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Archetecture-4.JPG
17 viewsJerome Holderman
Archetecture-3.JPG
32 viewsJerome Holderman
Archetecture-2.JPG
27 viewsJerome Holderman
Archetecture-1.JPG
15 viewsJerome Holderman
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64 viewsBulgarian trachy of Constantine Tich Asen (1257-1277). Obv: Bust of Christ. Rev: Czar on horseback, holding scepter topped with patriarchal cross. Dumbarton Oaks Vol IV, pl. XLVIII B (3). +Alexios
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23 viewsCarus, Divus. Died 283 AD. Antoninianus, 3.61g (5h). Lugdunum, . Obv: DIVO CARO PIO Head radiate right. Rx: CONSECRATIO Eagle standing left, head right, II (officina 2) in exergue. RIC 29. Bastien, Lyon 623 (48 spec.). Ex Berk 153, 13 March 2007, lot 372. Quant.Geek
Tripura_RB-136.jpg
17 viewsTripura, Udaya Manikya, Tanka, 11.16g, Sk 1489, citing Queen Hira, as previous lot, but border of arches on the obverse points right rather than left, no bead in front of lion, none of the date behind lion's back leg; reverse legend arranged slightly differently: Śri Śri Yutoda/ya Manikya/ Deva Śri Hi/ra Maha Devyau (RB. 136; KM. 79)SpongeBob
Sear-2429.jpg
10 viewsAndronicus II Palaeologus, with Michael IX. 1282-1328. Ć Assarion (19mm, 1.70 g, 6h). Class III. Constantinople mint. Struck 1295-1320. Winged seraph / Half-length facing figures of Andronicus and Michael, holding patriarchal cross between them. DOC 638-46; SB 2429. VF, green and brown patina.


From the Iconodule Collection.
Quant.Geek
Sear-2374.jpg
12 viewsAndronicus II Palaeologus. 1282-1328. Ć Trachy (23.5mm, 1.61 g, 6h). Class IV. Thessalonica mint. Facing bust of St. Demetrius, holding spear and shield / Half-length winged facing figure of Andronicus, holding sword and akakia, above crenelated wall with archways. DOC 730-1; SB 2374. VF, dark green patina, minor areas of weak strike, struck on irregular flan.


From the Iconodule Collection.
Quant.Geek
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10 viewsJohn Comnenus-Ducas. As emperor of Thessalonica, 1237-1242. BI Trachy (14mm, 0.38 g, 6h). Thessalonica mint. Facing bust of Christ Pantokrator / Facing busts John and St. Demetrius, holding patriarchal cross between them. DOC –; SB –; NAC 56, lot 830 (hammer 800 CHF). VF, dark green patina, obverse struck with worn die, ragged flan. Extremely rare.


From the Iconodule Collection.
Quant.Geek
Bolskan_denarius.jpg
15 viewsAncient Greek
SPAIN
Bolskan. Circa 150-100 BC
AR denarius
Bearded male head right / Horseman riding right, holding spear
4.05 g, 17-18 mm, silver
ACIP 1417; SNG BM Spain 710
[Ex Kallman Collection, purchased from Malter Galleries, March 1971]
paul1888
Philip_I_antelope_right_VI_june_22_2018.jpg
25 viewsSilver antoninianus, RIC IV 22 (R2), RSC IV 188, SRCV III 8959 var. (antelope left), Hunter III 48 var. (same), Choice aEF, excellent centering on a broad flan, excellent portrait, light toning, some luster, strike slightly soft/flat, some die wear, 6th officina, Rome mint, weight 4.402g, maximum diameter 23.8mm, die axis 0o, 248 A.D.; obverse IMP PHILIPPVS AVG, radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right, from behind; reverse SAECVLARES AVGG, antelope walking right, VI in exergue; very rare with antelope right (only two on Coin Archives and one sold for $700!; ex Beast Coins; Ex Forum coin and picture1 commentspaul1888
Trajan.jpg
64 viewsTrajan AR Denarius. Rome, AD 113-114. IMP TRAIANO OPTIMO AVG GER DAC P M TR P, laureate and draped bust right / COS VI P P SPQR, Trajan's column surmounted by statue of the emperor; at base, two eagles. RIC 307; BMCRE 522; RSC 115. 3.53g, 20mm, 6h.
Of all of the truly monumental buildings and commemorative structures which the emperor Trajan built, only one, the Columna Traiani, has survived in a reasonable state of completeness. Indeed, it appears almost identical in person as it does on coins, except that the statue of Trajan that originally surmounted it was replaced in 1588 with a statue of St. Paul. When completed, the column occupied a prominent place between two libraries, the Basilica Ulpia and the Temple of Trajan and Plotina. The column was massive: it was over 12 feet in diameter at its base, and rose to a height of nearly 130 feet. Its core was comprised of 34 blocks of Carrara white marble that were made hollow so as to accommodate a circular staircase of 185 steps. The most remarkable feature of the column, however, was its ornamentation, for the friezes on its exterior are some of the most inspiring works of art ever produced. Monumental in scope and execution, they record Trajan’s two Dacian campaigns, from 101-3 and 104-6. All told, there are more than 2,500 individually sculpted figures distributed among more than 150 scenes. The emperor himself is represented no less than fifty times – not a surprise considering his penchant for commemorative architecture and his pride in having added Dacia to the provinces of the empire. “ Source: NAC”

Ex Michael Kelly Collection of Roman Silver Coins
4 commentspaul1888
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3 Tiberius, Utica, Zeugitana, Ex John Quincy Adams Collection30 viewsBronze dupondius, RPC I 739, F, holed, 13.158g, 29.8mm, 90o, Zeugitana, Utica mint, 298 - 30 A.D.; obverse TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVG IMP VIII, bare head left; reverse C VIBIO MARSO PRCOS III C SALLVSTIVS IVSTVS II, Livia seated right, scepter in left, patera in extended right, M - M / I - V across fields; with John Quincy Adams Collection tag from the Stack's Sale; scarce
RI0001
Ex John Quincy Adams Collection, 6th President of the United States, and His Descendants, ex Massachusetts Historical Society Collection, ex Stack’s Sale , 5-6 March 1971, lot 763.

Purchased from FORVM
Sosius
Otho_Den_3.jpg
8 Otho Denarius51 viewsOTHO
AR Denarius
Jan. 15-March 8, 69 A.D.
IMP M OTHO CAESAR AVG TR P Bare head r. / SEC – VRI – TAS P R Securitas standing l., holding wreath in r. hand and sceptre in l.
RIC 8
Ex Coliseum Coins
RI0045
4 commentsSosius
63430q00.jpg
10 Vespasian and Titus29 viewsVespasian, 1 July 69 - 24 June 79 A.D., Antioch, Syria

Silver tetradrachm, Prieur 113, McAlee 336, RPC II 1947, Wruck 86, aVF, Antioch mint, weight 13.89g, maximum diameter 24.3mm, die axis 0o, 70 - 71 A.D.; obverse ΑΥΤΟΚΡΑΤ ΚΑΙΣΑ ΟΥΕΣΠΑΣΙΑΝΟΥ, laureate bust right; reverse ETOYC Γ IEPOY (Holy Year 3), eagle standing left on club, wings spread, palm frond left; ex CNG auction 149, lot 286; ex Garth R. Drewry Collection, ex Harmer Rooke (26-28 March 1973), lot 488 (part of).

Struck to pay Titus' legions during and after the First Jewish Revolt. RPC notes c. 320 different dies indicate 6,500,000 Syrian tetradrachms might have been minted. This was the quantity Titus would have needed to pay his four legions. Hoard evidence finds many of these types in Judaea confirming they were used to pay the legions.

Purchased from FORVM!
RI0002
Sosius
Philip_AE_25_of_Antioch.jpg
2 Philip I18 viewsPhilip I
Ć25 of Antiochia, Pisidia
244-249 AD

Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust r. / The river-god Anthios reclining l. on urn, holding reed and cornucopia.

SNG von Aulock 4971. VF

This coin may be a die match with this coin: http://www.acsearch.info/record.html?id=602309
Sosius
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21 Pertinax Denarius33 viewsPERTINAX
AR denarius, Rome
January 1–March 28, 193 AD

O: IMP CAES P HELV PERTIN AVG, laureate head of Pertinax right

R: PROVID DEOR COS II, Providentia standing l., raising r. hand toward star.
BMCRE 13. RIC 11(a). RSC 43. Very fine

Ex Numismatica Ars Classica
RI0132
Sosius
Elagabalus_SNG_Cop_145.jpg
29 Elagabalus18 viewsELAGABALUS
AE25 of Byblus, Phoenicia.

AV K M AVP ANTWNINOC, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right / IEPAC BYBLOY, hexastyle temple with central arch, Astarte standing facing within, foot on prow, holding sceptre, being crowned by Nike on column to r.

SNG Cop 145, BMC 52
Sosius
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29 Elagabalus, 16 May 218 - 11 March 222 A.D.27 viewsSilver denarius, BMCRE V 234, RIC IV 161, RSC III 300a, EF, 2.693g, 19.8mm, 180o, Rome mint, 220 - 222 A.D.; obverse IMP ANTONINVS PIVS AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right, from behind; reverse VICTORIA AVG, Victory flying left holding diadem in both hands, at each side a small shield, star right

Purchased from FORVM
Sosius
Max_Thrax_Sestertius.jpg
31 Maximinus I Thrax, 20 March 235 - Late May 238 A.D.36 viewsOrichalcum sestertius, RIC IV 43, Cohen 10, VF, 23.158g, 32.3mm, 30o, Rome mint, 235 A.D.; obverse IMP MAXIMINVS PIVS AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right, from behind; reverse FIDES MILITVM S C, Fides standing half-left, military standard in each hand; well centered, nice patina, flan crack, typical squared flan

Purchased from FORVM
1 commentsSosius
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32 Gordian I Africanus31 viewsGORDIAN I AFRICANUS
AE Sestertius, Rome Mint
27-29 mm, 17.75 g
March 19 to April 9, 238 A.D.
IMP CAES M ANT GORDIANVS AFR AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from behind / VICTORIA AVGG, S-C, Victory advancing left, holding wreath and palm.
RIC IV, 2, p. 161, 12. Very rare. Good portrait and fully readable name. Very fine.
Ex-Auctiones

Gordian I, an 80-year-old senator, was proclaimed as emperor during a revolt in Africa but commited suicide after his son and co-ruler Gordianus II was defeated by Maximinus' legate. Their rule only lasted for 20 days, hence the rarity of their coins.
Sosius
Constantine_II_J_Q_Adams_-_RIC_VII_Trier_539.jpg
71 Constantine II Ex John Quincy Adams Collection25 viewsAE Follis, Trier Mint

RIC VII Trier 539, Sear (2014) 17314


Ex John Quincy Adams Collection, 6th President of the United States, and His Descendants, ex Massachusetts Historical Society Collection, ex Stack’s Sale, 5-6 March 1971, Lot # 948
Bought by Christian Blom, then sold to Smithsonian Institution underwater archaeologist Mendel Peterson, then to D.C. coin dealer Gene Brandenburg, then to me.
Sosius
Licinius_JQ_Adams_RIC_VI_Thessalonica_59.jpg
8 Licinius42 viewsAE Follis, Thessalonica Mint, 312-313 AD

RIC VI Thessalonica 59


Ex John Quincy Adams Collection, 6th President of the United States, and His Descendants, ex Massachusetts Historical Society Collection, ex Stack’s Sale, 5-6 March 1971, Lot # 944
Bought by Christian Blom, then sold to Smithsonian Institution underwater archaeologist Mendel Peterson, then to D.C. coin dealer Gene Brandenburg, then to me.
1 commentsSosius
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AHG 234 . The Antioch Hoard of Gallienus . Gallienus, August 253 - 24 March 268 A.D.23 viewsGallienus, August 253 - 24 March 268 A.D.
Billon antoninianus . 2.927g, 19.7mm, 180o, Antioch mint, 254 - 255 A.D.
Obverse : IMP C P LIC GALLIENVS AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Reverse VICTORIAE AVGG, soldier standing right, vertical spear in right, resting left on shield
Göbl MIR 1566d (Antioch), SRCV III 10397 (Antioch), RIC V 300 (Viminacium), AHG 234 (this coin)
From the Antioch Hoard of Gallienus . Ex Forum
Vladislav D
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ANCIENT-INDIA-KAKANI-COIN-OF-SUNGA-KINGDOM-CAST-COPPER-COIN-2-31gm Ref..Mitchiner 4381.14 viewsObv - Elephant Left , Torion, Swastik Indradavaja
Rev - Three arched Hill, Hollow Cross, Torion, Tree Railing
Antonivs Protti
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AUGUSTUS. AR Cistophorus (3 denarii) of Pergamum. Struck c.19 - 18 B.C.602 viewsObverse: IMP IX TR PO V. Bare head of Augustus facing right.
Reverse: Triumphal arch surmounted by Augustus in facing triumphal quadriga; IMP IX TR POT V on architrave; S P R SIGNIS RECEPTIS in three lines within arch opening, standards at either side.
RIC I : 510 | BMC : 703 | RSC : 298.

This coin commemorates Augustus' triumphant agreement with the Parthians in 20 B.C. under which they returned the legionary standards captured from Crassus who was defeated and killed at Carrhae thirty-three years earlier (53 B.C.) Augustus installed these standards in the Temple of Mars Ultor.
The reverse of the coin shows the triumphal arch which was awarded to Augustus on the occasion of his recovery of the standards. This was the second triumphal arch awarded to Augustus and, like the earlier arch which had been constructed in 29 BC to honour his victory over Cleopatra, this second arch, which archaeological evidence suggests may actually have incorporated the first arch, stood in close proximity to the Temple of Divus Julius at the southern entrance to the Roman Forum.

This is the rarest cistophorus struck during the reign of Augustus with the exception of the exceedingly rare issues featuring a sphinx.
6 commentsdivvsavgvstvs
Baktria,_Diodotos_I,_AR_tetradrachm_-_Holt_A6_4_(this_coin)~0.jpg
Baktrian Kingdom, Diodotos I, ca. 255/250-240 BC, AR Tetradrachm 24 viewsDiademed head of Diodotos I right.
ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ANTIOXOY Zeus advancing left hurling thunderbolt, eagle at feet, ΙΔΤ (Iota, Delta, Sampi) monogram in inner left field.

Holt A6.4 (this coin); Kritt A6 (plate 2 A6 this coin); CSE 1294 (this coin); SNG Lockett 3109 (this coin ID: SNGuk_0300_3109); Pozzi 2945 (this coin); ESM 717α (this coin); SNG ANS 77; SC 631.a; Bopearachchi 2E; Mitchiner 64d; Qunduz 6; HGC 9, 243.
Mint "A" - Ai Khanoum

(26 mm, 15.73 g, 6h).
Herakles Numismatics; ex- Houghton Collection (CSE 1294); ex- Lockett Collection (SNGLockett 3109); ex- Pozzi Collection: Naville Sale I (1921) 2945 (sold for CHF 35).

This coin has a very distinguished provenance and has been published as plate coin in four reference works.

The emission with the ΙΔΤ (Iota, Delta Sampi) mint control mark is the most abundant of the Diodotid issues, representing about 13% of known Diodotid precious metal coins. The same control carries over into the early coinage of Euthydemos, although eventually displaced by the PK control monogram after 208/6 BC when Antiochos III captured Ai Khanoum while Euthydemos remained besieged at Baktra, after which it appears that Baktra/Balkh assumed the role of primary royal mint in Baktria. In is notable that the Archaic Greek letter Sampi forms the bottom of the ΙΔΤ monogram. It is an Archaic Greek form of a double Sigma that persisted in Greek dialects of Asia Minor. Many Greek settlers from Asia Minor migrated to Baktria, including the illustrious ruler Euthydemos from Magnesia in either Lydia, or Ionia. The archaic Greek Sampi possibly traveled to Baktria with the earliest Greek settlers from Asia Minor.
n.igma
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BCC L1223 viewsLead Amulet
Uncertain Date
2nd-5th Century CE?
Lead Amulet with mirror image Greek inscriptions
Obverse: CΑΒΑW (Lord of Hosts)
Rev: ΡΕΦΑΕΛ (Archangel Raphael)
2.3cm. 2.23 gm. Axis:0
v-drome
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C POBLICIUS Q F. 80 BC90 viewsHelmeted bust of Roma right / Hercules strangling the Nemean lion; bow and quiver at left; club below. Cr. 380/1.

POBLICIA, a plebian family, but of consular rank. Its cognomen on coins is Malleolus. There are fifteen varieties, all of silver, on some of which a small hammer or mallett is engraved, evidently alluding to the surname Malleolus.

The first of Heracles' twelve labours, set by King Eurystheus (his cousin) was to slay the Nemean lion.

According to one version of the myth, the Nemean lion took women as hostages to its lair in a cave near Nemea, luring warriors from nearby towns to save the damsel in distress. After entering the cave, the warrior would see the woman (usually feigning injury) and rush to her side. Once he was close, the woman would turn into a lion and kill the warrior, devouring his remains and giving the bones to Hades.

Heracles wandered the area until he came to the town of Cleonae. There he met a boy who said that if Heracles slew the Nemean lion and returned alive within 30 days, the town would sacrifice a lion to Zeus; but if he did not return within 30 days or he died, the boy would sacrifice himself to Zeus.[3] Another version claims that he met Molorchos, a shepherd who had lost his son to the lion, saying that if he came back within 30 days, a ram would be sacrificed to Zeus. If he did not return within 30 days, it would be sacrificed to the dead Heracles as a mourning offering.

While searching for the lion, Heracles fetched some arrows to use against it, not knowing that its golden fur was impenetrable; when he found and shot the lion and firing at it with his bow, he discovered the fur's protective property when the arrow bounced harmlessly off the creature's thigh. After some time, Heracles made the lion return to his cave. The cave had two entrances, one of which Heracles blocked; he then entered the other. In those dark and close quarters, Heracles stunned the beast with his club and, using his immense strength, strangled it to death. During the fight the lion bit off one of his fingers. Others say that he shot arrows at it, eventually shooting it in the unarmoured mouth.

After slaying the lion, he tried to skin it with a knife from his belt, but failed. He then tried sharpening the knife with a stone and even tried with the stone itself. Finally, Athena, noticing the hero's plight, told Heracles to use one of the lion's own claws to skin the pelt.

When he returned on the thirtieth day carrying the carcass of the lion on his shoulders, King Eurystheus was amazed and terrified. Eurystheus forbade him ever again to enter the city; in future he was to display the fruits of his labours outside the city gates. Eurystheus warned him that the tasks set for him would become increasingly difficult. He then sent Heracles off to complete his next quest, which was to destroy the Lernaean hydra.

The Nemean lion's coat was impervious to the elements and all but the most powerful weapons. Others say that Heracles' armour was, in fact, the hide of the lion of Cithaeron.
ecoli
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C. Vibius C.f. C.n. Pansa Caetronianus8 viewsMoneyer issues of Imperatorial Rome. C. Vibius C.f. C.n. Pansa Caetronianus. 48 BC. AR Denarius (18mm, 3.73 g, 6h). Rome mint. Head of young Bacchus (or Liber) right, wearing ivy wreath / Ceres advancing right, holding a torch with each hand; plow to right. Crawford 449/2; CRI 21; Sydenham 946; Vibia 16. VF, toned, edge chip.

From the Archer M. Huntington Collection, ANS 1001.2.9.
ecoli
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Egypt, Alexandria. Domitian. A.D. 81-96. AE drachm.40 views
Egypt, Alexandria. Domitian. A.D. 81-96. AE drachm (34.7 mm, 23.61 g, 11 h). Alexandria mint, Struck A.D. 95/6. [AVT KAIC ΘЄ] OVIOC ΔOMIT [CЄB ΓЄPM], laureate head of Domitian right / Frontal elevation of triumphal arch; L - IE ( yr. 15 = A.D. 95/6 ). Emmett 257.15. Near VF / VF, very dark green smooth patina. Scarce (Emmett "frequency" 2).
From the D. Thomas Collection; Wz Group CEM; Ex Walter Niggeler Collection; Ex Bank Leu/Munzen und Medallien.
3 commentsAncient Aussie
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Elagabalus, Varbanov 1394 AE17, 218-222 CE.25 views
056p Elagabalus, 16 May 218 - 11 March 222 A.D., Markianopolis, Moesia Inferior
Bronze AE
Varbanov 1384, VF, Markianopolis mint, 2.1g, 16.5 mm,
Obverse: AΥT K M AΥΡ ANTΩNINOC,( ΩN ligate) laureate head right; reverse Reverse:MAΡKIANOΠOΛITΩN, (AP and ΩN ligate) four stars in creasent moon.
NORMAN K
HieronII.jpg
Hieron II155 viewsHead of Poseidon left

ΙΕΡΩ-ΝΟΣ
ornamented trident, dolphins at sides

Bronze AE 20
6.96g, 20mm

Syracuse Sicily mint
270-215 BC

SNG Cop 856, SGCV I 1223?

Ex-ANE

Hieron II was tyrant and then king of Syracuse, c. 270 to 215 B.C. His rule brought 50 years of peace and prosperity, and Syracuse became one of the most renowned capitals of antiquity. He enlarged the theater and built an immense altar. The literary figure Theocritus and the philosopher Archimedes lived under his rule. After struggling against the Mamertini, he eventually allied with Rome.
1 commentsJay GT4
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Huszár 547, Pohl 89-7, Unger 432h, Réthy II 89A41 viewsLouis I (Lajos I, in Hun.) (1342-1382). AR denar, .49 g., 13.94 mm. max., .28 gr., 90°

Obv: + [MO]nETA LODOVICI, Saracen head left, pellets flanking.

Rev: + REGIS hVnGARIE, Patriarchal cross with random pellets.

The type was struck 1373-1382 (per Huszár, Pohl & Unger, although Huszár later wrote that the Saracen-head coinage incepted in 1372). This privy mark was struck at Pécs by one of the Saracenus brothers, probably by Johannes, who took over the mint after the death of Jacobus (per Pohl).

Huszár/Pohl rarity rating 3.

The Saracen's head is a pun on the surname of Jacobus Saracenus (Szerechen, in Hun.) and his brother, Johannes, courtiers of Italian descent who were ennobled by Louis. The image of a Saracen's head appeared on their coat of arms. Jacobus became the kammergraf at the Pécs mint in 1352, and the Comes Camerarum Regalium in 1369. He died in the early 1370s, at which time Johannes succeeded him as kammergraf.
Stkp
Dyrrhachion_Dracma.jpg
ILIRIA - DIRRAQUIO/EPIDAMNOS20 viewsAR dracma 18X16 mm 2.4 gr.

Anv: "MENIΣ [KOΣ ]" (Nombre de la Autoridad Monetaria que la acuńa), sobre una Vaca a der. mirando a su ternero que se amanta a izq.
Rev: "AYP / ΔIO / [NY] / [ΣIOY]" – Doble Forma estrellada, dividida por dos líneas y rodeada por una doble línea formando un contorno cuadrado.
Los diseńos del reverso de Korkyra así como de sus colonias, Apollonia (Apolonia) y Dyrrhachion (Dirraquio), han sido objeto de mucha especulación numismática. Eckhel (Doctrina numorum veterum [Vienna, 1792/3], II:155) aceptó la opinión de Laurentius Beger (Observationes Et Conjecturae In Numismata Quaedam Antiqua [Brandenburg, 1691]), que argumentó que el diseńo del reverso representa el jardín de Alkinoos, el mítico rey de Phaiakia, descrito en detalle por el poeta Homero (Od. 7.112-133). Basado en el supuesto de que mítica Phaiakia era la isla de la antigua Korkyra (mod. Corfú), y sabiendo que Korkyrans colonizaron tanto Apollonia y Dyrrhachion, Beger (ya través de él, Eckhel) concluyeron que los elementos centrales eran flores y que el diseńo general debe representar tanto el diseńo del jardín, o las puertas que conducen a ella. Más tarde, la mayoría de los numismáticos, como Böckh, Müller, Friedlander, y von Sallet, argumentaron que los elementos centrales del diseńo eran más como la estrella, mientras que Gardner favoreciendo una interpretación floral, aunque sea como una referencia a Apolo Aristaios o Nomios, no el jardín de ALKINOOS. Más recientemente, Nicolet-Pierre volvió a examinar la cuestión del diseńo del reverso en su artículo sobre la moneda arcaica de Korkyra ("Ŕ props du monnayage archaďque de Corcyre," SNR 88 [2009], pp. 2-3) y ofreció una nueva interpretación. Tomando nota de un pasaje de Tucídides (3.70.4) en la que ese autor citó la existencia en la isla de un recinto sagrado (temenos) dedicado a Zeus y ALKINOOS, sugirió que el diseńo del reverso podría haber sido inspirada por esto, y no en el jardín de ALKINOOS que detalla Homero.

Acuńación: 200 - 30 A.C.
Ceca: Dyrrhachion - Illyria (Hoy Durré en Albania)

Referencias: Sear GCTV Vol.I #1900 var Pag.187 – BMC Vol.7 #62-64 Pag.69 – SNG Copenhagen #467 - Maier #201 - Ceka #320
mdelvalle
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IOVI PROPVGNAT, Jupiter standing facing, RIC V 214 Rome39 viewsGallienus, August 253 - 24 March 268 A.D. Bronze antoninianus, RIC V 214, VF, Rome mint, 2.304g, 19.5mm, 180o, 260 - 268 A.D.; obverse GALLIENVS AVG, radiate head right; reverse IOVI PROPVGNAT, Jupiter standing facing, head right, thunderbolt in right, XI left. Ex FORVM, photo credit FORVMPodiceps
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Kingdom of JERUSALEM. Struck during the siege of Jerusalem by Sibylla, Queen of Jerusalem and Balian of Ibelin in 1187 . Bi Denier .124 viewsKingdom of Jerusalem . Struck during the siege of Jerusalem by Sibylla, Queen of Jerusalem and Balian of Ibelin in 1187 . Bi Denier .
+ TVRRIS DAVIT (legend retrograde), Tower of David
+ SЄPVLChRVM DOMINI, view of the Church of the Holy Sepulcher
Slocum 288; cf. C.J. Sabine, “Numismatic iconography of the Tower of David and the Holy Sepulchre,” NC 1979, pl. 17, 3; N. du Quesne Bird, “Two deniers from Jerusalem, Jordan,” NumCirc LXXIII.5 (May 1965), p. 109; Metcalf, Crusades, p. 77; CCS 51.
Very Rare . Thirteen known example .
The Ernoul chronicle refers to Balian of Ibelin and the patriarch Heraclius of Jerusalem stripped the silver and gold edicule from the Church of the Holy Sepulcher for striking coins to pay those defending the city at it's last stand .
2 commentsVladislav D
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Manuel I Komnenus clipped billion aspron trachy SB196416 viewsObverse: The Virgin enthroned facing, nimbate and wearing pallium and maphrium, she holds nimbate head of the infant Christ facing; to l. MP to r. Theta V.
Reverse: MANUHA AECIIOTHC or similar, Manuel stg. facing wearing crown, divitision and chlamys and holding labarum (one dots= on shaft) and globus surmounted by patriarchal cross.
Mint: Constantinople Third metropolitan coinage Variation B
Date: 1143-1180 CE
Sear 1964 DO 15.5-10
18mm 1.65 gm
wileyc
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Marcus Aurelius Antoninus “Elagabalus”, 218-222 CE.13 viewsElagabalus, 16 May 218 - 11 March 222 A.D., Markianopolis, Moesia Inferior
Bronze AE
Varbanov 1384, VF, Markianopolis mint, 2.0g, 16mm,
Obverse: AΥT K M AΥΡ ANTΩNINOC, laureate head right.
Reverse:MAΡKIANOΠOΛITΩN, bunch of grapes.
NORMAN K
1116226a.jpg
Mithradates II34 viewsParthian Kingdom, Mithradates II 123-88 BC, Drachm, 4.16g: Obv: Diademed bust of Mithradates left Rev: Archer seated right, legend around. Sellwood 27.1. Rhagae mint1 commentsecoli
s-l1600_(17).jpg
MUGHALS-AURANGZEB-SURAT-MINT-AH-1095-RY-27-ONE-RUPEE-13 viewsAbu'l Muzaffar Muhi-ud-Din Muhammad (3 November 1618 – 3 March 1707), commonly known as Aurangzeb or by his regnal title Alamgir (Persian: "Conqueror of the World"), was the sixth, and widely considered the last effective Mughal emperor. His reign lasted for 49 years from 1658 until his death in 1707. _1200Antonivs Protti
IMG_2204_-_____.JPG
Phoenicia, Akko-Ptolemais Valerian I. 253-260 AD. AE 2663 viewsValerian I. 253-260 AD. AE 26 . Phoenicia, Akko-Ptolemais.
Obv: IMP C P L - [VALERIANVS] AVG Laureate, draped, cuirassed bust right, seen from front.
Rx: COL - P - T - OL Sacred tree between serpents rising from two altars or baskets; to right, winged caduceus. Rare: this type missing in BM, Lindgren, Berk photofile, and Wildwinds. CoinArchives includes a specimen from the same reverse die, but with radiate portrait on obverse: Heritage 357, Long Beach, 9 September 2004, lot 12092. Cohen 374 (de Saulcy Collection). Adjustment marks on obverse.
1 commentsMaritima
00001x00~8.jpg
11 viewsROME
PB Tessera (13mm, 1.14 g, 12h)
Donkey standing right; [I above?]
Rooster standing right
Rostowzew 938, pl. X, 34; BM 1392

Ex George d'Ambrosio Collection (Agora 52, 22 March 2016), lot 166
Ardatirion
00003x00~5.jpg
35 viewsIONIA, Ephesos. Alexander.
PB Tessera (17mm, 3.95 g, 4h)
Artemis kneeling right, bathing, within grotto surmounted by half-length figure of Aktaion, wearing antlers and raising arms
Hippocampus right, AΛЄ Ξ around
Gülbay & Kireç –; Gorny & Mosch 212 (5 March 2013), lot 3333 (same dies); Vossen 35 (this coin)

Ex Tom Vossen Collection, 35
2 commentsArdatirion
00002x00~4.jpg
26 viewsIONIA, Ephesos. Marchos, grammateus of the Boule.
PB Tessera (18mm, 8.88 g)
MAR ΓP BOV, composite head of Silenos facing right and young horned Pan facing left; c/m: bird (stork?) standing right
Blank
Gülbay & Kireç –; Vossen 42 (this coin)

Ex Tom Vossen Collection, 42; Münzzentrum Rheinland 161 (11 January 2012), lot 315; Münzzentrum Rheinland 159 (4 May 2011), lot 357
Ardatirion
00007x00~1.jpg
28 viewsIONIA, Ephesos. Lauphilos, boularches damosie
PB Tessera (21mm, 5.16 g)
ΛAOVΦIΛ•-•BOVΛAP Δ[A]
Dikaiosyne standing left holding cornucopia and scales
Blank
Gülbay & Kireç –

Ex Tom Vossen Collection; Münzzentrum 161 (11 January 2012), lot 316; Münzzentrum 159 (4 May 2011), lot 359
Ardatirion
00084x00.jpg
51 viewsUNITED STATES, Political campaign tokens. William Henry Harrison. President, March 4-April 4 1841.
Ć Political Medallet (23mm, 4.22 g, 12 h)
Belleville (New Jersey) mint. Dually dated 9 February 1773 and 1841
MAJ. GEN. W. H. HARRISON/ * BORN FEB. 9. 1773*
Bust of William Henry Harrison left in military uniform
STEAM BOAT VAN BUREN/ FOR SALT RIVER DIRECT.
Early steamboat sailing right with banner inscribed 1841; LOCO-FOCO/ LINE below. '
With attached contemporary ribbon.
Rulau HT 817; Low -
Ardatirion
00055x00~0.jpg
47 viewsHAITI, Premier République. Jean Pierre Boyer. President, 1825-1843
Brass 50 Centimes (25.5mm, 4.26 g, 12h)
Contemporary counterfeit. Dated L'An 25 of the Republic (AD 1828/9)
J * BOYER * PRESIDENTE *, AN 25
Bust left
REPUBLIQUE D'HAITI */ 50 * C
Palm tree flanked by cannon and banners
KM 20a; cf. Arroyo 105 (for official issue); Lissade 96; iNumis 25, lot 1352

On 1 June 1835, local officials arrested engraver Joseph Gardner of Belleville on charges of counterfeiting. When searching his house, officials discovered dies for Spanish 8 reales in various states of completion, coining implements, a bag of gold dust, and several bags of "spurious Haytien coppers." Yet Gardner was not the only individual striking illicit Haitian coins. James Bishop of neighboring Bloomfield, New Jersey had been arrested several months before, and a third person was responsible for the issue brought to Haiti by Jeremiah Hamilton.

Today, two distinct issues of counterfeits can be identified: a group of 25 and 50 Centimes, clearly related in fabric, and two different dates of 100 Centimes. The smaller denominations are most often found lacking a silver plating, while the plating year 26 100 Centimes is fine enough to deceive the likes of NGC and Heritage. Additionally, there are a handful year 27 100 centimes overstruck on US large cents. While I have not yet found a regular strike from these dies, they are the most likely candidate for Belleville's production.
Ardatirion
00087x00.jpg
20 viewsUNITED STATES, Trade Tokens. Wooster, Ohio. Archer House. Circa 1878-1966
AL Twenty-five Cent Token (24mm, 1.48 g, 11h)
ARCHER HOUSE -:- around central hole
GOOD FOR/ 25˘/ IN TRADE

Archer House hotel was constructed in 1878 on the corner of Buckeye and Liberty Streets, on the site of the earlier wood frame Washington House tavern. The founders, tailor E.B. Connelly and his sister-in-law Melinda, named the establishment after Melinda's deceased son, Archer. Melinda Connelly later remarried to A.M. Parrish, with whom she would operate the hotel until her death. The property passed to heir great-grandson, on who's behalf it was sold to Dr. Alonzo Smith in 1923. Archer House was finally purchased by Robert Freeman in 1964, and was razed in 1966. Today, a two story professional building stands on the spot.
Ardatirion
00086x00.jpg
21 viewsUNITED STATES, Trade Tokens. Wooster, Ohio. Archer House. Circa 1878-1966.
AL Ten Cent Token (22.5mm, 1.28 g, 2h)
ARCHER HOUSE -:- around central hole
GOOD FOR/ 10˘/ IN TRADE
Lipscomb WO 8051; TC 226639

Archer House hotel was constructed in 1878 on the corner of Buckeye and Liberty Streets, on the site of the earlier wood frame Washington House tavern. The founders, tailor E.B. Connelly and his sister-in-law Melinda, named the establishment after Melinda's deceased son, Archer. Melinda Connelly later remarried to A.M. Parrish, with whom she would operate the hotel until her death. The property passed to heir great-grandson, on who's behalf it was sold to Dr. Alonzo Smith in 1923. Archer House was finally purchased by Robert Freeman in 1964, and was razed in 1966. Today, a two story professional building stands on the spot.
Ardatirion
00085x00.jpg
16 viewsUNITED STATES, Trade Tokens. Wooster, Ohio. Archer House. Circa 1878-1966.
AL Five Cent Token (21.5mm, 1.16 g, 8h)
ARCHER HOUSE -:- around central hole
GOOD FOR/ 5˘/ IN TRADE

Archer House hotel was constructed in 1878 on the corner of Buckeye and Liberty Streets, on the site of the earlier wood frame Washington House tavern. The founders, tailor E.B. Connelly and his sister-in-law Melinda, named the establishment after Melinda's deceased son, Archer. Melinda Connelly later remarried to A.M. Parrish, with whom she would operate the hotel until her death. The property passed to heir great-grandson, on who's behalf it was sold to Dr. Alonzo Smith in 1923. Archer House was finally purchased by Robert Freeman in 1964, and was razed in 1966. Today, a two story professional building stands on the spot.
Ardatirion
00030x00.jpg
71 viewsSCOTLAND, Communion Tokens. Dalziel. Robert Clason
Minister, circa 1786-1801
PB Token (20mm, 3.15 g)
Dated 1798
Dalzel/ R C/ 1798
Blank
Barzinski 1873; Brook -

Museum number in india ink on reverse: 5971730 (?)

Ex Lockdale's 83 (27 March 2011), lot 1112
2 commentsArdatirion
philippe6-grosalaqueue.JPG
Dy.265 Philip VI (of Valois): Gros ŕ la queue33 viewsPhilip VI, king of France (1328-1350)
Gros ŕ la queue (09/27/1348 and 01/15/1349)

White billon (479 ‰), 3.33 g, diameter 26 mm, die axis 6h
O: inner circle: (crown)PhILIP-PVS.REX; legend interrupted by a cross pattée; outer circle: BnDICTV⋮SIT⋮nOmЄ⋮DNI⋮nRI⋮DЄI⋮IhV⋮XPI
R: inner circle: +TVRONVS.CIVIS; châtel tournois with 3 archs under a crown; outer circle: a circlet of 12 fleur-de-lis

This Gros was struck at the end of Philip's reign and contains a quite small amount of silver.
Droger
vienne-denier.JPG
Vienne archibishopric : denier (Vienne)26 viewsVienne archibishopric, anonymous (1200-1250)

Silver, 0.66 g, diameter 16 mm, die axis 5h

O/ +•S•M•VIENNA•; left bearded and bare head of Saint Maurice
R/ MAXIMA.GALL (dashed L); cross pattée with 4 pellets
1 commentsDroger
EpirFake.jpg
"Epirus, the Epeirote Republic, Didrachm size modern fake, genuine drachm prototypes dated 234-168 BC. "69 viewsEpirus, the Epeirote Republic, modern fake, genuine drachm prototypes dated 234-168 BC.,
Didrachm size (ř 22 mm / 8,50 g), silver, axes about coin alignment ↑↓ (ca. 160°), edge: 50 % filed, 50 % hammered,
Obv.: A· , laureate head of Zeus Dodonaios right, A· behind, dotted border.
Rev.: AΠEI / PΩTAN , eagle standing right on thunderbolt, all within oak wreath, dotted border.
for prototype cf. BMC p. 89, no. 14 (drachm size 4,5-5,0 g., AI· -monogram behind head on obverse) ; - Dewing 1444 (same) ; Franke, - Epirus 100 (same) ; - SNG Cop. 108ff. ; for a drachm showing similar style cf. http://www.acsearch.info/search.html?id=748945 (also a fake?) .

1 commentsArminius
86A_1.jpg
"Q" Quinarius, RRC 86A/119 viewsDenomination: Quinarius
Era: c. 211 BC
Metal: AR
Obverse: Helmeted head of Roma r. with splayed visor. Hair curl visible on far side of Roma’s neck. Behind, “V”. Border of dots
Reverse: Dioscuri r.; “ROMA” in exergue. “Q” symbol below horses
Mint: S. E. Italy
Weight: 2.11 gm.
Reference: Crawford 86A/1
Provenance: Nomisma E-Live Auction 12, October 2, 2019, Lot 2034

Comments: “Q” symbol quinarius, Not to be confused with the more common Crawford 102/2 Q quinarius varieties. Very scarce, 6 examples in ACSearch at this writing.

Glossy jet black patina(?) Some reverse corrosion, otherwise GVF.
3 commentsSteve B5
anton_pius_apollo_lizard_slayer.jpg
(0138) ANTONINUS PIUS37 viewsAugust 138 - 7 March 161 A.D., Nikopolis ad Istrum, Moesia Inferior
AE 21 mm 5.57 g
O: Laureate head right
R: Apollo Sauroktonos (the lizard-slayer) standing right, left knee bent, resting hand on tree on which lizard climbs
Nikopolis ad Istrum, Moesia Inferior
Varbanov 2111 Rare
(naming governor Zeno)

laney
marcus_aurel_miletos_res_d.jpg
(0161) MARCUS AURELIUS25 views161-180 AD
AE 27 mm, 10.70 g
O: M AVP AV KAI ANTΩNЄINOC, laureate head right
R: ЄPI ΘЄMICTOKΛЄOU MIΛHCIΩN NЄOKOPΩN, archaic cult statue of Apollo Didymaios standing left, holding stag in right hand and bow in arrow in left
Miletos; Mionnet 3, 169f. 788
laney
AUGUSTUS_ARCHIERATIC_RESA.jpg
(02) AUGUSTUS34 views5 BC - 4 BC (YEAR 27 ACTIAN ERA)
AE 21.5 mm 7.88g
O: LAUR HEAD R
R: APXIEPATIKON ANTIOXEIS IN 4 LINES WITHIN ARCHIERATIC WREATH,
ALL WITHIN ARCHIERATIC CROWN
SYRIA, Seleucis and Pieria. Antioch
McAlee 202; RPC I 4251
laney
egal_gerizim_neapolis,_samaria.jpg
(0218) ELAGABALUS26 views218 - 222 AD
AE 23 mm 8.88 g
O: Bust right
R: Mt. Gerizim with arched colonnade, roadway, shrines, altar and temple; "A" Countermark
NEAPOLIS, SAMARIA
laney
elagabal_tripolis_res.jpg
(0218) ELAGABALUS42 views218 - 222 AD
AE 23.51 mm, 9.48 g
O: AVΩN, T KM AVP A[NTΩ NINOC] Laureate draped bust right
R: Three-part (decastyle temple) temple of Astarte, with center arch, two tetrastyle wings, curved roof line from wings to top of pediment, Astarte standing facing in doorway, ... ΓΛΦ (Seleukid year 532) in ex;
Phoenicia, Tripolis; BMC 223, 120.
1 commentslaney
temple_10_res.jpg
(0218) ELAGABALUS26 views218 - 222 AD
AE 24 mm; 11.06 g
O: Laureate, draped bust of Elagabalus right.
R: Statue of Marsyas standing right, holding wine skin over shoulder and extending arm, within arched gateway
Phoenicia, Berytus
laney
elagab_marsyas_2_res.jpg
(0218) ELAGABALUS23 views218 - 222 AD
AE 24 mm; 10.3 g
O: Laureate, draped bust of Elagabalus right.
R: Statue of Marsyas standing right, holding wine skin over shoulder and extending arm, within arched gateway
Phoenicia, Berytus
laney
elag_temple_marsy_bery_res.jpg
(0218) ELAGABALUS25 views218 - 222 AD
AE 24 mm; 8.10 g
O: Laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right
R: The satyr Marsyas standing on pedestal playing pipes within arch of a tetrastule temple.
Phoenicia, Berytos.
Lindgren 2269
laney
egal_antipatris_temple_res.jpg
(0218) ELAGABALUS (ANTIPATRIS MINT)40 views218 -222 AD
AE 17.5 mm; 6 5 g
O ...NOC C... Laureate draped bust of Elagabalus right
R: Tetrastyle temple, central arch; within, Tyche in short chiton kneeling left holding small bust and spear, resting her foot on river god (Yarkon); ΑΝ(ΤΙΠ) (Antipatris) in exe.
Antipatris (very rare city), Judaea
cf. Sofaer Pl. 21 4, 5.; cf. BM-1, pl. II.7, cf. SNG ANS-635, cf. Rosenberger 1. Very rare.
(Antipatris struck coins only during the reign of Elagabalus)
laney
caligula_aezanis.jpg
(04) CALIGULA 20 views37-41 AD
AE 20 mm, 6.85 g
(Aristarchos, magistrate)
O: Laureate head right
R: Zeus standing left, holding eagle and scepter.
PHRYGIA, Aezanis. RPC I 3079; SNG Copenhagen 76.
laney
roma_numis_auction_otho_glk_2.jpg
(08) OTHO13 views15 January - 8 March 69 AD
AR Denarius 18 mm, 2.82 g
O: IMP OTHO CAESAR AVG TR P, bare head right
R: SECVRITAS P R, Securitas, draped, standing left, holding wreath in extended right hand, cradling sceptre in left arm
Rome; RIC 10; BMCRE 19; BN 11-13. Very Rare
Ex. Roma Numismatics auction 01.2019
laney
QUAD.jpg
(098-117) TRAJAN Quadrans21 viewsTitulature avers : IMP CAES NERVA TRAIAN AVG .
Description avers : Buste lauré de Trajan ŕ droite, drapé sur l'épaule gauche (O*2) .
Traduction avers : "Imperator Cćsar Nerva Traianus Augustus", (L'empereur césar Nerva Trajan auguste).
Titulature revers : S C ŕ l’exergue .
Description revers : Louve marchant ŕ droite .
Traduction revers : "Senatus Consulto", (Par décret du Sénat) .

N° dans les ouvrages de référence : C.338 var. (6f.) - RIC.692 (S) - BMC/RE.1060 pl. 43/8 - H.1/645 - MAR.- - RCV.3246 var. (275$) - MRK.27 /144 var.
Ségusiaves
titus_spes_blk_res.jpg
(11) TITUS29 views79-81 AD
AE Sestertius 34 mm, 21.85 g
O: laureate head right
R: S-C, Greek archaic statue of Spes (Elpis) walking left
Cohen 221.
laney
Byz_Latin_rulers_of_Const.jpg
(1204) LATIN RULERS OF CONSTANTINOPLE48 views1204 - 1261 AD
Billon Aspron Trachy. 16 mm max., 0.55 g
O: BUST OF CHRIST FACING
R: ARCHANGEL MICHAEL STANDING FACING, HOLDING GLOBUS CRUCIGER
SEAR 2036
(STRUCK FOLLOWING THE LATIN CONQUEST OF CONSTAN5TINOPLE IN THE 4TH CRUSADE)


laney
andronicus_ii.jpg
(1282) ANDRONICUS II & MICHAEL IX17 viewsAndronicus II Palaeologus with Michael IX
1282 - 1328 AD
AE Assarion 21mm, 1.99 grams
O: Nimbate and facing bust of Archangel St. Michael holding scepter and globus cruciger.
R: Facing half length figure of Christ blessing the two emperors who kneel before him.
Constantinople mint; Sear2435 // DOC677-80
laney
Janus119BCCrawford281_1.jpg
(500a) Roman Republic, 119 BC, M. Furius Philius - Furia 1881 viewsRoman Republic, 119 BC, M. Furius Philius - Furia 18. Crawford 281/1, Sydenham 529; 19mm, 3.23 grams. aVF, Rome; Obverse: laureate head of Janus, M FORVRI L F around; Reverse: Roma standing left erecting trophy, Galic arms around, PHLI in exergue. Ex Ephesus Numismatics.

Gauis Marius
As a novus homo, or new man, Marius found the rise in the Roman cursus honorum ( "course of honours"-- the sequential order of public offices held by aspiring politicians in the Roman Republic) a daunting challenge. It is certain that he used his old family client contacts and his military relations as a source of support. Among these contacts were the powerful Metelli family, and their early support was to prove to be a disaster for them. Just a few short years after his service as Quaestor, Marius was elected Tribune of the Plebes in 119 BC. In this position so soon after the political turmoil and murder of the Gracchi brothers (Gaius murdered 123 BC), Marius chose to follow the populares path, making a name for himself under similar auspices. As Tribune, he would ensure the animosity of the conservative faction of the Senate, and the Metelli, by passing popular laws forbidding the inspection of ballot boxes. In do doing, he directly opposed the powerful elite, who used ballot inspection as a way to intimidate voters in the citizen assembly elections.

Marius would go on to be elected Consul seven times and figure prominantly in the civil unrest of the early eighties as Lucius Cornelius Sulla's opponent. In 88 BC, Sulla had been elected Consul. There was now a choice before the Senate about which general to send to Asia (a potentially lucrative command): either Marius or Sulla. The Senate chose Sulla, but soon the Assembly appointed Marius. In this unsavory episode of low politics, Marius had been helped by the unscrupulous actions of Publius Sulpicius Rufus, whose debts Marius had promised to erase. Sulla refused to acknowledge the validity of the Assembly's action.

Sulla left Rome and traveled to "his"army waiting in Nola, the army the Senate had asked him to lead to Asia. Sulla urged his legions to defy the Assembly's orders and accept him as their rightful leader. Sulla was successful, and the legions murdered the representatives from the Assembly. Sulla then commanded six legions to march with him opon Rome and institute a civil war.

This was a momentous event, and was unforeseen by Marius, as no Roman army had ever marched upon Rome—it was forbidden by law and ancient tradition.

Sulla was to eventually rule Rome as Dictator. In his book Rubicon, historian Tom Holland argues that Sulla's actions had no lasting negative effect upon the health of the Republic, that Sulla was at heart a Republican. However, once a Roman general has defied Republican tradition, once a Roman general has used his command to combat fellow Romans, once a Roman general has set-up himself as Dictator--it follows that the decision to replicate these decsions (think: Caesar and Rubicon) is that much more easiely taken.

J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.





Cleisthenes
LPisoFrugiDenarius_S235.jpg
(502a) Roman Republic, L. Calpurnius Piso Frugi, 90 B.C.157 viewsSilver denarius, S 235, Calpurnia 11, Crawford 340/1, Syd 663a, VF, rainbow toning, Rome mint, 3.772g, 18.5mm, 180o, 90 B.C. obverse: laureate head of Apollo right, scorpion behind; Reverse naked horseman galloping right holding palm, L PISO FRVGI and control number CXI below; ex-CNA XV 6/5/91, #443. Ex FORVM.


A portion of the following text is a passage taken from the excellent article “The Calpurnii and Roman Family History: An Analysis of the Piso Frugi Coin in the Joel Handshu Collection at the College of Charleston,” by Chance W. Cook:

In the Roman world, particularly prior to the inception of the principate, moneyers were allotted a high degree of latitude to mint their coins as they saw fit. The tres viri monetales, the three men in charge of minting coins, who served one-year terms, often emblazoned their coins with an incredible variety of images and inscriptions reflecting the grandeur, history, and religion of Rome. Yet also prominent are references to personal or familial accomplishments; in this manner coins were also a means by which the tres viri monetales could honor their forbearers. Most obvious from an analysis of the Piso Frugi denarius is the respect and admiration that Lucius Calpurnius Piso Frugi, who minted the coin, had for his ancestors. For the images he selected for his dies relate directly to the lofty deeds performed by his Calpurnii forbearers in the century prior to his term as moneyer. The Calpurnii were present at many of the watershed events in the late Republic and had long distinguished themselves in serving the state, becoming an influential and well-respected family whose defense of traditional Roman values cannot be doubted.

Lucius Calpurnius Piso Frugi, who was moneyer in 90 B.C., depicted Apollo on the obverse and the galloping horseman on the reverse, as does his son Gaius. However, all of L. Piso Frugi’s coins have lettering similar to “L-PISO-FRVGI” on the reverse, quite disparate from his son Gaius’ derivations of “C-PISO-L-F-FRV.”

Moreover, C. Piso Frugi coins are noted as possessing “superior workmanship” to those produced by L. Piso Frugi.

The Frugi cognomen, which became hereditary, was first given to L. Calpurnius Piso, consul in 133 B.C., for his integrity and overall moral virtue. Cicero is noted as saying that frugal men possessed the three cardinal Stoic virtues of bravery, justice, and wisdom; indeed in the Thesaurus Linguae Latinae, a synonym of frugalitas is bonus, generically meaning “good” but also implying virtuous behavior. Gary Forsythe notes that Cicero would sometimes invoke L. Calpurnius Piso’s name at the beginning of speeches as “a paragon of moral rectitude” for his audience.

L. Calpurnius Piso Frugi’s inclusion of the laureled head of Apollo, essentially the same obverse die used by his son Gaius (c. 67 B.C.), was due to his family’s important role in the establishment of the Ludi Apollinares, the Games of Apollo, which were first instituted in 212 B.C. at the height of Hannibal’s invasion of Italy during the Second Punic War. By that time, Hannibal had crushed Roman armies at Cannae, seized Tarentum and was invading Campania.

Games had been used throughout Roman history as a means of allaying the fears
of the populace and distracting them from issues at hand; the Ludi Apollinares were no different. Forsythe follows the traditional interpretation that in 211 B.C., when C. Calpurnius Piso was praetor, he became the chief magistrate in Rome while both consuls were absent and the three other praetors were sent on military expeditions against Hannibal.

At this juncture, he put forth a motion in the Senate to make the Ludi Apollinares a yearly event, which was passed; the Ludi Apollinares did indeed become an important festival, eventually spanning eight days in the later Republic. However, this interpretation is debatable; H.H. Scullard suggests that the games were not made permanent until 208 B.C. after a severe plague prompted the Senate to make them a fixture on the calendar. The Senators believed Apollo would serve as a “healing god” for the people of Rome.

Nonetheless, the Calpurnii obviously believed their ancestor had played an integral role in the establishment of the Ludi Apollinares and thus prominently displayed
the head or bust of Apollo on the obverse of the coins they minted.

The meaning of the galloping horseman found on the reverse of the L. Calpurnius Piso Frugi coin is more complicated. It is possible that this is yet another reference to the Ludi Apollinares. Chariot races in the Circus Maximus were a major component of the games, along with animal hunts and theatrical performances.

A more intriguing possibility is that the horseman is a reference to C. Calpurnius Piso, son of the Calpurnius Piso who is said to have founded the Ludi Apollinares. This C. Calpurnius Piso was given a military command in 186 B.C. to quell a revolt in Spain. He was victorious, restoring order to the province and also gaining significant wealth in the process.

Upon his return to Rome in 184, he was granted a triumph by the Senate and eventually erected an arch on the Capitoline Hill celebrating his victory. Of course
the arch prominently displayed the Calpurnius name. Piso, however, was not an infantry commander; he led the cavalry.

The difficulty in accepting C. Calpurnius Piso’s victory in Spain as the impetus for the galloping horseman image is that not all of C. Piso Frugi’s coins depict the horseman or cavalryman carrying the palm, which is a symbol of victory. One is inclined to believe that the victory palm would be prominent in all of the coins minted by C. Piso Frugi (the son of L. Calpurnius Piso Frugi) if it indeed signified the great triumph of C. Calpurnius Piso in 186 B.C. Yet the palm’s appearance is clearly not a direct reference to military feats of C. Piso Frugi’s day. As noted, it is accepted that his coins were minted in 67 B.C.; in that year, the major victory by Roman forces was Pompey’s swift defeat of the pirates throughout the Mediterranean.

Chrestomathy: Annual Review of Undergraduate Research at the College of Charleston. Volume 1, 2002: pp. 1-10© 2002 by the College of Charleston, Charleston SC 29424, USA.All rights to be retained by the author.
http://www.cofc.edu/chrestomathy/vol1/cook.pdf


There are six (debatably seven) prominent Romans who have been known to posterity as Lucius Calpurnius Piso:

Lucius Calpurnius Piso Frugi: (d. 261 A.D.) a Roman usurper, whose existence is
questionable, based on the unreliable Historia Augusta.

Lucius Calpurnius Piso Licinianus: deputy Roman Emperor, 10 January 69 to15 January
69, appointed by Galba.

Lucius Calpurnius Piso: Consul in 27 A.D.

Lucius Calpurnius Piso: Consul in 1 B.C., augur

Lucius Calpurnius Piso: Consul in 15 B.C., pontifex

Lucius Calpurnius Piso Caesoninus: Consul in 58 B.C. (the uncle of Julius Caesar)

Lucius Calpurnius Piso Frugi: Moneyer in 90 B.C. (our man)


All but one (or two--if you believe in the existence of "Frugi the usurper" ca. 261 A.D.) of these gentlemen lack the Frugi cognomen, indicating they are not from the same direct lineage as our moneyer, though all are Calpurnii.

Calpurnius Piso Frugi's massive issue was intended to support the war against the Marsic Confederation. The type has numerous variations and control marks.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lucius_Calpurnius_Piso
http://www.forumancientcoins.com/catalog/indexfrm.asp?vpar=55&pos=0

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.


2 commentsCleisthenes
LonginusDenarius.jpg
(504c) Roman Republic, L. Cassius Longinus, 63 B.C.68 viewsSilver denarius, Crawford 413/1, RSC I Cassia 10, SRCV I 364, aVF, struck with worn dies, Rome mint, weight 3.867g, maximum diameter 20.3mm, die axis 0o, c. 63 B.C. Obverse: veiled bust of Vesta left, kylix behind, L before; Reverse: LONGIN III V, voter standing left, dropping tablet inscribed V into a cista.

The reverse of this Longinus denarius captures a fascinating moment when a Roman citizen casts his ballot. "The abbreviation III V [ir] indentifies Longinus as one of the three annually appointed mintmasters (officially called tres viri aere argento auro flando feriundo). A citizen is seen casting his vote into the urn. On the ballot is the letter 'U', short for uti rogas, a conventional formula indicating assent to a motion. The picture alludes to the law, requested by an ancestor of the mintmaster, which introduced the secret ballot in most proceedings of the popular court" (Meier, Christian. Caesar, a Biography. Berlin: Severin and Siedler, 1982. Plate 6).

The date that this denarius was struck possesses unique significance for another reason. Marcus Tullius Cicero (politician, philosopher, orator, humanist) was elected consul for the year 63 BC -- the first man elected consul who had no consular ancestors in more than 30 years. A "new man," Cicero was not the descendant of a "patrician" family, nor was his family wealthy (although Cicero married "well"). Cicero literally made himself the man he was by the power of the words he spoke and the way in which he spoke them. A witness to and major player during the decline of the Roman Republic, Cicero was murdered in 43 BC by thugs working for Marc Antony. But Cicero proved impossible to efface.

Cicero's words became part of the bed rock of later Roman education. As Peter Heather notes, every educated young man in the late Roman Empire studied "a small number of literary texts under the guidance of an expert in language and literary interpretation, the grammarian. This occupied the individual for seven or more years from about the age of eight, and concentrated on just four authors: Vergil, Cicero, Sallust and Terence" (Heather, Peter. The Fall of the Roman Empire: A New History of Rome and the Barbarians. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006. 17).


Plutarch: Cicero's Death

But in the meantime the assassins were come with a band of soldiers, Herennius, a centurion, and Popillius, a tribune, whom Cicero had formerly defended when prosecuted for the murder of his father. Finding the doors shut, they broke them open, and Cicero not appearing, and those within saying they knew not where he was, it is stated that a youth, who had been educated by Cicero in the liberal arts and sciences, an emancipated slave of his brother Quintus, Philologus by name, informed the tribune that the litter was on its way to the sea through the close and shady walks. The tribune, taking a few with him, ran to the place where he was to come out. And Cicero, perceiving Herennius running in the walks, commanded his servants to set down the litter; and stroking his chin, as he used to do, with his left hand, he looked steadfastly upon his murderers, his person covered with dust, his beard and hair untrimmed, and his face worn with his troubles. So that the greatest part of those that stood by covered their faces whilst Herennius slew him. And thus was he murdered, stretching forth his neck out of the litter, being now in his sixty-fourth year. Herennius cut off his head, and, by Antony's command, his hands also, by which his Philippics were written; for so Cicero styled those orations he wrote against Antony, and so they are called to this day.

When these members of Cicero were brought to Rome, Antony was holding an assembly for the choice of public officers; and when he heard it, and saw them, he cried out, "Now let there be an end of our proscriptions." He commanded his head and hands to be fastened up over the rostra, where the orators spoke; a sight which the Roman people shuddered to behold, and they believed they saw there, not the face of Cicero, but the image of Antony's own soul. And yet amidst these actions he did justice in one thing, by delivering up Philologus to Pomponia, the wife of Quintus; who, having got his body into her power, besides other grievous punishments, made him cut off his own flesh by pieces, and roast and eat it; for so some writers have related. But Tiro, Cicero's emancipated slave, has not so much as mentioned the treachery of Philologus.

Translation by John Dryden: http://intranet.grundel.nl/thinkquest/moord_cicero_plu.html

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
09270630.jpg
0.3 Athenian Tetradrachm (archaic)91 viewsAR Tetradrachm of Athens
449 - 404 BCE
25 mm, 16.6 gm

Obv. archaic Athena r. helmeted
Rev. Owl with A (theta) E; olive and crescent in upper left corner
test cut through Owl
Zam
coins2.JPG
000c. Sextus Pompey76 viewsSextus Pompeius Magnus Pius, in English Sextus Pompey, was a Roman general from the late Republic (1st century BC). He was the last focus of opposition to the second triumvirate.

Sextus Pompeius was the youngest son of Pompey the Great (Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus) by his third wife, Mucia Tertia. His older brother was Gnaeus Pompeius, from the same mother. Both boys grew up in the shadow of their father, one of Rome's best generals and originally non-conservative politician who drifted to the more traditional faction when Julius Caesar became a threat.

When Caesar crossed the Rubicon in 49 BC, thus starting a civil war, Sextus' older brother Gnaeus followed their father in his escape to the East, as did most of the conservative senators. Sextus stayed in Rome in the care of his stepmother, Cornelia Metella. Pompey's army lost the battle of Pharsalus in 48 BC and Pompey himself had to run for his life. Cornelia and Sextus met him in the island of Mytilene and together they fled to Egypt. On the arrival, Sextus watched his father being killed by treachery on September 29 of the same year. After the murder, Cornelia returned to Rome, but in the following years Sextus joined the resistance against Caesar in the African provinces. Together with Metellus Scipio, Cato the younger, his brother Gnaeus and other senators, they prepared to oppose Caesar and his army to the end.

Caesar won the first battle at Thapsus in 46 BC against Metellus Scipio and Cato, who committed suicide. In 45 BC, Caesar managed to defeat the Pompeius brothers in the battle of Munda. Gnaeus Pompeius was executed, but young Sextus escaped once more, this time to Sicily.

