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Search results - "Valeria"
VALERIANO-1.jpg
41 viewsVALERIAN I - AR Antoninianus - Lugdunum mint - 258/259 AD.
Obv.: VALERIANVS P F AVG, radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right
Rev.:ORIENS AVGG, Sol advancing left, raising right hand & holding whip.
Gs. 4 mm. 22,3
RIC 12
1 commentsMaxentius
ASSEVal.jpg
48 viewsAE As -169-158 BC (Grueber 196/173 BC)
VALERIVS - Gens Valeria
Obv.: Laureate head of Janus, I above.
Rev.:Ship's prow right, VAL in monogram above, I before, ROMA below.
Gs. 15,5 mm. 30,9
Craw. 191/1, Sear RCV 710, BMRCC 545.
1 commentsMaxentius
GValeria-1.jpg
14 viewsGALERIA VALERIA - Ć Follis - 309-310 AD. - Heraclea mint
Obv.: GAL VALERIA AVG, diademed & draped bust right
Rev.: VENERI VICTRICI, Venus standing facing, head left, holding apple upwards and raising drapery. HTA in ex.
Gs. 6,7 mm. 25,3
Cohen 2, RIC 43
Maxentius
Galeria_Valeria.JPG
8 viewsAntonivs Protti
rjb_cast10_07_05.jpg
354 viewsValerian and Gallienus
253-260
AE 23 mm
Rome Mint
2 commentsmauseus
Gal_Valeria_Siscia_RIC_210_hwflip.jpg
4.5 Galeria Valeria24 viewsGALERIA VALERIA
AE Follis, Siscia, 310-311 AD

GAL VALERIA AVG, bust right, draped and diademed on crescent, wearing necklace, with facing shoulders / VENERI-VICTRICI, Venus standing facing, SIS in ex, crescent in l. field, epsilon in r. field.

RIC VI Siscia 211; Sear 14590. Fine, chipped flan.
Sosius
Valerian_I_RIC_106.jpg
6 Valerian I19 viewsVALERIAN I
BI Antoninianus

O: IMP C P LIC VALERIANVS PF AVG, radiate, draped bust right

R: ORIENS AVGG, Sol standing left, right hand raised, left hand holding whip.

RIC 106, Cohen 140; Sear5 9950

Sosius
Valerian_RIC_285.jpg
6 Valerian I28 viewsVALERIAN I
AR Antoninianus, 3.9g
Eastern Mint. 255-256

O: IMP C P LIC VALERIANVS P F AVG, Radiate, draped, cuirassed bust right

R: PIETAS AVGG, Valerian and Gallienus standing facing, sacrificing over lit altar

RIC V-I, 285 (Asia-Antioch); Göbl 1684e (Samosata)
Sosius
Valerian_AE_Thessalonica.jpg
6 Valerian I39 viewsValerian
AE of Thessalonica.

O: radiate, draped bust right.

R: KOINON QECCALWN, Athena, with aegis and spear,
advancing r. Delta in l. field.

No reference, but very similar to my Gallienus that was added to wildwinds.com
Sosius
Valerian_II_RIC_49.jpg
6.5 Valerian II26 viewsVALERIAN II
BI Antoninianus, 256 - 8 A.D.
Antioch or Samosata mint

O: VALERIANVS NOBIL CAES, Radiate, draped & cuirassed bust r.

R: PRINC IVVENTVTIS, Valerian, shield on ground and spear in left hand, crowning trophy of arms with r. hand

RIC V 49, RSC IV 67

Sosius
Valerian_II_RIC_20.jpg
6.5 Valerian II13 viewsVALERIAN II
AR Antoninianus, Rome Mint
254-255 AD

P C L VALERIANVS NOB CAES, Radiate draped bust r. / PIETAS AVGG, Sacrificial implements, including, lituus, knife, fluted jug turned left, simpulum and aspergillum

RIC V-1, 20; Cohen 56
Sosius
Saloninus_RIC_9.jpg
7.5 Saloninus28 viewsSALONINUS
AR Antoninianus. Colonia Agrippenensium mint.
SALON VALERIANVS CAES, radiate draped bust right / PIETAS AVG, sacrificial implements.
RIC 9, RSC 4, Sear'88 #3080
Sosius
IMG_2204_-_____.JPG
Phoenicia, Akko-Ptolemais Valerian I. 253-260 AD. AE 2664 viewsValerian I. 253-260 AD. AE 26 . Phoenicia, Akko-Ptolemais.
Obv: IMP C P L - [VALERIANVS] AVG Laureate, draped, cuirassed bust right, seen from front.
Rx: COL - P - T - OL Sacred tree between serpents rising from two altars or baskets; to right, winged caduceus. Rare: this type missing in BM, Lindgren, Berk photofile, and Wildwinds. CoinArchives includes a specimen from the same reverse die, but with radiate portrait on obverse: Heritage 357, Long Beach, 9 September 2004, lot 12092. Cohen 374 (de Saulcy Collection). Adjustment marks on obverse.
1 commentsMaritima
VAL128C.jpg
Valerian I, RIC 128C Rome17 viewsValerian silver Antononianus victory with shield. 253-260 CE.
Obverse: IMP C P LOC VALERIANVS P F AVG, radiate,draped and ceirassed bust right.
Reverse: VICTORIA AVGG, Victory standing left holding palm branch and resting other hand on a shield.
Rome mint 23.2 mm., 3.1 g.
NORMAN K
008n.jpg
Δ in circular punch279 viewsIONIA. Smyrna. Civic. Ć 20. Time of Gordian to Valerian. Obv: .IEPACVNKΛHTOC. Laureate and draped bust of the Roman Senate right, countermark on bust. Rev: CMVPΓNE-ΩKOPΩN. Figure of Tyche holding rudder and cornucopia, inside tetrastyle temple. Ref: Ex. Lindgren II:556; BMC 233. Axis: 180°. Weight: 4.95 g. CM: Δ in circular punch, 5.5 mm. Howgego 791 (34 pcs). Note: The countermark was probably not applied before the time of the joint reign of Valerian and Gallienus. Collection Automan.Automan
mariniana.jpg
(0252) MARINIANA23 views(wife of Valerian I)
d. ca. 252 AD
AE ANT. 20 mm max, 1.81 g (posthumous issue)
O: DIVA E MARINIANAE
VEILED, DIAD DR BUST R
R: CONSECRATIO
PEACOCK STANDING FACING
(WIFE OF VALERIAN)
(ex F. Robinson)
laney
gallienus_iovi_070210.jpg
(0253) GALLIENUS50 views253 - 260 AD (joint reign) 260 - 268 AD (sole reign)
struck 255-256, during Joint Reign with Valerian
AR Antoninianus, 22 mm 3.45 g
O: IMP C P LIC GALLIENVS P F AVG, Radiate, draped, cuirassed bust right, seen from behind
R: IOVI CON_SERVA_TORI, Gallienus standing facing, head right, vertical spear in right hand, receiving globe with left from Jupiter standing facing, head left, vertical scepter in left hand, globe in right
Wreath in upper center field
Samosata mint
RIC V, Part I, 440; Göbl 1697b
laney
salonina_tet~0.jpg
(0253) SALONINA33 views(wife of Gallienus; mother of emperors Valerian II and Saloninus) 253 - 268 AD
AE TETRADRACHM 21.5 mm 11.28 g
O: KORNHLIA SALWNINA CEB
DIAD DR BUST R
R: TYCHE SEATED L HOLDING RUDDER AND CORNUCOPIA
ALEXANDRIA
MILNE 3490
(SEAR III 10699)
laney
salonina_venus_a_res.jpg
(0253) SALONINA48 views(wife of Gallienus; mother of emperors Valerian II and Saloninus) 253 - 268 AD
struck 287 AD
Billon antoninianus 20.5 mm 3.57 g
Obverse: SALONINA AVG, Diademed, draped bust right, on crescent, hair weaved in rows with long plait up the back of head, under stephane.
Reverse: VENVS AVG, Venus standing left, holding helmet and spear, one arm resting on shield.
PXV in exe
Antioch
Unlisted in Sear, Van Meter #45, RSC #113, RIC 86.
1 commentslaney
salonina_alexandria.jpg
(0253) SALONINA61 views(wife of Gallienus; mother of emperors Valerian II and Saloninus)
253 - 268 AD
struck year 4 of joint rule of Gallienus and Valerian I
AE TETRADRACHM 21.5 mm 11.28 g
O: KORNHLIA SALWNINA CEB Diademed draped bust right
R: Tyche seated left,holding rudder and cornucopia, LD (year 4) above left
ALEXANDRIA; Emmett 3760a (see also Milne 3940; Sear III 10699). Rare
2 commentslaney
VALERIAN_I.jpg
(0253) VALERIAN30 views253 - 260 AD
AE ANT 22 mm 4.09 g
O: IMP CP LIC VALERIANVS AVG
RAD DR CUIR BUST R
R: LAETITIA AVGG
LAETITIA STANDING FACING L HOLDING WREATH & ANCHOR
laney
valerian.jpg
(0253) VALERIAN28 views253 - 260 AD
AE 20 mm max., 3.79 g
O: IMP CP LIC VALERIANVS PF AVG, Radiate draped bust of Valerian right.
R: VIRTUS AVGG, Valerian I and Gallienus standing, facing each other; emperor on left holding scepter and globe and one on right holding Victory and spear
Antioch mint, RIC 293
laney
valerianb.jpg
(0253) VALERIAN40 views253 - 260 AD
struck 256-258 AD
Billon Antoninianus 20.5 X 23.5 mm, 3.31 g
O: IMP C P LIC VALERIANVS P F AVG - Radiate, draped bust right
R: PIETAS AVGG - Valerian and Gallienus facing each other sacrificing over altar between them, one holding an eagle tipped scepter, the other a parazonium
Uncertain Syrian Mint
Reference SR-9955, RIC V 285
laney
valerian_selene_anazarb.jpg
(0253) VALERIAN I15 views253-260 AD
Dated CY 272 (253/4 AD)
AE Triassarion 22 mm; 9.43 g.
O: AVT K OV A ΛЄPIANOC, radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust of Valerian right.
R: ANA(retrograde Z)APBOV MHT ЄT BOC, draped bust of Selene right, set on crescent; Г/Г to left; A/M/K to right.
Kilikia, Anazarbos mint
ref: Ziegler 815 (Vs2/Rs10); SNG France 2147; SNG Levante 1527; SNG von Aulock 5515
laney
Untitled-1_blk.jpg
(0253) VALERIAN I30 views253 - 260 AD
Capitolene games issue
AE 26.5 mm, 19.34 g
O: IMP CAES P LIC VALERIANVS [PF AVG], laureate, draped, cuirassed bust right.
R: CER SACR CAP OEC ISEL HEL, COL-HEL across fields, male athlete standing facing, head right, holding palm branch, right hand in a selection urn.
Coele Syria, Heliopolis
Cohen 329
laney
valerian_resti_res.jpg
(0253) VALERIAN I19 views253-260 AD
Billon antoninianus 22 mm, 3.79 g
O: IMP C P LIC VALERIANVS PF AVG Radiate bust right
R: RESTITVT ORIENTIS Turreted female (the Orient) standing right, presenting wreath to Valerian standing left
Rome mint
laney
SALONINUS.jpg
(0258) SALONINUS25 views258 - 260 AD
(as Caesar)
AR Antoninianus
O: SALON VALERIANVS NOB [CAES]
RAD DR BUST R
R: S[PE]S PVBLICA
SPES PRESENTING FLOWER TO SALONIINUS
RIC VOL. V, PART 1, #36
ANTIOCH MINT
laney
GAL_VAL.jpg
(0308) GALERIA VALERIA22 views(2nd wife of Galerius; daughter of Diocletian)
308 - 310 AD
AE FOLLIS 24 mm
O: BUST R
R:VENERI VICTRICI
VENUS STANDING LEFT HOLDING APPLE AND RAISING DRAPERY OVER SHOULDER
laney
GAL_VAL_VENUS_RES.jpg
(0308) GALERIA VALERIA19 views(2nd wife of Galerius; daughter of Diocletian)
Struck 308 - 309 AD
AE 25 mm, 4.87 g
O: GAL VAL-ERIA AVG, Diademed draped bust right
R: VENERI V-ICTRICI, Venus standing left holding apple in right hand, and lifting her veil with left hand, Δ in left field; MKV in exe
Cyzicus RIC 46
laney
anazarbusValerian.jpg
*Cilicia, Anazarbus. Valerian I AE2425 viewsValerian I, October 253 - c. June 260 A.D., Anazarbus, Cilicia

Obverse: AVTKOVALEPIANOCCE, radiate and draped bust right.
Reverse ANAZAPB MHTPOΠ, prize urn on table, Γ Γ above, A-M-K within legs of table, ET BOΣ in ex.
ancientone
valerianAntioch.jpg
-Pisidia, Antioch. Valerian I. AD 253-260.48 viewsĆ 22mm. Radiate and cuirassed bust right, seen from behind / ANTIO-C-H-I COL, S-R across field, vexillum surmounted by an eagle, between two standards. Krzyzanowska VII/18; SNG France 13162 commentsancientone
U3141F1PSHJQFNX.JPG
005cc. Valeria Messalina48 viewsMessalina, 41-48 AD

Size/Weight: 17mm, 3.36g

AEOLIS, Aegae. Messalina. Augusta, AD 41-48. Draped bust right / Zeus Aëtophorus standing left. RPC I 2430; SNG Copenhagen 23.

Obverse: CЄBACTH MЄCAΛЄINA draped bust right
Reverse: AIΓAЄΩN Zeus standing left, holding eagle and scepter

This should look familiar, A. Reich :)

Attribution: RPC 2430, SNG Aulock -, SNG Leypold -, SNG Righetti -, Lindgren -, Sear GIC –
ecoli
0093.jpg
0093 - Denarius Valeria 82 BC30 viewsObv/ Draped bust of Victory r., wearing pendant earring and necklace, (control letter behind).
Rev/ C VAL FLA (VAL in ligature) on l., IMPERAT on r., EX SC across lower fields, aquila between signa exhibiting vexilla marked H (for hastati) and P (for principes).

Ag, 18.2 mm, 3.47 g
Moneyer: C. Valerius Flaccus.
Mint: Rome.
RRC 365/1a [dies o/r: 36/39 (var. 1a --> 1c)] - Syd. 747a
ex-Tintinna, auction e9, lot 1108
1 commentsdafnis
0136.jpg
0136 - Nummus Galeria Valeria 308 AC17 viewsObv/ GAL VAL-ERIA AVG, draped bust of G.V. r., wearing diadem.
Rev/ VENERI V-ICTRICI, Venus standing facing, head l., holding apple in upraised r. hand and raising drapery over l. shoulder; mint symbol Γ in filed; in ex., ANT.

AE, 24.5 mm, 7.08 g
Mint: Antioch.
RIC VI/84 [S]
ex-J.B. González Redondo (denarios.org), jul 2011
dafnis
0192.jpg
0192 - Denarius Valeria 45 BC50 viewsObv/ Diademed head of Apollo Soranus r., ACISCVLV(S) behind, with acisculus; star above.
Rev/ Europa riding bull r., holding veil above; in ex., L VALERIV(S).

Ag, 3.75 g
Moneyer: L. Valerius Acisculus.
Mint: Rome.
RRC 474/1a - BMCRRE Rome 4099 - Sear Imp. 90.
ex-Soler y Llach, auction 83, lot 151.
1 commentsdafnis
041.jpg
037 VALERIAN I9 viewsEMPEROR: Valerian I
DENOMINATION: Antoninianus
OBVERSE: IMP C P LIC VALERIANVS AVG, radiate draped bust right, seen from front
REVERSE: VICTORIA AVGG, Victory standing left holding wreath and palm
DATE: 254 AD
MINT: Roma
WEIGHT: 2.50 g
RIC: 124
Barnaba6
valerian1.jpg
040. Valerian, 254-260AD. BI Antoninianus.40 viewsBI Antoninianus. Antioch mint.
Obv. Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right. IMP C P LIC VALERIANVS AVG

Rev. Emperors sacrificing at altar. PIETAS AVGG

RSC 153, RIC 284.

