Classical Numismatics Discussion Members' Gallery
  Welcome Guest. Please login or register.

Members' Gallery Home | Member Collections | Last Added | Last Comments | Most Viewed | Top Rated | My Favorities | Search Galleries
Search results - "bronze"
ASSEREP-3.jpg
45 viewsAnonymous. After 211 BC. Post-reform Bronze As.
Obv.: Janus with I above
Rev.: Prow right with I above and ROMA below.
g. 38,5 mm. 30
Crawford 56/2; Syd 143.

Maxentius
12354q00.jpg
70 viewsBronze AE 4, RIC 116, VF, 1.478g, 15.1mm, 0°, Antioch mint, 347 - 348 A.D.
Obv.: D N CONSTA-NS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev.: VOT XV MVLT XX in wreath, SMANQ in ex
areich
12967q00.jpg
65 viewsBronze AE 3, RIC 191, VF, 2.417g, 14.8mm, 180o, Antioch mint, 355 - 361 A.D.; obverse D N CONSTAN-TIVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse FEL TEMP REPARATIO, soldier spearing fallen horseman, M left, ANG in exareich
10239q00.jpg
82 viewsBronze AE 3, RIC 88, VF, 2.24g, 18.4mm, 180o, Antioch mint, 330 - 335 A.D.; obverse FL IVL CONSTANTIVS NOB C, laureate and cuirassed bust right; reverse GLOR-IA EXERC-ITVS, two soldiers, each holding spear and shield on ground, flanking two standards, SMANH in exareich
13061q00.jpg
48 viewsBronze antoninianus, RIC 612, F, 3.219g, 20.4mm, 180o, Antioch mint, 267 A.D.; obverse GALLIENVS AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse VIRTVS AVG, Soldier standing right, spear in right, resting left on shield, PXV in exareich
13025q00.jpg
47 viewsBronze antoninianus, RIC 608, aVF, 2.177g, 22.2mm, 180o, Antioch mint, 267 A.D.; obverse GALLIENVS AVG, radiate bust right; reverse IOVI CONSERVAT, Jupiter standing left, globe in right, scepter in left, PXV in exareich
coin158.jpg
19 views11180. Bronze prutah, Hendin 661, Jerusalem mint,
year 2, 67-68 A.D.; obverse amphora with broad rim
and two handles, year 2 (in Hebrew) around; reverse
vine leaf on small branch, the freedom of Zion (in
Hebrew) around. Coin #158
cars100
randombronze4.JPG
17 views1 commentsJRoME
randombronze3.JPG
9 viewsJRoME
randombronze2.JPG
16 viewsNo idea1 commentsJRoME
randombronze1.JPG
8 viewsJRoME
randombronze7.JPG
11 viewsJRoME
randombronze6.JPG
10 viewsJRoME
randombronze5.JPG
12 views1 commentsJRoME
01115q00.jpg
18 viewsJustin I, 518-527. Pentanummium (Bronze, 11 mm, 1.86 g, 7 h), uncertain mint. [...] Pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust of Justin I to left. Rev. The Tyche of Antioch seated left; to left, Є. Cf. DOC 57 var., MIB 678 var. and SB 111 var. (all with bust to right). A curious coin with the portrait facing left instead of right, possibly a contemporary imitation. Very fine. Quant.Geek
sfc-data-dificil-500-rs-1936-rgte-feijo-2-D_NQ_NP_1897-MLB4769578494_082013-F.jpg
9 viewsMOEDA - 500 Réis - 1938 - Regente Feijó
________________________________________
Série Ilustres
Excelente estado de conservaçăo


ANVERSO
O busto do Regente do Império Diogo António Feijó circundado pela inscriçăo REGENTE FEIJÓ. Em baixo, monograma do gravador Calmon Barreto.

REVERSO
No centro, uma coluna coríntia encimada pela inscriçăo circular BRASIL entre dois filetes. Ŕ esquerda do campo, o valor 500 e, ŕ direita, a palavra RÉIS em posiçăo horizontal. No exergo, a data e, ao lado direito, a sigla do gravador Walter Toledo.

PADRĂO MONETÁRIO
MIL-RÉIS (de 08/10/1833 a 31/10/1942)

PERÍODO POLÍTICO
República, Era Vargas (1930-1945)

ORIGEM
Casa da Moeda, Rio de Janeiro

CARACTERÍSTICAS
Material: bronze alumínio
Diâmetro: 22,5 mm
Peso: 5,00 g
Espessura: 1,80 mm
Bordo: serrilhado
Titulagem: Cu 910, Al 90
Eixo: reverso medalha (EV)
_____________________
Antonivs Protti
faustina-sr_AE-As_11_0gr_obv_02.jpg
33 viewsAntoninus Pius
Empress Faustina Sr.(138-141 AD)
Wife of Emperor Antoninus Pius (138 - 161 AD)

Bronze Dupondius or As, Most Likely an As.
Rome Mint

obv: DIVA FAVSTINA - Draped bust right
rev: AETERNITAS - Aeternitas seated left on starry globe, right hand outstretched, left hand holding sceptre. SC in exergue.

11.0 Grams
rexesq
faustina-sr_AE-As_11_0gr_obv_08_rev_09_93%.JPG
32 viewsEmpress Faustina Sr.(138-141 AD)
Wife of Emperor Antoninus Pius (138 - 161 AD)

Bronze Dupondius or As, Most Likely an As.
Rome Mint

obv: DIVA FAVSTINA - Draped bust right
rev: AETERNITAS - Aeternitas seated left on starry globe, right hand outstretched, left hand holding sceptre. SC in exergue.

11.0 Grams
1 commentsrexesq
thumbnail.jpg
10 viewsMoeda Brasil 1935- 1000 Reis
Serie Ilustres - Padre Anchieta
Módulo Maior - Escassa
________________________________

ANVERSO
Efígie do Padre José de Anchieta, de perfil, onde
se ostenta a inscriçăo vertical ANCHIETA.
Missionário e fundador de Săo Paulo.
Sigla do gravador Calmon Barreto.

REVERSO
No centro, um livro aberto e o valor 1000 réis em
semicírculo. Sob o valor, a data. No exergo, a palavra
BRASIL. Sigla do gravador Walter Toledo.

PADRĂO MONETÁRIO
MIL-RÉIS (de 08/10/1833 a 31/10/1942)

PERÍODO POLÍTICO
República, Era Vargas (1930-1945)

ORIGEM
Casa da Moeda, Rio de Janeiro

CARACTERÍSTICAS
Material: bronze alumínio
Diâmetro: 26,7 mm
Peso: 8,00 g
Espessura: 2,10 mm
Bordo: serrilhado
Antonivs Protti
Copy_of_severus-alexander_ae-sestertius_quadriga_cut-01.JPG
28 viewsSeverus Alexander
Ancient Rome
Emperor Severus Alexander(222 - 232 AD) AE (Bronze) Sestertius
Struck at the Rome Mint in AD 229 - 230.

obv: IMP SEV ALEXANDER AVG - Laureate bust right, drapery on left shoulder.

rev: P M TR P VIII COS III P P - Emperor riding in quadriga right holding eagle tipped sceptre in one hand and holding the reigns in the other.
'SC' below, in exergue.

Weight: 21 Grams
Size: 32 - 33 mm

References: Cohen 377, RIC 495
5 commentsrexesq
Copy_of_severus-alexander_ae-sestertius_quadriga_02.jpg
16 viewsSeverus Alexander
Ancient Rome
Emperor Severus Alexander(222 - 232 AD) AE (Bronze) Sestertius
Struck at the Rome Mint in AD 229 - 230.

obv: IMP SEV ALEXANDER AVG - Laureate bust right, drapery on left shoulder.

rev: P M TR P VIII COS III P P - Emperor riding in quadriga right holding eagle tipped sceptre in one hand and holding the reigns in the other.
'SC' below, in exergue.

Weight: 21 Grams
Size: 32 mm - 33 mm

References: Cohen 377, RIC 495
-----------------------

~*~I will most likely be taking this coin out of it's plastic prison soon. I will post more pics after doing so.~*~
rexesq
DSC08136_sev-alex_sest_quadriga.JPG
8 viewsSeverus Alexander
Ancient Rome
Emperor Severus Alexander(222 - 232 AD) AE (Bronze) Sestertius
Struck at the Rome Mint in AD 229 - 230.

obv: IMP SEV ALEXANDER AVG - Laureate bust right, drapery on left shoulder.

rev: P M TR P VIII COS III P P - Emperor riding in quadriga right holding eagle tipped sceptre in one hand and holding the reigns in the other.
'SC' below, in exergue.

Weight: 21 Grams
Size: 32 mm - 33 mm
rexesq
DSC08134_sev-alex_sest_quadriga.JPG
12 viewsSeverus Alexander
Ancient Rome
Emperor Severus Alexander(222 - 232 AD) AE (Bronze) Sestertius
Struck at the Rome Mint in AD 229 - 230.

obv: IMP SEV ALEXANDER AVG - Laureate bust right, drapery on left shoulder.

rev: P M TR P VIII COS III P P - Emperor riding in quadriga right holding eagle tipped sceptre in one hand and holding the reigns in the other.
'SC' below, in exergue.

Weight: 21 Grams
Size: 32 mm - 33 mm
rexesq
DSC08131_sev-alex_sest_quadriga.JPG
13 viewsSeverus Alexander
Ancient Rome
Emperor Severus Alexander(222 - 232 AD) AE (Bronze) Sestertius
Struck at the Rome Mint in AD 229 - 230.

obv: IMP SEV ALEXANDER AVG - Laureate bust right, drapery on left shoulder.

rev: P M TR P VIII COS III P P - Emperor riding in quadriga right holding eagle tipped sceptre in one hand and holding the reigns in the other.
'SC' below, in exergue.

Weight: 21 Grams
Size: 32 mm - 33 mm
rexesq
lot_9_Byzantine_en_bronze_-_tetarterons.jpg
30 viewsAntonivs Protti
Constantine_I_OBVERSE.jpg
15 viewsOBVERSE - IMP CONSTANTINVS AVG
high-crested helmet, cuirassed, spear across right shoulder

REVERSE - VICTORIAE LAETE PRINC PERP
TWO VICTORIES RESTING SHIELD, INSCRIBED VOT P R ON ALTAR - CONCAVE ROUND TOP ALTAR, WITH GARLAND AND TOP DOT OF GARLAND JUST UNDER ROUND TOP.
UNKNOWN IN EX. ?? UNKNOWN MINT ??

DIMENSION = 19mm
WEIGHT = 3 grams
MATERIAL = BRONZE ?

SIMON C2
adadd.jpg
24 viewsCeltic, Bastarnae Tribe, Thrace, c. 220 - 160 B.C., Imitative of Macedonian Kingdom Type

The Bastarnae were an important ancient people of uncertain, but probably mixed Germanic-Celtic-Sarmatian, ethnic origin, who lived between the Danube and the Dnieper (Strabo, Geography, VII, 3,17) during the last centuries B.C. and early centuries A.D. The etymology of their name is uncertain, but may mean 'mixed-bloods' (compare 'bastard'), as opposed to their neighbours the East Germanic Scirii, the 'clean-' or 'pure-bloods.'

32899. Bronze AE 16, imitative of SNG Cop 1299 (Macedonian Kingdom, time of Philip V and Perseus, 221 - 168 B.C.), Fair/Fine, 2.168g, 16.3mm, obverse Celtic-style bust of river-god Strymon right; reverse Trident
Patrick O3
Argentinien_2_Centavos_1890_Hände_Fahnen_Sonne_Argentina_Bronze.jpg
13 views

Argentinien

2 Centavos

1890

Vs.: Freiheitsmütze über sich reichende Hände, eingerahmt von Kranz und Fahnen, darüber Sonne, das Ganze im Perlkreis, darunter Jahr

Rs.: Argentina, Sinnbild der Republik, Kopf n. l.

Erhaltung: Sehr schön

Metall: Bronze

30 mm, 9,65 g _592
Antonivs Protti
Belgien_Medaille_1909_Erinnerung_Eröffnung_Klinik_Krankenkasse.jpg
11 viewsBelgien

Medaille 1909 (Bronze)

auf die Eröffnung der Klinik am 14.6.1909, finanziert durch die Gemeinschaftskasse von Industrie und Handel

Gewicht: 19,1g

Durchmesser: 34mm

Erhaltung: zaponiert, min.Rdf., vorzüglich _1298
Antonivs Protti
Deutsches_Reich_Friedrich_Schiller_100_Geburtstag_Seidan_1859_Verein.jpg
17 viewsBronzemedaille

Signiert W.S (Wenzel Seidan)

Undatiert (1859)

Auf den 100. Geburtstag Schillers gewidmet vom Prager Schiller-Verein





Vs: Umschrift, darin bekleidetes Brustbild nach rechts.

Rs: Sieben Zeilen Schrift zwischen zwei Lorbeerzweigen

8,0 g ; 26,0 mm

Vorzüglich _1193
Antonivs Protti
Dänemark_Christian_IX_2_Öre_1886_Kopenhagen_Delfin_Ähre_Krone_Bronze.jpg
15 views
Dänemark

Christian XI. 1863-1906

2 Öre

1886

Münzstätte: Kopenhagen

Vs.: Gekröntes Monogramm

Rs.: Nominal flankiert von Delfin und Ähre

Zitat: KM# 793.1

Erhaltung: Kratzer, ansonsten sehr schön - fast vorzüglich

Metall: Bronze

21 mm, 3,79 g _399
Antonivs Protti
Deutschland_Medaille_1912_Krefeld_Polyhymnia_Harfe_Jubelfest.jpg
11 viewsDeutschland

Krefeld

Tragbare Medaille 1912 (Bronze, versilbert)

auf das Goldene Jubelfest d. G.V. Polyhymnia

Vs.: Frau spielt Harfe

Rs.: Schrift

Durchmesser: 34mm

Gewicht: 13,8g

Erhaltung:zaponiert, vorzüglich _1093
Antonivs Protti
Frankreich_Medaille_1878_Exposition_Universelle_Paris_Barre.jpg
11 viewsFrankreich

Medaille 1878 (Bronze)

von Barre

auf die Exposition Universelle zu Paris

Vs.: Kopf nach links

Rs.: Schrift

Gewicht: 15,4g

Durchmesser: 30mm

Erhaltung:min.Rdf., zaponiert, vorzüglich _897
Antonivs Protti
Frankreich_France_Napoleon_III__10_Centimes_1855_D_Lyon_Adler.jpg
29 views
Frankreich

Napoleon III. 1852-1870

10 Centimes

1855 D

Münzstätte: Lyon

Vs.: Napoleon III. nach links im Perlkreis

Rs.: Adler auf Bündel im Pelkreis

Erhaltung: Fast sehr schön

Metall: Bronze

30 mm, 9,47 g _694
Antonivs Protti
Deutschland_Potsdam_Medaille_1924_Schwimmfest_Sieger.jpg
17 viewsDeutschland

Potsdam

Medaille 1924 (Bronze)

II.Preis , gestiftet vom Potsdamer Schwimmclub

Vs.: Schwimmer greifen nach Lorbeerkranz, den Germania hält

Rs.:Gravur

Gewicht: 16,3g

Durchmesser: 35mm

Erhaltung: vorzüglich _591
Antonivs Protti
Libyen_Idris_I_2_Milliemes_1952_Krone_Kranz_Bronze.jpg
11 views

Libyen

Idris I. 1951-1969

2 Milliemes

AD 1952

Vs.: König Idris I. n. r.

Rs.: Nominal über Jahr, das Ganze im Kranz, oben Krone

Rand: Glatt

Erhaltung: Sehr schön

Metall: Bronze

24 mm, 6,08 g _396
Antonivs Protti
Niederlande_Wilhelmina_1_Cent_1914_Utrecht_Löwe_Bronze.jpg
21 views
Niederlande

Wilhelmina 1890-1948

1 Cent

1914

Münzstätte: Utrecht

Vs.: Löwe mit Schwert und Pfeilbündel n. l., das Ganze im Perlkreis

Rs.: Nominal im Kranz

Erhaltung: Sehr schön

Metall: Bronze

19 mm, 2,44 g _190
Antonivs Protti
Schweiz_Helvetia_Suisse_2_Rappen_1851_A_Paris_Hut_Wappen_Kranz_Bronze.jpg
15 views
Schweiz

2 Rappen

1851 A

Münzstätte: Paris

Vs.: HELVETIA. Schweizerwappen auf gekreuzten Lorbeer- und Eichenzweigen, darüber ein Federhut. Unten die Jahrzahl.

Rs.: Wertangabe 2 in einem Kranz, bestehend aus zwei Lorbeerzweigen. Unten Münzzeichen A.

Rand glatt

Zitat: Divo / Tobler 323

Erhaltung: Sehr schön

Bronze

20 mm, 2,40 g _491
Antonivs Protti
LOT_OF_43_ROMAN_-_GREEK_BRONZE_COINS_-_high_modulust.jpg
31 viewsAntonivs Protti
INDIA_-_MAGHAS_OF_KAUSHAMBI_-_300_AD_-_BRONZE_COIN_-_3_6g.jpg
13 viewsAntonivs Protti
INDIA_-_MAGHAS_OF_VATSA_-_300_AD_-_BRONZE_COIN_-_EXRARE_-_3_60gm.jpg
12 viewsAntonivs Protti
47614q00.jpg
3 Tiberius, Utica, Zeugitana, Ex John Quincy Adams Collection30 viewsBronze dupondius, RPC I 739, F, holed, 13.158g, 29.8mm, 90o, Zeugitana, Utica mint, 298 - 30 A.D.; obverse TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVG IMP VIII, bare head left; reverse C VIBIO MARSO PRCOS III C SALLVSTIVS IVSTVS II, Livia seated right, scepter in left, patera in extended right, M - M / I - V across fields; with John Quincy Adams Collection tag from the Stack's Sale; scarce
RI0001
Ex John Quincy Adams Collection, 6th President of the United States, and His Descendants, ex Massachusetts Historical Society Collection, ex Stack’s Sale , 5-6 March 1971, lot 763.

Purchased from FORVM
Sosius
auuk.jpg
Aurelian, 270-275 CE.19 viewsAurelian Bronze Antoninianus
Obverse: IMP AVRELIANVS AVG, radiate and cuirassed bust right.
Reverse: IOVI CONSER, Emperor standing right, holding sceptre, receiving globe from Jupiter who is standing left and holding sceptre.
22.3 mm., 3.2 g.
NORMAN K
hsb2.jpg
CASTULO, HISPANIA ULTERIOR, C. 165 - 80 BCE20 viewsHeart shaped Bronze SNG Spain II 427 ff.; SNG BM Spain 1314ff.; SNG Loruchs 374; Sng Cop 209, Burgos 545;f, Castulo mint.
Obverse: diademed male head right, crescent before.
Reverse: helmeted sphinx walking right,star before, KASTILO in Iberic script below ex. 29.75 mm., 16.0 g.
NORMAN K
clsud478.jpg
Claudius II Gothicus, 268-270 CE.25 viewsBronze Antoninianus, Minister 478
Obverse: DIVO CLAUVDIO, radiate head right.
Reverse: CONSECRATIO, garlanded altar with flames above, no decoration on front. 16.7 mm., 1.8 g.
Note: Although a variation of this coin is in the RIC and Cohen, these sources generally refer to the type with a front divided into four sections (RIC 261). This type of garlanded altar, lit altar was not described and published until the discovery of the Minister Hoard, discovered after RIC was written.
NORMAN K
quin.jpg
Claudius II Gothicus, 268-270 CE., Commemorative issue by Quintillus27 viewsBronze Antoninianus, RIC V 261
Obverse: DIVO CLAUVDIO, radiate head right.
Reverse: CONSECRATIO, flaming altar with four panels, each containing pellet.
16.1 mm., 2.2 g.
NORMAN K
clau261.jpg
Claudius II Gothicus, RIC 261, Milan, 268-270 CE.22 viewsBronze Antoninianus, RIC 261 Milan
Obverse: DIVO CLAUVDIO, radiate head right.
Reverse: CONSECRATIO, large flaming altar with four sections with a dot in each one. mintmark T, Milan mint. 16.5mm., 2.1 g.
NORMAN K
hon68.jpg
Honorius RIC 68 Cyzicus25 viewsHonorius bronze AE4
Obverse: D N HONORI-VS PF AVG, pearl diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right.
Reverse: VIRTVS-EXERCITI, Emperor standing left, head right, holding spear and resting left hand on shield. Victory, standing beside him, crowns him with a wreath held in her right hand.
SMKB in ex. Cyzicus mint,14.9 mm, 2.0 g.
NORMAN K
Scipio_Bronze.jpg
Scipio Africanus28 viewsSCIPIO AFRICANUS
Ć15, Spain, Carthago Nova, (2.4g) c. 209 B.C.

Male Roman style head left, probably Scipio Africanus before he was given title Africanus / Horse head right

SNG Cop. 298, Lindgren Eur. Mints 6. Toynbee p. 18-19. VF, green patina, encrust.

This coin may be the earliest depiction of a living Roman. Carthago Nova also produced rare likely portraits of Hannibal.
RR0029
Sosius
_#31071;_#23527;_#37325;_#23542;.jpg
#31071; #23527; #37325; #23542;89 viewsNorth Sung Dynasty
Emperor HUI TSUNG
AD 1101-1125

CH'UNG-NING CHUNG-PAO
Bronze 10 cash
Orthodox Script
36mm, 11.1g
S622
Nice patina
Samson L2
Vespasian_RIC_732.jpg
10 Vespasian AE As, 74 AD20 viewsVESPASIAN
AE As. 74 AD.

O: IMP CAESAR VESP AVG COS V CENS, laureate head right

R: VICTORIA AVGVST S-C, Victory standing right on prow of galley, holding wreath and palm.

Cohen 638, RIC 732

Sadly, this coin suffered from bronze disease, and the patina was lost when the coin was treated.
RI0060
Sosius
Hadrian_RIC_848.jpg
15 Hadrian As, travel series, Cappadocia43 viewsHADRIAN
AE As
HADRIANVS AVG COS III PP, draped bust right / CAPPADOCIA S-C, Cappadocia, towered, in tunic & cloak with tassles, standing left holding a miniature of Mount Argaeus & standard.
RIC 848; gVF, pitting
This coin seems to have suffered from bronze disease in the past, and appears to have lost its patina as a result of the BD treatment.
RI0096
1 commentsSosius
49091q00.jpg
24 Septimius Severus, 9 April 193 - 4 February 211 A.D., Markianopolis, Moesia Inferior 23 viewsBronze AE 28, Varbanov I 827, aVF, corrosion, 12.826g, 27.3mm, 180o, Markianopolis mint, obverse AV K L CEPT CEVHPOC, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right, from behind; reverse U FL OULPIANOV MARKIANOPOLITWN, Cybele enthroned left, phiale in right, resting left elbow on drum, two lions at feet

Purchased from FORVM
Sosius
AUGUDU03-2.jpg
28 BC Colony established at Nemausus by Augustus' army421 viewsmedium bronze (dupondius or as?) (12.6g, 25mm, 2h) Nemausus mint. Struck 10 BC - 10 AD.
IMP DIVI F Agrippa laureate head left and Augustus laureate head right, back to back
COL NEM crocodile chained to palm tree top bent to right, wreath at top.
RIC (Augustus) 158

Denomination uncertain. COL NEM stands for COLONIA AVGVSTA NEMAVSVS (present Nîmes, France), built by Augustus' army after their conquest and return from Egypt. The crocodile chained to the palm tree symbolizes the defeat of the Cleopatra and Marc Antony at Actium.
2 commentsCharles S
aurelian232.jpg
Aurelian RIC V 232var24 viewsAurelian Bronze Antoninianus
Obverse: IMP AVRELIANVS AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right.
Reverse: PAX AVGVSTI, Pax walking left, holding olive branch and scepter. Star left, P right.
20.2 mm., 2.9 g.
NORMAN K
18d5.jpg
Aurelian, RIC V 386, Antioch 19 views
September 270 - November 275 CE
Bronze antoninianus, 3.3g, 20.9mm, 270-275 CE.
Obverse: IMP C AVRELIANVS AVG, radiate and cuirassed bust right.
Reverse: RESTITVT ORBIS, Woman standing right presenting wreath to Emperor standing left, holding globe and spear, E in ex
NORMAN K
dcl.jpg
Claudius II Gothicus, 268-270 CE.20 viewsBronze Antoninianus, Minister 478
Obverse: DIVO CLAUVDIO, radiate head right.
Reverse: CONSECRATIO, garlanded altar with flames above, no decoration on front. 16.7 mm., 1.8 g.
Note: Although a variation of this coin is in the RIC and Cohen, these sources generally refer to the type with a front divided into four sections (RIC 261). This type of garlanded altar, lit altar was not described and published until the discovery of the Minister Hoard, discovered after RIC was written.
NORMAN K
claud41a.jpg
Claudius II Gothicus, RIC 41 Rome25 viewsBronze Antoninianus, Claudius II Gothis
Obverse: IMP CLAUVDIO AVG , radiate head right.
Reverse: FORTVNA, Fortuna standing left, holding rudder and cornucopia. Z in right field.
RIC 41, Rome. 20.5 mm., 3.1 g.
NORMAN K
2228b.jpg
Claudius II Gothicus, Rome20 viewsBronze Antoninianus, Rome
Obverse: IMP CLAUVDIO AVG, radiate head right.
Reverse: SECVRIT AVG, Securitas standing left, leaning on column, holding baton. XI in right field.
Cunetio hoard 2228, Appleshaw hoard 260. 16.9 mm., 2.1 g.
NORMAN K
comm1.jpg
Commodus, Caesar, RIC 546cf, Augustus 179-192 CE.22 viewsCommodus bronze AE Sestertius
Obverse: M COMMODVS ANT P FELIX AVG BRIT, laureate head right.
Reverse: MINER VIC TR P VIII COS V DES VIS C, Minerva standing left, trophy behind.
26.6 mm, 15.7 g.
Sold 5-2018
NORMAN K
32264q00~0.jpg
County of Tripoli, Raymond III, 1152 - 1187 Bronze pougeoise48 views County of Tripoli, Raymond III, 1152 - 1187 Bronze pougeoise
O : + CIVITAS fortified gateway, five rows of masonry, five crenellations, large divided door
R : + TRIPOLIS, St. Andrew's cross pommetée, circle in center, crescent and pellet in each quarter
CCS 13
Ex FORUM ; Ex Malloy
Vladislavs D
mon4s.jpg
Elagabalus, Varbanov 1394 AE17, 218-222 CE.25 views
056p Elagabalus, 16 May 218 - 11 March 222 A.D., Markianopolis, Moesia Inferior
Bronze AE
Varbanov 1384, VF, Markianopolis mint, 2.1g, 16.5 mm,
Obverse: AΥT K M AΥΡ ANTΩNINOC,( ΩN ligate) laureate head right; reverse Reverse:MAΡKIANOΠOΛITΩN, (AP and ΩN ligate) four stars in creasent moon.
NORMAN K
45448q00.jpg
Gallic 3 Marius, May - August or September 269 A.D.23 viewsBronze antoninianus, Schulzki AGK 8a, Mairat 238, SRCV III 11123, RIC V 17, aEF, rev a bit weak, 2.822g, 19.5mm, 180o, Colonia Agrippinensis (Cologne) mint, 2nd emission; obverse IMP C M AVR MARIVS AVG, radiate and cuirassed bust right; reverse VICT-O-R-IA AVG, Victory standing left, wreath in right, palm frond in left; nice portrait, nice dark sea-green patina, slightly irregular flan; scarce

Purchased from FORVM
1 commentsSosius
1226peg2.jpg
Gallienus, RIC V 245 Rome, 253 - 268 CE.22 viewsBronze antoninianus
Obverse: GALLIENVS AVG, radiate head right.
Reverse: NEPTVNO CONS AVG, Hippocamp right, N in ex
RIC V 245 (sole reign), Rome mint, 2.7g, 19.2mm
Reverse translation: Neptune god of the seas, preserver Augustus
NORMAN K
83353q00_Theodosius_RIC_IX_68a,_F.jpg
GLORIA ROMANORVM, ANT“Δ” in ex; RIC IX 68a Antioch27 viewsTheodosius I, 19 January 379 - 17 January 395 A.D. Bronze AE 2, RIC IX 68a, Antioch mint, 5.657g, 22.6mm, 180o, 392-395 A.D.; obverse D N THEODOSIVS P F AVG, pearl diademed draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse GLORIA ROMANORVM, Emperor standing facing, head right holding standard and globe, ANT“Δ” in exergue. Ex FORVM, photo credit FORVMPodiceps
HieronII.jpg
Hieron II155 viewsHead of Poseidon left

ΙΕΡΩ-ΝΟΣ
ornamented trident, dolphins at sides

Bronze AE 20
6.96g, 20mm

Syracuse Sicily mint
270-215 BC

SNG Cop 856, SGCV I 1223?

Ex-ANE

Hieron II was tyrant and then king of Syracuse, c. 270 to 215 B.C. His rule brought 50 years of peace and prosperity, and Syracuse became one of the most renowned capitals of antiquity. He enlarged the theater and built an immense altar. The literary figure Theocritus and the philosopher Archimedes lived under his rule. After struggling against the Mamertini, he eventually allied with Rome.
1 commentsJay GT4
hon123456.JPG
Honorius 393-423 CE.23 viewsHonorius bronze AE4
Obverse: D N HONORI-VS PF AVG, pearl diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right.
Reverse: GLORIA ROMANORVM, Emperor standing left, head right, holding labarum & globe.
Uncertain mint,15.2 mm, 1.4g.
NORMAN K
hon403.jpg
Honorius RIC 403 Cyzicus41 viewsHonorius bronze AE4
Obverse: D N HONORIUS P F AVG, pearl diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right, star in left field.
Reverse: GLORIA ROMANORVM, Honorius and Theodosius II standing facing, heads confronted, each holding a spear vertically in outer hand and resting inner hand on shield. The emperor on the right is slightly smaller than the other.
SMK in ex. Cyzicus 15.24 mm, 2.0 g.
NORMAN K
22807_Gallienus_antoninianus,_RIC_V_214,_VF,_Rome.jpg
IOVI PROPVGNAT, Jupiter standing facing, RIC V 214 Rome39 viewsGallienus, August 253 - 24 March 268 A.D. Bronze antoninianus, RIC V 214, VF, Rome mint, 2.304g, 19.5mm, 180o, 260 - 268 A.D.; obverse GALLIENVS AVG, radiate head right; reverse IOVI PROPVGNAT, Jupiter standing facing, head right, thunderbolt in right, XI left. Ex FORVM, photo credit FORVMPodiceps
agrippa1.jpg
Judean Kingdom, Herod Agrippa I, 37-44 CE20 viewsBronze Prutah, Hendin 1244, Meshorer TJC 120
Jurusalem mint, 41-42 CE.
Obverse: AGRIPA BACILEOC (king Agrippa) umbrella-like canopy with fringes.
Reverse: Three heads of barley between two leaves, flanked by L-s (year 6)
17.0 mm., 2.12 g.
sold 1-2018
NORMAN K
julian210.jpg
Julian II, RIC VIII 210 Thessalonica25 viewsJulian II "the Apostate," February 360 - 26 June 363 A.D.
Bronze AE 2
Obverse: DN FL CL IVLIANVS PF AVG, pearl diademed and cuirassed bust left, holding spear and shield.
Reverse: VOT X MVLT XX in four lines within wreath.
SMTS in ex. Thessalonica mint, 20.6 mm, 3.0 g.
NORMAN K
julian382b.jpg
Julian II, RIC VIII 376 Siscia23 viewsJulian II "the Apostate," February 360 - 26 June 363 A.D.
Bronze AE 3, as Caesar 355 - 361 A.D.; Obverse: D N IVLIANVS NOB CAES, cuirassed bust right
Reverse FEL TEMP REPARATIO, soldier spearing fallen horseman, M in left field, pellet in right.
ΔSISD in ex.,RIC VIII 376 Siscia mint, 2.2g, 16.9mm, scarce
NORMAN K
philip359.jpg
Macedonian Kingdom, Philip II, Father of Alexander the Great 359-336 BCE30 viewsBronze AE Unit, SNG ANS 934, nice VF, Macedonian mint, 6.328g,
17.4mm, 0°, c. 359 - 336 B.C.E.
Obverse: head Apollo right wearing taenia.
Reverse: ΦIΛIΠΠOΥ, young male rider
atop horse prancing to right, LO monogram below.
18.0 mm, 7.01 g.
Philip II expanded the size and influence of the Macedonian Kingdom,
but is perhaps best known as the father of Alexander the Great.
He personally selected the design of his coins.
NORMAN K
mon3s.jpg
Marcus Aurelius Antoninus “Elagabalus”, 218-222 CE.13 viewsElagabalus, 16 May 218 - 11 March 222 A.D., Markianopolis, Moesia Inferior
Bronze AE
Varbanov 1384, VF, Markianopolis mint, 2.0g, 16mm,
Obverse: AΥT K M AΥΡ ANTΩNINOC, laureate head right.
Reverse:MAΡKIANOΠOΛITΩN, bunch of grapes.
NORMAN K
DSCN5006.jpg
Maurice Tiberius. Bronze decanummium. 582-602 AD. AE 22mm5 views Maurice Tiberius. Bronze decanummium. 582-602 AD.
Obv. crowned, draped and cuirassed bust facing
Rev. large I, cross above, star in left field, and officina letter ( epsilon ) in right field and with CON in exergue.
Lee S
q1q.jpg
Tacitus Bronze Antoninianus RIC V 9324 viewsTacitus Antoninianus 275-276 CE.
Obverse: IMP CM CL TACITVS AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right.
Reverse: SALVA AVG, Salus with patera and scepter standing before altar with snake.
XXI delta in ex. Rome mint, 22.3 mm., 3.6 g.
sold 4-2018
NORMAN K
theo26b.jpg
Theodosius I, RIC IX 26b Cyzicus20 viewsBronze AE4, 388-392 CE.
Obverse: D N THEODOSIVS P F AVG, pearl diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right.
Reverse: SALVS REIPBLICAE, Victory walking left, holding trophy and dragging captive. Chi-ro in left field
SMKB in ex. Cyzicus mint 13.5 mm, 1.4 g.
NORMAN K
theo54c.jpg
Theodosius I, RIC IX 54c Constantinople24 viewsBronze AE2, 378-382 CE.
Obverse: D N THEODOSIVS P F AVG, pearl diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right.
Reverse: REPARATIO REIPVB, Emperor standing left raising up kneeling woman with turret with right hand & holding Victory on a globe.
CON in ex. Constantinople mint 24 mm, 3.7 g.
NORMAN K
00017x00~1.jpg
37 viewsSPAIN
PB Tessera (14mm, 2.62 g)
Fly, seen from above
Blank
Stannard, Evidence 26-7 = Stannard, Parallels 99-100; Minturnae 34-5

Found in Southern Spain

This type is found both in Baetica and in central Italy, at Minturnae, demonstrating the close economic ties between the two areas. Stannard notes numerous parallels in the lead tokens and unofficial bronze coinage in the two areas. He also sees a stylistic difference between issues of the two regions, but I have not personally seen enough specimens from both regions to say.
Ardatirion
corinth_tessera.jpg
34 viewsCORINTHIA, Corinth
PB Tessera (15mm, 3.37 g)
Pegasos flying left; [COR?] below
Blank
BCD Corinth 529 (this coin)

Ex BCD Collection (Lanz 105, 26 November 2001), lot 529

This intriguing piece stands out from the main series of countermarked bronze type tesserae found at Corinth.
Ardatirion
00060x00.jpg
48 viewsMEXICO, Aztec culture. Circa AD 1200/1300-1525
Ć “Hachuela” (143mm x 150mm, 55.70 g)
Mushroom-shaped bronze pseudo-axe-head with curved “blade” and flanged shank
Hosler, Lechtman, & Holm, Axe-monies and their Relatives, type 2a
1 commentsArdatirion
00005x00~7.jpg
26 viewsEGYPT, Antinoöpolis
PB Tessera – Dichalkon
Draped bust of Antinous right, wearing hem-hem crown(?);[Δ]/I downward to left, X/A downward to right
Tyche standing right, holding rudder and cornucopia; [Λ/K] downwards to left, [O/N] downwards to right

This piece is extremely important for the study of lead tokens in Roman Egypt. The legend reads DIXALKON, normally a bronze denomination. Leads bearing denominational names are known from only a few specimens (see Köln 3502, for one such piece from Memphis), including one of this type in Dattari (Savio).
Ardatirion
valentinien1-resitvtor-reip-cyzique.JPG
RIC.10a1(var) Valentinian I (AE4, Restitvtor Reip)17 viewsValentinian I, western roman emperor (364-375)
Quarter maiorina (?) AE4 : Restitvtor Reip (364-365, Cyzicus mint)

bronze, 17 mm diameter, 1.98 g, die axis: 6 h

A/ D N VALENTINI-ANVS P F AVG; pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right
R/ RESTITV-TOR REIP / SMK• in exergue; emperor standing facing left, holding l. standard and r. Victory on a globe

Divisonal emission ?
Droger
valentinien1-votvmvltx-sirmium.JPG
RIC.8.2 Valentinian I (AE3, Vot V Mvlt X)14 viewsValentinian I, western roman emperor (364-375)
AE3 : Vot V Mvlt X (364, Sirmium)

bronze, 19 mm diameter, 3.56 g, die axis: 1 h

A/ D N VALENTINI-ANVS P F AVG; pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right
R/ VOT / V / MVLT / X / BSIRM in exergue; in wreath
Droger
constantin1-provavgg-plc.JPG
RIC.225 Constantine I (AE3, Providentiae Avgg)16 viewsConstantine I, caesar (306-307), emperor (307-337)
AE3: Providentiae Avgg (324-325, Lyon mint)

bronze, 20mm diameter, 3.13 g, die axis: 12h

A/ CONSTAN-TINVS AVG; pearl-diademed head right
R/ PROVIDEN-TIAE AVGG / PLC in exergue; open camp gate, two turrets, no door and a star above

Ferrando II 479 (C2)
Droger
valentinien1-gloria-romanorvm-siscia.JPG
RIC.14a.xxv Valentinian I (AE4, Gloria Romanorvm)10 viewsValentinian I, western roman emperor (364-375)
AE4: Gloria Romanorvm (367-375, Siscia, 2ond officine)

bronze, 18 mm diameter, 2.00 g, die axis: 6 h

A/ D N VALENTINI-ANVS P F AVG; pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right
R/ GLORIA RO-MANORVM / BSISCS in exergue / Q|*RO in the field; emperor advancing right, dragging captive and holding labarum
Droger
constantin1-provavgg-arls.JPG
RIC.309 Constantine I (AE3, Providentiae Avgg)19 viewsConstantine I, caesar (306-307), emperor (307-337)
AE3: Providentiae Avgg (327-328, Arles mint)

bronze, 18mm diameter, 2.66 g, die axis: 7h

A/ CONSTAN-TINVS AVG; pearl-diademed head right
R/ PROVIDEN-TIAE AVGG / ARLS in exergue/S|F in field; open camp gate, two turrets, no door and a star above

Ferrando II 479 (C2)
Droger
valens-secvritas-reipvblicae.JPG
RIC.7(abs) Valens (AE3, Secvritas Rei Pvblicae)24 viewsValens, eastern roman emperor (364-378)
Nummus AE3 : Secvritas Rei Pvblicae (364-367, Siscia)

bronze, 18 mm diameter, 2.52 g, die axis: 6h

A/ D N VALEN-S P F AVG; pearl diademed, draped & cuirassed bust right
R/ SECVRITAS-REIPVBLICAE / ΓSISC in exergue ; Victory advancing left, holding wreath and palm
Droger
postume-dsesterce-herc-pacifero.JPG
Bastien 277 Postumus: double sestertius (Herc Pacifero)14 viewsPostumus, Gallic emperor (usurper) (260-269)
Antoninianus: Herc Pacifero (264-265/6, mint II)

Bronze, 15.52 g, diameter 26 mm, die axis 11h

A/ IMP C M CASS LAT POSTVMVS P F AVG; radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
R/ HERC-PACIFERO; Hercules, standing left, holding olive branch, club and lion’s skin
Droger
valens-gloria-siscia.JPG
RIC.5b.vii Valens (AE3, Gloria Romanorvm)13 viewsValens, eastern roman emperor (364-378)
Nummus AE3 : Gloria Romanorvm (364-367, Siscia, 2ond officine)

bronze, 19 mm diameter, 1.84 g, die axis: 7h

A/ D N VALEN-S P F AVG; pearl diademed, draped & cuirassed bust right
R/ GLORIA RO-MANORVM / DBSISC in exergue / *A in the field on the right; emperor advancing right, dragging captive and holding labarum
Droger
constantin2-prov-ROT.JPG
RIC.289 Constantine II (AE3, Providentiae Caess)19 viewsConstantine II, caesar (317-337), western emperor (337-340)
AE3 : Providentiae Caess (326, Rome mint)

bronze, 18mm diameter, 2.80 g, die axis: 6h

A/ CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C; pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right
R/ PROVIDEN-TIAE CAESS / R(wreath)T in exergue; open camp gate, two turrets, no door and a star above
Droger
gratien-gloria-novi-saeculi.JPG
RIC.15 Gratian (AE3, Gloria Novi Saecvli)24 viewsGratian, western roman emperor (367-383)
Nummus AE3: Gloria Novi Saecvli (371-376, Arles mint)

bronze, 18.5 mm diameter, 2,46 g, die axis: 12 h

A/ D N GRATIANVS AVGG AVG; pearl diademed, draped & cuirassed bust right
R/ GLORIA NO-VI SAECVLI/TCON in exergue; emperor standing facing, head left, holding labarum in right hand and resting left on a shield

Ferrando II 1629 (C4)
Droger
constantin2-virtvs-arles-tconst-sf.JPG
RIC.322 Constantine II (AE3, Virtvs Caess)11 viewsConstantine II, caesar (317-337), western emperor (337-340)
AE3 : Providentiae Caess (328-329, Arles mint, 3rd officine)

bronze, 19mm diameter, 3.14 g, die axis: 12h

A/ CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C; pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right
R/ VIRTVS - CAESS / TCONST in exergue, S | F in the field; gateway wide wide open doors, four turrets and a star above
Droger
gratien-reparatio-reipvb-lyon.JPG
RIC.28a Gratian (AE2, Reparatio Reipvb)15 viewsGratian, western roman emperor (367-383)
Maiorina AE2: Reparatio Reipvb (378-383, Lyon)

bronze, 22 mm diameter, 4.56 g, die axis: 12 h

A/ D N GRATIA-NVS P F AVG; pearl diademed, draped & cuirassed bust right
R/ REPARATIO - REIPVB / LVG? in exergue; emperor standing facing left, with right hand raising kneeled turreted woman, and holding Victory on globe in left hand
Droger
valentinien2-reparatio-siscia.JPG
RIC.26b4 Valentinian II (AE2, Reparatio Reipvb)20 viewsValentinian II, western roman emperor (375-392)
Maiorina pecunia AE2 : Reparatio Reipvb (383-388, Siscia mint)

bronze, 23 mm diameter, 5,76 g, die axis: 8 h,

A/ D N VALENTINIANVS IVN P F AVG; pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right
R/ REPARATIO-REIPVB / BSISC. in exergue; emperor standing facing left, with right hand raising kneeled turreted woman, and holding Victory on globe in left hand
Droger
valentinien2-salvs-reipvblicae-anta.JPG
RIC.67a1 Valentinian II (AE4, Salvs Reipvblicae)13 viewsValentinian II, western roman emperor (375-392)
Nummus AE4: Salvs Reipvblicae (383-392, Antioche, 1st officine)

bronze, 12 mm diameter, 1.51 g, die axis: 6 h,

A/ D N VALENTINIANVS IVN P F AVG; pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right
R/ SALVS REI-PVBLICAE / ANTA in exergue, chrisme in the field, Victory advancing left, holding trophy on
shoulder with right hand and dragging captive with left one
Droger
valentinien2-sil-virtvs-treves.JPG
RIC.67a1 Valentinian II (AE4, Salvs Reipvblicae)7 viewsValentinian II, western roman emperor (375-392)
Nummus AE4: Salvs Reipvblicae (383-392, Antioche, 1st officine)

bronze, 12 mm diameter, 1.51 g, die axis: 6 h,

D N VALENTINI-ANVS P F AVG; pearl diademed, draped & cuirassed bust right
R/ VIRTVS RO-MANORVM / TRPS in exergue; Roma seating left on cuirass, holding globe and spear
Droger
tetricus2-minimus-pax.JPG
Tetricus II: minimi (Pax Avgg)19 viewsTetricus II, Gallic caesar (usurper) (272-274)
Antoninianus : Pax Avgg (274?)

Bronze, 1.90 g, diameter 18 mm, die axis 6h

A/ [C PIV] ESV T[ETRICV]S CAES; radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
R/ PAX-A[VGG]; Pax standing left, wearing a helmet (!), holding a flower and a sceptre

Curious representation of Pax on this local imitation.

Droger
rome-arles-SCONST_.JPG
RIC.351 Rome commemorative (AE3, Vrbs Roma, Arles)12 viewsRome commemorative
AE3 (330-331, Arles mint, 2ond officine)

bronze, 17 mm diameter, 2.30 g, die axis: 6 h

A/ VRBS ROMA; helmeted and mantled bust of ROMA, left
R/ She-wolf with twins, two stars above, [S]CONST* in exergue

Ferrando II 958 (C3)
Droger
rome-arles-rameau-pconst.JPG
RIC.368 Rome commemorative (AE3, Vrbs Roma, Arles, branch)14 viewsRome commemorative
AE3 (331-332, Arles mint, 1st officine)

bronze, 18 mm diameter, 2.53 g, die axis: 7 h

A/ VRBS ROMA; helmeted and mantled bust of ROMA, left
R/ She-wolf with twins, two stars above and a branch between, PCONST in exergue

Ferrando II 960 (C3)
Droger
rome-arles-couronne-pconst.JPG
RIC.373 Rome commemorative (AE3, Vrbs Roma, Arles, wreath)21 viewsRome commemorative
AE3 (332-333, Arles mint, 1st officine)

bronze, 18 mm diameter, 1.97 g, die axis: 6 h

A/ VRBS ROMA; helmeted and mantled bust of ROMA, left
R/ She-wolf with twins, two stars above and a wreath between, PCONST in exergue

Ferrando II 962 (C3)
1 commentsDroger
rome-arles-X-PCON.JPG
RIC.abs Rome commemorative (AE4, Vrbs Roma, Arles, X)17 viewsRome commemorative
AE4 (339-340, Arles mint)

bronze, 14 mm diameter, 1.44 g, die axis: 6 h

A/ VRBS ROMA; helmeted and mantled bust of ROMA, left
R/ She-wolf with twins, two stars above, X between them, PCON in exergue

The exergue may be PCON or PCONST. The lack of space and the dots on the visor of the helmet suggest it is rather PCON.

