his own hand, being induced to do so on the ground that the marriage was a feigned one, designed to avert and turn upon another a danger which was inferred from certain portents to threaten the emperor himself. . . .

He was so terror-stricken by unfounded reports of conspiracies that he had tried to abdicate. When, as I have mentioned before, a man with a dagger was caught near him as he was sacrificing, he summoned the senate in haste by criers and loudly and tearfully bewailed his lot, saying that there was no safety for him anywhere; and for a long time he would not appear in public. His ardent love for Messalina too was cooled, not so much by her unseemly and insulting conduct, as through fear of danger, since he believed that her paramour Silius aspired to the throne. . . .

Appius Silanus met his downfall. When Messalina and Narcissus had put their heads together to destroy him, they agreed on their parts and the latter rushed into his patron's bed-chamber before daybreak in pretended consternation, declaring that he had dreamed that Appius had made an attack on the emperor. Then Messalina, with assumed surprise, declared that she had had the same dream for several successive nights. A little later, as had been arranged, Appius, who had received orders the day before to come at that time, was reported to be forcing his way in, and as if were proof positive of the truth of the dream, his immediate accusation and death were ordered. . . .


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FaustinaIIAsJuno.jpg
1bk Faustina Junior147 viewsWife of Marcus Aurelius. 131-176

As
Draped bust, left, FAVSTINA AVG PII AVG FIL
Juno seated left holding the three graces and scepter, peacock at feet, IVNO SC

The daughter of Antoninus Pius, wife of Aurelius, and mother of Commodus, Faustina had a box seat to witness the end of the Golden Age. She bore Aurelius at least 13 children and accompanied him on his military campaigns, yet years later had her reputation impuned for alleged adultery.

The reverse is RIC 1400, for which only right-facing busts are listed.

From Curtis Clay: "This is a rev. type that used to be very rare, even with bust right, but quite a few specimens have emerged from Bulgaria since the fall of the Iron Curtain.

I had a specimen with bust left myself, acquired from Baldwin's c. 1970, which is now in the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford.

A VF specimen with bust left, from the same dies as yours, was in CNG E54, 4 Dec. 2002, 145 = CNG 57, 4 April 2001, 1292.

Still an interesting and scarce reverse type, and rare with bust left, a variety that is hard to find on any Roman coin of Faustina II !" Thank you, Curtis!
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PupineusSestPax.jpg
1ck Pupienus31 views238

Sestertius

Laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust, right, IMP CAES PVPIEN MAXIMVS AVG
Pax seated left with branch & scepter PAX PVBLICA SC

RIC 22b

Herodian, continuing the story of the rebellion against Maximinus, wrote: [Pupienus] led most of these soldiers out to attack Maximinus; the rest remained behind to guard and defend the city. . . . In the meantime, having completed his march, Maximinus was poised on the borders of Italy; after offering sacrifices at all the boundary altars, he advanced into Italy. . . . When no opposition was offered, they crossed the Alps without hindrance. . . . While the army was in the plain, the scouts reported that Aquileia, the largest city in that part of Italy, had closed its gates and that the Pannonian legions which had been sent ahead had launched a vigorous attack upon the walls of this city. In spite of frequent assaults, they were completely unsuccessful. . . .

As time passed, the army of Maximinus grew depressed and, cheated in its expectations, fell into despair. . . . As Maximinus rode about, the [people of Aquileia] shouted insults and indecent blasphemies at him and his son. The emperor became increasingly angry because he was powerless to retaliate. . . . The emperor's soldiers were. . . in need of everything. There was scarcely even sufficient water for them. . . .

Without warning, the soldiers whose camp was near Rome at the foot of Mount Alba, where they had left their wives and children, decided that the best solution was to kill Maximinus and end the interminable siege. . . . [T]he conspirators went to Maximinus' tent about noon. The imperial bodyguard, which was involved in the plot, ripped Maximinus' pictures from the standards; when he came out of his tent with his son to talk to them, they refused to listen and killed them both. . . .

For the rest of the time the two emperors governed in an orderly and well-regulated manner, winning approval on every hand both privately and publicly. The people honored and respected them as patriotic and admirable rulers of the empire. . . . It so happened that the two men were not in complete accord: so great is the desire for sole rule and so contrary to the usual practice is it for the sovereignty to be shared that each undertook to secure the imperial power for himself alone. Balbinus considered himself the more worthy because of his noble birth and his two terms as consul; [Pupienus] felt that he deserved first place because he had served as prefect of Rome and had won a good reputation by his administrative efforts. Both men were led to covet the sole rule because of their distinguished birth, aristocratic lineage, and the size of their families. This rivalry was the basis of their downfall. When [Pupienus] learned that the Praetorian Guard was coming to kill them, he wished to summon a sufficient number of the German auxiliaries who were in Rome to resist the conspirators. But Balbinus, thinking that this was a ruse intended to deceive him (he knew that the Germans were devoted to [Pupienus]), refused to allow [Pupienus] to issue the order. . . . While the two men were arguing, the praetorians rushed in. . . . When the guards at the palace gates deserted the emperors, the praetorians seized the old men and ripped off the plain robes they were wearing because they were at home. Dragging the two men naked from the palace, they inflicted every insult and indignity upon them. Jeering at these emperors elected by the senate, they beat and tortured them. . . . When the Germans learned what was happening, they snatched up their arms and hastened to the rescue. As soon as the praetorians were informed of their approach, they killed the mutilated emperors.
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DiocletianAntConcordMil.jpg
1ds Diocletian13 views284-305

AE antoninianus

Radiate, draped, cuirassed bust, right, IMP C C VAL DIOCLETIANVS P F AVG
Zeus and Diocletian, CONCORDIA MILITVM

RIC 284B

According to the Historia Augusta, after the death of Numerian: Then a huge assembly was held and a tribunal, too, was constructed. And when the question was asked who would be the most lawful avenger of Numerian and who could be given to the commonwealth as a good emperor, then all, with a heaven-sent unanimity, conferred the title of Augustus on Diocletian. . . . He was at this time in command of the household-troops, an outstanding man and wise, devoted to the commonwealth, devoted to his kindred, duly prepared to face whatever the occasion demanded, forming plans that were always deep though sometimes over-bold, and one who could by prudence and exceeding firmness hold in check the impulses of a restless spirit. This man, then, having ascended the tribunal was hailed as Augustus, and when someone asked how Numerian had been slain, he drew his sword and pointing to Aper, the prefect of the guard, he drove it through him, saying as he did so, "It is he who contrived Numerian's death.''

Eutropius summarized a long and important reign: DIOCLETIAN, a native of Dalmatia, [was] of such extremely obscure birth, that he is said by most writers to have been the son of a clerk, but by some to have been a freedman of a senator named Anulinus. . . . He soon after overthrew Carinus, who was living under the utmost hatred and detestation, in a great battle at Margum, Carinus being betrayed by his own troops, for though he had a greater number of men than the enemy, he was altogether abandoned by them between Viminacium and mount Aureus. He thus became master of the Roman empire; and when the peasants in Gaul made an insurrection, giving their faction the name of Bagaudae, and having for leaders Amandus and Aelianus, he despatched Maximian Herculius, with the authority of Caesar, to suppress them. Maximian, in a few battles of little importance, subdued the rustic multitude, and restored peace to Gaul. . . .

Diocletian promoted MAXIMIAN HERCULIUS from the dignity of Caesar to that of emperor, and created Constantius and Maximian Galerius Caesars, of whom Constantius is said to have been the grand-nephew of Claudius by a daughter, and Maximian Galerius to have been born in Dacia not far from Sardica. That he might also unite them by affinity, Constantius married Theodora the step-daughter of Herculius, by whom he had afterwards six children, brothers to Constantine; while Galerius married Valeria, the daughter of Diocletian; both being obliged to divorce the wives that they had before. . . .

Diocletian, meanwhile, besieging Achilleus in Alexandria, obliged him to surrender about eight months after, and put him to death. He used his victory, indeed, cruelly, and distressed all Egypt with severe proscriptions and massacres. Yet at the same time he made many judicious arrangements and regulations, which continue to our own days. . . .

Diocletian was of a crafty disposition, with much sagacity, and keen penetration. He was willing to gratify his own disposition to cruelty in such a way as to throw the odium upon others; he was however a very active and able prince. He was the first that introduced into the Roman empire a ceremony suited rather to royal usages than to Roman liberty, giving orders that he should be adored, whereas all emperors before him were only saluted. He put ornaments of precious stones on his dress and shoes, when the imperial distinction had previously been only in the purple robe, the rest of the habit being the same as that of other men. . . .

But when Diocletian, as age bore heavily upon him, felt himself unable to sustain the government of the empire, he suggested to Herculius that they should both retire into private life, and commit the duty of upholding the state to more vigorous and youthful hands. With this suggestion his colleague reluctantly complied. Both of them, in the same day, exchanged the robe of empire for an ordinary dress, Diocletian at Nicomedia, Herculius at Milan, soon after a magnificent triumph which they celebrated at Rome over several nations, with a noble succession of pictures, and in which the wives, sisters, and children of Narseus were led before their chariots. The one then retired to Salonae, and the other into Lucania.

Diocletian lived to an old age in a private station, at a villa which is not far from Salonae, in honourable retirement, exercising extraordinary philosophy, inasmuch as he alone of all men, since the foundation of the Roman empire, voluntarily returned from so high a dignity to the condition of private life, and to an equality with the other citizens. That happened to him, therefore, which had happened to no one since men were created, that, though he died in a private condition, he was enrolled among the gods.
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MaximianusFollisGenio.jpg
1dt Maximianus22 views286-305, 306-308, 310

Quarter Follis

Laureate head, right, IMP C M A MAXIMIANVS P F AVG
Genius standing left, with modius on head, cornucopia & patera, GENIO POPVLI ROMANI, SIS in exergue

RIC 146

Eutropius records: [Diocletian] thus became master of the Roman empire; and when the peasants in Gaul made an insurrection, giving their faction the name of Bagaudae, and having for leaders Amandus and Aelianus, he despatched Maximian Herculius, with the authority of Caesar, to suppress them. Maximian, in a few battles of little importance, subdued the rustic multitude, and restored peace to Gaul. . . . While disorder thus prevailed throughout the world, while Carausius was taking arms in Britain and Achilleus in Egypt, while the Quinquegentiani were harassing Africa, and Narseus was making war upon the east, Diocletian promoted MAXIMIAN HERCULIUS from the dignity of Caesar to that "of emperor, and created Constantius and Maximian Galerius Caesars. . . .

Maximian the emperor, brought the war to an end in Africa, by subduing the Quinquegentiani, and compelling them to make peace. . . .

Herculius was undisguisedly cruel, and of a violent temper, and showed his severity of disposition in the sternness of his looks. Gratifying his own inclination, he joined with Diocletian in even the most cruel of his proceedings. But when Diocletian, as age bore heavily upon him, felt himself unable to sustain the government of the empire, he suggested to Herculius that they should both retire into private life, and commit the duty of upholding the state to more vigorous and youthful hands. With this suggestion his colleague reluctantly complied. Both of them, in the same day, exchanged the robe of empire for an ordinary dress, Diocletian at Nicomedia, Herculius at Milan, soon after a magnificent triumph which they celebrated at Rome over several nations, with a noble succession of pictures, and in which the wives, sisters, and children of Narseus were led before their chariots. The one then retired to Salonae, and the other into Lucania.

But after the death of Constantius, CONSTANTINE, his son by a wife of obscure birth, was made emperor in Britain, and succeeded his father as a most desirable ruler. In the meantime the praetorian guards at Rome, having risen in insurrection, declared MAXENTIUS, the son of Maximian Herculius, who lived in the Villa Publica not far from the city, emperor. At the news of this proceeding, Maximian, filled with hopes of regaining the imperial dignity, which he had not willingly resigned, hurried to Rome from Lucania. . . , and stimulated Diocletian by letters to resume the authority that he had laid down, letters which Diocletian utterly disregarded. Severus Caesar, being despatched to Rome by Galerius to suppress the rising of the guards and Maxentius, arrived there with his army, but, as he was laying siege to the city, was deserted through the treachery of his soldiers.

The power of Maxentius was thus increased, and his government established. Severus, taking to flight, was killed at Ravenna. Maximian Herculius, attempting afterwards, in an assembly of the army, to divest his son Maxentius of his power, met with nothing but mutiny and reproaches from the soldiery. He then set out for Gaul, on a planned stratagem, as if he had been driven away by his son, that he might join his son-in-law Constantine, designing, however, if he could find an opportunity, to cut off Constantine, who was ruling in Gaul with great approbation both of the soldiers and the people of the province, having overthrown the Franks and Alemanni with great slaughter, and captured their kings, whom, on exhibiting a magnificent show of games, he exposed to wild beasts. But the plot being made known by Maximian's daughter Fausta, who communicated the design to her husband, Maximian was cut off at Marseilles, whence he was preparing to sail to join his son, and died a well-deserved death. . . .
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GaleriusFollisGenio.jpg
1dv Galerius21 views305-311

Quarter Follis

Laureate head, right, MAXIMIANVS AVG
Genius standing left, modius on head, holding cornucopia & patera, SIS in ex., GENIO POPVLI ROMANI

RIC 169b

Eutropius tells us: Diocletian promoted MAXIMIAN HERCULIUS from the dignity of Caesar to that of emperor, and created Constantius and Maximian Galerius Caesars, of whom Constantius is said to have been the grand-nephew of Claudius by a daughter, and Maximian Galerius to have been born in Dacia not far from Sardica. . . . Galerius married Valeria, the daughter of Diocletian. . . .

Galerius Maximian, in acting against Narseus, fought, on the first occasion, a battle far from successful, meeting him between Callinicus and Carrae, and engaging in the combat rather with rashness than want of courage; for he contended with a small army against a very numerous enemy. Being in consequence defeated, and going to join Diocletian, he was received by him, when he met him on the road, with such extreme haughtiness, that he is said to have run by his chariot for several miles in his scarlet robes.

But having soon after collected forces in Illyricum and Moesia, he fought a second time with Narseus (the grandfather of Hormisdas and Sapor), in Greater Armenia, with extraordinary success, and with no less caution and spirit, for he undertook, with one or two of the cavalry, the office of a speculator. After putting Narseus to flight, he captured his wives, sisters, and children, with a vast number of the Persian nobility besides, and a great quantity of treasure; the king himself he forced to take refuge in the remotest deserts in his dominions. Returning therefore in triumph to Diocletian, who was then encamped with some troops in Mesopotamia, he was welcomed by him with great honour. Subsequently, they conducted several wars both in conjunction and separately, subduing the Carpi and Bastarnae, and defeating the Sarmatians, from which nations he settled a great number of captives in the Roman territories. . . .

Galerius, a man of excellent moral character, and skilful in military affairs, finding that Italy, by Constantius's permission, was put under his government, created two Caesars, MAXIMIN, whom he appointed over the east, and SEVERUS, to whom he committed Italy. He himself resided in Illyricum.
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Centenionalis

RIC 210?

Pearl diademed, draped, cuirassed bust, right, CONSTANTIVS P F AVG
Soldier spearing fallen horseman who is kneeling forwards on ground on hands and knees. Star in right field, FEL TEMP REPARATIO. Mintmark BSIS?

Constantius II got the East when the empire was divided after Constantine the Great's death. Zosimus recorded, "The empire being thus divided, Constantius who appeared to take pains not to fall short of his father in impiety, began by shedding the blood of his nearest relations. He first caused Constantius, his father's brother, to be murdered by the soldiers; next to whom he treated Dalmatius in the same manner, as also Optatus whom Constantine had raised to the rank of a Nobilissimate. Constantine indeed first introduced that order, and made a law, that every Nobilissimate should have precedence over of the prefects of the court. At that time, Ablabius prefect of the court was also put to death; and fate was just in his punishment, because he had concerted the murder of Sopatrus the philosopher, from envy of his familiarity with Constantine. Being unnatural towards all his relations, he included Hanniballianus with the rest, suborning the solders to cry out, that they would have no governors but the children of Constantine. Such were the exploits of Constantius." He defeated the usurper Magnentius in 351-353. He died of fever while marching to confront Julian the Apostate, who had been declared emperor in Paris.
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AE3

Diademed, draped & cuirassed bust left, D N PROCOPIVS P F AVG
Procopius standing facing, head right, holding labarum in right hand, left resting on shield set on the ground; Chi-rho in upper right field & unidentified object in left at foot; mintmark CONS Gamma.

RIC 17a

Zosimus tells us: On [Valens'] departure from Constantinople, the rebellion of Procopius commenced. This person had been intrusted by Julian, being one of his relations, with a part of his forces, and had been charged to march with Sebastianus through Adiabene, and to meet Julian, who took another route. Permission, moreover, was given him to wear a purple robe, for a reason which no other person was acquainted with. But the deity being pleased to ordain it otherwise, and Jovian having succeeded to the imperial dignity, Procopius immediately delivered up the imperial robe which he had received from Julian, confessing why it had been given to him, and entreating the emperor to absolve him from his military oath, and to allow him to live in retirement, and to attend to agriculture and his own private affairs. Having obtained this, he went with his wife and children to Caesarea in Cappadocia, intending to reside in that place, where he possessed a valuable estate. During his abode there, Valentinian and Valens being made emperors, and being suspicious of him, sent persons to take him into custody. In that they found no difficulty, for he surrendered himself voluntarily; and desired them to carry him wherever they pleased, if they would suffer him first to see his children. To this they consented, and he prepared an entertainment for them. When he perceived them to be intoxicated, he and his family fled towards the Taurica Chersonesus. Having remained there for some time, he found the inhabitants to he a faithless race, and was apprehensive lest they should deliver him to his persecutors. He, therefore, put himself and his family on board a trading vessel, and arrived in the night at Constantinople. He there resided in the house of an old acquaintance, and making observations on the state of the city after the departure of the emperor, he attempted to raise himself to the empire, and formed his design on the following incident.

A eunuch, named Eugenius, had not long before been discharged from the court, who entertained but little friendship for the emperors. Procopius therefore won this man to his interest. . . . Their first attempt was to bribe the court guards, which consisted of two legions. Then arming the slaves, and collecting with ease a considerable multitude, chiefly volunteers, they sent them in the night into the city, and occasioned a general commotion; the people issuing from their houses, and gazing on Procopiusas on a king made in a theatre. But the city being in general confusion, and no person being sufficiently collected in mind by reason of the surprise to know how to act, Procopius imagined his design to be still undiscovered, and that he might secure the empire if the enterprise were no further revealed. Having then seized on Cesarius, whom the emperors had made prefect of the city, and on Nebridius, who was appointed to succeed Sallustius in tbe prefecture of the court, he compelled them to write to the subjects of the empire whatever he wished. He also kept them separate, that they might not consult with each other. Having formed these projects, he proceeded in a splendid manner towards the palace. Ascending a tribunal before the gate, he gave the people great hopes and promises. He then entered the palace to provide for the remainder of his affairs.

The new emperors having divided the army between them, Procopius determined to send persons to the soldiers, who were as yet in confusion, and went by the command of the emperors from place to place without any order. He thus hoped to seduce some of them to his party. Nor did he fail of accomplishing his purpose with ease by distributing money amongst the soldiers and their officers; by which means he collected a considerable force, and prepared to make an open attack on the enemy. Procopius then sent Marcellus into Bithynia with an army against Serenianus and the imperial cavalry that was under his command, in hope of cutting them to pieces. This force having fled to Cyzicus, Marcellus, whose army was superior to theirs both by sea and land, took possession of that town; and having taken Serenianus, who fled into Lydia, put him to death. Procopius was so elevated by this fortunate commencement, that his forces considerably augmented, many being of opinion that he was able to contend with the emperors. Both the Roman legions and the Barbarian troops now flocked to his standard. Besides the reputation of being related to Julian, and of having accompanied him in all the wars he had ever been engaged in, attracted many partizans. He likewise sent ambassadors to the chief of Scythia beyond the Ister, who sent to his assistance ten thousand men. The other Barbarian nations likewise sent auxiliaries to share in the expedition. Procopius however considered that it would be imprudent in him to engage with both emperors together, and therefore thought it best to advance against him who was nearest, and afterwards deliberate on what course to pursue.

Thus was Procopius employed; while the emperor Valens, who heard of this insurrection at Galatia in Phrygia, was filled with consternation at the news. Arbitrio having encouraged him not to despair, he prepared the troops that were with him for war, and sent to his brother to inform him of the designs of Procopius. Valentinian however was little disposed for sending auxiliaries to one who was incapable of defending the empire committed to his charge. Valens was therefore under the necessity of. preparing for war, and appointed Arbitrio to the command of his army. When the armies were ready to engage, Arbitrio circumvented Procopius by a stratagem, and thereby seduced from him a great number of his men, from whom he received previous information of the designs of Procopius. On the advance of the emperor and Procopius towards each other, the two armies met near Thyatira. Procopius at first appeared to have the advantage, by which he would have gained the supreme authority, Hormisdas in the engagement having overpowered the enemy. But Gomarius, another of the commanders of Procopius, imparting his intention to all the soldiers of Procopius who were attached to the emperor, in the midst of the battle cried out Augustus, and gave a signal for them to imitate his example. Thus the most of the troops of Procopius went over to Valens.

After having obtained this victory, Valens marched to Sardes, and from thence into Phrygia, where he found Procopius in a town called Nacolia. Affairs having been ordered for the advantage of the emperor by Naplo, an officer of Procopius, Valens again prevailed, and took him prisoner, and soon afterwards Marcellus, both of whom he put to death.
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2009-Szentendre - roman cemetery47 viewsThe wagon scene stone relief shows the busts of the dead, where the men and children usually wore roman clothes, but women wore inhabitant –celtic- clothes. The wagon scene means the travellings of the dead in the other world. berserker
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201b. Clodius Albinus233 viewsBy the time Severus made it back from the east in 196, the breach with Albinus was beyond repair. The emperor's son Caracalla had been displayed to the army as Caesar and heir. Albinus had been proclaimed emperor and gone into open revolt, crossed the English Channel and gained the support of many aristocrats from Gaul and Spain. Lyon became Albinus' headquarters, from which he minted coins that wishfully hinted at reconciliation. Albinus had taken the title of Augustus, but he still kept the name Septimius.

Albinus was unable to expand his control eastward despite achieving a victory against the governor of Lower Germany. By the middle of the year 196, his momentum had stalled. Gaul was drenched in the blood of Roman soldiers as the two sides repeatedly engaged in indecisive battles.[[8]] The ever increasing chaos in the region even allowed an opportunist to raise his own army to harass Albinus' troops.[[9]]

Time was running out for Albinus. His troops were defeated early in 197 at Tournus, on the river Saône 65 miles north of Lyon.[[10]] Severus could now sweep his armies into Gaul. Albinus retreated to Lyon, where he prepared for one final stand. The battle, one of the fiercest in Roman history, took place 19 February 197 and involved more than 100,000 men.[[11]] In the initial fighting, Albinus' troops forced the Severans into retreat, during which Severus fell off his horse. But Albinus' success was shortlived. The Severan cavalry appeared, and Albinus' army was routed. The battlefield was strewn with bodies, and Severus' victorious troops were allowed to vent their anger by sacking Lyon. Albinus, who was trapped in a house along the river Rhône, committed suicide. Heis wife and children were be ordered killed by Severus, who also had Albinus' head cut off and sent to Rome for display.

Clodius Albinus had the breeding and upbringing to have been a popular emperor among the senatorial aristocracy, but he lacked the cunning and daring of his erstwhile ally and eventual rival Severus. Albinus would never be included among the canonical list of emperors, and his defeat finally ended the period of instability and civil war that originated with the death of Commodus.

CLODIUS ALBINUS, as Caesar. 193-195 AD. AR Denarius (17mm, 3.14 gm). Rome mint. Bare head right / Roma seated left on shield, holding Victory and reversed spear. RIC IV 11b; RSC 61a. VF. Ex - CNG
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201b. Clodius Albinus20 viewsClodius Albinus

Governor of Britain at the death of the emperor Pertinax, Decimus Clodius Albinus attempted to seize the throne but ended up as Caesar in alliance with another imperial contender, Septimius Severus. After Severus defeated two other rivals, the now expendable Albinus was forced into another attempt at usurpation, an attempt that came to an end at the bloody battle of Lyon. Albinus, defeated and was trapped in a house along the river Rhine, committed suicide. Heis wife and children were be ordered killed by Severus, who also had Albinus' head cut off and sent to Rome for display.

AR Denarius. D CLOD SEPT ALBIN CAES, bare head right / FELICITAS COS II, Felicitas standing, head left, holding caduceus and scepter. RSC 15 var. Ex-Flan
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201c. Pescennius Niger128 viewsGaius Pescennius Niger was governor of Syria in the year 193 when he learned of the emperor Pertinax's murder. Niger's subsequent attempt to claim the empire for himself ended in failure in Syria after roughly one year. His life before becoming governor of Syria is not well known. He was born in Italy to an equestrian family. He seems to have been older than his eventual rival Septimius Severus, so his birth should perhaps be placed ca. AD 135-40. Niger may have held an important position in the administration of Egypt. He won renown, along with Clodius Albinus, for participation in a military campaign in Dacia early in Commodus' reign. Although Niger could have been adlected into the senate before the Dacian campaign, he was by now pursuing a senatorial career and must have been held in high esteem by Commodus. Niger was made a suffect consul, probably in the late 180s, and he was sent as governor to the important province of Syria in 191.

Niger was a well-known and well-liked figure to the Roman populace. After Pertinax became emperor at the beginning of 193, many in Rome may have hoped that the elderly Pertinax would adopt Niger as his Caesar and heir, but Pertinax was murdered without having made succession plans. When Didius Julianus arrived at the senate house on 29 March 193, his first full day as emperor, a riot broke out among the Roman crowd. The rioters took over the Circus Maximus, from which they shouted for Niger to seize the throne. The rioters dispersed the following day, but a report of their demonstration may well have arrived in the Syrian capital, Antioch, with the news that Pertinax had been murdered and replaced by Julianus.

Spurred into action by the news, Niger had himself proclaimed emperor in Antioch. The governors of the other eastern provinces quickly joined his cause. Niger's most important ally was the respected proconsul of Asia, Asellius Aemilianus, and support began to spread across the Propontis into Europe. Byzantium welcomed Niger, who now was preparing further advances. Niger took the additional cognomen Justus, "the Just." Justice was promoted as the theme of his intended reign, and personifications of Justice appeared on his coins.

Other provincial governors, however, also set their sights on replacing Julianus. Albinus in Britain and Septimius Severus in Upper Pannonia (western Hungary) had each aspired to the purple, and Severus was marching an army on Rome. Severus was still 50 miles from the city when the last of Julianus' dwindling authority disappeared. Julianus was killed in Rome 1 June 193.

Niger sent messengers to Rome to announce his acclamation, but those messengers were intercepted by Severus. A deal was struck between Severus and Albinus that kept Albinus in Britain with the title of Caesar. The larger armies of the western provinces were now united in their support for Severus. Niger's support was confined to the east. Severus had Niger's children captured and held as hostages, and a legion was sent to confront Niger's army in Thrace.

The first conflict between the rival armies took place near Perinthus. Although Niger's forces may have inflicted greater casualties on the Severan troops, Niger was unable to secure his advance; he returned to Byzantium. By the autumn of 193, Severus had left Rome and arrived in the region, though his armies there continued to be commanded by supporters. Niger was offered the chance of a safe exile by Severus, but Niger refused.

Severan troops crossed into Asia at the Hellespont and near Cyzicus engaged forces supporting Niger under the command of Aemilianus. Niger's troops were defeated. Aemilianus attempted to flee but was captured and killed. Not long after, in late December 193 or early January 194, Niger was defeated in a battle near Nicaea and fled south to Antioch. Eastern provincial governors now switched their loyalty to Severus, and Niger faced revolts even in Syria. By late spring 194, the Severan armies were in Cilicia preparing to enter Syria. Niger and his army met the Severan troops near Issus. The battle was a decisive defeat for Niger, who fled back to Antioch. The Syrian capital that only one year earlier had cheered as Niger was proclaimed emperor now waited in fear for the approach of its new master. Niger prepared to flee once more, but outside Antioch he was captured and killed.

Despite his popularity with the Roman mob, Pescennius Niger lacked both the strong loyalty of other senatorial commanders and the number of soldiers that his rival Severus enjoyed. Niger was ultimately unable to make himself the true avenger of Pertinax, and his roughly one-year control of the eastern provinces never qualified him to be reckoned a legitimate emperor.

BITHYNIA, Caesarea. Pescennius Niger. AD 193-194. Æ 22mm (6.35 g). Laureate head right / KAICAREIAC GERMANIKHC, coiled serpent left. RG p. 282, 9, pl. XLIV, 8 (same dies); SNG Copenhagen -; SNG von Aulock -. Near VF, brown patina, rough surfaces. Very rare. Ex-CNG
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202 AD., Septimius Severus, Rome mint, Denarius, RIC 248.100 viewsSeptimius Severus, Rome mint, 202 AD.,
Denarius (18-19 mm / 3.56 g),
Obv.: SEVERVS - PIVS AVG , laureate head of Septimius Severus right.
Rev.: ADVENT AVGG , Septimius Severus on horseback left, raising right hand and holding spear; before him, soldier (or Virtus?) holding vexillum and leading horse.
RIC 248 ; Hill, Severus 559 ; BMC 304 ; C. 1 .

Like many emperors of the 3rd Century, Septimius Severus often travelled great distances to meet the demands of warfare. This denarius, inscribed ADVENT AVGG, celebrates the return of Severus and his family to Rome after one of his many journeys – in this case a long absence in the East.
His journey was overdue, and it had been delayed only long enough for Severus to defeat Clodius Albinus, his rival Caesar in the West. In the summer of 197 Severus and his family embarked by sea from Italy to Asia Minor and immediately waged war against the Parthians, who had invaded Roman territory while Severus had been fighting Albinus in Gaul. By January, 198 Severus had scored a resounding, vengeful victory. The Romans gathered a great amount of booty, killed all of the men who had remained in the capital Ctesiphon, and took as slaves perhaps 100,000 women and children.
The royal family remained in the East throughout 198 to 201, and on January 1, 202, Severus and Caracalla jointly assumed the consulate in Antioch. It was the first time they had shared the honour, and was also the first time in more than forty years that two emperors had been consuls.
Probably soon after this ceremony the royal family began its arduous journey back to Italy, this time proceeding by land, up through Asia Minor to Bithynia, crossing the Propontis into Thrace, then seemingly tracking the Danube until they descended upon Italy.
Severus’ return was no ordinary event: not only had the royal family been gone for five years, but the yearlong celebration of Severus’ decennalia, his tenth year of power, had begun and the royal wedding of Caracalla was planned. The imperial adventus was celebrated with games, spectacles and donatives to the people and to the praetorian guards, who Dio Cassius tells us each received ten aurei.

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202a. Plautilla62 viewsPlautilla

From the time of his name change to Antoninus, Caracalla was the designated heir of Severus. Less than three years later he was proclaimed emperor, officially joining his father as co-rulers of the empire. At the age of 14 he was married to the daughter of the praetorian prefect Plautianus Publia Fulvia Plautilla, but the teenager despised his wife. The marriage ended less than three years later after the execution of Plautianus for treason, and there were no children.

Rome, AD 202. PLAVTILLAE AVGVSTAE, Draped bust right, with hair not on the neck / CONCORDIAE, Concordia seated left, holding patera & cornucopiae.
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203. MACRINUS194 viewsMACRINUS. 217-218 AD.

Caracalla's mother, Julia Domna, had toyed with the idea of raising a rebellion against Macrinus shortly after her son's murder, but the empress was uncertain of success and already suffering from breast cancer. She chose to starve herself to death instead.

The grandchildren of her sister, Julia Maesa, would become the focus of the successful uprising that began on 15 May 218. Her 14-year-old grandson Avitus (known to history as Elagabalus) was proclaimed emperor by one the legions camped near the family's hometown of Emesa. Other troops quickly joined the rebellion, but Macrinus marshalled loyal soldiers to crush the revolt. Macrinus also promoted his son to the rank of emperor.

The forces met in a village outside Antioch on 8 June 218. Despite the inexperience of the leaders of the rebel army, Macrinus was defeated. He sent his son, Diadumenianus, with an ambassador to the Parthian king, while Macrinus himself prepared to flee to Rome. Macrinus traveled across Asia Minor disguised as a courier and nearly made it to Europe, but he was captured in Chalcedon. Macrinus was transported to Cappadocia, where he was executed. Diadumenianus had also been captured (at Zeugma) and was similarly put to death.

Contemporaries tended to portray Macrinus as a fear-driven parvenu who was able to make himself emperor but was incapable of the leadership required by the job. An able administrator, Macrinus lacked the aristocratic connections and personal bravado that might have won him legitimacy. His short reign represented a brief interlude of Parthian success during what would prove the final decade of the Parthian empire.

AR Denarius (18mm 3.55 gm). IMP C M OPEL SEV MACRINVS AVG, laureate and cuirassed bust with short beard right / SALVS PVBLICA, Salus seated left, feeding snake rising up from altar, holding sceptre in left. RIC IV 86; Good VF; Ex-CNG
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204c. Julia Soaemias30 viewsJulia Soaemias Bassiana (180-March 11, 222) was the daughter of Julia Maesa, a powerful Roman woman of Syrian origin, and Julius Avitus. She was niece of emperor Septimius Severus and sister of Julia Avita Mamaea.

She was married to Sextus Varius Marcellus, a Syrian Roman of an Equestrian family (meaning not a member of the Roman senate). As members of the imperial Roman family, they lived in Rome, where their numerous children were born. In 217, her cousin emperor Caracalla was killed and Macrinus ascended to the imperial throne. Julia's family was allowed to returned to Syria with the whole of their financial assets. They would not allow the usurper to stand unopposed. Together with her mother, Julia plotted to substitute Macrinus with her son Varius Avitus Bassianus (Heliogabalus). To legitimise this plot, Julia and her mother spread the rumour that the 13-year-old boy was Caracalla's illegitimate son. In 218 Macrinus was killed and Heliogabalus became emperor. Julia then became the de facto ruler of Rome, since the teenager was concerned mainly with religious matters. Their rule was not popular and soon discontent arose. Julia Soaemias and Heliogabalus were killed by the Praetorian Guard in 222. Julia was later declared public enemy and her name erased from all records.

Julia Soaemias Denarius. 220 AD. IVLIA SOAEMIAS AVG, draped bust right / VENVS CAELESTIS, Venus seated left, holding scepter, extending her hand to Cupid standing before her. RSC 14.
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242817 viewsIMP C POSTVMVS PF AVG
Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
PIETAS AVG
Pietas standing left holding two children with two children at feet
Mint 1 (Trier), Issue 4
Cunetio 2428
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24u. Fausta: Rome.30 viewsAE3, 326, Rome mint.
Obverse: FLAV MAX FAVSTA AVG / Bust of Fausta.
Reverse: SPES REIPVBLICAE / Spes standing, holding two children.
Mint mark: R (wreath) P
2.99 gm., 18 mm.
RIC #292; LRBC #522; Sear #16567.
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306. Trebonianus Gallus28 viewsGaius Vibius Trebonianus Gallus (206 - August, 253), was Roman emperor from 251 to 253, in a joint rule with his son Volusianus.

Gallus was born in Italy, in a family with respected ancestry and a senatorial background. He had two children in his marriage with Afinia Gemina Baebiana: the future emperor Gaius Vibius Volusianus and a daughter, Vibia Galla. His early career was typical with several appointments, both political and military. He was suffect consul and in 250 was nominated governor of the Roman province of Moesia Superior, an appointment that showed the confidence of emperor Trajan Decius in him. In Moesia, Gallus was a key figure in repelling the frequent invasion attacks by the Gothic tribes of the Danube and became popular with the army.

On July 1, 251, Decius and his co-emperor and son Herennius Etruscus died in the battle of Abrittus, at the hands of the Goths they were supposed to punish for raids into the empire. When the army heard the news, the soldiers proclaimed Gallus emperor, despite Hostilian, Decius' surviving son, ascending the imperial throne in Rome. Gallus did not back down from his intention to became emperor, but accepted Hostilian as co-emperor, perhaps to avoid the damage of another civil war. While Gallus marched on Rome, an outbreak of plague struck the city and killed the young Hostilian. With absolute power now on his hands, Gallus nominated his son Volusianus co-emperor.

Eager to show himself competent and gain popularity with the citizens, Gallus swiftly dealt with the epidemic, providing burial for the victims. Gallus is often accused of persecuting the Christians, but the only solid evidence of this allegation is the imprisoning of Pope Cornelius in 252.

Like his predecessors, Gallus did not have an easy reign. In the East, king Shapur I of Persia invaded and conquered the province of Syria, without any response from Rome. On the Danube, the Gothic tribes were once again on the loose, despite the peace treaty signed in 251. The army was not pleased with the emperor and when Aemilianus, governor of Moesia Superior and Pannonia, took the initiative of battle and defeated the Goths, the soldiers proclaimed him emperor. With a usurper threatening the throne, Gallus prepared for a fight. He recalled several legions and ordered reinforcements to return to Rome from the Rhine frontier. Despite these dispositions, Aemilianus marched onto Italy ready to fight for his claim. Gallus did not have the chance to face him in battle: he and Volusianus were murdered by their own troops in August 253.
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406a. Galeria Valeria24 viewsGaleria Valeria was Diocletian's daughter and, to cement the alliance between Diocletian and Galerius, Valeria was married to Galerius. It appears that this was not a very happy marriage. Galeria Valeria was sympathetic towards Christians during this time of severe persecution and it is possible that she was actually a Christian herself. The imperial couple were not blessed with any children during their eighteen year marriage. After Galerius died in A. D. 311, Galeria Valeria and her mother went to live at the court of Maximinus Daia, the caesar who became emperor of the East upon the death of Galerius.

Maximinus proposed marriage to Valeria soon afterward. He was probably more interested in her wealth and the prestige he would gain by marrying the widow of one emperor and the daughter of another than he was in Valeria as a person. She refused his hand, and immediately Maximinus reacted with hatred and fury. Diocletian, by now an old man living in a seaside villa on the Dalmatian coast, begged Maximinus to allow the two women to come home to him. Maximinus refused and had Valeria and her mother banished to live in a village in Syria.

During the civil war that erupted between Maximinus and Licinius, Valeria and Prisca disguised themselves and escaped, trying to reach the safety of Diocletian's villa. In the meantime, Diocletian had died, leaving the women without a haven of safety to which to run. For fifteen months the two royal fugitives traveled from one city to another, always living in fear of being discovered and in search of a little peace.

Finally, they were recognized by someone in the Greek city of Salonika. They were hastily taken to a square in the city and beheaded before a crowd of citizens who had once revered them as empresses. The bodies of Valeria and her mother were afterwards thrown into the sea.

Galeria Valeria Follis. AD 308-311. GAL VAL-ERIA AVG, Diademed & draped bust right / VENERI V-ICTRICI, Venus standing left, holding apple & scepter, * to left, G to right, (dot)SM(dot)TS(dot) in ex.
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4083 Arabia, Bostra Hadrian Arabia bust44 viewsReference.
RPC III, 4083; Spijkerman 2, Kindler 16, BMC Arabia 3.

Obv. ΑΥΤΟΚΡΑΤ ΚΑΙСΑΡ ΤΡΑΙΑΝΟС ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС СƐΒΑϹΤΟС
Laureate head of Hadrian, r., with drapery on l. shoulder.

Rev. ΑΡΑΒΙΑ
Bust of Arabia, r., wearing turreted crown and mantle blown out by the wind; in each arm, she holds a small figure of seated children

8.38 gr
22 mm
6h
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409. Maximinus II Daza37 viewsCaius Valerius Galerius Maximinus, more commonly known as Maximinus Daia or Daza, was from Illyricum and was of peasant origin. He was born 20 November perhaps in the year 270. Daia was the son of Galerius' sister and had served in the army as a scutarius, Protector, and tribunus. He had been adopted by Galerius ; his name had been Daia even before that time. He had a wife and daughter, whose names are unknown, while his son's name was Maximus. When Diocletian and Maximianus Herculius resigned their posts of emperor on 1 May 305, they were succeeded by Constantius I Chlorus and Galerius as Augusti; their new Caesars were Severus and Maximinus Daia respectively. Constantius and Severus ruled in the West, whereas Galerius and Daia served in the East. Specifically, Daia's realm included the Middle East and the southern part of Asia Minor.[[1]]

Immediately after his appointment to the rank of Caesar, he went east and spent his first several years at Caesarea in Palestine. Events of the last quarter of 306 had a profound effect on the Emperor Galerius and his Caesar Daia. When Constantius I Chlorus died in July 306, the eastern emperor was forced by the course of events to accept Constantius' son Constantine as Caesar in the West; on 28 October of the same year, Maxentius , with the apparent backing of his father Maximianus Herculius, was acclaimed princeps. Both the attempt to dislodge Maxentius by Severus, who had been appointed Augustus of the West by Galerius after the death of Constantius in late 306 or early 307, and the subsequent campaign of Galerius himself in the summer of 307 failed. Because of the escalating nature of this chain of events, a Conference was called at Carnuntum in October and November 308; Licinius was appointed Augustus in Severus's place and Daia and Constantine were denoted filii Augustorum. Daia, however, unsatisfied with this sop tossed to him by Galerius, started calling himself Augustus in the spring of 310 when he seems to have campaigned against the Persians.[[2]] Although, as Caesar, he proved to be a trusted servant of Galerius until the latter died in 311, he subsequently seized the late emperor's domains. During the early summer of that year, he met with Licinius at the Bosporus; they concluded a treaty and divided Galerius' realm between them. Several yea rs later, after the death of Daia, Licinius obtained control of his domain. Like his mentor the late emperor, Daia had engaged in persecution of the Christians in his realm.[[3]]

In the autumn of 312, while Constantine was engaged against Maxentius, Daia appears to have been campaigning against the Armenians. In any case, he was back in Syria by February 313 when he seems to have learned about the marital alliance which had been forged by Constantine and Licinius. Disturbed by this course of events and the death of Maxentius, who had been his ally, Daia left Syria and reached Bythinia, although the harsh weather had seriously weakened his army. In April 313, he crossed the Bosporus and went to Byzantium, garrisoned by Licinius' troops; when the city refused to surrender, he took it after an eleven day siege. He moved to Heraclea, which he captured after a short siege; he then moved his forces to the first posting station. With only a small contingent of men, Licinius arrived at Adrianople while Daia was besieging Heraclea. On 30 April 313 the two armies clashed on the Campus Ergenus; in the ensuing battle Daia's forces were routed. Divesting himself of the purple and dressing like a slave, Daia fled to Nicomdeia. Subsequently, Daia attempted to stop the advance of Licinius at the Cilician Gates by establishing fortifications there; Licinius' army succeeded in breaking through, and Daia fled to Tarsus where he was hard pressed on land and sea. Daia died, probably in July or August 313, and was buried near Tarsus. Subsequently, the victorious emperor put Daia's wife and children to death.

Maximinus II Daza. 309-313 AD. ? Follis. Laureate head right / Genius standing left holding cornucopiae.
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agrippina RIC102(claudius).jpg
41-54 AD - AGRIPPINA Senior AE Sestertius - struck under Claudius (ca.42-43 AD)43 viewsobv: AGRIPPINA M F GERMANICI CAESARIS (draped bust right, hair behind in an elaborate plait)
rev: TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG GERM P M TR P IMP P P around large SC
ref: RIC I 102 [Claudius], Cohen 3, BMC 219
mint: Rome
25.89gms, 35mm
Rare

Agrippina was the wife of Germanicus, and the father of six children who survived into adulthood, including the emperor Caligula. She was banished by Tiberius to the island of Pandataria, where she died of starvation in 33 AD. Her memory was honored under Caligula and Claudius.
berserker
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501a. Fausta47 viewsFausta Flavia Maxima was the daughter of the Roman Emperor Maximianus. To seal the alliance between them for control of the Tetrarchy, Maximianus married her to Constantine I in 307.

It is suspected that Fausta was fiercely anti-Christian and plotting the Roman empire's return to paganism behind her husband's back. Although the real reasons are not clear, Constantine eventually put her to death along with Crispus, his eldest son by a previous marriage to Minervina, in 326. Eusebius of Caesarea suspected step-mother and step-son to be lovers to each other.

Her sons became Roman Emperors: Constantine II reigned 337 - 340, Constantius II reigned 337 - 361, and Constans reigned 337 - 350. Variety of sources, of more or less reliability, attest that she bore daughters Constantina, Helena and Fausta. Of these, Constantina married her cousins, firstly Hannibalianus and secondly Gallus Caesar, and Helena married Emperor Julian. Apparently a genealogical claim that her daughter Fausta became mother of Emperor Valentinian I is without foundation (Valentinian I and children of Constantine I's second marriage were born in years close to each other, i.e they were of the same generation).

Fausta, wife of Constantine I. 325-326 AD. Æ Follis

OBVERSE: FLAV MAX FAVSTA AVG, mantled bust right
REVERSE: SPES REIP-VBLICAE, Spes standing facing, looking left, head veiled, holding two children in her arms
19mm - 3.1 grams

RIC VII Thessalonica 161 R3

Sear 3903
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515a. Aelia Flacilla33 viewsEmpress, wife of Theodosius the Great, died c. A. D. 385 or 386. Like Theodosius himself, his first wife, Ælia Flaccilla, was of Spanish descent. She may have been the daughter of Claudius Antonius, Prefect of Gaul, who was consul in 382. Her marriage with Theodosius probably took place in the year 376, when his father, the comes Theodosius, fell into disfavour and he himself withdrew to Cauca in Gallæcia, for her eldest son, afterwards Emperor Arcadius, was born towards the end of the following year. In the succeeding years she presented two more children to her husband Honorius (384), who later became emperor, and Pulcheria, who died in early childhood, shortly before her mother. Gregory of Nyssa states expressly that she had three children; consequently the Gratian mentioned by St. Ambrose, together with Pulcheria, was probably not her son. Flaccilla was, like her husband, a zealous supporter of the Nicene Creed and prevented the conference between the emperor and the Arian Eunomius (Sozomen, Hist. eccl., VII, vi). On the throne she was a shining example of Christian virtue and ardent charity. St. Ambrose describes her as "a soul true to God" (Fidelis anima Deo. — "De obitu Theodosii", n. 40, in P. L., XVI, 1462). In his panegyric St. Gregory of Nyssa bestowed the highest praise on her virtuous life and pictured her as the helpmate of the emperor in all good works, an ornament of the empire, a leader of justice, an image of beneficence. He praises her as filled with zeal for the Faith, as a pillar of the Church, as a mother of the indigent. Theodoret in particular exalts her charity and benevolence (Hist. eccles., V, xix, ed. Valesius, III, 192 sq.). He tells us how she personally tended cripples, and quotes a saying of hers: "To distribute money belongs to the imperial dignity, but I offer up for the imperial dignity itself personal service to the Giver." Her humility also attracts a special meed of praise from the church historian. Flaccilla was buried in Constantinople, St. Gregory of Nyssa delivering her funeral oration. She is venerated in the Greek Church as a saint, and her feast is kept on 14 September. The Bollandists (Acta SS., Sept., IV, 142) are of the opinion that she is not regarded as a saint but only as venerable, but her name stands in the Greek Menæa and Synaxaria followed by words of eulogy, as is the case with the other saints

Wife of Theodosius. The reverse of the coin is very interesting; a nice bit of Pagan-Christian syncretism with winged victory inscribing a chi-rho on a shield.
1 commentsecoli
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5728 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Tetradrachm 128-29 AD Hands Clasped32 viewsReference.
Emmett 848.13; Dattari 1525; Milne 1274; RPC III, 5728

Issue L IΓ = year 13

Obv. AVT KAI TPAI AΔPIA CEB
Laureate, draped, cuirassed bust right, seen from back, with Paludamentum.

Rev. PATHR PATRIDOC (nobele vader)
Hands clasped, L IΓ

13.08 gr
25 mm
6h

note.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Bust of Septimius Severus wearing a paludamentum
In Republican and Imperial Rome, the paludamentum was a cloak or cape fastened at one shoulder, worn by military commanders (e.g. the legionary Legatus) and rather less often by their troops. As supreme commander of the whole Roman army, Roman emperors were often portrayed wearing it in their statues (e.g. the Prima Porta Augustus) and on their coinage. After the reign of Augustus, the paludamentum was restricted to the Emperor.[citation needed] Children would also wear it sometimes, when there was bad weather and they needed protection.
The paludamentum was generally crimson, scarlet, or purple in colour, or sometimes white. It was fastened at the shoulder with a clasp, called a fibula, whose form and size varied through time. Putting on the paludamentum was a ceremonial act on setting out for war.
2 commentsokidoki
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601. Eudoxia24 viewsAelia Eudoxia (d. 6 October 404) was the wife of the Eastern Roman emperor Arcadius.

The daughter of a certain Bauto, a Frankish magister militum serving in the Western Roman army during the 380s, Eudoxia owed her marriage to the youthful Emperor Arcadius on 27 April 395 to the intrigues of the eunuch of the palace, Eutropius. She had very considerable influence over her husband, who was of rather weak character and who was more interested in Christian piety than imperial politics.

In 399 she succeeded, with help from the leader of the Empire's Gothic mercenaries, in deposing her erstwhile benefactor Eutropius, who was later executed over the protests of John Chrysostom, the Patriarch of Constantinople.

John Chrysostom was already becoming unpopular at court due to his efforts at reforming the Church, and in 403 Eudoxia and Theophilus, Patriarch of Alexandria, succeeded in having the outspoken Patriarch condemned by a synod and then deposed. He was exiled to Armenia the next year after a brief return to power resulting from popular disgust at his fall and an earthquake which reinforced those feelings.

Eudoxia had a total of seven pregnancies, five of which were successful. Her final pregnancy ended in a miscarriage which led to her death on October 6, 404. One of her children was the future emperor Theodosius II.

In 403, Simplicius, Prefect of Constantinople, erected a statue dedicated to her on a column of porphyry. Arcadius renamed the town of Selymbria (Silivri) Eudoxiopolis after her, though this name did not survive.

Bronze AE 4, RIC 102, S 4241, VM 6, VF, 2.14g, 17.0mm, 180o, Nikomedia mint, 401-403 A.D.; obverse AEL EVDOXIA AVG, diademed and draped bust right with hand of God holding wreath over her head; reverse SALVS REIPVBLICAE, Victory seated on cuirass inscribing Christogram on shield, SMNA in ex; softly struck reverse; rare
ecoli
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604. Leo I388 viewsImperator Caesar Flavius Valerius Leo Augustus or Leo I of the Byzantine Empire (401–474), reigned from 457 to 474, also known as Leo the Thracian, was the last of a series of emperors placed on the throne by Aspar, the Alan serving as commander-in-chief of the army. His coronation as emperor on February 7, 457, was the first known to involve the Patriarch of Constantinople. Leo I made an alliance with the Isaurians and was thus able to eliminate Aspar. The price of the alliance was the marriage of Leo's daughter to Tarasicodissa, leader of the Isaurians who, as Zeno, became emperor in 474.