Extremely nice condition for this emperor. EF.
LordBest
Personajes_Imperiales_7.jpg
07 - Personalities of the Empire50 viewsVolusian, Corn. Supera, Valerian I, Mariniana, Gallienus, Salonina, Valerian II, Saloninus, Regalianus, Dryantilla, Macrianus, Quietus, Postumus and Laelianus.mdelvalle
80a.jpg
080a Valerian I. AE2417 viewsobv: laur. drp.and cuir. bust r.
rev: COL IVL FEL AVG palm branch in agonistic urn on table
ex: .HEL.
hill132
80b.jpg
080b Valerian I. AE antoninianus15 viewsobv: C P LIC VALERIANVS AVG rad. drp. bust r.
rev: VIRTVS AVGG emps. std. face to face. one holding spear
and globe, the other victory and spear
hill132
81.jpg
081 Mariniana. AR antoninianus15 viewsobv: DIVA E MARINIANAE laur. drp. bust r. on crescent
rev: CONSECRATIO peacock in splendor looking l.
"wife of valerian I"
hill132
84a.jpg
084a Soloninus. AR antoninianus20 viewsobv: SAL VALERIANVS CS rad. drp. bust r. seen from behind
rev: PRINC IVVENT prince std. l. holding batoned spear to r. ensign
hill132
84b.jpg
084b Saloninus. AR antoninianus11 viewsobv: SALON VALERIANVS NOB CAES rad. drp. bust r. as seen from behind
rev: SPES PVBLICA Sal. std. l. holding spear,receiving flower from Spes
hill132
84c.jpg
084c Saloninus. AR antoninianus9 viewsobv: SALON VALERIANVS NOB CAES rad. drp. bust r. as seen from behind
rev: SPES PVBLICA Sol. r. receiving flower from Spes.wreath above
hill132
85a.jpg
085a Valerian II. AR antoninianus28 viewsobv: P LIC VALERIANVS CAES rad. drp. bust r.
rev: IOVI CRESCENTI child Jupiter riding r. on goat
hill132
85b.jpg
085b Valerian II. AR antoninianus40 viewsobv: P LC VALERIANVS CAES rad. drp. bust r.
rev: IOVI CRESCENTI child Jupiter riding r. on goat
hill132
Valerianus_AR-Ant_IMP-C-P-LIC-VALERIANVS-P-F-AVG_APOLINI-CONSERVA_RIC-V-I-72A-p-44_C-17_Rome_256-357-AD_Q-001_6h_21,5mm_2,98g-s.jpg
088 Valerian I. (253-260 A.D.), RIC V-I 072A, Rome, AR-Antoninianus, APOLINI CONSERVA, Apollo standing left, #1118 views088 Valerian I. (253-260 A.D.), RIC V-I 072A, Rome, AR-Antoninianus, APOLINI CONSERVA, Apollo standing left, #1
avers: IMP C P LIC VALERIANVS P F AVG, Radiate and draped bust right.
reverse: APOLINI CONSERVA, Apollo standing left holding branch and lyre on the rock.
exergue:-/-//--, diameter: 21,5mm, weight: 2,98g, axis: 6h,
mint: Rome, date: 256-57A.D., ref: RIC V-I 072A, p-44, C-17, Göbl-72c, Sear 9925,
Q-001
quadrans
Valerianus_AR-Ant_IMP-C-P-LIC-VALERIANVS-AVG_APOLINI-PROPVG_RIC-V-I-74-p-45-1A_C-25_Rome_253-AD_Q-001_axis-1h_18,5-20mm_3,60g-a-s.jpg
088 Valerian I. (253-260 A.D.), RIC V-I 074, Rome, AR-Antoninianus, APOLINI PROPVG, Apollo standing right, #186 views088 Valerian I. (253-260 A.D.), RIC V-I 074, Rome, AR-Antoninianus, APOLINI PROPVG, Apollo standing right, #1
avers: IMP C P LIC VALERIANVS AVG, Radiate, draped bust right.
reverse: APOLINI PROPVG, Apollo standing right, drawing a bow.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 18,5-20mm, weight: 3,60g, axis: 1h,
mint: Rome, date: 253 A.D., ref: RIC V-I 74, p-45, C-25,
Q-001
quadrans
Valerianus_AR-Ant_IMP-C-P-LIC-VALERIANVS-AVG_APOLINI-PROPVG_RIC-V-I-74-p-45-1A_C-25_Rome_253-AD_Q-002_6h_20,5-22mm_3,10g-s.jpg
088 Valerian I. (253-260 A.D.), RIC V-I 074, Rome, AR-Antoninianus, APOLINI PROPVG, Apollo standing right, #281 views088 Valerian I. (253-260 A.D.), RIC V-I 074, Rome, AR-Antoninianus, APOLINI PROPVG, Apollo standing right, #2
avers: IMP C P LIC VALERIANVS AVG, Radiate, draped bust right.
reverse: APOLINI PROPVG, Apollo standing right, drawing a bow.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 20,5-22mm, weight: 3,10g, axis: 6h,
mint: Rome, date: 253 A.D., ref: RIC V-I 74, p-45, C-25,
Q-002
quadrans
Valerianus_AR-Ant_IMP-C-P-LIC-VALERIANVS-AVG_VICTORIA-AVG-G_RIC-V-I-125-p-_C-230_Rome_254-AD_Q-001_1h_20-21,5mm_3,06g-s.jpg
088 Valerian I. (253-260 A.D.), RIC V-I 125, Rome, AE-Antoninianus, VICTORIA AVG G, Victory standing right, #1103 views088 Valerian I. (253-260 A.D.), RIC V-I 125, Rome, AE-Antoninianus, VICTORIA AVG G, Victory standing right, #1
avers: IMP C P LIC VALERIANVS AVG, Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right.
reverse: VICTORIA AVG G, Victory standing left, holding wreath and palm.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 20-21,5mm, weight: 3,06g, axis: 1h,
mint: Rome, date: 254A.D., ref: RIC V-I 125, p-, C-230,
Q-001
quadrans
Valerianus,_AR-Ant,_IMP_C_P_LIC_VALERIANVS_P_F_AVG,_PIETAS_AVG_G,_RIC_V-I_285,_p-60-2A,_C-152,_Antioch,_Gobl_1684e_Samosata,_255-56_AD,_Q-002,_0h,_22-22,5mm,_4,5g-s.jpg
088 Valerian I. (253-260 A.D.), RIC V-I 285, Antioch (?), Göbl 1684e (Samosata?), AR-Antoninianus, PIETAS AVG G, #174 views088 Valerian I. (253-260 A.D.), RIC V-I 285, Antioch (?), Göbl 1684e (Samosata?), AR-Antoninianus, PIETAS AVG G, #1
avers: IMP C P LIC VALERIANVS P F AVG, Radiate, draped cuirassed bust right.
reverse: PIETAS AVG G, Valerian I. and Gallienus standing, facing each other, sacrificing over the altar in between.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 22,0-22,5mm, weight: 4,50g, axis: 0h,
mint: Antioch, date: 255-256 A.D., ref: RIC V-I 285, p-60, C-152, Göbl 1684e Samosata ?,
Q-001
2 commentsquadrans
Valerianus_AR-Ant_IMP-C-P-LIC-VALERIANVS-PF-AVG_PIETAS-AVG-G_RIC-V-I-285-p-60-2A_C-152_Antioch_255-56-AD_Q-001_axis-5h_21mm_3,59g-s.jpg
088 Valerian I. (253-260 A.D.), RIC V-I 285, Antioch, AE-Antoninianus, PIETAS AVG G, #183 views088 Valerian I. (253-260 A.D.), RIC V-I 285, Antioch, AE-Antoninianus, PIETAS AVG G, #1
avers: IMP C P LIC VALERIANVS P F AVG, Radiate, draped bust right.
reverse: PIETAS AVG G, Valerian I. and Gallienus standing, facing each other, sacrificing over the altar in between.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 21mm, weight: 3,59g, axis: 5h,
mint: Antioch, date: 255-256 A.D., ref: RIC V-I 285, p-60, C-152,
Q-001
quadrans
DAC_Valerian-I_AE-25_IMP-P-LIC-VALERIANO-AVG_PROVIN_CIA-DACIA_AN-VIII_Pick-na_PM-7-54-1_Mus-na_rare_Q-001_h_mm_9,73g-s.jpg
088p Valerian I. (253-260 A.D.), Dacia, Dacia, PM 07-54-01, AE-Sestertius, -/-//ANVIII, PROVINCIA DACIA, Dacia standing left, Rare!70 views088p Valerian I. (253-260 A.D.), Dacia, Dacia, PM 07-54-01, AE-Sestertius, -/-//ANVIII, PROVINCIA DACIA, Dacia standing left, Rare!
avers: IMP P LIC VALERIANO AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right.
reverse: PROVIN CIA DACIA, Dacia standing left, holding two standards, between an eagle and a lion, Year ANVIII in exergue.
exergue: -/-//ANVIII, diameter: 25mm, weight: 9,73g, axis: h,
mint: Dacia, date: 253-254 A.D., ref: Pick-61var??, PM-7-54-1, Mus-23var??,
Q-001
quadrans
DAC_Valerian-I_AE-25_IMP-P-L-VALERIANVS-AVG_PROVINCI-A-D-ACIA_AN-X_Pick-63var_PM-7-59-x-not-in_Mus-na_rare_Q-001_11h_26,5-28,5mm_8,75g-s.jpg
088p Valerian I. (253-260 A.D.), Dacia, Dacia, PM 07-59-??, AE-Sestertius, -/-//ANX, PROVINCIA DACIA, Dacia standing left, Rare!65 views088p Valerian I. (253-260 A.D.), Dacia, Dacia, PM 07-59-??, AE-Sestertius, -/-//ANX, PROVINCIA DACIA, Dacia standing left, Rare!
avers: IMP P L VALERIANVS AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right
reverse: PROVINCI A D ACIA, Dacia standing left, between an eagle and a lion, right hand holding serpent, left hand holding standards, Year ANX in exergue.
exergue: -/-//ANX, diameter: 26,5-28,5mm, weight: 8,75g, axis: 11h,
mint: Dacia, date: 255-256 A.D., ref: Pick-63var??, PM-7-59-???, Mus-??,
Q-001
quadrans
VIM_Valerianus-I-AE-26_IMP-VALERIANVS-PF-AVG_PMSC_OL-VIM_AN-XVI_Pick-190_PM-7-06-2_Mus-62v_Q-001_h_26mm_7,03gx-s.jpg
088p Valerian I. (253-260 A.D.), Moesia, Viminacium, PM 07-06-02, AE-Sestertius, -/-//ANXVI, P M S COL VIM, Female figure standing, facing left, Rare! #0162 views088p Valerian I. (253-260 A.D.), Moesia, Viminacium, PM 07-06-02, AE-Sestertius, -/-//ANXVI, P M S COL VIM, Female figure standing, facing left, Rare! #01
avers: IMP VALERIANVS P F AVG, laureate cuirassed bust right.
reverse: P M S C OL VIM (Provinciae Moesiae Superioris Colonia Viminacium), Female figure (Viminacium or Provincia Moesia) standing, facing left, between bull to left and lion to right, in exergue ANXVI.
exergue: -/-//ANXVI, diameter: 26mm, weight: 7,03g, axis: h,
mint: Viminacium, date: 254-255 A.D., ref: Pick-190, PM-7-06-2, Mus-62var,
Q-001
quadrans
VIM_Valerianus-I-AE-26_IMP-VALERIANVS-P-AVG_PMSC_OL-VIM_AN-XVI_Pick-190_PM-7-06-5_Mus-62v_Q-001_h_mm_g-s~0.jpg
088p Valerian I. (253-260 A.D.), Moesia, Viminacium, PM 07-06-05, AE-Sestertius, -/-//ANXVI, P M S COL VIM, Female figure standing, facing left, Rare! #0166 views088p Valerian I. (253-260 A.D.), Moesia, Viminacium, PM 07-06-05, AE-Sestertius, -/-//ANXVI, P M S COL VIM, Female figure standing, facing left, Rare! #01
avers: IMP VALERIANVS P AVG, laureate cuirassed bust right.
reverse: P M S C OL VIM (Provinciae Moesiae Superioris Colonia Viminacium), Female figure (Viminacium or Provincia Moesia) standing, facing left, between bull to left and lion to right, in exergue ANXVI.
exergue: -/-//ANXVI, diameter: mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Moesia, Viminacium, date: 254-255 A.D., ref: Pick-190, PM-7-06-5, Mus-,
Q-001
quadrans
VIM_Valerianus-I-AE-26_IMP-VALERIANVS-P-AVG_PMSC_OL-VIM_AN-XVI_Pick-190_PM-7-06-5_Mus-62v_Q-002_0h_26,5-28,5mm_8,96ga-s~0.jpg
088p Valerian I. (253-260 A.D.), Moesia, Viminacium, PM 07-06-05, AE-Sestertius, -/-//ANXVI, P M S COL VIM, Female figure standing, facing left, Rare! #0293 views088p Valerian I. (253-260 A.D.), Moesia, Viminacium, PM 07-06-05, AE-Sestertius, -/-//ANXVI, P M S COL VIM, Female figure standing, facing left, Rare! #02
avers: IMP VALERIANVS P AVG, laureate cuirassed bust right.
reverse: P M S C OL VIM (Provinciae Moesiae Superioris Colonia Viminacium), Female figure (Viminacium or Provincia Moesia) standing, facing left, between bull to left and lion to right, in exergue ANXVI.
exergue: -/-//ANXVI, diameter: 26,5-28,5mm, weight: 8,96g, axis: 0h,
mint: Moesia, Viminacium, date: 254-255 A.D., ref: Pick-190, PM-7-06-5, Mus-,
Q-002
quadrans
088p_Valerian-I_(253-260_A_D_),_Mysia,_Kyzikos,_AE-25,_Burning_altar,Q-001_7h_25mm_7,68g-s.jpg
088p Valerian I. (253-260 A.D.), Mysia, Kyzikos, SNG France 858, AE-25, -/-//NEΩKOΡ, Burning altar, #1170 views088p Valerian I. (253-260 A.D.), Mysia, Kyzikos, SNG France 858, AE-25, -/-//NEΩKOΡ, Burning altar, #1
avers: AVK ΛIK Λ VAΛEPIANOC, Laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right .
reverse: CTΡACΩ CTΡATΩY KYZIKEΩN NΩN (retrograde), NEΩKOΡ in ex. Burning altar between two serpent-entwined, burning torches. CΩCTΡATΩY (magistrate).
exergue: -/-//NEΩKOΡ, diameter: 25,0mm, weight: 7,68g, axis: 7h,
mint: Mysia, Kyzikos, date: 253-260 A.D., ref:SNG France 858, CNG e-Auction #68, closed 9 July, 2003, cf. SNG von Aulock 1286 (no altar); cf. SNG Copenhagen (same).
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Valerian_I_,_Pisidia,_Antioch,_AE-22_IMP_CAERAS_LL_OVNAHHIR_ANTIOC-HIO_CL__S_R_SNG_France_3-1316__Krzy__VII-35__Q-001_0h_21-22mm_4,24g-s~0.jpg
088p Valerian I. (253-260 A.D.), Pisidia, Antioch, SNG France 3 1316, AE-22, S/R//--, ANTIO CHIO CL, Vexilium surmounted by eagle,124 views088p Valerian I. (253-260 A.D.), Pisidia, Antioch, SNG France 3 1316, AE-22, S/R//--, ANTIO CHIO CL, Vexilium surmounted by eagle,
avers: IMP CAERAS LL OVNAHHIR, Radiate, draped, cuirassed bust right.
reverse: ANTIO CHIO CL, Vexilium surmounted by eagle, between two standards. S-R between the masts.
exergue: S/R//--, diameter: 21-22mm, weight: 4,24g, axis: 0h,
mint: Pisidia, Antioch, date: 253 A.D., ref: SNG France 3, 1316; Krzy. VII, 35.,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Mariniana_AR-Ant_DIVAE-MARINIANAE_CONSECRATIO_RIC-V-I-4-p64_C-4_254-58-AD_Viminacium_Q-001_7h_20,5-22,5mm_3,52g-s.jpg
089 Mariniana (254-58 A.D.), RIC V-I 003, Rome (Viminacium?), AR-Antoninianus, -/-//--, CONSECRATIO, Peacock standing facing, Scarce!, #1129 views089 Mariniana (254-58 A.D.), RIC V-I 003, Rome (Viminacium?), AR-Antoninianus, -/-//--, CONSECRATIO, Peacock standing facing, Scarce!, #1
Wife of Valerian I.
avers: DIVAE MARINIANAE, Diademed, veiled and draped bust right, on the crescent.
reverse: CONSECRATIO, Peacock standing facing, head left, spreading plumage.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 20,5-22,5 mm, weight: 3,52 g, axis: 7 h,
mint: Rome (Viminacium?), date: 256-57 A.D., ref: RIC V-I 3, p64, Göbl 212b; RSC 2., Scarce!,
Q-001
quadrans
Mariniana_AR-Ant_DIVAE-MARINIANAE_CONSECRATIO_RIC-V-I-4-p64_C-4_254-58-AD_Viminacium_Q-002_6h_18-21,5mm_3,05g-s.jpg
089 Mariniana (254-58 A.D.), RIC V-I 003, Rome (Viminacium?), AR-Antoninianus, -/-//--, CONSECRATIO, Peacock standing facing, Scarce!, #298 views089 Mariniana (254-58 A.D.), RIC V-I 003, Rome (Viminacium?), AR-Antoninianus, -/-//--, CONSECRATIO, Peacock standing facing, Scarce!, #2
Wife of Valerian I.
avers: DIVAE MARINIANAE, Veiled and draped bust right, on the crescent.
reverse: CONSECRATIO, Peacock standing facing, head left, spreading plumage.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 18,0-21,5 mm, weight: 3,05 g, axis:6h,
mint: Rome (Viminacium?), date: 256-57 A.D., ref: RIC V-I 3, p64, MIR 36, Göbl 212b; RSC 2., Scarce!,
Q-002
quadrans
Mariniana_AR-Ant_DIVAE-MARINIANAE_CONSECRATIO_V-left-field_RIC-V-I-4-p64_C-4_254-58-AD_Viminacium_Q-003_0h_17,5-18,5mm_2,20g-s.jpg
089 Mariniana (254-58 A.D.), RIC V-I 004 note, Rome (Viminacium?), AR-Antoninianus, V/-//--, CONSECRATIO, Peacock standing facing, Scarce!, #1108 views089 Mariniana (254-58 A.D.), RIC V-I 004 note, Rome (Viminacium?), AR-Antoninianus, V/-//--, CONSECRATIO, Peacock standing facing, Scarce!, #1
Wife of Valerian I.
avers: DIVAE MARINIANAE, Veiled and draped bust right, set on the crescent.
reverse: CONSECRATIO, Peacock standing facing, head left, spreading plumage, mintmark V in left field down.
exergue: V/-//--, diameter: 17,5-18,5 mm, weight: 2,20 g, axis: 0h,
mint: Rome (Viminacium?), 4th-5th emission (?), date: 256-57 A.D., ref: RIC V-I 4note, p-64, MIR 36, 225b, RSC 5., Scarce!,
Q-001
quadrans
Mariniana_AR-Ant_DIVAE-MARINIANAE_CONSECRATIO_RIC-V-I-6-p64_C-14_254-58-AD_Viminacium_Q-001_0h_18,5-20,5mm_3,47g-s.jpg
089 Mariniana (254-58 A.D.), RIC V-I 006, Rome (Viminacium?), AR-Antoninianus, -/-//--, CONSECRATIO, Diva Mariniana, reclining on peacock flying right, Rare! #1105 views089 Mariniana (254-58 A.D.), RIC V-I 006, Rome (Viminacium?), AR-Antoninianus, -/-//--, CONSECRATIO, Diva Mariniana, reclining on peacock flying right, Rare! #1
Wife of Valerian I.
avers: DIVAE MARINIANAE, Veiled and draped bust right, on crescent.
reverse: CONSECRATIO, Diva Mariniana, raising hand and holding scepter, reclining on peacock flying right.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 18,5-20,5 mm, weight: 3,47 g, axis: 0 h,
mint: Rome (Viminacium?), date: 254-58 A.D., ref: RIC V-I 6, p-64, MIR 36, Göbl 850, RSC 16., Rare!
Q-001
quadrans
VIM_Mariniana_AE-27_DIVAE-MARINIANAE_PMSC_OL-VI_AN-XVI_Pick-na_PM-7-08-2_Mus-64_Q-001_h_27mm_9_76gx-s.jpg
089p Mariniana (??? A.D.), Moesia, Viminacium, PM 07-08-02, AE-Sestertius, -/-//ANXVI, P M S COL VIM, Female figure standing, facing left, Rare! #0166 views089p Mariniana (??? A.D.), Moesia, Viminacium, PM 07-08-02, AE-Sestertius, -/-//ANXVI, P M S COL VIM, Female figure standing, facing left, Rare! #01
Wife of Valerian I.
avers: DIVAE MARINIANAE, Veiled and draped bust right.
reverse: P M S C OL VIM (Provinciae Moesiae Superioris Colonia Viminacium), Female figure (Viminacium or Provincia Moesia) standing, facing left, between bull to left and lion to right, in exergue ANXVI.
exergue: -/-//ANXVI, diameter: 27mm, weight:9,76g, axis: h,
mint: Moesia, Viminacium, date: 254-255 AD., ref: Pick-not listed, PM-7-08-2, Mus-not listed,
Q-001
quadrans
Personajes_Imperiales_9.jpg
09 - Personalities of the Empire54 viewsSaturninus, Carus, Carinus, Urbica, Nigrinianus, Numerianus, Diocletian, Maximian, Carausius, Allectus, Constantius I, Theodora, Galerius and Galeria Valeriamdelvalle
Personajes_Imperiales_9~0.jpg
09 - Personalities of the Empire34 viewsCarinus, Magnia Urbica, Nigrinianus, Numerianus, Diocletian, Maximian, Carausius, Allectus, Constantius I, Theodora, Galerius, Galeria Valeria, Severus II and Maxentiusmdelvalle
092_Valerianus_II_,_RIC_V-I_01,_AR-Ant,_VALERIANVS_CAES,_IOVI_CRESCENTI,__Cologne,_RSC-16,_257-58_AD,_Q-001,_6h,_21-23mm,_3,50g-s.jpg
092 Valerian-II (256-258 A.D. Caesar), AR-Antoninianus, RIC V-I 01, Cologne, IOVI CRESCENTI, Jupiter riding goat Amalthea right, Scarce! #178 views092 Valerian-II (256-258 A.D. Caesar), AR-Antoninianus, RIC V-I 01, Cologne, IOVI CRESCENTI, Jupiter riding goat Amalthea right, Scarce! #1
avers: VALERIANVS CAES, Radiate, draped bust right.
reverse: IOVI CRESCENTI, Jupiter riding goat Amalthea right.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 21,0-23,0mm, weight: 3,50g, axis: 6h,
mint: Cologne, date: 257-258 A.D., ref: RIC V-I 01, p-118, RSC-16, Scarce!,
Q-001
2 commentsquadrans
Valerianus-II__AR-Ant_P-LIC-VALERIANVS-CAES_IOVI-CRESCENTI_RIC-V-I-13_C-29_253-55-AD_Q-001_axis-6h_20,5mm_3,07g-s.jpg
092 Valerian-II (256-258 A.D. Caesar), AR-Antoninianus, RIC V-I 013, Rome, IOVI CRESCENTI, Jupiter riding goat Amalthea right, Scarce! #196 views092 Valerian-II (256-258 A.D. Caesar), AR-Antoninianus, RIC V-I 013, Rome, IOVI CRESCENTI, Jupiter riding goat Amalthea right, Scarce! #1
avers:- P-LIC-VALERIANVS-CAES, Radiate, draped bust right.
revers:- IOVI-CRESCENTI, Jupiter riding goat Amalthea right.
exergo: -/-//--, diameter: 20,5mm, weight: 3,07g, axis: 6h,
mint: Rome, date: 253-255 A.D., ref: RIC-V-I-13, p-118, C-29, Scarce!,
Q-001
quadrans
Valerianus-II__AR-Ant_P-LIC-VALERIANVS-CAES_IOVI-CRESCENTI_RIC-V-I-13_C-29_253-55-AD_Q-002_1h_20-21mm_3,43ga-s.jpg
092 Valerian-II (256-258 A.D. Caesar), AR-Antoninianus, RIC V-I 013, Rome, IOVI CRESCENTI, Jupiter riding goat Amalthea right, Scarce! #2127 views092 Valerian-II (256-258 A.D. Caesar), AR-Antoninianus, RIC V-I 013, Rome, IOVI CRESCENTI, Jupiter riding goat Amalthea right, Scarce! #2
avers:- P-LIC-VALERIANVS-CAES, Radiate, draped bust right, seen from front.
revers:- IOVI-CRESCENTI, Jupiter riding goat Amalthea right.
exergo: -/-//--, diameter: 20-21mm, weight: 3,43g, axis: 1h,
mint: Rome, date: 253-255 A.D., ref: RIC-V-I-13, p-118, C-29, Scarce!,
Q-002
quadrans
Valerianus-II__AR-Ant_P-LIC-VALERIANVS-CAES_PIETAS-AVG-G_RIC-V-I-19_C-45_254-55-AD_Q-001_axis-6h_18,5-20,5mm_3,43g-s.jpg
092 Valerian-II (256-258 A.D. Caesar), AR-Antoninianus, RIC V-I 019, Rome, PIETAS AVG G, Sacrificial instruments,86 views092 Valerian-II (256-258 A.D. Caesar), AR-Antoninianus, RIC V-I 019, Rome, PIETAS AVG G, Sacrificial instruments.
avers:- P-LIC-VALERIANVS-CAES, Radiate, draped bust right.
revers:- PIETAS-AVG-G, Sacrificial instruments.
exergo: - , diameter: 18,5-20,5mm, weight: 3,43g, axis: 6h,
mint: Rome, date: 254-255 A.D., ref: RIC-V-I-19, p-118, C-45,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Nigrinianus_AE-Ant_DIVO-NIGRINIANO_CONSECRATIO_RIC-V-II-474-Num_Q-001_axis-h_21-22,5mm_5_40g-s.jpg
092 Valerian-II (256-258 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-I 024a, CONSECRATIO, Large altar, 214 views092 Valerian-II, (256-258 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-I 024a, CONSECRATIO, Large altar,
avers:- DIVO CAES VALERIANO, Radiate head right of Valerianus II. as a boy.
revers:- CONSECRATIO, Large altar.
exerg: , diameter: 21-22,5 mm, weight: 5,40g, axis: h,
mint: Minted posthumously at Rome, date: 258-259 A.D., ref: RIC-V-I-024a,
Q-001
quadrans
092_Valerian-II_(256-258_A_D__Caesar),_AE-21,_Ionia,_Smyrna,_Klose_1_8,_SNG_München_456,_255-60AD_Q-001_0h_20,7mm_3,85g-s.jpg
092p Valerian II. (256-258 A.D.), Ionia, Smyrna, (third Neokoros), SNG München 456, AE-21, Herakles,113 views092p Valerian II. (256-258 A.D.), Ionia, Smyrna, (third Neokoros), SNG München 456, AE-21, Herakles,
avers: - ΠO ΛIK O VAΛEPIANOC, Bare-headed, draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from behind.
revers: - CMΥRNAIΩN Γ NEΩKO/R ΩN, ( Γ are = third Neokoros), Herakles, naked, standing left, holding kantharos and club, lionskin over arm.
exe: -/-//--, diameter: 20,7mm, weight: 3,85g, axis: 0h,
mint: Ionia, Smyrna, date: 255-260B.C., ref: SNG München 456, Klose 1.8, CNG Elec. Auc. 160 (3/2007), lot 198,
Q-001
quadrans
092_Valerian-II__(256-258_A_D_),_Bi-Tetradrachm,_G-2991,_D-5373,_Alexdr,Eagle-l_L-__Q-001_11h_20,5-21,5mm_10,44g-s.jpg
092p Valerian-II. (256-258 A.D.), Bi-Tetradrachm, G-2991, D-5373, Eagle left, L-Δ, across the field,68 views092p Valerian-II. (256-258 A.D.), Bi-Tetradrachm, G-2991, D-5373, Eagle left, L-Δ, across the field,
avers:- Π-ΛΙΚ-ΚΟΡ-ΟVΑΛΕΡΙΑΝΟC-KAIC-CEB, Bare head right.
revers:-,Eagle left, head right, his beak wreath, L-Δ, across the field (year 4 Valerianus-I.),
exerg: -/-//--, diameter: 20,5-21,5 mm, weight: 10,44g, axes: 11 h,
mint: Alexandria, date: 256-257 A.D., L-Δ, across the field (year 4 Valerianus-I.), ref: Geissen-2991, Dattari-5373, Kapmann-Ganschow-92.2-p324,
Q-001
quadrans
Saloninus_AR-Ant_SALON-VALERIANVS-CAES_PIETAS-AVG_RIC-V-I-9_C-41_Colonia-Agrippina_258-59-AD_Q-001_axis-0h_22,5-24,5mm_2,63g-s.jpg
093 Saloninus (258-260 A.D. Caesar), AR-Antoninianus, RIC V-I 009, Colonia-Agrippina, PIETAS AVG, Sacrificial instruments,197 views093 Saloninus (258-260 A.D. Caesar), AR-Antoninianus, RIC V-I 009, Colonia-Agrippina, PIETAS AVG, Sacrificial instruments,
avers: SALON VALERIANVS CAES, Radiate, draped bust right.
reverse: PIETAS AVG, Sacrificial implements: Lituus, knife, patera, vase, simpulum and sprinkler.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 22,5-24,5mm, weight: 2,63g, axis: 0h,
mint: Colonia-Agrippina, date: 258-259 A.D., ref: RIC-V-I-9, p-, C-41,
Q-001
quadrans
093_Saloninus,_Bi-Ant_,_RIC_V-I_036,_Samosata,_SALON_VALERIANVS_NOB_CAES,_SPES_PVBLICA,_256-260AD,_Q-001,_5h,_20-21mm,_3g-s.jpg
093 Saloninus (258-260 A.D. Caesar), AR-Antoninianus, RIC V-I 036, Samosata, SPES PVBLICA, Prince in military dress and Spes,100 views093 Saloninus (258-260 A.D. Caesar), AR-Antoninianus, RIC V-I 036, Samosata, SPES PVBLICA, Prince in military dress and Spes,
avers: SALON VALERIANVS NOB CAES, Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust of Saloninus right.
reverse: SPES PVBLICA, Prince in military dress standing right, holding scepter and receiving a flower from Spes, walking left, lifting hem of skirt, star between.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 20,0-21,0mm, weight: 3,00g, axis: 5h,
mint: Samosata, date: 256-260 A.D., ref: RIC V-I 36, p-, C-41,
Q-001
quadrans
Valeria_16-18_2.jpg
1) The Caesarians: Valeria - Drunken Mint Worker?16 viewsRoman Republic
AR Denarius.
L. Valerius Acisculus. 45 BC.