Ferrando II 979 (R1)
Droger
rome-_plc.JPG
RIC.267 Rome commemorative (AE3, Vrbs Roma, Lyon)19 viewsRome commemorative
AE3 (333-334, Lyon mint)

bronze, 17 mm diameter, 1.90 g, die axis: 12 h

A/ VRBS ROMA; helmeted and mantled bust of ROMA, left
R/ She-wolf with twins, two stars above, *PLC in exergue
Droger
rome-tr_p.JPG
RIC.542 Rome commemorative (AE3, Vrbs Roma)14 viewsRome commemorative
AE3 (332-333, Trčves mint)

bronze, 18 mm diameter, 2.60 g, die axis: 6 h

A/ VRBS ROMA; helmeted and mantled bust of ROMA, left
R/ She-wolf with twins, two stars above, TR•P in exergue
Droger
auguste-agrippa-as-nimes.JPG
RIC.158 Augustus (AE, Nimes dupondius)9 viewsAugusutus, emperor (-27/14)
AE: Nimes dupondius (-8/-3, Nimes mint)

bronze, 20mm diameter, 12.74 g, die axis: 1h

A/ IMP / DIVI F above and below heads of Agrippa (left) and Augustus (right), back to back, that of Agrippa wearing rostral crown and that of Augustus is oak-wreathed
R/ COL / ENM to left and right of a chained crocodile and a palm tree
1 commentsDroger
magnus-maximus-spes-romanorvm.JPG
RIC.29a Magnus Maximus (AE4, Spes Romanorvm)24 viewsMagnus Maximus, usurpor (383-384), western roman emperor (384-388)
Nummus AE4 : Spes Romanorvm (383-388, Arles mint)

bronze, 12 mm diameter, 1.40 g, die axis: 5 h,

A/ D N MAG MAXI-MVS P F AVG; pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right
R/ SPES RO-MA-NORVM / PCON; open camp-gate with star between its two turrets

RIC.29a
NBD.55515
Ferrando II 1677 (C2)
Droger
magnus-maximus-votvmvltx-LVGS.JPG
RIC.35 Magnus Maximus (AE4, Vot V Mvlt X)11 viewsMagnus Maximus, usurpor (383-384), western roman emperor (384-388)
Nummus AE4 : Vot V Mvlt X (383-388, Lyon mint)

bronze, 14 mm diameter, 1.72 g, die axis: 6 h,

A/ [D N MA]G MAXI-MVS P F AV[G]; pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right
R/ VOT / V/ MVLT / X / LVCS in exergue; in wreath
Droger
magnus-maximus-reparatio-arles.JPG
RIC.26a1 Magnus Maximus (AE2, Reparatio Reipvb)16 viewsMagnus Maximus, usurpor (383-384), western roman emperor (384-388)
Maiorina pecunia AE2 : Reparatio Reipvb (383-388, Arles mint)

bronze, 23 mm diameter, 4.23 g, die axis: 5 h

A/ D N MAG MAXI-MVS P F AVG; pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right
R/ REPARATIO-REIPVB / PCON in exergue, C in the field; emperor standing facing left, with right hand raising kneeled turreted woman, and holding Victory on globe in left hand

RIC.IX 26.a.1(C)
Ferrando II 1669 (C4)
Droger
magnus-maximus-reparatio-SCON.JPG
RIC.26a2 Magnus Maximus (AE2, Reparatio Reipvb)9 viewsMagnus Maximus, usurpor (383-384), western roman emperor (384-388)
Maiorina pecunia AE2 : Reparatio Reipvb (383-388, Arles mint)

bronze, 21 mm diameter, 5.04 g, die axis: 1 h

A/ D N MAG MAXI-MVS P F AVG; pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right
R/ REPARATIO-REIPVB / SCON in exergue, C in the field; emperor standing facing left, with right hand raising kneeled turreted woman, and holding Victory on globe in left hand

RIC.IX 26.a.2(C)
Ferrando II 1670 (C4)
Droger
magnus-maximus-reparatio-lyon.JPG
RIC.32.(6 or 7) Magnus Maximus (AE2, Reparatio Reipvb)17 viewsMagnus Maximus, usurpor (383-384), western roman emperor (384-388)
Maiorina pecunia AE2 : Reparatio Reipvb (383-388, Lyon mint)

bronze, 23 mm diameter, 3.95 g, die axis: 7 h,

A/ D N MAG MAXI-MVS P F AVG; pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right
R/ REPARATIO-REIPVB / LVG? in exergue, C in the field; emperor standing facing left, with right hand raising kneeled turreted woman, and holding Victory on globe in left hand

RIC.IX 32.(6 ou 7)(S)
Droger
magnus-maximus-reparatio-treves.JPG
RIC.85 Magnus Maximus (AE2, Reparatio Reipvb)14 viewsMagnus Maximus, usurpor (383-384), western roman emperor (384-388)
Maiorina pecunia AE2 : Reparatio Reipvb (383-388, Trčves mint)

bronze, 23 mm diameter, 5.23 g, die axis: 7 h,

A/ D N MAG MAX-IMVS P F AVG; pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right
R/ REPARATIO-REIPVB / SMTRP; emperor standing facing left, with right hand raising kneeled turreted woman, and holding Victory on globe in left hand

RIC.IX 85.1(S)
Droger
magnus-maximus-victoria.JPG
RIC.33 Magnus Maximus (AE2, Victoria Avg)19 viewsMagnus Maximus, usurpor (383-384), western roman emperor (384-388)
Maiorina pecunia AE2 : Victoria Avgg (383-388, Lyon mint)

bronze, 21 mm diameter, 4.41 g, die axis: 6 h,

A/ D N MAG MAXI-MVS P F AVG; pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right
R/ VICTOR-IA AVGG / LVGP; emperor standing left, holding victory and standard

RIC.IX 33.1(S)
Droger
fl-victor-spes-romanorvm-smaqs.JPG
RIC.55b2 Flavius Victor (AE4, Spes Romanorvm)4 viewsFlavius Victor, usurpor, Cesar (384-387), western roman emperor (387-388)
Nummus AE4: Spes Romanorvm (387-388, Aquilea mint, 2ond officine)

Bronze, 12-13 mm diameter, 1.40 g, die axis: 1 h

A/ D N FL VIC-TOR P F AVG; pearl diademed, draped & cuirassed bust right
R/ SPES RO-MA-NORVM / AQPS in exergue; open camp-gate with star between its two turrets
Droger
constans-victoriae-dd-treves.JPG
RIC.188 Constans (AE4, Victoriae DD Avgg Q NN)14 viewsConstans, caesar (333-337), western emperor (337-350)
AE4: Victoriae DD Avgg Q NN (346-358, Trčves mint)

bronze, 15mm diameter, 1.65g, die axis 6h

A/ CONSTAN-S P F AVG; pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right
R/ VICTORIAE DD AVGG Q NN / TRS in exergue / * in field; 2 facing Victories holding palm and wreath
Droger
honorius-virtus-exerciti-cons.JPG
RIC.61? Honorius (AE3, Virtus Exerciti)17 viewsHonorius, western roman emperor (393-423)
Nummus AE3 : Virtus exerciti (395-401, Constantinople mint)

bronze, 18 mm diameter, 2,31 g, die axis: 12 h

A/ D N HONORI-VS P F AVG; pearl diademed, draped & cuirassed bust right
R/ VIRTVS-EXERCITI/CONSΓ in exergue; Emperor standing facing in military uniform, being crowned by Victory
Droger
trajan03_25_res.jpg
(0098) TRAJAN36 views104 - 117 AD
Bronze Dichalque AE 27 mm max; 13.71 g
O: Laureate head of Trajan r.
R: Poseidon stdg. l. with r. foot on prow, holding dolphin in r. and trident in l.
Berytus; Rouv. 530
laney
ZDS.jpg
(172_192) Comode - Aguila (Tracia)22 viewsADPIANOPOLEI.
Coin type
Temporary Number 10552
City; Province; Region Hadrianopolis; Thrace; Thrace
Date 191–192
Obverse design laureate-headed bust of Commodus wearing cuirass(?) and paludamentum, r.
Obverse inscription ΑΥ Κ Λ ΑΥ ΚΟΜΟΔΟΣ
Reverse design eagle standing, facing, head, l., spreading wings
Reverse inscription ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟΠΟΛΕΙΤ
Metal Bronze
Average diameter 17 mm
Average weight 3,30 g
Average die-axis 6
Type reference Jurukova 166
Ségusiaves
Luristan_Spearhead.jpg
*SOLD*157 viewsAncient Luristan Bronze Spear Point

Date: circa 1,000 BC
Noah
Licinius.jpg
*SOLD*17 viewsLicinius I Bronze follis

Attribution: RIC VI 60, Thessalonica
Date: AD 312-313
Obverse: IMP LIC LICINIVS P F AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust r.
Reverse: IOVI CONSERVATORI AVGG NN, Jupiter standing half l., nude, Victory on globe in r., long scepter vertical in l., eagle with wreath in beak l., •TS•• in exergue
Size: 24.3 mm
Weight: 4.42 grams
ex-Forvm
Noah
AugI439.jpg
- 27 BC - 14 AD - Augustus - RIC I 439 - As with "S C" Reverse106 viewsEmperor: Augustus (r. 27 BC - 14 AD)
Date: 6 BC
Condition: Fair
Denomination: As

Obverse: CAESAR AVGVST PONT MAX TRIBVNIC POT
Caesar Augustus Chief Priest Tribune
Bare head right

Reverse: SEX NONIVS QVINCTILIAN IIIVIR AAAFF around S C.
Sex. Nonius Quinctilianus of The Three Men for Striking and Casting Gold, Silver and Bronze by Senatorial Decree.

Rome mint
RIC I Augustus 439
10.07g; 26.5mm; 270°
1 commentsPep
AugI425.jpg
- 27 BC-14 AD - Augustus - RIC I 425 - Cornucopia and Altar Quadrans63 viewsEmperor: Augustus (r. 27 BC - 14 AD)
Date: 8 BC
Condition: VF
Denomination: Quadrans

Obverse: PVLCHER TAVRVS REGVLVS
Pulcher Taurus Regulus (moneyer)
S - C to left and right of cornucopia

Reverse: IIIVIR AAAFF round garlanded altar
The Three Men for Striking and Casting Gold, Silver and Bronze.

Rome mint
RIC I Augustus 425
3.14g; 18.2mm; 15°
Pep
theodosiusHeraclea.JPG
-Theodosius II AE3. Heraclea25 viewsTheodosius II, 10 January 402 - 28 July 450 A.D. Bronze AE 3, RIC X 398, VF, Heraclea mint, 13mm, 408 - 423 A.D.; obverse D N THEODOSIVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right, star behind; reverse GLORIA ROMANORVM, Theodosius II and Honorius standing facing. SMHA in ex; scarce type.ancientone
prutahjanfull1.jpg
0 - Alexander Jannaeus Prutah - H. 469108 viewsThis coin, minted under the reign of Alexander Jannaeus (103 BCE - 76 BCE), is a bronze prutah.
OBV. Upside-down achor reading BAΣIΛEΩΣ AΛEΞANΔΡOY.
REV. Eight ponted star, letters in the spokes, reading 'Yehonatan the King'.
aarmale
Aes_Rude~0.jpg
001.1 Aes Rude 2341 viewsRoman Republic. c. 4th C. BC. (15.57 grams. 22x22x7 mm). Found turn of the century excavations around Mt. Ingino, Gubbio, Umbria. Thurlow and Vecchi, plate #2, discussed page 15. Ex Warren Esty.

Aes rude, or rough bronze, was used for trade in on the Italian peninsula prior to the use of actual coins. These bronze bars were traded by weight on the Italian peninsula. The “rude” bars were eventually surpassed by marked bars (Aes Signatum).
1 commentsLucas H
Aes_Rude.jpg
001.2 Aes Rude85 viewsRoman Republic. c. 5th-3rd C. BC. Found turn of the century excavations around Mt. Ingino, Gubbio, Umbria.
(19.37 grams. 21x20x7 mm). Thurlow and Vecchi, plate #2, discussed page 15. Ex Warren Esty.

Aes rude means rough bronze, and prior to the use of actual coins, these bronze bars were traded by weight on the Italian peninsula. The “rude” bars were eventually given markings (Aes Signa).
2 commentsLucas H
OlbiaDolphin.jpg
001a, Olbia, Sarmatia, c. 5th Century B.C.52 viewsBronze cast dolphin, SGCV 1684 var, VF, 1.322g, 24.7mm. Obverse: dolphin with raised spine, dorsal fin and tail.

Olbia

Olbia, located in what is modern-day Ukraine, was a Milesian colony at the convergence of the Hypanis and Borysthenes rivers, about 15 miles inland from the Northwest coast of the Black Sea. Well located for trade, Olbia was a prosperous trading city and major grain supplier in the 5th Century B.C.

Small bronze dolphins were cast in Olbia, beginning 550-525 B.C., first as sacrificial objects for worship of Apollo and later as a form of currency (Joseph Sermarini).
1 commentsCleisthenes
2CrXTmC384gPtZ9JYce56FzdZ8pRzK.jpg
002d. Julia and Livia, Pergamon, Mysia43 viewsBronze AE 18, RPC I 2359, SNG Cop 467, aF, weight 3.903 g, maximum diameter 18.3 mm, die axis 0o, Pergamon mint, obverse ΛIBIAN HPAN CAPINOΣ, draped bust of Livia right; reverse IOYΛIAN AΦPO∆ITHN, draped bust of Julia right; ex Forum, ex Malter Galleries

Julia was Augustus' only natural child, the daughter of his second wife Scribonia. She was born the same day that Octavian divorced Scribonia, to marry Livia.

Julia's tragic destiny was to serve as a pawn in her father's dynastic plans. At age two, she was betrothed to Mark Antony's ten-year-old son, but the fathers' hostility ended the engagement. At age 14, she was married to her cousin but he died two years later. In 21 B.C., Julia married Agrippa, nearly 25 years her elder, Augustus' most trusted general and friend. Augustus had been advised, "You have made him so great that he must either become your son-in-law or be slain." Agrippa died suddenly in 12 B.C. and Julia was married in 11 B.C. to Tiberius.

During her marriages to Agrippa and Tiberius Julia took lovers. In 2 B.C., Julia was arrested for adultery and treason. Augustus declared her marriage null and void. He also asserted in public that she had been plotting against his own life. Reluctant to execute her, Augustus had her exiled, with no men in sight, forbidden even to drink wine. Scribonia, Julia's mother, accompanied her into exile. Five years later, she was allowed to move to Rhegium but Augustus never forgave her. When Tiberius became emperor, he cut off her allowance and put her in solitary confinement in one room in her house. Within months she died from malnutrition.
ecoli
NeroDECVRSIOSestertiusRome.JPG
005. Nero 54-68AD. AE Sestertius, Rome mint, 63AD. DECVRSIO. 38.6mm200 viewsObv. Laureate ead right, wearing aegis NERO CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG GERM P M TR P IMP P P
Rev. Nero on horseback prancing right, wearing cuirass, short tunic, and billowing cloak, spear in right hand, to right soldier moving right. carrying vexillum; to leftin shallow relief, soldier running right DECVRSIO in ex
BMCRE 155; Cohen 94, RIC I 176 var (obv legend)
38.6mm, 180o, 63 A.D. Rome mint.
This sestertius was an early emission from the Rome Mint, which resumed striking bronze after about 10 years of inactivity. The talented engraver, perhaps with extra time for this initial project, produced one of the best dies in the entire imperial bronze series. The special style, complemented by superior execution, has similarities to later medallions.


The fine expressive portrait has higher relief than the more common Lugdunum issues.
The reverse uses the roundness of the flan and three geometric planes of relief to both present the scene in a format that draws the eye to the emperor and show movement that is lacking on almost all other Roman coins. The rare use of geometric planes was repeated on ADLOCVTIO sestertii of Galba five years later, perhaps the work of the same artist. Rome sestertii after 70 A.D. are of far less impressive style.


The lack of SC leaves the reverse fields uncluttered. SC stood for Senatus Consultum, "By Decree of the Senate" and signified the role of the Senate in the minting of brass and bronze coinage. Many sestertii of Caligula and some brass and bronze of Nero lack SC. Subsequent issues include SC again, until inflation produced the demise of the sestertius under Gallienus, c. 265 AD
5 commentsLordBest
coin313.JPG
005c. Germanicus22 viewsGermanicus AS / SC

Attribution: RIC(Claudius) 106

Date: 19 AD
Obverse: GERMANICVS CAESAR TI AVG F DIVI AVG N Bare head right
Reverse: TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG GERMANI IMP P P around large SC
Size: 28.73 mm
Weight: 11.6 grams
Description: A decent and scarcer bronze

ecoli
a_obv_01_rev_01.JPG
01 - Japan Edo Period AE 4 Mon19 viewsJapan, Bronze 4 Mon.rexesq
0010-019.jpg
0110 - Republic, Quartuncia66 viewsRome mint, circa 217-215 BC
Head of Roma right, wearing a crested helmet
Prow of galey right, ROMA above
3,41 gr - 15 mm
Ref :RCV # 624
According to RCV, "the quartuncia is the smallest denomination of the Roman bronze coinage, and has been briefly produced during the semilibral weight standard. With the further decline in the weight of the bronze coinage after 215 BC, issue of the experimental quartuncia ceased."
4 commentsPotator II
Claudius_TI-CLAVDIVS-CAESAR-AVG-P-M-TR-P-IMP____EX-S-C-P-P-OB-CIVES-SERVATOS_RIC-I-112_C-38_Q-001_34-36mm_23,63g-s.jpg
012 Claudius-I (41-54 A.D.), RIC I 112var. (?), Thracian ?, AE-Sestertius, EX-S-C/P-P/OB-CIVES/SERVATOS, Rare !!!,369 views012 Claudius-I (41-54 A.D.), RIC I 112var. (?), Thracian ?, AE-Sestertius, EX-S-C/P-P/OB-CIVES/SERVATOS, Rare !!!,
Claudius became “Father of the Country” in 50 AD, and this title was added to the coinage, at the end of the legend, with it’s abbreviation: PP. The reverse legend translates to “For Saving the Lives of Citizens.
avers:- TI-CLAVDIVS-CAESAR-AVG-P-M-TR-P-IMP-P-P, laureate head of Claudius right
revers:- No legend - Wreath, EX-S-C/P-P/OB-CIVES/SERVATOS within,
exe:-/-//--, diameter: 34-36mm, weight: 23,63g, axis:11h,
mint:Thracian ?, date: 50-54 A.D., ref: RIC-I-112, C-38,
Q-001
"RIC is in error to state that P P only appeared on Claudius' bronze coins in 50 AD. In fact Claudius became P P very early in 42 AD, and P P appeared immediately not only on his quadrantes, which are specifically dated to 42 by the title COS II, but also on his sestertii and middle bronzes.
Stylistically your coin should not be attributed to Rome, but to a Thracian mint perhaps active only towards the end of the reign. These coins, scarcer than the Rome-mint ones, are not recognized in RIC!" by Curtis Clay. Thank you "curtisclay".
5 commentsquadrans
Claudius_AE-Sest_TI-CLAVDIVS-CAESAR-AVG-P-M-TR-P-IMP-P-P_EX-S-C-P-P-OB-CIVES-SERVATOS_RIC-I-112_C-38_Q-001_11h_34-36mm_23,63ga-s.jpg
012 Claudius-I (41-54 A.D.), RIC I 112var. (?), Thracian ?, AE-Sestertius, EX-S-C/P-P/OB-CIVES/SERVATOS, Rare !!!, Re-Shot !341 views012 Claudius-I (41-54 A.D.), RIC I 112var. (?), Thracian ?, AE-Sestertius, EX-S-C/P-P/OB-CIVES/SERVATOS, Rare !!!, Re-Shot !
Claudius became “Father of the Country” in 50 AD, and this title was added to the coinage, at the end of the legend, with it’s abbreviation: PP. The reverse legend translates to “For Saving the Lives of Citizens.
avers:- TI-CLAVDIVS-CAESAR-AVG-P-M-TR-P-IMP-P-P, laureate head of Claudius right
revers:- No legend - Wreath, EX-S-C/P-P/OB-CIVES/SERVATOS within,
exe:-/-//--, diameter: 34-36mm, weight: 23,63g, axis:11h,
mint:Thracian ?, date: 50-54 A.D., ref: RIC-I-112, C-38,
Q-001
"RIC is in error to state that P P only appeared on Claudius' bronze coins in 50 AD. In fact Claudius became P P very early in 42 AD, and P P appeared immediately not only on his quadrantes, which are specifically dated to 42 by the title COS II, but also on his sestertii and middle bronzes.
Stylistically your coin should not be attributed to Rome, but to a Thracian mint perhaps active only towards the end of the reign. These coins, scarcer than the Rome-mint ones, are not recognized in RIC!" by Curtis Clay. Thank you "curtisclay".
1 commentsquadrans
Titus_AE-Dup_T-CAES-VESPAS-dot-IMP-dot-P-dot-TRP-COS-II_S-C_ROMA_RIC-xx_C-xx_Rome_80-AD__Q-001_axes-h_27mm_3,28g-2-s.jpg
022a Titus (69-79 A.D. Caesar, 79-81 A.D. Augustus), AE-Dupondius, RIC Not in !!!, RIC II(1962) Not in !!! (Vespasian), Roma, S-C, ROMA, Roma seated left, Not listed in RIC !!!, Rare !, 503 views022a Titus (69-79 A.D. Caesar, 79-81 A.D. Augustus), AE-Dupondius, RIC Not in !!!, RIC II(1962) Not in !!! (Vespasian), Roma, S-C, ROMA, Roma seated left, Not listed in RIC !!!, Rare !,
avers:- T CAES VESPAS•IMP•P•TRP COS II, Radiate head right.
revers:- Roma seated left, holding wreath and parazonium, S-C across the field, ROMA in exergo.
exerg: S/C//ROMA, diameter: 27mm, weight: x,xxg, axis: h,
mint: Rome, date: 72 A.D., ref: RIC Not in !!!, RIC II(1962) Not in !!! (Vespasian), C-Not in !!!,
Q-001

"Titus' coins with obverse legend T CAES VESPAS IMP P TR P COS II were struck in year 72, first issue.No ROMA reverse is listed in RIC for Titus in this issue, so you may have found a new type! "by FlaviusDomitianus. Thank you FlaviusDomitianus.
""Titus' issue of bronze coins with COS II and the abbreviations CAES VESPAS is altogether rare. RIC 411-417 only lists two sestertius types, R2 and R3; one dupondius type, FELICITAS PVBLICA, R2, unfortunately not illustrated, it would be nice to compare the obverse die with your coin; and four As types, all R2.

The same ROMA reverse die of your coin was apparently also used for dupondii with other obverse legends:

RIC 396, pl. 31, Vespasian COS IIII.

RIC 438, pl. 34, Titus CAES VESPASIAN P TR P COS II; also pl. 34, RIC 436 (rev. only), which should have ROMA around edge and SC in exergue, but in fact has ROMA in exergue and S - C in field, so seems to be another example of RIC 438.

Titus CAES VESPASIAN PON TR POT (instead of P TR P) COS II: my collection ex G. Hirsch 229, 2003, lot 2219; not in RIC."" by Curtis Clay, Thank you Curtis.
5 commentsquadrans
LitraRoma.jpg
026/3 Litra or 1/8 ounce40 viewsAnonymous. Ć Litra or 1/8 ounce. Rome. 234-231 BC. ( 3.43g, 15mm, 5h) Obv: Laureate head of Apollo right Rev: Horse rearing left, wearing bridle, bit, and reins; ROMA below.

Crawford 26/3; Sydenham 29 (Half-litra); Kestner 56-65; BMCRR Romano-Campanian 70-74 (Half-litra)

This coin is attributed as a Litra by Crawford, others define it as half-litra. However, it could be argued that "1/8 ounce piece" is the better description.

First of all, on litra and half-litra:

"According to Crawford, the weight standard of the series 26 litra and half litra are based on a litra of 3.375 grams . The half litra in Crawford is described as having a dog on the reverse rather than a horse, and the average weight of the half litra of several specimens is described as 1.65 grams. BMCRR does refer to these as half litrae; but keep in mind that Grueber was writing circa 1900 and based on older scholarship. Sydenham was writing in the 1950s. Of the three major works cited, Crawford is the most current and likely based on a greater number of more recent finds."

Andrew Mccabe:

"It's very doubtful to me that the word "litra" is correct. Much more likely, these small bronze coins were simply fractions of the Aes Grave cast coinage system, as they come in weights of 1/4, 1/8 and 1/16 ounce, and the Aes Grave coinage generally had denominations from As down to Semuncia (1/2 ounce). So this coin would be 1/8 ounce coin. That's my view, which differs from their long term designation as "Litra", which presume them to be overvalued token bronze coinage on the Sicilian model, whereby bronze coins had value names that indicate a relationship to the silver coinage.

Litra, the word, is from the same stem as Libra, i.e. pound, would suggest a denomination of a (light) Sicilian pound of bronze, which sometimes equates in value to a small silver coin in Sicily weighing about 1/12 didrachm (about 0.6 grams) so by this definition, a Litra = an Obol. But it hardly stands up to scrutiny that such a tiny bronze coin, weighing 3.375 grams, could have been equivalent to a 0.6 gram silver obol. It would imply a massive overvaluation of bronze that just does not seem credible.

So. throw out the Litras, and call these coins 1/8 ounce pieces, and I think we have a sensible answer."

Paddy
augustus quadr-.jpg
027 BC-14 AD - AUGUSTUS AE quadrans - struck 5 BC66 viewsobv: GALVS.MESSALLA.III.VIR
rev: SISENNA.APRONIVS.AAA.FF / S.C.
ref: RIC I 443, C.352
mint: Rome, 3.03gms, 16mm
Moneyers Apronius, Galus, Messalla, and Sisena.

The quadrans (literally meaning "a quarter") was a low-value Roman bronze coin worth 1/4th of an as. After ca. 90 BC, when bronze coinage was reduced to the semuncial standard, the quadrans became the lowest-valued coin in production.
berserker
augustus RIC344-RRR.jpg
027 BC-14 AD - AUGUSTUS AR denarius - struck by P. Licinius Stolo, moneyer (17 BC)83 viewsobv: AVGVSTVS TR POT (Augustus, laureate, wearing cloak and short tunic, on horseback riding right, holding patera in right hand - banker's mark)
rev: P STOLO III VIR (Salii or priest of Mars's cap (same than apex flaminis) between two studded oval shields (ancilia)).
ref: RIC I 344 (R3); BMCRE 76; RSC 439 (80frcs)
mint: Rome
3.53gms,18-19mm
Extremely rare

History: The Ludi Saeculares were spread over a period of three days (from May 31 to June 3), and Augustus celebrated them to inaugurate the beginning of a new age. On the reverse of this coin the ancilias (sacred shields) symbolised the music at festivals. The "jumping priests" or Salii marched to the Regia, where was the shrine of Mars, in which the ancilia (the sacred shield, and its 11 copies) of Mars were stored. The Salii wearing apex, taking the bronze Ancilia, and danced through the streets carrying poles with the shields mounted on them in their left hands. With their other hand, they banged the shields with a drumstick.
3 commentsberserker
238-augustus as.jpg
027 BC-14 AD - AVGVSTVS AE as - struck by C. Plotius Rufus moneyer (15 BC)49 viewsobv: CAESAR AVGVSTVS TRIBVNIC POTEST (bare head right)
rev: C PLOTIVS RVFVS III VIR AAA FF / S.C.
ref: RIC I 389, C.504 (2frcs)
mint: Rome
11.06gms, 28mm

The moneyers were called tresviri aere argento auro flando feriundo, literally "three men for striking (and) casting bronze, silver (and) copper (coins)". The title was abbreviated III. VIR. AAA. FF. on the coinage itself. These men were also known collectively known as the tresviri monetalis or sometimes, less correctly, as the triumviri monetales.
berserker
019.JPG
03 Constantius II104 viewsConstantius II, 22 May 337 - 3 November 361 A.D.
Bronze AE 2, desert patina, mint: Antioch, obverse D N CONSTAN-TIVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse FEL TEMP RE-PARATIO, Gamma in left, soldier spearing Horseman,hair in braids, bearded, reaching back towards soldier, ANBI in ex Antioch 132

ex DS
2 commentsRandygeki(h2)
014_(1).JPG
03 Constantius II93 viewsConstantius II, 22 May 337 - 3 November 361 A.D.
Bronze AE 3, condition: VF, red desert patina, mint: Antioch, weight: 2.393g, maximum diameter: 15.2mm, die axis: 0o, date struck: 355 - 361 A.D.; obverse D N CONSTAN-TIVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse FEL TEMP-REPARATIO, soldier spearing Horseman,hair in braids, bearded, reaching back towards soldier, AN Epsilon in ex RIC 187A
2 commentsRandygeki(h2)
002~6.JPG
03 Constantius II60 viewsConstantius II, 22 May 337 - 3 November 361 A.D.
Bronze AE 3
obverse D N CONSTAN-TIVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse FEL TEMP-REPARATIO, soldier spearing Horseman,hair in braids, bearded, clutching, ANB
Antioch 188

Found in Israel
1 commentsRandygeki(h2)
IMG_2368.JPG
03 Constantius II104 viewsConstantius II, 22 May 337 - 3 November 361 A.D.
Bronze AE 2, Antioch 24 mm 5.65g
obverse D N CONSTAN-TIVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right;
reverse FEL TEMP RE-PARATIO, Gamma in left, soldier spearing Horseman,hair in braids, bearded, reaching back towards soldier,horses hoof over exerg. line

ANS in ex Antioch 132
4 commentsRandygeki(h2)
521280_(1).jpg
03.- Pontos AE18 (125-100 BC)9 viewsPontos. Amisos. Time of Mithradates VI Eupator, circa 125-100 BC. (Bronze, 20.33-18.67 mm., 8.36 g). Diademed head of Artemis to right; at her shoulder, bow and quiver. Rev. ΑΜΙ - ΣΟΥ Tripod. Black patina. VF.
Purchased at Jesus Vico online auction in 2019.
Oscar D
faustaspes~0.jpg
043. Fausta, wife of Constantine I. AE Follis, Rome mint. FDC.190 viewsAE Follis. Rome mint.

Obv.Bust of Fausta right FLAV MAX FAVSTA AVG

Rev. Fausta standing holding Constantine II and Constantius II SPES REIPVBLICAE

RIC 292, S 3903, VM 6. R4.

FDC. Finest known Fausta bronze, with full mint lustre sheathed in a thin Tiber patina. ex- Tom Cederlind.
5 commentsLordBest
VHC05-coin.jpg
05- CANADA, 1 CENT, KM7.20 viewsSize: 25.5 mm. Composition: Bronze. Mintage: 4,100,100.
Grade: PCGS MS64 RB. (Cert. # 10095298).
Comments: Acquired in a trade from Don Rupp, 06/2009.
lordmarcovan
Roman_Bronze_black.jpg
056/3 Spanish imitation in good style29 viewsAnonymous. Ae Semis. Second or first century BC. (6.58 g, 20.55 mm) Obv: Laureate head of Saturn r.; behind, S. Rev: Prow r.; above, S and below, ROMA.
Syd 143a; Crawford 56/3

In 1982 a conference report was published that contained a joint debate between Crawford and the Spanish numismatist Villaronga. Villaronga illustrated a number of coins from site finds near Cadiz, and concluded that they were good style Spanish imitations. Every year about 10 or 20 similar coins appear on the Spanish market, but none appear in Italian sources.

Thank you Mccabe for helping with the attribution.
Paddy
constantius2.jpg
062. Constantius II, 337-361AD. AE Centenionalis.74 viewsConstantius II. AE Centenionalis. Heraclea mint. 348-51CE.

Obv. Diademed, draped bust holding globe D N CONSTAN-TIVS P F AVG.

Rev. Emperor in military dress standing left, holding standard with chi-rho on banner and resting left hand on shield, in front of Emperor are two captives standing FEL TEMP REPARATIO Exe: SMHA.

RIC VIII, 69 Scarce, 5.61g.

A beautiful bust, which it is possibly to recreate with only a bed sheet and a single Terry's Chocolate Orange
LordBest
constantiusgallus.jpg
062A. Constantius Gallus, 351-354AD. AE2.119 viewsAE2. Constantinople mint.

Obv. Bare head bust right, draped and cuirassed D N FL CL CONSTANTIVS NOB CAES.

Rev. Soldier spearing horseman left, down and holding neck of horse with one hand and reaching back with the other arm FEL TEMP R-EPARATIO. Exe: CONSS

RIC VIII, 120 (s) Scarce, page 458 - LRBC #2040/ 3.06 g
LordBest
RI 064cz img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus AS - RIC unlisted39 viewsObv:– L SEPT SEV PERT AVG IMP II, Laureate head right
Rev:– SAL AV[G TR P II] COS II S--C, Salus sanding left, holding sceptre and patera over alter
Minted in Rome. Early A.D. 194
Reference(s) – Cohen -. RIC - (see below)

The following information provided courtesy of Mr. Curtis Clay.
A specimen of this coin is apparently misreported in RIC, p. 182, note *. It's a rare coin, only two such included in Curtis' unpublished 1972 die study of early Severan bronze coins.
Curtis knows the same rev. type muled with both dupondius and As obv. dies of 193 (IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG). It's not impossible that a sestertius with the same type might turn up someday!
Cohen 640 exactly describes this type, though omitting the IMP II in obverse legend, and calling the coin a sestertius.
maridvnvm
LarryW1906.jpg
0658 Focas, 602-61043 viewsBronze follis, 32.24mm, 11.51g, gVF
Struck 603-604 at Nicomedia
d m [FOCA - PE]R AVG, bust facing wearing consular robes and crown with cross on circlet, mappa in right, eagle tipped scepter in left / XXXX, ANNO above, II right, NIKO A in exg
Certificate of Authenticity by David R. Sear, ACCS
Ex: Forvm Ancient Coins; Harlan Berk
Unpublished with this date: year 2. cf. Sear 658 (years 3 and 4)
Lawrence Woolslayer
LarryW1905.jpg
0666 Focas 602-61046 viewsBronze three-quarter follis (30 nummi), 26.3mm, 10.1g, EF
Struck at Cyzikus, 609-610
[d N FOCAS] PERP AVG, bust facing wearing cuirass, paludamentum, and crown with pendilia and cross on circlet / large XXX, cross above, stigma II (year 8) right, KYZ A in exg. Very rare type, some flatness in the striking.
Certificate of Authenticity by David R. Sear, ACCS
Ex: Forvm Ancient Coins; Harlan Berk
Sear 666v; DO 77, note (Longuet collection); MIB 77 (citing two specimens -- Birmingham and Longuet collection)
Lawrence Woolslayer
156Hadrian__RIC714.jpg
0714 Hadrian AS Roma 132-34 AD Clementia28 viewsReference.
RIC 714;

Obv. HADRIANVS – AVGVSTVS
bare-headed and draped bust of Hadrian right

Rev. CLEMENTIA AVG – COS III P P in field S – C
Clementia, draped, standing left, holding patera in extended right hand and vertical sceptre in left.

10.35 gr
27 mm
12 h

Note.
Ex Charles Darrah Collection of Flavian and Antonine Bronzes.
okidoki
159Hadrian__RIC793.jpg
0793 Hadrian As/Dupondius Roma 134-38 AD Roma standing22 viewsReference.
RIC 793;

Obv. HADRIANVS AVG COS III P P
Laureate head of Hadrian right.

Rev. [ADV]EN-TVS AVG, S C in exergue
Roma standing right, holding spear, clasping hands with emperor standing left, holding roll.

11.10 gr
25 mm
6 h

Ex Charles Darrah Collection of Flavian and Antonine Bronzes.
okidoki
IMG_2979.JPG
08 Constantius II41 viewsConstantius II

Bronze AE 2, D N CONSTAN-TIVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse FEL TEMPRE-PARATIO, Star in left, soldier spearing Horseman,beared, hair in a braid? , clutching, SMHA Heracla 67
2 commentsRandygeki(h2)
158Hadrian__RIC848c.jpg
0848 Hadrian AS Roma 134-38 AD Cappadocia standing27 viewsReference.
RIC 848c; C. 205; BMC 1730; Strack 714.

Obv. HADRIANVS AVG COS III P P
Bust of Hadrian, bare-headed, draped, right

Rev. CAPPADOCIA, S C across field
Cappadocia towered wearing tunic and cloak with tassels standing left holding a miniature of Mount Argaeus and a standard.

11.24 gr
26 mm
12h

Note.
Ex Charles Darrah Collection of Flavian and Antonine Bronzes.
okidoki
ciisn.jpg
09 Constantius II66 viewsConstantius II, 22 May 337 - 3 November 361 A.D.
Bronze AE 2, D N CONSTAN-TIVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse FEL TEMPRE-PARATIO, Star in left, soldier spearing Horseman, no beard, Phrygian helmet, clutching, SMNA in ex Nicomedia 63, R
Better Photo
Randygeki(h2)
trajan mines coin RIC709-RR.jpg
098-117 AD - TRAJAN AE quadrans - struck 104-110 AD72 viewsobv: IMP CAES TRAIAN AVG GER DAC (laureate head right)
rev: METALLI VLPIANI (Aequitas standing left, holding scales and cornucopia)
ref: RIC II 709 (R2), Cohen 182 (30frcs)
3.23gms, 17mm
Very rare

Under Trajan and Hadrian several series of bronze quadrantes were struck in the name of the imperial mines in Noricum, Dalmatia, Pannonia and Moesia (Dardania). These operations supplied metal for the mint at Rome, and perhaps were the sites of workshops to produce coinage for local circulation or as donatives. Others theorize that these pieces were struck at Rome itself, and served some unidentified function,much as the contemporary "nome" coinage struck at Alexandria in Egypt. The exact denomination is unclear. Most appear to be quadrans in the 14-17mm range but some larger examples could be considered semisses.
berserker
987_P_Hadrian_RPC986.jpg
0986 BITHYNIA Koinon of Bithynia Hadrian Ae 33 Distyle temple13 viewsReference
RPC III, 986var (bust);

Issue Bronze; I. 1

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙС ΤΡΑΙ ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС СΕΒ
Laureate head of Hadrian, right.

Rev. ΚΟΙ-ΝΟΝ ΒΕΙΘΥΝΙΑС
Distyle temple on podium of two steps; within, Capitoline triad: in the centre, Zeus stands facing, resting with r. hand on long sceptre, between Hera, l. standing r. and Athena, r., standing l. Hera rests with l. hand on long sceptre. Athena crowns Zeus and holds an aphlaston in her l. hand; sacrificing Genius over altar with patera in hand, in pediment; Victories on raking cornices and on apex (?)

23.26 gr
33 mm
6h

Note.
New bust
Temple like RPC III, 986
Figures like RPC III, 985
okidoki
Soloi_Stater_Amazon.jpg
0a Amazon Stater19 viewsSilver Stater 20mm Struck circa 440-410 B.C.
Soloi in Cilicia

Amazon kneeling left, holding bow, quiver on left hip
ΣOΛEΩN, Grape cluster on vine; A-Θ to either side of stalk, monogram to lower right

Sear 5602 var.; Casabonne Type 3; SNG France 135; SNG Levante

This coin depicts an amazon in historically accurate garb. Unfortunately, the bow is corroded away on this piece, but it is pointed toward her. She wears the Scythian hat, which also has a bit along the top corroded away. The quiver on her hip is an accurate portrayal of the gorytos (quiver), which was nearly two feet long, fashioned of leather, and often decorated. Fortunately, there is redundancy in this image, and a second bow is shown as in its place in the gorytos, which had separate chambers for arrows and the bow, where the archer stored it while not in use. The amazon has just finished stringing her bow and is adjusting the top hook to make sure the strings and limbs are properly aligned. She has strung the bow using her leg to hold one limb in place so she can use both hands to string the weapon. Her recurve bow was made of horn (ibex, elk, ox) wrapped with horse hair, birch bark, or sinew (deer, elk, ox) and glue (animal or fish) wrapped around a wood core. The bow was about 30 inches long. Arrow heads from grave sites come in bone, wood, iron, and bronze with two or three flanges; the shafts were made of reed or wood (willow, birch, poplar) and fletched with feathers. Poisoned arrows were sometimes painted to resemble vipers. A Scythian archer could probably fire 15-20 arrows per minute with accuracy to 200 feet and range to 500-600 feet. Distance archery with modern reconstructions suggests a maximum unaimed flight distance of 1,600 feet. (Mayor 209ff)

Soloi was founded about 700 B.C.and came under Persian rule. According to Diodorus, when the amazons were engaging in conquest in Asia Minor, the Cilicians accepted them willingly and retained their independence. Soloi may be named after Solois, a companion of Theseus, who married the amazon Antiope. The amazon on the coin may well be Antiope. (Mayor, 264-265)
Blindado
4_30gbronzewt13_16_2mm.jpg
1 nomisma 14 viewslarge N in dots
beveled sides
plain back side
13 by 14 by 2mm
4.30g
wileyc
byzbronzeweight14_18mm6_35g.jpg
1 Nomisma weight13 viewsLarge N
14 by 18mm
6.35g
Overweight for a one Nomisma weight typically around 4.55
wileyc
100105.jpg
1. Æ Aes Grave Triens266 viewsAnonymous. Circa 280-276 BC. Ć Aes Grave Triens (49mm, 106.35 gm). Thunderbolt; four pellets across field / Dolphin swimming right; four pellets below. Thurlow-Vecchi 3; Crawford 14/3; Haeberlin pl. 39, 7-10. VF, green patina.

Ex Cng Sale 100 lot 105 310/300

The triens (plural trientes) was an Ancient Roman bronze coin produced during the Roman Republic valued at one-third of an as (4 unciae).
ecoli73
IMG_0172.JPG
1.4 Egypt - Ptolemy II57 viewsPtolemy II - 248 BC
Egyptian bronze. 15 mm
obv. deified Alexander in Elephant headress
rev. eagle with spread wings, shield in front, H - lambda - year 38 PTOLEMAIOY BASILEOS
Zam
IMG_0176.JPG
1.5 Egypt - Ptolemy II63 viewsPtolemy II - 248 BC
Egyptian Bronze, 15 mm
obv. deified Alexander in elephant headress
rev. eagle with spread wings, shild in front, H Lambda - year 38, PTOLEMAIOY BASILEOS
Zam
hadrian_RIC779b.jpg
117-138 AD - HADRIAN AE sestertius - struck 134-138 AD72 viewsobv: HADRIANVS AVG COS III PP (laureate head right)
rev: - (Nemesis standing right, holding fold of dress with right hand and branch pointed downward in left), S-C across field
ref: RIC II 779b (S), C.1372 (12frcs), BMCRE 1549
mint: Rome
20.57gms, 30mm
Scarce

A nice and scarce Hadrian bronze. This coin shows the original condition with original patina, there’s no corrections or special matters for sharping, and better in hand than the picture allows.
1 commentsberserker
c36.jpg
13. Seleucid Kingdom, Antiochos VII Euergetes Sidetes, Antioch 27 viewsBronze AE 19, SNG Spaer 1902, SGCV II 7098 var, Antioch mint, Sep 138 - Aug 137 B.C.; obverse head of Eros right, wreathed with myrtle; reverse BAΣIΛEΩΣ ANTIOXOΥ EΥEΡΓETOΥ, head-dress of Isis, apluster or branch above EOP (year 175) below, ΔI monogram outer leftecoli
Max.jpg
1302b, Maximian, 285-305, 306-308, and 310 A.D., commemorative issued by Constantine the Great (Siscia)55 viewsMaximian, 285-305, 306-308, and 310 A.D., commemorative issued by Constantine the Great. Bronze AE3, RIC 41, VF, Siscia, 1.30g, 16.1mm, 0o, 317-318 A.D. Obverse: DIVO MAXIMIANO SEN FORT IMP, laureate and veiled head right; Reverse: REQVIES OPTIMO-RVM MERITORVM, Emperor seated left on curule chair, raising hand and holding scepter, SIS in exergue; scarce (R3).


De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Maximian, 285-305, 306-308, and 310 A.D.

Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Salve Regina University

Perhaps born ca. 249/250 A.D. in Sirmium in the area of the Balkans, Marcus Aurelius Valerius Maximianus, more commonly known as Maximianus Herculius (Maximian), had been a soldier before he put on the purple. A fellow soldier with the Emperor Diocletian, he had served in the military during the reigns of Aurelian and Probus.

When the Emperor Diocletian determined that the empire was too large for one man to govern on his own, he made Maximian his Caesar in 285/6 and elevated him to the rank of Augustus in perhaps the spring of 286. While Diocletian ruled in the East, Maximian ruled in the West. In 293, in order to maintain and to strengthen the stability of the empire, Diocletian appointed Constantius I Chlorus to serve Maximian as a Caesar in the West, while Galerius did the same job in the East. This arrangement, called the "Tetrarchy", was meant not only to provide a stronger foundation for the two emperors' rule, but also to end any possible fighting over the succession to the throne once the two senior Augusti had left the throne--a problem which had bedeviled the principate since the time of the Emperor Augustus. To cement the relationship between Maximian and his Caesar, Constantius married Maximian's elder daughter Theodora. A decade later, Constantius' son Constantine would marry Maximia's younger daughter Fausta.

On 1 May 305 Diocletian, at Nicomedeia, and Maximian, at Mediolanum, divested themselves of the purple. Their resignations seem largely due to the almost fatal illness that Diocletian contracted toward the end of 304. Diocletian seems to have forced his colleague to abdicate. In any case, Herculius had sworn an oath at the temple of Capitoline Jupiter to carry out the terms of the abdication. Constantius and Galerius were appointed as Augusti, with Maximinus Daia and Severus as the new Caesars. The retired emperors then returned to private life. Diocletian's retirement was at Salonae in Dalmatia, while Herculius' retreat was either in Lucania or Campania.

Maximian's retirement, however, was of short duration because, a little more than a year later on 28 October 306, his son Maxentius was proclaimed emperor at Rome. To give his regime an aura of legitimacy, Maximian was forced to affirm his son's acclamation. When Galerius learned of Maxentius' rebellion, he sent Severus against him with an army that had formerly been under his father's command. Maxentius invested his father with the purple again to win over his enemy's troops, a ruse which succeeded. Perhaps to strengthen his own position, in 307 Maximian went to Gaul and married his daughter Fausta to Constantine. When Constantine refused to become embroiled in the civil war between Galerius and Maxentius, Maximian returned to Rome in 308 and attempted to depose his son; however, he did not succeed. When Maximian was unable to convince Diocletian to take up the purple again at a meeting in Carnuntum in late 308, he returned to his son-in-law's side in Gaul.

Although Maximian was treated with all of the respect due a former emperor, he still desired to be more than a figurehead. He decided to seize the purple from Constantine when his son-in-law least expected it. His opportunity came in the summer of 310 when the Franks revolted. When Constantine had taken a small part of his army into enemy territory, Maximian proclaimed himself again emperor and paid the soldiers under his command a donative to secure their loyalty. As soon as Constantine received news about Maximian's revolt in July 310, he went south and reached Arelate before his father-in-law could mount a defense of the city. Although Maximian fled to Massilia, his son-in-law seized the city and took Maximian prisoner. Although he was deprived of the purple, he was granted pardon for his crimes. Unable to endure the humiliation of his defeat, he attempted to have Constantine murdered in his bed. The plot failed because he tried to get his daughter Fausta's help in the matter; she chose to reveal the matter to her husband. Because of this attempt on his son-in-law's life Maximian was dead by the end of July either by his own hand or on the orders of his intended victim.

Eutropia was of Syrian extraction and her marriage to Maximian seems to have been her second. She bore him two children: Maxentius and Fausta. An older daughter, Theodora, may have been a product of her first marriage. Fausta became the wife of Constantine I , while her sister Theodora was the second spouse of his father Constantius I Chlorus . Eutropia apparently survived all her children, with the possible exception of her daughter Fausta who seems to have died in 326. Eutropia is also said to have become a Christian.

By Michael DiMaio, Jr., Salve Regina University
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
MaxentiusRIC163.jpg
1307a, Maxentius, February 307 - 28 October 312 A.D.60 viewsBronze follis, RIC 163, aEF, Rome mint, 5.712g, 25.6mm, 0o, summer 307 A.D.; obverse MAXENTIVS P F AVG, laureate head right; reverse CONSERVATO-RES VRB SVAE, Roma holding globe and scepter, seated in hexastyle temple, RT in ex; rare. Ex FORVM; Ex Maridvnvm


De Imperatoribus Romanis : An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Maxentius (306-312 A.D.)

Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Salve Regina University

Marcus Aurelius Valerius Maxentius, more commonly known as Maxentius, was the child of the Emperor Maximianus Herculius and the Syrian, Eutropia; he was born ca. 278 A.D. After Galerius' appointment to the rank of Caesar on 1 March 293, Maxentius married Galerius' daughter Valeria Maximilla, who bore him a son named Romulus and another son whose name is unknown. Due to his haughty nature and bad disposition, Maxentius could seldom agree with his father or his father-in-law; Galerius' and Maximianus Herculius' aversion to Maxentius prevented the young man from becoming a Caesar in 305. Little else is known of Maxentius' private life prior to his accession and, although there is some evidence that it was spent in idleness, he did become a Senator.

On 28 October 306 Maxentius was acclaimed emperor, although he was politically astute enough not to use the title Augustus; like the Emperor Augustus, he called himself princeps. It was not until the summer of 307 that he started using the title Augustus and started offending other claimants to the imperial throne. He was enthroned by the plebs and the Praetorians. At the time of his acclamation Maxentius was at a public villa on the Via Labicana. He strengthened his position with promises of riches for those who helped him obtain his objective. He forced his father Maximianus Herculius to affirm his son's acclamation in order to give his regime a facade of legitimacy. His realm included Italy, Africa, Sardinia, and Corsica. As soon as Galerius learned about the acclamation of Herculius' son, he dispatched the Emperor Severus to quell the rebellion. With the help of his father and Severus' own troops, Maxentius' took his enemy prisoner.