During Leo's reign, the Balkans were ravaged time and again by the West Goths and the Huns. However, these attackers were unable to take Constantinople thanks to the walls which had been rebuilt and reinforced in the reign of Theodosius II and against which they possessed no suitable siege engines.

Leo's reign was also noteworthy for his influence in the Western Roman Empire, marked by his appointment of Anthemius as Western Roman Emperor in 467. He attempted to build on this political achievement with an expedition against the Vandals in 468, which was defeated due to the treachery and incompetence of Leo's brother-in-law Basiliscus. This disaster drained the Empire of men and money.

Leo's greatest influence in the West was largely inadvertent and at second-hand: the great Goth king Theodoric the Great was raised at the Leo's court in Constantinople, where he was steeped in Roman government and military tactics, which served him well when he returned after Leo's death to become the Goth ruler of a mixed but largely Romanized people.

Leo also published a New Constitutions or compilation of Law Code[1], Constitution LV concerned Judaism: "JEWS SHALL LIVE IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE RITES OF CHRISTIANITY. Those who formerly were invested with Imperial authority promulgated various laws with reference to the Hebrew people, who, once nourished by Divine protection, became renowned, but are now remarkable for the calamities inflicted upon them because of their contumacy towards Christ and God; and these laws, while regulating their mode of life, compelled them to read the Holy Scriptures, and ordered them not to depart from the ceremonies of their worship. They also provided that their children should adhere to their religion, being obliged to do so as well by the ties of blood, as on account of the institution of circumcision. These are the laws which I have already stated were formerly enforced throughout the Empire. But the Most Holy Sovereign from whom We are descended, more concerned than his predecessors for the salvation of the Jews, instead of allowing them (as they did) to obey only their ancient laws, attempted, by the interpretation of prophesies and the conclusions which he drew from them, to convert them to the Christian religion, by means of the vivifying water of baptism. He fully succeeded in his attempts to transform them into new men, according to the doctrine of Christ, and induced them to denounce their ancient doctrines and abandon their religious ceremonies, such as circumcision, the observance of the Sabbath, and all their other rites. But although he, to a certain extent, overcame the obstinacy of the Jews, he was unable to force them to abolish the laws which permitted them to live in accordance with their ancient customs. Therefore We, desiring to accomplish what Our Father failed to effect, do hereby annul all the old laws enacted with reference to the Hebrews, and We order that they shall not dare to live in any other manner than in accordance with the rules established by the pure and salutary Christian Faith. And if anyone of them should be proved to, have neglected to observe the ceremonies of the Christian religion, and to have returned to his former practices, he shall pay the penalty prescribed by the law for apostates."

Leo died of dysentery at the age of 73 on January 18, 474.

Bronze AE4, RIC 671, S 4340 var, VG, 1.17g, 10.3mm, 180o, Alexandria mint, obverse D N LEO P F AVG (or similar), pearl diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse Lion standing left, head right, cross above, ALEA in ex; very rare (R3); ex Forum
ecoli73
CaligulaSmyrnaRPC2473.jpg
704a, Caligula, 16 March 37 - 24 January 41 A.D.104 viewsCaligula, 37 - 41 AD, Ionia, Smyrna. AE 17mm. Klose, Smyrna 27a. RPC 2473. 2.89 gm. Fine. Menophanes, Aviola, Procos, 37-38 AD. Obverse: AION, laureate head right; Reverse: Nike holding wreath right. Ex Tom Vossen.


De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

GAIUS (CALIGULA) (A.D. 37-41)

Garrett G. Fagan
Pennsylvania State University

Gaius Caesar Augustus Germanicus (Caligula) was born on 31 August, A.D. 12, probably at the Julio-Claudian resort of Antium (modern Anzio), the third of six children born to Augustus's adopted grandson, Germanicus, and Augustus's granddaughter, Agrippina. Caligula was the Roman Emperor between A.D. 37-41). Unfortunately, his is the most poorly documented reign of the Julio-Claudian dynasty. The literary sources for these four years are meager, frequently anecdotal, and universally hostile.[[1]] As a result, not only are many of the events of the reign unclear, but Gaius himself appears more as a caricature than a real person, a crazed megalomaniac given to capricious cruelty. Although some headway can be made in disentangling truth from embellishment, the true character of the youthful emperor will forever elude us.

As a baby he accompanied his parents on military campaigns in the north and was shown to the troops wearing a miniature soldier's outfit, including the hob-nailed sandal called caliga, whence the nickname by which posterity remembers him. His childhood was not a happy one, spent amid an atmosphere of paranoia, suspicion, and murder. Instability within the Julio-Claudian house, generated by uncertainty over the succession, led to a series of personal tragedies.

When Tiberius died on 16 March A.D. 37, Gaius was in a perfect position to assume power, despite the obstacle of Tiberius's will, which named him and his cousin Tiberius Gemellus joint heirs. (Gemellus's life was shortened considerably by this bequest, since Gaius ordered him killed within a matter of months.) Backed by the Praetorian Prefect Q. Sutorius Macro, Gaius asserted his dominance. He had Tiberius's will declared null and void on grounds of insanity, accepted the powers of the Principate as conferred by the Senate, and entered Rome on 28 March amid scenes of wild rejoicing. His first acts were generous in spirit: he paid Tiberius's bequests and gave a cash bonus to the Praetorian Guard, the first recorded donativum to troops in imperial history.

The ancient sources are practically unanimous as to the cause of Gaius's downfall: he was insane. The writers differ as to how this condition came about, but all agree that after his good start Gaius began to behave in an openly autocratic manner, even a crazed one. The sources describe his incestuous relations with his sisters, laughable military campaigns in the north, the building of a pontoon bridge across the Bay at Baiae, and the plan to make his horse a consul. Their unanimous hostility renders their testimony suspect, especially since Gaius's reported behavior fits remarkably well with that of the ancient tyrant, a literary type enshrined in Greco-Roman tradition centuries before his reign. Further, the only eye-witness account of Gaius's behavior, Philo's Embassy to Gaius, offers little evidence of outright insanity, despite the antagonism of the author, whom Gaius treated with the utmost disrespect.

The conspiracy that ended Gaius's life was hatched among the officers of the Praetorian Guard, apparently for purely personal reasons. It appears also to have had the support of some senators and an imperial freedman. As with conspiracies in general, there are suspicions that the plot was more broad-based than the sources intimate, and it may even have enjoyed the support of the next emperor Claudius, but these propositions are not provable on available evidence. On 24 January A.D. 41 the praetorian tribune Cassius Chaerea and other guardsmen caught Gaius alone in a secluded palace corridor and cut him down. He was 28 years old and had ruled three years and ten months.

Whatever damage Tiberius's later years had done to the carefully crafted political edifice created by Augustus, Gaius multiplied it a hundredfold. When he came to power in A.D. 37 Gaius had no administrative experience beyond his honorary quaestorship, and had spent an unhappy early life far from the public eye. He appears, once in power, to have realized the boundless scope of his authority and acted accordingly. For the elite, this situation proved intolerable and ensured the blackening of Caligula's name in the historical record they would dictate. The sensational and hostile nature of that record, however, should in no way trivialize Gaius's importance. His reign highlighted an inherent weakness in the Augustan Principate, now openly revealed for what it was -- a raw monarchy in which only the self-discipline of the incumbent acted as a restraint on his behavior. That the only means of retiring the wayward princes was murder marked another important revelation: Roman emperors could not relinquish their powers without simultaneously relinquishing their lives.

Copyright © 1997, Garrett G. Fagan.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Ancient Smyrna

The 5,000 year-old city of Izmir is one of the oldest cities of the Mediterranean basin. The original city was established in the third millennium BC (at present day Bayraklı), at which time it shared with Troy the most advanced culture in Anatolia.


Greek settlement is attested by the presence of pottery dating from about 1000 BC. In the first millennium BC Izmir, then known as Smyrna, ranked as one of the most important cities of the Ionian Federation. During this period, it is believed that the epic poet Homer resided here.

Lydian conquest of the city around 600 BC brought this golden age to an end. Smyrna was little more than a village throughout the Lydian and subsequent sixth century BC Persian rule. In the fourth century BC a new city was built on the slopes of Mt. Pagos (Kadifekale) during the reign of Alexander the Great. Smyrna's Roman period, beginning in the first century BC, was its second great era.

In the first century AD, Smyrna became one of the earliest centers of Christianity and it was one of the Seven Churches of Revelation. Both Revelation and the Martyrdom of Polycarp indicate the existence of a Jewish community in Smyrna as early as the 1st and 2nd centuries AD. The letter to the church at Smyrna in Revelation indicates that the Christians were spiritually "rich" and apparently in conflict with the Jews (2:9).

The origins of the Christian community there, which was established in the 1st century, are unknown. Ignatius of Antioch stopped at Smyrna on his way to martyrdom in Rome in 107 AD, and he sent a letter back to the Christians there from later in his journey. Smyrna's bishop, Polycarp, was burned at the stake in Smyrna's stadium around 156 AD.

Byzantine rule came in the fourth century and lasted until the Seljuk conquest in 11th century. In 1415, under Sultan Mehmed Çelebi, Smyrna became part of the Ottoman Empire.

The city earned its fame as one of the most important port cities of the world during the 17th to 19th centuries. The majority of its population were Greek but merchants of various origins (especially Greek, French, Italian, Dutch, Armenian, Sephardi and Jewish) transformed the city into a cosmopolitan portal of trade. During this period, the city was famous for its own brand of music (Smyrneika) as well as its wide range of products it exported to Europe (Smyrna/Sultana raisins, dried figs, carpets, etc.).

Today, Izmir is Turkey's third largest city and is nicknamed "the pearl of Aegean." It is widely regarded as the most Westernized city of Turkey in terms of values, ideology, gender roles, and lifestyle.
© 2005-08 Sacred Destinations. All rights reserved.
http://www.sacred-destinations.com/turkey/izmir-history.htm

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
CLAUD34LG.jpg
705a, Claudius, 25 January 41 - 13 October 54 A.D.63 viewsClaudius. 42-43 AD. AE As.
Claudius. 42-43 AD. AE As (29 mm, 10.87 g). Obverse: TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP P P, bare head right; Reverse: CONSTANTIAE AVGVSTI / S - C, Constantiae in military dress standing left, holding spear; RIC I, 111; aVF. Ex Imperial Coins.



De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

CLAUDIUS (41-54 A.D.)

Garrett G. Fagan
Pennsylvania State University

Ti. Claudius Nero Germanicus (b. 10 BC, d. 54 A.D.; emperor, 41-54 A.D.) was the third emperor of the Julio-Claudian dynasty. His reign represents a turning point in the history of the Principate for a number of reasons, not the least for the manner of his accession and the implications it carried for the nature of the office. During his reign he promoted administrators who did not belong to the senatorial or equestrian classes, and was later vilified by authors who did. He followed Caesar in carrying Roman arms across the English Channel into Britain but, unlike his predecessor, he initiated the full-scale annexation of Britain as a province, which remains today the most closely studied corner of the Roman Empire. His relationships with his wives and children provide detailed insights into the perennial difficulties of the succession problem faced by all Roman Emperors. His final settlement in this regard was not lucky: he adopted his fourth wife's son, L. Domitius Ahenobarbus, who was to reign catastrophically as Nero and bring the dynasty to an end. Claudius's reign, therefore, was a mixture of successes and failures that leads into the last phase of the Julio-Claudian line.

Robert Graves' fictional characterization of Claudius as an essentially benign man with a keen intelligence has tended to dominate the wider public's view of this emperor. Close study of the sources, however, reveals a somewhat different kind of man. In addition to his scholarly and cautious nature, he had a cruel streak, as suggested by his addiction to gladiatorial games and his fondness for watching his defeated opponents executed. He conducted closed-door (in camera ) trials of leading citizens that frequently resulted in their ruin or deaths -- an unprecedented and tyrannical pattern of behavior. He had his wife Messalina executed, and he personally presided over a kangaroo court in the Praetorian Camp in which many of her hangers-on lost their lives. He abandoned his own son Britannicus to his fate and favored the advancement of Nero as his successor. While he cannot be blamed for the disastrous way Nero's rule turned out, he must take some responsibility for putting that most unsuitable youth on the throne. At the same time, his reign was marked by some notable successes: the invasion of Britain, stability and good government in the provinces, and successful management of client kingdoms. Claudius, then, is a more enigmatic figure than the other Julio-Claudian emperors: at once careful, intelligent, aware and respectful of tradition, but given to bouts of rage and cruelty, willing to sacrifice precedent to expediency, and utterly ruthless in his treatment of those who crossed him. Augustus's suspicion that there was more to the timid Claudius than met the eye was more than fully borne out by the events of his unexpected reign.

The possibility has to be entertained that Claudius was a far more active participant in his own elevation than traditional accounts let on. There is just reason to suspect that he may even have been involved in planning the murder of Gaius (Caligula). Merely minutes before the assassination of Gaius, Claudius had departed for lunch; this appears altogether too fortuitous. This possibility, however, must remain pure speculation, since the ancient evidence offers nothing explicit in the way of support. On the other hand, we can hardly expect them to, given the later pattern of events. The whole issue of Claudius's possible involvement in the death of Gaius and his own subsequent acclamation by the Praetorian Guard must, therefore, remain moot . . . yet intriguing

Copyright 1998, Garrett G. Fagan.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

Cleisthenes
VespasianPax_RICii10.jpg
710a, Vespasian, 1 July 69 - 24 June 79 A.D.138 viewsSilver denarius, RIC II, 10, aVF, 3.5 g, 18mm, Rome mint, 69-71 AD; Obverse: IMP CAESA[R] VESPASIANV[S AV]G - Laureate head right; Reverse: COS ITER [T]R POT - Pax seated left holding branch and caduceus. Ex Imperial Coins.


De Imperatoribus Romanis:
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Titus Flavius Vespasianus (A.D. 69-79)

John Donahue
College of William and Mary

Introduction

Titus Flavius Vespasianus (b. A.D. 9, d. A.D. 79, emperor A.D. 69-79) restored peace and stability to an empire in disarray following the death of Nero in A.D. 68. In the process he established the Flavian dynasty as the legitimate successor to the Imperial throne. Although we lack many details about the events and chronology of his reign, Vespasian provided practical leadership and a return to stable government - accomplishments which, when combined with his other achievements, make his emperorship particularly notable within the history of the Principate.

Early Life and Career

Vespasian was born at Falacrina near Sabine Reate on 17 November, A.D. 9, the son of T. Flavius Sabinus, a successful tax collector and banker, and Vespasia Polla. Both parents were of equestrian status. Few details of his first fifteen years survive, yet it appears that his father and mother were often away from home on business for long periods. As a result, Vespasian's early education became the responsibility of his paternal grandmother, Tertulla. [[1]] In about A.D. 25 Vespasian assumed the toga virilis and later accepted the wearing of the latus clavus, and with it the senatorial path that his older brother, T. Flavius Sabinus, had already chosen. [[2]] Although many of the particulars are lacking, the posts typically occupied by one intent upon a senatorial career soon followed: a military tribunate in Thrace, perhaps for three or four years; a quaestorship in Crete-Cyrene; and the offices of aedile and praetor, successively, under the emperor Gaius. [[3]]

It was during this period that Vespasian married Flavia Domitilla. Daughter of a treasury clerk and former mistress of an African knight, Flavia lacked the social standing and family connections that the politically ambitious usually sought through marriage. In any case, the couple produced three children, a daughter, also named Flavia Domitilla, and two sons, the future emperors Titus and Domitian . Flavia did not live to witness her husband's emperorship and after her death Vespasian returned to his former mistress Caenis, who had been secretary to Antonia (daughter of Marc Antony and mother of Claudius). Caenis apparently exerted considerable influence over Vespasian, prompting Suetonius to assert that she remained his wife in all but name, even after he became emperor. [[4]]

Following the assassination of Gaius on 24 January, A.D. 41, Vespasian advanced rapidly, thanks in large part to the new princeps Claudius, whose favor the Flavians had wisely secured with that of Antonia, the mother of Germanicus, and of Claudius' freedmen, especially Narcissus. [[5]] The emperor soon dispatched Vespasian to Argentoratum (Strasbourg) as legatus legionis II Augustae, apparently to prepare the legion for the invasion of Britain. Vespasian first appeared at the battle of Medway in A.D. 43, and soon thereafter led his legion across the south of England, where he engaged the enemy thirty times in battle, subdued two tribes, and conquered the Isle of Wight. According to Suetonius, these operations were conducted partly under Claudius and partly under Vespasian's commander, Aulus Plautius. Vespasian's contributions, however, did not go unnoticed; he received the ornamenta triumphalia and two priesthoods from Claudius for his exploits in Britain. [[6]]

By the end of A.D. 51 Vespasian had reached the consulship, the pinnacle of a political career at Rome. For reasons that remain obscure he withdrew from political life at this point, only to return when chosen proconsul of Africa about A.D. 63-64. His subsequent administration of the province was marked by severity and parsimony, earning him a reputation for being scrupulous but unpopular. [[7]] Upon completion of his term, Vespasian returned to Rome where, as a senior senator, he became a man of influence in the emperor Nero's court. [[8]] Important enough to be included on Nero's tour of Greece in A.D. 66-67, Vespasian soon found himself in the vicinity of increasing political turbulence in the East. The situation would prove pivotal in advancing his career.

Judaea and the Accession to Power

In response to rioting in Caesarea and Jerusalem that had led to the slaughter in the latter city of Jewish leaders and Roman soldiers, Nero granted to Vespasian in A.D. 66 a special command in the East with the objective of settling the revolt in Judaea. By spring A.D. 67, with 60,000 legionaries, auxiliaries, and allies under his control, Vespasian set out to subdue Galilee and then to cut off Jerusalem. Success was quick and decisive. By October all of Galilee had been pacified and plans for the strategic encirclement of Jerusalem were soon formed. [[9]] Meanwhile, at the other end of the empire, the revolts of Gaius Iulius Vindex, governor of Gallia Lugdunensis, and Servius Sulpicius Galba , governor of Hispania Tarraconensis, had brought Nero's reign to the brink of collapse. The emperor committed suicide in June, A.D. 68, thereby ensuring chaos for the next eighteen months, as first Galba and then Marcus Salvius Otho and Aulus Vitellius acceded to power. Each lacked broad-based military and senatorial support; each would be violently deposed in turn. [[10]]

Still occupied with plans against Jerusalem, Vespasian swore allegiance to each emperor. Shortly after Vitellius assumed power in spring, A.D. 69, however, Vespasian met on the border of Judaea and Syria with Gaius Licinius Mucianus, governor of Syria, and after a series of private and public consultations, the two decided to revolt. [[11]] On July 1, at the urging of Tiberius Alexander, prefect of Egypt, the legions of Alexandria declared for Vespasian, as did the legions of Judaea two days later. By August all of Syria and the Danube legions had done likewise. Vespasian next dispatched Mucianus to Italy with 20,000 troops, while he set out from Syria to Alexandria in order to control grain shipments for the purpose of starving Italy into submission. [[12]] The siege of Jerusalem he placed in the hands of his son Titus.

Meanwhile, the Danubian legions, unwilling to wait for Mucianus' arrival, began their march against Vitellius ' forces. The latter army, suffering from a lack of discipline and training, and unaccustomed to the heat of Rome, was defeated at Cremona in late October. [[13]] By mid-December the Flavian forces had reached Carsulae, 95 kilometers north of Rome on the Flaminian Road, where the Vitellians, with no further hope of reinforcements, soon surrendered. At Rome, unable to persuade his followers to accept terms for his abdication, Vitellius was in peril. On the morning of December 20 the Flavian army entered Rome. By that afternoon, the emperor was dead. [[14]]

Tacitus records that by December 22, A.D. 69, Vespasian had been given all the honors and privileges usually granted to emperors. Even so, the issue remains unclear, owing largely to a surviving fragment of an enabling law, the lex de imperio Vespasiani, which conferred powers, privileges, and exemptions, most with Julio-Claudian precedents, on the new emperor. Whether the fragment represents a typical granting of imperial powers that has uniquely survived in Vespasian's case, or is an attempt to limit or expand such powers, remains difficult to know. In any case, the lex sanctioned all that Vespasian had done up to its passing and gave him authority to act as he saw fit on behalf of the Roman people. [[15]]

What does seem clear is that Vespasian felt the need to legitimize his new reign with vigor. He zealously publicized the number of divine omens that predicted his accession and at every opportunity he accumulated multiple consulships and imperial salutations. He also actively promoted the principle of dynastic succession, insisting that the emperorship would fall to his son. The initiative was fulfilled when Titus succeeded his father in A.D. 79.[[16]]

Emperorship

Upon his arrival in Rome in late summer, A.D. 70, Vespasian faced the daunting task of restoring a city and a government ravaged by the recent civil wars. Although many particulars are missing, a portrait nevertheles emerges of a ruler conscientiously committed to the methodical renewal of both city and empire. Concerning Rome itself, the emperor encouraged rebuilding on vacated lots, restored the Capitol (burned in A.D. 69), and also began work on several new buildings: a temple to the deified Claudius on the Caelian Hill, a project designed to identify Vespasian as a legitimate heir to the Julio-Claudians, while distancing himself from Nero ; a temple of Peace near the Forum; and the magnificent Colosseum (Flavian Amphitheatre), located on the site of the lake of Nero 's Golden House. [[17]]

Claiming that he needed forty thousand million sesterces for these projects and for others aimed at putting the state on more secure footing, Vespasian is said to have revoked various imperial immunities, manipulated the supply of certain commodities to inflate their price, and increased provincial taxation. [[18]] The measures are consistent with his characterization in the sources as both obdurate and avaricious. There were occasional political problems as well: Helvidius Priscus, an advocate of senatorial independence and a critic of the Flavian regime from the start, was exiled after A.D. 75 and later executed; Marcellus Eprius and A. Alienus Caecina were condemned by Titus for conspiracy, the former committing suicide, the latter executed in A.D. 79.
As Suetonius claims, however, in financial matters Vespasian always put revenues to the best possible advantage, regardless of their source. Tacitus, too, offers a generally favorable assessment, citing Vespasian as the first man to improve after becoming emperor. [[19]] Thus do we find the princeps offering subventions to senators not possessing the property qualifications of their rank, restoring many cities throughout the empire, and granting state salaries for the first time to teachers of Latin and Greek rhetoric. To enhance Roman economic and social life even further, he encouraged theatrical productions by building a new stage for the Theatre of Marcellus, and he also put on lavish state dinners to assist the food trades. [[20]]

In other matters the emperor displayed similar concern. He restored the depleted ranks of the senatorial and equestrian orders with eligible Italian and provincial candidates and reduced the backlog of pending court cases at Rome. Vespasian also re-established discipline in the army, while punishing or dismissing large numbers of Vitellius ' men. [[21]]
Beyond Rome, the emperor increased the number of legions in the East and continued the process of imperial expansion by the annexation of northern England, the pacification of Wales, and by advances into Scotland and southwest Germany between the Rhine and the Danube. Vespasian also conferred rights on communities abroad, especially in Spain, where the granting of Latin rights to all native communities contributed to the rapid Romanization of that province during the Imperial period. [[22]]

Death and Assessment

In contrast to his immediate imperial predecessors, Vespasian died peacefully - at Aquae Cutiliae near his birthplace in Sabine country on 23 June, A.D. 79, after contracting a brief illness. The occasion is said to have inspired his deathbed quip: "Oh my, I must be turning into a god!" [[23]] In fact, public deification did follow his death, as did his internment in the Mausoleum of Augustus alongside the Julio-Claudians.

A man of strict military discipline and simple tastes, Vespasian proved to be a conscientious and generally tolerant administrator. More importantly, following the upheavals of A.D. 68-69, his reign was welcome for its general tranquility and restoration of peace. In Vespasian Rome found a leader who made no great breaks with tradition, yet his ability ro rebuild the empire and especially his willingness to expand the composition of the governing class helped to establish a positive working model for the "good emperors" of the second century.

Bibliography

Since the scholarship on Vespasian is more comprehensive than can be treated here, the works listed below are main accounts or bear directly upon issues discussed in the entry above. A comprehensive modern anglophone study of this emperor is yet to be produced.

Atti congresso internazionale di studi Flaviani, 2 vols. Rieti, 1983.

Atti congresso internazionale di studi Vespasianei, 2 vols. Rieti, 1981.

Bosworth, A.B. "Vespasian and the Provinces: Some Problems of the Early 70s A.D." Athenaeum 51 (1973): 49-78.

Brunt, P. A. "Lex de imperio Vespasiani." JRS (67) 1977: 95-116.

D'Espèrey, S. Franchet. "Vespasien, Titus et la littérature." ANRW II.32.5: 3048-3086.

Dudley, D. and Webster, G. The Roman Conquest of Britain. London, 1965.

Gonzalez, J. "The Lex Irnitana: A New Copy of the Flavian Municipal Law." JRS 76 (1986): 147-243.

Grant, M. The Roman Emperors: A Biographical Guide to the Rulers of Rome, 31 B.C. - A.D. 476. New York, 1985.

Homo, L. Vespasien, l'Empereur du bons sens (69-79 ap. J.-C.). Paris, 1949.

Levi, M.A. "I Flavi." ANRW II.2: 177-207.

McCrum, M. and Woodhead, A. G. Select Documents of the Principates of the Flavian Emperors Including the Year of the Revolution. Cambridge, 1966.

Nicols, John. Vespasian and the Partes Flavianae. Wiesbaden, 1978.

Scarre, C. Chronicle of the Roman Emperors. The Reign-by-Reign Record of the Rulers of Imperial Rome. London, 1995.

Suddington, D. B. The Development of the Roman Auxiliary Forces from Caesar to Vespasian, 49 B.C. - A.D. 79. Harare: U. of Zimbabwe, 1982.

Syme, R. Tacitus. Oxford, 1958.

Wardel, David. "Vespasian, Helvidius Priscus and the Restoration of the Capitol." Historia 45 (1996): 208-222.

Wellesley, K. The Long Year: A.D. 69. Bristol, 1989, 2nd ed.


Notes

[[1]] Suet. Vesp. 2.1. Suetonius remains the major source but see also Tac. Hist. 2-5; Cass. Dio 65; Joseph. BJ 3-4.

[[2]] Suetonius (Vesp. 2.1) claims that Vespasian did not accept the latus clavus, the broad striped toga worn by one aspiring to a senatorial career, immediately. The delay, however, was perhaps no more than three years. See J. Nicols, Vespasian and the Partes Flavianae (Wiesbaden, 1978), 2.

[[3]] Military tribunate and quaestorship: Suet. Vesp. 2.3; aedileship: ibid., 5.3, in which Gaius, furious that Vespasian had not kept the streets clean, as was his duty, ordered some soldiers to load him with filth;,they complied by stuffing his toga with as much as it could hold. See also Dio 59.12.2-3; praetorship: Suet. Vesp. 2.3, in which Vespasian is depicted as one of Gaius' leading adulators, an account consistent with Tacitus' portrayal (Hist 1.50.4; 2.5.1) of his early career. For a more complete discussion of these posts and attendant problems of dating, see Nicols, Vespasian, 2-7.

[[4]] Marriage and Caenis: Suet. Vesp. 3; Cass. Dio 65.14.

[[5]] Nicols, Vespasian, 12-39.

[[6]] Suet. Vesp. 4.1 For additional details on Vespasian's exploits in Britain, see D. Dudley and G. Webster, The Roman Conquest of Britain (London, 1965), 55 ff., 98.

[[7]] Concerning Vespasian's years between his consulship and proconsulship, see Suet. Vesp. 4.2 and Nicols, Vespasian, 9. On his unpopularity in Africa, see Suet. Vesp. 4.3, an account of a riot at Hadrumentum, where he was once pelted with turnips. In recording that Africa supported Vitellius in A.D. 69, Tacitus too suggests popular dissatisfaction with Vespasian's proconsulship. See Hist. 2.97.2.

[[8]] This despite the fact that the sources record two rebukes of Vespasian, one for extorting money from a young man seeking career advancement (Suet. Vesp. 4.3), the other for either leaving the room or dozing off during one of the emperor's recitals (Suet. Vesp. 4.4 and 14, which places the transgression in Greece; Tac. (Ann. 16.5.3), who makes Rome and the Quinquennial Games of A.D. 65 the setting; A. Braithwaite, C. Suetoni Tranquilli Divus Vespasianus, Oxford, 1927, 30, who argues for both Greece and Rome).

[[9]] Subjugation of Galilee: Joseph. BJ 3.65-4.106; siege of Jerusalem: ibid., 4.366-376, 414.

[[10]] Revolt of Vindex: Suet. Nero 40; Tac. Ann. 14.4; revolt of Galba: Suet. Galba 10; Plut. Galba, 4-5; suicide of Nero: Suet. Nero 49; Cass. Dio 63.29.2. For the most complete account of the period between Nero's death and the accession of Vespasian, see K. Wellesley, The Long Year: A.D. 69, 2nd. ed. (Bristol, 1989).

[[11]] Tac. Hist. 2.76.

[[12]] Troops in support of Vespasian: Suet. Vit. 15; Mucianus and his forces: Tac. Hist. 2.83; Vespasian and grain shipments: Joseph. BJ 4.605 ff.; see also Tac. Hist. 3.48, on Vespasian's possible plan to shut off grain shipments to Italy from Carthage as well.

[[13]] On Vitellius' army and its lack of discipline, see Tac. Hist. 2.93-94; illness of army: ibid., 2.99.1; Cremona: ibid., 3.32-33.

[[14]] On Vitellius' last days, see Tac. Hist. 3.68-81. On the complicated issue of Vitellius' death date, see L. Holzapfel, "Römische Kaiserdaten," Klio 13 (1913): 301.

[[15]] Honors, etc. Tac. Hist. 4.3. For more on the lex de imperio Vespasiani, see P. A. Brunt, "Lex de imperio Vespasiani," JRS (67) 1977: 95-116.

[[16]] Omens: Suet. Vesp. 5; consulships and honors: ibid., 8; succession of sons: ibid., 25.

[[17]] On Vespasian's restoration of Rome, see Suet. Vesp. 9; Cass. Dio 65.10; D. Wardel, "Vespasian, Helvidius Priscus and the Restoration of the Capitol," Historia 45 (1996): 208-222.

[[18]] Suet. Vesp. 16.

[[19]] Ibid.; Tac. Hist. 1.50.

[[20]] Suet. Vesp. 17-19.

[[21]] Ibid., 8-10.

[[22]] On Vespasian's exploits in Britain, see esp. Tac., Agricola, eds. R. M. Ogilvie and I. A. Richmond (1967), and W. S. Hanson, Agricola and the Conquest of the North (1987); on the granting of Latin rights in Spain, see, e.g., J. Gonzalez, "The Lex Irnitana: a New Copy of the Flavian Municipal Law." JRS 76 (1986): 147-243.

[[23]] For this witticism and other anecdotes concerning Vespasian's sense of humor, see Suet. Vesp. 23.

Copyright (C) 1998, John Donahue. Published on De Imperatoribus Romanis, an Online Encyplopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families.
http://www.roman-emperors.org/vespasia.htm
Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.





Cleisthenes
TitusCommColosseum.jpg
711a, Titus, 24 June 79 - 13 September 81 A.D. 114 viewsTITUS AUGUSTUS AR silver denarius. Struck at Rome, 80 AD. IMP TITVS CAESAR VESPASIAN AVG PM, laureate head right. Reverse - TRP IX IMP XV COS VIII PP, elephant walking left. Fully legible legends, about Very Fine, nice golden toning. Commemmorates the completion and dedication of the Colosseum and the opening of games. SCARCE. RCV 2512, valued at $544 in EF. 17mm, 3.1g. Ex Incitatus.

De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Titus Flavius Vespasianus (A.D. 79-81)

John Donahue
College of William and Mary

Titus Flavius Vespasianus was born on December 30, 39 A.D. He was the oldest of the three children of the founder of the Flavian Dynasty, Vespasian. Beginning in the year 70 Titus was named Cæsar and coregent; he was highly educated and a brilliant poet and orator in both Latin and Greek. He won military fame during the Jewish Revolt of 69-70. In April, 70, he appeared before the walls of Jerusalem, and conquered and destroyed the city after a siege of five months. He wished to preserve the Temple, but in the struggle with the Jews who rushed out of it a soldier threw a brand into the building. The siege and taking of the city were accompanied by barbarous cruelties. The next year Titus celebrated his victory by a triumph; to increase the fame of the Flavian dynasty the inscription on the triumphal arch represented the overthrow of the helpless people as a heroic achievement. Titus succeeded his father as Emperor in 79.

Before becoming emperor, tradition records that Titus was feared as the next Nero, a perception that may have developed from his association with Berenice, his alleged heavy-handedness as praetorian prefect, and tales of sexual debauchery. Once in office, however, both emperor and his reign were portrayed in universally positive terms. The suddenness of this transformation raises immediate suspicions, yet it is difficult to know whether the historical tradition is suspect or if Titus was in fact adept at taking off one mask for another. What is clear, however, is that Titus sought to present the Flavians as the legitimate successors of the Julio-Claudian dynasty. Proof came through the issuing of a series of restoration coins of previous emperors, the most popular being Augustus and Claudius. In A.D. 80 Titus also set out to establish an imperial cult in honor of Vespasian. The temple, in which cult (the first that was not connected with the Julio-Claudians) was housed, was completed by Domitian and was known as the Temple of Vespasian and Domitian.
Legitimacy was also sought through various economic measures, which Titus enthusiastically funded. Vast amounts of capital poured into extensive building schemes in Rome, especially the Flavian Amphitheater, popularly known as the Colosseum. In celebration of additions made to the structure, Titus provided a grand 100-day festival, with sea fights staged on an artificial lake, infantry battles, wild beast hunts, and similar activities. He also constructed new imperial baths to the south-east of the Amphitheater and began work on the celebrated Arch of Titus, a memorial to his Jewish victories. Large sums were directed to Italy and the provinces as well, especially for road building. In response to the eruption of Vesuvius in A.D. 79, Titus spent large sums to relieve distress in that area; likewise, the imperial purse contributed heavily to rebuilding Rome after a devastating fire destroyed large sections of the city in A.D. 80. As a result of these actions, Titus earned a reputation for generosity and geniality. For these reasons he gained the honourable title of "amor et deliciæ generis humani" (the darling and admiration of the human race). Even so, his financial acumen must not be under-estimated. He left the treasury with a surplus, as he had found it, and dealt promptly and efficiently with costly natural disasters. The Greek historian of the third-century A.D., Cassius Dio, perhaps offered the most accurate and succinct assessment of Titus' economic policy: "In money matters, Titus was frugal and made no unnecessary expenditure." In other areas, the brevity of Titus' reign limits our ability to detect major emphases or trends in policy. As far as can be discerned from the limited evidence, senior officials and amici were well chosen, and his legislative activity tended to focus on popular social measures, with the army as a particular beneficiary in the areas of land ownership, marriage, and testamentary freedom. In the provinces, Titus continued his father's policies by strengthening roads and forts in the East and along the Danube.

Titus died in September, A.D. 81 after only 26 months in office. Suetonius recorded that Titus died on his way to the Sabine country of his ancestors in the same villa as his father. A competing tradition persistently implicated his brother and successor, Domitian, as having had a hand in the emperor's demise, but the evidence is highly contradictory and any wrongdoing is difficult to prove. Domitian himself delivered the funeral eulogy and had Titus deified. He also built several monuments in honor of Titus and completed the Temple of Vespasian and Titus, changing the name of the structure to include his brother's and setting up his cult statue in the Temple itself.

Titus was the beneficiary of considerable intelligence and talent, endowments that were carefully cultivated at every step of his career, from his early education to his role under his father's principate. Cassius Dio suggested that Titus' reputation was enhanced by his early death. It is true that the ancient sources tend to heroicize Titus, yet based upon the evidence, his reign must be considered a positive one. He capably continued the work of his father in establishing the Flavian Dynasty and he maintained a high degree of economic and administrative competence in Italy and beyond. In so doing, he solidified the role of the emperor as paternalistic autocrat, a model that would serve Trajan and his successors well. Titus was used as a model by later emperors, especially those known as the Five Good Emperors (Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian, Antoninus Pius and Marcus Aurelius).

Copyright (C) 1997, John Donahue.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Catholic Encyclopedia, http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/14746b.htm

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
Titus_Colosseum_Commem_AR_denarius.jpg
711a, Titus, 24 June 79 - 13 September 81 A.D.142 viewsTitus, 24 June 79 - 13 September 81 A.D. AR denarius, RCV 2512, aVF, struck at Rome, 80 A.D., 17.5mm, 3.4g. Obverse: IMP TITVS CAESAR VESPASIAN AVG PM, laureate head right; Reverse: TRP IX IMP XV COS VIII PP, elephant walking left. Fully legible legends; nice golden toning. This coin was struck in order to commemorate the completion and dedication of the Flavian Amphitheatre (the Colosseum) and its opening games. Very scarce. Ex Incitatus; photo courtesy Incitatus.

De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Titus Flavius Vespasianus (A.D. 79-81)

John Donahue
College of William and Mary

Titus Flavius Vespasianus was born on December 30, 39 A.D. He was the oldest of the three children of the founder of the Flavian Dynasty, Vespasian. Beginning in the year 70 Titus was named Cæsar and coregent; he was highly educated and a brilliant poet and orator in both Latin and Greek. He won military fame during the Jewish Revolt of 69-70. In April, 70, he appeared before the walls of Jerusalem, and conquered and destroyed the city after a siege of five months. He wished to preserve the Temple, but in the struggle with the Jews who rushed out of it a soldier threw a brand into the building. The siege and taking of the city were accompanied by barbarous cruelties. The next year Titus celebrated his victory by a triumph; to increase the fame of the Flavian dynasty the inscription on the triumphal arch represented the overthrow of the helpless people as a heroic achievement. Titus succeeded his father as Emperor in 79.

Before becoming emperor, tradition records that Titus was feared as the next Nero, a perception that may have developed from his association with Berenice, his alleged heavy-handedness as praetorian prefect, and tales of sexual debauchery. Once in office, however, both emperor and his reign were portrayed in universally positive terms. The suddenness of this transformation raises immediate suspicions, yet it is difficult to know whether the historical tradition is suspect or if Titus was in fact adept at taking off one mask for another. What is clear, however, is that Titus sought to present the Flavians as the legitimate successors of the Julio-Claudian dynasty. Proof came through the issuing of a series of restoration coins of previous emperors, the most popular being Augustus and Claudius. In A.D. 80 Titus also set out to establish an imperial cult in honor of Vespasian. The temple, in which cult (the first that was not connected with the Julio-Claudians) was housed, was completed by Domitian and was known as the Temple of Vespasian and Domitian.
Legitimacy was also sought through various economic measures, which Titus enthusiastically funded. Vast amounts of capital poured into extensive building schemes in Rome, especially the Flavian Amphitheater, popularly known as the Colosseum. In celebration of additions made to the structure, Titus provided a grand 100-day festival, with sea fights staged on an artificial lake, infantry battles, wild beast hunts, and similar activities. He also constructed new imperial baths to the south-east of the Amphitheater and began work on the celebrated Arch of Titus, a memorial to his Jewish victories. Large sums were directed to Italy and the provinces as well, especially for road building. In response to the eruption of Vesuvius in A.D. 79, Titus spent large sums to relieve distress in that area; likewise, the imperial purse contributed heavily to rebuilding Rome after a devastating fire destroyed large sections of the city in A.D. 80. As a result of these actions, Titus earned a reputation for generosity and geniality. For these reasons he gained the honourable title of "amor et deliciæ generis humani" (the darling and admiration of the human race). Even so, his financial acumen must not be under-estimated. He left the treasury with a surplus, as he had found it, and dealt promptly and efficiently with costly natural disasters. The Greek historian of the third-century A.D., Cassius Dio, perhaps offered the most accurate and succinct assessment of Titus' economic policy: "In money matters, Titus was frugal and made no unnecessary expenditure." In other areas, the brevity of Titus' reign limits our ability to detect major emphases or trends in policy. As far as can be discerned from the limited evidence, senior officials and amici were well chosen, and his legislative activity tended to focus on popular social measures, with the army as a particular beneficiary in the areas of land ownership, marriage, and testamentary freedom. In the provinces, Titus continued his father's policies by strengthening roads and forts in the East and along the Danube.

Titus died in September, A.D. 81 after only 26 months in office. Suetonius recorded that Titus died on his way to the Sabine country of his ancestors in the same villa as his father. A competing tradition persistently implicated his brother and successor, Domitian, as having had a hand in the emperor's demise, but the evidence is highly contradictory and any wrongdoing is difficult to prove. Domitian himself delivered the funeral eulogy and had Titus deified. He also built several monuments in honor of Titus and completed the Temple of Vespasian and Titus, changing the name of the structure to include his brother's and setting up his cult statue in the Temple itself.

Titus was the beneficiary of considerable intelligence and talent, endowments that were carefully cultivated at every step of his career, from his early education to his role under his father's principate. Cassius Dio suggested that Titus' reputation was enhanced by his early death. It is true that the ancient sources tend to heroicize Titus, yet based upon the evidence, his reign must be considered a positive one. He capably continued the work of his father in establishing the Flavian Dynasty and he maintained a high degree of economic and administrative competence in Italy and beyond. In so doing, he solidified the role of the emperor as paternalistic autocrat, a model that would serve Trajan and his successors well. Titus was used as a model by later emperors, especially those known as the Five Good Emperors (Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian, Antoninus Pius and Marcus Aurelius).

Copyright (C) 1997, John Donahue.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Catholic Encyclopedia, http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/14746b.htm

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
3 commentsCleisthenes
Probus-RIC-202.jpg
88. Probus.16 viewsAntoninianus, 276 - 282 AD, Rome mint.
Obverse: IMP PROBVS AVG / Radiate bust of Probus, facing left, and wearing imperial mantle, holding eagle-tipped sceptre.
Reverse: SOLI INVICTO / Sol in chariot pulled by four horses, holding globe and whip. R * E in exergue.
3.67 gm., 22 mm.
RIC #202; Sear #12038.

This coin is from a collection formed in the mid-1800s in England. One of the gentleman's great grand children finally sold the collection in 1990, which is when I acquired this coin.
Callimachus
sabinas.jpg
Abduction of the Sabine women.384 viewsAR denarius. 89 BC. 3,65 grs. Bare-headed, bearded head of King Tatius righ. TA (ligate) below chin. SABIN behind / Two Roman soldiers, each carrying off a sabine woman in his arms. L TITVRI in exergue.
Crawford 344/1a. RSC Tituria 1.

Livy. History of Rome. 1.9.
The Roman state had become strong enough to hold its own in war with all the peoples along its borders, but a shortage of women meant that its greatness was fated to last for a single generation, since there was no prospect of offspring at home nor any prospect of marriage with their neighbours. Then, in accordance with the decision of the senate, Romulus sent messengers to the neighbouring peoples to ask for alliance and the right of marriage for the new people: cities, like everything else, start small but later if their own excellence and the gods assist them, they grow in strength and in fame. It was certain that at the beginning of Rome the gods had been propitiated and that it would not lack in valour. Therefore, men should not disdain to join blood and family ties with other men.
But nowhere were the emissaries given a fair hearing. Some scorned, others feared the great power growing in their midst, both for themselves and for their descendants. In more than one place the emissaries were asked, even as they were being sent packing, why they hadn't offered asylum to women (criminals) too: that way they'd have had their marriage and with others of their own rank! The youth of Rome took this insult badly and began to think seriously about the use of force. Romulus, to gain time till he found the right occasion, hid his concern and prepared to celebrate the Consualia, the solemn games in honour of equestrian Neptune. He then ordered that the spectacle be announced to the neighbouring peoples. He gave the event great publicity by the most lavish means possible in those days. Many people came, some simply out of curiosity to see the new city, and especially the nearest neighbours, from Caenina, Crustuminum and Antemnae; the entire Sabine population came, wives and children included. Received with hospitality in the houses, after having seen the position of the city, its walls, and the large number of buildings, they marvelled that Rome had grown so fast. When it was time for the show, and everybody was concentrating on this, a prearranged signal was given and all the Roman youths began to grab the women. Many just snatched the nearest woman to hand, but the most beautiful had already been reserved for the senators and these were escorted to the senators' houses by plebeians who had been given this assignment. The story goes that one woman, far and away the most beautiful, was carried off by the gang of a certain Thalassius, and because many wanted to know where they were taking her, they repeatedly shouted that they were taking her to Thalassius, and that it how the nuptial cry came to be.

The party was over, and the grieving parents of the girls ran away, accusing the Romans of having violated the laws of hospitality and invoking the god who was supposed to have been honoured at that day's festival. Nor did the girls themselves hold much hope. But Romulus went among them in person to assure them that none of this would have happened if their fathers hadn't been so inflexible in not letting them marry their neighbours. But now they would have the status of wives with all the material rewards and civil rights of citizenship and they would have children, than which nothing is dearer. They should cool their anger and give their hearts to the men who had already taken their bodies. A good relationship often begins with an offence, he said. And their husbands would treat them with extra kindness in hope of making up for the parents and country they so missed. The men added their blandishments, saying that they'd been motivated by love and passion, entreaties which are very effective with women.

benito
Lincoln_Peace_Medal.jpg
Abraham Lincoln 1862 Indian Peace Medal68 viewsObv: ABRAHAM LINCOLN, PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES, draped bust of Abraham Lincoln (16th President) facing right, 1862 below.

Rev: In the center, within a circle is a village scene including children playing baseball in front of a school and a church steeple; in the foreground an Indian, wearing full chief's feathered head-dress, operates a horse-drawn plough; in the outer ring, an Indian pulls the hair of a foe, preparing to scalp him with a knife; below and to the left is a quiver of arrows, on the right is a crossed bow and a peace pipe; below center is the head of an Indian princess with eyes closed.

Engravers: Salathiel Ellis (obverse), Joseph Willson (reverse).

Mint: Philadelphia, Date: 1862 (20th Century Restrike), Bronze, Diameter: 76 mm
1 commentsMatt Inglima
16_Lincoln_Indian_Peace_Medal_(2).JPG
Abraham Lincoln 1862 Indian Peace Medal55 viewsObv: ABRAHAM LINCOLN, PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES, draped bust of Abraham Lincoln (16th President) facing right, 1862 below.

Rev: In the center, within a circle is a village scene including children playing baseball in front of a school and a church steeple; in the foreground an Indian, wearing full chief's feathered head-dress, operates a horse-drawn plough; in the outer ring, an Indian pulls the hair of a foe, preparing to scalp him with a knife; below and to the left is a quiver of arrows, on the right is a crossed bow and a peace pipe; below center is the head of an Indian princess with eyes closed.

Engravers: Salathiel Ellis (obverse), Joseph Willson (reverse).

Mint: Philadelphia, Date: 1862 (20th Century Restrike), Bronze, Diameter: 76 mm
Matt Inglima
Thelpusa.jpg
Achaea. Arcadia, Thelpusa. Septimius Severus AE17. Unpublished106 viewsPeloponnesus. Thelpusa, Arcadia. Septimius Severus bust rt., Θ Ε Λ in wreath. Obverse die and reverse type not listed in BCD. BCD Pelop. I -; BCD Pelop II -; SNG Cop -; BMC -.

Thelpusa or Thelpousa (Greek: Θέλπουσα, also known as Telphusa/Τέλφουσα or Thelphusa/Θέλφουσα) was an ancient city-state in Azania in Arcadia.