Diademed head of Apollo Soranus right, axe behind, star above; in laurel wreath

Very poor strike. According to Andrew McCabe: about 30% of obverse visible, and 0% of reverse.

Valeria 16-18
RM0044
Sosius
RI_110a_img.jpg
100 - Saloninus, Antoninianus - RIC 00914 viewsObv:– SALON VALERIANVS CAES, Radiate, draped bust right
Rev:– PIETAS AVG, Lituus, knife, jug, simpulum and sprinkler
Minted in Rome. A.D. 258-260
Reference:– Hunter 8. RIC 9. RSC 41.

Weight 3.23g. 22.76mm.
maridvnvm
RI 105c img.jpg
105 - Valerian Antoninianus - RIC 01220 viewsObv:– VALERIANVS P F AVG - Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:– ORIE-N-S AVGG, Sol walking left, holding whip and raising hand
Minted in Lugdunum. A.D. 258-259
Reference:– Cohen 6. RIC 12
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_105d_img.jpg
105 - Valerian Antoninianus - RIC 12113 viewsObv:– IMP C P LIC VALERIANVS AVG, Radiate draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:– SALVS AVGG, Salus standing left feeding snake and holding scepter
Minted in Rome mint, 253-254 A.D.
Reference:– RIC V 121. RSC 197.
maridvnvm
RI_105e_img.jpg
105 - Valerian Antoninianus - RIC 21020 viewsObv:– IMP C P LIC VALERIANVS AVG, Radiate draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:– AETERNITATI AVGG, Saturn standing right, holding scythe
Minted in Antioch
Reference:– Goebl 1559a. RIC V 210. RSC 8.

A scarcer reverse type. A somewhat flat strike.
maridvnvm
RI 105a img.jpg
105 - Valerian I Antoninianus - RIC 287c56 viewsObv:– IMP C P LIC VALERIANVS P F AVG, Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:– RESTITVT ORIENTIS, Female figure of the Orient presenting a wreath to Valerian
Minted in Antioch.
Reference:– RIC 287c, RSC 189
2 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_107ac_img.jpg
107 - Gallienus - RIC 45620 viewsAntoninianus
Obv:– IMP C P LIC GALLIENVS P F AVG, Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:– VIRTVS AVGG, Valerian and Gallienus standing facing each other
Minted in Asia.
Reference:– Göbl 1687m. RIC 456, Cohen 1310
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_109a_img.jpg
109 - Valerian II - RIC 0098 viewsObv:– DIVO VALERIANO CAES, Radiate & draped bust right
Rev:– CONSACRATIO, Eagle flying right, bearing the deceased young Caesar to heaven.
Minted in Rome (Posthumous issue). A.D. 257-258
Reference(s) – RIC 9. RSC 5.

4.13 gms, 22.36mm. 180 degrees.
maridvnvm
Medio_Asarion_BRITANICO_Smyrna_en_Ionia.jpg
11-20 - Smyrna en Ionia - BRITANICO (50 - 54 D.C.)20 viewsAE15 - 1/2 Assarión (Provincial)
15 mm 4,05 gr 0 hr.

Tiberio Claudio César Británico en latín Tiberius Claudius Caesar Britannicus (12 de febrero de 41 - 11 de febrero de 55) fue un noble romano, nacido del matrimonio entre el emperador Claudio y su tercera esposa, Valeria Mesalina. En el momento de su nacimiento, sólo un mes después del inicio del reinado de Claudio, fue nombrado heredero del Imperio; no obstante hubo tres factores: la condena a muerte de su madre a causa de bigamia, el matrimonio de Claudio con Agripina y la adopción de Nerón, descendiente del recordado Germánico, que provocaron que los ciudadanos romanos no le consideraran como sucesor imperial. Fue asesinado el día anterior a su decimocuarto cumpleańos. (Fuente Wikipedia)

Anv: "ZMYP" debajo - Busto vestido a cabeza desnuda viendo a derecha.
Rev: "ΕΠΙ ΦΙΛΙΣ ΤΟΥ ΕΙΚΑΔΙΟ Σ", (Philistos y Eikadios Magistrados), Nike avanzando a derecha, portando un trofeo sobre su hombro.

Acuńada 50 - 54 D.C.
Ceca: Smyrna en Ionia

Referencias: Vagi #650 - Lingren #562 - KLDSE XXXI #37 pag.223 - SNG Cop #1351 - SNG Von Aulock #7995 - BMC Vol.16 #284 Pag.270 - RPC I #2476 Pag.419
mdelvalle
RI_110b_img.jpg
110 - Saloninus, Antoninianus - RIC 03525 viewsObv:– P COR SAL VALERIANVS CAES, Radiate, draped bust right
Rev:– DII NVTRITORES, Jupiter presenting to prince a small Victory
Minted in Antioch. A.D. 257-258
Reference:– RIC 35. RSC 21.
maridvnvm
114.jpg
114 Galeria Valeria. AE follis 6.0gm42 viewsobv: GAL VAL_ERIA AVG dia. drp.bust r.
re: VENERI V_ICTRICI Venus std. l. holding apple l., raising drapery over l. shoulder
ex: -(crescent)/-B//ANT
1 commentshill132
IMG_5260.JPG
115. Valerian I (253–260 A.D.)17 viewsAv.: IMP C P LIC VALERIANVS AVG
Rv.: PIETATI AVGG

AR Antoninian Ř22 / 2.7g
RIC V 219A Viminacium,
Göbl 1563a Antioch
1. Emission
Juancho
IMG_5872.JPG
116. Mariniana (wife of Valerian) 17 viewsAv.: DIVAE MARINIANAE
Rv.: CONSECRATIO

AE Antoninian Ř20-22 / 1.4g
RIC V-1 6 Rome
RIC Rarity rating R!
Juancho
IMG_3224~0.jpg
119. Valerian II (256-258 A.D.)12 viewsAv.: P C L VALERIANVS NOB CAES
Rv.: PIETAS AVGG

AR Antoninian Ř22 / 2.5g
RIC 20 Rome / Göbl 248 k
Juancho
IMG_5089.JPG
120. Saloninus (259 A.D.) 18 viewsAv.: SALON VALERIANVS CAES
Rv.: PIETAS AVG

AR Antoninianus Ř23 / 3.4g
RIC V-1 9 Cologne, Cohen 41,
Sear5 10767, Elmer 69/107
Juancho
Galeria-Valeria_AE-26_-RIC-VI-63_Heraclea-3rd-off__Q-001_h_mm_gx-s.jpg
123 Galeria-Valeria (?-315 A.D.), Heracleia, RIC VI 063, -/Crescent//HTΓ, AE-Follis, VENERI VICTRICI, Venus standing left,134 views123 Galeria-Valeria (?-315 A.D.), Heracleia, RIC VI 063, -/Crescent//HTΓ, AE-Follis, VENERI VICTRICI, Venus standing left,
Galeria-Valeria, daughter of Diocletian and wife of Galerius,.
avers:- GAL-VAL-ERIA-AVG, Diademed, draped bust right.
revers:- VENERI-V-ICTRICI, Venus standing left, holding apple and raising skirt, Crescent right field.
exergo: -/Crescent//HTΓ, diameter: 26mm, weight: 6,08g, axis: h,
mint: Heracleia, date: 311 A.D., ref: RIC-VI-63, 3rd-off., C-,
Q-001
quadrans
Galeria-Valeria_AE-26_GAL-VALERIA-AVG_VENERI-V-ICTRICI_star-A__SM_SD__Serdica-315-RIC-41_Q-001_26mm_6_08g-s.jpg
123 Galeria-Valeria (?-315 A.D.), Serdica, RIC VI 041, */A//•SM•SD•, AE-Follis, VENERI VICTRICI, Venus standing left, 409 views123 Galeria-Valeria (?-315 A.D.), Serdica, RIC VI 041, */A//•SM•SD•, AE-Follis, VENERI VICTRICI, Venus standing left,
Galeria-Valeria, daughter of Diocletian and wife of Galerius,.
avers:- GAL-VALERIA-AVG, Diademed, draped bust right.
revers:- VENERI-V-ICTRICI, Venus standing left, holding apple and raising skirt, * left, A right.
exergo: */A//•SM•SD•, diameter: 26mm, weight: 6,08g, axis: h,
mint: Serdica, date: 307-308 A.D., ref: RIC-41-1st-off., C-,
Q-001
2 commentsquadrans
Galeria-Valeria_AE-26_GAL-VALERIA-AVG_VENERI-V-ICTRICI_star-A__SM_SD__Serdica-307-308-RIC-41-1st-off__Q-002_6h_26,5mm_5,37g-s.jpg
123 Galeria-Valeria (?-315 A.D.), Serdica, RIC VI 041, */A//•SM•SD•, AE-Follis, VENERI VICTRICI, Venus standing left, #2111 views123 Galeria-Valeria (?-315 A.D.), Serdica, RIC VI 041, */A//•SM•SD•, AE-Follis, VENERI VICTRICI, Venus standing left, #2
Galeria-Valeria, daughter of Diocletian and wife of Galerius,.
avers:- GAL-VALERIA-AVG, Diademed, draped bust right.
revers:- VENERI-V-ICTRICI, Venus standing left, holding apple and raising skirt, * left, A right.
exergo: */A//•SM•SD•, diameter: 26,5mm, weight: 5,37g, axis: 6h,
mint: Serdica, date: 307-308 A.D., ref: RIC-41-1st-off., C-,
Q-001
quadrans
Galeria-Valeria_AE-26_GAL-VA-LERIA-AVG_VENERI-VICTRICI_crescent-Gamma_SIS_Siscia-310-311_RIC-211-3rd-off_C-_Q-002_axis-h_mm_g-s.jpg
123 Galeria-Valeria (?-315 A.D.), Siscia, RIC VI 211, Crescent/Γ// SIS, AE-Follis, VENERI VICTRICI, Venus standing left,143 views123 Galeria-Valeria (?-315 A.D.), Siscia, RIC VI 211, Crescent/Γ// SIS, AE-Follis, VENERI VICTRICI, Venus standing left,
Galeria-Valeria, daughter of Diocletian and wife of Galerius, AE-26 Follis
avers:- GAL-VALERIA-AVG, Diademed, draped bust right.
revers:- VENERI-V-ICTRICI, Venus standing left, holding apple and raising skirt, crescent left, Γ right.
exergo: Crescent/Γ// SIS, diameter: 23-25mm, weight: 7,13g, axis: 11h,
mint: Siscia, date: 307-310 A.D., ref: RIC-211var-3rd.off, C-,
Q-002
quadrans
Galeria-Valeria_AE-26_GAL-VA-LERIA-AVG_VENERI-VICTRICI_crescent-A_SIS_Siscia-310-311_RIC-211-3rd-off_C-_Q-003_5h_24,5-25,5mm_7,09g-s.jpg
123 Galeria-Valeria (?-315 A.D.), Siscia, RIC VI 211, Crescent/A//SIS, AE-Follis, VENERI VICTRICI, Venus standing left, #384 views123 Galeria-Valeria (?-315 A.D.), Siscia, RIC VI 211, Crescent/A//SIS, AE-Follis, VENERI VICTRICI, Venus standing left, #3
Galeria-Valeria, daughter of Diocletian and wife of Galerius, AE-26 Follis
avers:- GAL-VALERIA-AVG, Diademed, draped bust right.
revers:- VENERI-V-ICTRICI, Venus standing left, holding apple and raising skirt, crescent left, E right.
exergo: Crescent/A// SIS, diameter: 24,5-25,5mm, weight: 7,09g, axis: 5h,
mint: Siscia, date: 309-310 A.D., ref: RIC-211var-.off, C-,
Q-003
quadrans
Galeria-Valeria_AE-26_GAL-VALERIA-AVG_VENER-I-VICTRICI_Crescent-Epsilon_SIS_Siscia-309-310-RIC-VI-211_p-480_5th-off__Q-001_0h_24-26mm_6,61g-s.jpg
123 Galeria-Valeria (?-315 A.D.), Siscia, RIC VI 211, Crescent/E//SIS, AE-Follis, VENERI VICTRICI, Venus standing left,152 views123 Galeria-Valeria (?-315 A.D.), Siscia, RIC VI 211, Crescent/E//SIS, AE-Follis, VENERI VICTRICI, Venus standing left,
Galeria-Valeria, daughter of Diocletian and wife of Galerius, AE-26 Follis
avers:- GAL-VALERIA-AVG, Diademed, draped bust right.
revers:- VENERI-V-ICTRICI, Venus standing left, holding apple and raising skirt, crescent left, E right.
exergo: Crescent/E// SIS, diameter: 24-26mm, weight: 6,61g, axis: 0h,
mint: Siscia, date: 309-310 A.D., ref: RIC-211var-5th.off, C-,
Q-002
quadrans
Galeria-Valeria_AE-26_GAL-VA-LERIA-AVG_VENERI-VICTRICI_crescent-Gamma_SIS_Siscia-309-310_RIC-211_C--_Q-001_26mm_4,98g-s.jpg
123 Galeria-Valeria (?-315 A.D.), Siscia, RIC VI 211var Not in RIC, Crescent/Γ// SIS, AE-Follis, VENERI VICTRICI, Venus standing left,149 views123 Galeria-Valeria (?-315 A.D.), Siscia, RIC VI 211var Not in RIC, Crescent/Γ// SIS, AE-Follis, VENERI VICTRICI, Venus standing left,
Galeria-Valeria, daughter of Diocletian and wife of Galerius, AE-26 Follis
avers: GAL VAL ERIA AVG, Diademed, decorated draped bust right. The robe around the neck of interesting shapes (some of Victoria ??) can be seen.
reverse: VENERI VICTRICI, Venus standing left, holding the apple and raising skirt, crescent left, Γ right.
exergue: Crescent/Γ// SIS, diameter: 26mm, weight: 4,98g, axis: 1h,
mint: Siscia, date: 307-310 A.D., ref: RIC-211var-3rd.off, C-, this bust Not in RIC !!!
Q-001
quadrans
Galeria-Valeria_AE-26_GAL-VA-LERIA-AVG_VENERI-VICTRICI_crescent-Gamma_SIS_Siscia-309-310_RIC-211_C--_Q-001_26mm_4,98g-figures.jpg
123 Galeria-Valeria (?-315 A.D.), Siscia, RIC VI 211var Not in RIC, Crescent/Γ// SIS, AE-Follis, VENERI VICTRICI, Venus standing left, The decoration on the dress the part of the neck.138 views123 Galeria-Valeria (?-315 A.D.), Siscia, RIC VI 211var Not in RIC, Crescent/Γ// SIS, AE-Follis, VENERI VICTRICI, Venus standing left, The decoration on the dress the part of the neck.
avers: GAL VALERIA AVG, Diademed, draped bust right. The robe around the neck of interesting shapes (some of Victoria or Erotes/Cupid ??) can be seen.
reverse: VENERI VICTRICI, Venus standing left, holding the apple and raising skirt, crescent left, Gamma right.
"I would concur that they are Erotes/Cupids. Which, of course, would fit with the reverse type, Erotes being associated with Venus." by Adrianus. Thank you Adrianus.
exergue: -/-//SIS, diameter: 26mm, weight: 4,98g, axis: 1h,
mint: Siscia, date: 307-310 A.D., ref: RIC-211, C-,
Q-001
quadrans
DiocleAnt.jpg
1301a, Diocletian, 284-305 A.D. (Antioch)98 viewsDIOCLETIAN (284 – 305 AD) AE Antoninianus, 293-95 AD, RIC V 322, Cohen 34. 20.70 mm/3.1 gm, aVF, Antioch. Obverse: IMP C C VAL DIOCLETIANVS P F AVG, Radiate bust right, draped & cuirassed; Reverse: CONCORDIA MILITVM, Jupiter presents Victory on a globe to Diocletian, I/XXI. Early Diocletian with dusty earthen green patina.


De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Diocletian ( 284-305 A.D.)

Ralph W. Mathisen
University of South Carolina


Summary and Introduction
The Emperor Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus (A.D. 284-305) put an end to the disastrous phase of Roman history known as the "Military Anarchy" or the "Imperial Crisis" (235-284). He established an obvious military despotism and was responsible for laying the groundwork for the second phase of the Roman Empire, which is known variously as the "Dominate," the "Tetrarchy," the "Later Roman Empire," or the "Byzantine Empire." His reforms ensured the continuity of the Roman Empire in the east for more than a thousand years.

Diocletian's Early Life and Reign
Diocletian was born ca. 236/237 on the Dalmatian coast, perhaps at Salona. He was of very humble birth, and was originally named Diocles. He would have received little education beyond an elementary literacy and he was apparently deeply imbued with religious piety He had a wife Prisca and a daughter Valeria, both of whom reputedly were Christians. During Diocletian's early life, the Roman empire was in the midst of turmoil. In the early years of the third century, emperors increasingly insecure on their thrones had granted inflationary pay raises to the soldiers. The only meaningful income the soldiers now received was in the form of gold donatives granted by newly acclaimed emperors. Beginning in 235, armies throughout the empire began to set up their generals as rival emperors. The resultant civil wars opened up the empire to invasion in both the north, by the Franks, Alamanni, and Goths, and the east, by the Sassanid Persians. Another reason for the unrest in the army was the great gap between the social background of the common soldiers and the officer corps.

Diocletian sought his fortune in the army. He showed himself to be a shrewd, able, and ambitious individual. He is first attested as "Duke of Moesia" (an area on the banks of the lower Danube River), with responsibility for border defense. He was a prudent and methodical officer, a seeker of victory rather than glory. In 282, the legions of the upper Danube proclaimed the praetorian prefect Carus as emperor. Diocletian found favor under the new emperor, and was promoted to Count of the Domestics, the commander of the cavalry arm of the imperial bodyguard. In 283 he was granted the honor of a consulate.

In 284, in the midst of a campaign against the Persians, Carus was killed, struck by a bolt of lightning which one writer noted might have been forged in a legionary armory. This left the empire in the hands of his two young sons, Numerian in the east and Carinus in the west. Soon thereafter, Numerian died under mysterious circumstances near Nicomedia, and Diocletian was acclaimed emperor in his place. At this time he changed his name from Diocles to Diocletian. In 285 Carinus was killed in a battle near Belgrade, and Diocletian gained control of the entire empire.