When Severus died, Galerius was determined to avenge his death. In the early summer of 307 the Augustus invaded Italy; he advanced to the south and encamped at Interamna near the Tiber. His attempt to besiege the city was abortive because his army was not large enough to encompass the city's fortifications. Negotiations between Maxentius and Galerius broke down when the emperor discovered that the usurper was trying to win over his troops. Galerius' troops were open to Maxentius' promises because they were fighting a civil war between members of the same family; some of the soldiers went over to the enemy. Not trusting his own troops, Galerius withdrew. During its retreat, Galerius' army ravaged the Italian countryside as it was returning to its original base. If it was not enough that Maxentius had to deal with the havoc created by the ineffectual invasions of Severus and Galerius, he also had to deal with his father's attempts to regain the throne between 308 and 310. When Maximianus Herculius was unable to regain power by pushing his son off his throne, he attempted to win over Constantine to his cause. When this plan failed, he tried to win Diocletian over to his side at Carnuntum in October and November 308. Frustrated at every turn, Herculius returned to his son-in-law Constantine's side in Gaul where he died in 310, having been implicated in a plot against his son-in-law. Maxentius' control of the situation was weakened by the revolt of L. Domitius Alexander in 308. Although the revolt only lasted until the end of 309, it drastically cut the size of the grain supply availble for Rome. Maxentius' rule collapsed when he died on 27 October 312 in an engagement he had with the Emperor Constantine at the Milvian Bridge after the latter had invaded his realm.

Copyright (C) 1996, Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
1 commentsCleisthenes
Lcnius1.jpg
1308b, Licinius I, 308 - 324 A.D. (Siscia)59 viewsLicinius I, 11 November 308 - 18 September 324 A.D. Bronze follis, RIC 4, F, Siscia, 3.257g, 21.6mm, 0o, 313 - 315 A.D. Obverse: IMP LIC LICINIVS P F AVG, laureate head right; Reverse IOVI CONSERVATORI AVGG NN, Jupiter standing left holding Victory on globe and scepter, eagle with wreath in beak left, E right, SIS in exergue.



De Imperatoribus Romanis : An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Licinius (308-324 A.D.)

Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Salve Regina University

Licinius' Heritage

Valerius Licinianus Licinius, more commonly known as Licinius, may have been born ca. 265. Of peasant origin, his family was from Dacia. A close friend and comrade of arms of the Emperor Galerius, he accompanied him on his Persian expedition in 297. When campaigns by Severus and Galerius in late 306 or early 307 and in the summer of 307, respectively, failed to dislodge Maxentius who, with the luke warm support of his father Maximianus Herculius, was acclaimed princeps on 28 October 306, he was sent by the eastern emperor to Maxentius as an ambassador; the diplomatic mission, however, failed because the usurper refused to submit to the authority of his father-in-law Galerius. At the Conference of Carnuntum which was held in October or November of 308, Licinius was made an Augustus on 11 November 308; his realm included Thrace, Illyricum, and Pannonia.

Licinius' Early Reign

Although Licinius was initially appointed by Galerius to replace Severus to end the revolt of Maxentius , Licinius (perhaps wisely) made no effort to move against the usurper. In fact, his first attested victory was against the Sarmatians probably in the late spring, but no later than the end of June in 310. When the Emperor Galerius died in 311, Licinius met Maximinus Daia at the Bosporus during the early summer of that year; they concluded a treaty and divided Galerius' realm between them. It was little more than a year later that the Emperor Constantine defeated Maxentius at the Battle of the Milvian Bridge on 28 October 312. After the defeat of the usurper, Constantine and Licinius met at Mediolanum (Milan) where Licinius married the former's sister Constantia; one child was born of this union: Valerius Licinianus Licinius. Licinius had another son, born of a slave woman, whose name is unknown. It appears that both emperors promulgated the so-called Edict of Milan, in which Constantine and Licinius granted Christians the freedom to practice their faith without any interference from the state.

As soon as he seems to have learned about the marital alliance between Licinius and Constantine and the death of Maxentius, who had been his ally, Daia traversed Asia Minor and, in April 313, he crossed the Bosporus and went to Byzantium, which he took from Licinius after an eleven day siege. On 30 April 313 the armies of both emperors clashed on the Campus Ergenus; in the ensuing battle Daia's forces were routed. A last ditch stand by Daia at the Cilician Gates failed; the eastern emperor subsequently died in the area of Tarsus probably in July or August 313. As soon as he arrived in Nicomedeia, Licinius promulgated the Edict of Milan. As soon as he had matters in Nicomedeia straightened out, Licinius campaigned against the Persians in the remaining part of 313 and the opening months of 314.

The First Civil War Between Licinius and Constantine

Once Licinius had defeated Maximinus Daia, the sole rulers of the Roman world were he and Constantine. It is obvious that the marriage of Licinius to Constantia was simply a union of convenience. In any case, there is evidence in the sources that both emperors were looking for an excuse to attack the other. The affair involving Bassianus (the husband of Constantius I's daughter Anastasia ), mentioned in the text of Anonymus Valesianus (5.14ff), may have sparked the falling out between the two emperors. In any case, Constantine' s forces joined battle with those of Licinius at Cibalae in Pannonia on 8 October 314. When the battle was over, Constantine prevailed; his victory, however, was Pyrrhic. Both emperors had been involved in exhausting military campaigns in the previous year and the months leading up to Cibalae and each of their realms had expanded so fast that their manpower reserves must have been stretched to the limit. Both men retreated to their own territory to lick their wounds. It may well be that the two emperors made an agreement, which has left no direct trace in the historical record, which would effectively restore the status quo.

Both emperors were variously engaged in different activities between 315 and 316. In addition to campaigning against the Germans while residing in Augusta Treverorum (Trier) in 315, Constantine dealt with aspects of the Donatist controversy; he also traveled to Rome where he celebrated his Decennalia. Licinius, possibly residing at Sirmium, was probably waging war against the Goths. Although not much else is known about Licinius' activities during this period, it is probable that he spent much of his time preparing for his impending war against Constantine; the latter,who spent the spring and summer of 316 in Augusta Treverorum, was probably doing much the same thing. In any case, by December 316, the western emperor was in Sardica with his army. Sometime between 1 December and 28 February 317, both emperors' armies joined battle on the Campus Ardiensis; as was the case in the previous engagement, Constantine' s forces were victorious. On 1 March 317, both sides agreed to a cessation of hostilities; possibly because of the intervention of his wife Constantia, Licinius was able to keep his throne, although he had to agree to the execution of his colleague Valens, who the eastern emperor had appointed as his colleague before the battle, as well as to cede some of his territory to his brother-in-law.

Licinius and the Christians

Although the historical record is not completely clear, Licinius seems to have campaigned against the Sarmatians in 318. He also appears to have been in Byzantium in the summer of 318 and later in June 323. Beyond these few facts, not much else is known about his residences until mid summer of 324. Although he and Constantine had issued the Edict of Milan in early 313, Licinius turned on the Christians in his realm seemingly in 320. The first law that Licinius issued prevented bishops from communicating with each other and from holding synods to discuss matters of interest to them. The second law prohibited men and women from attending services together and young girls from receiving instruction from their bishop or schools. When this law was issued, he also gave orders that Christians could hold services only outside of city walls. Additionally, he deprived officers in the army of their commissions if they did not sacrifice to the gods. Licinius may have been trying to incite Constantine to attack him. In any case, the growing tension between the two rulers is reflected in the consular Fasti of the period.

The Second Civil War Between Licinius and Constantine and Licinius' Death

War actually broke out in 321 when Constantine pursued some Sarmatians, who had been ravaging some territory in his realm, across the Danube. When he checked a similar invasion of the Goths, who were devastating Thrace, Licinius complained that Constantine had broken the treaty between them. Having assembled a fleet and army at Thessalonica, Constantine advanced toward Adrianople. Licinius engaged the forces of his brother-in-law near the banks of the Hebrus River on 3 July 324 where he was routed; with as many men as he could gather, he headed for his fleet which was in the Hellespont. Those of his soldiers who were not killed or put to flight, surrendered to the enemy. Licinius fled to Byzantium, where he was besieged by Constantine. Licinius' fleet, under the command of the admiral Abantus, was overcome by bad weather and by Constantine' s fleet which was under the command of his son Crispus. Hard pressed in Byzantium, Licinius abandoned the city to his rival and fled to Chalcedon in Bithynia. Leaving Martinianus, his former magister officiorum and now his co-ruler, to impede Constantine' s progress, Licinius regrouped his forces and engaged his enemy at Chrysopolis where he was again routed on 18 September 324. He fled to Nicomedeia which Constantine began to besiege. On the next day Licinius abdicated and was sent to Thessalonica, where he was kept under house arrest. Both Licinius and his associate were put to death by Constantine. Martinianus may have been put to death before the end of 324, whereas Licinius was not put to death until the spring of 325. Rumors circulated that Licinius had been put to death because he attempted another rebellion against Constantine.

Copyright (C) 1996, Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

Cleisthenes
RI 132uh img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 267 29 viewsBronze quinarius
Obv:– AVR PROBVS AVG, laureate and cuirassed bust left, holding spear and shield
Rev:– ORIENS AVG, Sol, raising hand and holding whip, in galloping quadriga left
Minted in Rome (-) Emission 6. A.D. 281
Reference(s) – Cohen 391. RIC 267 (R2).
Ex-Forvm
Die match example sold by Jean Elsen from probvs.net.

OK it is in pretty poor shape but it is likely the only quinarius of Probus I am likely to get.
maridvnvm
Neron Semis.jpg
14-08 - NERON (54 - 68 D.C.)67 viewsAE Semis 20 mm 4.8 gr.

Anv: "IMP NERO CAESAR AVG" - Busto a cabeza desnuda viendo a derecha.
Rev: "PONTIF MAX TR POT IMP P - S C" - Roma con yelmo sentada a izquierda Sobre una coraza militar, portando una corona en mano derecha levantada y Parazonium (espada militar corta, ancha y sin punta, que llevaban los Jefes militares como seńal de distinción) en izquierda.

Acuńada 66 D.C.
Ceca: Roma

Referencias: NO LISTADA, EN TODOS LOS CASOS DIFIEREN EN LA LEYENDA DEL REVERSO (una sola P) - RIC Vol.1 #549 var Pag.182 - BMCRE #402 var - Cohen Vol.1 #237 var Pag.295 - DVM #35 var Pag.87

Mr. Curtis Clay says:
"IMP P in place of IMP P P appears with some frequency on Lugdunese bronzes of Nero, but not often enough to justify the belief that it was intentional. I attribute it to carelessness, not planning ahead and running out of space before the intended legend was complete.
Nonetheless the error seems to be unrecorded for this particular type, so it is also "unpublished"!"
mdelvalle
RIC_549v_Semis_Neron.jpg
14-08 - NERON (54 - 68 D.C.)17 viewsAE Semis 20 mm 4.8 gr.

Anv: "IMP NERO CAESAR AVG" - Busto a cabeza desnuda viendo a derecha.
Rev: "PONTIF MAX TR POT IMP P - S C" - Roma con yelmo sentada a izquierda Sobre una coraza militar, portando una corona en mano derecha levantada y Parazonium (espada militar corta, ancha y sin punta, que llevaban los Jefes militares como seńal de distinción) en izquierda.

Acuńada 66 D.C.
Ceca: Roma

Referencias: NO LISTADA, EN TODOS LOS CASOS DIFIEREN EN LA LEYENDA DEL REVERSO (una sola P) - RIC Vol.1 #549 var Pag.182 - BMCRE #402 var - Cohen Vol.1 #237 var Pag.295 - DVM #35 var Pag.87

Mr. Curtis Clay says:
"IMP P in place of IMP P P appears with some frequency on Lugdunese bronzes of Nero, but not often enough to justify the belief that it was intentional. I attribute it to carelessness, not planning ahead and running out of space before the intended legend was complete.
Nonetheless the error seems to be unrecorded for this particular type, so it is also "unpublished"!"
mdelvalle
St.Helena.jpg
1401a, St. Helena, Augusta 8 November 324 - 328 to 330 A.D., mother of Constantine the Great96 viewsBronze AE 3, RIC 148, VF, Alexandria mint, 3.243g, 19.4mm, 165o, 327 - 328 A.D. Obverse: FL HELENA AVGVSTA, diademed and mantled bust right wearing double necklace; Reverse: SECVRITAS REIPVBLICE, Securitas holding branch downward in right and lifting fold of robe in left, wreath left, I right, SMAL in exergue; rare.

The mother of Constantine the Great, born about the middle of the third century, possibly in Drepanum (later known as Helenopolis) on the Nicomedian Gulf; died about 330. She was of humble parentage; St. Ambrose, in his "Oratio de obitu Theodosii", referred to her as a stabularia, or inn-keeper. Nevertheless, she became the lawful wife of Constantius Chlorus. Her first and only son, Constantine, was born in Naissus in Upper Moesia, in the year 274. The statement made by English chroniclers of the Middle Ages, according to which Helena was supposed to have been the daughter of a British prince, is entirely without historical foundation. It may arise from the misinterpretation of a term used in the fourth chapter of the panegyric on Constantine's marriage with Fausta, that Constantine, oriendo (i. e., "by his beginnings," "from the outset") had honoured Britain, which was taken as an allusion to his birth, whereas the reference was really to the beginning of his reign.

On the death of Constantius Chlorus, in 308, Constantine, who succeeded him, summoned his mother to the imperial court, conferred on her the title of Augusta, ordered that all honour should be paid her as the mother of the sovereign, and had coins struck bearing her effigy. Her son's influence caused her to embrace Christianity after his victory over Maxentius. This is directly attested by Eusebius (Vita Constantini, III, xlvii): "She (his mother) became under his (Constantine's) influence such a devout servant of God, that one might believe her to have been from her very childhood a disciple of the Redeemer of mankind". It is also clear from the declaration of the contemporary historian of the Church that Helena, from the time of her conversion had an earnestly Christian life and by her influence and liberality favoured the wider spread of Christianity. Tradition links her name with the building of Christian churches in the cities of the West, where the imperial court resided, notably at Rome and Trier, and there is no reason for rejecting this tradition, for we know positively through Eusebius that Helena erected churches on the hallowed spots of Palestine. Despite her advanced age she undertook a journey to Palestine when Constantine, through his victory over Licinius, had become sole master of the Roman Empire, subsequently, therefore, to the year 324. It was in Palestine, as we learn from Eusebius (loc. cit., xlii), that she had resolved to bring to God, the King of kings, the homage and tribute of her devotion. She lavished on that land her bounties and good deeds, she "explored it with remarkable discernment", and "visited it with the care and solicitude of the emperor himself". Then, when she "had shown due veneration to the footsteps of the Saviour", she had two churches erected for the worship of God: one was raised in Bethlehem near the Grotto of the Nativity, the other on the Mount of the Ascension, near Jerusalem. She also embellished the sacred grotto with rich ornaments. This sojourn in Jerusalem proved the starting-point of the legend first recorded by Rufinus as to the discovery of the Cross of Christ.

Constantine I, in 327, improved Drepanum, his mother's native town, and decreed that it should be called Helenopolis, it is probable that the latter returned from Palestine to her son who was then residing in the Orient. Constantine was with her when she died, at the advanced age of eighty years or thereabouts (Eusebius, "Vita Const.", III, xlvi). This must have been about the year 330, for the last coins which are known to have been stamped with her name bore this date. Her body was brought to Constantinople and laid to rest in the imperial vault of the church of the Apostles. It is presumed that her remains were transferred in 849 to the Abbey of Hautvillers, in the French Archdiocese of Reims, as recorded by the monk Altmann in his "Translatio". She was revered as a saint, and the veneration spread, early in the ninth century, even to Western countries. Her feast falls on 18 August.

(See The Catholic Encyclopedia: http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/07202b.htm)

Cleisthenes
CtG AE3.jpg
1403a,1, Constantine I (the Great), 307-337 A.D.46 viewsConstantine I (the Great), 307-337 A.D. Bronze AE 3, RIC 16, C -, VF, 2.854g, 19.1mm, 180o, Constantinople mint, 327 A.D. Obverse: CONSTANTI-NVS MAX AVG, rosette diademed head right; Reverse: GLORIA EXERCITVS, Soldier standing left, head right, resting left hand on shield and holding inverted spear in right, G in left field, CONS in exergue; very rare (R3).

The Emperor Constantine I was effectively the sole ruler of the Roman world between 324 and 337 A.D.; his reign was perhaps one of the most crucial of all the emperors in determining the future course of western civilization. By beginning the process of making Christianity the religious foundation of his realm, he set the religious course for the future of Europe which remains in place to this very day. Because he replaced Rome with Constantinople as the center of imperial power, he made it clear that the city of Rome was no longer the center of power and he also set the stage for the Middle Ages. His philosophical view of monarchy, largely spelled out in some of the works of Eusebius of Caesarea, became the foundation for the concept of the divine right of kings which prevailed in Europe.

Constantine was not a "Christian convert" in any traditional sense. He was not baptized until close to death, and while that was not an uncommon practice, the mention of Christ in his speeches and decrees is conspicuous by its absence. Eusebius, Church historian and Constantine biographer, is responsible for much of the valorization of Constantine as the Christian Emperor. The somnambulant "sign" in which Constantine was to become victor at the Milvian Bridge is, not so surprisingly, revealed to posterity long after the "fact." Throughout his reign, Constantine continues to portray himself on coins as a sun god (Freeman, Charles. Egypt, Greece and Rome: Civilizations of the Ancient Mediterranean; Second Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004. 582). Above all, Constantine was a pragmatist. It would be cynical to egregiously disavow his commitment to Christianity, but it would be equally wrong to think that he would allow Christianity to meddle in the governance of his empire. As he reputedly told a group of bishops, "You are bishops of those within the church, but I am perhaps a bishop appointed by God of those outside." Whatever the motives for his decision to support Christianity, Christianity benefitted from the arrangement. So, too, did Constantine. It was a match made in heaven.
J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

For perhaps the best Constantine The Great site on the web, see Victor Clark's Constantine The Great Coins: http://www.constantinethegreatcoins.com/
1 commentsCleisthenes
Const1GlrEx.jpg
1403b, Constantine I (the Great), early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D.37 viewsConstantine the Great, early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D., Bronze AE 3, RIC 137, VF, Constantinople mint, 1.476g, 16.4mm, 180o, 336 - 337 A.D. Obverse: CONSTANTI-NVS MAX AVG, laurel and rosette-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; Reverse: GLOR-IA EXERC-ITVS, two soldiers, each holding spear and shield on ground, flanking standard, CONS[ ] in exergue. Ex FORVM.

The Emperor Constantine I was effectively the sole ruler of the Roman world between 324 and 337 A.D.; his reign was perhaps one of the most crucial of all the emperors in determining the future course of western civilization. By beginning the process of making Christianity the religious foundation of his realm, he set the religious course for the future of Europe which remains in place to this very day. Because he replaced Rome with Constantinople as the center of imperial power, he made it clear that the city of Rome was no longer the center of power and he also set the stage for the Middle Ages. His philosophical view of monarchy, largely spelled out in some of the works of Eusebius of Caesarea, became the foundation for the concept of the divine right of kings which prevailed in Europe.

Constantine was not a "Christian convert" in any traditional sense. He was not baptized until close to death, and while that was not an uncommon practice, the mention of Christ in his speeches and decrees is conspicuous by its absence. Eusebius, Church historian and Constantine biographer, is responsible for much of the valorization of Constantine as the Christian Emperor. The somnambulant "sign" in which Constantine was to become victor at the Milvian Bridge is, not so surprisingly, revealed to posterity long after the "fact." Throughout his reign, Constantine continues to portray himself on coins as a sun god (Freeman, Charles. Egypt, Greece and Rome: Civilizations of the Ancient Mediterranean; Second Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004. 582). Above all, Constantine was a pragmatist. It would be cynical to egregiously disavow his commitment to Christianity, but it would be equally wrong to think that he would allow Christianity to meddle in the governance of his empire. As he reputedly told a group of bishops, "You are bishops of those within the church, but I am perhaps a bishop appointed by God of those outside." Whatever the motives for his decision to support Christianity, Christianity benefitted from the arrangement. So, too, did Constantine. It was a match made in heaven.
J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

For perhaps the best Constantine The Great site on the web, see Victor Clark's Constantine The Great Coins: http://www.constantinethegreatcoins.com/
Cleisthenes
CTGDafne.jpg
1403c, Constantine I (the Great), early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D.49 viewsBronze AE 3, RIC VII 35, choice aEF, Constantinople mint, 3.336g, 20.0mm, 180o, 328 A.D.; Obverse: CONSTANTI-NVS MAX AVG, laurel and rosette diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; Reverse: CONSTANTINI-ANA DAFNE, Victory seated left on cippus, head right, palm frond in each hand, trophy and captive before, CONS in exergue, B left; scarce. Ex FORVM.

"The information about Constantine's campaign across [the Danube] is obscure and untrustworthy. The question, therefore, of what he achieved by this enterprise was, and is, subject to contradictory interpretations. On the one hand, the Panegyrists claimed that he had repeated the triumphs of Trajan. On the other, his own nephew, Julian the Apostate, spoke for many when he expressed the view that this second 'conquest' of Dacia was incomplete and extremely brief . . . monetary commemoration was accorded to the building, at about the same time [AD 328], of the river frontier fortress of Constantiniana Dafne (Spantov, near Oltenita) . . ." (Grant, Michael. The Emperor Constantine. London: Phoenix, 1998. 58-9).

The Emperor Constantine I was effectively the sole ruler of the Roman world between 324 and 337 A.D.; his reign was perhaps one of the most crucial of all the emperors in determining the future course of western civilization. By beginning the process of making Christianity the religious foundation of his realm, he set the religious course for the future of Europe which remains in place to this very day. Because he replaced Rome with Constantinople as the center of imperial power, he made it clear that the city of Rome was no longer the center of power and he also set the stage for the Middle Ages. His philosophical view of monarchy, largely spelled out in some of the works of Eusebius of Caesarea, became the foundation for the concept of the divine right of kings which prevailed in Europe.

Constantine was not a "Christian convert" in any traditional sense. He was not baptized until close to death, and while that was not an uncommon practice, the mention of Christ in his speeches and decrees is conspicuous by its absence. Eusebius, Church historian and Constantine biographer, is responsible for much of the valorization of Constantine as the Christian Emperor. The somnambulant "sign" in which Constantine was to become victor at the Milvian Bridge is, not so surprisingly, revealed to posterity long after the "fact." Throughout his reign, Constantine continues to portray himself on coins as a sun god (Freeman, Charles. Egypt, Greece and Rome: Civilizations of the Ancient Mediterranean; Second Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004. 582). Above all, Constantine was a pragmatist. It would be cynical to egregiously disavow his commitment to Christianity, but it would be equally wrong to think that he would allow Christianity to meddle in the governance of his empire. As he reputedly told a group of bishops, "You are bishops of those within the church, but I am perhaps a bishop appointed by God of those outside." Whatever the motives for his decision to support Christianity, Christianity benefitted from the arrangement. So, too, did Constantine. It was a match made in heaven.
J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

For perhaps the best Constantine The Great site on the web, see Victor Clark's Constantine The Great Coins: http://www.constantinethegreatcoins.com/
1 commentsCleisthenes
CTGKyzAE3.jpg
1403d, Constantine I (the Great), early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D. (Cyzicus)37 viewsConstantine the Great, early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D. Bronze AE 3, RIC 199, gVF, corrosion, Cyzicus, 1.402g, 16.2mm, 0o, 336 - 337 A.D. Obverse: CONSTANTI-NVS MAX AVG, laurel and rosette-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; Reverse: GLOR-IA EXERC-ITVS•, two soldiers, each holding spear and shield on ground, flanking standard, SMKA in exergue.

The Emperor Constantine I was effectively the sole ruler of the Roman world between 324 and 337 A.D.; his reign was perhaps one of the most crucial of all the emperors in determining the future course of western civilization. By beginning the process of making Christianity the religious foundation of his realm, he set the religious course for the future of Europe which remains in place to this very day. Because he replaced Rome with Constantinople as the center of imperial power, he made it clear that the city of Rome was no longer the center of power and he also set the stage for the Middle Ages. His philosophical view of monarchy, largely spelled out in some of the works of Eusebius of Caesarea, became the foundation for the concept of the divine right of kings which prevailed in Europe.

Constantine was not a "Christian convert" in any traditional sense. He was not baptized until close to death, and while that was not an uncommon practice, the mention of Christ in his speeches and decrees is conspicuous by its absence. Eusebius, Church historian and Constantine biographer, is responsible for much of the valorization of Constantine as the Christian Emperor. The somnambulant "sign" in which Constantine was to become victor at the Milvian Bridge is, not so surprisingly, revealed to posterity long after the "fact." Throughout his reign, Constantine continues to portray himself on coins as a sun god (Freeman, Charles. Egypt, Greece and Rome: Civilizations of the Ancient Mediterranean; Second Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004. 582). Above all, Constantine was a pragmatist. It would be cynical to egregiously disavow his commitment to Christianity, but it would be equally wrong to think that he would allow Christianity to meddle in the governance of his empire. As he reputedly told a group of bishops, "You are bishops of those within the church, but I am perhaps a bishop appointed by God of those outside." Whatever the motives for his decision to support Christianity, Christianity benefitted from the arrangement. So, too, did Constantine. It was a match made in heaven.
J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

For perhaps the best Constantine The Great site on the web, see Victor Clark's Constantine The Great Coins: http://www.constantinethegreatcoins.com/
Cleisthenes
CTGVOTXXX.jpg
1403e, Constantine I (the Great), early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D. (Heraclea)28 viewsConstantine the Great, Bronze AE 3, RIC 69, VF, Heraclea, 3.38g, 19.0mm, 180o, 325 - 326 A.D. Obverse: CONSTAN-TINVS AVG, laureate head right; Reverse: D N CONSTANTINI MAX AVG, VOT XXX in wreath, SMHD in exergue.

The Emperor Constantine I was effectively the sole ruler of the Roman world between 324 and 337 A.D.; his reign was perhaps one of the most crucial of all the emperors in determining the future course of western civilization. By beginning the process of making Christianity the religious foundation of his realm, he set the religious course for the future of Europe which remains in place to this very day. Because he replaced Rome with Constantinople as the center of imperial power, he made it clear that the city of Rome was no longer the center of power and he also set the stage for the Middle Ages. His philosophical view of monarchy, largely spelled out in some of the works of Eusebius of Caesarea, became the foundation for the concept of the divine right of kings which prevailed in Europe.

Constantine was not a "Christian convert" in any traditional sense. He was not baptized until close to death, and while that was not an uncommon practice, the mention of Christ in his speeches and decrees is conspicuous by its absence. Eusebius, Church historian and Constantine biographer, is responsible for much of the valorization of Constantine as the Christian Emperor. The somnambulant "sign" in which Constantine was to become victor at the Milvian Bridge is, not so surprisingly, revealed to posterity long after the "fact." Throughout his reign, Constantine continues to portray himself on coins as a sun god (Freeman, Charles. Egypt, Greece and Rome: Civilizations of the Ancient Mediterranean; Second Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004. 582). Above all, Constantine was a pragmatist. It would be cynical to egregiously disavow his commitment to Christianity, but it would be equally wrong to think that he would allow Christianity to meddle in the governance of his empire. As he reputedly told a group of bishops, "You are bishops of those within the church, but I am perhaps a bishop appointed by God of those outside." Whatever the motives for his decision to support Christianity, Christianity benefitted from the arrangement. So, too, did Constantine. It was a match made in heaven.
J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

For perhaps the best Constantine The Great site on the web, see Victor Clark's Constantine The Great Coins: http://www.constantinethegreatcoins.com/
Cleisthenes
12817p00.jpg
1403f, Constantine I (the Great), early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D. (Heraclea)20 viewsBronze follis, RIC 5, F/aF, 3.513g, 20.4mm, 180o, Heraclea mint, 313 A.D.; obverse IMP C FL VAL CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, laureate head right; reverse IOVI CONSER-VATORI AVGG, Jupiter standing left holding Victory and scepter, eagle with wreath in beek at feet, B in right field, SMHT in exergue.

The Emperor Constantine I was effectively the sole ruler of the Roman world between 324 and 337 A.D.; his reign was perhaps one of the most crucial of all the emperors in determining the future course of western civilization. By beginning the process of making Christianity the religious foundation of his realm, he set the religious course for the future of Europe which remains in place to this very day. Because he replaced Rome with Constantinople as the center of imperial power, he made it clear that the city of Rome was no longer the center of power and he also set the stage for the Middle Ages. His philosophical view of monarchy, largely spelled out in some of the works of Eusebius of Caesarea, became the foundation for the concept of the divine right of kings which prevailed in Europe.

Constantine was not a "Christian convert" in any traditional sense. He was not baptized until close to death, and while that was not an uncommon practice, the mention of Christ in his speeches and decrees is conspicuous by its absence. Eusebius, Church historian and Constantine biographer, is responsible for much of the valorization of Constantine as the Christian Emperor. The somnambulant "sign" in which Constantine was to become victor at the Milvian Bridge is, not so surprisingly, revealed to posterity long after the "fact." Throughout his reign, Constantine continues to portray himself on coins as a sun god (Freeman, Charles. Egypt, Greece and Rome: Civilizations of the Ancient Mediterranean; Second Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004. 582). Above all, Constantine was a pragmatist. It would be cynical to egregiously disavow his commitment to Christianity, but it would be equally wrong to think that he would allow Christianity to meddle in the governance of his empire. As he reputedly told a group of bishops, "You are bishops of those within the church, but I am perhaps a bishop appointed by God of those outside." Whatever the motives for his decision to support Christianity, Christianity benefitted from the arrangement. So, too, did Constantine. It was a match made in heaven.
J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

For perhaps the best Constantine The Great site on the web, see Victor Clark's Constantine The Great Coins: http://www.constantinethegreatcoins.com/
Cleisthenes
CTGaeFolNico.jpg
1403g, Constantine I (the Great), early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D. (Nicomedia)22 viewsConstantine the Great, early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D. Bronze follis, RIC 12, aVF, Nicomedia mint, 2.760g, 22.0mm, 0o, 313 - 317 A.D. Obverse: IMP C FL VAL CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, laureate head right; Reverse: IOVI CONS-ERVATORI, Jupiter standing left holding Victory on globe and scepter, eagle with wreath in beak left, G right, SMN in exergue; scarce.

The Emperor Constantine I was effectively the sole ruler of the Roman world between 324 and 337 A.D.; his reign was perhaps one of the most crucial of all the emperors in determining the future course of western civilization. By beginning the process of making Christianity the religious foundation of his realm, he set the religious course for the future of Europe which remains in place to this very day. Because he replaced Rome with Constantinople as the center of imperial power, he made it clear that the city of Rome was no longer the center of power and he also set the stage for the Middle Ages. His philosophical view of monarchy, largely spelled out in some of the works of Eusebius of Caesarea, became the foundation for the concept of the divine right of kings which prevailed in Europe.

Constantine was not a "Christian convert" in any traditional sense. He was not baptized until close to death, and while that was not an uncommon practice, the mention of Christ in his speeches and decrees is conspicuous by its absence. Eusebius, Church historian and Constantine biographer, is responsible for much of the valorization of Constantine as the Christian Emperor. The somnambulant "sign" in which Constantine was to become victor at the Milvian Bridge is, not so surprisingly, revealed to posterity long after the "fact." Throughout his reign, Constantine continues to portray himself on coins as a sun god (Freeman, Charles. Egypt, Greece and Rome: Civilizations of the Ancient Mediterranean; Second Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004. 582). Above all, Constantine was a pragmatist. It would be cynical to egregiously disavow his commitment to Christianity, but it would be equally wrong to think that he would allow Christianity to meddle in the governance of his empire. As he reputedly told a group of bishops, "You are bishops of those within the church, but I am perhaps a bishop appointed by God of those outside." Whatever the motives for his decision to support Christianity, Christianity benefitted from the arrangement. So, too, did Constantine. It was a match made in heaven.
J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

For perhaps the best Constantine The Great site on the web, see Victor Clark's Constantine The Great Coins: http://www.constantinethegreatcoins.com/
Cleisthenes
CTG.jpg
1403h, Constantine I (the Great), early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D. (Siscia)36 viewsBronze follis, RIC 232b, gVF, Siscia, 3.87g, 23.8mm, 180o, early 313 A.D. Obverse: IMP CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, laureate head right; Reverse: IOVI CONSERVATORI AVGG NN, Jupiter standing left holding Victory on globe and scepter, eagle with wreath in beak left, E right, SIS in exergue.

The Emperor Constantine I was effectively the sole ruler of the Roman world between 324 and 337 A.D.; his reign was perhaps one of the most crucial of all the emperors in determining the future course of western civilization. By beginning the process of making Christianity the religious foundation of his realm, he set the religious course for the future of Europe which remains in place to this very day. Because he replaced Rome with Constantinople as the center of imperial power, he made it clear that the city of Rome was no longer the center of power and he also set the stage for the Middle Ages. His philosophical view of monarchy, largely spelled out in some of the works of Eusebius of Caesarea, became the foundation for the concept of the divine right of kings which prevailed in Europe.

Constantine was not a "Christian convert" in any traditional sense. He was not baptized until close to death, and while that was not an uncommon practice, the mention of Christ in his speeches and decrees is conspicuous by its absence. Eusebius, Church historian and Constantine biographer, is responsible for much of the valorization of Constantine as the Christian Emperor. The somnambulant "sign" in which Constantine was to become victor at the Milvian Bridge is, not so surprisingly, revealed to posterity long after the "fact." Throughout his reign, Constantine continues to portray himself on coins as a sun god (Freeman, Charles. Egypt, Greece and Rome: Civilizations of the Ancient Mediterranean; Second Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004. 582). Above all, Constantine was a pragmatist. It would be cynical to egregiously disavow his commitment to Christianity, but it would be equally wrong to think that he would allow Christianity to meddle in the governance of his empire. As he reputedly told a group of bishops, "You are bishops of those within the church, but I am perhaps a bishop appointed by God of those outside." Whatever the motives for his decision to support Christianity, Christianity benefitted from the arrangement. So, too, did Constantine. It was a match made in heaven.
J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

For perhaps the best Constantine The Great site on the web, see Victor Clark's Constantine The Great Coins: http://www.constantinethegreatcoins.com/
Cleisthenes
CTG_ThesCmpGte.jpg
1403j, Constantine I (the Great), early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D. (Thessalonica)26 viewsBronze AE 3, RIC 153, VF, Thessalonica mint, 2.955g, 19.7mm, 0o, 326 - 328 A.D. Obverse: CONSTAN-TINVS AVG, laureate head right; Reverse: PROVIDEN-TIAE AVGG, campgate with two turrets, star above, dot right, SMTSG in exergue.

Flavius Valerius Constantinus, Constantine the Great, was the son of Helena and the First Tetrarchic ruler Constantius I. Constantine is most famous for his conversion to Christianity and the battle of the Milvian Bridge where he defeated emperor Maxentius. It is reputed that before the battle, he saw the words "In Hoc Signo Victor Eris" (By this sign you shall conquer) emblazoned on the sun around the Chi Rho, the symbol of Christianity. Other sources claim the vision came to Constantine I in a dream. The story continues that after placing this Christogram on the shields of his army, he defeated his opponent and thus ruled the empire through divine providence. Constantine I also shifted the capital of the empire to Constantinople, establishing the foundation for an Empire that would last another 1000 years. He died in 337 and his sons divided the Roman territories.

The Emperor Constantine I was effectively the sole ruler of the Roman world between 324 and 337 A.D.; his reign was perhaps one of the most crucial of all the emperors in determining the future course of western civilization. By beginning the process of making Christianity the religious foundation of his realm, he set the religious course for the future of Europe which remains in place to this very day. Because he replaced Rome with Constantinople as the center of imperial power, he made it clear that the city of Rome was no longer the center of power, and he also set the stage for the Middle Ages. His philosophical view of monarchy, largely spelled out in some of the works of Eusebius of Caesarea, became the foundation for the concept of the divine right of kings which prevailed in Europe.

Constantine was not a "Christian convert" in any traditional sense. He was not baptized until close to death, and while that was not an uncommon practice, the mention of Christ in his speeches and decrees is conspicuous by its absence. Eusebius, Church historian and Constantine biographer, is responsible for much of the valorization of Constantine as the Christian Emperor. The somnambulant "sign" in which Constantine was to become victor at the Milvian Bridge is, not so surprisingly, revealed to posterity long after the "fact." Throughout his reign, Constantine continues to portray himself on coins as a sun god (Freeman, Charles. Egypt, Greece and Rome: Civilizations of the Ancient Mediterranean; Second Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004. 582). Above all, Constantine was a pragmatist. It would be cynical to egregiously disavow his commitment to Christianity, but it would be equally wrong to think that he would allow Christianity to meddle in the governance of his empire. As he reputedly told a group of bishops, "You are bishops of those within the church, but I am perhaps a bishop appointed by God of those outside." Whatever the motives for his decision to support Christianity, Christianity benefitted from the arrangement. So, too, did Constantine. It was a match made in heaven.
J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

For perhaps the best Constantine The Great site on the web, see Victor Clark's Constantine The Great Coins: http://www.constantinethegreatcoins.com/
Cleisthenes
CrispusRIC17.jpg
1404a, Crispus, Caesar 317 - 326 A.D. 38 viewsBronze AE 3, RIC 17, aEF, Cyzicus mint, 3.196g, 19.9mm, 315o, 321 - 324 A.D.; Obverse: D N FL IVL CRISPVS NOB CAES, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right; Reverse: IOVI CONSERVATORI, Jupiter standing left holding Victory on globe in right and scepter in left, eagle with wreath in beak to left, X / IIG and captive right, SMKD in exergue; scarce (RIC R3). Ex FORVM.


De Imperatoribus Romanis;
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors and their Families

Crispus Caesar (317-326 A.D.)

Hans Pohlsander
SUNY Albany

Crispus was the oldest son of the emperor Constantine I and played a fairly important role in the political and military events of the early fourth century. The regular form of his full name is Flavius Iulius Crispus, although the forms Flavius Claudius Crispus and Flavius Valerius Crispus also occur. His mother was a woman named Minervina, with whom Constantine had a relationship, probably illegitimate, before he married Fausta in 307. When Minervina died or when Constantine put her aside we do not know. Nor do we know when she gave birth to Crispus; we may assume, of course, that it was before 307. Some modern authorities, on good grounds, think that it was in 305. Crispus' place of birth must have been somewhere in the East, and it is not known when he was brought to Gaul and when, where, or under what circumstances he was separated from his mother.

Constantine entrusted the education of his son to the distinguished Christian scholar Lactantius, thereby giving a clear sign of his commitment to Christianity. We are not told when Lactantius assumed his duties, but a date before 317 seems likely. Nor do we know how successful he was in instilling Christian beliefs and values in his imperial pupil. No later than January of 322 Crispus must have married a woman named Helena -- not to be confused with Constantine's mother or daughter by the same name- and this woman bore him a child in October of 322. Constantine, we learn, was pleased.

Crispus' official career began at an early age and is well documented. On March 1 of 317, at Serdica (modern Sofia), his father appointed him Caesar. The consulship was his three times, in 318, 321, and 324. While nominally in charge of Gaul, with a prefect at his side, he successfully undertook military operations against the Franks and Alamanni in 320 and 323.

In 324, during the second war between Constantine and Licinius, he excelled as commander of Constantine's fleet in the waters of the Hellespont, the Propontis, and the Bosporus, thus making a significant contribution to the outcome of that war. The high points of his career are amply reflected in the imperial coinage. In addition to coins, we have his portrait, with varying degrees of certainty, in a number of sculptures, mosaics, cameos, etc. Contemporary authors heap praises upon him. Thus the panegyrist Nazarius speaks of Crispus' "magnificent deeds," and Eusebius calls him "an emperor most dear to God and in all regards comparable to his father."

Crispus' end was as tragic as his career had been brilliant. His own father ordered him to be put to death. We know the year of this sad event, 326, from the Consularia Constantinopolitana, and the place, Pola in Istria, from Ammianus Marcellinus. The circumstances, however, are less clear. Zosimus (6th c.) and Zonaras (12th c.) both report that Crispus and his stepmother Fausta were involved in an illicit relationship. There may be as much gossip as fact in their reports, but it is certain that at some time during the same year the emperor ordered the death of his own wife as well, and the two cases must be considered together. That Crispus and Fausta plotted treason is reported by Gregory of Tours, but not very believable. We must resolutely reject the claim of Zosimus that it was Constantine's sense of guilt over these deeds which caused him to accept Christianity, as it alone promised him forgiveness for his sins. A similar claim had already been made by Julian the Apostate. We must also, I think, reject the suggestion of Guthrie that the emperor acted in the interest of "dynastic legitimacy," that is, that he removed his illegitimate first-born son in order to secure the succession for his three legitimate younger sons. But Crispus must have committed, or at least must have been suspected of having committed, some especially shocking offense to earn him a sentence of death from his own father. He also suffered damnatio memoriae, his honor was never restored, and history has not recorded the fate of his wife and his child (or children).

Copyright (C) 1997, Hans A. Pohlsander. Published on De Imperatoribus Romanis;An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors and their Families:
http://www.roman-emperors.org/crispus.htm


What If?

St. Nectarios, in his book, The Ecumenical Synods, writes "Hellenism spread by Alexander paved the way for Christianity by Emperor Constantine the Great."

Constantine's upward gaze on his "Eyes to Heaven" coins recall the coin portraits of Alexander the Great (namely coins struck by the Diodochi), which served as prototypes for the divine ruler portraiture of much of the Hellenistic age. The diadem, of which this is the most elaborate type, was adopted by Constantine and the members of his house as a new symbol of sovereignty.

In the Greek Orthodox Church, Constantine the Great is revered as a Saint.

Is it just possible? Constantine, knowing what happened (or thinking that he does) to Phillip II of Macedon—assassinated on the eve of his greatness, in a plot that most likely involved his wife—and possibly his son. . . isn’t it just possible that Constantine is growing obsessively jealous of his ever more successful and adulated son? Imagine the Constantine who has proven time and again (think: Licinius) that he is a completely self-serving liar and a murderer, decides to murder again? Why "must we resolutely reject the claim of Zosimus that it was Constantine's sense of guilt over these deeds which caused him to accept Christianity, as it alone promised him forgiveness for his sins [?] (see: above). A similar claim had already been made by Julian the [Philosopher]."

Perhaps it is time to cease being apologists for the sometime megalomaniacal Constantine. As Michael Grant notes, "It is a mocking travesty of justice to call such a murderer Constantine the Great . . ." (Grant, Michael. The Emperor Constantine. London: Phoenix Press, 1998. 226).


Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.


Cleisthenes
crispus_votV.jpg
1404b, Crispus, Caesar 317 - 326 A.D. (Thessalonica)35 viewsBronze AE 3, RIC 118, VF, Thessalonica mint, 2.740g, 18.0mm, 180o, 320 - 321 A.D. Obverse: FL IVL CRISPVS NOB CAES, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust left; Reverse: CAESARVM NOSTRORVM, VOT V in wreath, TSDVI in exergue.

Flavius Julius Crispus was the son of Constantine I by his first wife. A brilliant soldier, Crispus was well loved by all until 326 A.D., when Constantine had him executed. It is said that Fausta, Crispus stepmother, anxious to secure the succession for her own sons falsely accused Crispus of raping her. Constantine, learning of Fausta`s treachery, had her executed too.


De Imperatoribus Romanis;
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors and their Families

Crispus Caesar (317-326 A.D.)

Hans Pohlsander
SUNY Albany

Crispus was the oldest son of the emperor Constantine I and played a fairly important role in the political and military events of the early fourth century. The regular form of his full name is Flavius Iulius Crispus, although the forms Flavius Claudius Crispus and Flavius Valerius Crispus also occur. His mother was a woman named Minervina, with whom Constantine had a relationship, probably illegitimate, before he married Fausta in 307. When Minervina died or when Constantine put her aside we do not know. Nor do we know when she gave birth to Crispus; we may assume, of course, that it was before 307. Some modern authorities, on good grounds, think that it was in 305. Crispus' place of birth must have been somewhere in the East, and it is not known when he was brought to Gaul and when, where, or under what circumstances he was separated from his mother.

Constantine entrusted the education of his son to the distinguished Christian scholar Lactantius, thereby giving a clear sign of his commitment to Christianity. We are not told when Lactantius assumed his duties, but a date before 317 seems likely. Nor do we know how successful he was in instilling Christian beliefs and values in his imperial pupil. No later than January of 322 Crispus must have married a woman named Helena -- not to be confused with Constantine's mother or daughter by the same name- and this woman bore him a child in October of 322. Constantine, we learn, was pleased.

Crispus' official career began at an early age and is well documented. On March 1 of 317, at Serdica (modern Sofia), his father appointed him Caesar. The consulship was his three times, in 318, 321, and 324. While nominally in charge of Gaul, with a prefect at his side, he successfully undertook military operations against the Franks and Alamanni in 320 and 323.

In 324, during the second war between Constantine and Licinius, he excelled as commander of Constantine's fleet in the waters of the Hellespont, the Propontis, and the Bosporus, thus making a significant contribution to the outcome of that war. The high points of his career are amply reflected in the imperial coinage. In addition to coins, we have his portrait, with varying degrees of certainty, in a number of sculptures, mosaics, cameos, etc. Contemporary authors heap praises upon him. Thus the panegyrist Nazarius speaks of Crispus' "magnificent deeds," and Eusebius calls him "an emperor most dear to God and in all regards comparable to his father."

Crispus' end was as tragic as his career had been brilliant. His own father ordered him to be put to death. We know the year of this sad event, 326, from the Consularia Constantinopolitana, and the place, Pola in Istria, from Ammianus Marcellinus. The circumstances, however, are less clear. Zosimus (6th c.) and Zonaras (12th c.) both report that Crispus and his stepmother Fausta were involved in an illicit relationship. There may be as much gossip as fact in their reports, but it is certain that at some time during the same year the emperor ordered the death of his own wife as well, and the two cases must be considered together. That Crispus and Fausta plotted treason is reported by Gregory of Tours, but not very believable. We must resolutely reject the claim of Zosimus that it was Constantine's sense of guilt over these deeds which caused him to accept Christianity, as it alone promised him forgiveness for his sins. A similar claim had already been made by Julian the Apostate. We must also, I think, reject the suggestion of Guthrie that the emperor acted in the interest of "dynastic legitimacy," that is, that he removed his illegitimate first-born son in order to secure the succession for his three legitimate younger sons. But Crispus must have committed, or at least must have been suspected of having committed, some especially shocking offense to earn him a sentence of death from his own father. He also suffered damnatio memoriae, his honor was never restored, and history has not recorded the fate of his wife and his child (or children).

Copyright (C) 1997, Hans A. Pohlsander. Published on De Imperatoribus Romanis;An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors and their Families:
http://www.roman-emperors.org/crispus.htm


What If?

St. Nectarios, in his book, The Ecumenical Synods, writes "Hellenism spread by Alexander paved the way for Christianity by Emperor Constantine the Great."

Constantine's upward gaze on his "Eyes to Heaven" coins recall the coin portraits of Alexander the Great (namely coins struck by the Diodochi), which served as prototypes for the divine ruler portraiture of much of the Hellenistic age. The diadem, of which this is the most elaborate type, was adopted by Constantine and the members of his house as a new symbol of sovereignty.

In the Greek Orthodox Church, Constantine the Great is revered as a Saint.

Is it just possible? Constantine, knowing what happened (or thinking that he does) to Phillip II of Macedon—assassinated on the eve of his greatness, in a plot that most likely involved his wife—and possibly his son. . . isn’t it just possible that Constantine is growing obsessively jealous of his ever more successful and adulated son? Imagine the Constantine who has proven time and again (think: Licinius) that he is a completely self-serving liar and a murderer, decides to murder again? Why "must we resolutely reject the claim of Zosimus that it was Constantine's sense of guilt over these deeds which caused him to accept Christianity, as it alone promised him forgiveness for his sins [?] (see: above). A similar claim had already been made by Julian the [Philosopher]."

Perhaps it is time to cease being apologists for the sometime megalomaniacal Constantine. As Michael Grant notes, "It is a mocking travesty of justice to call such a murderer Constantine the Great . . ." (Grant, Michael. The Emperor Constantine. London: Phoenix Press, 1998. 226).


Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
ConstansVot.jpeg
1405a, Constans, 9 September 337 - 19 January 350 A.D. (Alexandria)39 viewsBronze AE 4, RIC 37, gVF, Egypt, Alexandria, 1.54g, 15.0mm, 180o, 345-347 A.D. Obverse: D N CONSTANS P F AVG, pearl diademed head right; Reverse: VOT XX MVLT XXX in wreath, SMALA• in exergue.

Flavius Julius Constans, third and youngest son of Constantine I and Fausta, was born between 320 and 323 A.D. Primary sources for the life and reign of Constans I are scarce. To reconstruct his life and career, one must draw on a variety of references in both fourth century and later works. Raised as a Christian, he was made a Caesar on 25 December 333 A.D. Constans I and his two brothers, after the death of their father on 22 May 337 and the subsequent "massacre of the princes" in which many other relatives were purged, met in the first part of September 337 in Pannonia to re-divide the empire among themselves. There they were acclaimed Augusti by the army. Constans' new realm included Italy, Africa, Illyricum, Macedonia, and Achaea. Shortly before his father's death, Constans' engagement to Olympias, the daughter of the Praetorian Prefect Ablabius, was announced; although the match was never solemnized because of political reasons.