Back in Rome, Julius Caesar was murdered on the Ides of March (March 15) 44 BC by a group of senators led by Cassius and Brutus. This incident did not lead to a return to normality, but provoked yet another civil war between Caesar's political heirs and his assassins. The second triumvirate was formed by Octavian, Mark Antony and Lepidus, with the intention of avenging Caesar and subduing all opposition. Sextus Pompeius in Sicily was certainly a rebellious man, but the Cassius and Brutus faction was the second triumvirate's first priority. Thus, with the whole island as his base, Sextus had the time and resources to develop an army and, even more importantly, a strong navy operated by Sicilian marines.

Brutus and Cassius lost the twin battles of Philippi and committed suicide in 42 BC. After this, the triumvirs turned their attentions to Sicily and Sextus.

But by this time, Sextus was prepared for strong resistance. In the following years, military confrontations failed to return a conclusive victory for either side and in 39 BC, Sextus and the triumvirs signed for peace in the Pact of Misenum. The reason for this peace treaty was the anticipated campaign against the Parthian Empire. Antony, the leader, needed all the legions he could get so it was useful to secure an armistice in the Sicilian front. The peace did not last for long. Octavian and Antony's frequent quarrels were a strong political motivation for resuming the war against Sextus. Octavian tried again to conquer Sicily, but he was defeated in the naval battle of Messina (37 BC) and again in August 36 BC. But by then, Octavian had Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa, a very talented general, on his side. Only a month afterwards, Agrippa destroyed Sextus' navy off Naulochus cape. Sextus escaped to the East and, by abandoning Sicily, lost all his base of support.

Sextus Pompeius was caught in Miletus in 35 BC and executed without trial (an illegal act since Sextus was a Roman citizen) by order of Marcus Titius, Antony's minion. His violent death would be one of the weapons used by Octavian against Antony several years later, when the situation between the two became unbearable.

Sicilian Mint
Magn above laureate Janiform head
PIVS above, IMP below, prow of galley right
Sear RCV 348, RPC 671, Sydenham 1044a, Cohen 16
43-36 BC

Check
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Octavius_AR-Den__IMP·CAESAR·DIVI·F·III·VIR·_ITER·R·P·C__COS·ITER_·ET·TER·DESIG_DIVO·IVL_Crawford_540·2_Rare_Q-001_axis-5h_18mm_3,89g-s.jpg
002 a Augustus (63 B.C.-14 A.D.), Octavianus, Crawford 540-2, Rome, AR-Denarius, COS·ITER·ET·TER·DESIG Tetrastyle temple, DIVO·IVL, Rare!!!,476 views002 a Augustus (63 B.C.-14 A.D.), Octavianus, Crawford 540-2, Rome, AR-Denarius, COS·ITER·ET·TER·DESIG Tetrastyle temple, DIVO·IVL, Rare!!!,
Octavianus. Denarius, mint moving with Octavian 36 B.C.,
avers:- IMP·CAESAR·DIVI·F·III·VIR· ITER·R·P·C Head of Octavian r., slightly bearded.
revers:- COS·ITER·ET·TER·DESIG Tetrastyle temple within which veiled figure standing facing and holding lituus ; on architrave, DIVO·IVL and within pediment, star.
exerg: -/-//--, diameter: 18mm, weight: 3,89g, axis:- 5h,
mint: Rome, date: 36 B.C., ref: Crawford 540-2, Sydenham-1338,
Q-001
6 commentsquadrans
Aigina_turtle.jpg
002a, Aigina, Islands off Attica, Greece, c. 510 - 490 B.C.84 viewsSilver stater, S 1849, SNG Cop 503, F, 12.231g, 22.3mm, Aigina (Aegina) mint, c. 510 - 490 B.C.; Obverse: sea turtle (with row of dots down the middle); Reverse: incuse square of “Union Jack” pattern; banker's mark obverse. Ex FORVM.


Greek Turtles, by Gary T. Anderson

Turtles, the archaic currency of Aegina, are among the most sought after of all ancient coins. Their early history is somewhat of a mystery. At one time historians debated whether they or the issuances of Lydia were the world's earliest coins. The source of this idea comes indirectly from the writings of Heracleides of Pontus, a fourth century BC Greek scholar. In the treatise Etymologicum, Orion quotes Heracleides as claiming that King Pheidon of Argos, who died no later than 650 BC, was the first to strike coins at Aegina. However, archeological investigations date the earliest turtles to about 550 BC, and historians now believe that this is when the first of these intriguing coins were stamped.

Aegina is a small, mountainous island in the Saronikon Gulf, about midway between Attica and the Peloponnese. In the sixth century BC it was perhaps the foremost of the Greek maritime powers, with trade routes throughout the eastern half of the Mediterranean. It is through contacts with Greeks in Asia Minor that the idea of coinage was probably introduced to Aegina. Either the Lydians or Greeks along the coast of present day Turkey were most likely the first to produce coins, back in the late seventh century. These consisted of lumps of a metal called electrum (a mixture of gold and silver) stamped with an official impression to guarantee the coin was of a certain weight. Aegina picked up on this idea and improved upon it by stamping coins of (relatively) pure silver instead electrum, which contained varying proportions of gold and silver. The image stamped on the coin of the mighty sea power was that of a sea turtle, an animal that was plentiful in the Aegean Sea. While rival cities of Athens and Corinth would soon begin limited manufacture of coins, it is the turtle that became the dominant currency of southern Greece. The reason for this is the shear number of coins produced, estimated to be ten thousand yearly for nearly seventy years. The source for the metal came from the rich silver mines of Siphnos, an island in the Aegean. Although Aegina was a formidable trading nation, the coins seemed to have meant for local use, as few have been found outside the Cyclades and Crete. So powerful was their lure, however, that an old proverb states, "Courage and wisdom are overcome by Turtles."

The Aeginean turtle bore a close likeness to that of its live counterpart, with a series of dots running down the center of its shell. The reverse of the coin bore the imprint of the punch used to force the face of the coin into the obverse turtle die. Originally this consisted of an eight-pronged punch that produced a pattern of eight triangles. Later, other variations on this were tried. In 480 BC, the coin received its first major redesign. Two extra pellets were added to the shell near the head of the turtle, a design not seen in nature. Also, the reverse punch mark was given a lopsided design.

Although turtles were produced in great quantities from 550 - 480 BC, after this time production dramatically declines. This may be due to the exhaustion of the silver mines on Siphnos, or it may be related to another historical event. In 480 BC, Aegina's archrival Athens defeated Xerxes and his Persian armies at Marathon. After this, it was Athens that became the predominant power in the region. Aegina and Athens fought a series of wars until 457 BC, when Aegina was conquered by its foe and stripped of its maritime rights. At this time the coin of Aegina changed its image from that of the sea turtle to that of the land tortoise, symbolizing its change in fortunes.

The Turtle was an object of desire in ancient times and has become so once again. It was the first coin produced in Europe, and was produced in such great quantities that thousands of Turtles still exist today. Their historical importance and ready availability make them one of the most desirable items in any ancient coin enthusiast's collection.

(Greek Turtles, by Gary T. Anderson .
1 commentsCleisthenes
coin345.JPG
004. Caligula 41 viewsGAIUS (CALIGULA). 37-41 AD.

Whatever damage Tiberius's later years had done to the carefully crafted political edifice created by Augustus, Gaius multiplied it a hundredfold. When he came to power in A.D. 37 Gaius had no administrative experience beyond his honorary quaestorship, and had spent an unhappy early life far from the public eye. He appears, once in power, to have realized the boundless scope of his authority and acted accordingly. His reign highlighted an inherent weakness in the Augustan Principate, raw monarchy in which only the self-discipline of the incumbent acted as a restraint on his behavior.

Ć As (28mm, 10.19 gm). Rome mint. Struck 37-38 AD. Bare head left / Vesta seated left, holding patera and sceptre. RIC I 38; Cohen 27. Near VF, dark brown surfaces. Ex-CNG
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0049~0.jpg
0049 - Denarius Aemilia 114-3 BC39 viewsObv/ Laureate female bust (Roma?) r., veiled and wearing diadem; before, ROMA; behind, crossed X.
Rev/ Three arches, on which stands equestrian status - horseman wears cuirass and wreath, and holds spear in r. hand; around, MN AEMILIO; between arches, L E P.

Ag, 18.5 mm, 3.85 g
Moneyer: Mn. Aemilius Lepidus
Mint: Rome
RRC 291/1 [dies o/r: 283/354 - BMCRR Italy 590
ex-Jesús Vico, auction 116, lot 3080
1 commentsdafnis
5514.jpg
005d. Agrippina II89 viewsLYDIA, Hypaepa. Agrippina Jr., mother of Nero. Augusta, 50-59 AD. Ć 14mm (2.33 gm). Draped bust of Agrippina right / Cult statue of Artemis. RPC I 2541; SNG Copenhagen -.

Julia Vipsania Agrippina Minor or Agrippina Minor (Latin for "the younger") (November 7, AD 15 – March 59), often called "Agrippinilla" to distinguish her from her mother, was the daughter of Germanicus and Agrippina Major. She was sister of Caligula, granddaughter and great-niece to Tiberius, niece and wife of Claudius, and the mother of Nero. She was born at Oppidum Ubiorum on the Rhine, afterwards named in her honour Colonia Agrippinae (modern Cologne, Germany).

Agrippina was first married to (1st century AD) Gnaeus Domitius Ahenobarbus. From this marriage she gave birth to Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus, who would become Roman Emperor Nero. Her husband died in January, 40. While still married, Agrippina participated openly in her brother Caligula's decadent court, where, according to some sources, at his instigation she prostituted herself in a palace. While it was generally agreed that Agrippinilla, as well as her sisters, had ongoing sexual relationships with their brother Caligula, incest was an oft-used criminal accusation against the aristocracy, because it was impossible to refute successfully. As Agrippina and her sister became more problematic for their brother, Caligula sent them into exile for a time, where it is said she was forced to dive for sponges to make a living. In January, 41, Agrippina had a second marriage to the affluent Gaius Sallustius Crispus Passienus. He died between 44 and 47, leaving his estate to Agrippina.

As a widow, Agrippina was courted by the freedman Pallas as a possible marriage match to her own uncle, Emperor Claudius, and became his favourite councillor, even granted the honor of being called Augusta (a title which no other queen had ever received). They were married on New Year's Day of 49, after the death of Claudius's first wife Messalina. Agrippina then proceeded to persuade Claudius to adopt her son, thereby placing Nero in the line of succession to the Imperial throne over Claudius's own son, Brittanicus. A true Imperial politician, Agrippina did not reject murder as a way to win her battles. Many ancient sources credited her with poisoning Claudius in 54 with a plate of poisened mushrooms, hence enabling Nero to quickly take the throne as emperor.

For some time, Agrippina influenced Nero as he was relatively ill-equipped to rule on his own. But Nero eventually felt that she was taking on too much power relative to her position as a woman of Rome. He deprived her of her honours and exiled her from the palace, but that was not enough. Three times Nero tried to poison Agrippina, but she had been raised in the Imperial family and was accustomed to taking antidotes. Nero had a machine built and attached to the roof of her bedroom. The machine was designed to make the ceiling collapse — the plot failed with the machine. According to the historians Tacitus and Suetonius, Nero then plotted her death by sending for her in a boat constructed to collapse, intending to drown Agrippina. However, only some of the crew were in on the plot; their efforts were hampered by the rest of the crew trying to save the ship. As the ship sank, one of her handmaidens thought to save herself by crying that she was Agrippina, thinking they would take special care of her. Instead the maid was instantly beaten to death with oars and chains. The real Agrippina realised what was happening and in the confusion managed to swim away where a passing fisherman picked her up. Terrified that his cover had been blown, Nero instantly sent men to charge her with treason and summarily execute her. Legend states that when the Emperor's soldiers came to kill her, Agrippina pulled back her clothes and ordered them to stab her in the belly that had housed such a monstrous son.

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0061.jpg
0061 - Denarius Petilia 43 BC32 viewsObv/ Eagle on thunderbolt r.; above, PETILLIVS; below, CAPITOLINVS.
Rev/ Temple of Jupiter Capitolinus; roof is decorated with armed figure at each side and cuadriga at apex; within pediment, uncertain figure; between central four columns, hanging decorations; on l., S; on r., F.

Ag, 18.0 mm, 3.85 g
Moneyer: Petilllius Capitolinus
Mint: Rome.
RRC 487/2b [dies o/r: 85/74 (all var.] - BMCRR Rome 4222
ex-Spink, auction march 2008, lot 994 (ex-Glendining, auction april 1980, lot 159)
1 commentsdafnis
0062.jpg
0062 - Denarius Cordia 46 BC31 viewsObv/Conjoined heads of the Dioscuri with pilei, r., with star atop; behind, RVFVS III VIR.
Rev/MN CORDIVS, Venus (Aequitas?) standing l., holding scales & scepter.

Ag, 18.9mm, 3.52g
Moneyer: Mn. Cordius Rufus.
Mint: Rome.
RRC 463/1a [dies o/r: 549/610 (1a+1b)] - RCV 440 - Syd. 976-976a - RSC Cordia 1-2c - Sear (Imp.) 63-63a -Calicó 465.
ex-Spink, auction march 2008, lot 994 (ex-Glendining, auction april 1976, lot 140)
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0063~0.jpg
0063 - Denarius Augustus 18-16 BC15 viewsObv/SPQR IMP C(AESARI0 AVG COS XI TRI POT VI, head of Augustus r.
Rev/CIVIB ET SIGN MILIT A PART RECVP, facing quadriga on central part of triumphal arch; figures on l. and r. hold, respectively, standard and aquila and bow.

Ag, 20.0mm, 3.88g
Mint: Colonia patricia (?)
RIC I/136 [R3] - BMCRE 427
ex-Jean Elsen et Fils, auction 95, lot 344 (colln. A.Senden)
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007 Lucius Caesar. AE21 6.7gm28 viewsobv: CAESAR CORINTH bare head r. of Augustus
rev: C SERVILIO M ANTONIO HIPPARCHO IIVIR/ CL confronted busts of Lucis and Gaius Caesar
"sons of Agrippa and Julia, grandsons of Augustus"
hill132
0092.jpg
0092 - Denarius Antoninus Pius 158-9 AC10 viewsObv/ ANTONINVS AVGVSTVS PIVS PP TR P XXII, laureate head of A.P. r.
Rev/ COS IIII, arched tetrastyle altar; statue inside, holding branch and standard.

Ag, 18.1 mm, 2.84 g
Mint: Roma.
RIC III/285
ex-G.Hirsch Nachfolger, auction 271, lot 2359
dafnis
01-Athens.jpg
01. Athens Tetradrachm.129 viewsTetradrachm, 449 - 413 BC.
Obverse: "Archaic style" head of Athena, wearing crested helmet ornamented with olive leaves and floral scroll.
Reverse: ΑΘΕ / Owl, olive twig, and crescent moon.
17.15 gm., 24 mm.
S. #2526.
2 commentsCallimachus
1-Maximinus-I-RIC-06.jpg
01. Maximinus I / RIC 6.26 viewsDenarius, 238 AD, Rome mint.
Obverse: MAXIMINVS PIVS AVG GERM / Laureate bust of Maximinus.
Reverse: P M TR P IIII COS P P / The emperor standing between two standards, holding spear and raising right hand.
2.62 gm., 19.5 mm.
RIC #6; Sear 8314.

This coin dates from January 1 to March 19, 238, at which time Gordian I was proclaimed emperor and the mint at Rome stopped coining for Maximinus. It was not until June 24, however, that he was murdered by his soldiers.
1 commentsCallimachus
0101.jpg
0101 - Denarius Marcia 82 AC34 viewsObv/ Laureate head of Apollo r.
Rev/ Marsyas walking l. bearing wine skin on shoulder; behind, statue of Victory on column: before, L CENSOR.

Ag, 17.5 mm, 3.78 g
Moneyer: L. Censorinus.
Mint: Rome.
RRC 363/1d [dies o/r: ~197/~228] - Syd. 737 - RSC Marcia 24
ex-M.Iglesias Alvarez, march 2011 (ex - Jesús Vico, auction 125, lot 232)
1 commentsdafnis
0126.jpg
0126 - Denarius Marcia 56 BC104 viewsObv/ Diademed head of Ancus Marcius r.; behind, lituus and below, ANCVS.
Rev/ Equestrian statue standing on aqueduct, behind PHILIPPVS; at horse’s feet, flower. Below, AQVA MAR ligate within the arches of the aqueduct.

Ag, 20.0 mm, 3.37 g
Moneyer: L. Marcius Philippus.
Mint: Roma.
RRC 425/1 [dies o/r: 447/497] - Syd. 919 - Bab. Marcia 28
ex-J.B. González Redondo (denarios.org), jul 2011 (ex–CNG, auction e228, lot 274)
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0168.jpg
0168 - Semis Augustus 12-11 BC42 viewsObv/ M AGRIP QVIN HIBERO PRAE, bare head of Agrippa (?) r.
Rev/ L BENNIO PRAEF, trophy over shields.

AE, 19.5mm, 4.65g
Mint: Carthago Nova.
APRH/164 – RPC I/164 - AB589
ex-Jesús Vico, auction 132, lot 548 (ex-Hispanic Society of America, colln. Archer M. Huntington, #21102)
1 commentsdafnis
0185.jpg
0185 - As Augustus 2-1 BC35 viewsObv/ AVGVSTVS DIVI F, bare head of A. r.
Rev/ C VAR RVF SEX IVL (P)OL II VIR Q, pontifical instruments (aspergillum, simpullum, ax and apex).

AE, 28.9 mm, 12.88 g
Mint: Carthago Nova.
APRH/167a [36 dies] – RPC I/167
ex-AENP Numismatic Convention, Madrid, march 2014 (Miró)
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0186 - Denarius Augustus 19-18 AC50 viewsObv/ Oak-wreathed head of Augustus r.
Rev/ Shield (clipeus votivus) inscribed CL V; around, S P Q R; above and below CAESAR AVGVSTVS; to both sides, laurel branches.

Ag, 18.1 mm, 3.80g
Mint: Colonia CaesarAugusta (?)
RIC I/36a [R3] - BMCRE I/354
ex-AENP Numismatic Convention, Madrid, march 2014 (Herrero)
4 commentsdafnis
19.jpg
019 Galba. AE AS 8.2gm36 viewsobv: SER GALBA IMP AVGVSTVS laur. head r.
rev: QVADRAGNS REMISSAE arch on r. surmounted by two equestrian statues,
to l. three captives, officer behind
1 commentshill132
Augustus_RIC_359.jpg
02 Augustus RIC I 035960 viewsAugustus 27 B.C.-14 A.D. Moneyer L. Vinicius. Rome Mint. 16 B.C. (3.72g, 18.8m, 5h). Obv: Anepigraphic, bare head right. Rev: L Vinicivs in ex., Triumphal arch inscribed SPQR IMP CAE in two lines sur. by Quadriga bearing Augustus, r. holding laurel-branch, l. scepter; smaller arch on sides w archer on l. and slinger on r. RIC I 359 (R2). RSC 544.

This coin depicts Augustus’ triple arch, perhaps the first in Rome. Beginning as a double arch to commemorate his victory at Actium, the third arch was probably added to commemorate the return of the lost standards from Parthia. For a scarce type, this example is well centered and has good details on the reverse including complete legends.
3 commentsLucas H
02_Octavian_RIC_I_266.jpg
02 Octavian RIC I 26633 viewsOctavian. AR Denarius. Italian Mint, possibly Rome. Autumn 30- summer 29 B.C. (3.45g, 19.8mm, 2h). Obv: Bare head right. Rev: IMP CAESAR on architrave of the Roman Senate House (Curia Julia), with porch supported by four short columns, statue of Victory on globe surmounting apex of roof, and statues of standing figures at the extremities of the architrave. CRI 421; RIC I 266; RSC 122.. Ex Andrew McCabe.1 commentsLucas H
2-Gordian-I-RIC-1.jpg
02. Gordian I / RIC 1.79 viewsDenarius, March - April 238, Rome mint.
Obverse: IMP M ANT GORDIANVS AFR AVG / Laureate bust of Gordian I.
Reverse: P M TR P COS P P / Gordian I standing, togate, holding branch, and wearing parzonium.
2.88 gm., 20 mm.
RIC #1; Sear #8446.

The third century saw numerous usurpers in various parts of the Empire. However, the local revolt in Africa which brought Gordian I and his son to power was the first and only time the cause of a usurper was taken up by the Senate before a current emperor was dead. Thus the Gordiani became legitimate Roman emperors, and their coinage, all minted at the imperial mint in Rome, became legitimate coinage of the Empire.

Provenance:
ex Gillardi Collection.
Tinchant sale (1962).
3 commentsCallimachus
KnidosARdrachm.jpg
020a, CARIA, Knidos. Circa 465-449 BC. AR Drachm.62 viewsCARIA, Knidos. Circa 465-449 BC. AR Drachm - 16mm (6.06 g). Obverse: forepart of roaring lion right; Reverse: archaic head of Aphrodite right, hair bound with taenia. Cahn 80 (V38/R53); SNG Helsinki 132 (same dies); SNG Copenhagen 232 (same dies). Toned, near VF, good metal. Ex Barry P. Murphy.

While this coin falls within the time frame that numismatists call "Classical" Greek coinage, I have chosen to place it in both the "Archaic" (coin 020a) and "Classical" Greek sections of my collection. This specimen is one of those wonderful examples of transition--it incorporates many elements of the "Archaic" era, although it is struck during the "Classical" Greek period and anticipates characteristics of the later period.

As noted art historian Patricia Lawrence has pointed out, "[this specimen portrays] A noble-headed lion, a lovely Late Archaic Aphrodite, and [is made from]. . . beautiful metal." The Archaic Aphrodite is reminiscent of certain portraits of Arethusa found on tetradrachms produced in Syracuse in the first decade of the 5th century BC.

Knidos was a city of high antiquity and as a Hellenic city probably of Lacedaemonian colonization. Along with Halicarnassus (present day Bodrum, Turkey) and Kos, and the Rhodian cities of Lindos, Kamiros and Ialyssos it formed the Dorian Hexapolis, which held its confederate assemblies on the Triopian headland, and there celebrated games in honour of Apollo, Poseidon and the nymphs.

The city was at first governed by an oligarchic senate, composed of sixty members, and presided over by a magistrate; but, though it is proved by inscriptions that the old names continued to a very late period, the constitution underwent a popular transformation. The situation of the city was favourable for commerce, and the Knidians acquired considerable wealth, and were able to colonize the island of Lipara, and founded a city on Corcyra Nigra in the Adriatic. They ultimately submitted to Cyrus, and from the battle of Eurymedon to the latter part of the Peloponnesian War they were subject to Athens.

In their expansion into the region, the Romans easily obtained the allegiance of Knidians, and rewarded them for help given against Antiochus by leaving them the freedom of their city.

During the Byzantine period there must still have been a considerable population: for the ruins contain a large number of buildings belonging to the Byzantine style, and Christian sepulchres are common in the neighbourhood.

Eudoxus, the astronomer, Ctesias, the writer on Persian history, and Sostratus, the builder of the celebrated Pharos at Alexandria, are the most remarkable of the Knidians mentioned in history.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cnidus

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
1 commentsCleisthenes
Andras_II_,_(1205-1235_AD),_AR-Denar,_H-215,_C1-179,_U-165,_Q-001,_2h,_17mm,_0,84g-s.jpg
021. H-248 András II., (Andreas II.), King of Hungary, (1205-1235 A.D.), H-215, CNH I.-179, U-165, AR-Denarius, #0174 views021. H-248 András II., (Andreas II.), King of Hungary, (1205-1235 A.D.), H-215, CNH I.-179, U-165, AR-Denarius, #01
avers: Trellised rectangle between two columns, patriarchal cross between two circles, amongst six dots between the columns, the border of dots.
reverse: Patriarchal cross, between two circles, amongst six dots, line border.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 17,0 mm, weight: 0,84 g, axis: 2h,
mint: Esztergom , date: A.D., ref: Huszár-215, CNH I.-179, Unger-165,
Q-001
3 commentsquadrans
Andras_II_,_(1205-1235_AD),_AR-Obulus,_H-216,_C1-180,_U-166,_Q-001,_1h,_14mm,_0,37g-s.jpg
021. H-248 András II., (Andreas II.), King of Hungary, (1205-1235 A.D.), H-216, CNH I.-180, U-166, AR-Obulus, #0167 views021. H-248 András II., (Andreas II.), King of Hungary, (1205-1235 A.D.), H-216, CNH I.-180, U-166, AR-Obulus, #01
avers: Trellised rectangle between two columns, patriarchal cross between two circles, amongst six dots between the columns, the border of dots.
reverse: Patriarchal cross, amongst six dots, line border.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 14,0 mm, weight: 0,37 g, axis: 1h,
mint: Esztergom , date: A.D., ref: Huszár-216, CNH I.-180, Unger-166,
Q-001
2 commentsquadrans
Andras-II_U-191_C1-213_H-251_Q-001_8h_11,2mm_0,38g-s.jpg
021. H-251 András II., (Andreas II.), King of Hungary, (1205-1235 A.D.), H-251, CNH I.-213, U-191, AR-Obulus, #01230 views021. H-251 András II., (Andreas II.), King of Hungary, (1205-1235 A.D.), H-251, CNH I.-213, U-191, AR-Obulus, #01
avers: Patriarchal cross, leopard to right, star between them at down, the border of dots.
reverse: Winged griffin advancing left, star over the head, line border.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 11,2 mm, weight: 0,38 g, axis: 8h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-251, CNH I.-213, Unger-191,
Q-001
quadrans
Andras-II_U-185_CP-044_H-259_Q-001_0h_11,5mm_0,28g-s.jpg
021. H-259 András II., (Andreas II.), King of Hungary, (1205-1235 A.D.), H-259, CNH CP.-044, U-185, AR-Obulus, Rare! #0183 views021. H-259 András II., (Andreas II.), King of Hungary, (1205-1235 A.D.), H-259, CNH CP.-044, U-185, AR-Obulus, Rare! #01
avers: Three towers on an arch, cross on the middle one, crowned bust facing between two stars below, a double circle of dots.
reverse: Cross with rosettes in the angles, border of dots.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 11,5 mm, weight: 0,28g, axis: 0h,
mint: Esztergom , date: A.D., ref: Huszár-259, CNH CP.-044, Unger-185,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Andras-II_U-186_C1-220_H-260_Q-003_12,1mm_0,46gz-s.jpg
021. H-260 András II., (Andreas II.), King of Hungary, (1205-1235 A.D.), H-248, CNH I.-220, U-186, AR-Obulus, #0183 views021. H-260 András II., (Andreas II.), King of Hungary, (1205-1235 A.D.), H-248, CNH I.-220, U-186, AR-Obulus, #01
avers: Crowned head facing, in the pointed arch between two towers, border of dots.
reverse: Cross with stars in the angles, border of dots.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 12,1 mm, weight: 0,46g, axis: -h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-260, CNH I.-220, Unger-186,
Q-001
quadrans
Andras_II__(1205-1235_AD),_H-275,_C1-305,_U-144,_Q-001,_7h,_14-14,5mm,_0,49g-s.jpg
021. H-276 András II., (Andreas II.), King of Hungary, (1205-1235 A.D.), H-275, CNH I.-305, U-144, AR-Denarius, #0165 views021. H-276 András II., (Andreas II.), King of Hungary, (1205-1235 A.D.), H-275, CNH I.-305, U-144, AR-Denarius, #01
avers: Crowned bust facing, between two towers, star within crescent above, line border.
reverse: Bastion between two towers on an arch of dots, branch between two circles above, leaf below, the border of dots.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 14,0-14,5 mm, weight: 0,49 g, axis: 7h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-275, CNH I.-305, Unger-144,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Andras-II_(1205-1235_AD)_U-145_C1-306_H-276_Q-001_4h_12-12,5mm_0,28ga-s.jpg
021. H-276 András II., (Andreas II.), King of Hungary, (1205-1235 A.D.), H-276, CNH I.-306, U-145, AR-Obulus, #0169 views021. H-276 András II., (Andreas II.), King of Hungary, (1205-1235 A.D.), H-276, CNH I.-306, U-145, AR-Obulus, #01
avers: Crowned bust facing, between two towers, star within crescent above, border of dots.
reverse: Bastion between two towers on an arch of dots, branch between two circles above, leaf below, line border.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 12-12,5 mm, weight: 0,28 g, axis: 4h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-276, CNH I.-306, Unger-145,
Q-001
quadrans
Bela-IV_(1235-1270_AD)_AR-Denar_U-253_C1-251_H-318_Q-001_h_mm_gx-s.jpg
022. H-318 Béla IV., King of Hungary, (1235-1270 A.D.), H-318, CNH I.-251, U-253, AR-Denar, #01 66 views022. H-318 Béla IV., King of Hungary, (1235-1270 A.D.), H-318, CNH I.-251, U-253, AR-Denar, #01
avers: +MONT GARIЄ, the bust of Christ facing, with nimbus, a border of dots.
reverse: Patriarchal cross amongst two stars, two dots, and two facing heads, line border.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 11,5mm, weight: 0,38g, axis: 10h,
mint: , date: 1235-1270 A.D., ref: Huszár-318, CNH I.-251, Unger-253,
Q-001
quadrans
Bela-IV_(1235-1270_AD)_AR-Denar_U-253_C1-251_H-318_Q-002_6,5h_12,5mm_0,45g-s.jpg
022. H-318 Béla IV., King of Hungary, (1235-1270 A.D.), H-318, CNH I.-251, U-253, AR-Denar, #02114 views022. H-318 Béla IV., King of Hungary, (1235-1270 A.D.), H-318, CNH I.-251, U-253, AR-Denar, #02
avers: +MONT GARIЄ, the bust of Christ facing, with nimbus, a border of dots.
reverse: Patriarchal cross amongst two stars, two dots, and two facing heads, line border.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 12,5mm, weight: 0,45g, axis: 6,5h,
mint: , date: 1235-1270 A.D., ref: Huszár-318, CNH I.-251, Unger-253,
Q-002
1 commentsquadrans
Bela_IV__(1235-1270_AD),_H-319,_C1-252,_U-254,_AR-Obulus,_Q-001,_6h,_9,5-10,0mm,_0,22g-s.jpg
022. H-319 Béla IV., King of Hungary, (1235-1270 A.D.), H-319, CNH I.-252, U-254, AR-Obulus, #0160 views022. H-319 Béla IV., King of Hungary, (1235-1270 A.D.), H-319, CNH I.-252, U-254, AR-Obulus, #01
avers: Head of Christ facing, with nimbus, a border of dots.
reverse: Patriarchal cross amongst two pellets above and two rosettes below, a border of dots.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 9,5-10,0mm, weight: 0,22g, axis: 6h,
mint: , date: 1235-1270 A.D., ref: Huszár-319, CNH I.-252, Unger-254,
Q-001
quadrans
Bela-IV_(1235-1270_AD)_AR-Denar_U-240_C1-259_H-327_Q-001_2h_12,5mm_0,44g-s.jpg
022. H-327 Béla IV., King of Hungary, (1235-1270 A.D.), H-327, CNH I.-259, U-240, AR-Denar, #0167 views022. H-327 Béla IV., King of Hungary, (1235-1270 A.D.), H-327, CNH I.-259, U-240, AR-Denar, #01
avers: King on horseback right, holding a cross, lily to left and between the legs of the horse; border of dots.
reverse: Crowned head facing, arch with three crosses above, star between two dots on top. Circle at the bottom of the crosses on the side, a border of dots.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 12,5mm, weight: 0,44g, axis: 2h,
mint: , date: 1235-1270 A.D., ref: Huszár-327, CNH I.-259, Unger-240,
Q-001
quadrans
Bela-IV_(1235-1270_AD)_U-246_C1-344_H-336_Q-001_9h_11mm_0,34g-s.jpg
022. H-336 Béla IV., King of Hungary, (1235-1270 A.D.), H-336, CNH I.-344, U-246, AR-Denarius, #01146 views022. H-336 Béla IV., King of Hungary, (1235-1270 A.D.), H-336, CNH I.-344, U-246, AR-Denarius, #01
avers: The Patriarchal cross between two towers; crowned head facing above, line border.
reverse: Crowned, winged lion standing left, line border.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 11mm, weight: 0,34g, axis: 9h,
mint: , date: 1235-1270 A.D., ref: Huszár-336, CNH I.-344, Unger-246, ,
Q-001
quadrans
Bela-IV_(1235-1270_AD)_U-247_C1-345_H-337_Q-001_h_mm_g-s.jpg
022. H-337 Béla IV., King of Hungary, (1235-1270 A.D.), H-337, CNH I.-345, U-247, AR-Obulus, #0182 views022. H-337 Béla IV., King of Hungary, (1235-1270 A.D.), H-337, CNH I.-345, U-247, AR-Obulus, #01
avers: The Patriarchal cross between two towers; crowned head facing above, line border.
reverse: Crowned, winged lion standing left, line border.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: , date: 1235-1270 A.D., ref: Huszár-337, CNH I.-345, Unger-247,
Q-001
quadrans
0224_HISP_RRCC_F681var.jpg
0224 - 1 Real Reyes Católicos c.1535 AC2 viewsObv/ Coat of arms flanked by X and X; around, : FERNANDVS : 7 : ELISABET - D
Rev/ Arrows and yoke, points around, below S. Around, + : REX : 7 : REGINA : CASTELE : LEGI

Ag, 26.5 mm, 3.28 g
Mint: Sevilla
Calicó -- - F6.8.1var
ex-Áureo & Calicó, auction Isabel de Tratámara, vol IX, lot 885
dafnis
Istvan_V_,_((1245)1270-1272_A_D_),_STEPAN_REGIS,_MONETA,_H-342,_C1-284,_U-270,_Q-001,_1h,_15mm,_0,61g-s.jpg
024. H-342 István V., (Stephen V.), King of Hungary, ((1245)1270-1272 A.D.), H-342, CNH I.-284, U-270, AR-Denarius, Very Rare!65 views024. H-342 István V., (Stephen V.), King of Hungary, ((1245)1270-1272 A.D.), H-342, CNH I.-284, U-270, AR-Denarius, Very Rare!
avers: STЄPAN RЄGIS, King seated facing on the arch in a circle of dots, holding a cross, border of dots
reverse: Patriarchal cross amongst circles, dots, and M - O / ͶЄ - TA, the border of dots.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 15,0mm, weight: 0,61g, axis: 1h,
mint: , date: 1270-1272 A.D., ref: Huszár-342, CNH I.-284, Unger-270, Very Rare!
Q-001
3 commentsquadrans
Diocletian_ant6.jpg
026 - Diocletian (284-305 AD), pre-reform Antoninianus - RIC 30634 viewsObv. IMP C C VAL DIOCLETIANVS AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right.
Rev. CONCORDIA MILITVM, emperor standing right, holding parazonium and receiving Victory om globe from Jupiter, standing left, holding sceptre.
Minted in Cyzicus (A in field, XXI in exe), first officina.

There is one die matching obv. to this coin on Coinarchives: http://www.coinarchives.com/a/lotviewer.php?LotID=117756&AucID=137&Lot=917 .
pierre_p77
III_Andras-(1290-1301)_U-321_C1-363_H-413_001_Q-001_0h_11,5mm_0,44g-s.jpg
026. H-413 András III., (Andreas III.), King of Hungary, (1290-11301 A.D.), H-413, CNH I.-363, U-321, AR-Denarius, #0184 views026. H-413 András III., (Andreas III.), King of Hungary, (1290-11301 A.D.), H-413, CNH I.-363, U-321, AR-Denarius, #01
avers: King standing facing, holding sword and shield, patriarchal cross on the shield, a border of dots.
reverse: The lion of Saint Mark, a border of dots.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 11,5mm, weight: 0,44g, axis:0h,
mint: Esztergom , date: A.D., ref: Huszár-413, CNH I.-363, Unger-321,
Q-001
quadrans
augustus_RIC82a.jpg
027 BC-14 AD - AUGUSTUS AR denarius - struck 19-18 BC54 viewsobv: CAESAR AVGVSTVS (bare head left, banker's mark on face)
rev: SIGNIS RECEPTIS (Mars standing left, head right, with aquila and standard)
ref: RIC I 82a, RSC 259 (4frcs), BMC 414.
mint: Colonia Patricia
3.41gms, 19mm
Rare

History: The Parthians had captured the standards of the legions under the command of Marcus Licinius Crassus (53 BC, at the Battle of Carrhae), Decidius Saxa (40 BC), and Marc Antony (36 BC). It was considered a grave moral defeat and evil omen for the Romans. It required a generation of diplomacy before the Parthians returned them. Their return was considered a great triumph by Augustus, and celebrated like a military victory. He took an ovation entering Rome on horseback and being honoured with a triumphal arch in the year 20 BC. This coin struck in Colonia Patricia (today Cordoba, Spain).
1 commentsberserker
augustus RIC344-RRR.jpg
027 BC-14 AD - AUGUSTUS AR denarius - struck by P. Licinius Stolo, moneyer (17 BC)83 viewsobv: AVGVSTVS TR POT (Augustus, laureate, wearing cloak and short tunic, on horseback riding right, holding patera in right hand - banker's mark)
rev: P STOLO III VIR (Salii or priest of Mars's cap (same than apex flaminis) between two studded oval shields (ancilia)).
ref: RIC I 344 (R3); BMCRE 76; RSC 439 (80frcs)
mint: Rome
3.53gms,18-19mm
Extremely rare

History: The Ludi Saeculares were spread over a period of three days (from May 31 to June 3), and Augustus celebrated them to inaugurate the beginning of a new age. On the reverse of this coin the ancilias (sacred shields) symbolised the music at festivals. The "jumping priests" or Salii marched to the Regia, where was the shrine of Mars, in which the ancilia (the sacred shield, and its 11 copies) of Mars were stored. The Salii wearing apex, taking the bronze Ancilia, and danced through the streets carrying poles with the shields mounted on them in their left hands. With their other hand, they banged the shields with a drumstick.
3 commentsberserker
Karoly-Robert_U-362_Q-001_mm_g-s.jpg
029 Károly Róbert., (Charles Robert of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1307-1342 A.D.) AR-Denarius, U-362, #01107 views029 Károly Róbert., (Charles Robert of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1307-1342 A.D.) AR-Denarius, U-362, #01
avers: ✠ MOnETA REGIS KARVLI; Hungarian-Anjou shield in circle of dots; border of dots.
reverse: Lily, bird, crowned head on either side of patriarchal cross, star and circle within crescent above; border of dots.
exergue, mint mark: bird/bird//--, diameter: mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Hungary, , date: 1324 A.D. (by Pohl), ref: Unger-362, CNH-2-054A, Huszár-446, Pohl-13,
Q-001
"The reverse is in the style of the Slavonian banaldenars."
quadrans
Karuli-1-s.jpg
029 Károly Róbert., (Charles Robert of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1307-1342 A.D.) AR-Denarius, U-362b, Reverse shield !!!72 views029 Károly Róbert., (Charles Robert of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1307-1342 A.D.) AR-Denarius, U-362b, Reverse shield !!!
avers: ✠ MOnETA REGIS KARVLI; Anjou-Hungarian (!!!) shield in circle of dots; border of dots.
reverse: Lily, bird, crowned head on either side of patriarchal cross, star and circle within crescent above; border of dots.,
exergue, mint mark: bird/bird//-- were struck by Ladislaus Gurhes, diameter: mm, weight: g,
mint: Hungary, Pécs (by Pohl), date: 1323 A.D. (by Pohl), ref: Unger-362b, Reverse shield !!!, CNH-2-054B, Huszár-446B, Pohl-12,
Q-001
"The reverse is in the style of the Slavonian banaldenars."
quadrans
Karoly-Robert_(1307-1342_AD)_AR-Denar_U-365_C2-051_H-459_MONETA-REGIS-KARVLI_Q-001_3h_14mm_0,82g-s.jpg
029 Károly Róbert., (Charles Robert of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1307-1342 A.D.) AR-Denarius, U-365, #0184 views029 Károly Róbert., (Charles Robert of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1307-1342 A.D.) AR-Denarius, U-365, #01
avers: ✠ MOnETA REGIS KARVLI; Crowned bust facing in circle of dots; border of dots.
reverse: Lily, bird, crowned head on either side of patriarchal cross on base; border of dots.
exergue, mint mark: bird/bird//--, diameter: 14mm, weight: 0,82g, axis: 3h,
mint: Hungary, , date: 1325 (by Pohl) A.D., ref: Unger-365, , CNH-2-051, Huszár-459, Pohl-16,
Q-001
"The reverse is in the style of the Slavonian banaldenars."
quadrans
Karoly-Robert_(1307-1342_AD)_Denar_U-378_C2-008_H-479_lily-patriarchalcross_KAROLVS_REX_hVNGhARIE_Nicolaus-Szatmari1333-AD_Q-001_7h_15mm_1,08g-s.jpg
029 Károly Róbert., (Charles Robert of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1307-1342 A.D.) AR-Denarius, U-378a, #0182 views029 Károly Róbert., (Charles Robert of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1307-1342 A.D.) AR-Denarius, U-378a, #01
avers: King enthroned, facing, holding sceptre and orb; Lily-Patriarchal Cross, border of dots.
reverse: ✠ KAROLVS:RЄX:hVnGARIЄ, Shield with Árpádian stripes and Anjevin lilies; line border.
exergue, mint mark: lily/Patriarchal Cross//-- were srucked by Nicolaus Szatmari (by Pohl), diameter: 15mm, weight: 1,08g, axis: 7h,
mint: Hungary, Esztergom, date: 1334 A.D. (by Pohl), ref: Unger-378a, CNH-2-008, Huszár-479, Pohl-36-02,
Q-001
quadrans
3-Gordian-II-RIC-3.jpg
03. Gordian II / RIC 3.44 viewsDenarius, March - April 238, Rome mint.
Obverse: IMP M ANT GORDIANVS AFR AVG / Laureate bust of Gordian II.
Reverse: VIRTVS AVGG / Virtus standing, hand of shield, leaning on spear.
2.90 gm., 20 mm.
RIC #3; Sear #8467.
2 commentsCallimachus
Lodovicus-I_U-432-a_C2-89A_H-547_MOnETA-LODOVICI_REGIS-hVnGARIE_Q-001_15mm_0,49g-s.jpg
030 Lajos I. -Nagy Lajos-, (Lodovicus I. (the great) of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1342-1382 A.D.) AR-Denarius, U-432a, #0176 views030 Lajos I. -Nagy Lajos-, (Lodovicus I. (the great) of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1342-1382 A.D.) AR-Denarius, U-432a, #01
avers: ✠ mOnЄTA LODOVICI, Saracen's head left, no internal (line) border, border of dots.
reverse: ✠ RЄGIS hVnGARIЄ, Patriarchal cross with dots each corner, amongst emission-marks (---), border of dots.
exergue, mint mark: -/-//-- Without mint mark was struck by Johannes Saracenus (by Pohl), diameter: 15,0mm, weight: 0,49g, axis: h,
mint: Hungary, Pécs (by Pohl), date: 1373-1382A.D.(by Pohl), ref: Unger-432a, CNH-2-089A, Huszár-547, Pohl-89-01,
Q-001
quadrans
Lodovicus-I__U-432-a_C2-89A_H-547_MOnETA-LODOVICI_REGIS-hVnGARIE_Q-003_15mm_0,53g-s.jpg
030 Lajos I. -Nagy Lajos-, (Lodovicus I. (the great) of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1342-1382 A.D.) AR-Denarius, U-432a, #0362 views030 Lajos I. -Nagy Lajos-, (Lodovicus I. (the great) of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1342-1382 A.D.) AR-Denarius, U-432a, #03
avers: ✠ mOnЄTA LODOVICI, Saracen's head left, no internal (line) border, border of dots.
reverse: ✠ RЄGIS hVnGARIЄ, Patriarchal cross with dots each corner, amongst emission-marks (---), border of dots.
exergue, mint mark: -/-//-- Without mint mark was struck by Johannes Saracenus (by Pohl), diameter: 15,0mm, weight: 0,53g, axis: h,
mint: Hungary, Pécs (by Pohl), date: 1373-1382A.D.(by Pohl), ref: Unger-432a, CNH-2-089A, Huszár-547, Pohl-89-01,
Q-003
quadrans
Lodovicus-I__U-432-a-var_C2-89A_H-547_MOnETA-LODOVICI_REGIS-hVnGARIE_Q-001_14,5mm_0,54g-s.jpg
030 Lajos I. -Nagy Lajos-, (Lodovicus I. (the great) of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1342-1382 A.D.) AR-Denarius, U-432a-var1., #0174 views030 Lajos I. -Nagy Lajos-, (Lodovicus I. (the great) of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1342-1382 A.D.) AR-Denarius, U-432a-var1., #01
avers: ✠ MOnЄTA LODOVICI, Saracen's head left, no internal (line) border, border of dots. Dot middle on the face.
reverse: ✠ RЄGIS hVnGARIЄ, Patriarchal cross, amongst emission-marks (---), border of dots.
exergue, mint mark: -/-//-- Without mint mark was struck by Johannes Saracenus (by Pohl), diameter: mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Hungary, Pécs (by Pohl), date: 1373-1382A.D.(by Pohl), ref: Unger-432a-var1., CNH-2-089A, Huszár-547, Pohl-89-01,
Q-001
quadrans
Lodovicus-I__U-432-a-var-2_C2-89A_H-547_MOnETA-LODOVICI_REGIS-hVnGARIE_Q-001_14mm_0,41g-s.jpg
030 Lajos I. -Nagy Lajos-, (Lodovicus I. (the great) of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1342-1382 A.D.) AR-Denarius, U-432a.var2, #0173 views030 Lajos I. -Nagy Lajos-, (Lodovicus I. (the great) of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1342-1382 A.D.) AR-Denarius, U-432a.var2, #01
avers: ✠ MOnЄTA LODOVICI, Saracen's head left, no internal (line) border, border of dots.
reverse: ✠ RЄGIS hVnGARIЄ, Patriarchal cross, amongst emission-marks (---), border of dots.
exergue, mint mark: -/-//-- Without mint mark was struck by Johannes Saracenus (by Pohl), diameter: mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Hungary, Pécs (by Pohl), date: 1373-1382A.D.(by Pohl), ref: Unger-432a-var2., CNH-2-089A, Huszár-547, Pohl-89-01,
Q-001
quadrans
Lodovicus-I__U-432-a-var3_C2-89A_H-547_MOnETA-LODOVICI_REGIS-hVnGARIE_Q-001_15mm_0,56g-s.jpg
030 Lajos I. -Nagy Lajos-, (Lodovicus I. (the great) of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1342-1382 A.D.) AR-Denarius, U-432a.var3, #0168 views030 Lajos I. -Nagy Lajos-, (Lodovicus I. (the great) of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1342-1382 A.D.) AR-Denarius, U-432a.var3, #01
avers: ✠ MOnЄTA LODOVICI, Saracen's head left, no internal (line) border, border of dots. Polka dot pattern in headscarves and neck.
reverse: ✠ RЄGIS hVnGARIЄ, Patriarchal cross with dots each corner, amongst emission-marks (---), border of dots.
exergue, mint mark: -/-//-- Without mint mark was struck by Johannes Saracenus (by Pohl), diameter: mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Hungary, Pécs (by Pohl), date: 1373-1382A.D.(by Pohl), ref: Unger-432a-var3., CNH-2-089A, Huszár-547, Pohl-89-01,
Q-001
quadrans
Lodovicus-I__U-432-b_C2-89A_H-547_MOnETA-LODOVICI_REGIS-hVnGARIE_Q-001_14mm_0,52g-s.jpg
030 Lajos I. -Nagy Lajos-, (Lodovicus I. (the great) of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1342-1382 A.D.) AR-Denarius, U-432b, #0180 views030 Lajos I. -Nagy Lajos-, (Lodovicus I. (the great) of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1342-1382 A.D.) AR-Denarius, U-432b, #01
avers: ✠ mOnЄTA LODOVICI, Saracen's head left, no internal (line) border, border of dots. Dot in the middle of the face.
reverse: ✠ RЄGIS hVnGARIЄ, Patriarchal cross with dots each corner, amongst emission-marks (L-S), border of dots.
exergue, mint mark: L/S//--, diameter: 14,0mm, weight: 0,52g, axis: h,
mint: Hungary, Unknown mint (by Pohl), date: 1373-1382A.D.(by Pohl), ref: Unger-432k, CNH-2-089A, Huszár-547, Pohl-89-10,
Q-001
quadrans
Lodovicus-I__U-432-c_C2-89A_H-547_MOnETA-LODOVICI_REGIS-hVnGARIE_Q-001_15mm_0,51g-s.jpg
030 Lajos I. -Nagy Lajos-, (Lodovicus I. (the great) of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1342-1382 A.D.) AR-Denarius, U-432c, #0178 views030 Lajos I. -Nagy Lajos-, (Lodovicus I. (the great) of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1342-1382 A.D.) AR-Denarius, U-432c, #01
avers: ✠ mOnЄTA LODOVICI, Saracen's head left, no internal (line) border, border of dots.
reverse: ✠ RЄGIS hVnGARIЄ, Patriarchal cross with dots each corner, amongst emission-marks (--P), border of dots.
exergue, mint mark: -/P//-- This mint mark was struck 1373-1375 by Peter Chimle (by Pohl), diameter: 14,0mm, weight: 0,52g, axis: h,
mint: Hungary, Unknown mint (by Pohl), date: 1373-1382A.D.(by Pohl), ref: Unger-432c, CNH-2-089A, Huszár-547, Pohl-89-08,
Q-001
quadrans
Lodovicus-I__U-432-c_C2-89A_H-547_MOnETA-LODOVICI_REGIS-hVnGARIE_Q-002_14mm_0,54g-s.jpg
030 Lajos I. -Nagy Lajos-, (Lodovicus I. (the great) of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1342-1382 A.D.) AR-Denarius, U-432c, #0267 views030 Lajos I. -Nagy Lajos-, (Lodovicus I. (the great) of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1342-1382 A.D.) AR-Denarius, U-432c, #02
avers: ✠ mOnЄTA LODOVICI, Saracen's head left, no internal (line) border, border of dots.
reverse: ✠ RЄGIS hVnGARIЄ, Patriarchal cross with dots each corner, amongst emission-marks (--P), border of dots.
exergue, mint mark: -/P//-- This mint mark was struck 1373-1375 by Peter Chimle (by Pohl), diameter: 14,0mm, weight: 0,54g, axis: h,
mint: Hungary, Unknown mint (by Pohl), date: 1373-1382A.D.(by Pohl), ref: Unger-432c, CNH-2-089A, Huszár-547, Pohl-89-08,
Q-002
quadrans
Lodovicus-I__U-432-c-var_C2-89A_H-547_MOnETA-LODOVICI_REGIS-hVnGARIE_Q-001_13,5mm_0,42g-s.jpg
030 Lajos I. -Nagy Lajos-, (Lodovicus I. (the great) of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1342-1382 A.D.) AR-Denarius, U-432c.var., #01117 views030 Lajos I. -Nagy Lajos-, (Lodovicus I. (the great) of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1342-1382 A.D.) AR-Denarius, U-432-c.-var., #01
avers: ✠ mOnЄTA LODOVICI, Saracen's head left, no internal (line) border, border of dots.
reverse: ✠ RЄGIS hVnGARIЄ, Patriarchal cross with dots each corner, amongst emission-marks (P--), border of dots.
exergue, mint mark: P/-//-- This mint mark was struck by Peter Chimle (by Pohl), diameter: 13,5mm, weight: 0,42g, axis: h,
mint: Hungary, Unknown mint (by Pohl), date: 1373-1375 A.D.(by Pohl), ref: Unger-432-c-var., CNH-2-089A, Huszár-547, Pohl-89-08-var,
Q-001
quadrans
Lodovicus-I__U-432-d_C2-89A_H-547_MOnETA-LODOVICI_REGIS-hVnGARIE_Q-001_14mm_0,46g-s.jpg
030 Lajos I. -Nagy Lajos-, (Lodovicus I. (the great) of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1342-1382 A.D.) AR-Denarius, U-432d, #0175 views030 Lajos I. -Nagy Lajos-, (Lodovicus I. (the great) of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1342-1382 A.D.) AR-Denarius, U-432d, #01
avers: ✠ mOnЄTA LODOVICI, Saracen's head left, no internal (line) border, border of dots.
reverse: ✠ RЄGIS hVnGARIЄ, Patriarchal cross with dots each corner, amongst emission-marks (Lily-S), border of dots.
exergue, mint mark: Lily/S//--, diameter: 14,0mm, weight: 0,46g, axis: h,
mint: Hungary, Szomolnok (Schmöllnitz, now Smolnik Slovakia by Pohl), date: 1373-1382A.D.(by Pohl), ref: Unger-432d, CNH-2-089A, Huszár-547, Pohl-89-09,
Q-001
quadrans
Lodovicus-I__U-432-fvar_C2-89A_H-547_MOnETA-LODOVICI_REGIS-hVnGARIE_Q-001_14mm_0,46g-s.jpg
030 Lajos I. -Nagy Lajos-, (Lodovicus I. (the great) of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1342-1382 A.D.) AR-Denarius, U-432f.-var, #0166 views030 Lajos I. -Nagy Lajos-, (Lodovicus I. (the great) of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1342-1382 A.D.) AR-Denarius, U-432f.-var, #01
avers: ✠ mOnЄTA LODOVICI, Saracen's head left, no internal (line) border, border of dots.
reverse: ✠ RЄGIS hVnGARIЄ, Patriarchal cross with dots each corner, amongst emission-marks (Lily-Lily in middle), border of dots.
exergue, mint mark: Lily/Lily//--, diameter: 14,0mm, weight: 0,46g, axis: h,
mint: Hungary, Kassa (Kaschau, nowadays Kosice by Pohl), date: 1373-1382A.D.(by Pohl), ref: Unger-432f, CNH-2-089A, Huszár-547, Pohl-89-03,
Q-001
quadrans
Lodovicus-I__U-432-g_C2-89A_H-547_MOnETA-LODOVICI_REGIS-hVnGARIE_Q-001_14mm_0,49g-s.jpg
030 Lajos I. -Nagy Lajos-, (Lodovicus I. (the great) of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1342-1382 A.D.) AR-Denarius, U-432g, #0182 views030 Lajos I. -Nagy Lajos-, (Lodovicus I. (the great) of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1342-1382 A.D.) AR-Denarius, U-432g, #01
avers: ✠ mOnЄTA LODOVICI, Saracen's head left, no internal (line) border, border of dots.
reverse: ✠ RЄGIS hVnGARIЄ, Patriarchal cross with dots each corner, amongst emission-marks (*-* in middle), border of dots.
exergue, mint mark: */*//--, diameter: 14,0mm, weight: 0,49g, axis: h,
mint: Hungary, Nagybánya (now Baia Mare, Romania by Pohl), date: 1373-1382A.D.(by Pohl), ref: Unger-432g, CNH-2-089A, Huszár-547, Pohl-89-04,
Q-001
quadrans
Lodovicus-I__U-432-g_C2-89A_H-547_MOnETA-LODOVICI_REGIS-hVnGARIE_Q-002_13mm_0,45g-s.jpg
030 Lajos I. -Nagy Lajos-, (Lodovicus I. (the great) of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1342-1382 A.D.) AR-Denarius, U-432g, #0297 views030 Lajos I. -Nagy Lajos-, (Lodovicus I. (the great) of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1342-1382 A.D.) AR-Denarius, U-432g, #02
avers: ✠ mOnЄTA LODOVICI, Saracen's head left, no internal (line) border, border of dots.
reverse: ✠ RЄGIS hVnGARIЄ, Patriarchal cross with dots each corner, amongst emission-marks (*-* in middle), border of dots.
exergue, mint mark: */*//--, diameter: 13,0mm, weight: 0,45g, axis: h,
mint: Hungary, Nagybánya (now Baia Mare, Romania by Pohl), date: 1373-1382A.D.(by Pohl), ref: Unger-432g, CNH-2-089A, Huszár-547, Pohl-89-04,
Q-002
quadrans
Lodovicus-I__U-432-i_C2-89A_H-547_MOnETA-LODOVICI_REGIS-hVnGARIE_Q-001_14mm_0,46g-s.jpg
030 Lajos I. -Nagy Lajos-, (Lodovicus I. (the great) of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1342-1382 A.D.) AR-Denarius, U-432i, #0173 views030 Lajos I. -Nagy Lajos-, (Lodovicus I. (the great) of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1342-1382 A.D.) AR-Denarius, U-432i, #01
avers: ✠ MOnЄTA LODOVICI, Saracen's head left, no internal (line) border, border of dots. One-one dot beside of the neck.
reverse: ✠ RЄGIS hVnGARIЄ, Patriarchal cross with dots each corner, amongst emission-marks (---), border of dots.
exergue, mint mark: •/•//-- (in avers !), diameter: mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Hungary, Pécs (by Pohl), date: 1373-1382A.D.(by Pohl), ref: Unger-432i, CNH-2-089A, Huszár-547, Pohl-89-07,
Q-001
quadrans
Lodovicus-I__U-432-j_C2-89A_H-547_MOnETA-LODOVICI_REGIS-hVnGARIE_Q-001_14mm_0,47g-s.jpg
030 Lajos I. -Nagy Lajos-, (Lodovicus I. (the great) of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1342-1382 A.D.) AR-Denarius, U-432j, #0166 views030 Lajos I. -Nagy Lajos-, (Lodovicus I. (the great) of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1342-1382 A.D.) AR-Denarius, U-432j, #01
avers: ✠ MOnЄTA LODOVICI, Saracen's head left, no internal (line) border, border of dots.
reverse: ✠ RЄGIS hVnGARIЄ, Patriarchal cross with dots each corner, amongst emission-marks (leaf-leaf below), border of dots.
exergue, mint mark: leaf/leaf//--(below), diameter: mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Hungary, , date: 1373-1382A.D.(by Pohl), ref: Unger-432j, CNH-2-089A, Huszár-547, Pohl-89-11,
Q-001
quadrans
Lodovicus-I__U-432-k_C2-89A_H-547_MOnETA-LODOVICI_REGIS-hVnGARIE_Q-001_4h_13mm_0,68g-s.jpg
030 Lajos I. -Nagy Lajos-, (Lodovicus I. (the great) of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1342-1382 A.D.) AR-Denarius, U-432k, #01128 views030 Lajos I. -Nagy Lajos-, (Lodovicus I. (the great) of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1342-1382 A.D.) AR-Denarius, U-432k, #01
avers: ✠ mOnЄTA LODOVICI, Cross on the neck (mint/emission mark), Saracen's head left, border of dots.
reverse: ✠ RЄGIS hVnGARIЄ, Patriarchal cross with dots each corner, border of dots.
exergue, mint mark: +/-//--, diameter: 13,0mm, weight: 0,68g, axis: 4h,
mint: Hungary, , date: 1373-1382A.D.(by Pohl), ref: Unger-432k, CNH-2-089A, Huszár-547, Pohl-89-12,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Lodovicus-I__U-433_C2-89B_H-548_MOnETA-LODOVICI_REGIS-hVnGARIE_Q-001_14mm_0,46g-s.jpg
030 Lajos I. -Nagy Lajos-, (Lodovicus I. (the great) of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1342-1382 A.D.) AR-Denarius, U-433, #0164 views030 Lajos I. -Nagy Lajos-, (Lodovicus I. (the great) of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1342-1382 A.D.) AR-Denarius, U-433, #01
avers: ✠ MOnЄTA LODOVICI, Saracen's head left, no internal (line) border, border of dots.
reverse: ✠ RЄGIS hVnGARIЄ, Patriarchal cross - with dots each corner - rising from crown at its base, border of dots.
exergue, mint mark: -/-//--, diameter: mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Hungary, Buda (by Pohl), date: 1373-1382A.D.(by Pohl), ref: Unger-433, CNH-2-089B, Huszár-548, Pohl-90,
Q-001
quadrans
030__Lajos_I__AR-Gross,_U-413d,_C2-68,_H-522,_1359-64_AD_Q-001_h,_28,0mm,_g-s.jpg
030 Lajos I. -Nagy Lajos-, (Lodovicus I. (the great) of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1342-1382 A.D.) AR-Gross, U-413-e, #01182 views030 Lajos I. -Nagy Lajos-, (Lodovicus I. (the great) of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1342-1382 A.D.) AR-Gross, U-413-e, #01
avers: ✠ LODOVICVS DЄI GRACIA RЄX hVnGARIЄ; king enthroned, facing, on the gothic throne in circle of dots, holding sceptre and orb, mint-mark below or by the throne; border of dots. The Saracen's head between the legs under.
reverse: ✠ DALMACIЄ : CROACIЄ : ЄTC; Anjou-Hungarian shield in circle of dots, amongst six arches, no mint-mark above the shield, emission-marks around the arches; border of dots.
exergue, mint mark: Saracen's head, were struck by Jacobus Saracenus (by Pohl), diameter: 28,0mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Hungary, Pécs/Syrmien (by Pohl), date: 1359-1364 A.D. (by Pohl), ref: Unger-413-e, CNH-2-068, Huszár-522, Pohl-59-4-a.,
Q-001