Diocletian's Administrative and Military Reforms
As emperor, Diocletian was faced with many problems. His most immediate concerns were to bring the mutinous and increasingly barbarized Roman armies back under control and to make the frontiers once again secure from invasion. His long-term goals were to restore effective government and economic prosperity to the empire. Diocletian concluded that stern measures were necessary if these problems were to be solved. He felt that it was the responsibility of the imperial government to take whatever steps were necessary, no matter how harsh or innovative, to bring the empire back under control.

Diocletian was able to bring the army back under control by making several changes. He subdivided the roughly fifty existing provinces into approximately one hundred. The provinces also were apportioned among twelve "dioceses," each under a "vicar," and later also among four "prefectures," each under a "praetorian prefect." As a result, the imperial bureaucracy became increasingly bloated. He institutionalized the policy of separating civil and military careers. He divided the army itself into so-called "border troops," actually an ineffective citizen militia, and "palace troops," the real field army, which often was led by the emperor in person.

Following the precedent of Aurelian (A.D.270-275), Diocletian transformed the emperorship into an out-and-out oriental monarchy. Access to him became restricted; he now was addressed not as First Citizen (Princeps) or the soldierly general (Imperator), but as Lord and Master (Dominus Noster) . Those in audience were required to prostrate themselves on the ground before him.

Diocletian also concluded that the empire was too large and complex to be ruled by only a single emperor. Therefore, in order to provide an imperial presence throughout the empire, he introduced the "Tetrarchy," or "Rule by Four." In 285, he named his lieutenant Maximianus "Caesar," and assigned him the western half of the empire. This practice began the process which would culminate with the de facto split of the empire in 395. Both Diocletian and Maximianus adopted divine attributes. Diocletian was identified with Jupiter and Maximianus with Hercules. In 286, Diocletian promoted Maximianus to the rank of Augustus, "Senior Emperor," and in 293 he appointed two new Caesars, Constantius (the father of Constantine I ), who was given Gaul and Britain in the west, and Galerius, who was assigned the Balkans in the east.

By instituting his Tetrarchy, Diocletian also hoped to solve another problem. In the Augustan Principate, there had been no constitutional method for choosing new emperors. According to Diocletian's plan, the successor of each Augustus would be the respective Caesar, who then would name a new Caesar. Initially, the Tetrarchy operated smoothly and effectively.

Once the army was under control, Diocletian could turn his attention to other problems. The borders were restored and strengthened. In the early years of his reign, Diocletian and his subordinates were able to defeat foreign enemies such as Alamanni, Sarmatians, Saracens, Franks, and Persians, and to put down rebellions in Britain and Egypt. The easter frontier was actually expanded.

.
Diocletian's Economic Reforms
Another problem was the economy, which was in an especially sorry state. The coinage had become so debased as to be virtually worthless. Diocletian's attempt to reissue good gold and silver coins failed because there simply was not enough gold and silver available to restore confidence in the currency. A "Maximum Price Edict" issued in 301, intended to curb inflation, served only to drive goods onto the black market. Diocletian finally accepted the ruin of the money economy and revised the tax system so that it was based on payments in kind . The soldiers too came to be paid in kind.

In order to assure the long term survival of the empire, Diocletian identified certain occupations which he felt would have to be performed. These were known as the "compulsory services." They included such occupations as soldiers, bakers, members of town councils, and tenant farmers. These functions became hereditary, and those engaging in them were inhibited from changing their careers. The repetitious nature of these laws, however, suggests that they were not widely obeyed. Diocletian also expanded the policy of third-century emperors of restricting the entry of senators into high-ranking governmental posts, especially military ones.

Diocletian attempted to use the state religion as a unifying element. Encouraged by the Caesar Galerius, Diocletian in 303 issued a series of four increasingly harsh decrees designed to compel Christians to take part in the imperial cult, the traditional means by which allegiance was pledged to the empire. This began the so-called "Great Persecution."

Diocletian's Resignation and Death
On 1 May 305, wearied by his twenty years in office, and determined to implement his method for the imperial succession, Diocletian abdicated. He compelled his co-regent Maximianus to do the same. Constantius and Galerius then became the new Augusti, and two new Caesars were selected, Maximinus (305-313) in the east and Severus (305- 307) in the west. Diocletian then retired to his palace at Split on the Croatian coast. In 308 he declined an offer to resume the purple, and the aged ex-emperor died at Split on 3 December 316.

Copyright (C) 1996, Ralph W. Mathisen, University of South Carolina
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

1 commentsCleisthenes
DicletianConcordCyz.jpg
1301b, Diocletian, 20 November 284 - 1 March 305 A.D.62 viewsDiocletian. RIC V Part II Cyzicus 256 var. Not listed with pellet in exegrue
Item ref: RI141f. VF. Minted in Cyzicus (B in centre field, XXI dot in exegrue)Obverse:- IMP CC VAL DIOCLETIANVS AVG, Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right. Reverse:- CONCORDIA MILITVM, Diocletian standing right, holding parazonium, receiving Victory from Jupiter standing left with scepter.
A post reform radiate of Diocletian. Ex Maridvnvm.

De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Diocletian ( 284-305 A.D.)

Ralph W. Mathisen
University of South Carolina


Summary and Introduction
The Emperor Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus (A.D. 284-305) put an end to the disastrous phase of Roman history known as the "Military Anarchy" or the "Imperial Crisis" (235-284). He established an obvious military despotism and was responsible for laying the groundwork for the second phase of the Roman Empire, which is known variously as the "Dominate," the "Tetrarchy," the "Later Roman Empire," or the "Byzantine Empire." His reforms ensured the continuity of the Roman Empire in the east for more than a thousand years.

Diocletian's Early Life and Reign
Diocletian was born ca. 236/237 on the Dalmatian coast, perhaps at Salona. He was of very humble birth, and was originally named Diocles. He would have received little education beyond an elementary literacy and he was apparently deeply imbued with religious piety He had a wife Prisca and a daughter Valeria, both of whom reputedly were Christians. During Diocletian's early life, the Roman empire was in the midst of turmoil. In the early years of the third century, emperors increasingly insecure on their thrones had granted inflationary pay raises to the soldiers. The only meaningful income the soldiers now received was in the form of gold donatives granted by newly acclaimed emperors. Beginning in 235, armies throughout the empire began to set up their generals as rival emperors. The resultant civil wars opened up the empire to invasion in both the north, by the Franks, Alamanni, and Goths, and the east, by the Sassanid Persians. Another reason for the unrest in the army was the great gap between the social background of the common soldiers and the officer corps.

Diocletian sought his fortune in the army. He showed himself to be a shrewd, able, and ambitious individual. He is first attested as "Duke of Moesia" (an area on the banks of the lower Danube River), with responsibility for border defense. He was a prudent and methodical officer, a seeker of victory rather than glory. In 282, the legions of the upper Danube proclaimed the praetorian prefect Carus as emperor. Diocletian found favor under the new emperor, and was promoted to Count of the Domestics, the commander of the cavalry arm of the imperial bodyguard. In 283 he was granted the honor of a consulate.

In 284, in the midst of a campaign against the Persians, Carus was killed, struck by a bolt of lightning which one writer noted might have been forged in a legionary armory. This left the empire in the hands of his two young sons, Numerian in the east and Carinus in the west. Soon thereafter, Numerian died under mysterious circumstances near Nicomedia, and Diocletian was acclaimed emperor in his place. At this time he changed his name from Diocles to Diocletian. In 285 Carinus was killed in a battle near Belgrade, and Diocletian gained control of the entire empire.

Diocletian's Administrative and Military Reforms
As emperor, Diocletian was faced with many problems. His most immediate concerns were to bring the mutinous and increasingly barbarized Roman armies back under control and to make the frontiers once again secure from invasion. His long-term goals were to restore effective government and economic prosperity to the empire. Diocletian concluded that stern measures were necessary if these problems were to be solved. He felt that it was the responsibility of the imperial government to take whatever steps were necessary, no matter how harsh or innovative, to bring the empire back under control.

Diocletian was able to bring the army back under control by making several changes. He subdivided the roughly fifty existing provinces into approximately one hundred. The provinces also were apportioned among twelve "dioceses," each under a "vicar," and later also among four "prefectures," each under a "praetorian prefect." As a result, the imperial bureaucracy became increasingly bloated. He institutionalized the policy of separating civil and military careers. He divided the army itself into so-called "border troops," actually an ineffective citizen militia, and "palace troops," the real field army, which often was led by the emperor in person.

Following the precedent of Aurelian (A.D.270-275), Diocletian transformed the emperorship into an out-and-out oriental monarchy. Access to him became restricted; he now was addressed not as First Citizen (Princeps) or the soldierly general (Imperator), but as Lord and Master (Dominus Noster) . Those in audience were required to prostrate themselves on the ground before him.

Diocletian also concluded that the empire was too large and complex to be ruled by only a single emperor. Therefore, in order to provide an imperial presence throughout the empire, he introduced the "Tetrarchy," or "Rule by Four." In 285, he named his lieutenant Maximianus "Caesar," and assigned him the western half of the empire. This practice began the process which would culminate with the de facto split of the empire in 395. Both Diocletian and Maximianus adopted divine attributes. Diocletian was identified with Jupiter and Maximianus with Hercules. In 286, Diocletian promoted Maximianus to the rank of Augustus, "Senior Emperor," and in 293 he appointed two new Caesars, Constantius (the father of Constantine I ), who was given Gaul and Britain in the west, and Galerius, who was assigned the Balkans in the east.

By instituting his Tetrarchy, Diocletian also hoped to solve another problem. In the Augustan Principate, there had been no constitutional method for choosing new emperors. According to Diocletian's plan, the successor of each Augustus would be the respective Caesar, who then would name a new Caesar. Initially, the Tetrarchy operated smoothly and effectively.

Once the army was under control, Diocletian could turn his attention to other problems. The borders were restored and strengthened. In the early years of his reign, Diocletian and his subordinates were able to defeat foreign enemies such as Alamanni, Sarmatians, Saracens, Franks, and Persians, and to put down rebellions in Britain and Egypt. The easter frontier was actually expanded.

.
Diocletian's Economic Reforms
Another problem was the economy, which was in an especially sorry state. The coinage had become so debased as to be virtually worthless. Diocletian's attempt to reissue good gold and silver coins failed because there simply was not enough gold and silver available to restore confidence in the currency. A "Maximum Price Edict" issued in 301, intended to curb inflation, served only to drive goods onto the black market. Diocletian finally accepted the ruin of the money economy and revised the tax system so that it was based on payments in kind . The soldiers too came to be paid in kind.

In order to assure the long term survival of the empire, Diocletian identified certain occupations which he felt would have to be performed. These were known as the "compulsory services." They included such occupations as soldiers, bakers, members of town councils, and tenant farmers. These functions became hereditary, and those engaging in them were inhibited from changing their careers. The repetitious nature of these laws, however, suggests that they were not widely obeyed. Diocletian also expanded the policy of third-century emperors of restricting the entry of senators into high-ranking governmental posts, especially military ones.

Diocletian attempted to use the state religion as a unifying element. Encouraged by the Caesar Galerius, Diocletian in 303 issued a series of four increasingly harsh decrees designed to compel Christians to take part in the imperial cult, the traditional means by which allegiance was pledged to the empire. This began the so-called "Great Persecution."

Diocletian's Resignation and Death
On 1 May 305, wearied by his twenty years in office, and determined to implement his method for the imperial succession, Diocletian abdicated. He compelled his co-regent Maximianus to do the same. Constantius and Galerius then became the new Augusti, and two new Caesars were selected, Maximinus (305-313) in the east and Severus (305- 307) in the west. Diocletian then retired to his palace at Split on the Croatian coast. In 308 he declined an offer to resume the purple, and the aged ex-emperor died at Split on 3 December 316.

Copyright (C) 1996, Ralph W. Mathisen, University of South Carolina
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.


Cleisthenes
GaleriusAugCyz.jpg
1303a, Galerius, 1 March 305 - 5 May 311 A.D.39 viewsGalerius, RIC VI 59, Cyzicus S, VF, Cyzicus S, 6.4 g, 25.86 mm; 309-310 AD; Obverse: GAL MAXIMIANVS P F AVG, laureate bust right; Reverse: GENIO A-VGVS[TI], Genius stg. left, naked but for chlamys over left shoulder, holding patera and cornucopiae. A nice example with sharp detail and nice brown hoard patina. Ex Ancient Imports.


De Imperatoribus Romanis,
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors

Galerius (305-311 A.D.)

Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Salve Regina University


Caius Galerius Valerius Maximianus, more commonly known as Galerius, was from Illyricum; his father, whose name is unknown, was of peasant stock, while his mother, Romula, was from beyond the Danube. Galerius was born in Dacia Ripensis near Sardica. Although the date of his birth is unknown, he was probably born ca. 250 since he served under Aurelian. As a youth Galerius was a shepherd and acquired the nickname Armentarius. Although he seems to have started his military career under Aurelian and Probus, nothing is known about it before his accession as Caesar on 1 March 293. He served as Diocletian's Caesar in the East. Abandoning his first wife, he married Diocletian's daugher, Valeria.

As Caesar he campaigned in Egypt in 294; he seems to have taken to the field against Narses of Persia, and was defeated near Ctesiphon in 295. In 298, after he made inroads into Armenia, he obtained a treaty from the Persians favorable to the Romans. Between 299-305 he overcame the Sarmatians and the Carpi along the Danube. The Great Persecution of the Orthodox Church, which was started in 303 by the Emperor Diocletian, was probably instigated by Galerius. Because of the almost fatal illness that he contracted toward the end of 304, Diocletian, at Nicomedeia, and Maximianus Herculius, at Mediolanum, divested themselves of the purple on 1 May 305. Constantius and Galerius were appointed as Augusti, with Maximinus Daia and Severus as the new Caesars. Constantius and Severus reigned in the West, whereas Galerius' and Daia's realm was the East. Although Constantius was nominally senior Augustus, the real power was in the hands of Galerius because both Caesars were his creatures.

The balance of power shifted at the end of July 306 when Constantius, with his son Constantine at his side, passed away at York in Britain where he was preparing to face incursions by the Picts; his army proclaimed Constantine his successor immediately. As soon as he received the news of the death of Constantius I and the acclamation of Constantine to the purple, Galerius raised Severus to the rank of Augustus to replace his dead colleague in August 306. Making the best of a bad situation, Galerius accepted Constantine as the new Caesar in the West. The situation became more complicated when Maxentius, with his father Maximianus Herculius acquiesing, declared himself princes on 28 October 306. When Galerius learned about the acclamation of the usurper, he dispatched the Emperor Severus to put down the rebellion. Severus took a large field army which had formerly been that of Maximianus and proceeded toward Rome and began to besiege the city, Maxentius, however, and Maximianus, by means of a ruse, convinced Severus to surrender. Later, in 307, Severus was put to death under clouded circumstances. While Severus was fighting in the west, Galerius, during late 306 or early 307, was campaigning against the Sarmatians.

In the early summer of 307 Galerius invaded Italy to avenge Severus's death; he advanced to the south and encamped at Interamna near the Tiber. His attempt to besiege the city was abortive because his army was too small to encompass the city's fortifications. Not trusting his own troops, Galerius withdrew. During its retreat, his army ravaged the Italian countryside as it was returning to its original base. When Maximianus Herculius' attempts to regain the throne between 308 and 310 by pushing his son off his throne or by winning over Constantine to his cause failed, he tried to win Diocletian and Galerius over to his side at Carnuntum in October and November 308; the outcome of the Conference at Carnuntum was that Licinius was appointed Augustus in Severus's place, that Daia and Constantine were denoted filii Augustorum, and that Herculius was completely cut out of the picture. Later, in 310, Herculius died, having been implicated in a plot against his son-in-law. After the Conference at Carnuntum, Galerius returned to Sardica where he died in the opening days of May 311.

By Michael DiMaio, Jr., Salve Regina University; Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Galerius was Caesar and tetrarch under Maximianus. Although a talented general and administrator, Galerius is better known for his key role in the "Great Persecution" of Christians. He stopped the persecution under condition the Christians pray for his return to health from a serious illness. Galerius died horribly shortly after. Joseph Sermarini, FORVM.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.



Cleisthenes
MaxentiusRIC163.jpg
1307a, Maxentius, February 307 - 28 October 312 A.D.68 viewsBronze follis, RIC 163, aEF, Rome mint, 5.712g, 25.6mm, 0o, summer 307 A.D.; obverse MAXENTIVS P F AVG, laureate head right; reverse CONSERVATO-RES VRB SVAE, Roma holding globe and scepter, seated in hexastyle temple, RT in ex; rare. Ex FORVM; Ex Maridvnvm


De Imperatoribus Romanis : An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Maxentius (306-312 A.D.)

Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Salve Regina University

Marcus Aurelius Valerius Maxentius, more commonly known as Maxentius, was the child of the Emperor Maximianus Herculius and the Syrian, Eutropia; he was born ca. 278 A.D. After Galerius' appointment to the rank of Caesar on 1 March 293, Maxentius married Galerius' daughter Valeria Maximilla, who bore him a son named Romulus and another son whose name is unknown. Due to his haughty nature and bad disposition, Maxentius could seldom agree with his father or his father-in-law; Galerius' and Maximianus Herculius' aversion to Maxentius prevented the young man from becoming a Caesar in 305. Little else is known of Maxentius' private life prior to his accession and, although there is some evidence that it was spent in idleness, he did become a Senator.

On 28 October 306 Maxentius was acclaimed emperor, although he was politically astute enough not to use the title Augustus; like the Emperor Augustus, he called himself princeps. It was not until the summer of 307 that he started using the title Augustus and started offending other claimants to the imperial throne. He was enthroned by the plebs and the Praetorians. At the time of his acclamation Maxentius was at a public villa on the Via Labicana. He strengthened his position with promises of riches for those who helped him obtain his objective. He forced his father Maximianus Herculius to affirm his son's acclamation in order to give his regime a facade of legitimacy. His realm included Italy, Africa, Sardinia, and Corsica. As soon as Galerius learned about the acclamation of Herculius' son, he dispatched the Emperor Severus to quell the rebellion. With the help of his father and Severus' own troops, Maxentius' took his enemy prisoner.

When Severus died, Galerius was determined to avenge his death. In the early summer of 307 the Augustus invaded Italy; he advanced to the south and encamped at Interamna near the Tiber. His attempt to besiege the city was abortive because his army was not large enough to encompass the city's fortifications. Negotiations between Maxentius and Galerius broke down when the emperor discovered that the usurper was trying to win over his troops. Galerius' troops were open to Maxentius' promises because they were fighting a civil war between members of the same family; some of the soldiers went over to the enemy. Not trusting his own troops, Galerius withdrew. During its retreat, Galerius' army ravaged the Italian countryside as it was returning to its original base. If it was not enough that Maxentius had to deal with the havoc created by the ineffectual invasions of Severus and Galerius, he also had to deal with his father's attempts to regain the throne between 308 and 310. When Maximianus Herculius was unable to regain power by pushing his son off his throne, he attempted to win over Constantine to his cause. When this plan failed, he tried to win Diocletian over to his side at Carnuntum in October and November 308. Frustrated at every turn, Herculius returned to his son-in-law Constantine's side in Gaul where he died in 310, having been implicated in a plot against his son-in-law. Maxentius' control of the situation was weakened by the revolt of L. Domitius Alexander in 308. Although the revolt only lasted until the end of 309, it drastically cut the size of the grain supply availble for Rome. Maxentius' rule collapsed when he died on 27 October 312 in an engagement he had with the Emperor Constantine at the Milvian Bridge after the latter had invaded his realm.

Copyright (C) 1996, Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
1 commentsCleisthenes
tiberius as.jpg
14-37 AD - TIBERIUS AE as - struck 22-23 AD39 viewsobv: TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVST IMP VIII (bare head left)
rev: PONTIF MAXIM TRIBVN POTEST XXIII around large S.C.
ref: RIC I 44, C.24 (5 frcs), BMC91
9.44gms, 27mm

In 6 AD Tiberius was in Carnuntum military camp. He led at least eight legions (VIII Augusta from Pannonia, XV Apollinaris and XX Valeria Victrix from Illyricum, XXI Rapax from Raetia, XIII Gemina, XIV Gemina and XVI Gallica from Germania Superior and an unknown unit) against king Maroboduus of the Marcomanni in Bohemia (Czechia). At the same time, I Germanica, V Alaudae, XVII, XVIII and XIX, - led by Caius Sentius Saturninus (governor of Germania) -, moved against Maroboduus along the Elbe. Saturninus led his forces across the country of the Chatti, and, cutting his way through the Hercynian forest, joining Tiberius on the north bank of the Danube, and both wanted to make a combined attack within a few leagues from the Marcomannic capital Boviasmum. It was the most grandiose operation that ever conducted by a Roman army, but a rebellion in Illyria obstructed its final execution.
berserker
IMG_4391~0.jpg
160. Galeria Valeria (Wife of Galerius)17 viewsAv.: GAL VALERIA AVG
Rv.: VENERI VICTRICI
Left: star / Right: B
Ex.: dot SM dot SD dot

AE Follis Ř27 / 6.2g
RIC VI 41 Serdica
Juancho
ClaudiusMessalinaAE20.jpg
1ap_2 Messalina36 viewsThird wife of Claudius, married in 38 (?)

AE 20, Knossos mint

Bare head of Claudius left, CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS

Draped bust of Messalina right, VALERIA MESSALINA [CAPITONE CYTHERONTE IIVIR] or [CYTHERO CAPITONE] (end of legend off flan)

According to Suetonius: [Claudius] was betrothed twice at an early age: to Aemilia Lepida, great-granddaughter of Augustus, and to Livia Medullina, who also had the surname of Camilla and was descended from the ancient family of Camillus the dictator. He put away the former before their marriage, because her parents had offended Augustus; the latter was taken ill and died on the very day which had been set for the wedding. He then married Plautia Urgulanilla, whose father had been honoured with a triumph, and later Aelia Paetina, daughter of an ex-consul. He divorced both these, Paetina for trivial offences, but Urgulanilla because of scandalous lewdness and the suspicion of murder. Then he married Valeria Messalina, daughter of his cousin Messala Barbatus. But when he learned that besides other shameful and wicked deeds she had actually married Gaius Silius, and that a formal contract had been signed in the presence of witnesses, he put her to death and declared before the assembled praetorian guard that inasmuch as his marriages did not turn out well, he would remain a widower, and if he did not keep his word, he would not refuse death at their hands. . . . [He later married Agrippina Jr.]