The city was built on the left bank of the Ladon and bounded with Kleitor and Psophis. The name comes from the nymph Thelpousa or Thelpusa, daughter of Ladon. The city contained the temple of Eleusinian Demeter, and nearby, a stone statue of the goddess of the daughter and Dionysus and Ongius, chief of Thelpousa and the son of Apollo, Asclepius' children with the memory of Trygon and the temple of the twelve gods. When Pausanias] visited the city, Thelpousa was abandoned and ruined for many years. In 352 BC, its city residents took part with the Lacedaemonians. It was a member of the Achaean League and was cut off from the rights of law. Thelpusa was the patriot of Asclepius and Artion.
ancientone
R633_Faustina_II_fac.jpg
AE Sestertius, RIC 3, p.345, 1635 - Faustina II, Fecunditas, Children26 viewsFaustina II
Sestertius
Obv.: FAVSTINA AVGVSTA, draped bust right
Rev.: FECVND AVGVSTAE / S - C, Fecunditas standing facing, head left, holding two infants; girls standing to left and right.
AE, 20.39g, 33mm
Ref.: RIC III 1635, C96
Ex Numismatik Naumann, 2017, auction 65, lot641
shanxi
Faustina_II_61.jpg
AE Sestertius, RIC 3, p.347, 1673 - Faustina II, children17 viewsFaustina II
Sestertius, AD 161-175
Obv.: FAVSTINA AVGVSTA, draped bust right.
Rev.: TEMPOR FELIC, Faustina standing left, holding two infants, between four girls at her feet. In field, S – C.
AE, 28.05g, 33.4 mm
Ref.: RIC 1673
Ex Forvm Ancient Coins Shop
shanxi
Faustina_II_R785_fac.jpg
AE Sestertius, RIC 3, p.350, 1715 - Faustina II, children7 viewsFaustina II
Sestertius, Rome, AD 175-176
Obv.: DIVA FAVSTINA PIA, draped bust right
Rev.: SIDERIBVS RECEPTA, Faustina as Diana, standing right, with crescent at shoulders, holding long torch in both hands; S-C across fields
AR, 30mm, 24.1g
Ref.: RIC 1715 (Aurelius) [S]
shanxi
IMG_3326.JPG
Antoninus Pius12 viewsAntoninus Pius. AD 138-161. AR Denarius (2.72g). Rome mint. Struck AD 155-156. Laureate head right / Pietas standing facing, head left, placing hands on heads of "two grandchildren of Antoninus, daughters of Marcus Caesar and Faustina II, who were alive when the type was struck in 156 AD. One of them, the elder, was certainly Lucilla, who was to marry Lucius Verus in c. 164, then be executed early in the reign of her younger brother Commodus, for conspiring against him." (Commentary from Curtis Clay). RIC III 253a; RSC 992a.Molinari
Antoninus_Pius_Pietati.JPG
Antoninus Pius Pietati59 viewsANTONINUS PIUS, 138-161 AD, Dupondius, RIC 1035, SEAR 5 4280, Cohen 625, BMC 2091
OBV: ANTONINUS AVG PIVS P P TR P XXII, Radiate head right
REV: PIETATI AVG COS IIII S C, Pietas standing left between two children, holding globe and child
Romanorvm
AntoSe27-2.jpg
Antoninus Pius, RIC 857, Sestertius of AD 149 (Temporum Felicitas) 59 viewsÆ Sestertius (25.4g, Ø33mm, 12h). Rome mint. Struck AD 149.
Obv.: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P XII, laureate head of Antoninus Pius facing right.
Rev.: TEMPORVM FELICITAS (around) COS IIII (below) S C (in field), Busts of infants on crossed cornucopiae.
RIC 857(S); BMC 1827; Cohen 813; Strack 1026; Banti 410 (23 spec.); RHC 130:70

Issued to commemorate the birth of the Antoninus Pius' grand children Lucilla and T.Aurelius Antoninus, twins to Marcus Aurelius and Faustina in AD 149. Only Lucilla survived, the boy died that same year. (This legend was used again in the abbreviated form "TEMPOR FELIC" 12 years later, in AD 161 to celebrate the birth of second twins: Commodus and Antoninus).
1 commentsCharles S
AntoSe42-2.jpg
Antoninus Pius, RIC 1002, Sestertius of AD 159 (Pietas)40 viewsÆ sestertius (22.3, Ø30mm, 12h), Rome mint, struck AD 159.
Obv.: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P XXII , laureate head of Antoninus Pius facing right.
Rev.: PIETATI AVG COS IIII (around) S C (in field), Faustina as Pietas standing left, holding apple and, on her left arm, an infant; two children beside her.
RIC 1002 (C); BMC 2061-62; Cohen 620; Strack 1164; Foss (RHC) 132:89

This type refers to the growth of the family of Aurelius and Faustina Filia: Faustina holding new born infant Fadilla, while Faustina and Lucilla, age 13 and 10 respectively, stand beside her.
Charles S
ANTOSE36.JPG
Antoninus Pius, RIC 1031, Sestertius of AD 159-16033 viewsÆ sestertius (22.3, Ø30mm, 12h), Rome mint, struck AD 159-160.
Obv.: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P XXIII , laureate head of Antoninus Pius facing right.
Rev.: PIETATI AVG COS IIII (around) S C (in field), Faustina as Pietas standing left, holding apple, and on her left arm an infant, two children beside her.
RIC 1031 (C); BMC 2089-00; Foss (RHC) 132:89

This type refers to the growth of the family of Aurelius and Faustina Minor: Faustina is holds the new born infant Fadilla, while Faustina and Lucilla, age 13 and 10 respectively, stand by her sides.
Charles S
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Antoninus Pius, Sestertius -89 viewsSestertius minted in Rome, 159/160 AD
ANTONINVS AVG PIVS PP TRP XXIII, Laureate head of Antoninus right
PIETATI AVG COS IIII, Pietas standing left, holding child, and two children at her feet, SC in field
26,32 gr
Ref : Cohen #621, RCV #4205
Potator II
Septimius_Severus_01.jpg
Asia Minor, Lydia, Hypaipa, Septimius Severus, Artemis Anaitis, Children, Astragaloi14 viewsSeptimius Severus
Lydia, Hypaipa
AE 17
Obv.: L CEΠ CЄΟΥΗΡΟC Π, laureate bust right
Rev.: VΠAIΠH/NΩN, two children (girl and boy?) playing with Astragaloi (knucklebones of a sheep), Artemis Anaitis behind
AE, 17 mm, 3.1 g
Ref.: BMC –, I.B. -, Lyd. –, SNG Cop –, Aulock –, SNG München –, Winterthur –, unpublished ?
Ex Gitbud& Naumann
shanxi
Eleusis_AE.JPG
Athens, Attica146 viewsEleusinian Festival Coinage
340-335 BC
AE 16 (16mm, 3.65g)
O: Triptolemos seated left in winged chariot drawn by two serpents, holding grain ear in right hand.
R: Pig standing right on mystic staff; EΛEYΣI above, bucranium in ex.
SNG Cop 416; Sear 2586v

The Sons of Dysaules
The story of Triptolemus being charged with bringing agriculture to man has been well told. That of his brother Eubouleus perhaps less so.
Eubouleus was a swineherd whose pigs were lost when the Earth gaped open to swallow up Persephone.
Pigs were sacrificed during the Eleusinian Rites in a women’s mystery ritual known as the Thesmophoria. The piglets would be washed in the sea during the Procession and then brought back to the Sanctuary and ritually slaughtered.
It is interesting to note that in ancient Greek religion pigs were thought to be able to absorb miasma from humans, making this an even more appropriate offering.

"It is said, then, that when Demeter came to Argos she was received by Pelasgos into his home, and that Khrysanthis, knowing about the rape of Kore, related the story to her. Afterwards Trokhilos, the priest of the mysteries, fled, they say, from Argos because of the enmity of Agenor, came to Attika and married a woman of Eleusis, by whom he had two children Eubouleos and Triptolemos. That is the account given by the Argives."
~ Pausanias, Description of Greece 1. 14. 3
8 commentsEnodia
63761q00.jpg
Augustus89 viewsRoman Imperatorial
Octavian Caesar
(Reign as ‘Augustus’ 1st Emperor of the Roman Empire 27 BC-14 AD)
(b. 63 BC, d. 14 AD)


Obverse: Bare head of Octavian facing right

Reverse: IMP CAESAR, Facing head of Octavian on ithyphallic boundary stone of Jupiter Terminus, winged thunderbolt below

Reverse refers to Octavian's reestablishment of boundaries in the east after the battle of Actium and review of the client kingdoms established by Mark Antony (in particular return of Roman territory from Cleopatra and her children)

Silver Denarius
Minted in Italy 30-29 BC




Translations:

Imperatorial=The Imperatorial period extends from the outbreak of civil war between Julius Caesar and Pompey in January 49 BC and ends early 27 BC when Caesar's adopted heir Octavian was given the title "Augustus" by the Senate, effectively making him the sole ruler of the entire Roman territory. 

IMP CAESAR=Imperator(Commander-in-Chief) Caesar(Octavian took Julius Caesar’s name after he was posthumously adopted by him in 44 BC)


Reference
RIC I 269a
2 commentsSphinx357
AVGCL.jpg
Augustus denarius92 viewsCAESAR AVGVSTVS DIVI PATER PATRIAE
Laureate head right

C L CAESARES AVGVSTI F COS DESIG PRINC IVVENT
Gaius and Lucius stg. facing, shields and spears between them

Lugdunum 2 BC-4 AD
2.76g

Sear 1597

Ex-Calgary Coins, ex-Rudnik Numismatics

Cracked and repaired, crystallized but stable.


Gaius and Lucius where the children of Marcus Agrippa and Augustus' daughter Julia.

SOLD
2 commentsJay GT4
Augustus_CL_denarius.jpg
Augustus denarius99 viewsCAESAR AVGVSTVS DIVI PATER PATRIAE
Laureate head of Augustus right

C L CAESARES AVGVSTI F COS DESIG PRINC IVVENT
Gaius and Lucius stg. facing, shields and spears between them


Lugdunum 2 BC-4 AD

3.76g

Sear 1597

ex-Holding History
Encrustations cleaned from behind Augustus head

Children of Marcus Agrippa and Augustus daughter Julia.
2 commentsJay GT4
Augustus_CL_denarius_2.jpg
Augustus denarius42 viewsCAESAR AVGVSTVS DIVI PATER PATRIAE
Laureate head of Augustus right

C L CAESARES AVGVSTI F COS DESIG PRINC IVVENT
Gaius and Lucius stg. facing, shields and spears between them


Lugdunum 2 BC-4 AD

3.72g

Sear 1597

ex-Nilus

Children of Marcus Agrippa and Augustus daughter Julia.

New Photo

Sold to Calgary Coin Jan 2016
Jay GT4
leBon.jpg
Auxonne in France, 1424-1427 AD., Duchy of Burgundy, Philippe le Bon, Blanc aux écus, Poey d'Avant # 5735.97 viewsFrance, Duchy of Burgundy, Auxonne mint (?), Philip the Good (Philippe le Bon, 1419-1467), struck 1424-1427 AD.,
AR blanc aux écus (26-28 mm / 3,27 g),
Obv.: + DVX : ET : COMES : BVRGVDIE , Ecus accolés de Bourgogne nouveau et Bourgogne ancien sous PhILIPVS.
Rev.: + SIT : NOMEN : DNI : BENEDICTVM , Croix longue entre un lis et un lion, au-dessus de PhILIPVS.
B., 1230 ; Dumas, 15-7-1 ; Poey d'Avant # 5735.

"PotatorII": "This coin is atributed to Auxonne mint because of the presence of a "secret dot" under the first letter (S) on reverse."

Rare

Imitation du blanc aux écus d'Henri VI d'Angleterre, frappé en France à partir de novembre 1422.

Philip the Good (French: Philippe le Bon), also Philip III, Duke of Burgundy (July 31, 1396 – June 15, 1467) was Duke of Burgundy from 1419 until his death. He was a member of a cadet line of the Valois dynasty (the then Royal family of France). During his reign Burgundy reached the height of its prosperity and prestige and became a leading center of the arts. Philip is known in history for his administrative reforms, patronage of Flemish artists such as Jan van Eyck, and the capture of Joan of Arc. During his reign he alternated between English and French alliances in an attempt to improve his dynasty's position.
Born in Dijon, he was the son of John the Fearless and Margaret of Bavaria-Straubing. On the 28 January 1405, he was named Count of Charolais in appanage of his father and probably on the same day he was engaged to Michele of Valois (1395–1422), daughter of Charles VI of France and Isabeau of Bavaria. They were married in June of 1409.
Philip subsequently married Bonne of Artois (1393–1425), daughter of Philip of Artois, Count of Eu, and also the widow of his uncle, Philip II, Count of Nevers, in Moulins-les-Engelbert on November 30, 1424. The latter is sometimes confused with Philip's biological aunt, also named Bonne (sister of John the Fearless, lived 1379 - 1399), in part due to the Papal Dispensation required for the marriage which made no distinction between a marital aunt and a biological aunt.
His third marriage, in Bruges on January 7, 1430 with Isabella of Portugal (1397 - December 17, 1471), daughter of John I of Portugal and Philippa of Lancaster, produced three sons:
* Antoine (September 30, 1430, Brussels – February 5, 1432, Brussels), Count of Charolais
* Joseph (April 24, 1432 – aft. May 6, 1432), Count of Charolais
* Charles (1433–1477), Count of Charolais and Philip's successor as Duke, called "Charles the Bold" or "Charles the Rash"
Philip also had some eighteen illegitimate children, including Antoine, bastard of Burgundy, by twenty four documented mistresses [1]. Another, Philip of Burgundy (1464-1524), bishop of Utrecht, was a fine amateur artist, and the subject of a biography in 1529.
Philip became duke of Burgundy, count of Flanders, Artois and Franche Comté when his father was assassinated in 1419. Philip accused Charles, the Dauphin of France and Philip's brother-in-law of planning the murder of his father which had taken place during a meeting between the two at Montereau, and so he continued to prosecute the civil war between the Burgundians and Armagnacs. In 1420 Philip allied himself with Henry V of England under the Treaty of Troyes. In 1423 the alliance was strengthened by the marriage of his sister Anne to John, Duke of Bedford, regent for Henry VI of England.
In 1430 Philip's troops captured Joan of Arc at Compiègne and later handed her over to the English who orchestrated a heresy trial against her, conducted by pro-Burgundian clerics. Despite this action against Joan of Arc, Philip's alliance with England was broken in 1435 when Philip signed the Treaty of Arras (which completely revoked the Treaty of Troyes) and thus recognised Charles VII as king of France. Philip signed for a variety of reasons, one of which may have been a desire to be recognised as the Premier Duke in France. Philip then attacked Calais, but this alliance with Charles was broken in 1439, with Philip supporting the revolt of the French nobles the following year (an event known as the Praguerie) and sheltering the Dauphin Louis.
Philip generally was preoccupied with matters in his own territories and seldom was directly involved in the Hundred Years' War, although he did play a role during a number of periods such as the campaign against Compiegne during which his troops captured Joan of Arc. He incorporated Namur into Burgundian territory in 1429 (March 1, by purchase from John III, Marquis of Namur), Hainault and Holland, Frisia and Zealand in 1432 (with the defeat of Countess Jacqueline in the last episode of the Hook and Cod wars); inherited the duchy of Brabant and Limburg and the margrave of Antwerp in 1430 (on the death of his cousin Philip of Saint-Pol); and purchased Luxembourg in 1443 from Elisabeth of Bohemia, Duchess of Luxembourg. Philip also managed to ensure his illegitimate son, David, was elected Bishop of Utrecht in 1456. It is not surprising that in 1435, Philip began to style himself "Grand Duke of the West". In 1463 Philip returned some of his territory to Louis XI. That year he also created an Estates-General based on the French model. The first meeting of the Estates-General was to obtain a loan for a war against France and to ensure support for the succession of his son, Charles I, to his dominions. Philip died in Bruges in 1467.

my ancient coin database
1 commentsArminius
spear_collage.jpg
Bronze Age Reworked Dagger49 viewsAn ancient European Bronze Age reworked dagger, dating to approximately 800 BC.

Of rare and unusual form, with a long ridged handle, slender blade and prominent central rib. Unusually, this piece appears to have originally been made as a spear head, subsequently broken (possibly in battle), and reworked into a dagger. Beating marks from this process of reworking are still clearly visible.
A weapon such as this would have been used in battle by the early Celtic peoples and their predecessors, indeed the period to which this artifact dates was characterized by migrations and invasions of warrior led groups across Europe. The late Bronze Age appears to have been a time of widespread warfare and social upheaval, ultimately carried on the back of weapons such as this.

Length: 8 ½ inches.


Provenance:
Ex-Collection of Henk Huffener (1923 – 2006), a respected artist, officially honored hero of the Dutch resistance, and successful antiques dealer, with establishments in Surrey and Kensington, England.
Huffener was born in Utrecht in 1923. One of nine children, he soon became known for his artistic talents, most notably for his still lifes, portraits, and abstractionist works. Huffener, inspired by his father, also became immersed in the world of anti-fascist activism. Come the start of the war, he began traveling the Netherlands, helping Jews escape Nazi-occupied Europe by providing them with forged papers, and hiding them from their persecutors. This incredible bravery and selflessness was documented in The Other Schindlers by Agnes Grunwald-Spier (2010), and Huffener was honoured by Yad Vashem as 'Righteous Among the Nations' in 1998. His wartime contributions were also commemorated posthumously in March 2010, when Prime Minister Gordon Brown awarded him the Hero of the Holocaust medal for "the service of humanity."
Huffener eventually moved to England in the 1950s, establishing his own antiques business in 1959 in Albury, Surrey. Here, his knowledge and collections grew to encompass antiquities, ethnographic art, glass, paintings and fossils. Also noted for his restoration skills, Huffener was much respected in his field, coming to befriend Herbert Reiser, one of the world's leading collectors.
Salaethus
Kroton~0.jpg
Bruttium, Kroton (Circa 530-500 BC)30 viewsAR Nomos

28 mm, 7.82 g

Obverse: Tripod, legs surmounted by wreaths and terminating in lion's feet, two serpents rising from the bowl, set on basis of three lines, the center dotted, koppa-P-O (KRO - short for Kroton) to left

Reverse: Incuse tripod as obverse, but wreaths and serpents in outline.

HN Italy 2075; SNG ANS 231; Bement 272.

The importance of the Delphic oracle to the founding of Kroton was celebrated on its coinage from the earliest days. Despite later myths ascribing the founding of Kroton to Herakles, the city's historical oikist is recorded as Myskellos of Rhypai who, on consulting the Delphic oracle about his lack of children was given the response that Apollo would grant children, but that first Myskellos should found the city of Kroton 'among fair fields'. After being given directions on how to locate the site, Myskellos travelled to southern Italy to explore the land that he had been assigned, but seeing the territory of the Sybarites and thinking it superior, he returned once more to the oracle to ask whether he would be allowed to change. The answer came back that he should accept the gifts that the god gave him. A further element of the story is that Myskellos was accompanied on his expedition by Archias of Corinth; the Delphic oracle gave the pair the choice between health and wealth. Archias elected wealth, and was assigned the site of Syracuse, while Myskellos chose health: the favourable climate of Kroton, the eminent skill of its physicians and the prowess of its athletes later earned its citizens this reputation for good health.
1 commentsNathan P
Taras_didrachm.jpg
Calabria, Taras didrachm78 viewsHorseman riding left, holding shield and bridle.

Taras seated on dolphin left TAPAΣ beneath.

Tarentum, Calabria 390-385 BC

7.40g

Scarce

Vlasto 384, Period III, 380-345 BC (Age of Archytas); ; Fischer-Bossert 428, gives date of 390-380 and corresponds to SNG ANS 901.

Ex-Calgary Coin; Ex-Alberta Coin;

Tarentum, the only Spartan colony ever to be established, was founded in 706 BC by the Partheniae - Spartan children born to unmarried women as a product of Spartan desperation to ensure the survival and continuation of their demographic during the bloody Messenian wars, who were later disowned and expelled by the state - and Perioeci (subjects, but not citizens of Sparta), under the leadership of the Parthenian Phalanthos. According to legend, Phalanthos consulted the oracle at Delphi, and was told that he should found his new city 'where rain fell from a clear sky'. After much searching, and despairing of finding a suitable location for a city, Phalanthos was consoled by his wife Aethra who laid his head in her lap, and as her tears splashed upon his forehead he understood the oracle's words for his wife's name itself meant 'clear sky', and thus he determined to make the nearby harbour the site of their new home, which they named after Taras, the son of Poseidon and the nymph Satyrion.
4 commentsJay GT4
211114_l.jpg
Calabria. Tarentum. Nomos (Circa 302-280 BC)27 viewsAR Nomos

21 mm, 7.78 g

Obv: Youth, holding shield, on horse rearing left; ΣΛ to right, ΦΙΛΩΝ below.
Rev: TAPAΣ.
Phalanthos, holding crowning Nike, riding dolphin left; waves below.

Vlasto 684-5; HN Italy 964.

In Greek mythology, Phalanthos (Φάλανθος) is a divine hero, the leader of the Spartan Partheniae and the founder of Taranto. In Ancient Greece, the Partheniae or Parthenians were a lower ranking Spartiate population which, according to tradition, left Laconia to go to Magna Graecia and founded Taras, modern Taranto, in the current region of Apulia, in southern Italy. In Greek mythology, Phalanthos is a divine hero, and the leader of the Spartan Partheniae.

At least three distinct traditions carry the origins of the Parthenians. The oldest is that of Antiochus of Syracuse, according to which the Spartiates, during the first Messenian war (end of the 8th century BC), had rejected like cowards those who had not fought, along with their descendants:

"Antiochus says that, during the Messenian war, those Lacedemonians which did not take part with the mission shall be declared as slaves and called Helots; as for the children born during the mission, we shall call them Parthenians and deny them of all legal rights."

The Parthenians were therefore the first tresantes ("trembling"), a category which gathers the cowards and thus excludes themselves from the community of the Homoioi, the Peers. Thereafter, Parthenians plotted against the Peers and, discovered, would have been driven out of Sparta, from which they departed for Italy and founded Taras, whose date is traditionally fixed in 706 BC - which archaeology does not deny.

In the second tradition, according to Ephorus (4th century BC), the Spartiates swore during the Messenian War, not to return home as long as they had not attained victory. The war prolonged and Sparta's demography being threatened, the Spartiates let the young Spartans who had not sworn the oath return home. These were ordered to copulate with all the girls available. The children who were born from these unions were named Parthenians. Their mothers, since they were compelled by the state to procreate, were legally considered unmolested and fit to marry once the war was over.

Lastly, a third tradition, made the Parthenians bastards who had resulted from the unions of Spartan women and their slaves, always during the Messenian war. The same tradition is told to explain the origins of Locri, also in Magna Graecia.
Nathan P
carinus_tetra4701.jpg
Carinus, Elpis year 2; Milne 470116 viewsCarinus, first half 283 - Spring 285 A.D., Roman Provincial Egypt. Billon tetradrachm, Milne 4701, Curtis 1917, Geissen 3178, Emmett 4007, BMC Alexandria -, VF, Alexandria mint, 6.924g, 19.10mm, 29 Aug 283 - 28 Aug 284 A.D.; obverse A K M A KAPINOC CEB, laureate and cuirassed bust right; reverse, Elpis standing left, holding flower and raising fold of dress, date L-B (year 2) across field. Elpis was the Greek equivalent of the Roman Spes, the goddess of hope. She was traditionally defined as 'the last goddess' (Spes, ultima dea), meaning that hope is the last resource available to men. Elpis personified hope for good harvests, and for children, and was invoked at births, marriages, and other important times. Ex FORVMPodiceps
boyd_cassia_6.jpg
Cassia 671 viewsCassius 6 (78BC) moneyer L Cassius Longinus praetor 66

Denarius
Ob: Head of Liber right, wearing ivy-wreath and with thrysus over shoulder, border of dots
Rev: Head of Libera left, wearing vine wreath, behind L ∙ CASSI ∙ Q ∙ F upwards, border of dots

BMCRR I 3152

Sydenham 779

Crawford 386/1

Northumberland Tablet IV 14 “This is held to commemorate the vow which the consul, Spurius Cassius, made in the Latian War, of dedicating a temple to Ceres and her children, Liber (Bacchus) and Libera.”

Describes Liber as “Bacchus corymbifer” chapleted Dionysus (wearing garlands of clusters of ivy-berries (Bacchi Ovid Fast. I.393) OLD

Ex: CNG auction 72 lot 1319 (June 2006); ex: Marc Poncin; ex: Baldwin auction 42 one of two coin lot 141 (26 Sept 2005) ex: William C. Boyd with tag (Spink 1894) toned dark grey

Baldwin graded this coin as a fine, but CNG correctly as VF. Coin much darker than this CNG photo
4 commentsPetrus Elmsley
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Civil War Era Letter131 viewsI have copied the letter verbatim, so the misspellings are as they were originally written. I got this letter from an abandoned farmhouse in Kansas that belonged to my paternal grandfather's father. No one I asked was able to give me information as to who these people were. Perhaps they are related to me, but I have yet to corroborate this. The letter was in the original envelope.

Treasurer’s Office, Wood County, Ohio
Perrysburg, March 12, 1864

Cousin Dwight,
Dear Sir
I have expressed you this day
at New Haven one hundred and
Twenty five dollars to apply
on Charles Smiths note.
He would like to hold the
balance for another year, should
it suit you, We have been very
much afflickted for the past
three weeks, three of our children
having the Scarlet fever, in its worst
form. The two babies two and a ½
years old, and your name sake
Dwight who is five and a ½ years old.
Two of them are much better (Dwight
and Mary) Howard we have but
little hope of at this time, he is
very sick. You will please acknowle(dge)
the amount received and Ably yours
John A. Norster
5 commentsNoah
claudio2.jpg
CLAUDIUS26 viewsBI tetradrachm. Alexandria. 42-43 AD. 10.4 grs. Laureate head right, IΓ before. TI KΛAΥΔI KAIΣ ΣEBA ΓEΡMANI AVTOK / Messalina standing half-left, leaning on column, holding two grain-ears with left arm and figures of two children in extended right hand. MEΣΣAΛINA KAIS ΣEBAΣ
Milne 84, Koln 75



benito
claudiusalexandriaOR2web.jpg
Claudius & Messalina Billon Tetradrachm of Alexandria. Year 3 = AD 42/397 viewsClaudius & Messalina Billon Tetradrachm of Alexandria. Year 3 = AD 42/3
O: TI KΛAΩΔI KAIΣ ΣEBA ΓEPMANI AYTOKP, laureate head of Claudius right, LΓ in lower right field
R: MEΣΣAΛI-NA KAIΣ ΣEBAΣ, Messalina standing facing, head left, leaning on draped column, holding figures of two children in extended right hand and cradling two grain ears in left arm.
26mm 12.30g RPC 5113.
2 commentscasata137ec
claudmes.jpg
Claudius (41 - 54 A.D.)33 viewsEgypt, Alexandria
Billon Tetradrachm
O: TI KLAUDI KAIS SEBA GERMANI AUTOKR,  Laureate head right; L Δ (date) below chin
R:  MESSALI-NA KAIS SEBAS Messalina standing facing, head left, leaning on short column, holding two children in outstretched right hand, grain ears with left. RY 4 ( 43/44 A.D.)
12.37g
23mm
Köln 81; Dattari (Savio) 125; K&G 12.35; RPC I 5145; Emmett 74.4.
2 commentsMat
Claudius_and_Messalina_Tetradrachm.JPG
Claudius and Messalina Tetradrachm37 viewsClaudius and Messalina, Alexandria, YEAR 1 (40 - 41 AD), 25.60mm, 10.92g, Milne 60, RPC 5113, Köln 61, Dattari 119, Emmett 74/1
OBV: TI KΛAΩΔI KAIΣ ΣEBA ΓEPMANI AYTOKP, laureate head of Claudius right,
REV: MEΣΣAΛI-NA KAIΣ ΣEBAΣ, Messalina standing facing, head left, leaning on draped column,
holding figures of two children in extended right hand and cradling two grain ears in left arm.
1 commentsRomanorvm
messalina.jpg
Claudius, tetradrachm, with Messalina, Britannicus & Octavia18 viewsClaudius, 25 January 41 - 13 October 54 A.D., Roman Provincial Egypt, Messalina, Britannicus & Octavia Reverse. Billon tetradrachm, Geissen 88, BMC 75, Milne 110, RPC I I 5164, toned VF, Alexandria mint, 10.976g, 27.5mm, 0o, 45 - 46 A.D.; obverse “ΤΙ ΚΛΑΥΔΙ ΚΑΙΣ ΣΕΒΑ ΓΕΡΜΑΝΙ ΑΥΤΟΚΡ”, laureate head right, date LS (year 6) before; reverse “ΜΕΣΣΑΛΙΝΑ ΚΑΙΣ” C“ΕΒΑ”C, Messalina as Ceres standing facing, head left, two small figures in right, two stalks of grain in left. RPC I notes, "Messalina, who is shown as Demeter, holds two small figures. These were traditionally identified as the children of Claudius and Messalina, Britannicus and Octavia, but Dattari (RIN 1900, pp. 383-4) rejected this view, since Britannicus was born in 42 and the coin type is first used in 41; but Vogt (pp. 24-5) returned to the traditional description, arguing that the date of Britannicus' birth was not certain, and that these coins, in fact, show that he was born before August 41." ex FORVMPodiceps
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Commodus AE36 Medallion201 viewsHierocaesarea mint
Magistrate (archon) Artemidoros
BMC Lydia -, SNG Cop -, SNGvA -, Imhoof-Blumer -
24.976 g, maximum diameter 36.4mm, die axis 180o,
Obverse AVT KAI Λ AVPH KOMMO∆O, laureate and cuirassed bust right;
Reverse ΕΠΙ[...]ΟΥ[...] ΑΡΤΕΜΙ∆ΟΡΟΥ ΑΡΧ[...] ΙΕΡΟΚΑΙCΑΡΕΩΝ, Artemis standing half-right wearing chiton; Leto standing half-left holding patera; Apollo standing half-left, naked, resting left hand on lyre; nice armored bust.

An interesting reverse depicting a mythological scene: Leto and her children Artemis and Apollo. The two were fathered by Zeus, arousing Hera's jealousy. Leto was banned from giving birth on earth or sea, but found the island of Delos, which supposedly was not connected to either.

(all notes from FORVM website)

Extremely rare with no other specimens found on Wildwinds.com, acsearch.info or coinarchives.com.

No examples in Loebbecke, Scholz or all the Imhoof additions.-Dane Kurth

One same size, same obv. die as {this coin}, same magistrate (archon) Artemidoros, but different rev. type (river god reclining), in RPC temp. (online) 8174 = Peus 365, 2000, Burstein 696, there stated to be unpublished and apparently unique.-Curtis Clay

(Many thanks to Mr. Curtis Clay and Ms. Dane Kurth "Helvetica" for further information)

EX: FORVM Ancient Coins
8 commentsMark Z
CTGeyes2GodRIC7.jpg
Constantine the Great, early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D.46 viewsSilvered AE 3, RIC VII 92, EF, 3.456g, 18.1mm, 0o, Heraclea mint, 327 - 329 A.D.; Obverse: CONSTAN-TINVS AVG, diademed head right, eyes to God; Reverse: D N CONSTANTINI MAX AVG, VOT XXX in wreath, •SMHB in exergue.

As leading numismatist Joseph Sermarini notes, "The 'looking upwards' portraits of Constantine are often described as 'gazing to Heaven (or God).' The model of these portraits is of course that of the Deified Alexander the Great
(https://www.forumancientcoins.com/ssl/myforum.asp).

The Emperor Constantine I was effectively the sole ruler of the Roman world between 324 and 337 A.D.; his reign was perhaps one of the most crucial of all the emperors in determining the future course of western civilization. By beginning the process of making Christianity the religious foundation of his realm, he set the religious course for the future of Europe which remains in place to this very day. Because he replaced Rome with Constantinople as the center of imperial power, he made it clear that the city of Rome was no longer the center of power, and he also set the stage for the Middle Ages. His philosophical view of monarchy, largely spelled out in some of the works of Eusebius of Caesarea, became the foundation for the concept of the divine right of kings which prevailed in Europe.

Constantine was not a "Christian convert" in any traditional sense. He was not baptized until close to death, and while that was not an uncommon practice, the mention of Christ in his speeches and decrees is conspicuous by its absence. Eusebius, Church historian and Constantine biographer, is responsible for much of the valorization of Constantine as the Christian Emperor. The somnambulant "sign" in which Constantine was to become victor at the Milvian Bridge is, not so surprisingly, revealed to posterity long after the "fact." Throughout his reign, Constantine continues to portray himself on coins as a sun god (Freeman, Charles. Egypt, Greece and Rome: Civilizations of the Ancient Mediterranean; Second Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004. 582). Above all, Constantine was a pragmatist. It would be cynical to egregiously disavow his commitment to Christianity, but it would be equally wrong to think that he would allow Christianity to meddle in the governance of his empire. As he reputedly told a group of bishops, "You are bishops of those within the church, but I am perhaps a bishop appointed by God of those outside." Whatever the motives for his decision to support Christianity, Christianity benefitted from the arrangement; so, too, did Constantine. It was a match made in heaven.

Which brings us to Crispus.
Whenever I am engaged in any discussion concerning Constantine I, Crispus is never far from my mind. As historian Hans Pohlsander from SUNY notes, "Crispus' end was as tragic as his career had been brilliant. His own father ordered him to be put to death. We know the year of this sad event, 326, from the Consularia Constantinopolitana, and the place, Pola in Istria, from Ammianus Marcellinus. The circumstances, however, are less clear. Zosimus (6th c.) and Zonaras (12th c.) both report that Crispus and his stepmother Fausta were involved in an illicit relationship." And Pohlsander continues with, "There may be as much gossip as fact in their reports, but Crispus must have committed, or at least must have been suspected of having committed, some especially shocking offense to earn him a sentence of death from his own father. He also suffered damnatio memoriae, his honor was never restored, and history has not recorded the fate of his wife and his child (or children)(Copyright (C) 1997, Hans A. Pohlsander. Published on De Imperatoribus Romanis;An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors and their Families:http://www.roman-emperors.org/crispus.htm).

But there is something terribly illogigical about Constantinian apologetics. In 294 BC, prior to the death of his father, Seleucus I; Antiochus married his step-mother, Stratonice, daughter of Demetrius Poliorcetes. His elderly father reportedly instigated the marriage after discovering that his son was in danger of dying of lovesickness. If this is the way a "Pagan" father is able to express love for his son, then would not a saintly Christian love his son in at least similar measure? This particular Christian father, about whom St. Nectarios writes, "Hellenism spread by Alexander, paved the way for Christianity by the Emperor Constantine the Great," is unique. It is important to our discussion to take note of the fact that in the Greek Orthodox Church, Constantine the Great is revered as a Saint.

Now would be an appropriate time to recall what Joseph Sermarini noted above, "The 'looking upwards' portraits of Constantine are often described as 'gazing to Heaven (or God).' The model of these portraits is of course that of the Deified Alexander the Great(https://www.forumancientcoins.com/ssl/myforum.asp).

Isn’t it all too possible--even probable--that Constantine had been growing obsessively jealous of his ever more successful and adulated son? It is completely out of character for Constantine to merely acquiesce to being Philip to Crispus' Alexander. Remember the Constantine who has proven time and again (recall Constantine's disingenuous promise of clemency to Licinius) that he is a completely self-serving liar and a murderer, and Constantine decides to murder again. Why "must we, "as Pohlsander adamantly suggests, "resolutely reject the claim of Zosimus that it was Constantine's sense of guilt over these deeds which caused him to accept Christianity, as it alone promised him forgiveness for his sins? A similar claim had already been made by Julian the Apostate [Philosopher]."

Perhaps it is time to cease being apologists for the sometime megalomaniacal Constantine. As Michael Grant notes, "It is a mocking travesty of justice to call such a murderer Constantine the Great . . ." (Grant, Michael. The Emperor Constantine. London: Phoenix Press, 1998. 226).

Keep in mind that the obverse device of this coin shows Constantine I "gazing toward God" and was struck within a year or possibly two of Constantine I murdering his first-born son and condemning him to damnatio memoriae.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
1 commentsCleisthenes
10039b.jpg
Crusader States, Normans of Sicily, William II, AD 1166-1189, AE Trifollaro, Spahr 117.75 viewsCrusader States, Sicily, William II, AD 1166-1189, AE Trifollaro (24-25 mm), 8,82 g.
Obv.: Facing head of lioness within circle of dots.
Re.: Palm tree with five branches and two bunches of dates, within circle of dots.
Biaggi 1231, Spahr 117 ; Grie 210 (Roger II); Thom 2480 .

William II of Sicily (1153-1189), called the Good, was king of Sicily and Naples from 1166 to 1189.
William was only thirteen years old at the death of his father William I, when he was placed under the regency of his mother, Margaret of Navarre.
Until the king came of age in 1171 the government was controlled first by the chancellor Stephen du Perche, cousin of Margaret (1166-1168), and then by Walter Ophamil, archbishop of Palermo, and Matthew of Ajello, the vice-chancellor.
William's character is very indistinct. Lacking in military enterprise, secluded and pleasure-loving, he seldom emerged from his palace life at Palermo. Yet his reign is marked by an ambitious foreign policy and a vigorous diplomacy. Champion of the papacy and in secret league with the Lombard cities he was able to defy the common enemy, Frederick I Barbarossa. In 1174 and 1175 he made treaties with Genoa and Venice and his marriage in February 1177 with Joan, daughter of Henry II of England and Eleanor of Aquitaine, marks his high position in European politics.
In July 1177, he sent a delegation of Archbishop Romuald of Salerno and Count Roger of Andria to sign the Treaty of Venice with the emperor. To secure the peace, he sanctioned the marriage of his aunt Constance, daughter of Roger II, with Frederick's son Henry, afterwards the emperor Henry VI, causing a general oath to be taken to her as his successor in case of his death without heirs. This step, fatal to the Norman kingdom, was possibly taken that William might devote himself to foreign conquests.
Unable to revive the African dominion, William directed his attack on Egypt, from which Saladin threatened the Latin kingdom of Jerusalem. In July 1174, 50,000 men were landed before Alexandria, but Saladin's arrival forced the Sicilians to re-embark in disorder. A better prospect opened in the confusion in Byzantine affairs which followed the death of Manuel Comnenus (1180), and William took up the old design and feud against Constantinople. Durazzo was captured (June 11, 1185). Afterwards while the army marched upon Thessalonica, the fleet sailed towards the same target capturing on their way the Ionian islands of Corfu, Cephalonia,Ithaca and Zakynthos. In August Thessalonica surrendered to the joint attack of the Sicilian fleet and army.
The troops then marched upon the capital, but the troop of the emperor Isaac Angelus overthrew the invaders on the banks of the Strymon (September 7, 1185). Thessalonica was at once abandoned and in 1189 William made peace with Isaac, abandoning all the conquests. He was now planning to induce the crusading armies of the West to pass through his territories, and seemed about to play a leading part in the Third Crusade. His admiral Margarito, a naval genius equal to George of Antioch, with 60 vessels kept the eastern Mediterranean open for the Franks, and forced the all-victorious Saladin to retire from before Tripoli in the spring of 1188.
In November 1189 William died, leaving no children. Though Orderic Vitalis records a (presumably short-lived) son in 1181: Bohemond, Duke of Apulia. His title of "the Good" is due perhaps less to his character than to the cessation of internal troubles in his reign. The "Voyage" of Ibn Jubair, a traveller in Sicily in 1183-1185, shows William surrounded by Muslim women and eunuchs, speaking and reading Arabic and living like "a Moslem king."

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

my ancient coin database
1 commentsArminius
Faustina_II_20.jpg
Denar, RIC 3, p.268, 676 - Faustina II, Fecunditas, 4 children22 viewsFaustina Minor
AR-Denar, Rome
Obv.: FAVSTINA AVGVSTA, draped bust right, hair tied in bun without pearls
Rev.: FECVND AVGVSTAE, Fecunditas standing left between two children, holding two more in arms
Ag, 18.5mm, 3.3g.
Ref.: RIC III 676, RSC 95, RCV 5251, CRE 178 [C]
Ex Incitatus Coins
shanxi
Faustina_II_42.jpg
Denar, RIC 3, p.268, 676 - Faustina II, Fecunditas, 4 children 37 viewsFaustina Minor
AR-Denar, Rome
Obv.: FAVSTINA AVGVSTA, draped bust right, hair tied in bun with pearls
Rev.: FECVND AVGVSTAE, Fecunditas standing left between two children, holding two more in arms
Ag, 18.5mm, 3.3g.
Ref.: RIC III 676, CRE 178 [C]
1 commentsshanxi
Faustina_II_46.jpg
Denar, RIC 3, p.271, 711 - Faustina II, Children 22 viewsFaustina Minor
AR-Denar, Rome, AD 161-165
Obv.: FAVSTINA AVGVSTA, draped bust right
Rev.: SAECVLI FELICIT, draped throne on which are two children: Commodus and Titus Aurelius Fulvus Antoninus, no stars above, no ball between
Ag, 3.16g, 18.3mm
Ref.: RIC 71, CRE 221 [C]

Variation with diadem > click
Variation with diadem and visible silk chemise > click
shanxi
Faustina_II_R639_fac.jpg
Denar, RIC 3, p.271, 712 - Faustina II, Children22 viewsFaustina Minor
AR-Denar, Rome, AD 161-165
Obv.: FAVSTINA AVGVSTA, diademed draped bust right, indusium (silk chemise) visible.
Rev.: SAECVLI FELICIT, draped throne on which are two children: Commodus and Titus Aurelius Fulvus Antoninus, no stars above
Ag, 3.21g, 17mm
Ref.: RIC 712, C 191, CRE 222 [C]
Ex Numismatik Naumann, auction 65, lot 638

Variation without diadem > click
Variation with diadem, but without visible silk chemise > click
2 commentsshanxi
Faustina_II_3_0.jpg
Denar, RIC 3, p.271, 712 - Faustina II, Children13 viewsFaustina Minor
AR-Denar, Rome, AD 161-165
Obv.: FAVSTINA AVGVSTA, diademed draped bust right
Rev.: SAECVLI FELICIT, draped throne on which are two children: Commodus and Titus Aurelius Fulvus Antoninus, no stars above, ball between
Ag, 3.35g, 17mm
Ref.: RIC 712, C 191, CRE 222 [C]
Ex Dionysos Numismatik

Variation without diadem > click
Variation with diadem and visible silk chemise > click
shanxi
Faustina_II_50~0.jpg
Denar, RIC 3, p.271, 719 var. - Faustina II, Fecunditas, 6 children 25 viewsFaustina Minor
AR-Denar, Rome
Obv.: FAVSTINA AVGVSTA, draped bust right, hair tied in bun
Rev.: TEMPOR FELIC, Fecunditas standing left between four children, holding two more in arms, each with star above
Ag, 3.3g.
Ref.: RIC III 719 var. (six children instead of four, possible RIC error), CRE 179 [C]
Ex Münzen&Medaillen GmbH, auction 43, lot 353
Ex Klassische Münzen Dr. Michael Brandt
1 commentsshanxi
sept_sev_233.jpg
Denarius; P M TR P XVIII COS III P P; Jupiter with two children; RIC 2336 viewsSeptimius Severus, 9 April 193 - 4 February 211 A.D. AR Denarius. Rev. P M TR P XVIII COS III P P, Jupiter standing left two children at feet. RIC 233Podiceps
faustina_II~0.jpg
Denarius; SAECVLI FELICIT, 2 children (Commodus and Annius Verus) on canopied bed or throne. RIC 71036 viewsFaustina Jr. AR Denarius. Two boys seated on draped throne. RSC 190. VF. Faustina Jr. denarius. FAVSTINA AVGVSTA, Diademed and draped bust right / SAECVLI FELICIT, 2 children (Commodus and Annius Verus) on canopied bed or throne. RIC 710, RSC 190, Sear 1988: 1500. Ex Vauctions1 commentsPodiceps
DiadF.jpg
Diadumenian141 viewsDiadumenian, as Caesar. 218 AD. AR Denarius 3.04 g. 2nd emission, July AD 217-March 218

O: M OPEL ANT DIADVMENIAN CAES, bare-headed and draped bust right
R: PRINC IVVENTVTIS, Diadumenian standing half-left, head right, holding standard and sceptre; two standards behind.
RIC IV 102 (Macrinus); BMCRE 87 (Macrinus); RSC 3.

Marcus Opellius Diadumenianus was born in 208. According to Aelius Lampridius, quoted below, the boy was so named because he was born with a diadem formed by a rolled caul.

“Now let us proceed to the omens predicting his imperial power — which are marvellous enough in the case of others, but in his case beyond the usual wont. 4 On the day of his birth, his father, who then chanced to be steward of the greater treasury, was inspecting the purple robes, and those which he approved as being brighter in hue he ordered to be carried into a certain chamber, in which two hours later Diadumenianus was born. 2 Furthermore, whereas it usually happens that children at birth are provided by nature with a caul, which the midwives seize and sell to credulous lawyers (for it is said that this bring luck to those who plead), 3 this child, instead of a caul, had a narrow band like a diadem, so strong that it could not be broken, for the fibres were entwined in the manner of a bow-string. 4 The child, they say, was accordingly called Diadematus, but when he grew older, he was called Diadumenianus from the name of his mother's father, though the name differed little from his former appellation Diadematus.”

His father Macrinus was hailed as Augustus in 217. Diadumenian, in turn, received the titles of Caesar and Prince of the Youth. He was also given the name Antoninus after the assassinated emperor Caracalla.

These titles are seen on this example as ANT and PRINC IVVENTVTIS.

When the armies of Elagabalus revolted at Emesa on May 16, 218, Macrinus traveled to the praetorian fortress at Apamaea to shore up (buy) support and to raise Diadumenian to the rank of Augustus. Still, Macrinus’ armies were defeated outside Antioch in less than a month.

10 year old Diadumenian was captured while fleeing to Zeugma and executed shortly thereafter. He reigned as Caesar for 13 months and as Augustus for less than one.

Although the Senate never confirmed Diadumenian’s title as Augustus, there is extremely rare silver (one or two pieces?) with Diadumenian as emperor. It is believed that a large issue was struck, only to be immediately recalled and melted down when the news of Macrinus’ defeat reached Rome.
5 commentsNemonater
DiadumenianStandards.jpg
DIADUMENIAN72 viewsDIADUMENIAN (Caesar, 217-218). Denarius. 2.53 g. 20mm, Rome mint.
O: M OPEL DIADVMENIAN CAES, Bareheaded, draped and cuirassed bust right.
Rev: PRINC IVVENTVTIS, Diadumenian standing left, holding baton; two signa to right.
-RIC 107.

1st emission of Macrinus, AD 217, only three examples in the Reka Devnia hoard.

Diadumenian's three main types as Caesar exactly correspond to Macrinus' three issues, which for their part can be approximately dated on the basis of the titles they bear and their volumes of issue as revealed by the Reka Devnia hoard. So Diadumenian's dates derive from those estimated for Macrinus.

Marcus Opellius Diadumenianus was born in 208. According to Aelius Lampridius, quoted below, the boy was so named because he was born with a diadem formed by a rolled caul.

“Now let us proceed to the omens predicting his imperial power — which are marvellous enough in the case of others, but in his case beyond the usual wont. 4 On the day of his birth, his father, who then chanced to be steward of the greater treasury, was inspecting the purple robes, and those which he approved as being brighter in hue he ordered to be carried into a certain chamber, in which two hours later Diadumenianus was born. 2 Furthermore, whereas it usually happens that children at birth are provided by nature with a caul, which the midwives seize and sell to credulous lawyers (for it is said that this bring luck to those who plead), 3 this child, instead of a caul, had a narrow band like a diadem, so strong that it could not be broken, for the fibres were entwined in the manner of a bow-string. 4 The child, they say, was accordingly called Diadematus, but when he grew older, he was called Diadumenianus from the name of his mother's father, though the name differed little from his former appellation Diadematus.”

His father Macrinus was hailed as Augustus on April 8, 217. Dio Cassius tells us that Diadumenian was named Caesar and Prince of the Youth by the Senate in May 217 as soon as news of Macrinus' accession reached Rome. A little later, Dio continues, news arrived that Diadumenian had independently been proclaimed Caesar by the soldiers at Zeugma, as he was on his way from Antioch to join Macrinus in Mesopotamia, and that he had also assumed Caracalla's name Antoninus. Hence this first short issue of coins in Rome is with the titles Caesar and Prince of the Youth, but still without Antoninus.

When the armies of Elagabalus revolted at Emesa on May 16, 218, Macrinus traveled to the praetorian fortress at Apamaea to shore up (buy) support and to raise Diadumenian to the rank of Augustus. Still, Macrinus’ armies were defeated outside Antioch in less than a month.

10 year old Diadumenian was captured while fleeing to Zeugma and executed shortly thereafter. He reigned as Caesar for 13 months and as Augustus for less than one.

Although the Senate never confirmed Diadumenian’s title as Augustus, there is extremely rare silver (one or two pieces?) with Diadumenian as emperor. It is believed that a large issue was struck, only to be immediately recalled and melted down when the news of Macrinus’ defeat reached Rome.
5 commentsNemonater
diocle_LS_elpis.jpg
Diocletian, Elpis, year 616 viewsDiocletian, 20 November 284 - 1 March 305 A.D., Roman Provincial Egypt. Billon tetradrachm, Milne 4937, Curtis 1985, BMC Alexandria 2500, Geissen 3249, SNG Cop 998, Alexandria mint, 29 Aug 289 - 28 Aug 290 A.D.; obverse Α Κ Γ ΟΥΑΛ ∆ΙΟΚΛΗΤΙΑΝΟC CΕΒ, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse Elpis standing left, flower in right, raising fold of chiton with left, star right, L - S (year 6) across fields; Elpis was the Greek equivalent of the Roman Spes, the goddess of hope. She was traditionally defined as "the last goddess" (Spes, ultima dea), meaning that hope is the last resource available to men. Elpis personified hope for good harvests, and for children, and was invoked at births, marriages, and other important times. ex FORVMPodiceps
games-sest-II.jpg
Domitian AE Sestertius, Procession15 viewsDomitian AE Sestertius. IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM P M TR P VIII CENS PER P P, Laureate bust right / Domitian standing right; companion standing behind, three children leading procession, each carrying a branch. 24.00g, 34mm. RIC 615. Extremely Rare.Holding_History
EB0428_scaled.JPG
EB0428 Hadrian / Hilaritas5 viewsHadrian, AE Sestertius, 128-132 AD.
Obv: HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS P P, laureate bust right.
Rev: HILARITAS P R S-C, COS III in ex, Hilaritas standing facing holding palm & cornucopia, two small children flanking her.
References: RIC 970, Cohen 819, BMC 1372.
Diameter: 34.5mm, Weight: 24.64 grams.
EB
Alexandria-Teradrachm_Q-001_axis-h_x,xxmm_x,xxg-s.jpg
Egypt, Alexandria, 012p Claudius I. (41-54 A.D.), RPC I 5131, G-075, D-123, AR-Tetradrachm, MEΣΣAΛI-NA KAIΣ ΣEBAΣ, Messalina standing facing left, #1270 viewsEgypt, Alexandria, 012p Claudius I. (41-54 A.D.), RPC I 5131, G-075, D-123, AR-Tetradrachm, MEΣΣAΛI-NA KAIΣ ΣEBAΣ, Messalina standing facing left, #1
avers: TI KΛAΥΔI KAIΣ ΣEBA ΓERMANI AΥTOK, laureate head of Claudius right, LΓ before
reverse: MEΣΣAΛI-NA KAIΣ ΣEBAΣ, Messalina standing facing, head left, leaning on draped column, holding figures of two children in the extended right hand and cradling two-grain ears in the left arm.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 25mm, weight: 11,50g, axis: 0h,
mint: City: Alexandria, Region: Egypt, Province: Egypt,
date: Year (LΓ) 3 = 42-43 A.D.,
ref: Geissen 075, Dattari 123, Kapmann-Ganschow 12.22 p-5½, RPC I 5131, Milne 77,
Q-001
quadrans
Elagabalus-RIC-190var.jpg
Elagabalus / RIC 190 var.17 viewsDenarius, 218-219 AD, Antioch mint.
Obv: ANTONINVS PIVS FEL AVG / Laureate bust of Elagabalus.
Rev: HILARITAS AVG / Hilaritas standing, holding long palmbranch and cornucopiae. No children.
2.74 gm., 18 mm.
RIC #190 var.

Note; This particular reverse type is not listed in RIC. I have chosen to list this coin as a variety of RIC 190 which is the only Hilaritas reverse from Antioch.
Callimachus
Eudoxia.JPG
Eudoxia Wife of Arcadius42 views
Reverse: Victory inscribing chi-rho on shield. Constantinople mint. Aelia Eudoxia was the daughter of a Frankish officer serving in the Roman army. In 395, through the efforts of a palace eunuch, she was married to emperor Arcadius (r. 383-408). She exerted a strong influence over her husband and also bore 5 children, including future emperor Theodosius II. Eudoxia died from a miscarriage in 404.