Lodovicus I. (the great) of Anjou
1 commentsquadrans
Lodovicus-I_(1342-1382AD)_U-437-c_C2-88_H-546_MONETA-LODOVICI_DEI-GRATIA-R-VGARIE_C_Q-001_h_mm_g-s.jpg
030 Lajos I. -Nagy Lajos-, (Lodovicus I. (the great) of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1342-1382 A.D.) AR-Obulus, U-437(?)(Not in this Mint mark !!!)., #0199 views030 Lajos I. -Nagy Lajos-, (Lodovicus I. (the great) of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1342-1382 A.D.) AR-Obulus, U-437(?)(Not in this Mint mark !!!)., #01
avers: ✠ MONЄTA LODOVICI, Patriarchal cross with dots each corner, border of dots.
reverse: ✠ DЄI GRACIA R VGARIЄ (AR ligate, Legend variation), Hungarian-Anjou shield, border of dots. "C" above the shield (New mintmark !!!).
exergue, mint mark: -/-//--, diameter: 11,0mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Hungary, , date: 1372 A.D.(by Pohl), ref: Unger-437(?)(Not in)., CNH-2-088, Huszár-546, Pohl-88-(?)(Not in),
Q-001
quadrans
Lodovicus-I_(1342-1382AD)_U-437-a_var_C2-88_H-546_M_VnGARIE-LODOVICI_DEI-GRACIA-VGARIE_-_Q-001_h_mm_g-s.jpg
030 Lajos I. -Nagy Lajos-, (Lodovicus I. (the great) of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1342-1382 A.D.) AR-Obulus, U-437a-var-2., #01107 views030 Lajos I. -Nagy Lajos-, (Lodovicus I. (the great) of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1342-1382 A.D.) AR-Obulus, U-437a-var-2., #01
avers: ✠ m VnGARIЄ LODOVICI (Unknown Legend variation!!!), Patriarchal cross, border of dots.
reverse: ✠ DЄI GRACIA R VGARIЄ (AR-ligate, Legend variation), Hungarian-Anjou shield, border of dots.
exergue, mint mark: -/-//--, diameter: 11,0mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Hungary, , date: 1372 A.D.(by Pohl), ref: Unger-437a-var2., CNH-2-088, Huszár-546, Pohl-88-1var,
Q-001
quadrans
Lodovicus-I_(1342-1382AD)_U-437-a_C2-88_H-546_MONETA-LODOHICI_DEI-GRATIA-RHGARE_-_Q-001_h_mm_g-s.jpg
030 Lajos I. -Nagy Lajos-, (Lodovicus I. (the great) of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1342-1382 A.D.) AR-Obulus, U-437a-var., #01109 views030 Lajos I. -Nagy Lajos-, (Lodovicus I. (the great) of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1342-1382 A.D.) AR-Obulus, U-437a-var., #01
avers: ✠ MONЄTA LODOH(?)ICI (Legend variation), Patriarchal cross with dots each corner, border of dots.
reverse: ✠ DЄI GRATIA R HGARЄ (Legend variation), Hungarian-Anjou shield, border of dots.
exergue, mint mark: -/-//--, diameter: 11,0mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Hungary, , date: 1372 A.D.(by Pohl), ref: Unger-437a-var., CNH-2-088, Huszár-546, Pohl-88-1,
Q-001
quadrans
Lodovicus-I_(1342-1382AD)_U-437-b_C2-88_H-546_MOnETA-LODOVICI_DEI-GRATIA-R-VGARIE_lily_Q-001_h_mm_gx-s.jpg
030 Lajos I. -Nagy Lajos-, (Lodovicus I. (the great) of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1342-1382 A.D.) AR-Obulus, U-437b., #0196 views030 Lajos I. -Nagy Lajos-, (Lodovicus I. (the great) of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1342-1382 A.D.) AR-Obulus, U-437b., #01
avers: ✠ MOnЄTA LODOVICI, Patriarchal cross with dots each corner, border of dots.
reverse: ✠ DЄI GRATIA R VGARIЄ (AR ligate, Legend variation), Hungarian-Anjou shield, border of dots. Lily above the shield.
exergue, mint mark: -/-//--, diameter: 11,0mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Hungary, , date: 1372 A.D.(by Pohl), ref: Unger-437b., CNH-2-088, Huszár-546, Pohl-88-2,
Q-001
quadrans
Lodovicus-I_(1342-1382AD)_U-438_C2-90_H-549_REGIS-LODOVICI_Saracen-head-left_-_Q-001_h_mm_g-s.jpg
030 Lajos I. -Nagy Lajos-, (Lodovicus I. (the great) of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1342-1382 A.D.) AR-Obulus, U-438, #01111 views030 Lajos I. -Nagy Lajos-, (Lodovicus I. (the great) of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1342-1382 A.D.) AR-Obulus, U-438, #01
avers: ✠ RЄGIS LODOVICI, Patriarchal cross, border of dots.
reverse: No legends, Saracen's head left, border of dots.
exergue, mint mark: -/-//--, diameter: 11,0mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Hungary, , date: 1373-1382 A.D.(by Pohl), ref: Unger-438, CNH-2-090, Huszár-549, Pohl-91,
Q-001
quadrans
Buda_Denar-Lodovicus-I_(1342-1382AD)_U--_C2-100_H-509_Pohl-108_Shield_mOnETA-BVDEnSIUm_1350AD_Q-001_7h_11,5mm_0,25g-s.jpg
030a City Coin Buda with Lajos I. -Nagy Lajos-, (Lodovicus I. (the great) of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1342-1382 A.D.) AR-Buda Denar, Pohl-108, #01 Very Rare!!!197 views030a City Coin Buda with Lajos I. -Nagy Lajos-, (Lodovicus I. (the great) of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1342-1382 A.D.) AR-Buda Denar, Pohl-108, #01 Very Rare!!!
avers: No Legend, Hungarian-Anju shield amongst three arches, lilies between the arches; border of dots, without mint-mark.
reverse: ✠ mOnЄTA BVDЄnSIVm (left to right), large "L", border of dots.
exergue, mint mark: -/-//--, diameter: 11,5mm, weight: 0,25g, axis: 7h,
mint: Hungary, City coin Buda, date: 1350 A.D.(by Pohl), ref: Unger---, CNH-2-100, Huszár-509, Pohl-108,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Maria-(1382-1387(1395)_AD)_U-443-l-var-1_C2-116_H-569_cross-mARIA_R_VnGARI_cross-mOnETA_mARIE_S_Q-001_7h_14mm_0,44g-s.jpg
031 Mária, (Maria of Anjou, Angevin)., Queen of Hungary, (1382-1387(1395) A.D.) AR-Denarius, U-443-l., #01114 views031 Mária, (Maria of Anjou, Angevin)., Queen of Hungary, (1382-1387(1395) A.D.) AR-Denarius, U-443-l., #01
avers: ✠ mOnЄTA•mARIЄ, Patriarchal cross (inside of border of dots) with dots each corner, border, border of dots.
reverse: ✠ mARIA•R•VnGARI, Crown in circle of dots, mint-master's mark (S) below, border of dots.
exergue, mint mark: -/-//S, diameter: 14,0mm, weight: 0,44g, axis: 7h,
mint: Hungary, Syrmien?, (by Pohl), date: 1386-1395A.D.(by Pohl), ref: Unger-443-l., CNH-2-116, Huszár-569, Pohl-114-11,
Q-001

Mária (Mary) of Anjou
quadrans
Zsigmond,_(1387-1437_AD),_AR-Den,_H-575,_C2-120A,_U-448,_P-116,_mOnETSIGISmVnDI,_REGISVnGARIE,_1387-9AD,_Q-001,_4h,_13,2-14,2mm,_0_62g-s.jpg
032 Sigismund, ( Sigismund of Luxemburg)., King of Hungary, (1387-1437 A.D.) AR-Denar, H-575, C2-120A, U-448, P-116, Rare! #0164 views032 Sigismund, ( Sigismund of Luxemburg)., King of Hungary, (1387-1437 A.D.) AR-Denar, H-575, C2-120A, U-448, P-116, Rare! #01
avers: ✠mOnЄT SIGISmVnDI, Patriarchal (short!) cross.
reverse: ✠•RЄGIS•VnGARIЄ, Four-part shield, Árpádian stripes, and Brandenburg eagle.
exergue, mint mark: -/-//--, diameter: 13,2-14,2mm, weight: 0,62g, axis:4h,
mint: Hungary, Buda, Moneyer: Onforio Bardi(?) (by Pohl), date: 1387-1389 A.D. (by Pohl), ref: Huszár-575, CNH-2-120A, Unger-448, Pohl-116, Rare!
Q-001

Sigismund of Luxemburg
quadrans
Zsigmond,_(1387-1437_AD),_AR-Den,_H-575,_C2-120A,_U-448,_P-116,_mOnETSIGISmVnDI,_REGISVnGARIE_ET_C_,_1387-9AD,_Q-001,_6h,_13,5mm,_0_39g-s.jpg
032 Sigismund, ( Sigismund of Luxemburg)., King of Hungary, (1387-1437 A.D.) AR-Denar, H-575/576, C2-120A/121A, U-448/449, P-116/117, Hybrid variation, Very Rare!!! #0163 views032 Sigismund, ( Sigismund of Luxemburg)., King of Hungary, (1387-1437 A.D.) AR-Denar, H-575/576, C2-120A/121A, U-448/449, P-116/117, Hybrid variation, Very Rare!!! #01
avers: ✠mOnЄT SIGISmVnDI, Patriarchal (short!) cross.
reverse: ✠•RЄGIS VnGARIЄ ЄT C, Four-part shield, Árpádian stripes and Brandenburg eagle. The reverse legend is the same as the Huszár-576, CNH-2-121A, Unger-449, Pohl-117,
exergue, mint mark: -/-//--, diameter: 13,5mm, weight: 0,39g, axis:6h,
mint: Hungary, Buda, Moneyer: Onforio Bardi(?) (by Pohl), date: 1387-1389 A.D. (by Pohl), ref: Huszár-575/576, CNH-2-120A/121, Unger-448/449, Pohl-116/117, Hybrid denar, Very Rare !!!
Q-001

Sigismund of Luxemburg
1 commentsquadrans
Zsigmond,_(1387-1437_AD),_H-578,_C2-124A,_U-450-fvar_,_P-118-2,_AR-Den,_mOn_SIG-ISmVnDI,_REGIS_VnGARIE_ET_C_,_B-_L,_1436_AD,_Q-001,_8h,_15-16mm,_0,61g-s.jpg
032 Sigismund, ( Sigismund of Luxemburg)., King of Hungary, (1387-1437 A.D.) AR-Denar, H-578, C2-124A, U-450-fvar., P-118-02, #0177 views032 Sigismund, ( Sigismund of Luxemburg)., King of Hungary, (1387-1437 A.D.) AR-Denar, H-578, C2-124A, U-450-fvar., P-118-02, #01
avers: mOn•SIG ISmVnDI, Patriarchal cross, mint-mark on each side B-•L.
reverse: ✠•RЄGIS•VnGARIЄ•ЄT•C•, Shield with Árpadian(Hungarian) stripes.
exergue, mint mark: B/•L//--, diameter: 14,5-15,5mm, weight: 0,68g, axis:8h,
mint: Hungary, Buda, Moneyer: Leonardo Bardi, date: after 1436 A.D. (by Pohl), ref: Huszár-578, CNH-2-124A, Unger-450-fvar., Pohl-118-02,
Q-001

Sigismund of Luxemburg
1 commentsquadrans
Zsigmond,_(1387-1437_AD),_H-578,_C2-124A,_U-450-k,_P-118-4,_AR-Den,_mOn_SIG-ISmVnDI,_REGIS_VnGARIE_ET_C_,_C-L,_1436_AD,_Q-001,_11h,_14,5-15,5mm,_0_68g-s.jpg
032 Sigismund, ( Sigismund of Luxemburg)., King of Hungary, (1387-1437 A.D.) AR-Denar, H-578, C2-124A, U-450-k., P-118-04, #0166 views032 Sigismund, ( Sigismund of Luxemburg)., King of Hungary, (1387-1437 A.D.) AR-Denar, H-578, C2-124A, U-450-k., P-118-04, #01
avers: mOn•SIG ISmVnDI, Patriarchal cross, mint-mark on each side C-L.
reverse: ✠•RЄGIS•VnGARIЄ•ЄT•C•, Shield with Árpadian(Hungarian) stripes.
exergue, mint mark: C/L//--, diameter: 14,5-15,5mm, weight: 0,68g, axis:11h,
mint: Hungary, Kassa (today Slovakia : Kosice), Moneyer: Ladislaus Csápy or Leonardo Bardi, date: after 1434-1436 A.D. (by Pohl), ref: Huszár-578, CNH-2-124A, Unger-450-k., Pohl-118-04,
Q-001

Sigismund of Luxemburg
1 commentsquadrans
Zsigmond,_(1387-1437_AD),_AR-Den,_U-450-g,_C2-124A,_H-578,_mOn_SIG-ISmVnDI,_REGIS_VnGARIE_ET_C_,_Q-001,_5h,_16mm,_0_53g-s.jpg
032 Sigismund, ( Sigismund of Luxemburg)., King of Hungary, (1387-1437 A.D.) AR-Denar, H-578, C2-124A, U-450.g., P-118-18, #01174 views032 Sigismund, ( Sigismund of Luxemburg)., King of Hungary, (1387-1437 A.D.) AR-Denar, H-578, C2-124A, U-450.g., P-118-18, #01
avers: mOn•SIG ISmVnDI, Patriarchal cross, mint-mark on each side n-*.
reverse: ✠•RЄGIS•VnGARIЄ•ЄT•C•, Shield with Árpadian(Hungarian) stripes.
exergue, mint mark: n/*//--, diameter:15,0-16,0mm, weight: 0,53g, axis:5h,
mint: Hungary, Nagybánya (today Romania : Baia Mare), date: after 1430 A.D. (by Pohl), ref: Unger-450.g., CNH-2-124A, Huszár-578, Pohl-118-18,
Q-001

Sigismund of Luxemburg
1 commentsquadrans
Sigismund-Ducat-s.jpg
032 Sigismund, ( Sigismund of Luxemburg)., King of Hungary, (1387-1437 A.D.) AR-Ducat, U-455-i., #0186 views032 Sigismund, ( Sigismund of Luxemburg)., King of Hungary, (1387-1437 A.D.) AR-Ducat, U-455-i., #01
avers: Patriarchal cross, mint-mark on each side; border of dots.
reverse: Saint Ladislas standing facing, holding halberd and orb; border of dots.
exergue, mint mark: n/I//--, diameter:10,5mm, weight: 0,27g, axis:0h,
mint: Hungary, Nagybánya (today Romania : Baia Mare), date: 1427-1430 A.D. (by Pohl), ref: Unger-455-i., CNH-2-128, Huszár-584, Pohl-123-09,
Q-001
quadrans
Zsigmond_(1387-1437_AD)_Quarting_U-456c_C2-129_H-586_K-Cross-on-S_Q-005_6h_12,6-12,9mm_0_33g-s.jpg
032 Sigismund, ( Sigismund of Luxemburg)., King of Hungary, (1387-1437 A.D.) AR-Quarting (1/4 Denar or Fyrting), U-456-c., #01178 views032 Sigismund, ( Sigismund of Luxemburg)., King of Hungary, (1387-1437 A.D.) AR-Quarting (1/4 Denar or Fyrting), U-456-c., #01
avers: Patriarchal cross, mint-mark on each side.
reverse: Crown.
exergue, mint mark: K/+/S//-- were struck by Johannes Siebenlinder (by Pohl), diameter:12,6-12,9mm, weight: 0,33g, axis:6h,
mint: Hungary, Körmöcbánya (today Slovakia: Kremnitz), date: 1434 A.D. (by Pohl), ref: Unger-456-c., CNH-2-129, Huszár-586, Pohl-124-38,
Q-001
quadrans
Zsigmond_(1387-1437_AD),_Quarting,_H-586,_C2-129,_U-456k,_C-V,_Q-001,_1h,_12,5-13,0mm,_0_39g-s.jpg
032 Sigismund, ( Sigismund of Luxemburg)., King of Hungary, (1387-1437 A.D.) AR-Quarting (1/4 Denar or Fyrting), U-456-k., #0176 views032 Sigismund, ( Sigismund of Luxemburg)., King of Hungary, (1387-1437 A.D.) AR-Quarting (1/4 Denar or Fyrting), U-456-k., #01
avers: Patriarchal cross, mint-mark on each side.
reverse: Crown.
exergue, mint mark: C/V//-- were struck by Urbanus Polner (by Pohl), diameter:12,5-13,0mm, weight: 0,39g, axis:1h,
mint: Hungary, Kassa (today Slovakia: Kosice), date: 1434 A.D. (by Pohl), ref: Unger-456-k., CNH-2-129, Huszár-586, Pohl-124-26,
Q-001
quadrans
032_Albert_(1437-1439_AD),_AR-Den,_H-592,_C2-135B,_U-461_h_,_P-127-7,_m_ALBERTI_R_VnGARIE,_K-R_over_cross,_1440_AD,_Q-001,_1h,_14-14,5mm,_0,47g-s.jpg
033 Albert., King of Hungary, (1437-1439 A.D.) AR Denarius, H-592, C2-135B, U-461.h., P-127-07, #0149 views033 Albert., King of Hungary, (1437-1439 A.D.) AR Denarius, H-592, C2-135B, U-461.h., P-127-07, #01
avers: ✠ m•ALBЄRTI•R•VnGARIЄ••, Patriarchal Cross, K-R over +, in a circle, line border.
reverse: Four-part shield (Hungarian stripes in the middle, Czech lion, Austrian band, Moravian eagle around), the border of dots,
exergue, mint mark: K/R over +//-- , diameter: 14,0-14,5mm, weight: 0,47g, axis: 1h,
mint: Hungary, Körmöcbánya (Kremnitz, today Slovakia: Kremnica, Konrad Rudel by Pohl), date:1439 A.D. (by Pohl), ref: Huszár-592, CNH-2-135B, Unger-461.h., Pohl-127-07,
Q-001
This coin was struck under the Interregnum I. (1439-1440 A.D.) with the name of Abert!
2 commentsquadrans
033_Albert_(1437-1439_AD)_Den_U-461-i_C2-135B_H-592_m_ALBERTI_R_VnGARIE_-_n-S_1438-40_AD,_Q-001_6h_13,5-14,2mm_0,44g-s.jpg
033 Albert., King of Hungary, (1437-1439 A.D.) AR Denarius, H-592, C2-135B, U-461.i., P-127-08, #01110 views033 Albert., King of Hungary, (1437-1439 A.D.) AR Denarius, H-592, C2-135B, U-461.i., P-127-08, #01
avers: ✠ m•ALBERTI•R•VnGARIЄ, Patriarchal Cross, n-S, in a circle, line border.
reverse: Four-part shield (Hungarian stripes in the middle, Czech lion, Austrian band, Moravian eagle around), a border of dots,
exergue, mint mark: n/S//-- , diameter: 13,5-14,2mm, weight: 0,44g, axis:6h,
mint: Hungary, Nagybánya (today Romania: Baia Mare, Stephanus Remetei by Pohl), date:1439 A.D. (by Pohl),
ref: Unger-461-i., CNH-2-135B, Huszár-592, Pohl-127-08,
Q-001
quadrans
032_Albert_(1437-1439_AD),_AR-Den,_H-592,_C2-135B,_U-461_i_,_P-127-8,_m_ALBERTI_R_VnGARIE,_n-S,_1440_AD,_Q-002,_11h,_14-14,5mm,_0,39g-s.jpg
033 Albert., King of Hungary, (1437-1439 A.D.) AR Denarius, H-592, C2-135B, U-461.i., P-127-08, #0250 views033 Albert., King of Hungary, (1437-1439 A.D.) AR Denarius, H-592, C2-135B, U-461.i., P-127-08, #02
avers: ✠ m•ALBERTI•R•VnGARIЄ, Patriarchal Cross, n-S, in a circle, line border.
reverse: Four-part shield (Hungarian stripes in the middle, Czech lion, Austrian band, Moravian eagle around), a border of dots,
exergue, mint mark: n/S//-- , diameter: 14,0-14,5mm, weight: 0,39g, axis:11h,
mint: Hungary, Nagybánya (today Romania: Baia Mare, Stephanus Remetei by Pohl), date:1439 A.D. (by Pohl),
ref: Unger-461-i., CNH-2-135B, Huszár-592, Pohl-127-08,
Q-002
1 commentsquadrans
033_Albert_(1437-1439_AD),_AR-Den,_H-592,_C2-135B,_U-461_q_,_P-127-9,_m_ALBERTI_R_VnGARIE,_C-Lily,_1440_AD,_Q-001,_7h,_13,5-14,5mm,_0,39g-s~0.jpg
033 Albert., King of Hungary, (1437-1439 A.D.) AR Denarius, H-592, C2-135B, U-461.q., P-127-09, #0166 views033 Albert., King of Hungary, (1437-1439 A.D.) AR Denarius, H-592, C2-135B, U-461.q., P-127-09, #01
avers: ✠ m•ALBЄRTI•R•VnGARIЄ••, Patriarchal Cross, C-⚜, in a circle, line border.
reverse: Four-part shield (Hungarian stripes in the middle, Czech lion, Austrian band, Moravian eagle around), the border of dots,
exergue, mint mark: C/⚜//-- , diameter: 13,5-14,5mm, weight: 0,39g, axis: 7h,
mint: Hungary, Kassa (today Slovakia: Kosice, City coin by Pohl), date:1440 A.D. (by Pohl), ref: Huszár-592, CNH-2-135B, Unger-461.q., Pohl-127-09,
Q-001
This coin was struck under the Interregnum I. (1439-1440 A.D.) with the name of Abert!
1 commentsquadrans
033_Albert_(1437-1439_AD),_AR-Den,_H-592,_C2-135B,_U-461_s_,_P-127-11,_m_ALBERTI_R_VnGARIE,_K-P,_1440_AD,_Q-001,_4h,_13,5-14,0mm,_0,48g-s.jpg
033 Albert., King of Hungary, (1437-1439 A.D.) AR Denarius, H-592, C2-135B, U-461.s., P-127-11, #0167 views033 Albert., King of Hungary, (1437-1439 A.D.) AR Denarius, H-592, C2-135B, U-461.s., P-127-11, #01
avers: ✠ m•ALBЄRTI•R•VnGARIЄ••, Patriarchal Cross, K-P, in a circle, line border.
reverse: Four-part shield (Hungarian stripes in the middle, Czech lion, Austrian band, Moravian eagle around), the border of dots,
exergue, mint mark: K/P//-- , diameter: 13,5-14,0mm, weight: 0,48g, axis: 4h,
mint: Hungary, Körmöcbánya (Kremnitz, today Slovakia: Kremnica, Konrad Polner by Pohl), date:1440 A.D. (by Pohl), ref: Huszár-592, CNH-2-135B, Unger-461.s., Pohl-127-11,
Q-001
This coin was struck under the Interregnum I. (1439-1440 A.D.) with the name of Abert!
1 commentsquadrans
033_Albert_(1437-1439_AD)_Den_U-459-a_C2-134_H-591_MOnETA-ALBERTI_REGIS-_-VnGARIE-_-ETC_Q-001_16mm_0,63g-s.jpg
033 Albert., King of Hungary, (1437-1439 A.D.) AR Denarius, U-459-a., #0182 views033 Albert., King of Hungary, (1437-1439 A.D.) AR Denarius, U-459-a., #01
avers: mOnЄTA ALBЄRTI, Patriarchal Cross, C-K, circle; border of dots.
reverse: ✠ RЄGIS•VnGARIЄ•ЄT•C•, circle; border of dots.
exergue, mint mark: C/K//--, diameter: 16mm, weight: 0,63g, axis:h,
mint: Hungary, Kassa (Kaschau, today Kosice by Pohl), date:1438 A.D. (by Pohl),
ref: Unger-459-a., CNH-2-134, Huszár-591, Pohl-126-01,
Q-001
quadrans
Ulaszlo-I__(1440-1444_AD)_AR-Denar_U-472var_-C2-145A_H-607_1442-43-AD_M_WLADIS_DEI_EC__REGIS_VnGARIE_EC__I-I_Q-001_7h_13,6-14,5mm_0,39g-s.jpg
035 Ulászló I. (Wladislas I.)., King of Hungary, (1440-1444 A.D.) AR Denarius (Billon), U-472var., #01172 views035 Ulászló I. (Wladislas I.)., King of Hungary, (1440-1444 A.D.) AR Denarius (Billon), U-472var., #01
avers: m•WLADIS•DЄI•ЄC•, Crowned, two-part Hungarian shield (stripes and patriarchal cross), mint-mark on each side (I-h), border of dots.
reverse: ✠RЄGIS•VnGARIЄ•Є•C•, Lithuanian shield (knight) in circle, border of dots.
exergue, mint mark: I/h//--, diameter: 13,6-14,5mm, weight: 0,39g, axis:7h,
mint: Hungary, Buda, date:1442-1443 A.D. (by Pohl), ref: Unger-472var., CNH-2-145A, Huszár-607, Pohl-141-??,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Ulaszlo-I__(1440-1444_AD)_AR-Denar_U-469_c-C2-149A_H-598_m_WLADIS-LAI_REGIS_Q-001_6h_13,5mm_0,67g-s.jpg
035 Ulászló I. (Wladislas I.)., King of Hungary, (1440-1444 A.D.) AR Denarius, U-469-c., #01102 views035 Ulászló I. (Wladislas I.)., King of Hungary, (1440-1444 A.D.) AR Denarius, U-469-c., #01
avers: ✠m•WLADIS LAI•RЄGIS, Patriarchal cross, mint-mark on each side; border of dots.
reverse: ✠ amongst three arches, three shields in the arches (Hungarian stripes, Polish eagle, Lithuanian knight); border of dots.
exergue, mint mark: B/*/n//--, diameter: 13,5mm, weight: 0,67g, axis:6h,
mint: Hungary, Buda, (by Pohl), date:1440 A.D.( by Pohl), ref: Unger-469-c., CNH-2-149A, Huszár-598, Pohl-135-02,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Ulaszlo-I__(1440-1444_AD)_AR-Denar_U-469_c_C2-149A_H-598_m_WLADIS-LAI_REGIS_Err-coin_Q-001_10h_13-15mm_0,51g-s.jpg
035 Ulászló I. (Wladislas I.)., King of Hungary, (1440-1444 A.D.) AR Denarius, U-469-c., Error coin, double strike both side, reverse on the avers !!!, #02 87 views035 Ulászló I. (Wladislas I.)., King of Hungary, (1440-1444 A.D.) AR Denarius, U-469-c., Error coin, double strike both side, reverse on the avers !!!, #02
avers: ✠m•WLADIS LAI•RЄGIS, Patriarchal cross, mint-mark on each side; border of dots.
reverse: ✠ amongst three arches, three shields in the arches (Hungarian stripes, Polish eagle, Lithuanian knight); border of dots.
exergue, mint mark: B/*/n//--, diameter: 13-15mm, weight: 0,51g, axis: 10h,
mint: Hungary, Buda, (by Pohl), date:1440 A.D.( by Pohl), ref: Unger-469-c., CNH-2-149A, Huszár-598, Pohl-135-02,
Q-002
quadrans
Ulaszlo-I__(1440-1444_AD)_AR-Denar_U-469_f-C2-149A_H-598_m_WLADIS-LAI_REGIS_Q-001_h_mm_ga-s.jpg
035 Ulászló I. (Wladislas I.)., King of Hungary, (1440-1444 A.D.) AR Denarius, U-469-f., #0186 views035 Ulászló I. (Wladislas I.)., King of Hungary, (1440-1444 A.D.) AR Denarius, U-469-f., #01
avers: ✠m•WLADIS LAI•RЄGIS, Patriarchal cross, mint-mark on each side; border of dots.
reverse: ✠ amongst three arches, three shields in the arches (Hungarian stripes, Polish eagle, Lithuanian knight); border of dots.
exergue, mint mark: G/B//--, diameter: mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Hungary, Keve, (Cuvin, today Romania, by Pohl), date:1441 A.D.( by Pohl), ref: Unger-469-f., CNH-2-149A, Huszár-598, Pohl-135-06,
Q-001
quadrans
Ulaszlo-I__(1440-1444_AD)_AR-Denar_U-470f-C2-141_H-605_1442-AD_mOnETA_WLADISLAI_DEI_GR_REGIS_VnGARIE_ET_CETERA_B-P_Q-001_10h_19,5-20mm_0,97g-s.jpg
035 Ulászló I. (Wladislas I.)., King of Hungary, (1440-1444 A.D.) AR Denarius, U-470-f., #01168 views035 Ulászló I. (Wladislas I.)., King of Hungary, (1440-1444 A.D.) AR Denarius, U-470-f., #01
avers: *mOnЄTA•WLADISLAI•DЄI•GR, Crowned, Polish eagle standing left in circle of dots; border of dots.
reverse: ✠RЄGIS•VnGARIЄ•ЄT•CЄTЄRA, Crowned, two-part Hungarian shield (stripes and patriarchal cross) in circle of dots, mint-mark on each side; border of dots.
exergue, mint mark: B/P//--, diameter: 17,5mm, weight: 0,75g, axis:1h,
mint: Hungary, Buda, date:1442 A.D. (by Pohl), ref: Unger-470-f., CNH-2-141, Huszár-605, Pohl-141-06,
Q-001
quadrans
Ulaszlo-I__(1440-1444_AD)_AR-Denar_U-475_g-C2-143A_H-609_1444-AD_mOnETA_WLADIS-LAI_DEI_G_REGIS_VnGARIE_ET_CETER_B-n-star_Q-001_3h_18,5mm_0,96g-s.jpg
035 Ulászló I. (Wladislas I.)., King of Hungary, (1440-1444 A.D.) AR Denarius, U-475-g., #01112 views035 Ulászló I. (Wladislas I.)., King of Hungary, (1440-1444 A.D.) AR Denarius, U-475-g., #01
avers: ✠mOnЄTA•WLADISLAI•DЄI•G, Polish eagle standing left in circle of dots; border of dots.
reverse: ✠RЄGIS•VnGARIЄ•ЄT•CЄTЄR, Two-part Hungarian shield (stripes and patriarchal cross) in circle of dots, mint-mark on each side; border of dots.
exergue, mint mark: B/*/n//--, diameter: 18,5mm, weight: 0,96g, axis:3h,
mint: Hungary, Buda, date:1444 A.D. (byPohl), ref: Unger-475-g., CNH-2-143A, Huszár-609, Pohl-147-04,
Q-001
quadrans
Ulaszlo-I__(1440-1444_AD)_AR-Denar_U-475_j-C2-143A_H-609_1444-AD_mOnETA_WLADIS-LAI_DE_REGIS_VnGARIE_ET_CE_G-n_Q-001_1h_17,5mm_0,75ga-s.jpg
035 Ulászló I. (Wladislas I.)., King of Hungary, (1440-1444 A.D.) AR Denarius, U-475-j., #01139 views035 Ulászló I. (Wladislas I.)., King of Hungary, (1440-1444 A.D.) AR Denarius, U-475-j., #01
avers: ✠mOnЄTA•WLADISLAI•DЄI, Polish eagle standing left in circle of dots; border of dots.
reverse: ✠RЄGIS•VnGARIЄ•ЄT•CЄT, Two-part Hungarian shield (stripes and patriarchal cross) in circle of dots, mint-mark on each side; border of dots.
exergue, mint mark: G/B//--, diameter: 17,5mm, weight: 0,75g, axis:1h,
mint: Hungary, Keve, (Cuvin, today Romania, by Pohl), date: 1444 A.D. (by Pohl), ref: Unger-475-j., CNH-2-143A, Huszár-609, Pohl-147-07,
Q-001
quadrans
035_Ulaszlo_I__(1440-1444_A_D_),_mWLADISLAI_REGIS,_S_LADISLAVS_REX,_U-477_c,_C2-147,_H-602,_Q-001_7h,_15mm,_0,57gx-s.jpg
035 Ulászló I. (Wladislas I.)., King of Hungary, (1440-1444 A.D.) BI-Denarius, U-477.c., #01152 views035 Ulászló I. (Wladislas I.)., King of Hungary, (1440-1444 A.D.) BI-Denarius, U-477.c., #01
avers: m WLADIS LAI RЄGIS, Patriarchal cross mint mark both sides W-O, border of dots.
reverse: S LADISLA VS RЄX, , border of dots.
exergue, mint mark: W/O//--, diameter: 15,0mm, weight: 0,75g, axis:7h,
mint: Hungary, Veszprém, by Pohl, date: 1440-1441 A.D. (by Pohl), ref: Unger-477.c., CNH-2-147, Huszár-602, Pohl-140-07,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
035_Ulaszlo_I__(1440-1444_A_D_),__m_WLADIS_LAI_REGIS,__S_LADISL_AVS_REX,_W-O,_H-602,_C2-147,_U-477_c,_P-140-07,_Q-002,_1h,_14,5-16mm,_0,57g-s.jpg
035 Ulászló I. (Wladislas I.)., King of Hungary, (1440-1444 A.D.) BI-Denarius, U-477.c., #0265 views035 Ulászló I. (Wladislas I.)., King of Hungary, (1440-1444 A.D.) BI-Denarius, U-477.c., #02
avers: •m•WLADIS LAI•RЄGIS, Patriarchal cross mint mark both sides W-O, the border of dots.
reverse: •S•LADISLA VS RЄX, St.Ladislaus facing, standing, the border of dots.
exergue, mint mark: W/O//--, diameter: 14,5-16,0mm, weight: 0,57g, axis:1h,
mint: Hungary, Veszprém, by Pohl, date: 1440-1441 A.D. (by Pohl), ref: Unger-477.c., CNH-2-147, Huszár-602, Pohl-140-07,
Q-002
1 commentsquadrans
Interregnum_II_,_(1444-1446_AD),_H-613,_C2-152,_U-480,_A-n_over_crescent,_Q-001,_4h,_16,5mm,_0,80g-s.jpg
036 Interregnum II., No King of Hungary (Civil War II.), (1444-1446 A.D.) AR Denarius, H-613, C2-152, U-480, P-173-0?, Scarce!, #0170 views036 Interregnum II., No King of Hungary (Civil War II.), (1444-1446 A.D.) AR Denarius, H-613, C2-152, U-480, P-173-0?, Scarce!, #01
avers: ꙮ mOnЄTA•RЄGnI•VnGARIЄ•, Shield with Árpadian(Hungarian) stripes, the border of dots.
reverse: ꙮ DALmACIЄ•CROACIЄ•ЄT•, Patriarchal cross, mint-mark on each side A-ň, the border of dots.
exergue, mint mark: A/ň/-- were struck by Paulus Bánfi (by Pohl), diameter: 16,5mm, weight: 0,80g, axis: 4h,
mint: Hungary, Alsólendva, (Lendava, today Slovenia), date:1444-1446 A.D., ref: Huszár-613, CNH-2-152, Unger-480a., Pohl-173-0?,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Interregnum_II_,_(1444-1446_AD),_H-614,_C2-153,_U-481_-,_P-174-,_AR-Obulus,_A-n_over_Crescentr,_1445-1446_AD,_Q-001,_2h,_12-12,5mm,_0,29g-s~0.jpg
036 Interregnum II., No King of Hungary (Civil War II.), (1444-1446 A.D.) AR Denarius, H-614, C2-153, U-481.?., P-174-0?, Rare!, #0165 views036 Interregnum II., No King of Hungary (Civil War II.), (1444-1446 A.D.) AR Denarius, H-614, C2-153, U-481.?., P-174-0?, Rare!, #01
avers: Patriarchal cross, mint-mark on each side B-crescent/n, the border of dots.
reverse: Shield with Árpadian(Hungarian) stripes, the border of dots.
exergue, mint mark: B/crescent/n/--, diameter: 12,0-12,5mm, weight: 0,29g, axis: 2h,
mint: Hungary, Alsólendva, (Lendava, today Slovenia), date:1445-1446 A.D., ref: Huszár-614, CNH-2-153, Unger-481.?., Pohl-174-0?,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Interregnum_II_,_(1444-1446_AD),_H-614,_C2-153,_U-481_b_,_P-174-2,_AR-Obulus,_B-n_over_star,_Buda,_1445-1446_AD,_Q-001,_9h,_12-13mm,_0,75g-s.jpg
036 Interregnum II., No King of Hungary (Civil War II.), (1444-1446 A.D.) AR Denarius, H-614, C2-153, U-481.b., P-174-02, Scarce!, #0166 views036 Interregnum II., No King of Hungary (Civil War II.), (1444-1446 A.D.) AR Denarius, H-614, C2-153, U-481.b., P-174-02, Scarce!, #01
avers: Patriarchal cross, mint-mark on each side B-*/n, the border of dots.
reverse: Shield with Árpadian(Hungarian) stripes, the border of dots.
exergue, mint mark: B/*/n/--, diameter: 12,0-13,0mm, weight: 0,75g, axis: 9h,
mint: Hungary, Buda, date:1445-1446 A.D., ref: Huszár-614, CNH-2-153, Unger-481.b., Pohl-174-02,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Iohannes-Hunyadi-a.gif
036 János (Johannes or John) Hunyadi., Gubernator of Hungary, (1446-1453 A.D.) AR-billon Denarius, U-486.g, reverse, please click on the picture,153 views036 János (Johannes or John) Hunyadi., Gubernator of Hungary, (1446-1453 A.D.) AR-billon Denarius, U-486.g, reverse, please click on the picture,
avers:
reverse: ✠ MOnETA•REGnI•VnGARIE, Patriarchal cross in circle, mint-mark on each side (•/h-S); border of dots.
diameter: mm, weight: 0,00g,
mint: Hungary, Buda, mint mark: •/h-S, by (Pohl).
date: 1447-1450 A.D. (Pohl), ref: Unger-486.g, CNH-2-157A, Huszár-620,
Q-001
quadrans
Janos-Hunyadi_(1446-1453_AD)_Den_U-485var_C2-156_H-618_TEmP-E-IhAnIS_m-REG-VnGAR-E_n-P_Q-001_11h_13mm_0,40g-s.jpg
037 János (Johannes or John) Hunyadi., Gubernator of Hungary, (1446-1453 A.D.) AR-billon Denarius, 485-d.var., #01,87 views037 János (Johannes or John) Hunyadi., Gubernator of Hungary, (1446-1453 A.D.) AR-billon Denarius, 485-d.var., #01,
avers: TEMPO•IOhAnIS (legend variation), Patriarchal cross in circle, mint-mark on each side (h-P or n-P); border of dots.
reverse: ✠ m•REGIS•VGRE (legend variation), Hungarian shield with Árpadian stripes in circle; border of dots.
exergue, mint mark: h/P//--, diameter: 13mm, weight: 0,40g, axis: 11h,
mint: Hungary, Nagyszegben (Hermanstadt, today Romania: Sibiu, by Pohl), date: 1446 A.D.(by Pohl), ref: Unger-485-d.var., CNH-2-156, Huszár-618, Pohl-175-04,
Q-001
quadrans
Janos-Hunyadi_(1446-1453_AD)_Den_U-485_d_C2-156_H-618_TEmPORE-IOhAnIS_m-RGnI_VnGARIE_h-P_Q-001_6h_12,5-13mm_0,56g-s.jpg
037 János (Johannes or John) Hunyadi., Gubernator of Hungary, (1446-1453 A.D.) AR-billon Denarius, U-485-d., #01,95 views037 János (Johannes or John) Hunyadi., Gubernator of Hungary, (1446-1453 A.D.) AR-billon Denarius, U-485-d., #01,
avers: TEMPORE IOhAnIS (legend variation), Patriarchal cross in circle, mint-mark on each side (h-P); border of dots.
reverse: ✠m•REGnI•VnGARIE, Hungarian shield with Árpadian stripes in circle; border of dots.
exergue, mint mark: h/P//--, diameter: 12-13mm, weight: 0,56g, axis: 6h,
mint: Hungary, Nagyszegben (Hermanstadt, today Romania: Sibiu, by Pohl), date: 1446 A.D.(by Pohl), ref: Unger-485-d., CNH-2-156, Huszár-618, Pohl-175-04,
Q-001
quadrans
Janos-Hunyadi_(1446-1453_AD)_Den_U-485_e_C2-156_H-618_TEmPORE_IOhAnIS_m_REGnI_VnGARIE_h-cX_Q-001_7h_13-13,5mm_0,59g-s.jpg
037 János (Johannes or John) Hunyadi., Gubernator of Hungary, (1446-1453 A.D.) AR-billon Denarius, U-485-e., #01,86 views037 János (Johannes or John) Hunyadi., Gubernator of Hungary, (1446-1453 A.D.) AR-billon Denarius, U-485-e., #01,
avers: TEMPORE•IOhAnIS (legend variation), Patriarchal cross in circle, mint-mark on each side (h-c˟), border of dots.
reverse: ✠m•REGnI•VnGARIE, Hungarian shield with Árpadian stripes in circle; border of dots.
exergue, mint mark: h/c˟//--, were srucked by Christophorus de Florentia, (by Pohl). diameter: 13-13,5mm, weight: 0,59g, axis: 7h,
mint: Hungary, Nagyszegben (Hermanstadt, today Romania: Sibiu, by Pohl), date: 1446 A.D.(by Pohl), ref: Unger-485-e., CNH-2-156, Huszar-618, Pohl-175-05,
Q-001
quadrans
Janos-Hunyadi_(1446-1453_AD)_Den_U-486_d_C2-157A_H-620_TEMPORE-IO-_-GVBERnATOR-_-_Rozetta-MOnETA-_-REGnI-_-VnGARIE_Q-001_19mm_0,72g-s.jpg
037 János (Johannes or John) Hunyadi., Gubernator of Hungary, (1446-1453 A.D.) AR-billon Denarius, U-486-d., Rozette MOnETA•REGnI•VnGARIE, Patriarchal cross, B-S, #01 113 views037 János (Johannes or John) Hunyadi., Gubernator of Hungary, (1446-1453 A.D.) AR-billon Denarius, U-486-d., Rozette MOnETA•REGnI•VnGARIE, Patriarchal cross, B-S, #01
avers: ✠TEMPORE•IO•GVBERnATOR, Crowned Bohemian Lion advancing left in circle; border of dots.
reverse: Rozette MOnETA•REGnI•VnGARIE, Patriarchal cross in circle, mint-mark on each side (B-S); border of dots.
exergue, mint mark: B/S//-- were strucked by Stephanus Mikola, diameter: mm, weight: 0,00g,
mint: Hungary, Buda, date: 1447-1451 A.D. (by Pohl), ref: Unger-486-d., CNH-2-157A, Huszar-620, Pohl-177-04,
Q-001
quadrans
Janos-Hunyadi_Den_U-487_C2-157C_H-623_Q-001_19mm_0,72ga-s.jpg
037 János (Johannes or John) Hunyadi., Gubernator of Hungary, (1446-1453 A.D.) AR-billon Denarius, U-487, Rozette MOnETA•REGnI•VnGARIE, Patriarchal cross, B-I, #01104 views037 János (Johannes or John) Hunyadi., Gubernator of Hungary, (1446-1453 A.D.) AR-billon Denarius, U-487, Rozette MOnETA•REGnI•VnGARIE, Patriarchal cross, B-I, #01
avers: •TEMPORE IO•GVBERnATOR, Bohemian Lion advancing left in circle, without crown, border of dots.
reverse: Rozette MOnETA•REGnI•VnGARIE, Patriarchal cross, in circle, mint-mark on each side (B-I); border of dots.
exergue, mint mark: B/I//-- were strucked by Iohannes Münczer (by Pohl), diameter: 19mm, weight: 0,72g,
mint: Hungary, Buda, date: 1451-1452 A.D. (by Pohl), ref: Unger-487, CNH-2-157C, Huszár-623, Pohl-179,
Q-001
quadrans
Janos-Hunyadi_(1446-1453_AD)_Den_U-488_C2-166_H-631_m_LADISLAI_R_VnGARIE_E__IOhAnI_GVBERnATORIS__B-I_Q-001_6h_17,2mm_0,41ga-s.jpg
037 János (Johannes or John) Hunyadi., Gubernator of Hungary, (1446-1453 A.D.) AR-billon Denarius, U-488, Raven standing left, Rare!, #01136 views037 János (Johannes or John) Hunyadi., Gubernator of Hungary, (1446-1453 A.D.) AR-billon Denarius, U-488, Raven standing left, Rare!, #01
avers: ✠m•LADISLAI•R•VnGARIE•E•, Two-part Hungarian shield (stripes, patriarchal cross) in circle, mint-mark on each side, border of dots.
reverse: ✠IOhAnI•GVBERnATORIS•, Raven standing left, in circle, ring in beak, over crescent, border of dots.
exergue, mint mark: B/I//-- were strucked by Iohannes Münczer (by Pohl), diameter: 13-13,5mm, weight: 0,59g, axis: 7h,
mint: Hungary, Buda, date: 1452 A.D. (by Pohl), ref: Unger-488, CNH-2-166, Huszár-631, Rare!
Q-001
quadrans
037_Janos_Hunyadi,_AR-Obol,_Lion,_Patriarchal_cross,_B-I,_U-490b,_C2-158A,_H-622,_1447-1450_Q-001_h,_12,5mm,_g-s.jpg
037 János (Johannes or John) Hunyadi., Gubernator of Hungary, (1446-1453 A.D.) AR-Obulus, Huszár-622, Patriarchal cross, B-I, #01163 views037 János (Johannes or John) Hunyadi., Gubernator of Hungary, (1446-1453 A.D.) AR-Obulus, Huszár-622, Patriarchal cross, B-I, #01
avers: Bohemian Lion with crown advancing left in circle, line border.
reverse: Patriarchal cross, in circle, mint-mark on each side (B-I), border of dots.
exergue, mint mark: B/I//-- were strucked by Iohannes Münczer (by Pohl), diameter: 12,0mm, weight: 0,27g, axis: 0h,
mint: Hungary, Buda, date: 1447-1450 A.D. (by Pohl), ref: Huszár-622, CNH-2-158A, Pohl-178-1, Unger-490b,
Q-001
2 commentsquadrans
037_Janos_Hunyadi_,_Gubernator_of_Hungary,_(1446-1453_A_D_),_Huszar-622,_AR-Obulus,_Q-002,_h,_13,5mm,_g-s.jpg
037 János (Johannes or John) Hunyadi., Gubernator of Hungary, (1446-1453 A.D.) AR-Obulus, Huszár-622, Patriarchal cross, B-I, #02192 views037 János (Johannes or John) Hunyadi., Gubernator of Hungary, (1446-1453 A.D.) AR-Obulus, Huszár-622, Patriarchal cross, B-I, #02
avers: Bohemian Lion with crown advancing left in circle, line border.
reverse: Patriarchal cross, in circle, mint-mark on each side (B-I), border of dots.
exergue, mint mark: B/I//-- were strucked by Iohannes Münczer (by Pohl), diameter: 13,5mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Hungary, Buda, date: 1447-1450 A.D. (by Pohl), ref: Huszár-622, CNH-2-158A, Pohl-178-1, Unger-490b,
Q-002
1 commentsquadrans
038_Laszlo-V_(Ladislaus_V_)_Throne_require_(1440-1453),_Denar,_H-643,_C2-201A,_U-494_f_,_P-150-15,_1442_AD,_Q-001,_1h,_12,5mm,_0,36g-s.jpg
038 László V. “Posthumous” (Ladislaus V.) as Throne Require of Hungary, (1440-1453 A.D.), AR Denarius, H-643.var., C2-201A.var., U-494.f.var., P-150-15, Rare!67 views038 László V. “Posthumous” (Ladislaus V.) as Throne Require of Hungary, (1440-1453 A.D.), AR Denarius, H-643.var., C2-201A.var., U-494.f.var., P-150-15, Rare!
avers: •m•LADISLA(I R•VnGARIE), Patriarchal cross in the circle, mint-mark S-D, on each side, the border of dots.
reverse: Hungarian shield with stripes, amongst three arches, three shields in the arches (Austrian band, Moravian eagle, Czech lion), a small circles between the shields!
exergue, mint mark: S/D//-- were struck by "Civitas" Town coin, (by Pohl), diameter: 12,5mm, weight: 0,36g, axis: 1h,
mint: Hungary, Szomolnok, (Schmölnitz, by Pohl, today in Slovakia, Smolnik), date:1442 A.D. (by Pohl), ref: Huszár-643var. (reverse!), CNH2-201A.var., Unger-494.f.var., Pohl-150-15, Rare!
Q-001
The piece was cut around, at that used time.
1 commentsquadrans
038_Laszlo-V_(Ladislaus_V_)_Throne_require_(1440-1453)_Denar_U-500_C2-193_H-649_Q-001_h_mm_ga-s~0.jpg
038 László V. “Posthumous” (Ladislaus V.) as Throne Require of Hungary, (1440-1453 A.D.), AR Denarius, U-500-b., #01106 views038 László V. “Posthumous” (Ladislaus V.) as Throne Require of Hungary, (1440-1453 A.D.), AR Denarius, U-500-b., #01
avers: ✠mOnETA•LADISLAI•DEI•GRA, Hungarian Shield three parts left Árpádian stripes, and right Lion over the Patriarchal cross, C-G, circle, border of dots.
reverse: ✠REGIS•VnGARIE•ETCETERA, Winged eagle, at the breast band shield, circle, border of dots.
exergue, mint mark: C/G//-- were strucked by Augustin Greniczer (by Pohl), diameter: mm, weight: g, axis:h,
mint: Hungary, Kassa (Kaschau, today Kosice by Pohl), date:1442-1443 A.D. (by Pohl), ref: Unger-500-b., CNH-2-193, Huszár-649, Pohl-156-01,
Q-001
quadrans
038_Laszlo-V_(Ladislaus_V_)_Throne_require_(1440-1453)_Denar_U-503_C2---_H-653_Q-001_9h_17,5mm_54g-s.jpg
038 László V. “Posthumous” (Ladislaus V.) as Throne Require of Hungary, (1440-1453 A.D.), AR Denarius, U-503, Extremely Rare!!!224 views038 László V. “Posthumous” (Ladislaus V.) as Throne Require of Hungary, (1440-1453 A.D.), AR Denarius, U-503, Extremely Rare!!!
avers: ✠mOnETA•LADISLAI•DEI•G, Hungarian Shield two parts left Árpádian stripes, and right the Patriarchal cross, K-G, circle, border of dots.
reverse: ✠REGIS•VnGARIE•ETCT, Hungarian shield.
exergue, mint mark: K/G//-- were struck by Johannes Constorfer (by Pohl), diameter: 17,5mm, weight: 0,54g, axis: 9h,
mint: Hungary, Körmöczbánya (Kremnitz,), date:1452 A.D. (by Pohl), ref: Unger-503-b., CNH-2-Not in, Huszár-653, Pohl-167, Extremely Rare!!!
Q-001
2 commentsquadrans
038_Laszlo-V_(Ladislaus_V_)_Throne_require_(1440-1453)_Denar_U-505b_C2-183_H-654_Q-001_h_mm_g-s.jpg
038 László V. “Posthumous” (Ladislaus V.) as Throne Require of Hungary, (1440-1453 A.D.), AR Denarius, U-505-b., #0186 views038 László V. “Posthumous” (Ladislaus V.) as Throne Require of Hungary, (1440-1453 A.D.), AR Denarius, U-505-b., #01
avers: rosette mOnETA•LADISLAI•DEI•G, Patriarchal Cross, K-P over +, circle ; border of dots.
reverse: ✠REGIS•VnGARIE•ET•CETERA, Crowned Bohemian Lion advancing left, circle, border of dots.
exergue, mint mark: K/+ over P//-- were struck by Petrus Jung (by Pohl), diameter: mm, weight: g, axis:h,
mint: Hungary, Körmöcbánya (Kremnitz, today Slovakia: Kremnica, by Pohl), date:1447-1450 A.D., ref: Unger-505-b., CNH-2-183, Huszár-654, Pohl-160-01,
Q-001
quadrans
039_Laszlo-V_(Ladislaus_V_)_as_King_(1453-1457)_Denar_U-522a_C2-179_H-662_Q-001_19mm_0,99g-s.jpg
039 László V. “Posthumous” (Ladislaus V.) as King of Hungary, (1453-1457 A.D.), AR Denarius, U-522-a., #0188 views039 László V. “Posthumous” (Ladislaus V.) as King of Hungary, (1453-1457 A.D.), AR Denarius, U-522-a., #01
avers: rosette LADISLAVS•DEI•GRA•REX, Patriarchal Cross, A-B, circle of dots; border of dots.
reverse: S•LADISL AVS•REX, Saint Ladislas standing facing, holding halberd and orb; circle of dots; border of dots.
exergue, mint mark: A/B//-- were struck by familie Bánfi (by Pohl), diameter: 19mm, weight: 0,99g, axis:h,
mint: Hungary, Alsólendva (Lindau, today Lendava in Slovenia by Pohl), date:1453-1454 A.D., ref: Unger-522a, CNH-2-179, Huszár-662, Pohl-186B-01,
Q-001
quadrans
039_Laszlo-V_(Ladislaus_V_)_as_King_(1453-1457)_Denar_U-523a_C2-182_H-664_Q-001_14mm_0,31g-s.jpg
039 László V. “Posthumous” (Ladislaus V.) as King of Hungary, (1453-1457 A.D.), AR Denarius, U-523-a., #0184 views039 László V. “Posthumous” (Ladislaus V.) as King of Hungary, (1453-1457 A.D.), AR Denarius, U-523-a., #01
avers: mOn•LAD-ISLAI•DEI•G, Patriarchal Cross, K-P, circle ; border of dots.
reverse: ✠REGIS•VnGARIE•ET•C, circle ; border of dots.
exergue, mint mark: K/P//-- were struck by Petrus Jung (by Pohl), diameter: mm, weight: g, axis:h,
mint: Hungary, Körmöcbánya (Kremnitz, today Slovakia: Kremnica, by Pohl), date:1455 A.D. (by Pohl), ref: Unger-523-a., CNH-2-182, Huszár-664, Pohl-187-05,
Q-001
quadrans
039_Laszlo-V_(Ladislaus_V_)_as_King_(1453-1457)_Denar_U-525b_C2-186_H-668_Q-001_h_mm_g-s.jpg
039 László V. “Posthumous” (Ladislaus V.) as King of Hungary, (1453-1457 A.D.), AR Denarius, U-525-b., #0171 views039 László V. “Posthumous” (Ladislaus V.) as King of Hungary, (1453-1457 A.D.), AR Denarius, U-525-b., #01
avers: mOn•LAD ISLAI•RЄ, Patriarchal Cross, B-P, circle of dots; border of dots.
reverse: VnGAR IЭ•ЭTC, circle of dots; border of dots.
exergue, mint mark: B/P//-- were struck by Petrus Jung (by Pohl), diameter: mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Hungary, Buda (by Pohl), date:1457 A.D., ref: Unger-525-b., CNH-2-186, Huszár-668, Pohl-190-01,
Q-001
quadrans
039_Laszlo-V_(Ladislaus_V_)_as_King_(1453-1457)_Denar_U-525e_C2-186_H-668_Q-001_h_mm_g-s.jpg
039 László V. “Posthumous” (Ladislaus V.) as King of Hungary, (1453-1457 A.D.), AR Denarius, U-525-e., #0193 views039 László V. “Posthumous” (Ladislaus V.) as King of Hungary, (1453-1457 A.D.), AR Denarius, U-525-e., #01
avers: mOn•LAD ISLAI•RЄ, Patriarchal Cross, h-O, circle of dots; border of dots.
reverse: VnGAR IЄ•ЄTC, circle of dots; border of dots.
exergue, mint mark: h/O//-- were struck by Oswald Wenzel (by Pohl), diameter: mm, weight: g, axis:h,
mint: Hungary, Nagyszegben (Hermanstadt, today Romania: Sibiu, by Pohl), date:1457 A.D., ref: Unger-525-e., CNH-2-186, Huszár-668, Pohl-190-03,
Q-001
quadrans
dom as caesar pegasus.jpg
03a Domitian as Caesar RIC 921166 viewsAR Denarius, 3.12g
Rome mint, 76-77 AD (Vespasian)
Obv: CAESAR AVG F DOMITIANVS; Head of Domitian, laureate, bearded, r.
Rev: COS IIII; Pegasus, standing r.
RIC 921 (C2). BMC 193. RSC 47. BNC 169.
Acquired from Nilus Coins, March 2007.

The reverse copies an Augustan one and might possibly allude to Domitian's foray into poetry. (BMCRE xl)

Unlike most of the crude Domitian portraits of the time from the Rome mint, this one has a great beauty and nobility to it that few of his contemporary denarii strive to achieve. Was it a minor slight that most of the better die engravers were used for Vespasian and Titus' coins? Thankfully one slipped through to create a wonderful portrait of the young caesar.

Despite some minor flaws, this is a wonderful coin that I'm happy to add to my collection.
2 commentsVespasian70
V922aaa.jpg
03b Domitian as Caesar RIC 922101 viewsAR Denarius, 3.31g
Rome mint, 76-77 AD (Vespasian)
Obv: CAES AVG F DOMITIANVS; Head of Domitian, laureate, bearded, r.
Rev: COS IIII; Pegasus, standing r.
RIC 922 (R2). BMC -. RSC -. BNC -.
Acquired from Marc Walter, May 2018. Ex Künker eLive Auction 37, 20 October 2015, lot 152.

A rare obverse legend variant of the Pegasus type struck for Domitian Caesar under Vespasian. Here we have 'CAES' instead of the much more common 'CAESAR'. No reverse die links between the two different obverses have been found, perhaps suggesting the 'CAES' issue came slightly later. Out of 240 Domitian Pegasus denarii on acsearch, only 6 have the 'CAES' obverse. The reverse copies a denarius struck for Augustus (RIC 297). Mattingly speculates it refers to Domitian's poetic aspirations.

Curtis Clay's comments concerning this variant - 'I had forgotten about this variety, but find that I had written into my BMC 193: Var. CAES for CAESAR, CNG Website 6247, May 2001 (2.78g). RIC new ed. 922 calls it R2 and cites examples in Glasgow (ill. pl. 10) and Oxford.'