It would appear that Constans was successful in the military sphere. Following his accession to the purple in 337, he seems to have won a victory over the Sarmatians. In 340 Constans was able to beat back an attempt by his brother Constantine II to seize some of his realm. The latter died in a battle fought near Aquileia and Constans absorbed his late brother's territory. In 341 and 342 he conducted a successful campaign against the Franci. He also visited Britain in 343, probably on a military campaign.

As an emperor Constans gets mixed reviews. In what may be a topos, sources suggest that the first part of his reign was moderate but in later years, however, he became overbearing. The emperor apparently attempted to obtain as much money as he could from his subjects and sold government posts to the highest bidder. His favorites were allowed to oppress his subjects. Sources also condemn his homosexuality. He did have some military success and, in addition to other military threats, he had to deal with Donatist-related bandits in North Africa.

Like his father Constantine I and his brother Constantius II, Constans had a deep interest in Christianity. Together with Constantius II he issued (or perhaps re-issued) a ban against pagan sacrifice in 341. The next year, they cautioned against the destruction of pagan temples. Unlike his brother Constantius II, who supported the Arian faction, he stood shoulder to shoulder with Athanasius and other members of the Orthodox clique. In fact, it is due to his request that the Council of Serdica was called to deal with the ecclesiastical squabble between Athanasius of Alexandria and Paul of Constantinople on one side and the Arian faction on the other.

When Magnentius was declared emperor in Gaul during January 350, Constans realized his reign was at an end. When he learned of the revolt, he fled toward Helena, a town in the Pyrenees. Constans was put to death by Gaeso and a band of Magnentius' assassins, who dragged their victim from a temple in which he had sought refuge.

By Michael DiMaio, Jr., Salve Regina University and Robert Frakes, Clarion UniversityPublished: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

Cleisthenes
Constans.jpg
1405n, Constans, 9 September 337 - 19 January 350 A.D. (Siscia)56 viewsConstans, 9 September 337 - 19 January 350 A.D. Bronze AE 3, RIC 241, S 3978, VM 69, VF, Siscia, 2.32g, 18.3mm, 180o. Obverse: D N CONSTANS P F AVG, pearl diademed draped and cuirassed bust right; Reverse: FEL TEMP REPARATIO, Phoenix radiate, standing on rocky mound, GSIS and symbol in ex; nice green patina.

Flavius Julius Constans, third and youngest son of Constantine I and Fausta, was born between 320 and 323 A.D. Primary sources for the life and reign of Constans I are scarce. To reconstruct his life and career, one must draw on a variety of references in both fourth century and later works. Raised as a Christian, he was made a Caesar on 25 December 333 A.D. Constans I and his two brothers, after the death of their father on 22 May 337 and the subsequent "massacre of the princes" in which many other relatives were purged, met in the first part of September 337 in Pannonia to re-divide the empire among themselves. There they were acclaimed Augusti by the army. Constans' new realm included Italy, Africa, Illyricum, Macedonia, and Achaea. Shortly before his father's death, Constans' engagement to Olympias, the daughter of the Praetorian Prefect Ablabius, was announced; although the match was never solemnized because of political reasons.

It would appear that Constans was successful in the military sphere. Following his accession to the purple in 337, he seems to have won a victory over the Sarmatians. In 340 Constans was able to beat back an attempt by his brother Constantine II to seize some of his realm. The latter died in a battle fought near Aquileia and Constans absorbed his late brother's territory. In 341 and 342 he conducted a successful campaign against the Franci. He also visited Britain in 343, probably on a military campaign.

As an emperor Constans gets mixed reviews. In what may be a topos, sources suggest that the first part of his reign was moderate but in later years, however, he became overbearing. The emperor apparently attempted to obtain as much money as he could from his subjects and sold government posts to the highest bidder. His favorites were allowed to oppress his subjects. Sources also condemn his homosexuality. He did have some military success and, in addition to other military threats, he had to deal with Donatist-related bandits in North Africa.

Like his father Constantine I and his brother Constantius II, Constans had a deep interest in Christianity. Together with Constantius II he issued (or perhaps re-issued) a ban against pagan sacrifice in 341. The next year, they cautioned against the destruction of pagan temples. Unlike his brother Constantius II, who supported the Arian faction, he stood shoulder to shoulder with Athanasius and other members of the Orthodox clique. In fact, it is due to his request that the Council of Serdica was called to deal with the ecclesiastical squabble between Athanasius of Alexandria and Paul of Constantinople on one side and the Arian faction on the other.

When Magnentius was declared emperor in Gaul during January 350, Constans realized his reign was at an end. When he learned of the revolt, he fled toward Helena, a town in the Pyrenees. Constans was put to death by Gaeso and a band of Magnentius' assassins, who dragged their victim from a temple in which he had sought refuge.

By Michael DiMaio, Jr., Salve Regina University and Robert Frakes, Clarion University
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
U2476F1OVDKUXTA.jpeg
1405t, Constans, 9 September 337 - 19 January 350 A.D. (Thessalonica )38 viewsConstans, 9 September 337 - 19 January 350 A.D., Bronze AE 3, unattributed; Thessalonica mint, 2.25g, 18.9mm, 0; aVF.

Flavius Julius Constans, third and youngest son of Constantine I and Fausta, was born between 320 and 323 A.D. Primary sources for the life and reign of Constans I are scarce. To reconstruct his life and career, one must draw on a variety of references in both fourth century and later works. Raised as a Christian, he was made a Caesar on 25 December 333 A.D. Constans I and his two brothers, after the death of their father on 22 May 337 and the subsequent "massacre of the princes" in which many other relatives were purged, met in the first part of September 337 in Pannonia to re-divide the empire among themselves. There they were acclaimed Augusti by the army. Constans' new realm included Italy, Africa, Illyricum, Macedonia, and Achaea. Shortly before his father's death, Constans' engagement to Olympias, the daughter of the Praetorian Prefect Ablabius, was announced; although the match was never solemnized because of political reasons.

It would appear that Constans was successful in the military sphere. Following his accession to the purple in 337, he seems to have won a victory over the Sarmatians. In 340 Constans was able to beat back an attempt by his brother Constantine II to seize some of his realm. The latter died in a battle fought near Aquileia and Constans absorbed his late brother's territory. In 341 and 342 he conducted a successful campaign against the Franci. He also visited Britain in 343, probably on a military campaign.

As an emperor Constans gets mixed reviews. In what may be a topos, sources suggest that the first part of his reign was moderate but in later years, however, he became overbearing. The emperor apparently attempted to obtain as much money as he could from his subjects and sold government posts to the highest bidder. His favorites were allowed to oppress his subjects. Sources also condemn his homosexuality. He did have some military success and, in addition to other military threats, he had to deal with Donatist-related bandits in North Africa.

Like his father Constantine I and his brother Constantius II, Constans had a deep interest in Christianity. Together with Constantius II he issued (or perhaps re-issued) a ban against pagan sacrifice in 341. The next year, they cautioned against the destruction of pagan temples. Unlike his brother Constantius II, who supported the Arian faction, he stood shoulder to shoulder with Athanasius and other members of the Orthodox clique. In fact, it is due to his request that the Council of Serdica was called to deal with the ecclesiastical squabble between Athanasius of Alexandria and Paul of Constantinople on one side and the Arian faction on the other.

When Magnentius was declared emperor in Gaul during January 350, Constans realized his reign was at an end. When he learned of the revolt, he fled toward Helena, a town in the Pyrenees. Constans was put to death by Gaeso and a band of Magnentius' assassins, who dragged their victim from a temple in which he had sought refuge.

By Michael DiMaio, Jr., Salve Regina University and Robert Frakes, Clarion University.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
Cnstntine2.jpg
1406a, Constantine II, 22 May 337 - March or April 340 A.D. (Antioch)28 viewsConstantine II, 22 May 337 - March or April 340 A.D. Bronze AE 3, RIC 87, gVF, Antioch, 2.17g, 17.6mm, 0o, 330-335 A.D. Obverse: CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C, laureate and cuirassed bust right; Reverse: GLOR-IA EXERC-ITVS, two soldiers, each holding spear and shield on ground, flanking two standards, SMANE in exergue.

Constantine II (February 317 - 340) was Roman Emperor (337 - 340). The eldest son of Constantine I the Great and Fausta, he was born at Arles. Following the death of his father in 337, Constantine II became Emperor jointly with his brothers Constantius II and Constans. His section of the Empire was Gaul, Britain and Spain. At first, he was the guardian of his younger brother Constans, whose portion was Italy, Africa and Illyria. As Constans came of age, Constantine would not relinquish the guardianship, and in 340 he marched against Constans in Italy, but was defeated at Aquileia and died in battle. Constans came to control Constantine II's portion of the empire.
Cleisthenes
Constantius II.jpg
1407r, Constantius II, 22 May 337 - 3 November 361 A.D.39 viewsBronze AE 3, RIC 272, aVF, 2.203g, 18.1mm, 0o, Rome mint, 352 - 355 A.D.; obverse D N CONSTAN-TIVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse FEL TEMP REPARATIO, soldier spearing fallen horseman, RT in ex.

Constantius II was born in Illyricum in August AD 317, the son of Constantine the Great and Fausta, and was proclaimed Caesar in AD 323.

In AD 337, at the death of his father Constantine, he acceded to the throne together with his two brothers Constantine II and Constans. But this accession by the three brothers was tainted by the murder of their cousins Dalmatius and Hannibalianus, whom Constantine had also intended as joint heirs. These murders are believed to have been masterminded by Constantius II.

Eventually, Constantius II was left as the sole emperor of the Roman empire. Constantius elevated Julian to the rank of Caesar (junior emperor) and gave him his sister Helena in marriage. Julian was assigned the task of dealing with the Frankish leader, Silvanus, who had proclaimed himself emepror at Colonia Agrippina. Julian's success lead his men to declare him Augustus. Julian, while reluctant to take the throne, accepted.

Constantius II, therefore left the Mesopotamian frontier and marched his troops west, seeking to deal with the usurper. As he reached Cilicia in the winter of AD 361, he was overcome by a sudden fever and died at Mopsucrene. Julian, the Apostate, succeded him as Emperor.

Our chief source for Constantius' reign is the great historian Ammianus Marcellinus. He presents a mixed view of that emperor. In some ways a sound administrator and competent general, Constantius is also portrayed as easily influenced by those around him such as his wives, courtiers and the eunuchs of the court (Ammianus 21. 16. 16). Ammianus (21.16.18) also attacks Constantius' great interest in Church affairs--alleging that he bankrupted the courier service with calls for Church councils. Of course, imperial interest in Church affairs was a major policy of his father Constantine and it may be that Constantius was trying to emulate his model (if only with mixed success). Indeed, Constantius II (like his brothers Constantine II and Constans) was raised a Christian. Among his many laws is the famous CTh 16.10.2 of 341 which either prohibited or re-issued his father's prohibition of pagan sacrifices. Sympathetic to Arianism, he spent a great deal of his reign calling Church councils. One of the longest-reigned emperors in Roman history, Constantius is hard for the modern historian to fully understand both due to his own actions and due to the interests of the authors of primary sources for his reign.

By Michael DiMaio, Jr., Salve Regina University & Robert Frakes, Clarion University
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.



Cleisthenes
Constantius_Gallus.jpg
1408a, Constantius Gallus, Caesar 28 September 351 - winter 354 A.D. (Cyzicus)62 viewsBronze half centenionalis, RIC 106, F, Cyzicus mint, 2.603g, 18.8mm, 0o, 351-354 A.D.; obverse D N FL CL CONSTANTIVS NOB CAES, bare-headed, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse FEL TEMP REPARATIO, soldier standing left spearing fallen horseman, SMKE in exergue.

Constantius Gallus was a cousin of Constantius II and was made Caesar in 351 A.D. He was given command of the Eastern provinces while Constantius II was in the West. His rule was so harsh and cruel that Constantius recalled him to Milan, and then had him arrested and executed before he reached Italy.
Cleisthenes
jovian.jpg
1410a, Jovian, 27 June 363 - 17 February 364 A.D.78 viewsBronze AE 3, RIC 179, aVF, Constantinople, 3.126g, 21.6mm, 180o. Obverse: D N IOVIANVS P F AVG, pearl diademed, draped and cuirassed bust left; Reverse: VOT V MVLT X within wreath, CONSPG in exergue; scarce.

Flavius Jovianuswas born in 331 at Singidunum, modern Belgrade. His distinguished father, Varronianus, had been a tribune of the legion Ioviani and a comes domesticorum, perhaps under Constantius II, who had retired to private life shortly before Jovian's elevation to the purple. Jovian married a daughter of Lucillianus, perhaps named Charito, and by her produced at least two children.

Jovian himself was a protector domesticus under Constantius II and Julian and, under Julian, primicerius domesticorum. Various Christian sources maintain that Jovian's Christianity led to his deposition by Julian, though most modern scholars dismiss this as ex post facto Christian apologetic. Jovian, recalled to the ranks if he had ever been dismissed, marched with Julian against Sapor in 363, and on 27 June, the day after that emperor's death, was acclaimed Augustus.

Ammianus and Zosimus, among others, detail the difficult straits of the Roman army during its withdrawal from Persian territory, Ammianus from the perspective of a proud soldier confident even in defeat of the superiority of Roman arms, Zosimus, in a much shorter and confused version, concentrating on the predicament of Jovian's troops and on the dire effects to the empire of the peace terms agreed to with Sapor. These terms entailed the cessation to Persia of Roman territory beyond the Tigris -- the cities of Singara and Nisibis, however, to be surrendered on the condition of the safe passage of their inhabitants -- and the guarantee of the neutrality of Rome's ally Arsaces, King of Armenia, in the event of future hostilities between Roman and Persia. Ammianus asserts that in agreeing to these terms Jovian misjudged his tactical strength and wasted an opportunity presented by negotiations with Sapor to move his forces closer to supplies at Corduena, and that Jovian acted on the advise of flatterers to preserve the fighting strength of his forces in the event of an attempt by Julian's relative Procopius to seize the throne. Others present the treaty terms as unavoidable given the Roman predicament.

Jovian appears to have treaded cautiously with regard to religious matters during the early months of his reign. Eunapius says that Jovian continued to honor Maximus and Priscus, the Neoplatonist advisors of Julian, and, upon reaching Tarsus, Jovian performed funeral rites for Julian. Nonetheless, various Christians, most notably Athanasius, took the initiative in an effort to gain Jovian's favor and support. An adherent of the Nicaean creed, Jovian did eventually recall various bishops of homoousian disposition and restore to their followers churches lost under earlier emperors. But in spite of such measures, unity among various Christian sects seems to have been the foremost concern of Jovian, whose ipsissima verba Socrates Scholasticus purports to give: "I abhor contentiousness, but love and honor those hurrying towards unanimity" (Hist. Eccl. 3.25).

Jovian died at the age of thirty-two on 17 February 364 at Dadastana on the boundary of Bithynia and Galatia. The cause of his death was most probably natural and is variously attributed to overeating, the consumption of poisonous mushrooms, or suffocation from fumes of charcoal or of the fresh paint on the room in which he was sleeping. Ammianus' comparison of the circumstances of Jovian's death to those of Scipio Aemilianus suggest the possibility of foul play, as does John of Antioch's reference to a poisoned rather than a poisonous mushroom, while John Chrysostom -- in a highly suspect literary context of consolatio-- asserts outright that the emperor was murdered. Eutropius records that he was enrolled among the gods, inter Divos relatus est. Zonaras says he was buried in the Church of the Holy Apostles and that his wife, Charito, was eventually laid to rest beside him.

Ancient authors agree that Jovian was of modest intellect but imposing physique and disposed to excessive eating and drinking.

By Thomas Banchich, Canisius College
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited By J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

Cleisthenes
a103a.jpg
145-142 BC 32 viewsAntiochos VI Dionysos
Bronze AE21

Obverse:Radiate head of Antiochus as Dionysos right, wreathed with ivy
Reverse:Elephant walking left;ΣΤΑ and cornucopiae in right field;ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΥ ΕΠΙΦΑΝΟΥΣ

20.64 mm 7.29gm

SEAR 7081
1 commentsmaik
faustinaII sest-RIC1387(AntPius).jpg
145-161 AD - FAUSTINA Junior molded sestertius - struck 145-161 AD 39 viewsobv: FAVSTINA AVG P II AVG (draped bust right)
rev: VENVS / S.C. (Venus holding an apple & cornucopiae)
ref: not in RIC, similar to RIC III 1387 (Ant.Pius)
30.86gms, 33mm

The molded roman AE coins usually called 'Limes falsa' coins, because they were produced on the fringes of the Empire. 'Limes falsa' are immitations of bronze denominations like As, Dupondius or Sestertius.
This sestertius was used in Pannonia Inferior (here was found).
berserker
IMG_4901.JPG
147. Carinus (283-285 A.D.)41 viewsAv.: IMP CARINVS PF AVG
Rv.: FELICIT PVBLICA
Ex.: QXXI

AE Antoninian Ř21 / 3.7g
RIC V-2 295 Ticinum
Material appears to be bronze
1 commentsJuancho
Val.jpg
1501s, Valentinian I, 25 February 364 - 17 November 375 A.D. (Siscia)98 viewsValentinian I, 25 February 364 - 17 November 375 A.D., Bronze AE 3, S 4103, VF, Siscia mint, 2.012g, 18.7mm, 180o, 24 Aug 367 - 17 Nov 375 A.D.obverse D N VALENTINI-ANVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse SECVRITAS - REIPVBLICAE, Victory advancing left, wreath in right and palm in left, symbols in fields, mintmark in exergue.


De Imperatoribus Romanis, An Online Encyclopedia of the Roman Emperors and their Families

Valentinian I (364-375 AD.)

Walter E. Roberts, Emory University

Valentinian was one of Rome's last great warrior emperors. Flavius Valentinianus, was born in A.D. 321 at Cibalis (modern Vinkovci) in southern Pannonia. His father Gratian was a soldier renowned for his strength and wrestling skills. Gratian had an illustrious career in the army, rising from staff officer to tribune, to comes Africae, and finally [i/comes Britanniae.

The emperor Jovian died on 17 February 364, apparently of natural causes, on the border between Bithynia and Galatia. The army marched on to Nicaea, the nearest city of any consequence, and a meeting of civil and military officials was convened to choose a new emperor. The assembly finally agreed upon Valentinian.

On 26 February 364, Valentinian accepted the office offered to him. As he prepared to make his accession speech, the soldiers threatened to riot, apparently uncertain as to where his loyalties lay. Valentinian reassured them that the army was his greatest priority. Furthermore, to prevent a crisis of succession if he should die prematurely, he agreed to pick a co-Augustus. According to Ammianus, the soldiers were astounded by Valentinian’s bold demeanor and his willingness to assume the imperial authority. His decision to elect a fellow-emperor could also be construed as a move to appease any opposition among the civilian officials in the eastern portion of the empire. By agreeing to appoint a co-ruler, he assured the eastern officials that someone with imperial authority would remain in the east to protect their interests. After promoting his brother Valens to the rank of tribune and putting him in charge of the royal stables on March 1, Valentinian selected Valens as co-Augustus at Constantinople on 28 March 364, though this was done over the objections of Dagalaifus. Ammianus makes it clear, however, that Valens was clearly subordinate to his brother.

Ammianus and Zosimus as well as modern scholars praise Valentinian for his military accomplishments. He is generally credited with keeping the Roman empire from crumbling away by “. . . reversing the generally waning confidence in the army and imperial defense . . ..” Several other aspects of Valentinian's reign also set the course of Roman history for the next century.

Valentinian deliberately polarized Roman society, subordinating the civilian population to the military. The military order took over the old prestige of the senatorial nobility. The imperial court, which was becoming more and more of a military court, became a vehicle for social mobility. There were new ideas of nobility, which was increasingly provincial in character. By this it is meant that the imperial court, not the Senate, was the seat of nobility, and most of these new nobles came from the provinces. With the erosion of the old nobility, the stage was set for the ascendancy of Christianity. Ammianus makes it clear that actions such as these were part of a systematic plan by Valentinian to erode the power and prestige of the senatorial aristocracy. Several pieces of extant legislation seem to confirm Ammianus’ allegations that Valentinian was eroding senatorial prestige.

Valentinian's reign affords valuable insights into late Roman society, civilian as well as military. First, there was a growing fracture between the eastern and western portions of the empire. Valentinian was the last emperor to really concentrate his resources on the west. Valens was clearly in an inferior position in the partnership. Second, there was a growing polarization of society, both Christian versus pagan, and civil versus military. Finally there was a growing regionalism in the west, driven by heavy taxation and the inability of Valentinian to fully exercise military authority in all areas of the west. All of these trends would continue over the next century, profoundly reshaping the Roman empire and western Europe.

By Walter E. Roberts, Emory University
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
1 commentsCleisthenes
ValentGlRom.jpg
1501s, Valentinian I, 25 February 364 - 17 November 375 A.D. (Siscia)54 viewsValentinian I, 25 February 364 - 17 November 375 A.D. Bronze AE 3, RIC 5(a) ii, VF, Siscia, 1.905g, 19.3mm, 0o, 25 Feb 364 - 24 Aug 367 A.D. Obverse: D N VALENTINI-ANVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; Reverse: GLORIA RO-MANORVM, Emperor dragging captive with right, labarum (chi-rho standard) in left, •GSISC in exergue.


De Imperatoribus Romanis, An Online Encyclopedia of the Roman Emperors and their Families

Valentinian I (364-375 AD.)

Walter E. Roberts, Emory University

Valentinian was one of Rome's last great warrior emperors. Flavius Valentinianus, was born in A.D. 321 at Cibalis (modern Vinkovci) in southern Pannonia. His father Gratian was a soldier renowned for his strength and wrestling skills. Gratian had an illustrious career in the army, rising from staff officer to tribune, to comes Africae, and finally [i/comes Britanniae.

The emperor Jovian died on 17 February 364, apparently of natural causes, on the border between Bithynia and Galatia. The army marched on to Nicaea, the nearest city of any consequence, and a meeting of civil and military officials was convened to choose a new emperor. The assembly finally agreed upon Valentinian.

On 26 February 364, Valentinian accepted the office offered to him. As he prepared to make his accession speech, the soldiers threatened to riot, apparently uncertain as to where his loyalties lay. Valentinian reassured them that the army was his greatest priority. Furthermore, to prevent a crisis of succession if he should die prematurely, he agreed to pick a co-Augustus. According to Ammianus, the soldiers were astounded by Valentinian’s bold demeanor and his willingness to assume the imperial authority. His decision to elect a fellow-emperor could also be construed as a move to appease any opposition among the civilian officials in the eastern portion of the empire. By agreeing to appoint a co-ruler, he assured the eastern officials that someone with imperial authority would remain in the east to protect their interests. After promoting his brother Valens to the rank of tribune and putting him in charge of the royal stables on March 1, Valentinian selected Valens as co-Augustus at Constantinople on 28 March 364, though this was done over the objections of Dagalaifus. Ammianus makes it clear, however, that Valens was clearly subordinate to his brother.

Ammianus and Zosimus as well as modern scholars praise Valentinian for his military accomplishments. He is generally credited with keeping the Roman empire from crumbling away by “. . . reversing the generally waning confidence in the army and imperial defense . . ..” Several other aspects of Valentinian's reign also set the course of Roman history for the next century.

Valentinian deliberately polarized Roman society, subordinating the civilian population to the military. The military order took over the old prestige of the senatorial nobility. The imperial court, which was becoming more and more of a military court, became a vehicle for social mobility. There were new ideas of nobility, which was increasingly provincial in character. By this it is meant that the imperial court, not the Senate, was the seat of nobility, and most of these new nobles came from the provinces. With the erosion of the old nobility, the stage was set for the ascendancy of Christianity. Ammianus makes it clear that actions such as these were part of a systematic plan by Valentinian to erode the power and prestige of the senatorial aristocracy. Several pieces of extant legislation seem to confirm Ammianus’ allegations that Valentinian was eroding senatorial prestige.

Valentinian's reign affords valuable insights into late Roman society, civilian as well as military. First, there was a growing fracture between the eastern and western portions of the empire. Valentinian was the last emperor to really concentrate his resources on the west. Valens was clearly in an inferior position in the partnership. Second, there was a growing polarization of society, both Christian versus pagan, and civil versus military. Finally there was a growing regionalism in the west, driven by heavy taxation and the inability of Valentinian to fully exercise military authority in all areas of the west. All of these trends would continue over the next century, profoundly reshaping the Roman empire and western Europe.

By Walter E. Roberts, Emory University
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
13594p00.jpg
1502c, Valens, 28 March 364 - 9 August 378 A.D. (Cyzikus)53 viewsBronze AE 3, S 4118, 2.42g, 16.5mm, 180o,Cyzikus, F/F, obverse D N VALENS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse SECVRITAS REIPVBLICAE, Victory advancing left, wreath in right, palm frond in left, SMK L(?) in exergue. Ex FORVM.


De Imperatoribus Romanis, An Online Encyclopedia of the Roman Emperors and their Families

Valens (365-369 AD.)

Noel Linski, University of Colorado

Valens was the brother of Valentinian I. On March 28, 364, precisely one month after his accession by Roman reckoning, Valentinian appointed his brother Flavius Valens co-emperor at the Hebdomon, the first in a long line of emperors proclaimed there. Themistius was present and later recounted the occasion in his Or. 6. After only two months of co-rulership, the two departed from Constantinople for their native Illyricum. Outside Naissus, in Moesia, they divided their administrative staff between them and at Sirmium they did the same with their mobile forces. Valens was to rule the east, from Thrace in the North and Cyrenaica in the South eastward to the Persian frontier. Valentinian ruled the west. They did not spend long in Sirmium. By late August 365 Valentinian had moved on toward Milan, where he resided for the following year before moving on to Trier, which remained his capital until 375. Similarly, Valens was back in Constantinople by December 364.and he was declared Augustus in 364 A.D. He was given command of the Eastern provinces, where he spent much of his time campaigning against the Goths and Persians.

In 376 A.D., Valens allowed Gothic tribes, who were being driven forward by the Huns to settle in the Danube provinces. The Goths were so badly treated by the Romans that they rebelled. Valens marched against the confederated barbarian army, and on August 9, 378, the two forces met at Adrianople. Although negotiations were attempted, these broke down when a Roman unit sallied forth and carried both sides into battle. The Romans held their own early on but were crushed by the surprise arrival of Greuthungi cavalry which split their ranks.

In one historical account, Valens was wounded in battle but escaped to a nearby farmstead where he was burned to death in a tower by Gothic marauders. The fourth century A.D. Roman historian Ammianus Marcellinus does not seem to concur with this story. Regardless, when the battle was over Valens' body was never recovered, 10,000 roman soldiers lay dead and the perception of Roman military invincibility was destroyed.

Adrianople was the most significant event in Valens' career. Though he displayed some talent as an administrator, Valens' persecutions of Nicene Christians and pagan philosophers, his halting efforts at military achievement and his obtuse personality rendered him a less than glorious emperor. To have died in so inglorious a battle has thus come to be regarded as the nadir of an unfortunate career. This is especially true because of the profound consequences of Valens' defeat.

Adrianople spelled the beginning of the end for Roman territorial integrity in the late empire and this fact was recognized even by contemporaries. The Roman historian Ammianus (325-391 AD) understood that it was the worst defeat in Roman history since Cannae. Rufinus (340–410 CE), monk, historian, and theologian; called it "the beginning of evils for the Roman empire then and thereafter."

Noel Lenski, University of Colorado
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
12957p00.jpg
1503a, Gratian, 24 August 367 - 25 August 383 A.D.53 viewsGratian, 24 August 367 - 25 August 383 A.D. Bronze AE 3, F, 2.352g, 19.13mm, 0o. Obverse: emperor's diadmed bust right; reverse GLORIA ROMANORVM, emperor draging captive, * in left field.

Gratian, son of Valentinian I, became the sole ruler of the Western empire in 375 A.D., and after the catastrophic defeat of the Roman forces at Hadrianopolis the Eastern empire also came under his rule. To better cope with the empire, he elevated general Theodosius to the Eastern throne. Because of a shortage of coinage to meet the payroll, Gratian was abandoned by his troops during the revolt of Magnus Maximus. He was overtaken and killed while fleeing to the Alps.
Cleisthenes
Theo1Ae3Ant.jpeg
1505b, Theodosius I, 19 January 379 - 17 January 395 A.D. (Antioch)69 viewsTheodosius I, 19 January 379 - 17 January 395 A.D. Bronze AE 3, RIC 44(b), VF, Antioch, 2.17g, 18.1mm, 180o, 9 Aug 378 - 25 Aug 383 A.D. Obverse: D N THEODOSIVS P F AVG, rosette-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; Reverse: CONCORDIA AVGGG, Constantinopolis enthroned facing, r. foot on prow, globe in l., scepter in r., Q and F at sides, ANTG in ex; scarce.


De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

THEODOSIUS I (379-395 A.D.)
David Woods
University College of Cork


Origin and Early Career
Flavius Theodosius was born at Cauca in Spain in about 346 to Thermantia and Theodosius the Elder (so-called to distinguish him from his son). Theodosius the Elder was a senior military officer serving in the Western empire and rose to become the magister equitum praesentalis under the emperor Valentinian I from late 368 until his execution in early 375. As the son of a soldier, Theodosius was legally obliged to enter upon a military career. He seems to have served under his father during his expedition to Britain in 367/8, and was the dux Moesiae Primae by late 374. Unfortunately, great controversy surrounds the rest of his career until Gratian had him hailed as his imperial colleague in succession to the emperor Valens at Sirmium on 19 January 379. It is clear that he was forced to retire home to Spain only to be recalled to active service shortly thereafter, but the circumstances of his forced retirement are shrouded in mystery. His father was executed at roughly the same time, and much speculation has centred on the relationship between these events.

[For a very detailed and interesting discussion of the Foreign Policy of Theodosius and the Civil Wars that plagued his reign, please see http://www.roman-emperors.org/theo1.htm]

Family and Succession
Theodosius married twice. His first wife was the Spanish Aelia Flavia Flaccilla. She bore him Arcadius ca. 377, Honorius on 9 September 384, and Pulcheria ca. 385. Theodosius honoured her with the title of Augusta shortly after his accession, but she died in 386. In late 387 he married Galla, daughter of Valentinian I and full-sister of Valentinian II. She bore him Gratian ca. 388, Galla Placidia ca. 388/390, and died in childbirth in 394, together with her new-born son John. Of his two sons who survived infancy, he appointed Arcadius as Augustus on 19 January 383 and Honorius as Augustus on 23 January 393. His promotion of Arcadius as a full Augustus at an unusually young age points to his determination right from the start that one of his own sons should succeed him. He sought to strengthen Arcadius' position in particular by means of a series of strategic marriages whose purpose was to tie his leading "generals" irrevocably to his dynasty. Hence he married his niece and adoptive daughter Serena to his magister militum per Orientem Stilicho in 387, her elder sister Thermantia to a "general" whose name has not been preserved, and ca. 387 his nephew-in-law Nebridius to Salvina, daughter of the comes Africae Gildo. By the time of his death by illness on 17 January 395, Theodosius had promoted Stilicho from his position as one of the two comites domesticorum under his own eastern administration to that of magister peditum praesentalis in a western administration, in an entirely traditional manner, under his younger son Honorius. Although Stilicho managed to increase the power of the magister peditum praesentalis to the disadvantage of his colleague the magister equitum praesentalis and claimed that Theodosius had appointed him as guardian for both his sons, this tells us more about his cunning and ambition than it does about Theodosius' constitutional arrangements.

Theodosius' importance rests on the fact that he founded a dynasty which continued in power until the death of his grandson Theodosius II in 450. This ensured a continuity of policy which saw the emergence of Nicene Christianity as the orthodox belief of the vast majority of Christians throughout the middle ages. It also ensured the essential destruction of paganism and the emergence of Christianity as the religion of the state, even if the individual steps in this process can be difficult to identify. On the negative side, however, he allowed his dynastic interests and ambitions to lead him into two unnecessary and bloody civil wars which severely weakened the empire's ability to defend itself in the face of continued barbarian pressure upon its frontiers. In this manner, he put the interests of his family before those of the wider Roman population and was responsible, in many ways, for the phenomenon to which we now refer as the fall of the western Roman empire.


Copyright (C) 1998, David Woods.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

There is a nice segue here, as we pick-up John Julius Norwich's summation of the reign of Theodosius, "Readers of this brief account of his career may well find themselves wondering, not so much whether he deserved the title of 'the Great' as how he ever came to acquire it in the first place. If so, however, they may also like to ask themselves another question: what would have been the fate of the Empire if, at that critical moment in its history after the battle of Adrianople, young Gratian had not called him from his Spanish estates and put the future of the East into his hands? . . . the probability is that the whole Empire of the East would have been lost, swallowed up in a revived Gothic kingdom, with effects on world history that defy speculation.

In his civil legislation he showed, again and again, a consideration for the humblest of his subjects that was rare indeed among rulers of the fourth century. What other prince would have decreed that any criminal, sentenced to execution, imprisonment or exile, must first be allowed thirty days' grace to put his affairs in order? Or that a specified part of his worldly goods must go to his children, upon whom their father's crimes must on no account be visited? Or that no farmer should be obliged to sell his produce to the State at a price lower than he would receive on the open market?

Had he earned his title? Not, perhaps, in the way that Constantine had done or as Justinian was to do. But, if not ultimately great himself, he had surely come very close to greatness; and had he reigned as long as they did his achievements might well have equalled theirs. He might even have saved the Western Empire. One thing only is certain: it would be nearly a century and a half before the Romans would look upon his like again" (Norwich, John Julius. Byzantium, the Early Centuries. London: Penguin Group, 1990. 116-7;118).

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.



Cleisthenes
ANTPIUS_BRIT_BRIT_MNT.JPG
154 - 155 A.D. ANTONINUS PIUS AE AS (Britannia mint)17 viewsObverse: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P XVIII, laureate and draped bust of Antoninus Pius facing right.
Reverse: BRITANNIA COS IIII, Britannia seated facing left on rock, shield and vexillum in background; in exergue, S C.
Diameter: 26mm | Weight: 9.4gms | Die Axis: 7h
RIC III: 934 | RCV: 4296 | Cohen: 117
SCARCE

The bronze coins of Antoninus Pius bearing the "Britannia" reverse type have been found in considerable quantities in Britain, but are not generally recorded from Roman sites in France and Germany. The old theory that the "Britannia" issues of Antoninus Pius were minted in Britain is therefore not improbable, the many "Britannia" issues of Antoninus Pius found in Coventina's Well, Carrawburgh, seem to have come from only a few dies suggesting that the place of mintage for them was not far distant. It is possible though that the issue was struck at Rome and produced locally in Britannia as well.
The reverse type of Britannia seated on a rock, eventually adorned Great Britain's coinage many centuries later when the design was reintroduced by Charles II in 1672.

Dedications to Coventina and votive deposits were found in a walled area, now called “Coventina's Well”, which had been built to contain the outflow from a spring near the site of a Roman fort and settlement, on Hadrian's Wall. Now called Carrawburgh, the site is named as Procolita in the 5th century “Notitia Dignitatum”. The remains of a Roman Mithraeum and Nymphaeum were also found near the site.
*Alex
ANTPIUS_BRIT_ROM_MNT.JPG
154 - 155, ANTONINUS PIUS, AE AS23 viewsObverse: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P XVIII, laureate and draped bust of Antoninus Pius facing right.
Reverse: BRITANNIA COS IIII, Britannia seated facing left on rock, shield and vexillum in background; in exergue, S C.
Diameter: 26mm | Weight: 12.7gms | Die Axis: 6h
RIC III: 934 | RCV: 4296 | Cohen: 117 | BMC: 1971
SCARCE

The bronze coins of Antoninus Pius bearing the "Britannia" reverse type have been found in considerable quantities in Britain, but are not generally recorded from Roman sites in France and Germany. The old theory that the "Britannia" issues of Antoninus Pius were minted in Britain is therefore not improbable, though it is possible that the issue was both issued at Rome and produced locally in Britannia. The many "Britannia" issues of Antoninus Pius found in Coventina's Well, Carrawburgh, seem to have come from only a few dies, suggesting that the place of mintage for them was not far distant.
The reverse type of Britannia seated on a rock, eventually adorned Great Britain's coinage many centuries later when the design was reintroduced by Charles II in 1672.

Dedications to Coventina and votive deposits were found in a walled area, now called “Coventina's Well”, which had been built to contain the outflow from a spring near the site of a Roman fort and settlement, on Hadrian's Wall. Now called Carrawburgh, the site is named as Procolita in the 5th century “Notitia Dignitatum”. The remains of a Roman Mithraeum and Nymphaeum were also found near the site.
1 comments*Alex
Divus Verus RIC1507 - RR.jpg
161-169 AD - LUCIUS VERUS AE sestertius - struck 169 AD99 viewsobv: DIVVS VERVS (bare head of Divus Verus right)
rev: CONSECRATIO (elephant quadriga advancing left, atop car shrine containing statue of Divus Verus seated left, raising hand), S-C in ex.
ref: RIC III 1507 (M.Aurelius), C.53 (30frcs), BMCRE (Marcus) 1369
23.51gms, 30mm, bronze
Very Rare
History: In the end of 168 AD as Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus were returning home from the fontier of south Pannonia, Lucius suddenly became ill with symptoms attributed to food poisoning, and was dead at the age of 38 near Altinum (Altino). The older Emperor accompanied the body to Rome, where he offered games to honour his memory. After the funeral, the senate declared Verus divine to be worshipped as Divus Verus.
2 commentsberserker
VHC18-coin.JPG
18- GREAT BRITAIN, 1 FARTHING, KM788.2.27 viewsSize: 20 mm. Composition: Bronze. Mintage: 8,016,000.
Grade: NGC MS61 (Cert.# 4080257-007).
Comments: Purchased raw from Tom Carroll, 11/20/09.
lordmarcovan
Coin_cabinet_medal.JPG
1843 "BENJAMIN NIGHTINGALE" AE Halfpenny Token. London, Middlesex17 viewsObverse: VILIUS EST ARGENTUM AURO, VIRTUTIBUS AURUM. Female, leaning on books behind her, holding a cornucopia from which coins are spilling, seated facing right in front of an open coin cabinet; in exergue, tudor rose on shield between two branches.
Reverse: BENJAMIN NIGHTINGALE LONDON * PRIVATE TOKEN * 1843 surrounding “BN” monogram in script.
Edge: Plain.
Diameter: 30mm | Weight: 14.2gms | Die Axis: 12
Bell (Middlesex) A3
VERY RARE (Only 72 of these bronzed copper halfpenny tokens were struck)

Privately issued in London by Benjamin Nightingale, the die sinker for this token was William Joseph Taylor (whose initials WJT can be seen to the left below the books on the obverse), following a similar design for halfpennies that he had produced for Matthew Young, a British merchant. Taylor was born in Birmingham in 1802 and was apprenticed to Thomas Halliday in 1818 as the first die-sinker to be trained by him. He set up his own business as a die-sinker, medallist and engraver at 5 Porter Street, Soho, London in 1829, later moving to 3 Lichfield Street, Birmingham. In 1843 the business moved to 33 Little Queen Street and finally, in 1869, to 70 Red Lion Street where, in 1885, Taylor died.
The Soho Mint at Birmingham (founded by Matthew Boulton) closed in 1848, and it's plant and equipment was sold via auction in April 1850. Taylor purchased many of the Soho Mint's hubs and dies from this auction and used them to restrike many of the coins & patterns that the Soho Mint had struck between the 1790's and the 1840's, though he nearly always re-polished or re-engraved elements of the original dies before re-using them.

Benjamin Nightingale was a wine and spirit merchant who lived at 17 Upper Stamford Street, Blackfriars Road in London. He was born in 1806 and died on March 9th, 1862. He was a well known Antiquarian and was a member of the Numismatic Society of London.
In 1863, after his death, Benjamin Nightingale's collection, consisting of 359 lots, was sold over a two day period by Sotheby's. This is from the February 13, 1863 edition of the London Daily News (page 8, column 6).

THE VALUABLE CABINET of COINS and MEDALS of the late BENJAMIN NIGHTINGALE, Esq.
MESSRS S. LEIGH SOTHEBY and WILKINSON, auctioneers of literary property and works illustrative of the fine arts, will SELL BY AUCTION, at their house, No. 13 (late 3), Wellington-street, Strand, W.C., on WEDNESDAY, Feb. 25, and following day, at 1 precisely, the valuable CABINET OF COINS and MEDALS of the late Benjamin Nightingale, Esq.; comprising a few Roman coins in gold, silver, and copper, in the highest state of preservation; a most valuable collection of English medals in all metals; rare and curious jetons, including a very perfect set of those struck to illustrate the history of the low countries; a few remarkable foreign medals, a choice library of numismatic books, several well-made cabinets, & c. – May be viewed two days previous, and catalogues had on receipt of two stamps.

According to Manville and Robertson, prior to his death, Benjamin Nightingale had sold off part of his collection at an auction by Sotheby's on 29th Nov. 1855.
"Benjamin NIGHTINGALE" in ANS copy; Greek, Roman, Tavern Tokens, Town Pieces, 17-18c Tokens, English and Foreign Medals, Books; 165 lots. -Curtis Clay.

The inspiration for these tokens might have been Pye's 1797 halfpenny (Warwickshire 223) which is of a similar design.
*Alex
1860_Victoria_Farthing.JPG
1860 VICTORIA BRONZE "BUN HEAD" FARTHING36 viewsObverse: VICTORIA D:G: BRITT:REG:F:D: "Bun head" bust of Queen Victoria with youthful features facing left.
Reverse: FARTHING. Britannia seated facing right, her right hand resting on shield, her left holding a trident; in left background, a lighthouse and in right background, a ship; 1860 in exergue.
SPINK: 3958

Victoria's "bun head" portrait was designed by Leonard Charles Wyon (1826 - 1891), he was the eldest son of William Wyon, who had previously designed the "young head" portrait of the Queen. The letters L C WYON are incuse amongst the ornamentation of the Queen's dress.
*Alex
Victoria_BH_halfpence_1862.JPG
1862 VICTORIA BRONZE "BUN HEAD" HALFPENNY4 viewsObverse: VICTORIA D:G: BRITT:REG:F:D: "Bun head" bust of Queen Victoria with youthful features facing left.
Reverse: HALF PENNY. Britannia seated facing right, her right hand resting on shield, her left holding a trident; in left background, a lighthouse and in right background, a ship; 1862 in exergue.
Diameter 25mm
SPINK: 3956

Victoria's "bun head" portrait was designed by Leonard Charles Wyon (1826 - 1891), he was the eldest son of William Wyon, who had previously designed the "young head" portrait of the Queen. The letters L C WYON are incuse amongst the ornamentation of the Queen's dress.
*Alex
spain_1870_cinco-centavos_1-year-type_o_07.JPG
1870 Spain Bronze Cinco Centimos coin - One Year Type102 views-
---
Spain, 1870 - Cinco Centimos.
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
*Enlarge for full detail.*
~~~~~~
~~~~
~~
~
rexesq
spain_1870_cinco-centavos_1-year-type_o_07_r_05.JPG
1870 Spain Bronze Cinco Centimos coin - One Year Type.188 views-
---
Spain, 1870 - Cinco Centimos.
---
-
rexesq
spain_1870_cinco-centavos_1-year-type_o_01_r_02.JPG
1870 Spain Bronze Cinco Centimos coin - One Year Type.52 views-
---
Spain, 1870 - Cinco Centimos.
---
-
rexesq
1875H_VICTORIA_BUN_HEAD_FARTHING_.JPG
1875 "H" VICTORIA BRONZE "BUN HEAD" FARTHING33 viewsObverse: VICTORIA D:G: BRITT:REG:F:D: "Bun head" bust of Queen Victoria with elderly features facing left.
Reverse: FARTHING. Britannia seated facing right, her right hand resting on shield, her left holding a trident; in left background, a lighthouse and in right background, a ship; 1875, small "H" below, in exergue.
Diameter: 20mm
SPINK: 3959

Victoria's "bun head" portrait was designed by Leonard Charles Wyon (1826 - 1891), he was the eldest son of William Wyon, who had previously designed the "young head" portrait of the Queen. The letters L C WYON are incuse amongst the ornamentation of the Queen's dress.

On 1st April 1850 the auction was announced of equipment from the defunct Soho Mint, created by Matthew Boulton around 1788. At the auction, on 29th April, Ralph Heaton II bought Boulton's four steam-powered screw presses and six planchet presses for making blanks from strip metal. These were installed at Heaton's Bath Street works, and his Birmingham Mint began to strike trade tokens for use in Australia. In 1851 copper planchets were made for the Royal Mint to make into pennies, halfpennies, farthings, half-farthings and quarter-farthings.
In 1853 the Royal Mint was overwhelmed with producing silver and gold coins and so Ralph Heaton and Sons won their first contract to strike finished coins for Britain, these coins had no mintmark to identify them as from Birmingham.
In 1860 the firm bought a 1-acre plot on Icknield Street and constructed a three storey red brick factory. Completed in 1862 and employing 300 staff, it was at this time the largest private mint in the world.
From 1874 the Birmingham Mint began striking bronze pennies, halfpennies and farthings for the Royal Mint. This time though, the Birmingham Mint issues are distinguished by an H (for Heaton) mintmark below the date on the reverse. Victorian British coins bearing the H mintmark were produced in 1874, 1875, 1876, 1881 and 1882.
*Alex
Victoria_Halfpenny_1876H.JPG
1876 "H" VICTORIA BRONZE "BUN HEAD" HALFPENNY4 viewsObv: VICTORIA D:G: BRITT:REG:FID:DEF: "Bun head" bust of Queen Victoria with elderly features facing left.
Rev: HALF PENNY. Britannia seated facing right, her right hand resting on shield, her left holding a trident; in left background, a lighthouse and in right background, a ship; 1876, small H below, in exergue.
SPINK: 3957

Victoria's "bun head" portrait was designed by Leonard Charles Wyon (1826 - 1891), he was the eldest son of William Wyon, who had previously designed the "young head" portrait of the Queen. The letters L C WYON are incuse amongst the ornamentation of the Queen's dress.

On 1st April 1850 the auction was announced of equipment from the defunct Soho Mint, created by Matthew Boulton around 1788. At the auction, on 29th April, Ralph Heaton II bought Boulton's four steam-powered screw presses and six planchet presses for making blanks from strip metal. These were installed at Heaton's Bath Street works, and his Birmingham Mint began to strike trade tokens for use in Australia. In 1851 copper planchets were made for the Royal Mint to make into pennies, halfpennies, farthings, half-farthings and quarter-farthings.
In 1853 the Royal Mint was overwhelmed with producing silver and gold coins and so Ralph Heaton and Sons won their first contract to strike finished coins for Britain, these coins had no mintmark to identify them as from Birmingham.
In 1860 the firm bought a 1-acre plot on Icknield Street and constructed a three storey red brick factory. Completed in 1862 and employing 300 staff, it was at this time the largest private mint in the world.
From 1874 the Birmingham Mint began striking bronze pennies, halfpennies and farthings for the Royal Mint. This time though, the Birmingham Mint issues are distinguished by an H (for Heaton) mintmark below the date on the reverse. Victorian British coins bearing the H mintmark were produced in 1874, 1875, 1876, 1881 and 1882.
*Alex
1876H_Victoria_Penny.JPG
1876 "H" VICTORIA BRONZE "BUN HEAD" PENNY8 viewsObv: VICTORIA D:G: BRITT:REG:FID:DEF: "Bun head" bust of Queen Victoria with elderly features facing left.
Rev: ONE PENNY. Britannia seated facing right, her right hand resting on shield, her left holding a trident; in left background, a lighthouse and in right background, a ship; 1876, small H below, in exergue.
SPINK: 3955

Victoria's "bun head" portrait was designed by Leonard Charles Wyon (1826 - 1891), he was the eldest son of William Wyon, who had previously designed the "young head" portrait of the Queen. The letters L C WYON are incuse amongst the ornamentation of the Queen's dress.