17mm and weighs 2.4g,
Marjan E
fausta.jpg
fausta93 viewsFausta, AE3, 326 A.D.
19mm x 20mm, 3.29g
Ob: FLAV MAX-FAVSTA AVG, Mantled bust right, wearing necklace, hair waved and tucked in small bun at base of head
Rv: SPES REIP_VBLICAE, Fausta standing facing, head left, holding Constantine II and Constantius II as children
Ex: SMHA pellet (Heraclea, Officina 1)
RIC VII, 86
Partially silvered surfaces. Some light cleaning marks visible in fields
2 commentsScotvs Capitis
fausta_trier_salus.jpg
FAUSTA 57 viewsFL AV MAX - FAVSTA AVG
draped bust right
R/ SALVS REI - PVBLICAE
Fausta holding 2 children ( Constantine II and Constantius II )
PTR crescent with dot

struck in Trier
3 commentsgb29400
00360-Fausta.JPG
Fausta 40 viewsFausta AE3
19 mm 2.85 gm
O: FLAV MAX-FAVSTA AVG
Bare head, mantled bust right, wearing earring and necklace, hair waved in rows and tucked into small bun at back of head
R: SALVS REI_PVBLICA
Salus, veiled, standing facing, head left, holding two children. SMANTH in exergue.
2 commentsKoffy
Fausta001.jpg
Fausta115 viewsFLAV MAX FAVSTA AVG
Draped bust right

SPES REIPVBLICAE
Fausta standing facing, head left holding two children (Constantius II and Constans) in her arms

Mint mark SMANT Officina E (5)

Antioch mint 325-6 AD
3.59g
Sear IV 16580, RIC69


1 commentsJay GT4
faustaII.jpg
FAUSTA16 views Æ Follis. Alexandria, 325-326 AD. 2,91 grs. Draped bust right. FLAV MAX FAVSTA AVG / Salus standing facing, head left, holding two children. SPES REIPUBLICAE. In exergue SMALB .
RIC VII 40
benito
143.JPG
Fausta AD 324-326 Sirmium (SIRM)104 viewsObv: FLAVMAX-FAVSTAAVG
Rev: Fausta Holding Sons,
SALVS REIPVBLICAE
RIC VII 55

I really like the reverse detail of this coin. Note how the legs of the children intertwine. In hand, you can see the children's facial details.
1 commentsLaetvs
00431.jpg
Fausta (RIC 483, Coin #431)7 viewsRIC 483, AE3, Trier, 326 AD.
Obv: FLAV MAX FAVSTA AVG Mantled bust right with waved hair.
Rev: SALVS REIPVBLICAE (STR dot in crescent) Fausta standing facing, looking left, holding two children in her arms.
Size: 17.7mm 3.34gm
MaynardGee
faustaAE3-.jpg
FAUSTA AE3 AD32619 viewsobv: FL.AV.MAX.FAVSTA.AVG (draped bust right with pearl necklace)
rev: SPES.REIPVBLICAE / SMHЄ (Spes standing facing, looking left, head veiled, holding two children in her arms)
ref: RIC VIII-Heraclea80a (R4), C.15
2.98g, 19mm
Very rare
Flavia Maximilla Fausta was the wife of Constantine I and daughter of Maximianus. She was assassinated by the order of Constantine I in 326 AD.
berserker
fausta-reshoot.jpg
Fausta AE3 Follis, 325-326 AD, Cyzicus18 viewsRoman Imperial, Fausta AE3 Follis, (325-326 AD), Cyzicus, 20mm, 2.2g

Obverse: FLAV MAX FAVSTA AVG, Draped bust right.

Reverse: SPES REIP-VBLICAE, Fausta standing facing, holding two children; Mintmark • SMKΓ •. "Hope of the Republic"

Reference: LRBC 1186. RIC VII Cyzicus 50; Sear 16579.
Gil-galad
Fausta_opt.jpg
FAUSTA AE3, RIC 40, Spes11 viewsOBV: FLAV MAX FAVSTA AVG, draped bust right
REV: SPES REIP-VBLICA, Fausta as Spes standing facing, looking left, holding two children in her arms, SMALA in ex.


Minted at Alexandria, 325-6 AD
Legatus
U809F1UMYLCSLR.jpg
Fausta Flavia Maxima, AE Follis.19 viewsFLAV MAX FAVSTA AVG, Draped bust right

Reverse:– SPES REIPVBLICAE, Spes standing left with two children in her arms

Minted in Heraclea (//SMHÄ•)

RIC Heraclea 86 var. Unlisted with this officina.

Ex M Griffiths, Photo M Griffiths.
GaiusCaligula
FAUSTA-1.jpg
Fausta RIC VII 16115 viewsObv: FLAV MAX FAVSTA AVG
bare-headed, draped bust right with waved hair
Rev: SPES REIPVBLICAE
Empress as Spes standing left, holding two children.
SMTSA in ex.
19mm 2.6gm
OWL365
fausta_80.jpg
Fausta RIC VII, Heraclea 80138 viewsFausta, submitted suicide AD 326, wife of Constantine I
AE - AE 3, 2.69g, 18mm
Heraclea 1. officina, AD 325/326
obv. FLAV MAX - FAVSTA AVG
draped bust with necklace, bare head r.
rev. SPES REI P - VBLICAE
Fausta veiled standing frontal, head l., holding two childen at breast
exergue: SMHA
RIC VII, Heraclea 80; C.15; LRBC. 875
Rare; VF, hole in the flan under P of REIP

The children are Constantin II and Constantius II.
2 commentsJochen
Fausta_RIC_VII_Cyzicus_40.jpg
Fausta, AE Follis, RIC VII Cyzicus 4082 viewsFausta
Augusta, 323 - 326 A.D.
AE Follis, Silvered.

Obverse: FLAV MAX - FAVSTA AVG, bare-headed and draped bust, wearing a necklace, facing right.
Reverse: SPES REIP-VBLICAE, Fausta, standing, facing left, holding her children, Constantine II and Constantius II to her breast.

Weight: 3.06 g, Diameter: 19 x 19 x 1.3 mm, Die axis: 0°, Mintmark: SMKB● (Cyzicus), struck between 325-326 A.D. References: RIC VII Cyzicus 40, Sear 16578

Rated Rare (R2)
Masis
aQ4Pc7YqzS3X8iZZiK2c6xGwSne95n_(1).jpg
Fausta, Augusta 324 - 326 AD. AE Follis24 viewsCyzicus, RIC 40, A
Fausta AE Follis. 325-6 AD. FLAV MAX FAVSTA AVG, mantled bust right / SPES REIP-VBLICAE, Fausta as Spes standing facing, looking left, head veiled, two children in her arms. Mintmark SMKA dot. RIC VII Cyzicus 40; Sear 16578
3.2 g - 19.5 mm .
Antonivs Protti
16_1_b.jpg
Fausta, Constantinople390 viewsFLAV MAX-FAVSTA AVG
Mantled and bareheaded bust right with waved hair

SALVS REI-PVBLICAE
Empress (as Salus) standing facing, looking left, head veiled, and holding two children in her arms

CONS / A in left field

RIC 12 ; Minted Late 326 AD
AE 19-20mm; 3.10g
Ex-CNG 69 lot 151, Ex- K. Kline
11 commentsarizonarobin
collage4~1.jpg
Fausta, Cyzicus53 viewsFLAV MAX - FAVSTA AVG
Mantled and bareheaded bust right with waved hair

SPES REIP-VBLICAE
Empress (as Spes) standing facing, looking left, head veiled, and holding two children in her arms

SMKA(dot)
Cyzicus Mint

RIC VII Cyzicus 40
Ae3; 19-20 mm; 3.08g
arizonarobin
fausta030802.jpg
Fausta, Cyzicus36 viewsFausta

FLAV MAX-FAVSTA AVG
Mantled and bareheaded bust right with waved hair

SPES REIP-VBLICAE
Empress (as Spes) standing facing, looking left, head veiled, and holding two children in her arms

(dot) SMK delta (dot)
Cyzicus Mint

AE 19mm; 2.67g
RIC 50 Cyzicus
arizonarobin
collage1~11.jpg
Fausta, Heraclea75 viewsFLAV MAX - FAVSTA AVG
Mantled and bareheaded bust right with waved hair

SPES REIP-VBLICAE
Empress (as Spes) standing facing, looking left, head veiled, and holding two children in her arms.

SMH(delta)
Heraclea Mint

RIC 80
Ae 18-19mm; 2.63g

I like the long flat portrait, though I would say it is not the most flattering portrait of Fausta.
1 commentsarizonarobin
fausta030801.jpg
Fausta, Nicomedia33 viewsFLAV MAX FAVSTA AVG
Mantled and bareheaded bust right with waved hair

SPES REI-PVBLICAE
Empress (as Spes) standing facing, looking left, head veiled, and holding two children in her arms.

MN(epsilon)

RIC 131 Nicomedia; LRBC 1093
Ae 19mm; 2.50g
arizonarobin
Fausta_RIC_205_siscia.JPG
Fausta, RIC 205 siscia29 viewsFLAV MAX-FAVSTA AVG
Wavy hairdo draped bust right with pearl necklace
SPES REIP-VBLICAE
Spes standing left with two children in her arms
•BSIS• in ex.
AE follis
2 commentsnovacystis
060808fausta.jpg
Fausta, RIC VII Heraclea 8017 viewsFausta
AE Follis, 325-326AD
Ob: FLAV MAX-FAVSTA AVG, mantled, head bare, waved hair right
Rv:SPES REIP-VBLICA, Spes standing facing, looking left, head veiled, holding two children in her arms
Ex: SMHA (Heraclea)
Ref: RIC VII Heraclea 80, R1
Scotvs Capitis
collage-1.jpg
Fausta, Sirmium199 viewsFLAV MAX-FAVSTA AVG
Mantled and bareheaded bust right with waved hair

SALVS REI-PVBLICAE
Empress (as Salus) standing facing, looking left, head veiled, and holding two children in her arms.

SIRM

RIC VII Sirmium 55
Ae 19-20mm; 3.01g

The reverse detail on this one is fantastic- the infants are beautifully rendered!
1 commentsarizonarobin
2-2014-10-027.JPG
Fausta, Siscia39 viewsAe 17-19mm; 2.27g

FLAV MAX- FAVSTA AVG
draped bust right

SPES REIP-VBLICAE
Empress/Spes standing, facing, holding 2 children

dot ASIS dot (Siscia Mint)

RIC VII Siscia 205; Sear 16570
I bought this one for the interesting Spes/Children. I love the arms and the depiction of the children. Not as well rendered as the one I have from Sirmium but still not the norm!
1 commentsRobin Ayers
fausta1~0.jpg
Fausta, Thessalonica64 viewsFLAV MAX - FAVSTA AVG
Mantled and bareheaded bust right with waved hair

SPES REIP-VBLICAE
Empress (as Spes) standing facing, looking left, head veiled, and holding two children in her arms.

SMTSA
Thessalonica mint RIC 161; Ae 18-19mm; 3.05g
1 commentsarizonarobin
2013-02-03_oldnikon.jpg
Fausta, Thessalonica31 viewsFLAV MAX - FAVSTA AVG
Mantled and diademed bust right

SPES REIP-VBLICAE
Empress (as Spes) standing facing, looking left, head veiled, and holding two children in her arms.

SMTSA
Thessalonica Mint

Ae 19mm; 3.35g
RIC VII Thessalonica 162; Sear 16571


A different hair style for Fausta.
Robin Ayers
2013-02-004.jpg
Fausta, Ticinum26 viewsFLAV MAX-FAVSTA AVG
Mantled and bareheaded bust right with waved hair

SPES REI-PVBLICAE
Empress (as Spes) standing facing, looking left,and holding two children in her arms

T T

RIC VII Ticinum 191; Sear 16564
Ae 18mm; 2.45g
Robin Ayers
collage1~6.jpg
Fausta, Trier73 viewsFLAV MAX-FAVSTA AVG
Mantled and bareheaded bust right with waved hair

SPES REIP-VBLICAE
Empress (as Spes) standing facing, looking left, head veiled, and holding two children in her arms.

PTR(cresent with dot)
Trier Mint

RIC VII 484 ; 326 AD
Ae 18mm; 2.39g
arizonarobin
9856.jpg
Fausta, Trier89 viewsFLAV MAX-FAVSTA AVG
Mantled and bareheaded bust right with waved hair

SALVS REI-PVBLICAE
Empress (as Salus) standing facing, looking left, head veiled, and holding two children in her arms.

STR(cresent with pellet)
Trier Mint

Ae 17-19mm; 3.12g
RIC VII483; LRBC I 37; SRCV 3903
1 commentsarizonarobin
collage4~9.jpg
Fausta, Trier88 viewsFLAV MAX FAVSTA AVG
Mantled and bareheaded bust right with waved hair

SPES REIP-VBLICAE
Empress (as Salus) standing facing, looking left, head veiled, and holding two children in her arms.

PTR(cresent with pellet)
Trier

RIC 484
Ae 19mm; 3.03g
1 commentsarizonarobin
fa76.jpg
Fausta, wife of Constantine I, AE 3 Follis. RIC 76 Antioch 16 viewsFausta, wife of Constantine I, AE 3 Follis. RIC 76 Antioch
Obverse: FLAV MAX FAVSTA AVG, mantled bust right with pearl necklace.
Reverse: SALVS REIPVBLICAE, Speas standing, two children in her arms.
SMANTA in ex. Antioch mint, 19 mm diam., 3.1 g
sold 2-2018
NORMAN K
FaustaAntiochA.jpg
Fausta- Salvs Reipvblicae- AE3. 326 AD.109 viewsAttribution-Fausta RIC VII Antioch 76 r5(although its now at least r4)

Obv. FLAV MAX FAVSTA AVG, mantled bust right
Rev. SALVS REI-PVBLICAE Salus standing facing, with two children in her arms
Ex. •SMANTA
black-prophet
faustaII~0.jpg
faustaII~024 viewsÆ Follis. Alexandria, 325-326 AD. 2,91 grs. Draped bust right. FLAV MAX FAVSTA AVG / Salus standing facing, head left, holding two children. SPES REIPUBLICAE. In exergue SMALB .
RIC VII 40
benito
298_Faustina_II_Fecund_Augustae.jpg
Faustina II - AE as6 viewsRome
161-175 AD
diademed and draped bust right
FAVSTINA AVGVSTA
Faustina II facing, holding 2 children, 2 children at her feet
FECVND__AVGVSTAE
S C
RIC 1636, Cohen 97, BMC 977
8,58g
Johny SYSEL
sia_045.JPG
Faustina II AE Sesterius, RIC 1665, Cohen 193, BMC 93749 views18.0 grams.
30 mm.
Faustina II AE Sesterius, RIC 1665, Cohen 193, BMC 937

Faustina Jr Æ Sestertius. FAVSTINA AVGVSTA, diademed & draped bust right / SAECVLI FELICIT S-C, two children seated on throne. Cohen 193. _SOLD
Antonio Protti
FAUSTINA_JNR_PEACOCK~0.JPG
FAUSTINA II, JUNIOR. Commemorative denarius of Rome. Struck A.D.176-180 under Marcus Aurelius.144 viewsObverse: DIVA FAVSTINA PIA. Draped bust of Faustina Junior facing right.
Reverse: CONSECRATIO. Peacock standing facing right.
Diameter: 18mm | Weight: 3.24gms | Die Axis: 12
RIC III : 744 | RSC : 71a

Annia Galeria Faustina was the youngest daughter of Antoninus Pius and Faustina Senior. She married Marcus Aurelius in A.D.145 and was given the title of Augusta on the birth of her first child in A.D.146. She went on to have several more children, one of whom was the future emperor Commodus. In A.D.175 Faustina accompanied Marcus Aurelius on his journey to the East but she died at Halala, a village at the foot of the Taurus Mountains.
1 comments*Alex
1000-18-110.jpg
Faustina II. 38 viewsRI8

Faustina II. Augusta, A.D. 147-175. AR denarius (17.8 mm, 3.25 g, 6 h). Rome mint, A.D. 154-157. FAVSTINA AVGVSTA, diademed and draped bust right, wearing stephane / SAECVLI FELICIT, two children (Commodus and Annius Verus) on draped throne. RIC 710; RSC 190. VF. f
ecoli
Faustina Jr Dupondius.jpg
Faustina Jr Dupondius46 viewsAE Dupondius
RIC 1393
Concordia seated left leaning on chair with left and flower in right.
By chair, cornucopia on globe.

"This dupondius (note the yellow metal) is actually quite rare. In an extensive collection of material relating to the children of Faustina and Marcus during the reign of Pius, I have plaster casts of only three specimens, two in Vienna and one recently acquired for my own collection." Curtis Clay
Tanit
Faustina1.jpg
Faustina Jr Sestertius36 viewsFaustina Junior Æ Sestertius. ca 157-161 AD. FAVSTINA AVGVSTA, draped bust right / FECVND AVGVSTAE S-C, Fecunditas standing left holding two infants, two children standing to either side.

RIC 1634 ; Cohen 93.

Scarce


Tanit
Faustina_II_Sest.jpg
Faustina Jr Sestertius29 viewsFaustina Jr Æ Sestertius. FAVSTINA AVGVSTA, draped & diademed bust right / TEMPOR FELIC S-C, Faustina standing facing, holding two infants, four children at her feet.

RIC 1674 ; Cohen 224.

Scarce

Tanit
Faustina Jr.jpg
Faustina Jr. , Wife of Marcus Aurelius, Mother of Lucilla, and Commodus35 viewsThe daughter, wife and mothers of emperors and empresses, Faustina II was born around 130 A.D. to Antoninus Pius and Faustina I. She was married to her cousin Marcus Aurelius in 145 A.D. In 146 A.D., she gave birth to the first of many children. To celebrate this occasion she was given the Title Augusta, which technically made her superior in rank then her husband. Faustina II was a devoted wife and mother, and accompanied her husband on all his military campaigns. Her son Commodus went on to became emperor after his father’s death, and her daughter Lucilla became Augusta when she married Lucius Verus in 164 A.D. She died at the city of Halala in Asia Minor in 175 A.D. plagued by many baseless rumors about her infidelity. She was deified soon after and a grand temple was erected to her in the city where she died.1 commentsDumanyu2
0110800.jpg
Faustina Junior TEMPOR FELIC53 viewsAttribution: RIC III 347
Date: 161-176 AD
Obverse: FAVSTINA AVGVSTA, Draped bust right
Reverse: TEMPOR FELIC SC, Fecunditas or Faustina standing left with four children and one in each arm
Size: 25 mm
Weight: 9.8 grams
newone
faustinajr1.jpg
Faustina Junior, Faustina and Children149 viewsO: FAVSTINA - AVGVSTA
Draped bust right

R: TEMPOR - FELIC S/C across fields
Faustina standing facing holding twin boys, four daughters standing at her feet

RIC 1675
Ae Dupon.; 11.78g; 27mm
3 commentsarizonarobin
april_2012b.jpg
Faustina Junior, Fecunditas59 viewsFaustina Junior

FAVSTINA AVGVSTA
Draped bust right

FECVND AVGVSTAE
Fecunditas standing left with four children
(commemorates Faustina and Marcus Aurelius fourth surviving child, a daughter0

BMCRE 89; Cohen 95; RIC 676
Ar Denarius
2 commentsRobin Ayers
FavjSe10-2.jpg
Faustina Junior, RIC (M. Aurelius) 1635, Sestertius of AD 161 (Emperor's growing family)40 viewsÆ Sestertius (28.3g, Ø35mm, 12h). Rome mint. Struck AD 161.
Obv.: FAVSTINA AVGVSTA, draped bust of Fautina Junior facing right.
Rev.: FECVND AVGVSTA (around) S C (in field), Fecunditas standing left, holding two infants in her arms, two more standing left and right of her raising their right hands.
RIC (Aurelius) 1635; BMC 902; Cohen 96; Foss (RHC) 143:8

This type refers to the growing family of Marcus Aurelius and Faustina Jr. The four children are four surviving girls (of a total of 8 children born) around late 160: they were at the time the dies were designed: Annia Galeria Aurelia Faustina (age 14), Lucilla (12) and Fadilla (1) and Cornifica (0).
Charles S
Favjse13-2.jpg
Faustina Junior, RIC (M. Aurelius) 1649, Sestertius of AD 161 (Emperor's growing family)53 viewsÆ Sestertius (23.38g, Ø31mm, 12h). Rome mint. Struck AD 161.
Obv.: FAVSTINA AVGVSTA, draped bust of Fautina Junior facing right.
Rev.: IVNONI LVCINAE (around) S C (in field), Faustina as Juno, standing left, holding a child in her arms, two more standing left and right of her raising their right hands.
RIC (Aurelius) 1649; Sear 2000 (RCV) 5277
ex Byzantine Coin Store (via VCoins)

This type refers to the growing family of Marcus Aurelius and Faustina Jr. The three girls represent the three surviving children (of a total of 7 born) around end of 159 to early 160: Annia Galeria Aurelia Faustina (age 14), Lucilla (12) and Fadilla (1).
Charles S
Favjse12-2.jpg
Faustina Junior, RIC unlisted, Sestertius of AD 161 (Emperor's growing family)76 viewsÆ Sestertius (25.86g, Ø33mm, 12h). Rome mint. Struck AD 161.
Obv.: FAVSTINA AVGVSTA, draped bust of Fautina Junior facing right.
Rev.: FECVND AVGVSTA (around) S C (in field), Fecunditas standing left, holding a child in her arms, two more standing left and right of her raising their right hands.
Strack 1335 (1 coll.: Naples); RIC (Aurelius) unlisted (legend corresponds to RIC 1635 and the representation to RIC 1649); Cohen: (idem with nos. 96 and 136)
ex Aeternitas Coins & Antiquities (via VCoins)

This type refers to the growing family of Marcus Aurelius and Faustina Jr. The three girls represent the three surviving children (of a total of 7 born) around end of 159 to early 160: Annia Galeria Aurelia Faustina (age 14), Lucilla (12) and Fadilla (1).

Additional information from Curtis Clay through the forum discussion group: "This type commemorating the birth of a third survivng daughter usually has the legend IVNONI LVCINAE, whereas the type FECVND AVGVSTAE commemorates the birth of the next daughter about a year or so later and shows Fecunditas/Faustina holding two children in her arms while two more stand at her feet.

Strack 1335 knew a sestertius like yours in only one specimen, in Naples, but unfortunately does not illustrate the coin.

The Naples collection was stolen in 1977. Your coin is of nice quality, and has an old-collection look, lightly cleaned on the reverse. I would not be at all surprised if it is the actual Naples coin! "
Charles S
Faustina_Sestertius.jpg
Faustina Junior. Augusta, AD 147-175. Æ Sestertius.42 viewsRome mint. Struck under Marcus Aurelius, circa AD 161-164.
Obverse ; FAVSTINA AVGVSTA, draped bust right, wearing stephane.
Reverse ; TEMPOR FELIC, Fecunditas standing left , S C , holding an infant on each arm; to either side below, two children standing facing her, the inner children raising their arms to her.
gVG.

From The Sam Mansourati Collection.
Sam
faustina2.jpg
Faustina Sr. AE Sestertius 146-148 AD37 viewsOBV: DIVA FAVSTINA; draped bust right
REV: AETERNITAS; Ceres standing holding draperies with right hand and long torch with left hand, S - C in field
Faustina was the beloved wife of Antoninus Pius who died shortly into his long reign. Of several children by him only the daughter Faustina Jr survived to become the wife of Pius' successor, Marcus Aurelius. The DIVA series was started by Pius to commemorate his wife.
The image itself, particurly the elegant but commanding profile has influenced Western art and tastes for centuries.

RIC v.3, 1100, rated "Scarce" (thanks, *Alex, for the ID) Submitted to Wildwinds and added to their data base (Thanks, Dane).

Diam ~30 mm, wt 23.5 gm
daverino
Lg3_quart_sm.jpg
FAVSTINA AVGVSTA / AVGVSTI PII FIL / Ӕ As or Dupontius (156-161 A.D.)20 viewsFAVSTINA AVGVSTA, draped bust right, hair arranged in a chignon (bun) behind the head / AVGVSTI PII FIL, Venus standing left holding Victory and leaning on shield set on a helmet, S-C across fields in the lower half

Ӕ, 22.5-24+mm, 9.56g, die axis 11h

There may be a countermark across the front part of the face on obverse, but due to its location it is difficult to be sure and identify it.

AVGVSTI PII FIL(ia) = daughter of August Antoninus Pius, points out to the ruling of Fausta's father Antoninus Pius rather than her husband Marcus Aurelius. Reverse: Unlike Greek Aphrodite, in addition to her other aspects Roman Venus was also a goddess of victory, this embodied in her representation as Venus Victrix (Victorious) or Victris (of Victory), like in this case: she offers a little winged representation of victory, resting on defensive military attributes (as a female goddess, she represented passive, defensive aspects of war, active ones being the domain of male Mars). SC = [Ex] Senatus Consulto (Senatus is genitive, Consulto is ablative of Consultum) = by decree of the Senate, i. e. the authority of the Senate approved minting of this coin (necessary to justify issue of copper alloy coins for which the intrinsic value was not obvious).

Of two Ӕ coins with the same legends and Venus with shield, RIC 1367 and 1389a, the first is a sestertius and its typical dimensions are characteristic of the type: 30+ mm and 20+g. This one is definitely smaller. Material seems reddish, so this one is more likely an as. Minted in Rome. Some sources give issue dates as 156-161 (the end of Faustina's father's reign), others as 145-146 (her marriage).

Annia Galeria Faustina Minor (Minor is Latin for the Younger), Faustina Minor or Faustina the Younger (born probably 21 September c. 130 CE, died in winter of 175 or spring of 176 CE) was a daughter of Roman Emperor Antoninus Pius and Roman Empress Faustina the Elder. She was a Roman Empress and wife to her maternal cousin Roman Emperor Marcus Aurelius. She was held in high esteem by soldiers and her own husband and was given divine honours after her death. Faustina, named after her mother, was her parents' fourth and youngest child and their second daughter; she was also their only child to survive to adulthood. She was born and raised in Rome. Her great uncle, the emperor Hadrian, had arranged with her father for Faustina to marry Lucius Verus. On 25 February 138, she and Verus were betrothed. Verus’ father was Hadrian’s first adopted son and his intended heir; however, when Verus’ father died, Hadrian chose Faustina’s father to be his second adopted son, and eventually, successor. Faustina’s father ended the engagement between his daughter and Verus and arranged for Faustina's betrothal to her maternal cousin, Marcus Aurelius; Aurelius was also adopted by her father.

In April or May 145, Faustina and Marcus Aurelius were married, as had been planned since 138. Since Aurelius was, by adoption, Antoninus Pius' son, under Roman law he was marrying his sister; Antoninus would have had to formally release one or the other from his paternal authority (his patria potestas) for the ceremony to take place. Little is specifically known of the ceremony, but it is said to have been "noteworthy". Coins were issued with the heads of the couple, and Antoninus, as Pontifex Maximus, would have officiated. Marcus makes no apparent reference to the marriage in his surviving letters, and only sparing references to Faustina. Faustina was given the title of Augusta on 1 December 147 after the birth of her first child, Galeria Faustina (or Domitia? sources differ which of them was born in 147 and was the first child).

When Antoninus died on 7 March 161, Marcus and Lucius Verus ascended to the throne and became co-rulers. Faustina then became empress. Unfortunately, not much has survived from the Roman sources regarding Faustina's life, but what is available does not give a good report. Cassius Dio and the Augustan History accuse Faustina of ordering deaths by poison and execution; she has also been accused of instigating the revolt of Avidius Cassius against her husband. The Augustan History mentions adultery with sailors, gladiators, and men of rank; however, Faustina and Aurelius seem to have been very close and mutually devoted.

Faustina accompanied her husband on various military campaigns and enjoyed the love and reverence of Roman soldiers. Aurelius gave her the title of Mater Castrorum or ‘Mother of the Camp’. She attempted to make her home out of an army camp. Between 170–175, she was in the north, and in 175, she accompanied Aurelius to the east.

That same year, 175, Aurelius's general Avidius Cassius was proclaimed Roman emperor after the erroneous news of Marcus's death; the sources indicate Cassius was encouraged by Marcus's wife Faustina, who was concerned about her husband's failing health, believing him to be on the verge of death, and felt the need for Cassius to act as a protector in this event, since her son Commodus, aged 13, was still young. She also wanted someone who would act as a counterweight to the claims of Tiberius Claudius Pompeianus, who was in a strong position to take the office of Princeps in the event of Marcus’s death. The evidence, including Marcus's own Meditations, supports the idea that Marcus was indeed quite ill, but by the time Marcus recovered, Cassius was already fully acclaimed by the Egyptian legions of II Traiana Fortis and XXII Deiotariana. "After a dream of empire lasting three months and six days", Cassius was murdered by a centurion; his head was sent to Marcus Aurelius, who refused to see it and ordered it buried. Egypt recognized Marcus as emperor again by 28 July 175.

Faustina died in the winter of 175, after a somewhat suspicious accident, at the military camp in Halala (a city in the Taurus Mountains in Cappadocia). Aurelius grieved much for his wife and buried her in the Mausoleum of Hadrian in Rome. She was deified: her statue was placed in the Temple of Venus in Rome and a temple was dedicated to her in her honor. Halala’s name was changed to Faustinopolis and Aurelius opened charity schools for orphan girls called Puellae Faustinianae or 'Girls of Faustina'. The Baths of Faustina in Miletus are named after her.

In their thirty years of marriage, Faustina bore Marcus Aurelius thirteen children, of whom 6 reached adulthood and were significant in history. The best known are emperor Commodus and the closest to him sister Lucilla (both depicted in a very historically inaccurate movie "Gladiator" and, together with their parents, in a much more accurate 1st season "Reign of Blood" of the TV series "Roman Empire").
Yurii P
FAUSTJR-4~0.jpg
Fecunditas, goddess of fertility268 viewsFaustina Junior, wife of Marcus Aurelius. Augusta, 147-175/6 CE.
AR Denarius (19mm, 3.16g), Rome mint, 161-175 CE.
Obv: FAVSTINA AVGVSTA, draped bust right, a double band of pearls around her head.
Rev: FECVNDITAS, Fecunditas standing right, holding scepter & child.
RIC 677; RSC 99; BMC 91; Sear 5252; Cohen 99.

Although many coin reference books classify Fecunditas as a personification of fertility rather than as an actual deity, Fecunditas was recognized as a Roman divinity by Nero, who erected a statue to her. Tacitus notes that upon the birth of Claudia Neronis, the senate decreed the construction of a temple of Fertility to be built at Antium.

Fecunditas is always portrayed as a female figure holding a child, or children and often a scepter, cornucopia, palm branch or caduceus. Sometimes the children are depicted standing at her feet. Coins portraying her usually advertise the fertility of the imperial family who issued the coin.
EmpressCollector
DOMNA-13~0.JPG
Four Seasons312 viewsJulia Domna, wife of Septimius Severus, Augusta, 193-217 C.E.
AR Denarius (3.24g, 20.0mm), Rome mint, AD 207.
Obv: IVLIA AVGVSTA, draped bust right.
Rev: FECVNDITAS, Terra reclining left under tree, left arm on basket of fruits, right hand set on globe, spangled with stars, in background four children representing the four Seasons.
RIC 549, RSC 35, BMC 21, Sear 6579.
Ex FORVM Ancient coins.

The four seasons--spring, summer, fall and winter--are typically personified by four nude boys at play.
1 commentsEmpressCollector
FF_Aquitaine_William_X_Roberts_4311.JPG
France (Feudal): Dukes of Aquitaine. William X, the “Saint” (1127-1137).35 viewsRoberts, 4311, Boudeau 464, Poey d'Avant 2735

AR denier, Bordeaux mint, 18 mm.

Obv: + CLVILILMO [first L retrograde] (Guillaume), four crosslets forming a cross.

Rev: + BVRDECIILA (Bordeaux, Burdigalae in Latin), cross pattée.

William X (1099–1137), was Duke of Aquitaine, Duke of Gascony, and Count of Poitou (as William VIII). He was the son of Duke William IX by his second wife, Philippa of Toulouse. He was born in Toulouse when his father was briefly the Count. Shortly after his birth his father went on Crusade, and he was raised in Poitiers by his mother. His father later abandoned her, and took Dangerose, the wife of one of his vassals, as mistress. This caused strain between father and son, until William married Aenor de Châtellerault, daughter of Dangerose, in 1121. They had three children, one of whom was Eleanor of Aquitaine, his heiress.

William was a lover of the arts and a warrior. He became involved in conflicts with Normandy and France. Inside his borders, he faced an alliance of the Lusignans and the Parthenays against him, an issue he resolved by the total destruction of his enemies. William X initially supported antipope Anacletus II in the papal schism of 1130, against the will of his own bishops. In 1134 Saint Bernard of Clairvaux convinced William to drop his support of Anacletus and to embrace Pope Innocent II.

In 1137 William joined the pilgrimage to Santiago de Compostela, but died of suspected food poisoning during the trip. He left the dukedom and the care of his 15-year-old daughter to King Louis VI of France. Louis VI accepted this guardianship and married Eleanor to his son, Louis VII.
1 commentsStkp
tavium_nero_RPC3562.jpg
Galatia, Tavium, Nero, RPC 356224 viewsNero, AD 54-68
AE 25, 13.14g
struck 62-65
obv. [NERW]NOC - [CE]BASTOV
Head, laureate, r.
rev. [POP]PAIAC - CEB[ACTHC]
Bust of Poppaea, draped, r.; hair in thick braid, curls over forehead
RPC 3562; SGICV 662; SNG von Aulock 6117; SNG Paris 2400
VF
From Forum Ancient Coins, thanks!

AD 62 Nero divorced Messalina to marry Poppaea. He has two children from her who died early.
AD 65 Nero killed her by kicking in her pregnant belly. Poppaea was totally amoralic - she was
responsible of some of Nero's murders - but famous for her beauty too. The depiction on the rev. gives
an impression of this .
Jochen
Hadr_Sest_3.jpg
Hadrian Sestertius24 viewsAE Sestertius
Obv: HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS PP; laur. hd. r.
Rev: HILARITAS P R COS III S C; Hilaritas stg. l., between two children.

Cohen 819
Tanit
HadrianSestertius.jpg
Hadrian Sestertius 17 viewsObv: HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS P P, laureate bust right, draped far shoulder

Rev: HILARITAS P R S-C, COS III in ex, Hilaritas standing facing holding palm & cornucopia, two small children flanking her.

Sestertius, Diameter 32mm, Die Axis 180

Rome Mint AD 128-132

RIC 970b

Ricky H
Hadrian6_OBV_opt.jpg
HADRIAN Sestertius RIC 970, HILARITAS48 viewsOBV: HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS P P, laureate bust right, draped far shoulder
REV: HILARITAS P R S-C, COS III in ex, Hilaritas standing facing holding palm & cornucopia, two small children flanking her
25.30 grs, 35mm

Minted at Rome, 128-134 AD
Legatus
hricII970ORweb.jpg
Hadrian Sestertius, RIC II 970 58 viewsRome mint, Hadrian Sestertius, 117-138 A.D. AE, 32mm 22.09g, RIC II 970
O: HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS P P, laureate head right
R: HILARITAS P R, SC, Hilaritas standing facing with palm & cornucopia, two small children flanking her
Ex: COS III
3 commentscasata137ec
Hadrse45.jpg
Hadrian, RIC 568, Sestertius of AD 119 (Libertas restituta)112 viewsÆ Sestertius (26.40g, Ø34.5mm, 6h). Rome mint. Struck AD 119.
Obv.: IMP CAESAR TRAIANVS HADRIANVS AVG, laureate bust of Hadrian facing right.
Rev.: PONT MAX TR POT COS III (around) LIBERTAS RESTI-TVTA (in ex.) S C (in field), Hadrian seated on Sella Curulis on a platform, extending his hand to a child held by a woman standing before him who places her hand on the head of a second child standing beside her.
RIC 568; BMCRE 1160; Cohen 949 (different description of women having one foot on a pedestal); Strack 526; Banti (I Grandi Bronzi Imperiali II-2) 517 (33 spec.).

ex H.D. Rauch (Wien), 83rd Coin-Auction (2008); ex. Hess-Divo AG auction 308 (2007)

The reverse legend 'LIBERTAS RESTITVTA' means 'Liberty restored'. The interpretation of this type varies. According to Clive Foss (Roman Historical Coins, 1990, Seaby, London) Hadrian faced considerable unpopularity at the beginning of his reign especially after the Senate, during his absence, had four high-ranking senators executed who were accused of conspiracy (even though he had promised never to execute a senator). He went to great lengths trying to gain the favour of the people. This included the cancellation of public debts and the expansion of Trajan's charity program to the poor children of Italy in AD 118, an act celebrated as the restoration of liberty.
1 commentsCharles S
Hadrse08-2.jpg
Hadrian, RIC 781(f), Sestertius of AD 134-138 (Nilus)22 viewsÆ Sestertius (22.9g, Ø 31mm, 12h). Rome, AD 134-138.
Obv.: HADRIANVS AVG COS III P P, laur. dr. bust right.
Rev.: S C, Nilus reclining r., crocodile in water below; above three children, the one on the right riding a hippopotamus.
RIC 781(f) (R); BMC 1773; Cohen 1377; Strack 738; Banti 727 (1 spec.)
Ex D.Ruskin, Oxford, Aug. 1994
1 commentsCharles S
JCT_Hebrew_Kindergarten_C.JPG
Hebrew Kindergarten & Infants Home (New York , N.Y. & Far Rockaway, Queens County, N.Y.)88 viewsAE token, 32.5 mm., undated.

Obv: HEBREW KINDERGARTEN & INFANTS HOME and 35 & 37 MONTGOMERY ST. N.Y.C./CENTRAL & PLAINVIEW AVES. FAR ROCKAWAY, along toothed rim, bust of boy facing within laureate wreath in center.

Rev: HAVE A HEART/HELP THE/ORPHANS/ -- AND --/GOD WILL/HELP YOU, within laureate wreath, GOOD LUCK COIN along toothed rim, beneath.

Ref: Kaplan, Steven H.. “Great Appeal, Kindergarten Tokens Asked for Support,” The Shekel, XLIV No. 1 (January-February 2011) 49-53, Figure 3 (this token).

Note: The Hebrew Kindergarten and Day Nursery Association was established in 1905 at 29 Montgomery Street as a nursery for the care of children of working mothers. It purchased 35 and 37 Montgomery Street in 1913 for the construction of a three-story building, which was dedicated in May 1914. In November 1918, it opened a ward for children whose mothers had influenza, and also began to care for children whose mothers had died during the epidemic. By then, there had already been a fund drive in August 1918 to raise $50,000 for an orphanage at Far Rockaway, and another fund drive, to raise $100,000 for the completion of its new building. It was then known as the Hebrew Kindergarten, Day and Night Nursery. It formally changed its name to Hebrew Kindergarten & Infants Home, Inc. in August 1925, although it was apparently using that name as early as 1923. Its infant home in Far Rockaway was at the intersection of Plainview Avenue and Central Avenue/Beach 20th Street, and an address of both 310 Central Avenue and 310 Beach 20th Street. It still operates an early childhood program/day care program for ages pre-kindergarten through kindergarten on a nonsectarian basis at that location.

Note: Three different fundraising tokens were issued, all of which contain the address of the day school on Montgomery Street as well as the addresses of the orphanage on Plainview Avenue and Central Avenue, in Far Rockaway. The most common of the three tokens was apparently issued in connection with the August 1923 fund drive for the completion of that building, and this token was apparently issued at a later date in connection with a lesser fund drive.
Stkp
JCT_Hebrew_Kindergarten_B.JPG
Hebrew Kindergarten & Infants Home (New York , N.Y. & Far Rockaway, Queens County, N.Y.)111 viewsAE token, 32.5 mm., undated.

Obv: HEBREW KINDERGARTEN & INFANTS HOME and 35 & 37 MONTGOMERY ST. N.Y.C./CENTRAL & PLAINVIEW AVES. FAR ROCKAWAY, along toothed rim, bust of boy facing within laureate wreath in center.

Rev: HAVE A HEART/HELP THE/ORPHANS/ -- AND --/GOD WILL/HELP YOU, within laureate wreath, GOOD LUCK COIN along toothed rim, beneath.

Ref: Kaplan, Steven H.. “Great Appeal, Kindergarten Tokens Asked for Support,” The Shekel, XLIV No. 1 (January-February 2011) 49-53, Figure 2 (this token).

Note: The Hebrew Kindergarten and Day Nursery Association was established in 1905 at 29 Montgomery Street as a nursery for the care of children of working mothers. It purchased 35 and 37 Montgomery Street in 1913 for the construction of a three-story building, which was dedicated in May 1914. In November 1918, it opened a ward for children whose mothers had influenza, and also began to care for children whose mothers had died during the epidemic. By then, there had already been a fund drive in August 1918 to raise $50,000 for an orphanage at Far Rockaway, and another fund drive, to raise $100,000 for the completion of its new building. It was then known as the Hebrew Kindergarten, Day and Night Nursery. It formally changed its name to Hebrew Kindergarten & Infants Home, Inc. in August 1925, although it was apparently using that name as early as 1923. Its infant home in Far Rockaway was at the intersection of Plainview Avenue and Central Avenue/Beach 20th Street, and an address of both 310 Central Avenue and 310 Beach 20th Street. It still operates an early childhood program/day care program for ages pre-kindergarten through kindergarten on a nonsectarian basis at that location.

Note: Three different fundraising tokens were issued, all of which contain the address of the day school on Montgomery Street as well as the addresses of the orphanage on Plainview Avenue and Central Avenue, in Far Rockaway. The most common of the three tokens was apparently issued in connection with the August 1923 fund drive for the completion of that building, and this token was apparently issued at a later date in connection with a lesser fund drive.
Stkp
JCT_Hebrew_Kindergarten_A.JPG
Hebrew Kindergarten & Infants Home (New York , N.Y. & Far Rockaway, Queens County, N.Y.)85 viewsAE token, 32.5 mm., undated (probably ca. 1923).

Obv: HEBREW KINDERGARTEN & INFANTS HOME and 35 & 37 MONTGOMERY ST. N.Y.C./CENTRAL & PLAINVIEW AVES. FAR ROCKAWAY, along toothed rim, girl standing with outstretched arms within solid laureate wreath in center.

Rev: HAVE A HEART/HELP THE/ORPHANS/ -- AND --/GOD WILL/HELP YOU, within solid laureate wreath, GOOD LUCK COIN along toothed rim, beneath.

Ref: Kaplan, Steven H.. “Great Appeal, Kindergarten Tokens Asked for Support,” The Shekel, XLIV No. 1 (January-February 2011) 49-53, Figure 1 (this token); Meshorer, Coins Reveal 144.

Note: The Hebrew Kindergarten and Day Nursery Association was established in 1905 at 29 Montgomery Street as a nursery for the care of children of working mothers. It purchased 35 and 37 Montgomery Street in 1913 for the construction of a three-story building, which was dedicated in May 1914. In November 1918, it opened a ward for children whose mothers had influenza, and also began to care for children whose mothers had died during the epidemic. By then, there had already been a fund drive in August 1918 to raise $50,000 for an orphanage at Far Rockaway, and another fund drive, to raise $100,000 for the completion of its new building. It was then known as the Hebrew Kindergarten, Day and Night Nursery. It formally changed its name to Hebrew Kindergarten & Infants Home, Inc. in August 1925, although it was apparently using that name as early as 1923. Its infant home in Far Rockaway was at the intersection of Plainview Avenue and Central Avenue/Beach 20th Street, and an address of both 310 Central Avenue and 310 Beach 20th Street. It still operates an early childhood program/day care program for ages pre-kindergarten through kindergarten on a nonsectarian basis at that location.
Note: Three different fundraising tokens were issued, all of which contain the address of the day school on Montgomery Street as well as the addresses of the orphanage on Plainview Avenue and Central Avenue, in Far Rockaway. This is the most common of the three tokens, and apparently issued in connection with the August 1923 fund drive for the completion of that building.
Stkp
Herodwithscriptcopy.jpg
Herod I (the Great)114 viewsHerod I (the Great). 40-4 BCE. Æ 8 Prutot, 22mm, 5.82 g. Samaria mint. Dated RY 3 (40 BCE). O: Ceremonial bowl (lebes) on tripod; date L Γ (Year 3) to left, monogram to right. Greek Inscription: BAΣIΛEΩΣ HPΩΔOΥ (of King Herod.) R: Military helmet with cheek guards and straps, star above, palms flanking. Meshorer 44; Hendin 486; RPC I 4901.


Although there is debate over exactly what year “Year 3” refers to, the monogram TP may well indicate the third year of Herod’s tetrarchy. Josephus writes that Mark Antony appointed Herod as tetrarch (TETPAPXHΣ) in 42 B.C.E., which would bring us to 40/39 B.C.E. This is also when Herod was crowned as King of Judaea by the Roman Senate with the approval of Octavian (soon to be Augustus.)

This dating helps to explain the meaning of the obverse image of a soldier’s helmet. Although Herod was appointed as king, the Hasmonaean king, Mattathias Antigonus, was still ruling over Judea and did not recognize Roman authority. Herod would therefore have to raise an army, which he did, and, after a three month siege, conquered Jerusalem in 37 B.C.E.


Although Herod accomplished a great deal during his thirty-year + reign, including the building of massive palaces and amphitheaters and enlarging the temple, he is most remembered as a jealous, paranoid murderer, willing to do anything to maintain his political power.

Herod ordered the death of his Hasmonaean wife Mariamne and her brother Aristobulus. Later he had his two sons by Mariamne killed as well. This effectively eliminated the most serious threats to his power in Judaea. Caesar Augustus observed that it was safer to be Herod’s pig than Herod’s son. His wickedness reached its peak years later when, in fear of a rival king, he ordered the killing of all the boys two years of age and under in Bethlehem.

The Bible writer Matthew records Jesus’ birth taking place, “in the days of Herod the king.” A star led astrologers to Herod proclaiming the birth “of the one born king of the Jews.” The resulting slaughter of these children fulfilled the prophesy at Jeremiah 31:15, “This is what Jehovah has said, ‘In Ra′mah a voice is being heard, lamentation and bitter weeping; Rachel weeping over her sons. She has refused to be comforted over her sons, because they are no more.’”
4 commentsNemonater
41480_Sev_alexander_Ephesos,_Ionia.jpg
Ionia, Ephesos; ΕΦΕCIΩΝ, two naked children playing with astragali before statue of Ephesian Artemis6 viewsSeverus Alexander, 13 March 222 - March 235 A.D. Ionia, Ephesos, Bronze AE 20, SNG Cop 465 var (obv legend and rev legend breaks); BMC Ionia -, gF, rough, Ephesos mint, 3.718g, 19.8mm, 180o, obverse M AVP “ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡ”OC (or similar), laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right, from behind; reverse “ΕΦΕ”CI“ΩΝ”, two naked children playing with astragali before statue of Ephesian Artemis, flanked by star and crescent; rare. Ex FORVM, photo credit FORVMPodiceps
Italy- Napoli- Mount_vesuvius.jpg
Italy- Napoli- Mount_vesuvius67 viewsOn August 24 of 79 A.D., the area around Mount Vesuvius shook with a huge earthquake. The mountain's top split open and a monstrous cloud raced upward. The inhabitants of Pompeii were showered with ash, stones, and pumice. A river of mud was beginning to bury the city of Herculaneum. The uncle of Pliny the Younger, known as Pliny the Elder, was a commander of a fleet of war ships at Misenum (see map). He decided to use his ships to rescue people close to the volcano. The nephew describes the huge cloud towering over the area (Radice, 1969):

. . . its general appearance can best be expressed as being like a pine rather than any other tree, for it rose to a great height on a sort of trunk and then split off into branches, I imagine because it was thrust upwards by the first blast and then left unsupported as the pressure subsided, or else it was borne down by its own weight so that it spread out and gradually dispersed. Sometimes it looked white, sometimes blotched and dirty, according to the amount of soil and ashes it carried with it. (p. 427)

Pliny the Elder's ship approached the shore near Pompeii.

Ashes were already falling, hotter and thicker as the ships drew near, followed by bits of pumice and blackened stones, charred and cracked by the flames . . . Meanwhile on Mount Vesuvius broad sheets of fire and leaping flames blazed at several points, their bright glare emphasized by the darkness of night. (pp. 429, 431)

But they could not land because the shore was blocked by volcanic debris, so they sailed south and landed at Stabiae. Hoping to quiet the frightened people, the uncle asked to be carried to the bath house. Afterward he lay down and ate. Next, hoping to quiet the inhabitants, he went to bed. The volcano did not do likewise, however.

By this time the courtyard giving access to his room was full of ashes mixed with pumice-stones, so that its level had risen, and if he had stayed in the room any longer he would never had got out. . . . They debated whether to stay indoors or take their chance in the open, for the buildings were now shaking with violent shocks, and seemed to be swaying to and fro as if they were torn from their foundations. Outside on the other hand, there was the danger of falling pumice-stones, even though these were light and porous. . . . As a protection against falling objects they put pillows on their heads tied down with cloths. (pp. 431, 433)

Finally, the uncle decided to leave. The level of ash and pumice-stone had risen to the point that a hasty departure seemed the best option.

. . . the flames and smell of sulphur which gave warning of the approaching fire drove the others to take flight and roused him to stand up . . . then [he] suddenly collapsed, I imagine because the dense fumes choked his breathing by blocking his windpipe which was constitutionally weak and narrow and often inflamed . . . his body was found intact and uninjured, still fully clothed and looking more like sleep than death. (p. 433)

Later, Pliny the Younger and his mother leave Misenam to escape from the approaching volcanic conflagration. They travel across country to avoid being trampled by the crowds of people on the road.

We also saw the sea sucked away and apparently forced back by the earthquake: at any rate it receded from the shore so that quantities of sea creatures were left stranded on dry sand. On the landward side a fearful black cloud was rent by forked and quivering bursts of flame, and parted to reveal great tongues of fire, like flashes of lightning magnified in size. . . . We had scarcely sat down to rest when darkness fell, not the dark of a moonless or cloudy night, but as if the lamp had been put out in a closed room. You could hear the shrieks of women, the wailing of infants, and the shouting of men; some were calling their parents, others their children or their wives, trying to recognize them by their voices. People bewailed their own fate or that of their relatives, and there were some who prayed for death in their terror of dying
John Schou
Italy- Rome- Forum Romanum and Palatino~0.jpg
Italy- Rome- Forum Romanum and Palatino34 viewsPalatine Hill
The Palatine Hill (Latin Palatium) is the centermost of the seven hills of Rome and is one of the most ancient parts of the city of Rome in Italy.

Legend tells us that Rome has its origins on the Palatine. Indeed, recent excavations show that people lived there since approximately 1000 BC. According to Roman mythology, the Palatine hill was where Romulus and Remus were found by the she-wolf that kept them alive. According to this legend, the shepherd Faustulus found the infants and, with his wife, Acca Larentia, raised the children. When they were older this is where Romulus decided to build Rome. (See Founding of Rome for a more detailed account of the myth.)

The emperors of Rome built their palaces on the Palatine. The ruins of the palaces of Caesar Augustus, Tiberius and Diocletianus are still to be seen. The term 'palace' itself stems from Palatium.

Palatine hill is some 70 meters high and looks down on one side upon the Forum Romanum and on the other side upon the Circus Maximus. The site is now a large open-air museum and can be visited during day time. The entrance can be found near the Arch of Titus on the Forum Romanum.

John Schou
Italy- Rome- The Palatino.jpg
Italy- Rome- The Palatino27 viewsPalatine Hill
The Palatine Hill (Latin Palatium) is the centermost of the seven hills of Rome and is one of the most ancient parts of the city of Rome in Italy.

Legend tells us that Rome has its origins on the Palatine. Indeed, recent excavations show that people lived there since approximately 1000 BC. According to Roman mythology, the Palatine hill was where Romulus and Remus were found by the she-wolf that kept them alive. According to this legend, the shepherd Faustulus found the infants and, with his wife, Acca Larentia, raised the children. When they were older this is where Romulus decided to build Rome. (See Founding of Rome for a more detailed account of the myth.)

The emperors of Rome built their palaces on the Palatine. The ruins of the palaces of Caesar Augustus, Tiberius and Diocletianus are still to be seen. The term 'palace' itself stems from Palatium.