Struck in the very finest of styles.
7 commentsDavid Atherton
040_Hunyadi-Matyas,_(Mathias-Corvinus),_(1458-1490_A_D_),_H-718,_C2-234,_U-564_f,_K-P,_P-219-4,_Kremnitz,_1472-78,_Q-001,_1h,_15,5-16,0mm,_0,53g-s.jpg
040 Mátyás Hunyadi., (Matthias Corvinus), King of Hungary, (1458-1490 A.D.) AR Denarius, H-718, C2-234, U-564.f, P-219-04, K/P//--, Madonna and child, #0165 views040 Mátyás Hunyadi., (Matthias Corvinus), King of Hungary, (1458-1490 A.D.) AR Denarius, H-718, C2-234, U-564.f, P-219-04, K/P//--, Madonna and child, #01
avers: ✠mOnЄTA•mAThIЄ•R•VnGARI, Hungarian shield, four-part shield with Hungarian arms (Árpádian stripes, patriarchal cross, Dalmatian leopard heads, Bohemian lion with Crown). Inside of the central shield, the raven standing and turning left. The ring in its beak, (Legend variation!).
reverse: •PATROn VnGARI•, Madonna sitting on a veil on her head, holding infant Jesus in her right arm, mint-mark on each side; border of dots,(Legend variation!).
exergue, mint mark: K/P//--, were struck by Paul Peck, (by Pohl), diameter: 15,5-16,0mm, weight: 0,53g, axis: 1h,
mint: Hungary, Körmöcbánya (Kremnitz, today Slovakia: Kremnica) by Pohl,
date: 1472-1478 A.D. (Pohl), ref: Huszár-718, CNH-2-234, Unger-564.f., Pohl-219-04,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
040_Hunyadi-Matyas,_(Mathias-Corvinus),_(1458-1490_A_D_),_H-718,_C2-234,_U-564_g,_K-A,_P-219-2,_Kremnitz,_1472-78,_Q-001,_2h,_15,0-16,5mm,_0,62g-s.jpg
040 Mátyás Hunyadi., (Matthias Corvinus), King of Hungary, (1458-1490 A.D.) AR Denarius, H-718, C2-234, U-564.g, P-219-02, K/A//--, Madonna and child, #0164 views040 Mátyás Hunyadi., (Matthias Corvinus), King of Hungary, (1458-1490 A.D.) AR Denarius, H-718, C2-234, U-564.g, P-219-02, K/A//--, Madonna and child, #01
avers: ✠mOnЄTA•mAThIЄ•R•VnGARI, Hungarian shield, four-part shield with Hungarian arms (Árpádian stripes, patriarchal cross, Dalmatian leopard heads, Bohemian lion with Crown). Inside of the central shield, the raven standing and turning left. The ring in its beak, (Legend variation!).
reverse: •PATROnA VnGARIЄ•, Madonna sitting on a veil on her head, holding infant Jesus in her right arm, mint-mark on each side; border of dots,(Legend variation!).
exergue, mint mark: K/A//--, were struck by Augustin Langsfelder, (by Pohl), diameter: 15,0-16,5mm, weight: 0,62g, axis: 2h,
mint: Hungary, Körmöcbánya (Kremnitz, today Slovakia: Kremnica) by Pohl,
date: 1472-1478 A.D. (Pohl), ref: Huszár-718, CNH-2-234, Unger-564.g., Pohl-219-02,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Matyas-Hunyadi_Den_U-554-b_C1-218_H-702_MOnETA_MAThIE_DE_REGIS_h_-UnGARIE_Q-001_h_xmm_0,58ga-s.jpg
040 Mátyás Hunyadi., (Matthias Corvinus), King of Hungary, (1458-1490 A.D.) AR Denarius, U-554-b., #0197 views040 Mátyás Hunyadi., (Matthias Corvinus), King of Hungary, (1458-1490 A.D.) AR Denarius, U-554-b., #01
avers: ✠•MONЄTA•MAThIЄ•DG, Two-part Hungarian shield (stripes, patriarchal cross) in circle of dots; border of dots.
reverse: RЄGIS•h VnGARIAЄ•, Patriarchal cross in circle of dots, mint-mark on each side (B-S); border of dots.
exergue, mint mark: B/S//-- were struck by Stephan Kovách (by Pohl), diameter: 15mm, weight: 0,58g, axis: h,
mint: Hungary, Buda (by Pohl), date: 1461 A.D. (by Pohl), ref: Unger-554-b., CNH-2-218, Huszár-702, Pohl 202-01,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Matyas-Hunyadi_Denar_U_567b_C2-232_H-722_M_MATHIE_R_VNGARIE__PATRONA-VNGARIE__K_PonRozette_1489AD_Q-001_9h_15,5mm_0,49g-s.jpg
040 Mátyás Hunyadi., (Matthias Corvinus), King of Hungary, (1458-1490 A.D.) AR Denarius, U-567.b., Madonna and child, #01174 views040 Mátyás Hunyadi., (Matthias Corvinus), King of Hungary, (1458-1490 A.D.) AR Denarius, U-567.b., Madonna and child, #01
avers: ✠M•MATHIE•R•VNGARIE, Hungarian shield, four-part shield with Hungarian arms (Árpádian stripes, patriarchal cross, Dalmatian leopard heads, Bohemian lion). Inside of the central shield, the raven standing and turning left. The ring in its beak. One dots both side of the shield. (Legend variation!)
reverse: PATRON VNGARIE, Nimbate and Crowned Madonna seated facing, holding nimbate infant Jesus in her right arm, mint-mark (K-P/Rozette) on each side; line border, (Legend variation!).
exergue, mint mark: K/ P/Rozette//--, were struck by Peter Schaider, (by Pohl), diameter: 15,5mm, weight: 0,49g, axis: 9h,
mint: Hungary, Körmöcbánya (Kremnitz, today Slovakia: Kremnica) by Pohl,
date: 1488 A.D. (Pohl), ref: Unger-567.b., CNH-2-232, Huszár-722, Pohl-223-01,
Q-001

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Matyas-Hunyadi_AR-Obulus_U-578_C2-244_H-728_Shield_Madonna-child_Q-001_h_mm_gx-s.jpg
040 Matyas Hunyadi., (Matthias Corvinus), King of Hungary, (1458-1490 A.D.) AR Obulus, U-578.h., #0175 views040 Matyas Hunyadi., (Matthias Corvinus), King of Hungary, (1458-1490 A.D.) AR-Obulus, U-578.h., Madonna and child, #01
avers: Hungarian shield, four-part shield with Hungarian arms (Árpádian stripes, patriarchal cross, Dalmatian leopard heads, Bohemian lion). Inside of the central shield, the raven standing and turning left. The ring in its beak.
revers: Madonna sitting on a veil on her head, holding infant Jesus in her left arm, mint-mark on each side; border of dots.
exe, mint mark: K/ V/A//--, were strucked by Veit Mühlstein and Augustin Langsfelder, kammergraf, (by Pohl), diameter: 12,0-13,0mm, weight: 0,30g, axis: 5h,
mint: Hungary, Körmöcbánya (Kremnitz, today Slovakia: Kremnica) by Pohl,
date: 1479 A.D. (Pohl), ref: Unger-578.h., CNH-2-244, Huszar-728, Pohl-220-07,
Q-001

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Matyas-Hunyadi,_AR-Den,_H-706,_C2-228,_U-556_a,_P-206-1,_mOnETA_mAThIE_D_EI_G,_REGIS_hV_nGARIE_,_B-E,_Q-001,_6h,_14,5-15,5mm,_0,71g-s.jpg
040 Mátyás Hunyadi., (Matthias Corvinus), King of Hungary, (1458-1490 A.D.) AR Denarius, H-706, C2-228, U-556.a., P-206-01, #0166 views040 Mátyás Hunyadi., (Matthias Corvinus), King of Hungary, (1458-1490 A.D.) AR Denarius, H-706, C2-228, U-556.a., P-206-01, #01
avers: ✠•mONЄTA•mAThIЄ•D•ЄI•G•, Two-part shield (Hungarian (Árpádian) stripes, a raven with ring) in a circle; border of dots.
reverse: RЄGIS•hV nGARIAЄ, Patriarchal cross in a circle, mint-mark on each side (B-Є); border of dots.
exergue, mint mark: B/Є//-- were struck by Johannes Ernuszt (by Pohl), diameter: 14,5-15,5mm, weight: 0,712g, axis: 6h,
mint: Hungary, Buda (by Pohl), date: 1463 A.D., ref: Unger-556.a., CNH-2-228, Huszár-706, Pohl-206-01,
Q-001
2 commentsquadrans
Matyas-Hunyadi_Den_U-556-b_C2-228_H-706_MOnETA-_-MAThIE-_-D-_-EI-_-G-_-_REGIS-_-hV-nGARIE-_-_Q-001_17mm_0_59ga-s.jpg
040 Mátyás Hunyadi., (Matthias Corvinus), King of Hungary, (1458-1490 A.D.) AR Denarius, H-706, C2-228, U-556.b., P-206-02, #01103 views040 Mátyás Hunyadi., (Matthias Corvinus), King of Hungary, (1458-1490 A.D.) AR Denarius, H-706, C2-228, U-556.b., P-206-02, #01
avers: ✠•MONЄTA•MAThIЄ•D•ЄI•G•, Two-part shield (Hungarian (Árpádian) stripes, a raven with ring) in a circle; border of dots.
reverse: RЄGIS•hV nGARIAЄ•, Patriarchal cross in a circle, mint-mark on each side (B-I); border of dots.
exergue, mint mark: B/I//--, diameter: 15mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Hungary, Buda, date: 1463 A.D., ref: Unger-556-b., CNH-2-228, Huszár-706, Pohl-206-02,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Hunyadi-Matyas_(Mathias-Corvinus)_(1458-1490_A_D_)_U-556h_C2-228_H-706_Q-001_5h_14,5-15mm_0,53g-s.jpg
040 Mátyás Hunyadi., (Matthias Corvinus), King of Hungary, (1458-1490 A.D.) AR Denarius, H-706, C2-228, U-556.h., P-206-08, #0185 views040 Mátyás Hunyadi., (Matthias Corvinus), King of Hungary, (1458-1490 A.D.) AR Denarius, H-706, C2-228, U-556.h., P-206-08, #01
avers: ✠•MONЄTA•MAThIЄ•D•ЄI•G•, Two-part shield (Hungarian (Árpádian) stripes, a raven with ring) in a circle; border of dots.
reverse: RЄGIS•hV nGARIAЄ X, Patriarchal cross in circle, mint-mark on each side (n-Є); border of dots.
exergue, mint mark: n/Є//-- were struck by Emericus Szapolyai (by Pohl), diameter: 14,4-15mm, weight: 0,53g, axis: 5h,
mint: Hungary, Nagybánya (today Romania : Baia Mare, by Pohl), date: 1463 A.D., ref: Unger-556-h., CNH-2-228, Huszár-706, Pohl-206-08,
Q-001
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Matyas-Hunyadi_Den_U-556-h_C2-228_H-706_mOnETA_mAThIE_D_EI_G,_REGIS_hV-nGARIE_,_n-E,_Q-002,_2h,_13-14mm,_0,72g-s.jpg
040 Mátyás Hunyadi., (Matthias Corvinus), King of Hungary, (1458-1490 A.D.) AR Denarius, H-706, C2-228, U-556.h., P-206-08, #02179 views040 Mátyás Hunyadi., (Matthias Corvinus), King of Hungary, (1458-1490 A.D.) AR Denarius, H-706, C2-228, U-556.h., P-206-08, #02
avers: ✠•mONЄTA•mAThIЄ•D•ЄI•G•, Two-part shield (Hungarian (Árpádian) stripes, a raven with ring) in a circle; border of dots.
reverse: RЄGIS•hV nGARIAЄ, Patriarchal cross in circle, mint-mark on each side (n-Є); border of dots.
exergue, mint mark: n/Є//-- were struck by Emericus Szapolyai (by Pohl), diameter: 13,0-14,5mm, weight: 0,72g, axis: 2h,
mint: Hungary, Nagybánya (today Romania : Baia Mare, by Pohl), date: 1463 A.D., ref: Unger-556-h., CNH-2-228, Huszár-706, Pohl-206-08,
Q-002
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040_Hunyadi-Matyas,_(Mathias-Corvinus),_(1458-1490_A_D_),_H-708,_C2-219,_U-557_d,_B-S,_P-208-4,_Buda,_1464,_Q-001,_7h,_16,0-17,09mm,_0,61g-s.jpg
040 Mátyás Hunyadi., (Matthias Corvinus), King of Hungary, (1458-1490 A.D.) AR Denarius, H-708, C2-219, U-557.d, P-208-04, B/S//--, #0172 views040 Mátyás Hunyadi., (Matthias Corvinus), King of Hungary, (1458-1490 A.D.) AR Denarius, H-708, C2-219, U-557.d, P-208-04, B/S//--, #01
avers: ✠MONЄTA•MAThIЄ•DЄ, Two-part Hungarian shield (Hungarian stripes, Krown and the lion of Hunyadi) in a circle, border of dots.
reverse: •RЄGIS•hVnGARIЄ•(left to right), Patriarchal cross on the crown in a circle, mint-mark on each side (B-S), the border of dots.
exergue, mint mark: B/S//--, were struck by Stephan Kowách (by Pohl), diameter: 16,0-17,0mm, weight: 0,61g, axis: 7h,
mint: Hungary, Buda, date: 1464 A.D., ref: Huszár-708, CNH-2-219, Unger-557.d, Pohl 208-04,
Q-001
2 commentsquadrans
040_Hunyadi-Matyas,_(Mathias-Corvinus),_(1458-1490_A_D_),_H-708,_C2-219,_U-557_e,_C-S,_P-208-5,_Kassa,_1464,_Q-001,_7h,_16,0-17,7mm,_0,67g-s.jpg
040 Mátyás Hunyadi., (Matthias Corvinus), King of Hungary, (1458-1490 A.D.) AR Denarius, H-708, C2-219, U-557.e, P-208-05, C/S//--, #0188 views040 Mátyás Hunyadi., (Matthias Corvinus), King of Hungary, (1458-1490 A.D.) AR Denarius, H-708, C2-219, U-557.e, P-208-05, C/S//--, #01
avers: ✠mONЄTA•mAThIЄ•DG(?)(right to left), Two-part Hungarian shield (Hungarian stripes, Krown and the lion of Hunyadi) in a circle, border of dots.
reverse: •RЄGIS•hVnGARIЄ•(left to right), Patriarchal cross on the crown in a circle, mint-mark on each side (C-S), the border of dots.
exergue, mint mark: C/S//--, were struck by Stephan Kowách (by Pohl), diameter: 16,0-17,7mm, weight: 0,67g, axis: 7h,
mint: Hungary, Kassa (today Kosice, Slovakia), date: 1464 A.D., ref: Huszár-708, CNH-2-219, Unger-557.e, Pohl 208-05,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Hunyadi-Matyas_(Mathias-Corvinus)_(1458-1490_A_D_)_U-557f_C2-219_H-708_Q-001_7h_16,3-16,9mm_0,72g-s.jpg
040 Mátyás Hunyadi., (Matthias Corvinus), King of Hungary, (1458-1490 A.D.) AR Denarius, H-708, C2-219, U-557.f, P-208-06, h/L//--, #01136 views040 Mátyás Hunyadi., (Matthias Corvinus), King of Hungary, (1458-1490 A.D.) AR Denarius, H-708, C2-219, U-557.f, P-208-06, h/L//--, #01
avers: ✠MONЄTA•MAThIЄ•DG, Two-part Hungarian shield (Hungarian stripes, Krown and a lion of Hunyadi) in a circle, the border of dots.
reverse: •RЄGIS•hVnGARIAЄ•(left to right), Patriarchal cross on the crown in a circle, mint-mark on each side (h-L), the border of dots.
exergue, mint mark: h/L//-- were struck by Laurentius Bajoni (by Pohl), diameter: 16,3-16,9mm, weight: 0,72g, axis: 7h,
mint: Hungary, Hermanstadt (the Hungarian name are: Nagyszeben, nowadays in Romania name: Sibiu), date: 1464 A.D., ref: Huszár-708, CNH-2-219, Unger-557.f, Pohl 208-06,
Q-001
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040 Mátyás Hunyadi., (Matthias Corvinus), King of Hungary, (1458-1490 A.D.) AR Denarius, H-718, C2-234, U-564.e, P-219-05, K/ P/V//--, Madonna and child, #01115 views040 Mátyás Hunyadi., (Matthias Corvinus), King of Hungary, (1458-1490 A.D.) AR Denarius, H-718, C2-234, U-564.e, P-219-05, K/ P/V//--, Madonna and child, #01
avers: ✠m•mAThIЄ•R•hVnGARIЄ, Hungarian shield, four-part shield with Hungarian arms (Árpádian stripes, patriarchal cross, Dalmatian leopard heads, Bohemian lion with Crown). Inside of the central shield, the raven standing and turning left. The ring in its beak, (Legend variation!).
reverse: •PATROn VnGAR•, Madonna sitting on a veil on her head, holding infant Jesus in her right arm, mint-mark on each side; border of dots,(Legend variation!).
exergue, mint mark: K/ P/V//--, were struck by Paul Peck/Veit Mühlstein, kammergraf, (by Pohl), diameter: 15,5-16,5mm, weight: 0,44g, axis: 10h,
mint: Hungary, Körmöcbánya (Kremnitz, today Slovakia: Kremnica) by Pohl,
date: 1472-1478 A.D. (Pohl), ref: Huszár-718, CNH-2-234, Unger-564.e., Pohl-219-05,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Hunyadi-Matyas_(Mathias-Corvinus)_(1458-1490_A_D_)_U-561c_C2-214_H-714_Q-001_6h_18mm_1,02g-s.jpg
040 Mátyás Hunyadi., (Matthias Corvinus), King of Hungary, (1458-1490 A.D.) AR Denarius, U-561-c., #01390 views040 Mátyás Hunyadi., (Matthias Corvinus), King of Hungary, (1458-1490 A.D.) AR Denarius, U-561-c., #01
avers: ✠MOnЄTA•MAThIЄ•DЄ,
reverse: rosette RЄGIS•h VnGARIAЄ•, Patriarchal cross in circle of line, mint-mark on each side (K-I); border of dots.
exergue, mint mark: K/I//-- were struck by Iohannes Constofer (by Pohl), diameter: 18mm, weight: 1,02, axis: 6h,
mint: Hungary, Körmöcbánya (Kremnitz, today Slovakia: Kremnica), date: 1467 A.D., ref: Unger-561-c., CNH-2-214, Huszár-714, Pohl 214-03,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Matyas-Hunyadi_Denar_U_562e_C2-235A_H-717g-s.jpg
040 Mátyás Hunyadi., (Matthias Corvinus), King of Hungary, (1458-1490 A.D.) AR Denarius, U-562.e., Madonna and child, #01101 views040 Mátyás Hunyadi., (Matthias Corvinus), King of Hungary, (1458-1490 A.D.) AR Denarius, U-562.e., Madonna and child, #01
avers: •m•mAThIЄ•R•hVnTARIЄ, Hungarian shield, four-part shield with Hungarian arms (Árpádian stripes, patriarchal cross, Dalmatian leopard heads, Bohemian lion). Inside of the central shield, the raven standing and turning left. The ring in its beak.
reverse: PATROn VnGARIAЄ, Madonna sitting on a veil on her head, holding infant Jesus in her right arm, mint-mark on each side; border of dots.
exergue, mint mark: B/+ on top of the horseshoe//-- were struck by Stephan Kowach (by Pohl), diameter: mm, weight: g,
mint: Hungary, Buda (by Pohl),
date: 1469 A.D. (Pohl), ref: Unger-562.e., CNH-2-235A, Huszár-717, Pohl-216-05,
Q-001
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Matyas-Hunyadi_Denar_U_562h_C2-235A_H-717_mOnETA_mAThIE_R_VnGARIE_PATROnA-VnGARIAE_K_K-on-Shield_Q-001_9h_16,5mm_0,71g-s.jpg
040 Mátyás Hunyadi., (Matthias Corvinus), King of Hungary, (1458-1490 A.D.) AR Denarius, U-562.h., Madonna and child, #01104 views040 Mátyás Hunyadi., (Matthias Corvinus), King of Hungary, (1458-1490 A.D.) AR Denarius, U-562.h., Madonna and child, #01
avers: ✠mOnЄTA-mAThIЄ•R•VnGARIЄ, Hungarian shield, four-part shield with Hungarian arms (Árpádian stripes, patriarchal cross, Dalmatian leopard heads, Bohemian lion). Inside of the central shield, the raven standing and turning left. The ring in its beak, (Legend variation!).
reverse: •PATROnA VnGARIAЄ, Madonna sitting on a veil on her head, holding infant Jesus in her right arm, mint-mark on each side; border of dots, (Legend variation!).
exergue, mint mark: K/ K over Shield//--, were struck by Johannes Constorfer, kammergraf, (by Pohl), diameter: 16,5mm, weight: 0,71g, axis: 9h,
mint: Hungary, Körmöcbánya (Kremnitz, today Slovakia: Kremnica) by Pohl,
date: 1468 A.D. (Pohl), ref: Unger-562.h., CNH-2-235A, Huszár-717, Pohl-216-08,
Q-001

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040 Mátyás Hunyadi., (Matthias Corvinus), King of Hungary, (1458-1490 A.D.) AR Denarius, U-562.h., Madonna and child, #02115 views040 Mátyás Hunyadi., (Matthias Corvinus), King of Hungary, (1458-1490 A.D.) AR Denarius, U-562.h., Madonna and child, #02
avers: ✠mOnЄTA•mAThIЄ•R•VnG, Hungarian shield, four-part shield with Hungarian arms (Árpádian stripes, patriarchal cross, Dalmatian leopard heads, Bohemian lion). Inside of the central shield, the raven standing and turning left. The ring in its beak, (Legend variation!).
reverse: PATROnA VnGARIAЄ, Madonna sitting on a veil on her head, holding infant Jesus in her right arm, mint-mark on each side; border of dots, (Legend variation!).
exergue, mint mark: K/ K over Shield//--, were struck by Johannes Constorfer, kammergraf, (by Pohl), diameter: 16,5mm, weight: 0,51g, axis: 10h,
mint: Hungary, Körmöcbánya (Kremnitz, today Slovakia: Kremnica) by Pohl,
date: 1468 A.D. (Pohl), ref: Unger-562.h., CNH-2-235A, Huszár-717, Pohl-216-08,
Q-002

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Matyas-Hunyadi_Denar_U_562h_C2-235A_H-717_mOneTA_mAThIE_R_VnG_PATROnA-VnGARI_K_K-on-Shield_Q-003_3h_15-16,5mm_0,53g-s.jpg
040 Mátyás Hunyadi., (Matthias Corvinus), King of Hungary, (1458-1490 A.D.) AR Denarius, U-562.h., Madonna and child, #03122 views040 Mátyás Hunyadi., (Matthias Corvinus), King of Hungary, (1458-1490 A.D.) AR Denarius, U-562.h., Madonna and child, #03
avers: ✠mOnЄTA•mAThIЄ•R•VnG, Hungarian shield, four-part shield with Hungarian arms (Árpádian stripes, patriarchal cross, Dalmatian leopard heads, Bohemian lion). Inside of the central shield, the raven standing and turning left. The ring in its beak, (Legend variation!).
reverse: PATROnA VnGARI, Madonna sitting on a veil on her head, holding infant Jesus in her right arm, mint-mark on each side; border of dots, (Legend variation!).
exergue, mint mark: K/ K over Shield//--, were struck by Johannes Constorfer, kammergraf, (by Pohl), diameter: 15,0-16,5mm, weight: 0,53g, axis: 3h,
mint: Hungary, Körmöcbánya (Kremnitz, today Slovakia: Kremnica) by Pohl,
date: 1468 A.D. (Pohl), ref: Unger-562.h., CNH-2-235A, Huszár-717, Pohl-216-08,
Q-003

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Matyas-Hunyadi_Denar_U_562h_C2-235A_H-717_mOneTA_mAThIE_R_VnGAR__PATROnA-VnGARI__K_K-on-Shield_Q-004_5h_16-16,5mm_0,51g-s.jpg
040 Mátyás Hunyadi., (Matthias Corvinus), King of Hungary, (1458-1490 A.D.) AR Denarius, U-562.h., Madonna and child, #04121 views040 Mátyás Hunyadi., (Matthias Corvinus), King of Hungary, (1458-1490 A.D.) AR Denarius, U-562.h., Madonna and child, #04
avers: ✠mOnЄTA•mAThIЄ•R•VnGAR, Hungarian shield, four-part shield with Hungarian arms (Árpádian stripes, patriarchal cross, Dalmatian leopard heads, Bohemian lion). Inside of the central shield, the raven standing and turning left. The ring in its beak. (Legend variation!)
reverse: •PATROnA VnGARI•, Madonna sitting on a veil on her head, holding infant Jesus in her right arm, mint-mark on each side; border of dots, (Legend variation!).
exergue, mint mark: K/ K over Shield//--, were struck by Johannes Constorfer, kammergraf, (by Pohl), diameter: 16,0-16,5mm, weight: 0,51g, axis: 5h,
mint: Hungary, Körmöcbánya (Kremnitz, today Slovakia: Kremnica) by Pohl,
date: 1468 A.D. (Pohl), ref: Unger-562.h., CNH-2-235A, Huszár-717, Pohl-216-08,
Q-004

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Matyas-Hunyadi_Denar_U_563x_C2-236_H-716_m-mAThIE-R-VnGARIE_PATROn-VnGAR_K_Shield_Q-001_4h_15,5-16,5mm_0,63g-s.jpg
040 Mátyás Hunyadi., (Matthias Corvinus), King of Hungary, (1458-1490 A.D.) AR Denarius, U-562.i., Madonna and child, #01115 views040 Mátyás Hunyadi., (Matthias Corvinus), King of Hungary, (1458-1490 A.D.) AR Denarius, U-562.i., Madonna and child, #01
avers: ✠ m mAThIЄ R VnGARIЄ, Hungarian shield, four-part shield with Hungarian arms (Árpádian stripes, patriarchal cross, Dalmatian leopard heads, Bohemian lion). Inside of the central shield, the raven standing and turning left. The ring in its beak, (Legend variation!).
reverse: PATROn VnGAR, Madonna sitting on a veil on her head, holding infant Jesus in her right arm, mint-mark on each side; border of dots, (Legend variation!).
exergue, mint mark: K/ Shield//--, were struck by Johannes Constorfer, kammergraf, (by Pohl), diameter: 15,5-16,5mm, weight: 0,63g, axis: 4h,
mint: Hungary, Körmöcbánya (Kremnitz, today Slovakia: Kremnica) by Pohl,
date: 1469 A.D. (Pohl), ref: Unger-562.i., CNH-2-235A, Huszár-717, Pohl-216-09,
Q-001
quadrans
Matyas-Hunyadi_Denar_U_563x_C2-236_H-716_m_mAThIE_R_hVnGARIE__PATROn-VnGAR__n_hammers_Q-001_5h_15,5-160mm_0,49g-s.jpg
040 Mátyás Hunyadi., (Matthias Corvinus), King of Hungary, (1458-1490 A.D.) AR Denarius, U-562.m., Madonna and child, #0198 views040 Mátyás Hunyadi., (Matthias Corvinus), King of Hungary, (1458-1490 A.D.) AR Denarius, U-562.m., Madonna and child, #01
avers: m mAThIЄ•R hVnGARЄ, Hungarian shield, four-part shield with Hungarian arms (Árpádian stripes, patriarchal cross, Dalmatian leopard heads, Bohemian lion). Inside of the central shield, the raven standing and turning left. The ring in its beak, (Legend variation!).
reverse: PATROn VnGARЄ, Madonna sitting on a veil on her head, holding infant Jesus in her right arm, mint-mark on each side; border of dots. (Legend variation!).
exergue, mint mark: n/ hammers//--, were struck by Bürgertschaft, (by Pohl), diameter: 15,5-16,0mm, weight: 0,51g, axis: 5h,
mint: Hungary, Nagybánya (today Romania : Baia Mare) by Pohl,
date: 1470 A.D. (Pohl), ref: Unger-562.m., CNH-2-235A, Huszár-717, Pohl-216-13,
Q-001

quadrans
Matyas-Hunyadi_Denar_U_564_c_C2-234_H-718_mOnETA_mAThIE_R_VnGARI__PATROn-VnGARI__K_Sigma_Q-001_6h_16mm_0,46g-s.jpg
040 Mátyás Hunyadi., (Matthias Corvinus), King of Hungary, (1458-1490 A.D.) AR Denarius, U-564.c., Madonna and child, #0196 views040 Mátyás Hunyadi., (Matthias Corvinus), King of Hungary, (1458-1490 A.D.) AR Denarius, U-564.c., Madonna and child, #01
avers: ✠mOnЄTA•mAThIЄ•R•hVnGARI, Hungarian shield, four-part shield with Hungarian arms (Árpádian stripes, patriarchal cross, Dalmatian leopard heads, Bohemian lion). Inside of the central shield, the raven standing and turning left. The ring in its beak, (Legend variation!).
reverse: •PATROn VnGARI•, Madonna sitting on a veil on her head, holding infant Jesus in her right arm, mint-mark on each side; border of dots, (Legend variation!).
exergue, mint mark: K/ G//--, were struck by Johannes Constorfer, kammergraf, (by Pohl), diameter: 16,0mm, weight: 0,46g, axis: 6h,
mint: Hungary, Körmöcbánya (Kremnitz, today Slovakia: Kremnica) by Pohl,
date: 1472-1478 A.D. (Pohl), ref: Unger-564.c., CNH-2-234, Huszár-718, Pohl-219-03,
Q-001

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Matyas-Hunyadi_Denar_U_565-a_C2-239A-E_H-719_xM_MAThIE_R_hUnGARI_PATRO-VnGARI_K_P-V_Q-001_5h_15-15,5mm_0,65g-s.jpg
040 Mátyás Hunyadi., (Matthias Corvinus), King of Hungary, (1458-1490 A.D.) AR Denarius, U-565.a., Madonna and child, #0185 views040 Mátyás Hunyadi., (Matthias Corvinus), King of Hungary, (1458-1490 A.D.) AR Denarius, U-565.a., Madonna and child, #01
avers: ✠m•mAThIЄ•R•hVnGARI, Hungarian shield, four-part shield with Hungarian arms (Árpádian stripes, patriarchal cross, Dalmatian leopard heads, Bohemian lion). Inside of the central shield, the raven standing and turning left. The ring in its beak, (Legend variation!).
reverse: •PATRO VnGARI, Crowned Madonna sitting, holding infant Jesus in her left arm, mint-mark on each side; border of dots, (Legend variation!).
exergue, mint mark: K/ P/V//--, were struck by Paul Peck/Veit Mühlstein, kammergraf, (by Pohl), diameter: 15,0-15,5mm, weight: 0,65g, axis: 5h,
mint: Hungary, Körmöcbánya (Kremnitz, today Slovakia: Kremnica) by Pohl,
date: 1479-1485 A.D. (Pohl), ref: Unger-565.a., CNH-2-239A, Huszár-719, Pohl-221-03,
Q-001

quadrans
Matyas-Hunyadi_Garas_U_550-d_C2-213A-E_H-692-695_P-193-2,_mOnETA_mAThIE_REIS_hVnOAR,_PATROnA_VnGARIE,_1479-85_AD,_Q-001,_6h,_26,5mm,_2,9g-s.jpg
040 Mátyás Hunyadi., (Matthias Corvinus), King of Hungary, (1458-1490 A.D.) AR Gross, U-550.d-var., Madonna and child, #01166 views040 Mátyás Hunyadi., (Matthias Corvinus), King of Hungary, (1458-1490 A.D.) AR Gross, U-550.d-var., Madonna and child, #01
avers: ✠mOnЄTA•mAThIЄ•RЄIS•hVnOAR, Hungarian shield, four-part shield with Hungarian arms (Árpádian stripes, patriarchal cross, Dalmatian leopard heads(two!!), Crown(!!) and Bohemian lion). Inside of the central shield, the raven standing and turning left. The ring in its beak. (Legends error! "•RЄIS•hVnOAR" instead of "•RЄGIS•hVnGAR" and variation!)
reverse: PATROnA VnGARIЄ, Madonna sitting on a veil on her head, holding infant Jesus in her right arm, mint-mark on each side; border of dots. (Legend variation!)
exergue, mint mark: K/ Shield//--, were struck by Johannes Constorfer, kammergraf, (by Pohl), diameter: 26,5mm, weight: 2,9g, axis: 6h,
mint: Hungary, Körmöcbánya (Kremnitz, today Slovakia: Kremnica) by Pohl,
date: 1469 A.D. (Pohl), ref: Unger-550.d-var., CNH-2-213A-Evar., Huszár-692, Pohl-193-02,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Matyas-Hunyadi_Garas_U_550-j_C2-213A-E_H-695_P-197-05_mOnETA_mAThIE_REGIS_Vn__PATROnA-hVnGARIE__1479-85_AD_Q-001_4h_26,0mm_3,05g-s.jpg
040 Mátyás Hunyadi., (Matthias Corvinus), King of Hungary, (1458-1490 A.D.) AR Gross, U-550.j., Madonna and child, #01155 views040 Mátyás Hunyadi., (Matthias Corvinus), King of Hungary, (1458-1490 A.D.) AR Gross, U-550.j., Madonna and child, #01
avers: ✠mOnЄTA•mAThIЄ•RЄGIS•Vn, Hungarian shield, four-part shield with Hungarian arms (Árpádian stripes, patriarchal cross, (three!) Dalmatian leopard heads, Bohemian lion). Inside of the central shield, the raven standing and turning left. The ring in its beak. (Legend variation!)
reverse: •PATROnA hVnGARIЄ•, Madonna sitting on a veil on her head, holding infant Jesus in her right arm, mint-mark on each side; border of dots.(Legend variation!)
exergue, mint mark: K/ V/A//--, were struck by Veit Mühlstein and Augustin Langsfelder, kammergraf, (by Pohl), diameter: 26,0mm, weight: 3,05g, axis: 4h,
mint: Hungary, Körmöcbánya (Kremnitz, today Slovakia: Kremnica) by Pohl,
date: 1479-1485 A.D. (Pohl), ref: Unger-550.j., CNH-2-213A-Evar., Huszár-695, Pohl-219-05,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
II_Ulaszlo_Den_U-638-d_C2-276_H-803_M_WLADISLAI_R_VNGARIE__PATRON-_---_-VNGARIE_1495-AD_Q-001_h_mm_g-s.jpg
041 Ulászló II. (Wladislas II., Jagellion)., King of Hungary, (1490-1516 A.D.) AR Denarius, U-638.d., #0187 views041 Ulászló II. (Wladislas II., Jagellion)., King of Hungary, (1490-1516 A.D.) AR Denarius, U-638.d., #01
avers: M•WLADISLAI•R•VNGARIЄ•, Hungarian shield, four-part shield with Hungarian arms (Árpádian (Hungarian) stripes, patriarchal cross, Dalmatian leopard heads, Bohemian lion), Bohemian lion in the inner shield.
reverse: PATRON VNGARIЄ, Nimbate and Crowned Madonna seated facing, holding nimbate infant Jesus in her right arm, mint-mark (K - B/AF/M) on each side; line border.
exergue, mint mark: K /B/AF/M//-- were struck by Andreas Hellebrand and Franz Körnidl (by Pohl), diameter: mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Hungary, Körmöcbánya (Kremnitz, today Slovakia: Kremnica) by Pohl,
date: 1496 A.D., ref: Unger-638.d., CNH-2-276, Huszár-803, Pohl-238-03,
Q-001
quadrans
Wladislai-II-4a-s.jpg
041 Ulászló II. (Wladislas II., Jagellion)., King of Hungary, (1490-1516 A.D.) AR Denarius, U-638.e., #01161 views041 Ulászló II. (Wladislas II., Jagellion)., King of Hungary, (1490-1516 A.D.) AR Denarius, U-638.e., #01
avers: M•WLADISLAI•R•VNGARIЄ•, Hungarian shield, four-part shield with Hungarian arms (Árpádian (Hungarian) stripes, patriarchal cross, Dalmatian leopard heads, Bohemian lion), Bohemian lion in the inner shield.
reverse: PATRON VNGARI•Є, Nimbate and Crowned Madonna seated facing, holding nimbate infant Jesus in her right arm, mint-mark (K-S/Є) on each side; line border.
exergue, mint mark: K/S/Є//-- were struck by Stephanus Ryzmegl and Erasmus Rezl (by Pohl), diameter: 16 mm, weight: 0,52g, axis: 5h,
mint: Hungary, Körmöcbánya (Kremnitz, today Slovakia: Kremnica) by Pohl,
date: 1497 A.D., ref: Unger-638.e., CNH-2-276, Huszár-803, Pohl-238-04,
Q-001

quadrans
Wladislai-II-2a-s.jpg
041 Ulászló II. (Wladislas II., Jagellion)., King of Hungary, (1490-1516 A.D.) AR Denarius, U-640a, #0177 views041 Ulászló II. (Wladislas II., Jagellion)., King of Hungary, (1490-1516 A.D.) AR Denarius, U-640a, #01
avers: m•WLADISLAI•R•VnGARIЄ, Hungarian shield, four-part shield with Hungarian arms (Árpádian (Hungarian) stripes, patriarchal cross, Dalmatian leopard heads, Bohemian lion). Polish eagle in the inner shield.
reverse: PATROnA VnGARI•,
diameter: 16mm, weight: 0,52g, axis: 5h,
mint: Hungary, , mint mark:K-h (Pohl),
date: A.D., ref: Unger-640a, CNH-2-272A, Huszar-806,
Q-001
quadrans
Ulaszlo_II_,_AR-Den,_H-807,_C2-272B,_U-641c,_P-242-3,_WLADISLAI_R_VNGARI_,_PATRO_N__VNGAR,_n-A,_1505_AD,_Q-001,_4h,15,5mm,_0,61g-s.jpg
041 Ulászló II. (Wladislas II., Jagellion)., King of Hungary, (1490-1516 A.D.) AR Denarius, U-641c, P-242-3, #0177 views041 Ulászló II. (Wladislas II., Jagellion)., King of Hungary, (1490-1516 A.D.) AR Denarius, U-641c, P-242-3, #01
avers: •WLADISLAI•R*VNGARI, Hungarian shield, four-part shield with Hungarian arms (Árpádian (Hungarian) stripes, patriarchal cross, Dalmatian leopard heads, and Bohemian lion). The Polish eagle in the inner shield. Interesting legend variation, than to start the legend the "M"(oneta) is absent!
reverse: PATRO N•VNGAR, Crowned Madonna with the child in her right arm.
diameter: 15,5mm, weight: 0,61g, axis: 4h,
mint: Hungary, Nagybánya (now Baia Mare, Romania), mint mark:n-A (Pohl), struck by Ambrosius Literatus (by Pohl),
date: 1505 A.D. (by Pohl), ref: Huszar-807, CNH-2-272B, Unger-641c, Pohl-242-3,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Wladislai-II-3a-s.jpg
041 Ulászló II. (Wladislas II., Jagellion)., King of Hungary, (1490-1516 A.D.) AR Denarius, U-644a, #0188 views041 Ulászló II. (Wladislas II., Jagellion)., King of Hungary, (1490-1516 A.D.) AR Denarius, U-644a, #01
avers:- M•WLADISLAI•R•VNGARI•, Hungarian shield, four-part shield with Hungarian arms (Árpádian (Hungarian) stripes, patriarchal cross, Dalmatian leopard heads, Bohemian lion). Polish eagle in inner shield.
revers:- PATRON_VNGARIE,
diameter: 15,5-16mm, weight: 0,58g, axis: 9h,
mint: Hungary, , mint mark:K-h (Pohl),
date: A.D., ref: Unger-, CNH-, Huszar-,
Q-001
quadrans
Wladislai-II-5-s.jpg
041 Ulászló II. (Wladislas II., Jagellion)., King of Hungary, (1490-1516 A.D.) AR Denarius, U-646c/1512, Madonna and child, #0167 views041 Ulászló II. (Wladislas II., Jagellion)., King of Hungary, (1490-1516 A.D.) AR Denarius, U-646c/1512, Madonna and child, #01
avers:- *1512*WLADISLAI*R*VNGARI, Hungarian shield, four-part shield with Hungarian arms (Árpádian (Hungarian) stripes, patriarchal cross, Dalmatian leopard heads, Bohemian lion). Polish eagle in inner shield.
revers:- *PATRONA*_*VNGARIE*,
diameter: 15mm, weight: 0,57g, axis: 3h,
mint: Hungary, Körmöcbánya (Kremnitz, today Slovakia: Kremnica), mint mark:K-G (Pohl),
date: 1512A.D., ref: Unger-646c, CNH-2-278A, Huszar-811,
Q-001
quadrans
Wladislai-II-s.jpg
041 Ulászló II. (Wladislas II., Jagellion)., King of Hungary, (1490-1516 A.D.) AR Denarius, U-646c/1514, Madonna and child, #0174 views041 Ulászló II. (Wladislas II., Jagellion)., King of Hungary, (1490-1516 A.D.) AR Denarius, U-646c/1514, Madonna and child, #01
avers:- *1514*WLADISLAI*R*VNGARI, Hungarian shield, four-part shield with Hungarian arms (Árpádian (Hungarian) stripes, patriarchal cross, Dalmatian leopard heads, Bohemian lion). Polish eagle in inner shield.
revers:- *PATRONA*_*VNGARIE*,
diameter: 15mm, weight: 0,63g, axis: 10h,
mint: Hungary, Körmöcbánya (Kremnitz, today Slovakia: Kremnica), mint mark:K-G (Pohl),
date: 1514 A.D., ref: Unger-646c, CNH-2-278A, Huszar-811,
Q-001
quadrans
040_Ulászló_II__(Wladislas_II_,_Jagellion)_,_King_of_Hungary,_(1490-1516_A_D_)_AR_Obulus,_H-813,_P-240-3,_U-647d,_1497AD,_Q-001,_11h,_11,5-12mm,_0,31g-s.jpg
041 Ulászló II. (Wladislas II., Jagellion)., King of Hungary, (1490-1516 A.D.) AR Obulus, H-813, U-647.d., #01183 views041 Ulászló II. (Wladislas II., Jagellion)., King of Hungary, (1490-1516 A.D.) AR Obulus, H-813, U-647.d., #01
avers: No legend, Hungarian shield, four-part shield with Hungarian arms (Árpádian (Hungarian) stripes, patriarchal cross, Dalmatian leopard heads, Bohemian lion), a Bohemian lion in the central shield.
reverse: No legend, Nimbate, and Crowned Madonna seated facing, holding Nimbate infant Jesus in her right arm, mint-mark (K-S/Є) on each side, line border.
exergue, mint mark: K/S/Є//-- were struck by Stephanus Ryzmegl and Erasmus Rezl (by Pohl), diameter: 11,5-12,0 mm, weight: 0,31g, axis: 11h,
mint: Hungary, Körmöcbánya (Kremnitz, today Slovakia: Kremnica) by Pohl,
date: 1497 A.D., (by Pohl), ref: Huszár-813, CNH 2 284, Pohl 240-03, Unger 647.d.,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Ulaszlo-II_(1490-1516_AD)_AR-Obulus_U-650_C2-281_H-815_Q-001_4h_11,5-12mm_0,24g-s.jpg
041 Ulászló II. (Wladislas II., Jagellion)., King of Hungary, (1490-1516 A.D.) AR Obulus, U-650a, Madonna and child, #01147 views041 Ulászló II. (Wladislas II., Jagellion)., King of Hungary, (1490-1516 A.D.) AR Obulus, U-650a, Madonna and child, #01
avers:- Hungarian shield, four-part shield with Hungarian arms (Árpádian stripes, patriarchal cross, Dalmatian leopard heads, Bohemian lion). Inside of the central shield, Polish eagle with outstretched wings.
revers:- Nimbate and Crowned Madonna sits with child on her right arm.
diameter: 11,5-12,0mm, weight: 0,24g, axis: 4h,
mint: Hungary, Körmöcbánya (Kremnitz, today Slovakia: Kremnica), mint mark: K- h, by (Pohl)
date: 1498-1501 A.D. (Pohl), ref: Unger-650a, CNH-2-281, Huszar-815,
Q-001
quadrans
Ulaszlo-II_(1490-1516_AD)_AR-Obulus_U-650b_C2-281_H-815_1498-1501-AD_Q-001_2h_12mm_0,40g-s.jpg
041 Ulászló II. (Wladislas II., Jagellion)., King of Hungary, (1490-1516 A.D.) AR Obulus, U-650b, Madonna and child, #01116 views041 Ulászló II. (Wladislas II., Jagellion)., King of Hungary, (1490-1516 A.D.) AR Obulus, U-650b, Madonna and child, #01
avers:- Hungarian shield, four-part shield with Hungarian arms (Árpádian stripes, patriarchal cross, Dalmatian leopard heads, Bohemian lion). Inside of the central shield, Polish eagle with outstretched wings.
revers:- Nimbate and Crowned Madonna sits with child on her right arm.
diameter: 12,0mm, weight: 0,40g, axis: 2h,
mint: Hungary, Körmöcbánya (Kremnitz, today Slovakia: Kremnica), mint mark: K- H, by (Pohl)
date: 1498-1501 A.D. (Pohl), ref: Unger-650b, CNH-2-281, Huszar-815,
Q-001
quadrans
Lajos-II_,_(1516-1526_AD),_(Ladislaus_II,_Jagiellon),_AR-Denar,_H-841,_C2-306A,_U-673a,_P-255-32,_A-V,HK,_1526,_Q-001,_8h,_14,5-15mm,_0,56g-s.jpg
042 Lajos II. (Lodovicus II., Jagellion)., King of Hungary, (1516-1526 A.D.) AR Denar, U-673a., Madonna and child, A/V//HK, 1526, #0174 views042 Lajos II. (Lodovicus II., Jagellion)., King of Hungary, (1516-1526 A.D.) AR Denar, U-673a., Madonna and child, A/V//HK, 1526, #01
avers: LVDOVICVS ᵒRᵒVNGARI*1626*, Hungarian shield, four-part shield with Hungarian arms (Árpádian (Hungarian) stripes, patriarchal cross, Dalmatian leopard heads, Bohemian lion). Polish eagle in the inner shield. The date (1526) above the shield between two flowers, and flower with five petals, the border of dots.
reverse: PATRONA HK VNGARIE, Crowned Madonna seated facing, holding infant Jesus in her right arm, mint-mark (A-V) on each side, HK below, the border of dots.
exergue/mint mark: A/V//HK, diameter: 14,5-15,0mm, weight: 0,56g, axis: 8h,
mint: Hungary, Visegrád (Pohl), date: 1526 A.D. (Pohl), ref: Huszar-841, CNH-2-306A, Unger-673a., Pohl-255-32,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Lajos-II__(1516-1526_AD)_(Ladislaus_II,_Jagiellon)_Denar_U-675-a_C2-308A_H-846_L-B-1521_Q-001_h_mm_g-s.jpg
042 Lajos II. (Lodovicus II., Jagellion)., King of Hungary, (1516-1526 A.D.) AR Denar, U-675-a., Madonna and child, L-B, 1521, #0177 views042 Lajos II. (Lodovicus II., Jagellion)., King of Hungary, (1516-1526 A.D.) AR Denar, U-675-a., Madonna and child, L-B, 1521, #01
avers:- Hungarian shield, four-part shield with Hungarian arms (Árpádian (Hungarian) stripes, patriarchal cross, Dalmatian leopard heads, Bohemian lion). Polish eagle in inner shield. The date (1521) above the shield between two flower, and flower with five petals between two dots on each side, border of dots.
revers:- Crowned Madonna seated facing, holding infant Jesus in her right arm, mint-mark (L-B) on each side; border of dots.
exe, mint mark: L/B//-- diameter: mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Hungary, Buda, date: 1521 A.D. (Pohl), ref: Unger-675-a., CNH-2-308A, Huszar-846, Pohl-258-01, "Moneta Nova"
Q-001
quadrans
Lajos-II__(1516-1526_AD)_(Lodovicus_II,_Jagiellon)_Denar_U-675-a_C2-308A_H-846_L-B-1523_Q-001_h_mm_g-s.jpg
042 Lajos II. (Lodovicus II., Jagellion)., King of Hungary, (1516-1526 A.D.) AR Denar, U-675-a., Madonna and child, L-B, 1523, #0186 views042 Lajos II. (Lodovicus II., Jagellion)., King of Hungary, (1516-1526 A.D.) AR Denar, U-675-a., Madonna and child, L-B, 1523, #01
avers:- Hungarian shield, four-part shield with Hungarian arms (Árpádian (Hungarian) stripes, patriarchal cross, Dalmatian leopard heads, Bohemian lion). Polish eagle in inner shield. The date (1523) above the shield, and rozette with five petals between two small circle on each side, border of dots.
revers:- Crowned Madonna seated facing, holding infant Jesus in her right arm, mint-mark (L-B) on each side; border of dots.
exe, mint mark: L/B//-- diameter: mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Hungary, Buda, date: 1523 A.D. (Pohl), ref: Unger-675-a., CNH-2-308A, Huszar-846, Pohl-258-01, "Moneta Nova"
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Lajos-II__(1516-1526_AD)_(Lodovicus_II,_Jagiellon)_Denar_U-675-e_C2-308A_H-846_L-K-1522_Q-001_h_mm_ga-s.jpg
042 Lajos II. (Lodovicus II., Jagellion)., King of Hungary, (1516-1526 A.D.) AR Denar, U-675-e., Madonna and child, L-K, 1522, #0171 views042 Lajos II. (Lodovicus II., Jagellion)., King of Hungary, (1516-1526 A.D.) AR Denar, U-675-e., Madonna and child, L-K, 1522, #01
avers:- Hungarian shield, four-part shield with Hungarian arms (Árpádian (Hungarian) stripes, patriarchal cross, Dalmatian leopard heads, Bohemian lion). Polish eagle in inner shield. The date (1522) above the shield between two flower, and flower with five petals between two dots on each side, border of dots.
revers:- Crowned Madonna seated facing, holding infant Jesus in her right arm, mint-mark (L-K) on each side; border of dots.
exe, mint mark: L/K//-- diameter: mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Hungary, Körmöcbánya (Kremnitz, today Slovakia: Kremnica, by Pohl), date: 1522 A.D. (by Pohl), ref: Unger-675-e., CNH-2-308A, Huszar-846, Pohl-258-02, "Moneta Nova"
Q-001
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arles16.jpg
043 Constantine I12 viewsobv: CONSTAN_TINEVS AVG pearl dia. bust r.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE AVGG campgate with two turrents star above, arches at top
fld:/ex: SF/SCONST
hill132
043_János,_(Iohannes)_,_King_of_Hungary,_(1526-1540_A_D_)_AR_Denarius,_H-881,_P-265-14,_U-699_j_,_1527AD,_Q-001,_11h,_15-16mm,_0,62g-s.jpg
043 János (Iohannes von Zápolya)., King of Hungary, (1526-1540 A.D.) AR Denarius, H 881, U 699.j./1527, Crowned Madonna and infant, #01178 views043 János (Iohannes von Zápolya)., King of Hungary, (1526-1540 A.D.) AR Denarius, H 881, U 699.j./1527, Crowned Madonna and infant, #01
avers: *1527*IOHANNES*R*VNGARI, Hungarian shield, four-part shield with Hungarian arms (Árpádian (Hungarian) stripes, patriarchal cross, Dalmatian leopard heads and Árpádian (Hungarian) stripes,). Zápolya wolf in the central shield.
reverse: PATRONA* *VNGARIE, Crowned Madonna seated facing, holding an infant in right hand.
diameter: 15,0-16,0mm, weight: 0,62g, axis: 11h,
mint: Hungary, Körmöcbánya (Kremnitz, today Slovakia: Kremnica), mint mark: K/T/--, K-T (Pohl), were struck by J.Tornallyai or A-Thurzo, (by Pohl),
date: 1527 A.D., ref: Huszár 881, CNH-2 331A, Pohl 265-14, Unger 699.j.,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Ferd-I_AR-Den__1531_FERDINAND_D_G_R_VNG_PATRONA_-_VNGARIE_K-B_U-745a_C3-40_H-935_1531_Q-001_7h_15,7mm_0,49g-s.jpg
044 Ferdinand I., (Ferdinand I. of Habsburg), King of Hugary, (1526-1564 A.D.), AR-Denarius, U-745a, 1531, Madonna and child, #01208 views044 Ferdinand I., (Ferdinand I. of Habsburg), King of Hugary, (1526-1564 A.D.), AR-Denarius, U-745a, 1531, Madonna and child, #01
avers:- •1531•FERDINAND•D•G•R•VNG, Hungarian shield, four-part shield with Hungarian arms (Árpádian stripes, patriarchal cross, Dalmatian leopard heads, Bohemian lion). Central shield are Austrian shield.
revers:- PATRONA•-•VNGARIE, Crowned Madonna sits with child on her right arm. K-B crossed the field.
diameter: 15,7 mm, weight: 0,49 g, axis: 7h,
mint mark: K-B, mint: Körmöczbánya, date: 1531 A.D.,
ref: Unger-745a, CNH-3-40, Huszár-935,
Q-001
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Ferd-I_AR-Den__1534_FERDINAND_D_G_R_VNG_PATRONA_-rozette-_VNGARIE_K-B_U-745a_C3-40_H-935_1534_Q-001_9h_16,3mm_0,54g-s.jpg
044 Ferdinand I., (Ferdinand I. of Habsburg), King of Hugary, (1526-1564 A.D.), AR-Denarius, U-745a, 1534, Madonna and child, #01222 views044 Ferdinand I., (Ferdinand I. of Habsburg), King of Hugary, (1526-1564 A.D.), AR-Denarius, U-745a, 1534, Madonna and child, #01
avers:- •1534•FERDINAND•D•G•R•VNG, Hungarian shield, four-part shield with Hungarian arms (Árpádian stripes, patriarchal cross, Dalmatian leopard heads, Bohemian lion). Central shield are Austrian shield.
revers:- PATRONA•-rozette-•VNGARIE, Crowned Madonna sits with child on her right arm. K-B crossed the field.
diameter: 16,3 mm, weight: 0,54 g, axis: 9h,
mint mark: K-B,, mint: Körmöczbánya, date: 1534 A.D.,
ref: Unger-745a, CNH-3-40, Huszár-935,
Q-001
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Ferd-I_AR-Den__1551_FERDINAND_D_G_R_VNG_PATRONA_-_VNGARIE_K-B_U-745a_C3-40_H-935_1551_Q-001_9h_14,6mm_0,53g-s.jpg
044 Ferdinand I., (Ferdinand I. of Habsburg), King of Hugary, (1526-1564 A.D.), AR-Denarius, U-745a, 1551, Madonna and child #01211 views044 Ferdinand I., (Ferdinand I. of Habsburg), King of Hugary, (1526-1564 A.D.), AR-Denarius, U-745a, 1551, Madonna and child #01
avers:- •1551•FERDINAND•D•G•R•VNG, Hungarian shield, four-part shield with Hungarian arms (Árpádian stripes, patriarchal cross, Dalmatian leopard heads, Bohemian lion). Central shield are Austrian shield.
revers:- PATRONA•-•VNGARIE, Crowned Madonna sits with child on her right arm. K-B crossed the field.
diameter: 14,6 mm, weight: 0,53 g, axis: 9h,
mint mark: K-B, mint: Körmöczbánya, date: 1551 A.D.,
ref: Unger-745a, CNH-3-40, Huszár-935,
Q-001
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Ferd-I_AR-Den__1551_FERDINAND_D_G_R_VNG_PATRONA_-rozette-_VNGARIE_K-B_U-745a_C3-40_H-935_1551_Q-002_7h_15,2mm_0,56g-s.jpg
044 Ferdinand I., (Ferdinand I. of Habsburg), King of Hugary, (1526-1564 A.D.), AR-Denarius, U-745a, 1551, Madonna and child, #02233 views044 Ferdinand I., (Ferdinand I. of Habsburg), King of Hugary, (1526-1564 A.D.), AR-Denarius, U-745a, 1551, Madonna and child, #02
avers:- •1551•FERDINAND•D•G•R•VNG, Hungarian shield, four-part shield with Hungarian arms (Árpádian stripes, patriarchal cross, Dalmatian leopard heads, Bohemian lion). Central shield are Austrian shield.
revers:- PATRONA•-rozette-•VNGARIE, Crowned Madonna sits with child on her right arm. K-B crossed the field.
diameter: 15,2 mm, weight: 0,56 g, axis: 7h,
mint mark: K-B, mint: Körmöczbánya, date: 1551 A.D.,
ref: Unger-745a, CNH-3-40, Huszár-935,
Q-001
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Ferd-I_AR-Den__1528_FERDINAND_D_G_R_VNG_PATRONA_-_VNGARIE_K-B_U-745a_C3-40_H-935_1528_Q-001_4h_15,5mm_0,55g-s.jpg
044 Ferdinand I., (Ferdinand I. of Habsburg), King of Hungary, (1526-1564 A.D.), AR-Denarius, U-745a, 1528, Madonna and child, #01246 views044 Ferdinand I., (Ferdinand I. of Habsburg), King of Hungary, (1526-1564 A.D.), AR-Denarius, U-745a, 1528, Madonna and child, #01
avers:- •1528•FERDINAND•D•G•R•VNG, Hungarian shield, four-part shield with Hungarian arms (Árpádian stripes, patriarchal cross, Dalmatian leopard heads, Bohemian lion). Central shield are Austrian shield.
revers:- PATRONA•-•VNGARIE, Crowned Madonna sits with child on her right arm. K-B crossed the field.
diameter: 15,5 mm, weight: 0,55 g, axis: 4h,
mint mark: K-B, mint: Körmöczbánya, date: 1528 A.D.,
ref: Unger-745a, CNH-3-40, Huszár-935,
Q-00
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Miksa_AR-Den_K-B_U-766a_C3-94_H-992_1566_Q-001_h_mm_g-s.jpg
045 Miksa., (Maximilian of Habsburg), King of Hungary, (1564-1576 A.D.), AR-Denarius, U-766a, 1566, Madonna and child, #01114 views045 Miksa., (Maximilian of Habsburg), King of Hungary, (1564-1576 A.D.), AR-Denarius, U-766a, 1566, Madonna and child, #01
avers:- •MAX•II•D•G•E•RO•I•S•AV•G•HV•B•R•, Hungarian shield, four-part shield with Hungarian arms (Árpádian stripes, patriarchal cross, Dalmatian leopard heads, Bohemian lion). Central shield are Austrian shield. The year 1566 on the top of the shield.
revers:- PATRONA•-rozette-•VNGARIE, Crowned Madonna sits with child on her right arm. K-B crossed the field.
diameter: mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint mark: K-B, mint: Körmöczbánya, date: 1566 A.D.,
ref: Unger-766a, CNH-3-94, Huszár-992,
Q-001
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Rudolf_(1576-1608_AD),_AR-Gross,_1601,_N-B,_H-1049,_CNH_III__150,_U-805,_Q-001,_11h,_23,5-24mm,_1,56g-s.jpg
046 Rudolf, (Rudolph II. of Habsburg), King of Hungary, (1576-1608 A.D.), AR-Groschen, H-1049, CNH III.-150, U-805, N-B, 1601, Rare!128 views046 Rudolf, (Rudolph II. of Habsburg), King of Hungary, (1576-1608 A.D.), AR-Groschen, H-1049, CNH III.-150, U-805, N-B, 1601, Rare!
avers: ֍ RVDOL•II•D:G•RO•IM•S•AV•GE•HVN•B•R•, Crowned Madonna sits with child on her right arm. N-B crossed the field.
reverse: •MONETA•NOVA•ANNODOMINI•1601, Ornamented, Hungarian shield, four-part shield with Hungarian arms (Árpádian stripes, patriarchal cross, Dalmatian leopard heads, Bohemian lion). Central shield is Austrian shield. All in
diameter: 23,5-24,0mm, weight: 1,56g, axis: 11h,
exergue, mint mark: N/B//--, mint: Nagybánya, (today Romania: Baia Mare), date: 1601 A.D.,
ref: Huszár-1049, CNH III.-150, Unger-805,
Q-001
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Ferd-II__(1619-1637AD)_AR-Den_FER_II_D_G_R_I_S_A_G_H_B_R__PATRONA-HVNGARI__1629_K-B_U-917a_C3-303_H-1204_Q-001_7h_14,1mm_0,51g-s.jpg
048 Ferdinand II., (Ferdinand II. of Habsburg), King of Hungary, (1619-1637 A.D.), AR-Denarius, U-917a, 1629, Madonna and child, #0185 views048 Ferdinand II., (Ferdinand II. of Habsburg), King of Hungary, (1619-1637 A.D.), AR-Denarius, U-917a, 1629, Madonna and child, #01
avers: FER•II•D•G•R•I•S•A•G•H•B•R•, Hungarian shield, four-part shield with Hungarian arms (Árpádian stripes, patriarchal cross). The year 1629 on the top of the shield, K-B crossed the field.
reverse: PATRONA-HVNGARI•, Madonna sits with child on her left arm.
diameter: 14,1mm, weight: 0,51g, axis: 7h,
mint mark: K-B, mint: Körmöczbánya, date: 1629 A.D.,
ref: Unger-917a, CNH-3-303, Huszár-1204,
Q-001
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ciibh1.jpg
05 Constantius II65 viewsBGN353 - Constantius II (A.D. 337-361), Pre-Magnentian Revolt, AE Centenionalis, 21mm, 5.14g., Arles mint, first officina, A.D. 348-350, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust of the Emperor right, A behind head, rev., FEL TEMP REPARATIO, PARL in exergue, helmeted soldier spearing fallen horseman, A in field, (RIC 119/121-22; Bridgnorth Report #79), very fine. RIC Arles 118

Ex Bridgnorth Hoard, Shropshire, England, buried circa A.D. 355, discovered 2007.

"On October 10th, 2007 a metal detectorist discovered a large scattered hoard of late Roman coins that had been disturbed by deep plowing in a potato field near Bridgnorth, Shropshire. His subsequent actions are praised in the UK government 2007 Portable Antiquities and Treasure Annual Report, where local finds officer Peter Reavill states: “The finder is to be congratulated on the careful plotting and speedy reporting of this hoard as it enabled the excavation to take place and vital depositional information recorded. In turn, this minimised the impact to the landowner and his farming activity.” The majority of hoards that come to light are found outside of planned archaeological excavations, the original owner having selected a secluded spot to conceal his or her wealth away from human habitation, leading to loss of information on the archaeological context of the hoard. In this instance, swift action and close cooperation by the finder and the local Finds Liaison Officer led to an excavation of the findspot. The results of which showed that the hoard had been contained in a large pottery vessel (broken by the plow), most probably previously used as a cooking pot as evidenced by burns marks on the outer edges. The pot had been buried in a U-shaped gulley or ditch that formed part of an otherwise unknown late Roman site.

The hoard consisted of 2892 coins, ranging in date from a Reform Antoninianus of Probus to post Magnentian issues of Constantius II up to A.D. 355. The majority of the hoard was issues of Magnentius and Decentius (75%), followed by pre-Magnentian issues of Constantius II and Constans (18%) and closing with post Magnentian issues of Constantius II and Gallus (7%)."
Better Photo
1 commentsRandygeki(h2)
050_Iulia_Domna_(_170-217_A_D_),_AE-23,_Asklepiados,_Archon,_Lydia,_Bagis,_Hygeia_and_Asklepios_Q-001_h_22,5-23,5mm_5,69g-s.jpg
050p Julia Domna (170-217 A.D.), Lydia, Bagis, Lindgen A716A., AE-23, Hygeia and Asklepios,68 views050p Julia Domna (170-217 A.D.), Lydia, Bagis, Lindgen A716A., AE-23, Hygeia and Asklepios,
avers:- Draped bust right, ΙΟΥ ΔΟ ΜΝΑ CΕΒΑ,
revers:- ΕΠΙ ACKΛEΠIAΔOΥ ΑΡX A B /BAΓHNΩN, Hygeia, on left, standing right, holding serpent, facing Asklepios, on right, standing standing left, leaning on serpent-entwined staff.
exergo: -/-// HNΩN, diameter: 22,5-23,5 mm, weight: 5,69g, axis: 6h,
mint: Lydia, Bagis, date: A.D., ref: Lindgen A716A., BMC p. 37, 31 var. (legend), SNG KOP 27 49(1), Lindgren and Kovacs A716A (same dies),
Q-001
2 commentsquadrans
MaxentiusFollisRic258.jpg
058. Maxentius, 306-312. AE Follis.71 viewsObv. Laureate head right IMP C MAXENTIVS PF AVG
Rev. Roma seated left holding sceptre and globe, within hexastyle temple with wreath within pediment CONSEERV VRB SVAE, RES below.
Rome Mint, 310-11. 24.5mm, 5.98g.
RIC 258.
1 commentsLordBest
062_Severus-Alexander_AE-22_M-AYP-_________C-K______-__N_Q-001_1h_21-22mm_6,22gx-s.jpg
062p Severus Alexander (222-235 A.D.), Bithynia, Nikaia, AE-22, ΝΙΚΑΙΕΩN, Zeus seated left, Rare !!!,74 views062p Severus Alexander (222-235 A.D.), Bithynia, Nikaia, AE-22, ΝΙΚΑΙΕΩN, Zeus seated left, Rare !!!,
avers:- M-AYP-ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟC-K, Bare headed, Cuirassed bust right,
revers:- ΝΙΚΑΙ-ΕΩΝ, Zeus seated left, holding patera and sceptre,
exe: -/-//--, diameter: 21-22 mm, weight:6,22 g, axis:1h,
mint: Bithynia, Nikaia, date: Severus Alexander as Caesar under Elagabalus, mid-221 A.D. to March 222 A.D., rare!, ref: Not in Rec. Gen.,
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quadrans
261Hadrian_RIC673d.jpg
0673 Hadrian AS Roma 125-28 AD Galley right.25 viewsReference
RIC 673; C. 446; spink 3682; BMCRE 446

Obv. HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS
laureate, draped on left shoulder, right.