On 1st April 1850 the auction was announced of equipment from the defunct Soho Mint, created by Matthew Boulton around 1788. At the auction, on 29th April, Ralph Heaton II bought Boulton's four steam-powered screw presses and six planchet presses for making blanks from strip metal. These were installed at Heaton's Bath Street works, and his Birmingham Mint began to strike trade tokens for use in Australia. In 1851 copper planchets were made for the Royal Mint to make into pennies, halfpennies, farthings, half-farthings and quarter-farthings.
In 1853 the Royal Mint was overwhelmed with producing silver and gold coins and so Ralph Heaton and Sons won their first contract to strike finished coins for Britain, these coins had no mintmark to identify them as from Birmingham.
In 1860 the firm bought a 1-acre plot on Icknield Street and constructed a three storey red brick factory. Completed in 1862 and employing 300 staff, it was at this time the largest private mint in the world.
From 1874 the Birmingham Mint began striking bronze pennies, halfpennies and farthings for the Royal Mint. This time though, the Birmingham Mint issues are distinguished by an H (for Heaton) mintmark below the date on the reverse. Victorian British coins bearing the H mintmark were produced in 1874, 1875, 1876, 1881 and 1882.
*Alex
spain_1877_5-centimos_obv_05_rev_05.JPG
1877 Spain Cinco Centimos52 viewsSpain 1877 Cinco Centimos, Bronze.
obv:
ALFONSO XII POR LA GRACIA DE DIOS
* 1877 *
rev:
REY CONSTL. DE ESPANA
CINCO CENTIMOS
rexesq
spain_1877_5-centimos_obv_03_rev_03.JPG
1877 Spain Cinco Centimos96 viewsSpain 1877 Cinco Centimos, Bronze.
obv:
ALFONSO XII POR LA GRACIA DE DIOS
* 1877 *
rev:
REY CONSTL. DE ESPANA
CINCO CENTIMOS
rexesq
1886_VICTORIA_FARTHING.JPG
1886 VICTORIA BRONZE "BUN HEAD" FARTHING29 viewsObverse: VICTORIA D:G: BRITT:REG:F:D: "Bun head" bust of Queen Victoria with elderly features facing left.
Reverse: FARTHING. Britannia seated facing right, her right hand resting on shield, her left holding a trident; in left background, a lighthouse and in right background, a ship; 1886 in exergue.
SPINK: 3958

Victoria's "bun head" portrait was designed by Leonard Charles Wyon (1826 - 1891), he was the eldest son of William Wyon, who had previously designed the "young head" portrait of the Queen. The letters L C WYON are incuse amongst the ornamentation of the Queen's dress.
From 1881 heraldic colouring was added to Britannia's shield on the reverse.
*Alex
Victoria_Penny_1891.JPG
1891 VICTORIA BRONZE "BUN HEAD" PENNY4 viewsObv: VICTORIA D:G: BRITT:REG:FID:DEF: "Bun head" bust of Queen Victoria with elderly features facing left.
Rev: ONE PENNY. Britannia seated facing right, her right hand resting on shield, her left holding a trident; in left background, a lighthouse and in right background, a ship; 1891 in exergue.
SPINK: 3954

Victoria's "bun head" portrait was designed by Leonard Charles Wyon (1826 - 1891), he was the eldest son of William Wyon, who had previously designed the "young head" portrait of the Queen. The letters L C WYON are incuse amongst the ornamentation of the Queen's dress.
From 1881 heraldic colouring was added to Britannia's shield on the reverse.
*Alex
1893_Victoria_Halfpenny.JPG
1893 VICTORIA BRONZE "BUN HEAD" HALFPENNY4 viewsObverse: VICTORIA D:G: BRITT:REG:F:D: "Bun head" bust of Queen Victoria with elderly features facing left.
Reverse: HALF PENNY. Britannia seated facing right, her right hand resting on shield, her left holding a trident; in left background, a lighthouse and in right background, a ship; 1893 in exergue.
Diameter 25mm
SPINK: 3956

Victoria's "bun head" portrait was designed by Leonard Charles Wyon (1826 - 1891), he was the eldest son of William Wyon, who had previously designed the "young head" portrait of the Queen. The letters L C WYON are incuse amongst the ornamentation of the Queen's dress.
From 1881 heraldic colouring was added to Britannia's shield on the reverse.
*Alex
Victoria_bronze_farthing_1896.JPG
1896 VICTORIA BRONZE "OLD HEAD" FARTHING2 viewsObverse: VICTORIA.DEI.GRA.BRITT.REGINA.FID.DEF.IND.IMP. Veiled bust of Queen Victoria facing left.
Reverse: FARTHING. Britannia seated facing right, right hand resting on shield, left hand holding trident. 1896 in exergue.
SPINK: 3963

Victoria's "veiled head" portrait was designed by Thomas Brock (1847 - 1922), this is marked by a small "T.B." below the Queen's bust.
*Alex
439Hadrian_RIC19.jpg
19 ANONYMOUS. Period of Domitian to Antoninus Pius, Quadrans Circa 81-161 AD Mars32 viewsReference.
RIC 19 (pag. 218); Cohen 26; Weigel 10

Obv.
Helmeted and cuirassed bust of Mars right

Rev. S-C
Cuirass.

2.41 gr
18 mm
12h

Note from CNG.
Under Trajan and Hadrian several series of bronze quadrantes were struck in the names of the imperial mines in Noricum, Dalmatia, Pannonia and Moesia (Dardania). These operations supplied metal for the mint at Rome, and perhaps were the sites of workshops to produce coinage for local circulation or as donatives. Some scholars believe these pieces were struck at Rome itself, and served some unidentified function, much as the contemporary "nome" coinage struck at Alexandria in Egypt. Whatever the circumstances, these pieces saw limited use, and, except for one rare type struck by Marcus Aurelius, were not issued at any other period.
2 commentsokidoki
VHC19-coin.JPG
19- GREAT BRITAIN, 1/2 PENNY, KM789.17 viewsSize: 25.5 mm. Composition: Bronze. Mintage: 11,127,000.
Grade: PCGS MS64 RD.
Comments: A gift from Don Rupp, 04/2010.
lordmarcovan
IMG_2682.JPG
190 Caracalla36 viewsCaracalla AD 198-217. Bronze (AR; 18-19mm; 3.40g; 12h) ancient forgery, regular style. ANTONINVS PIVS – AVG BRIT Laureate head of Caracalla to right. Rev. INDVLG FECVNDAE Indulgentia, veilded, towered, draped, seated left on curule chair, extending right hand and holding secptre, pointing upwards to right, in left.

cf. BMCRE V p. 370, 74 and pl. 55.3; cf. C. 104.

ex DS
1 commentsRandygeki(h2)
Victoria_bronze_halfpenny_1901.JPG
1901 VICTORIA BRONZE "OLD HEAD" HALFPENNY3 viewsObverse: VICTORIA.DEI.GRA.BRITT.REGINA.FID.DEF.IND.IMP. Veiled bust of Queen Victoria facing left.
Reverse: HALF PENNY. Britannia seated facing right, right hand resting on shield, left hand holding trident. 1901 in exergue.
Diameter 25mm
SPINK: 3962

Victoria's "veiled head" portrait was designed by Thomas Brock (1847 - 1922), this is marked by a small "T.B." below the Queen's bust.
*Alex
Victoria_bronze_penny_1901.JPG
1901 VICTORIA BRONZE "OLD HEAD" PENNY1 viewsObverse: VICTORIA.DEI.GRA.BRITT.REGINA.FID.DEF.IND.IMP. Veiled bust of Queen Victoria facing left.
Reverse: ONE PENNY. Britannia seated facing right, right hand resting on shield, left hand holding trident. 1901 in exergue.
SPINK: 3961

Victoria's "veiled head" portrait was designed by Thomas Brock (1847 - 1922), this is marked by a small "T.B." below the Queen's bust.
*Alex
George_5_H_Penny_1912.JPG
1912 "H" GEORGE V "Large head" AE Penny7 viewsObverse: GEORGIVS V DEI GRA:BRITT:OMN:REX FID:DEF:IND:IMP: . Bare head of George V facing left.
Reverse: ONE PENNY. Britannia seated facing right, right hand resting on shield, left hand holding trident; 1912 and small "H" (for Heaton) in exergue.
SPINK: 4052
SCARCE

George V's portrait was designed by Bertram Mackennal (1863 - 1931), this is marked by a small "BM" on the King's neck.

The Heaton Mint in Birmingham was founded in 1850 by Ralph Heaton Junior using second-hand equipment purchased from Matthew Boulton's old Soho Mint. Ralph Heaton pioneered the modern mill striking of bronze coins, and in 1860 he was contracted by the Royal Mint to assist it in striking Britain's new bronze penny, half-penny and farthing issues. The Birmingham Mint continued striking these bronze issues for the Royal Mint off and on until the 1880s.
In 1912, the Royal Mint once again subcontracted the Birmingham Mint to strike enough British pennies to meet the demand, and those pennies carry a small 'H' (for Heaton) mintmark to the left of the date on the reverse. During the First World War, the Birmingham Mint was employed in other aspects of metalwork, producing brass and copper tubing for bullets and artillery rounds, but was again contracted to strike more Heaton pennies in 1918 and 1919.
*Alex
George_5_KN_Penny_1918.JPG
1918 "KN" GEORGE V "Large head" AE Penny7 viewsObverse: GEORGIVS V DEI GRA:BRITT:OMN:REX FID:DEF:IND:IMP: . Bare head of George V facing left.
Reverse: ONE PENNY. Britannia seated facing right, right hand resting on shield, left hand holding trident; 1918 and small "KN" (for Kings Norton) in exergue.
SPINK: 4053
VERY RARE

George V's portrait was designed by Bertram Mackennal (1863 - 1931), this is marked by a small "BM" on the King's neck.

The “King's Norton Metal Company” (King's Norton being an area south of central Birmingham) was registered as a Limited Company in 1890 and was a general manufacturer of small metal goods. Minting did not become part of its business until 1912 when the Royal Mint placed an order for bronze blanks which were then used to strike coins. Minting was only a sideline part of the business and the company only struck coins for Britain in 1918 and 1919 after being awarded with a contract to strike George V Pennies. The pennies struck by the Kings Norton Metal Company can be identified by a small “KN” next to the date on the reverse.
*Alex
George_V_1927_Penny.JPG
1927 GEORGE V "Modified Large head" AE Penny6 viewsObverse: GEORGIVS V DEI GRA:BRITT:OMN:REX FID:DEF:IND:IMP: . Bare head of George V facing left.
Reverse: ONE PENNY. Britannia seated facing right, right hand resting on shield, left hand holding trident; 1927 in exergue. Some original mint lustre.
SPINK: 4054

George V's portrait was designed by Bertram Mackennal (1863 - 1931), this is marked by a small "BM" on the King's neck.

No pennies were struck from 1923 to 1925 while the mint made an effort to stop the ghosting which plagued the earlier George V penny issues. Ghosting is when the design from one side of a coin shows through on the opposite side, in this case it is the portrait's outline which can be seen on the reverse. The first attempt at a solution, in 1926, had been to alter the bronze alloy from 95% Copper, 4% tin and 1% Zinc to 95.5% Copper, 3% tin and 1.5% Zinc but this, coupled with modifications to the portrait, proved unsuccessful in addressing the ghosting problem. In 1927, in a further attempt to address the problems of ghosting, both the King's portrait on the obverse and Britannia on the reverse were modified so that the details were more clearly defined and struck in slightly lower relief. However, the ghosting problem was not completely resolved until 1928 when the portrait of the King was reduced in size.
*Alex
Republican_Centennial_Medal_1954.JPG
1954 Official Republican Centennial Medal27 viewsObv: REPUBLICAN CENTENNIAL 1854 - 1954, Conjoined busts of Abraham Lincoln and Dwight Eisenhower facing right.

Rev: Two lighted torches, quotes between: "WITH MALICE TOWARD NONE, WITH CHARITY FOR ALL, WITH FIRMNESS IN THE RIGHT, AS GOD GIVES US TO SEE THE RIGHT, LET US STRIVE ON TO FINISH THE WORK WE ARE IN" -Abraham Lincoln. "IN ALL THOSE THINGS WHICH DEAL WITH PEOPLE, BE LIBERAL, BE HUMAN. IN ALL THOSE THINGS WHICH DEAL WITH THE PEOPLE'S MONEY OR THEIR ECONOMY, OR THEIR FORM OF GOVERNMENT, BE CONSERVATIVE." Dwight D. Eisenhower.

Engraver: Gilroy Roberts

Mint: Medallic Art Company, Date: 1954, Bronze, Diameter: 63.6 mm

Note: Gilroy Roberts was already the chief engraver of the United States Mint when he designed this medal. He would go on to design the portrait on the John F. Kennedy half dollar.
Matt Inglima
GallienusAntVirtus.jpg
1cy Gallienus17 views253-268

Bronze antoninianus

Radiate, draped bust, right, GALLINVS AVG
Mars standing left, holding globe in right hand and spear in left hand, P in right field, VIRTVS AVG

RIC 317

Gallienus oversaw a period of disintegration of the empire and lost control over the East, Gaul, Spain, and Britain.

Zosimus observed: [When Valerian left for the East] As the Germans were the most troublesome enemies, and harrassed the Gauls in the vicinity of the Rhine, Gallienus marched against them in person, leaving his officers to repel with the forces under their command any others that should enter Italy, Illyricum, and Greece. With these designs, he possessed himself of and defended the passages of the Rhine, at one time preventing their crossing, and at another engaging them as soon as they had crossed it. But having only a small force to resist an immense number, he was at a loss how to act, and thought to secure himself by a league with one of the German princes. He thus not only prevented the other Barbarians from so frequently passing the Rhine, but obstructed the access of auxiliaries.

Eutropius recorded: Gallienus, who was made emperor when quite a young man, exercised his power at first happily, afterwards fairly, and at last mischievously. In his youth he performed many gallant acts in Gaul and Illyricum, killing Ingenuus, who had assumed the purple, at Mursa, and Regalianus. He was then for a long time quiet and gentle; afterwards, abandoning himself to all manner of licentiousness, he relaxed the reins of government with disgraceful inactivity and carelesness. The Alemanni, having laid waste Gaul, penetrated into Italy. Dacia, which had been added to the empire beyond the Danube, was lost. Greece, Macedonia, Pontus, Asia, were devastated by the Goths. Pannonia was depopulated by the Sarmatians and Quadi. The Germans made their way as far as Spain, and took the noble city of Tarraco. The Parthians, after taking possession of Mesopotamia, began to bring Syria under their power.

Zosimus resumes: Gallienus in the mean time still continued beyond the Alps, intent on the German war, while the Senate, seeing Rome in such imminent danger, armed all the soldiers that were in the city, and the strongest of the common people, and formed an army, which exceeded the Barbarians in number. This so alarmed the Barbarians, that they left Rome, but ravaged all the rest of Italy. At this period, when Illyricum groaned under the oppression of the Barbarians, and the whole Roman empire was in such a helpless state as to be on the very verge of ruin, a plague happened to break out in several of the towns, more dreadful than any that had preceded it. The miseries inflicted on them by the Barbarians were thus alleviated, even the sick esteeming themselves fortunate. The cities that had been taken by the Scythians were thus deserted.

Gallienus, being disturbed by these occurrences, was returning to Rome to relieve Italy from the war which the Scythians were thus carrying on. It was at this time, that Cecrops, a Moor, Aureolus and Antoninus, with many others, conspired against him, of whom the greater part were punished and submitted. Aureolus alone retained his animosity against the emperor.

The Scythians, who had dreadfully afflicted the whole of Greece, had now taken Athens, when Gallienus advanced against those who were already in possession of Thrace, and ordered Odonathus of Palmyra, a person whose ancestors had always been highly respected by the emperors, to assist the eastern nations which were then in a very distressed condition. . . .

While affairs were thus situated in the east, intelligence was brought to Gallienus, who was then occupied in the Scythian war, that Aurelianus, or Aureolus, who was commander of the cavalry posted in the neighbourhood of Milan to watch the motions of Posthumus, had formed some new design, and was ambitious to be emperor. Being alarmed at this he went immediately to Italy, leaving the command against the Scythians with Marcianus, a person of great experience in military affairs. . . . Gallienus, in his journey towards Italy, had a plot formed against him by Heraclianus, prefect of the court, who communicated his design to Claudius, in whom the chief management of affairs was vested. The design was to murder Gallienus. Having found a man very ready for such an undertaking, who commanded a troop of Dalmatians, he entrusted the action to him. To effect it, the party stood by Gallienus at supper and informed him that some of the spies had brought intelligence, that Aureolus and his army were close at hand. By this they considerably alarmed him. Calling immediately for his horse and arms, he mounted, ordering his men to follow him in their armour, and rode away without any attendance. Thus the captain finding him alone killed him.
Blindado
J15M-Eighth shekel.jpg
1st Jewish War, Æ Eighth Shekel, 66-70 CE298 viewsBronze Eighth Shekel of 20 mm, 2.5 gr, of the 1st Jewish war against Rome, Year 4 (69/70 CE).

During the fourth year of the Jewish War, the Romans had besieged the Jews in Jerusalem. There was a shortage of materials, and hence for the first time, fractions of the shekel were minted in bronze. These are among the earliest examples of "siege money."

Obverse: Omer Chalice with pearled rim and Hebrew inscription around לגאלת ציון 'To the Redemption of Zion'.
Reverse: Lulav flanked by an Etrog on either side surrounded by Hebrew inscription שנת ארבע ‘year four'

Reference: Hendin 670 TJC 214, AJC II, 30.

Added to collection: January 8, 2006
1 commentsDaniel Friedman
J15-Jewish War.jpg
1st Jewish War, Æ Prutah, 66-70 CE155 viewsBronze prutah of 1st Jewish War Against Rome, 66-70 CE, 1.72 grams, 16.8 mm. Minted Year 2 (67/68 CE).

Obverse: Amphora with broad rim and two handles, year 2 (in Hebrew – שנת שתים) around;
Reverse: Vine leaf on small branch, the freedom of Zion (in Hebrew – חרת ציון) around.

Reference: Hendin 661, Sear CGI 5639, Madden R147, AJC 11, m260, 12.

Added to collection: May 7, 2005
1 commentsDaniel Friedman
J15G-War H-664.jpg
1st Jewish War, Æ Prutah, 66-70 CE88 viewsBronze prutah of 1st Jewish War Against Rome, 66-70 CE, 1.72 grams, 18 mm. Minted Year 3 (68/69 CE).

Obverse: Amphora with broad rim two handles and lid, year 3 (in Hebrew – שנת שלש) around;
Reverse: Vine leaf on small branch, inscription “The freedom of Zion” (in Hebrew – חרת ציון) around.

Reference: Hendin 664, SGIC 5640, AJC II, 261, 20, TJC 204-206

Added to collection: March 19, 2006
1 commentsDaniel Friedman
DSC05479.JPG
1st- 2nd Century C.E. Bronze Lamp11 viewsBottom of the lamp.Fiorenza21
DSC05478.JPG
1st- 2nd Century C.E. Bronze Lamp29 viewsView showing the broken handle and intact suspension loops.Fiorenza21
DSC05477.JPG
1st- 2nd Century C.E. Bronze Lamp36 viewsThe small lamp has two loop which allowed it to be suspended from a chain. It may have been suspended from a central piece with several other lamps. 71mm length.Fiorenza21
DSC05461.JPG
1st- 4th Century C.E. Bronze Casket Hinge12 viewsSmall hinge plate for a casket with dot decoration. A friend suggested that this may be the symbol for Aries. 25mm x 25mm.Fiorenza21
DSC05469.JPG
1st- 4th Century C.E. Bronze Key Fragments9 viewsSmaller key fragments for chest locks. The shank at the bottom measures 18mm x 54mm.Fiorenza21
DSC05468.JPG
1st- 4th Century C.E. Bronze Lock Bolts13 viewsLock bolts for chest locks. The upper bolt has one space filled in with cement. The bottom bolt is 78mm in length.Fiorenza21
DSC05464.JPG
1st- 4th Century C.E. Bronze Vessel Handle7 viewsSmall handle for a bronze vessel. 31mm x 30mmFiorenza21
DSC01616.JPG
1st-2nd Century C.E. Harness Pendant15 viewsBronze harness pendant variation which would have been suspended from a phalera. 43mm x 44mm.Fiorenza21
DSC01614.JPG
1st-2nd Century C.E. Harness Pendant15 viewsCommon variation of bronze harness pendant that has traces of silvering. This would have been suspended from a phalera. 37mm x 46mm.Fiorenza21
DSC01613.JPG
1st-2nd Century C.E. Heart-Shaped Harness Pendant16 viewsA larger harness pendant made from sheet bronze. 75mm x 64mm.Fiorenza21
intaglo2.JPG
2 carved glass intaglio and Roman ring109 viewsred intaglio with image of Victory standing left, left hand extended
0.64g

blue intaglio with image of mars advancing left
0.34g

Bronze ring with missing setting

6.11g

Click for full size picture
3 commentsJay GT4
Pergamon_bronzes.jpg
2 Pergamon Mysia Bronze97 viewsPergamon 2 coins, nice martial types; 1) Athena / Nike, 2) Athena / Trophy of Armor
ex FORVM
Adrian S
AE_013_(2).JPG
20 spanish colonial cobs and bronze coins20 viewsminted between XVI to XVIII century. Most of them from Philippus II, III and IV reigns in XVII century. _11700Antonivs Protti
VHC20-coin.jpg
20- GREAT BRITAIN, 1 PENNY (BRONZE), KM790.18 viewsSize: 30.8 mm. Composition: Bronze. Mintage: 22,206,000.
Grade: NGC MS63 RB (Cert.# 4080257-008).
Comments: Purchased raw from Don Rupp in 2009, to upgrade a less Red example.
lordmarcovan
carnuntum_04.JPG
2009-Austria - Carnuntum28 viewsBronze statuesberserker
carnuntum_04-hercules.JPG
2009-Austria - Carnuntum34 viewsBronze statues - Herculesberserker
carnuntum_07.JPG
2009-Austria - Carnuntum33 viewsNike and Pietas bronze statues.berserker
carnuntum_04a.jpg
2009-Austria - Carnuntum30 viewsBronze statues. Gods and personifications.berserker
carnuntum_04b.jpg
2009-Austria - Carnuntum33 viewsBronze statues. Gods and personifications 2.berserker
carnuntum_05c.JPG
2009-Austria - Carnuntum26 viewsArtifacts from the ancient beauty salon. Bronze mirrors, pins, combs, etc.berserker
carnuntum_07a.jpg
2009-Austria - Carnuntum18 viewsBronze statues. Nike.berserker
carnuntum_07b.jpg
2009-Austria - Carnuntum19 viewsBronze statues. Fortuna.berserker
coins305.JPG
202. Caracalla; Augusta Traiana, Thrace20 viewsAugusta Traiana, Thrace

Founded around 106 AD by the Emperor Marcus Ulpius Traianus (98-117 AD), Augusta Traiana, "the most flamboyant city of the Traians" was the second largest city in the Roman province of Thrace during 2nd and 3rd century AD, after Philipopolis (present-day Plovdiv). It occupied an area of 38 hectares and was fortified by strong fortress walls.

Augusta Traiana had the statute of an autonomous city of the ‘polis' type (i.e. city-state). From the time of Emperor Marcus Aurelius (161-180 AD) to the Emperor Galienus (253-268 AD) it had the right to mint its own bronze coins, which were in circulation all over the Balkan Peninsula.

Caracalla

Homonoia sacrificing over burning altar and holding cornucopiae.

Moushmov 3066
ecoli
w9~1.JPG
205. Severus Alexander; Bostra, Arabia17 viewsSeverus Alexander, 13 March 222 - March 235 A.D., Bostra, Arabia

Bronze AE 19, SNG ANS 1218-1220, aF, 4.27g, 19.3mm, 180o, Bostra mint, IMP CAES M AVB SEV ALEXANDER AVG, laureate draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse COLONIA BOSTRA, draped and turreted bust of Tyche left holding cornucopia; Bostra was the northern capital of the Nabataeans, until Trajan annexed the kingdom. It was then capital of Provincia Arabia, where the Third Legio Cyrenaica was garrisoned. The emperor Philip was born in Bostra and designated the city a metropolis.

Ex- CNG sale 143, Lot: 340
ecoli
caracalla_RIC96.jpg
207 AD - CARACALLA denarius23 viewsobv: ANTONINVS PIVS AVG (laureate head right)
rev: PONTIF TRP X COS II (Caracalla in military dress standing front, head right, holding spear and parazonium; to left river good, to right 2 reclining figure)
ref: RIC IVi 96 (S), RSC 441 (6frcs)
mint: Rome
3.07gms, 19mm
Scarce

The river good leans on an urn and usually holds a palm, one of the right figures often holds a palm. The three lean figure are probably Arabie, Parthie et Adiabéne (Trajan has a similar bronze).
According to other opinion the three figure are the rivers Eden and Tyne and Britannia.
berserker
coins36.JPG
217-215 BC Roman Republic AE Semi uncia 19 viewsThe semuncia (Latin half-ounce) was an ancient Roman bronze coin valued at one-twenty-fourth of an as produced during the Roman Republic. It was made during the beginning of Roman cast bronze coinage as the lowest valued denomination. The most common obverse types were a bust of Mercury or an acorn (occasionally marked with Σ), and the most common reverse types were a prow or a caduceus. It was issued until ca. 210 BC, at about the time the same time as the denarius was introduced.

Cr. 38/7
217-215 BC
Obverse: Head of Mercury right, wearing winged petasus
Reverse: ROMA above prow right

From Ebay(UK seller - George Clegg)

Check
ecoli
akragas_240-212.jpg
240 - 212 B.C. Bronze AE 23, Zeus right/ Eagle facing27 viewsFORVM Akragas Sicily 240 - 212 B.C. Bronze AE 23, Calciati I 145/7, SNG ANS 1147, SGCV I 1037, aF, Akragas mint, 7.089g, 22.6mm, 180o, 240 - 212 B.C.; obverse laureate head of Zeus right; reverse “ΑΚΡΑΓΑΝΤΙΝΩΝ”, eagle standing facing, on thunderbolt, wings open, head right. Ex FORVMPodiceps
24e-Constantine-Her-092.jpg
24e. Constantine: Heraclea.17 viewsAE3, 327 - 329, Heraclea mint.
Obverse: CONSANTINVS AVG / Diademed bust of Constantine, "Eyes to God."
Reverse: D N CONSTANTINI MAX AVG / Laurel wreath enclosing VOT XXX.
Mint mark: .SMHB
3.42 gm., 18.5 mm.
RIC #92; LRBC #887; Sear #16231.

Eusebius stated that Constantine had himself depicted in the attitude of prayer on his coins. Since early Christians prayed looking up to Heaven, this obverse portrait is the one which Eusebius saw. Thus the phrase "Eyes to God" became associated with this portrait. We have no proof that Eusebius' statement is true; indeed the portrait could have been based on the way various Hellenistic kings portrayed themselves on their own coins. However, Eusebius' statement likely reflected the popular opinion of his time.

The "Eyes to God" portrait was used intermittently on gold and silver coinages from 324 to 337. It's use on the bronze coinage is limited to just three mints: Constantinople (Daphne coinage, 328), Cyzicus (Campgate coinage 328-29), and Heraclea (VOT XXX coinage, 325-26, 327-329).
Callimachus
akragas_275-240.jpg
275 - 240 B.C. Bronze AE 19, Apollo right/ Two eagles & hare10 viewsAkragas, Sicily, 275 - 240 B.C. Bronze AE 19, Calciati I p. 217, 134; SNG ANS 1132, F, Akragas mint, 3.891g, 18.8mm, 135o, obverse laureate head Apollo right; reverse, two eagles standing right, devouring hare upon which they stand. Ex FORVMPodiceps
094.jpg
277-239 BC 44 viewsAntigonos Gonatas
Bronze

Obverse:Macedonian shield with monogram of Antigonos at centre
Reverse:BA - SI; either side of Macedonian helmet

17.07mm 4.32gm

SEAR 6788

Antigonos Gonatas son of Demetrios Poliorketes born at Gonnoi of Thesally.(Gonoi=Gonatas)
maik
l_019.JPG
277-239 BC25 viewsAntigonos Gonatas Bronze AE17

Obverse:Head of Herakles right
Reverse:Horseman right;B A F up and right ,monogram of antigonos below.

17.50mm 3.31gm

SNG Cop 1216
maik
022.jpg
294-288 BC Demetrios Poliorketes46 viewsDemetrios Poliorketes (The Besieger)
Bronze

Obverse:Macedonian shield with monogram of Demetrius at center
Reverse:BA-SI; either side of Macedonian helmet

15.17mm 3.31gm

SEAR 6774


Demetrios was son of Antigonos the one-eyed
maik
DSC05421.JPG
2nd Century C.E. Celtic Style Belt Mounts29 viewsCeltic style belt mounts in "trumpet" shapes 42mm length for the two complete mounts. The two complete mounts had one stud integrally cast in bronze. On the opposite ends a iron rivet was used to secure the fitting to the belt. The fragment piece has a very pronounced relief compared to the two fittings that are complete. This may also be a fragment of a belt plate.Fiorenza21
DSC05403.JPG
2nd- 3rd Century C.E. Buckle15 viewsSilvered bronze, 24mm x 26mm. This smaller buckle, complete with tongue may have been used on a cavalryman's spurs.Fiorenza21
jbk107.jpg
3.0 Bar Kokhba small bronze, year 3 (134-135 CE)172 viewsBar Kokhba rebellion (second Jewish Revolt against Rome)
Year 3 (134-135 CE)
small bronze (19.5 mm)
VF+/VF
Hendin 739

obv. seven branched palm tree, symbolizing Judaea (like Menorah?)
SHIMON (Simon [Bar Kokhba]) in field below tree
rev. Bunch of grapes L'CHAROT YERUSHALAYIM (For the Freedom of Jerusalem) around
5 commentsZam
VHC31-coin.jpg
31- HONG KONG, 1 CENT, KM4.3, (1901 "plain").22 viewsSize: 27.6 mm. Composition: Bronze. Mintage: 5,000,000 (without mintmark)- 10,000,000 ("H" mintmark).
Grade: NGC MS63 RB (Cert.# 4080257-012).
Comments: Purchased raw on eBay. This is the lower-mintage variety without mintmark.
lordmarcovan
coin252.JPG
312a. Marius28 viewsMarius. AD 269. AE antoninianus.

Marcus Aurelius Marius was emperor of the Gallic Empire in 268.

According to later tradition, he was a blacksmith by trade who rose through the ranks of the Roman army to become an officer. After the death of Postumus he seized power, reportedly for two or three days, before being killed by a sword of his own manufacture.

This tradition is probably partially or entirely incorrect. Based upon the number of coins he issued, a more accurate length for his reign would be at least two or three months. Marius is listed among the Thirty Tyrants in the Historia Augusta.

Denomination : Bronze Antoninianus. Mint : Cologne.

Reference : RIC 5, part 2, page 377 #9. Sear-3155

Size : 16.9 x 18.0 mm Weight : 3.12 grams.

Grade : VF slightly off-centre.

Obverse : Radiate bust of Marius right, with IMP C M AVR MARIVS P F AVG around (the first half of the inscription is off the flan, but IVS P F AVG is clear.

Reverse : Felicitas standing left holding a caduceus and cornucopiae, with SAEC FELICITAS around.

At a glance one could confuse this coin with Postumus, as both Postumus and Marius have similar portraits and the part of the obverse inscription visible could be MVS P F AVG with the first part of the M off the flan. However, Postumus never issued this reverse type, so the coin can only be a Marius. (Description/Coin - Ex- Calgary Coins)
ecoli
03382z00.jpg
315. Quintillus109 viewsQuintillus, August or September - October or November 270 A.D.

Marcus Aurelius Claudius Quintillus (d. 270) was brother of the Roman Emperor Claudius II, and became the Emperor himself in 270.

Historia Augusta reports that he became Emperor in a coup d'état. Eutropius reports Quintillus to have been elected by soldiers of the Roman army immediately following the death of his brother. The choice was reportedly approved by the Roman Senate. Joannes Zonaras however reports him elected by the Senate itself.

Records however agree that the legions which had followed Claudius in campaigning along the Danube were either unaware or disapproving of Quintillus' elevation. They instead elevated their current leader Aurelian to the rank of Augustus. Historia Augusta reports Aurelian to have been chosen by Claudius himself as a successor, apparently in a deathbed decision.

The few records of Quintillus' reign are contradictory. They disagree on the length of his reign, variously reported to have lasted as few as 17 days and as many as 177 days (about six months). Records also disagree on the cause of his death. Historia Augusta reports him murdered by his own soldiers in reaction to his strict military discipline. Jerome reports him killed, persumably in conflict with Aurelian. John of Antioch and Joannes Zonaras reported Quintillus to have committed suicide by opening his veins and bleeding himself to death. John reports the suicide to have been assisted by a physician. Claudius Salmasius pointed that Dexippus recorded the death without stating causes. All records however agree in placing the death at Aquileia.

Quintillus was reportedly survived by his two sons.

Historia Augusta reports Claudius and Quintillus having another brother named Crispus and through him a niece, Claudia. who reportedly married Eutropius and was mother to Constantius Chlorus. Historians however suspect this account to be a genealogical fabrication to flatter Constantine the Great.

Surviving Roman records considered Quintillus a moderate and capable Emperor. He was seen as a champion of the Senate and thus compared to previous Emperors Servius Sulpicius Galba and Publius Helvius Pertinax. All three were highly regarded by Senatorial sources despite their failure to survive a full year of reign.

Bronze antoninianus, RIC 58, C-47, S 3246, EF, 3.37g, 19.9mm, 180o, Mediolanum mint, obverse IMP QVINTILLVS AVG, radiate and draped bust right; reverse MARTI PACI, Mars holding olive branch and spear, P in ex; found in England; Ex Forum
1 commentsecoli
1166_P_Hadrian_RPC--.jpg
3159 CAPPADOCIA, Caesarea. Hadrian 124 AD Helios on Mt Argaeus28 viewsReference.
Cohen -, cf. 457 (laureate and without aegis). Henseler -, cf. X29a var. (without aegis). RIC -. RPC III -, cf. 3158-9 (differing bust types). Sydenham -, cf. 290a (laureate and without aegis). An unpublished variety of a very rare type.

Bronze with latin legends and Mount Argaeus as reverse design

Obv. HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS
Radiate head of Hadrian to right, with aegis on his left shoulder.

Rev. COS III
Mount Argaeus surmounted by statue of Sol-Helios, radiate, holding globe in his right hand and long scepter with his left.

4.81 gr
19 mm
6h

Note.
From the Collection of Sir A. J. Evans, Ars Classica XVII, 3 October 1934, 1400.

While usually being attributed to Caesarea, the style of the very rare small bronzes of Hadrian with Latin legends showing the Mount Argaios is clearly that of Rome. It is generally believed that the Rome mint shipped its dies to the East in such cases to have the coins struck on the spot, but the fact that RPC records an obverse die match between an Argaios-semis and a regular Rome mint piece in Vienna with a modius on the reverse (RPC III 3159.3 resp. BMC p. 442*) strongly indicates that all semisses were struck in Rome. The emergence of a local motive on a Roman Imperial coin is, in any case, very unusual and the coins may have been struck to commemorate Hadrian's visit to Cappadocia in 124 or 130/1.
1 commentsokidoki
105i.jpg
318-330 AD., Constantinus I., Trier mint imitative type, barbarous Follis, RIC p. 224.91 viewsConstantinus (Constantine) I., Trier mint imitative type, officina 1, 318-330 AD.,
Follis / Ć3 (16-17 mm / 3,05 g),
Obv.: IMP CONSTANT - INVS AVG , cuirassed bust left, high crested helmet, spear in right hand over shoulder.
Rev.: [VIC]TORIAE LAETA PRINC IPF / STR (in exergue) , two Victories standing, facing each other and holding a shield inscribed VOT / PR on plain altar.
cf. http://www.beastcoins.com/Topical/VLPP/Coins/Imitative/VLPP-Trier-PTR-237.jpg ; cf. http://www.constantinethegreatcoins.com/barb2 .

Imitative Folles or "barbarous" bronze coins from this series are plentiful and range from extremely crude to nearly official in appearance. RIC footnotes as "irregular" or "semi-barbarous". On p. 224, Appendix to Trier, RIC describes and lists a number of "irregular" coins for the purpose of "illustrating the wide range of varieties known".

my ancient coin database
2 commentsArminius
kassandros_013.JPG
319-297 BC Kassander29 viewsMacedonia Kassander
Bronze AE 17
Obverse:Head of Herakles right wearing lions skin
Reverse:KASSANDROY,above and below lion seated right

17.73mm 3.36gm

SEAR 6753 SNG COP 1140
maik
Image00098.jpg
319-297 BC Kassander29 viewsKassander Bronze
AE21

Obverse:Head of Herakles wearing lions skin.
Reverse:KASSANDROY; monogram below horseman advancing right.

21.26mm 5.92gm

SEAR 6754
maik
rjb_anon_03_06.jpg
33067 viewsAnon, time of Constantine I, c.330 AD
AR third siliqua
Helmeted bust of Roma right
P
Constantinople mint?
Cohen 3

This series is interesting and comprises of several issues of both fractional silver and bronze dating between the 4th and 6th centuries AD (according to Bendall, RN 2002, pp 139-59).

This piece (type 2a) belongs to his early series from c.330 AD. Although no mintmarks are present it is believed the coin was struck in Constantinople due to the provenance of most of the recorded specimens and was probably issued around the time of the dedication of the "new Rome" in the east.
mauseus
constantine II - ric.jpg
334 - 335 AD - Constantine II165 viewsConstantine II Bronze AE 3
Siscia mint, RIC 236, 334 - 335 A.D.
2.332g, 18.19mm, 180o
CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C, laureate and cuirassed bust right
GLOR-IA EXERC-ITVS, two soldiers, each holding spear and shield on ground, flanking two standards, (dot)ESIS(dot)in exe
beautiful green patina, aEF, Ex-Forum
4 commentsjimwho523
353.jpg
353.jpg31 viewsRemi in Gallia, Région de Reims, ca. 60-40 BC.,
Ć 21 (19-21 mm / 5,45 g), bronze, axes irregular alignment ↑↖ (ca. 320°),
Obv.: [AT]ISOS (downwards before) / [RE]MOS (downwards behind) , beardless head facing left, four-pointed floral ornament behind - Tęte ŕ gauche, un torque au cou. Légende devant et derričre la tęte. Fleur ŕ quatre pétales derričre la nuque, grčnetis.
Rev.: lion at bay left, dolphin below - Anépigraphe. Lion élancé ŕ gauche, la queue entre les pattes et enroulée jusqu'au-dessus du dos. Une esse au-dessus de la croupe, grčnetis.
DT. 596 ; LT. 8054 var. ; BMC Celtic 71 ; Scheers 147 ; Allen 'Coins of the Celts', illustrated as nos. 446 and 447 .

thanks to Alan ("Manzikert") for the id

Les Rčmes étaient l'un des peuples les plus puissants de la Gaule et les fidčles alliés des Romains. Le territoire des Rčmes s'étendait sur l'actuelle Champagne, le long de l'Aisne. Ils avaient pour voisins les Atuatuques, les Trévires, les Médiomatriques, les Lingons, les Suessions, les Bellovaques et les Nerviens. Ils dénoncčrent ŕ César la coalition des peuples belges de 57 avant J.-C. dont faisaient partie, les Suessions qui partageaient les męmes lois et les męmes magistrats. Leur principal oppidum était Bibrax. La capitale de la civitas ŕ l'époque gallo-romaine était Durocortorum (Reims).

The Remi were a Belgic people of north-eastern Gaul (Gallia Belgica). The Romans regarded them as a civitas, a major and influential polity of Gaul, The Remi occupied the northern Champagne plain, on the southern fringes of the Forest of Ardennes, between the rivers Mosa (Meuse) and Matrona (Marne), and along the river valleys of the Aisne and its tributaries the Aire and the Vesle.
Their capital was at Durocortum (Reims, France) the second largest oppidum of Gaul, on the Vesle. Allied with the Germanic tribes of the east, they repeatedly engaged in warfare against the Parisii and the Senones. They were renowned for their horses and cavalry.
During the Gallic Wars in the mid-1st century BC, they allied themselves under the leadership of Iccius and Andecombogius with Julius Caesar. They maintained their loyalty to Rome throughout the entire war, and were one of the few Gallic polities not to join in the rebellion of Vercingetorix.
Arminius
0005.jpg
359-336 BC Philip II 21 viewsPhilip II
Bronze AE Quarter Unit

Obverse:Head of Herakles left wearing lions skin
Reverse:FILIPPOY; up and down of thunderbolt

10.88mm 1.79gm

SNG Alpha Bank 412, SNG ANS 994 , SNG COP 621
maik
003.jpg
359-336 BC Philip II27 viewsPhilip II
Bronze AE Quarter Unit

Obverse:Head of Herakles right wearing lions skin
Reverse:FILIPPOY up and down of club;M below

10.00mm 1.30gm


SNG Cop 620, SNG Alpha bank 446
maik
234_P_Hadrian_BMC_299.jpg
3694 SELEUCIS Antioch. Hadrian, As ΓΔ below.28 viewsReference.
RPC III, 3694; BMC Galatia 299, p186; McAlee 536(b)

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙС Θ ΤΡ Π ΥΙ Θ ΝΕΡ ΥΙω ΤΡ ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС СΕΒΑС
Laureate and cuirassed bust right Countermark Laurel-branch

Rev. S • C
In laurel wreath beneath ΓΔ

14.10 gr
26 mm
12h

According to Howgego, the laurel branch countermark appears as an undertype on a Bar Kochba bronze, indicating that it was applied prior to 132-5 AD.
okidoki
243_P_Hadrian_BMC_296.JPG
3699 SELEUCIS Antioch. Hadrian. As H below.31 viewsReference.
RPC III, 3699; BMC Galatia 296, p186; var (without countermark) McAlee 536e; for c/m: Howgego 378 ( According to Howgego, the laurel branch countermark appears as an undertype on a Bar Kochba bronze, indicating that it was applied prior to AD 132-135.)

http://rpc.ashmus.ox.ac.uk/coins/3/3699/

Obv. TP.Π . ΥΙ.ΘΝΕΡ.ΥΙω.ΤΡ.ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟCCEΒ
Laureate and cuirassed bust right, Countermark Laurel-branch

Rev. S • C
In laurel wreath beneath H

15.85 gr
27 mm
12h
okidoki
902_P_Hadrian_RPC_3703.jpg
3703 SELEUCIS Antioch. Hadrian. As I below.11 viewsReference.
CRS 236; McAlee 536(g); RPC III, 3703

Issue SC Bronze coinage

Obv. ΑΥΤΟ ΚΑΙС Θ ΤΡ Π ΥΙ Θ ΝΕΡ ΥΙω ΤΡ ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС СΕΒΑС
Laureate and cuirassed bust of Hadrian, r., with paludamentum

Rev. S C
In laurel wreath; beneath: Ι

11.92 gr
26 mm
12h
okidoki
MacAlee_125.jpg
3730 SYRIA, Seleucis and Pieria. Antioch. Pseudo-autonomous. under Hadrian Trichalkon. 128-29 AD Ram A above31 viewsReference.
RPC III, 3730; McAlee 125 (a); SNG Copenhagen 115; BMC --

http://rpc.ashmus.ox.ac.uk/coins/3/3730/

Issue Civic bronze coins dated Year 177

Obv. ANTIOXЄωN THC MHTPOΠOΛЄωC
Turreted, veiled and draped bust of Tyche right.

Rev. ЄT ZOP
Ram leaping right, head left; star within crescent and A above.

4.26 gr
17 mm
12h
1 commentsokidoki
414_P_Hadrian.jpg
3732 SYRIA, Seleucis and Pieria. Antioch. Pseudo-autonomous. under Hadrian Trichalkon. 128-29 AD Ram Γ above25 viewsReference.
RPC III, 3732; McAlee 125c; BMC 102; SNG Copenhagen 117.

Issue Civic bronze coins dated Year 177

Obv. ANTIOXЄωN THC MHTPOΠOΛЄωC.
Turreted, veiled and draped bust of Tyche right.

Rev. ЄT ZOP
Ram leaping right, head left; star within crescent and in field, l., Γ

4.87 gr
17 mm
12h
okidoki
1289_P_pseudo_RPC3732.jpg
3732 SYRIA, Seleucis and Pieria. Antioch. Pseudo-autonomous. under Hadrian Trichalkon. 128-29 AD Ram Γ above44 viewsReference.
RPC III, 3732; McAlee 125c; BMC 102; SNG Copenhagen 117.

Issue Civic bronze coins dated Year 177

Obv. ANTIOXЄωN THC MHTPOΠOΛЄωC.
Turreted, veiled and draped bust of Tyche right.

Rev. ЄT ZOP
Ram leaping right, head left; star within crescent and in field, l., Γ

4.36 gr
18 mm
12h
1 commentsokidoki
741_P_Hadrian_pseudo_RPC3733.jpg
3733 SYRIA, Seleucis and Pieria. Antioch. Pseudo-autonomous. under Hadrian Trichalkon. 128-29 AD Altar32 viewsReference.
RPC III, 3733; CRS 262; McAlee 124(d)

Issue Civic bronze coins dated Year 177

Obv. ΑΝΤΙΟΧΕΩΝ ΤΗС ΜΗΤΡΟΠΟΛΕωС
Turreted and veiled head of the Tyche of Antioch, right.

Rev. ΕΤ ΖΟΡ
Lighted garlanded altar; no letter

4.41 gr
18 mm
12h
okidoki
1115_Pseudo_Hadrian_RPC3734.jpg
3734 SYRIA, Seleucis and Pieria. Antioch. Pseudo-autonomous. under Hadrian Trichalkon. 128-29 AD Altar22 viewsReference.
RPC III, 3734; McAlee 124a

Issue Civic bronze coins dated Year 177

Obv. ΑΝΤΙΟΧΕΩΝ ΤΗС ΜΗΤΡΟΠΟΛΕωС
Turreted and veiled head of the Tyche of Antioch, r.

Rev. ΕΤ ΖΟΡ
Lighted garlanded altar; Α (in field, l.)

4.20 gr
16 mm
12h
2 commentsokidoki
748_P_Hadrian_pseudo_RPC_3742.jpg
3742 SYRIA, Seleucis and Pieria. Antioch. Pseudo-autonomous. under Hadrian. 128-29 AD, Laurel-branch Α10 viewsReference.
RPC III, 3742; BMC 901; McAlee 129(a)

Issue Civic bronze coins dated Year 177

Obv. ΑΝΤΙΟΧΕΩΝ ΜΗΤΡΟΠΟΛΕωС
Laureate and draped bust of Apollo, right

Rev. ΕΤΟΥС ΖΟΡ
Laurel-branch: Α (in field, r.)

3.75 gr
18 mm
6h
okidoki
615_P_Hadrian_pseudo_RPC3744.jpg
3744 SYRIA, Seleucis and Pieria. Antioch. Pseudo-autonomous. under Hadrian. 128-29 AD ae 16 Laurel-branch Γ15 viewsReference.
RPC 3, 3744; CRS 280a; McAlee 129(c)

http://rpc.ashmus.ox.ac.uk/coins/3/3744/

Issue Civic bronze coins dated Year 177

Obv. ΑΝΤΙΟΧΕΩΝ ΜΗΤΡΟΠΟΛΕωС
Laureate and draped bust of Apollo, right.

Rev. ΕΤΟ(ΥС) ΖΟΡ
Laurel-branch: Γ (in field, r.)

3.49 gr
16mm
12h
okidoki
903_P_Hadrian_pseudo_RPC3745.jpg
3745var. SYRIA, Seleucis and Pieria. Antioch. Pseudo-autonomous. under Hadrian. 128-29 AD ae 14 Laurel-branch 12 viewsReference.
RPC III, 3745var. bust;

Issue Civic bronze coins dated Year 177

Obv. ΑΝΤΙΟΧΕΩΝ ΜΗΤ
Laureate and draped bust of Apollo, right.

Rev. ΕΤΟY[С] [ΖΟ]Ρ
Laurel-branch no letter

3.96 gr
14 mm
12h
1 commentsokidoki
1231_P_Hadrian_Pseudo_RPC3746.jpg
3746 SYRIA, Seleucis and Pieria. Antioch. Pseudo-autonomous. under Hadrian. 128-29 AD Laurel-branch Α12 viewsReference.
RPC III, 3746; CRS 278; McAlee 130(a); BMC Galatia etc. p164, 109

Issue Civic bronze coins dated Year 177

Obv. ΑΝΤΙΟΧΕΩΝ ΜΗΤΡΟΠΟΛΕωС
Laureate and draped bust of Apollo, left

Rev. ΕΤΟΥ ΖΟΡ
Laurel-branch: Α (in field, r.)

2.84 gr
15 mm
12h
2 commentsokidoki
762_P_Hadrian_Pseudo_RPC3751.jpg
3754 SYRIA, Seleucis and Pieria. Antioch. Pseudo-autonomous. Time of Hadrian. Dichalkon 128-29 AD Lyre B above22 viewsReference.
RPC 3, 3754; McAlee 128b.

Issue Civic bronze coins dated Year 177

Obv. ΑΝΤΙΟΧΕΩΝ ΜΗΤΡΟΠΟΛΕωС
Laureate and draped bust of Apollo, left.