Palatine hill is some 70 meters high and looks down on one side upon the Forum Romanum and on the other side upon the Circus Maximus. The site is now a large open-air museum and can be visited during day time. The entrance can be found near the Arch of Titus on the Forum Romanum.

John Schou
Italy- Rome- The Palatino and view of the 3 columns of the temple of the Castores~0.jpg
Italy- Rome- The Palatino and view of the 3 columns of the temple of the Castores27 viewsPalatine Hill
The Palatine Hill (Latin Palatium) is the centermost of the seven hills of Rome and is one of the most ancient parts of the city of Rome in Italy.

Legend tells us that Rome has its origins on the Palatine. Indeed, recent excavations show that people lived there since approximately 1000 BC. According to Roman mythology, the Palatine hill was where Romulus and Remus were found by the she-wolf that kept them alive. According to this legend, the shepherd Faustulus found the infants and, with his wife, Acca Larentia, raised the children. When they were older this is where Romulus decided to build Rome. (See Founding of Rome for a more detailed account of the myth.)

The emperors of Rome built their palaces on the Palatine. The ruins of the palaces of Caesar Augustus, Tiberius and Diocletianus are still to be seen. The term 'palace' itself stems from Palatium.

Palatine hill is some 70 meters high and looks down on one side upon the Forum Romanum and on the other side upon the Circus Maximus. The site is now a large open-air museum and can be visited during day time. The entrance can be found near the Arch of Titus on the Forum Romanum.

John Schou
Italy- Rome- The Palatino and view of the 3 columns of the temple of the Castores and view of the temple of Saturn.jpg
Italy- Rome- The Palatino and view of the 3 columns of the temple of the Castores and view of the temple of Saturn51 viewsPalatine Hill
The Palatine Hill (Latin Palatium) is the centermost of the seven hills of Rome and is one of the most ancient parts of the city of Rome in Italy.

Legend tells us that Rome has its origins on the Palatine. Indeed, recent excavations show that people lived there since approximately 1000 BC. According to Roman mythology, the Palatine hill was where Romulus and Remus were found by the she-wolf that kept them alive. According to this legend, the shepherd Faustulus found the infants and, with his wife, Acca Larentia, raised the children. When they were older this is where Romulus decided to build Rome. (See Founding of Rome for a more detailed account of the myth.)

The emperors of Rome built their palaces on the Palatine. The ruins of the palaces of Caesar Augustus, Tiberius and Diocletianus are still to be seen. The term 'palace' itself stems from Palatium.

Palatine hill is some 70 meters high and looks down on one side upon the Forum Romanum and on the other side upon the Circus Maximus. The site is now a large open-air museum and can be visited during day time. The entrance can be found near the Arch of Titus on the Forum Romanum.

John Schou
Italy- Rome- The Palatino and view of the Forum Romanum.jpg
Italy- Rome- The Palatino and view of the Forum Romanum24 viewsPalatine Hill
The Palatine Hill (Latin Palatium) is the centermost of the seven hills of Rome and is one of the most ancient parts of the city of Rome in Italy.

Legend tells us that Rome has its origins on the Palatine. Indeed, recent excavations show that people lived there since approximately 1000 BC. According to Roman mythology, the Palatine hill was where Romulus and Remus were found by the she-wolf that kept them alive. According to this legend, the shepherd Faustulus found the infants and, with his wife, Acca Larentia, raised the children. When they were older this is where Romulus decided to build Rome. (See Founding of Rome for a more detailed account of the myth.)

The emperors of Rome built their palaces on the Palatine. The ruins of the palaces of Caesar Augustus, Tiberius and Diocletianus are still to be seen. The term 'palace' itself stems from Palatium.

Palatine hill is some 70 meters high and looks down on one side upon the Forum Romanum and on the other side upon the Circus Maximus. The site is now a large open-air museum and can be visited during day time. The entrance can be found near the Arch of Titus on the Forum Romanum.

John Schou
JCT_Jewish_Lads_Brigade.jpg
Jewish Lads' Brigade3 viewsAE medal; 29.30 mm. diameter, 3.13 mm. thick, 0°

Obv.: Mounted officer inspecting rank of cadets, flag behind bearing Hebrew inscription, most likely, "They go from strength to strength" (the Brigade's motto, taken from the 84th Psalm).

Rev.: • THE • JEWISH • LADS’ • BRIGADE • / LEWIS • EMANUEL • MEDAL, around rim, large JLB within a laurel wreath in center.

Modelled on the Church Lads' and Church Girls' Brigade, the Jewish Lads’ Brigade was formed in 1895 by Colonel Albert E. W. Goldsmid, a British Jewish Army officer, to provide activities for children of the poor Jewish immigrants who flooded into the UK, predominantly from Eastern Europe. Girls were admitted to membership in the 1963 (as the Jewish Girls' Brigade) and in 1974 the JLB and JGB amalgamated to become the Jewish Lads’ and Girls’ Brigade.

The Lewis Emanuel Medal was given for at least four passes in the Proficiency Badge Scheme. This medal appears to have been struck without the bezel (the rim is smooth with no indication of filing) by which the medal hung from a ribbon when presented in the Proficiency Badge Scheme.
Stkp
year_4web.jpg
Jewish War, 66-70 AD, bronze 1/8 shekel 83 viewsBronze eighth denomination, 19 mm, 5.08 g, 69 - 70 A.D.
O: "To the redemption of Zion" in Hebrew, Omer cup with a pearled rim;
R: "Year four" in Hebrew, Lulav (myrtle, palm and willow branches tied together) flanked by an etrog (citron - small lemon like fruit) on both sides - Hendin 1369

During the fourth year of the Jewish War, the Romans had besieged the Jews in Jerusalem. There was a shortage of materials, and so, for the first time fractions of the shekel were minted in bronze. These are among the earliest examples of "siege money." Intended to pass as the equivalent in silver, they would have been redeemed for their face value at the end of a successful rebellion.

These siege pieces recall a time of despair and desperation in Jerusalem. Surrounded by Roman Legions under General Titus, intense starvation ravaged the city. Inhabitants were reduced to eating pieces of leather, belts and shoes. Josephus says that mothers even roasted and ate their own children. Simply having the appearance of good health implied a person was hiding food and would be reason enough to be murdered.
3 commentsNemonater
JubaII.jpg
Juba II & Cleopatra Selene90 viewsREX IVBA
Diademed and draped bust right, club over shoulder

BACIΛICCA KΛEOΠATPA
Headdress of Isis, with stalks of grain, crescent above

Caesarea mint, 25 B.C. - 24 A.D

12.62g

Bronze AE 27, Alexandropoulos 209, Mazard 351 (RRR), SNG Cop 605, De Luynes 4013

Very Rare! Excellent for the type!

From a very old collection


Juba II was the only son and heir of his father King Juba I. King Juba I was the King of Numidia and ally to Pompey the Great. He fought against Julius Caesar at the battle of Thapsus and lost commiting suicide soon after. His son Juba II was taken away to Rome to be paraded in Caesar's Triumph's. He was then raised in Caesar's houshold and educated in both Latin and Greek excelling in his studies. He was praised as one of Rome's most educated citizens and at age 20 even published a work entitled Roman Archaeology. He became life long friends with Julius Caesar's heir Octavian. He accompanied Octavian on several campaigns during the turbulent times after Caesar's death even fighting at the battle of Actium against his future wifes parents...Antony and Cleopatra VII.

Augustus restored Juba II as the king of Numidia between 29 BC-27 BC and Numidia become one of the most loyal client kings that served Rome. Between 26 BC-20 BC, Augustus arranged for him to marry Cleopatra Selene II (Daughter of Antony and Cleopatra) giving her a large dowry and appointing her queen. She also had been paraded in a Triumph in Rome after the battle of Actium. It was probably due to his services with Augustus in a campaign in Spain that led Augustus to make him King of Mauretania.

Cleopatra is said to have exerted considerable influence on Juba II's policies. Juba II encouraged and supported the performing arts, research of the sciences and research of natural history. Juba II also supported Mauretanian trade. Mauretania traded all over the Mediterranean and exported fish grapes, pearls, figs, grain, wooden furniture and purple dye harvested from certain shellfish, which was used in the manufacture of purple stripes for senatorial robes. Juba II sent a contingent to Iles Purpuraires to re-establish the ancient Phoenician dye manufacturing process.

Cleopatra Selene seems to have inherited the same qualities of both Antony and Cleopatra VII. She was strong willed and maintained her Egyptian/Greek heritage. She seems intent on continuing the Ptolomaic line of strong women rulers using the same titles as her mother. She died sometime before Juba II. The Greek Historian Plutarch describes Juba II as 'one of the most gifted rulers of his time'. Between 2 BC-2, he travelled with Gaius Caesar as a member of his advisory staff to the troubled Eastern Mediterranean. In 21, Juba II made his son Ptolemy co-ruler. Juba II died in 23 AD. He had two children by Cleopatra Selene, Ptolomy of Mauretania (1 BC- 40 AD) and Drusilla of Mauretania (born in 5 AD). He was burried in the Mausolium he constructed for himself and his wife which is still visible today.

Sold to Calgary Coin Feb 2017
1 commentsJay GT4
JubaCleo.jpg
Juba II & Cleopatra Selene daughter of Antony66 viewsJuba II of Mauretania and Cleopatra Selene

REX IVBA REGIS IVBA E F R A VI
Head of Juba II left.

BACIΛICCA KΛE - OΠATPA
Cleopatra Selene left

dated year 6 = 20-19 BC.

3.12g

Rare

Ex-D. Loates Fine Arts; Ex-William McDonald Collection; Ex-Geoffrey Bell 2012 Fall Auction lot 273

SNG Cop. 546 ; Mazard 357 ; Sear 6000 ; Müller III, 108, 87

Wildwinds example


Juba II was the only son and heir of his father King Juba I. King Juba I was the King of Numidia and ally to Pompey the Great. He fought against Julius Caesar at the battle of Thapsus and lost commiting suicide soon after. His son Juba II was taken away to Rome to be paraded in Caesar's Triumph's. He was then raised in Caesar's houshold and educated in both Latin and Greek excelling in his studies. He was praised as one of Rome's most educated citizens and at age 20 even published a work entitled Roman Archaeology. He became life long friends with Julius Caesar's heir Octavian. He accompanied Octavian on several campaigns during the turbulent times after Caesar's death even fighting at the battle of Actium against his future wifes parents...Antony and Cleopatra VII.

Augustus restored Juba II as the king of Numidia between 29 BC-27 BC and Numidia become one of the most loyal client kings that served Rome. Between 26 BC-20 BC, Augustus arranged for him to marry Cleopatra Selene II (Daughter of Antony and Cleopatra) giving her a large dowry and appointing her queen. She also had been paraded in a Triumph in Rome after the battle of Actium. It was probably due to his services with Augustus in a campaign in Spain that led Augustus to make him King of Mauretania.

Cleopatra is said to have exerted considerable influence on Juba II's policies. Juba II encouraged and supported the performing arts, research of the sciences and research of natural history. Juba II also supported Mauretanian trade. Mauretania traded all over the Mediterranean and exported fish grapes, pearls, figs, grain, wooden furniture and purple dye harvested from certain shellfish, which was used in the manufacture of purple stripes for senatorial robes. Juba II sent a contingent to Iles Purpuraires to re-establish the ancient Phoenician dye manufacturing process.

Cleopatra Selene seems to have inherited the same qualities of both Antony and Cleopatra VII. She was strong willed and maintained her Egyptian/Greek heritage. She seems intent on continuing the Ptolomaic line of strong women rulers using the same titles as her mother. She died sometime before Juba II. The Greek Historian Plutarch describes Juba II as 'one of the most gifted rulers of his time'. Between 2 BC-2, he travelled with Gaius Caesar as a member of his advisory staff to the troubled Eastern Mediterranean. In 21, Juba II made his son Ptolemy co-ruler. Juba II died in 23 AD. He had two children by Cleopatra Selene, Ptolomy of Mauretania (1 BC- 40 AD) and Drusilla of Mauretania (born in 5 AD). He was burried in the Mausolium he constructed for himself and his wife which is still visible today. A partial inscription attributed to her reads:

The moon herself grew dark, rising at sunset,
Covering her suffering in the night,
Because she saw her beautiful namesake, Selene,
Breathless, descending to Hades,
With her she had had the beauty of her light in common,
And mingled her own darkness with her death
Jay GT4
Juba_II.jpg
Juba II and Cleopatra Selene220 viewsREX IVBA
Diademed head right

BACIΛICCA KΛEOΠATPA
Star and crescent.

Caesarea; 25 B.C.-23 A.D
17 mm, 2.62 gm

MAA 85; SNG Copenhagen 590; Mazard 300.
VF, toned
Scarce

Ex-ANE

Juba II was the only son and heir of his father King Juba I. King Juba I was the King of Numidia and ally to Pompey the Great. He fought against Julius Caesar at the battle of Thapsus and lost commiting suicide soon after. His son Juba II was taken away to Rome to be paraded in Caesar's Triumph's. He was then raised in Caesar's houshold and educated in both Latin and Greek excelling in his studies. He was praised as one of Rome's most educated citizens and at age 20 even published a work entitled Roman Archaeology. He became life long friends with Julius Caesar's heir Octavian. He accompanied Octavian on several campaigns during the turbulent times after Caesar's death even fighting at the battle of Actium against his future wifes parents...Antony and Cleopatra VII.

Augustus restored Juba II as the king of Numidia between 29 BC-27 BC and Numidia become one of the most loyal client kings that served Rome. Between 26 BC-20 BC, Augustus arranged for him to marry Cleopatra Selene II (daughter of Antony and Cleopatra) giving her a large dowry and appointing her queen. She also had been paraded in a Triumph in Rome after the battle of Actium. It was probably due to his services with Augustus in a campaign in Spain that led Augustus to make him King of Mauretania.

Cleopatra is said to have exerted considerable influence on Juba II's policies. Juba II encouraged and supported the performing arts, research of the sciences and research of natural history. Juba II also supported Mauretanian trade. Mauretania traded all over the Mediterranean and exported fish grapes, pearls, figs, grain, wooden furniture and purple dye harvested from certain shellfish, which was used in the manufacture of purple stripes for senatorial robes. Juba II sent a contingent to Iles Purpuraires to re-establish the ancient Phoenician dye manufacturing process.

Cleopatra Selene seems to have inherited the same qualities of both Antony and Cleopatra VII. She was strong willed and maintained her Egyptian/Greek heritage. She seems intent on continuing the Ptolomaic line of strong women rulers using the same titles as her mother. She died sometime before Juba II. The Greek Historian Plutarch describes Juba II as 'one of the most gifted rulers of his time'. Between 2 BC-2, he travelled with Gaius Caesar as a member of his advisory staff to the troubled Eastern Mediterranean. In 21, Juba II made his son Ptolemy co-ruler. Juba II died in 23 AD. He had two children by Cleopatra Selene, Ptolomy of Mauretania (1 BC- 40 AD) and Drusilla of Mauretania (born in 5 AD). He was burried in the Mausolium he constructed for himself and his wife which is still visible today.
6 commentsJay GT4
Jubaselene.jpg
Juba II and Cleopatra Selene85 viewsJuba II of Mauretania and Cleopatra Selene

REX IVBA REGIS IVBA E F R A VI
Head of Juba II left.

BACIΛICCA KΛE - OΠATPA
Cleopatra Selene left

dated year 6 = 20-19 BC.

3.12g

Rare

Ex-William McDonald Collection

SNG Cop. 546 ; Mazard 357 ; Sear 6000 ; Müller III, 108, 87

Wildwinds example


Juba II was the only son and heir of his father King Juba I. King Juba I was the King of Numidia and ally to Pompey the Great. He fought against Julius Caesar at the battle of Thapsus and lost commiting suicide soon after. His son Juba II was taken away to Rome to be paraded in Caesar's Triumph's. He was then raised in Caesar's houshold and educated in both Latin and Greek excelling in his studies. He was praised as one of Rome's most educated citizens and at age 20 even published a work entitled Roman Archaeology. He became life long friends with Julius Caesar's heir Octavian. He accompanied Octavian on several campaigns during the turbulent times after Caesar's death even fighting at the battle of Actium against his future wifes parents...Antony and Cleopatra VII.

Augustus restored Juba II as the king of Numidia between 29 BC-27 BC and Numidia become one of the most loyal client kings that served Rome. Between 26 BC-20 BC, Augustus arranged for him to marry Cleopatra Selene II (Daughter of Antony and Cleopatra) giving her a large dowry and appointing her queen. She also had been paraded in a Triumph in Rome after the battle of Actium. It was probably due to his services with Augustus in a campaign in Spain that led Augustus to make him King of Mauretania.

Cleopatra is said to have exerted considerable influence on Juba II's policies. Juba II encouraged and supported the performing arts, research of the sciences and research of natural history. Juba II also supported Mauretanian trade. Mauretania traded all over the Mediterranean and exported fish grapes, pearls, figs, grain, wooden furniture and purple dye harvested from certain shellfish, which was used in the manufacture of purple stripes for senatorial robes. Juba II sent a contingent to Iles Purpuraires to re-establish the ancient Phoenician dye manufacturing process.

Cleopatra Selene seems to have inherited the same qualities of both Antony and Cleopatra VII. She was strong willed and maintained her Egyptian/Greek heritage. She seems intent on continuing the Ptolomaic line of strong women rulers using the same titles as her mother. She died sometime before Juba II. The Greek Historian Plutarch describes Juba II as 'one of the most gifted rulers of his time'. Between 2 BC-2, he travelled with Gaius Caesar as a member of his advisory staff to the troubled Eastern Mediterranean. In 21, Juba II made his son Ptolemy co-ruler. Juba II died in 23 AD. He had two children by Cleopatra Selene, Ptolomy of Mauretania (1 BC- 40 AD) and Drusilla of Mauretania (born in 5 AD). He was burried in the Mausolium he constructed for himself and his wife which is still visible today. A partial inscription attributed to her reads:

The moon herself grew dark, rising at sunset,
Covering her suffering in the night,
Because she saw her beautiful namesake, Selene,
Breathless, descending to Hades,
With her she had had the beauty of her light in common,
And mingled her own darkness with her death.
2 commentsJay GT4
image~19.jpg
Julia Domna39 viewsJulia Domna. Augusta, AD 193-217. Æ As (27mm, 9.59 g, 11h). Rome mint. Struck under Caracalla, circa AD 214. Diademed and draped bust right / Four Vestal Virgins sacrificing over altar in front of the Temple of Vesta. RIC IV 607a (Caracalla). Near VF, dark green patina with light earthen highlights and touches of red, a few cleaning marks.

During the last five years of her life, following the murder of her younger son Geta in AD 212, Julia Domna virtually ran the government while Caracalla embarked on various military adventures. The emperor was much troubled by illness throughout his sole reign. On his way to the Parthian War in AD 214, he even visited the great shrine of Aesculapius at Pergamum in the hopes of finding a cure, an occasion marked by the striking of a remarkable series of medallic bronzes at the city.

This rare and attractive As of Julia Domna, issued at Rome in AD 214, is on the same theme and records vows for the health of Caracalla undertaken by the Vestal Virgins in a ceremony before the Temple of Vesta. The four Vestals are accompanied by two children and the sanctuary itself appears as a small domed structure in the background. Over the centuries no fewer than seven temples of Vesta occupied the site in the Forum at the northern corner of the house of Vestals. Most were the victims of fire, the sixth temple having been destroyed late in the reign of Commodus (AD 191). Julia Domna herself built the seventh, and the partially reconstructed ruins of this building are still to be seen today.

Description from CNG
1 commentsecoli
jd1.jpg
Julia Domna 193-211 denarius31 viewsOb. IULIA AVGVSTA Draped bust right
Rev. HILARITAS Hilaritas standing left, holding long palm and scepter
Ref. RIC 555, RSC 76, BMC 32
Rome Mint

IULIA AVGVSTA Julia is your Emperess
HILARITAS Joy to you all

Hilaritas is the personnification of happiness or rejoicing. She is usually seen with a long palm frond and either a sceptre or cornucopia. Sometimes seen with children especially if there has been a recent imperial birth

-:Bacchus:-
Bacchus
domna557.jpg
Julia Domna AR Denarius33 viewsJulia Domna (Augusta)
AR Denarius 2.74g / 19mm / -
IVLIA AVGVSTA - Draped bust right
HILA-RITAS - Hilaritas standing left, holding palm and cornucopiae; two children flanking
Mint: Rome (196-211 AD)
References: RIC 557; BMC 34; RSC 79
Scotvs Capitis
Julia_Domna_Denarius_Hilaritas.jpg
Julia Domna Denarius Hilaritas28 viewsObv.
JVLIA AVGVSTA
Draped bust right

Rev.
HILARITAS
Hilaritas standing left with palm & cornucopiae, children to either side of her

1 commentsancientdave
julia_domna_557.jpg
Julia Domna RIC IV, 55744 viewsJulia Domna, died AD 217(?), wife of Septimius Severus
AV - denarius, 3.38g, 21.3mm
Rome AD 196-211
obv. IVLIA AVGVSTA
draped bust right, hair in five waves with big knot at back
rev. HILARITAS
Hilaritas standing l. between two children (Caracalla and Geta?), holding
palm frond and cornucopiae
RIC IV/1, (Septimius Severus) 557; C.79
choice EF
from Forum Ancient Coins, thanks!

HILARITAS, Rejoicing. The word hilarity, with its associations of mirth, should be avoided as a translation (J. Melville Jones)
Jochen
DOMNA-13.JPG
Julia Domna, wife of Septimius Severus, Augusta, 193-217 CE.256 viewsAR Denarius (3.24g, 20.0mm), Rome mint, 207 CE.
Obv: IVLIA AVGVSTA, draped bust right.
Rev: FECVNDITAS, Terra reclining left under tree, left arm on basket of fruits, right hand set on globe, spangled with stars, in background four children representing the four Seasons.
RIC 549, RSC 35, BMC 21, Sear 6579.

Ex FORVM Ancient coins.
1 commentsEmpressCollector
LUCILLA-2.jpg
Juno Lucina, the protectress of midwives and childbirth.288 viewsLucilla, wife of Lucius Verus, sister of Commodus. Augusta, 164-182/3 CE.
AR denarius (18mm, 3.24g), Rome mint, 166 CE.
Obv: LVCILLAE AVG ANTONINI AVG F, Bare-headed and draped bust right.
Rev: IVNONI LVCINAE, Juno standing. l., holding baby in swaddling clothes in left arm.
RIC-771, Sear-5485, BMC-313, Cohen-38.

Lucina is the Roman name for the Greek goddess, Eileithyia, who was the protectress of midwives and who assisted during birth. She was later identified with Hera or Artemis. On Roman coins, Lucina is identified as an aspect of the goddess Juno associated with light and childbirth, during which she eased the pain and made sure all went well. Coins portraying Lucina may commemorate a birth in the Imperial family or that the help of the goddess had been invoked. She is usually portrayed with or holding children. A variety of objects may accompany her, sometimes a patera and scepter--attributes of Juno--or more commonly, a flower.
1 commentsEmpressCollector
Laos_Scott-C87.jpg
Laos: ໑໒໕ ₭ / 125 ₭ International Book Year, issued January 30, 1972 (Scott-C87)10 viewsFather teaching children to read palm leaf book, engraved by Claude Jumelet (1946- )SpongeBob
Laos_Scott-226.jpg
Laos: ໓໐ ₭ / 30 ₭ International Book Year, issued January 30, 1972 (Scott-226)5 viewsChildren learning to read, engraved by Jean Miermont (1915-1973)SpongeBob
48327q00.jpg
Lucilla (164 - 182 A.D.)57 viewsAR Denarius
O: LVCILLAE AVG ANTONINI AVG F, draped bust right.
R: IVNONI LVCINAE, Juno Lucina standing facing, head left, extending right, infant in left.
Rome
3.07g
18.9mm
RIC III 771, RSC II 38

Originally the goddess of childbirth, Lucina later became an epithet for Juno as “the one who brings children into the light.” The line, “Juno Lucina, fer opem, serva me, obsecro,” (Juno Lucina, help me and give me strength, I beg of you) written by the Roman playwright Terence in Andria, exemplifies the custom for expectant mothers to address their prayers unto her.
2 commentsMat
Lucilla.jpg
Lucilla, Daughter of Marcus Aurelius25 viewsLucilla was the daughter of Marcus Aurelius and Faustina II and was born in 149 A.D. She was married to the co-emperor Lucius Verus in 164 A.D. and bore him several children. She was exiled and then executed after being implicated in a conspiracy to assassinate her brother Commodus in 182 A.D.

Silver denarius, RIC M. Aur. 758, S 5479, BM 306, RSC 6a, aVF, Rome mint, 3.324g, 18.8mm, 0o, 164 - 166 A.D.; obverse LVCILLA AVG ANTONINI AVG F, draped bust right; reverse CONCORDIA, Concordia seated left, patera in extended right, resting left elbow on small statue of Spes
Dumanyu2
MarAurFaustinaCombo2.jpg
MAFJ4 Parents in an Age of Poor Medicine14 viewsMarcus Aurelius as Caesar
Denarius
157-158

Bare head right, right, AVRELIVS CAES ANTON AVG P II F
Felicitas leaning on column left, holding caduceus and sceptre, TR POT X COS II

RIC 475a

Faustina II
Denarius

Draped bust right, stephane around head, FAVSTINAE AVG PII AVG FIL
Venus standing left, holding apple and dolphin-enwined rudder, VENVS

RIC 517b

Marcus is about 37 years old and has grown a beard. Faustina has born seven children, including Lucilla, who would one day marry Lucius Verus. Over half of her children have died. Her portrait seems to reveal a woman approaching middle age in privilege but sadness.
Blindado
MarAurFaustinaCombo3.jpg
MAFJ5 Emperor and Empress18 viewsMarcus Aurelius
Sestertius
Dec 162-Autumn 163

Sestertius
Laureate head, right, IMP CAES M AVREL ANTONINVS AVG PM
Salus stg, SALVTI AVGVSTOR TR P XVII COS III SC

RIC 843

Faustina II
Denarius

Draped bust right, hair in a bun behind, FAVSTINA AVGVSTA
Fecundity (Faustina) standing left between two children, holding two more in arms, FECVND AVGVSTAE

RIC 676

The sestertius portrays Marcus within two years of his elevation to emperor in 161. Faustina's denarius, although undated in RIC, probably is from the same timeframe and presumably depicts the young girls Annia Aurelia Galeria Faustina and Annia Aurelia Galeria Lucilla, and the twin babies Titus Aurelius Fulvus Antoninus and Lucius Aurelius Commodus Antoninus (Commodus). Her portrait has taken on a more matronly air.
Blindado
LVerusAsTrophies~0.jpg
MAFJ6 Brother and Emperor6 viewsLucius Verus

As
166-167

Laureate head, right, L VERVS AVG ARM PARTH MAX
3 trophies, TR P VII IMP III[I] COS III

RIC 1464

Son of Aelius Caesar and adopted son of Antoninus Pius, Marcus Aurelius elevated his adoptive brother to co-ruler in 161. At that time, according to the Historia Augusta, "To Lucius, legally his brother, he betrothed his daughter Lucilla. In honor of this union, they gave orders that new institutions of boys and girls, named after them, should be added to the state child-welfare scheme."

The Parthians launched an attack against Roman Syria that it had planned before the death of Pius, and Marcus, with the agreement of the Senate, dispatched Lucius to deal with the crisis. According to the Historia Augusta, "Verus, of course, after he arrived in Syria, lived in luxury at Antioch and Daphne, although he was acclaimed imperator while waging the Parthian war through legates." This coin's reverse honors his military victory over the Parthians in 165.

When Lucius returned to Rome, according to the Historia Augusta, "Lucius requested that Marcus should triumph with him. Lucius requested further that the sons [Commodus and M. Annius Verus] of Marcus should be called Caesars. But Marcus had such great moderation that, although he triumphed together with Lucius, yet after Lucius' death he called himself Germanicus only, because he had won that name for himself in his own war. At the triumph, moreover, they let Marcus' children of both sexes ride with them, even the unmarried girls." A family affair!
Blindado
FaustinaIIAsJuno~0.jpg
MAFJa1 Separation20 viewsFaustina II

As

Draped bust, left, FAVSTINA AVG PII AVG FIL
Juno seated left holding the three graces and scepter, peacock at feet, IVNO SC

The reverse is RIC 1400, for which only right-facing busts are listed.

Faustina was to spend years apart from her husband and probably traumatized as a mother shortly before his departure. The Historia Augusta records, "When about the set off for the German war. . . [Marcus] gave his daughter [Annia Aurelia Galeria Faustina] to [Gnaeus] Claudius [Severus, a Roman Senator from Pompeiopolis], a [man] of advanced age, son of a Roman knight and not of sufficiently noble family (subsequently [Marcus] made him Consul twice)--since his daughter was an Augusta and the daughter of an Augusta. But both Faustina and the girl who was being given in marriage regarded this wedding with reluctance. . . . Just before the day of his actual departure, [Marcus] lost his seven-year-old son, Verus Caesar by name, after an operation on a tumor under the ear. He mourned him for no more than five days, and after comforting the doctors returned to the affairs of state." How long, one wonders, did Faustina mourn?

According to the Historia Augusta, which at many points tends toward salacious gossip, "it is reasonably well known that Faustina chose both sailors and gladiators as paramours for herself at Caieta [where the couple spent several years after their marriage]. When Marcus was told about her, so that he might divorce her--if not execute her--he is reported to have said, "If we send our wife away, we must give back her dowry, too--and what dowry did he have but the empire. . . ?" During the German war, the text alleges, Faustina took pantomimists as lovers.

Whether or not the rumors had any basis in fact, Marcus thought highly of his wife and family situation. In his first meditation, he thanks the gods that "I have such a wife, so obedient, and so affectionate, and so simple; that I had abundance of good masters for my children." Perhaps the word from the horse's mouth is a better source than a history written more than a century later.

At some point, Marcus apparently saw the light, and Faustina joined him at the frontier. The Historia Augusta relates, "He had her with him even in the campaigning season, and [after her death] for this reason he gave her the title 'Mother of the Camp.'"
Blindado
DivaFaustinaMoonStars.jpg
MAFJa2 Death of Faustina13 viewsFaustina

As

Draped bust right, hair waved, DIVA FAVSTINA PIA
Crescent moon and seven stars, SC in emerge

RIC 1714

In 175, Avidius Cassus, a loyal general in the East, declared himself emperor. According to the Historia Augusta, "Some say at the wish of Faustina, who was in despair about her husband's health [the implication being she did not want Commodus to take the purple]. Others say that Cassius called himself emperor when a report of the death of Antoninus had been fabricated--since he called Marcus 'the deified.'" When it became clear Marcus lived on, Cassius' own troops killed him.

Marcus set off to inspect the East with Faustina and Commodus accompanying him. The Historia Augusta relates, "He lost [in 176] his own Faustina, who expired at the onset of a sudden illness in the foothills of Mount Taurus, in the village of Halala. He requested that the Senate decree honors and a temple for Faustina, and likewise praised her. . . . He established new Faustinian girls in honor of his dead wife, and rendered thanks that she had been deified as well, by the Senate. . . . He also made the village where Faustina died a colony and built her a temple. . . . Fabia [sister of Lucius Verus] strove to be united in marriage when Faustina was dead, but he took as a concubine the daughter of a procurator of his wife, so as not to put a step-mother over so many children."
Blindado
marcus_aurelius_02.jpg
Marcus Aurelius AE Sestertius21 viewsObv: AVRELIVS CAESAR AVG PII F - Bust of Marcus Aurelius, with drapery on left shoulder, front and back, head, bare, right.
Rev: TR POT XV COS III - Pietas, draped, standing front, head left, holding child in each arm: to left and right, at her feet, a small girl standing, each raising right arm; S C across field.
Mint: Rome
Date: 161 AD
Ref: RIC III 1359b
oa
YHWH.jpg
Maria Di Medici Jeton52 viewsMARIA. D. GR. FRANC. AND. NAVA. REG, 16 NB 08 in exergue.
Coat of arms half of France and quartered of Medici, and of Austria, surrounded by a crown half of laurel and half of palm

SERVAT DATAM 1608 in exergue
Two intertwined hands as a sign of trust between a palm and an olive branch. Above, the name JEHOVAH in Hebrew (YHWH) , whose rays penetrate dense clouds.

5.24g, 28mm

"Mary of God's Grace Queen of France and Navarre"

"He protects those who trust him."

Maria was born at the Palazzo Pitti of Florence, Italy, the sixth daughter of Francesco I de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany, and Archduchess Joanna of Austria. Marie was one of seven children, but only she and her sister Eleonora survived to adulthood.

Maria is not a male-line descendant of Lorenzo the Magnificent but from Lorenzo the Elder, a branch of the Medici family referred to as the 'cadet' branch. She does descend from Lorenzo in the female-line however, through his daughter Lucrezia de' Medici. Nonetheless this 'cadet' branch produced every Grand Duke of Tuscany from 1537 to 1737, and the kings of France from Louis XIII in 1601 to Louis XVI in 1793.

She married Henry IV of France in October 1600 following the annulment of his marriage to Margaret of Valois. The wedding ceremony in Florence, Italy (to which Henry did not turn up, marrying her by proxy) was celebrated with 4,000 guests and lavish entertainments. She brought as part of her dowry 600,000 crowns. Her eldest son, the future King Louis XIII, was born at Fontainebleau the following year.

Maria was crowned Queen of France on 13 May 1610, a day before her husband's death. Hours after Henry's assassination, she was confirmed as regent by the Parliament of Paris. She immediately banished his mistress, Catherine Henriette de Balzac, from the court.

Her daughter, Henrietta Maria was queen consort of England, Scotland, and Ireland as the wife of King Charles I. Henrietta Maria, in turn, was mother of two immediate successors, Charles II and James II.
2 commentsJay GT4
Maroneia_Slavey.jpg
Maroneia, cf. Schoenert-Geiss 995 var., Slavey fake!33 viewsThis fake made by the Bulgarian Slavey (forgerynetwork and FAC fake reports) imitates the Dionysos tetradrachm from Maroneia Schönert-Geiss 995 var.
Pat Lawrence: Interestingly, the "look alike" mistake, common in children beginning to learn the 2nd and 3rd declensions in Latin, is not common on ancient coins, in either Greek or Latin. That is, when I saw sôtêros with Dionysos, as if both ending in -os were agreement, when the usual legend recognizes that sôtêros is genitive case, the possibility of its being a MODERN mistake at once came to mind.

Jochen
Probus_-_Mars_Pacif.jpg
Marti Pacifero54 viewsObv. PROBVS AVG, radiate and cuirassed bust right,
Rev. MARTI PACIF, armoured and helmeted mars advancing left, holding olive twig in right, spear and shield in left, cape billowing behind, RQ{Gamma} in exergue,
Rome Mint, AD 282,
20 mm, 3,43 gr
Refs. RIC 177

Historia Augusta 16: "post haec Illyricum petiit. priusquam veniret, Raetias sic pacatas reliquit ut illic ne suspicionem quidem ullius terroris relinqueret. in Illyrico Sarmatos ceterasque gentes ita contudit ut prope sine bello cuncta reciperet quae illi diripuerant. tetendit deinde iter per Thracias atque omnes Geticos populos fama rerum territos et antiqui nominis potentia pressos aut in deditionem aut in amicitiam recepit. his gestis orientem petiit atque itinere potentissimo quodam latrone Palfuerio capto et interfecto omnem Isauriam liberavit, populis atque urbibus Romanis legibus restitutis. barbarorum, qui apud Isauros sunt, vel per terrorem vel urbanitatem loca ingressus est. (...) veteranis omnia illa quae anguste adeuntur loca privata donavit, addens ut eorum filii ab anno octavo decimo, mares dumtaxat, ad militiam mitterentur, ne latrocinare umquam discerent." - [20]causae occidendi eius haec fuerunt: primum quod numquam militem otiosum esse perpessus est, si quidem multa opera militari manu perfecit, dicens annonam gratuitam militem comedere non debere.

"After this he set out for Illyricum, but before going thither he left Raetia in so peaceful a state that there remained therein not even any suspicion of fear. In Illyricum he so crushed the Sarmatians and other tribes that almost without any war at all he got back all they had ravaged. He then directed his march through Thrace, and received in either surrender or friendship all the tribes of the Getae, rightened by the repute of his deeds and brought to submission by the power of his ancient fame. This done, he set out for the East, and while on his march he captured and killed a most powerful brigand, named Palfuerius, and so set free the whole of Isauria and restored the laws of Rome to the tribes and the cities. By fear or favour he entered the places held by the barbarians living among the Isaurians, (...) And so all those places which were difficult of access he gave to his veterans as their own private holdings, attaching thereto the condition that their children, that is, the males only, should be sent to the army at the age of eighteen, in order that they never might learn to be brigands." - "The causes of his murder were these: first of all, he never permitted a soldier to be idle, for he built many works by means of their labour, saying that a soldier should eat no bread that was not earned"
Syltorian
MatiSe01-3~0.jpg
Matidia, niece of Trajan, mother of Sabina175 viewsÆ Sestertius (25.51g, Ø35mm, 6h), Rome mint. Struck AD 113-117.
MATIDIA AVG DIVAE MARCIANAE F, draped diademed bust of Matidia facing right.
PIETAS AVGST (around) S C (in ex.), Pietas standing left, placing her hands on the heads of two children.
RIC (Trajan) 761 [R3]; Cohen 11 (350 Fr.); Foss (Roman Historical Coins) 107:112
ex Ibercoins, Madrid

Matidia was the daughter of Trajan's sister Marciana and thus niece of Trajan, born about AD 68. She assumed the title of Augusta upon the death of her mother in 112. On reverse, Matidia, as Pietas, with her daughters Matidia the younger and Sabina, future wife of Hadrian. After her death in 119, a temple was dedicated to her on the forum of Trajan.
3 commentsCharles S
Maximian_5162_elpis_10.jpg
Maximianus, Elpis, year 10; Milne 516219 viewsMaximianus, 285 - 310 A.D., Roman Provincial Egypt. Billon tetradrachm, Milne 5162, BMC Alexandria 2559, Curtis -, Geissen -, SNG Cop -, VF, Alexandria mint, 7.771g, 20.3mm, 0o, 29 Aug 294 - 28 Aug 295; obverse “ΜΑΞΙΜΙ−ΑΝΟ”C C“ΕΒ”, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse , Elpis standing left, flower in right, raising drapery with left, star behind, L - I (year 10) across fields; scarce. Among the last issues of the provincial mint of Alexandria! Elpis personified hope for good harvests, and for children, and was invoked at births, marriages, and other important times. Ex FORVMPodiceps
Claudius_and_Messalina.jpg
Messalina23 viewsClaudius & Valeria Messalina, Tetradrachm
Struck at Alexandria in Egypt in regnal year 1 (A.D. 41/2).
Obv: TI KΛAΩΔI KAIΣ ΣEBA ΓEPMANI AYTOKP, laureate head of Claudius right,
Rev: MEΣΣAΛI-NA KAIΣ ΣEBAΣ, Messalina standing facing, head left, leaning on draped column,
holding figures of two children (Octavia and Britannicus) in extended right hand and cradling two grain ears in left arm.
25 mm 13.21gm.
RPC I 5113.
1 commentsMarsman
CLAUDIUS-1.jpg
Messalina (Valeria), third wife of Claudius. Augusta, 41-48 CE.543 viewsAlexandria, Egypt.
Billon Tetradrachm (24 mm, 10.32 g).
Year 6=AD 45/46.
Obv: TI KLAUDI KAIS SEBA GERMANI AUTOKR, Laureate head of Claudius, right, Ls (=year 6) before.
Rev: MESSALINA KAIS SEBAS, Messalina standing, left, veiled and wearing long chiton and peplos, resting l. elbow on column, holding in the r. hand two figures (their children, Octavia and Britannicus), on her l. arm are two stalks of corn; in lower l. field, a lituus. Sear 1869; SGI 495; RPC 5164; BMCG 75; Cologne 88; Milne 106.
1 commentsEmpressCollector
MilitaryDiploma.jpg
Military Diploma fragment issued by Severus Alexander149 viewsDated by line 3 to 229-230, 233-235: COS III, preceded by II, the last two digits of the TRIB POT number. He became COS III in 229, and remained this until his death in 235, so the possible years are 229 (TRIB POT VIII), 230 (VIIII), 233 (XII), 234 (XIII) and 235 (XIIII). (78x54 mm)

... M]AGNI II FIL
“Son of Magnus Pius”
... ALEXAN]DER PIVS FELIX AVG
“Alexander Pius Felix Augustus”
... TRIB POT?]II COS III P P
“In the ? year of Tribunician and Conul power, Pater Patriae”
... MI]LITAVERVNT IN
“Who served in”
... SE]VERIANIS DECEM
“Ten Severan”
... ] PIIS VINDICIBVS
“Loyal and Avenging”
... MILI]TIA FVNCTI SVNT
“Performed their military function”
... ] CVM SINGV
“With one”
?LIS ... ETIA]M SI PEREGRI
“Even if foreign”
NI IVRIS ... ] ...

"The underlined portions being the words that are visible on the fragment:

'The Emperor Caesar, son of the deified Antoninus Pius the Great [i.e. 'Caracalla'], grandson of Severus Pius [i.e. Septimius Severus], Marcus Aurellius [thus usually written] Severus Alexander Pius Felix ['happy'] Augustus, Pontifex Maximus, in the [...]IIth year of his Tribunician Power, Consul three times [i.e. 229 or later: see above], Father of his Country. The names of the soldiers who have served in the ten Severan Praetorian Cohorts (numbered) 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, Pius Vindex ['dutiful, avenging'], who have dutifully and bravely completed their service, (to them) I have granted the right of Roman marriage, provided it is with one woman only and she their first wife, so that even if they marry women of non-Roman status ...'" - Great thanks to the Classics Faculty in Oxford.

After serving twenty-five years in the Roman auxiliary units, a soldier was granted Roman citizenship as well as the legalization of his existing or future marriage. This was of relevance for his children who thus became Roman citizens and his full legal heirs under Roman law. His wife was not granted Roman citizenship. A diploma, copied from an original posted in Rome , served as evidence of these civic rights and no doubt was preserved as an important legal document by its recipient and his descendants.

Why have so few diplomas survived to the present? Is it possible that veterans received copies in wood, papyrus or bronze depending on what the could afford? Or perhaps only a select few received the small bronze copies of the public imperial constitutions? Whichever the case, far more questions surround these pieces than answers!

The old Praetorian Guard was disbanded by Septimius Severus after he seized Rome in 193 A.D., and was replaced by a new Guard of ten cohorts, each 1000-men strong, drawn from the Danubian legions which had supported his usurpation. It continued to be largely recruited from this source, with many Guardsmen being of Thracian origin, until it was finally disbanded by Constantine in 312 A.D.
4 commentsNemonater
CGallus.jpg
Nero / Caius Cestius Gallus70 viewsSELEUCIS and PIERIA, Antioch. Nero. AD 54-68. Æ As (30.5mm, 15.36 g, 12h).
Caius Cestius Gallus, legatus Syriae. Dated year 115 of the Caesarean Era (AD 66/7).
O: Laureate head right; coiled serpent to right. IM • NER • CLAV • CAESAR
R: ЄΠI ΓAIOY KЄCTIO Y ΛNTIO ЄT • ЄIP in five lines within wreath (In the magistracy of Gaius Cestius, Antioch, year 115)
- McAlee 294 = Superior, (9 December 1989), lot 2827 (same dies); RPC I – Extremely rare, the second known.

Josephus lays much of the blame for the Jewish revolt at the feet of Florus, the Roman procurator of Judaea. Florus was notorious for his cruelty and greed. In 66 C.E. he demanded 17 talents from the temple treasury, using the pretense that it was needed by the Emperor. The Jews refused, ridiculing his request by taking up a mock collection for the “poor Florus.”

Florus responded by sending troops to loot and pillage the Upper-Marketplace in Jerusalem. Thousands of Jews were killed, including woman and children. Rather than bringing the city under control, Josephus reasons, “What more need be said? It was Florus who constrained us to take up war with the Romans, for we preferred to perish together rather than by degrees. The war in fact began in the second year of the procuratorship of Florus and in the twelfth of Nero's reign.”

The Sicarii, or “dagger-men,” took the fortress of Masada and killed the Roman garrison stationed there, establishing the first rebel stronghold. The fortress of Antonia was also captured and the Roman soldiers stationed there were slain. The remaining Roman holdouts surrendered under the agreement that their lives would be spared but they too were slaughtered. At the same time, the daily sacrifices for the Emperor were discontinued. A mixture of elation and fear gripped Jerusalem as they awaited the inevitable Roman response.

Gaius Cestius Gallus, Legate of Syria in 66 C.E., was the response. On Nero’s order, he assembled a force at Antioch comprised of legio XII Fulminata, detachments from the three other legions based in Syria, six cohorts of auxiliary infantry and four alae of cavalry. He also had military support from the Jewish ruler Herod Agrippa II and two other client kings, Antiochus IV of Commagene and Sohaemus of Emesa.

Within three months Gallus, with his force of over 30,000 troops, began working their way down from Galilee to Jerusalem, attacking key cities such as Chabulon, Joppa and Antipatris. Although enduring successful raids from the rebels, the Romans finally enter and set fire to the suburbs of Jerusalem as the rebels retreated to the safety of the temple fortress.

After setting fire to Bezetha, north of the temple, Gallus encamped in front of the royal palace, southwest of the temple. At that time, Josephus says he could have easily taken the city since pro-Roman Jews were ready to open the gates of the city for him. A six day delay, however, strengthened the insurgents. The zealots attacked and killed the pro-peace faction in the city, murdering their leaders, then assaulted the Romans from the wall. The advance units of the Romans employ the Testudo, overlapping their shields over themselves like the back of a tortoise, and began undermining the walls. After five days they are on the verge of success when, for an undetermined cause, Gallus called off the attack. In History of the Jews, Professor Heinrich Graetz suggests: “[Cestius Gallus] did not deem it advisable to continue the combat against heroic enthusiasts and embark on a lengthy campaign at that season, when the autumn rains would soon commence . . . and might prevent the army from receiving provisions. On that account probably he thought it more prudent to retrace his steps.” Whatever the reason, Gallus decided to abruptly leave Jerusalem.

Gallus, with evidently little battlefield experience, suffered one humiliating defeat after another during the retreat. By the battles end the losses amounted to 5,300 infantry, 480 cavalry, all the pack animals, artillery and the eagle standard of the legio XII Fulminata. With the rebels emboldened by their shocking victory, the stage is set for the Romans to return in greater force. This time, however, Nero would send general Vespasian.

Cestius Gallus died a broken man in 67 C.E. Tacitus described the outbreak of the revolt to Gallus death as follows: “the endurance of the Jews lasted till Gessius Florus was procurator. In his time the war broke out. Cestius Gallus, legate of Syria, who attempted to crush it, had to fight several battles, generally with ill-success. Cestius dying, either in the course of nature, or from vexation.” - The Histories V
4 commentsNemonater
[901a]_NervaAntiochAE26.jpg
Nerva, 18 September 96 - 25 January 98 A.D., Antioch, Syria195 viewsBronze AE 26, BMC Syria, p. 182, 261, aVF, Antioch mint, weight 13.524g, maximum diameter 25.0mm, die axis 0o, Jan - Sep 97 A.D.; Obverse: IMP CAESAR NERVA AVG III COS, laureate head right; Reverse: large S C in wreath, D below; unbelievable portrait. Ex FORVM. Photo courtesy FORVM.

De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families
Nerva (96-98 A.D.)

David Wend

Introduction
Although short, the reign of Marcus Cocceius Nerva (A.D. 96-98) is pivotal. The first of Edward Gibbon's so-called "Five Good Emperors," Nerva is credited with beginning the practice of adopting his heir rather than selecting a blood relative. Claimed as an ancestor by all the emperors down to Severus Alexander, he has traditionally been regarded with much good will at the expense of his predecessor, Domitian.

Ancestry
Nerva could claim eminent ancestry on both sides of his family. On the paternal side, his great-grandfather, M. Cocceius Nerva, was consul in 36 B.C.; his grandfather, a distinguished jurist of the same name, accompanied Tiberius on his retirement to Capri in 26 A.D. On his mother's side an aunt, Rubellia Bassa, was the great-granddaughter of Tiberius. In addition, a great-uncle, L. Cocceius Nerva, played a part in the negotiations that secured a treaty between Octavian and Antony in 40 B.C

Early Career and Life under Domitian
Nerva was born on 8 November, 30 A.D. Little is known of his upbringing beyond the fact that he belonged to a senatorial family and pursued neither a military nor a public speaking career. On the other hand, he did hold various priesthoods and was a praetor-designate. More importantly, as praetor designate in 65, Nerva was instrumental in revealing the conspiracy of Piso against the emperor Nero.

As a result, he received triumphal ornaments and his statue was placed in the palace. Following Nero's fall in 68, Nerva must have realized that support of Vespasian and the Flavian cause was in his best interests. In 71 his loyalty was rewarded with a joint consulship with the emperor, the only time that Vespasian ever held the office without his son Titus. It was under the reign of Vespasian's other son, Domitian, that Nerva's political fortunes were ultimately determined, however. He shared the ordinary consulship with Domitian in 90, an honor that was perhaps the result of his alerting the emperor about the revolt of Antonius Saturninus, the governor of Upper Germany, in 89. Even so, like so many others of the senatorial class, Nerva came under scrutiny in the final years of Domitian's reign, when the emperor was unwilling to tolerate any criticism.

Whether or not Nerva was forced to withdraw from public life during Domitian's final years remains an open question. What is not in dispute is that he was named emperor on the same day that Domitian was assassinated in September, 96. Indeed, in some respects the accession was improbable, since it placed the Empire under the control of a feeble sexagenarian and long-time Flavian supporter with close ties to the unpopular Domitian. On the other hand, Nerva had proven to be a capable senator, one with political connections and an ability to negotiate. Moreover, he had no children, thereby ensuring that the state would not become his hereditary possession.

Imperial Initiatives
Upon taking office, Nerva made immediate changes. He ordered the palace of Domitian to be renamed the House of the People, while he himself resided at the Horti Sallustiani, the favorite residence of Vespasian. More significantly, he took an oath before the senate that he would refrain from executing its members. He also released those who had been imprisoned by Domitian and recalled exiles not found guilty of serious crimes. Nevertheless, Nerva still allowed the prosecution of informers by the senate, a measure that led to chaos, as everyone acted in his own interests while trying to settle scores with personal enemies.

In the area of economic administration Nerva, like Domitian, was keen on maintaining a balanced budget. In early 97, after appointing a commission of five consular senators to give advice on reducing expenditures, he proceeded to abolish many sacrifices, races, and games. Similarly, he allowed no gold or silver statues to be made of himself. Even so, there was some room for municipal expenditure. For the urban poor of Italy he granted allotments of land worth 60 million sesterces, and he exempted parents and their children from a 5% inheritance tax. He also made loans to Italian landowners on the condition that they pay interest of 5% to their municipality to support the children of needy families. These alimentary schemes were later extended by Trajan, Antoninus Pius, and Marcus Aurelius.