Rev. COS III SC below
Galley with arched cabin in stern and rowers, right; prow slanting mast with small sail.

9.48 gr
26 mm
6h

Note.
I was told by a friend galley left referring underway to Rome and right underway from Rome
okidoki
Galba_RIC_I_189.jpg
07 Galba RIC I 18937 viewsGalba April 3-Jan. 15, 69 A.D. AR Denarius. Rome Mint 69 A.D. (3.15g, 18.9m, 6h). Obv: [I]MP SER GALBA CAESAR AVG, laureate and draped bust right. Rev: [DI]VA AVGVSTA, Livia standing left, holding patera and scepter. RIC I 189, RSC 55a. ACCG IV, 59.

Upon Nero’s death, Galba was governor of Hispania Terraconensis, and marched to Rome. His short reign was ended by his murder in a plot hatched by Otho and the Praetorians. Many of his economic measures had been unpopular, including his refusal to “bribe” the Praetorians upon his ascension.
1 commentsLucas H
galba,_RIC_I_167.jpg
07 Galba, RIC I 16749 viewsGalba July, 68-Jan., 69. AR Denarius. Rome Mint. Aug-Oct 68 A.D. (3.07g, 17.8mm, 6h). Obv: IMP SER GALBA AVG, bare head right. Rev: SPQR OB CS in 3 lines within oak wreath. RIC I 167, RSC 287, Sear 2109.

Upon the death of Nero, Galba’s troops proclaimed him emperor on April 3, 68 A.D. Governor of Hispania Tarraconensis, he marched on Rome and assumed the throne, but was assassinated in a plot by Otho on January 15, 69 beginning the year of 4 emperors.
1 commentsLucas H
RI_071ae_img.jpg
071 - Elagabalus denarius - RIC 8736 viewsElagabalus Denarius
Obv:– IMP ANTONINVS PIVS AVG, laureate, horned, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:– INVICTVS SACERDOS AVG, Elagabalus standing holding patera over an altar and branch. Star in right field. Horn on ground to his left
Minted in Rome. A.D. 222
Reference– BMC 209 note. RIC 87 (where it is rated Common citing Cohen). RSC III 58. Cohen 58 (illustrated with star in right field) valued at 50 Fr. No examples in RD.
ex Numismatica Ars Classica NAC AG Sale 42, Lot 379, 20th November 2007, ex Barry Feirstein Collection, previously privately purchased from Harlan J. Berk.
Described as Lightly toned and good extremely fine by NAC.
21 mm. 3.11 gms. 0 degrees.

The coin would certainly seem to be scarcer than the "Common" rating given in RIC would imply. No examples in RD, only one example on acsearch (this coin). No examples on Wildwinds (the RIC 87 there would appear to be in error).
1 commentsmaridvnvm
Otho_RIC_I_3_1.jpg
08 01 Otho RIC I 483 viewsOtho. 15 Jan. to April 69 A.D. AR Denarius. Rome Mint. 69 A.D. (3.27g, 18.9mm, 6h). Obv: IMP M OTHO CAESAR AVG TR P, bare head right. Obv: PAX ORBIS TERRARVM, Pax, draped, standing left, right holding branch, and left caduceus. RIC I 4, RCV 2156, RSC 3. Ex Warren Esty Personal Collection.

At 3 months, Otho had the shortest reign in the Year of the Four Emperors. During much of Nero’s reign, Otho administered Lusitania, and followed Galba when he marched on Rome. Upon Galba’s naming another as his successor to the throne, with some of the rankers of the Praetorian Guard, Otho staged a coup, had Galba murdered, and was declared Emperor.

THis is an odd reverse message for an emperor complicit in the murder of his one-time allie and predecessor Galba, while the legeons of Vitellius were Marching on Rome. PAX ORBIS TERRARVM "Peace on the Earth" is ironic given the civil war going on in Rome at the time.
5 commentsLucas H
Antíoco IV, Epiphanes.jpg
08-02 - Anti­oco IV, Epiphanes (175 - 164 A.C.)68 viewsAntíoco IV Epífanes (Αντίοχος Επιφανής en griego, 215 adC-163 adC) fue rey de Siria de la dinastía Seléucida desde c. 175 adC-164 adC.
Era hijo de Antíoco III Megas y hermano de Seleuco IV Filopator. Originalmente fue llamado Mitríades, pero adoptó el nombre de Antíoco tras su ascensión al trono (o quizás tras la muerte de su hermano mayor, también Antíoco).
Subió al trono tras la muerte de su hermano Seleuco IV Filopátor que gobernó durante poco tiempo antes que él, hasta que Heliodoro, tesorero suyo, lo mató por ambición. Había vivido en Roma según los términos de la paz de Apamea (188 adC), pero acababa de ser intercambiado por el hijo y legítimo heredero de Seleuco IV, el futuro (Demetrio I Sóter). Antíoco se aprovechó de la situación, y junto con su otro hermano Antíoco, se proclamó rey con el apoyo de Eumenes II de Pérgamo y el hermano de éste, Atalo I. Su hermano Antíoco sería asesinado pocos ańos después.
Por su enfrentamiento con Ptolomeo VI, que reclamaba Coele-Syria, atacó e invadió Egipto, conquistando casi todo el país, con la salvedad de la capital, Alejandría. Llegó a capturar al rey, pero para no alarmar a Roma, decicidió reponerlo en el trono, aunque como su marioneta. Sin embargo, los alejandrinos habían elegido al hermano de éste, Ptolomeo VII Euergetes como rey, y tras su marcha decidieron reinar conjuntamente. Esto le obligó a reinvadir el país, y así el 168 adC, repitiendo la invasión, con su flota conquistaba Chipre. Cerca de Alejandría se encontró con el cónsul romano Cayo Popilio Laenas, instó a abandonar Egipto y Chipre. Cuando Antíoco replicó que debía consultarlo con su consejo, Popilio trazó un círculo en la arena rodeándole y le dijo: "píensalo aquí". Viendo que abandonar el círculo sin haber ordenado la retirada era un desafío a Roma decidió ceder con el fin de evitar una guerra.
A su regreso, organizó una expedición contra Jerusalén, qué saqueo cruelmente. Según él Libro de los Macabeos, promulgó varias ordenanzas de tipo religioso: trató de suprimir el culto a Yahveh, prohibió el judaísmo suspendiendo toda clase de manifestación religiosa y trató de establecer el culto a los dioses griegos. Pero el sacerdote judío Matatías y sus dos hijos llamados Macabeos consiguieron levantar a la población en su contra y lo expulsaron. La fiesta judía de Jánuca conmemora este hecho.
Antíoco, en campańa contra el Imperio Parto, envió varios ejércitos sin éxito. Mientras organizaba una expedición punitiva para retomar Israel personalmente le sobrevino la muerte. Le sucedió su hijo Antíoco V Eupátor.
Su reinado fue la última época de fuerza y esplendor para el Imperio Seleúcida, que tras su muerte se vio envuelto en devastadoras guerras dinásticas. (Wikipedia)

AE (Canto aserrado) 15 mm 3.5 gr.

Anv: Busto velado de Laodicea IV (Esposa de Seleuco IV y Hermana de Antíoco IV) viendo a der. Grafila de puntos.
Rev: "BAΣIΛEΩΣ ANTIOXOY" - Cabeza de elefante a izquierda, proa de galera a izquierda (El elefante simboliza las aspiraciones orientales de los reyes de Seleucia además de ser una de las grandes armas de su arsenal y la proa su importancia como ciudad puerto).

Ceca: Seleucia de Pieria (Costa N. de Siria - Puerto de Antioquía) o Akke Ptolomais

Referencias : B.M.C. Vol.4 (Seleucid Kings of Syria) #3 Pag.43 - SC#1477.2 - Houghton #113 - HGS #684-6 Pag.9 - SNG Spaer #1017-40 - SNG Cop #184 - Hoover #685
1 commentsmdelvalle
RI 080c img.jpg
080 - Maximinus denarius - RIC 01342 viewsObv:– IMP MAXIMINVS PIVS AVG, Laureate draped cuirassed bust right
Rev:– PROVIDENTIA AVG, Providentia standing facing head left, holding wand over globe and cornucopiae
Minted in Rome, March A.D. 235 – January A.D. 236
Reference:– Van Meter 9, RIC 13, RSC 77a
maridvnvm
RI 080b img.jpg
080 - Maximinus denarius - RIC 01663 viewsObverse – Laureate head right
Reverse – Victory advancing right, holding wreath and palm
Obverse Legend – IMP MAXIMINVS PIVS AVG
Reverse Legend – VICTORIA AVG
Minted in Rome, March A.D. 235 – January A.D. 236
References:- Van Meter 11, RIC 16, RSC 99
maridvnvm
Hostilian_AR-Antoninianus_C-VAL-HOS-MES-QVINTVS-N-C_PRINCIPI-IVVENTVTIS_RIC-_C-_Rome_251-AD_Q-001_axis-5h_21-23mm_3_67g-s.jpg
082 Hostilian (250-251 A.D. Caesar, 251 A.D. Augustus), AR-Antoninianus, RIC IV-III ???, Rome, PRINCIPI IVVENTVTIS, Caesar, Very Rare!, Not in RIC!!!,76 views082 Hostilian (250-251 A.D. Caesar, 251 A.D. Augustus), AR-Antoninianus, RIC IV-III ???, Rome, PRINCIPI IVVENTVTIS, Caesar, Very Rare!, Not in RIC!!!,
avers:- C VAL HOS MES QVINTVS N C, radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right
revers:- RINCIPI IVVENTVTIS, Apollo seated left, holding branch
exe: -/-//--, diameter: 21-23mm, weight: 3,67g, axis: h,
mint: Rome ?, date: 251 A.D.? ref: RIC- ,C- ,??, Very rare!, Not in RIC!!!,
Q-001
"A similar coin, overstruck on an earlier denarius of Geta in Decius' operation to convert circulating denarii into antononiani, was shown on Forvm by Hispanorvm, May 2005.
I wrote the coin into my RIC, but it did not turn up in a Forvm search for "Hostilian Geta" now, so it has perhaps been deleted.
For readers without easy access to RIC, this rev. type is well known for Hostilian Caesar with the longer legend
C VALENS HOSTIL MES QVINTVS N C,
but is not in RIC with the more abbreviated legend of Quadrans' coin,
C VAL HOS MES QVINTVS N C." by Curtis Clay. Thank you Curtis Clay.
quadrans
76Hadrian__RIC83.jpg
083 Hadrian Denarius Roma 119-22 AD Felicitas standing37 viewsReference.
Strack 111; RIC 83; C. 1143

Obv. IMP CAESAR TRAIAN - HADRIANVS AVG
Laureate bust right, slight drapery on left shoulder

Rev. P M TR - P - C-OS III
Felicitas standing left, holding caduceus and cornucopia.

18 mm
3.09 gr
6 h

Note.
CNG Auction 96, 2014
From the Archer M. Huntington Collection ANS 1001.1.22677
2 commentsokidoki
248Hadrian__RIC850f.JPG
0850 Hadrian AS Roma 134-38 AD Dacia36 viewsReference. Scarce
RIC 850;

Obv. HADRIANVS AVG COS III P P
Laureate, draped bust right, seen from back.

Rev. in ex. DACIA S-C in field
Dacia seated left on rock, holding vexillum and curved sword (Falx); r. foot rests on globe?

11.52 gr
26 mm
6h

Note.
At the time of the Dacian wars researchers have estimated that only ten percent of Spanish and Gallic warriors had access to swords, usually the nobility. By contrast Dacia had rich resources of iron and were prolific metal workers. It is clear that a large percentage of Dacians owned swords, greatly reducing Rome's military advantage.[7]
Marcus Cornelius Fronto described the large gaping wounds that a falx inflicted, and experiments have shown that a blow from a falx easily penetrated the Romans' lorica segmentata, incapacitating the majority of victims.
1 commentsokidoki
Vitellius_RIC_I_81.jpg
09 01 Vitellius RIC I 8167 viewsVitellius 69 A.D. AR Denarius. Rome Mint. Late April-Dec 20, 69 A.D. (2.91g, 18.8mm, 5h). Obv: A VITELLIVS GERMAN IMP TR P, laureate head right. Rev: LIBERTAS RESTITVTA, Libertas, draped, standing facing, head right, r. holding pileus, l. scepter. RIC I 81, RSC 48. Ex CNG 258, Lot 367.

In the year of 4 emperors, Vitellius assumed the throne after his German legions proclaimed him emperor, marched on Rome, and murdered Otho. Vitellius only ruled for mere months before Vespasian’s eastern legions arrived and murdered him in turn. He was known for his gluttony. I have a Vitellius denarius, but couldn't help picking up this nice example from a reputable dealer for a reasonable price.
2 commentsLucas H
Vitellius_RIC_I_105.jpg
09 Vitellius RIC I 10581 viewsVitellius. Jan. 2-Dec. 20 69 AD. AR Denarius (2.71 g, 17.6m, 5h). Rome mint. Struck circa April-December AD 69. Obv: A VITELLIVS GERM IMP AVG TR P, laureate head right. Rev: LIBERTAS RESTITVTA, Libertas, draped, standing facing holding pileus & long rod. RIC I 105; RSC 47.

With the same devices as RIC I 81, the difference on this coin is the abbreviated title GERM. Vitellius was commander of the legions in Germania Inferior when the Rhine legions declared him emperor in 69 A.D. He would have resigned as emperor, but was not allowed to do so when Vespasian’s eastern legions marched on Rome, and was ultimately killed and Vespasian was installed as emperor ending the Year of Four Emperors.
Lucas H
Civil_Wars_RIC_I_121.jpg
09.5 Civil Wars RIC I 12149 viewsCivil Wars. 69 A.D. AR Denarius. Southern Gaul mint. 69 A.D. (2.97g, 18.5mm, 6h). Obv: FIDES, above EXERCITVVM, below clasped hands. Rev: FIDES, above,PRAETORIANORVM, blow, Clasped r. hands. RIC I 121; RCV 2048.

This is thought to be an issue by pro Vitellian forces in southern Gaul for the purpose of influencing Otho’s Praetorians in the capital. In March 69 AD, Vitellian commander Fabius Valens entered Italy from Southern Gaul at the head of a small band to sway the loyalty of Otho’s forces, and this type of coin would have been “bribe” money for that purpose.
1 commentsLucas H
454_P_Hadrian.jpg
0968 Hadrian, Cistophorus BITHYNIA Koinon of Bithynia mint, Octastyle temple54 viewsReference.
RPC III, 968; RIC II 461b; Metcalf, Cistophori, type B1; RSC 240b; Pinder 100

Issue Reverse legend includes COM BIT

Obv. IMP CAES TRA HADRIANO AVG P P
Laureate head right

Rev. COM - BIT (in field), ROM S P AVG (in entablature)
Octastyle temple on podium of three steps

10.52 gr
27 mm
6 h

Note.

The temple depicted is that of Roma and Augustus erected by the koinon of Bithynia at Nicomedia, of which no archaeological remains have been discovered.

Cistophori were produced in the name of the Commune Bithyniae only once, under Hadrian. The inscription on the frieze, reconstructed as ROM(ae) S(enatui) P(opulo) AVG(usto) and translated as "To Rome, the Senate, the People, and Augustus" tentatively identifies the building as a temple of Rome and Augustus at Nicomedia. No archaeological remains of this structure have as yet been found, and reconstructions of it are based entirely on the second century numismatic evidence. Both Tacitus and Dio Cassius report that in 19 BC Augustus did authorize the construction of a temple to Rome and himself at Pergamum, an event commemorated on his cistophori there. No such evidence for a temple at Nicomedia occurs earlier than this cistophorus.
1 commentsokidoki
Soloi_Stater_Amazon.jpg
0a Amazon Stater19 viewsSilver Stater 20mm Struck circa 440-410 B.C.
Soloi in Cilicia

Amazon kneeling left, holding bow, quiver on left hip
ΣOΛEΩN, Grape cluster on vine; A-Θ to either side of stalk, monogram to lower right

Sear 5602 var.; Casabonne Type 3; SNG France 135; SNG Levante

This coin depicts an amazon in historically accurate garb. Unfortunately, the bow is corroded away on this piece, but it is pointed toward her. She wears the Scythian hat, which also has a bit along the top corroded away. The quiver on her hip is an accurate portrayal of the gorytos (quiver), which was nearly two feet long, fashioned of leather, and often decorated. Fortunately, there is redundancy in this image, and a second bow is shown as in its place in the gorytos, which had separate chambers for arrows and the bow, where the archer stored it while not in use. The amazon has just finished stringing her bow and is adjusting the top hook to make sure the strings and limbs are properly aligned. She has strung the bow using her leg to hold one limb in place so she can use both hands to string the weapon. Her recurve bow was made of horn (ibex, elk, ox) wrapped with horse hair, birch bark, or sinew (deer, elk, ox) and glue (animal or fish) wrapped around a wood core. The bow was about 30 inches long. Arrow heads from grave sites come in bone, wood, iron, and bronze with two or three flanges; the shafts were made of reed or wood (willow, birch, poplar) and fletched with feathers. Poisoned arrows were sometimes painted to resemble vipers. A Scythian archer could probably fire 15-20 arrows per minute with accuracy to 200 feet and range to 500-600 feet. Distance archery with modern reconstructions suggests a maximum unaimed flight distance of 1,600 feet. (Mayor 209ff)

Soloi was founded about 700 B.C.and came under Persian rule. According to Diodorus, when the amazons were engaging in conquest in Asia Minor, the Cilicians accepted them willingly and retained their independence. Soloi may be named after Solois, a companion of Theseus, who married the amazon Antiope. The amazon on the coin may well be Antiope. (Mayor, 264-265)
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MariusFundania1Denarius.jpg
0aa Caius Marius40 viewsC. Fundanius, moneyer
101-91 BC

Denarius

Helmeted head of Roma right, control-mark C behind

"Triumphator" (Marius) in quadriga right, holding laurel-branch and staff; a rider sits on near horse, holding laurel-branch, Q above, C FVNDAN in exergue

The reverse shows Marius as triumphator in the quadriga. He holds sceptre and laurel branch. On one of the horses rides his son. The children of the triumphator were - according to tradition - allowed to share the triumph of their father. The Q above refers to the office as quaestor the mintmaster held while minting these coins. FORVM Ancient Coins says of a similar piece, "The reverse refers to Marius triumph after victories over the Cimbri and Teutones. The rider on the near horse is Marius's son, at that time eight years old." Andrew McCabe comments, "The Triumphator on the Fundania denarius is usually taken to be Marius, with his young son on horseback. This would make it the first Roman coin to explicitly portray a living Roman politician. "

Seaby Fundania 1

Marius rose from common origins to become the First Man in Rome. Plutarch in his Life writes: There is a likeness of Marius in stone at Ravenna, in Gaul, which I myself saw quite corresponding with that roughness of character that is ascribed to him. Being naturally valiant and warlike, and more acquainted also with the discipline of the camp than of the city, he could not moderate his passion when in authority. . . . He was born of parents altogether obscure and indigent, who supported themselves by their daily labour; his father of the same name with himself, his mother called Fulcinia. He had spent a considerable part of his life before he saw and tasted the pleasures of the city; having passed previously in Cirrhaeaton, a village of the territory of Arpinum, a life, compared with city delicacies, rude and unrefined, yet temperate, and conformable to the ancient Roman severity. He first served as a soldier in the war against the Celtiberians, when Scipio Africanus besieged Numantia; where he signalized himself to his general by courage far above his comrades, and particularly by his cheerfully complying with Scipio's reformation of his army, being almost ruined by pleasures and luxury. It is stated, too, that he encountered and vanquished an enemy in single combat, in his general's sight. In consequence of all this he had several honours conferred upon him; and once when at an entertainment a question arose about commanders, and one of the company (whether really desirous to know, or only in complaisance) asked Scipio where the Romans, after him, should obtain such another general, Scipio, gently clapping Marius on the shoulder as he sat next him, replied, "Here, perhaps. . . ."

The consul Caecilius Metellus, being declared general in the war against Jugurtha in Africa took with him Marius for lieutenant; where, eager himself to do great deeds and services that would get him distinction, he did not, like others, consult Metellus's glory and the serving his interest, and attributing his honour of lieutenancy not to Metellus, but to fortune, which had presented him with a proper opportunity and theatre of great actions, he exerted his utmost courage. . . . Marius thus employed, and thus winning the affections of the soldiers, before long filled both Africa and Rome with his fame, and some, too, wrote home from the army that the war with Africa would never be brought to a conclusion unless they chose Caius Marius consul. . . .He was elected triumphantly, and at once proceeded to levy soldiers contrary both to law and custom, enlisting slaves and poor people; whereas former commanders never accepted of such, but bestowed arms, like other favours, as a matter of distinction, on persons who had the proper qualification, a man's property being thus a sort of security for his good behavior. . . .

[In Marius' fourth consulship,] The enemy dividing themselves into two parts, the Cimbri arranged to go against Catulus higher up through the country of the Norici, and to force that passage; the Teutones and Ambrones to march against Marius by the seaside through Liguria. . . . The Romans, pursuing them, slew and took prisoners above one hundred thousand, and possessing themselves of their spoil, tents, and carriages, voted all that was not purloined to Marius's share, which, though so magnificent a present, yet was generally thought less than his conduct deserved in so great a danger. . . . After the battle, Marius chose out from amongst the barbarians' spoils and arms those that were whole and handsome, and that would make the greatest show in his triumph; the rest he heaped upon a large pile, and offered a very splendid sacrifice. Whilst the army stood round about with their arms and garlands, himself attired (as the fashion is on such occasions) in the purple-bordered robe, and taking a lighted torch, and with both hands lifting it up towards heaven, he was then going to put it to the pile, when some friends were espied with all haste coming towards him on horseback. Upon which every one remained in silence and expectation. They, upon their coming up, leapt off and saluted Marius, bringing him the news of his fifth consulship, and delivered him letters to that effect. This gave the addition of no small joy to the solemnity; and while the soldiers clashed their arms and shouted, the officers again crowned Marius with a laurel wreath, and he thus set fire to the pile, and finished his sacrifice.
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Cornelia51QuinVict.jpg
0aa Defeat of Hannibal on Sicily, 222 BC11 viewsCn. Lentulus, moneyer
90-85 BC

Quinarius

Laureled head of Jupiter, right
Victory crowning trophy, CN LENT in ex

Seaby, Cornelia 51

Possibly a reference to this event: [Q. Fabius Maximus, afterwards called Cunctator] broke up his camp at Suessula and decided to begin by an attack on Arpi. . . . Now at last the enemy was roused; there was a lull in the storm and daylight was approaching. Hannibal's garrison in the city amounted to about 5000 men, and the citizens themselves had raised a force of 3000. These the Carthaginians put in front to meet the enemy, that there might be no attempt at treachery in their rear. The fighting began in the dark in the narrow streets, the Romans having occupied not only the streets near the gate but the houses also, that they might not be assailed from the roofs. Gradually as it grew light some of the citizen troops and some of the Romans recognised one another, and entered into conversation. The Roman soldiers asked what it was that the Arpinians wanted, what wrong had Rome done them, what good service had Carthage rendered them that they, Italians-bred and born, should fight against their old friends the Romans on behalf of foreigners and barbarians, and wish to make Italy a tributary province of Africa. The people of Arpi urged in their excuse that they knew nothing of what was going on, they had in fact been sold by their leaders to the Carthaginians, they had been victimised and enslaved by a small oligarchy. When a beginning had been once made the conversations became more and more general; at last the praetor of Arpi was conducted by his friends to the consul, and after they had given each other mutual assurances, surrounded by the troops under their standards, the citizens suddenly turned against the Carthaginians and fought for the Romans. A body of Spaniards also, numbering something less than a thousand, transferred their services to the consul upon the sole condition that the Carthaginian garrison should be allowed to depart uninjured. The gates were opened for them and they were dismissed, according to the stipulation, in perfect safety, and went to Hannibal at Salapia. Thus Arpi was restored to the Romans without the loss of a single life, except in the case of one man who had long ago been a traitor and had recently deserted. The Spaniards were ordered to receive double rations, and the republic availed itself on very many occasions of their courage and fidelity.

Livy, History of Rome, 24.46-47
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Sulla_L_Manlius_den.jpg
0ab Lucius Cornelius Sulla Felix23 viewsL Manlivs, moneyer
82-72 BC

Denarius

Head of Roma, right, MANLI before, PRO Q behind
Sulla in walking quadriga, crowned by Victory, L SVLLA IM in ex.

Seaby, Manlia 4

Lucius Cornelius Sulla Felix (c. 138 BC – 78 BC) was a Roman general and conservative statesman. He had the distinction of holding the office of consul twice, as well as reviving the dictatorship. Sulla was awarded a grass crown, the most prestigious and rarest Roman military honor, during the Social War. He was the first man to lead an army to Rome to settle a political dispute, in this case with Marius. In late 81 BC, he stunned the world by resigning his near-absolute powers, restoring constitutional government. After seeing election to and holding a second consulship, he retired to private life and died shortly after.

As to the person, Plutarch wrote: LUCIUS Cornelius Sylla was descended of a patrician or noble family. . . . His general personal appearance may be known by his statues; only his blue, eyes, of themselves extremely keen and glaring, were rendered all the more forbidding and terrible by the complexion of his face, in which white was mixed with rough blotches of fiery red. . . . And when supreme master of all, he was often wont to muster together the most impudent players and stage-followers of the town, and to drink and bandy jests with them without regard to his age or the dignity of his place, and to the prejudice of important affairs that required his attention. When he was once at table, it was not in Sylla's nature to admit of anything that was serious, and whereas at other times he was a man of business and austere of countenance, he underwent all of a sudden, at his first entrance upon wine and good-fellowship, a total revolution, and was gentle and tractable with common singers and dancers, and ready to oblige any one that spoke with him. It seems to have been a sort of diseased result of this laxity that he was so prone to amorous pleasures, and yielded without resistance to any temptation of voluptuousness, from which even in his old age he could not refrain. He had a long attachment for Metrobius, a player. In his first amours, it happened that he made court to a common but rich lady, Nicopolis by name, and what by the air of his youth, and what by long intimacy, won so far on her affections, that she rather than he was the lover, and at her death she bequeathed him her whole property. He likewise inherited the estate of a step-mother who loved him as her own son. By these means he had pretty well advanced his fortunes. . . . In general he would seem to have been of a very irregular character, full of inconsistencies with himself much given to rapine, to prodigality yet more; in promoting or disgracing whom he pleased, alike unaccountable; cringing to those he stood in need of, and domineering over others who stood in need of him, so that it was hard to tell whether his nature had more in it of pride or of servility. As to his unequal distribution of punishments, as, for example, that upon slight grounds he would put to the torture, and again would bear patiently with the greatest wrongs; would readily forgive and he reconciled after the most heinous acts of enmity, and yet would visit small and inconsiderable offences with death and confiscation of goods; one might judge that in himself he was really of a violent and revengeful nature, which, however, he could qualify, upon reflection, for his interest.
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0001JUL.jpg
1) Julius Caesar159 viewsDenarius, Rome, Moneyer P. Sepullius Macer, 44 BC, 4.03g. Cr-480/11, Syd-1072; Sear, Imperators-107b. Obv: Wreathed head of Caesar r., CAESAR before, D[IC]T PERPETVO behind. Rx: Venus standing l., looking downwards, holding Victory and scepter resting on star, P SEPVLLIVS behind, MACER downwards before. Same dies as Alfoldi, Caesar in 44 v. Chr., pl. LIII, 6-8. Banker's mark behind Caesar's eye. Good portrait. Some areas of flat striking, otherwise EF

Ex HJB - purchased on the Ides of March, 2011

Gaius Julius Caesar (Classical Latin: [ˈɡaː.i.ʊs ˈjuː.lɪ.ʊs ˈkaj.sar], July 100 BC – 15 March 44 BC) was a Roman general, statesman, Consul and notable author of Latin prose. He played a critical role in the events that led to the demise of the Roman Republic and the rise of the Roman Empire. In 60 BC, Caesar, Crassus and Pompey formed a political alliance that was to dominate Roman politics for several years. Their attempts to amass power through populist tactics were opposed by the conservative elite within the Roman Senate, among them Cato the Younger with the frequent support of Cicero. Caesar's conquest of Gaul, completed by 51 BC, extended Rome's territory to the English Channel and the Rhine. Caesar became the first Roman general to cross both when he built a bridge across the Rhine and conducted the first invasion of Britain.

These achievements granted him unmatched military power and threatened to eclipse the standing of Pompey, who had realigned himself with the Senate after the death of Crassus in 53 BC. With the Gallic Wars concluded, the Senate ordered Caesar to lay down his military command and return to Rome. Caesar refused, and marked his defiance in 49 BC by crossing the Rubicon with a legion, leaving his province and illegally entering Roman territory under arms. Civil war resulted, from which he emerged as the unrivaled leader of Rome.

After assuming control of government, Caesar began a program of social and governmental reforms, including the creation of the Julian calendar. He centralised the bureaucracy of the Republic and was eventually proclaimed "dictator in perpetuity". But the underlying political conflicts had not been resolved, and on the Ides of March (15 March) 44 BC, Caesar was assassinated by a group of senators led by Marcus Junius Brutus. A new series of civil wars broke out, and the constitutional government of the Republic was never restored. Caesar's adopted heir Octavian, later known as Augustus, rose to sole power, and the era of the Roman Empire began.

Much of Caesar's life is known from his own accounts of his military campaigns, and from other contemporary sources, mainly the letters and speeches of Cicero and the historical writings of Sallust. The later biographies of Caesar by Suetonius and Plutarch are also major sources. Caesar is deemed to be one of the greatest military commanders of history. Source: wikipedia
RM0001
13 commentsSosius
Caesar_Mosaic.jpg
1) Julius Caesar Mosaic47 viewsCreated this for the Ides of March COTD thread on March 15, 2013, so I thought I would add it to the gallery.
RM0020
1 commentsSosius
coin215.JPG
101. Nerva40 viewsNerva

Nerva is credited with beginning the practice of adopting his heir rather than selecting a blood relative. Nerva's reign was more concerned with the continuation of an existing political system than with the birth of a new age. Indeed, his economic policies, his relationship with the senate, and the men whom he chose to govern and to offer him advice all show signs of Flavian influence. In many respects, Nerva was the right man at the right time. His immediate accession following Domitian's murder prevented anarchy and civil war, while his age, poor health and moderate views were perfect attributes for a government that offered a bridge between Domitian's stormy reign and the emperorships of the stable rulers to follow.

Denarius. IMP NERVA CAES AVG P M TR POT II, laureate head right / COS III PATER PATRAE, ladle, sprinkler, jug & lituus. RSC 51.
ecoli
TrajSe51.JPG
102 AD: Triumph of Trajan in the first Dacian war and dedication of triumphal arch to Jupiter Optimus Maximus 338 viewsorichalcum sestertius (20.83g, 33mm, 6h). Rome mint. Struck AD 103-104.
IMP CAES NERVAE TRAIANO AVG GER DAC P M TR P COS V P P laureate head of Trajan facing right.
S·P·Q·R·OPTIMO PRINCIPI [r.b.,] S C [in ex.] monumental richly decorated triumphal arch; in the panel above pediment inscribed IOM (= Iovi Optimo Maximo)(nearly invisible on this specimen)
RIC 572 [R]; BMC 844; Cohen 547; Foss (Roman Historical Coins) 100:18
Ex CNG eAuct. 266; ex Deyo Collection
1 commentsCharles S
3100378.jpg
102. Trajan. AD 98-11727 viewsTrajan. AD 98-117. Ć Sestertius (34mm, 25.52 g, 6h). Rome mint. Struck circa AD 103-104. Laureate and draped bust right / Front of the Temple of Jupiter: monumental votive arch/gateway; on the sides, from top to bottom, are the following reliefs: biga driven by Victory, aegis, Gigantomachy, arms, and she-wolf suckling twins; the second tier surmounted by a trophy and giant to either side, gateway spandrels with Victories, pediment with Jupiter between two seated figures, panel above pediment inscribed IOM (= Iovi Optimo Maximo), the whole surmounted by six-horse chariot driven by Jupiter and flanked by Victories. RIC II 572-3 var. (bust type); Woytek 187f; Banti 280. Fair, brown patina, some green, areas of minor porosity and cleaning scratches. Rare. Banti cites only one example with this bust type.

EX-CNG eAuction 310 lot 378 190/150
ecoli
coin281.JPG
104. Antoninus Pius37 viewsAntoninus Pius

The long reign of the emperor Antoninus Pius is often described as a period of peace and quiet before the storm which followed and plagued his successor, Marcus Aurelius. In addition to the relative peacefulness, this emperor set the tone for a low-keyed imperial administration which differed markedly from those of his two immediate predecessors, Trajan and Hadrian. Antoninus managed to govern the empire capably and yet with such a gentle hand that he earned the respect, acclaim, and love of his subjects. Antoninus Pius died in March of A.D. 161, after giving the appropriate imperial watchword which so typified his reign, "equanimity". He was soon afterward deified by the Senate.

RI2. Denarius. ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P XXIIII, laureate head right / FELIC SAEC COS IIII, Felicitas standing left, holding caduceus & leaning on short column. RSC 361. RIC 309
ecoli
coin219.JPG
105. Marcus Aurelius41 viewsMarcus Aurelius

The joint succession may have been motivated by military exigency. During his reign Marcus Aurelius was almost constantly at war with various peoples outside the Empire. Germanic tribes and other peoples launched many raids along the long European border, particularly into Gaul — Germans, in turn, may have been under attack from more warlike tribes farther east. In Asia, a revitalized Parthian Empire renewed its assault. A highly authoritative figure was needed to command the troops, yet the emperor himself could not defend both fronts at the same time. Neither could he simply appoint a general to lead one assault; earlier popular military leaders like Julius Caesar and Vespasian had used the military to overthrow the existing government and install themselves as supreme leaders.

Marcus Aurelius solved the problem by sending Verus to command the legions in the East. He was authoritative enough to command the full loyalty of the troops, but already powerful enough that he had little incentive to overthrow Marcus. The plan succeeded — Verus remained loyal until his death on campaign in 169. This joint emperorship was faintly reminiscent of the political system of the Roman Republic, which functioned according to the principle of collegiality and did not allow a single person to hold supreme power. Joint rule was revived by Diocletian's establishment of the Tetrarchy in the late 3rd century.

Virtus

In Roman mythology, Virtus was the god of bravery and military strength. His Greek equivalent was Arete. The word, "Virtus" is commonly used in mottos of universities and other entities.

Marcus Aurelius, as Caesar, Denarius. 155-156 AD. AVRELIVS CAES ANTON AVG PII F, bare head right / TR POT X COS II, Virtus, helmeted, standing left, holding parazonium & spear. RSC 703. RIC 468
ecoli
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105c. Lucilla32 viewsAnnia Aurelia Galeria Lucilla (March 7, 150–183) was the daughter of the Roman Emperor Marcus Aurelius and Faustina the Younger.

In AD 164, she was betrothed by her father to his co-emperor and adoptive brother, Lucius Verus, gaining the title of Augusta. Following his death she married Pompeianus. Lucilla was implicated in several plots to overthrow Commodus (her brother and then emperor) and was banished to the island of Capreae in AD 182. Shortly afterwards she was put to death by Commodus.

Silver Denarius Obv: LVCILLA AVG ANTONINI AVG F - Bare head right, draped. Rev: VENVS - Venus standing left, holding apple and scepter. Rome mint: AD 165-169 RIC III, 784, page 276 - Cohen 70- SEAR RCV II (2002), 5491, page 370 /3.05 g.
ecoli
parthe.jpg
107-145 Vologases III - dirham from Ecbatana (Hamadan, Iran)67 viewsNo legend , diademed bust left
Blundered Greek legend , archer seated right, holding bow over monogram
1 commentsGinolerhino
1000-16-149.jpg
107. Pertinax35 viewsPertinax

Only a mediocre public speaker, Pertinax was first and foremost a gritty old soldier. He was heavily built, had a pot belly, although it was said, even by his critics, that he possessed the proud air of an emperor.
He possessed some charm, but was generally understood to be a rather sly character. He also acquired a reputation for being mean and greedy. He apparently even went as far as serving half portions of lettuce and artichoke before he became emperor. It was a characteristic which would not serve him well as an emperor.

When he took office, Pertinax quickly realized that the imperial treasury was in trouble. Commodus had wasted vast sums on games and luxuries. If the new emperor thought that changes would need to be made to bring the finances back in order he was no doubt right. But he sought to do too much too quickly. In the process he made himself enemies.

The gravest error, made at the very beginning of his reign, was to decide to cut some of the praetorian's privileges and that he was going to pay them only half the bonus he had promised.
Already on 3 January AD 193 the praetorians tried to set up another emperor who would pay up. But that senator, wise enough to stay out of trouble, merely reported the incident to Pertinax and then left Rome.

The ordinary citizens of Rome however also quickly had enough of their new emperor. Had Commodus spoilt them with lavish games and festivals, then now Pertinax gave them very little.
And a truly powerful enemy should be the praetorian prefect Laetus. The man who had after all put Pertinax on the throne, was to play an important role in the emperor's fate. It isn't absolutely clear if he sought to be an honest advisor of the emperor, but saw his advise ignored, or if he sought to manipulate Pertinax as his puppet emperor. In either case, he was disappointed.

And so as Pertinax grew ever more unpopular, the praetorians once more began to look for a new emperor. In early March, When Pertinax was away in Ostia overseeing the arrangements for the grain shipments to Rome, they struck again. This time they tried to set up one of the consuls, Quintus Sosius Falco.

When Pertinax returned to Rome he pardoned Falco who'd been condemned by the senate, but several praetorians were executed. A slave had given them away as being part of the conspiracy.
These executions were the final straw. On 28 March AD 193 the praetorians revolts.
300 hundred of them forced the gates to the palace. None of the guards sought to help their emperor.
Everyone, so it seemed, wanted rid of this emperor. So, too, Laetus would not listen as Pertinax ordered him to do something. The praetorian prefect simply went home, leaving the emperor to his fate.

Pertinax did not seek to flee. He stood his ground and waited, together with his chamberlain Eclectus. As the praetorians found him, they did not discover an emperor quivering with fear, but a man determined on convincing them to put down their weapons. Clearly the soldiers were over-awed by this brave man, for he spoke to them for some time. But eventually their leader found enough courage to step forwards and hurl his spear at the emperor. Pertinax fell with the spear in his chest. Eclectus fought bravely for his life, stabbing two, before he two was slain by the soldiers.
The soldiers then cut off Pertinax' head, stuck it on a spear and paraded through the streets of Rome.

Pertinax had ruled for only 87 days. He was later deified by Septimius Severus.

RI1. Pertinax. A.D. 193. AR denarius (18.0 mm, 2.74 g, 7 h). Rome mint. Rare. IMP CAES P HELV PERTIN AVG, laureate head right / OPI DIVIN TR P COS II, Ops seated left, holding two stalks of grain, resting hand on seat of throne. RIC 8a; RSC 33; BMCRE 19. aVF, flan crack.
ecoli
image~1.jpg
108. Didius Julianus57 views193 A.D. - The Year of Five Emperors. On 1 January, the Senate selected Pertinax, against his will, to succeed the late Commodus as Emperor. The Praetorian Guard assassinated him on 28 March and auctioned the throne to the highest bidder, Didius Julianus, who offered 300 million sesterces. Outraged by the Praetorians, legions in Illyricum select Septimius Severus as emperor; in Britannia the legions select their governor Clodius Albinus, and in Syria the legions select their governor Pescennius Niger. On 1 June Septimius Severus entered the capital, put Julianus put to death and replaced the Praetorian Guard with his own troops. Clodius Albinus allied with Severus and accepted the title of Caesar. Pescennius Niger was defeated, killed and his head displayed in Rome.


SH67895. Orichalcum sestertius, RIC VI 14, BMCRE V 20, Cohen 3, Cayon III 1, SRCV II 6075, aF, weight 19.437 g, maximum diameter 27.6 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, obverse IMP CAES M DID SEVER IVLIAN AVG, laureate head right; reverse CONCORD MILIT, S - C, Concordia Militum standing half left, flanked by legionary eagle before in right and standard behind in left.

Ex-FORVM


1 commentsecoli
trajse23-2.jpg
109 AD: Improvement of the water supply of Rome under Trajan204 viewsOricalchum sestertius (24.4g, 33mm, 6h) Rome mint. Struck AD 110.
IMP CAES NERVAE TRAIANO AVG GER DAC PM TR P COS V P P laureate head of Trajan right
AQVA / TRAIANA [in ex.] SPQR OPTIMO PRINCIPI [around edge] S C [left and right in ex.] River god reclining l. in arched grotto supported by two columns; left arm resting on urn; reed in right hand.
RIC 463 [S]; Cohen 20; Foss (Roman Historical Coins) 103:53

This type celebrates the construction of the Aqua Traiana which was dedicated on 20 June 109 constructed to improve the water supply of Rome. A branch of the Anio Novus was carried over the valley between the Caelian and the Aventine.
A lofty arcade was built upon the 'agger' of Servilius Tullius and passing over the Via Appia and the Porta Capena to the Piscina Publica. Terra-cotta water pipes with the name of Trajan and a leaden pipe inscribed AQVA TRAIANA have been found in excavations.
Charles S
944Hadrian_RIC352.jpg
113 Hadrian Denarius 134-38 AD Galley right Eastern Mint41 viewsReference
Strack *55 (same die pair);Cohen 445.

Obv. HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS P P
Laureate head of Hadrian to right.

Rev. COS III
Galley with five oarsmen to right; at stern, arched cabin under a curved aplustre.

3.35 gr
19 mm
6h
2 commentsokidoki
114-113_BC_Man_Aemilius_Lepidus_Denarius_ROMA_M_N_AEMILIO_LEP_Cr291-1,_Syd_554_Aemilia_7_Q-001_9h_18,2-18,4mm_3,81g-s.jpg
114-113 B.C., Man Aemilius Lepidus, Rebublic AR-Denarius, Crawford-291-1, Rome, MN•AEMILIO•, equestrian statue, -/-//LEP,176 views114-113 B.C., Man Aemilius Lepidus, Rebublic AR-Denarius, Crawford-291-1, Rome, MN•AEMILIO•, equestrian statue, -/-//LEP,
avers:- Laureate, diademed head of Roma right, ROMA before, * behind.
revers: - MN•AEMILIO•, equestrian statue on triumphal arch, L E P between the arches.
exerg: -/-//LEP, diameter: 18,2-18,4mm, weight: 3,81g, axis: 9h,
mint: Rome, date:114-113 B.C.,, ref:Crawford-291-1, Syd 554, Aemilia 7,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
William_the_lion_AR_penny.JPG
1169 - 1214, William I “the lion”, AR Penny, Struck 1205 - 1230 at Perth or Edinburgh, Scotland20 viewsObverse: + LE REI WILAM•: Head of William I facing left, wearing crown of pellets, sceptre to left, within inner circle of pellets. All surrounded by outer circle of pellets. Cross potent in legend.
Reverse: + hVE WALTER: Voided short cross, six pointed star in each angle, within inner circle of pellets. All surrounded by outer circle of pellets. Cross potent in legend. (No mint name on coin. Moneyers: Hue (cognate with the modern English name of Hugh) and Walter, the Edinburgh and Perth moneyers working jointly)
Short cross, phase B. Late William I and posthumous issue struck c.1205 to c.1230.
William I died in 1214 but it would appear that although Alexander II was 16 years old when he came to the throne he continued his father's issues for some 15 years and struck no coins in his own name until around 1230.
Diameter: 21mm | Weight: 1.3gm | Die Axis: 6
SPINK: 5029

William I was not known as "the Lion" during his own lifetime, the title was attached to him because of his flag or standard, a red lion rampant on a yellow background which went on to become the Royal Banner of Scotland which is still used today.

William I was crowned on 24th December 1165, he came to the throne when his elder brother Malcolm IV died at the age of 24 on 9th December 1165.
Early in his reign William attempted to regain control of Northumbria which had been lost, in 1157 during the reign of Malcolm IV, to the Anglo-Normans under Henry II. He thereby lent support to the English barons who rebelled against Henry II in 1173. In 1174 however, while actively assisting the rebels at the Battle of Alnwick, William was captured by Henry's forces and taken to Falaise in Normandy. He was forced, under the terms of the Treaty of Falaise which he signed in December, to do homage for the whole of Scotland and also to hand over the castles of Roxburgh, Berwick and Edinburgh. Edinburgh, however, was later returned to him as part of the dowry of Ermengarde, a cousin of Henry II, whom William married in 1186.
The Treaty of Falaise remained in force for the next fifteen years until the new English King Richard the Lionheart, needing money for the Third Crusade, agreed to terminate it in return for 10,000 marks. William also attempted to purchase Northumbria from Richard, however his offer of 15,000 marks was rejected due to him wanting all the castles within the lands, something Richard was not willing to concede.
Relations between Scotland and England remained tense during the first decade of the 13th century and in August 1209 King John decided to exploit the weakening leadership of the ageing Scottish monarch by marching a large army to Norham on the south side of the River Tweed. William bought John off with the promise of a large sum of money, and later, in 1212, he agreed to his only surviving son Alexander, marrying John's eldest daughter, Joan.
William I died in Stirling in 1214 and lies buried in Arbroath Abbey, which he is credited with founding in 1178. He was succeeded by his son, who reigned as Alexander II.
3 comments*Alex
IssacIISB2005.jpg
1185-1195 AD - Isaac II - Sear 2005 - Tetarteron47 viewsEmperor: Isaac II (r. 1185-1195 AD)
Date: 1185-1195 AD
Condition: Fine
Denomination: Tetarteron

Obverse: Facing bust of Archangel Michael, beardless and nimbate, wearing loros and holding jewelled sceptre (sometimes surmounted by trefoil device) and globus cruciger; to left, O//AP; to right, /MI (or similar)

Reverse: Bust of Issac facing, wearing crown and loros, and holding cruciform sceptre and akakia; to left, ICA/AKI/OC; to right, ΔE/CΠO/TH/C (or similar).

Thessalonica mint
Sear 2005
1.89g; 17.9mm; 150°
Pep
119_Diocletianus,_Heraclea,_RIC_VI_10a,_AR-Argenteus,_DIOCLETI_ANVS_AVG,_VICTORIAE_SARMATICAE,_296_AD_Q-001_0h_18,5-19mm_3,5g-xs.jpg
119a Diocletianus (284-305 A.D.), Heraclea, RIC VI 010e (Not in RIC this Officina), AR-Argenteus, -/-/HЄ, VICTORIAE SARMATICAE, Four Tetrarchs, Very Rare! #1139 views119a Diocletianus (284-305 A.D.), Heraclea, RIC VI 010e (Not in RIC this Officina), AR-Argenteus, -/-/HЄ, VICTORIAE SARMATICAE, Four Tetrarchs, Very Rare! #1
avers: DIOCLETI ANVS AVG, Laureate head right.
reverse: VICTORIAE SARMATICAE, The Four Tetrarchs sacrificing in front of 6 turreted City gate.
exergue: -/-/HЄ, diameter: 18,5-19,0mm, weight: 3,50g, axis:0h ,
mint: Heraclea, date: 296 A.D., ref: RIC VI 010e (? Not in RIC this Officina), p-, Jelocnik -; RSC 491b, Not in RIC this Officina Very Rare!
Q-001
3 commentsquadrans
Diocletianus_AE-28_DIOCLETI-ANVS-AVG_VICTORIA-SARMAT_Siscia-RIC-VI-a_Q-001_axis-6h_26,5-28mm_10,18ga-s.jpg
119a Diocletianus (284-305 A.D.), Rome, RIC VI 019a, AR-Argenteus, -/-/--, VICTORIA SARMAT, Four Tetrarchs, #1120 views119a Diocletianus (284-305 A.D.), Rome, RIC VI 019a, AR-Argenteus, -/-/--, VICTORIA SARMAT, Four Tetrarchs, #1
avers: DIOCLETI ANVS AVG, Laureate head right.
reverse: VICTORIA SARMAT, The Four Tetrarchs sacrificing in front of 6 turreted City gate.
exergue: -/-/--, diameter: mm, weight: g, axis: ,
mint: Rome, date: A.D., ref: RIC VI 019a, p-, C-488e,
Q-001
quadrans
Diocletianus_AR-Arg_DIOCLETI-ANVS-AVG_VIRTVS-MILITVM_B_Rome-RIC-VI-40a_C-516g_295-97-AD_Q-001_h_mm_g-s.jpg
119a Diocletianus (284-305 A.D.), Rome, RIC VI 040a, AR-Argenteus, -/-//B, VIRTVS MILITVM, Four Tetrarchs, #1113 views119a Diocletianus (284-305 A.D.), Rome, RIC VI 040a, AR-Argenteus, -/-//B, VIRTVS MILITVM, Four Tetrarchs, #1
avers: DIOCLETI ANVS AVG, Laureate head right.
reverse: VIRTVS MILITVM, Four tetrarchs sacrificing over tripod before city gate with six turrets.
exergue: -/-//B, diameter: mm, weight: g, axis: ,
mint: Rome, date: A.D., ref: RIC VI 040a, p-, C-516g,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Demetrio II, Nicator.jpg
12-02 - Demetrio II, Nicator (1er.Reino 145 - 139 A.C.)56 viewsDemetrio II Nicátor de la dinastía Seléucida, fue rey de Siria en dos períodos: 146 - 139 A.C. y 129 - 126 A.C. Huyó a Creta tras la derrota y muerte de su padre, Demetrio I Sóter, pero regresó después, proclamándose rey. Fue puesto en fuga casi inmediatamente por el general Diodoto, que primero proclamó rey a un hijo de Alejandro Balas, Antíoco VI Dioniso, y luego a sí mismo con el nombre de Trifón. Demetrio marchó en guerra contra el rey de Partia, Mitrídates I, siendo derrotado y capturado en 139 A.C.
En 129 fue puesto en libertad, con la esperanza de provocar una guerra entre él y su hermano Antíoco VII Evergetes. Sin embargo, Antíoco murió antes de que estallara el conflicto, con lo que Demetrio II se proclamó rey de nuevo. Poco después fue derrotado y muerto por el rey de Egipto Ptolomeo VIII, que sostenía al usupador Alejandro Zabinas. Le sucedió su hijo Seleuco V Filométor, bajo la regencia de su viuda Cleopatra Tea. (Wikipedia)

AE 18 x 19 mm 4.9 gr.

Anv: Busto con diadema de Demetrio II viendo a derecha. Grafila de puntos.
Rev: "BAΣIΛEΩΣ ΔHMHTPIOY – TYPIΩN (por Tiro)" - Popa de Galera (Simboliza el poderío naval de Tiro Fenicia bajo los Seléucidas).

Acuńación: 145/4 A.C.
Ceca: Seleucia en Tiro - Fenicia

Referencias: Houghton #753 – SNG Spaer #1722 - B.M.C. Vol.4 (Seleucid Kings of Syria) #20-22 Pag.60 - Sear GCTV Vol.2 #7070 Pag.661 - SNG Israel #1708.
mdelvalle
Maximianus-Herculeus_AR-Argenteus_MAXIMI-ANVS-AVG_VIRTVS-MILITVM_Epsilon_Q-001_0h_17-17,5mm_2,63g-s.jpg
120 Maximianus Herculeus (285-286 Caesar, 286-305, 307-308 & 310 A.D. Augustus), Rome, RIC V-II 040b, AR-Argenteus, -/-//Є, VIRTVS MILITVM, Four Tetrarchs, #198 views120 Maximianus Herculeus (285-286 Caesar, 286-305, 307-308 & 310 A.D. Augustus), Rome, RIC V-II 040b, AR-Argenteus, -/-//Є, VIRTVS MILITVM, Four Tetrarchs, #1
avers: MAXIMI ANVS AVG, Laureate head right.
reverse: VIRTVS MILITVM, The Four Tetrarchs sacrificing over altar, City gate in the background. 295-297 (Rome).
exergue: -/-//Є, diameter: 17,5mm, weight: 2,66g, axes:0h,
mint: Rome, date: 295-297 A.D., ref: RIC V-II 040b, C-622g,
Q-001
quadrans
Constantius-I__AR-Argenteus_CONSTAN-TIVS-CAES_VIRTVS-MILITVM_Z_Rome_RIC-VI-42a_P-295-7_AD_Q-001_h_mm_g-s.jpg
121 Constantius I. Chlorus (293-305 A.D. Caesar, 305-306 A.D. Augustus), Rome, RIC VI 042a, AR-Argenteus, -/-//Z, VIRTVS MILITVM, #193 views121 Constantius I. Chlorus (293-305 A.D. Caesar, 305-306 A.D. Augustus), Rome, RIC VI 042a, AR-Argenteus, -/-//Z, VIRTVS MILITVM, #1
avers: CONSTAN TIVS CAES, Laureate head right.
reverse: VIRTVS MILITVM, The Four Tetrarchs sacrificing over the tripod, City gate in the background.
exergue: -/-//Z, diameter: 17,5mm, weight: 3,16g, axis: h,
mint: Rome, 3rd.off., date: 295-97 A.D., ref: RIC VI 42a,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Henry_III_short_cross_penny.JPG
1216 – 1272, Henry III, AR Penny, Struck 1217 - 1242 at London, England (Short cross type)2 viewsObverse: HENRICVS REX around central circle enclosing a crowned, draped and bearded facing bust of Henry III holding a sceptre tipped with a cross pommee in his right hand.
Reverse: + GIFFREI ON LVND. Voided short cross dividing legend into quarters, crosslets in each quarter of inner circle. Cross pattée in legend. Moneyer: Giffrei, cognate with the modern English name of Geoffrey.
Issue type 7c, distinguished by the degraded portrait and large lettering.
Diameter: 19mm | Weight: 1.1gms | Die Axis: 4
SPINK: 1356C

Henry III was the eldest son of King John and came to the throne at the age of nine. He was king of England from 1216 until his death in 1272, ruling longer than any other English monarch until the reign of George III.
Henry expressed a lifelong interest in architecture and much of what constitutes the Tower of London today is a result of Henry’s work, he added several towers and a curtain wall to expand the White Tower beginning in 1238. Westminster Abbey however, is considered to be Henry's greatest building work. The project began in 1245, when Henry sent his architect Henry de Reynes to visit the French cities of Rheims, Chartres, Bourges and Amiens and Paris’s royal chapel Sainte-Chapelle to learn the Gothic technique that he much admired.
The Westminster Abbey that stood previously on the site had been erected by Edward the Confessor in 1042. Edward the Confessor was a hero of Henry’s, and he probably named his son (the future Edward I) after him. The foundations and crypt are still those of Edward the Confessor’s Abbey, but everything above ground today is the building begun by Henry III. The tomb of Edward the Confessor was moved to a new position of honour in 1269 at the very centre of the new abbey, and when Henry III died in 1272 he was buried beside Edward’s shrine in the exact position the bones of his hero had lain for 200 years.
*Alex
HENRY_III.JPG
1216 – 1272, Henry III, AR Penny, Struck 1248 - 1250 at London, England (Long cross type)44 viewsObverse: HENRICVS REX : III. Crowned bust of Henry III facing within circle of pellets. Mintmark: Six pointed star.
Reverse: NICOLE ON LVND. Voided long cross dividing legend into quarters, trefoil in each quarter of inner circle. Moneyer: Nicole, cognate with the modern English name of Nicholas. The surname Nicole originates in the Netherlands where it was notable for its various branches, and associated status or influence. The modern given name Nicole is a French feminine derivative of the masculine given name Nicolas.
Diameter: 19mm | Weight: 1.3gms | Die Axis: 6
SPINK: 1363

The First Barons' War (1215–1217) was a civil war in England in which a group of rebellious barons led by Robert Fitzwalter and supported by a French army under the future Louis VIII of France, waged war against King John of England. The war resulted from King John's refusal to accept and abide by the Magna Carta, which he had been forced to put his seal to on 15th June 1215, as well as from Louis' own ambitions regarding the English throne.
It was in the middle of this war that King John died leaving his son, the nine year old Henry III (who had been moved to safety at Corfe Castle in Dorset along with his mother, Queen Isabella) as his heir.
On his deathbed John appointed a council of thirteen executors to help Henry reclaim the kingdom, requesting that his son be placed into the guardianship of William Marshal, 1st Earl of Pembroke. The loyalists decided to crown Henry immediately to reinforce his claim to the throne. William knighted the boy, and Cardinal Guala Bicchieri, the papal legate to England, then oversaw his coronation at Gloucester Cathedral on 28th October 1216. In the absence of the archbishops of either Canterbury or York, Henry was anointed by the bishops of Worcester and Exeter, and crowned by Peter des Roches, bishop of Winchester. During the civil war the royal crown had been lost, so instead, the ceremony used a simple gold corolla belonging to Queen Isabella. In 1217, Henry's forces, led by William Marshal, finally defeated the rebels at the battles of Lincoln and Sandwich.
Henry's early rule was dominated first by Hubert de Burgh, 1st Earl of Kent and Justiciar of England and Ireland, then by Peter des Roches, and they re-established royal authority after the war. In 1225 Henry promised to abide by the final and definitative version of the Magna Carta, freely authenticated by the great seal of Henry III himself, which protected the rights of the major barons and placed a limit on royal power. It is the clauses of this, the 1225 Magna Carta signed by Henry III, not the King John Magna Carta of 1215, which are on the Statute Books of the United Kingdom today.
4 comments*Alex
Galerius_Ar-Argenteus_MAXIMIANVS-CAES_VIRTVS-MILITVM_Gamma_Rome_RIC-42b_C-_295-297-AD__Q-001_16-17,5mm_3,16g-s.jpg
122 Galerius Maximianus (293-305 A.D. Caesar, 305-311 A.D. Augustus), Rome, RIC VI 042b, AR-Argenteus, -/-//Γ, VIRTVS MILITVM, #1111 views122 Galerius Maximianus (293-305 A.D. Caesar, 305-311 A.D. Augustus), Rome, RIC VI 042b, AR-Argenteus, -/-//Γ, VIRTVS MILITVM, #1
avers: MAXIMIANVS CAES, Laureate head right.
reverse: VIRTVS MILITVM, The Four Tetrarchs sacrificing over the tripod, City gate in the background.
exergue: -/-//Γ, diameter: 17,5mm, weight: 3,16g, axis: h,
mint: Rome, 3rd.off., date: 295-97 A.D., ref: RIC VI 042b,
Q-001
quadrans
Galerius_AR-Argenteus_MAXIMIANVS-CAESAR_VIRTVS-MILITVM_Ticinium_RIC-15b_RSC-220a_294-AD_Q-001_6h_18,5mm_2,68g-s.jpg
122 Galerius Maximianus (293-305 A.D. Caesar, 305-311 A.D. Augustus), Ticinum, RIC VI 015b, AR-Argenteus, -/-//--, VIRTVS MILITVM, The Four Tetrarchs sacrificing over the tripod,323 views122 Galerius Maximianus (293-305 A.D. Caesar, 305-311 A.D. Augustus), Ticinum, RIC VI 015b, AR-Argenteus, -/-//--, VIRTVS MILITVM, The Four Tetrarchs sacrificing over the tripod,
avers: MAXIMIANVS CAESAR, Laureate head right.
reverse: VIRTVS MILITVM, The Four Tetrarchs sacrificing over the tripod, City gate in the background, with six turrets.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 18,5mm, weight: 2,68g, axis: 6h,
mint: Ticinum, 3rd.off., date: 294 A.D., ref: RIC VI 015b, RSC-220a,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
1280_-1286_Alexander_III_AR_Penny_SCOTLAND.JPG
1249 - 1286, Alexander III, AR Penny, Struck 1280 - 1286 at Roxburgh, Scotland16 viewsObverse: + ALEXANDER DEI GRA . Crowned head of Alexander III facing left within circle of pellets; sceptre topped with fleur-de-lis before. Cross potent in legend.
Reverse: REX SCOTORVM +. Long cross pattée dividing legend into quarters, with three pierced mullets of six points and one mullet of seven points in quarters of inner circle. The total of 25 points is indicative of the mint of Roxburgh.
Class Mb with unbarred “A”, wider portrait and cross potent mintmark in legend.
Roxburgh only accounts for some 9% of Alexander's second coinage so issues from this mint are quite rare.
Diameter: 18mm | Weight: 1.0gm | Die Axis: 3
SPINK: 5054

Alexander III's reign saw the introduction of the round halfpenny and farthing to Scottish medieval coinage.
Following the English recoinage of Edward I in 1279, Alexander introduced his second coinage which began in 1280 and ended when he died in 1286. This coin was therefore struck between those dates.