He had children by three of his wives: by Urgulanilla, Drusus and Claudia; by Paetina, Antonia; by Messalina, Octavia and a son, at first called Germanicus and later Britannicus. . . .

But it is beyond all belief, that at the marriage which Messalina had contracted with her paramour Silius he signed the contract for the dowry with his own hand, being induced to do so on the ground that the marriage was a feigned one, designed to avert and turn upon another a danger which was inferred from certain portents to threaten the emperor himself. . . .

He was so terror-stricken by unfounded reports of conspiracies that he had tried to abdicate. When, as I have mentioned before, a man with a dagger was caught near him as he was sacrificing, he summoned the senate in haste by criers and loudly and tearfully bewailed his lot, saying that there was no safety for him anywhere; and for a long time he would not appear in public. His ardent love for Messalina too was cooled, not so much by her unseemly and insulting conduct, as through fear of danger, since he believed that her paramour Silius aspired to the throne. . . .

Appius Silanus met his downfall. When Messalina and Narcissus had put their heads together to destroy him, they agreed on their parts and the latter rushed into his patron's bed-chamber before daybreak in pretended consternation, declaring that he had dreamed that Appius had made an attack on the emperor. Then Messalina, with assumed surprise, declared that she had had the same dream for several successive nights. A little later, as had been arranged, Appius, who had received orders the day before to come at that time, was reported to be forcing his way in, and as if were proof positive of the truth of the dream, his immediate accusation and death were ordered. . . .


1 commentsBlindado
TrebGallusAEVim.jpg
1cu Trebonianus Gallus24 views251-253

AE Viminacium

Laureate, draped bust, right, IMP C GALLVS P FELIX AVG
Moesia standing facing, head left, hands outstretched over a bull and a lion at her sides, PMS COL VIM

Moushmov 56

For Gallus' perfidy against Decius, see the Decius entry. Zosimus reports regarding Gallus' reign: Gallus, who declared his son Volusianus his associate in the empire, published an open declaration, that Decius and his army had perished by his contrivance. The Barbarians now became more prosperous than before. For Callus not only permitted them to return home with the plunder, but promised to pay them annually a sum of money, and allowed them to carry off all the noblest captives; most of whom had been taken at Philippopolis in Thrace.

Gallus, having made these regulations, came to Rome, priding himself on the peace he had made with the Barbarians. And though he at first spoke with approbation of Decius's mode of government, and adopted one of his sons, yet, after some time was elapsed, fearing that some of them who were fond of new projects might recur to a recapitulation of the princely virtues of Decius, and therefore might at some opportunity give the empire to his son, he concerted the young man's destruction, without regard either to his own adoption of him, or to common honour and justice.

Gallus was so supine in the administration of the empire, that the Scythians in the first place terrified all the neighbouring nations, and then laid waste all the countries as far by degrees as the sea coast; not leaving one nation subject to the Romans unpillaged, and taking almost all the unfortified towns, and many that were fortified. Besides the war on every side, which was insupportably burdensome to them, the cities and villages were infested with a pestilence, which swept away the remainder of mankind in those regions; nor was so great a mortality ever known in any former period.

At this crisis, observing that the emperors were unable to defend the state, but neglected all without the walls of Rome, the Goths, the Borani, the Urugundi, and the Carpi once more plundered the cities of Europe of all that had been left in them; while in another quarter, the Persians invaded Asia, in which they acquired possession of Mesopotamia, and proceeded even as far as Antioch in Syria, took that city, which is the metropolis of all the east, destroyed many of the inhabitants, and carried the remainder into captivity, returning home with immense plunder, after they had destroyed all the buildings in the city, both public and private, without meeting with the least resistance. And indeed the Persians had a fair opportunity to have made themselves masters of all Asia, had they not been so overjoyed at their excessive spoils, as to be contented with keeping and carrying home what they had acquired.

Meantime the Scythians of Europe were in perfect security and went over into Asia, spoiling all the country as far as Cappodocia, Pesinus, and Ephesus, until Aemilianus, commander of the Pannonian legions, endeavouring as much as possible to encourage his troops, whom the prosperity of the Barbarians had so disheartened that they durst not face them, and reminding them of the renown of Roman courage, surprised the Barbarians that were in that neighbourhood. Having destroyed great numbers of them, and led his forces into their country, removing every obstruction to his progress, and at length freeing the subjects of the Roman empire from their ferocity, he was appointed emperor by his army. On this he collected all the forces of that country, who were become more bold since his successes against the Barbarians, and directed his march towards Italy, with the design of fighting Gallus, who was as yet. unprepared to contend with him. For Gallus had never heard of what had occurred in the east, and therefore made only what accidental preparations were in his reach, while Valerianus went to bring the Celtic and German legions. But Aemilianus advanced with great speed into Italy, and the armies were very near to each other, when the soldiers of Gallus, reflecting that his force was much inferior to the enemy both in number and strength, and likewise that he was a negligent indolent man, put him and his son to death, and going over to the party of Aemilianus, appeared to establish his authority.
Blindado
AemilianusAE_Dacia.jpg
1cw Aemilian26 views253

AE 26

Laureate, draped & cuirassed bust, right, IMP C M AEMIL AEMILIANVS AVG
PROVIN-CIA DACIA, Dacia standing facing, holding short sceptre in left arm, over which is a wreath, and holding up a bundle of rice in right hand, eagle and lion at feet, VIII in exergue.

Moushmov 20

Zosimus records: Aemilianus advanced with great speed into Italy, and the armies were very near to each other, when the soldiers of Gallus, reflecting that his force was much inferior to the enemy both in number and strength, and likewise that he was a negligent indolent man, put him and his son to death, and going over to the party of Aemilianus, appeared to establish his authority. But Valerianus brought into Italy from beyond the Alps a vast army, with which he deemed himself secure of conquering Aemilianus. The soldiers of Aemilianus, who saw that his conduct was more like that of a private sentinel than of an emperor, now put him to death as a person unfit for so weighty a charge.

Eutropius' curt review: AEMILIANUS was little distinguished by birth, and less distinguished by his reign, in the third month of which he was cut off.
Blindado
ValerianAntVict.jpg
1cx Valerian38 views253-260

Antoninianus

Radiate draped and cuirassed bust, right, IMP C P LIC VALERIANVS AVG
Victory standing left, holding wreath and palm, VICTORIA AVGG

RIC 125

Persians surrounded Valerian's army in the East in 260 and took the emperor prisoner. He died on an unknown date in captivity.

Zosimus noted: The nations subject to the Romans being unable to endure [Maximinus'] monstrous cruelty, and greatly distressed by the ravages he committed, the Africans proclaimed Gordianus and his son, of the same name, emperors, and sent ambassadors to Rome, one of whom was Valerianus, a man of consular rank, who afterwards himself became emperor. . . .

Aemilianus advanced with great speed into Italy, and the armies were very near to each other, when the soldiers of Gallus, reflecting that his force was much inferior to the enemy both in number and strength, and likewise that he was a negligent indolent man, put him and his son to death, and going over to the party of Aemilianus, appeared to establish his authority. But Valerianus brought into Italy from beyond the Alps a vast army, with which he deemed himself secure of conquering Aemilianus. The soldiers of Aemilianus, who saw that his conduct was more like that of a private sentinel than of an emperor, now put him to death as a person unfit for so weighty a charge.

By these means Valerianus became emperor with universal consent, and employed himself in the regulation of affairs. But the excursions of the Scythians, and of the Marcomanni, who made an inroad into all the countries adjacent to the empire, reduced Thessalonica to extreme danger; and though they were with muct difficulty compelled to raise the siege by the brave defence of those within, yet all Greece was in alarm. The Athenians repaired their walls, which they had never thought worth their care since Sylla threw them down. The Peloponnesians likewise fortified the Isthmus, and all Greece put itself upon its guard for the general security.

Valerianus, perceiving the empire in danger on every side, associated his son Gallienus with himself in the government! and went himself into the east to oppose the Persians. He entrusted to his son the care of the forces in Europe, thus leaving him to resist the Barbarians who poured in upon him in every direction. . . .

Valerianus had by this time heard of the disturbances in Bithynia, but his district would not allow him to confide the defence of it to any of his generals. He therefore sent Felix to Byzantium, and went in person from Antioch into Cappadocia, and after he had done some injury to every city by which he passed, he returned homeward. But the plague then attacked his troops, and destroyed most of them, at the time when Sapor made an attempt upon the east, and reduced most of it into subjection. In the mean time, Valerianus became so effeminate and indolent, that he dispaired of ever recovering from the present ill state of affairs, and would have concluded the war by a present of money; had not Sapor sent back the ambasadors who were sent to him with that proposal, without their errand, desiring the emperor to come and speak with him in person concerning the affairs he wished to adjust; To which he most imprudently consented, and going without consideration to Sapor with a small retinue, to treat for a peace, was presently laid hold of by the enemy, and so ended his days in the capacity of a slave among the Persians, to the disgrace of the Roman name in all future times.
Blindado
GallienusAntVirtus.jpg
1cy Gallienus17 views253-268

Bronze antoninianus

Radiate, draped bust, right, GALLINVS AVG
Mars standing left, holding globe in right hand and spear in left hand, P in right field, VIRTVS AVG

RIC 317

Gallienus oversaw a period of disintegration of the empire and lost control over the East, Gaul, Spain, and Britain.

Zosimus observed: [When Valerian left for the East] As the Germans were the most troublesome enemies, and harrassed the Gauls in the vicinity of the Rhine, Gallienus marched against them in person, leaving his officers to repel with the forces under their command any others that should enter Italy, Illyricum, and Greece. With these designs, he possessed himself of and defended the passages of the Rhine, at one time preventing their crossing, and at another engaging them as soon as they had crossed it. But having only a small force to resist an immense number, he was at a loss how to act, and thought to secure himself by a league with one of the German princes. He thus not only prevented the other Barbarians from so frequently passing the Rhine, but obstructed the access of auxiliaries.

Eutropius recorded: Gallienus, who was made emperor when quite a young man, exercised his power at first happily, afterwards fairly, and at last mischievously. In his youth he performed many gallant acts in Gaul and Illyricum, killing Ingenuus, who had assumed the purple, at Mursa, and Regalianus. He was then for a long time quiet and gentle; afterwards, abandoning himself to all manner of licentiousness, he relaxed the reins of government with disgraceful inactivity and carelesness. The Alemanni, having laid waste Gaul, penetrated into Italy. Dacia, which had been added to the empire beyond the Danube, was lost. Greece, Macedonia, Pontus, Asia, were devastated by the Goths. Pannonia was depopulated by the Sarmatians and Quadi. The Germans made their way as far as Spain, and took the noble city of Tarraco. The Parthians, after taking possession of Mesopotamia, began to bring Syria under their power.

Zosimus resumes: Gallienus in the mean time still continued beyond the Alps, intent on the German war, while the Senate, seeing Rome in such imminent danger, armed all the soldiers that were in the city, and the strongest of the common people, and formed an army, which exceeded the Barbarians in number. This so alarmed the Barbarians, that they left Rome, but ravaged all the rest of Italy. At this period, when Illyricum groaned under the oppression of the Barbarians, and the whole Roman empire was in such a helpless state as to be on the very verge of ruin, a plague happened to break out in several of the towns, more dreadful than any that had preceded it. The miseries inflicted on them by the Barbarians were thus alleviated, even the sick esteeming themselves fortunate. The cities that had been taken by the Scythians were thus deserted.

Gallienus, being disturbed by these occurrences, was returning to Rome to relieve Italy from the war which the Scythians were thus carrying on. It was at this time, that Cecrops, a Moor, Aureolus and Antoninus, with many others, conspired against him, of whom the greater part were punished and submitted. Aureolus alone retained his animosity against the emperor.

The Scythians, who had dreadfully afflicted the whole of Greece, had now taken Athens, when Gallienus advanced against those who were already in possession of Thrace, and ordered Odonathus of Palmyra, a person whose ancestors had always been highly respected by the emperors, to assist the eastern nations which were then in a very distressed condition. . . .

While affairs were thus situated in the east, intelligence was brought to Gallienus, who was then occupied in the Scythian war, that Aurelianus, or Aureolus, who was commander of the cavalry posted in the neighbourhood of Milan to watch the motions of Posthumus, had formed some new design, and was ambitious to be emperor. Being alarmed at this he went immediately to Italy, leaving the command against the Scythians with Marcianus, a person of great experience in military affairs. . . . Gallienus, in his journey towards Italy, had a plot formed against him by Heraclianus, prefect of the court, who communicated his design to Claudius, in whom the chief management of affairs was vested. The design was to murder Gallienus. Having found a man very ready for such an undertaking, who commanded a troop of Dalmatians, he entrusted the action to him. To effect it, the party stood by Gallienus at supper and informed him that some of the spies had brought intelligence, that Aureolus and his army were close at hand. By this they considerably alarmed him. Calling immediately for his horse and arms, he mounted, ordering his men to follow him in their armour, and rode away without any attendance. Thus the captain finding him alone killed him.
Blindado
SaloninaAntVesta.jpg
1cz Salonina18 viewsWife of Gallienus and mother of Valerian II and Saloninus.

Antoninianus

Diademed and draped bust, right on crescent, right, CORN SALONINA AVG
Vesta standing left holding sceptre and patera, VESTA

RIC 39[j]

Zonaras relates this anecdote: While Galienus was making sorties against some of the enemy, the empress was on one occasion exposed to danger. For she was present with him. For as the sovereign had sallied forth with the majority of his troops, very few were stationed about his camp. The enemy, when they noticed this, attacked the sovereign’s tent, intending to snatch the empress. One of the soldiers who had been left behind had seated himself in front of the tent, removed one of his shoes from his foot, and was mending it. Then, as he saw the enemy attacking, he grabbed a shield and dagger and bravely rushed against them. He struck one and a second and blocked the remainder, who had shied away before his charge. And so, when more soldiers had raced to the spot, the sovereign’s wife was saved.
Blindado
ValerianIIIoviCr.jpg
1da Valerian II20 views253-255

Son of Gallienus

Antoninianus

Radiate draped bust, right, VALERIANVS CEAS
IOVI CRESCENTI, infant Jupiter on goat.

RIC 13
Blindado
SaloninusAntSacrImplts.jpg
1db Saloninus37 views259

Son of Gallienus

Antoninianus

Radiate draped bust, right, SALON VALERIANVS NOB CAES
Sacrificial implements, PIETAS AVG

RIC 9

Zosimus recorded Saloninus' fate: After this, Posthumus, who commanded the Celtic army, was also inclined towards innovation, and accompanied some soldiers that revolted at the same time to Agrippina, which is the principal city on the Rhine, in which he besieged Saloninus, the son of Gallienus, threatening to remain before the walls until he was given up to him. On this account the soldiers found it necessary to surrender both him and Silvanus, whom his father had appointed his guardian, both of whom Posthumus put to death, and made himself sovereign of the Celtae.
Blindado
MacrianusAntAequitas.jpg
1dc Macrianus19 views260-261

Billon antoninianus

Radiate cuirassed bust, right, IMP C FVL MACRIANVS PF AVG
Aequitas standing left holding scales & cornucopiae, star to left, AEQVTAS AVGG

RIC 5

Macrianus did not rule in Rome. He and his brother Quietus took command of the army after the Persians captured Valerian but were defeated by one of Gallienus' generals when they marched west. According to the Historia Augusta: After the capture of Valerian, long a most
noble prince in the state, then a most valiant emperor, but at the last the most unfortunate of all men (either because in his old age he pined away among the Persians or because he left behind him unworthy descendants), Ballista, Valerian's prefect, and Macrianus, the foremost of his generals, since they knew that Gallienus was worthy only of contempt and since the soldiers, too, were seeking an emperor, withdrew together to a certain place, to consider what should be done. They then agreed that, since Gallienus was far away and Aureolus was usurping the imperial power, some emperor ought to be chosen, and, indeed, the best man, lest there should arise some pretender. . . . Ballista, perceiving that Macrianus, in so speaking, seemed to have in mind his own two sons, answered him as follows : "To your wisdom, then, we entrust the commonwealth. And so give us your sons Macrianus and Quietus, most valiant young men, long since made tribunes by Valerian, for, under the rule of Gallienus, for the very reason that they are good men, they cannot remain unharmed."

And so, with the consent of all the soldiers, Macrianus was made emperor, together with his two sons Macrianus and Quietus, and he immediately proceeded to march against Gallienus, leaving affairs in the East in whatever state he could. But while he was on the march, having with him a force of forty-five thousand soldiers, he met Aureolus in Illyricum or on the borders of Thrace, and there he was defeated and together with his son was slain. Then thirty thousand of his men yielded to Aureolus' power.
Blindado
DiocletianAntConcordMil.jpg
1ds Diocletian13 views284-305

AE antoninianus

Radiate, draped, cuirassed bust, right, IMP C C VAL DIOCLETIANVS P F AVG
Zeus and Diocletian, CONCORDIA MILITVM

RIC 284B

According to the Historia Augusta, after the death of Numerian: Then a huge assembly was held and a tribunal, too, was constructed. And when the question was asked who would be the most lawful avenger of Numerian and who could be given to the commonwealth as a good emperor, then all, with a heaven-sent unanimity, conferred the title of Augustus on Diocletian. . . . He was at this time in command of the household-troops, an outstanding man and wise, devoted to the commonwealth, devoted to his kindred, duly prepared to face whatever the occasion demanded, forming plans that were always deep though sometimes over-bold, and one who could by prudence and exceeding firmness hold in check the impulses of a restless spirit. This man, then, having ascended the tribunal was hailed as Augustus, and when someone asked how Numerian had been slain, he drew his sword and pointing to Aper, the prefect of the guard, he drove it through him, saying as he did so, "It is he who contrived Numerian's death.''

Eutropius summarized a long and important reign: DIOCLETIAN, a native of Dalmatia, [was] of such extremely obscure birth, that he is said by most writers to have been the son of a clerk, but by some to have been a freedman of a senator named Anulinus. . . . He soon after overthrew Carinus, who was living under the utmost hatred and detestation, in a great battle at Margum, Carinus being betrayed by his own troops, for though he had a greater number of men than the enemy, he was altogether abandoned by them between Viminacium and mount Aureus. He thus became master of the Roman empire; and when the peasants in Gaul made an insurrection, giving their faction the name of Bagaudae, and having for leaders Amandus and Aelianus, he despatched Maximian Herculius, with the authority of Caesar, to suppress them. Maximian, in a few battles of little importance, subdued the rustic multitude, and restored peace to Gaul. . . .

Diocletian promoted MAXIMIAN HERCULIUS from the dignity of Caesar to that of emperor, and created Constantius and Maximian Galerius Caesars, of whom Constantius is said to have been the grand-nephew of Claudius by a daughter, and Maximian Galerius to have been born in Dacia not far from Sardica. That he might also unite them by affinity, Constantius married Theodora the step-daughter of Herculius, by whom he had afterwards six children, brothers to Constantine; while Galerius married Valeria, the daughter of Diocletian; both being obliged to divorce the wives that they had before. . . .

Diocletian, meanwhile, besieging Achilleus in Alexandria, obliged him to surrender about eight months after, and put him to death. He used his victory, indeed, cruelly, and distressed all Egypt with severe proscriptions and massacres. Yet at the same time he made many judicious arrangements and regulations, which continue to our own days. . . .

Diocletian was of a crafty disposition, with much sagacity, and keen penetration. He was willing to gratify his own disposition to cruelty in such a way as to throw the odium upon others; he was however a very active and able prince. He was the first that introduced into the Roman empire a ceremony suited rather to royal usages than to Roman liberty, giving orders that he should be adored, whereas all emperors before him were only saluted. He put ornaments of precious stones on his dress and shoes, when the imperial distinction had previously been only in the purple robe, the rest of the habit being the same as that of other men. . . .

But when Diocletian, as age bore heavily upon him, felt himself unable to sustain the government of the empire, he suggested to Herculius that they should both retire into private life, and commit the duty of upholding the state to more vigorous and youthful hands. With this suggestion his colleague reluctantly complied. Both of them, in the same day, exchanged the robe of empire for an ordinary dress, Diocletian at Nicomedia, Herculius at Milan, soon after a magnificent triumph which they celebrated at Rome over several nations, with a noble succession of pictures, and in which the wives, sisters, and children of Narseus were led before their chariots. The one then retired to Salonae, and the other into Lucania.

Diocletian lived to an old age in a private station, at a villa which is not far from Salonae, in honourable retirement, exercising extraordinary philosophy, inasmuch as he alone of all men, since the foundation of the Roman empire, voluntarily returned from so high a dignity to the condition of private life, and to an equality with the other citizens. That happened to him, therefore, which had happened to no one since men were created, that, though he died in a private condition, he was enrolled among the gods.
Blindado
GaleriusFollisGenio.jpg
1dv Galerius21 views305-311

Quarter Follis

Laureate head, right, MAXIMIANVS AVG
Genius standing left, modius on head, holding cornucopia & patera, SIS in ex., GENIO POPVLI ROMANI

RIC 169b

Eutropius tells us: Diocletian promoted MAXIMIAN HERCULIUS from the dignity of Caesar to that of emperor, and created Constantius and Maximian Galerius Caesars, of whom Constantius is said to have been the grand-nephew of Claudius by a daughter, and Maximian Galerius to have been born in Dacia not far from Sardica. . . . Galerius married Valeria, the daughter of Diocletian. . . .