Rev. ΕΤΟ(ΥС) ΖΟΡ
Lyre; B (above)

3.21 gr
17 mm
6h

Note.
Ex Dr. P. Vogl collection; ex Bankhaus Aufhäuser sold 20.02.1997
okidoki
221_P_Hadrian__BMC_112.jpg
3755 SYRIA, Seleucis and Pieria. Antioch. Pseudo-autonomous. Time of Hadrian. Dichalkon 128-29 AD Lyre Γ above13 viewsReference.
RPC III, 3755; BMC Syria 112 var (A above) (p.164) ; McAlee 128(c); Waage 427

Issue Civic bronze coins dated Year 177

Obv. ANTIOXEwN THC MHTPOΠ OΛEwC
Laureate and draped bust of Apollo left.

Rev. ETOY ZOP
Lyre (r above)

2.76 gr
16 mm
12h
okidoki
Hispania_Bronze_As.jpg
4 Hispania AE Ases20 viewsJulia Traducta, Colonia Patricia, _4750Antonivs Protti
25385q00.jpg
4) Cleopatra VII17 viewsCleopatra VII (maybe)
Bronze dichalkon, 1.491g, 11.5mm, 0o, Paphos mint

Diademed bust of Cleopatra VII as Isis right, hair in melon-coiffure / PTOLEMAIOU - BASILEWS, double cornucopia flanked by ribbons

Kreuzer p. 44, first illustration; Svoronos 1160 (Ptolemy IV); SNG Cop 649; Weiser -, Fine.

Caption per FORVM catalog:
Kreuzer, in his book The Coinage System of Cleopatra VII and Augustus in Cyprus, assembles evidence dating this type to Cleopatra VII instead of the reign of Ptolemy IV used in older references.

Purchased from FORVM
RM0004
Sosius
Cleo_VII_Paphos_5.jpg
4) Cleopatra VII Thea Philopator, 51 - 30 B.C.31 viewsCLEOPATRA VII
Bronze dichalkon, Paphos mint

Diademed bust of Cleopatra VII as Isis r., hair in melon-coiffure / ΠΤΟΛΕΜΑΙΟΥ−ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ, double cornucopia flanked by ribbons

Kreuzer p. 44, 1st illustr; Svoronos 1160 (Ptolemy IV); Weiser -; SNG Cop 649. VF
RM0022
Sosius
80_1_b.jpg
4.5 Hadrian AE Denarius - Nilus71 viewsBronze denarius of Hadrian
travel series, Nile River
unusally good quality for fouree core. Suggested that this coin could be a test strike for a new die, or fouree that never had silver coating.
nice dark green patina.
silver version minted in 136 AD in Rome.
Zam
0-pataco_1813.jpg
40 reis 181335 views KM# 345
Features
Country Portugal
Years 1811-1815
Value 40 Réis (40)
Metal Bronze
Weight 38.7 g
Diameter 36 mm
xokleng
0-pataco_1820.jpg
40 reis 182024 views KM# 370
Features
Country Portugal
Years 1820-1825
Value 40 Réis (40)
Metal Bronze
Weight 38 g
Diameter 35 mm
xokleng
0-pataco_1825.jpg
40 reis 182516 views KM# 370
Features
Country Portugal
Metal Bronze
Weight 38 g
Diameter 35 mm
xokleng
0-pataco_1830.jpg
40 reis 183013 views KM# 391
Features
Country Portugal
Metal Bronze
Weight 38.2 g
Diameter 36.5 mm
xokleng
0-pataco_1831.jpg
40 reis 183113 views KM# 391
Features
Country Portugal
Metal Bronze
Weight 38.2 g
Diameter 36.5 mm
xokleng
0-pataco_1833.jpg
40 reis 183316 views KM# 391
Features
Country Portugal
Metal Bronze
Weight 38.2 g
Diameter 36.5 mm
xokleng
VHC40-coin.JPG
40- STRAITS SETTLEMENTS (MALAYSIA), 1/4 CENT, KM14.29 viewsSize: 21.5 mm approx. Composition: Bronze. Mintage: 2,000,000.
Grade: NGC MS62 BN (Cert.# 4080257-015).
Comments: Purchased raw from Tony Fein through VCoins, 11/22/09.
lordmarcovan
akragas_cm.jpg
405 - 392 B.C.; Herakles Head Countermark. Bronze hemilitron11 viewsAkragas, Sicily, 405 - 392 B.C.; Herakles Head Countermark. Bronze hemilitron, Calciati I p. 197, 92; for undertype: Calciati I pg. 176, 42, F, countermark Fine, 20.660g, 27.5mm, obverse large round countermark of young head of Herakles; obscured undertype: eagle grasping fish; reverse, crab. Ex FORVMPodiceps
VHC41-coin.jpg
41- STRAITS SETTLEMENTS (MALAYSIA), 1 CENT, KM16.66 viewsSize: 28 mm approx. Composition: Bronze. Mintage: 15,230,000.
Grade: NGC AU Details/Rev Planchet Flaw (Cert.# 4080257-016).
Comments: Small planchet flaw (lamination?) on reverse, but nice detail and color. Purchased raw from eBay seller "rdzcoins", summer 2009.
lordmarcovan
coin536.JPG
410. Licinius I43 viewsFlavius Galerius Valerius Licinianus Licinius (c. 250 - 325) was Roman emperor from 308 to 324.

Of Dacian peasant origin, born in Moesia Superior, Licinius accompanied his close friend the Emperor Galerius on the Persian expedition in 297. After the death of Flavius Valerius Severus, Galerius elevated Licinius to the rank of Augustus in the West on November 11, 308. He received as his immediate command the provinces of Illyricum, Thrace and Pannonia.

On the death of Galerius, in May 311, Licinius shared the entire empire with Maximinus Daia, the Hellespont and the Bosporus being the dividing line.

In March 313 he married Flavia Julia Constantia, half-sister of Constantine, at Mediolanum (now Milan), the occasion for the jointly-issued "Edict of Milan" that restored confiscated properties to Christian congregations though it did not "Christianize" the Empire as is often assumed, although it did give Christians a better name in Rome. In the following month (April 30), Licinius inflicted a decisive defeat on Maximinus at Battle of Tzirallum, after Maximinus had tried attacking him. He then established himself master of the East, while his brother-in-law, Constantine, was supreme in the West.

In 314 his jealousy led him to encourage a treasonable enterprise in favor of Bassianus against Constantine. When his actions became known, a civil war ensued, in which he was first defeated at the battle of Cibalae in Pannonia (October 8, 314), and next some 2 years later (after naming Valerius Valens co-emperor) in the plain of Mardia (also known as Campus Ardiensis) in Thrace. The outward reconciliation left Licinius in possession of Thrace, Asia Minor, Syria and Egypt, but he later added numerous provinces to Constantine's control.

In 324 Constantine, tempted by the "advanced age and unpopular vices" of his colleague, again declared war against him, and, having defeated his army at the battle of Adrianople (July 3, 324), succeeded in shutting him up within the walls of Byzantium. The defeat of the superior fleet of Licinius by Flavius Julius Crispus, Constantine’s eldest son, compelled his withdrawal to Bithynia, where a last stand was made; the battle of Chrysopolis, near Chalcedon (September 18), resulted in his final submission. He was interned at Thessalonica under a kind of house arrest, but when he attempted to raise troops among the barbarians Constantine had him and his former co-emperor Martinianus assassinated.

O: IMP LICINIVS AVG; Emperor, facing left, wearing imperial mantle, holding mappa and globe.
R: IOVI CONSERVATORI AVGG; Jupiter standing left holding Victory; palm to left, epsilon in right field, SMN in exergue. Sear 3804, RIC Nicomedia 24 (Scarce), Failmezger #278. Remarkable detail on this nicely silvered Late Roman bronze, ex Crisp Collection.

ecoli
akragas~3.jpg
415 - 406 B.C. Bronze onkia, Eagle left with fish/ crab, fish & pellet18 viewsAkragas, Sicily, c. 415 - 406 B.C. Bronze onkia, Calciati I p. 192, 85; SNG ANS 1060, F, Akragas mint, 2.944g, 15.1mm, 315o, obverse [AKPA], eagle standing left, head right, fish in talons, fly right; reverse, crab, fish below, pellet between claws; scarce. Ex FORVM Podiceps
akragas~1.jpg
425 - 406 B.C. Bronze hexas, eagle on hare/ crab & two fishes7 viewsAkragas, Sicily, c. 425 - 406 B.C. Bronze hexas, Calciati I, p. 188, 71, F, Akragas mint, 7.293g, 20.6mm, 45o, c. 425 - 406 B.C.; obverse eagle right, wings open, head lowered, standing on hare or rodent; reverse, crab, two fish right below, pellets outside each claw. Ex FORVMPodiceps
83305q00_Akragas,_Sicily,_c__425_-_406_B_C__hexas.jpg
425 - 406 B.C. Bronze hexas, Eagle r. standing on fish/ two fish below, pellets; AE2111 viewsAkragas, Sicily, c. 425 - 406 B.C. Bronze hexas, BMC Sicily p. 17, 107 ff.; SNG Cop 79 ff., Akragas mint, 7.840g, 21.2mm, 270o, c. 425 - 406 B.C.; obverse eagle right, wings open, standing on fish; reverse , crab, two fish below, upper head right, lower head left, pellets outside each claw. Ex FORVM, photo credit FORVMPodiceps
Syracuse,_Sicily,_c__425_-_415_B_C_.JPG
425 - 415 B.C. Bronze onkia, Calciati 933 viewsSyracuse, Sicily, c. 425 - 415 B.C. Bronze onkia, Calciati 9, VF, 2.252g, 14.6mm, 0°, obverse female head right; reverse octopus. ex FORVM & areich, photo credit areichPodiceps
syracuse_octopus.jpg
425 - 415 B.C. Bronze onkia, Calciati 916 viewsSyracuse, Sicily, c. 425 - 415 B.C. Bronze onkia, Calciati II p. 28, 9, aVF, 3.757g, 17.1mm, obverse female head right; reverse, octopus. Ex FORVMPodiceps
coin514.JPG
501. Constantine I Heraclea VOTA35 viewsHeraclea

Heraclea (Greek ‘Ηράκλεια), an ancient city of Lucania, situated near the modern Policoro, 3 m. from the coast of the Gulf of Taranto, between the rivers Aciris (Agri) and Sinis (Sinni) about 13 m. S.S.W. of Metapontum. It was a Greek colony founded by the Tarentines and Thurians in 432 BC, the former being predominant. It was chosen as the meeting-place of the general assembly of the Italiot Greeks, which Alexander of Epirus, after his alienation from Tarentum, tried to transfer to Thurii. Here Pyrrhus, king of Epirus, defeated the consul Laevinus in 280 BC, after he had crossed the river Sinis (see Battle of Heraclea). In 278 BC, or possibly in 282 BC, probably in order to detach it from Tarentum, the Romans made a special treaty with Heraclea, on such favourable terms that in 89 B.C. the Roman citizenship given to the inhabitants by the Lex Plautia Papiria was only accepted after considerable hesitation. We hear that Heraclea surrendered under compulsion to Hannibal in 212 BC and that in the Social War the public records were destroyed by fire. Cicero in his defence of the poet Archias, an adopted citizen of Heraclea, speaks of it as a flourishing town. As a consequence of its having accepted Roman citizenship, it became a municipium; part of a copy of the Lex Iulia Municipalis of 46 BC (engraved on the back of two bronze tablets, on the front of which is a Greek inscription of the 3rd century BC defining the boundaries of lands belonging to various temples), which was found between Heraclea and Metapontum, is of the highest importance for our knowledge of that law. It was still a place of some importance under the empire; a branch road from Venusia joined the coast road here. The circumstances of its destruction and abandonment was unknown; the site is now marked by a few heaps of ruins. Its medieval representative was Anglona, once a bishopric, but now itself a heap of ruins, among which are those of an 11th-century church.

Constantine I (AD 307-337)
AE3 - Vot XXX, .SMHB (Eyes to God)
AE-3 (AD 327-329)
OB: Plain-diademed head, right, looking upwards
CONSTANTINVS AVG.
REV: Wreath with VOT. /
XXX inscribed within
D. N. CONSTANTINI MAX. AVG.
. SMHB in exergue
Heraclea mint
RIC, Vol. VII, #92
Rated “Scarce” in RIC
ecoli
coin448.JPG
501. Constantine I Lyons Sol14 viewsLyons

Originally, the important city in this area was that of Vienne, at a crossroads of Celtic trails, and port for the Greek trade. They had been largly Hellanised during the 2nd - 1st centuries BCE, then caught up in the conflicts involving Rome and Athens. Roman traders had settled there and competition started a revolt, driving the Romans to the north. At the present site of Lyons, they sought and received refuge from the Gallic tribe called Segusiavi. At that time, Lyons was just a tribe of Celts occupying the top of a hill, later to be called Fourviere. A Roman settlement was begun, and then later used by Julius Caesar to launch his campaigns against the Helvetii in 58 BCE.

The site of Lyons, being on a crossroads as well as a connection to the Mediterranean, was early recognised as being strategically important. In 43 BCE, the city of Lugdunum became an official Roman colony recognised by the Roman senate, founded by the governor of Gallia Comata (province of Comata), Lucius Munatius Plancus. Later, in 27 BCE, then Emperor Augustus divided Gallia Comata into three provinces, and Lugdunum became the capital of Gallia Lugdunensis. [The third province was Gallia Aquitania.]

Lyons became the financial center for taxation purposes of Aquitania and Lugdunum provinces, and an official mint was established there. Also, the state cult honoring Augustus [or the present Emperor] was established at Lyons, drawing many pilgrims and supplicants. Drusus, the father of Claudius, (born 10 BCE) was stationed at Lyons, being in charge of Gallia Comata. Also, a cohort of Roman policemen were stationed at lyons, to protect the mint. A bronze inscription found at Lyons records the speech given to the Roman Senate in 48 CE by Emperor Claudius, arguing for the acceptance of admission of senators from Gallia Comata.

Through Lyons [and Vienne] passed the great roads leading to the different regions of Gaul and towards Italy. Trade with Gaul, Britain and Germany passed through Lyons, mostly supplying Roman colonies on the the frontier. Later, these routes were paved by the Romans to facilitate trade and troop movement. Lyons became an important trade and military center. However, intercity rivalry with Vienne to the south never died, and indeed Vienne became jealous over time.

Lyons was burnt to the ground in 65 CE but quickly rebuilt. It prospered until 197 when it was sacked in a civil war. The city of Lyons had backed the unfortunate loser in a battle between two Roman generals. Cities to the south [Arles, Vienne, and to the north, Trier] took over the economic functions of Lyons; and the city of Lyons was again plundered 269. Lyons fought back, and the trade wars raged on, until early in the 4th century when the aqueducts of Lyons were destroyed. Without water, the hillsite of Lyons [the Fourviere Hill] became untenable. The merchants moved down to the city below, or out of the city entirely. The protection of Lyons was thus much more difficult. And the decline of the Roman Empire also spelled the decline of many of its cities.

RIC VII Lyons 34 C3

ecoli
coins432.JPG
501b. Crispus29 viewsIn 326, Crispus was suddenly executed according to the orders of his own father in Pola, Istria. Though the decision of Constantine was certainly cruel and unexpected, historians remain more interested in the motivation leading to it.

Zosimus in the 5th century and Joannes Zonaras in the 12th century both reported that Fausta, step-mother of Crispus, was extremely jealous of him. She was reportedly afraid that Constantine would put aside the sons she bore him. So, in order to get rid of Crispus, Fausta set him up. She reportedly told the young Caesar that she was in love with him and suggested an illegitimate love affair. Crispus denied the immoral wishes of Fausta and left the palace in a state of a shock. Then Fausta said to Constantine that Crispus had no respect for his father, since the Caesar was in love with his father's own wife. She reported to Constantine that she dismissed him after his attempt to rape her. Constantine believed her and, true to his strong personality and short temper, executed his beloved son. A few months later, Constantine reportedly found out the whole truth and then executed his wife Fausta at the end of 326.

This version of events has become the most widely accepted, since all other reports are even less satisfactory.

A treason against Constantine jointly plotted by Fausta and Crispus is rejected by most historians. They would have nothing to gain considering their positions as favourites of Constantine.

Another version suggests that Constantine killed Crispus because as an illegitimate son, he would cause a crisis in the order of succession to the throne. However, Constantine had kept him at his side for twenty years without any such decision. Constantine also had the authority to appoint his younger, legitimate sons as his heirs. Nevertheless, Crispus' status as a legitimate or illegitimate son remains uncertain.

Some reports claimed that Constantine was envious of the success of his son and afraid of him. This seems improbable, given that Constantine had twenty years of experience at Emperor while Crispus was still a young Caesar. Similarly, there seems to be no evidence that Crispus had any ambitions to harm or displace his father.

So while the story of Zosimus and Zonaras seems the most believable one, there are also problems relating to their version of events.

Constantine's reaction suggest that he suspected Crispus of a crime so terrible that death was not enough. Crispus also suffered damnatio memoriae, meaning his name was never mentioned again and was deleted from all official documents and monuments. Crispus, his wife Helena and their son were never to be mentioned again in historical records. The eventual fate of Helena and her son is a mystery.

Constantine may have been eventually convinced of Crispus' innocence. But he did not restore his son's innocence and name, as he probably would have on learning of his son's innocence. Perhaps Constantine's pride or shame at having executed his son prevented him from publicly admitting having made a mistake.

Beyond doubt there was a connections between the executions of Crispus and Fausta. Both happened too close in time to be coincidental. Such agreement among different sources connecting the two deaths is extremely rare in itself. A number of modern historians have suggested that Crispus and Fausta really did have an illegitimate affair. When Constantine found out, his reaction was executing both of them. What delayed the death of Fausta may have been a pregnancy. Since the years of birth for the two known daughters of Constantine and Fausta remain unknown, one of their births may have delayed their mother's execution.


Crispus, 316-326, Bronze Reduced Anepigraphic Follis, RIC-VII-53-R5, struck 324-325 at Antioch, 1.87 grams, 17.9 mm. Nice VF

Obv: Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust of Crispus facing left
Rev: CRISPVS CAESAR SMANTZ - Legend and mint signature in three lines, star above, dot below

An excessively rare coin of Crispus. Nicely centered and struck with even wear to both surfaces. Important and MUCH nicer than the image projects.

Ex-Glenn Woods
ecoli
coin403.JPG
503. Constans Antioch GLORIA EXERCITVS11 viewsBronze AE 3, RIC 89, Antioch mint, FL IVL CONSTANS NOB C, laureate and cuirassed bust right; reverse GLOR-IA EXERC-ITVS, two soldiers, each holding spear and shield on ground, flanking two standards, SMANH in execoli
coin394.JPG
514. Valentinian II34 viewsValentinian II (371 - 392) was elevated as Western Roman Emperor at the age of four in 375, along with his half-brother Gratian.

Valentinian and his family lived in Milan, and the empire was nominally divided between them. Gratian took the trans- Alpine provinces, while Italy, Illyricum in part, and Africa were to be under the rule of Valentinian, or rather of his mother, Justina. Justina was an Arian, and the imperial court at Milan struggled against the Catholics of that city, led by their bishop Ambrose. The popularity of Ambrose was so great that the emperors' authority was materially shaken. In 387, Magnus Maximus, a Roman consul who had commanded an army in Briton, and in 383 (the year of Gratian's death) had declared himself emperor of Western Rome, crossed the Alps into the valley of the Po and threatened Milan.

The emperor Valentinian II and his mother fled to Theodosius I, the Eastern Roman Emperor and Valentinian's brother in law. Valentinian was restored in 388 by Theodosius, following the death of Magnus Maximus.

On May 15, 392, Valentinian was found hanged in his residence in the town of Vienne in Gaul. The Frankish soldier Arbogast, Valentinian's protector and magister militum, maintained that it was suicide. Arbogast and Valentinian had frequently disputed rulership over the Western Roman Empire, and Valentinian was also noted to have complained of Arbogast's control over him to Theodosius. Thus when word of his death reached Constantinople Theodosius believed, or at least suspected, that Arbogast was lying and that he had engineered Valentinian's demise. These suspicions were further fueled by Arbogast's elevation of a Eugenius, pagan official to the position of Western Emperor, and the veiled accusations which Ambrose, the Bishop of Milan, spoke during his funeral oration for Valentinian.

Valentinian II's death sparked a civil war between Eugenius and Theodosius over the rulership of the West in the Battle of the Frigidus. The resultant Eastern victory there led to the final brief unification of the Roman Empire under Theodosius, and the ultimate irreparable division of the Empire after his death.

Bronze AE3, RIC 22, VF, 2.19g, 17.7mm, 0o, Arelate mint, 378-383 A.D.; obverse D N VALENTINIANVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse VICTORIAE AVGGG, Victory advancing left holding wreath in right and palm frond in left, [S]CON in ex;Ex Aiello;Ex Forum
ecoli
coin410.JPG
517. Arcadius32 viewsFlavius Arcadius (377/378–May 1, 408) was Roman Emperor in the Eastern half of the Roman Empire from 395 until his death.

Arcadius was the elder son of Theodosius I and Aelia Flaccilla, and brother of Honorius, who would become a Western Roman Emperor. His father declared him an Augustus in January, 383. His younger brother was also declared an Augustus in 393.

As Emperors, Honorius was under the control of the Romanized Vandal magister militum Flavius Stilicho while Arcadius was dominated by one of his ministers, Rufinus. Stilicho is alleged by some to have wanted control of both emperors, and is supposed to have had Rufinus assassinated by Gothic mercenaries in 395, but definite proof of these allegations is lacking. In any case, Arcadius' new advisor Eutropius simply took Rufinus' place as the power behind the Eastern imperial throne. Arcadius was also dominated by his wife Aelia Eudoxia, who convinced her husband to dismiss Eutropius in 399. Eudoxia was strongly opposed by John Chrysostom, the Patriarch of Constantinople, who felt that she had used her family's wealth to gain control over the emperor. Eudoxia used her influence to have Chrysostom deposed in 404, but she died later that year.

Arcadius was dominated for the rest of his rule by Anthemius, the Praetorian Prefect, who made peace with Stilicho in the West. Arcadius himself was more concerned with appearing to be a pious Christian than he was with political or military matters, and he died, only nominally in control of his empire, in 408.

Bronze AE 4, RIC 67d and 70a, choice aEF, 1.14g, 13.8mm, 180o, Antioch mint, 383-395 A.D.; obverse D N ARCADIVS P F AVG, pearl diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse SALVS REIPVBLICE, Victory advancing left holding trophy over right shoulder, dragging captive with left, staurogram left, ANTG in ex; Ex Aiello; Ex Forum
ecoli
coin411.JPG
601. Eudoxia24 viewsAelia Eudoxia (d. 6 October 404) was the wife of the Eastern Roman emperor Arcadius.

The daughter of a certain Bauto, a Frankish magister militum serving in the Western Roman army during the 380s, Eudoxia owed her marriage to the youthful Emperor Arcadius on 27 April 395 to the intrigues of the eunuch of the palace, Eutropius. She had very considerable influence over her husband, who was of rather weak character and who was more interested in Christian piety than imperial politics.

In 399 she succeeded, with help from the leader of the Empire's Gothic mercenaries, in deposing her erstwhile benefactor Eutropius, who was later executed over the protests of John Chrysostom, the Patriarch of Constantinople.

John Chrysostom was already becoming unpopular at court due to his efforts at reforming the Church, and in 403 Eudoxia and Theophilus, Patriarch of Alexandria, succeeded in having the outspoken Patriarch condemned by a synod and then deposed. He was exiled to Armenia the next year after a brief return to power resulting from popular disgust at his fall and an earthquake which reinforced those feelings.

Eudoxia had a total of seven pregnancies, five of which were successful. Her final pregnancy ended in a miscarriage which led to her death on October 6, 404. One of her children was the future emperor Theodosius II.

In 403, Simplicius, Prefect of Constantinople, erected a statue dedicated to her on a column of porphyry. Arcadius renamed the town of Selymbria (Silivri) Eudoxiopolis after her, though this name did not survive.

Bronze AE 4, RIC 102, S 4241, VM 6, VF, 2.14g, 17.0mm, 180o, Nikomedia mint, 401-403 A.D.; obverse AEL EVDOXIA AVG, diademed and draped bust right with hand of God holding wreath over her head; reverse SALVS REIPVBLICAE, Victory seated on cuirass inscribing Christogram on shield, SMNA in ex; softly struck reverse; rare
ecoli
coin406.JPG
602. Theodosius II30 viewsFlavius Theodosius II (April, 401 - July 28, 450 ). The eldest son of Eudoxia and Arcadius who at the age of 7 became the Roman Emperor of the East.

He was heavily influenced by his eldest sister Pulcheria who pushed him towards Eastern Christianity. Pulcheria was the primary driving power behind the emperor and many of her views became official policy. These included her anti-Semitic view which resulted in the destruction of synagogues.

On the death of his father Arcadius in 408, he became Emperor. In June 421 Theodosius married the poet Aelia Eudocia. They had a daughter, Licinia Eudoxia, whose marriage with the Western Roman Emperor Valentinian III marked the re-unification of the two halves of the Empire, even if for a short time. Theodosius created the University of Constantinople, and died in 450 as the result of a riding accident.

Bronze AE4, S 4297, VG, .96g, 12.3mm, 0o, uncertain mint, 408-450 A.D.; obverse D N THEODOSIVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse no legend, cross in wreath, obscure mintmark in exergue; ex Forum
ecoli
154Hadrian__RIC604.jpg
604 Hadrian Dupondius Roma 119-21 AD Salus standing32 viewsReference.
RIC 604a; C. 1358

Obv. IMP CAESAR TRAIANVS HADRIANVS AVG P M TR P COS III
radiate bust of Hadrian right, slight drapery on far shoulder, seen from front.

Rev. SALVS PVBLICA, S C across field
Salus standing left, with foot on globe, holding patera and rudder.

9.93 gr
25 mm
6 h

Ex Charles Darrah Collection of Flavian and Antonine Bronzes
okidoki
01860q00.jpg
604. Leo I385 viewsImperator Caesar Flavius Valerius Leo Augustus or Leo I of the Byzantine Empire (401–474), reigned from 457 to 474, also known as Leo the Thracian, was the last of a series of emperors placed on the throne by Aspar, the Alan serving as commander-in-chief of the army. His coronation as emperor on February 7, 457, was the first known to involve the Patriarch of Constantinople. Leo I made an alliance with the Isaurians and was thus able to eliminate Aspar. The price of the alliance was the marriage of Leo's daughter to Tarasicodissa, leader of the Isaurians who, as Zeno, became emperor in 474.

During Leo's reign, the Balkans were ravaged time and again by the West Goths and the Huns. However, these attackers were unable to take Constantinople thanks to the walls which had been rebuilt and reinforced in the reign of Theodosius II and against which they possessed no suitable siege engines.

Leo's reign was also noteworthy for his influence in the Western Roman Empire, marked by his appointment of Anthemius as Western Roman Emperor in 467. He attempted to build on this political achievement with an expedition against the Vandals in 468, which was defeated due to the treachery and incompetence of Leo's brother-in-law Basiliscus. This disaster drained the Empire of men and money.

Leo's greatest influence in the West was largely inadvertent and at second-hand: the great Goth king Theodoric the Great was raised at the Leo's court in Constantinople, where he was steeped in Roman government and military tactics, which served him well when he returned after Leo's death to become the Goth ruler of a mixed but largely Romanized people.

Leo also published a New Constitutions or compilation of Law Code[1], Constitution LV concerned Judaism: "JEWS SHALL LIVE IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE RITES OF CHRISTIANITY. Those who formerly were invested with Imperial authority promulgated various laws with reference to the Hebrew people, who, once nourished by Divine protection, became renowned, but are now remarkable for the calamities inflicted upon them because of their contumacy towards Christ and God; and these laws, while regulating their mode of life, compelled them to read the Holy Scriptures, and ordered them not to depart from the ceremonies of their worship. They also provided that their children should adhere to their religion, being obliged to do so as well by the ties of blood, as on account of the institution of circumcision. These are the laws which I have already stated were formerly enforced throughout the Empire. But the Most Holy Sovereign from whom We are descended, more concerned than his predecessors for the salvation of the Jews, instead of allowing them (as they did) to obey only their ancient laws, attempted, by the interpretation of prophesies and the conclusions which he drew from them, to convert them to the Christian religion, by means of the vivifying water of baptism. He fully succeeded in his attempts to transform them into new men, according to the doctrine of Christ, and induced them to denounce their ancient doctrines and abandon their religious ceremonies, such as circumcision, the observance of the Sabbath, and all their other rites. But although he, to a certain extent, overcame the obstinacy of the Jews, he was unable to force them to abolish the laws which permitted them to live in accordance with their ancient customs. Therefore We, desiring to accomplish what Our Father failed to effect, do hereby annul all the old laws enacted with reference to the Hebrews, and We order that they shall not dare to live in any other manner than in accordance with the rules established by the pure and salutary Christian Faith. And if anyone of them should be proved to, have neglected to observe the ceremonies of the Christian religion, and to have returned to his former practices, he shall pay the penalty prescribed by the law for apostates."

Leo died of dysentery at the age of 73 on January 18, 474.

Bronze AE4, RIC 671, S 4340 var, VG, 1.17g, 10.3mm, 180o, Alexandria mint, obverse D N LEO P F AVG (or similar), pearl diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse Lion standing left, head right, cross above, ALEA in ex; very rare (R3); ex Forum
ecoli73
coin566.JPG
604a. Leo I and Verina326 viewsAelia Verina (died 484) was the wife of Byzantine emperor Leo I, and the mother-in-law of Zeno, who was married to her daughter Ariadne.

Her origins are unknown. She originally supported Zeno while the young emperor Leo II was still alive, but after Leo II's death in 474 she turned against her son-in-law. She conspired against him with her lover Patricius, her brother Basiliscus, the Isaurian general Illus, and general Theodoric Strabo, forcing Zeno to flee Constantinople in 475. Basiliscus then briefly became the rival emperor, until 476 when Verina reconciled with Zeno.

Verina then conspired against Illus, who discovered the plot, and with Zeno's consent had her imprisoned. This led to another conspiracy led by Verina's son Marcian (a grandson of the emperor Marcian), but Marcian was defeated and exiled.

In 483 Zeno asked Illus to release Verina, but by now Illus was opposed to Zeno's Monophysite sympathies. Illus allied with Verina and declared a general named Leontius emperor, but Zeno defeated them as well. Illus and Verina fled to Isauria, where Verina died in 484.

Bronze AE4, RIC 713-718, obverse D N LE-O (or similar), Pearl diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse Empress Verina standing facing holding cross on globe and transverse scepter, b - E across fields, From uncleaned pile

ecoli
153Hadrian__RIC610.jpg
610 Hadrian Sestertius, Roma 121-22 AD Ceres standing55 viewsReference.
Strack 573; RIC 610c; C 1075

Obv. IMP CAESAR TRAIAN HADRIANVS AVG
Laureate, draped, cuirassed bust right, seen from front

Rev. P M TR P COS III, S C across field.
Ceres standing, facing, head left, holding grain ears and torch.

26,13 gr
34 mm
6 h

From the Charles Darrah Collection of Flavian and Antonine Bronzes.
2 commentsokidoki
Postumus-RIC-318.jpg
62. Posthumus.11 viewsAntoninianus, 258 - 269 AD, Cologne mint.
Obverse: IMP C POSTVMVS P F AVG / Radiate bust of Postumus.
Reverse: PAX AVG / Pax standing, holding olive branch and sceptre.
3.42 gm., 20 mm.
RIC #318; Sear #10967.

This is one of the last coins issued in the white metal alloy. Posthumus abandoned it later than most, and later coins of the Cologne mint are just bronze with a silver colored plating on them. See RIC vol. V, part 2, p. 328 - 330.
Callimachus
155Hadrian__RIC658.jpg
658 Hadrian Dupondius Roma 125-28 AD Pegasus23 viewsReference.
RIC 658; C436

Obv. HADRIANVS AVGVST[VS]
radiate bust of Hadrian right, slight drapery on far shoulder

Rev. COS [III], S C below
Pegasus fluing right.

9.55 gr
26 mm
6 h.

Ex Charles Darrah Collection of Flavian and Antonine Bronzes.
okidoki
AugustusAE19Sardeis.jpg
702a, Augustus, 16 January 27 B.C. - 19 August 14 A.D.35 viewsAugustus, 27 BC - 14 AD. AE 19mm (5.98 gm). Lydia, Sardeis. Diodoros Hermophilou. Obverse: head right. Reverse: Zeus Lydios standing facing holding scepter and eagle. RPC I, 489, 2986; SNG von Aulock 3142. aVF. Fine portrait. Ex Tom Vossen.

De Imperatoribus Romanis:
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers

AUGUSTUS (31 B.C. - 14 A.D.)

Garrett G. Fagan
Pennsylvania State University

In the course of his long and spectacular career, he put an end to the advancing decay of the Republic and established a new basis for Roman government that was to stand for three centuries. This system, termed the "Principate," was far from flawless, but it provided the Roman Empire with a series of rulers who presided over the longest period of unity, peace, and prosperity that Western Europe, the Middle East and the North African seaboard have known in their entire recorded history. Even if the rulers themselves on occasion left much to be desired, the scale of Augustus's achievement in establishing the system cannot be overstated. Aside from the immense importance of Augustus's reign from the broad historical perspective, he himself is an intriguing figure: at once tolerant and implacable, ruthless and forgiving, brazen and tactful. Clearly a man of many facets, he underwent three major political reinventions in his lifetime and negotiated the stormy and dangerous seas of the last phase of the Roman Revolution with skill and foresight. With Augustus established in power and with the Principate firmly rooted, the internal machinations of the imperial household provide a fascinating glimpse into the one issue that painted this otherwise gifted organizer and politician into a corner from which he could find no easy exit: the problem of the succession.

(For a very detailed and interesting account of the Age of Augustus see: http://www.roman-emperors.org/auggie.htm)

Death and Retrospective

In his later years, Augustus withdrew more and more from the public eye, although he continued to transact public business. He was getting older, and old age in ancient times must have been considerably more debilitating than it is today. In any case, Tiberius had been installed as his successor and, by AD 13, was virtually emperor already. In AD 4 he had received grants of both proconsular and tribunician power, which had been renewed as a matter of course whenever they needed to be; in AD 13, Tiberius's imperium had been made co-extensive with that of Augustus. While traveling in Campania, Augustus died peacefully at Nola on 19 August, AD 14. Tiberius, who was en route to Illyricum, hurried to the scene and, depending on the source, arrived too late or spent a day in consultation with the dying princes. The tradition that Livia poisoned her husband is scurrilous in the extreme and most unlikely to be true. Whatever the case about these details, Imperator Caesar Augustus, Son of a God, Father of his Country, the man who had ruled the Roman world alone for almost 45 years, or over half a century if the triumviral period is included, was dead. He was accorded a magnificent funeral, buried in the mausoleum he had built in Rome, and entered the Roman pantheon as Divus Augustus. In his will, he left 1,000 sesterces apiece to the men of the Praetorian guard, 500 to the urban cohorts, and 300 to each of the legionaries. In death, as in life, Augustus acknowledged the true source of his power.

The inscription entitled "The Achievements of the Divine Augustus" (Res Gestae Divi Augustae; usually abbreviated RG) remains a remarkable piece of evidence deriving from Augustus's reign. The fullest copy of it is the bilingual Greek and Latin version carved into the walls of the Temple of Rome and Augustus at Ancyra in Galatia (for this reason the RG used to be commonly referred to as the Monumentum Ancyranum). Other evidence, however, demonstrates that the original was inscribed on two bronze pillars that flanked the entrance to the Mausoleum of Augustus in Rome. The inscription remains the only first-person summary of any Roman emperor's political career and, as such, offers invaluable insights into the Augustan regime's public presentation of itself.

In looking back on the reign of Augustus and its legacy to the Roman world, its longevity ought not to be overlooked as a key factor in its success. People had been born and reached middle age without knowing any form of government other than the Principate. Had Augustus died earlier (in 23 BC, for instance), matters may have turned out very differently. The attrition of the civil wars on the old Republican aristocracy and the longevity of Augustus, therefore, must be seen as major contributing factors in the transformation of the Roman state into a monarchy in these years. Augustus's own experience, his patience, his tact, and his great political acumen also played their part. All of these factors allowed him to put an end to the chaos of the Late Republic and re-establish the Roman state on a firm footing. He directed the future of the empire down many lasting paths, from the existence of a standing professional army stationed at or near the frontiers, to the dynastic principle so often employed in the imperial succession, to the embellishment of the capital at the emperor's expense. Augustus's ultimate legacy, however, was the peace and prosperity the empire was to enjoy for the next two centuries under the system he initiated. His memory was enshrined in the political ethos of the Imperial age as a paradigm of the good emperor; although every emperor adopted his name, Caesar Augustus, only a handful earned genuine comparison with him.

Copyright © 1999, Garrett G. Fagan.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Augustus (the first Roman emperor, in whose reign Jesus Christ was born) is without any doubt one of the most important figures in Roman history.

It is reported that when he was near death, Augustus addressed those in attendance with these words, "If I have played my part well, applaud!"

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr
Cleisthenes
TiberiusHierapolis.jpg
703b, Tiberius, 19 August 14 - 16 March 37 A.D., Hierapolis, Phrygia104 viewsBronze AE 16, RPC I 2966 (1 specimen), F, Phrygia, Hierapolis, 3.300g, 15.6mm, 0o; Obverse: TIBEPIOC KAISAR, laureate head right; Reverse: IERAPOLEITWN ZOSIMOS [...], Apollo Archegetes (Lairbenos) standing left, playing lyre; reverse countermarked with star of six rays, in oval punch, 2.5 x 3.5 mm, Howgego 445 (3 pcs, 1 of which from this magistrate); dark patina; very rare. Ex FORVM.

De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

TIBERIUS (A.D. 14-37)

Garrett G. Fagan
Pennsylvania State University

The reign of Tiberius Claudius Nero (b. 42 B.C., d. A.D. 37, emperor A.D. 14-37) is a particularly important one for the Principate, since it was the first occasion when the powers designed for Augustus alone were exercised by somebody else. In contrast to the approachable and tactful Augustus, Tiberius emerges from the sources as an enigmatic and darkly complex figure, intelligent and cunning, but given to bouts of severe depression and dark moods that had a great impact on his political career as well as his personal relationships. His reign abounds in contradictions. Despite his keen intelligence, he allowed himself to come under the influence of unscrupulous men who, as much as any actions of his own, ensured that Tiberius's posthumous reputation would be unfavorable; despite his vast military experience, he oversaw the conquest of no new region for the empire; and despite his administrative abilities he showed such reluctance in running the state as to retire entirely from Rome and live out his last years in isolation on the island of Capri. His reign represents, as it were, the adolescence of the Principate as an institution. Like any adolescence, it proved a difficult time.

. . . .

It is all but inevitable that any historical assessment of Tiberius will quickly devolve into a historiographical assessment of Tacitus. So masterful is Tacitus's portrayal of his subject, and so influential has it been ever since, that in all modern treatments of Tiberius, in attempting to get at the man, must address the issue of Tacitus's historiographical methods, his sources, and his rhetoric. The subject is too vast to address here, but some points are salient. Tacitus's methods, especially his use of innuendo and inference to convey notions that are essentially editorial glosses, makes taking his portrayal of Tiberius at face value inadvisable. Further, his belief in the immutable character of people -- that one's character is innate at birth and cannot be changed, although it can be disguised -- prevents him from investigating the possibility that Tiberius evolved and developed over his lifetime and during his reign. Instead, Tacitus's portrayal is one of peeling back layers of dissimulation to reach the "real" Tiberius lurking underneath.

Overall, Tiberius's reign can be said to show the boons and banes of rule by one man, especially a man as dark, awkward, and isolated as Tiberius. For the people of the provinces, it was a peaceful and well-ordered time. Governors behaved themselves, and there were no destructive or expensive wars. In the domestic sphere, however, the concentration of power in one person made all the greater the threat of misbehavior by ambitious satellites like Sejanus or foolish friends like Piso. Furthermore, if the emperor wished to remain aloof from the mechanics of power, he could do so. Administrators, who depended on him for their directions, could operate without his immediate supervision, but their dealings with a man like Sejanus could lead to disaster if that man fell from grace. As a result, although he was not a tyrant himself, Tiberius's reign sporadically descended into tyranny of the worst sort. In the right climate of paranoia and suspicion, widespread denunciation led to the deaths of dozens of Senators and equestrians, as well as numerous members of the imperial house. In this sense, the reign of Tiberius decisively ended the Augustan illusion of "the Republic Restored" and shone some light into the future of the Principate, revealing that which was both promising and terrifying.

[For the complete article please refer to http://www.roman-emperors.org/tiberius.htm]

By Garrett G. Fagan, Pennsylvania State University.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.


Hierapolis in History

Usually said to be founded by Eumenes II, king of Pergamum (197-159 BC), Hierapolis may actually have been established closer to the 4th century BC by the Seleucid kings.

The name of the city may derive from Hiera, the wife of Telephus (son of Hercules and grandson of Zeus), the mythical founder of Pergamum. Or it may have been called the "sacred city" because of the temples located at the site. (The name Pamukkale is sometimes used just to refer to the white terraces, but the modern name of the whole area is also Pamukkale.)

With Colossae and Laodicea, Hierapolis became part of the tri-city area of the Lycus River valley. Hierapolis was located across the river from the other two cities and was noted for its textiles, especially wool. The city was also famous for its purple dye, made from the juice of the madder root.

The hot springs at Hierapolis (which still attract visitors today) were believed to have healing properties, and people came to the city to bathe in the rich mineral waters in order to cure various ailments.

Hierapolis was dedicated to Apollo Lairbenos, who was said to have founded the city. The Temple of Apollo that survives in ruins today dates from the 3rd century AD, but its foundations date from the Hellenistic period.

Also worshipped at Hierapolis was Pluto, god of the underworld, probably in relation to the hot gases released by the earth (see the Plutonium, below). The chief religious festival of ancient Hierapolis was the Letoia, in honor of the the goddess Leto, a Greek form of the Mother Goddess. The goddess was honoured with orgiastic rites.

Hierapolis was ceded to Rome in 133 BC along with the rest of the Pergamene kingdom, and became part of the Roman province of Asia. The city was destroyed by an earthquake in 60 AD but rebuilt, and it reached its peak in the 2nd and 3rd centuries AD.

Famous natives of Hierapolis include the Stoic philosopher Epictetus (c.55-c.135 AD) and the philosopher and rhetorician Antipater. Emperor Septimus hired Antipater to tutor his sons Caracalla and Geta, who became emperors themselves.

Hierapolis had a significant Jewish population in ancient times, as evidence by numerous inscriptions on tombs and elsewhere in the city. Some of the Jews are named as members of the various craft guilds of the city. This was probably the basis for the Christian conversion of some residents of Hierapolis, recorded in Colossians 4:13.

In the 5th century, several churches as well as a large martyrium dedicated to St. Philip (see "In the Bible," below) were built in Hierapolis. The city fell into decline in the 6th century, and the site became partially submerged under water and deposits of travertine. It was finally abandoned in 1334 after an earthquake. Excavations began to uncover Hierapolis in the 19th century.

Hierapolis in the Bible

Hierapolis is mentioned only once in the Bible, when St. Paul praises Epaphras, a Christian from Colossae, in his letter to the Colossians. Paul writes that Epaphras "has worked hard for you and for those in Laodicea and in Hierapolis" (Colossians 4:12-13). Epaphras was probably the founder of the Christian community at Hierapolis.

Ancient tradition also associates Hierapolis with a biblical figure, reporting that Philip died in Hierapolis around 80 AD. However, it is not clear which Philip is menat. It could be Philip the Apostle, one of the original 12 disciples, who is said to have been martyred by upside-down crucifixion (Acts of Philip) or by being hung upside down by his ankles from a tree.

Or Philip could be Philip the Evangelist, a later disciple who helped with administrative matters and had four virgin-prophetess daughters (Acts 6:1-7; 21:8-9). Early traditions say this Philip was buried in Hierapolis along with his virgin daughters, but confusingly call him "Philip the Apostle"! In any case, it seems a prominent person mentioned in Acts did die in Hierapolis.
http://www.sacred-destinations.com/turkey/hierapolis-pamukkale.htm

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
770Hadrian_RIC706~0.jpg
706 Hadrian Sestertius Roma 132-34 AD Galley left58 viewsReference
RIC 706; Strack 837; C. 657; Banti 337

Obv. HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS
Laureate head right.

Rev. FELICITATI AVG COS III P P S-C in field
Galley moving left with stearman and five rowers; vexillum on prow.

23.61 gr
31 mm
12h

Ex.
Stack's Bowers Galleries January 2013 N.Y.I.N.C. lot 5210

Note.
An acrostolium is an ornamental extension of the stem post on the prow of an ancient warship. Often used as a symbol of victory or of power at sea. (numiswiki)
1st-4th Century AD:
The Ship in Imperial Rome

Realizing its importance, Augustus established the Roman navy along lines similar to that of the legions. In addition to a number of key harbors, from which ships could be deployed, he stationed several fleets (Latin classes) in key areas throughout the empire. Among these, the classis Britannica patrolled the channel between Gaul and Britannia, protecting the shipping lanes. Its strategic regional importance is commemorated in the coinage of several of the period usurpers from the area. M. Aurelius Postumus was the first to do so (lots 676-679). His bronze ship issues carry the legend LAETITIA AVG, emphasizing the source of imperial well-being resides in a strong navy. The usurper M. Aurelius Carausius, commander of the classis Britannica under Diocletian, struck coins commemorating, in part, his control of that fleet and its abilities in keeping the sea lanes open (lot 680). His short-lived successor, Allectus, continued the type (lots 681-684).

One important function of the navy was the transportation of the imperial family on state visits. From the time of Augustus, vessels were dispatched to carry the emperor between the capital and the provinces. One such instance is commemorated in a rare bronze as, struck at Patrae in AD 66/7 (lot 609). The reverse depicts the quinquereme used to carry Nero on his infamous tour of Greece. Hadrian’s extensive travels were recorded with a wide variety of ship types struck at Rome (lots 610-622), and in the East (lot 623). An inscription from Ephesus (Syll. III 3241), records that a local captain, L. Erastus, used his ship to transport the emperor while he was in that area. A coin struck at Alexandria (lot 624) is of particular importance for, in the same year as the coin was struck Antinoüs drowned as the imperial party was sailing up the Nile. Hadrian’s successors continued to travel, now to shore up border conflicts or prepare for one of the periodic wars with Persia (lots 625-627; 631-675). By the middle of the third century AD local issues, rather than those minted at the imperial capital, recorded these events, a sign that the center of power was drifting away from Rome itself.

Warships were not the exclusive vessel of the Roman navy. Providing the empire with an uninterrupted supply of grain, as well as other necessary supplies, necessitated the construction of ship for such a purpose. Unlike the warship, which required speed and strength for ramming, the merchantman (Greek nau~ stroggulh; Latin navis oneraria) was of broader beam. Many of these vessels, like the ponto or more common actuaria resembled the shape of a trireme and could be powered by both oars and sails. Since ships of this type were used to transport vital commodities such as wine and grain, they, like the large ponto, are often those shown on coins from the Black Sea (lots 655 and 664-666). The great Roman merchantman, or corbita, often seen in part on imperial issues commemorating the annona, is more familiar (lots 607-608). Powered by two large sails, it featured a rear cabin in the shape of a swan and was the true workhorse of Roman merchant vessels; its type continued well into the Byzantine period.
3 commentsokidoki
LarryW2307.jpg
7260 Prusias I, 228-185 BC56 viewsBronze Ć28, 27mm, 10.51g, VF
Laureate head Apollo left / BAΣIΛEΩΣ ΠPOYΣIOY Winged Athena standing left holding shield and crowning King's name, monogram inner left. Desert sand and brown patina.
Sear 7260; BMC Pontus, pg 209, #4; SNG von Aulock 6880
Lawrence Woolslayer
LarryW2313.jpg
7263 Prusias I, 228-185 BC49 viewsBronze Ć19, 19.6mm, 5.54g, VF
Laureate head Apollo right / BAΣIΛEΩΣ ΠPOYΣIOY Bow and quiver. Meduim brown patina.
Ex: Barry P. Murphy
Sear 7263; BMC Pontus, pg. 209, #9; SNG Cop 628
Lawrence Woolslayer
LarryW2287.jpg
7264.1 Prusias I and II, 228-149 BC98 viewsBronze Ć29, 28.5mm, 9.21g, VF
Head Athena left wearing crested Corinthian style helmet / BAΣIΛEΩΣ ΠPOYΣIOY, Nike walking right holding trophy over shoulder, monogram in field to right. Medium green patina.
Ex: John C. Lavender
SNG Cop 642
Lawrence Woolslayer
LarryW2272.jpg
7266 Prusias II, 185-149 BC115 viewsBronze Ć22, 21mm, 7.08 grams, Nice VF
Head of Dionysos right, wreathed with ivy / [B]AΣIΛEΩΣ ΠPOYΣIOY, centaur Cheiron standing right playing lyre, monogram MT. Dark green patina, photo lightened.
Ex: MediterraneanCoins GmbH
Sear 7266; BMC Pontus, pg 211, #10 and plate 38, #4; SNG Cop 638; SNG von Aulock 256.
Lawrence Woolslayer
LarryW2354.jpg
7268 Prusias II, 185-149 BC34 viewsBronze Ć18, 18.7mm, 3.85g, VF
Head Dionysos right wreathed with ivy / [BA]ΣIΛEΩΣ [Π]POYΣIOY Herakles standing left, naked, holding club and lion's skin. Medium green patina as shown, and coin looks great in-hand.
Ex: Tom Vossen
Sear 7268; BMC Pontus, pg 210, #6; SNG Cop 631; SNG von Aulock 258
Lawrence Woolslayer
LarryW2330.JPG
7268 Prusias II, 185-149 BC52 viewsBronze Ć18, 16.6mm, 3.99g, gF
Head Dionysos right wreathed with ivy / BAΣIΛEΩ[Σ] ΠPOYΣ[IOY] Herakles naked left holding club and lion's skin. Dark brown patina: photo greatly lightened.
Ex: Forvm Ancient Coins; Lodge Antiquities
Sear 7268; BMC Pontus, pg 210, #7
Lawrence Woolslayer
157Hadrian__RIC743.jpg
743 Hadrian Sestertius, Roma 134-38 AD Aequitas standing38 viewsReference.
RIC 743; Strack 650; C. 125; Banti 85

Obv. HADRIANVS AVG COS III P P
Laureate head right.