Alexander III was born at Roxburgh, he came to the throne when he was just 7 years old following the death of his father, Alexander II.
At the age of ten, in 1251, Alexander married Margaret, daughter of Henry III of England. Henry seized the opportunity to demand from his son-in-law homage from the Scottish kingdom. Alexander did not comply but In 1255, after a meeting between the English and Scottish kings at Kelso, he was compelled to consent to the creation of a regency representative of both monarchs.
The early years of Alexander III’s reign were dominated by a power struggle between the two factions, but when he reached the age of 21 he was able to rule in his own right. His first action was to claim control of the Western Isles which were then under the domination of Norway. The Norwegian King Haakon rejected the claim, and in 1263, responded with a formidable invasion force which sailed around the west coast of Scotland and halted off the Isle of Arran. Alexander craftily delayed negotiations until the autumn storms began which resulted in the Norwegian ships being greatly damaged. Haakon, losing patience, attacked the Scots at Largs, but the battle proved indecisive and his position became hopeless. The Norwegians set sail for home but Haakon died en route, on Orkney, towards the end of the year. In 1266, at the Treaty of Perth, Norway formally ceded the Western Isles and the Isle of Man to Scotland in return for a monetary payment.
Alexander, when only 44 years old, met his end on the night of 19th March 1286. After entertaining guests at Edinburgh Castle he decided that night that he would return home to his wife near Kinghorn. His aides advised against it because there was a storm and the party would have to travel in darkness for many miles along a treacherous coastal path. Alexander was determined to travel anyway and ignored his advisors. It is not clear what happened, but it seems he got separated from the rest of his group and his horse lost its footing in the dark. The following day Alexander's body, and that of his horse, was found on the shore at the foot of the cliffs, the King's neck was broken. In 1886, a monument to him was erected in Kinghorn, on the side of the cliffs, at the approximate location of Alexander's death.
Alexander had no heirs, which ultimately led to a war with England that lasted almost thirty years.
1 comments*Alex
Edward_I_AR_Penny_Berwick.JPG
1272 - 1307, EDWARD I, AR Penny, Struck 1296 - 1306 at Berwick-on-Tweed, England7 viewsObverse: + EDWAR ANGL DNS HYB. Crowned bust of Edward I facing within circle of pellets. Cross pattée in legend.
Reverse: VILLA BEREVVICI. Long cross dividing legend into quarters, trefoil in each quarter of inner circle.
Undated Penny, Class 10 Berwick Type II (Local dies). Issues from this mint are quite rare.
Diameter: 21.5mm | Weight: 1.0gms | Die Axis: 2
SPINK: 1415

Edward I began a major recoinage in 1279 which consisted not only of pennies and new round half-pennies and farthings, but also introduced a new denomination, a fourpenny piece called the "Groat".

In September 1290, upon the death of Margaret, Maid of Norway, there arose a number of claimants to the throne of Scotland. The Guardians of Scotland, who were the de facto heads of state until a king was chosen, asked Edward I of England to conduct the court proceedings in the dispute because the late King Alexander III had been married to Edward's sister, Margaret of England.
John Balliol, a descendant of King David I, was chosen and he was inaugurated at Scone, on St. Andrew's Day, 30 November 1292. But Edward I treated both Baliol and Scotland with contempt and demanded military support for his war against France. The Scottish response was to form an alliance with the French, invade England, and launch an attack on Carlisle.
After the failure of the Scottish attack on Carlisle, Edward I marched north and, on 28th March 1296, he crossed the river Tweed which borders the two countries, with his troops. On the following day he marched on the town of Berwick, which was Scotland's most important trading port and second only to London in economic importance in medieval Britain at that time.
Contemporary accounts of the number slain range anywhere from 4,000 to 20,000. ”When the town had been taken in this way and its citizens had submitted, Edward spared no one, whatever the age or sex, and for two days streams of blood flowed from the bodies of the slain, for in his tyrannous rage he ordered 7,500 souls of both sexes to be massacred...So that mills could be turned by the flow of their blood.” - Account of the Massacre of Berwick, from Bower’s Scotichronicon.
Berwick's garrison was commanded by William the Hardy, Lord of Douglas, whose life and those of his garrison were spared after he surrendered and the English took the castle.
Berwick was recaptured by the Scots in 1318 but the town changed hands between the two countries several times during the following years until it was finally captured for the English by Richard, Duke of Gloucester, the future Richard III of England, in 1482. The Scots however, did not accept this conquest for at least two centuries after this date as is evidenced by innumerable charters.
2 comments*Alex
1305_-1306_Edward_I_LONDON_PENNY.JPG
1272 - 1307, EDWARD I, AR Penny, Struck 1305 - 1306 at London, England14 viewsObverse: + EDWAR ANGL DNS HYB. Crowned bust of Edward I facing within circle of pellets. Cross pattée in legend.
Reverse: CIVITAS LONDON. Long cross dividing legend into quarters, trefoil in each quarter of inner circle.
Undated Penny, type 10cf1
Diameter: 18.5mm | Weight: 1.2gms | Die Axis: 9
SPINK: 1410

Edward I began a major recoinage in 1279 which consisted not only of pennies and new round half-pennies and farthings, but also introduced a new denomination, a fourpenny piece called the "Groat".

Edward I was King of England from 1272 – 1307. He was the eldest surviving son of Henry III and Eleanor of Provence. The contests between his father and the barons led by Simon de Montfort called Edward early into active life when he restored the royal authority within months by defeating and killing de Montfort at the battle of Evesham in 1265. He then proceeded to Palestine, where no conquest of any importance was achieved. After further campaigns in Italy and France he returned to England on his father's death and was crowned at Westminster Abbey in 1274.
Edward was popular because he identified himself with the growing tide of nationalism sweeping the country, displayed later in his persecution and banishment of the Jews which was the culmination of many years of anti-semitism in England.
Edward now turned his attention to the mountainous land to the west which had never been completely subdued. So, following a revolt in the Principality of Wales against English influence, Edward commenced a war which ended in the annexation of the Principality to the English Crown in 1283. He secured his conquest by building nine castles to watch over it and created his eldest son, Edward the Prince of Wales in 1301.
Edward's great ambition, however, was to gain possession of Scotland, but the death of Margaret, the Maid of Norway, who was to have been married to Edward's son, for a time frustrated the king's designs. However the sudden death of the King of Scotland, Alexander III, and the contested succession soon gave him the opportunity to intervene. He was invited by the Scots to arbitrate and choose between the thirteen competitors for the Scottish throne. Edward's choice, John Balliol, who he conceived as his puppet, was persuaded to do homage for his crown to Edward at Newcastle but was then forced to throw off Edward's overlordship by the indignation of the Scottish people. An alliance between the French and the Scots now followed, and Edward, then at war with the French king over possession of Gascony, was compelled to march his army north. Edward invaded Scotland in 1296 and devastated the country, which earned him the sobriquet 'Hammer of the Scots'. It was at this time that the symbolic Stone of Destiny was removed from Scone. Edward's influence had tainted Balliol's reign and the Scottish nobility deposed him and appointed a council of twelve to rule instead. Balliol abdicated and was eventually sent to France where he retired into obscurity, taking no more part in politics. Scotland was then left without a monarch until the accession of Robert the Bruce in 1306.
Meanwhile Edward assumed the administration of the country. However the following summer a new opposition to Edward took place under William Wallace whose successes, notably at Stirling Bridge, forced Edward to return to Scotland with an army of 100,000 men. Although he defeated Wallace's army at Falkirk, and Wallace himself was betrayed, Edward's unjust and barbaric execution of him as a traitor in London made Wallace a national hero in Scotland, and resistance to England became paramount among the people. All Edward's efforts to reduce the country to obedience were unravelling, and after the crowning of Robert Bruce, Earl of Carrick, as Robert I of Scotland in 1306 an enraged Edward assembled another army and marched yet again against the Scots. However, Edward only reached Burgh-on-Sands, a village near Carlisle, when he died. His body was taken back to London and he was buried at Westminster Abbey.
Edward I was married twice: to Eleanor of Castile, by whom he had sixteen children, and Margaret of France by whom he had three. Twelve memorials to his first wife stood between Nottingham and London to mark the journey taken by her funeral cortege. Three of those memorials, known as “Eleanor Crosses”, can still be seen today at Geddington, Hardingstone near Northampton and Waltham Cross. London's Charing Cross is also named after one, but the original was demolished in 1647 and the monument seen there today is a Victorian replica.
1 comments*Alex
128-1_Decia_2.jpg
128/1. Decia - denarius (206-200 BC)19 viewsAR Denarius (uncertain mint, 206-200 BC)
O/ Helmeted head of Roma right; X behind head.
R/ The Dioscuri galloping right; shield & carnyx below horses; ROMA in exergue.
4.01g; 20.5mm
Crawford 128/1 (less than 10 obverse dies/less than 12 reverse dies)
- Privately bought from Münzen & Medaillen Basel.
- Ex collection of Elvira Elisa Clain-Stefanelli (1914-2001), former director of the National Numismatic Collection (part of the Smithsonian Institute).
- Naville Numismatics Live Auction 29, lot 479.

* Anonymous (shield & carnyx), Decius?:

This very rare issue has traditionally been attributed to a descendant of a line of three heroes named Publius Decius Mus. The first of that name was Consul in 340 BC; he received the Grass Crown after having saved his army from destruction against the Samnites, then sacrificed himself at the Battle of Vesuvius during his consulship in an act of devotio (exchanging his life against the victory of his army). His son was four times Consul (312, 308, 297 and 295 BC) and similarly sacrificed himself at the Battle of Sentinum in 295 BC against a coalition of Etruscans, Samnites, and Gauls. The third of that name was Consul in 279 BC and fought against Pyrrhus, who successfully thwarted his attempt to sacrifice himself like his ancestors (cf. discussion in Broughton, vol. I, p. 193).

300 years later, Trajan restored several issues of the Republic, including this one, but with the addition of DECIVS MVS on the obverse (RIC 766). Babelon thus assumed that this denarius was minted by the son of the last Publius Decius Mus (Decia 1). In this hypothesis, the shield and Carnyx refers to the second Mus -- the one who fought the Gauls.

However, Crawford contested this view, writing: "The restoration of this issue by Trajan with the added legend DECIVS MVS provides no grounds whatever for supposing that it was originally struck by someone of that name - the family was certainly extinct by this period."

It is still very strange that Trajan picked this rare denarius, from an irregular mint, for restoration. He could have chosen many other anonymous issues of the early Roman coinage, and simply add the name of Decius Mus. It thus shows that the imperial mint had retained some specimens or archives of previous issues up to the 3rd century BC, because due to its rarity, this denarius had already disappeared from circulation by the time of Trajan. A list of the magistrates behind each issue could therefore have been kept as well; Trajan might have selected the moneyers whom he thought were significant for the history of Rome and restored their issue. A Publius Decius Subulo was living in these years (Livy, xliii. 17) and perhaps minted this coin; his name could have been preserved in the archives of the mint, which might have led Trajan to pick his denarius for restoration.
1 commentsJoss
14-Gordian-III-RIC-116.jpg
13. Gordian III / RIC 116.24 viewsDenarius, 240 AD, Rome mint.
Obverse: IMP GORDIANVS PIVS FEL AVG / Laureate bust of Gordian.
Reverse: VIRTVTI AVGVSTI / Hercules standing, resting right hand on hip and left hand club set on rock; lion-skin beside club.
3.58 gm., 20 mm.
RIC #116; Sear #8684.

The chronology of the denarii coinage of Gordian III has been poorly understood because Roman Imperial Coinage (RIC) has it mixed up in its listings. For example, it will tell you that 5 denarii (Diana, Pietas, Salus, Securitas, and Venus) were issued in the summer of 241 to commemorate the marriage of Gordian and Tranquillina. Recent thinking tells another entirely different story. The following summary is based on a posting by Curtis Clay, November 25, 2011, on the Forum Ancient Coins Classical Numismatics Discussion Board.
Although antoniniani were issued for a while under Caracalla and Elagabalus, the denarius was the standard silver denomination throughout the reigns of Severus Alexander, Maximinus Thrax, and into the first part of the joint reign of Balbinus & Pupienus. (This, by the way, is when the PIETAS AVGG denarius of Gordian as Caesar was issued.) Sometime during the short reign of Balbinus & Pupienus, the antoninianus supplanted the denarius as the standard silver denomination. When Gordian III became emperor (July 238), his administration continued to follow the then current practice of issuing only antoniniani.

Early in 240, Gordian apparently decided to revert back to the traditional coinage of the Empire and began to issue only denarii. The denarii issued at this time were the following:

P M TR P III COS P P / Horseman
DIANA LVCIFERA
PIETAS AVGVSTI
SALVS AVGVSTI
SECVRITAS PVBLICA
VENVS VICTRIX

No antoniniani exist with these reverse types.

The next issue of denarii was issued in the summer of 240 after Gordian became COS II, and consists of these types:

P M TR P III COS II P P / Emperor standing
P M TR P III COS II P P / Apollo seated
AETERNITATI AVG
IOVIS STATOR
LAETITIA AVG N
VIRTVTI AVGVSTI

Within a short time, however, it was decided to go back to having the antoninianus as the standard silver denomination. Antoniniani were issued again, at first with the same reverse types as the second issue of denarii. That is why these reverse types exist on denarii and antoniniani even though they were not issued at the same time.

So the period the mint issued denarii rather than antoniniani as the standard silver denomination lasted from about March through August, 240. This was the last time denarii were issued for general circulation. The antoninianus lasted until Diocletian’s coinage reform of 295, after which Roman coinage was so vastly different that there was no question of returning to the denarius.

The 13 denarii of Gordian III are presented in this album in this order:
Gordian III as Caesar denarius - 1 coin.
First issue of denarii - 6 coins.
Second issue of denarii - 6 coins.
Callimachus
RI 130aq img.jpg
130 - Tacitus Antoninianus - RIC 030 (B in left field | A in right field)21 viewsObv:– IMP CL TACITVS AVG, Radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right
Rev:– MARS VICTOR, Mars advancing right, holding spear and trophy
Minted in Lugdunum (B in left field | A in right field) March – April A.D.276
References:– Cohen 57 (corr.), Bastien 79. RIC 30 Bust Type C
maridvnvm
RI 130an img.jpg
130 - Tacitus Antoninianus - RIC 057 (C | *)22 viewsObv:– IMP CL TACITVS AVG, Radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right
Rev:– SALVS AVG, Salvs standing right, feeding snake in hand
Minted in Lugdunum (C in left field, * in right field), Emission 5 Officina 3, March to April 286 A.D
References:– Cohen 125, Bastien 106, RIC 57 Bust Type C
maridvnvm
RI_130av_img.jpg
130 - Tacitus Antoninianus - RIC 0609 viewsObv:– IMP C M CL TACITVS P F AVG, Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:– SPES PVBLICA, Spes advancing left, holding flower & lifting hem of dress
Minted in Lugdunum (B | * / _) Emission 5 Officina 3. March to April 286 A.D.
Reference(s) – Cohen 139. Bastien 99 (15 examples). RIC 60 Bust type C
maridvnvm
RI 130i img.jpg
130 - Tacitus Antoninianus - RIC 065 (A in left field | A in right field)35 viewsObv:– IMP CL TACITVS AVG, Radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right
Rev:– TEMPORVM FELICITAS, Felicitas standing left, holding caduceus and cornucopiae
Minted in Lugdunum (A in left field | A in right field), Emission 5, Officina 1, from March to April A.D. 286
References:– Cohen 144, RIC 65 Bust type C
maridvnvm
RI 130am img.jpg
130 - Tacitus Antoninianus - RIC 065 (A in left field | A in right field) – 16 views18 viewsObv:– IMP CL TACITVS AVG, Radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right
Rev:– TEMPORVM FELICITAS, Felicitas standing left, holding caduceus and cornucopiae
Minted in Lugdunum (A in left field | A in right field), Emission 5, Officina 1, from March to April A.D. 286
References:– Cohen 144, RIC 65 Bust type C
maridvnvm
DiocleAnt.jpg
1301a, Diocletian, 284-305 A.D. (Antioch)93 viewsDIOCLETIAN (284 – 305 AD) AE Antoninianus, 293-95 AD, RIC V 322, Cohen 34. 20.70 mm/3.1 gm, aVF, Antioch. Obverse: IMP C C VAL DIOCLETIANVS P F AVG, Radiate bust right, draped & cuirassed; Reverse: CONCORDIA MILITVM, Jupiter presents Victory on a globe to Diocletian, I/XXI. Early Diocletian with dusty earthen green patina.


De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Diocletian ( 284-305 A.D.)

Ralph W. Mathisen
University of South Carolina


Summary and Introduction
The Emperor Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus (A.D. 284-305) put an end to the disastrous phase of Roman history known as the "Military Anarchy" or the "Imperial Crisis" (235-284). He established an obvious military despotism and was responsible for laying the groundwork for the second phase of the Roman Empire, which is known variously as the "Dominate," the "Tetrarchy," the "Later Roman Empire," or the "Byzantine Empire." His reforms ensured the continuity of the Roman Empire in the east for more than a thousand years.

Diocletian's Early Life and Reign
Diocletian was born ca. 236/237 on the Dalmatian coast, perhaps at Salona. He was of very humble birth, and was originally named Diocles. He would have received little education beyond an elementary literacy and he was apparently deeply imbued with religious piety He had a wife Prisca and a daughter Valeria, both of whom reputedly were Christians. During Diocletian's early life, the Roman empire was in the midst of turmoil. In the early years of the third century, emperors increasingly insecure on their thrones had granted inflationary pay raises to the soldiers. The only meaningful income the soldiers now received was in the form of gold donatives granted by newly acclaimed emperors. Beginning in 235, armies throughout the empire began to set up their generals as rival emperors. The resultant civil wars opened up the empire to invasion in both the north, by the Franks, Alamanni, and Goths, and the east, by the Sassanid Persians. Another reason for the unrest in the army was the great gap between the social background of the common soldiers and the officer corps.

Diocletian sought his fortune in the army. He showed himself to be a shrewd, able, and ambitious individual. He is first attested as "Duke of Moesia" (an area on the banks of the lower Danube River), with responsibility for border defense. He was a prudent and methodical officer, a seeker of victory rather than glory. In 282, the legions of the upper Danube proclaimed the praetorian prefect Carus as emperor. Diocletian found favor under the new emperor, and was promoted to Count of the Domestics, the commander of the cavalry arm of the imperial bodyguard. In 283 he was granted the honor of a consulate.

In 284, in the midst of a campaign against the Persians, Carus was killed, struck by a bolt of lightning which one writer noted might have been forged in a legionary armory. This left the empire in the hands of his two young sons, Numerian in the east and Carinus in the west. Soon thereafter, Numerian died under mysterious circumstances near Nicomedia, and Diocletian was acclaimed emperor in his place. At this time he changed his name from Diocles to Diocletian. In 285 Carinus was killed in a battle near Belgrade, and Diocletian gained control of the entire empire.

Diocletian's Administrative and Military Reforms
As emperor, Diocletian was faced with many problems. His most immediate concerns were to bring the mutinous and increasingly barbarized Roman armies back under control and to make the frontiers once again secure from invasion. His long-term goals were to restore effective government and economic prosperity to the empire. Diocletian concluded that stern measures were necessary if these problems were to be solved. He felt that it was the responsibility of the imperial government to take whatever steps were necessary, no matter how harsh or innovative, to bring the empire back under control.

Diocletian was able to bring the army back under control by making several changes. He subdivided the roughly fifty existing provinces into approximately one hundred. The provinces also were apportioned among twelve "dioceses," each under a "vicar," and later also among four "prefectures," each under a "praetorian prefect." As a result, the imperial bureaucracy became increasingly bloated. He institutionalized the policy of separating civil and military careers. He divided the army itself into so-called "border troops," actually an ineffective citizen militia, and "palace troops," the real field army, which often was led by the emperor in person.

Following the precedent of Aurelian (A.D.270-275), Diocletian transformed the emperorship into an out-and-out oriental monarchy. Access to him became restricted; he now was addressed not as First Citizen (Princeps) or the soldierly general (Imperator), but as Lord and Master (Dominus Noster) . Those in audience were required to prostrate themselves on the ground before him.

Diocletian also concluded that the empire was too large and complex to be ruled by only a single emperor. Therefore, in order to provide an imperial presence throughout the empire, he introduced the "Tetrarchy," or "Rule by Four." In 285, he named his lieutenant Maximianus "Caesar," and assigned him the western half of the empire. This practice began the process which would culminate with the de facto split of the empire in 395. Both Diocletian and Maximianus adopted divine attributes. Diocletian was identified with Jupiter and Maximianus with Hercules. In 286, Diocletian promoted Maximianus to the rank of Augustus, "Senior Emperor," and in 293 he appointed two new Caesars, Constantius (the father of Constantine I ), who was given Gaul and Britain in the west, and Galerius, who was assigned the Balkans in the east.

By instituting his Tetrarchy, Diocletian also hoped to solve another problem. In the Augustan Principate, there had been no constitutional method for choosing new emperors. According to Diocletian's plan, the successor of each Augustus would be the respective Caesar, who then would name a new Caesar. Initially, the Tetrarchy operated smoothly and effectively.

Once the army was under control, Diocletian could turn his attention to other problems. The borders were restored and strengthened. In the early years of his reign, Diocletian and his subordinates were able to defeat foreign enemies such as Alamanni, Sarmatians, Saracens, Franks, and Persians, and to put down rebellions in Britain and Egypt. The easter frontier was actually expanded.

.
Diocletian's Economic Reforms
Another problem was the economy, which was in an especially sorry state. The coinage had become so debased as to be virtually worthless. Diocletian's attempt to reissue good gold and silver coins failed because there simply was not enough gold and silver available to restore confidence in the currency. A "Maximum Price Edict" issued in 301, intended to curb inflation, served only to drive goods onto the black market. Diocletian finally accepted the ruin of the money economy and revised the tax system so that it was based on payments in kind . The soldiers too came to be paid in kind.

In order to assure the long term survival of the empire, Diocletian identified certain occupations which he felt would have to be performed. These were known as the "compulsory services." They included such occupations as soldiers, bakers, members of town councils, and tenant farmers. These functions became hereditary, and those engaging in them were inhibited from changing their careers. The repetitious nature of these laws, however, suggests that they were not widely obeyed. Diocletian also expanded the policy of third-century emperors of restricting the entry of senators into high-ranking governmental posts, especially military ones.

Diocletian attempted to use the state religion as a unifying element. Encouraged by the Caesar Galerius, Diocletian in 303 issued a series of four increasingly harsh decrees designed to compel Christians to take part in the imperial cult, the traditional means by which allegiance was pledged to the empire. This began the so-called "Great Persecution."

Diocletian's Resignation and Death
On 1 May 305, wearied by his twenty years in office, and determined to implement his method for the imperial succession, Diocletian abdicated. He compelled his co-regent Maximianus to do the same. Constantius and Galerius then became the new Augusti, and two new Caesars were selected, Maximinus (305-313) in the east and Severus (305- 307) in the west. Diocletian then retired to his palace at Split on the Croatian coast. In 308 he declined an offer to resume the purple, and the aged ex-emperor died at Split on 3 December 316.

Copyright (C) 1996, Ralph W. Mathisen, University of South Carolina
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

1 commentsCleisthenes
DicletianConcordCyz.jpg
1301b, Diocletian, 20 November 284 - 1 March 305 A.D.57 viewsDiocletian. RIC V Part II Cyzicus 256 var. Not listed with pellet in exegrue
Item ref: RI141f. VF. Minted in Cyzicus (B in centre field, XXI dot in exegrue)Obverse:- IMP CC VAL DIOCLETIANVS AVG, Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right. Reverse:- CONCORDIA MILITVM, Diocletian standing right, holding parazonium, receiving Victory from Jupiter standing left with scepter.
A post reform radiate of Diocletian. Ex Maridvnvm.

De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Diocletian ( 284-305 A.D.)

Ralph W. Mathisen
University of South Carolina


Summary and Introduction
The Emperor Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus (A.D. 284-305) put an end to the disastrous phase of Roman history known as the "Military Anarchy" or the "Imperial Crisis" (235-284). He established an obvious military despotism and was responsible for laying the groundwork for the second phase of the Roman Empire, which is known variously as the "Dominate," the "Tetrarchy," the "Later Roman Empire," or the "Byzantine Empire." His reforms ensured the continuity of the Roman Empire in the east for more than a thousand years.

Diocletian's Early Life and Reign
Diocletian was born ca. 236/237 on the Dalmatian coast, perhaps at Salona. He was of very humble birth, and was originally named Diocles. He would have received little education beyond an elementary literacy and he was apparently deeply imbued with religious piety He had a wife Prisca and a daughter Valeria, both of whom reputedly were Christians. During Diocletian's early life, the Roman empire was in the midst of turmoil. In the early years of the third century, emperors increasingly insecure on their thrones had granted inflationary pay raises to the soldiers. The only meaningful income the soldiers now received was in the form of gold donatives granted by newly acclaimed emperors. Beginning in 235, armies throughout the empire began to set up their generals as rival emperors. The resultant civil wars opened up the empire to invasion in both the north, by the Franks, Alamanni, and Goths, and the east, by the Sassanid Persians. Another reason for the unrest in the army was the great gap between the social background of the common soldiers and the officer corps.

Diocletian sought his fortune in the army. He showed himself to be a shrewd, able, and ambitious individual. He is first attested as "Duke of Moesia" (an area on the banks of the lower Danube River), with responsibility for border defense. He was a prudent and methodical officer, a seeker of victory rather than glory. In 282, the legions of the upper Danube proclaimed the praetorian prefect Carus as emperor. Diocletian found favor under the new emperor, and was promoted to Count of the Domestics, the commander of the cavalry arm of the imperial bodyguard. In 283 he was granted the honor of a consulate.

In 284, in the midst of a campaign against the Persians, Carus was killed, struck by a bolt of lightning which one writer noted might have been forged in a legionary armory. This left the empire in the hands of his two young sons, Numerian in the east and Carinus in the west. Soon thereafter, Numerian died under mysterious circumstances near Nicomedia, and Diocletian was acclaimed emperor in his place. At this time he changed his name from Diocles to Diocletian. In 285 Carinus was killed in a battle near Belgrade, and Diocletian gained control of the entire empire.

Diocletian's Administrative and Military Reforms
As emperor, Diocletian was faced with many problems. His most immediate concerns were to bring the mutinous and increasingly barbarized Roman armies back under control and to make the frontiers once again secure from invasion. His long-term goals were to restore effective government and economic prosperity to the empire. Diocletian concluded that stern measures were necessary if these problems were to be solved. He felt that it was the responsibility of the imperial government to take whatever steps were necessary, no matter how harsh or innovative, to bring the empire back under control.

Diocletian was able to bring the army back under control by making several changes. He subdivided the roughly fifty existing provinces into approximately one hundred. The provinces also were apportioned among twelve "dioceses," each under a "vicar," and later also among four "prefectures," each under a "praetorian prefect." As a result, the imperial bureaucracy became increasingly bloated. He institutionalized the policy of separating civil and military careers. He divided the army itself into so-called "border troops," actually an ineffective citizen militia, and "palace troops," the real field army, which often was led by the emperor in person.

Following the precedent of Aurelian (A.D.270-275), Diocletian transformed the emperorship into an out-and-out oriental monarchy. Access to him became restricted; he now was addressed not as First Citizen (Princeps) or the soldierly general (Imperator), but as Lord and Master (Dominus Noster) . Those in audience were required to prostrate themselves on the ground before him.

Diocletian also concluded that the empire was too large and complex to be ruled by only a single emperor. Therefore, in order to provide an imperial presence throughout the empire, he introduced the "Tetrarchy," or "Rule by Four." In 285, he named his lieutenant Maximianus "Caesar," and assigned him the western half of the empire. This practice began the process which would culminate with the de facto split of the empire in 395. Both Diocletian and Maximianus adopted divine attributes. Diocletian was identified with Jupiter and Maximianus with Hercules. In 286, Diocletian promoted Maximianus to the rank of Augustus, "Senior Emperor," and in 293 he appointed two new Caesars, Constantius (the father of Constantine I ), who was given Gaul and Britain in the west, and Galerius, who was assigned the Balkans in the east.

By instituting his Tetrarchy, Diocletian also hoped to solve another problem. In the Augustan Principate, there had been no constitutional method for choosing new emperors. According to Diocletian's plan, the successor of each Augustus would be the respective Caesar, who then would name a new Caesar. Initially, the Tetrarchy operated smoothly and effectively.

Once the army was under control, Diocletian could turn his attention to other problems. The borders were restored and strengthened. In the early years of his reign, Diocletian and his subordinates were able to defeat foreign enemies such as Alamanni, Sarmatians, Saracens, Franks, and Persians, and to put down rebellions in Britain and Egypt. The easter frontier was actually expanded.

.
Diocletian's Economic Reforms
Another problem was the economy, which was in an especially sorry state. The coinage had become so debased as to be virtually worthless. Diocletian's attempt to reissue good gold and silver coins failed because there simply was not enough gold and silver available to restore confidence in the currency. A "Maximum Price Edict" issued in 301, intended to curb inflation, served only to drive goods onto the black market. Diocletian finally accepted the ruin of the money economy and revised the tax system so that it was based on payments in kind . The soldiers too came to be paid in kind.

In order to assure the long term survival of the empire, Diocletian identified certain occupations which he felt would have to be performed. These were known as the "compulsory services." They included such occupations as soldiers, bakers, members of town councils, and tenant farmers. These functions became hereditary, and those engaging in them were inhibited from changing their careers. The repetitious nature of these laws, however, suggests that they were not widely obeyed. Diocletian also expanded the policy of third-century emperors of restricting the entry of senators into high-ranking governmental posts, especially military ones.

Diocletian attempted to use the state religion as a unifying element. Encouraged by the Caesar Galerius, Diocletian in 303 issued a series of four increasingly harsh decrees designed to compel Christians to take part in the imperial cult, the traditional means by which allegiance was pledged to the empire. This began the so-called "Great Persecution."

Diocletian's Resignation and Death
On 1 May 305, wearied by his twenty years in office, and determined to implement his method for the imperial succession, Diocletian abdicated. He compelled his co-regent Maximianus to do the same. Constantius and Galerius then became the new Augusti, and two new Caesars were selected, Maximinus (305-313) in the east and Severus (305- 307) in the west. Diocletian then retired to his palace at Split on the Croatian coast. In 308 he declined an offer to resume the purple, and the aged ex-emperor died at Split on 3 December 316.

Copyright (C) 1996, Ralph W. Mathisen, University of South Carolina
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.


Cleisthenes
MaxHercRIC5iiRome.jpg
1302a, Maximian, 285 - 305, 306 - 308, and 310 A.D.47 viewsMaximianus AE Antoninianus. RIC V Part II 506 Bust Type C. Cohen 355; VF; Minted in Rome A.D. 285-286. Obverse: IMP MAXIMIANVS P F AVG, radiate, draped & cuirassed bust right; Rverse: IOVI CONSERVAT AVGG, Jupiter standing left holding thunderbolt & scepter, XXIZ in exergue. Ex maridvnvm.

De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Maximian, 285-305, 306-308, and 310 A.D.

Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Salve Regina University

Perhaps born ca. 249/250 A.D. in Sirmium in the area of the Balkans, Marcus Aurelius Valerius Maximianus, more commonly known as Maximianus Herculius (Maximian), had been a soldier before he put on the purple. A fellow soldier with the Emperor Diocletian, he had served in the military during the reigns of Aurelian and Probus.

When the Emperor Diocletian determined that the empire was too large for one man to govern on his own, he made Maximian his Caesar in 285/6 and elevated him to the rank of Augustus in perhaps the spring of 286. While Diocletian ruled in the East, Maximian ruled in the West. In 293, in order to maintain and to strengthen the stability of the empire, Diocletian appointed Constantius I Chlorus to serve Maximian as a Caesar in the West, while Galerius did the same job in the East. This arrangement, called the "Tetrarchy", was meant not only to provide a stronger foundation for the two emperors' rule, but also to end any possible fighting over the succession to the throne once the two senior Augusti had left the throne--a problem which had bedeviled the principate since the time of the Emperor Augustus. To cement the relationship between Maximian and his Caesar, Constantius married Maximian's elder daughter Theodora. A decade later, Constantius' son Constantine would marry Maximia's younger daughter Fausta.

On 1 May 305 Diocletian, at Nicomedeia, and Maximian, at Mediolanum, divested themselves of the purple. Their resignations seem largely due to the almost fatal illness that Diocletian contracted toward the end of 304. Diocletian seems to have forced his colleague to abdicate. In any case, Herculius had sworn an oath at the temple of Capitoline Jupiter to carry out the terms of the abdication. Constantius and Galerius were appointed as Augusti, with Maximinus Daia and Severus as the new Caesars. The retired emperors then returned to private life. Diocletian's retirement was at Salonae in Dalmatia, while Herculius' retreat was either in Lucania or Campania.

Maximian's retirement, however, was of short duration because, a little more than a year later on 28 October 306, his son Maxentius was proclaimed emperor at Rome. To give his regime an aura of legitimacy, Maximian was forced to affirm his son's acclamation. When Galerius learned of Maxentius' rebellion, he sent Severus against him with an army that had formerly been under his father's command. Maxentius invested his father with the purple again to win over his enemy's troops, a ruse which succeeded. Perhaps to strengthen his own position, in 307 Maximian went to Gaul and married his daughter Fausta to Constantine. When Constantine refused to become embroiled in the civil war between Galerius and Maxentius, Maximian returned to Rome in 308 and attempted to depose his son; however, he did not succeed. When Maximian was unable to convince Diocletian to take up the purple again at a meeting in Carnuntum in late 308, he returned to his son-in-law's side in Gaul.

Although Maximian was treated with all of the respect due a former emperor, he still desired to be more than a figurehead. He decided to seize the purple from Constantine when his son-in-law least expected it. His opportunity came in the summer of 310 when the Franks revolted. When Constantine had taken a small part of his army into enemy territory, Maximian proclaimed himself again emperor and paid the soldiers under his command a donative to secure their loyalty. As soon as Constantine received news about Maximian's revolt in July 310, he went south and reached Arelate before his father-in-law could mount a defense of the city. Although Maximian fled to Massilia, his son-in-law seized the city and took Maximian prisoner. Although he was deprived of the purple, he was granted pardon for his crimes. Unable to endure the humiliation of his defeat, he attempted to have Constantine murdered in his bed. The plot failed because he tried to get his daughter Fausta's help in the matter; she chose to reveal the matter to her husband. Because of this attempt on his son-in-law's life Maximian was dead by the end of July either by his own hand or on the orders of his intended victim.

Eutropia was of Syrian extraction and her marriage to Maximian seems to have been her second. She bore him two children: Maxentius and Fausta. An older daughter, Theodora, may have been a product of her first marriage. Fausta became the wife of Constantine I , while her sister Theodora was the second spouse of his father Constantius I Chlorus . Eutropia apparently survived all her children, with the possible exception of her daughter Fausta who seems to have died in 326. Eutropia is also said to have become a Christian.

By Michael DiMaio, Jr., Salve Regina University
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
Max.jpg
1302b, Maximian, 285-305, 306-308, and 310 A.D., commemorative issued by Constantine the Great (Siscia)55 viewsMaximian, 285-305, 306-308, and 310 A.D., commemorative issued by Constantine the Great. Bronze AE3, RIC 41, VF, Siscia, 1.30g, 16.1mm, 0o, 317-318 A.D. Obverse: DIVO MAXIMIANO SEN FORT IMP, laureate and veiled head right; Reverse: REQVIES OPTIMO-RVM MERITORVM, Emperor seated left on curule chair, raising hand and holding scepter, SIS in exergue; scarce (R3).


De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Maximian, 285-305, 306-308, and 310 A.D.

Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Salve Regina University

Perhaps born ca. 249/250 A.D. in Sirmium in the area of the Balkans, Marcus Aurelius Valerius Maximianus, more commonly known as Maximianus Herculius (Maximian), had been a soldier before he put on the purple. A fellow soldier with the Emperor Diocletian, he had served in the military during the reigns of Aurelian and Probus.

When the Emperor Diocletian determined that the empire was too large for one man to govern on his own, he made Maximian his Caesar in 285/6 and elevated him to the rank of Augustus in perhaps the spring of 286. While Diocletian ruled in the East, Maximian ruled in the West. In 293, in order to maintain and to strengthen the stability of the empire, Diocletian appointed Constantius I Chlorus to serve Maximian as a Caesar in the West, while Galerius did the same job in the East. This arrangement, called the "Tetrarchy", was meant not only to provide a stronger foundation for the two emperors' rule, but also to end any possible fighting over the succession to the throne once the two senior Augusti had left the throne--a problem which had bedeviled the principate since the time of the Emperor Augustus. To cement the relationship between Maximian and his Caesar, Constantius married Maximian's elder daughter Theodora. A decade later, Constantius' son Constantine would marry Maximia's younger daughter Fausta.

On 1 May 305 Diocletian, at Nicomedeia, and Maximian, at Mediolanum, divested themselves of the purple. Their resignations seem largely due to the almost fatal illness that Diocletian contracted toward the end of 304. Diocletian seems to have forced his colleague to abdicate. In any case, Herculius had sworn an oath at the temple of Capitoline Jupiter to carry out the terms of the abdication. Constantius and Galerius were appointed as Augusti, with Maximinus Daia and Severus as the new Caesars. The retired emperors then returned to private life. Diocletian's retirement was at Salonae in Dalmatia, while Herculius' retreat was either in Lucania or Campania.

Maximian's retirement, however, was of short duration because, a little more than a year later on 28 October 306, his son Maxentius was proclaimed emperor at Rome. To give his regime an aura of legitimacy, Maximian was forced to affirm his son's acclamation. When Galerius learned of Maxentius' rebellion, he sent Severus against him with an army that had formerly been under his father's command. Maxentius invested his father with the purple again to win over his enemy's troops, a ruse which succeeded. Perhaps to strengthen his own position, in 307 Maximian went to Gaul and married his daughter Fausta to Constantine. When Constantine refused to become embroiled in the civil war between Galerius and Maxentius, Maximian returned to Rome in 308 and attempted to depose his son; however, he did not succeed. When Maximian was unable to convince Diocletian to take up the purple again at a meeting in Carnuntum in late 308, he returned to his son-in-law's side in Gaul.

Although Maximian was treated with all of the respect due a former emperor, he still desired to be more than a figurehead. He decided to seize the purple from Constantine when his son-in-law least expected it. His opportunity came in the summer of 310 when the Franks revolted. When Constantine had taken a small part of his army into enemy territory, Maximian proclaimed himself again emperor and paid the soldiers under his command a donative to secure their loyalty. As soon as Constantine received news about Maximian's revolt in July 310, he went south and reached Arelate before his father-in-law could mount a defense of the city. Although Maximian fled to Massilia, his son-in-law seized the city and took Maximian prisoner. Although he was deprived of the purple, he was granted pardon for his crimes. Unable to endure the humiliation of his defeat, he attempted to have Constantine murdered in his bed. The plot failed because he tried to get his daughter Fausta's help in the matter; she chose to reveal the matter to her husband. Because of this attempt on his son-in-law's life Maximian was dead by the end of July either by his own hand or on the orders of his intended victim.

Eutropia was of Syrian extraction and her marriage to Maximian seems to have been her second. She bore him two children: Maxentius and Fausta. An older daughter, Theodora, may have been a product of her first marriage. Fausta became the wife of Constantine I , while her sister Theodora was the second spouse of his father Constantius I Chlorus . Eutropia apparently survived all her children, with the possible exception of her daughter Fausta who seems to have died in 326. Eutropia is also said to have become a Christian.

By Michael DiMaio, Jr., Salve Regina University
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
GaleriusAugCyz.jpg
1303a, Galerius, 1 March 305 - 5 May 311 A.D.35 viewsGalerius, RIC VI 59, Cyzicus S, VF, Cyzicus S, 6.4 g, 25.86 mm; 309-310 AD; Obverse: GAL MAXIMIANVS P F AVG, laureate bust right; Reverse: GENIO A-VGVS[TI], Genius stg. left, naked but for chlamys over left shoulder, holding patera and cornucopiae. A nice example with sharp detail and nice brown hoard patina. Ex Ancient Imports.


De Imperatoribus Romanis,
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors

Galerius (305-311 A.D.)

Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Salve Regina University


Caius Galerius Valerius Maximianus, more commonly known as Galerius, was from Illyricum; his father, whose name is unknown, was of peasant stock, while his mother, Romula, was from beyond the Danube. Galerius was born in Dacia Ripensis near Sardica. Although the date of his birth is unknown, he was probably born ca. 250 since he served under Aurelian. As a youth Galerius was a shepherd and acquired the nickname Armentarius. Although he seems to have started his military career under Aurelian and Probus, nothing is known about it before his accession as Caesar on 1 March 293. He served as Diocletian's Caesar in the East. Abandoning his first wife, he married Diocletian's daugher, Valeria.

As Caesar he campaigned in Egypt in 294; he seems to have taken to the field against Narses of Persia, and was defeated near Ctesiphon in 295. In 298, after he made inroads into Armenia, he obtained a treaty from the Persians favorable to the Romans. Between 299-305 he overcame the Sarmatians and the Carpi along the Danube. The Great Persecution of the Orthodox Church, which was started in 303 by the Emperor Diocletian, was probably instigated by Galerius. Because of the almost fatal illness that he contracted toward the end of 304, Diocletian, at Nicomedeia, and Maximianus Herculius, at Mediolanum, divested themselves of the purple on 1 May 305. Constantius and Galerius were appointed as Augusti, with Maximinus Daia and Severus as the new Caesars. Constantius and Severus reigned in the West, whereas Galerius' and Daia's realm was the East. Although Constantius was nominally senior Augustus, the real power was in the hands of Galerius because both Caesars were his creatures.

The balance of power shifted at the end of July 306 when Constantius, with his son Constantine at his side, passed away at York in Britain where he was preparing to face incursions by the Picts; his army proclaimed Constantine his successor immediately. As soon as he received the news of the death of Constantius I and the acclamation of Constantine to the purple, Galerius raised Severus to the rank of Augustus to replace his dead colleague in August 306. Making the best of a bad situation, Galerius accepted Constantine as the new Caesar in the West. The situation became more complicated when Maxentius, with his father Maximianus Herculius acquiesing, declared himself princes on 28 October 306. When Galerius learned about the acclamation of the usurper, he dispatched the Emperor Severus to put down the rebellion. Severus took a large field army which had formerly been that of Maximianus and proceeded toward Rome and began to besiege the city, Maxentius, however, and Maximianus, by means of a ruse, convinced Severus to surrender. Later, in 307, Severus was put to death under clouded circumstances. While Severus was fighting in the west, Galerius, during late 306 or early 307, was campaigning against the Sarmatians.

In the early summer of 307 Galerius invaded Italy to avenge Severus's death; he advanced to the south and encamped at Interamna near the Tiber. His attempt to besiege the city was abortive because his army was too small to encompass the city's fortifications. Not trusting his own troops, Galerius withdrew. During its retreat, his army ravaged the Italian countryside as it was returning to its original base. When Maximianus Herculius' attempts to regain the throne between 308 and 310 by pushing his son off his throne or by winning over Constantine to his cause failed, he tried to win Diocletian and Galerius over to his side at Carnuntum in October and November 308; the outcome of the Conference at Carnuntum was that Licinius was appointed Augustus in Severus's place, that Daia and Constantine were denoted filii Augustorum, and that Herculius was completely cut out of the picture. Later, in 310, Herculius died, having been implicated in a plot against his son-in-law. After the Conference at Carnuntum, Galerius returned to Sardica where he died in the opening days of May 311.

By Michael DiMaio, Jr., Salve Regina University; Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Galerius was Caesar and tetrarch under Maximianus. Although a talented general and administrator, Galerius is better known for his key role in the "Great Persecution" of Christians. He stopped the persecution under condition the Christians pray for his return to health from a serious illness. Galerius died horribly shortly after. Joseph Sermarini, FORVM.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.



Cleisthenes
Constantius1_silvered_follis.jpg
1304a, Constantius I, May 305 - 25 July 306 A.D.48 viewsSilvered follis, RIC 20a, S 3671, VM 25, gVF, Heraclea mint, 10.144g, 27.7mm, 180o, 297 - 298 A.D. Obverse: FL VAL CONSTANTIVS NOB CAES, laureate head right; Reverse GENIO POPVLI ROMANI, Genius standing left, modius on head, naked except for chlamys over shoulder, cornucopia in left, pouring liquor from patera, HTD in exergue; some silvering, nice portrait, well centered.



De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Constantius I Chlorus (305-306 A.D.)

Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Salve Regina University

Constantius' Early Life and Marriage

Born March 31st, Emperor Flavius Valerius Constantius may have come into the world ca. 250. His family was from Illyricum. In the army he served as a protector, tribunus, and a praeses Dalmatiarum. During the 270s or the 280s, he became the father of Constantine by Helena, his first spouse. By 288 he was the Praetorian Prefect of the western emperor Maximianus Herculius.

Constantius' Reign as Caesar

On 1 March 293 Diocletian appointed Galerius as his Caesar (junior emperor) in the east and Constantius as the Caesar of Maximianus Herculius. Caesar in the west. Both Caesars had the right of succession. In order to strengthen the dynastic relationship between himself and Herculius., Constantius put aside his wife Helena and married Theodora, the daughter, or perhaps stepdaughter, of Maximianus Herculius.. The union was fruitful and of it there were six issue: Flavius Dalmatius, Julius Constantius, Hannibalianus, Constantia, Anastasia, and Eutropia. To strengthen his bond with Galerius and Diocletian in the east, Constantius allowed Galerius to keep his son Constantine as a hostage for his good behavior.

In the remainder of the time that he was a Caesar, Constantius spent much of his time engaged in military actions in the west. In the summer of 293 Constantius expelled the troops of the usurper Carausius from northern Gaul; after Constantius' attack on Bononia (Boulogne), Carausius was murdered. At the same time he dealt with the unrest of the Germans. In 296 he invaded Britain and put down the revolt of the usurper Allectus. Between 300 and 305 A.D. the Caesar campaigned successfully several times with various German tribes. It is worth noting in passing, that while his colleagues rigidly enforced the "Great Persecution in 303," Constantius limited his action to knocking down a few churches.

Constantius as Augustus and His Untimely Death

On 1 May 305 Diocletian, at Nicomedia, and Maximianus Herculius, at Mediolanum (Milan), divested themselves of the purple, probably because of the almost fatal illness that Diocletian contracted toward the end of 304. Diocletian forced Maximianus to abdicate. They appointed as their successors Constantius and Galerius, with Severus and Maximinus Daia as the new Caesars. The retired emperors then returned to private life. Constantius, as had his predecessor, ruled in the west, while Galerius and Daia ruled in the east. Almost as soon as he was appointed Augustus, he crossed to Britain to face incursions by the Picts where he died at York on 25 July 306 with his son (Constantine I, known to history as “The Great”) at his side.

Copyright (C) 1996, Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
Edward_II_AR_Penny_Bury_St_Edmunds.JPG
1307 - 1327, EDWARD II, AR Penny, Struck 1307 at Bury St. Edmunds, England2 viewsObverse: + EDWAR R ANGL DNS hYB. Crowned and draped bust of Edward II facing within circle of pellets. Cross pattee in legend.
Reverse: VILL SCI EDMVNDI. Long cross dividing legend into quarters, trefoil in each quarter of inner circle.
Diameter: 19mm | Weight: 1.37gms | Die Axis: 12
Rare mint
SPINK: 1465

Class 11c penny with angular backs to C and E's in legends.

Edward II was born on 25 April 1284, the fourth son of Edward I of England and when Edward I died in July 1307 Edward II became king because his three elder brothers were already dead. Edward II was the first English prince to hold the title prince of Wales, which was bestowed on him by his father in 1301.
Unfortunately Edward II had few of the qualities that made a successful medieval king. He surrounded himself with favourites, the best known being Piers Gaveston who he recalled from exile, Edward I having banished him to France due to his bad influence on his son. Furthermore, Edward II gave Gaveston the earldom of Cornwall, a title which had previously only been conferred on royalty.
Opposition to the king and his favourite began almost immediately, and in 1311 the nobles issued the 'Ordinances', in an attempt to limit royal control of finance and appointments. Gaveston was twice exiled at the demand of the barons, only for him to return to England shortly afterwards. However, in 1312, he was captured by the barons and executed.
In 1314, Edward invaded Scotland where he was decisively defeated by Robert the Bruce at Bannockburn. So bad was this for Edward's rule that by the following year parts of England had fallen into anarchy and power was in the hands of the barons headed by Edward's cousin Thomas of Lancaster, who had virtually made himself the real ruler of England.
By 1318, Edward and Lancaster had been partly reconciled, but the king now had two new favourites, Hugh le Despenser and his son. When Edward supported the two Despensers' ambitions in Wales the barons banished both father and son. This prompted Edward to fight back and he defeated Lancaster at Boroughbridge in March 1322, Lancaster was executed him and the Despensers were called back to Edward's court.
But now, Edward's wife, Isabella of France, emerged as a focus of opposition. In 1325, she was sent on a diplomatic mission to France where she met and became the mistress of Roger Mortimer, an exiled opponent of Edward. In September 1326, Isabella and Mortimer invaded England. There was virtually no resistance and the Despensers were captured and executed. Defeated, Edward was made to renounce the throne in favour of his son Edward who was crowned Edward III in January 1327.
Edward II was imprisoned at Berkeley Castle and later murdered there.
*Alex
MaxentiusRIC163.jpg
1307a, Maxentius, February 307 - 28 October 312 A.D.60 viewsBronze follis, RIC 163, aEF, Rome mint, 5.712g, 25.6mm, 0o, summer 307 A.D.; obverse MAXENTIVS P F AVG, laureate head right; reverse CONSERVATO-RES VRB SVAE, Roma holding globe and scepter, seated in hexastyle temple, RT in ex; rare. Ex FORVM; Ex Maridvnvm


De Imperatoribus Romanis : An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Maxentius (306-312 A.D.)

Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Salve Regina University

Marcus Aurelius Valerius Maxentius, more commonly known as Maxentius, was the child of the Emperor Maximianus Herculius and the Syrian, Eutropia; he was born ca. 278 A.D. After Galerius' appointment to the rank of Caesar on 1 March 293, Maxentius married Galerius' daughter Valeria Maximilla, who bore him a son named Romulus and another son whose name is unknown. Due to his haughty nature and bad disposition, Maxentius could seldom agree with his father or his father-in-law; Galerius' and Maximianus Herculius' aversion to Maxentius prevented the young man from becoming a Caesar in 305. Little else is known of Maxentius' private life prior to his accession and, although there is some evidence that it was spent in idleness, he did become a Senator.

On 28 October 306 Maxentius was acclaimed emperor, although he was politically astute enough not to use the title Augustus; like the Emperor Augustus, he called himself princeps. It was not until the summer of 307 that he started using the title Augustus and started offending other claimants to the imperial throne. He was enthroned by the plebs and the Praetorians. At the time of his acclamation Maxentius was at a public villa on the Via Labicana. He strengthened his position with promises of riches for those who helped him obtain his objective. He forced his father Maximianus Herculius to affirm his son's acclamation in order to give his regime a facade of legitimacy. His realm included Italy, Africa, Sardinia, and Corsica. As soon as Galerius learned about the acclamation of Herculius' son, he dispatched the Emperor Severus to quell the rebellion. With the help of his father and Severus' own troops, Maxentius' took his enemy prisoner.

When Severus died, Galerius was determined to avenge his death. In the early summer of 307 the Augustus invaded Italy; he advanced to the south and encamped at Interamna near the Tiber. His attempt to besiege the city was abortive because his army was not large enough to encompass the city's fortifications. Negotiations between Maxentius and Galerius broke down when the emperor discovered that the usurper was trying to win over his troops. Galerius' troops were open to Maxentius' promises because they were fighting a civil war between members of the same family; some of the soldiers went over to the enemy. Not trusting his own troops, Galerius withdrew. During its retreat, Galerius' army ravaged the Italian countryside as it was returning to its original base. If it was not enough that Maxentius had to deal with the havoc created by the ineffectual invasions of Severus and Galerius, he also had to deal with his father's attempts to regain the throne between 308 and 310. When Maximianus Herculius was unable to regain power by pushing his son off his throne, he attempted to win over Constantine to his cause. When this plan failed, he tried to win Diocletian over to his side at Carnuntum in October and November 308. Frustrated at every turn, Herculius returned to his son-in-law Constantine's side in Gaul where he died in 310, having been implicated in a plot against his son-in-law. Maxentius' control of the situation was weakened by the revolt of L. Domitius Alexander in 308. Although the revolt only lasted until the end of 309, it drastically cut the size of the grain supply availble for Rome. Maxentius' rule collapsed when he died on 27 October 312 in an engagement he had with the Emperor Constantine at the Milvian Bridge after the latter had invaded his realm.

Copyright (C) 1996, Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
1 commentsCleisthenes
Lcnius1.jpg
1308b, Licinius I, 308 - 324 A.D. (Siscia)59 viewsLicinius I, 11 November 308 - 18 September 324 A.D. Bronze follis, RIC 4, F, Siscia, 3.257g, 21.6mm, 0o, 313 - 315 A.D. Obverse: IMP LIC LICINIVS P F AVG, laureate head right; Reverse IOVI CONSERVATORI AVGG NN, Jupiter standing left holding Victory on globe and scepter, eagle with wreath in beak left, E right, SIS in exergue.



De Imperatoribus Romanis : An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Licinius (308-324 A.D.)

Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Salve Regina University

Licinius' Heritage

Valerius Licinianus Licinius, more commonly known as Licinius, may have been born ca. 265. Of peasant origin, his family was from Dacia. A close friend and comrade of arms of the Emperor Galerius, he accompanied him on his Persian expedition in 297. When campaigns by Severus and Galerius in late 306 or early 307 and in the summer of 307, respectively, failed to dislodge Maxentius who, with the luke warm support of his father Maximianus Herculius, was acclaimed princeps on 28 October 306, he was sent by the eastern emperor to Maxentius as an ambassador; the diplomatic mission, however, failed because the usurper refused to submit to the authority of his father-in-law Galerius. At the Conference of Carnuntum which was held in October or November of 308, Licinius was made an Augustus on 11 November 308; his realm included Thrace, Illyricum, and Pannonia.

Licinius' Early Reign

Although Licinius was initially appointed by Galerius to replace Severus to end the revolt of Maxentius , Licinius (perhaps wisely) made no effort to move against the usurper. In fact, his first attested victory was against the Sarmatians probably in the late spring, but no later than the end of June in 310. When the Emperor Galerius died in 311, Licinius met Maximinus Daia at the Bosporus during the early summer of that year; they concluded a treaty and divided Galerius' realm between them. It was little more than a year later that the Emperor Constantine defeated Maxentius at the Battle of the Milvian Bridge on 28 October 312. After the defeat of the usurper, Constantine and Licinius met at Mediolanum (Milan) where Licinius married the former's sister Constantia; one child was born of this union: Valerius Licinianus Licinius. Licinius had another son, born of a slave woman, whose name is unknown. It appears that both emperors promulgated the so-called Edict of Milan, in which Constantine and Licinius granted Christians the freedom to practice their faith without any interference from the state.

As soon as he seems to have learned about the marital alliance between Licinius and Constantine and the death of Maxentius, who had been his ally, Daia traversed Asia Minor and, in April 313, he crossed the Bosporus and went to Byzantium, which he took from Licinius after an eleven day siege. On 30 April 313 the armies of both emperors clashed on the Campus Ergenus; in the ensuing battle Daia's forces were routed. A last ditch stand by Daia at the Cilician Gates failed; the eastern emperor subsequently died in the area of Tarsus probably in July or August 313. As soon as he arrived in Nicomedeia, Licinius promulgated the Edict of Milan. As soon as he had matters in Nicomedeia straightened out, Licinius campaigned against the Persians in the remaining part of 313 and the opening months of 314.

The First Civil War Between Licinius and Constantine

Once Licinius had defeated Maximinus Daia, the sole rulers of the Roman world were he and Constantine. It is obvious that the marriage of Licinius to Constantia was simply a union of convenience. In any case, there is evidence in the sources that both emperors were looking for an excuse to attack the other. The affair involving Bassianus (the husband of Constantius I's daughter Anastasia ), mentioned in the text of Anonymus Valesianus (5.14ff), may have sparked the falling out between the two emperors. In any case, Constantine' s forces joined battle with those of Licinius at Cibalae in Pannonia on 8 October 314. When the battle was over, Constantine prevailed; his victory, however, was Pyrrhic. Both emperors had been involved in exhausting military campaigns in the previous year and the months leading up to Cibalae and each of their realms had expanded so fast that their manpower reserves must have been stretched to the limit. Both men retreated to their own territory to lick their wounds. It may well be that the two emperors made an agreement, which has left no direct trace in the historical record, which would effectively restore the status quo.

Both emperors were variously engaged in different activities between 315 and 316. In addition to campaigning against the Germans while residing in Augusta Treverorum (Trier) in 315, Constantine dealt with aspects of the Donatist controversy; he also traveled to Rome where he celebrated his Decennalia. Licinius, possibly residing at Sirmium, was probably waging war against the Goths. Although not much else is known about Licinius' activities during this period, it is probable that he spent much of his time preparing for his impending war against Constantine; the latter,who spent the spring and summer of 316 in Augusta Treverorum, was probably doing much the same thing. In any case, by December 316, the western emperor was in Sardica with his army. Sometime between 1 December and 28 February 317, both emperors' armies joined battle on the Campus Ardiensis; as was the case in the previous engagement, Constantine' s forces were victorious. On 1 March 317, both sides agreed to a cessation of hostilities; possibly because of the intervention of his wife Constantia, Licinius was able to keep his throne, although he had to agree to the execution of his colleague Valens, who the eastern emperor had appointed as his colleague before the battle, as well as to cede some of his territory to his brother-in-law.

Licinius and the Christians

Although the historical record is not completely clear, Licinius seems to have campaigned against the Sarmatians in 318. He also appears to have been in Byzantium in the summer of 318 and later in June 323. Beyond these few facts, not much else is known about his residences until mid summer of 324. Although he and Constantine had issued the Edict of Milan in early 313, Licinius turned on the Christians in his realm seemingly in 320. The first law that Licinius issued prevented bishops from communicating with each other and from holding synods to discuss matters of interest to them. The second law prohibited men and women from attending services together and young girls from receiving instruction from their bishop or schools. When this law was issued, he also gave orders that Christians could hold services only outside of city walls. Additionally, he deprived officers in the army of their commissions if they did not sacrifice to the gods. Licinius may have been trying to incite Constantine to attack him. In any case, the growing tension between the two rulers is reflected in the consular Fasti of the period.

The Second Civil War Between Licinius and Constantine and Licinius' Death

War actually broke out in 321 when Constantine pursued some Sarmatians, who had been ravaging some territory in his realm, across the Danube. When he checked a similar invasion of the Goths, who were devastating Thrace, Licinius complained that Constantine had broken the treaty between them. Having assembled a fleet and army at Thessalonica, Constantine advanced toward Adrianople. Licinius engaged the forces of his brother-in-law near the banks of the Hebrus River on 3 July 324 where he was routed; with as many men as he could gather, he headed for his fleet which was in the Hellespont. Those of his soldiers who were not killed or put to flight, surrendered to the enemy. Licinius fled to Byzantium, where he was besieged by Constantine. Licinius' fleet, under the command of the admiral Abantus, was overcome by bad weather and by Constantine' s fleet which was under the command of his son Crispus. Hard pressed in Byzantium, Licinius abandoned the city to his rival and fled to Chalcedon in Bithynia. Leaving Martinianus, his former magister officiorum and now his co-ruler, to impede Constantine' s progress, Licinius regrouped his forces and engaged his enemy at Chrysopolis where he was again routed on 18 September 324. He fled to Nicomedeia which Constantine began to besiege. On the next day Licinius abdicated and was sent to Thessalonica, where he was kept under house arrest. Both Licinius and his associate were put to death by Constantine. Martinianus may have been put to death before the end of 324, whereas Licinius was not put to death until the spring of 325. Rumors circulated that Licinius had been put to death because he attempted another rebellion against Constantine.

Copyright (C) 1996, Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

Cleisthenes
Licin1AEFolJupiAlex.jpg
1308c, Licinius I, 308-324 A.D. (Alexandria)66 viewsLicinius I, 308-324 A.D. AE Follis, 3.60g, VF, 315 A.D., Alexandria. Obverse: IMP C VAL LICIN LICINIVS P F AVG - Laureate head right; Reverse: IOVI CONS-ERVATORI AVGG - Jupiter standing left, holding Victory on a globe and scepter; exergue: ALE / (wreath) over "B" over "N." Ref: RIC VII, 10 (B = r2) Rare, page 705 - Hunterian Museum, Glasgow, Scotland.


De Imperatoribus Romanis : An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Licinius (308-324 A.D.)

Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Salve Regina University

Licinius' Heritage

Valerius Licinianus Licinius, more commonly known as Licinius, may have been born ca. 265. Of peasant origin, his family was from Dacia. A close friend and comrade of arms of the Emperor Galerius, he accompanied him on his Persian expedition in 297. When campaigns by Severus and Galerius in late 306 or early 307 and in the summer of 307, respectively, failed to dislodge Maxentius who, with the luke warm support of his father Maximianus Herculius, was acclaimed princeps on 28 October 306, he was sent by the eastern emperor to Maxentius as an ambassador; the diplomatic mission, however, failed because the usurper refused to submit to the authority of his father-in-law Galerius. At the Conference of Carnuntum which was held in October or November of 308, Licinius was made an Augustus on 11 November 308; his realm included Thrace, Illyricum, and Pannonia.