Because he reigned only briefly, Nerva's public works were few. By early 98 he dedicated the forum that Domitian had built to connect the Forum of Augustus with the Forum of Peace. It became known as the Forum of Nerva, or the Forum Transitorium. Nerva also built granaries, made repairs to the Colosseum when the Tiber flooded, and continued the program of road building and repairs inaugurated under the Flavians. In addition, pantomime performances, supressed by Domitian, were restored.

In the military realm, Nerva established veterans' colonies in Africa, a practice that was continued by the emperor Trajan. Normal military privileges were continued and some auxiliary units assumed the epithet Nervia or Nerviana. We are not well informed beyond these details, and any military action that may have occurred while Nerva was emperor is known sketchy at best.

Nature of Nerva's Government
Nerva's major appointments favored men whom he knew and trusted, and who had long served and been rewarded by the Flavians. Typical was Sextus Julius Frontinus. A consul under Vespasian and governor of Britain twenty years earlier, Frontinus came out of retirement to become curator of the water supply, an office that had long been subject to abuse and mismanagement. He helped to put an end to the abuses and published a significant work on Rome's water supply, De aquis urbis Romae. As a reward for his service, Frontinus was named consul for the second time in 98. Similarly, the emperor's own amici were often senators with Flavian ties, men who, by virtue of their links to the previous regime, were valuable to Nerva for what they knew. Thus do we find the likes of A. Didius Gallus Fabricius Veiiento, one of Domitian's ill-reputed counselors, seated next to Nerva at an imperial dinner. Nerva was less willing to consult the Senate as a whole. In many cases he preferred the opinions of his own consilium, and was less submissive than many senators would have liked. This attitude may have been responsible for hostile discontent among several senators.

Mutiny of the Praetorians and the Adoption of Trajan
It was not long before the assassination of Domitian came to work against the new emperor. Dissatisfied that Domitian had not been deified after his death, the praetorian guards mutinied under Casperius Aelianus in October 97. Taking the emperor as hostage, they demanded that Nerva hand over Domitian's murderers. The emperor not only relented, but was forced to give a public speech of thanks to the mutineers for their actions. His authority compomised, Nerva used the occasion of a victory in Pannonia over the Germans in late October, 97 to announce the adoption of Marcus Ulpius Traianus, governor of Upper Germany, as his successor. The new Caesar was immediately acclaimed imperator and granted the tribunicia potestas. Nerva's public announcement of the adoption settled succession as fact; he allowed no time to oppose his decision. From the German victory, Nerva assumed the epithet Germanicus and conferred the title on Trajan as well. He also made Trajan his consular colleague in 98.

Death and Deification
On January 1, 98, the start of his fourth consulship, Nerva suffered a stroke during a private audience. Three weeks later he died at his villa in the Gardens of Sallust. From his headquarters at Cologne, Trajan insisted that Nerva's ashes be placed in the mausoleum of Augustus and asked the senate to vote on his deification. We are further told that he dedicated a temple to Nerva, yet no trace of it has ever been found. Nor was a commemorative series of coins issued for the Deified Nerva in the wake of his death, but only ten years later.

Conclusion
Nerva's reign was more concerned with the continuation of an existing political system than with the birth of a new age. Indeed, his economic policies, his relationship with the senate, and the men whom he chose to govern and to offer him advice all show signs of Flavian influence. In many respects, Nerva was the right man at the right time. His immediate accession following Domitian's murder prevented anarchy and civil war, while his age, poor health and moderate views were perfect attributes for a government that offered a bridge between Domitian's stormy reign and the emperorships of the stable rulers to follow.

Copyright (C) 1998, David Wend.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
Netherlands,_Imperial_City_of_Kampen,_Matthias,_Gulden_1618,_FLOR__ARG_CIV_28_IMP_CAMPEN,_MATTH_I_D_G_ROM_IMP_SEM_AVG_Q-001,_1h,_39,5mm,_20g-s.jpg
Netherlands, Imperial City of Kampen, Matthias, (1618 A.D.), Del.1113, AR-2/3Thaler/Gulden/28 Stuiver, Two-headed eagle stamped with a cartridge bearing the number 28, #170 viewsNetherlands, Imperial City of Kampen, Matthias, (1618 A.D.), Del.1113, AR-Gulden/28 Stuiver, Two-headed eagle stamped with a cartridge bearing the number 28, #1
avers: FLOR•ARG:CIV 28 IMP:CAMPEN, 1618 above the crown, Crowned weapons of the city of Campen.
reverse: MATTH•I•D•G•ROM•IMP•SEM•AV, Two-headed eagle stamped with a cartridge bearing the number 28, surmounted by a crown cutting the legend at 12 o'clock.
exergue: 1618//28, diameter: 39,5mm, weight: 20,0g, axis: 1h,
mint:City of Kampen, date: 1618 A.D., ref: Del.1113, AR-2/3Thaler/Gulden/28 Stuiver,
Q-001
"NETHERLANDS - IMPERIAL CITY CAMPEN - MATTHIAS,
(1612-20/03/1619):
Matthias is the third son of Maximilian II and Mary, daughter of Charles Quint. He was born in Vienna on February 24, 1557. At the expense of Spain, the States-General offered him the Netherlands in December 1577, but after the Battle of Gembloux, in January 1578, he took refuge in Antwerp before returning to Germany in 1581. His brother Rudolf II being unable to govern, he was assigned to Austria, then in 1608, Hungary and Bohemia Moravia and finally in 1611. Having no children of his union had with Anne Tyrol, he appointed as his successor his cousin Ferdinand of Styria, later Ferdinand II. Matthias died in Vienna on March 20, 1619."
quadrans
JCT_Norwood_Jewish_Orphanage.JPG
Norwood Jewish Orphanage (London Borough of Lambeth, England, U.K.)85 viewsAE token, 28 mm., undated.

Obv: THE JEWISH ORPHANAGE and NORWOOD. along rim, Jewish star in center, מזל (luck) within star.

Rev: THE JEWISH ORPHANAGE and NORWOOD. along rim, horseshoe in center opening to the right, GOOD LUCK TO YOU/WHEREVER YOU ARE./AT HOME, ABROAD./OR ON THE SEA., within horseshoe.

Ref: None known. But see generally, “The Jewish Orphanage at Norwood,” The Shekel, XXXVII No. 2 (March to April 2004), pp. 32-33.

Note: In 1795 financiers Abraham and Benjamin Goldsmid invited subscriptions for the foundation of a Jew’s Hospital, which opened at Miles End in 1807 under the name Neveh Zedek (Abode of Righteousness). By 1860 that building had become overcrowded, and Barnett and Isabella Meyers presented the organization with eight acres of land in West Norwood in South London. A building that accommodated 220 children was erected, and in 1861 Sir Anthony Rothchild laid the foundation stone. In 1877, the Jew’s Hospital amalgamated with the Jews’ Orphan Asylum (founded in 1831 in East End) at the Norwood site under the name Jews’ Hospital and Orphan Asylum. It obtained royal patronage in 1901. In 1928 it was renamed Norwood Jewish Orphanage, and in 1956 it again changed its name to Norwood Home for Jewish Children.
Stkp
JCT_Jewish_Orphanage_at_Norwood_1953.JPG
Norwood Jewish Orphanage (London Borough of Lambeth, England, U.K.)43 viewsAE medal, 35 mm., 1953.

Obv: JEWISH / ORPHANAGE / NORWOOD / JUNE 2ND 1953, Jewish star below, PATRON below star, H • M • THE QUEEN around rim.

Rev: • CORONATION • OF • ELIZABETH II • along rim, head facing right, flower below neck.

Ref: None known. But see generally, “The Jewish Orphanage at Norwood,” The Shekel, XXXVII No. 2 (March to April 2004), pp. 32-33.

Note: In 1795 financiers Abraham and Benjamin Goldsmid invited subscriptions for the foundation of a Jew’s Hospital, which opened at Miles End in 1807 under the name Neveh Zedek (Abode of Righteousness). By 1860 that building had become overcrowded, and Barnett and Isabella Meyers presented the organization with eight acres of land in West Norwood in South London. A building that accommodated 220 children was erected, and in 1861 Sir Anthony Rothchild laid the foundation stone. In 1877, the Jew’s Hospital amalgamated with the Jews’ Orphan Asylum (founded in 1831 in East End) at the Norwood site under the name Jews’ Hospital and Orphan Asylum. It obtained royal patronage in 1901. In 1928 it was renamed Norwood Jewish Orphanage, and in 1956 it again changed its name to Norwood Home for Jewish Children.
Stkp
JCT_Jewish_Orphanage_at_Norwood_1937.JPG
Norwood Jewish Orphanage (London Borough of Lambeth, England, U.K.)54 viewsAE medal, 28 mm., 1937.

Obv: CORONATION GEORGE VI & ELIZABETH and • MAY 12TH 1937 • along rim, jugate crowned busts facing left in center.

Rev: THE JEWISH ORPHANAGE and H.M. KING GEORGE VI along rim, building in center, NORWOOD and PATRON above and below.

Ref: “The Jewish Orphanage at Norwood,” The Shekel, XXXVII No. 2 (March to April 2004), pp. 32-33.

Note: In 1795 financiers Abraham and Benjamin Goldsmid invited subscriptions for the foundation of a Jew’s Hospital, which opened at Miles End in 1807 under the name Neveh Zedek (Abode of Righteousness). By 1860 that building had become overcrowded, and Barnett and Isabella Meyers presented the organization with eight acres of land in West Norwood in South London. A building that accommodated 220 children was erected, and in 1861 Sir Anthony Rothchild laid the foundation stone. In 1877, the Jew’s Hospital amalgamated with the Jews’ Orphan Asylum (founded in 1831 in East End) at the Norwood site under the name Jews’ Hospital and Orphan Asylum. It obtained royal patronage in 1901. In 1928 it was renamed Norwood Jewish Orphanage, and in 1956 it again changed its name to Norwood Home for Jewish Children.
Stkp
SeptimiusPisidiaAntiochAE22.jpg
Pisidia, Antioch. Septimius Severus. 198-217 AD. 105 viewsPisidia, Antioch. Septimius Severus. 198-217 AD. AE 22mm (5.21 gm). Obverse: Laureate, head left. Reverse: Mên standing facing, head right, foot on bucranium, holding sceptre and Nike on globe; cock at feet left. SNG France 3, 1118. Cleaning scratches, very fine. Ex Tom Vossen.

De Imperatoribus Romanis
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors

Septimius Severus (193-211 A.D.)

Michael L. Meckler
Ohio State University

Introduction
Lucius Septimius Severus restored stability to the Roman empire after the tumultuous reign of the emperor Commodus and the civil wars that erupted in the wake of Commodus' murder. However, by giving greater pay and benefits to soldiers and annexing the troublesome lands of northern Mesopotamia into the Roman empire, Septimius Severus brought increasing financial and military burdens to Rome's government. His prudent administration allowed these burdens to be met during his eighteen years on the throne, but his reign was not entirely sunny. The bloodiness with which Severus gained and maintained control of the empire tarnished his generally positive reputation.

Severus' Early Life and Acclamation
Severus was born 11 April 145 in the African city of Lepcis Magna, whose magnificent ruins are located in modern Libya, 130 miles east of Tripoli. Septimius Severus came from a distinguished local family with cousins who received suffect consulships in Rome under Antoninus Pius. The future emperor's father seems not to have held any major offices, but the grandfather may have been the wealthy equestrian Septimius Severus commemorated by the Flavian-era poet Statius.

The future emperor was helped in his early career by one of his consular cousins, who arranged entry into the senate and the favor of the emperor Marcus Aurelius. Life as a senator meant a life of travel from one government posting to another. Moorish attacks on his intended post of Baetica (southern Spain) forced Severus to serve his quaestorship in Sardinia. He then traveled to Africa as a legate and returned to Rome to be a tribune of the plebs. Around the year 175 he married Paccia Marciana, who seems also to have been of African origin. The childless marriage lasted a decade or so until her death.

Severus' career continued to flourish as the empire passed from Marcus to Commodus. The young senator held a praetorship, then served in Spain, commanded a legion in Syria and held the governorships of Gallia Lugdunensis (central France), Sicily and Upper Pannonia (easternmost Austria and western Hungary). While in Gallia Lugdunensis in 187, the now-widowed future emperor married Julia Domna, a woman from a prominent family of the Syrian city of Emesa. Two sons quickly arrived, eleven months apart: Bassianus (known to history as Caracalla) in April of the year 188, and Geta in March 189.

News of Pertinax's assassination 28 March 193 in an uprising by the praetorian guard quickly reached Pannonia, and only twelve days later on 9 April 193, Severus was proclaimed emperor. Septimius Severus had the strong support of the armies along the Rhine and Danube, but the loyalty of the governor of Britain, Clodius Albinus, was in doubt. Severus' envoys from Pannonia offered Albinus the title of Caesar, which he accepted.

The Civil Wars with Albinus, Niger, and Didius Julianus
In the city of Rome, Didius Julianus gained the support of the praetorian troops and was promoted as the successor to Pertinax. Although Julianus' authority did not extend much beyond Italy, Severus understood that legitimacy for a Roman emperor meant having one's authority accepted in Rome. He and his army began a swift march to the city. They met practically no resistance on their advance from Pannonia into northern Italy, as Julianus' supporters defected. By the beginning of June when Severus reached Interamna, 50 miles north of Rome, even the praetorian guard stationed in the capital switched sides. Didius Julianus was declared a public enemy and killed. Septimius Severus entered Rome without a fight.

Civil war was not yet over. Another provincial governor also had his eyes on the throne. In Syria, Pescennius Niger had been proclaimed emperor on news of Pertinax's death, and the eastern provinces quickly went under his authority. Byzantium became Niger's base of operations as he prepared to fight the armies of the west loyal to Severus.

Niger was unable to maintain further advances into Europe. The fighting moved to the Asian shore of the Propontis, and in late December 193 or early January 194, Niger was defeated in a battle near Nicaea and fled south. Asia and Bithynia fell under Severus' control, and Egypt soon recognized Severus' authority. By late spring, Niger was defeated near Issus and the remainder of his support collapsed. Syria was pacified. Niger was killed fleeing Antioch. Byzantium, however, refused to surrender to Severan forces. Niger's head was sent to the city to persuade the besieged citizens to give up, but to no avail. The Byzantines held out for another year before surrender. As punishment for their stubbornness, the walls of their city were destroyed.

Severus' Eastern Campaigns
During the fighting, two of the peoples of upper Mesopotamia -- the Osrhoeni and the Adiabeni -- captured some Roman garrisons and made an unsuccessful attack on the Roman-allied city of Nisibis. After the defeat of Niger, these peoples offered to return Roman captives and what remained of the seized treasures if the remaining Roman garrisons were removed from the region. Severus refused the offer and prepared for war against the two peoples, as well as against an Arabian tribe that had aided Niger. In the spring of 195, Severus marched an army through the desert into upper Mesopotamia. The native peoples quickly surrendered, and Severus added to his name the victorious titles Arabicus and Adiabenicus. Much of the upper third of Mesopotamia was organized as a Roman province, though the king of Osrhoene was allowed to retain control of a diminished realm.

The tottering Parthian empire was less and less able to control those peoples living in the border regions with Rome. Rome's eastern frontier was entering a period of instability, and Severus responded with an interventionist policy of attack and annexation. Some senators feared that increased involvement in Mesopotamia would only embroil Rome in local squabbles at great expense. The emperor, however, would remain consistent in his active eastern policy.

Legitimization of the Severan Dynasty
Severus also took steps to cement his legitimacy as emperor by connecting himself to the Antonine dynasty. Severus now proclaimed himself the son of Marcus Aurelius, which allowed him to trace his authority, through adoption, back to the emperor Nerva. Julia Domna was awarded the title "Mother of the Camp" (mater castrorum), a title only previously given to the empress Faustina the Younger, Marcus' wife. Bassianus, the emperor's elder son, was renamed Marcus Aurelius Antoninus and given the title Caesar. It was this last step that marked a decisive break with Albinus.

Albinus had remained in Britain as governor during the struggles between Severus and Niger. Although Albinus had not attempted open revolt against the emperor, he seems to have been in communication with senators about future moves. By the end of 195, Albinus was declared a public enemy by Severus. The governor of Britain responded by proclaiming himself emperor and invading Gaul.

A weary Roman populace used the anonymity of the crowd at the chariot races to complain about renewed civil war, but it was Gaul that bore the brunt of the fighting. Albinus and his supporters were able to inflict losses on the occasion of the initial attacks, but disorder was so great that opportunistic soldiers could easily operate on their own within the lands under Albinus' nominal control.

The tide began to turn early in 197, and after a Severan victory at Tournus, Albinus found himself and his army trapped near Lyon. A battle broke out 19 February 197. In the initial fighting, Albinus' troops forced the Severans into retreat, during which Severus fell off his horse. When the Severan cavalry appeared, however, Albinus' army was routed. Lyon was sacked and Albinus, who was trapped in a house along the river Rhône, committed suicide. Severus ordered Albinus' head to be cut off and sent to Rome for display. Many of Albinus' supporters were killed, including a large number of Spanish and Gallic aristocrats. Albinus' wife and children were killed, as were many of the wives of his supporters. Tradition also told of the mutilation of bodies and denial of proper burial. The emperor revealed a penchant for cruelty that troubled even his fervent supporters. A purge of the senate soon followed. Included among the victims was Pertinax's father-in-law, Sulpicianus.

Severus and the Roman Military
Severus brought many changes to the Roman military. Soldiers' pay was increased by half, they were allowed to be married while in service, and greater opportunities were provided for promotion into officer ranks and the civil service. The entire praetorian guard, discredited by the murder of Pertinax and the auctioning of their support to Julianus, was dismissed. The emperor created a new, larger praetorian guard out of provincial soldiers from the legions. Increases were also made to the two other security forces based in Rome: the urban cohorts, who maintained order; and the night watch, who fought fires and dealt with overnight disturbances, break-ins and other petty crime. These military reforms proved expensive, but the measures may well have increased soldiers' performance and morale in an increasingly unsettled age.

One location that remained unsettled was the eastern frontier. In 197 Nisibis had again been under siege, and the emperor prepared for another eastern campaign. Three new legions were raised, though one was left behind in central Italy to maintain order. The Roman armies easily swept through upper Mesopotamia, traveling down the Euphrates to sack Seleucia, Babylon and Ctesiphon, which had been abandoned by the Parthian king Vologaeses V. On 28 January 198 -- the centenary of Trajan's accession -- Severus took the victorious title Parthicus Maximus and promoted both of his sons: Caracalla to the rank of Augustus and Geta to the rank of Caesar.

Before embarking on the eastern campaign, the emperor had named Gaius Fulvius Plautianus as a praetorian prefect. Plautianus came from the emperor's home town of Lepcis, and the prefect may even have been a relative of the emperor. The victories in Mesopotamia were followed by tours of eastern provinces, including Egypt. Plautianus accompanied Severus throughout the travels, and by the year 201 Plautianus was the emperor's closest confidant and advisor. Plautianus was also praetorian prefect without peer after having arranged the murder of his last colleague in the post.

Upon the return to Rome in 202, the influence of Plautianus was at its height. Comparisons were made with Sejanus, the powerful praetorian prefect under the emperor Tiberius. Plautianus, who earlier had been adlected into the senate, was now awarded consular rank, and his daughter Plautilla was married to Caracalla. The wealth Plautianus had acquired from his close connection with the emperor enabled him to provide a dowry said to have been worthy of fifty princesses. Celebrations and games also marked the decennalia, the beginning of the tenth year of Severus' reign. Later in the year the enlarged imperial family traveled to Lepcis, where native sons Severus and Plautianus could display their prestige and power.

The following year the imperial family returned to Rome, where an arch, still standing today, was dedicated to the emperor at the western end of the Forum. Preparations were also being made for the Secular Games, which were thought to have originated in earliest Rome and were to be held every 110 years. Augustus celebrated the Secular Games in 17 B.C., and Domitian in A.D. 88, six years too early. (Claudius used the excuse of Rome's 800th year to hold the games in A.D. 47.) In 204 Severus would preside over ten days of ceremonies and spectacles.

By the end of 204, Plautianus was finding his influence with the emperor on the wane. Caracalla was not happy to be the husband of Plautilla. Julia Domna resented Plautianus' criticisms and investigations against her. Severus was tiring of his praetorian prefect's ostentation, which at times seemed to surpass that of the emperor himself. The emperor's ailing brother, Geta, also denounced Plautianus, and after Geta's death the praetorian prefect found himself being bypassed by the emperor. In January 205 a soldier named Saturninus revealed to the emperor a plot by Plautianus to have Severus and Caracalla killed. Plautianus was summoned to the imperial palace and executed. His children were exiled, and Caracalla divorced Plautilla. Some observers suspected the story of a plot was merely a ruse to cover up long-term plans for Plautianus' removal.

Severus and Roman Law
Two new praetorian prefects were named to replace Plautianus, one of whom was the eminent jurist Papinian. The emperor's position as ultimate appeals judge had brought an ever-increasing legal workload to his office. During the second century, a career path for legal experts was established, and an emperor came to rely heavily upon his consilium, an advisory panel of experienced jurists, in rendering decisions. Severus brought these jurists to even greater prominence. A diligent administrator and conscientious judge, the emperor appreciated legal reasoning and nurtured its development. His reign ushered in the golden age of Roman jurisprudence, and his court employed the talents of the three greatest Roman lawyers: Papinian, Paul and Ulpian.

The order Severus was able to impose on the empire through both the force of arms and the force of law failed to extend to his own family. His now teenaged sons, Caracalla and Geta, displayed a reckless sibling rivalry that sometimes resulted in physical injury. The emperor believed the lack of responsibilities in Rome contributed to the ill-will between his sons and decided that the family would travel to Britain to oversee military operations there. Caracalla was involved in directing the army's campaigns, while Geta was given civilian authority and a promotion to joint emperor with his father and brother.

Severus was now into his 60s. Chronic gout limited his activities and sapped his strength. The emperor's health continued to deteriorate in Britain, and he became ever more intent on trying to improve the bitter relationship between his two sons. He is reported to have given his sons three pieces of advice: "Get along; pay off the soldiers; and disregard everyone else." The first piece of advice would not be heeded.

Severus died in York on 4 February 211 at the age of 65. His reign lasted nearly 18 years, a duration that would not be matched until Diocletian. Culturally and ideologically Septimius Severus connected his reign to the earlier Antonine era, but the reforms he enacted would eventually alter the very character of Roman government. By creating a larger and more expensive army and increasing the influence of lawyers in administration, Severus planted the seeds that would develop into the highly militaristic and bureaucratic government of the later empire.

Copyright (C) 1998, Michael L. Meckler. Published on De Imperatoribus Romanis, An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors; http://www.roman-emperors.org/sepsev.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
PolemoII.jpg
Polemo II-Mark Antony's great grandson480 views Silver drachm

BACΙΛΕΩC ΠΟΛΕΜΩΝΟC
diademed head of Polemo right

ETOYC - K (year 20)
laureate head of Nero right;

57 - 58 A.D.
3.645g

18.1mm, die axis 180o

RPC I 3832, SNG Cop 242, BMC Pontus 7 - 8, SNG von Aulock 6691

Ex-Forum

Marcus Antonius Polemon Pythodoros, also known as Polemon II of Pontos and Polemon of Cilicia is the only known direct descendant of Mark Antony who bares his name. Through his maternal grandmother he was a direct descendant of Mark Antony and his second wife Antonia Hybrida Minor. Antony and Antonia Hybrida were first paternal cousins. He was Antony’s second born great grandson. Through Antony, he was a distant cousin to Roman Client King Ptolemy of Mauretania and Drusilla of Mauretania. He was also a distant cousin to Roman Emperors Caligula, Claudius and Nero and Roman Empresses Valeria Messalina, Agrippina the Younger and Claudia Octavia.

Polemon II’s father Polemon Pythodoros King of Pontos died in 8 BC. His mother then married King Archelaus of Cappadocia, and the family moved to the court of his stepfather. In 17 AD Archelaus died and Polemon II and his mother moved back to Pontus. From 17 until 38, Polemon II assisted his mother in the administration of Pontos. When his mother died in 38, Polemon II succeeded her as the sole ruler of Pontus, Colchis and Cilicia.

Around 50 AD, Polemon II met the Judean princess Julia Berenice in Tiberias during a visit to King Agrippa I. Berenice was widowed in 48 AD when her second husband and paternal uncle Herod of Chalcis, died. She had two sons by him, Berenicianus and Hyrcanus. Berenice set the condition that Polemon II had to convert to Judaism before marriage, which included undergoing the rite of circumcision. Polemon II complied, and the marriage went ahead but it did not last long. Berenice left Pontus with her sons and returned to the court of her brother. Polemon II abandoned Judaism and, according to the legend of Bartholomew the Apostle, accepted Christianity, only to become a pagan again.

In 62, Nero compelled Polemon II to abdicate the Pontian throne. Pontos and Colchis became a Roman province. From then until his death, Polemon II only ruled Cilicia. He never remarried and had no children that are known.

Polemon's sister Antonia Tryphaena's Royal lineage goes all the way down to Nana Queen of Iberia, who died in 363 AD. Truly Antony may have lost the battle of Actium but won the war of genetics!
8 commentsJay GT4
PostumusPietas.jpg
Postumus PIETAS AVG71 viewsIMP C POSTVMVS P F AVG
Cuirassed, draped and radiated bust right
R/ PIETA -S AVG
Pietas standing left, holding two children, two children at her feets.

Antoninianus struck 266 in TRIER, second group 4° emission
C.230 - RIC.320 - Elmer 395 - Cunetio 2428 - AGK.58
2 commentsgb29400
Postumus Antoninien.jpg
Postumus - antoninianus37 viewsIMP. C. POSTVMVS P.F. AVG
PIETAS AVG , Pietas standing left holding two children, two more at her feet.

I love Postumus' portrait on this one, he looks like Santa Claus. Maybe it's because of the children on the reverse. The reverse die style is typically gallic.

RIC 320
1 commentsGinolerhino
00358q00.jpg
Probus11 viewsAE-Quinarius
IMP C M AVR PROBVS AVG; Laureate bust left in imperial mantle, holding sceptre surmounted by eagle.
FELICIA; The four seasons as children.
Ex: TEMPORA
Ticinum
RIC 262 (R3) / King 5
Julianus of Pannonia
Trajan_RIC_243.jpg
RIC 24319 viewsDenarius, 112-114
Obv: IMP TRAIANO AVG GER DAC P M TR P COS VI P P
Laur. r., dr. l. s.
Rev: SPQR OPTIMO PRINCIPI, ALIM ITAL in ex.
Abundantia standing l., holding ears of corn and cornucopiae; at her feet, a child standing and holding a roll.
20mm, 2.71g

Alimenta was a welfare program for poor Italian children and orphans, originally created by Nerva and later considerably extended by Trajan.
klausklage
Marcus_Aurelius_R594~0.jpg
RIC 3, p.091, 490 - Marcus Aurelius, Pietas, Children8 viewsMarcus Aurelius
AR Denar, Rome
Obv.: AVRELIVS CAESAR AVG PII F, bare head right
Rev.: TR POT XV COS III, Pietas standing left, holding child in either arm, with two more children standing at her side.
Ag, 3.42g, 17.1mm
Ref.: RIC III (A.P.) 490
shanxi
Lucilla_08.jpg
RIC 3, p.275, 765 - Lucilla, Denar, Fecunditas, children13 viewsLucilla
Denar, Rome
Obv.: LUCILLA AVGVSTA, draped bust of Lucilla right
Rev.: FECUNDITAS, Fecunditas or Lucilla seated right, holding child on lap; before her, a second child standing left, reaching towards her.
Ag, 18mm, 3.29g
Ref.: RIC III, p.275, 765, CRE 249 [R]
shanxi
FAUSTA.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE - FAUSTA31 viewsROMAN EMPIRE - FAUSTA AE Follis, 325-326 AD. Obv.: Bust of Fausta right, FLAV MAX FAVSTA AVG
Rev.: SPES REIPVBLICAE, Spes with children. Heraclea mint - SMHE. Reference: RIC-80E.
dpaul7
020O~0.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE PROVINCIAL, Commodus AE36 Medallion107 viewsHierocaesarea mint
Magistrate (archon) Artemidoros
BMC Lydia -, SNG Cop -, SNGvA -, Imhoof-Blumer -
24.976 g, maximum diameter 36.4mm, die axis 180o,
Obverse AVT KAI Λ AVPH KOMMO∆O, laureate and cuirassed bust right;
Reverse ΕΠΙ[...]ΟΥ[...] ΑΡΤΕΜΙ∆ΟΡΟΥ ΑΡΧ[...] ΙΕΡΟΚΑΙCΑΡΕΩΝ, Artemis standing half-right wearing chiton; Leto standing half-left holding patera; Apollo standing half-left, naked, resting left hand on lyre; nice armored bust.

An interesting reverse depicting a mythological scene: Leto and her children Artemis and Apollo. The two were fathered by Zeus, arousing Hera's jealousy. Leto was banned from giving birth on earth or sea, but found the island of Delos, which supposedly was not connected to either.

(all notes from FORVM website)

Extremely rare with no other specimens found on Wildwinds.com, acsearch.info or coinarchives.com, or in Loebbecke, Scholz or all the Imhoof additions.

[One same size, same obv. die as {this coin}, same magistrate (archon) Artemidoros, but different rev. type (river god reclining), in RPC temp. (online) 8174 = Peus 365, 2000, Burstein 696, there stated to be unpublished and apparently unique.

(Many thanks to Mr. Curtis Clay and Ms. Dane Kurth "Helvetica" for further information)
3 commentsMark Z
Commodus_Bronze_Medaillon.jpg
Roman Empire, Commodus, Bronze Medallion130 viewsObv. M AUREL COMMODUS ANTONINVS AVG PIVS, draped and cuirassed bust right.
Rev. P M TR P VIIII IMP VI COS IIII P P / TEMPORVM FELICITAS, Pomona seated right, holding corn ears and poppy in left hand, right hand raised to grapevine, below which two children in tub, and a third at feet of goddess.
Mint: Rome, 183 AD.

40mm 65.92g

Ex Tradart Sale 21, 15th February 2018, Lot 139.
Ex Ars Classica XVIII, Lucerne 1938, Lot 292.
Ex Dr. Jacob Hirsch, Auction 18, 27th May 1907, Lot 1031.
Ex Collection Dr. Friedrich Imhoof-Blumer.

Pomona, a goddess among the Romans, presiding over fruit -trees. Her worship was of long standing at Rome, where there was a Flamen Pomonalis who sacrificed to her every year for the preservation of the fruit. She lived in the time of Procas, king of Alba, devoted to the culture of gardens, to which she confined herself and shunning all society with the male deities.
Vertumnus, under various shapes, tried to win her hand, sometimes he came as a reaper, sometimes as a haymaker, another time as a ploughman or a wine-dresser, a soldier and a fisherman, but to equally little purpose. At length, under the guise of an old woman, he won the confidence of the goddess. And, by enlarging on the evils of a single life and the blessings of the wedded state, by launching out into the praises of Vertumnus, and relating a tale of the punishment of female cruelty to a lover, he moved the heart of Pomona; whereupon, resuming his real form, he obtained the hand of the no longer reluctant nymph.

Felicitas Temporum ("Prosperity of the Times"), reflecting a Golden Age ideology, was among the innovative virtues that began to appear during the reigns of Trajan and Antoninus Pius. Septimius Severus, whose reign followed the exceedingly brief tenure of Pertinax and unsatisfactory conditions under Commodus, used coinage to express his efforts toward restoring the Pax Romana, with themes such as Felicitas Temporum and Felicitas Saeculi, "Prosperity of the Age" (saeculum), prevalent in the years 200 to 202. Some Imperial coins use these phrases with images of women and children in the emperor's family.
6 commentskc
image.jpg
Roman Empire, Domitian157 viewsDenarius circa 88-96, AR 3.51 g. IMP CAES DOMITIANVS AVG P M Laureate head r. Rev. DIVVS CAESAR IMP DOMITIANI F Infant seated on globe, raising both hands; around him, seven stars. RIC 209a (hybrid). BMC –. C –. CBN –.

Extremely rare. Good very fine
Ex NFA sale XXVII, 1991, 118.


Throughout the course of Imperial Roman coinage seven children were honored posthumously, with five of them being presented as gods. One of these divine children was an infant son born to Domitia, the wife of Domitian. Virtually nothing is known about him, and if he had not appeared on this rare coin type, he would have been little more than a footnote in the historical record. We may deduce from a passage in Suetonius, from historical circumstances, and from his infantile appearance on memorial coins that he probably was born in 83 and died soon thereafter. Regrettably, his name is nowhere recorded. Since the boy usually appears on the reverse of coins of Domitia, and Domitian seems to have divorced her in about 83 (roughly the time she would have given birth to the boy), it seems obvious that he died in infancy and that Domitian immediately deified him and celebrated him on coinage before he exiled his wife. Domitian’s grief must have been profound, for the boy’s presentation ranks among the most inventive on all Roman coinage; he is shown as a young Jupiter seated on a globe with his hands raised toward seven stars that represent the constellation of the Great Bear (Ursa Major). The boy is also represented on two other rare issues: denarii inscribed PIETAS AVGVST that show him standing before Domitia in the guise of Pietas, and sestertii with a similar scene but inscribed DIVI CAESAR MATRI or DIVI CAESARIS MATER. This particular denarius is a notable rarity, and is considered to be a muling of a Domitian obverse with a Domitia reverse.
5 commentscarthago
FAUSTINA_JNR_DIVA_Denarius_PEACOCK.JPG
ROMAN EMPIRE, FAUSTINA II (JUNIOR). Commemorative denarius of Rome. Struck A.D.176-180 under Marcus Aurelius17 viewsObverse: DIVA FAVSTINA PIA. Draped bust of Faustina Junior facing right.
Reverse: CONSECRATIO. Peacock standing facing right.
Diameter: 18mm | Weight: 3.2grms | Die Axis: 12
RIC III : 744

Annia Galeria Faustina was the youngest daughter of Antoninus Pius and Faustina Senior. She married Marcus Aurelius in A.D.145 and was given the title of Augusta on the birth of her first child in A.D.146. She went on to have several more children, one of whom was the future emperor Commodus. In A.D.175 Faustina accompanied Marcus Aurelius on his journey to the East but she died at Halala, a village at the foot of the Taurus Mountains.
1 comments*Alex
Faustina.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, FAUSTINA JUNIOR Denarius. RIC III : 712. 758 viewsObv: FAVSTINA AVGVSTA. Diademed bust of Faustina facing right.
Rev: SAECVLI FELICIT. Two children, Commodus and Antoninus, seated on throne, with globe between them.
8 commentsthe_Apostate
Favjse12-2~0.jpg
Roman Empire, Faustina Junior, Sestertius of AD 161, RIC (M.Aurelius) unlisted 151 viewsÆ Sestertius (25.86g, Ø33mm, 12h). Rome mint. Struck AD 161.
Obv.: FAVSTINA AVGVSTA, draped bust of Fautina Junior facing right.
Rev.: FECVND AVGVSTA (around) S C (in field), Fecunditas standing left, holding a child in her arms, two more standing left and right of her raising their right hands.
RIC (Aurelius) unlisted, legend corresponds to RIC 1635 and the representation to RIC 1649
ex Aeternitas Coins & Antiquities (via VCoins)

This type refers to the growing family of Marcus Aurelius and Faustina Jr. The three girls represent the three surviving children (of a total of 7 born) around end of 159 to early 160: Annia Galeria Aurelia Faustina (age 14), Lucilla (12) and Fadilla (1).

Additional information provided by Curtis Clay (19 july 2012): "This type commemorating the birth of a third survivng daughter usually has the legend IVNONI LVCINAE, whereas the type FECVND AVGVSTAE commemorates the birth of the next daughter about a year or so later and shows Fecunditas/Faustina holding two children in her arms while two more stand at her feet.

Strack 1335 knew a sestertius like yours in only one specimen, in Naples, but unfortunately does not illustrate the coin.

The Naples collection was stolen in 1977. Your coin is of nice quality, and has an old-collection look, lightly cleaned on the reverse. I would not be at all surprised if it is the actual Naples coin! ..."
Charles S
Geta_Nobilitas.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Geta Nobilitas denarius RIC 13a38 viewsObv: P SEPT GETA CAES PONT
Bareheaded draped bust right
Rev: NOBILITAS
Nobilitas standing right holding sceptre and palladium.

Rome mint 199 AD. 2.6 grams

RIC 13a. BMC 197, 223. RSC 90. RCV 7184. CSS 414.

I am particularly fond of Severan coins of women and children. I felt this was a particularly good portrait of young Geta. The reverse of the coin is extols the young Prince's nobility. Of course the pleasant lad shown on this coin was murdered by his brother who appear as an equally pleasant lad on another coin in my gallery.
1 commentsC. Caesar Germ.
bpC1N4Helena.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Helena, Constantinople LRBC 104650 viewsAe4 1.5 gm 14.5 mm Struck: 337-341 Mark: CONSA
Obv: FL IVL HELENAE AVG
Diademed and draped bust, right.
Rev: PAX PVBLICA•
Pax standing, left.
Comment: Issued in her honor by her grandchildren after the death of Constantine.
Massanutten
probusquinariusfor_Forvm.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Probus Quinarius112 viewsMint- Rome
Obv.- IMP C PROBVS AVG- Jugate bust of Sol and Probus left
Rev.- FELICIA-The Four Seasons as Children Playing
Exergue- TEMPORA
Size- 13mm
Weight- 1.70 grams
ex.Rutten&Wieland

Extra Notes per Barry Murphy and Martin Griffiths:

There are 3 specimens recorded in Cathy King's new book on Quinarii:

1 - Vienna
2 - Oxford, ex Hamburger October 19 1925, lot 1546
3 - Subak Collection, ex M&M 66, lot 834, ex Leu 20, lot 387

Very rare and atractive Probus AE quinarius from Rome mint.
Interesting variant not published in RIC with jugate bust of emperor and Sol left, not right as RIC nº 263 (Vol.V part.II. R4 rarity grade)
IMP.C.PROBVS AVG. Amazing reverse with the four seasons as children playing. FELICIA.TEMPORA. completes legends too. 1,70 grs.







2 commentsblack-prophet
THEODORA_AE4_Pietas_TRP.JPG
Roman Empire, THEODORA. AE4 of Treveri. Struck A.D.337 - 340 under Constantine II.63 viewsObverse: FL MAX THEODORAE AVG. Laureate and draped bust of Theodora facing right.
Reverse: PIETAS ROMANA. Pietas standing facing right, holding child in arms; in exergue, •TRP•.
RIC VIII : 65.
Found in Cambridgeshire, England.
SCARCE

Little is known about Theodora. She was the daughter or step-daughter of Maximianus and married Constantius I c.A.D.292. Theodora and Constantius had six children whose names were Flavius Dalmatius, Julius Constantius, Hannibalianus, Constantia, Anastasia and Eutropia. This coin was struck after her death, as were all her coins, under Constantine II, Constantius II and Constans, the sons of Constantine I.

1 comments*Alex
FAUSTA.jpg
Roman Fausta Follis57 viewsFausta, AE Follis
Obv: FLAV MAX – FAVSTA AVG Draped bust r., wearing pearl necklace.
Rev. SPES REIP – VBLICAE Fausta, draped and veiled, standing facing, head l., holding two children in her arms; in exergue, S crescent T

RIC VII Ticinum 203
Rare : R3
4 commentsTanit
Hadrian.jpg
Roman Hadrian Sestertius22 viewsAE Sestertius
Obv: HADRIANUS AVGVSTVS PP ; laur. hd. r.
Rev: HILARITAS P R COS III S C ; Hilaritas stg. l., between two children.

RIC 970 ; C. 819
Tanit
Domna_den_1.jpg
Roman Julia Domna Denarius27 viewsJulia Domna Denarius. IVLIA AVGVSTA, draped bust right / HILARITAS, Hilaritas standing left with palm & cornucopiae, children to either side of her.

RIC 557, RSC 79, BMC 34
1 commentsTanit
MariusFundania1Denarius~0.jpg
Roman Republic, C. Fundanius AE Denarius24 viewsC. Fundanius, moneyer
101-91 BC

Denarius

Helmeted head of Roma right, control-mark C behind

"Triumphator" (Marius) in quadriga right, holding laurel-branch and staff; a rider sits on near horse, holding laurel-branch, Q above, C FVNDAN in exergue

The reverse shows Marius as triumphator in the quadriga. He holds sceptre and laurel branch. On one of the horses rides his son. The children of the triumphator were - according to tradition - allowed to share the triumph of their father. The Q above refers to the office as quaestor the mintmaster held while minting these coins. FORVM Ancient Coins says of a similar piece, "The reverse refers to Marius triumph after victories over the Cimbri and Teutones. The rider on the near horse is Marius's son, at that time eight years old." Andrew McCabe comments, "The Triumphator on the Fundania denarius is usually taken to be Marius, with his young son on horseback. This would make it the first Roman coin to explicitly portray a living Roman politician. "

Seaby Fundania 1
Blindado
RRC415-1.jpg
RRC415/1 (L. Aemilius Paullus Lepidus) 93 viewsObv. PAVLLVS LEPIDVS CONCORDIA, diademed and veiled head of Concordia facing right, graffito.
Rev. TER above trophy with togate figure of L. Aemilius Paullus on right, three captives on left, PAVLLVS in exergue.
18-19 mm, 3,94 gr.
Rome, ca. 63/2 B.C.
References: RRC415/1, RSC Aemilia 10, Syd. 926, Sear 366

Motif: It has been suggested that L. Aemilius Paullus took up the watchword of Cicero's consulate during and after the Catilinarian conspiracy (63 B.C.): Concordia Ordinum. The reverse shows the general L. Aemilius Paullus (no direct relation to the moneyer), who defeated King Perseus in the Third Macedonian War, at the Batle of Pydna. Here, the Macedonian phalanx originally had the upper hand, but broke apart over rough ground, allowing the Romans to enter the gaps between the huge sarissas and cut the phalangites down with their Spanish swords. Paullus took Perseus and his sons, Philip and Alexander, prisoner, as well as their daughter (unnamed and unrepresented on the coin). They were paraded in his triumph. The people reacted badly to this, feeling sympathetic towards the children, but by 63 B.C., this does not seem to have mattered anymore. Paullus triumphed three times in his life, hence the "TER" above the trophy.

Moneyer: The moneyer was the brother of the later triumvir M. Lepidus, and would himself rise through the cursus honorum. Paullus would become quaestor (59 B.C.), praetor (53 B.C.) and reach the consulship (50 B.C.), before siding with Brutus and Cassius and ending up on the proscription list. He was pardonned after Philippi, but exiled himself to Miletus.
1 commentsSyltorian
RRC415-1_-_Graffito.jpg
RRC415/1 (L. Aemilius Paullus Lepidus), Graffito85 viewsObv. PAVLLVS LEPIDVS CONCORDIA, diademed and veiled head of Concordia facing right, graffito.
Rev. TER above trophy with togate figure of L. Aemilius Paullus on right, three captives on left, PAVLLVS in exergue.
17 mm, 3,79 gr.
Rome, ca. 63/2 B.C.
References: RRC415/1, RSC Aemilia 10, Syd. 926, Sear 366

It has been suggested that the moneyer, L. Aemilius Paullus, took up the watchword of Cicero's consulate during and after the Catilinarian conspiracy (63 B.C.): Concordia Ordinum. The reverse shows the general L. Aemilius Paullus (no direct relation to the moneyer), who defeated King Perseus in the Third Macedonian War, took him and his sons Philip and Aexander prisoner (what happened to the daughter is not recorded), and led them in his triumph. The people themselves did not apparently appreciate the introduction of children into the triumph, but by 63 B.C., this does not seem to have mattered anymore.

The moneyer was the brother of the later triumvir M. Lepidus, and would himself rise through the cursus honorum, to quaestor (59 B.C.), Praetor (53 B.C.) and Consul (50 B.C.), before siding with Brutus and Cassius and ending up on the proscription list. He was pardonned after Philippi, but exiled himself to Miletus.

This coin also bears graffito, spelling out HAEMI. The significance is unknown, and may indicate the owner; if the last latter is to be read as an O, it might be a dedication or a receiver.
Syltorian
902.jpg
rsc05418 viewsElagabalus
AR Denarius

Obv: ANTONINVS PIVS FEL. AVG, laureate draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev: HILARITAS AVG. Hilaritas standing front looking left, holding patera and palm branch, between two children looking up at her with outstretched arms.
19 mm, 3.04 gms

RSC 54, RIC 190
1 commentsCharles M
salonina_congiunte_1_(1).jpg
Salonina, antoniniano, ex Hatfield hoard35 viewsSalonina Billon Antoninianus. Rome mint, 256-257 AD.
AE, mm 21,0 gr. 3,1, B
D/ SALONINA AVG, diademed and draped bust right on crescent
R/ PIETAS AVGG, Salonina seated left, reaching down to two children standing before her, a third child at her side. (Valerian II, Saloninus and Gallienus Junior)
RIC V-1, 35 Rome; Göbl 229b; RSC 84; Sear 10647.
Provenienza: ex Hatfield hoard (settembre 1993), ex Coin uk trust-Pineapple (2012)
paolo
salonine_goss.jpg
Salonina, Antoninianus22 viewsMint of Rome.
SALONINA AVG - Diademed, draped bust right on crescent.
PIETAS AVGG - Pietas seated left, holding scepter, two children to left.

256-257AD
Ref: RIC 35 - Göbl 229b - Cohen 84
byzancia
nysa_scythopolis_gordianIII_Spijkerman59.jpg
Samaria, Nysa-Scythopolis, Gordian III, Spijkerman 5927 viewsGordian III, AD 238-244
AE 25, 1.2g
struck AD 240 (year 304)
obv. [AVT KM ANT - GORDIANOC CE]
Bust, draped, laureate, r.
rev. NYC - C - KYQ IER ACV
Dionysos, nude, chlamys waving behind, advancing r., head l., holding thyrsos transversely in raised r. hand, holding r. hand on head of a small figure, kneeling r.; panther behind him stg. l., head r.
in r. field palmbranch(?), beneath date D - T (year 304 of Pompejan era)
Spijkeman 59; SNG ANS 1054 var. (in r. field bunch of grapes); BMC 12
Very rare, about VF

Haim Gitler suggests that the depiction is referring to the celebration of the Anthesteria, which occurs in spring and where the 3 years old children got a small vine jar. This seems to have been an initiation rite by which the children were admitted by the urban community.

Nysa is todays Bet-Shean in Israel.
Jochen
scribonia8 den-.jpg
SCRIBONIA 8 - L. Scribonius Libo denarius - 62 BC114 viewsobv: BON.EVENT-LIBO (head of Bonus Eventus right, with broad diadem)
rev: PVTEAL-SCRIBON (well-head ornamented with garland and two lyres, hammer at base)
ref:: Cr416/1a, Syd928, Sear(2000)367
3.64gms
The Puteal Scribonianum or Puteal Libonis (Puteal of Libo) was a building in the Forum at Rome. According to ancient authorities the Puteal Libonis was the name a spot which had been struck by lightning. Reverse of this coin representing the puteal of Libo which rather resembles an altar with laurel wreaths, two lyres and a hammer (sometimes a pair of pincers or tongs below the wreaths). Perhaps these tools are symbolical of Vulcan as forger of lightning.
Lucius Scribonius Libo was apart of a senatorial family. Lucius had married Cornelia, granddaughter of Pompey and Lucius Cornelius Sulla. Their children were Scribonia (second wife to Augustus).
berserker
Septimius_Severus_RIC_233.jpg
Septimius Severus39 viewsDenarius (3,17 gr - 18 mm)
obv. SEVERVS PIVS AVG
laureate head right.
rev. P M TR P XVIII COS III P P
Jupiter, naked except for cloak over shoulder, standing half-left between two children (Caracalla and Geta?), holding thunderbolt and sceptre
mint Rome
Struck 210 AD
RIC IV 233

1 commentsHolger G
sscount1ORweb.jpg
Septimius Severus Base Metal Contemporary Counterfeit Denarius, imitation of RIC IV 226 21 viewsUnknown “mint”, Septimius Severus Base Metal Contemporary Counterfeit Denarius, 209 A.D.(?) AE 18mm 2.30g, imitation of RIC IV 226
O: SEVERVS PIVS AVG, laureate head right
R: P M TR P XVII COS III P P, Jupiter standing left, holding thunderbolt & scepter, two children (Geta & Caracalla) either side

*I have the actual denarius that this coin was imitating in my Severan Wing - Silver, Billon gallery
casata137ec
ricIV226ORweb.jpg
Septimius Severus Denarius RIC IV 226 26 viewsRome mint, Septimius Severus Denarius, 209 A.D. AR 19.5mm 3.251g, RSC 525, RIC IV 226
O: SEVERVS PIVS AVG, laureate head right
R: P M TR P XVII COS III P P, Jupiter standing left, holding thunderbolt & scepter, two children (Geta & Caracalla) either side
1 commentscasata137ec
sricIV240ORweb.jpg
Septimius Severus Denarius RIC IV 24019 viewsRome mint, Septimius Severus Denarius, 210 A.D. AR 18.5mm 1.98g, RIC IV 240, RSC 540
O: SEVERVS PIVS AVG BRIT, laureate head right
R: P M TR P XVIII COS III PP, Jupiter standing left, holding thunderbolt in right hand, scepter in left; two children (Caracalla and Geta) at his feet
casata137ec
Septimius_Severus_RIC_233~0.JPG
Septimius Severus, 193 - 211 AD17 viewsObv: SEVERVS PIVS AVG, laureate bust of Septimius Severus facing right.

Rev: PM TRP XVIII COS III PP, Jupiter standing left, holding a thunderbolt in his right hand and a scepter in his left, at his feet are two children (Caracalla and Geta).