Rev. AEQVITAS AVG S-C in field.
Aequitas standing left, holding scales and pertica (measuring rod)

20.35 gr
30 mm
6h

Ex Charles Darrah Collection of Flavian and Antonine Bronzes.
1 commentsokidoki
Eudoxia-Con-101.jpg
76. Eudoxia.24 viewsAE 3, 401 - 403, Constantinople mint.
Obverse: AEL EVDOXIA AVG / Diademed bust of Eudoxia, hand of God above, holding a wreath.
Reverse: SALVS REIPVBLICAE / Victory pointing to shield inscribed with a Christogram.
Mint mark: CONSA
2.46 gm., 17.5 mm.
RIC #101; LRBC #2213; Sear #20892.

RIC vol. X says (p. 71) that "this is the last bronze coinage in the Roman series to maintain the generally high standard of design and engraving characteristic of the fourth century."
Callimachus
titus sest-Cohen114-Paduan.jpg
79-81 AD - TITUS AE sestertius - Paduan 164 viewsobv: IMP T CAES VESP AVG P M TR P P P COS VIII (laureate head left)
rev: IVDAEA CAPTA (Jewess seated right under palm tree, mourning; on left side Jew standing right, heap of arms), S-C in ex.
ref: C.114 (12frcs) Paduan, RIC II 93 (S)
18.35gms, 32mm, bronze
Rare

A well-known Paduan medal after Giovanni Cavino, but this is not the 20th century cast with dark patinated aluminium alloy, and it is in Cohen and RIC catalog as Paduan coin. OK, you say this is a fake, but I say it has room in my collection.
2 commentsberserker
domitian RIC428-quadrans.jpg
81-96 AD - DOMITIAN AE quadrans - struck 81-96 AD40 viewsobv: IMP DOMIT AVG GERM (helmeted, draped bust of Minerva right)
rev: olive branch upright, S-C in field
ref: RIC II 428 (1962 ed), Cohen 544 (1fr), BMC 488
mint: Rome, undated
2.6gms, 18mm, bronze
berserker
152Hadrian__RIC970.jpg
970 Hadrian Sestertius, Roma 128-32 AD Hilaritas51 viewsReference.
Strack 629; RIC 970; C. 819

Obv. HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS P P
laureate head of Hadrian right

Rev. HILARITAS P R, COS III in exergue, S C across field
Hilaritas standing facing, head left, holding long palm branch and cornucopiae; to either side, small child standing facing her.

25.56 gr
32 mm
6 h

Charles Darrah Collection of Flavian and Antonine Bronzes.
1 commentsokidoki
horseman_mod.jpg
A Fallen Horseman17 viewsEnlarged and corrected for perspective reverse fragment of
http://www.forumancientcoins.com/gallery/displayimage.php?pos=-147594
Yurii P
Theta.jpg
A strange "theta" device?17 viewsA panorama of two microscopic images of the reverse of
http://www.forumancientcoins.com/gallery/displayimage.php?pos=-147634

What looks like a "theta" is probably just a dot inside an oval. UPD: found a mention of this variation in one of the catalogs, indeed some of the Caesar Constans coins from Thessalonica have "dot inside o" device.
Yurii P
TrajanLeucas.jpg
AΔP on Trajan AE21258 viewsTrajan, 25 January 98 - 8 or 9 August 117 A.D., Leucas, Coele-Syria
9239. Bronze AE 21, SGI 1082, F, 7.73g, 21.1mm, 0o, Leucas ad Chrysoroas mint, 102/103 A.D.; obverse AY KAI NEP TPAIANOC [ ... ], laureate head right, countermarked; reverse LEIKADIWN KLAYDIEWN, Trajan, holding scepter, in galloping quadriga right; date EN (year 55 of the Era of Leucas = 102/103 A.D.); $90.00
The obverse countermark appears to read ADR, Emperor Hadrian; however a nearly identical mark has been interpreted as DeltaAK, Trajan's title Dacius.
1 commentswhitetd49
kymeNero.jpg
aa Aeolis, Kyme. AE19. Magistrate Sekoynda50 viewsO: Hd Amazon Kyme r.
R: Horse stepping r., KY above, EPI PR SEKOYNDAS around.
SNG Cop 116. RPC 1.2432

FORVM post from Curtis Clay:
The CEKOYNDAC issue "was attributed by BMC to the reign of Nero, because of the similarity of the reverse type with 2435 [a coin of Nero at Cyme with rev. unbridled trotting horse]. There are, however, differences of style, detail (bridled versus unbridled horse), technique (the die axis), metal (brass rather than bronze) and ethnic (only the abbreviated KY), which suggest that the issue cannot be exactly contemporaneous. Similar types were used on Hellenistic bronzes, so it does not seem clear when this issue was made, perhaps in either first century BC or the early first century AD."
ancientone
21312p00.jpg
Abbaitis-Mysoi 96 viewsBronze AE 18, BMC 1, SNG Von Aulock 3330, VF, mint, 6.957g, 19.4mm, 225o, 2nd Century B.C.; obverse laureate head of Zeus right; reverse MUSWN / ABBAITWN, thunderbolt and legend in wreath; dark patina

purchased 09/09/2007 Forum e-bay auctions
1 commentsJohnny
033_2.jpg
Abdera, Thrace213 views345-323 B.C.
Bronze Ć 15
2.98 gm, 15 mm
Obv.: Griffin seated right on club; EYAN (magistrate) below
Rev.: Laurate head of Apollo right within square border; ABΔ-HPI-TE-ΩN around
BMC 3, 82; Sear 1558 var.;
Strack 216 var.; SNG Cop 374 var.
2 commentsJaimelai
039~0.JPG
Abdera, Thrace28 views400-350 B.C.
Bronze Ć 18
4.80 gm, 18.5 mm
Obv.: Griffin, with pointed wing, recumbent left; ABΔH above, RITΩN below
Rev.: EΓIIE PON ... OΣ written round linear square, within which, laurate head of Apollo right
BMC 3, p.75, 90
Jaimelai
Abdera_Apollo_Griffin_4a.jpg
Abdera, Thrace * Griffin | Apollon, AE14 - 4th Century BC.443 views
Griffin | Apollon, Bronze.

Obv: Griffin pouncing right, head raised in menacing poise, club below; MENAN
Rev: Apollon, right, within linear square: ABΔ-HPI-T-ΩΝ (with retrograde N).

Exergue: MENAN

Mint: Abdera
Struck: ca. 352-323 BC.

Size: 14.67 mm.
Weight: ca. 2.5 grm.
Die axis: 0°

The Griffin (Greek gryphos, Persian shirdal - "lion-eagle") is a legendary creature with the body of a lion and the head, with upstanding ear-tufts, and wings of an eagle: as the lion was considered 'King of the Beasts' and the eagle 'King of the Air,' the griffin was thought to be an especially powerful and majestic creature. The griffin is generally represented with four legs, wings and a beak, with eagle-like talons in place of a lion's forelegs and feathered, with equine-like ears jutting from the crown of its head. Some writers describe the tail as a serpent, in the manner of a chimera.
2 commentsTiathena
Lincoln_Peace_Medal.jpg
Abraham Lincoln 1862 Indian Peace Medal68 viewsObv: ABRAHAM LINCOLN, PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES, draped bust of Abraham Lincoln (16th President) facing right, 1862 below.

Rev: In the center, within a circle is a village scene including children playing baseball in front of a school and a church steeple; in the foreground an Indian, wearing full chief's feathered head-dress, operates a horse-drawn plough; in the outer ring, an Indian pulls the hair of a foe, preparing to scalp him with a knife; below and to the left is a quiver of arrows, on the right is a crossed bow and a peace pipe; below center is the head of an Indian princess with eyes closed.

Engravers: Salathiel Ellis (obverse), Joseph Willson (reverse).

Mint: Philadelphia, Date: 1862 (20th Century Restrike), Bronze, Diameter: 76 mm
1 commentsMatt Inglima
16_Lincoln_Indian_Peace_Medal_(2).JPG
Abraham Lincoln 1862 Indian Peace Medal55 viewsObv: ABRAHAM LINCOLN, PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES, draped bust of Abraham Lincoln (16th President) facing right, 1862 below.

Rev: In the center, within a circle is a village scene including children playing baseball in front of a school and a church steeple; in the foreground an Indian, wearing full chief's feathered head-dress, operates a horse-drawn plough; in the outer ring, an Indian pulls the hair of a foe, preparing to scalp him with a knife; below and to the left is a quiver of arrows, on the right is a crossed bow and a peace pipe; below center is the head of an Indian princess with eyes closed.

Engravers: Salathiel Ellis (obverse), Joseph Willson (reverse).

Mint: Philadelphia, Date: 1862 (20th Century Restrike), Bronze, Diameter: 76 mm
Matt Inglima
IMG_8612.JPG
Abraham Lincoln 1963 Emancipation Proclamation Centennial19 viewsObv: Bust of Lincoln facing, THE EMANCIPATOR below.

Rev: EMANCIPATION PROCLAMATION - 1863-1963 CENTENARY, "Upon this act I invoke the Judgment of Mankind and The Gracious Favor of Almighty God."

Engraver: Philip Kraczkowski; Mint: Robbins, Attleboro Company for Executive Designs

Bronze; 63 mm

Reference: C.8-340 Bz
Matt Inglima
Lincoln_Gettysburg_Address.jpg
Abraham Lincoln 1963 Gettysburg Address Centennial20 viewsObv: LINCOLN'S GETTYSBURG ADDRESS above, 1863 1963 in field, CENTENNIAL below; Abraham Lincoln standing on a platform delivering a speech, dignitaries seated behind.

Rev: "THE WORLD WILL LITTLE NOTE, NOR LONG REMEMBER WHAT WE SAY HERE, BUT IT CAN NEVER FORGET WHAT THEY DID HERE." ABRAHAM LINCOLN, A Union soldier giving a wounded Confederate solder a drink from his canteen.

Engraver: Philip Kraczkowski; Mint: Robbins, Attleboro Company

Bronze; 63 mm
Matt Inglima
Lincoln_1963_NYU_Hall_of_Fame.JPG
Abraham Lincoln 1963 NYU Hall of Fame Medal17 viewsObv: LINCOLN above, 1809 - 1865 behind bust of Abraham Lincoln facing right, "With malice toward none ...with charity for all." A. Lincoln in script.

Rev: A HOUSE DIVIDED AGAINST ITSELF CANNOT STAND, a frieze of huddled slaves in foreground, with raised, shackled hands in center; EMANCIPATION PROCLAMATION around the disk of the sun. THE HALL OF FAME OF GREAT AMERICANS AT NEW YORK UNIVERSITY 1963, in exergue.

Note: Commemorates the centennial of the Emancipation Proclamation.

Engraver: Anthony DeFrancisci, Mint: Medallic Art Company

Bronze, Diameter: 44.4 mm, Axis: 0°
Matt Inglima
Lincoln_WF_Medallion.jpg
Abraham Lincoln Columbian Expo Medal 189322 viewsObv: 1809 * ABRAHAM * LINCOLN * 1865, portrait of a young, beardless Lincoln, facing, head turned right. Artist's name H. ZEARING in field above left shoulder.

Rev: A shield with lance heads separated with circles in borders; WITH MALICE TOWARD NONE - WITH CHARITY FOR ALL - WITH FIRMNESS IN THE RIGHT AS GOD GIVES VS TO SEE THE RIGHT LET VS STRIVE ON * * * LET VS HAVE FAITH THAT RIGHT MAKES MIGHT AND IN THAT FAITH LET VS TO THE END DARE TO DO OVR DVTY AS WE VNDERSTAND IT. (Excerpts from Lincoln's Second Inaugural Address on March 4th, 1865 and the Cooper Union Speech on February 27, 1860)

Engraver: Henry H. Zearing

Medal was made for the World's Columbian Exposition in 1893.

Bronze, Diameter: 45.4 mm, Axis: 0°

References: King 504, Eglit 85
Matt Inglima
Lincoln_Emancipation_Medal.JPG
Abraham Lincoln Emancipation Medal29 viewsObv: ABRAHAM LINCOLN PRESIDENT UNITED STATES, bust of Lincoln facing right.

Rev: A circle of tulips with the inscription: "MARCH 4, 1861 TO APRIL 15, 1865. - EMANCIPATION PROCLAIMED JAN. 1, 1863 - MEDAL SERIES OF THE U. S. MINT - J. POLLOCK DIRECTOR 1871."

Engraver: William Barber

Mint: Philadelphia, Date: 1871 (20th Century restrike), Bronze, Diameter: 45 mm
Matt Inglima
Lincoln_Medallion.jpg
Abraham Lincoln Medal24 viewsObv: 1809 * ABRAHAM * LINCOLN * 1865, portrait of a young, beardless Lincoln, facing, head turned right. Artist's name H. ZEARING in field above left shoulder.

Rev: A shield with lance heads separated with circles in borders; WITH MALICE TOWARD NONE - WITH CHARITY FOR ALL - WITH FIRMNESS IN THE RIGHT AS GOD GIVES VS TO SEE THE RIGHT LET VS STRIVE ON * * * LET VS HAVE FAITH THAT RIGHT MAKES MIGHT AND IN THAT FAITH LET VS TO THE END DARE TO DO OVR DVTY AS WE VNDERSTAND IT. (Excerpts from Lincoln's Second Inaugural Address on March 4th, 1865 and the Cooper Union Speech on February 27, 1860)

Engraver: Henry H. Zearing

Medal was made for the World's Columbian Exposition in 1893.

Bronze, Diameter: 45.4 mm, Axis: 0°

References: King 504, Eglit 85
Matt Inglima
Lincoln_Presidential_Medal.JPG
Abraham Lincoln Presidential Medal33 viewsObv: ABRAHAM LINCOLN, bust of the 16th President facing right.

Rev: A wreath of oak and laurel with a pearled border with the inscription: "INAUGURATED PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES MARCH 4, 1861. SECOND TERM MARCH 4, 1865. ASSASSINATED APRIL 14, 1865." Within the wreath is a spray of pine and cedar, circled by a serpent with its tail in its mouth – the Egyptian symbol of eternity and immortality.

Engraver: George T. Morgan

Mint: Philadelphia, Date: 1886 (20th Century Restrike), Bronze, Diameter: 76 mm
Matt Inglima
Lincoln_1963_NYU_Hall_of_Fame~0.JPG
Abraham Lincoln, 1963 NYU Hall of Fame Medal14 viewsObv: LINCOLN above, 1809 - 1865 behind bust of Abraham Lincoln facing right, "With malice toward none ...with charity for all." A. Lincoln in script.

Rev: A HOUSE DIVIDED AGAINST ITSELF CANNOT STAND, a frieze of huddled slaves in foreground, with raised, shackled hands in center; EMANCIPATION PROCLAMATION around the disk of the sun. THE HALL OF FAME OF GREAT AMERICANS AT NEW YORK UNIVERSITY 1963, in exergue.

Note: Commemorates the centennial of the Emancipation Proclamation.

Engraver: Anthony DeFrancisci, Mint: Medallic Art Company

Bronze, Diameter: 44.4 mm, Axis: 0°
Matt Inglima
fouree~0.JPG
ACHAIA, Achaean League, Elis. Circa 175-168 BC. Bronze dichalkon?132 viewsBronze Dichalkon? (16mm). Laureate head of Zeus right / AX monogram, F-A across, LY above; all within wreath tied at the bottom.

If fourree core - Imitating BCD 665.5/Clerk 280?
CGPCGP
megalopolis.jpg
ACHAIA, Achaean League, Megalopolis. Circa 160-150 BC. Bronze dichalkon 79 viewsBronze dichalkon or fourree core. 14.2mm. 2.27 g.
Obverse: Laureate head of Zeus right
Reverse: Large X with ΞB above, K-A across, M and thunderbolt below, all within wreath

Attribution: cf. BCD Peloponnesos 1551.1 Date: 160-150 BC

Ex BCD with tag. Note from BCD stating that this is a bronze coin struck from an identified offical die for a hemidrachm. This would make it possibly a test strike in bronze or a fouree core from a stolen die.
1 commentsDino
IMG_0008~1.jpg
ACHAIA, Aigieon. 37-31 BC.69 viewsAE hexachalkon (5.67 g)
Theoxios and Kletaios, magistrates.
obv: Laureate head of Zeus right
rev: Zeus standing right, holding eagle on outstretched arm and preparing to cast thunderbolt; ΘEOΞIOΣ KΛHTAIOΣ around. Kroll, Bronze 2; BCD Peloponnesos 436.

Located along the northern coast of the Peloponnesos, Achaia was a narrow territory between Sicyon and Elis. One theory suggests that Achaia’s original inhabitants were driven to the area from Achaia Phthoitis, which itself was located across the Gulf of Corinth in southern Thessaly. A number of prehistoric and Mycenaean ruins in the western part of the Achaia indicate that the district was long inhabited, even into remote antiquity. Twelve city-states were located there: Aigai, Aigira, Aigion, Bura, Dyme, Helike, Olenos, Patrai, Pherai, Pelene, Rhypes, and Tritaia. Achaian colonies were established in Magna Graecia at Kroton, Kaulonia, Metapontion, and Sybaris. From the mid-5th century onward, much of the history of Achaia is interconnected with the Achaian League.
Dino
Adramyteon,_Mysia,_c__350_B_C__pegasus_forepart.JPG
Adramyteon, Zeus/ Forepart of Pegasos, AE 1637 viewsAdramyteon, Mysia, c. 350 B.C. Bronze AE 16, cf. SNG von Aulock Supp. 7191; SNG Cop -, aVF, Adramyteon mint, 1.773g, 11.6mm, 90°, c. 350 B.C.; obverse laureate head of Zeus right; reverse Α∆ΡΑ, forepart of Pegasos right. Ex FORVM & areich, photo credit FORVMPodiceps
adr.JPG
Adramytteion, Mysia15 viewsFourth century BC
Bronze AE 12
1.47 gm, 12 mm
Obverse: Head of Zeus three-quarter facing to right
Reverse: Eagle standing on altar, wings closed, Grain Ear before, AΔΡΑ above.
Sear 3803;
Weber 4949;
Babelon (Traite) plate 170, 16
Jaimelai
probus_157.jpg
ADVENTVS AVG, Probus on horseback; RIC V 157 Rome14 viewsProbus, summer 276 - September 282 A.D. Bronze antoninianus, RIC V 157, F, Rome mint, 3.245g, 25.1mm, 0o, obverse IMP PROBVS AVG, radiate and cuirassed bust right; reverse ADVENTVS AVG, Probus on horseback left, raising right, scepter in left, captive seated in front of horse, R*S in ex. Ex FORVMPodiceps
AE_1__2_unit_(1__2_kakini_of_10-ratti)_of_Ganapati_Naga,_ca_340_AD,_Nagas_of_Narwar,_Ancient_India.jpg
AE 1/2 unit (1/2 kakini of 10-ratti) of Ganapati Naga, ca.340 AD, Nagas of Narwar, Ancient India112 viewsHumped bull standing left / Maharaja Sri Ganendra in a circle in Brahmi. Struck very weakly. 5-ratti - 9mm, 0.9grams. Mitchiner 4739-4753.
The Naga (snake or serpent) worshippers in Narwar were indiginous Indian people of whom little is known. They produced many small bronze coins bearing the names of their Kings.


Antonio Protti
ephesos~1.jpg
AE 10, SNG Cop 254 - 255 var, Bee/ stag20 viewsEphesos, Ionia, c. 387 - 295 B.C. Bronze AE 10, SNG Cop 254 - 255 var (various magistrates); cf. BMC Ionia p. 54, 63 - 66 (various magistrates and AE 14), aF, 1.067g, 10.1mm, 135o, obverse “Ε−Φ”, bee; reverse, stag kneeling left, head turned back, astragalus above right, illegible magistrate's name on left. Ex FORVMPodiceps
klazomenai.jpg
AE 10, SNG Cop 46, Athena right/ ram standing right, head turned back3 viewsKlazomenai, Ionia, c. 387 - 300 B.C. Bronze AE 10, SNG Cop 46 (Zoilws); Weber 5770 (magistrate off-flan); BMC -, aVF, Klazomenai mint, 0.79g, 10.2mm, 180o, obverse helmeted head of Athena right; reverse, ram standing right, head turned back, magistrate's name above; rare. Ex FORVMPodiceps
37413_Rhodos,_Carian_Islands,_c__350_-_300_B_C_.jpg
AE 11; Head of Rhodos right/ hibiscus, RO12 viewsRhodos, Carian Islands, c. 350 - 300 B.C. GB37413. Bronze AE 11, SNG Keckman 384 - 425 (various symbols), F, dark patina, Rhodos mint, 1.143g, 10.8mm, 45o, obverse diademed head of Rhodos right; reverse P O, hibiscus, bud at right, symbol off-flan. Ex FORVM, photo credit FORVMPodiceps
ephesos_l.jpg
AE 12, SNG Cop 244, Bee/ stag15 viewsEphesos, Ionia, 387 - 295 B.C. Bronze AE 12, SNG Cop 244, BMC -, F, porous, Ephesos mint, 1.579g, 12.1mm, 0o, obverse “Ε−Φ”, bee; reverse , forepart of stag kneeling right, head turned back left; scarce. Ex FORVMPodiceps
panticapeum.jpg
AE 12; Head of Satyr right/ Star and Pilei. 35 viewsPanticapeum Tauric Chersonese. Bronze 12 mm 2.2g. Obverse: Head of Satyr left. Reverse: Star and Pilei. Ex David Liebert
Podiceps
rhodos_ae12.jpg
AE 12; Zeus/ Hibiscus15 viewsRhodos, Caria, c. 225 B.C. Bronze AE 12, SNG Cop 797, nice F, Rhodos mint, 1.967g, 11.7mm, 0o, c. 225 BC; obverse laureate head of Zeus right; reverse PO, rose, sun-disk behind; rare. Based on the unusual Zeus obverse, this small bronze could be connected to Ptolemy III of Egypt. A devastating earthquake struck Rhodes in 226 B.C. It knocked down the Colossus of Rhodes and destroyed the city. Polybius records that Ptolemy III promised the Rhodians '300 talents of silver, a million artabae of corn, ship-timber for 10 quinqueremes and 10 triremes, consisting of 40,000 cubits of squared pine planking, 1000 talents of bronze coinage, 180,000 pounds of tow (for ropes), 3000 pieces of sailcloth, 3000 talents (of copper?) for the repair of the Colossus, 100 master-builders with 350 workmen, and 14 talents yearly to pay their wages. Beside this, he gave 12,000 artabae of corn for their public games and sacrifices, and 20,000 artabae for victualling 10 triremes. The greater part of these goods were delivered at once, as well as one-third of the money named.' This issue shows perceived harmony with, or thanks to Ptolemaic Egypt. -- J. Ashton, Rhodian Bronze Coinage and the Earthquake of 229. Ex FORVMPodiceps
smyrna_rivergod.jpg
AE 16, Herakles Hoplophylax right/ CMVPNA/IΩN, River-god recumbent left7 viewsIonia, Smyrna, 2nd Century A.D. Bronze AE 16, BMC Ionia p. 260, 207; SNG Cop 1261, VF, weight 2.407g, maximum diameter 15.6mm, die axis 180o, obverse ΟΠΛΟΦΥΛΑZ, bearded head of Herakles Hoplophylax right, lion-skin knotted around neck; reverse CMVPNA/IΩN, River-god recumbent left, holding reed, left elbow on vase from which stream flow, within which two fishes right; Although there was great disagreement in the ancient world about the identity of Homer's parents, the residents of Smyrna believed that Homer was the son of Meles, the river flowing through their city, and the nymph Kritheďs. Ex FORVMPodiceps
zeugitania.jpg
AE 1716 viewsCarthage, Zeugitania, North Africa, c. 310 - 290 B.C. Bronze AE 17, SNG Cop 109 ff., F, Sicilian (?) mint, 2.372g, 15.0mm, 225o, c. 310 - 290 B.C.; obverse head of Tanit left wearing wreath of grain and pendant necklace; reverse, horse standing right, date palm tree behind. Tanit was a Phoenician lunar goddess, worshiped as the patron goddess at Carthage. Ex FORVMPodiceps
93733q00.jpg
AE 18 Pergamum, Mysia, bronze2 views Bronze AE 18, RPC I 2374; SNG BnF 1964; BMC Mysia p. 134, 205; SGICV 4910; SNG Cop -, F, dark green patina, reverse off center, Pergamon (Bergama, Turkey) mint, weight 4.116g, maximum diameter 18.3mm, die axis 0o, c. 40 - 60 A.D.; obverse Θ EON CYN-KΛHTON, draped bust of the Senate right; reverse ΘEAN PWMHN, turreted and draped bust of Roma rightNORMAN K
513ForumNaso.jpg
AE 216 views Bronze AE 21, c. 241 - 50 BCE Panormus (Palermo) mint, (4.595g, maximum diameter 20.9mm, die axis 315o)
magistrate (L. Axius?) Naso
o: laureate head of Zeus left
r: warrior standing left, sword in extended right, spear vertical behind in left, grounded shield behind leaning on spear, NAS/O left
very rare magistrate

per Forum notes: NASO named on this coin could be Lucius Axius L. f. Naso, who was a moneyer in Rome, c. 73 - 70 B.C. Two inscriptions discovered at Cordoba dedicated to a Lucio Axio Luci filio Polia tribu Nasoni, indicate his honors. He was first decemvir stlitibus iudicandis, then tribunus militum pro legato, then quaestor. Or, this NASO could be completely unrelated.
Calciati I p. 351, 125 (one specimen); HGC 2 1071 (C)
PURCHASED FROM FORUM ANCIENT COINS
PMah
rodos~1.jpg
AE 28; Radiate head of Helios right/ R-O; Hibiscus flower with helmet and thunderbolt as buds36 viewsCaria, Rhodos, Helios / Rose, AE28. 28mm, 12.26. Ca. 88-87 B.C. Obv: radiate head of Helios right. Rev: P - O, hibiscus flower ("rose"), helmet in left, thunderbolt in right field as buds. BMC 320. SNG München 661. SNG Cop. 856. Ashton, Coinage 97 (A30/P96); SNG Keckman -. This coinage was struck during Mithradates VI's failed six-month siege of Rhodes in 88 B.C. Unable to produce enough silver for military expenditures, the Rhodians resorted to a fiduciary bronze coinage. Ex Numismatik Lanz & areich3 commentsPodiceps
Arrowhead_1.jpg
AE Arrowhead #0121 viewsNorthwestern Iran
1200-800 BC
12.5cm (4.9”)

Cf. Mahboubian (Art of Ancient Iran: Copper and Bronze), 390

Ex- Axel Guttmann Collection, Lot 27 (part of) Christies Sale 5524, Axel Guttman Collection of Ancient Arms and Armour, Part 2, 28 April 2004.

From Ancientresource.com:
“Axel Guttmann was the most famous collector of ancient militaria in the modern era, actually creating his own museum in Berlin to display his enormous collection.”

Description:
This arrowhead was part of lot 27 in Christies Sale 5524, Axel Guttman Collection of Ancient Arms and Armour, Part 2, London, April 2004. The lot (“A LARGE COLLECTION OF NORTH-WEST PERSIAN BRONZE ARROWHEADS. 2ND/EARLY 1ST MILLENNIUM B.C.”) consisted of an ancient bronze bowl with sculptural handles, filled to the brim with arrowheads of this type. A number of the arrowheads have since appeared on the market. Each is similar, with elongated deltoid head and long tang.
Robert L3
Arrowhead_2.jpg
AE Arrowhead #0217 viewsWestern Asia (likely Iran)
1200-800 BC
85mm

Cf. Muscarella (Bronze and Iron, Ancient Near Eastern Artifacts in the Metropolitan Museum of Art), Fig. 416
Cf. Negahban (Weapons from Marlik), Page 75, Fig. 58
Cf. Piller (Untersuchungen zur relative Chronologie der Nekropole von Marlik), Table XVI, Type 4 (page 293)

Description:
Triangular bilobate ribbed head, stem, medium length tang
Robert L3
Arrowhead_3.jpg
AE Arrowhead #0315 viewsWestern Asia (likely Iran)
1200-800 BC
15.1cm (6”)

Cf. Mahboubian (Art of Ancient Iran: Copper and Bronze), 390
Cf. Negahban (Weapons from Marlik), Pl. XII, Fig. 154

Description:
Bilobate ribbed head, stem and long tang
Robert L3
Arrowhead_5.jpg
AE Arrowhead #05 (or spearhead?)15 viewsWestern Asia (likely Iran)
1200-800 BC
15.4cm (6”)

Cf. Mahboubian (Art of Ancient Iran: Copper and Bronze), 390
Cf. Moorey (Catalogue of the Ancient Persian Bronzes in the Ashmolean Museum), Pl. 8, Fig. 75 (also illustrated on page 85)
Cf. Negahban (Weapons from Marlik), Fig. 65 (page 85)

Description:
Elongated deltoid, bilobate ribbed head, long stem and tang
Robert L3
Arrowhead_6.jpg
AE Arrowhead #0614 viewsWestern Asia (likely Iran)
1200-800 BC
15.1cm (6”)

Cf. Muscarella (Bronze and Iron, Ancient Near Eastern Artifacts in the Metropolitan Museum of Art), Fig. 400
Cf. Negahban (Weapons from Marlik), Pl. XII, Fig. 154

Description:
Bilobate ribbed head with barbs, stem and long tang
Robert L3
Arrowhead_7.jpg
AE Arrowhead #0715 viewsWestern Asia (likely Iran)
1200-800 BC
15.5cm (6.1”)

Cf. Mahboubian (Art of Ancient Iran: Copper and Bronze), 390 (see arrowhead at approximately 10:00 in circular layout)
Cf. Muscarella (Bronze and Iron, Ancient Near Eastern Artifacts in the Metropolitan Museum of Art), Fig. 400

Description:
Triangular bilobate ribbed head with stem and long tang
Robert L3
Arrowhead_8.jpg
AE Arrowhead #0818 viewsWestern Asia (likely Iran, possibly Luristan or Marlik)
1200-800 BC
57mm

Cf. Mahboubian (Art of Ancient Iran: Copper and Bronze), 390 (see second in row at bottom left, as well as several in grouping at bottom)
Cf. Malloy (Weapons: Ancient and Medieval Art and Antiquities), Fig. 94
Cf. Negahban (Weapons from Marlik), Fig. 77 (page 85)

Description:
Triangular/deltoid bilobate head with shallow wide rib, medium length tang, and interesting delta-shaped gouge on one side (presumably an intentional mark)
Robert L3
Arrowhead_9.jpg
AE Arrowhead #0913 viewsWestern Asia (likely Iran)
1200-800 BC
66mm

Cf. Muscarella (Bronze and Iron, Ancient Near Eastern Artifacts in the Metropolitan Museum of Art), Fig. 416
Cf. Negahban (Weapons from Marlik), Fig. 58 (page 75)
Cf. Piller (Untersuchungen zur relative Chronologie der Nekropole von Marlik), Table XVI, Type 4 (page 293)

Description:
Triangular bilobate ribbed head, short stem, medium length tang, small nick in one edge
Robert L3
Arrowhead_10.jpg
AE Arrowhead #10 (or spearhead?)15 viewsWestern Asia
1200-800 BC
10.5cm (4.1”)

Cf. Mahboubian (Art of Ancient Iran: Copper and Bronze), 390 (see arrowhead at approx. 7:00 in circular layout)
Cf. Negahban (Weapons from Marlik), Figs. 49, 50 (page 75)

Description:
Lanceolate, prominent rib, short stem and tang, chipped. This leaf-shaped tip was listed as a spearhead, but fits the description of some ancient Iranian arrowheads.
Robert L3
Dagger_1.jpg
AE Dagger #0127 viewsCanaanite
early to mid 2nd Millennium BC
17cm (6.7”)

Ex- Shlomo Zeitsov Collection

Description:
This dagger blade is from the Shlomo Zeitsov collection. It was sold by the collector’s nephew, who reports that it was found in Israel. It is tang-less and has three rivet holes, of which only one remains fully encircled by bronze.
Robert L3
Dagger_3.jpg
AE Dagger #0325 viewsWestern Asia (possibly Luristan)
1200-800 BC
33cm (13”)

Cf. Mahboubian (Art of Ancient Iran: Copper and Bronze), 379
Cf. Malloy (Weapons: Ancient and Medieval Art and Antiquities), Fig. 53
Cf. Overleat (The Early Iron Age in the Pusht-I Kuh, Luristan), Pl. 89 (Kutal-i Gulgul, tomb A9), Fig. A9-60

Description:
Flanged hilt with no wood or ivory remaining, blade and hilt cast in one piece
Robert L3
Dagger_4.jpg
AE Dagger #0430 viewsNorthwestern Iran (probably Luristan)
1200-800 BC
32cm (12.6”)

Cf. Khorasani (Bronze and Iron Weapons from Luristan), Fig. 2 (page 212)
Cf. Moorey (Catalogue of the Ancient Persian Bronzes in the Ashmolean Museum), Pl. 6, #50; (also illustrated on page 70)
Cf. Overleat (The Early Iron Age in the Pusht-I Kuh, Luristan), Fig. 184, #KT.A6-19 (page 216)

From an old British collection, acquired in the 1970s

Description:
Flanged hilt with no wood or ivory remaining, single rivet hole in wedge-shaped pommel, low broad midrib, blade and hilt cast in one piece
1 commentsRobert L3
Dagger_Short_Sword_2.jpg
AE Dagger/Short Sword #0232 viewsNorthwestern Iran
1200-800 BC
37.7cm (14.8”)

Cf. Muscarella (Bronze and Iron, Ancient Near Eastern Artifacts in the Metropolitan Museum of Art), Fig. 164 (page 99)
Cf. Negahban (Weapons from Marlik), Fig. 41 (page 59)
Cf. Petrie (Tools and Weapons), Plate XXXVI, Fig. 170

From a private Danish collection of ancient weapons

Description:
Long tapering form, winged guard extending from the ricasso, prominent midrib, chips along one edge
1 commentsRobert L3
Spearhead_2.jpg
AE Spearhead #02 (or dagger blade?)19 viewsWestern Asia (possibly Luristan or Marlik)
1200-800 BC
18.8cm (7.4”)

Cf. Moorey (Catalogue of the Ancient Persian Bronzes in the Ashmolean Museum), Pl. 5, Fig. 38 and Pl. 6, Fig. 55 (daggers)
Cf. Negahban (Weapons from Marlik) Pl. X, Fig. 124

Description:
Tapering triangular blade with rounded midrib, nearly square (very slightly deltoid) shoulders, and flat tang
Robert L3
Spearhead_3.jpg
AE Spearhead #03 (or dagger blade?)19 viewsWestern Asia (possibly Luristan or Marlik)
1200-800 BC
27.94cm (11”)

Cf. Khorasani (Bronze and Iron Weapons from Luristan), fig. 1 (very similar blade shape and proportions, although Khorasani’s example has a short stem between the shoulders and tang)
Cf. Malloy (Weapons: Ancient and Medieval Art and Antiquities), Fig. 66
Cf. Moorey (Catalogue of the Ancient Persian Bronzes in the Ashmolean Museum), Pl. 5, Fig. 38
Cf. Negahban (Weapons from Marlik), Pl. X, Fig. 121

Description:
Tapering triangular blade with slightly rounded shoulders, broad flat midrib, long tang
Robert L3
Spearhead_5.jpg
AE Spearhead #05 (or dagger blade?)17 viewsWestern Asia (possibly Luristan)
1200-800 BC
26.9cm (10.6”)

Cf. Moorey (Catalogue of the Ancient Persian Bronzes in the Ashmolean Museum), Pl. 5, Fig. 40

Description:
Triangular blade, square shoulders, broad flat rib, rivet hole in long tang
Robert L3
Spearhead_6.jpg
AE Spearhead #06 (or dagger blade?)17 viewsWestern Asia (possibly Luristan or Marlik)
1200-800 BC
32.9cm (13”)

Cf. Muscarella (Bronze and Iron, Ancient Near Eastern Artifacts in the Metropolitan Museum of Art), Fig. 392 (dagger)
Cf. Negahban (Weapons from Marlik), Pl. IX, Fig. 119

Description:
Rounded shoulders, pronounced midrib, slightly concave edges, long tang
Robert L3
Spearhead_12.jpg
AE Spearhead #1221 viewsWestern Asia
1200-800 BC
16cm (6.3”)

Cf. Muscarella (Bronze and Iron, Ancient Near Eastern Artifacts in the Metropolitan Museum of Art), Fig. 396 (page 290) for similar, though slightly wider, tip
Cf. Negahban (Weapons from Marlik), Fig. 65 (page 85) for similarly shaped tip – however the Negahban example is an arrowhead, not a spearhead

Description:
Tanged ribbed blade, small stem, straight blade edges at base, then tapering toward point
Robert L3
Sword_1.jpg
AE Sword #135 viewsNorthwestern Iran, Talish area
1200-800 BC
45.5cm (18”)

Cf. Muscarella (Bronze and Iron, Ancient Near Eastern Artifacts in the Metropolitan Museum of Art), Fig. 165 (page 99)
Cf. Watson (Luristan Bronzes in Birmingham Museum and Art Gallery), Fig. 16, #54 (page 24)

From an old Cambridge collection

Description:
Tapering ribbed blade, round shoulders, rat-tail tang, tip missing and end bent (possibly a deliberate act in antiquity)
Robert L3
Antic-Object_Q-001_68x65mm_336g-s.jpg
AE-Antic-Object, #01102 viewsAE-Antic-Object, #01
The object made of bronze, iron through the sole of a thin cylindrical object to the top of the pass. The sole is molded of lead. The three lion or eagle head decorated arms. One missing.
size: 68x65mm,
weight: 336g,
Q-001
quadrans
AE-hanging-amulet_Br-age_Q-001_80x27x21mm_91,85g-s.jpg
AE-Antic-Object, Celtic (?) hanging amulet #01117 viewsAE-Antic-Object, Celtic (?) hanging amulet #01
The object made of bronze, with 10 knob in 4 row and a ring-shape form in the end part to be hung, and a conic shape form on the other side with 4 small knob.
size: 80x27x21mm,
weight: 91,85g,
date: Br-age c.800-600 B.C. (?)
ref:
Q-001
quadrans
pergamon_Herakles_Athena.jpg
AE10; Head of young Herakles/ “ΠΕΡ”, head of Athena13 viewsPergamon, Mysia, c. 300 B.C. Bronze AE 10, SGCV II 3958, BMC Mysia p. 112, 22, VF, Pergamon mint, 0.834g, 9.8mm, 0o, c. 300 B.C.; obverse head of young Herakles right wearing lion's head; reverse “ΠΕΡ”, head of Athena right in crested helmet. Ex FORVMPodiceps
AE17_Royaume_Macédoine__Caracalla,_200_ap__J-C,_Rare.jpg
AE17 Bronze de Macédoine sous Caracalla, 196-218 AP. J-C!59 views1979
AE17 Bronze de Macédoine sous Caracalla, 196-218 AP. J-C! Frappe Philipi, rare!
6 mm- 4.60 gr, patine foncée, relief, Etat: TTB++ ŕ SUP
Droit : Tęte nue ŕ droite;
Rev.: Deux vaches ŕ droite suivi par un paysan derričre, élaborant la Terre. Identique RPC 1657.
Prix estimé: 60 Euro.

Antonio Protti
pergamon_cm_bulls.jpg
AE17.9mm, helmeted head of Athena left, cm/ two confronted bull heads8 viewsPergamon, Mysia, c. 300 - 284 B.C. Bronze AE 17, SGCV II 3956, F, Pergamon mint, 3.820g, 17.9mm, 270o, obverse helmeted head of Athena left, wreathed with olive, round countermark in center; reverse, two confronted bull heads, “PERG ” below; nice sea-green patina. Ex FORVMPodiceps
Dio_Maddonna!!!_090.JPG
AE18 Bronze de MacĂ©doine sous Tiberius, 14-37 ap. J-C!31 views4.95 gr, patine foncée, relief, Etat: TTB++ frappe Philipi, rare!
Droit : AVG- Tęte masculine ŕ droite;
Rev.: Deux vaches ŕ droite suivi par un paysan derričre, élaborant la terre. RPC 1657, var.
Prix estimé: 40 Euro.
Antonio Protti
DSC01501.JPG
AE18 Bronze de MacĂ©doine sous Tiberius, 14-37 ap. J-C!29 views4.95 gr, patine foncée, relief, Etat: TTB++ frappe Philipi, rare!
Droit : AVG- Tęte masculine ŕ droite;
Rev.: Deux vaches ŕ droite suivi par un paysan derričre, élaborant la terre. RPC 1657, var.
Prix estimé: 40 Euro. sold
Antonio Protti
pergamon_cm.jpg
AE20; Asklepios/ snake, oval countermark24 viewsPergamon, Mysia, c. 133 - 16 B.C. Bronze AE 20, BMC Mysia p. 129, 158, F, Pergamon mint, 6.618g, 19.7mm, 0o, c. 133 - 16 B.C.; obverse laureate head of Asklepios right; reverse “ASKLHPIOU / SWTHROS”, snake coiled around omphalos, oval countermark. ex FORVMPodiceps
pergamon_nike.jpg
AE20; Head of Athena/ Nike11 viewsPergamon, Mysia, c. 133 - 16 B.C. Bronze AE 20, BMC Mysia p. 128, 142, VF, scratches, Pergamon mint, 9.340g, 19.9mm, 0o, c. 133 - 16 B.C.; obverse helmeted head of Athena? right, “ΕΠΙΠΕΡΓΑΜΟΥ” below; reverse “ΠΕΡΓΑΜΗΝΩΝ”, Nike standing right, wreath in right, palm frond over shoulder in left. Ex FORVMPodiceps
ae4.jpg
AE4 of Valentian II22 viewsAn AE4 of Valentian II minted in Siscia between 384-347 AD. 12.1 mm, 0.92 g.

Obverse: D N VALENTINIANVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right

Reverse: VICTORIA AVGGG, Victory walking left, wreath in right, palm frond in left, ASIS in ex

Attribution: RIC IX 39(a), LRBC 1575,
1 commentschuy1530
magnesia_ionia.jpg
AE8, Horseman right with spear/ “ΜΑΓΝ”, humped bull butting left13 viewsMagnesia, Ionia, c. 350 - 190 B.C. Bronze AE 8, SNG Cop 819 - 821 (various magistrates); BMC Ionia p. 160, 19 ff. (same), VF, Magnesia mint, 0.677g, 8.1mm, 180o, c. 350 - 190 B.C.; obverse armed horseman in chlamys prancing right, holding couched spear; reverse “ΜΑΓΝ”, humped bull butting left, magistrate's name below; scarce. Ex FORVMPodiceps
057~0.JPG
Aegae, Aeolis 47 viewsSecond and first centuries B.C.
Bronze AE19
6.12 gm, 19 mm
Obv.: Helmeted head of Athena right
Rev.: AIΓAEΩN right
Radiate Zeus standing naked, facing;
holding eagle in outstretched right and scepter in left,
three monograms in left field
B.M.C. Vol. 17, p. 96, No. 12; Sear 4167

This coin was purchased as a semi-cleaned unattributed Greek with bronze disease. Treated and cleaned revealed a coin similar to one already in my collection, but with a little nicer obverse.
Jaimelai
AELIA FLACILLA.JPG
Aelia Flaccilla, Augusta 19 January 379 - 386 or 388 A.D., wife of Theodosius I36 views11099. Bronze AE 2, S 4193, VF, 4.764g, 23.22mm, 0o, uncertain mint, 25 Aug 383 - 28 Aug 388 A.D.; obverse AEL FLACCILLA AVG, diademed and draped bust right; reverse SALVS REIPVBLICAE, empress standing facing, head right, arms folded on breast; partially uncleaned1 commentsMarjan E
coins68.JPG
Aeolis, Kyme32 viewsBronze AE 16, BMC Aeolis p. 109, 57, VF, Kyme mint, head of Amazon Kyme right; reverse forepart of galloping horse right, vase behind, KY above, magistrate name LESBIOS below
ecoli
temnus3.jpg
Aeolis, Temnus AE1728 viewsBronze coin
Temnus, Aeolis
Seond - first century B C
Head of Dionysos r.
DH / TA. Athena standing l.

BMC 143, 10.

Glossy patina with clear detail. 3.61g. 17mm
Adrian S
2200405.jpg
Aes Grave Sextans30 viewsAnonymous. 225-213 BC. Ć Aes Grave Sextans (29x20mm, 28.57 g, 12h). Uncertain mint in Umbria. Club / Two pellets (mark of value). Thurlow & Vecchi 172. Fine, green patina.

Ex CNG sale 220 lot 405 115/150

The sextans was an Ancient Roman bronze coin produced during the Roman Republic valued at one-sixth of an as (2 unciae).

ecoli
125166.jpg
Aes Grave Sextans Circa 269-266 BC37 viewsThe sextans was an Ancient Roman bronze coin produced during the Roman Republic valued at one-sixth of an as (2 unciae). The most common design for the sextans was the bust of Mercury and two pellets (indicating two unciae) on the obverse and the prow of a galley on the reverse. Earlier types depicted a scallop shell, a caduceus, or other symbols on the obverse.

ROME. Circa 269-266 BC. Ć Aes Grave Sextans (31mm, 20.40 g). Exterior of cockle shell; two pellets / Interior of cockle shell. Thurlow-Vecchi 20; Crawford 21/5; Haeberlin pl. 28, 3-8. Fine, rough green patina.

Ex-CNG 125, lot 166, 88/100

Check
ecoli
aes_rude_SRCV505.jpg
Aes rude, SRCV 50523 viewsRoman Republic, 5th - 4th century BC
Aes rude, length 32.5mm, 14.23g
ref. SRCV I, 505; Thurlow-Vecchi pl. 2
From Forum Ancient Coins, thanks!