Licinius' Early Reign

Although Licinius was initially appointed by Galerius to replace Severus to end the revolt of Maxentius , Licinius (perhaps wisely) made no effort to move against the usurper. In fact, his first attested victory was against the Sarmatians probably in the late spring, but no later than the end of June in 310. When the Emperor Galerius died in 311, Licinius met Maximinus Daia at the Bosporus during the early summer of that year; they concluded a treaty and divided Galerius' realm between them. It was little more than a year later that the Emperor Constantine defeated Maxentius at the Battle of the Milvian Bridge on 28 October 312. After the defeat of the usurper, Constantine and Licinius met at Mediolanum (Milan) where Licinius married the former's sister Constantia; one child was born of this union: Valerius Licinianus Licinius. Licinius had another son, born of a slave woman, whose name is unknown. It appears that both emperors promulgated the so-called Edict of Milan, in which Constantine and Licinius granted Christians the freedom to practice their faith without any interference from the state.

As soon as he seems to have learned about the marital alliance between Licinius and Constantine and the death of Maxentius, who had been his ally, Daia traversed Asia Minor and, in April 313, he crossed the Bosporus and went to Byzantium, which he took from Licinius after an eleven day siege. On 30 April 313 the armies of both emperors clashed on the Campus Ergenus; in the ensuing battle Daia's forces were routed. A last ditch stand by Daia at the Cilician Gates failed; the eastern emperor subsequently died in the area of Tarsus probably in July or August 313. As soon as he arrived in Nicomedeia, Licinius promulgated the Edict of Milan. As soon as he had matters in Nicomedeia straightened out, Licinius campaigned against the Persians in the remaining part of 313 and the opening months of 314.

The First Civil War Between Licinius and Constantine

Once Licinius had defeated Maximinus Daia, the sole rulers of the Roman world were he and Constantine. It is obvious that the marriage of Licinius to Constantia was simply a union of convenience. In any case, there is evidence in the sources that both emperors were looking for an excuse to attack the other. The affair involving Bassianus (the husband of Constantius I's daughter Anastasia ), mentioned in the text of Anonymus Valesianus (5.14ff), may have sparked the falling out between the two emperors. In any case, Constantine' s forces joined battle with those of Licinius at Cibalae in Pannonia on 8 October 314. When the battle was over, Constantine prevailed; his victory, however, was Pyrrhic. Both emperors had been involved in exhausting military campaigns in the previous year and the months leading up to Cibalae and each of their realms had expanded so fast that their manpower reserves must have been stretched to the limit. Both men retreated to their own territory to lick their wounds. It may well be that the two emperors made an agreement, which has left no direct trace in the historical record, which would effectively restore the status quo.

Both emperors were variously engaged in different activities between 315 and 316. In addition to campaigning against the Germans while residing in Augusta Treverorum (Trier) in 315, Constantine dealt with aspects of the Donatist controversy; he also traveled to Rome where he celebrated his Decennalia. Licinius, possibly residing at Sirmium, was probably waging war against the Goths. Although not much else is known about Licinius' activities during this period, it is probable that he spent much of his time preparing for his impending war against Constantine; the latter,who spent the spring and summer of 316 in Augusta Treverorum, was probably doing much the same thing. In any case, by December 316, the western emperor was in Sardica with his army. Sometime between 1 December and 28 February 317, both emperors' armies joined battle on the Campus Ardiensis; as was the case in the previous engagement, Constantine' s forces were victorious. On 1 March 317, both sides agreed to a cessation of hostilities; possibly because of the intervention of his wife Constantia, Licinius was able to keep his throne, although he had to agree to the execution of his colleague Valens, who the eastern emperor had appointed as his colleague before the battle, as well as to cede some of his territory to his brother-in-law.

Licinius and the Christians

Although the historical record is not completely clear, Licinius seems to have campaigned against the Sarmatians in 318. He also appears to have been in Byzantium in the summer of 318 and later in June 323. Beyond these few facts, not much else is known about his residences until mid summer of 324. Although he and Constantine had issued the Edict of Milan in early 313, Licinius turned on the Christians in his realm seemingly in 320. The first law that Licinius issued prevented bishops from communicating with each other and from holding synods to discuss matters of interest to them. The second law prohibited men and women from attending services together and young girls from receiving instruction from their bishop or schools. When this law was issued, he also gave orders that Christians could hold services only outside of city walls. Additionally, he deprived officers in the army of their commissions if they did not sacrifice to the gods. Licinius may have been trying to incite Constantine to attack him. In any case, the growing tension between the two rulers is reflected in the consular Fasti of the period.

The Second Civil War Between Licinius and Constantine and Licinius' Death

War actually broke out in 321 when Constantine pursued some Sarmatians, who had been ravaging some territory in his realm, across the Danube. When he checked a similar invasion of the Goths, who were devastating Thrace, Licinius complained that Constantine had broken the treaty between them. Having assembled a fleet and army at Thessalonica, Constantine advanced toward Adrianople. Licinius engaged the forces of his brother-in-law near the banks of the Hebrus River on 3 July 324 where he was routed; with as many men as he could gather, he headed for his fleet which was in the Hellespont. Those of his soldiers who were not killed or put to flight, surrendered to the enemy. Licinius fled to Byzantium, where he was besieged by Constantine. Licinius' fleet, under the command of the admiral Abantus, was overcome by bad weather and by Constantine' s fleet which was under the command of his son Crispus. Hard pressed in Byzantium, Licinius abandoned the city to his rival and fled to Chalcedon in Bithynia. Leaving Martinianus, his former magister officiorum and now his co-ruler, to impede Constantine' s progress, Licinius regrouped his forces and engaged his enemy at Chrysopolis where he was again routed on 18 September 324. He fled to Nicomedeia which Constantine began to besiege. On the next day Licinius abdicated and was sent to Thessalonica, where he was kept under house arrest. Both Licinius and his associate were put to death by Constantine. Martinianus may have been put to death before the end of 324, whereas Licinius was not put to death until the spring of 325. Rumors circulated that Licinius had been put to death because he attempted another rebellion against Constantine.

Copyright (C) 1996, Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

Cleisthenes
0010-080.jpg
1346 - L. Marcius Philippus, denarius159 viewsRome mint, 56 BC
[ANCVS] Head of Ancus Marcius right, lituus behind him
PHILIPVS AQUA MAR, Equestrian statue above a five arch aqueduct
3.66 gr
Ref : RCV #382, RSC, Marcia # 28
Potator II
ROBERT_II_AR_Groat_of_Perth.JPG
1371 – 1390, Robert II, AR Groat minted at Perth, Scotland0 viewsObverse: + ROBERTVS DEI GRA REX SCOTORVM. Crowned bust of Robert II facing left, sceptre topped with a lis and with a star at its base before, within double tressure of six arches broken at the king's neck, small trefoils in spandrels, surrounded by beaded inner circle. Mintmark, cross pattée in legend and small crosses in spaces between words. The whole within beaded outer circle.
Reverse: + DnS PTECTOR MS ┼ LIBATOR MS (God is my protector and redeemer) / VILLA DE PERTh X. Long cross pattée dividing two concentric legends separated by two beaded circles into quarters, pierced mullet in each quarter of inner circle. Mintmark, cross pattées in both inner and outer legends, but cross set as saltire in inner legend, small cross over crescent after DnS in outer legend. The whole within beaded outer circle.
Diameter: 30mm | Weight: 3.87gms | Die Axis: 12
SPINK: 5136 | SCBI: 35, 460-72

Robert II's coinage was maintained at the same standard and in the same general style as that of David’s last issue, but coins were struck at Perth and Dundee in addition to those of the Edinburgh mint.

Robert II was the first Scottish king of the Stewart line, he was the son of Walter, the sixth hereditary High Steward of Scotland, and of Marjorie Bruce, daughter of Robert the Bruce. Robert II acted as regent during part of the period of imprisonment in England of David II and was himself imprisoned in England when Edward III was declared to be David’s successor. The Scots never accepted this arrangement and, after several years of secret negotiations between David II and Edward III, in 1370 Robert was released. He peacefully succeeded to the throne on David II's death the following year.
Robert II succeeded to the throne at the age of 54 and was viewed by many in his kingdom as past his best. In November 1384 he was effectively deposed by his eldest son John, Earl of Carrick. John, however, was seriously injured after being kicked by a horse, and Robert II's second son, Robert, Earl of Fife, later the Duke of Albany, was appointed as Guardian of Scotland instead. Robert II died at Dundonald Castle on 19 April 1390, and was buried at Scone. He was succeeded by his son John, who confusingly took the name Robert III, probably because in Scotland "John" was a name too closely associated with John Balliol, the erstwhile protégé of Edward I.
*Alex
Richard_II_halfpenny.JPG
1377 - 1399, Richard II, AR Halfpenny struck at London, England5 viewsObverse: + RICARD : REX : ANGL. Crowned facing bust of Richard II within circle of pellets. Cross pattée in legend.
Reverse: CIVITAS LONDON. Long cross pattée dividing legend around inner circle of pellets into quarters, trefoil in each quarter of circle.
Type II, intermediate style, lombardic n's in 'LONDON'
Diameter: 13mm | Weight: 0.55gms | Die Axis: 1
SPINK: 1699 | North: 1331b

Richard II was King of England from 1377 until he was deposed in 1399. Edward III's heir, Edward the Black Prince, was Richard's father but he died in 1376, leaving Richard as heir apparent. When Edward III died the following year, the 10-year-old Richard succeeded to the throne.
During Richard's first years as king the government was in the hands of a series of regency councils which were under the control of Richard's uncles John of Gaunt and Thomas of Woodstock. England then faced various problems, most notably the Hundred Years' War. Another major challenge of the reign was the Peasants' Revolt in 1381, a crisis which the young king played a central part in suppressing.
Richard sought to restrain the power of the aristocracy and this caused so much discontent that, in 1387, a group of aristocrats known as the Lords Appellant took control of the government. But by 1389 Richard had regained control and for the next eight years governed in apparent harmony with his former opponents. However, in 1397, Richard took his revenge on the Appellants, many of whom were executed or exiled. In 1399, after John of Gaunt died, the king disinherited Gaunt's son, Henry of Bolingbroke, who he had previously exiled. Henry invaded England in June 1399 with a small force that quickly grew in numbers. Meeting little resistance, Bolingbroke deposed Richard and had himself crowned as King Henry IV.
Henry had agreed to let Richard live after his abdication but this all changed when Henry discovered that Lord Despenser, the earls of Huntingdon, Kent and Salisbury, and possibly also the Earl of Rutland, who had all been demoted from the ranks they had been given by Richard, were conspiring to murder him and restore Richard to the throne. Although averted, the plot highlighted the danger of allowing Richard to live and he is reported to have been starved to death in captivity in Pontefract Castle on or around 14 February 1400.
Richard's body was then taken south from Pontefract and displayed in the old St Paul's Cathedral, London until the 6th of March after which it was taken for burial in King's Langley Priory, Hertfordshire. Sometime later, by the order of King Henry V, Richard's body was moved from the Priory to Westminster Abbey.
1 comments*Alex
antpius_RIC1039.jpg
138-161 AD - ANTONINUS PIUS AE as - struck 159-160 AD38 viewsobv: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P XXIII (laureate head right)
rev: COS IIII (Genius of the Senate standing on cippus within arched temple), S-C in ex.
ref: RIC III 1039 (S), Cohen337 (5frcs)
10.21gms, 23mm
Rare

According to Cohen this temple is a tetrastyle (four columns) design, but just the front columns with the Victories are visible on the coin's reverse. The statue on cippus is maybe Antoninus as personification of Genius?
berserker
St.Helena.jpg
1401a, St. Helena, Augusta 8 November 324 - 328 to 330 A.D., mother of Constantine the Great96 viewsBronze AE 3, RIC 148, VF, Alexandria mint, 3.243g, 19.4mm, 165o, 327 - 328 A.D. Obverse: FL HELENA AVGVSTA, diademed and mantled bust right wearing double necklace; Reverse: SECVRITAS REIPVBLICE, Securitas holding branch downward in right and lifting fold of robe in left, wreath left, I right, SMAL in exergue; rare.

The mother of Constantine the Great, born about the middle of the third century, possibly in Drepanum (later known as Helenopolis) on the Nicomedian Gulf; died about 330. She was of humble parentage; St. Ambrose, in his "Oratio de obitu Theodosii", referred to her as a stabularia, or inn-keeper. Nevertheless, she became the lawful wife of Constantius Chlorus. Her first and only son, Constantine, was born in Naissus in Upper Moesia, in the year 274. The statement made by English chroniclers of the Middle Ages, according to which Helena was supposed to have been the daughter of a British prince, is entirely without historical foundation. It may arise from the misinterpretation of a term used in the fourth chapter of the panegyric on Constantine's marriage with Fausta, that Constantine, oriendo (i. e., "by his beginnings," "from the outset") had honoured Britain, which was taken as an allusion to his birth, whereas the reference was really to the beginning of his reign.

On the death of Constantius Chlorus, in 308, Constantine, who succeeded him, summoned his mother to the imperial court, conferred on her the title of Augusta, ordered that all honour should be paid her as the mother of the sovereign, and had coins struck bearing her effigy. Her son's influence caused her to embrace Christianity after his victory over Maxentius. This is directly attested by Eusebius (Vita Constantini, III, xlvii): "She (his mother) became under his (Constantine's) influence such a devout servant of God, that one might believe her to have been from her very childhood a disciple of the Redeemer of mankind". It is also clear from the declaration of the contemporary historian of the Church that Helena, from the time of her conversion had an earnestly Christian life and by her influence and liberality favoured the wider spread of Christianity. Tradition links her name with the building of Christian churches in the cities of the West, where the imperial court resided, notably at Rome and Trier, and there is no reason for rejecting this tradition, for we know positively through Eusebius that Helena erected churches on the hallowed spots of Palestine. Despite her advanced age she undertook a journey to Palestine when Constantine, through his victory over Licinius, had become sole master of the Roman Empire, subsequently, therefore, to the year 324. It was in Palestine, as we learn from Eusebius (loc. cit., xlii), that she had resolved to bring to God, the King of kings, the homage and tribute of her devotion. She lavished on that land her bounties and good deeds, she "explored it with remarkable discernment", and "visited it with the care and solicitude of the emperor himself". Then, when she "had shown due veneration to the footsteps of the Saviour", she had two churches erected for the worship of God: one was raised in Bethlehem near the Grotto of the Nativity, the other on the Mount of the Ascension, near Jerusalem. She also embellished the sacred grotto with rich ornaments. This sojourn in Jerusalem proved the starting-point of the legend first recorded by Rufinus as to the discovery of the Cross of Christ.

Constantine I, in 327, improved Drepanum, his mother's native town, and decreed that it should be called Helenopolis, it is probable that the latter returned from Palestine to her son who was then residing in the Orient. Constantine was with her when she died, at the advanced age of eighty years or thereabouts (Eusebius, "Vita Const.", III, xlvi). This must have been about the year 330, for the last coins which are known to have been stamped with her name bore this date. Her body was brought to Constantinople and laid to rest in the imperial vault of the church of the Apostles. It is presumed that her remains were transferred in 849 to the Abbey of Hautvillers, in the French Archdiocese of Reims, as recorded by the monk Altmann in his "Translatio". She was revered as a saint, and the veneration spread, early in the ninth century, even to Western countries. Her feast falls on 18 August.

(See The Catholic Encyclopedia: http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/07202b.htm)

Cleisthenes
CtG AE3.jpg
1403a,1, Constantine I (the Great), 307-337 A.D.46 viewsConstantine I (the Great), 307-337 A.D. Bronze AE 3, RIC 16, C -, VF, 2.854g, 19.1mm, 180o, Constantinople mint, 327 A.D. Obverse: CONSTANTI-NVS MAX AVG, rosette diademed head right; Reverse: GLORIA EXERCITVS, Soldier standing left, head right, resting left hand on shield and holding inverted spear in right, G in left field, CONS in exergue; very rare (R3).

The Emperor Constantine I was effectively the sole ruler of the Roman world between 324 and 337 A.D.; his reign was perhaps one of the most crucial of all the emperors in determining the future course of western civilization. By beginning the process of making Christianity the religious foundation of his realm, he set the religious course for the future of Europe which remains in place to this very day. Because he replaced Rome with Constantinople as the center of imperial power, he made it clear that the city of Rome was no longer the center of power and he also set the stage for the Middle Ages. His philosophical view of monarchy, largely spelled out in some of the works of Eusebius of Caesarea, became the foundation for the concept of the divine right of kings which prevailed in Europe.

Constantine was not a "Christian convert" in any traditional sense. He was not baptized until close to death, and while that was not an uncommon practice, the mention of Christ in his speeches and decrees is conspicuous by its absence. Eusebius, Church historian and Constantine biographer, is responsible for much of the valorization of Constantine as the Christian Emperor. The somnambulant "sign" in which Constantine was to become victor at the Milvian Bridge is, not so surprisingly, revealed to posterity long after the "fact." Throughout his reign, Constantine continues to portray himself on coins as a sun god (Freeman, Charles. Egypt, Greece and Rome: Civilizations of the Ancient Mediterranean; Second Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004. 582). Above all, Constantine was a pragmatist. It would be cynical to egregiously disavow his commitment to Christianity, but it would be equally wrong to think that he would allow Christianity to meddle in the governance of his empire. As he reputedly told a group of bishops, "You are bishops of those within the church, but I am perhaps a bishop appointed by God of those outside." Whatever the motives for his decision to support Christianity, Christianity benefitted from the arrangement. So, too, did Constantine. It was a match made in heaven.
J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

For perhaps the best Constantine The Great site on the web, see Victor Clark's Constantine The Great Coins: http://www.constantinethegreatcoins.com/
1 commentsCleisthenes
Const1GlrEx.jpg
1403b, Constantine I (the Great), early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D.37 viewsConstantine the Great, early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D., Bronze AE 3, RIC 137, VF, Constantinople mint, 1.476g, 16.4mm, 180o, 336 - 337 A.D. Obverse: CONSTANTI-NVS MAX AVG, laurel and rosette-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; Reverse: GLOR-IA EXERC-ITVS, two soldiers, each holding spear and shield on ground, flanking standard, CONS[ ] in exergue. Ex FORVM.

The Emperor Constantine I was effectively the sole ruler of the Roman world between 324 and 337 A.D.; his reign was perhaps one of the most crucial of all the emperors in determining the future course of western civilization. By beginning the process of making Christianity the religious foundation of his realm, he set the religious course for the future of Europe which remains in place to this very day. Because he replaced Rome with Constantinople as the center of imperial power, he made it clear that the city of Rome was no longer the center of power and he also set the stage for the Middle Ages. His philosophical view of monarchy, largely spelled out in some of the works of Eusebius of Caesarea, became the foundation for the concept of the divine right of kings which prevailed in Europe.

Constantine was not a "Christian convert" in any traditional sense. He was not baptized until close to death, and while that was not an uncommon practice, the mention of Christ in his speeches and decrees is conspicuous by its absence. Eusebius, Church historian and Constantine biographer, is responsible for much of the valorization of Constantine as the Christian Emperor. The somnambulant "sign" in which Constantine was to become victor at the Milvian Bridge is, not so surprisingly, revealed to posterity long after the "fact." Throughout his reign, Constantine continues to portray himself on coins as a sun god (Freeman, Charles. Egypt, Greece and Rome: Civilizations of the Ancient Mediterranean; Second Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004. 582). Above all, Constantine was a pragmatist. It would be cynical to egregiously disavow his commitment to Christianity, but it would be equally wrong to think that he would allow Christianity to meddle in the governance of his empire. As he reputedly told a group of bishops, "You are bishops of those within the church, but I am perhaps a bishop appointed by God of those outside." Whatever the motives for his decision to support Christianity, Christianity benefitted from the arrangement. So, too, did Constantine. It was a match made in heaven.
J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

For perhaps the best Constantine The Great site on the web, see Victor Clark's Constantine The Great Coins: http://www.constantinethegreatcoins.com/
Cleisthenes
CTGDafne.jpg
1403c, Constantine I (the Great), early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D.49 viewsBronze AE 3, RIC VII 35, choice aEF, Constantinople mint, 3.336g, 20.0mm, 180o, 328 A.D.; Obverse: CONSTANTI-NVS MAX AVG, laurel and rosette diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; Reverse: CONSTANTINI-ANA DAFNE, Victory seated left on cippus, head right, palm frond in each hand, trophy and captive before, CONS in exergue, B left; scarce. Ex FORVM.

"The information about Constantine's campaign across [the Danube] is obscure and untrustworthy. The question, therefore, of what he achieved by this enterprise was, and is, subject to contradictory interpretations. On the one hand, the Panegyrists claimed that he had repeated the triumphs of Trajan. On the other, his own nephew, Julian the Apostate, spoke for many when he expressed the view that this second 'conquest' of Dacia was incomplete and extremely brief . . . monetary commemoration was accorded to the building, at about the same time [AD 328], of the river frontier fortress of Constantiniana Dafne (Spantov, near Oltenita) . . ." (Grant, Michael. The Emperor Constantine. London: Phoenix, 1998. 58-9).

The Emperor Constantine I was effectively the sole ruler of the Roman world between 324 and 337 A.D.; his reign was perhaps one of the most crucial of all the emperors in determining the future course of western civilization. By beginning the process of making Christianity the religious foundation of his realm, he set the religious course for the future of Europe which remains in place to this very day. Because he replaced Rome with Constantinople as the center of imperial power, he made it clear that the city of Rome was no longer the center of power and he also set the stage for the Middle Ages. His philosophical view of monarchy, largely spelled out in some of the works of Eusebius of Caesarea, became the foundation for the concept of the divine right of kings which prevailed in Europe.

Constantine was not a "Christian convert" in any traditional sense. He was not baptized until close to death, and while that was not an uncommon practice, the mention of Christ in his speeches and decrees is conspicuous by its absence. Eusebius, Church historian and Constantine biographer, is responsible for much of the valorization of Constantine as the Christian Emperor. The somnambulant "sign" in which Constantine was to become victor at the Milvian Bridge is, not so surprisingly, revealed to posterity long after the "fact." Throughout his reign, Constantine continues to portray himself on coins as a sun god (Freeman, Charles. Egypt, Greece and Rome: Civilizations of the Ancient Mediterranean; Second Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004. 582). Above all, Constantine was a pragmatist. It would be cynical to egregiously disavow his commitment to Christianity, but it would be equally wrong to think that he would allow Christianity to meddle in the governance of his empire. As he reputedly told a group of bishops, "You are bishops of those within the church, but I am perhaps a bishop appointed by God of those outside." Whatever the motives for his decision to support Christianity, Christianity benefitted from the arrangement. So, too, did Constantine. It was a match made in heaven.
J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

For perhaps the best Constantine The Great site on the web, see Victor Clark's Constantine The Great Coins: http://www.constantinethegreatcoins.com/
1 commentsCleisthenes
CTGKyzAE3.jpg
1403d, Constantine I (the Great), early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D. (Cyzicus)37 viewsConstantine the Great, early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D. Bronze AE 3, RIC 199, gVF, corrosion, Cyzicus, 1.402g, 16.2mm, 0o, 336 - 337 A.D. Obverse: CONSTANTI-NVS MAX AVG, laurel and rosette-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; Reverse: GLOR-IA EXERC-ITVS•, two soldiers, each holding spear and shield on ground, flanking standard, SMKA in exergue.

The Emperor Constantine I was effectively the sole ruler of the Roman world between 324 and 337 A.D.; his reign was perhaps one of the most crucial of all the emperors in determining the future course of western civilization. By beginning the process of making Christianity the religious foundation of his realm, he set the religious course for the future of Europe which remains in place to this very day. Because he replaced Rome with Constantinople as the center of imperial power, he made it clear that the city of Rome was no longer the center of power and he also set the stage for the Middle Ages. His philosophical view of monarchy, largely spelled out in some of the works of Eusebius of Caesarea, became the foundation for the concept of the divine right of kings which prevailed in Europe.

Constantine was not a "Christian convert" in any traditional sense. He was not baptized until close to death, and while that was not an uncommon practice, the mention of Christ in his speeches and decrees is conspicuous by its absence. Eusebius, Church historian and Constantine biographer, is responsible for much of the valorization of Constantine as the Christian Emperor. The somnambulant "sign" in which Constantine was to become victor at the Milvian Bridge is, not so surprisingly, revealed to posterity long after the "fact." Throughout his reign, Constantine continues to portray himself on coins as a sun god (Freeman, Charles. Egypt, Greece and Rome: Civilizations of the Ancient Mediterranean; Second Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004. 582). Above all, Constantine was a pragmatist. It would be cynical to egregiously disavow his commitment to Christianity, but it would be equally wrong to think that he would allow Christianity to meddle in the governance of his empire. As he reputedly told a group of bishops, "You are bishops of those within the church, but I am perhaps a bishop appointed by God of those outside." Whatever the motives for his decision to support Christianity, Christianity benefitted from the arrangement. So, too, did Constantine. It was a match made in heaven.
J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

For perhaps the best Constantine The Great site on the web, see Victor Clark's Constantine The Great Coins: http://www.constantinethegreatcoins.com/
Cleisthenes
CTGVOTXXX.jpg
1403e, Constantine I (the Great), early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D. (Heraclea)28 viewsConstantine the Great, Bronze AE 3, RIC 69, VF, Heraclea, 3.38g, 19.0mm, 180o, 325 - 326 A.D. Obverse: CONSTAN-TINVS AVG, laureate head right; Reverse: D N CONSTANTINI MAX AVG, VOT XXX in wreath, SMHD in exergue.

The Emperor Constantine I was effectively the sole ruler of the Roman world between 324 and 337 A.D.; his reign was perhaps one of the most crucial of all the emperors in determining the future course of western civilization. By beginning the process of making Christianity the religious foundation of his realm, he set the religious course for the future of Europe which remains in place to this very day. Because he replaced Rome with Constantinople as the center of imperial power, he made it clear that the city of Rome was no longer the center of power and he also set the stage for the Middle Ages. His philosophical view of monarchy, largely spelled out in some of the works of Eusebius of Caesarea, became the foundation for the concept of the divine right of kings which prevailed in Europe.

Constantine was not a "Christian convert" in any traditional sense. He was not baptized until close to death, and while that was not an uncommon practice, the mention of Christ in his speeches and decrees is conspicuous by its absence. Eusebius, Church historian and Constantine biographer, is responsible for much of the valorization of Constantine as the Christian Emperor. The somnambulant "sign" in which Constantine was to become victor at the Milvian Bridge is, not so surprisingly, revealed to posterity long after the "fact." Throughout his reign, Constantine continues to portray himself on coins as a sun god (Freeman, Charles. Egypt, Greece and Rome: Civilizations of the Ancient Mediterranean; Second Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004. 582). Above all, Constantine was a pragmatist. It would be cynical to egregiously disavow his commitment to Christianity, but it would be equally wrong to think that he would allow Christianity to meddle in the governance of his empire. As he reputedly told a group of bishops, "You are bishops of those within the church, but I am perhaps a bishop appointed by God of those outside." Whatever the motives for his decision to support Christianity, Christianity benefitted from the arrangement. So, too, did Constantine. It was a match made in heaven.
J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

For perhaps the best Constantine The Great site on the web, see Victor Clark's Constantine The Great Coins: http://www.constantinethegreatcoins.com/
Cleisthenes
12817p00.jpg
1403f, Constantine I (the Great), early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D. (Heraclea)20 viewsBronze follis, RIC 5, F/aF, 3.513g, 20.4mm, 180o, Heraclea mint, 313 A.D.; obverse IMP C FL VAL CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, laureate head right; reverse IOVI CONSER-VATORI AVGG, Jupiter standing left holding Victory and scepter, eagle with wreath in beek at feet, B in right field, SMHT in exergue.

The Emperor Constantine I was effectively the sole ruler of the Roman world between 324 and 337 A.D.; his reign was perhaps one of the most crucial of all the emperors in determining the future course of western civilization. By beginning the process of making Christianity the religious foundation of his realm, he set the religious course for the future of Europe which remains in place to this very day. Because he replaced Rome with Constantinople as the center of imperial power, he made it clear that the city of Rome was no longer the center of power and he also set the stage for the Middle Ages. His philosophical view of monarchy, largely spelled out in some of the works of Eusebius of Caesarea, became the foundation for the concept of the divine right of kings which prevailed in Europe.

Constantine was not a "Christian convert" in any traditional sense. He was not baptized until close to death, and while that was not an uncommon practice, the mention of Christ in his speeches and decrees is conspicuous by its absence. Eusebius, Church historian and Constantine biographer, is responsible for much of the valorization of Constantine as the Christian Emperor. The somnambulant "sign" in which Constantine was to become victor at the Milvian Bridge is, not so surprisingly, revealed to posterity long after the "fact." Throughout his reign, Constantine continues to portray himself on coins as a sun god (Freeman, Charles. Egypt, Greece and Rome: Civilizations of the Ancient Mediterranean; Second Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004. 582). Above all, Constantine was a pragmatist. It would be cynical to egregiously disavow his commitment to Christianity, but it would be equally wrong to think that he would allow Christianity to meddle in the governance of his empire. As he reputedly told a group of bishops, "You are bishops of those within the church, but I am perhaps a bishop appointed by God of those outside." Whatever the motives for his decision to support Christianity, Christianity benefitted from the arrangement. So, too, did Constantine. It was a match made in heaven.
J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

For perhaps the best Constantine The Great site on the web, see Victor Clark's Constantine The Great Coins: http://www.constantinethegreatcoins.com/
Cleisthenes
CTGaeFolNico.jpg
1403g, Constantine I (the Great), early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D. (Nicomedia)22 viewsConstantine the Great, early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D. Bronze follis, RIC 12, aVF, Nicomedia mint, 2.760g, 22.0mm, 0o, 313 - 317 A.D. Obverse: IMP C FL VAL CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, laureate head right; Reverse: IOVI CONS-ERVATORI, Jupiter standing left holding Victory on globe and scepter, eagle with wreath in beak left, G right, SMN in exergue; scarce.

The Emperor Constantine I was effectively the sole ruler of the Roman world between 324 and 337 A.D.; his reign was perhaps one of the most crucial of all the emperors in determining the future course of western civilization. By beginning the process of making Christianity the religious foundation of his realm, he set the religious course for the future of Europe which remains in place to this very day. Because he replaced Rome with Constantinople as the center of imperial power, he made it clear that the city of Rome was no longer the center of power and he also set the stage for the Middle Ages. His philosophical view of monarchy, largely spelled out in some of the works of Eusebius of Caesarea, became the foundation for the concept of the divine right of kings which prevailed in Europe.

Constantine was not a "Christian convert" in any traditional sense. He was not baptized until close to death, and while that was not an uncommon practice, the mention of Christ in his speeches and decrees is conspicuous by its absence. Eusebius, Church historian and Constantine biographer, is responsible for much of the valorization of Constantine as the Christian Emperor. The somnambulant "sign" in which Constantine was to become victor at the Milvian Bridge is, not so surprisingly, revealed to posterity long after the "fact." Throughout his reign, Constantine continues to portray himself on coins as a sun god (Freeman, Charles. Egypt, Greece and Rome: Civilizations of the Ancient Mediterranean; Second Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004. 582). Above all, Constantine was a pragmatist. It would be cynical to egregiously disavow his commitment to Christianity, but it would be equally wrong to think that he would allow Christianity to meddle in the governance of his empire. As he reputedly told a group of bishops, "You are bishops of those within the church, but I am perhaps a bishop appointed by God of those outside." Whatever the motives for his decision to support Christianity, Christianity benefitted from the arrangement. So, too, did Constantine. It was a match made in heaven.
J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

For perhaps the best Constantine The Great site on the web, see Victor Clark's Constantine The Great Coins: http://www.constantinethegreatcoins.com/
Cleisthenes
CTG.jpg
1403h, Constantine I (the Great), early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D. (Siscia)36 viewsBronze follis, RIC 232b, gVF, Siscia, 3.87g, 23.8mm, 180o, early 313 A.D. Obverse: IMP CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, laureate head right; Reverse: IOVI CONSERVATORI AVGG NN, Jupiter standing left holding Victory on globe and scepter, eagle with wreath in beak left, E right, SIS in exergue.

The Emperor Constantine I was effectively the sole ruler of the Roman world between 324 and 337 A.D.; his reign was perhaps one of the most crucial of all the emperors in determining the future course of western civilization. By beginning the process of making Christianity the religious foundation of his realm, he set the religious course for the future of Europe which remains in place to this very day. Because he replaced Rome with Constantinople as the center of imperial power, he made it clear that the city of Rome was no longer the center of power and he also set the stage for the Middle Ages. His philosophical view of monarchy, largely spelled out in some of the works of Eusebius of Caesarea, became the foundation for the concept of the divine right of kings which prevailed in Europe.

Constantine was not a "Christian convert" in any traditional sense. He was not baptized until close to death, and while that was not an uncommon practice, the mention of Christ in his speeches and decrees is conspicuous by its absence. Eusebius, Church historian and Constantine biographer, is responsible for much of the valorization of Constantine as the Christian Emperor. The somnambulant "sign" in which Constantine was to become victor at the Milvian Bridge is, not so surprisingly, revealed to posterity long after the "fact." Throughout his reign, Constantine continues to portray himself on coins as a sun god (Freeman, Charles. Egypt, Greece and Rome: Civilizations of the Ancient Mediterranean; Second Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004. 582). Above all, Constantine was a pragmatist. It would be cynical to egregiously disavow his commitment to Christianity, but it would be equally wrong to think that he would allow Christianity to meddle in the governance of his empire. As he reputedly told a group of bishops, "You are bishops of those within the church, but I am perhaps a bishop appointed by God of those outside." Whatever the motives for his decision to support Christianity, Christianity benefitted from the arrangement. So, too, did Constantine. It was a match made in heaven.
J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

For perhaps the best Constantine The Great site on the web, see Victor Clark's Constantine The Great Coins: http://www.constantinethegreatcoins.com/
Cleisthenes
CTG_SisCmpGte.jpg
1403i, Constantine I (the Great), early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D. (Siscia)42 viewsSilvered AE 3, RIC 214, VF, Siscia mint, 3.187g, 19.3mm, 0o, 328 - 329 A.D.
Obverse: CONSTAN-TINVS AVG, laureate head right; Reverse PROVIDEN-TIAE AVGG, campgate with two turrets, star above, ASIS and double crescent in exergue.

Flavius Valerius Constantinus, Constantine the Great, was the son of Helena and the First Tetrarchic ruler Constantius I. Constantine is most famous for his conversion to Christianity and the battle of the Milvian Bridge where he defeated emperor Maxentius. It is reputed that before the battle, he saw the words "In Hoc Signo Victor Eris" (By this sign you shall conquer) emblazoned on the sun around the Chi Rho, the symbol of Christianity. Other sources claim the vision came to Constantine I in a dream. The story continues that after placing this Christogram on the shields of his army, he defeated his opponent and thus ruled the empire through divine providence. Constantine I also shifted the capital of the empire to Constantinople, establishing the foundation for an Empire that would last another 1000 years. He died in 337 and his sons divided the Roman territories.

The Emperor Constantine I was effectively the sole ruler of the Roman world between 324 and 337 A.D.; his reign was perhaps one of the most crucial of all the emperors in determining the future course of western civilization. By beginning the process of making Christianity the religious foundation of his realm, he set the religious course for the future of Europe which remains in place to this very day. Because he replaced Rome with Constantinople as the center of imperial power, he made it clear that the city of Rome was no longer the center of power, and he also set the stage for the Middle Ages. His philosophical view of monarchy, largely spelled out in some of the works of Eusebius of Caesarea, became the foundation for the concept of the divine right of kings which prevailed in Europe.

Constantine was not a "Christian convert" in any traditional sense. He was not baptized until close to death, and while that was not an uncommon practice, the mention of Christ in his speeches and decrees is conspicuous by its absence. Eusebius, Church historian and Constantine biographer, is responsible for much of the valorization of Constantine as the Christian Emperor. The somnambulant "sign" in which Constantine was to become victor at the Milvian Bridge is, not so surprisingly, revealed to posterity long after the "fact." Throughout his reign, Constantine continues to portray himself on coins as a sun god (Freeman, Charles. Egypt, Greece and Rome: Civilizations of the Ancient Mediterranean; Second Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004. 582). Above all, Constantine was a pragmatist. It would be cynical to egregiously disavow his commitment to Christianity, but it would be equally wrong to think that he would allow Christianity to meddle in the governance of his empire. As he reputedly told a group of bishops, "You are bishops of those within the church, but I am perhaps a bishop appointed by God of those outside." Whatever the motives for his decision to support Christianity, Christianity benefitted from the arrangement. So, too, did Constantine. It was a match made in heaven.
J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

For perhaps the best Constantine The Great site on the web, see Victor Clark's Constantine The Great Coins: http://www.constantinethegreatcoins.com/
Cleisthenes
CTG_ThesCmpGte.jpg
1403j, Constantine I (the Great), early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D. (Thessalonica)26 viewsBronze AE 3, RIC 153, VF, Thessalonica mint, 2.955g, 19.7mm, 0o, 326 - 328 A.D. Obverse: CONSTAN-TINVS AVG, laureate head right; Reverse: PROVIDEN-TIAE AVGG, campgate with two turrets, star above, dot right, SMTSG in exergue.

Flavius Valerius Constantinus, Constantine the Great, was the son of Helena and the First Tetrarchic ruler Constantius I. Constantine is most famous for his conversion to Christianity and the battle of the Milvian Bridge where he defeated emperor Maxentius. It is reputed that before the battle, he saw the words "In Hoc Signo Victor Eris" (By this sign you shall conquer) emblazoned on the sun around the Chi Rho, the symbol of Christianity. Other sources claim the vision came to Constantine I in a dream. The story continues that after placing this Christogram on the shields of his army, he defeated his opponent and thus ruled the empire through divine providence. Constantine I also shifted the capital of the empire to Constantinople, establishing the foundation for an Empire that would last another 1000 years. He died in 337 and his sons divided the Roman territories.

The Emperor Constantine I was effectively the sole ruler of the Roman world between 324 and 337 A.D.; his reign was perhaps one of the most crucial of all the emperors in determining the future course of western civilization. By beginning the process of making Christianity the religious foundation of his realm, he set the religious course for the future of Europe which remains in place to this very day. Because he replaced Rome with Constantinople as the center of imperial power, he made it clear that the city of Rome was no longer the center of power, and he also set the stage for the Middle Ages. His philosophical view of monarchy, largely spelled out in some of the works of Eusebius of Caesarea, became the foundation for the concept of the divine right of kings which prevailed in Europe.

Constantine was not a "Christian convert" in any traditional sense. He was not baptized until close to death, and while that was not an uncommon practice, the mention of Christ in his speeches and decrees is conspicuous by its absence. Eusebius, Church historian and Constantine biographer, is responsible for much of the valorization of Constantine as the Christian Emperor. The somnambulant "sign" in which Constantine was to become victor at the Milvian Bridge is, not so surprisingly, revealed to posterity long after the "fact." Throughout his reign, Constantine continues to portray himself on coins as a sun god (Freeman, Charles. Egypt, Greece and Rome: Civilizations of the Ancient Mediterranean; Second Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004. 582). Above all, Constantine was a pragmatist. It would be cynical to egregiously disavow his commitment to Christianity, but it would be equally wrong to think that he would allow Christianity to meddle in the governance of his empire. As he reputedly told a group of bishops, "You are bishops of those within the church, but I am perhaps a bishop appointed by God of those outside." Whatever the motives for his decision to support Christianity, Christianity benefitted from the arrangement. So, too, did Constantine. It was a match made in heaven.
J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

For perhaps the best Constantine The Great site on the web, see Victor Clark's Constantine The Great Coins: http://www.constantinethegreatcoins.com/
Cleisthenes
CrispusRIC17.jpg
1404a, Crispus, Caesar 317 - 326 A.D. 38 viewsBronze AE 3, RIC 17, aEF, Cyzicus mint, 3.196g, 19.9mm, 315o, 321 - 324 A.D.; Obverse: D N FL IVL CRISPVS NOB CAES, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right; Reverse: IOVI CONSERVATORI, Jupiter standing left holding Victory on globe in right and scepter in left, eagle with wreath in beak to left, X / IIG and captive right, SMKD in exergue; scarce (RIC R3). Ex FORVM.


De Imperatoribus Romanis;
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors and their Families

Crispus Caesar (317-326 A.D.)

Hans Pohlsander
SUNY Albany

Crispus was the oldest son of the emperor Constantine I and played a fairly important role in the political and military events of the early fourth century. The regular form of his full name is Flavius Iulius Crispus, although the forms Flavius Claudius Crispus and Flavius Valerius Crispus also occur. His mother was a woman named Minervina, with whom Constantine had a relationship, probably illegitimate, before he married Fausta in 307. When Minervina died or when Constantine put her aside we do not know. Nor do we know when she gave birth to Crispus; we may assume, of course, that it was before 307. Some modern authorities, on good grounds, think that it was in 305. Crispus' place of birth must have been somewhere in the East, and it is not known when he was brought to Gaul and when, where, or under what circumstances he was separated from his mother.

Constantine entrusted the education of his son to the distinguished Christian scholar Lactantius, thereby giving a clear sign of his commitment to Christianity. We are not told when Lactantius assumed his duties, but a date before 317 seems likely. Nor do we know how successful he was in instilling Christian beliefs and values in his imperial pupil. No later than January of 322 Crispus must have married a woman named Helena -- not to be confused with Constantine's mother or daughter by the same name- and this woman bore him a child in October of 322. Constantine, we learn, was pleased.

Crispus' official career began at an early age and is well documented. On March 1 of 317, at Serdica (modern Sofia), his father appointed him Caesar. The consulship was his three times, in 318, 321, and 324. While nominally in charge of Gaul, with a prefect at his side, he successfully undertook military operations against the Franks and Alamanni in 320 and 323.

In 324, during the second war between Constantine and Licinius, he excelled as commander of Constantine's fleet in the waters of the Hellespont, the Propontis, and the Bosporus, thus making a significant contribution to the outcome of that war. The high points of his career are amply reflected in the imperial coinage. In addition to coins, we have his portrait, with varying degrees of certainty, in a number of sculptures, mosaics, cameos, etc. Contemporary authors heap praises upon him. Thus the panegyrist Nazarius speaks of Crispus' "magnificent deeds," and Eusebius calls him "an emperor most dear to God and in all regards comparable to his father."

Crispus' end was as tragic as his career had been brilliant. His own father ordered him to be put to death. We know the year of this sad event, 326, from the Consularia Constantinopolitana, and the place, Pola in Istria, from Ammianus Marcellinus. The circumstances, however, are less clear. Zosimus (6th c.) and Zonaras (12th c.) both report that Crispus and his stepmother Fausta were involved in an illicit relationship. There may be as much gossip as fact in their reports, but it is certain that at some time during the same year the emperor ordered the death of his own wife as well, and the two cases must be considered together. That Crispus and Fausta plotted treason is reported by Gregory of Tours, but not very believable. We must resolutely reject the claim of Zosimus that it was Constantine's sense of guilt over these deeds which caused him to accept Christianity, as it alone promised him forgiveness for his sins. A similar claim had already been made by Julian the Apostate. We must also, I think, reject the suggestion of Guthrie that the emperor acted in the interest of "dynastic legitimacy," that is, that he removed his illegitimate first-born son in order to secure the succession for his three legitimate younger sons. But Crispus must have committed, or at least must have been suspected of having committed, some especially shocking offense to earn him a sentence of death from his own father. He also suffered damnatio memoriae, his honor was never restored, and history has not recorded the fate of his wife and his child (or children).

Copyright (C) 1997, Hans A. Pohlsander. Published on De Imperatoribus Romanis;An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors and their Families:
http://www.roman-emperors.org/crispus.htm


What If?

St. Nectarios, in his book, The Ecumenical Synods, writes "Hellenism spread by Alexander paved the way for Christianity by Emperor Constantine the Great."

Constantine's upward gaze on his "Eyes to Heaven" coins recall the coin portraits of Alexander the Great (namely coins struck by the Diodochi), which served as prototypes for the divine ruler portraiture of much of the Hellenistic age. The diadem, of which this is the most elaborate type, was adopted by Constantine and the members of his house as a new symbol of sovereignty.

In the Greek Orthodox Church, Constantine the Great is revered as a Saint.

Is it just possible? Constantine, knowing what happened (or thinking that he does) to Phillip II of Macedon—assassinated on the eve of his greatness, in a plot that most likely involved his wife—and possibly his son. . . isn’t it just possible that Constantine is growing obsessively jealous of his ever more successful and adulated son? Imagine the Constantine who has proven time and again (think: Licinius) that he is a completely self-serving liar and a murderer, decides to murder again? Why "must we resolutely reject the claim of Zosimus that it was Constantine's sense of guilt over these deeds which caused him to accept Christianity, as it alone promised him forgiveness for his sins [?] (see: above). A similar claim had already been made by Julian the [Philosopher]."

Perhaps it is time to cease being apologists for the sometime megalomaniacal Constantine. As Michael Grant notes, "It is a mocking travesty of justice to call such a murderer Constantine the Great . . ." (Grant, Michael. The Emperor Constantine. London: Phoenix Press, 1998. 226).


Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.


Cleisthenes
crispus_votV.jpg
1404b, Crispus, Caesar 317 - 326 A.D. (Thessalonica)35 viewsBronze AE 3, RIC 118, VF, Thessalonica mint, 2.740g, 18.0mm, 180o, 320 - 321 A.D. Obverse: FL IVL CRISPVS NOB CAES, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust left; Reverse: CAESARVM NOSTRORVM, VOT V in wreath, TSDVI in exergue.

Flavius Julius Crispus was the son of Constantine I by his first wife. A brilliant soldier, Crispus was well loved by all until 326 A.D., when Constantine had him executed. It is said that Fausta, Crispus stepmother, anxious to secure the succession for her own sons falsely accused Crispus of raping her. Constantine, learning of Fausta`s treachery, had her executed too.


De Imperatoribus Romanis;
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors and their Families

Crispus Caesar (317-326 A.D.)

Hans Pohlsander
SUNY Albany

Crispus was the oldest son of the emperor Constantine I and played a fairly important role in the political and military events of the early fourth century. The regular form of his full name is Flavius Iulius Crispus, although the forms Flavius Claudius Crispus and Flavius Valerius Crispus also occur. His mother was a woman named Minervina, with whom Constantine had a relationship, probably illegitimate, before he married Fausta in 307. When Minervina died or when Constantine put her aside we do not know. Nor do we know when she gave birth to Crispus; we may assume, of course, that it was before 307. Some modern authorities, on good grounds, think that it was in 305. Crispus' place of birth must have been somewhere in the East, and it is not known when he was brought to Gaul and when, where, or under what circumstances he was separated from his mother.

Constantine entrusted the education of his son to the distinguished Christian scholar Lactantius, thereby giving a clear sign of his commitment to Christianity. We are not told when Lactantius assumed his duties, but a date before 317 seems likely. Nor do we know how successful he was in instilling Christian beliefs and values in his imperial pupil. No later than January of 322 Crispus must have married a woman named Helena -- not to be confused with Constantine's mother or daughter by the same name- and this woman bore him a child in October of 322. Constantine, we learn, was pleased.

Crispus' official career began at an early age and is well documented. On March 1 of 317, at Serdica (modern Sofia), his father appointed him Caesar. The consulship was his three times, in 318, 321, and 324. While nominally in charge of Gaul, with a prefect at his side, he successfully undertook military operations against the Franks and Alamanni in 320 and 323.

In 324, during the second war between Constantine and Licinius, he excelled as commander of Constantine's fleet in the waters of the Hellespont, the Propontis, and the Bosporus, thus making a significant contribution to the outcome of that war. The high points of his career are amply reflected in the imperial coinage. In addition to coins, we have his portrait, with varying degrees of certainty, in a number of sculptures, mosaics, cameos, etc. Contemporary authors heap praises upon him. Thus the panegyrist Nazarius speaks of Crispus' "magnificent deeds," and Eusebius calls him "an emperor most dear to God and in all regards comparable to his father."

Crispus' end was as tragic as his career had been brilliant. His own father ordered him to be put to death. We know the year of this sad event, 326, from the Consularia Constantinopolitana, and the place, Pola in Istria, from Ammianus Marcellinus. The circumstances, however, are less clear. Zosimus (6th c.) and Zonaras (12th c.) both report that Crispus and his stepmother Fausta were involved in an illicit relationship. There may be as much gossip as fact in their reports, but it is certain that at some time during the same year the emperor ordered the death of his own wife as well, and the two cases must be considered together. That Crispus and Fausta plotted treason is reported by Gregory of Tours, but not very believable. We must resolutely reject the claim of Zosimus that it was Constantine's sense of guilt over these deeds which caused him to accept Christianity, as it alone promised him forgiveness for his sins. A similar claim had already been made by Julian the Apostate. We must also, I think, reject the suggestion of Guthrie that the emperor acted in the interest of "dynastic legitimacy," that is, that he removed his illegitimate first-born son in order to secure the succession for his three legitimate younger sons. But Crispus must have committed, or at least must have been suspected of having committed, some especially shocking offense to earn him a sentence of death from his own father. He also suffered damnatio memoriae, his honor was never restored, and history has not recorded the fate of his wife and his child (or children).

Copyright (C) 1997, Hans A. Pohlsander. Published on De Imperatoribus Romanis;An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors and their Families:
http://www.roman-emperors.org/crispus.htm


What If?

St. Nectarios, in his book, The Ecumenical Synods, writes "Hellenism spread by Alexander paved the way for Christianity by Emperor Constantine the Great."

Constantine's upward gaze on his "Eyes to Heaven" coins recall the coin portraits of Alexander the Great (namely coins struck by the Diodochi), which served as prototypes for the divine ruler portraiture of much of the Hellenistic age. The diadem, of which this is the most elaborate type, was adopted by Constantine and the members of his house as a new symbol of sovereignty.

In the Greek Orthodox Church, Constantine the Great is revered as a Saint.

Is it just possible? Constantine, knowing what happened (or thinking that he does) to Phillip II of Macedon—assassinated on the eve of his greatness, in a plot that most likely involved his wife—and possibly his son. . . isn’t it just possible that Constantine is growing obsessively jealous of his ever more successful and adulated son? Imagine the Constantine who has proven time and again (think: Licinius) that he is a completely self-serving liar and a murderer, decides to murder again? Why "must we resolutely reject the claim of Zosimus that it was Constantine's sense of guilt over these deeds which caused him to accept Christianity, as it alone promised him forgiveness for his sins [?] (see: above). A similar claim had already been made by Julian the [Philosopher]."

Perhaps it is time to cease being apologists for the sometime megalomaniacal Constantine. As Michael Grant notes, "It is a mocking travesty of justice to call such a murderer Constantine the Great . . ." (Grant, Michael. The Emperor Constantine. London: Phoenix Press, 1998. 226).


Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
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1406a, Constantine II, 22 May 337 - March or April 340 A.D. (Antioch)28 viewsConstantine II, 22 May 337 - March or April 340 A.D. Bronze AE 3, RIC 87, gVF, Antioch, 2.17g, 17.6mm, 0o, 330-335 A.D. Obverse: CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C, laureate and cuirassed bust right; Reverse: GLOR-IA EXERC-ITVS, two soldiers, each holding spear and shield on ground, flanking two standards, SMANE in exergue.

Constantine II (February 317 - 340) was Roman Emperor (337 - 340). The eldest son of Constantine I the Great and Fausta, he was born at Arles. Following the death of his father in 337, Constantine II became Emperor jointly with his brothers Constantius II and Constans. His section of the Empire was Gaul, Britain and Spain. At first, he was the guardian of his younger brother Constans, whose portion was Italy, Africa and Illyria. As Constans came of age, Constantine would not relinquish the guardianship, and in 340 he marched against Constans in Italy, but was defeated at Aquileia and died in battle. Constans came to control Constantine II's portion of the empire.
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1406c, Constantine II, 337-340 A.D.36 viewsConstantine II, 317-340. AE3, RIC VII, 74 ('theta' = r), page 581 2.22 grams, 333-335 AD, Constantinople mint, VF. Obverse : CONSTANTIVS IVN NOB C - Laureate bust right, draped and cuirassed. Reverse: GLOR-IA EXERC-ITVS - Two soldiers looking in at each other and both holding a spear; between them, two standards. CONS (theta) (dot) in exergue. Rare.

Constantine II (February 317 - 340) was Roman Emperor (337 - 340). The eldest son of Constantine I the Great and Fausta, he was born at Arles. Following the death of his father in 337, Constantine II became Emperor jointly with his brothers Constantius II and Constans. His section of the Empire was Gaul, Britain and Spain. At first, he was the guardian of his younger brother Constans, whose portion was Italy, Africa and Illyria. As Constans came of age, Constantine would not relinquish the guardianship, and in 340 he marched against Constans in Italy, but was defeated at Aquileia and died in battle. Constans came to control Constantine II's portion of the empire.
Cleisthenes
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1407a, Constantius II, 337-361 A.D. (Antioch)51 viewsAE4, 337-361 A.D. Antioch, aVF/VF,Obv:– DN CONSTANTIVS P F AVG, Pearl and rosette diadem, head right/R: Wreath with VOT XX MVLT XXX, SMANB in exe.RIC VIII Antioch 113,Item ref: RI170b.

AE3, 2.80 grams, 330-333, Heraclea, aVF. Obv: FL IVL CONSTANTIVS NOB C - Laureate bust right, draped and cuirassed. R: GLOR-IA EXERC-ITVS - Two soldiers looking in at each other and both holding a spear; between them, two standards Exe: SMHB.

Constantius II was born in Illyricum in August AD 317, the son of Constantine the Great and Fausta, and was proclaimed Caesar in AD 323.

In AD 337, at the death of his father Constantine, he acceded to the throne together with his two brothers Constantine II and Constans. But this accession by the three brothers was tainted by the murder of their cousins Dalmatius and Hannibalianus, whom Constantine had also intended as joint heirs. These murders are believed to have been masterminded by Constantius II.

Eventually, Constantius II was left as the sole emperor of the Roman empire. Constantius elevated his cousin, Julian, to the rank of Caesar (junior emperor) and gave him his sister Helena in marriage. Julian was assigned the task of dealing with the Frankish leader, Silvanus, who had proclaimed himself emepror at Colonia Agrippina. Julian's success led his men to declare him Augustus. Julian, while reluctant to take the throne, accepted.

Constantius II, therefore, left the Mesopotamian frontier and marched his troops west, seeking to deal with the usurper. As he reached Cilicia in the winter of AD 361, he was overcome by a sudden fever and died at Mopsucrene. Julian, the Apostate, succeded him as Emperor.

Our chief source for Constantius' reign is the great historian Ammianus Marcellinus. He presents a mixed view of that emperor. In some ways a sound administrator and competent general, Constantius is also portrayed as easily influenced by those around him such as his wives, courtiers and the eunuchs of the court (Ammianus 21. 16. 16). Ammianus (21.16.18) also attacks Constantius' great interest in Church affairs--alleging that he bankrupted the courier service with calls for Church councils. Of course, imperial interest in Church affairs was a major policy of his father Constantine and it may be that Constantius was trying to emulate his model (if only with mixed success). Indeed, Constantius II (like his brothers Constantine II and Constans) was raised a Christian. Among his many laws is the famous CTh 16.10.2 of 341 which either prohibited or re-issued his father's prohibition of pagan sacrifices. Sympathetic to Arianism, he spent a great deal of his reign calling Church councils. One of the longest-reigned emperors in Roman history, Constantius is hard for the modern historian to fully understand both due to his own actions and due to the interests of the authors of primary sources for his reign.

By Michael DiMaio, Jr., Salve Regina University & Robert Frakes, Clarion University
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

1 commentsCleisthenes
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1407h, Constantius II, 337-361 A.D. (Heraclea)32 viewsConstantius II 337-361 A.D. AE3, 2.80 grams, 330-333, Heraclea, aVF. Obverse: FL IVL CONSTANTIVS NOB C - Laureate bust right, draped and cuirassed; Reverse: GLOR-IA EXERC-ITVS - Two soldiers looking in at each other and both holding a spear; between them, two standards; SMHB in exergue.

Constantius II was born in Illyricum in August AD 317, the son of Constantine the Great and Fausta, and was proclaimed Caesar in AD 323.

In AD 337, at the death of his father Constantine, he acceded to the throne together with his two brothers Constantine II and Constans. But this accession by the three brothers was tainted by the murder of their cousins Dalmatius and Hannibalianus, whom Constantine had also intended as joint heirs. These murders are believed to have been masterminded by Constantius II.

Eventually, Constantius II was left as the sole emperor of the Roman empire. Constantius elevated his cousin, Julian, to the rank of Caesar (junior emperor) and gave him his sister Helena in marriage. Julian was assigned the task of dealing with the Frankish leader, Silvanus, who had proclaimed himself emepror at Colonia Agrippina. Julian's success led his men to declare him Augustus. Julian, while reluctant to take the throne, accepted.

Constantius II, therefore, left the Mesopotamian frontier and marched his troops west, seeking to deal with the usurper. As he reached Cilicia in the winter of AD 361, he was overcome by a sudden fever and died at Mopsucrene. Julian, the Apostate, succeded him as Emperor.

Our chief source for Constantius' reign is the great historian Ammianus Marcellinus. He presents a mixed view of that emperor. In some ways a sound administrator and competent general, Constantius is also portrayed as easily influenced by those around him such as his wives, courtiers and the eunuchs of the court (Ammianus 21. 16. 16). Ammianus (21.16.18) also attacks Constantius' great interest in Church affairs--alleging that he bankrupted the courier service with calls for Church councils. Of course, imperial interest in Church affairs was a major policy of his father Constantine and it may be that Constantius was trying to emulate his model (if only with mixed success). Indeed, Constantius II (like his brothers Constantine II and Constans) was raised a Christian. Among his many laws is the famous CTh 16.10.2 of 341 which either prohibited or re-issued his father's prohibition of pagan sacrifices. Sympathetic to Arianism, he spent a great deal of his reign calling Church councils. One of the longest-reigned emperors in Roman history, Constantius is hard for the modern historian to fully understand both due to his own actions and due to the interests of the authors of primary sources for his reign.
By Michael DiMaio, Jr., Salve Regina University & Robert Frakes, Clarion University
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
Constantius II.jpg
1407r, Constantius II, 22 May 337 - 3 November 361 A.D.39 viewsBronze AE 3, RIC 272, aVF, 2.203g, 18.1mm, 0o, Rome mint, 352 - 355 A.D.; obverse D N CONSTAN-TIVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse FEL TEMP REPARATIO, soldier spearing fallen horseman, RT in ex.

Constantius II was born in Illyricum in August AD 317, the son of Constantine the Great and Fausta, and was proclaimed Caesar in AD 323.

In AD 337, at the death of his father Constantine, he acceded to the throne together with his two brothers Constantine II and Constans. But this accession by the three brothers was tainted by the murder of their cousins Dalmatius and Hannibalianus, whom Constantine had also intended as joint heirs. These murders are believed to have been masterminded by Constantius II.

Eventually, Constantius II was left as the sole emperor of the Roman empire. Constantius elevated Julian to the rank of Caesar (junior emperor) and gave him his sister Helena in marriage. Julian was assigned the task of dealing with the Frankish leader, Silvanus, who had proclaimed himself emepror at Colonia Agrippina. Julian's success lead his men to declare him Augustus. Julian, while reluctant to take the throne, accepted.

Constantius II, therefore left the Mesopotamian frontier and marched his troops west, seeking to deal with the usurper. As he reached Cilicia in the winter of AD 361, he was overcome by a sudden fever and died at Mopsucrene. Julian, the Apostate, succeded him as Emperor.

Our chief source for Constantius' reign is the great historian Ammianus Marcellinus. He presents a mixed view of that emperor. In some ways a sound administrator and competent general, Constantius is also portrayed as easily influenced by those around him such as his wives, courtiers and the eunuchs of the court (Ammianus 21. 16. 16). Ammianus (21.16.18) also attacks Constantius' great interest in Church affairs--alleging that he bankrupted the courier service with calls for Church councils. Of course, imperial interest in Church affairs was a major policy of his father Constantine and it may be that Constantius was trying to emulate his model (if only with mixed success). Indeed, Constantius II (like his brothers Constantine II and Constans) was raised a Christian. Among his many laws is the famous CTh 16.10.2 of 341 which either prohibited or re-issued his father's prohibition of pagan sacrifices. Sympathetic to Arianism, he spent a great deal of his reign calling Church councils. One of the longest-reigned emperors in Roman history, Constantius is hard for the modern historian to fully understand both due to his own actions and due to the interests of the authors of primary sources for his reign.

By Michael DiMaio, Jr., Salve Regina University & Robert Frakes, Clarion University
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.



Cleisthenes
Julian2VotXConstantinople.jpg
1409a, Julian II "the Philosopher," February 360 - 26 June 363 A.D.143 viewsJulian II, A.D. 360-363; RIC 167; VF; 2.7g, 20mm; Constantinople mint; Obverse: DN FL CL IVLIANVS P F AVG, helmeted & cuirassed bust right, holding spear & shield; Reverse: VOT X MVLT XX in four lines within wreath; CONSPB in exergue; Attractive green patina. Ex Nemesis.


De Imperatoribus Romanis,
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors

Julian the Apostate (360-363 A.D.)