Silver Denarius, Rome mint, 210 AD

3.0 grams, 19 mm, 180°

RIC IVi 233, RSC 539, S6345 (var.), VM 125/1
SPQR Coins
4100_(1)_4101_(1).jpg
Septimius Severus, Denarius, PM TR P XVII COS III PP13 viewsAR Denarius
Septimius Severus
Augustus: 193 - 211AD
Issued: 209AD
19.0 x 18.0mm O: SEVERVS PIVS AVG; Laureate head, right.
R: PM TR P XVII COS III PP; Jupiter standing left, holding thunderbolt and scepter, children (Geta and Caracalla) on either side.
Rome Mint
RIC 226; RSC 525; BMC 1.
Aorta: 824: B3, O51, R259, T99, M4.
Mark Reid/The Time Machine
Chicago Coin Expo 4/6/17 4/17/17
Nicholas Z
martsngans456-8.jpg
Sicily, Messana, Mamertinoi, SNG ANS 456-865 viewsMessana, Sicily, Mamertinoi Hemilitron, 289-270 B.C. AE, 23/20mm 6.84g, CNS I p. 112, 47; SNG ANS 456-8
O: Laureate head of Apollo right; lyre (?) behind
R: Nike standing left, holding wreath and palm-branch; six pellets in right field

MAMERTINI or "children of Mars," was the name taken by a band of Campanian (or Samnite) freebooters who about 289 B.C. seized the Greek colony of Messana at the north-east corner of Sicily, after having been hired by Agathocles to defend it (Polyb. 1. 7. 2). - 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica
4 commentscasata137ec
fausta.jpg
SPES REIPVBLICAE, RIC 162 Thessalonica8 viewsFausta. Æ Follis. 3.5g, 21mm. Rev. SPES REIPVBLICAE, Spes (Fausta) standing facing holding two children, SMTSA in exergue. RIC 162 ThessalonicaPodiceps
DIV-FAUSTINA2_PEACOCK.JPG
Struck A.D.176-180 under Marcus Aurelius. DIVA FAUSTINA JUNIOR. Commemorative denarius of Rome11 viewsObverse: DIVA FAVSTINA PIA. Draped bust of Faustina Junior facing right.
Reverse: CONSECRATIO. Peacock standing facing right.
Diameter: 18mm | Weight: 3.24gms | Die Axis: 12
RIC III : 744 | RSC : 71a

Annia Galeria Faustina was the youngest daughter of Antoninus Pius and Faustina Senior. She married Marcus Aurelius in A.D.145 and was given the title of Augusta on the birth of her first child in A.D.146. She went on to have several more children, one of whom was the future emperor Commodus. In A.D.175 Faustina accompanied Marcus Aurelius on his journey to the East but she died at Halala, a village at the foot of the Taurus Mountains.
1 comments*Alex
Faustina_II_Diva_Altar~0.JPG
Struck A.D.176-180 under Marcus Aurelius. DIVA FAUSTINA JUNIOR. Commemorative denarius of Rome7 viewsObverse: DIVA FAVSTINA PIA. Draped bust of Faustina Junior facing right.
Reverse: CONSECRATIO. Altar-enclosure with closed doors.
Diameter: 19mm
RIC III : 746

Annia Galeria Faustina was the youngest daughter of Antoninus Pius and Faustina Senior. She married Marcus Aurelius in A.D.145 and was given the title of Augusta on the birth of her first child in A.D.146. She went on to have several more children, one of whom was the future emperor Commodus. In A.D.175 Faustina accompanied Marcus Aurelius on his journey to the East but she died at Halala, a village at the foot of the Taurus Mountains.
*Alex
2ore_sm_1759.JPG
Sweden - Adolf Fredrik (1751-1771) 2 ore SM - SM 16854 viewsRev: two crossed arrows (indicating the origin of the cupper from the province of Dalarna), crown in upper field, 2 ÖR - SM in side fields and 1759 below.

Obv: A. F. S. G. V. R (Adolphus Fridericus Svecorum Gothorum Vandalorumque Rex); lion standing l. on shield with royal crown abowe and surrounded by the Swedish three crowns.

Adolph Frederick was the first king of the house of Holstein - Gottorp. He was a weak king in the hands of the Swedish parliamentary government. But his regin was fairly peacefull. He is most famous for his death that occured after he consumed a very large meal, topped off with 14 servings of his favourite dessert: semla served in a bowl of hot milk. He is thus remembered by Swedish school children as "the king who ate himself to death."
pierre_p77
Theodora_AE4_Pietas_TRP~0.JPG
THEODORA. Struck c.A.D.337 - 340 after her death. AE4 of Treveri (Trier).96 viewsObverse: FL MAX THEODORAE AVG. Laureate and draped bust of Theodora facing right.
Reverse: PIETAS ROMANA. Pietas standing facing right, holding child in arms; in exergue, •TRP•.
Struck under Constantine II.
RIC VIII : 65.
Found in Cambridgeshire, England

Little is known about Theodora. She was the daughter or step-daughter of Maximianus and married Constantius I c.A.D.292. Theodora and Constantius had six children whose names were Flavius Dalmatius, Julius Constantius, Hannibalianus, Constantia, Anastasia and Eutropia. This coin was struck after her death, as were all her coins, under Constantine II, Constantius II and Constans, the sons of Constantine I.
*Alex
halos_Rogers240.jpg
Thessaly, Halos, 400-344 BC43 viewsAE 15 (Dichalkon?), 2.33g, 14.57mm, 315°
obv. Head of Zeus Laphystios, diademed, l.
rev. ALE - W[N]
Phrixos, nude, with waving chlamys behind, on ram flying r., hanging on horns; below 3 waves (outside the flan)
ref. Rogers 240 var.
VF

Laphystios = Devourer, an old weather and storm god. The city of Halos was founded by Athamas. When he should sacrifice his children Phrixos and Helle, their mother Nephele sent a ram to rescue them. For more information please take a look at the Mythology Thread!
1 commentsJochen
tibese05-2.jpg
Tiberius, RIC 42, sestertius of AD 22-23 (Twins in cornucopiae)46 viewsÆ sestertius (27.1g, Ø34mm, 6h) Rome mint, struck AD 22-23.
Obv.: Children's heads on crossed cornucopiae with caduceus in the centre.
Rev.: DRVSVS CAESAR TI AVG F DIVI AVG N PONT TR POT II around large S C
RIC 42 (S); BMC 95; Sear (RCV 2K) 1793
ex CNG (2000)

This issue celebrates the birth of the twins Germanicus Gemellus and Tiberius Gemellus, sons of Drusus and Livilla. This coin bears the title of Drusus. The only other coins with Drusus' titles are the Drusus As and the Justitia Dupondius.
1 commentsCharles S
45.jpg
Trajan Denarius - Annona (RIC II 245)33 viewsAR Denarius
Rome 112-117AD
2.79g

Obv: Laureate bust of Trajan (R), draped far shoulder.
IMP TRAIANO AUG GER DAC PM TRP COS VI PP

Rev: ANNONA standing (L) holding cornucopia, child at her feet. ALIM (ENTA) ITAL (IA) in exergue.

Commemorates the Alimenta Italia , a welfare system developed by the emperor for poor and orphaned children.

RIC II 245 RSC 9
1 commentsKained but Able
51.jpg
Trajan Denarius - Annona (RIC II 245)45 viewsAR Denarius
Rome 112-117AD
2.89g

Obv: Laureate bust of Trajan (R), draped far shoulder.
IMP TRAIANO AUG GER DAC PM TRP COS VI PP


Rev: ANNONA standing (L) holding cornucopia and grain ears, child at her feet. ALIM(ENTA) ITAL(IA) in exergue.

During his reign, Trajan completed a number of civil works and improvements and made many political reforms. He continued ,and increased, Nerva's policies of helping the destitute citizens of Italy. With this Alimenta Trajan made sure that the poor of Italy, mainly the children, would not starve. This program also ensured the children of Italy would also be educated as well.

SPQR OPTIMO PRINCIPI


RIC II 243 RSC 9
Kained but Able
21.jpg
Trajan Denarius - Trajan's Father (RIC II 252)51 viewsAR Denarius
Rome 112-117AD
3.26g

Obv: Laureate bust of Trajan (R), draped far shoulder.
IMP TRAIANUS AUG GER DAC PM TRP COS V PP

Rev: TRAJAN'S FATHER seated (L) holding patera and sceptre. Commemorates the death of the emperor's father circa 100 AD.

Traianus Senior was born in Italica in the Roman Province of Hispania Baetica. Traianus married a Roman woman called Marcia. They had two children, a daughter called Ulpia Marciana and a son, the future Roman Emperor Trajan.

Traianus was the first member of his family to enter the Roman Senate. Due to his successes, Vespasian awarded Traianus with the governorship of an unknown Roman province and a consulship in 70. In later years, he served as a Roman Governor of Hispania Baetica, Syria, in 79 or 80 governed an unknown African province and then western Anatolia.


RIC II 139 RSC 94
Kained but Able
TRAJSE08-2.JPG
Trajan, RIC 459, Sestertius of AD 108-111 (Alim Ital)59 viewsÆ Sestertius (27.6g, Ø32mm, 6h) Rome mint. Struck AD 110.
Obv.: IMP CAES NERVAE TRAIANO AVG GER DAC P M TR P COS V P P laureate head of Trajan right; draped over left shoulder.
Rev.: S·P·Q·R·OPTIMO PRINCIPI (around) ALIM·ITAL (in ex.) S C (in field), Annona standing left, a cornucopiae and holding two corn ears above a child standing at left.
RIC 459 [S]; Cohen 7; Foss (Roman Historical Coins) 103:53

This type advertises Trajan's expansion of Nerva's charity to the poor children of Italy.
Charles S
trajse41.jpg
Trajan, RIC 604, Sestertius of AD 112-114 (Annona with child)30 viewsÆ Sestertius (24.4g, Ø33mm, 6h). Rome mint. Struck AD 116.
Obv/ IMP CAES NERVAE TRAIANO AVG GER DAC P M TR P COS VI P P, laureate head of Trajan facing right.
Rev/ S P Q R OPTIMO PRINCIPI[around] ALIM ITAL [in ex] S C [in field], Annona standing left, child at feet, holding two corn ears and a cornucopiae.
RIC 604; Cohen 10; Strack 419
ex Bolaffi Ambassador Auction (2008)

Expansion of Nerva's charity to poor children
Charles S
MatiSe01-3.jpg
Trajan, RIC 761, for Matidia, Sestertius of AD 112-117 (Pietas)193 viewsÆ Sestertius (25.51g, Ø35mm, 6h), Rome mint. Struck AD September 112-117.
MATIDIA AVG DIVAE MARCIANAE F, draped diademed bust of Matidia facing right.
PIETAS AVGST (around) S C (in ex.), Pietas standing left, placing her hands on the heads of two children.
RIC (Trajan) 761 [R3]; Cohen 11 (350 fr.); BMC 1088; MIR 730 var.1 (33 spec.); Strack 521; Banti 1 (20 spec.); Foss (Roman Historical Coins) 107:112
ex Ibercoins, Madrid

Matidia was the daughter of Trajan's sister Marciana and thus niece of Trajan, born about AD 68. She assumed the title of Augusta upon the death of her mother in 112. On reverse, Pietas symbolizes Matidia with her daughters Matidia the younger and Sabina, future wife of Hadrian. After her death in 119, a temple was dedicated to her on the forum of Trajan.
5 commentsCharles S
Vespasian_RIC_II_1404.jpg
Vespasian RIC II 140445 viewsVespasian. 69-79 A.D. Ephesus Mint, 69-70 A.D. (2.97g, 17.4m, 6h). Obv: IMP CAES VESPAS AVG, laureate head right. Rev: LIBERI IMP AVG VESPAS, Titus and Domitian veiled, togate, standing front, heads left, each with patera, sideways ɸ in exergue. RIC II 1404 (R).

The reverse inscription roughly translates as “the children of the Emperor Augustus Vespasian.” Vespasian acted early to establish his sons as his successors as shown by this example minted in his first year as Emperor. Initially attributed to Philipi, this series, characterized by the sideways ɸ, has been attributed to Ephesus by recent scholarship.
3 commentsLucas H
V282.jpg
Vespasian RIC-28246 viewsÆ Dupondius, 14.36g
Rome mint, 71 AD
Obv: IMP CAES VESPASIAN AVG COS III; Head of Vespasian, radiate, r.
Rev: TVTELA AVGVSTI; S C in exergue; Tutela std. l., with a child either side
RIC 282 (R2). BMC 596. BNC 572.
Acquired from Praefectus Coins, July 2019. Ex The Morris Collection. Formerly in NGC holder 4632640-020, grade 'Ch VF', strike 5/5, surface 3/5.

Tutela, the goddess of guardianship, is a rare personification on Roman coinage. She first appears on the dupondii of Vitellius and later under Vespasian during his great bronze issue of 71, both on the dupondius and a unique sestertius. The type under Vespasian is extremely scarce with only two reverse dies known for the dupondius. The unique sestertius was acquired by Curtis Clay, for which he wrote the following concerning the TVTELA reverse type:

'Cohen suggested a dynastic interpretation of this TVTELA AVGVSTI rev. type: Vitellius seated with his two children, one boy and one girl, under Vitellius; Domitilla, Vespasian's deceased wife, seated with her sons Titus and Domitian under Vespasian.

Mattingly, in BMC, p. xliv, modified Cohen's interpretation: "Cohen can hardly be right in identifying the woman with Domitilla, but the children seem to stand for Titus and Domitian, and Tutela is the guardian care of the Emperor that watches over his sons."

However, I prefer Mattingly's alternate interpretation, which he explains in a footnote:

"Or the children might represent citizens and Tutela would then be the Emperor's ward over his subjects. Cf. Suetonius, Divus Vespasianus, 5, an omen that portended 'desertam rem p. civili aliqua perturbatione in tutelam eius ac velut in gremium deventuram' ['that the Roman state, abandoned because of some civil agitation, would fall under his protection (tutela) and as it were into his lap']....Martial (v.1.7ff.) addresses Domitian as 'o rerum felix tutela salusque / sospite quo gratum credimus esse Iovem' [O happy protector (tutela) and savior of our affairs, whose continuing good health makes us believe that Jupiter is on our side']."

These quotes, and others that Mattingly indicates in the same note, show that 'tutela' was commonly used in Vespasian's day to mean the emperor's solicitous care for his subjects. Plus, the few later appearances of a Tutela type on Roman coins, under Tetricus I and Carausius, do not include children and seem to refer to governing not childrearing.'

As can clearly be seen on this well preserved dupondius the two children standing either side of Tutela are togate, indicating that they are both boys and perhaps can be viewed as further evidence that Mattingly's alternate theory is correct and the two children do indeed represent the empire's citizens. Unfortunately, the Tutela type was struck rather fleetingly in 71 and did not become part of Vespasian's regular canon of reverse types.

One of the finest known examples of the type. A double die match with the ANS specimen 1906.236.246.

NB: BMC 527 records the type with an obverse reading COS II, however, the obverse has been tooled from an original COS III die. Its reverse die is also known to be paired with other COS III obverses.
7 commentsDavid Atherton
Vitellius_dynastic_smalljpg.jpg
Vitellius RIC 010173 viewsVitellius (AD 69). AR denarius
(18mm, 2.95 gm, 5h).
NGC VG 4/5 - 4/5. Rome.
Obv: A VITELLIVS GERM IMP AVG TR P, laureate head of Vitellius right
Rev: LIBERI IMP GERM AVG, bareheaded and draped busts of the children of Vitellius (Aulus Vitellius Germanicus Junior and Vitellia), facing one another.
RIC I 101. Rare.
Ex: Heritage Auctions November 29, 2018 Lot 65074
5 commentsorfew
Volusian_RIC_174~0.JPG
Volusian, 251 - 253 AD32 viewsObv: IMP CAE C VIB VOLVSIANO AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust of Volusian facing right.

Rev: IVNONI MARTIALI, Juno seated, facing, inside a round distyle temple with a domed roof, two children one to her right and one to her left.

Billon Antoninianus, Rome mint, 253 AD

3.6 grams, 21.2 mm, 0°

RIC IViii 174, RSC 48, S9750, VM 13/3
2 commentsMatt Inglima
JCT_Yeshivah_Rabbi_Akiba_Eiger.JPG
Yeshivah Rabbi Akibah Eiger (New York, New York)150 viewsAE token, 32.5 mm., undated.

Obv: YESHIVAH RABBI AKIBAH EIGER along toothed rim above building in center, and 9-11 MONTGOMERY STREET / NEW YORK CITY in two rows along toothe rim below building.

Rev: HAVE A HEART / HELP THE / POOR CHILDREN / - AND - / GOD WILL / HELP YOU, within heart, and GOOD LUCK TOKEN below heart, along toothed rim.

Ref: None known.

Note: Rabbi Akibah Eiger (1761-1837) was born in Eisenstadt (then Hungary) and served as the rabbi of Märkisch Friedland, West Prussia (1791- 1815) and Poznań, Poland (1817-1837). He was a leading Talmudic scholar and an opponent of the Haskalah (Enlightenment) Movement. Nothing is known about the school that bears his name.
Stkp
SeptSeverus.jpg
[1001a] Septimius Severus, 9 April 193 - 4 February 211 A.D.63 viewsSilver denarius, RIC 32, RSC 301, VF, 2.966g, 16.8mm, 180o, Rome mint, 194 A.D.; obverse L SEPT SEV PERT AVG IMP III, laureate head right; reverse LIBERO PATRI, Liber (Bacchus) standing left, in right ocnochoe over panther, thysus in left; excellent portrait; scarce. Ex FORVM.

De Imperatoribus Romanis
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors

Septimius Severus (193-211 A.D.)

Michael L. Meckler
Ohio State University

Introduction
Lucius Septimius Severus restored stability to the Roman empire after the tumultuous reign of the emperor Commodus and the civil wars that erupted in the wake of Commodus' murder. However, by giving greater pay and benefits to soldiers and annexing the troublesome lands of northern Mesopotamia into the Roman empire, Septimius Severus brought increasing financial and military burdens to Rome's government. His prudent administration allowed these burdens to be met during his eighteen years on the throne, but his reign was not entirely sunny. The bloodiness with which Severus gained and maintained control of the empire tarnished his generally positive reputation.

Severus' Early Life and Acclamation
Severus was born 11 April 145 in the African city of Lepcis Magna, whose magnificent ruins are located in modern Libya, 130 miles east of Tripoli. Septimius Severus came from a distinguished local family with cousins who received suffect consulships in Rome under Antoninus Pius. The future emperor's father seems not to have held any major offices, but the grandfather may have been the wealthy equestrian Septimius Severus commemorated by the Flavian-era poet Statius.

The future emperor was helped in his early career by one of his consular cousins, who arranged entry into the senate and the favor of the emperor Marcus Aurelius. Life as a senator meant a life of travel from one government posting to another. Moorish attacks on his intended post of Baetica (southern Spain) forced Severus to serve his quaestorship in Sardinia. He then traveled to Africa as a legate and returned to Rome to be a tribune of the plebs. Around the year 175 he married Paccia Marciana, who seems also to have been of African origin. The childless marriage lasted a decade or so until her death.

Severus' career continued to flourish as the empire passed from Marcus to Commodus. The young senator held a praetorship, then served in Spain, commanded a legion in Syria and held the governorships of Gallia Lugdunensis (central France), Sicily and Upper Pannonia (easternmost Austria and western Hungary). While in Gallia Lugdunensis in 187, the now-widowed future emperor married Julia Domna, a woman from a prominent family of the Syrian city of Emesa. Two sons quickly arrived, eleven months apart: Bassianus (known to history as Caracalla) in April of the year 188, and Geta in March 189.

News of Pertinax's assassination 28 March 193 in an uprising by the praetorian guard quickly reached Pannonia, and only twelve days later on 9 April 193, Severus was proclaimed emperor. Septimius Severus had the strong support of the armies along the Rhine and Danube, but the loyalty of the governor of Britain, Clodius Albinus, was in doubt. Severus' envoys from Pannonia offered Albinus the title of Caesar, which he accepted.

The Civil Wars with Albinus, Niger, and Didius Julianus
In the city of Rome, Didius Julianus gained the support of the praetorian troops and was promoted as the successor to Pertinax. Although Julianus' authority did not extend much beyond Italy, Severus understood that legitimacy for a Roman emperor meant having one's authority accepted in Rome. He and his army began a swift march to the city. They met practically no resistance on their advance from Pannonia into northern Italy, as Julianus' supporters defected. By the beginning of June when Severus reached Interamna, 50 miles north of Rome, even the praetorian guard stationed in the capital switched sides. Didius Julianus was declared a public enemy and killed. Septimius Severus entered Rome without a fight.

Civil war was not yet over. Another provincial governor also had his eyes on the throne. In Syria, Pescennius Niger had been proclaimed emperor on news of Pertinax's death, and the eastern provinces quickly went under his authority. Byzantium became Niger's base of operations as he prepared to fight the armies of the west loyal to Severus.

Niger was unable to maintain further advances into Europe. The fighting moved to the Asian shore of the Propontis, and in late December 193 or early January 194, Niger was defeated in a battle near Nicaea and fled south. Asia and Bithynia fell under Severus' control, and Egypt soon recognized Severus' authority. By late spring, Niger was defeated near Issus and the remainder of his support collapsed. Syria was pacified. Niger was killed fleeing Antioch. Byzantium, however, refused to surrender to Severan forces. Niger's head was sent to the city to persuade the besieged citizens to give up, but to no avail. The Byzantines held out for another year before surrender. As punishment for their stubbornness, the walls of their city were destroyed.

Severus' Eastern Campaigns
During the fighting, two of the peoples of upper Mesopotamia -- the Osrhoeni and the Adiabeni -- captured some Roman garrisons and made an unsuccessful attack on the Roman-allied city of Nisibis. After the defeat of Niger, these peoples offered to return Roman captives and what remained of the seized treasures if the remaining Roman garrisons were removed from the region. Severus refused the offer and prepared for war against the two peoples, as well as against an Arabian tribe that had aided Niger. In the spring of 195, Severus marched an army through the desert into upper Mesopotamia. The native peoples quickly surrendered, and Severus added to his name the victorious titles Arabicus and Adiabenicus. Much of the upper third of Mesopotamia was organized as a Roman province, though the king of Osrhoene was allowed to retain control of a diminished realm.

The tottering Parthian empire was less and less able to control those peoples living in the border regions with Rome. Rome's eastern frontier was entering a period of instability, and Severus responded with an interventionist policy of attack and annexation. Some senators feared that increased involvement in Mesopotamia would only embroil Rome in local squabbles at great expense. The emperor, however, would remain consistent in his active eastern policy.

Legitimization of the Severan Dynasty
Severus also took steps to cement his legitimacy as emperor by connecting himself to the Antonine dynasty. Severus now proclaimed himself the son of Marcus Aurelius, which allowed him to trace his authority, through adoption, back to the emperor Nerva. Julia Domna was awarded the title "Mother of the Camp" (mater castrorum), a title only previously given to the empress Faustina the Younger, Marcus' wife. Bassianus, the emperor's elder son, was renamed Marcus Aurelius Antoninus and given the title Caesar. It was this last step that marked a decisive break with Albinus.

Albinus had remained in Britain as governor during the struggles between Severus and Niger. Although Albinus had not attempted open revolt against the emperor, he seems to have been in communication with senators about future moves. By the end of 195, Albinus was declared a public enemy by Severus. The governor of Britain responded by proclaiming himself emperor and invading Gaul.

A weary Roman populace used the anonymity of the crowd at the chariot races to complain about renewed civil war, but it was Gaul that bore the brunt of the fighting. Albinus and his supporters were able to inflict losses on the occasion of the initial attacks, but disorder was so great that opportunistic soldiers could easily operate on their own within the lands under Albinus' nominal control.

The tide began to turn early in 197, and after a Severan victory at Tournus, Albinus found himself and his army trapped near Lyon. A battle broke out 19 February 197. In the initial fighting, Albinus' troops forced the Severans into retreat, during which Severus fell off his horse. When the Severan cavalry appeared, however, Albinus' army was routed. Lyon was sacked and Albinus, who was trapped in a house along the river Rhône, committed suicide. Severus ordered Albinus' head to be cut off and sent to Rome for display. Many of Albinus' supporters were killed, including a large number of Spanish and Gallic aristocrats. Albinus' wife and children were killed, as were many of the wives of his supporters. Tradition also told of the mutilation of bodies and denial of proper burial. The emperor revealed a penchant for cruelty that troubled even his fervent supporters. A purge of the senate soon followed. Included among the victims was Pertinax's father-in-law, Sulpicianus.

Severus and the Roman Military
Severus brought many changes to the Roman military. Soldiers' pay was increased by half, they were allowed to be married while in service, and greater opportunities were provided for promotion into officer ranks and the civil service. The entire praetorian guard, discredited by the murder of Pertinax and the auctioning of their support to Julianus, was dismissed. The emperor created a new, larger praetorian guard out of provincial soldiers from the legions. Increases were also made to the two other security forces based in Rome: the urban cohorts, who maintained order; and the night watch, who fought fires and dealt with overnight disturbances, break-ins and other petty crime. These military reforms proved expensive, but the measures may well have increased soldiers' performance and morale in an increasingly unsettled age.

One location that remained unsettled was the eastern frontier. In 197 Nisibis had again been under siege, and the emperor prepared for another eastern campaign. Three new legions were raised, though one was left behind in central Italy to maintain order. The Roman armies easily swept through upper Mesopotamia, traveling down the Euphrates to sack Seleucia, Babylon and Ctesiphon, which had been abandoned by the Parthian king Vologaeses V. On 28 January 198 -- the centenary of Trajan's accession -- Severus took the victorious title Parthicus Maximus and promoted both of his sons: Caracalla to the rank of Augustus and Geta to the rank of Caesar.

Before embarking on the eastern campaign, the emperor had named Gaius Fulvius Plautianus as a praetorian prefect. Plautianus came from the emperor's home town of Lepcis, and the prefect may even have been a relative of the emperor. The victories in Mesopotamia were followed by tours of eastern provinces, including Egypt. Plautianus accompanied Severus throughout the travels, and by the year 201 Plautianus was the emperor's closest confidant and advisor. Plautianus was also praetorian prefect without peer after having arranged the murder of his last colleague in the post.

Upon the return to Rome in 202, the influence of Plautianus was at its height. Comparisons were made with Sejanus, the powerful praetorian prefect under the emperor Tiberius. Plautianus, who earlier had been adlected into the senate, was now awarded consular rank, and his daughter Plautilla was married to Caracalla. The wealth Plautianus had acquired from his close connection with the emperor enabled him to provide a dowry said to have been worthy of fifty princesses. Celebrations and games also marked the decennalia, the beginning of the tenth year of Severus' reign. Later in the year the enlarged imperial family traveled to Lepcis, where native sons Severus and Plautianus could display their prestige and power.

The following year the imperial family returned to Rome, where an arch, still standing today, was dedicated to the emperor at the western end of the Forum. Preparations were also being made for the Secular Games, which were thought to have originated in earliest Rome and were to be held every 110 years. Augustus celebrated the Secular Games in 17 B.C., and Domitian in A.D. 88, six years too early. (Claudius used the excuse of Rome's 800th year to hold the games in A.D. 47.) In 204 Severus would preside over ten days of ceremonies and spectacles.

By the end of 204, Plautianus was finding his influence with the emperor on the wane. Caracalla was not happy to be the husband of Plautilla. Julia Domna resented Plautianus' criticisms and investigations against her. Severus was tiring of his praetorian prefect's ostentation, which at times seemed to surpass that of the emperor himself. The emperor's ailing brother, Geta, also denounced Plautianus, and after Geta's death the praetorian prefect found himself being bypassed by the emperor. In January 205 a soldier named Saturninus revealed to the emperor a plot by Plautianus to have Severus and Caracalla killed. Plautianus was summoned to the imperial palace and executed. His children were exiled, and Caracalla divorced Plautilla. Some observers suspected the story of a plot was merely a ruse to cover up long-term plans for Plautianus' removal.

Severus and Roman Law
Two new praetorian prefects were named to replace Plautianus, one of whom was the eminent jurist Papinian. The emperor's position as ultimate appeals judge had brought an ever-increasing legal workload to his office. During the second century, a career path for legal experts was established, and an emperor came to rely heavily upon his consilium, an advisory panel of experienced jurists, in rendering decisions. Severus brought these jurists to even greater prominence. A diligent administrator and conscientious judge, the emperor appreciated legal reasoning and nurtured its development. His reign ushered in the golden age of Roman jurisprudence, and his court employed the talents of the three greatest Roman lawyers: Papinian, Paul and Ulpian.

The order Severus was able to impose on the empire through both the force of arms and the force of law failed to extend to his own family. His now teenaged sons, Caracalla and Geta, displayed a reckless sibling rivalry that sometimes resulted in physical injury. The emperor believed the lack of responsibilities in Rome contributed to the ill-will between his sons and decided that the family would travel to Britain to oversee military operations there. Caracalla was involved in directing the army's campaigns, while Geta was given civilian authority and a promotion to joint emperor with his father and brother.

Severus was now into his 60s. Chronic gout limited his activities and sapped his strength. The emperor's health continued to deteriorate in Britain, and he became ever more intent on trying to improve the bitter relationship between his two sons. He is reported to have given his sons three pieces of advice: "Get along; pay off the soldiers; and disregard everyone else." The first piece of advice would not be heeded.

Severus died in York on 4 February 211 at the age of 65. His reign lasted nearly 18 years, a duration that would not be matched until Diocletian. Culturally and ideologically Septimius Severus connected his reign to the earlier Antonine era, but the reforms he enacted would eventually alter the very character of Roman government. By creating a larger and more expensive army and increasing the influence of lawyers in administration, Severus planted the seeds that would develop into the highly militaristic and bureaucratic government of the later empire.

Copyright (C) 1998, Michael L. Meckler. Published on De Imperatoribus Romanis, An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors; http://www.roman-emperors.org/sepsev.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
1 commentsCleisthenes
SeptSevArDen.jpg
[1001b] Septimius Severus, 9 April 193 - 4 February 211 A.D.45 viewsSeptimius Severus, 9 April 193 - 4 February 211 A.D., Silver denarius, RIC 119A. aF. Rome. Obverse: L. SEP. SEVERVS PER. AVG. P. M. IMP. XI, His bearded and laureated head right. Reverse: SALVTI AVGG. Salus seated left feeding serpent arising from altar(?). Scarce. Ex FORVM.


De Imperatoribus Romanis
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors

Septimius Severus (193-211 A.D.)

Michael L. Meckler
Ohio State University

Introduction
Lucius Septimius Severus restored stability to the Roman empire after the tumultuous reign of the emperor Commodus and the civil wars that erupted in the wake of Commodus' murder. However, by giving greater pay and benefits to soldiers and annexing the troublesome lands of northern Mesopotamia into the Roman empire, Septimius Severus brought increasing financial and military burdens to Rome's government. His prudent administration allowed these burdens to be met during his eighteen years on the throne, but his reign was not entirely sunny. The bloodiness with which Severus gained and maintained control of the empire tarnished his generally positive reputation.

Severus' Early Life and Acclamation
Severus was born 11 April 145 in the African city of Lepcis Magna, whose magnificent ruins are located in modern Libya, 130 miles east of Tripoli. Septimius Severus came from a distinguished local family with cousins who received suffect consulships in Rome under Antoninus Pius. The future emperor's father seems not to have held any major offices, but the grandfather may have been the wealthy equestrian Septimius Severus commemorated by the Flavian-era poet Statius.

The future emperor was helped in his early career by one of his consular cousins, who arranged entry into the senate and the favor of the emperor Marcus Aurelius. Life as a senator meant a life of travel from one government posting to another. Moorish attacks on his intended post of Baetica (southern Spain) forced Severus to serve his quaestorship in Sardinia. He then traveled to Africa as a legate and returned to Rome to be a tribune of the plebs. Around the year 175 he married Paccia Marciana, who seems also to have been of African origin. The childless marriage lasted a decade or so until her death.

Severus' career continued to flourish as the empire passed from Marcus to Commodus. The young senator held a praetorship, then served in Spain, commanded a legion in Syria and held the governorships of Gallia Lugdunensis (central France), Sicily and Upper Pannonia (easternmost Austria and western Hungary). While in Gallia Lugdunensis in 187, the now-widowed future emperor married Julia Domna, a woman from a prominent family of the Syrian city of Emesa. Two sons quickly arrived, eleven months apart: Bassianus (known to history as Caracalla) in April of the year 188, and Geta in March 189.

News of Pertinax's assassination 28 March 193 in an uprising by the praetorian guard quickly reached Pannonia, and only twelve days later on 9 April 193, Severus was proclaimed emperor. Septimius Severus had the strong support of the armies along the Rhine and Danube, but the loyalty of the governor of Britain, Clodius Albinus, was in doubt. Severus' envoys from Pannonia offered Albinus the title of Caesar, which he accepted.

The Civil Wars with Albinus, Niger, and Didius Julianus
In the city of Rome, Didius Julianus gained the support of the praetorian troops and was promoted as the successor to Pertinax. Although Julianus' authority did not extend much beyond Italy, Severus understood that legitimacy for a Roman emperor meant having one's authority accepted in Rome. He and his army began a swift march to the city. They met practically no resistance on their advance from Pannonia into northern Italy, as Julianus' supporters defected. By the beginning of June when Severus reached Interamna, 50 miles north of Rome, even the praetorian guard stationed in the capital switched sides. Didius Julianus was declared a public enemy and killed. Septimius Severus entered Rome without a fight.

Civil war was not yet over. Another provincial governor also had his eyes on the throne. In Syria, Pescennius Niger had been proclaimed emperor on news of Pertinax's death, and the eastern provinces quickly went under his authority. Byzantium became Niger's base of operations as he prepared to fight the armies of the west loyal to Severus.

Niger was unable to maintain further advances into Europe. The fighting moved to the Asian shore of the Propontis, and in late December 193 or early January 194, Niger was defeated in a battle near Nicaea and fled south. Asia and Bithynia fell under Severus' control, and Egypt soon recognized Severus' authority. By late spring, Niger was defeated near Issus and the remainder of his support collapsed. Syria was pacified. Niger was killed fleeing Antioch. Byzantium, however, refused to surrender to Severan forces. Niger's head was sent to the city to persuade the besieged citizens to give up, but to no avail. The Byzantines held out for another year before surrender. As punishment for their stubbornness, the walls of their city were destroyed.

Severus' Eastern Campaigns
During the fighting, two of the peoples of upper Mesopotamia -- the Osrhoeni and the Adiabeni -- captured some Roman garrisons and made an unsuccessful attack on the Roman-allied city of Nisibis. After the defeat of Niger, these peoples offered to return Roman captives and what remained of the seized treasures if the remaining Roman garrisons were removed from the region. Severus refused the offer and prepared for war against the two peoples, as well as against an Arabian tribe that had aided Niger. In the spring of 195, Severus marched an army through the desert into upper Mesopotamia. The native peoples quickly surrendered, and Severus added to his name the victorious titles Arabicus and Adiabenicus. Much of the upper third of Mesopotamia was organized as a Roman province, though the king of Osrhoene was allowed to retain control of a diminished realm.

The tottering Parthian empire was less and less able to control those peoples living in the border regions with Rome. Rome's eastern frontier was entering a period of instability, and Severus responded with an interventionist policy of attack and annexation. Some senators feared that increased involvement in Mesopotamia would only embroil Rome in local squabbles at great expense. The emperor, however, would remain consistent in his active eastern policy.

Legitimization of the Severan Dynasty
Severus also took steps to cement his legitimacy as emperor by connecting himself to the Antonine dynasty. Severus now proclaimed himself the son of Marcus Aurelius, which allowed him to trace his authority, through adoption, back to the emperor Nerva. Julia Domna was awarded the title "Mother of the Camp" (mater castrorum), a title only previously given to the empress Faustina the Younger, Marcus' wife. Bassianus, the emperor's elder son, was renamed Marcus Aurelius Antoninus and given the title Caesar. It was this last step that marked a decisive break with Albinus.

Albinus had remained in Britain as governor during the struggles between Severus and Niger. Although Albinus had not attempted open revolt against the emperor, he seems to have been in communication with senators about future moves.[[3]] By the end of 195, Albinus was declared a public enemy by Severus. The governor of Britain responded by proclaiming himself emperor and invading Gaul.

A weary Roman populace used the anonymity of the crowd at the chariot races to complain about renewed civil war, but it was Gaul that bore the brunt of the fighting. Albinus and his supporters were able to inflict losses on the occasion of the initial attacks, but disorder was so great that opportunistic soldiers could easily operate on their own within the lands under Albinus' nominal control.

The tide began to turn early in 197, and after a Severan victory at Tournus, Albinus found himself and his army trapped near Lyon. A battle broke out 19 February 197. In the initial fighting, Albinus' troops forced the Severans into retreat, during which Severus fell off his horse. When the Severan cavalry appeared, however, Albinus' army was routed. Lyon was sacked and Albinus, who was trapped in a house along the river Rhône, committed suicide. Severus ordered Albinus' head to be cut off and sent to Rome for display. Many of Albinus' supporters were killed, including a large number of Spanish and Gallic aristocrats. Albinus' wife and children were killed, as were many of the wives of his supporters. Tradition also told of the mutilation of bodies and denial of proper burial. The emperor revealed a penchant for cruelty that troubled even his fervent supporters. A purge of the senate soon followed. Included among the victims was Pertinax's father-in-law, Sulpicianus.

Severus and the Roman Military
Severus brought many changes to the Roman military. Soldiers' pay was increased by half, they were allowed to be married while in service, and greater opportunities were provided for promotion into officer ranks and the civil service. The entire praetorian guard, discredited by the murder of Pertinax and the auctioning of their support to Julianus, was dismissed. The emperor created a new, larger praetorian guard out of provincial soldiers from the legions. Increases were also made to the two other security forces based in Rome: the urban cohorts, who maintained order; and the night watch, who fought fires and dealt with overnight disturbances, break-ins and other petty crime. These military reforms proved expensive, but the measures may well have increased soldiers' performance and morale in an increasingly unsettled age.

One location that remained unsettled was the eastern frontier. In 197 Nisibis had again been under siege, and the emperor prepared for another eastern campaign. Three new legions were raised, though one was left behind in central Italy to maintain order. The Roman armies easily swept through upper Mesopotamia, traveling down the Euphrates to sack Seleucia, Babylon and Ctesiphon, which had been abandoned by the Parthian king Vologaeses V. On 28 January 198 -- the centenary of Trajan's accession -- Severus took the victorious title Parthicus Maximus and promoted both of his sons: Caracalla to the rank of Augustus and Geta to the rank of Caesar.

Before embarking on the eastern campaign, the emperor had named Gaius Fulvius Plautianus as a praetorian prefect. Plautianus came from the emperor's home town of Lepcis, and the prefect may even have been a relative of the emperor. The victories in Mesopotamia were followed by tours of eastern provinces, including Egypt. Plautianus accompanied Severus throughout the travels, and by the year 201 Plautianus was the emperor's closest confidant and advisor. Plautianus was also praetorian prefect without peer after having arranged the murder of his last colleague in the post.

Upon the return to Rome in 202, the influence of Plautianus was at its height. Comparisons were made with Sejanus, the powerful praetorian prefect under the emperor Tiberius. Plautianus, who earlier had been adlected into the senate, was now awarded consular rank, and his daughter Plautilla was married to Caracalla. The wealth Plautianus had acquired from his close connection with the emperor enabled him to provide a dowry said to have been worthy of fifty princesses. Celebrations and games also marked the decennalia, the beginning of the tenth year of Severus' reign. Later in the year the enlarged imperial family traveled to Lepcis, where native sons Severus and Plautianus could display their prestige and power.

The following year the imperial family returned to Rome, where an arch, still standing today, was dedicated to the emperor at the western end of the Forum. Preparations were also being made for the Secular Games, which were thought to have originated in earliest Rome and were to be held every 110 years. Augustus celebrated the Secular Games in 17 B.C., and Domitian in A.D. 88, six years too early. (Claudius used the excuse of Rome's 800th year to hold the games in A.D. 47.) In 204 Severus would preside over ten days of ceremonies and spectacles.

By the end of 204, Plautianus was finding his influence with the emperor on the wane. Caracalla was not happy to be the husband of Plautilla. Julia Domna resented Plautianus' criticisms and investigations against her. Severus was tiring of his praetorian prefect's ostentation, which at times seemed to surpass that of the emperor himself. The emperor's ailing brother, Geta, also denounced Plautianus, and after Geta's death the praetorian prefect found himself being bypassed by the emperor. In January 205 a soldier named Saturninus revealed to the emperor a plot by Plautianus to have Severus and Caracalla killed. Plautianus was summoned to the imperial palace and executed. His children were exiled, and Caracalla divorced Plautilla. Some observers suspected the story of a plot was merely a ruse to cover up long-term plans for Plautianus' removal.

Severus and Roman Law
Two new praetorian prefects were named to replace Plautianus, one of whom was the eminent jurist Papinian. The emperor's position as ultimate appeals judge had brought an ever-increasing legal workload to his office. During the second century, a career path for legal experts was established, and an emperor came to rely heavily upon his consilium, an advisory panel of experienced jurists, in rendering decisions. Severus brought these jurists to even greater prominence. A diligent administrator and conscientious judge, the emperor appreciated legal reasoning and nurtured its development. His reign ushered in the golden age of Roman jurisprudence, and his court employed the talents of the three greatest Roman lawyers: Papinian, Paul and Ulpian.

The order Severus was able to impose on the empire through both the force of arms and the force of law failed to extend to his own family. His now teenaged sons, Caracalla and Geta, displayed a reckless sibling rivalry that sometimes resulted in physical injury. The emperor believed the lack of responsibilities in Rome contributed to the ill-will between his sons and decided that the family would travel to Britain to oversee military operations there. Caracalla was involved in directing the army's campaigns, while Geta was given civilian authority and a promotion to joint emperor with his father and brother.

Severus was now into his 60s. Chronic gout limited his activities and sapped his strength. The emperor's health continued to deteriorate in Britain, and he became ever more intent on trying to improve the bitter relationship between his two sons. He is reported to have given his sons three pieces of advice: "Get along; pay off the soldiers; and disregard everyone else." The first piece of advice would not be heeded.

Severus died in York on 4 February 211 at the age of 65. His reign lasted nearly 18 years, a duration that would not be matched until Diocletian. Culturally and ideologically Septimius Severus connected his reign to the earlier Antonine era, but the reforms he enacted would eventually alter the very character of Roman government. By creating a larger and more expensive army and increasing the influence of lawyers in administration, Severus planted the seeds that would develop into the highly militaristic and bureaucratic government of the later empire.

Copyright (C) 1998, Michael L. Meckler. Published on De Imperatoribus Romanis, An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors; http://www.roman-emperors.org/sepsev.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

Cleisthenes
Carac1stCaes.jpg
[1004a] Caracalla, 28 January 198 - 8 April 217 A.D.29 viewsSilver denarius, RIC 2, gF, Rome, 2.662g, 17.2mm, 0o; type from his first issue as Caesar., 196 A.D. Obverse: M AVR ANTONINVS CAES, boy's bare-headed, draped and cuirassed bust right; Reverse: SECVRITAS PERPETVA (Security Everlasting), Minerva with aegis on breast, standing left, holding spear in left and resting right on shield on the ground; well centered on a tight flan; scarce. Ex FORVM.

De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Marcus Aurelius Antoninus (Caracalla)

Michael L. Meckler,
Ohio State University

Caracalla was born 4 April 188 in Lyon, where his father was serving as governor of the province of Gallia Lugdunensis under the emperor Commodus. The child's name originally seems to have been Lucius Septimius Bassianus, the cognomen commemorating the family of the boy's Syrian mother, Julia Domna. When he was seven years old, his name was changed to Marcus Aurelius Antoninus. The name change was a way of connecting the family of Severus to that of the Antonines. Caracalla was a nickname taken from the name of a type of cloak popularized by the emperor, but this nickname, originally derisive, was never used officially.


From the time of his name change to Antoninus, Caracalla was the designated heir of Severus. Less than three years later he was proclaimed emperor, officially joining his father as co-rulers of the empire. At the age of 14 he was married to the daughter of the praetorian prefect Plautianus Publia Fulvia, Plautilla, but the teenager despised his wife. The marriage ended less than three years later after the execution of Plautianus for treason, and there were no children.

Squabbling and rivalry developed between Caracalla and Geta, who was only 11 months younger than his brother. Severus felt the lack of responsibilities in Rome contributed to the ill-will between his sons and decided that the family would travel to Britain to oversee military operations there. Caracalla was involved in directing the army's campaigns, while Geta was given civilian authority and a promotion to joint emperor with his father and brother. Within two years of the imperial family's arrival in Britain, Severus' health began to deteriorate, but his sons' relationship showed no signs of improvement. Severus died 4 February 211. Caracalla was 22 years old, Geta 21.

The brothers returned to Rome as joint emperors, but they eyed each other with suspicion and failed to cooperate on government appointments and policy decisions. Caracalla was being advised to have Geta murdered, and after at least one unsuccessful attempt, Geta was killed in late December 211. The murder led to a wholesale slaughter of Geta's supporters and sympathizers, and soldiers were allowed to wreak havoc on the residents of Rome. The looting and bloodshed lasted for at least two weeks, and one contemporary source claims 20,000 people were killed.

The year 212 saw a flurry of administrative reforms under the young emperor's leadership. Soldiers received increases in pay and in legal rights, but the most noteworthy change was the bestowal of Roman citizenship upon all free residents of the empire. This grant of universal citizenship, called by scholars the Constitutio Antoniniana, allowed for greater standardization in the increasingly bureaucratic Roman state. Construction was also well underway on the magnificant baths in Rome that would bear the emperor's name. The main building seems to have been completed four years later, but the entire complex was not finished until the reign of Alexander Severus.

Caracalla spent little time in Rome after the spring of 213. A visit to Gaul and a military campaign along the borders of Upper Germany and Raetia occupied much of the rest of the year. Winter may have been spent in Rome, but the following year Caracalla made a journey to the East in preparation for a war against the Parthians. Along the way, the emperor displayed an increasing fascination and identification with Alexander the Great. Like the Macedonian prince, however, Caracalla would not survive an expedition to the East. Only his ashes would return to Rome.

Civil war in the Parthian realm between brothers and rival kings Vologaeses VI and Artabanus V brought instability to the entire region, and Caracalla wished to take advantage of that instability to increase Roman control. Osroene was annexed in 213, but an attempt in the same year to take over Armenia backfired. Caracalla's campaigns in the East seemed designed to harass the Parthians more than anything else. In 215, Caracalla suspended plans to invade Parthia after Vologaeses handed over two political refugees, although Roman troops were sent into Armenia. The following year the emperor led his troops into Mesopotamia after being rebuffed in his request to marry the daughter of Artabanus. Roman armies were generally unopposed in their forays, the Parthian forces having retreated farther east. The Romans returned back across the Euphrates, wintering in Edessa.

Between campaigning seasons, Caracalla made a notorious visit to Alexandria in the fall and winter of 215-16. Rioting accompanied the imperial visit, and retribution was swift. The governor of Egypt was executed as were thousands of the city's young men. Alexandria was cordoned off into zones to prevent the free movement of residents, and games and privileges were revoked.

The emperor visited Alexandria for intellectual and religious reasons, staying at The Serapeum and being present at the temple's sacrifices and cultural events. Earlier, during the German war, the emperor visited the shrine of the Celtic healing-god Grannus. Caracalla also visited the famous temple of Asclepius in Pergamum and fully participated in its program, which involved sleeping inside the temple compound and having his dreams interpreted.

It was this religious devotion that led to Caracalla's murder in 217. Although suspicious of the praetorian prefect Macrinus, Caracalla allowed himself to be accompanied by only a small, select corps of bodyguards on an early spring trip from the camp at Edessa to the temple of the moon-god at Carrhae, about 25 miles away. During the journey back on 8 April 217, Caracalla was killed. The returning guards claimed the emperor was ambushed while defecating, and that the alleged assassin was one of their own, a soldier named Martialis. Martialis was himself killed by the avenging guards, or so the story went. Suspicion was strong that Macrinus arranged the entire affair.

Caracalla's violent end seemed appropriate for an emperor who, early in his reign, had his own brother killed. Yet the moralizing about fratricide by both ancient and modern historians obscures the energetic, reformist and even intellectual character of Caracalla's reign. Some of the reforms, especially the pay raise for soldiers, would prove burdensome for future emperors, but the changes brought about in the little more than five years of Caracalla's sole rule would have long-lasting implications throughout the empire for generations to come.


Copyright (C) 1998, Michael L. Meckler. Published on De Imperatoribus Romanis, An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors; http://www.roman-emperors.org/sepsev.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.


Cleisthenes
CaracallaRIC108.jpg
[1004b] Caracalla, 28 January 198 - 8 April 217 A.D.31 viewsSilver denarius, RIC 108, RSC 510, VF, 2.967g, 19.2mm, 180o, Rome mint, 208 A.D.; obverse ANTONINVS PIVS AVG, laureate head right; reverse PROF PONTIF TR P XI COS III, Emperor on horseback right, captive at feet; scarce. Ex FORVM.

This coin refers to the departure of Caracalla, Septimius, and Geta on their British expedition. Our dating of this departure to the year 208 depends on these coins dated TR P XI for Caracalla and TR P XVI for Septimius (Joseph Sermarini).

De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Marcus Aurelius Antoninus (Caracalla)

Michael L. Meckler,
Ohio State University

Caracalla was born 4 April 188 in Lyon, where his father was serving as governor of the province of Gallia Lugdunensis under the emperor Commodus. The child's name originally seems to have been Lucius Septimius Bassianus, the cognomen commemorating the family of the boy's Syrian mother, Julia Domna. When he was seven years old, his name was changed to Marcus Aurelius Antoninus. The name change was a way of connecting the family of Severus to that of the Antonines. Caracalla was a nickname taken from the name of a type of cloak popularized by the emperor, but this nickname, originally derisive, was never used officially.


From the time of his name change to Antoninus, Caracalla was the designated heir of Severus. Less than three years later he was proclaimed emperor, officially joining his father as co-rulers of the empire. At the age of 14 he was married to the daughter of the praetorian prefect Plautianus Publia Fulvia, Plautilla, but the teenager despised his wife. The marriage ended less than three years later after the execution of Plautianus for treason, and there were no children.

Squabbling and rivalry developed between Caracalla and Geta, who was only 11 months younger than his brother. Severus felt the lack of responsibilities in Rome contributed to the ill-will between his sons and decided that the family would travel to Britain to oversee military operations there. Caracalla was involved in directing the army's campaigns, while Geta was given civilian authority and a promotion to joint emperor with his father and brother. Within two years of the imperial family's arrival in Britain, Severus' health began to deteriorate, but his sons' relationship showed no signs of improvement. Severus died 4 February 211. Caracalla was 22 years old, Geta 21.

The brothers returned to Rome as joint emperors, but they eyed each other with suspicion and failed to cooperate on government appointments and policy decisions. Caracalla was being advised to have Geta murdered, and after at least one unsuccessful attempt, Geta was killed in late December 211. The murder led to a wholesale slaughter of Geta's supporters and sympathizers, and soldiers were allowed to wreak havoc on the residents of Rome. The looting and bloodshed lasted for at least two weeks, and one contemporary source claims 20,000 people were killed.

The year 212 saw a flurry of administrative reforms under the young emperor's leadership. Soldiers received increases in pay and in legal rights, but the most noteworthy change was the bestowal of Roman citizenship upon all free residents of the empire. This grant of universal citizenship, called by scholars the Constitutio Antoniniana, allowed for greater standardization in the increasingly bureaucratic Roman state. Construction was also well underway on the magnificant baths in Rome that would bear the emperor's name. The main building seems to have been completed four years later, but the entire complex was not finished until the reign of Alexander Severus.

Caracalla spent little time in Rome after the spring of 213. A visit to Gaul and a military campaign along the borders of Upper Germany and Raetia occupied much of the rest of the year. Winter may have been spent in Rome, but the following year Caracalla made a journey to the East in preparation for a war against the Parthians. Along the way, the emperor displayed an increasing fascination and identification with Alexander the Great. Like the Macedonian prince, however, Caracalla would not survive an expedition to the East. Only his ashes would return to Rome.