Galerius Maximian, in acting against Narseus, fought, on the first occasion, a battle far from successful, meeting him between Callinicus and Carrae, and engaging in the combat rather with rashness than want of courage; for he contended with a small army against a very numerous enemy. Being in consequence defeated, and going to join Diocletian, he was received by him, when he met him on the road, with such extreme haughtiness, that he is said to have run by his chariot for several miles in his scarlet robes.

But having soon after collected forces in Illyricum and Moesia, he fought a second time with Narseus (the grandfather of Hormisdas and Sapor), in Greater Armenia, with extraordinary success, and with no less caution and spirit, for he undertook, with one or two of the cavalry, the office of a speculator. After putting Narseus to flight, he captured his wives, sisters, and children, with a vast number of the Persian nobility besides, and a great quantity of treasure; the king himself he forced to take refuge in the remotest deserts in his dominions. Returning therefore in triumph to Diocletian, who was then encamped with some troops in Mesopotamia, he was welcomed by him with great honour. Subsequently, they conducted several wars both in conjunction and separately, subduing the Carpi and Bastarnae, and defeating the Sarmatians, from which nations he settled a great number of captives in the Roman territories. . . .

Galerius, a man of excellent moral character, and skilful in military affairs, finding that Italy, by Constantius's permission, was put under his government, created two Caesars, MAXIMIN, whom he appointed over the east, and SEVERUS, to whom he committed Italy. He himself resided in Illyricum.
Blindado
GalValFollis.jpg
1dw Galeria Valeria15 viewsDaughter of Diocletian and wife of Galerius.

Follis, Cyzicus

Diademed & draped bust, right, GAL VALERIA AVG
Venus standing left, holding up apple in right hand & raising drapery over shoulder with left, D left, MKV in ex, VENERI VITRICI

RIC 46
Blindado
22045.jpg
22045 Valerian I/Pietas Avgg11 viewsValerian I/Pietas Avgg
Obv: IMP C P LIC VALERIANVS P F AVG
Radiate, draped, cuirassed bust right
Rev: PIETAS AVGG
Valerian I and Gallienus standing facing each other, sacrificing over lit altar
Mint:Antioch 22.9mm 3.9g
RIC V, Part I, 285; Göbl 1684e
Blayne W
22113.jpg
22113 Valerian/Victory12 viewsValerian/Victory
Obv: IMP VALERIANVS P F AVG
Bust of Valerian, radiate, draped, right
Rev: VICT PART
Victory, winged, draped, standing left, holding wreath in right hand and palm in left hand; at her feet, captive
Mint: Viminacium 19.9mm 2.16g
RIC V Valerian 262 Sear 9982
Ex Frascatius
Thanks to Curtisclay for helping correct the mint.
Blayne W
22123.jpg
22123 Troas/Alexandreia4 viewsTroas./ Alexandreia.
Obverse: CO-L TROA,
turreted bust of Alexandria Troas right, vexillium inscribed behind neck
Rev: COL AVG TRO,
horse grazing right.
Pseudo-autonomous issue circa AD 251-260.
Time of Trebonianus Gallus to Valerian
Bronze Ć
23 mm., 6,45 g
Ex. Savoca Coins
Blayne W
12189698_1045212088846174_6750998599424416208_n.jpg
240 Valerian16 viewsValerian I, AR Antoninianus, 257, Antioch

OBVERSE: IMP VALERIANVS AVG Radiate, draped bust right
REVERSE: P M TR P V COS IIII P P, Valerian and Gallienus standing facing, with shields and spears between.

"This reverse imitates the Caius and Lucius Caesar reverse of Augustus and represents the joint Consulate of Valerian and Gallienus in 257."
Randygeki(h2)
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240 Valerian I40 viewsValerian I, October 253 - c. June 260 A.D.
Billon antoninianus, Göbl MIR 1700l (Samosata), RIC V 287 (Antioch), SRCV III 9967 (uncertain Syrian mint), Fine or better, Syrian mint, 258 - 260 A.D.; obverse IMP C P LIC VALERIANVS P F AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse RESTITVT ORIENTIS (restorer of the East), turreted female (the Orient) presenting wreath to the Emperor standing left holding spear, pellet in wreath above; Ex Forvm

"The false propaganda on the reverse is particularly ironic considering Valerian's fate. After years of war and great losses, Valerian arranged peace talks with the Sasanian Persian emperor Sapor. He set off with a small group to discuss terms and was never seen again. In Rome it was rumored that Sapor was using his stuffed body as a footstool."
2 commentsRandygeki(h2)
100_7405.JPG
252 Saloninus 32 viewsSaloninus AR Antoninianus. Antioch mint. SALON VALERIANVS NOB CAES, radiate draped bust right / SPES PVBLICA, Spes presenting flower to prince. RIC 36, Cohen 95. Sear Roman Coins and their Values [1988 edition] s3083
2 commentsRandygeki(h2)
rjb_valerianus.jpg
253a43 viewsValerian I 253-60 AD
AE sestertius
Rome mint
Obv "IMP C P LIC VALERIANVS PF AVG"
Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev "VICTORIA AVGG SC"
Victory standing left leaning on shield
RIC 180; C 226; Gőbl 77
1 commentsmauseus
rjb_val1_04_06.jpg
253a38 viewsValerian I 253-60 AD
AE sestertius
Rome mint
Obv "IMP C P LIC VALERIANVS AVG"
Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev "VIRTVS AVGG SC"
Virtus standing left leaning on shield
RIC 182; C 269; Gőbl 38
2 commentsmauseus
rjb_val5_04_06.jpg
253a19 viewsValerian I 253-60 AD
AE as
Rome mint
Obv "IMP C P LIC VALERIANVS PF AVG"
Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev "FELICITAS AVGG SC"
Felicitas standing left holding cornucopia and caduceus
RIC 192
mauseus
rjb_val4_04_06.jpg
253a34 viewsValerian I 253-60 AD
AE 28 mm
Anemurium in Cilicia
Legend within wreath, amphora above
Victory standing left leaning on shield
SNG Lev 520 (this coin)
3 commentsmauseus
rjb_val3_04_06.jpg
253a17 viewsValerian I 253-60 AD
AE 28 mm
Anazarbus in Cilicia
Six prize urns
mauseus
rjb_val2_04_06.jpg
253a23 viewsValerian I 253-60 AD
AE 30 mm
Sagalassus in Pisidia
Cult statue in octastyle temple
Countermark of eaglestanding facing with head turned left, wreath in beak - Howgego 335
mauseus
rjb_val4_02_09.jpg
253a14 viewsValerian I 253-60 AD
AR antoninianus
Rome mint
Obv "IMP C P LIC VALERIANVS PF AVG"
Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev "RESTIVTOR ORBIS"
Emperor standing right raising kneeling female figure
RIC 117; Gobl 111
mauseus
rjb_val2_02_09.jpg
253a8 viewsValerian I 253-60 AD
AE sestertius
Rome mint
Obv "IMP C P LIC VALERIANVS PF AVG"
Laureate cuirassed bust right
Rev "FELICITAS AVGG SC"
Felicitas standing left holding caduceus and cornucopia
RIC 157; C 58; Gobl 73
mauseus
rjb_val3_02_09.jpg
253a20 viewsValerian I 253-60 AD
AR antoninianus
Rome mint
Obv "IMP C P LIC VALERIANVS AVG"
Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev "APOLINI PROPVG"
Apollo standing right firing bow
RIC 74; C 25; Gobl 44
1 commentsmauseus
rjb_val5_02_09.jpg
253a14 viewsValerian I 253-60 AD
AR antoninianus
Rome mint
Obv "IMP C P LIC VALERIANVS PF AVG"
Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev "PM TRP V COS IIII PP"
Emperor seated left in curule chair holding globe and sceptre
RIC 142c; Gobl 63
mauseus
rjb_val1_02_09.jpg
253a21 viewsValerian I 253-60 AD
AR antoninianus
Rome mint
Obv "IMP C P LIC VALERIANVS AVG"
Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev "SALVS AVG"
Salus standing left feeding serpent rising from altar
RIC 121; C 197; Gobl 29
1 commentsmauseus
rjb_2016_12_09.jpg
253a7 viewsValerian I 253-60 AD
AE as
Rome mint
Obv "IMP C P LIC VALERIANVS PF AVG"
Laureate cuirassed bust right
Rev "APOLINI CONSERVA SC"
Apollos standing left holding branch and resting lyre on rock
RIC 190
mauseus
rjb_2016_12_08.jpg
253a5 viewsValerian I 253-60 AD
AE sestertius
Rome mint
Obv "IMP C P LIC VALERIANVS PF AVG"
Laureate cuirassed bust right
Rev "APOLINI CONSERVA SC"
Apollos standing left holding branch and resting lyre on rock
RIC 152
mauseus
rjb_val10_02_09.jpg
25618 viewsValerian II, caesar 256-58 AD
AR antoninianus
Gallic (Trier?) mint
Obv "DIVO VALERIANO CAES"
Radiate draped bust right
Rev "CONSECRATIO"
The Caesar on an eagle flying right
RIC 9
mauseus
rjb_val9_02_09.jpg
25613 viewsValerian II, caesar 256-58 AD
AR antoninianus
Gallic (Trier?) mint
Obv "VALERIANVS CAES"
Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev "IOVI CRESCENTI"
Infant Jupiter seted on a goat right
RIC 3
mauseus
rjb_val8_02_09.jpg
25614 viewsValerian II, caesar 256-58 AD
AR antoninianus
Samosata mint
Obv "VALERIANVS NOBIL CAES"
Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev "PRINC IVVENTVTIS"
Prince standing left placing wreath on trophy
RIC 49; Gobl 1694
mauseus
SalV28.jpg
256/8-260 AD - Saloninus - RIC V 28 - PRINC or PRINCIPI IVVENT44 viewsProbable Caesar: Saloninus (Caes: late 250s AD)
Date: 257-258 AD
Condition: Fair
Denomination: Antoninianus

Obverse: LIC COR SAL VALERIANVS N CAES
Licinius Cornelius Saloninus Valerianus Noble Caesar
Bust right; radiate and draped

Reverse: PRINC or PRINCIPI IVVENT
First among the Young Men.
Prince standing left, holding ensign and spear or sceptre, captive at foot.
"P" in right field

Rome mint
RIC V Saloninus 28; VM 9
1.86g; 20.8mm; 345°
Pep
SalV36.jpg
256/8-260 AD - Saloninus as Caesar - RIC V 36 - SPES PVBLICA29 viewsCaesar: Saloninus (Caes: late 250s AD)
Date: 256 AD
Condition: aVF
Denomination: Antoninianus

Obverse: SALON VALERIANVS NOB CAES
Saloninus Valerianus Noble Caesar
Bust right; radiate and draped

Reverse: SPES PVBLICA
Hope of the public.
Spes presenting flower to prince.

Antioch mint
RIC V Saloninus 36
3.35g; 22.0mm; 165°
Pep
rjb_sal_10_08.jpg
260b39 viewsSaloninus 260 AD
AR antoninianus
Gallic mint (Trier?)
Obv "IMP SALON VALERIANVS AVG"
Radiate and draped bust right
Rev "FELICITAS AVGG"
Felicitas standing left holding caduceus and cornucopia
RIC -; Göbl 916
2 commentsmauseus
Treb-Gallus-RIC-032.jpg
29. Trebonianus Gallus.60 viewsAntoninianus, ca 252 AD, Rome mint.
Obverse: IMP CAES VIB TREB GALLVS AVG / Radiate bust of Gallus.
Reverse: APOLL SALVTARI / Apollo standing, holding branch and a lyre set on a rock.
3.82 gm., 20 mm.
RIC #32; Sear #9627.

In his book The Fate of Rome: Climate, Disease, & the End of an Empire, author Kyle Harper suggests the plague described by Cyprian, Bishop of Carthage, was not a localized plague of some sort, but was one and the same with the plague that ravaged the Roman Empire during the reign of Trebonianus Gallus and several of his successors.

The plague was first reported in Alexandria in 249 AD, and by 251 AD it had made its way to Rome where the boy emperor Hostilian died from it. Harper says (p, 138), “The Plague of Cyprian is in the background of imperial history from ca. AD 249 to AD 262, possibly with even later effects around AD 270.”

Harper also presents a case that the plague was either pandemic influenza (similar to that of 1918) or a viral hemorrhagic fever (similar to the Ebola virus of today).

Coins with the reverse legend APOLL SALVTARI (“Apollo the Healer”) exist on coins of Trebonianus Gallus, Volusian, Aemilian, and Valerian I. This reverse type is certainly to be interpreted as an appeal to Apollo for deliverance from the plague that was spreading through the Empire at this time.
3 commentsCallimachus
rjb_gval2_04_07.jpg
305a40 viewsGaleria Valeria
AE Follis
Obv: GAL VALERIA AVG
Diademed, draped bust facing with necklace, head right
Rev: VENERI VICTRICI
Venus standing left, holding apple and vertical sceptre
*/delta/.SM.TS.
Thessalonica Mint
RIC (VI) Thessalonica 36
2 commentsmauseus
rjb_gval1_04_07.jpg
305a18 viewsGaleria Valeria
AE Follis
Obv: GAL VALERIA AVG
Diademed, draped bust right
Rev: VENERI VICTRICI
Venus standing left, holding apple and vertical sceptre
Δ/-//MKV
Cyzicus Mint
RIC (VI) Cyzicus 46
mauseus
coin244.JPG
307. Aemilian31 viewsMarcus Aemilius Aemilianus was born about AD 207 either on the island of Jerba in Africa, or somewhere in Mauretania.
His career saw him becoming senator and reaching the office of consul. In AD 252 he then became governor of Lower Moesia.

In the spring of AD 253 the Goths broke the treaty made with the emperor Trebonianus Gallus. Aemilian quickly drove them out of Moesia and then, crossed the Danube crushing the Gothic forces.

In a time when Rome suffered continuous setbacks his unexpected triumph made him an outstanding leader in the eyes of his men. So, in July or August AD 253 Aemilian was proclaimed emperor by his troops. The new emperor didn't waste time. Immediately he marched his troops into Italy, rapidly moving on Rome. Only fifty miles north of the capital, at Interamna, they were were approached by the much inferior army of unprepared emperor Gallus and with his son and co-emperor Volusianus. Their troops however, realizing themselves dead if they were sent to fight Aemilian's much larger and more experienced Danubian forces, turned on them and killed them, leaving Aemilian sole emperor.

The senate, having only recently declared Aemilian a public enemy under Gallus, immediately confirmed him as emperor and Aemilian's wife Gaia Cornelia Supera was made Augusta.

All the empire now lay at Aemilian's feet, but for one big problem. Publius Licinius Valerianus, called to aid by the late Trebonianus Gallus, was marching toward Rome. His emperor might have been dead, but his usurper was still alive, giving Valerian all the reasons needed to carry on towards the capital. In fact the soldiers of his Rhine armies now declared him emperor in place of Aemilian.

As Aemilian now moved north to face his challenger history repeated itself. His own soldiers not wanting to fight a army they thought superior to their own, turned on him near Spoletium and stabbed him to death (October AD 253). The bridge where he died was afterwards known as the pons sanguinarius, the 'bridge of blood'.

Aemilian had ruled for only 88 days.

Aemilian AR Antonininus. 253 AD. IMP AEMILIANVS PIVS FEL AVG, radiate draped bust right / VIRTVS AVG, Virtus standing left, foot on helmet, holding branch & spear. RSC 60. RIC 12. Ex-WCNC
ecoli
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308. Valerian I23 viewsRIC 209 Valerian I 253-260 AD AR Antoninianus of Moesia. Radiate draped bust/Aequitas standing holding balance and cornucopia.

Publius Licinius Valerianus (ca. 200-260), known in English as Valerian, was Roman emperor from 253 to 260. His full Latin title was IMPERATOR · CAESAR · PVBLIVS · LICINIVS · VALERIANVS · PIVS FELIX · INVICTVS · AVGVSTVS — in English, "Emperor Caesar Publius Licinus Valerianus Pious Lucky Undefeated Augustus."

Unlike the majority of the usurpers of the crisis of the third century, Valerian was of a noble and traditional Senatorial family. Details of his early life are elusive, but his marriage to Egnatia Mariniana who gave him two sons: Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus and Valerianus Minor is known.

In 238 he was princeps senatus, and Gordian I negotiated through him for Senatorial acknowledgement for his claim as Emperor. In 251, when Decius revived the censorship with legislative and executive powers so extensive that it practically embraced the civil authority of the Emperor, Valerian was chosen censor by the Senate. Under Decius he was nominated governor of the Rhine provinces of Noricum and Raetia and retained the confidence of his successor, Trebonianus Gallus, who asked him for reinforcements to quell the rebellion of Aemilianus in 253. Valerian headed south, but was too late: Gallus' own troops killed him and joined Aemilianus before his arrival. The Raetian soldiers then proclaimed Valerian emperor and continued their march towards Rome. At the time of his arrival in September, Aemilianus' legions defected, killing him and proclaiming Valerian emperor. In Rome, the Senate quickly acknowledged him, not only for fear of reprisals, but also because he was one of their own.

Valerian's first act as emperor was to make his son Gallienus colleague. In the beginning of his reign the affairs in Europe went from bad to worse and the whole West fell into disorder. In the East, Antioch had fallen into the hands of a Persian vassal, Armenia was occupied by Shapur I (Sapor). Valerian and Gallienus split the problems of the Empire between the two, with the son taking the West and the father heading East to face the Persian threat.

By 257, Valerian had already recovered Antioch and returned the Syrian province to Roman control but in the following year, the Goths ravaged Asia Minor. Later in 259, he moved to Edessa, but an outbreak of plague killed a critical number of legionaries, weakening the Roman position. Valerian was then forced to seek terms with Shapur I. Sometime towards the end of 259, or at the beginning of 260, Valerian was defeated and made prisoner by the Persians (making him the only Roman Emperor taken captive). It is said that he was subjected to the greatest insults by his captors, such as being used as a human stepladder by Shapur when mounting his horse. After his death in captivity, his skin was stuffed with straw and preserved as a trophy in the chief Persian temple. Only after Persian defeat in last Persia-Roman war three and a half centuries later was his skin destroyed.
ecoli
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308a. Diva Mariniana 16 viewsDiva Mariniana, wife of Valerian I. 253-260 AD. AR Antoninianus (3.04 gm). DIVAE
MARINIANAE, veiled and draped bust right, resting on a crescent / CONSECRATIO,
peacock flying right, carrying Mariniana who is veiled and raising right hand and
holding sceptre. RIC V pt. 1, 6; Hunter 1; RSC 16.
ecoli
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308b. Saloninus (AD 258-260)149 viewsSon of Gallienus

Publius Licinius Cornelius Saloninus (242 - 260) was Roman Emperor in 260. His full title was IMP CAESAR CORNELIUS LICINIUS SALONINUS VALERIANUS PF INVICTUS AUG.

Saloninus was born around the year 242. His father was the later emperor Gallienus. In 258 Saloninus was appointed Caesar by his father (just like his older brother Valerian II, who had then just died, two years earlier was) and sent to Gaul, to make sure his father's authority was respected there. Saloninus lived in Cologne during that time of his life.

In 260 (probably in july) Saloninus and his protector, the praetorian prefect Silvanus, had an argument with the usurper Postumus about the distribution of some booty. Both fled to Cologne with some loyal troops and were besieged by Postumus. The troops elevated Saloninus to the rank of Augustus but the city was soon captured by Postumus, and both Saloninus and Silvanus were murdered. Gallienus, being on the other side of the empire could do nothing to stop him. Saloninus was probably emperor for about one month only.

AE Antoninianus (as Caesar)
OB: Radiate, draped bust, right
SALON. VALERIANVS NOB. CAES.
REV: Spes presenting flower to Saloninus
SPES PVBLICA
RIC, Vol. V, Part 1, #36
Antioch mint
1 commentsecoli73
coin247.JPG
309. Gallienus33 viewsOne of the key characteristics of the Crisis of the Third Century was the inability of the Emperors to maintain their hold on the Imperium for any marked length of time. An exception to this rule was the reign of the Emperor Gallienus. The fact that Gallienus served as junior Emperor with his father, Valerian, from 253 to 260 may have had something to do with his successes. Father and son each wielded his authority over a smaller area, thus allowing for more flexible control and imperial presence. Another, more probable reason, lay in Gallienus's success in convincing Rome that he was the best man for the job. However, Gallienus had to handle many rebellions of the so-called "Gallienus usurpers".

In 260, Valerian was taken prisoner by Sapor, King of Persia while trying to negotiate a peace settlement. Although aware that his father had been taken alive (the only Emperor to have suffered this fate), Gallienus did not make public Valerian's death until a year later. His decision hinged on the fact that Romans believed that their fate rose and fell with the fate of the Emperor, which in turn depended upon his demonstrating the proper amount of piety (Latin pietas) to the gods and maintaining their favor. A defeated Emperor would surely have meant that the gods had forsaken Valerian and, by extension, Gallienus.

Gallienus's chief method of reinforcing his position is seen in the coinage produced during his reign (see Roman currency). The coinage provides clear evidence of a successful propaganda campaign. Gallienus took pains to make sure that he was regularly represented as victorious, merciful, and pious. The people who used these coins on a daily basis saw these messages and, with little evidence to the contrary, remained supportive of their Emperor.

There were, however, those who knew better. During Gallienus' reign, there was constant fighting on the western fringes of the Empire. As early as 258, Gallienus had lost control over a large part of Gaul, where another general, Postumus, had declared his own realm (typically known today as the Gallic Empire). As Gallienus' influence waned, another general came to the fore. In time-honored tradition, Claudius II Gothicus gained the loyalty of the army and succeeded Gallienus to the Imperium.