Aes Rude is the earliest type of money used by the population of central Italy. They are actually irtregular pieces of bronze with no marks or designs. More advanced types were used later: Aes Signatum or Aes Grave, and in the end, normal struck coins (FAC).
Jochen
41349_Aetolian_League,_c__279_-_168_B_C_.jpg
Aetolian League, 279-168 B.C. AE 17; Apollo/ spearhead, grapes & boar jaw8 viewsAetolian League, 279-168 B.C. Bronze AE 17, BMC Aetolia p. 198, 43 ff.; SNG Cop 28, F, porous, weight 4.937g, maximum diameter 17.6mm, die axis 90o, 211 - 196 B.C.; obverse laureate head of Apollo right; reverse ΑΙΤΩΛΩΝ, spearhead right over a small bunch of grapes and a boar jaw; Ex FORVM, photo credit FORVMPodiceps
agrippina_II.jpg
Aezanis, Phrygia, AE 17.9; Head of Persephone r.18 viewsAgrippina II. Augusta 50-59 A.D. Daughter of Agrippina Sr. and Germanicus, sister of Caligula, wife of Claudius and mother of Nero, was born in 16 A.D. Aezanis, Phrygia, Bronze 2.50g. 17.9mm Obv: AGRIPPINAN SEBASTHN, Head of Agrippina II. r. Rev: AIZANITWN, Head of Persephone r. RPC 3102. Ex Gerhard RohdePodiceps
41507_claudius_aezanis.jpg
Aezanis, Phrygia; AIZΑΝΕΙΤΩΝ ΕΠΙ ΜΕΝΛΑΟ ΔΗΜΟΣΘΕ&5 viewsClaudius, 25 January 41 - 13 October 54 A.D., Aezanis, Phrygia. Bronze AE 20, SNG Cop 86, VF, green patina, Aezanis mint, 3.995g, 20.1mm, 0o, obverse “ΚΛΑΥΔΙΟΣ ΚΑΙΣΑΡ”, laureate head right; reverse AIZΑΝΕΙΤΩΝ ΕΠΙ ΜΕΝΛΑΟ ΔΗΜΟΣΘΕΝΟΥΣ, Zeus standing left, holding eagle and scepter. Ex FORVM, photo credit FORVMPodiceps
syracuse_agathocles.jpg
Agathocles; AE 21; Head of Kore right/ Nike driving biga right7 viewsSICILY, Syracuse. Agathokles. Circa 317-289 B.C. Bronze AE 21, Calciati II pp. 255-7, 122; cf. BMC Sicily p. 201, 441 (monogram off flan on our coin), F, corrosion and encrustation, Syracuse mint, weight 8.126g, maximum diameter 23.5mm, die axis 90o, 287 - 278 B.C.; obverse ΣΥΡΑΚΟΣΙΩΝ, head of Kore right, wreathed in grain; reverse Nike driving biga right, whip in right, reigns in left, star above, monogram upper left. Ex FORVMPodiceps
agathokles.jpg
agathokles64 viewsAgathokles, Syracuse, 317-289 BC, Bronze.
Obverse- SWTEIRA, head of Artemis right, wearing triple-pendant earring and necklace, quiver over shoulder.
Reverse- AGAQOKLEOS above, ASILEOS below; winged thunderbolt.
23mm, 10.2 grams.
3 commentsb70
Agrippa_with_title.jpg
Agrippa - Struck under Caligula48 viewsObv: M AGRIPPA L F COS III, head left wearing rostral crown
Rev: SC, Neptune standing facing, head left, naked except for cloak draped behind him & over both arms, holding small dolphin in right hand & vertical trident in left
Size: 29mm, 11.3g
Mint: Rome, struck under Caligula 37-41AD
Id: RIC 58
Notes: I picked this one up cheap, knowing it was riddled with bronze disease, so I could learn how to deal with the disease. I cleaned it, baked it, and sealed it in 2011. It seems to have stabilized nicely.
ickster
P1010243.JPG
Agrippa II Domitian,Hendin-60981 viewsAgrippa II, 55-95 AD, bronze of 11.7 mm, Struck 85/85 AD.
O: Laureate bust of Domitian to right.
R: Single cornucopia with grapes and fruits.
Hendin 609.
1 commentsMaritima
P1010250.JPG
Agrippa II PANIAS mint69 viewsAgrippa II, 56-95 AD, bronze of 17 mm.
Bust of Nero to right
Wreath with Greek legend naming BOTH Agrippa II and Nero within. ΠΙΕ\ΒΑΣΙΛΕ\ΑΓΡΙΠΠ\ΝΕΡΩ\ΝΙΕ

Hendin 582. This is the middle of three denominations of this early type of Agrippa II as king.
ΠΙΕ\ΒΑΣΙΛΕ\ΑΓΡΙΠΠ\ΝΕΡΩ\ΝΙΕ
Maritima
agrippina_jr.jpg
Agrippina Jr; Obol, Agrippina as Demeter/ kalathos54 viewsAgrippina Junior, Augusta 50 - March 59 A.D., Roman Provincial Egypt. Bronze obol, Dattari 179; Milne 127; BMC Alexandria p. 14, 111 var (year 12); Geissen -; SNG France -, Emmett 105 (R4), Fair/Poor, Alexandria mint, 4.907g, 23.7mm, 52 - 53 A.D.; obverse “AGRIPPINA” C“EBA”C“TH”, bust of Agrippina right, as Demeter, wreathed with grain; reverse, kalathos (modius) containing stalks of grain and poppy heads bound with flower wreath, flanked on each side by a flaming torch bound with fillet, L I“G” (year 13) in ex; rare. Ex FORVMPodiceps
Aigeai_Tyche_horse_AE20_6_52g.jpg
Aigeai, Cilicia, c. 160 - 130 B.C., Tyche / horse's head, AE2045 viewsBronze AE 20, SNG Levante 1634, VF, 6.518g, 20.1mm, 45o, Aigeai mint, c. 160 - 130 B.C.; obverse turreted head of Tyche right; reverse "AIGEAION", horse head left, "WPA" monogram lower left

ex FORVM
areich
83307q00_Aigeai_Cilicia_E_19,_SNG_Levante_1666.jpg
Aigeai; Head of Athena r./ goat kneeling left; AE1910 viewsAigeai, Cilicia, c. 130 - 77 B.C. Bronze AE 19, SNG Levante 1666, BMC Cilicia - , SNG Cop -, Aigeai mint, 3.467g, 18.9mm, 0o, c. 130 - 77 B.C.; obverse head of Athena right in crested Corinthian helmet, hair in long curls on neck, border of dots; reverse “ΑΙΓΕΑΙΩΝ ΤΗΣΙΕΡΑΣ [KAIAUTONOMOU]”, goat kneeling left, monogram right; Ex FORVM, photo credit FORVMPodiceps
Larissa_Phrikonis,_Aiolis,_W__Asia_Minor,_c__350_B_C_~0.jpg
Aiolis, Larissa Phrikonis mint. c. 350 B.C. 224 viewsAiolis, Larissa Phrikonis mint. c. 350 B.C. Bronze AE 11, 0.93g, 10.8mm. Fine. Obv: female head facing. Rev: bull's head right, LA. Ref: Weber 5563. Lindgren and Von Aulock each list one single coin of the city. Sear list four coins. (Flan chipped). Very rareBard Gram Okland
pegasus.jpg
Akarnania and Aetolia, Leukas Æ16 / Bellerophon on Pegasos / Chimera62 viewsAttribution: BMC 176 var.
Date: 350-300 BC
Obverse: Bellerophon riding Pegasus left
Reverse: Chimera crouching left
Size: 15.96 mm
Weight: 3.88 grams
Rarity: 7
Description: A rare bronze Ex BCD collection
3 commentsCGPCGP
18804_Ake_Ptolemais,_Galilee,_c__2nd_century_B_C_.jpg
Ake Ptolemais, Galilee, c. 2nd century B.C. AE 11, Dioskouroi heads/ cornucopia53 viewsAke Ptolemais, Galilee, c. 2nd century B.C. Bronze AE 11, L. Kadman, The Coins of Akko Ptolemais, CNP I / IV (1961), 94, 19; SGICV 6046, aF, Ptolemais (as Antiochia) mint, 1.589g, 11.1mm, 0o, obverse jugate heads of the Dioskouroi right; reverse “ANTIOCEWN TWN / EN PTOLEMAIDI” or similar, cornucopia. Ptolemais was a a maritime city of Galilee (Acts 21:7). It was originally Accho, but was renamed Ptolemais under the rule of Ptolemy Soter. Ex FORVM, photo credit FORVMPodiceps
unk_grk_horn.jpg
Ake Ptolemais, Phoenecia/Galilee25 viewsAke Ptolemais, Phoenecia/Galilee
174-164 BC
Bronze AE 11mm
Ob: jugate heads of the Dioskouroi right;
Rv: approx 'ANTIOCEWN TWN / EN PTOLEMAIDI', cornucopia
Sear 6046
Scotvs Capitis
MOR_Sidi_Mohammed_4_Falus_Fez_1288-7_C_166_1.JPG
Alawi Sharifs (Morocco). Sidi Mohammed IV (1859-1873)239 viewsKM C 166.1, Eustache __, Valentine --

Cast Bronze, 4 fallus dated 1288/7 A.H. = 1871 A.D., Fes mint, 28 mm.

Obv: Seal of Solomon.

Rev: Mint name (Fes) and date (1288/7) within two circles.
1 commentsStkp
MOR_Sid_Mohammed_2_falus_C_163_5_Hawz_1278.jpg
Alawi Sharifs (Morocco). Sidi Mohammed IV (1859-1873)223 viewsKM C 163.5, Eustache 1210, Valentine --

Cast Bronze, 2 fallus dated 1278 A.H. = 1861/62 A.D., Hawz (of Tetuan) mint, 5.16 g., 22 mm.

Obv: Seal of Solomon.

Rev: Mint name (Tetuan) and date (1278) within circle.
Stkp
MOR_Sidi_Mohammed_KM_C_166_1_1290_Fes.JPG
Alawi Sharifs (Morocco). Sidi Mohammed IV (1859-1873)223 viewsKM C 166.1, Eustache 1250, Valentine 145

Cast Bronze, 4 fallus dated 1290 A.H. = 1873/74 A.D., Fes mint, 27 mm.

Obv: Seal of Solomon.

Rev: Mint name (Fes) and date (1290) within two circles.
1 commentsStkp
ISL_Alawi_Sharifs_2_fallus_1272_Tetuan.jpg
Alawi Sharifs (Morocco). Moulay Abd al-Rahman ibn Hisham (1822-1859)22 viewsKM C 126b.6, Valentine --, Eustache __

Cast Bronze, 2 fallus dated 1272 A.H. = 1855/56 A.D., Tetouan mint, 21.87 mm. max.

Obv: Seal of Solomon.

Rev: Mint name (Tetouan) and date (1272).
Stkp
ISL_Alawi_Sharifs_4_fallus_1287_fez.jpg
Alawi Sharifs (Morocco). Sidi Mohammed IV (1859-1873)18 viewsKM C 166.1, Valentine 139

Cast Bronze, 4 fallus dated 1287 A.H. = 1870/71 A.D., Fes mint, 27 mm.

Obv: Seal of Solomon.

Rev: Mint name (Fes) and date (1271) within two circles.
Stkp
ISL_Alawi_Sharifs_4_fallus_1284_Marrakesh.jpg
Alawi Sharifs (Morocco). Sidi Mohammed IV (1859-1873)16 viewsKM C 166.2, Album 656

Cast Bronze, 4 fallus dated 1284 A.H. = 1867-1868 A.D., Fes mint, 11.95 g., 29.81 mm. max.

Obv: Seal of Solomon.

Rev: Mint name (Marrakesh) and date (1284) within two circles, bar between.
1 commentsStkp
83218q00_Seleukid_Kingdom,_Alexander_I_Balas,_150_-_145_B_C__apollo.jpg
Alexander I Balas, Apollo examining arrow; AE 1813 viewsSeleukid Kingdom, Alexander I Balas, 150 - 145 B.C. Bronze AE 18, Houghton and Lorber 1805(1), SNG Spaer 1449, Apamea on the Orontes mint, 4.699g, 18.5mm, 0o, obverse head of Alexander the Great as Herakles right wearing lion scalp headdress; reverse “ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ”, Apollo standing left, examining arrow in right, resting left on grounded bow, palm frond outer left, o“Δ”E monogram right. Ex FORVM, photo credit FORVMPodiceps
38854q00_Seleukid_Kingdom,_Alexander_I_Balas,_150_-_145_B_C__owl.jpg
Alexander I Balas, Owl; AE 1615 viewsSeleukid Kingdom, Alexander I Balas, 150 - 145 B.C. Bronze AE 16, Houghton and Lorber II 1794, SNG Spaer -, Fair, Antioch mint, 3.948g, 16.4mm, obverse diademed head of Alexander right, dot border; reverse “ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ”, owl standing three-quarters right, head facing, uncertain control marks in ex. Ex FORVM, photo credit FORVMPodiceps
Alexander_II_Zabinas.jpg
Alexander II Zabinas, 128 - 123 B.C.11 viewsAlexander II Zabinas, 128 - 123 B.C. Bronze AE 20 - 21, weight 8.05g, 125 - 122 B.C. Antioch
Obverse radiate and diademed head of Zabinas right / Reverse ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ, double cornucopia bound with fillet,
A over club inner left, Π inner right; SNG Spaer 2341; CSE 307; BMC 24
ddwau
Alexander_II.jpg
Alexander II Zabinas, 128 - 123 B.C.11 viewsAlexander II Zabinas, 128 - 123 B.C. Bronze Ae 17.5, weight 3.56g.
Obv: Diademed head of Zabinas right / Reverse ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ, Tripod.
ddwau
42845Seleukid_Kingdom,_Alexander_II_Zabinas.jpg
Alexander II Zabinas, Athena standing l. AE 2031 viewsSeleukid Kingdom, Alexander II Zabinas, 128 - 122 B.C. Bronze AE 20, Houghton and Lorber II 2233.1b, SNG Spaer 2303 - 2304, F, Antioch mint, 6.623g, 20.5mm, 0o, obverse radiate and diademed head of Alexander II right; reverse “ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ”, Athena standing left, spear in left, Nike in extended right, shield at base of spear, EY monogram / cornucopia in inner left field. Ex FORVM, photo credit FORVMPodiceps
v_048.JPG
Alexander III31 viewsAlexander III the Great 356 BC
Bronze Hemitetartemorio Cyprus

Obverse:Head of Alexander the great as Herakles,wearing lions skin
Reverse:Club and quiver between ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ

10.88mm 1.45gm



PRICE bronze
maik
044.JPG
Alexander III42 viewsAlexander III the Great 356-323 b.c
Bronze AE16
Obverse:Head of Apollo right , hair bound with tainia
Reverse:Horse prancing;ALEXANDPOY above

16.56mm 3.60gm

SEAR 6744
maik
l_063.JPG
Alexander III35 viewsAlexander III the Great 356 b.c
Bronze Macedonia 336-323 b.c

Obverse:Head of Alexander the Great as Herakles wearing lions skin.
Reverse:Bow in bow-case,club;ALEXANDROU at center;PI in upper field

16.73mm 5.75gm

Price 310 (Drama hoard) ; Sear 6739
maik
artet1.JPG
Alexander III555 viewsAlexander III AR Tetradrachm. ‘Amphipolis’ mint. Struck under Kassander, circa 316-314 BC. Head of Herakles right, wearing lion skin headdress / Zeus Aëtophoros seated left; shield in left field, pellet-in-Π below throne. 17.1 g.

Price 136; Troxell, Studies, issue L8.

Thanks for the atribution Lloyd!


Most lifetime issues of Alexander the Great were usualy bulky/thick, which did not alow for the entire design of the die to imprint on the coin. IMO looked better then the wide thin flan. (edit: though this one is Struck under Kassander)

The coin was hand stuck with a die/avil. Dies were usually made of Bronze because it was sofeter and easier to work with then iron, (though some were made of iron as well) then the was anealed to make it stronger and less brittle.

The planchets were made by pouring molten metal into a mold and saved until needed. When it was ready to be used, they heated it just below melting point and placed it between the dies and the punch die was struck with a hammer.


-----------------------------


"Building upon his father's success in Greece, Alexander III (Alexander the Great, reigned 336-323 BC) set about the conquest of the Achaemenid Persian Empire. By the time of his death at the age of 31, he ruled most of the known world from Greece to Afghanistan. Initially Alexander continued to mint Philip's gold and silver coins. Soon, however, the need for a silver coinage that could be widely used in Greece caused him to begin a new coinage on the Athenian weight-standard. His new silver coins, with the head of Herakles on one side and a seated figure of Zeus on the other, also became one of the staple coinages of the Greek world. They were widely imitated within the empire he had forged."

--------------------------------------

"......Alexander seems to have liked Amphipolis, because one of his last plans was to spend no less than 315 ton silver for a splendid new temple in the city that was to be dedicated to Artemis Tauropolus. It was never built, but after Alexander's death on 11 June 323 in Babylon, his wife queen Roxane settled in Amphipolis, which appears to have become one of the residences of the Macedonian royals. In 179, king Philip V died in the town."


------------------

Amphipolis , ancient city of Macedonia, on the Strymon (Struma) River near the sea and NE of later Thessaloníki. The place was known as Ennea Hodoi [nine ways] before it was settled and was of interest because of the gold and silver and timber of Mt. Pangaeus (Pangaion), to which it gave access. Athenian colonists were driven out (c.464 BC) by Thracians, but a colony was established in 437 BC Amphipolis became one of the major Greek cities on the N Aegean. This colony was captured by Sparta, and Brasidas and Cleon were both killed in a battle there in 422 BC After it was returned to Athens in 421 BC, it actually had virtual independence until captured (357 BC) by Philip II of Macedon. He had promised to restore it to Athens, and his retention of Amphipolis was a major cause of the war with Athens. In 148 BC it became the capital of the Roman province of Macedonia. Paul, Silas, and Timothy passed through Amphipolis (Acts 17.1). Nearby is the modern Greek village of Amfípolis."

--------------------------------

"A quick look at the WildWinds database( http://www.wildwinds.com/coins/greece/macedonia/kings/alexander_III/t.html ) indicates that the style and monograms are consistent with an Amphipolis issue, with perhaps a little less care than usual in the engraving of the reverse. The closest I could locate with a quick look is Price 133 (variant), although yours appears to have a shield rather than dolphin in the left field reverse."
16 commentsrandy h2
Clipboard~0.jpg
Alexander III Hemiobol24 viewsHead of Alexander as Herakles right, in lion skin headdress,

AΛEΞANΔPOY, Club and bow in case.

Help required with reference.
Will Hooton
alexbrz.JPG
Alexander III of Macedon AE18 336-323 BC50 viewsAlexander III bronze unit, 4.8 gms.
OBV: Head of Herakles with lionskin headdress
REV: Bow and quiver above and left-facing club below. ALEXANDROY in between.
EXERGUE: Delta in field above the quiver and bow. Below the club is a a trident. Both marks are weak and partially obscured.
Price 280 ( courtesy, Reid Goldsborough)
2 commentsdaverino
28314.jpg
Alexander III the Great - King of Macedonia c. 336-323 B.C.18 viewsBronze 18mm (6.24 grams) Macedonian mint, c. 336-323 B.C.
Obv: Head of Alexander the Great as Hercules right, wearing the lion-skin headdress.
Rev: AΛEΞANΔΡOY between Hercules' weapons, club above and bowcase below; thunderbolt above; Δ below.
Ref: Sear 6739; Price 275; Mueller 22; SNG Cop 1035
mjabrial
a_(27).jpg
Alexander III the Great 336 - 323 BC. 13 viewsAlexander III the Great 336 - 323 BC. Region of Macedonia


Obv: Alexander as Herakles clad in lion's skin head-dress right

Rev: AΛEΞANΔΡOY, club right above, bow in case below, >E above.

Diameter: 17 mm. / Weight: 5,35 gms. / Material: Ć Bronze

Refs: Muller 1709; Price 316
emporiton
aallex.jpg
Alexander III the Great 336 - 323 BC.5 viewsAlexander III the Great 336 - 323 BC. Region of Macedonia


Obv: Alexander as Herakles clad in lion's skin head-dress right

Rev: AΛEΞANΔΡOY, club right above, bow in case below, Π above.

Diameter: 18 mm. / Weight: 6,59 gms. / Material: Ć Bronze

Refs: Price 310; Muller 1702; SNG Cop 1042; cf Sear 6739.
emporiton
DES.jpg
Alexander III the Great 336 - 323 BC.11 viewsAlexander III the Great 336 - 323 BC. Region of Macedonia


Obv: Herakles clad in lion's skin head-dress right

Rev: AΛEΞANΔΡOY, club right above, bow in case below, dolphin left below.

Diameter: 17 mm. / Weight: 6,07 gms. / Material: Ć Bronze

Refs: Mueller 541, SNG Cop. 1057. Price 323
emporiton
2_1.jpg
Alexander III the Great Bronze Coin (336 B.C. - 323 B.C) four chalkoi (hemiobol)5 viewsObverse: Head of Herakles, wearing lion skin.
Reverse: AΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ, thunderbolt and club above, quiver and bow below.
Mint: Macedon.
Reference: Price 269.
Weight: 4,85g (four chalkoi (hemiobol))
Size: 17mm
Pavlos
Lifetime_Issue!_Signed_by_the_artist_EX_FORVM~0.jpg
Alexander III The Great Lifetime Issue Drachm ! Signed by the artist 123 viewsMacedonian Kingdom, Alexander III The Great, 336 - 323 B.C.




Silver drachm, Price 2090A, ADM I 80 (same dies), VF, 4.214g, 16.0mm, 0o, Miletos mint, lifetime issue, c. 325 - 323 B.C.; obverse Herakles' head right, clad in Nemean lion scalp headdress tied at neck, K on lion's jaw behind Herakles' ear; reverse ALEXANDROU, Zeus seated left, legs uncrossed, right leg forward, feet on footstool, eagle in extended right, long scepter vertical behind in left, monogram before;

EX; FORVM Ancient Coins ' Shop.


Lifetime Issue! Signed by the artist!(?) The K behind Herakles ear had traditionally been identified as the signature of the artist. Matt Kreuzer, however, believes the K (the Greek numeral 20) was used c. 325 B.C. to introduce the Attic drachm to Miletos by indicating either that 20 of these was equal to a gold stater, or that one of these drachm was equal to 20 of the 3 to 4 gram bronzes circulating at the time.


*With my sincere thank and appreciation , Photo and Description courtesy of FORVM Ancient Coins Staff.

**This coin is considered as Best of The Type :
http://www.forumancientcoins.com/gallery/displayimage.php?pos=-108526


From The Sam Mansourati Collection.
Sam
s-l40ff0.jpg
ALEXANDER III THE GREAT, Circa 336-323 BC.15 viewsBronze; Uncertain macedonian mint. Struck c.325-310 B.C.
6,48 g. 17 mm.
Obv: Head of Herakles facing right, wearing a lion's skin headdress.
Rev: AΛEΞANΔΡOΥ; quiver and bow below, club above, branch left in exergue.
Price 310. _1016
Antonivs Protti
Alexander_III__Lifetime_Issue_B_unit.jpg
Alexander III The Great, Lifetime Issue Bronze unit. 45 viewsLifetime Issue Bronze unit , 18 mm . 6.38 gr.
Price 337 , Cop. 1053 Var.

From The Sam Mansourati Collection.
Sam
alex3_miletos_pan.jpg
Alexander III The Great, Macedonian Kingdom, 336 - 323 B.C. Miletos mint89 viewsBronze AE 1/4 Unit, Price 2102Ab, weight 1.1g, max. diameter 11.65 mm, Miletos mint, Posthumous issue c. 323 - 319 B.C.; obv. Herakles' head right, clad in Nemean lion scalp headdress tied at neck; rev. ΑΛΕΞΑΝ∆ΡΟ[Υ], bow in case above, club and stalk of grain below. Dark brown and green patina with some earthen residue. Appears to have little or no wear! (much better in hand) Very scarce denomination from this mint.1 commentsSteve E
Alexander_JannaeusComp.jpg
Alexander Jannaeus70 viewsAlexander Jannaeus, 103-76 BC, Bronze lepton, Jerusalem mint, 80/79 BCE. 14.6 mm, 1.12g. O: Aramaic inscription King Alexander Year 25, star of eight rays surrounded by border of dots. R: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΛΕΞΑΝ∆ΡΟΥ (of King Alexander) around anchor in circle, date at points of anchor, L KE (year 25). Hendin 1152

Help with inscription courtesy of Aarmale.
Nemonater
Lead_Prutah.jpg
Alexander Jannaeus86 viewsAlexander Jannaeus, 103-76 BC. Lead Prutah/Token, Transjordan mint, 79/78 BCE?, 15.6 mm, 2.7 grams. O: Aramaic legend (King Alexander) in three lines within a dotted circle. R: Anchor in a circle with Greek legend ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΛΕΞΑΝ∆ΡΟΥ (of King Alexander) around. Hendin 1155, reverse appears to be a match with Menorah Coins die #1.

This coin is a bit of a mystery and therefore quite interesting. These were at one one time extremely rare and therefore not believed to be a coin at all but rather a trial specimen or a token used to gain entrance to an establishment. As hoards were discovered, it became apparent that this coin was common (although far more rare than his bronze issues) and in general circulation in the Transjordan.

Although the lead coins are not dated, the similar Aramaic inscription found on the dated prutah of Jannaeus (Hendin 1152, shown in my collection, dated year 25 = 80/79 BCE) indicates it may have been minted around 79 BCE. These are the only types of Jannaeus that have an Aramaic inscription.

The appearance of both Greek and Aramaic on these coins may reflect a softening of Jannaeus (a staunch supporter of the Hellenistic Sadducees) toward the Aramaic speaking Pharasees.
1 commentsNemonater
J09-Jannaeus.jpg
Alexander Jannaeus "Yehonatan", (Hasmonean King), Anchor/Wheel Æ Prutah, 103-76 BCE235 viewsBronze prutah of Alexander Jannaeus "Yehonatan" (103 – 76 BCE), 15 mm, 2.61 grams. Struck 100-90 BCE.

Obverse: Star within diadem, Hebrew inscription between the rays המלך יהונתן “Yehonatan the King”.
Reverse: Anchor. Greek inscription ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΣ “[Coin] Of King Alexander”

Reference: Hendin 469, Meshorer AJC I, Group Ca #8

Added to collection: April 11, 2005
3 commentsDaniel Friedman
J09e-Jannaeus H-473.jpg
Alexander Jannaeus "Yehonatan", (Hasmonean King), Æ Prutah, 103-76 BCE99 viewsBronze prutah of Alexander Jannaeus "Yehonatan", Jerusalem mint.

Obverse: Double cornucopia adorned with ribbons, pomegranate between horns; VF, nicely centered obverse and nice green patina.
Reverse: Hebrew inscription, “Yehonatan the High Priest and the Council [of the Jews]” – יהונתן הכהן הגדול וחבר [היהודים], surrounded by wreath.

Reference: Hendin 473, Mesh. AJC I, Group Ea

Added to Collection: November 4, 2005
1 commentsDaniel Friedman
fake.jpg
Alexander Jannaeus (Yehonatan)63 views103 - 76 B.C.
Widow’s Mite
Bronze prutah (or lepton)
1.55 g, 19 mm
Obv.: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ AΛEΞANΔPOY around inverted anchor
Rev.: star surrounded by diadem

Modern replica received in advertisement for
The Jewish Voice Ministries
Jaimelai
1148.jpg
Alexander Jannaeus (Yehonatan) AE Prutah. H 1148. 52 viewsAlexander Jannaeus, 103-76 BC, bronze prutah of 13.9 mm, 1.82 grams.

Obverse: Lily with Hebrew inscription "Jonathan the King."

Reverse: Anchor with Greek inscription, "of King Alexander."

When it was issued, this coin was struck in massive numbers. However, during the subsequent rule of Hyrcanus II, the vast majority of them were overstruck, apparently while still in the mint, to create coin Hendin-478. Thus the original lily/anchor type is quite scarce relative to the other Hasmonean prutot.

Hendin-1148.


1 commentsSkySoldier
hendin471.jpg
Alexander Jannaeus (Yehonatan), 103 - 76 B.C. Bronze lepton, Hendin 47125 viewsJudean Kingdom, Alexander Jannaeus (Yehonatan), 103 - 76 B.C. Bronze lepton, Hendin 471, Fair, Jerusalem mint, 1.224g, 13.1mm, 78 - 76 B.C.; obverse “ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ” (of King Alexander), anchor upside-down in circle, L KE (year 25) near anchor points; reverse Aramaic inscription, King Alexander Year 25, star of eight rays surrounded by diadem of dots. Ex FORVMPodiceps
hendin_469.jpg
Alexander Jannaeus (Yehonatan), 103 - 76 B.C. Bronze prutah, Hendin 4699 viewsJudean Kingdom, Alexander Jannaeus (Yehonatan), 103 - 76 B.C. Bronze prutah, Hendin 469, F, Jerusalem mint, 1.365g, 14.5mm, 95 - 76 B.C.; obverse “BASILEWS ALEXANDROU” (of King Alexander), around anchor; reverse , eight ray star surrounded by diadem (or wheel), Hebrew inscription 'Yehonatan the king' between rays. Jannaeus' anchor coins were probably struck after the conquest of the coastal cities (with the exception of Ashkelon) in 95 B.C. The anchor probably publicized the annexation of these areas. -- Ancient Jewish Coinage by Yaakov Meshorer. Ex FORVMPodiceps
hendin_473-4.jpg
Alexander Jannaeus (Yehonatan), 103 - 76 B.C. Bronze prutah, Hendin 473-4745 viewsJudean Kingdom, Alexander Jannaeus (Yehonatan), 103 - 76 B.C. Bronze prutah, Hendin 473 - 474, Fair, Jerusalem mint, 2.260g, 14.1mm, 0o, obverse Hebrew inscription, Yehonatan the High Priest and the Council of the Jews, within wreath; reverse, double cornucopia adorned with ribbons, pomegranate between horns. Ex FORVMPodiceps
hendin_474.jpg
Alexander Jannaeus (Yehonatan), 103 - 76 B.C. Bronze prutah, Hendin 4744 viewsJudean Kingdom, Alexander Jannaeus (Yehonatan), 103 - 76 B.C. Bronze prutah, Meshorer TJC Q17, Hendin 474, VF, Jerusalem mint, 1.628g, 14.1mm, 0o, obverse Hebrew inscription, Yehonatan the High Priest and the Council of the Jews, surrounded by wreath; reverse, double cornucopia adorned with ribbons, pomegranate between horns. Ex FORVMPodiceps
hendin478.jpg
Alexander Jannaeus (Yehonatan), 103 - 76 B.C. Bronze prutah, Hendin 4788 viewsJudean Kingdom, Alexander Jannaeus (Yehonatan), 103 - 76 B.C. Bronze prutah, Hendin 478, overstruck on an earlier prutot, aF, Jerusalem mint, 1.92g, 14.6mm, 180o, obverse Hebrew inscription, Yonatan the High Priest and the Council of the Jews, within wreath; reverse, double cornucopia with pomegranate between horns. This type has been reattributed from Hyrcanus II to Alexander Jannaeus by Hendin and Shachar in 'The Identity of YNTN on Hasmonean Overstruck Coins and the Chronology of the Alexander Jannaeus Types,' Israel Numismatic Research 3, 2008: 87-94. It appears this type was overstruck on earlier coins of Alexander Jannaeus that had never been released from the mint. Ex FORVMPodiceps
alex_j_prutah_h478.jpg
Alexander Jannaeus (Yehonatan), 103 - 76 B.C. Bronze prutah, Hendin 4784 viewsJudean Kingdom, Alexander Jannaeus (Yehonatan), 103 - 76 B.C. Bronze prutah, Meshorer TJC T6, Hendin 478, VF, Jerusalem mint, 1.824g, 16.1mm, obverse Hebrew inscription, Yonatan the High Priest and the Council of the Jews, within wreath; reverse , double cornucopia with pomegranate between horns; nice centering and strike, overstruck on an earlier prutah, partly uncleaned. Ex FORVMPodiceps
H469.jpg
Alexander Jannaeus Prutah - Hendin 469146 viewsThis coin, minted under the reign of Alexander Jannaeus (103 BCE - 76 BCE), is a bronze prutah.
OBV. Upside-down achor reading BAΣIΛEΩΣ AΛEΞAN[ΔΡOY].
REV. Eight ponted star, letters in the spokes, reading 'Yehonatan the King' ([HaMelech] Yehona[tan]). Beautiful desert patina. Thick for a prutah.
2 commentsAarmale
AlexSev.jpg
Alexander Severus Roman Provincial Tetradrachm ( ALex. Mint)22 viewsAlexander Severus, struck AD 222/223 (year 2)

Metal: Bronze
Diam: 25 mm.
Weight: 8.8 gr.

OBV: Young A.S. Bust draped and cuirassed, seen from behind, bare-headed, facing right.
OBV-LEGEND: Not Visible
Marks-OBV: None

REV: Tyche, wearing kalathos, stg. l., holding rudder and cornucopiae, in l. field LB
REV-LEGEND : None visible
Marks-REV: L B Top-Left i front of Tyche’s face

Source : Alexandria, Egypt Catacombs when was young
Age: 222 A.D.
Mint: Alexandria ( Egypt)

Ref :Dattari cf. 4373 (different portrait); SNG Copenhagen 616; Köln (coll. Geissen) 2413
Michel C2
alexanderx.jpg
Alexander the Great46 viewsObv: Head of beardless Herakles, right, wearing lion skin headdress.
Rev: ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ in exergue; Charioteer in Biga right, Trident below.
"Alexandria (Antigoneia)" mint, struck c.310-301 BC. Extremely rare!

Attribution to this mint has been questioned of late (Meadows, NC 2004),
although no firmer alternative has yet been put forward. A mint in the Troad
seems to be likely, given that three were found in the excavations at Troy.

This is an extremely desirable and very difficult to find item. It appears that
there are none on any of the modern sales databases, and I know of only
one other that has been offered via a 'small seller' on an online auction site.

There is one in the British museum, at least one in Berlin (I-B), one in
the Portolos collection (Athens); another in Paris (B 80); the three that
were found at Troy, the one offered online, and now this one.
Please feel free to let me know of any other known specimens.

Among the rarest bronzes of the series.
Price 1587; Gaebler p.169, 7 pl.XXXI,26;
Bellinger Troy A1; BM 1921,0213.196.
(dealer's image {edited})
OldMoney
Alexander_III_Herakles-Weapons.jpg
Alexander the Great * Macedonia, 337 to 323 BC. Bronze drachm152 views
Obv: Alexander III guised as Herakles in lion skin headdress, right-facing, enclosed within ornamental dotted circle.
Rev: (Top to bottom) * Lighting bolt, knotted Olive-branch club right-facing, AΛEXANΔΡ[OY], Unstrung bow in ornamented traveling/storage case, Monogram Δ.

Exergue: (N/A) Monogram Δ present in undefined exergual space.

Mint: (Pella?)
Struck: 337-323 BC.

Size: 18.50 mm.
Weight: 6.38 gms.
Die axis: 360°

Condition: XF. Exceptionally lovely coin, more-so in hand. Superb high relief and all details distinct and present.
Beautiful tone, rather dark-golden in the higher relief’s contrast delightfully against a yet-darker gold background in the lower areas of the flan. The flat area around the portrait and within the dotted circle is a strong, accentuating black-olive (not well-communicated by the present image).
Exquisite example of the type.

Refs:*
Not found in Sear GCATV.
Sear 6739, is an Ć 20. Partially descriptive.
4 commentsTiathena
087.JPG
Alexander the Great - Bronze Half Unit46 views336-323 B.C.
4.03 gm, 17 mm
Obv.: Macedonian shield with head of Herakles wearing lion skin facing slightly right in center
Rev.: Macedonian helmet; B A to either side
grain ear (or rose bud) below left
Price 2807
Jaimelai
001~3.JPG
Alexander the Great - Bronze Half Unit48 views336-323 B.C.
4.20 gm, 16 mm
Obv.: Macedonian shield with thunderbolt in center (boss), double crescents alternating with star design
Rev.: Crested, laureate Macedonian helmet; B-A to either side; thunderbolt below
Macedonian mint (325-310 B.C.)
Price 416a
2 commentsJaimelai
004~0.JPG
Alexander the Great - Bronze Half Unit53 views336-323 B.C.
3.39 gm, 15 mm
Obv.: Head of Apollo right, hair bound with tainia
Rev.: Horse galloping right,
AΛEΞANΔΡOΥ above,
star below.
Price 349 ; Sear 6744 var.
3 commentsJaimelai
024~0.JPG
Alexander the Great - Bronze Half Unit37 views336-323 B.C.
4.79 gm, 15.5 mm
Obv.: Head of Apollo right, hair bound with tainia
Rev.: Horse galloping right, AΛEΞANΔΡOΥ above, kantharos below.
Price 345; Sear 6744 var.
1 commentsJaimelai
005~3.JPG
Alexander the Great - Bronze Quarter Unit34 views336-323 B.C.
1.58 gm, 12 mm
Obv.: Head of Heracles, beardless, wearing lionskin, right; dotted border
Rev.: AΛE / ΞANΔΡOΥ above and beneath club right; bow and quiver below; linear border.
Price 267; Sear 6745v.
Jaimelai
140.jpg
Alexander the Great - Bronze Unit85 views336-323 B.C.
5.08 gm, 18 mm
Obv.: Head of Herakles right, in lion skin headdress
Rev.: AΛEΞANΔΡOΥ, club above, bow in case below,
dolphin in ex..
Macedonian mint
Price 323
(Muller 541; Drama 91; SNG Cop 1057)
4 commentsJaimelai
018~0.JPG
Alexander the Great - Bronze Unit54 views336-323 B.C.
6.56 gm, 19 mm
Obv.: Head of Alexander as Herakles right, in lion skin headdress
Rev.: AΛEΞANΔΡ, club above, bow and quiver below, thunderbolt above, Δ in ex.
Macedonian mint
Price 275 (Drama 104, E. Macedonia; SNG Cop 1035)
2 commentsJaimelai
004~1.JPG
Alexander the Great - Bronze Unit37 views336-323 B.C.
5.65 gm, 17 mm
Obv.: Head of Alexander as Herakles right, in lion skin headdress
Rev.: B A, bow and quiver above, club below, mouse in ex.
Macedonian mint
325-310 B.C.
Price 382, (SNG Cop 1027)
Jaimelai
002a.jpg
Alexander the Great - Bronze Unit29 views336-323 B.C.
5.85 gm, 17 mm
Obv.: Head of young Herakles right, in lion skin headdress
Rev.: B A, bow and quiver above, club below, trident in ex.
Macedonian mint
325-310 B.C.
Price 386, Sear 6742v
Jaimelai
alexander_bronze.jpg
Alexander the Great 336-323 BC.80 viewsObverse: Head of Alexander as Herakles in lion's skin right.
Reverse: Bow with quiver and club, B A.
Attribution: Sear 6742
Date: After 336 BC
AE17, 17.97 mm, 5.9 grams
b70
Alexander_the_Great_Bronze.JPG
Alexander the Great AE 336 to 323 BC34 viewsKings of Macedon Alexander the Great 336 to 323 BC
Obverse: Head of Herakles right, wearing lion Skin
Reverse: ALEXANDROU between bow in case & quiver & club Sold :o(

Antonivs Protti
Alexander_The_Great_Bow_Quiver~0.JPG
Alexander The Great Bow Quiver121 viewsAlexander the Great AE "Herakles Bow, club & quiver" Bronze coin of Alexander III, the Great 336-323 B.C., 19mm, 5.8g
OBV: Head of Herakles right, wearing lion's skin
REV: ALEXANDROY between bow, quiver and club, delta below
1 commentsRomanorvm
AlexSmall.jpg
Alexander the Great Bronze18 viewsA lifetime issue Alexander the Great bronze coin.

Obverse: the head of a young man, probably Apollo, inside a dotted border.

Reverse: a horse rearing up, with the name ALEXANDROY written above, and the letter Phi, a mintmark, written below

Minted in Macedonia, 336-323 BC, probably at the royal mint at the capital city of Pella.

Attribution: Price 361
chuy1530
Alexb.jpg
Alexander the Great Bronze Coin9 viewsAn Alexander the Great bronze coin minted between 325-310 BC. 19 mm, 4.72 g. Possibly a lifetime issue but likely not. The coloring brings out the detail on this very dark coin well.

Obverse: Head of Herakles in lion skin headdress

Reverse: B A Bow and case above, studded club below

Attribution: SG 6742 var
chuy1530
Alexander_The_Great_Gorytos~0.JPG
Alexander The Great Gorytos147 viewsAlexander The Great, bronze, gorytos type, four chalkoi (hemiobol), 336 - 323 BC, 17mm, 4.4g
Western Asia Minor, M.J. Price 322, Müller 1699, SNG Saraglos 843, SNG Milano 145,
SNG Stockholm 284, SNG Cop. 1059, McClean 3516.
This Alexander bronze type, like the first, also features Herakles on the obverse and a soldier's weapons on the reverse.
But in this case the weapons are a gorytos (case for bow and quiver) along with a club, and the bow lies within the gorytos
rather than underneath the quiver.
Often the gorytos is referred to as a bow case, but it also holds arrows as well so is probably best referred to as a gorytos.
Sometimes it's erroneously referred to as an arrow case or quiver, by dealers as well as attribution references,
with no distinction made between the gorytos and quiver bronze types.
SNG Manchester mistakenly referred to it as a bull's head based upon the worn specimen they had to attribute.
Gorytos bronzes are seen less frequently than the quiver bronzes. The mint mark on this particular variety, below the gorytos, is the letter E.
Romanorvm
0524178.jpg
Alexander The Great Type 2 bronze, four chalkoi, 336-323 BCE13 viewsAE 16, 3.5 g, Western Asia Minor, c 336-323 BCE
Obverse - Heracles bust right
Reverse - gorytos (case for bow and quiver) with a club above
Mint mark E
NORMAN K
amphipolis_alex_eagle.jpg
Alexander the Great, Amphipolis; eagle, Æ178 viewsAlexander the Great 336-323 B.C. 4g. 17mm. Mint: Amphipolis. Bronze. Obv. Head of Alexander as Herakles clad in lion's skin headdress. Rev. Eagle standing right on thunderbolt, head turned left, crescent?, ALEXAN/DROU. Sear 6743 var (instead of leaf in upper field left a crescent?), Cf. also M. Price 160a. Podiceps
Alexandrie Antonin.jpg
Alexandria - Bronze drachm of Antoninus Pius17 viewsReverse : reciling Nile-god, crocodile beneath.Ginolerhino
Hadrien Alexandrie.jpg
Alexandria - Bronze drachm of Hadrian59 viewsObv. legend out of flan ; laureate bust of Hadrian.
Rev. : Decorated front of Egyptian temple, the cultus statue is visible between the pylons.
1 commentsGinolerhino
016.jpg
Alexandria Troas 14 viewsAlexandria Troas 3rd-2nd Cent b.c
Bronze AE17

Obverse:Head of Apollo
Reverse:ALEXAN ; above horse grazing

17mm 4.44gm

SEAR 4028

Alexandria was at cost of Troas founded at 310 b.c from Antigonos and originally bore the name Antigoneia.At 301 b.c Lysimachos renamed the city Alexandreia.
maik
alexandria_troas_horse.jpg
Alexandria Troas, AE 11; Apollo right/ ΑΛΕ, horse grazing right, wreath beneath16 viewsAlexandria Troas, Troas, 3rd - 2nd century B.C. Bronze AE 11, SGCV II 4029, VF, Alexandria Troas mint, 0.638g, 9.0mm, 0o, 3rd to 2nd Centuries B.C.; obverse laureate head of Apollo right; reverse “ΑΛΕ”, horse grazing right, wreath beneath; nice patina. Ex FORVMPodiceps
Alexandria_Troas.jpg
Alexandria Troas, c. 3rd - 2nd Century B.C.36 viewsObverse : laureate head Apollo right.
Reverse : AΛEΞA , horse grazing left, monogram and thunderbolt beneath.
Alexandria Troas mint.
aVF , Bronze , SGCV II 4028.

From The Sam Mansourati Collection.
Sam
Gallienus,_Alexandria_Troas,_grazing_horse,_AE19.JPG
Alexandria Troas, grazing horse, AE19 "LICINI"18 viewsGallienus, Alexandria Troas, grazing horse, AE19. Bronze AE 26, SNG Cop 202 ff. var (obverse legend), VF, Alexandria Troas mint, 3.389g, 19.3mm, 0°, obverse IMP LICINI GALLIENVS, laureate, draped bust right, from behind; reverse COL AVG O TROA, horse feeding right; nice style, cleaning scratches 'In all references consulted, the longest form of Licinius on Gallienus' Alexandrian coins is LICIN, however our coin appears to read LICINI.' ex FORVM & areich, photo credit FORVMPodiceps
troas_alex_eagle.jpg
Alexandria; Tyche/ Eagle, AE 205 viewsAlexandria Troas circa 3rd century A.D. Bronze 20mm 4.4g. Obverse: ALEX TRO, Turreted bust of city deity Right. Reverse: COL AVG TRO, Eagle right on head of bull. BMC 15, 53 var. Ex David LiebertPodiceps
Allectus- Pax Avg.jpg
Allectus- Pax Avg77 viewsAllectus, summer 293 - 296 or 297 A.D.

Obverse:
Radiate draped and cuirassed bust right

IMP: Imperator, leader of the army
C: Caes
ALLECTVS: Allectus
P F: Pius Felix, Pious and happy
AVG: Augustus, emperor

Reverse:
PAX AVG, the divine peace

PAX: Peace
AVG: Divine


Pax standing left holding scepter and branch

Domination: Bronze antoninianus, Size 16 mm.

Mint: Cologne or Camolodunum mint

Comment: The coin is 'Barbarous'. It's so well established, unfortunately, that we're stuck with it. It refers to coins struck unofficially during times of shortage, which would be comparable with the tokens which circulated in Britain in the late 18th-eatly 19th centuries at a time when there was a shortage of copper coinage. The term 'barbarous' comes from an old, now discredited, idea that they were struck by 'barbarians' outside the empire.
John Schou
1kroon.jpg
Aluminium-Bronze 1 Kroon.76 viewsEstonia. Republic (1918-1941) Aluminium-Bronze 1 Kroon

Denomination 1 Kroon
Date Struck 1934
Mint Tallinn
Obv: Arms of State, date in exe.
Rev: Norse Longboat sailing left.
Weight 5 gm.
Diameter 25 mm
Grade VF.
Material Aluml-Bronze
Mintage 3406066, Reference Eesti Vabariigi mündid ja paberrahad, Gunnar Haljak. Väljaandja Tallinn 2008
3 commentsGaiusCaligula
mithridatesviamastris2.jpg
Amastris, Paphlagonia26 viewsAncient Greek City Issue
Amastris, Paphlaognia
(Under Reign of Mithridates VI 'the Great' of Pontus)

Obverse: Aegis with facing head of gorgon in middle


Reverse: Nike advancing right, palm across shoulders, AMAΣ-TPEΩΣ in fields

Bronze Unit (20mm, 7.1g)
Minted in Amastris 85-65BC

Reference: SNG Copenhagen 246


Translations and explanations:

Amastris was founded circa 300BC by a Persian princess of the same name, niece of King Darius III and is now Amasra in modern day Turkey.

Mithridates VI was a thorn in Rome's side for 40 years until finally being defeated by Pompey the Great.

An aegis is the shield or breastplate of Zeus or Athena.

Nike is the Greek god of victory.

AMAΣTPEΩΣ means 'of the Amastrians'.






Sphinx357
amatokosII.jpg
Amatokos II, AE23; Grapes/ Double axe21 viewsThracian (Scythian) King Amatokos II, ca. 359 - 351 B.C. 16,6g. 23mm. Bronze. obs: AMATOKO. Double axe. Rev: Grapes. Peter, Dynasten S. 134. Jurukova, TC Tf. 9, 47.Podiceps
American_Legion_School_Award.JPG
American Legion School Award26 viewsObv: FOR GOD & COUNTRY (the first four words of the American Legion's Constitution), a soldier and a sailor bearing arms, standing before a seascape that transitions into the French countryside, SEMPER FIDELIS in exergue.

Rev: An eagle with wings spread stands above the legend: AMERICAN LEGION / SCHOOL AWARD / COURAGE HONOR SERVICE / LEADERSHIP SCHOLARSHIP. In the lower third of the reverse is the American Legion seal above a sunburst.

Originally, the award was given to a boy of exceptional character in the graduating class of every grammar school in the state where there were at least ten male graduates. In 1925 an award of a different design was made for girls.

Designer: Robert Tait McKenzie

Produced by the Medallic Art Company, ca. 1922 - 1950, Bronze, Diameter: 76 mm
Matt Inglima
Capture_00013.JPG
Amisos, Pontos53 viewsLate 2nd-Early 1st Century B.C.
Bronze AE20
7.89 gm, 20 mm
Obv.: Head of young Ares right wearing crested helmet
Rev.: Sword in sheath; AMI-ΣOY across field, star above cresent moon in upper left field, IB in upper right field, PΠMK monogram in lower left
SNG Black Sea 1162;
BMC 13, p.17, 47;
Sear 3643v
Jaimelai
006~0.JPG
Amisos, Pontos85 views85-65 B.C.
Bronze AE19
7.90 gm, 19 mm
Obv.: Aegis with Gorgon at the center
Rev.: Nike wearing talaric chiton with diplois, advancing right;
on left shoulder, filleted palm supported by both hands.
AMI-ΣOY across field,
monograms to left and right
SNG Black Sea 1161;
BMC 13, p.20, 72;
Sear 3642
3 commentsJaimelai