Civil war in the Parthian realm between brothers and rival kings Vologaeses VI and Artabanus V brought instability to the entire region, and Caracalla wished to take advantage of that instability to increase Roman control. Osroene was annexed in 213, but an attempt in the same year to take over Armenia backfired. Caracalla's campaigns in the East seemed designed to harass the Parthians more than anything else. In 215, Caracalla suspended plans to invade Parthia after Vologaeses handed over two political refugees, although Roman troops were sent into Armenia. The following year the emperor led his troops into Mesopotamia after being rebuffed in his request to marry the daughter of Artabanus. Roman armies were generally unopposed in their forays, the Parthian forces having retreated farther east. The Romans returned back across the Euphrates, wintering in Edessa.

Between campaigning seasons, Caracalla made a notorious visit to Alexandria in the fall and winter of 215-16. Rioting accompanied the imperial visit, and retribution was swift. The governor of Egypt was executed as were thousands of the city's young men. Alexandria was cordoned off into zones to prevent the free movement of residents, and games and privileges were revoked.

The emperor visited Alexandria for intellectual and religious reasons, staying at The Serapeum and being present at the temple's sacrifices and cultural events. Earlier, during the German war, the emperor visited the shrine of the Celtic healing-god Grannus. Caracalla also visited the famous temple of Asclepius in Pergamum and fully participated in its program, which involved sleeping inside the temple compound and having his dreams interpreted.

It was this religious devotion that led to Caracalla's murder in 217. Although suspicious of the praetorian prefect Macrinus, Caracalla allowed himself to be accompanied by only a small, select corps of bodyguards on an early spring trip from the camp at Edessa to the temple of the moon-god at Carrhae, about 25 miles away. During the journey back on 8 April 217, Caracalla was killed. The returning guards claimed the emperor was ambushed while defecating, and that the alleged assassin was one of their own, a soldier named Martialis. Martialis was himself killed by the avenging guards, or so the story went. Suspicion was strong that Macrinus arranged the entire affair.

Caracalla's violent end seemed appropriate for an emperor who, early in his reign, had his own brother killed. Yet the moralizing about fratricide by both ancient and modern historians obscures the energetic, reformist and even intellectual character of Caracalla's reign. Some of the reforms, especially the pay raise for soldiers, would prove burdensome for future emperors, but the changes brought about in the little more than five years of Caracalla's sole rule would have long-lasting implications throughout the empire for generations to come.


Copyright (C) 1998, Michael L. Meckler. Published on De Imperatoribus Romanis, An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors; http://www.roman-emperors.org/sepsev.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
MacrinusDiadumenian_Hygeia_Marcianopolis.jpg
[1006a] Macrinus, 11 April 217 - 8 June 218 A.D.; Diadumenian, mid May - 8 June 218 A.D.26 viewsMacrinus and Diadumenian, AMNG 750, 217-218 AD, 12.4 g, 27.25 mm; Moesia Inferior Marcianopolis; aVF; Obverse: Busts of Macrinus and Diadumenian facing each other; Reverse: Rv.: Asklepios standing left, with snake coiled on staff, lovely jade green patina; Ex Colosseum; Ex Ancient Imports.


De Imperatoribus Romanis,
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors

Macrinus (217-218 A.D.)

Michael L. Meckler
Ohio State University


Marcus Opellius Macrinus was the first emperor who was neither a senator nor of a senatorial family at the time of his accession. His 14-month reign was spent entirely in the East, where he proved unable to maintain the influence gained in the region by the campaigns of his predecessor, Caracalla, nor was Macrinus able to shake the suspicion that he was responsible for Caracalla's murder.

Macrinus was born in Caesarea in Mauretania around the year 165 AD. While it is highly conjectural that, as a young man, the future emperor was the dedicatee of Ampelius' encyclopedic Liber memoralis, Macrinus undoubtedly received a literary education that enabled him to rise high as a bureaucrat in the imperial service during the reign of the emperor Severus. Caracalla made Macrinus a praetorian prefect, an equestrian post that was second to the emperor in power. Macrinus shared the position with the experienced soldier Adventus, and the pair served Caracalla during the emperor's campaigns in the East.

By the end of the second campaigning season in the winter of 216-17, rumors were flying both in Rome and in the East that Macrinus was promoting himself as a possible future emperor. Caracalla must have been aware of the rumors concerning Macrinus, for the contemporary historian Cassius Dio notes the emperor was already reassigning members of Macrinus' staff. Such personnel moves may have accelerated Macrinus' plot.

Shortly before the campaigning season was to begin, Caracalla paid a visit to a temple near Carrhae. The emperor was accompanied by a hand-picked corps of bodyguards. The guards returned with Caracalla's murdered body, along with the body of one of the guards and a story that the dead guard killed the dead emperor. Not everyone was convinced, but Macrinus was able to translate his authority as praetorian prefect into that of emperor, being proclaimed by the troops on 11 April 217. Macrinus soon named his son, Diadumenianus, as Caesar and heir. The new emperor also got his former colleague, Adventus, out of the way by sending him back to Rome as urban prefect.

Macrinus straightaway sent conciliatory messages to the Parthian ruler Artabanus V, but Artabanus sensed weakness and raised an army to avenge his losses from the previous year's campaign. Macrinus hoped to avoid a battle with the Parthians, but fighting erupted between the armies while both sides were encamped around Nisibis. The Parthians gained victory and, during the following autumn and winter, peace negotiations were held. Macrinus ended up paying the Parthians large bribes and reparations. Settlements were also reached with the Armenians, and, in the lower Danube, with the Dacians, who had launched attacks on the Romans after learning of Caracalla's death.

By not returning to Rome in 217, Macrinus opened himself to criticism. Dissatisfaction was especially high in the city after a particularly violent, late-August thunderstorm started a fire that damaged much of the Colosseum and caused widespread flooding, especially in the Forum. Adventus proved himself incompetent as urban prefect and had to be replaced.

But grumblings in Rome were insignificant compared to the growing unease among the soldiers on campaign in the East. The defeat at Nisibis disheartened troops. Macrinus also introduced an unpopular, two-tier pay system in which new recruits received less money than veterans. The move was a way to save money after the pay raise granted by Caracalla, but it lowered morale as well.

Earlier, Caracalla's mother, Julia Domna, had toyed with the idea of raising a rebellion against Macrinus shortly after her son's murder, but the empress was uncertain of success and already suffering from breast cancer. She chose to starve herself to death instead.

The grandchildren of her sister, Julia Maesa, would become the focus of the successful uprising that began on 15 May 218. Her 14-year-old grandson Avitus (known to history as Elagabalus) was proclaimed emperor by one the legions camped near the family's hometown of Emesa. Other troops quickly joined the rebellion, but Macrinus marshalled loyal soldiers to crush the revolt. Macrinus also promoted his son to the rank of emperor.

The forces met in a village outside Antioch on 8 June 218. Despite the inexperience of the leaders of the rebel army, Macrinus was defeated. He sent his son, Diadumenianus, with an ambassador to the Parthian king, while Macrinus himself prepared to flee to Rome. Macrinus traveled across Asia Minor disguised as a courier and nearly made it to Europe, but he was captured in Chalcedon. Macrinus was transported to Cappadocia, where he was executed. Diadumenianus had also been captured (at Zeugma) and was similarly put to death.

Contemporaries tended to portray Macrinus as a fear-driven parvenu who was able to make himself emperor but was incapable of the leadership required by the job. An able administrator, Macrinus lacked the aristocratic connections and personal bravado that might have won him legitimacy. His short reign represented a brief interlude of Parthian success during what would prove the final decade of the Parthian empire.

Copyright (C) 1997, Michael L. Meckler. Published on De Imperatoribus Romanis, An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors;http://www.roman-emperors.org/macrinus.htm. Used by permission.

Diadumenian
Much of what we know of Diadumenianus comes to us from the unreliable Scriptores Historiae Augustae. While it is true that Curtius does give the boy-Emperor some copy, suffice it to say that Diadumenian was the son of Macrinus and made Caesar at the age of nine in 217 A.D. and Augustus in 218. After his father's defeat he fled towards Parthia but was overtaken and executed.
http://www.forumancientcoins.com/catalog/roman-and-greek-coins.asp?vpar=573&pos=0

A very minor player in the history of Rome, Diadumenian is most conspicuous because of his impressive issue of Greek Imperial (Roman Privincial) coinage, most notably in Moesia Inferior.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
1 commentsCleisthenes
TheodosiusRIC83b.jpg
[1601a] Theodosius I, 19 January 379 - 17 January 395 A.D. 67 viewsBronze AE 2, RIC 83(b), EF, Constantinople mint, 4.389g, 22.1mm, 180o, 25 Aug 383 - 28 Aug 388 A.D.; Obverse: D N THEODO-SIVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; Reverse: VIRTVS E-XERCITI, Emperor standing right holding standard and globe, foot on captive, cross in left field, CONSA in exergue. Ex FORVM.


De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

THEODOSIUS I (379-395 A.D.)
David Woods
University College of Cork


Origin and Early Career
Flavius Theodosius was born at Cauca in Spain in about 346 to Thermantia and Theodosius the Elder (so-called to distinguish him from his son). Theodosius the Elder was a senior military officer serving in the Western empire and rose to become the magister equitum praesentalis under the emperor Valentinian I from late 368 until his execution in early 375. As the son of a soldier, Theodosius was legally obliged to enter upon a military career. He seems to have served under his father during his expedition to Britain in 367/8, and was the dux Moesiae Primae by late 374. Unfortunately, great controversy surrounds the rest of his career until Gratian had him hailed as his imperial colleague in succession to the emperor Valens at Sirmium on 19 January 379. It is clear that he was forced to retire home to Spain only to be recalled to active service shortly thereafter, but the circumstances of his forced retirement are shrouded in mystery. His father was executed at roughly the same time, and much speculation has centred on the relationship between these events.

[For a very detailed and interesting discussion of the Foreign Policy of Theodosius and the Civil Wars that plagued his reign, please see http://www.roman-emperors.org/theo1.htm]

Family and Succession
Theodosius married twice. His first wife was the Spanish Aelia Flavia Flaccilla. She bore him Arcadius ca. 377, Honorius on 9 September 384, and Pulcheria ca. 385. Theodosius honoured her with the title of Augusta shortly after his accession, but she died in 386. In late 387 he married Galla, daughter of Valentinian I and full-sister of Valentinian II. She bore him Gratian ca. 388, Galla Placidia ca. 388/390, and died in childbirth in 394, together with her new-born son John. Of his two sons who survived infancy, he appointed Arcadius as Augustus on 19 January 383 and Honorius as Augustus on 23 January 393. His promotion of Arcadius as a full Augustus at an unusually young age points to his determination right from the start that one of his own sons should succeed him. He sought to strengthen Arcadius' position in particular by means of a series of strategic marriages whose purpose was to tie his leading "generals" irrevocably to his dynasty. Hence he married his niece and adoptive daughter Serena to his magister militum per Orientem Stilicho in 387, her elder sister Thermantia to a "general" whose name has not been preserved, and ca. 387 his nephew-in-law Nebridius to Salvina, daughter of the comes Africae Gildo. By the time of his death by illness on 17 January 395, Theodosius had promoted Stilicho from his position as one of the two comites domesticorum under his own eastern administration to that of magister peditum praesentalis in a western administration, in an entirely traditional manner, under his younger son Honorius. Although Stilicho managed to increase the power of the magister peditum praesentalis to the disadvantage of his colleague the magister equitum praesentalis and claimed that Theodosius had appointed him as guardian for both his sons, this tells us more about his cunning and ambition than it does about Theodosius' constitutional arrangements.

Theodosius' importance rests on the fact that he founded a dynasty which continued in power until the death of his grandson Theodosius II in 450. This ensured a continuity of policy which saw the emergence of Nicene Christianity as the orthodox belief of the vast majority of Christians throughout the middle ages. It also ensured the essential destruction of paganism and the emergence of Christianity as the religion of the state, even if the individual steps in this process can be difficult to identify. On the negative side, however, he allowed his dynastic interests and ambitions to lead him into two unnecessary and bloody civil wars which severely weakened the empire's ability to defend itself in the face of continued barbarian pressure upon its frontiers. In this manner, he put the interests of his family before those of the wider Roman population and was responsible, in many ways, for the phenomenon to which we now refer as the fall of the western Roman empire.


Copyright (C) 1998, David Woods.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

There is a nice segue here, as we pick-up John Julius Norwich's summation of the reign of Theodosius, "Readers of this brief account of his career may well find themselves wondering, not so much whether he deserved the title of 'the Great' as how he ever came to acquire it in the first place. If so, however, they may also like to ask themselves another question: what would have been the fate of the Empire if, at that critical moment in its history after the battle of Adrianople, young Gratian had not called him from his Spanish estates and put the future of the East into his hands? . . . the probability is that the whole Empire of the East would have been lost, swallowed up in a revived Gothic kingdom, with effects on world history that defy speculation.

In his civil legislation he showed, again and again, a consideration for the humblest of his subjects that was rare indeed among rulers of the fourth century. What other prince would have decreed that any criminal, sentenced to execution, imprisonment or exile, must first be allowed thirty days' grace to put his affairs in order? Or that a specified part of his worldly goods must go to his children, upon whom their father's crimes must on no account be visited? Or that no farmer should be obliged to sell his produce to the State at a price lower than he would receive on the open market?

Had he earned his title? Not, perhaps, in the way that Constantine had done or as Justinian was to do. But, if not ultimately great himself, he had surely come very close to greatness; and had he reigned as long as they did his achievements might well have equalled theirs. He might even have saved the Western Empire. One thing only is certain: it would be nearly a century and a half before the Romans would look upon his like again" (Norwich, John Julius. Byzantium, the Early Centuries. London: Penguin Group, 1990. 116-7;118).

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
ArcadiusManusDei.jpg
[1601b] Arcadius, 19 January 383 - 1 May 408 A.D.63 viewsARCADIUS AE2. Struck at Constantinople, 378-383 AD. Obverse: D N ARCADIVS P F AVG, diademed, draped & cuirassed bust right, holding spear and shield, Hand of God above holding wreath; Reverse - GLORIA ROMANORVM, emperor standing facing, head left, holding standard & resting shield at side, bound captive seated on ground to left, head right, CONG in exergue. RIC 53b. Scarce. Extremely Fine, some roughness and corrosion.


De Imperatoribus Romanis, An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors and their Families


Arcadius (395-408 A.D.)

Geoffrey S. Nathan
University of California at Los Angeles

Introduction and Early Life
The ineffectual life and reign of Flavius Arcadius are of considerably less importance than the quite significant developments that occurred during his reign. Born either in 377 or 378 to then general Theodosius and Aelia Flavia Flacilla, he and his younger brother, Honorius, ruled the eastern and western halves of the Roman Empire respectively from 395.

Shortly after his birth, his father was raised to the imperial purple in 379. Events in Illyricum with the massive influx of Ostrogothic and Visigothic peoples had resulted in the defeat of the Roman army and the death of the emperor, Valens. Theodosius' first task was to confront the Visigoths who had been ravaging the Balkans. Perhaps in the wake of this difficult and almost insurmountable task, the emperor wanted to insure that his infant son would bear some legitimacy should he die on campaign. Whatever the reason, Arcadius was proclaimed Augustus in January of 383 at the age of five or six. In the following year, his younger brother was born and it seems as if Theodosius initially had been interested in preserving the theoretical position of his elder son. While Arcadius enjoyed the status of Augustus, Honorius only achieved the office of consul posterior in 386. Perhaps the eastern emperor had wanted to avoid the possible conflicts that arose earlier in the century with the family of Constantine. Recent events in the west with the assassination of Gratian by Magnus Maximus may have also played a part: Theodosius initially had to leave the murder of his imperial colleague unavenged and leave the boy- emperor, Valentinian II, largely undefended. The profusion of emperors may well have been seen by Theodosius as kindling for civil war. His own autocratic tendencies may have also meant that he saw only one possible successor for himself.

Nevertheless, Theodosius gave Arcadius very little independence in early life. When he went to campaign against Magnus in the late 380's, he placed his son under the Praetorian Prefect of the East, Tatian, who was the de facto emperor in Theodosius' absence. This began a long series of regencies for Arcadius. The strength of Tatian's position with the eastern governing class made the office of Praetorian Prefect all the more powerful in Constantinople, which in turn made it easier to dominate future emperors. When Theodosius replaced Tatian with the more malleable and more ambitious Rufinus in 392, he had appointed a minister who would centralize even greater authority under the prefecture.

By 393, the emperor's situation had changed radically. When events in the west demanded his attention again, Theodosius was in a much stronger position. The ascendancy of the general, Arbogast, and his own puppet emperor, Eugenius, in the west provided Theodosius an opportunity and, indeed, the obligation to take full control of the Empire. The chance for having his own two sons ruling both halves of Rome not only seemed practical and feasible, but such an arrangement would establish himself as the head of a new dynasty. With thoughts in that direction, Honorius was made Augustus in 393 and accompanied his father west in the summer of 394. Arcadius, although near his majority, was nevertheless placed again under the guardianship (epitropos) of the Prefect of the East. In January of 395, Theodosius the Great died and his two sons took theoretical control of the two halves of the Roman Empire.

Early Reign and the Dominance of Rufinus and Eutropius (395-399)
Arcadius was eighteen when he assumed the throne in the east. We do not know whether or not he was ready for the responsibilities. During the mid-380's, the young emperor had been educated in part by Themistius, a famous pagan statesman, philosopher, and speaker. In what way he affected Arcadius is impossible to say, but surely his teachings must have included statecraft. Perhaps because of this influence, the new emperor's attempt to establish himself as an independent force can be seen in a series of laws passed at his accession. In contrast to trying to create a military image for himself, which would not be allowed either by Rufinus or by the eastern court, he attempted to portray himself as a pious Christian emperor. He enacted several comprehensive laws against heresy and paganism.

This was not necessarily an ineffectual strategy. By celebrating his religious piety, he expressed his power in the only way available to an emperor largely controlled by his ministers. He also perhaps sought to gain support and power from the local governing and religious hierarchies in Constantinople. Arcadius also perhaps thought that he was carrying on in the tradition of his father and so, by extension, might share in some of his glory. Rufinus in contrast wanted to tie himself to the emperor through a marriage connection to his daughter. But in April of 395, Arcadius had taken advantage of the Prefect's temporary absence to marry Aelia Eudoxia, whose guardian, the general, Promotus, had been a bitter enemy of Rufinus. Arcadius had been aided in this move by his own grand chamberlain (praepositus sacri cubiculi), Eutropius, and it perhaps indicated the degree to which he wanted to be free of any regent.

But in reality, Arcadius gained little if any power. Rufinus assumed full control of the east, and the Vandal Stilicho, Theodosius' closest advisor and general, took control of Honorius in the west. The tension between east and west quickly grew when Stilicho, in command of all the eastern and western armies, tried to press his guardianship over Arcadius as well. Moreover, there was considerable resentment against Rufinus in the east for using his office to greatly enrich himself and perhaps, too, because he was a westerner. Rufinus, understanding the perils around him, acted quickly. He had Arcadius demand the return of the eastern armies at once. Stilicho acquiesced, perhaps because the general was basing his claim of guardianship on his own legitimacy: to have taken control of the east and Arcadius by force would have undermined his position there and perhaps in the west. The soldiers returned under the command of the Gothic general, Gainas. With the control of the field army, it seemed as if Rufinus was going to be more thoroughly in control of the east and over Arcadius.

He did not long enjoy his victory. When Arcadius and Rufinus came to greet the armies at Hebdoman near Constantinople in November of 395, the soldiers turned on the Praetorian Prefect and cut him down in front of the emperor. Whether Stilicho instigated the assassination is a matter of some debate, but if he did, he received no benefit from it. The armies remained and Arcadius soon fell under the sway of other ministers. Nevertheless, despite the shock and fear Arcadius may have felt at witnessing such a brutal murder, he probably missed Rufinus' presence not at all and even thought it might provide an opportunity to assert his own authority. For the bureaucracy, the death meant that maintaining civilian control over the army was paramount to their own survival.

Soon thereafter, Eutropius assumed Rufinus' place in dominating Arcadius. Since the grand chamberlain could control access to the emperor and commanded the powerful palace bureaucracy, he was well-placed to dictate what and whom the emperor saw and heard. Military officers--frequently Germanic--who dominated the western government, were held suspect by fearful and jealous civil administrators in Constantinople. Eutropius used that fear to his advantage and froze out any access they may have had to the circles of power. His decision to effectively eliminate the military's input in decision-making would eventually lead to his demise.

It is difficult to determine how popular Eutropius was either with Arcadius or with the wider population. As a eunuch and a former slave, the sources generally portray him very negatively. He nevertheless seems to have enjoyed some support from the emperor, likely aided by Eudoxia with whom the grand chamberlain had close ties. The emperor happily took annual vacations in Galatia, apparently upon the Eutropius' suggestion. Moreover, the chamberlain showed great personal courage and talent in leading a campaign against invading Huns in 397/8, for which he won the consulship and the rank of patrician in the following year of 399. He also seems to have gained considerable support from the local clergy by procuring the patriarchate of Constantinople in 398 for John Chrysostom.

Despite Eutropius' rise to power, however, eastern policy changed little. The religious policies of Theodosius and Arcadius continued, including the forced closure of pagan temples in Gaza. More significantly, tension between the two halves of the empire persisted as Stilicho continued to press for his position as guardian. Although Stilicho led periodic raids into Greece and Thrace to attack the new Visigothic king, Alaric, his victories were incomplete and were more likely meant to keep the Germanic people out of western territory. This meant, among other things, that the Visigoths were an enduring problem for the east. Eutropius in turn supported the revolt of the Count Gildo in Africa, which was under western control, in an attempt to destabilize Stilicho's control and further eastern domains.

The failure of the revolt in 398 was the first step in Eutropius' downfall. The decision to exclude the military men of the period, particularly among the growing importance of Germanic officers, created a dangerous situation. By 399, the dissatisfaction with east-west affairs and the Gildo fiasco resulted in a revolt by the Gothic count, Tribigild. He was apparently in collusion with Gainas, who had taken advantage of the crisis to be named chief general in the east (magister utriusque militiae). Gainas quickly reached an agreement with the rebel and part of the settlement was the dismissal of Eutropius, to which Arcadius--at Eudoxia's urging--agreed. The chamberlain took refuge in the Hagia Sophia, and was exiled to Cyprus. But shortly thereafter, in the autumn of 399, Eutropius was recalled, tried and executed in Chalcedon.

The Age of Eudoxia (400-404)
The death of Eutropius precipitated a serious crisis. Gainas, who had wanted high office for years, now tried to force the hand of Arcadius. Having come to a quick resolution with Tribigild, he moved from Thrace towards Constantinople in 400. With the Germanic troops supporting him, Gainas tried for six months to initiate his own primacy-- including seizing the imperial palace--but which failed. He was forced to withdraw personally from the city to regroup and planned to use his troops remaining there to seize the entire city. But they were slaughtered by the inhabitiants and he fled first to Thrace and then to Asia. Eventually Gainas was killed by the Huns later in that year. His attempted coup ensured that Germanic officers would never again be trusted by the eastern government and would forever be kept out of any important decision-making roles.

The likely successor to Eutropius had been the anti-Germanic leader, Aurelianus, who had succeeded to the Prefecture of the East in 399. But Gainas had exiled him, having forced Arcadius to hand him over, and although Aurelianus returned triumphantly after Gainas' departure, he appears to have lost his hold over the emperor. In the meantime, Aelia Eudoxia had done much to forward her own place in the government. In January of 400, she had been named Augusta, a singular distinction offered to only three other women in the previous century. Her position thus gained a semi-official legitimacy afforded to very few Roman empresses. It has been assumed that because of her beauty, her intelligence, and her fecundity (she bore Arcadius five children), she was able to assert her influence to a point where she was the new power behind the throne.

That assessment, while held by many scholars, is not entirely accurate. While there were several events in which she played a crucial part, they were not terribly important moments during Arcadius' reign. But because Eudoxia was enormously wealthy, because she delivered a male heir in 401, and because she was involved in a highly publicized and drawn out political fight with John Chrysostom, this belief that there was an assumption of power is based more on the notoriety of her acts than on actual control. The fact that there was no one clearly dominating the government nor the emperor during this time implies perhaps that Arcadius had more power during these five years of his reign than at any other time.

There are several indications that he did try to improve and assert his own position. The emperor and his court immediately came to some understanding with the west. The east at the very least gave Honorius and Stilicho moral support in their increasing problems with Alaric. In 402, the feeling of goodwill was sealed by a joint consulship between Arcadius and his brother. The emperor also sought to establish his own military prowess and Christian piety with the erection of a column set up in the Hippodrome of Constantinople in 402/3. The column depicted his military victory over Gainas, crowned with a capital emblazoned with the Greek letters chi-rho, symbolizing his devotion to Christ. Arcadius' son, Theodosius II, was born in 401, and was quickly made Augustus at the age of eight months. The eastern ruler was thus interested in assuring his own dynasty.

In all these things, the emperor was largely successful, but they were largely overshadowed by the feud between his empress and the bishop of Constantinople. Eudoxia had already shown herself able in pushing her interests during the baptism of her son. The Bishop of Constantinople, however, was a much tougher opponent than her husband. John Chrysostom, a strong believer in social justice, had boorishly attacked Eudoxia and many of her friends for the conspicuous luxury in which they lived and displayed themselves. At the height of these attacks, John compared the empress to Jezebel. Eudoxia in turn used her considerable influence to inflame hostility among the clergy against the bishop. Working through Bishop Theophilus of Alexandria, in 403 Chrysostom was deposed and forced into exile at a Church council convened by the emperor (the Synod of the Oak at Chalcedon). However, there was soon such turmoil and uproar in the imperial city that the bishop was recalled a few days later. But the public feuding between Eudoxia and Chrysostom continued until at last she had him banished again in 404, this time permanently. Among other things, it caused a breach between Arcadius and his brother, who had, with Pope Innocent I, tried to support Chrysostom.

Eudoxia's victory was short-lived, however. In October of 404, the Augusta died of a miscarriage. Her death was seen by some as retribution for dismissing John. Whatever the reason, her end also signaled a complete retreat into the background by the emperor and no further initiatives seem to have been pushed by the 27-year-old Augustus.

The Final Years: Anthemius and Death (404-408)
The last years of Arcadius' reign were completely dominated by his Praetorian Prefect of the East, Anthemius. It was perhaps fitting that when the emperor seems to have been most retiring, the most able and energetic of his high ministers came to power. Anthemius worked hard to solve a series of governmental abuses, continue to push for Christianization, and secure the east from attack.

Anthemius first seems to have tried to reconcile with the west, so much so that there was a joint consulship between Anthemius and Stilicho in 405. This might have also been meant to symbolize the Prefect's new dominance, however. Additionally, a number of new laws were passed, curtailing paganism, Judaism and heresy. He tried to make use of the continuing problem of incoming Germanic peoples to combat the Isaurian tribes which had been plaguing Asia Minor since 403. While it failed to halt either group's incursions, it was nevertheless a practical and intelligent strategy. As a means of protecting the imperial capital, Anthemius also strengthened the walls around Constantinople. Our records for the last years of Arcadius' rule are quite spotty, but the emperor himself seems to have completely vanished, even symbolically, from the political scene.

In May of 408, Flavius Arcadius died at the age of 31 of unknown causes. Our only physical description of Arcadius is heavily influenced by the generally low regard in which he was held. The emperor was supposedly short, thin and dark-complected. A more kindly correspondent described him as good-natured and temperate. His son succeeded him without any controversy and the government remained unchanged. Arcadius thus left the world much as he entered it: without much significance and overshadowed by more powerful forces.

Assessment
Despite the ineffectual nature of Arcadius and his rule, a number of significant changes occurred during his stewardship of the eastern empire. His inability to forcefully or at least effectively govern meant that there were few consistent or long-range goals of his administration. With the exception of trying to emphasize the emperor's piety, an important development in the history of the Byzantine monarchy, Arcadius and his ministers were for the most part simply reacting to events.

The emperor became an even more remote figure to the general public. Even in the capital city itself, he was rarely seen: we read in one account that people came running to see the emperor for the first time when he happened to be praying in a local church. A series of "orientalizing" court practices no doubt continued in order to emphasize the symbolic separation of the emperor from the rest of society. The hieratic, almost semi- divine nature of the imperial person, also became a feature of the eastern ruler.

Perhaps of greatest importance was the political and cultural split between east and west. With the death of Theodosius, the two halves of the Roman Empire increasingly went their separate ways. For the most part, the west was thrown back upon its own resources, unable to deal with the problems of the fifth century. The east proved more compact and more resilient: it largely weathered the political storms from without and within.

Moreover, Constantinople fully became the imperial capital of the east, a Roma nova. The emperor rarely left the city and the palace officials became more influential than many of the more theoretically important ministers outside the city. Constantinople was also made an archepiscopate and Chrysostom and others started to push strongly for its primacy in the east. Both public and private building projects beautified and enlarged the city. Under Arcadius' reign, it truly became the second city of the Roman Empire.
Finally, the hard stance against Germanic officers in Roman government became a central feature in the east. While the reasons for this development were inspired largely out of fear and perhaps racism, the eastern Roman Empire did manage to avoid the largely detrimental succession of Germanic generalissimos who controlled the west in the fifth century. It also encouraged the eastern rulers in the following century to take hard lines against other peoples, including the Isaurians, the Huns and the Persians. Taken in all, the era of Arcadius was far more important than Arcadius himself. He perhaps had his father's pretensions, but none of the skills or powers necessary to leave his mark on the Empire.

By Geoffrey S. Nathan, University of California at Los Angeles
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
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[1616b] Heraclius, 5 Oct 610 - 11 Jan 641 A.D.54 viewsBYZANTINE EMPIRE. Heraclius AD 610-641. AE.Follis. Ref:Sear 833; 12.91g. VF; Nicomedia mint. Obverse: Facing bust of Heracliu, holding cross in right hand. Reverse: Incial letter M, ANNO to left, II to right ( Year 2 AD 611/612), officia letter A betweem limbs of M, above cross; mint-signature NIKO in exergue . Very fine, earthern deposit in fields-not as yellow as picture suggest. Ex Pavlos S Pavlou.


De Imperatoribus Romanis
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors

Heraclius (October 5, 610 - February 641 A.D.)

R. Scott Moore
Indiana University of Pennsylvania

Accession
The last years of Phocas' reign were troubled ones with many foreign threats, such as the Slavic incursions, and internal threats, such as violent religious conflicts and even unsuccessful rebellions. In 608, the exarch of Carthage revolted and dispatched a fleet under the command of his son, Heraclius, to Constantinople. Along the way, in Egypt, Heraclius joined forces with his cousin Nicetas who was able to capture Cyrenaica and Egypt from Phocas' general Bonosos. Heraclius' fleet continued on to Constantinople where he entered into secret negotiations with one of Phocas' top military leaders, Priscus. He was married to Phocas' daughter Domentzia. With the support of Priscus, the patriarch Sergius I, and the faction of the Greens, Heraclius was able to seize the city, have Phocas beheaded and became emperor on October 5, 610 AD.

Private Life
Heraclius, the son of the exarch of Carthage, Heraclius, and Epiphania was born around the year 575. When he was crowned as emperor in 610 AD, he married Fabia, who then took the name Eudocia. From this marriage, Heraclius had a daughter, Eudocia, and a son Heraclius Constantine, who was proclaimed as co-emperor in 613. Suffering from epilepsy, Fabia died in 612 and Heraclius married his niece Martina in 613. With Martina, Heraclius had nine children of which four died in infancy. Heraclius' marriage to Martina was never received favorably by either the people of Constantinople or the Church.

Foreign Affairs
When Heraclius first came to the throne in 610, the Byzantine Empire was being attacked from numerous sides. In the west, the Avars and Slavs were expanding into the northern Balkans. The Slavs controlled the Danube regions, Thrace, Macedonia, and were soon invading Central Greece and the Peloponnesus. In the east, meanwhile, the Persians under the rule of Chosroes had begun a series of successful attacks on the empire resulting in the loss of Damascus in 613, Jerusalem in 614 (destroying the Church of the Holy Sepulchre and capturing the Holy Cross) and Egypt in 619. Recognizing the difficulty in fighting on two opposing fronts at the same time, Heraclius signed a peace treaty with the Avars in 619, and focused on the eastern half of the empire. In the spring of 622, Heraclius left Constantinople for Asia Minor and began training his troops over the summer, focusing on a more involved role for the Byantine cavalry.

In the autumn, Heraclius' army invaded Armenia and soon won several victories over the Persians. The Avars, in the meantime, became restless and Heraclius was forced to renegotiate the peace treaty with them at a much higher tribute level. Heraclius then returned to the army and for the next several years unsuccessfully attempted to break through the Persian army and into Persia. In August of 626 while Heraclius and his army were in Lazica away from Constantinople, a Persian army attacked the city from the east while an army of Avars, Slavs, and Bulgars attacked from the west and from the sea. On August 10, the Byzantine navy was able to defeat the opposing fleet and then rout the combined Slav and Avar land force. With the defeat of their allies, the Persians retreated to Syria.

In the autumn of 627, Heraclius began to work his way into Persian territory winning an important battle in December at Nineveh during which most of the Persian army was destroyed. As Heraclius continued to move further into Persian territory, Chosroes was deposed and succeeded by his son Kavadh-Siroe whose first act was to secure a treaty with Heraclius. The treaty was very favorable to the Byzantines and returned all the former Byzantine territories to the empire. Within a few short months, Kavadh-Siroe fell ill and died after naming Heraclius as guardian of his son, Chosroes II. For all practical purposes, the Persian Empire no longer existed. In 630 Heraclius traveled to Jerusalem where he returned the Holy Cross to the city among much acclaim.

The defeat of the Persians created a larger problem for the Byzantine empire. The struggle between the Byzantines and the Persians had worn down both sides and the defeat of the Persians allowed the Arabs to quickly absorb what remained of the Persian empire. It also removed the buffer between the Arabs and the Byzantines allowing the two empires to come into contact and conflict. In 634 the Arab armies invaded Syria and defeated Theodore, the emperor's brother, in a string of battles. Heraclius raised a large army that attacked the Arabs near the Yarmuk, a tributary of the Jordan, in the fall of 636. After a successful beginning, the larger Byzantine army was defeated allowing the conquest of Syria. The Byzantine defeat also led to the Arabs quickly taking Mesopotamia, Armenia and eventually Egypt.

Internal Affairs
While Heraclius enjoyed military success, major changes occurred internally under his rule. Greek replaced Latin as the official language of the empire and Heraclius adopted the Greek title of in place of the Latin Caesar, Augustus, or Imperator. The recovery of the eastern areas of the Byzantine Empire from the Persians once again raised the problem of religious unity, centering around the understanding of the true nature of Christ. The eastern areas, particularly Armenia, Syria, and Egypt believed in monophysitism, Christ having one nature composed of both divine and human elements. The other areas of the empire followed the orthodox view expressed at the Council of Chalcedon in 451 that decreed Christ had two natures united in one person. In an effort to bridge the gap between the two views and bring them back together, the Patriarch of Constantinople, Sergius, promoted the concept of monoenergism which proposed that the two natures of Christ had one energy. While this was received favorably at first, monoenergism soon had vocal opponents, among them the monk Sophronius who became patriarch of Jerusalem in 634 AD. The opposition to monoenergism led Sergius to propose a new doctrine that of monotheletism, the belief in a single will in Christ. Heraclius supported the new doctrine of Sergius and put it forth in an edict known as the Ekthesis, and posted it in the narthex of Hagia Sophia in 638. This failed to settle the controversy as it was rejected by the Orthodox, the Monophysites, and even the Church of Rome.

Succession
During the last years of Heraclius' life, it became evident that a struggle was taking place between Heraclius' son from his first marriage, Heraclius Constantine, and his second wife Martina who was trying to position her son Heraclonas in line for the throne. On the 11th of February 641, Heraclius died and in his will left the empire to both Heraclius Constantine and Heraclonas to rule jointly with Martina as Empress and mother of both.

Copyright (C) 1997, R. Scott Moore. Published: De Imperatoribu Romanis, http://www.roman-emperors.org/heraclis.htm Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

1 commentsCleisthenes
C7R2auSolidus.jpg
[1642c] Constantine VII and Romanus II, 6 Apr 945 - 9 Nov 959 A.D.63 viewsGold solidus, SBCV 1751; DOC III part 2, 15, gVF, Constantinople mint, weight 4.332g, maximum diameter 20.8mm, die axis 180o. Obverse: Ihs XPS REX REGNANTIUM, bust of Christ facing wearing nimbus cruciger, pallium and colobium, raising right in benediction, Gospels in left; Reverse: COnSTAnT, crowned facing busts of Constantine VII, in a loros on left, and his son Romanus II, in a chlamys, they hold a long patriarchal cross; small "finder's scrape" on reverse, obverse die slightly rusted.

Constantine VII Porphyrogenitus, 945-959 A.D.

Constantine VII (Greek: Κωνσταντίνος Ζ΄ Πορφυρογέννητος, Kōnstantinos VII Porphyrogennētos) Porphyrogenitus is a nickname that alludes to the Purple Room of the imperial palace, decorated with the stone porphyry, where legitimate children of reigning emperors were normally born.

In his book, A Short History of Byzantium, John Julius Norwich refers to Constantine VII as "The Scholar Emperor" (180). Norwich states, “He was, we are told, a passionate collector--not only of books and manuscripts but works of art of every kind; more remarkable still for a man of his class, he seems to have been an excellent painter. He was the most generous of patrons--to writers and scholars, artists and craftsmen. Finally, he was an excellent Emperor: a competent, conscientious and hard-working administrator and an inspired picker of men, whose appointments to military, naval, ecclesiastical, civil and academic posts were both imaginative and successful. He did much to develop higher education and took a special interest in the administration of justice" (181). In 947, Constantine VII, Porphyrogenitus ordered "the immediate restitution, without compensation, of all peasant lands thus, by the end of [his] reign, the condition of the landed peasantry—which formed the foundation of the whole economic and military strength of the Empire—was better off than it had been for a century . . . on 9 November 959, he died aged fifty-four, surrounded by his sorrowing family: his wife Helena, his five daughters and his twenty-year old son Romanus, now Emperor of Byzantium (182-3).

Works cited:
Norwich, John Julius, A Short History of Byzantium. London: Viking, 1997.

Edited by J.P.Fitzgerald, Jr.
1 commentsCleisthenes
C7R1AE_Follis.jpg
[1642d] Constantine VII and Romanus I, Æ Follis, 945-950, Constantinople 61 viewsConstantine VII and Romanus I, Æ Follis, 7.59g, 25mm x 27mm, SB 1761; DO 26; VF, Constantinopleb; Obverse: Facing bust of Constantine VII with short beard, wearing crown and vertical loros, akakia in right hand, globus cruciger in left; Reverse: Legend in four lines: +COnST / En QEO bA / SILEVS R / OmEOn. Ex Beast Coins.


Constantine VII Porphyrogenitus, 945-959 A.D.

Constantine VII (Greek: Κωνσταντίνος Ζ΄ Πορφυρογέννητος, Kōnstantinos VII Porphyrogennētos) Porphyrogenitus is a nickname that alludes to the Purple Room of the imperial palace, decorated with the stone porphyry, where legitimate children of reigning emperors were normally born.

In his book, A Short History of Byzantium, John Julius Norwich refers to Constantine VII as "The Scholar Emperor" (180). Norwich states, “He was, we are told, a passionate collector--not only of books and manuscripts but works of art of every kind; more remarkable still for a man of his class, he seems to have been an excellent painter. He was the most generous of patrons--to writers and scholars, artists and craftsmen. Finally, he was an excellent Emperor: a competent, conscientious and hard-working administrator and an inspired picker of men, whose appointments to military, naval, ecclesiastical, civil and academic posts were both imaginative and successful. He did much to develop higher education and took a special interest in the administration of justice" (181). In 947, Constantine VII, Porphyrogenitus ordered "the immediate restitution, without compensation, of all peasant lands thus, by the end of [his] reign, the condition of the landed peasantry—which formed the foundation of the whole economic and military strength of the Empire—was better off than it had been for a century . . . on 9 November 959, he died aged fifty-four, surrounded by his sorrowing family: his wife Helena, his five daughters and his twenty-year old son Romanus, now Emperor of Byzantium (182-3).

Works cited:
Norwich, John Julius, A Short History of Byzantium. London: Viking, 1997.

Edited by J.P.Fitzgerald, Jr.


Cleisthenes
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[1685a] Empire of Trebizond: Manuel I Komnenos Megas (1218-1263 AD)313 viewsEmpire of Trebizond: Manuel I, Komnenos, Silver Asper, Sear-2601, struck 1238-1263, 2.9 grams, 21.9 mm. Nice VF; Obverse: St. Eugenius standing facing, holding a long cross; Reverse: Manuel standing facing, holding labarum and akakia, Manus Dei in upper right field. Nicely centered with technically 'mint state' surfaces, but a touch of strike unevenness and irregular toning. Ex Glenn Woods.

Manuel I Megas Komnenos (Greek: Μανουήλ Α΄ Μέγας Κομνηνός, Manouēl I Megas Komnēnos), (c. 1218 – March 1263), Emperor of Trebizond from 1238 to 1263, surnamed the "Great Captain", was the second son of Alexios I, the first emperor of Trebizond, and Theodora Axouchina. He succeeded his brother, John I Axouchos. In spite of his alleged military abilities, Trebizond became or remained a vassal to the Seljuk Turks and, after the Battle of Köse Dag in 1243, to the Mongols of Persia. Trapezuntine forces served in the battle as Seljuk tributaries. The Seljuk forces were shattered in the defeat and the Sultanate of Iconium began to decline.

In 1253, Manuel negotiated for a dynastic alliance with King Louis IX of France, by which he hoped to secure the help of the Crusaders against the Seljuks and Laskarids of Nicaea, but Louis advised him to seek a wife from the Latin Empire of Constantinople. Jean de Joinville testifies to Manuel's wealth, saying he sent Louis: "various precious things as a gift; amongst others, bows made of the wood of the service tree, whose arrow-notches screwed into the bow, and when they were released, one saw that they were very sharp and well made."

The destruction of Baghdad by Hulagu Khan in 1258 revived the trade route running north from Armenia and the upper Euphrates valley to Erzerum and then through the Zigana Pass to Trebizond. This trade route caused the beginnings of Trebizond's commercial prosperity, because goods from the Silk Road were now transported to Trebizond and the Black Sea, instead of to the Mediterranean. Although some bronze coins have been attributed to Alexios I, and silver aspers were certainly coined by John I, Manuel struck both bronze coins and a large silver currency. Trapezuntine coins circulated widely outside the empire, especially in Georgia.

Manuel rebuilt the Hagia Sophia monastery in Trebizond between 1250 and 1260. Eastmond describes Manuel's church as 'the finest surviving Byzantine imperial monument of its period.' When Michael VIII Palaiologos recaptured Constantinople from the Latin Empire in 1261 he unsuccessfully demanded that Manuel abandon his claim to the Byzantine succession.

Manuel married three times and left several children, four of whom reigned after him. By his first wife, Anna Xylaloe, a Trapezuntine noblewoman he had:
• Andronikos II, who succeeded as emperor.

By his second wife, the Iberian princess Rusudan, he had:
• Theodora

By his third wife, Irene Syrikaina, another Trapezuntine noblewoman, he had four children:
• George
• Anonymous daughter, who married King Demetre II of Georgia
• Anonymous daughter
• John II.

The Empire of Trebizond (Greek: Βασίλειον τής Τραπεζούντας) was a Byzantine Greek successor state of the Byzantine Empire founded in 1204 as a result of the capture of Constantinople by the Fourth Crusade. Queen Tamar of Georgia provided troops to her nephew Alexios I, who conquered the Pontic Greek city of Trebizond, Sinope and Paphlagonia. It is often known as "the last Greek Empire."

Foundation
When Constantinople fell in the Fourth Crusade in 1204 to the Western European and Venetian Crusaders, the Empire of Trebizond was one of the three smaller Greek states that emerged from the wreckage, along with the Empire of Nicaea and the Despotate of Epirus. Alexios, a grandson of Byzantine emperor Andronikos I Komnenos, son of Rusudan daughter of George III of Georgia, made Trebizond his capital and asserted a claim to be the legitimate successor of the Byzantine Empire.

The Byzantine Emperor Andronikos I had been deposed and killed in 1185. His son Manuel was blinded and may have died of his injuries. The sources agree that Rusudan, the wife of Manuel and the mother of Alexios and David, fled Constantinople with her children, to escape persecution by Isaac II Angelos, Andronikos' successor. It is unclear whether Rusudan fled to Georgia or to the southern coast of the Black Sea where the Komnenos family had its origins. There is some evidence that the Comnenian heirs had set up a semi-independent state centred on Trebizond before 1204.

The rulers of Trebizond called themselves Grand Komnenos (Megas Komnenos) and at first claimed the traditional Byzantine title of "Emperor and Autocrat of the Romans." After reaching an agreement with the Byzantine Empire in 1282, the official title of the ruler of Trebizond was changed to "Emperor and Autocrat of the entire East, of the Iberians and the Transmarine Provinces" and remained such until the empire's end in 1461. The state is sometimes called The Komnenian Empire because the ruling dynasty descended from Alexios I Komnenos.

Trebizond initially controlled a contiguous area on the southern Black Sea coast between Soterioupolis and Sinope, comprising the modern Turkish provinces of Sinop, Ordu, Giresun, Trabzon, Bayburt, Gümüşhane, Rise and Artvin. In the thirteenth century, the empire controlled Perateia which included Cherson and Kerch on the Crimean peninsula. David Komnenos expanded rapidly to the west, occupying first Sinope, then Paphlagonia and Heraclea Pontica until his territory bordered the Empire of Nicaea founded by Theodore I Laskaris. The territories west of Sinope were lost to the Empire of Nicaea by 1206. Sinope itself fell to the Seljuks in 1214.

Prosperity
While Epirus effectively disintegrated in the 14th century, and the Nicaean Empire succeeded in retaking Constantinople and extinguishing the feeble Latin Empire, only to be conquered in 1453 by the Ottoman Empire, Trebizond managed to outlive its competitors in Epirus and Nicaea.

Trebizond was in continual conflict with the Sultanate of Iconium and later with the Ottoman Turks, as well as Byzantium, the Italian republics, and especially the Genoese. It was an empire more in title than in fact, surviving by playing its rivals against each other, and offering the daughters of its rulers for marriage with generous dowries, especially with the Turkmen rulers of interior Anatolia.

The destruction of Baghdad by Hulagu Khan in 1258 made Trebizond the western terminus of the Silk Road. The city grew to tremendous wealth on the Silk Road trade under the protection of the Mongols. Marco Polo returned to Europe by way of Trebizond in 1295. Under the rule of Alexios III (1349–1390) the city was one of the world's leading trade centres and was renowned for its great wealth and artistic accomplishment.

Climax and Civil War
The small Empire of Trebizond had been most successful in asserting itself at its very start, under the leadership of Alexios I (1204–1222) and especially his younger brother David Komnenos, who died in battle in 1214. Alexios' second son Manuel I (1238–1263) had preserved internal security and acquired the reputation of a great commander, but the empire was already losing outlying provinces to the Turkmen, and found itself forced to pay tribute to the Seljuks of Rum and then to the Mongols of Persia, a sign of things to come. The troubled reign of John II (1280–1297) included a reconciliation with the Byzantine Empire and the end of Trapezuntine claims to Constantinople. Trebizond reached its greatest wealth and influence during the long reign of Alexios II (1297–1330). Trebizond suffered a period of repeated imperial depositions and assassinations from the end of Alexios' reign until the first years of Alexios III, ending in 1355. The empire never fully recovered its internal cohesion, commercial supremacy or territory.

Decline and Fall
Manuel III (1390–1417), who succeeded his father Alexios III as emperor, allied himself with Timur, and benefited from Timur's defeat of the Ottoman Turks at the Battle of Ankara in 1402. His son Alexios IV (1417–1429) married two of his daughters to Jihan Shah, khan of the Kara Koyunlu, and to Ali Beg, khan of the Ak Koyunlu; while his eldest daughter Maria became the third wife of the Byzantine Emperor John VIII Palaiologos. Pero Tafur, who visited the city in 1437, reported that Trebizond had less than 4,000 troops.

John IV (1429–1459) could not help but see his Empire would soon share the same fate as Constantinople. The Ottoman Sultan Murad II first attempted to take the capital by sea in 1442, but high surf made the landings difficult and the attempt was repulsed. While Mehmed II was away laying siege to Belgrade in 1456, the Ottoman governor of Amasya attacked Trebizond, and although defeated, took many prisoners and extracted a heavy tribute.

John IV prepared for the eventual assault by forging alliances. He gave his daughter to the son of his brother-in-law, Uzun Hasan, khan of the Ak Koyunlu, in return for his promise to defend Trebizond. He also secured promises of help from the Turkish emirs of Sinope and Karamania, and from the king and princes of Georgia.

After John's death in 1459, his brother David came to power and misused these alliances. David intrigued with various European powers for help against the Ottomans, speaking of wild schemes that included the conquest of Jerusalem. Mehmed II eventually heard of these intrigues, and was further provoked to action by David's demand that Mehmed remit the tribute imposed on his brother.

Mehmed's response came in the summer of 1461. He led a sizeable army from Brusa, first to Sinope whose emir quickly surrendered, then south across Armenia to neutralize Uzun Hasan. Having isolated Trebizond, Mehmed quickly swept down upon it before the inhabitants knew he was coming, and placed it under siege. The city held out for a month before the emperor David surrendered on August 15, 1461.

With the fall of Trebizond, the territory of "the Last Greek Empire" was extinguished.


List of Trapezuntine Emperors

• Alexios I Megas Komnenos (1204–1222)
• Andronikos I Gidos (1222–1235)
• John I Axouchos Megas Komnenos (1235–1238)
• Manuel I Megas Komnenos (1238–1263)
• Andronikos II Megas Komnenos (1263–1266)
• George Megas Komnenos (1266–1280)
• John II Megas Komnenos (1280–1284)
• Theodora Megale Komnene (1284–1285)
• John II Megas Komnenos (restored, 1285–1297)
• Alexios II Megas Komnenos (1297–1330)
• Andronikos III Megas Komnenos (1330–1332)
• Manuel II Megas Komnenos (1332)
• Basil Megas Komnenos (1332–1340)
• Irene Palaiologina (1340–1341)
• Anna Anachoutlou Megale Komnene (1341)
• Michael Megas Komnenos (1341)
• Anna Anachoutlou Megale Komnene (restored, 1341–1342)
• John III Megas Komnenos (1342–1344)
• Michael Megas Komnenos (restored, 1344–1349)
• Alexios III Megas Komnenos (1349–1390)
• Manuel III Megas Komnenos (1390–1