In the months leading up to his mysterious death in September of 268, Gallienus was ironically orchestrating the greatest achievements of his reign. An invasion of Goths into the province of Pannonia was leading to disaster and even threatening Rome, while at the same time, the Alamanni were raising havoc in the northern part of Italy. Gallienus halted the Allamanic progress by defeating them in battle in April of 268, then turned north and won several victories over the Goths. That fall, he turned on the Goths once again, and in September, either he or Claudius, his leading general, led the Roman army to victory (although the cavalry commander Aurelian was the real victor) at the Battle of Naissus.

At some time following this battle, Gallienus was murdered during the siege of usurper Aureolus in Mediolanum; many theories abound that Claudius and Aurelian conspired to have the emperor killed. Be that as it may, Claudius spared the lives of Gallienus' family — Gallienus' wife, Iulia Cornelia Salonina, had given him three sons: Valerianus (who died in 258), Saloninus (died in 260 after becoming co-emperor), and Egnatius Marinianus — and had the emperor deified.

Gallienus Antoninianus - Minerva
OBVERSE: GALLIENVS AVG, radiate, cuirassed bust right
REVERSE: MINERVA AVG, Minerva standing right with spear and shield.
23mm - 3.7 grams
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309b. Valerian II (AD 256-258)104 viewsCornelius Licinius Valerianus, also known as Valerian II, was the eldest son of the Roman emperor, Gallienus.

Valerian was raised to the title of Caesar shortly after his father was raised to co-emperor with his father, Valerian. He was killed somewhere around the year 257, possibly by Ingenuus who had been charged with his education.

Valerian II (AD 256-258)
AE Antoninianus (AD 255)
OB: Radiate, draped bust, right
VALERIANVS NOBIL CAES.
REV: Prince standing left, holding shield and spear, and crowning trophy
PRINC. IVVENTVTIS
RIC, Vol. V, Part 1, #49
Antioch mint
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310. Quietus22 viewsTitus Fulvius Iunius Quietus (d. 261) was a Roman usurper.

Quietus was the son of Fulvius Macrianus and a noblewoman, probably named Iulia. He gained the imperial office with his brother Macrianus Minor after the death of emperor Valerian in 260. The support of his father and the influence of Ballista, praefect of the late emperor Valerian, proved instrumental in his promotion.

Quietus and Ballista stayed in the east, while his brother and father marched their army to Europe to seize control of the Roman empire. After the defeat of his brother and father in Thrace in 261, he fled to the city of Emesa, where he was killed by Odaenathus of Palmyra.

Quietus, 260-261 A.D. AR Antoninianus. Antioch. IMP C FVL QVIETVS P F AVG. Radiate & draped bust r. / AEQVITAS AVGG. Aequitas std. l. holding scales & cornucopiae. RIC 2.
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311a. Aureolus9 viewsAureolus. Romano-Gallic Usurper, AD 267-268. Antoninianus (19mm, 2.17 g, 7h). Struck in the name of Postumus. Mediolanum (Milan) mint, 2nd officina. 3rd emission, mid AD 268. Radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust of Postumus right / Concordia standing left, holding patera and rudder; prow of galley to left; S. RIC V (Postumus) 373; Mairat 215-21; AGK (Postumus) 6b; RSC (Postumus) 19. Near VF, dark brown patina.

Aureolus was an extraordinarily capable general who served under Valerian and Gallienus. Around AD 258, Gallienus stationed a new cavalry unit at Mediolanum that was to serve as a quick reaction force against any new invasions along the frontier of the central empire. Aureolus was given command of this unit. In AD 260-261 his forces defeated the armies of the usurpers Ingenuus and Macrianus, and recovered the province of Raetia. Following these victories, Gallienus and Aureolus led a Roman army against the breakaway Gallic provinces under Postumus. Gallienus was forced to leave the field after being injured in battle, and left the campaign in the hands of Aureolus. Aureolus ended the campaign shortly thereafter, and while the reason is uncertain, the historical record suggests it was due to either his incompetence or else treachery (he had come to a secret agreement with Postumus). While the former seems unlikely, given Aureolus’ record, the latter is possible, as there are indications that he had been preparing for a revolt as early as AD 262. Regardless, at some point in AD 267, Aureolus revolted and established his base at Mediolanum, where Gallienus besieged him in AD 268. The details of the revolt are unclear, but it appears that Aureolus first appealed to Postumus for aid, and, failing to gain the Gallic Emperor’s support, declared himself emperor. About the same time, Gallienus was murdered, and was succeeded by Claudius II Gothicus, who continued to beseige Mediolanum. Soon, though, it appeared that an agreement was reached, and Aureolus emerged from the city to meet Claudius. Any such concord, however, was simply a ruse, as Aureolus was taken into custody and executed.
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319. Probus59 viewsAt an early age he entered the army, where he distinguished himself under the emperors Valerian, Aurelian and Tacitus. He was appointed governor of the East by the emperor Tacitus, at whose death he was immediately proclaimed his successor by the soldiers. Florianus, who had claimed to succeed his half-brother Tacitus, was put to death by his own troops, and the Senate eagerly ratified the choice of the army. The reign of Probus was mainly spent in successful wars by which he re-established the security of all the frontiers, the most important of these operations being directed to clearing Gaul of German invaders.

Probus had also put down three usurpers, Saturninus, Proculus and Bonosus. One of his principles was never to allow the soldiers to be idle, and to employ them in time of peace on useful works, such as the planting of vineyards in Gaul, Pannonia and other districts. This increase of duties was naturally unpopular, and while the emperor was urging on the draining of the marshes of his native place he was attacked and slain by his own soldiers. Scarcely any emperor has left behind him so good a reputation; his death was mourned alike by senate and people, and even the soldiers repented and raised a monument in his honour.

Obv:– IMP C PROBVS P F AVG, Radiate, cuirassed bust right
Rev:– RESTITVT ORBIS, Female standing right, presenting wreath to emperor standing left, holding globe and sceptre
Minted in Siscia (* in centre field, XXIQ in exe) Emission 5 Officina 4. A.D. 278
Reference:– RIC 733 Bust type F
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35. Valerian I.41 viewsAntoninianus, 255-56 AD, either the Antioch mint or a mint in Samaosata.
Obverse: IMP C P LIC VALERIANVS AVG / Radiate bust of Valerian.
Reverse: PIETAS AVGG / Emperors (Valerian & Galienus) standing face to face, holding eagle-tipped sceptre and parazonium, sacrificing on lighted altar.
4.55 gm., 25 mm.
RIC #284; Gobl #1676e.

Both sides of this coin are double-struck. The obverse is obviously so; and if you follow the beaded border around the reverse, you will see it is also double-struck.
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36. Valerian I.11 viewsAntoninianus, 257 AD, either the Antioch mint or a mint in Samaosata.
Obverse: IMP VALERIANVS AVG / Radiate bust of Valerian.
Reverse: P M TR P V COS IIII P P / Emperors (Valerian & Galienus) standing face to face, shields and spears between them.
3.41 gm., 21.5 mm.
RIC #277; Sear #9962

The reverse type of this coin is interesting in that it is a copy of one used by Caesar Augustus some 250 years earlier (compare to the Augustus coin in this gallery). It is also one of the few dated coins of Valerian's reign.
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38 Valerian RIC 12528 viewsValerian I. AD 253-260. AR Antoninianus. Rome Mint. 1st emission, 253-254 AD. (3,62g, 21.32mm) Obv: IMP C P LIC VALERIANVS AVG, radiate draped and cuirassed bust right. Rev: VICTORIA AVGG, Victory standing left, holding wreath and palm.
RIC 125; RSC 230.

Ex: Marc Walter
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406a. Galeria Valeria24 viewsGaleria Valeria was Diocletian's daughter and, to cement the alliance between Diocletian and Galerius, Valeria was married to Galerius. It appears that this was not a very happy marriage. Galeria Valeria was sympathetic towards Christians during this time of severe persecution and it is possible that she was actually a Christian herself. The imperial couple were not blessed with any children during their eighteen year marriage. After Galerius died in A. D. 311, Galeria Valeria and her mother went to live at the court of Maximinus Daia, the caesar who became emperor of the East upon the death of Galerius.

Maximinus proposed marriage to Valeria soon afterward. He was probably more interested in her wealth and the prestige he would gain by marrying the widow of one emperor and the daughter of another than he was in Valeria as a person. She refused his hand, and immediately Maximinus reacted with hatred and fury. Diocletian, by now an old man living in a seaside villa on the Dalmatian coast, begged Maximinus to allow the two women to come home to him. Maximinus refused and had Valeria and her mother banished to live in a village in Syria.

During the civil war that erupted between Maximinus and Licinius, Valeria and Prisca disguised themselves and escaped, trying to reach the safety of Diocletian's villa. In the meantime, Diocletian had died, leaving the women without a haven of safety to which to run. For fifteen months the two royal fugitives traveled from one city to another, always living in fear of being discovered and in search of a little peace.

Finally, they were recognized by someone in the Greek city of Salonika. They were hastily taken to a square in the city and beheaded before a crowd of citizens who had once revered them as empresses. The bodies of Valeria and her mother were afterwards thrown into the sea.

Galeria Valeria Follis. AD 308-311. GAL VAL-ERIA AVG, Diademed & draped bust right / VENERI V-ICTRICI, Venus standing left, holding apple & scepter, * to left, G to right, (dot)SM(dot)TS(dot) in ex.
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408. Maxentius34 viewsMarcus Aurelius Valerius Maxentius, more commonly known as Maxentius, was the child of the Emperor Maximianus Herculius and the Syrian Eutropia; he was born ca. 278 A.D. After Galerius' appointment to the rank of Caesar on 1 March 293, Maxentius married Galerius' daughter Valeria Maximilla, who bore him a son named Romulus and another son whose name is unknown. Due to his haughty nature and bad disposition, Maxentius could seldom agree with his father or his father-in-law; Galerius' and Maximianus Herculius' aversion to Maxentius prevented the young man from becoming a Caesar in 305. Little else is known of Maxentius' private life prior to his accession and, alth ough there is some evidence that it was spent in idleness, he did become a Senator.

On 28 October 306 Maxentius was acclaimed emperor, although he was politcally astute enough not to use the title Augustus; like the Emperor Augustus, he called himself princeps. It was not until the summer of 307 that he started usi ng the title Augustus and started offending other claimants to the imperial throne. He was enthroned by the plebs and the Praetorians. At the time of his acclamation Maxentius was at a public villa on the Via Labicana. He strengthened his position with promises of riches for those who helped him obtain his objective. He forced his father Maximianus Herculius to affirm his son's acclamation in order to give his regime a facade of legitimacy. His realm included Italy, Africa, Sardinia, and Corsica. As soon as Galerius learned about the acclamation of Herculius' son, he dispatched the Emperor Severus to quell the rebellion. With the help of his father and Severus' own troops, Maxentius' took his enemy prisoner.

When Severus died, Galerius was determined to avenge his death. In the early summer of 307 the Augustus invaded Italy; he advanced to the south and encamped at Interamna near the Tiber. His attempt to besiege the city was abortive because his army was not large enough to encompass the city's fortifications. Negotiations between Maxentius and Galerius broke down when the emperor discovered that the usurper was trying to win over his troops. Galerius' troops were open to Maxentius' promises because they were fighting a civil war between members of the same family; some of the soldiers went over to the enemy. Not trusting his own troops, Galerius withdrew. During its retreat, Galerius' army ravaged the Italian countryside as it was returning to its original base. If it was not enough that Maxentius had to deal with the havoc created by the ineffectual invasions of Severus and Galerius, he also had to deal with his father's attempts to regain the throne between 308 and 310. When Maximianus Herculius was unable to regain power by pushing his son off his throne, he attempted to win over Constantine to his cause. When this plan failed, he tried to win Diocletian over to his side at Carnuntum in October and November 308. Frustrated at every turn, Herculius returned to his son-in-law Constantine's side in Gaul where he died in 310, having been implicated in a plot against his son-in-law. Maxentius' control of the situation was weakened by the revolt of L. Domitius Alexander in 308. Although the revolt only lasted until the end of 309, it drastically cut the size of the grain supply availble for Rome. Maxentius' rule collapsed when he died on 27 October 312 in an engagement he had with the Emperor Constantine at the Milvian Bridge after the latter had invaded his realm.

Maxentius Follis. Ostia mint. IMP C MAXENTIVS P F AVG, laureate head right / AETE-RNITAS A-VGN, Castor and Pollux standing facing each other, each leaning on sceptre and holding bridled horse.
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50. Valerian II.21 viewsAntoninianus, 256 - 258 AD, either the Antioch mint or a mint in Samaosata.
Obverse: P LIC COR VALERIANVS CAES / Radiate bust of Valerian II.
Reverse: VICTORIA PART / Victory presenting wreath to Valerian II, in military dress, holding globe and spear.
3.77 gm., 21 mm.
RIC #54; Sear #10742.

Attributed to Antioch, 255 AD by RIC.
Attributed to "Eastern field mint," 256-58 AD by Sear, vol. III.
This coin shows a cuirass at the bottom edge of the obverse. Since it is way to the right, this bust type is "seen from behind." Not mentioned in RIC or Sear.
Just what victory over the Parthians is referred to on this coin is open to question.
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508. Julian II VOTA Sirmium9 viewsSirmium

Sirmium was one of the oldest cities in Europe. Archaeologists have found a trace of organized human life dating from the 5000 BC.

When the Romans conquered the city in the 1st century BC, Sirmium already was a settlement with a long tradition.

In the 1st century, Sirmium gained a status of a colony of the citizens of Rome, and became a very important military and strategic location in Pannonia province. The war expeditions of Roman emperors Traian, Marcus Aurelius, and Claudius II, were prepared in Sirmium.

In 103, Pannonia was split into two provinces: Upper Pannonia and Lower Pannonia, and Sirmius became the capital city of Lower Pannonia.

In 296, Diocletian operated a new territorial division of Pannonia. Instead of previous two provinces, there were four new provinces established in former territory of original province: Pannonia Prima, Pannonia Valeria, Pannonia Savia and Pannonia Secunda. Capital city of Pannonia Secunda was Sirmium.

In 293, with the establishment of tetrarchy, the Roman Empire was split into four parts; Sirmium become one of the four capital cities of Roman Empire, the other three being Trier, Mmediolanum, and Nicomedia. During the tetrarchy, Sirmium was the capital of emperor Galerius. With the establishment of praetorian prefectures in 318, the capital of the prefecture of Illyricum was Sirmium. Sirmium was capital of this prefecture until 379, when the prefecture was divided politically into Eastern and Western Illyricum. The western part (including Sirmium) was included into prefecture of Italia. The eastern part of Illyricum remained a separate prefecture with the capital in Thessalonica.

The city also was an important Christian centre. Several Christian councils were held in Sirmium.

008. Julian II Sirmium

RIC VIII Sirmium 108 ASIRM???

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51. Valerian II.12 viewsAntoninianus, 256 - 258 AD, Cologne mint.
Obverse: VALERIANVS CAES / Radiate bust of Valerian II.
Reverse: IOVI CRESCENTI / The infant Jupier siting on a goat.
3.16 gm., 22 mm.
RIC #3; Sear #10731.

In all of Roman coinage, this coin of Valerian II is the only coin which has this reverse legend and type.

According to legend, the infant Zeus (Jupiter, Jove) was hidden in the cave of Dicte on Crete where he was suckled by a goat. He was hidden from his father Cronus, who intended to eat him just as he had swallowed all of Zeus' other siblings, to escape the prophesy that he would be succeeded by his son.
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52. Valerian II.17 viewsAntoninianus, 258 - 259 AD, Lugdunum mint.
Obverse: DIVO VALERIANO CAES / Radiate bust of Valerian II.
Reverse: CONSACRATIO / Eagle bearing Valerian to heaven.
2.76 gm., 21 mm.
RIC #9; Sear #10606.
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56. Salonius.12 viewsAntoninianus, 256 AD, Lugdunum mint.
Obverse: SALON VALERIANVS CAES / Radiate bust of Saloninus.
Reverse: PIETAS AVG / Sacrificial implements (left to right: lituus, ax or secespita, praefericulum, simpulum, and aspergillum).
2.72 gm., 20 mm.
RIC #9; Sear #10764.
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59 Galeria Valeria: Serdica follis.16 viewsFollis, 307 - 308 AD, Serdica mint.
Obverse: FAL VALERIA AVG / Bust of Galeria Valeria.
Reverse: VENERI VICTRICI / Venus standing, holding up apple, raising drapery over left shoulder, * in left field, Δ in right field.
Mint mark: . SM . SD .
7.07 gm., 26.5 mm.
RIC #41; PBCC #852; Sear #14591.

She was the daughter of Diocletian and Prisca. Her father married her off to his colleague Galerius.
This coin is from the last group of coins issued from the Serdica mint before it was closed in 308.
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80-02 - VALERIANO I (253 - 260 D.C.)44 viewsAR Antoniniano 21 mm 2.9 gr.

Anv: "IMP C P LIC VALERIANVS AVG" - Busto radiado, vestido y acorazado (?) viendo a derecha.
Rev: "LAETITIA AVGG" - Laetitia de pié a izquierda, portando corona de laureles en mano de brazo derecho extendido y un ancla en la izquierda.

Acuńada 253 - 260 D.C.

Referencias:
RIC Vol.V Parte I #98 Pag.46 - Ceca: Roma (253 D.C.)
RIC Vol.V Parte I #215 Pag.55 - Ceca: Moesia (Viminacium) (254-5 D.C.)
Göbl #1570a - Ceca: Antiochia
Cohen Vol.V #101 Pag.307 - RSC Vol. IV #101/101a Pag.52 - DVM #40 Pag.240
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80-02 - VALERIANO I (253 - 260 D.C.)9 viewsAR Antoniniano 21 mm 2.9 gr.

Anv: "IMP C P LIC VALERIANVS AVG" - Busto radiado, vestido y acorazado (?) viendo a derecha.
Rev: "LAETITIA AVGG" - Laetitia de pié a izquierda, portando corona de laureles en mano de brazo derecho extendido y un ancla en la izquierda.

Acuńada 253 - 260 D.C.

Referencias:
RIC Vol.V Parte I #98 Pag.46 - Ceca: Roma (253 D.C.)
RIC Vol.V Parte I #215 Pag.55 - Ceca: Moesia (Viminacium) (254-5 D.C.)
Göbl #1570a - Ceca: Antiochia
Cohen Vol.V #101 Pag.307 - RSC Vol. IV #101/101a Pag.52 - DVM #40 Pag.240
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80-04 - VALERIANO I (253 - 260 D.C.)52 viewsAR Antoniniano 21 x 19 mm 3.6 gr.

Anv: "IMP C P LIC VALERIANVS AVG" - Busto radiado, vestido y acorazado (?) viendo a derecha.
Rev: "VICTORIA AVGG" – Victoria de pié a derecha o de frente, viendo a izquierda, portando guirnalda en la mano de su brazo derecho extendido y hoja de palma en la izquierda.

Acuńada 254 - 255 D.C.
Ceca: Antioquía – Hoy Antakya -Turquía

Referencias:
Göbl #1574a Pl. 112
El resto de las referencia a las que he podido tener acceso (RIC, Cohen, Van Meter, RSC, Sear, etc.) solo listan a la Victoria de pié a izquierda.
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80-04 - VALERIANO I (253 - 260 D.C.)15 viewsAR Antoniniano 21 x 19 mm 3.6 gr.

Anv: "IMP C P LIC VALERIANVS AVG" - Busto radiado, vestido y acorazado (?) viendo a derecha.
Rev: "VICTORIA AVGG" – Victoria de pié a derecha o de frente, viendo a izquierda, portando guirnalda en la mano de su brazo derecho extendido y hoja de palma en la izquierda.

Acuńada 254 - 255 D.C.
Ceca: Antioquía – Hoy Antakya -Turquía

Referencias:
Göbl #1574a Pl. 112
El resto de las referencia a las que he podido tener acceso (RIC, Cohen, Van Meter, RSC, Sear, etc.) solo listan a la Victoria de pié a izquierda.
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80-06 - VALERIANO I (253 - 260 D.C.)18 viewsAR Antoniniano 20 mm 4.8 gr.

Anv: "IMP C LIC VALERIANVS P F AVG" - Busto radiado, vestido y acorazado viendo a derecha.
Rev: "RESTITVT ORIENTIS" – Mujer c/corona mural (El Oriente) estante a der., presentando una guirnalda/corona de laureles al Emperador vestido militarmente, estante a der. y portando lanza.

Acuńada 255 - 256 D.C.
Ceca: Antioquía/Samosata

Referencias: RIC Va #287 Pag.60 - Sear RCTV IV #9967 Pag.267 - Cohen V #189 Pag.316 - RSC V #189 Pag.55 - DVM #71 Pag.241 - Mir #1677-85 - Göbl #1685e - Hunter #75
Göbl #1574a Pl. 112
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80-10 - VALERIANO I (253 - 260 D.C.)75 viewsAE Sestercio 24,35 mm 10,5 gr.

Anv: "IMP C P LIC VALERIANVS AVG" - Busto radiado, vestido y acorazado (?) viendo a derecha.
Rev: "VIRTVS AVGG - S C" – Virtus (La virilidad) estante a izquierda, apoyando su mano derecha en un escudo a su lado y portando lanza en izquierda.

Acuńada 1ra. Emisión 253 - 254 D.C.
Ceca: Roma

Referencias: RIC Vol. Va #182 Pag.52 - Göbl #38g - Sear RCV Vol.III #10025 Pag.272 - DVM #115 Pag.242 - Cohen Vol.V #269 Pag.322
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80-10 - VALERIANO I (253 - 260 D.C.)7 viewsAE Sestercio 24,35 mm 10,5 gr.

Anv: "IMP C P LIC VALERIANVS AVG" - Busto radiado, vestido y acorazado (?) viendo a derecha.
Rev: "VIRTVS AVGG - S C" – Virtus (La virilidad) estante a izquierda, apoyando su mano derecha en un escudo a su lado y portando lanza en izquierda.