Walter E. Roberts, Emory University
Michael DiMaio, Jr., Salve Regina University

Introduction

The emperor Flavius Claudius Julianus reigned from 360 to 26 June 363, when he was killed fighting against the Persians. Despite his short rule, his emperorship was pivotal in the development of the history of the later Roman empire. This essay is not meant to be a comprehensive look at the various issues central to the reign of Julian and the history of the later empire. Rather, this short work is meant to be a brief history and introduction for the general reader. Julian was the last direct descendent of the Constantinian line to ascend to the purple, and it is one of history's great ironies that he was the last non-Christian emperor. As such, he has been vilified by most Christian sources, beginning with John Chrysostom and Gregory Nazianzus in the later fourth century. This tradition was picked up by the fifth century Eusebian continuators Sozomen, Socrates Scholasticus, and Theodoret and passed on to scholars down through the 20th century. Most contemporary sources, however, paint a much more balanced picture of Julian and his reign. The adoption of Christianity by emperors and society, while still a vital concern, was but one of several issues that concerned Julian.

It is fortunate that extensive writings from Julian himself exist, which help interpret his reign in the light of contemporary evidence. Still extant are some letters, several panegyrics, and a few satires. Other contemporary sources include the soldier Ammianus Marcellinus' history, correspondence between Julian and Libanius of Antioch, several panegyrics, laws from the Theodosian Code, inscriptions, and coinage. These sources show Julian's emphasis on restoration. He saw himself as the restorer of the traditional values of Roman society. Of course much of this was rhetoric, meant to defend Julian against charges that he was a usurper. At the same time this theme of restoration was central to all emperors of the fourth century. Julian thought that he was the one emperor who could regain what was viewed as the lost glory of the Roman empire. To achieve this goal he courted select groups of social elites to get across his message of restoration. This was the way that emperors functioned in the fourth century. By choosing whom to include in the sharing of power, they sought to shape society.

Early Life

Julian was born at Constantinople in 331. His father was Julius Constantius, half-brother of the emperor Constantine through Constantius Chlorus, and his mother was Basilina, Julius' second wife. Julian had two half-brothers via Julius' first marriage. One of these was Gallus, who played a major role in Julian's life. Julian appeared destined for a bright future via his father's connection to the Constantinian house. After many years of tense relations with his three half-brothers, Constantine seemed to have welcomed them into the fold of the imperial family. From 333 to 335, Constantine conferred a series of honors upon his three half-siblings, including appointing Julius Constantius as one of the consuls for 335. Julian's mother was equally distinguished. Ammianus related that she was from a noble family. This is supported by Libanius, who claimed that she was the daughter of Julius Julianus, a Praetorian Prefect under Licinius, who was such a model of administrative virtue that he was pardoned and honored by Constantine.

Despite the fact that his mother died shortly after giving birth to him, Julian experienced an idyllic early childhood. This ended when Constantius II conducted a purge of many of his relatives shortly after Constantine's death in 337, particularly targeting the families of Constantine's half-brothers. ulian and Gallus were spared, probably due to their young age. Julian was put under the care of Mardonius, a Scythian eunuch who had tutored his mother, in 339, and was raised in the Greek philosophical tradition, and probably lived in Nicomedia. Ammianus also supplied the fact that while in Nicomedia, Julian was cared for by the local bishop Eusebius, of whom the future emperor was a distant relation. Julian was educated by some of the most famous names in grammar and rhetoric in the Greek world at that time, including Nicocles and Hecebolius. In 344 Constantius II sent Julian and Gallus to Macellum in Cappadocia, where they remained for six years. In 351, Gallus was made Caesar by Constantius II and Julian was allowed to return to Nicomedia, where he studied under Aedesius, Eusebius, and Chrysanthius, all famed philosophers, and was exposed to the Neo-Platonism that would become such a prominent part of his life. But Julian was most proud of the time he spent studying under Maximus of Ephesus, a noted Neo-Platonic philospher and theurgist. It was Maximus who completed Julian's full-scale conversion to Neo-Platonism. Later, when he was Caesar, Julian told of how he put letters from this philosopher under his pillows so that he would continue to absorb wisdom while he slept, and while campaigning on the Rhine, he sent his speeches to Maximus for approval before letting others hear them. When Gallus was executed in 354 for treason by Constantius II, Julian was summoned to Italy and essentially kept under house arrest at Comum, near Milan, for seven months before Constantius' wife Eusebia convinced the emperor that Julian posed no threat. This allowed Julian to return to Greece and continue his life as a scholar where he studied under the Neo-Platonist Priscus. Julian's life of scholarly pursuit, however, ended abruptly when he was summoned to the imperial court and made Caesar by Constantius II on 6 November 355.

Julian as Caesar

Constantius II realized an essential truth of the empire that had been evident since the time of the Tetrarchy--the empire was too big to be ruled effectively by one man. Julian was pressed into service as Caesar, or subordinate emperor, because an imperial presence was needed in the west, in particular in the Gallic provinces. Julian, due to the emperor's earlier purges, was the only viable candidate of the imperial family left who could act as Caesar. Constantius enjoined Julian with the task of restoring order along the Rhine frontier. A few days after he was made Caesar, Julian was married to Constantius' sister Helena in order to cement the alliance between the two men. On 1 December 355, Julian journeyed north, and in Augusta Taurinorum he learned that Alamannic raiders had destroyed Colonia Agrippina. He then proceeded to Vienne where he spent the winter. At Vienne, he learned that Augustudunum was also under siege, but was being held by a veteran garrison. He made this his first priority, and arrived there on 24 June 356. When he had assured himself that the city was in no immediate danger, he journeyed to Augusta Treverorum via Autessioduram, and from there to Durocortorum where he rendezvoused with his army. Julian had the army stage a series of punitive strikes around the Dieuse region, and then he moved them towards the Argentoratum/Mongontiacum region when word of barbarian incursions reached him.

From there, Julian moved on to Colonia Agrippina, and negotiated a peace with the local barbarian leaders who had assaulted the city. He then wintered at Senonae. He spent the early part of the campaigning season of 357 fighting off besiegers at Senonae, and then conducting operations around Lugdunum and Tres Tabernae. Later that summer, he encountered his watershed moment as a military general. Ammianus went into great detail about Julian's victory over seven rogue Alamannic chieftains near Argentoratum, and Julian himself bragged about it in his later writing. After this battle, the soldiers acclaimed Julian Augustus, but he rejected this title. After mounting a series of follow-up raids into Alamannic territory, he retired to winter quarters at Lutetia, and on the way defeated some Frankish raiders in the Mosa region. Julian considered this campaign one of the major events of his time as Caesar.

Julian began his 358 military campaigns early, hoping to catch the barbarians by surprise. His first target was the Franks in the northern Rhine region. He then proceeded to restore some forts in the Mosa region, but his soldiers threatened to mutiny because they were on short rations and had not been paid their donative since Julian had become Caesar. After he soothed his soldiers, Julian spent the rest of the summer negotiating a peace with various Alamannic leaders in the mid and lower Rhine areas, and retired to winter quarters at Lutetia. In 359, he prepared once again to carry out a series of punitive expeditions against the Alamanni in the Rhine region who were still hostile to the Roman presence. In preparation, the Caesar repopulated seven previously destroyed cities and set them up as supply bases and staging areas. This was done with the help of the people with whom Julian had negotiated a peace the year before. Julian then had a detachment of lightly armed soldiers cross the Rhine near Mogontiacum and conduct a guerilla strike against several chieftains. As a result of these campaigns, Julian was able to negotiate a peace with all but a handful of the Alamannic leaders, and he retired to winter quarters at Lutetia.

Of course, Julian did more than act as a general during his time as Caesar. According to Ammianus, Julian was an able administrator who took steps to correct the injustices of Constantius' appointees. Ammianus related the story of how Julian prevented Florentius, the Praetorian Prefect of Gaul, from raising taxes, and also how Julian actually took over as governor for the province of Belgica Secunda. Hilary, bishop of Poitiers, supported Ammianus' basic assessment of Julian in this regard when he reported that Julian was an able representative of the emperor to the Gallic provincials. There is also epigraphic evidence to support Julian's popularity amongst the provincial elites. An inscription found near Beneventum in Apulia reads:
"To Flavius Claudius Julianus, most noble and sanctified Caesar, from the caring Tocius Maximus, vir clarissimus, for the care of the res publica from Beneventum".

Tocius Maximus, as a vir clarissimus, was at the highest point in the social spectrum and was a leader in his local community. This inscription shows that Julian was successful in establishing a positive image amongst provincial elites while he was Caesar.

Julian Augustus

In early 360, Constantius, driven by jealousy of Julian's success, stripped Julian of many troops and officers, ostensibly because the emperor needed them for his upcoming campaign against the Persians. One of the legions ordered east, the Petulantes, did not want to leave Gaul because the majority of the soldiers in the unit were from this region. As a result they mutinied and hailed Julian as Augustus at Lutetia. Julian refused this acclamation as he had done at Argentoratum earlier, but the soldiers would have none of his denial. They raised him on a shield and adorned him with a neck chain, which had formerly been the possession of the standard-bearer of the Petulantes and symbolized a royal diadem. Julian appeared reluctantly to acquiesce to their wishes, and promised a generous donative. The exact date of his acclamation is unknown, but most scholars put it in February or March. Julian himself supported Ammianus' picture of a jealous Constantius. In his Letter to the Athenians, a document constructed to answer charges that he was a usurper, Julian stated that from the start he, as Caesar, had been meant as a figurehead to the soldiers and provincials. The real power he claimed lay with the generals and officials already present in Gaul. In fact, according to Julian, the generals were charged with watching him as much as the enemy. His account of the actual acclamation closely followed what Ammianus told us, but he stressed even more his reluctance to take power. Julian claimed that he did so only after praying to Zeus for guidance.

Fearing the reaction of Constantius, Julian sent a letter to his fellow emperor justifying the events at Lutetia and trying to arrange a peaceful solution. This letter berated Constantius for forcing the troops in Gaul into an untenable situation. Ammianus stated that Julian's letter blamed Constantius' decision to transfer Gallic legions east as the reason for the soldiers' rebellion. Julian once again asserted that he was an unwilling participant who was only following the desire of the soldiers. In both of these basic accounts Ammianus and Julian are playing upon the theme of restoration. Implicit in their version of Julian's acclamation is the argument that Constantius was unfit to rule. The soldiers were the vehicle of the gods' will. The Letter to the Athenians is full of references to the fact that Julian was assuming the mantle of Augustus at the instigation of the gods. Ammianus summed up this position nicely when he related the story of how, when Julian was agonizing over whether to accept the soldiers' acclamation, he had a dream in which he was visited by the Genius (guardian spirit) of the Roman state. The Genius told Julian that it had often tried to bestow high honors upon Julian but had been rebuffed. Now, the Genius went on to say, was Julian's final chance to take the power that was rightfully his. If the Caesar refused this chance, the Genius would depart forever, and both Julian and the state would rue Julian's rejection. Julian himself wrote a letter to his friend Maximus of Ephesus in November of 361 detailing his thoughts on his proclamation. In this letter, Julian stated that the soldiers proclaimed him Augustus against his will. Julian, however, defended his accession, saying that the gods willed it and that he had treated his enemies with clemency and justice. He went on to say that he led the troops in propitiating the traditional deities, because the gods commanded him to return to the traditional rites, and would reward him if he fulfilled this duty.

During 360 an uneasy peace simmered between the two emperors. Julian spent the 360 campaigning season continuing his efforts to restore order along the Rhine, while Constantius continued operations against the Persians. Julian wintered in Vienne, and celebrated his Quinquennalia. It was at this time that his wife Helena died, and he sent her remains to Rome for a proper burial at his family villa on the Via Nomentana where the body of her sister was entombed. The uneasy peace held through the summer of 361, but Julian concentrated his military operations around harassing the Alamannic chieftain Vadomarius and his allies, who had concluded a peace treaty with Constantius some years earlier. By the end of the summer, Julian decided to put an end to the waiting and gathered his army to march east against Constantius. The empire teetered on the brink of another civil war. Constantius had spent the summer negotiating with the Persians and making preparations for possible military action against his cousin. When he was assured that the Persians would not attack, he summoned his army and sallied forth to meet Julian. As the armies drew inexorably closer to one another, the empire was saved from another bloody civil war when Constantius died unexpectedly of natural causes on 3 November near the town of Mopsucrenae in Cilicia, naming Julian -- the sources say-- as his legitimate successor.

Julian was in Dacia when he learned of his cousin's death. He made his way through Thrace and came to Constantinople on 11 December 361 where Julian honored the emperor with the funeral rites appropriate for a man of his station. Julian immediately set about putting his supporters in positions of power and trimming the imperial bureaucracy, which had become extremely overstaffed during Constantius' reign. Cooks and barbers had increased during the late emperor's reign and Julian expelled them from his court. Ammianus gave a mixed assessment of how the new emperor handled the followers of Constantius. Traditionally, emperors were supposed to show clemency to the supporters of a defeated enemy. Julian, however, gave some men over to death to appease the army. Ammianus used the case of Ursulus, Constantius' comes sacrum largitionum, to illustrate his point. Ursulus had actually tried to acquire money for the Gallic troops when Julian had first been appointed Caesar, but he had also made a disparaging remark about the ineffectiveness of the army after the battle of Amida. The soldiers remembered this, and when Julian became sole Augustus, they demanded Ursulus' head. Julian obliged, much to the disapproval of Ammianus. This seems to be a case of Julian courting the favor of the military leadership, and is indicative of a pattern in which Julian courted the goodwill of various societal elites to legitimize his position as emperor.

Another case in point is the officials who made up the imperial bureaucracy. Many of them were subjected to trial and punishment. To achieve this goal, during the last weeks of December 361 Julian assembled a military tribunal at Chalcedon, empanelling six judges to try the cases. The president of the tribunal was Salutius, just promoted to the rank of Praetorian Prefect; the five other members were Mamertinus, the orator, and four general officers: Jovinus, Agilo, Nevitta, and Arbetio. Relative to the proceedings of the tribunal, Ammianus noted that the judges, " . . . oversaw the cases more vehemently than was right or fair, with the exception of a few . . .." Ammianus' account of Julian's attempt at reform of the imperial bureaucracy is supported by legal evidence from the Theodosian Code. A series of laws sent to Mamertinus, Julian's appointee as Praetorian Prefect in Italy, Illyricum, and Africa, illustrate this point nicely. On 6 June 362, Mamertinus received a law that prohibited provincial governors from bypassing the Vicars when giving their reports to the Prefect. Traditionally, Vicars were given civil authority over a group of provinces, and were in theory meant to serve as a middle step between governors and Prefects. This law suggests that the Vicars were being left out, at least in Illyricum. Julian issued another edict to Mamertinus on 22 February 362 to stop abuse of the public post by governors. According to this law, only Mamertinus could issue post warrants, but the Vicars were given twelve blank warrants to be used as they saw fit, and each governor was given two. Continuing the trend of bureaucratic reform, Julian also imposed penalties on governors who purposefully delayed appeals in court cases they had heard. The emperor also established a new official to weigh solidi used in official government transactions to combat coin clipping.

For Julian, reigning in the abuses of imperial bureaucrats was one step in restoring the prestige of the office of emperor. Because he could not affect all elements of society personally, Julian, like other Neo-Flavian emperors, decided to concentrate on select groups of societal elites as intercessors between himself and the general populace. One of these groups was the imperial bureaucracy. Julian made it very clear that imperial officials were intercessors in a very real sense in a letter to Alypius, Vicar of Britain. In this letter, sent from Gaul sometime before 361, the emperor praises Alypius for his use of "mildness and moderation with courage and force" in his rule of the provincials. Such virtues were characteristic of the emperors, and it was good that Alypius is representing Julian in this way. Julian courted the army because it put him in power. Another group he sought to include in his rule was the traditional Senatorial aristocracy. One of his first appointments as consul was Claudius Mamertinus, a Gallic Senator and rhetorician. Mamertinus' speech in praise of Julian delivered at Constantinople in January of 362 is preserved. In this speech, Claudius presented his consular selection as inaugurating a new golden age and Julian as the restorer of the empire founded by Augustus. The image Mamertinus gave of his own consulate inaugurating a new golden age is not merely formulaic. The comparison of Julian to Augustus has very real, if implicit, relevance to Claudius' situation. Claudius emphasized the imperial period as the true age of renewal. Augustus ushered in a new era with his formation of a partnership between the emperor and the Senate based upon a series of honors and offices bestowed upon the Senate in return for their role as intercessor between emperor and populace. It was this system that Julian was restoring, and the consulate was one concrete example of this bond. To be chosen as a consul by the emperor, who himself had been divinely mandated, was a divine honor. In addition to being named consul, Mamertinus went on to hold several offices under Julian, including the Prefecture of Italy, Illyricum, and Africa. Similarly, inscriptional evidence illustrates a link between municipal elites and Julian during his time as Caesar, something which continued after he became emperor. One concrete example comes from the municipal senate of Aceruntia in Apulia, which established a monument on which Julian is styled as "Repairer of the World."

Julian seems to have given up actual Christian belief before his acclamation as emperor and was a practitioner of more traditional Greco-Roman religious beliefs, in particular, a follower of certain late antique Platonist philosophers who were especially adept at theurgy as was noted earlier. In fact Julian himself spoke of his conversion to Neo-Platonism in a letter to the Alexandrians written in 363. He stated that he had abandoned Christianity when he was twenty years old and been an adherent of the traditional Greco-Roman deities for the twelve years prior to writing this letter.

(For the complete text of this article see: http://www.roman-emperors.org/julian.htm)

Julian’s Persian Campaign

The exact goals Julian had for his ill-fated Persian campaign were never clear. The Sassanid Persians, and before them the Parthians, had been a traditional enemy from the time of the Late Republic, and indeed Constantius had been conducting a war against them before Julian's accession forced the former to forge an uneasy peace. Julian, however, had no concrete reason to reopen hostilities in the east. Socrates Scholasticus attributed Julian's motives to imitation of Alexander the Great, but perhaps the real reason lay in his need to gather the support of the army. Despite his acclamation by the Gallic legions, relations between Julian and the top military officers was uneasy at best. A war against the Persians would have brought prestige and power both to Julian and the army.

Julian set out on his fateful campaign on 5 March 363. Using his trademark strategy of striking quickly and where least expected, he moved his army through Heirapolis and from there speedily across the Euphrates and into the province of Mesopotamia, where he stopped at the town of Batnae. His plan was to eventually return through Armenia and winter in Tarsus. Once in Mesopotamia, Julian was faced with the decision of whether to travel south through the province of Babylonia or cross the Tigris into Assyria, and he eventually decided to move south through Babylonia and turn west into Assyria at a later date. By 27 March, he had the bulk of his army across the Euphrates, and had also arranged a flotilla to guard his supply line along the mighty river. He then left his generals Procopius and Sebastianus to help Arsacius, the king of Armenia and a Roman client, to guard the northern Tigris line. It was also during this time that he received the surrender of many prominent local leaders who had nominally supported the Persians. These men supplied Julian with money and troops for further military action against their former masters. Julian decided to turn south into Babylonia and proceeded along the Euphrates, coming to the fortress of Cercusium at the junction of the Abora and Euphrates Rivers around the first of April, and from there he took his army west to a region called Zaitha near the abandoned town of Dura where they visited the tomb of the emperor Gordian which was in the area. On April 7 he set out from there into the heart of Babylonia and towards Assyria.

Ammianus then stated that Julian and his army crossed into Assyria, which on the face of things appears very confusing. Julian still seems to be operating within the province of Babylonia between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. The confusion is alleviated when one realizes that,for Ammianus, the region of Assyria encompassed the provinces of Babylonia and Assyria. On their march, Julian's forces took the fortress of Anatha, received the surrender and support of several more local princes, and ravaged the countryside of Assyria between the rivers. As the army continued south, they came across the fortresses Thilutha and Achaiachala, but these places were too well defended and Julian decided to leave them alone. Further south were the cities Diacira and Ozogardana, which the Roman forces sacked and burned. Soon, Julian came to Pirisabora and a brief siege ensued, but the city fell and was also looted and destroyed. It was also at this time that the Roman army met its first systematic resistance from the Persians. As the Romans penetrated further south and west, the local inhabitants began to flood their route. Nevertheless, the Roman forces pressed on and came to Maiozamalcha, a sizable city not far from Ctesiphon. After a short siege, this city too fell to Julian. Inexorably, Julian's forces zeroed in on Ctesiphon, but as they drew closer, the Persian resistance grew fiercer, with guerilla raids whittling at Julian's men and supplies. A sizable force of the army was lost and the emperor himself was almost killed taking a fort a few miles from the target city.
Finally, the army approached Ctesiphon following a canal that linked the Tigris and Euphrates. It soon became apparent after a few preliminary skirmishes that a protracted siege would be necessary to take this important city. Many of his generals, however, thought that pursuing this course of action would be foolish. Julian reluctantly agreed, but became enraged by this failure and ordered his fleet to be burned as he decided to march through the province of Assyria. Julian had planned for his army to live off the land, but the Persians employed a scorched-earth policy. When it became apparent that his army would perish (because his supplies were beginning to dwindle) from starvation and the heat if he continued his campaign, and also in the face of superior numbers of the enemy, Julian ordered a retreat on 16 June. As the Roman army retreated, they were constantly harassed by guerilla strikes. It was during one of these raids that Julian got caught up in the fighting and took a spear to his abdomen. Mortally wounded he was carried to his tent, where, after conferring with some of his officers, he died. The date was 26 June 363.

Conclusion

Thus an ignominious end for a man came about who had hoped to restore the glory of the Roman empire during his reign as emperor. Due to his intense hatred of Christianity, the opinion of posterity has not been kind to Julian. The contemporary opinion, however, was overall positive. The evidence shows that Julian was a complex ruler with a definite agenda to use traditional social institutions in order to revive what he saw as a collapsing empire. In the final assessment, he was not so different from any of the other emperors of the fourth century. He was a man grasping desperately to hang on to a Greco-Roman conception of leadership that was undergoing a subtle yet profound change.
Copyright (C) 2002, Walter E. Roberts and Michael DiMaio, Jr. Used by permission.

In reality, Julian worked to promote culture and philosophy in any manifestation. He tried to reduce taxes and the public debts of municipalities; he augmented administrative decentralisation; he promoted a campaign of austerity to reduce public expenditure (setting himself as the example). He reformed the postal service and eliminated the powerful secret police.
by Federico Morando; JULIAN II, The Apostate, http://www.forumancientcoins.com/NumisWiki/view.asp?key=Julian%20II

Flavius Claudius Iulianus was born in 331 or maybe 332 A.D. in Constantinople. He ruled the Western Empire as Caesar from 355 to 360 and was hailed Augustus by his legions in Lutetia (Paris) in 360. Julian was a gifted administrator and military strategist. Famed as the last pagan emperor, his reinstatement of the pagan religion earned him the moniker "the Apostate." As evidenced by his brilliant writing, some of which has survived to the present day, the title "the Philosopher" may have been more appropriate. He died from wounds suffered during the Persian campaign of 363 A.D. Joseph Sermarini, FORVM.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.




2 commentsCleisthenes
RI 141ar img.jpg
141 - Diocletian - RIC V pt II Lugdunum 6317 viewsObv:– IMP DIOCLETIANVS AVG, Radiate, helmeted, cuirassed bust right
Rev:– PAX AVGG, Minerva standing left, olive branch upward in right hand, spear in left hand, resting on shield
Minted in Lugdunum (* in left field, A in exe.), Emission 9, Officina 1. Start to 1st March A.D. 293
References:– Cohen 155. RIC 63 (Rated Rare). Bastien 471 (8 examples cited).
maridvnvm
RI 141bm img.jpg
141 - Diocletian - RIC V pt II Lugdunum 67 Bust Type C var29 viewsObv:– IMP DIOCLETIANVS AVG, Radiate draped and cuirassed bust right (seen from rear)
Rev:– PAX AVGG, Pax standing left, with Victory on globe and scepter
Minted in Lugdunum (// * crescent). Emission 9, Officina -. Start – 1st March A.D. 293
References:– Cohen 366. Bastien 460 (4 examples cited). RIC V Pt 2 67 Bust Type C var (Not listed with this bust or these marks in RIC)
1 commentsmaridvnvm
jovian.jpg
1410a, Jovian, 27 June 363 - 17 February 364 A.D.78 viewsBronze AE 3, RIC 179, aVF, Constantinople, 3.126g, 21.6mm, 180o. Obverse: D N IOVIANVS P F AVG, pearl diademed, draped and cuirassed bust left; Reverse: VOT V MVLT X within wreath, CONSPG in exergue; scarce.

Flavius Jovianuswas born in 331 at Singidunum, modern Belgrade. His distinguished father, Varronianus, had been a tribune of the legion Ioviani and a comes domesticorum, perhaps under Constantius II, who had retired to private life shortly before Jovian's elevation to the purple. Jovian married a daughter of Lucillianus, perhaps named Charito, and by her produced at least two children.

Jovian himself was a protector domesticus under Constantius II and Julian and, under Julian, primicerius domesticorum. Various Christian sources maintain that Jovian's Christianity led to his deposition by Julian, though most modern scholars dismiss this as ex post facto Christian apologetic. Jovian, recalled to the ranks if he had ever been dismissed, marched with Julian against Sapor in 363, and on 27 June, the day after that emperor's death, was acclaimed Augustus.

Ammianus and Zosimus, among others, detail the difficult straits of the Roman army during its withdrawal from Persian territory, Ammianus from the perspective of a proud soldier confident even in defeat of the superiority of Roman arms, Zosimus, in a much shorter and confused version, concentrating on the predicament of Jovian's troops and on the dire effects to the empire of the peace terms agreed to with Sapor. These terms entailed the cessation to Persia of Roman territory beyond the Tigris -- the cities of Singara and Nisibis, however, to be surrendered on the condition of the safe passage of their inhabitants -- and the guarantee of the neutrality of Rome's ally Arsaces, King of Armenia, in the event of future hostilities between Roman and Persia. Ammianus asserts that in agreeing to these terms Jovian misjudged his tactical strength and wasted an opportunity presented by negotiations with Sapor to move his forces closer to supplies at Corduena, and that Jovian acted on the advise of flatterers to preserve the fighting strength of his forces in the event of an attempt by Julian's relative Procopius to seize the throne. Others present the treaty terms as unavoidable given the Roman predicament.

Jovian appears to have treaded cautiously with regard to religious matters during the early months of his reign. Eunapius says that Jovian continued to honor Maximus and Priscus, the Neoplatonist advisors of Julian, and, upon reaching Tarsus, Jovian performed funeral rites for Julian. Nonetheless, various Christians, most notably Athanasius, took the initiative in an effort to gain Jovian's favor and support. An adherent of the Nicaean creed, Jovian did eventually recall various bishops of homoousian disposition and restore to their followers churches lost under earlier emperors. But in spite of such measures, unity among various Christian sects seems to have been the foremost concern of Jovian, whose ipsissima verba Socrates Scholasticus purports to give: "I abhor contentiousness, but love and honor those hurrying towards unanimity" (Hist. Eccl. 3.25).

Jovian died at the age of thirty-two on 17 February 364 at Dadastana on the boundary of Bithynia and Galatia. The cause of his death was most probably natural and is variously attributed to overeating, the consumption of poisonous mushrooms, or suffocation from fumes of charcoal or of the fresh paint on the room in which he was sleeping. Ammianus' comparison of the circumstances of Jovian's death to those of Scipio Aemilianus suggest the possibility of foul play, as does John of Antioch's reference to a poisoned rather than a poisonous mushroom, while John Chrysostom -- in a highly suspect literary context of consolatio-- asserts outright that the emperor was murdered. Eutropius records that he was enrolled among the gods, inter Divos relatus est. Zonaras says he was buried in the Church of the Holy Apostles and that his wife, Charito, was eventually laid to rest beside him.

Ancient authors agree that Jovian was of modest intellect but imposing physique and disposed to excessive eating and drinking.

By Thomas Banchich, Canisius College
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited By J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

Cleisthenes
Henry_V_AR_Penny_of_York.JPG
1413 - 1422, Henry V, AR Penny struck at York, England2 viewsObverse: + HENRICVS REX ANGLIE. Crowned facing bust of Henry V, mullet (left) and trefoil (right) at each side of crown, all within circle of pellets. Pierced cross in legend.
Reverse: CIVITAS ‡ EBORACI. Long cross pattée dividing legend around inner circle of pellets into quarters, trefoil in each quarter of circle, incuse quatrefoil in centre of cross.
York, Class F (Local dies)
Diameter: 18mm | Weight: 0.8gms | Die Axis: 10
SPINK: 1788

Henry V was King of England from 1413 until his sudden death on 31st August 1422. He is thought to have died from dysentery contracted during the siege of Meaux in France. He was 36 years old and had reigned for nine years. He was the second English monarch of the House of Lancaster.
During the reign of his father, King Henry IV, Henry had acquired an increasing share in England's government due to his father's declining health. After his father's death in 1413, Henry assumed control of the country and asserted the pending English claim to the French throne.
In 1415, Henry embarked on war with France in the ongoing Hundred Years' War between the two countries. Despite his relatively short reign, Henry's outstanding military successes, most notably in his famous victory at the Battle of Agincourt in 1415, made England one of the strongest military powers in Europe.
*Alex
1421_Henry_V_AR_Double-Turnois.JPG
1413 - 1422, Henry V, Billon Niquet (Double Tournois) struck in 1421 at Rouen, France25 viewsObverse: + H REX ANGL HERES FRANC. Crowned lion passant facing left, fleur-de-lis above. Pellet mintmark below first letter of legend = Rouen mint.
Reverse: + SIT NOME DNI BENEDICTV. Cross pattée with lis in angles and lombardic 'h' in centre.
Diameter: 24mm | Weight: 1.9gms | Die Axis: 9
SPINK: 8162 | Duplessy: 441

This Anglo-Gallic coin, colloquially called a “leopard” after its obverse design, bears the titles of Henry V as king of England and heir to the French kingdom.

Henry V was King of England from 1413 until his sudden death on 31st August 1422. He is thought to have died from dysentery contracted during the siege of Meaux in France. He was 36 years old and had reigned for nine years. He was the second English monarch of the House of Lancaster.
During the reign of his father, King Henry IV, Henry had acquired an increasing share in England's government due to his father's declining health. After his father's death in 1413, Henry assumed control of the country and asserted the pending English claim to the French throne.
In 1415, Henry embarked on war with France in the ongoing Hundred Years' War between the two countries. Despite his relatively short reign, Henry's outstanding military successes, most notably in his famous victory at the Battle of Agincourt in 1415, made England one of the strongest military powers in Europe.
In 1420, after months of negotiation with Charles VI of France, the Treaty of Troyes was signed recognising Henry V as regent and heir apparent to the French throne. To seal the pact Henry married Charles' daughter, Catherine of Valois. Henry's sudden death however, prevented the prospect of the English King taking the French throne from ever taking place.
Immortalised in the plays of Shakespeare, Henry V is known and celebrated as one of the great warrior kings of medieval England.
2 comments*Alex
Henry_VI_AR_Halfpenny.JPG
1422 - 1461, HENRY VI (First Reign), AR Halfpenny, Struck 1430 - 1434 at Calais, France29 viewsObverse: HENRICVS (pinecone) REX (mascle) ANGL. Crowned facing bust of Henry VI within circle of pellets. Mintmark: Cross patonce in legend.
Reverse: VIL(mascle)LA CALISIE (pinecone). Long cross pattée dividing legend around inner circle of pellets into quarters, trefoil in each quarter of circle.
Diameter: 15mm | Weight: 0.45gms
SPINK: 1885

This issue of coins is known as the pinecone-mascle issue because these symbols are incorporated in the obverse and reverse legends. This issue was struck between 1430 and 1434 at the mints of London and Calais.

Henry VI was King of England from 1422 to 1461 and again from 1470 to 1471. The only child of Henry V, he succeeded to the English throne at the age of nine months when his father died.
This was during the period of the long-running Hundred Years' War (1337–1453) and Henry is the only English monarch to also have been crowned King of France (as Henri II), in 1431. During his early reign several people were ruling for him and by the time Henry was declared fit to rule in 1437 he found his realm in a difficult position, faced with setbacks in France and divisions among the nobility at home. Henry is described as timid, shy, passive, well-intentioned, and averse to warfare and violence; he was also at times mentally unstable. Partially in the hope of achieving peace, Henry married the ambitious and strong-willed Margaret of Anjou in 1445. The peace policy failed and the war recommenced with France taking the upper hand such that by 1453 Calais was Henry's only remaining territory on the continent.
With Henry effectively unfit to rule, Queen Margaret took advantage of the situation to make herself an effective power behind the throne. Starting around 1453 Henry began suffering a series of mental breakdowns and tensions mounted between Margaret and Richard of York, not only over control of the incapacitated king's government, but over the question of succession to the throne. Civil war broke out in 1459, leading to a long period of dynastic conflict, now known as the Wars of the Roses. Henry was deposed on 29th March 1461 after a crushing defeat at the Battle of Towton by Richard of York's son, who took the throne as Edward IV. Margaret continuing to resist Edward, but Henry was captured by Edward's forces in 1465 and imprisoned in the Tower of London.
Queen Margaret, who was first exiled in Scotland and then in France, was still determined to win back the throne on behalf of her husband and son. So, when Edward IV fell out with two of his main supporters, Richard Neville the Earl of Warwick and George the Duke of Clarence, Margaret formed a secret alliance with them backed by Louis XI of France. Warwick returned with an army to England, forced Edward IV into exile, and restored Henry VI to the throne on 30th October 1470, though Henry's position was nominal as Warwick and Clarence effectively ruled in his name.
But Henry's return to the throne lasted less than six months. Warwick overreached himself by declaring war on Burgundy, whose ruler responded by giving Edward IV the assistance he needed to win back his throne by force. Edward retook power in 1471, killing Warwick at the Battle of Barnet and Henry's only son at the Battle of Tewkesbury. Henry was again imprisoned in the Tower where, during the night of 21st May he died, possibly killed on Edward's orders.
2 comments*Alex
Antose88.jpg
143 AD: The king of Armenia is appointed by Antoninus Pius193 viewsOrichalcum sestertius (23.57g, 31mm, 11h). Rome mint. Struck AD 143-144.
ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P COS III laureate head of Antoninus Pius facing right
REX ARMENIIS DATVS [around] S C [in ex.] Antoninus Pius, togate, standing facing, head turned left, placing a tiara on the head of the Armenian king, standing left, wearing short tunica and cloak, his right hand raised and holding a roll in his left.
RIC 619 [R]; BMC 1272; Cohen 686; Foss (Roman Historical Coins) 126:42
ex The New York Sale XX jan 2009; ex Gorny & Mosch, Auction 147 lot 2159, March 2006
In A.D. 143, Antoninus Pius appointed kings for the Armenians and the Quadi and dedicated separate issues for both events.
3 commentsCharles S
ANTOSE41r.jpg
144 AD: Antoninus Pius sestertius (rev. only) betrothal M.Aurelius and Faustina filia 186 viewsOrichalcum sestertius (28.4g, 35mm, 12h). Rome mint. Struck AD 144.
AN(TON)NVS AVG PIVS P P TR P COS III laur. head right
CONCORDIAE [/] S C [in ex.] M. Aurelius & Faustina Jr. clasping hands; large statues of Antoninus & Faustina behind
RIC 601 [S], Cohen 146, BMC 1236-40, Foss (Roman Historic Coins) 127/45a
This type was issued on the occasion of the betrothal of Marcus Aurelius and Faustina, which probably took place during the Hilaria festival celebrated on 25 March 144 (see RIC). The reverse represents Marcus Aurelius, l. and Faustina filia, daughter of Antoninus Pius and Faustina mater, r., as small figures, clasping hands over altar and before large figures representing statues on pedestals of Antoninus Pius and the late Faustina mater (died A.D. 141). The statues also clasp hands, and the that of Antoninus holds a Victory figurine.
The marriage took place the following year in A.D.145.
2 commentsCharles S
RI 146aw img.jpg
146 - Maximianus - RIC V pt II 40420 viewsObv:– IMP MAXIMIANVS AVG, Radiate, helmeted cuirassed bust right
Rev:– PAX AVGG, Minerva standing left, olive branch upward in right hand, spear in left and resting left hand on shield
Minted in Lugdunum (C in left field, Thunderbolt in exe). Emission 10, Officina 3. 1st March A.D. 293 – 20th November A.D. 293
Reference:– Cohen 427. RIC V Pt. 2 404. Bastien Volume VII 496 (9 examples cited)
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI 146am img~0.jpg
146 - Maximianus - RIC V pt II 466 Bust Type H19 viewsObv:– IMP MAXIMIANVS P AVG, Radiate bust left in imperial mantle, holding sceptre surmounted by eagle
Rev:– VOTIS X, Emperors standing face to face sacrificing at altar
Minted in Lugdunum (no marks). Emission 10. 3rd Series. 1st March A.D. 293 – 20th November A.D. 293
References:– RIC V Part 2 466 Bust Type H (S). Bastien 528 (2 examples cited)
maridvnvm
RI_146dj_img~0.jpg
146 - Maximianus Herculius - Antoninianus - RIC V Pt. 2 -. 23 viewsObv:– IMP MAXIMIANVS AVG, Radiate, helmeted cuirassed bust right
Rev:– PAX AVGG, Minerva standing left, olive branch upward in right hand, spear in left and resting left hand on shield
Minted in Lugdunum (//A). Emission 10, second series, Officina 1. 1st March A.D. 293 – 20th November A.D. 293
Reference(s) – Cohen 427. Bastien XI 503 (15). RIC V Pt. 2 -.
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_146dc_img.jpg
146 - Maximianus Herculius, Antoninianus - RIC V pt II Lugdunum 466 Bust Type H 10 viewsObv:– IMP MAXIMIANVS P AVG, Radiate bust left in imperial mantle, holding sceptre surmounted by eagle
Rev:– VOTIS X, Emperors standing face to face sacrificing at altar
Minted in Lugdunum (-). Emission 10. 3rd Series. 1st March A.D. 293 – 20th November A.D. 293
Reference:– Cohen 671. Bastien XI 528 (2 examples cited). RIC V Pt 2 Lugdunum 466 Bust Type H (S)
maridvnvm
RI 147r img.jpg
147 - Constantius I Chlorus - RIC V pt II 635 Bust Type C25 viewsObv:– FL VAL CONSTANTIVS NOB C, Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:– PROVIDENT DEOR, Providentia, standing left, holding baton and scepter; at foot globe
Minted in Lugdunum (A in exe). Emission 10, Officina 1. 1st March A.D. 293 to 20th November A.D. 293
References– Cohen 237. RIC V Pt. 2 Lugdunum 635 Bust Type C. Bastien 506 (19 examples cited)
maridvnvm
Edward_IV_AR_Groat_London.JPG
1471 - 1483, EDWARD IV (Second Reign), AR Groat, Struck 1477 - 1480 at London, England24 viewsObverse: EDWARD DEI GRA REX ANGL (Z FRANC +). Crowned bust of Edward IV facing within tressure of arches, trefoils on cusps, all within beaded circle. Small crosses in spaces between words in legend. Mintmark, off-flan, pierced cross.
Reverse: POSVI DEVM ADIVTORE MEVM +/ CIVITAS LONDON. Long cross dividing two concentric legends separated by two beaded circles into quarters, trefoil in each quarter of inner circle. Mintmark, pierced cross, small crosses between words in outer legend.
Diameter: 25mm | Weight: 2.7gms | Die Axis: 11
SPINK: 2096 var. (DEI rather than DI in obverse legend)

Edward IV was King of England from March 1461 to October 1470, and again from April 1471 until his sudden death in 1483. He was the first Yorkist King of England. The first half of his rule was marred by the violence associated with the Wars of the Roses, but he overcame the Lancastrian challenge to the throne at Tewkesbury in 1471 and there were no further rebellions in England during the rest of his reign.
In 1475, Edward declared war on France, landing at Calais in June. However, his ally Charles the Bold, Duke of Burgundy, failed to provide any significant military assistance leading Edward to undertake negotiations with the French, with whom he came to terms under the Treaty of Picquigny. France provided him with an immediate payment of 75,000 crowns and a yearly pension of 50,000 crowns, thus allowing him to "recoup his finances.” Edward also backed an attempt by Alexander Stewart, 1st Duke of Albany and brother of King James III of Scotland, to take the Scottish throne in 1482. Edward's younger brother, the Duke of Gloucester (and future King Richard III) led an invasion of Scotland that resulted in the capture of Edinburgh and the Scottish king himself. Alexander Stewart, however, reneged on his agreement with Edward. The Duke of Gloucester then withdrew from his position in Edinburgh, though he did retain Berwick-upon-Tweed.
Edward became subject to an increasing number of ailments when his health began to fail and he fell fatally ill at Easter in 1483. He survived long enough though to add some codicils to his will, the most important being to name his brother Richard, Duke of Gloucester as Protector after his death. He died on 9th April 1483 and was buried in St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle. He was succeeded first by his twelve-year-old son Edward V of England, who was never crowned, and then by his brother who reigned as Richard III.
It is not known what actually caused Edward's death. Pneumonia, typhoid and poison have all been conjectured, but some have attributed his death to an unhealthy lifestyle because he had become stout and inactive in the years before his death.
2 comments*Alex
RI 148n img.jpg
148 - Galerius - RIC V pt II 678 Bust Type C24 viewsObv:– GAL VAL MAXIMIANVS NOB C, Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:– CONCORDIA AVGG, Two concordia holding hands, each holding cornucopiae
Minted in Lugdunum (Club in exe.). Emission 10, Officina 2. 1st March to 20th November A.D. 293
References:– RIC V Part 2 678 Bust Type C. Bastien Volume VII 494
maridvnvm
RI 148m img~0.jpg
148 - Galerius - RIC V pt II 678 Bust Type C36 viewsObv:– GAL VAL MAXIMIANVS NOB C, Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:– CONCORDIA AVGG, Two concordia holding hands, each holding cornucopiae
Minted in Lugdunum (B in exe.). Emission 10, Officina 2. 1st March to 20th November A.D. 293
References:– RIC V Part 2 678 Bust Type C. Bastien Volume VII 512
maridvnvm
RI_148ae_img.jpg
148 - Galerius - RIC V pt II 678 Bust Type C6 viewsObv:– GAL VAL MAXIMIANVS NOB C, Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:– CONCORDIA AVGG, Two concordia holding hands, each holding cornucopiae
Minted in Lugdunum (B in exe.). Emission 10, Officina 2. 1st March to 20th November A.D. 293
References:– RIC V Part 2 678 Bust Type C. Bastien Volume VII 512

Weight 3.81g. 22.64mm. 180 degrees
maridvnvm
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1485 - 1509, HENRY VII, AR Penny, Struck 1485 - 1500 under Archbishop Rotherham at York, England24 viewsObverse: HENRIC DI GRA REX AN. Crowned and robed figure of Henry VII holding a lis topped sceptre in his right hand and a globus cruciger in his left, seated facing on throne, the one visible pillar of which is topped with a lis, all except the king's crown within a circle of pellets.
Reverse: CIVITAS EBORACI. Shield bearing coat-of-arms of England and France on cross fourchée, two keys below shield.
Diameter: 17mm | Weight: 0.6gms | Die Axis: 3
SPINK: 2237

Thomas Rotherham, also known as Thomas (Scot) de Rotherham, was an English cleric and statesman. He served as bishop of several dioceses, most notably as Archbishop of York and, on two occasions as Lord Chancellor. Rotherham was educated at King's College, Cambridge, he graduated as a Bachelor of Divinity and became a Fellow of his college where he lectured on Grammar, Theology, and Philosophy. After his ordination as a priest, he became a prebendary of Lincoln in 1462 and then of Salisbury in 1465. He moved on to powerful positions in the Church, being appointed as Bishop of Rochester in 1468, Bishop of Lincoln in 1472, and then Archbishop of York in 1480, a position he held until his death in 1500.
In 1467, King Edward IV appointed Rotherham as Keeper of the Privy Seal. He was sent as ambassador to France in 1468 and as joint ambassador to Burgundy in 1471, and in 1475 was entrusted with the office of Lord Chancellor. When Edward IV died in April 1483, Rotherham was one of the celebrants of the funeral mass on 20th April 1483 and immediately after Edward's death he sided with the dowager queen, Elizabeth Woodville, in her attempt to deprive Richard, Duke of Gloucester of his role as Lord Protector of her son, the new King Edward V. When Elizabeth sought sanctuary after Richard had taken charge of the king, Rotherham released the Great Seal to her (though he later recovered it and handed it over to Thomas Bourchier, the Archbishop of Canterbury).
Rotherham's mishandling of the seal was perceived as indicative of questionable loyalty and led to his dismissal as Lord Chancellor. He was replaced by John Russell, who earlier had also been his successor as Bishop of Lincoln. On 13th June 1483, Rotherham was charged with being involved in a conspiracy between Lord Hastings and the Woodvilles against Richard and imprisoned in the Tower of London, but he was released a few weeks later, around the middle of July, after Richard's coronation as King Richard III. Rotherham was re-instated as Chancellor in 1485, however he was dismissed shortly afterwards by Henry VII and retired from public work.
Rotherham died of the plague in Cawood near York on 29th May 1500. His remains were transferred to a magnificent marble tomb in York Minster in 1506.
2 comments*Alex
1488-1513_JAMES_IV_PLACK.JPG
1488 - 1513, James IV, Billon Plack (Groat), Struck 1488 - 1513 at Edinburgh, Scotland24 viewsObverse: + IACOBVS ★ 4 : DEI ★ GRACIA ★ REX ★ SCOTTO. Crowned shield bearing lion rampant within a tressure of four arcs, crown on each side of the shield and fleur-de-lis in all the spandrels. Star stops and old English lettering in legend.
Reverse: + VILLA ★ DE EDINBVRG. Floriate cross fourchée with a saltire in the centre. Crown in each quarter of the cross. Star stops and old English lettering in legend.
Type IV issue. Scarce
Diameter: 25mm | Weight: 2.4gm | Die Axis: 3
SPINK: 5352

James IV was the King of Scotland from June 1488 until his death in battle at the age of 40 on the 9th September, 1513.
James IV's mother, Margaret of Denmark, was more popular than his father, James III, and though somewhat estranged from her husband she raised their sons at Stirling Castle until she died in 1486. Two years later, a rebellion broke out, where the rebels set up the 15-year-old Prince James as their nominal leader. The rebels fought James III at the Battle of Sauchieburn where, on 11th June 1488, the king was killed. Prince James assumed the throne as James IV and was crowned at Scone on 24th of June. However he continued to bear an intense guilt for the indirect role which he had played in the death of his father.
James maintained Scotland's traditional good relations with France, and this occasionally created diplomatic problems with England, but James recognised nonetheless that peace between Scotland and England was in the interest of both countries, and established good diplomatic relations with England as well. First he ratified the Treaty of Ayton in 1497, then, in 1502 James signed the Treaty of Perpetual Peace with Henry VII which was sealed by his marriage to Henry's daughter Margaret Tudor the next year. Anglo-Scottish relations generally remained stable until the death of Henry VII in 1509.
James saw the importance of building a fleet that could provide Scotland with a strong maritime presence, he founded two new dockyards and acquired a total of 38 ships for the Royal Scots Navy. These including the “Great Michael” which, built at great expense, was launched in 1511 and was at that time the largest ship in the world.
When war broke out between England and France, James found himself in a difficult position as an ally by treaty to both countries. But relations with England had worsened since the accession of Henry VIII, and when Henry invaded France, James reacted by declaring war on England.
James sent the Scottish navy, including the “Great Michael”, to join the ships of Louis XII of France and, hoping to take advantage of Henry's absence at the siege of Thérouanne, he himself led an invading army southward into Northumberland. However, on 9th September 1513 at the disastrous Battle of Flodden James IV was killed, he was the last monarch in Great Britain to be killed in battle. His death, along with many of his nobles including his son the archbishop of St Andrews, was one of the worst military defeats in Scotland's history and the loss of such a large portion of the political community was a major blow to the realm. James IV's corpse was identified after the battle and taken to Berwick, where it was embalmed and placed in a lead coffin before being transported to London. Catherine of Aragon, wife of Henry VIII, sent the dead king's slashed, blood-stained surcoat to Henry, who was fighting in France, with the recommendation that he use it as a war banner.
James IV's son, James V, was crowned three weeks after the disaster at Flodden, but he was not yet two years old, and his minority was to be fraught with political upheaval.
2 comments*Alex
1902034_759583754078538_1739468933876111555_n.jpg
150 Antoninus Pius25 viewsAntoninus Pius, August 138 - 7 March 161 A.D.
Orichalcum sestertius, RIC III 767a, Cohen II 320, Banti 120, BMCRE IV 1669, Strack III 974, SRCV II 4168, aF, 23.252g, 31.4mm, 0o, Rome mint, 145 - 147 A.D.; obverse ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P, laureate head right; reverse Antoninus in slow quadriga left, eagle-tipped scepter in left, reins in right, COS IIII / S C in two lines in exergue; scarce
1 commentsRandygeki(h2)
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150 Antoninus Pius63 viewsAntoninus Pius, August 138 - 7 March 161 A.D. AR Denarius

ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P XIIII, laureate head right; reverse COS IIII, Fortuna standing left holding rudder and cornucopia.
RIC III 194, RSC II 265, BMCRE IV 719-20, Scarce , Rome mint 150-151 A.D.
4 commentsRandygeki(h2)
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150 Antoninus Pius20 viewsAE As.
ANTONINVS AVG - PIVS P P TR P XXII, Laureate head right, COS - IIII, Togate figure standing left on pedestal in arched shrine, S C in ex
1 commentsRandygeki(h2)
Val.jpg
1501s, Valentinian I, 25 February 364 - 17 November 375 A.D. (Siscia)98 viewsValentinian I, 25 February 364 - 17 November 375 A.D., Bronze AE 3, S 4103, VF, Siscia mint, 2.012g, 18.7mm, 180o, 24 Aug 367 - 17 Nov 375 A.D.obverse D N VALENTINI-ANVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse SECVRITAS - REIPVBLICAE, Victory advancing left, wreath in right and palm in left, symbols in fields, mintmark in exergue.


De Imperatoribus Romanis, An Online Encyclopedia of the Roman Emperors and their Families

Valentinian I (364-375 AD.)

Walter E. Roberts, Emory University

Valentinian was one of Rome's last great warrior emperors. Flavius Valentinianus, was born in A.D. 321 at Cibalis (modern Vinkovci) in southern Pannonia. His father Gratian was a soldier renowned for his strength and wrestling skills. Gratian had an illustrious career in the army, rising from staff officer to tribune, to comes Africae, and finally [i/comes Britanniae.

The emperor Jovian died on 17 February 364, apparently of natural causes, on the border between Bithynia and Galatia. The army marched on to Nicaea, the nearest city of any consequence, and a meeting of civil and military officials was convened to choose a new emperor. The assembly finally agreed upon Valentinian.

On 26 February 364, Valentinian accepted the office offered to him. As he prepared to make his accession speech, the soldiers threatened to riot, apparently uncertain as to where his loyalties lay. Valentinian reassured them that the army was his greatest priority. Furthermore, to prevent a crisis of succession if he should die prematurely, he agreed to pick a co-Augustus. According to Ammianus, the soldiers were astounded by Valentinian’s bold demeanor and his willingness to assume the imperial authority. His decision to elect a fellow-emperor could also be construed as a move to appease any opposition among the civilian officials in the eastern portion of the empire. By agreeing to appoint a co-ruler, he assured the eastern officials that someone with imperial authority would remain in the east to protect their interests. After promoting his brother Valens to the rank of tribune and putting him in charge of the royal stables on March 1, Valentinian selected Valens as co-Augustus at Constantinople on 28 March 364, though this was done over the objections of Dagalaifus. Ammianus makes it clear, however, that Valens was clearly subordinate to his brother.

Ammianus and Zosimus as well as modern scholars praise Valentinian for his military accomplishments. He is generally credited with keeping the Roman empire from crumbling away by “. . . reversing the generally waning confidence in the army and imperial defense . . ..” Several other aspects of Valentinian's reign also set the course of Roman history for the next century.

Valentinian deliberately polarized Roman society, subordinating the civilian population to the military. The military order took over the old prestige of the senatorial nobility. The imperial court, which was becoming more and more of a military court, became a vehicle for social mobility. There were new ideas of nobility, which was increasingly provincial in character. By this it is meant that the imperial court, not the Senate, was the seat of nobility, and most of these new nobles came from the provinces. With the erosion of the old nobility, the stage was set for the ascendancy of Christianity. Ammianus makes it clear that actions such as these were part of a systematic plan by Valentinian to erode the power and prestige of the senatorial aristocracy. Several pieces of extant legislation seem to confirm Ammianus’ allegations that Valentinian was eroding senatorial prestige.

Valentinian's reign affords valuable insights into late Roman society, civilian as well as military. First, there was a growing fracture between the eastern and western portions of the empire. Valentinian was the last emperor to really concentrate his resources on the west. Valens was clearly in an inferior position in the partnership. Second, there was a growing polarization of society, both Christian versus pagan, and civil versus military. Finally there was a growing regionalism in the west, driven by heavy taxation and the inability of Valentinian to fully exercise military authority in all areas of the west. All of these trends would continue over the next century, profoundly reshaping the Roman empire and western Europe.

By Walter E. Roberts, Emory University
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
1 commentsCleisthenes
ValentGlRom.jpg
1501s, Valentinian I, 25 February 364 - 17 November 375 A.D. (Siscia)54 viewsValentinian I, 25 February 364 - 17 November 375 A.D. Bronze AE 3, RIC 5(a) ii, VF, Siscia, 1.905g, 19.3mm, 0o, 25 Feb 364 - 24 Aug 367 A.D. Obverse: D N VALENTINI-ANVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; Reverse: GLORIA RO-MANORVM, Emperor dragging captive with right, labarum (chi-rho standard) in left, •GSISC in exergue.


De Imperatoribus Romanis, An Online Encyclopedia of the Roman Emperors and their Families

Valentinian I (364-375 AD.)

Walter E. Roberts, Emory University

Valentinian was one of Rome's last great warrior emperors. Flavius Valentinianus, was born in A.D. 321 at Cibalis (modern Vinkovci) in southern Pannonia. His father Gratian was a soldier renowned for his strength and wrestling skills. Gratian had an illustrious career in the army, rising from staff officer to tribune, to comes Africae, and finally [i/comes Britanniae.

The emperor Jovian died on 17 February 364, apparently of natural causes, on the border between Bithynia and Galatia. The army marched on to Nicaea, the nearest city of any consequence, and a meeting of civil and military officials was convened to choose a new emperor. The assembly finally agreed upon Valentinian.

On 26 February 364, Valentinian accepted the office offered to him. As he prepared to make his accession speech, the soldiers threatened to riot, apparently uncertain as to where his loyalties lay. Valentinian reassured them that the army was his greatest priority. Furthermore, to prevent a crisis of succession if he should die prematurely, he agreed to pick a co-Augustus. According to Ammianus, the soldiers were astounded by Valentinian’s bold demeanor and his willingness to assume the imperial authority. His decision to elect a fellow-emperor could also be construed as a move to appease any opposition among the civilian officials in the eastern portion of the empire. By agreeing to appoint a co-ruler, he assured the eastern officials that someone with imperial authority would remain in the east to protect their interests. After promoting his brother Valens to the rank of tribune and putting him in charge of the royal stables on March 1, Valentinian selected Valens as co-Augustus at Constantinople on 28 March 364, though this was done over the objections of Dagalaifus. Ammianus makes it clear, however, that Valens was clearly subordinate to his brother.

Ammianus and Zosimus as well as modern scholars praise Valentinian for his military accomplishments. He is generally credited with keeping the Roman empire from crumbling away by “. . . reversing the generally waning confidence in the army and imperial defense . . ..” Several other aspects of Valentinian's reign also set the course of Roman history for the next century.

Valentinian deliberately polarized Roman society, subordinating the civilian population to the military. The military order took over the old prestige of the senatorial nobility. The imperial court, which was becoming more and more of a military court, became a vehicle for social mobility. There were new ideas of nobility, which was increasingly provincial in character. By this it is meant that the imperial court, not the Senate, was the seat of nobility, and most of these new nobles came from the provinces. With the erosion of the old nobility, the stage was set for the ascendancy of Christianity. Ammianus makes it clear that actions such as these were part of a systematic plan by Valentinian to erode the power and prestige of the senatorial aristocracy. Several pieces of extant legislation seem to confirm Ammianus’ allegations that Valentinian was eroding senatorial prestige.

Valentinian's reign affords valuable insights into late Roman society, civilian as well as military. First, there was a growing fracture between the eastern and western portions of the empire. Valentinian was the last emperor to really concentrate his resources on the west. Valens was clearly in an inferior position in the partnership. Second, there was a growing polarization of society, both Christian versus pagan, and civil versus military. Finally there was a growing regionalism in the west, driven by heavy taxation and the inability of Valentinian to fully exercise military authority in all areas of the west. All of these trends would continue over the next century, profoundly reshaping the Roman empire and western Europe.

By Walter E. Roberts, Emory University
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
13594p00.jpg
1502c, Valens, 28 March 364 - 9 August 378 A.D. (Cyzikus)53 viewsBronze AE 3, S 4118, 2.42g, 16.5mm, 180o,Cyzikus, F/F, obverse D N VALENS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse SECVRITAS REIPVBLICAE, Victory advancing left, wreath in right, palm frond in left, SMK L(?) in exergue. Ex FORVM.


De Imperatoribus Romanis, An Online Encyclopedia of the Roman Emperors and their Families

Valens (365-369 AD.)

Noel Linski, University of Colorado

Valens was the brother of Valentinian I. On March 28, 364, precisely one month after his accession by Roman reckoning, Valentinian appointed his brother Flavius Valens co-emperor at the Hebdomon, the first in a long line of emperors proclaimed there. Themistius was present and later recounted the occasion in his Or. 6. After only two months of co-rulership, the two departed from Constantinople for their native Illyricum. Outside Naissus, in Moesia, they divided their administrative staff between them and at Sirmium they did the same with their mobile forces. Valens was to rule the east, from Thrace in the North and Cyrenaica in the South eastward to the Persian frontier. Valentinian ruled the west. They did not spend long in Sirmium. By late August 365 Valentinian had moved on toward Milan, where he resided for the following year before moving on to Trier, which remained his capital until 375. Similarly, Valens was back in Constantinople by December 364.and he was declared Augustus in 364 A.D. He was given command of the Eastern provinces, where he spent much of his time campaigning against the Goths and Persians.

In 376 A.D., Valens allowed Gothic tribes, who were being driven forward by the Huns to settle in the Danube provinces. The Goths were so badly treated by the Romans that they rebelled. Valens marched against the confederated barbarian army, and on August 9, 378, the two forces met at Adrianople. Although negotiations were attempted, these broke down when a Roman unit sallied forth and carried both sides into battle. The Romans held their own early on but were crushed by the surprise arrival of Greuthungi cavalry which split their ranks.

In one historical account, Valens was wounded in battle but escaped to a nearby farmstead where he was burned to death in a tower by Gothic marauders. The fourth century A.D. Roman historian Ammianus Marcellinus does not seem to concur with this story. Regardless, when the battle was over Valens' body was never recovered, 10,000 roman soldiers lay dead and the perception of Roman military invincibility was destroyed.

Adrianople was the most significant event in Valens' career. Though he displayed some talent as an administrator, Valens' persecutions of Nicene Christians and pagan philosophers, his halting efforts at military achievement and his obtuse personality rendered him a less than glorious emperor. To have died in so inglorious a battle has thus come to be regarded as the nadir of an unfortunate career. This is especially true because of the profound consequences of Valens' defeat.

Adrianople spelled the beginning of the end for Roman territorial integrity in the late empire and this fact was recognized even by contemporaries. The Roman historian Ammianus (325-391 AD) understood that it was the worst defeat in Roman history since Cannae. Rufinus (340–410 CE), monk, historian, and theologian; called it "the beginning of evils for the Roman empire then and thereafter."

Noel Lenski, University of Colorado
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
Valens.jpg
1502h, Valens, 364-378 A.D. (Heraclea)47 viewsValens, 364-378 A.D., Heraclea mint, VF, Chi-Rho standard reverse.


De Imperatoribus Romanis, An Online Encyclopedia of the Roman Emperors and their Families

Valens (365-369 AD.)

Noel Linski, University of Colorado

Valens was the brother of Valentinian I. On March 28, 364, precisely one month after his accession by Roman reckoning, Valentinian appointed his brother Flavius Valens co-emperor at the Hebdomon, the first in a long line of emperors proclaimed there. Themistius was present and later recounted the occasion in his Or. 6. After only two months of co-rulership, the two departed from Constantinople for their native Illyricum. Outside Naissus, in Moesia, they divided their administrative staff between them and at Sirmium they did the same with their mobile forces. Valens was to rule the east, from Thrace in the North and Cyrenaica in the South eastward to the Persian frontier. Valentinian ruled the west. They did not spend long in Sirmium. By late August 365 Valentinian had moved on toward Milan, where he resided for the following year before moving on to Trier, which remained his capital until 375. Similarly, Valens was back in Constantinople by December 364.and he was declared Augustus in 364 A.D. He was given command of the Eastern provinces, where he spent much of his time campaigning against the Goths and Persians.

In 376 A.D., Valens allowed Gothic tribes, who were being driven forward by the Huns to settle in the Danube provinces. The Goths were so badly treated by the Romans that they rebelled. Valens