Acuńada 1ra. Emisión 253 - 254 D.C.
Ceca: Roma

Referencias: RIC Vol. Va #182 Pag.52 - Göbl #38g - Sear RCV Vol.III #10025 Pag.272 - DVM #115 Pag.242 - Cohen Vol.V #269 Pag.322 - Hunter #39
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81 - 02 - DIVA MARINIANA56 viewsAR Antoniniano 23/22 mm 1.63 g.
Mariniana era la esposa de Valeriano I y madre de Galieno. La ausencia del título de Augusta, sugiere que ella murió antes de ser ascendida a Augusta, muerta antes del 253 D.C., aún antes de que su esposo fuera Emperador.

Anv: DIVAE MARINIANAE - Busto vestido y velado, viendo a der., descansando sobre una medialuna.
Rev: CONSECRATIO - Pavo real volando a der., llevando a Mariniana velada hacia el Edén, con su mano der. levantada y portando un cetro en la izq..

Acuńada entre 253 y 254 D.C.
Ceca: Roma y/o Viminacium.
Rareza: R

Referencias: RIC Va #6 Pag.64 - Cohen V #15 Pag. 342/343 - SRCV III #10070 Pag.276 - Göbl #220b - Hunter #1 - RSC IV #16 Pag.59 - DVM #1/2 Pag.242
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81-02 - DIVA MARINIANA15 viewsAR Antoniniano 23/22 mm 1.63 g.

Mariniana era la esposa de Valeriano I y madre de Galieno. La ausencia del título de Augusta, sugiere que ella murió antes de ser ascendida a Augusta, muerta antes del 253 D.C., aún antes de que su esposo fuera Emperador.

Anv: DIVAE MARINIANAE - Busto vestido y velado, viendo a der., descansando sobre una medialuna.
Rev: CONSECRATIO - Pavo real volando a der., llevando a Mariniana velada hacia el Edén, con su mano der. levantada y portando un cetro en la izq..

Acuńada entre 253 y 254 D.C.
Ceca: Roma y/o Viminacium.
Rareza: R

Referencias: RIC Va #6 Pag.64 - Cohen V #15 Pag. 342/343 - SRCV III #10070 Pag.276 - Göbl #220b - Hunter #1 - RSC IV #16 Pag.59 - DVM #1/2 Pag.242
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83-01 - SALONINA (254 - 268 D.C.)12 viewsAE Antoniniano 18 x 20 mm 2.6 gr.
Esposa de Galieno y madre de Valeriano II y Salonino

Anv: "SALONINA [AVG]" - Busto diademado y vestido, viendo a derecha y descansando sobre una media luna.
Rev: "PVDICITIA" - Pudicitia (El Pudor) velada de pié a izquierda, levantando su velo con mano derecha y portando cetro transversal largo en izquierda.

Acuńada 260 - 262 D.C.
Ceca: Roma

Referencias: Göbl #490s - RIC Vol.Va #24 Pag.193 - Sear RCTV III #10648 Pag.327 - Sear (1988) #3044 - Cohen Vol.V #92 Pag.506 - DVM #36 Pag.251 - RSC Vol.IV #92 Pag.114 - Hunter #5
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Antoniniano Salonina RIC 24 Göbl 490s.jpg
83-02 - SALONINA (254 - 268 D.C.)35 viewsBillon Antoniniano 18 x 20 mm 2.6 gr.
Esposa de Galieno y madre de Valeriano II y Salonino

Anv: "SALONINA [AVG]" - Busto diademado y vestido, viendo a derecha y descansando sobre una media luna.
Rev: "PVDICITIA" - Pudicitia (El Pudor) velada de pié a izquierda, levantando su velo con mano derecha y portando cetro transversal largo en izquierda.

Acuńada 260 - 262 D.C.
Ceca: Roma

Referencias:
Göbl #490s - RIC Vol.Va #24 Pag.193 - SRCV Vol.III #10648 Pag.327 - Sear (1988) #3044 - Cohen Vol.V #92 Pag.506 - DVM #36 Pag.251 - RSC Vol.IV #92 Pag.114
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83-02 - SALONINA (254 - 268 D.C.)11 viewsAE Antoniniano 18 mm 1.5 gr.
Esposa de Galieno y madre de Valeriano II y Salonino

Anv: "CORNEL SALONINA AVG" - Busto diademado y vestido, viendo a derecha y descansando sobre una media luna.
Rev: "FECVNDITAS AVG" - Fecunditas estante a izq. tocando un nińo con mano der. y portando cornucopia en izq.
"Δ" en campo der.

Acuńada 265 - 267 D.C.
Ceca: 4to. Taller de Roma

Referencias: Göbl #662s - RIC Vol.Va #5 Pag.192 - Sear RCTV III #10633 var. (Ley. anverso) Pag.326 - Sear (1988) #3039 - Cohen Vol.V #41 Pag.500 - DVM #13 var. (Idem) Pag.251 - RSC Vol.IV #41 Pag.112
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Antoniniano Salonina RIC 63.jpg
83-03 - SALONINA (254 - 268 D.C.)37 viewsBillon Antoniniano 20 mm 4.2 gr.
Esposa de Galieno y madre de Valeriano II y Salonino

Anv: "CORN SALONINA [AVG]" - Busto diademado y vestido, viendo a derecha y descansando sobre una media luna.
Rev: "CONCORDIA AVGG" - El Emperador a la izquierda y la Emperatriz a derecha enfrentados y tomandose la mano derecha .
Esta moneda refiere a la elevación de Salonina a Augusta en el 254 D.C.

Acuńada 258 - 260 D.C.
Ceca: Samosata - Hoy Samsat Turquía

Referencias:
Göbl #1691p - RIC Vol.V Parte I #63 Pag.114 - Sear RCTV Vol.III #10630 - Cohen Vol.V #31 Pag.499 - DVM #9 Pag.251 - RSC Vol.IV #31 Pag.112
mdelvalle
Göbl_725x_Antoniniano_Salonina.jpg
83-03 - SALONINA (254 - 268 D.C.)12 viewsAE Antoniniano 20 mm 2.8 gr.
Esposa de Galieno y madre de Valeriano II y Salonino

Anv: "COR SALONINA AVG" - Busto diademado y vestido, viendo a derecha y descansando sobre una media luna.
Rev: "IVNONI CONS AVG" - Alce avanzando a izq. "B" en exergo.
Invoca la protección de Juno, ante la rebelión de Aureolo.

Acuńada 267 D.C.
Ceca: 2do. Taller de Roma

Referencias: Göbl #725x - RIC Vol.V Parte I #16 var. (Nş de oficcinae) Pag.193 - Sear RCTV Vol.III #10643 var. (Idem) Pag.327 - Cohen Vol.V #69 var. (Idem) Pag.503 - DVM #24 var. (Alce a der.) Pag.251 - RSC Vol.IV #69 var. (Nş de Officinae) Pag.113
mdelvalle
Antoniniano Salonina RIC 86.jpg
83-05 - SALONINA (254 - 268 D.C.)49 viewsBillon Antoniniano 21 x 19 mm 2.6 gr.
Esposa de Galieno y madre de Valeriano II y Salonino

Anv: "SALONINA AVG" - Busto diademado y vestido, viendo a derecha y descansando sobre una media luna.
Rev: "VENVS AVG" - Venus de pié a izquierda, portando un casco en la mano de su brazo derecho extendido y lanza transversal en izquierda. "PXV" en exergo.

Acuńada 15ava. Emisión 267 D.C.
Ceca: Antiochia (Off.8va.) - Hoy Antaklyah Siria

Referencias:
Göbl #1671 I1 - RIC Vol.V Parte I #86 Pag.200 - Sear RCTV Vol.III #10654 - Cohen Vol.V #113 Pag.508 - DVM #45 Pag.252 - RSC Vol.IV #113 Pag.115
mdelvalle
Göbl_1691p_Antoniniano_Salonina.jpg
83-07 - SALONINA (254 - 268 D.C.)11 viewsVellón Antoniniano 20 mm 4.2 gr.
Esposa de Galieno y madre de Valeriano II y Salonino

Anv: "CORN SALONINA [AVG]" - Busto diademado y vestido, viendo a derecha y descansando sobre una media luna.
Rev: "CONCORDIA AVGG" - El Emperador a la izquierda y la Emperatriz a derecha enfrentados y tomandose la mano derecha .
Esta moneda refiere a la elevación de Salonina a Augusta en el 254 D.C.

Acuńada 258 - 260 D.C.
Ceca: Samosata - Hoy Samsat Turquía

Referencias: Göbl #1691p - RIC Vol.V Parte I #63 Pag.114 - Sear RCTV Vol.III #10630 Pag.326 - Cohen Vol.V #31 Pag.499 - DVM #9 Pag.251 - RSC Vol.IV #31 Pag.112 - Hunter #33
mdelvalle
Göbl_1671l_Antoniniano_Salonina.jpg
83-08 - SALONINA (254 - 268 D.C.)16 viewsVellón Antoniniano 21 x 19 mm 2.6 gr.
Esposa de Galieno y madre de Valeriano II y Salonino

Anv: "SALONINA AVG" - Busto diademado y vestido, viendo a derecha y descansando sobre una media luna.
Rev: "VENVS AVG" - Venus de pié a izquierda, portando un casco en la mano de su brazo derecho extendido y lanza transversal en izquierda. "PXV" en exergo.

Acuńada 15ava. Emisión 267 D.C.
Ceca: Antiochia (Off.8va.) - Hoy Antaklyah Siria

Referencias: Göbl #1671 I1 - RIC Vol.V Parte I #86 Pag.200 - Sear RCTV Vol.III #10654 Pag.328 - Cohen Vol.V #113 Pag.508 - DVM #45 Pag.252 - RSC Vol.IV #113 Pag.115 - Hunter #33
mdelvalle
Göbl_1937e_Antoniniano_Salonina.jpg
83-09 - SALONINA (254 - 268 D.C.)11 viewsAE Antoniniano 21 mm 2.4 gr.
Esposa de Galieno y madre de Valeriano II y Salonino

Anv: "SALONINA [AVG]" - Busto diademado y vestido, viendo a derecha y descansando sobre una media luna.
Rev: "CERERI AVG" - Ceres sentada a izq. portando espiga de granos en mano der. y larga antorcha vertical en izq. "Rama" en exergo.

Acuńada 265 D.C.
Ceca: Antiochia - Hoy Antaklyah Siria

Referencias: Göbl #1637e - RIC Vol.Va #90 var. (Exergo)Pag.200 - Sear RCTV III #10627 Pag.326 - Cohen Vol.V #22 var (Idem) Pag.499 - DVM #5 Pag.251 - RSC Vol.IV #22a Pag.111
mdelvalle
Antoniniano_de_Valeriano_II_PRINC_IVVENTVTIS.jpg
84 - 01 - VALERIANO II (256 - 258 D.C.) 41 viewsAR Antoniniano 23 mm 4.10 gr.

Anv: "VALERIANVS NOBIL CAES" - Busto radiado, vistiendo coraza y paludamentum (capote militar) sobre ella, viendo a der.
Rev: "PRINC IVVENTVTIS" - Principe estante a derechas, portando Jabalina y escudo, coronando un trofeo a su derecha.

Acuńada 255/56 D.C.
Ceca: Samosata.
Rareza: C

Referencias: RIC Vol.Va #49 Pag.122 - Sear RCTV Vol.III #10735 Pag.335 - Göbl #1694b - DVM #12 Pag.252 - RSC Vol. IV #67a Pag.119
mdelvalle
RIC_49_Antoniniano_Valeriano_II.jpg
84 - 01 - VALERIANO II (256 - 258 D.C.) 10 viewsAR Antoniniano 23 mm 4.10 gr.

Anv: "VALERIANVS NOBIL CAES" - Busto radiado, vistiendo coraza y paludamentum (capote militar) sobre ella, viendo a der.
Rev: "PRINC IVVENTVTIS" - Principe estante a derechas, portando Jabalina y escudo, coronando un trofeo a su derecha.

Acuńada 255/56 D.C.
Ceca: Samosata.

Referencias: RIC Vol.Va #49 Pag.122 (C) - Sear RCTV Vol.III #10735 Pag.335 - Göbl #1694b - DVM #12 Pag.252 - RSC Vol. IV #67a Pag.119
mdelvalle
Antoniniano_de_Salonino_PRINCIPI_IVVENT.jpg
85 - 01 - SALONINO (255 - 258 D.C.)42 viewsAR Antoniniano 21.6 mm 2.81 gr.

Anv: "LIC COR SAL VALERIANVS N CAES" - Busto radiado y vestido, viendo a der.
Rev: "PRINC IVVENT" - Principe estante a derechas, portando Globo y Jabalina, cautivo sentado a su derecha. "P" en campo derecho.

Acuńada 257/58 D.C.
Ceca: Roma - 1ra.Oficcinae
Rareza: C

Referencias: RIC Vol.Va #28var Pag.126 - Sear RCTV Vol.III #10771 Pag.339 - Hunter #4 Pag.2 - DVM #9 Pag.253 - RSC Vol. IV #63 Pag.121 - Cohen Vol.V #63 Pag.524
mdelvalle
RIC_28_var__Antoniniano_Salonino.jpg
85 - 01 - SALONINO (255 - 258 D.C.)10 viewsAR Antoniniano 21.6 mm 2.81 gr.

Anv: "LIC COR SAL VALERIANVS N CAES" - Busto radiado y vestido, viendo a der.
Rev: "PRINC IVVENT" - Principe estante a derechas, portando Globo y Jabalina, cautivo sentado a su derecha. "P" en campo derecho.

Acuńada 257/58 D.C.
Ceca: Roma - 1ra.Oficcinae

Referencias: RIC Vol.Va #28var Pag.126 - Sear RCTV Vol.III #10771 Pag.339 - Hunter #4 Pag.2 - DVM #9 Pag.253 - RSC Vol. IV #63 Pag.121 - Cohen Vol.V #63 Pag.524
mdelvalle
liberalitas.jpg
A. Valerianus sesterce50 views2 commentsicos
votis.jpg
A. Valerianus sesterce24 viewsicos
sest3.jpg
A. Valerianus sesterce54 views3 commentsicos
Follis Galeria Valeria RIC Nicomedia 57.jpg
A114-10 - GALERIA VALERIA (308 - 311 D.C.)36 viewsAE Follis 24 x 25 mm 6.6 gr.
Hija de Diocleciano y esposa de Galerio.

Anv: "GAL VALERIA AVG" - Busto con diadema, túnica y collar, viendo a derecha.
Rev: "VENERI VICTRICI CMH(Ligadas)" - Venus de pié de frente viendo a izquierda, portando una manzana en la mano de su brazo derecho extendido y levantando su velo con mano izquierda. "SMNA" en exergo.

Acuńada 308 - 310 D.C.
Ceca: Nicomedia (Off.1ra.)
Rareza: C

Referencias: RIC Vol.VI (Nicomedia) #57 Pag.562 - Cohen Vol.VII #13 Pag.130 - DVM #3 var Pag.282 - Salgado MRBI Vol.III #7303.c. var. Pag.77
mdelvalle
Valérien.jpg
Aegeae (Cilicia) - Valerianus82 viewsAV. KAI. ΠOV. ΛIKI. OVAΛEPIANOC CEB. , laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right, caduceus in field to the right.
IEPOIKOVMENIKOC ACKΛHΠIOC / AIΓAIωN , 2 corn-ears in a prize urn resting on agonistic table seen in perspective, vase beneath.
Ginolerhino
kymeAmazonKyme~0.jpg
Aeolis, Cyme. AE18. Amazon Kyme/Isis 61 viewsObv: K VMH Amazon Kyme bust r., turreted.
Rev: KVM AIWN Isis standing l., sistrum in r., situla in l.
Time of Valerian to Gallienus.
BMC 120

ancientone
Aiolis_Temnos_Tyche_AE18_2_93g.jpg
Aeolis, Temnos, Tyche, AE1865 viewstime of Valerian and Gallienus, AD 253-268
18mm, 2.93g
obv: turreted and draped bust of Tyche right
rev: Tyche standing left, holding rudder and cornucopia
(SNG Copenhagen 274-5; SNG von Aulock 1677)
ex CNG
1 commentsareich
IMG_3476.JPG
Akko-PTOLEMAIS Valerianus I., 253-258. AE 2687 viewsAkko-Ptolemais, Phoenicia. Valerian 253 - 260 AD.
Sacred tree flanked by two altars with snakes; in r. field, caduceus; COL PTOL
3 commentsMaritima
10677v.jpg
Alexandria in Egypt, Valerian I., 256-257 AD., Billon Tetradrachm, Geissen 2862.53 viewsAlexandria in Egypt, Valerian I., 256-257 AD.,
Billon Tetradrachm (21-22 mm / 12.97 g),
Obv.: AK Π ΛI OVAΛЄPIANOC ЄYЄYC , laureate cuirassed bust of Valerian right. Rev.: eagle standing left, head right, wreath in beak, regnal year L - Δ across fields (year 4 = 256-7 AD.).
Dattari 5184 ; Geissen 2862 ; Milne 3945 .

my ancient coin database
Arminius
valerian_69.jpg
ANNONA AVGG, RIC 69 Rome9 viewsValerian I, October 253 - c. June 260 A.D. Bronze antoninianus, RIC V 69, aVF, Rome mint, 3.073g, 19.0mm, 0o, 255 - 256 A.D.; obverse IMP C P LIC VALERIANVS P F AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse ANNONA AVGG, Annona standing left holding grain-ears over modius and cornucopia; unusual reverse type for the period. Ex FORVMPodiceps
antiochia_ad_meandrum.jpg
Antiochia ad Maeandrum; Boule/ Tyche15 viewsCaria, Antiochia ad Maeandrum, reign of Valerian-Gallienus, 6.42g. AE 23. Obv: IEPA CVNKΛHTOC Draped bust of Boule r. Rev: [AN]TIO - X - EON Tyche standing l., kantharos on head, holding rudder and cornucopia. The same obverse die was also used with the reverse Athena sacrificing left at altar and Hera standing left holding patera and scepter: BM 21. SNG Cop 40 and 42. Ex H.J.BerkPodiceps
antioch_ad_m__boule.jpg
Antiochia ad Maeandrum; Boule/ Tyche within temple, AE 2416 viewsCaria, Antiochia ad Maeandrum, Reign of Valerian-Gallienus, AE 24, 7.01g. Obv: IEPA - BOVΛH Draped, veiled bust of Boule r. Rev: ANT - IOX around, EΩN in exergue, Four-columned temple with arched lintel, within which Tyche standing l., kalathos on head, holding rudder and cornucopia. SNG Cop-37 (same dies). Ex H.J.BerkPodiceps
anto_valerien_virtus_entier.jpg
Antoninianus Valerian Virtvs / Antoninien Valerien Virtvs29 viewsAvers : IMP P LIC VALERIANO AVG
Revers : VIRTVS AVG

Cohen 257; RIC 266 (S) ; Eauze 1368 (8 exemplaires)

Mint : Viminacium
Chut
Valerianus.JPG
AR Antoninianus of Valerian I, 253-260 AD.87 viewsValerian I AR Antoninianus. IMP C P LIC VALERIANVS PF AVG, radiate, draped bust right / VICTORIA AVGG, Victory standing left resting on shield and holding palm. 2.7 gr.
RIC 128, Cohen 224. RIC 128Cv
4 commentsAntonivs Protti
Valerian_Anazarbus_fac.jpg
Asia Minor, Kilikia, Anazarbus, Valerian I, Dionysos7 viewsValerian I
Cilicia, Anazarbus
Ć 30mm
Dated CY 272 (253/4).
Obv.: AVT K Π ΛIK OVAΛЄPIANOC CЄ, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right.
Rev.: ANASAPBOV MHTPO / Γ - Γ / ЄT BOC A M K, Dionysos, raising hand over head and holding filleted thyrsus, reclining on recumbent ram right, head left.
AE, 30mm, 18.34g
Ref.: Ziegler, Anazarbos, 829.1 [dies Vs2/Rs4] (this coin cited), SNG BN 2158

ex auction Knopek, lot 420 (December 1979)
ex Kölner Münzkabinett Tyll Kroha, auction 49, lot 546 (1989)
ex Jacquier list 12, lot 222 (1990)
ex Dr. P. Vogl Collection
ex Numismatik Naumann, auction 63, lot 167 (2018)
shanxi
galeria_valeria.jpg
BCC Lr1317 viewsLate Roman BCC Lr13
Galeria Valeria 305-311CE
AE Follis - Thessalonica
OBV:GAL VALE-[RIA] AVG
Diademed and draped bust right, wearing necklace.
REV:VENERI V-ITRICI
Venus standing left, holding apple and raising drapery
from shoulder, star to left, A to right, dot SM dot TS in ex.
23x25mm. 5.81gm. Axis:0
RIC 36, A
The coins of Galeria all have very interesting variations in hairstyle, jewelry, and
dress. According to Stevenson, this empress met an unfortunate end, as did
so many of the rulers from this period.
v-drome
valerian_tyre_thebes.jpg
BCC rgp1731 viewsRoman Provincial - Tyre
Valerian I 253-260 CE
Obv: IMP C P LIC VALERIANVS AVG
luar. bust rt.
Rev: COL TYR[O METR]
Cadmus standing before edifice,
holding patera and hasta. Cow, Murex shell at feet.
Greek letters in field: ΘΗ/ΒΕ [THEBE]
AE 26x27mm. 14.42gm. Axis:0
Commemorates the mythological figure of Cadmus
founding Thebes as a colony of ancient Phoenicia-Tyre,
where the sacred cow lay down. ( He was looking for his sister, Europa).
I love this coin for its connection to ancient mythology and history.
Stevenson's Dictionary of Roman Coins gives an excellent
description of this same reverse for a coin of Gallienus, on page 825.
v-drome
valerian_tyre_1.jpg
BCC rgp2338 viewsRoman Provincial
Tyre-Phoenicia
Valerian I 253-260C.E.
Obv: [IMP] C P LIC VALE[RIANVS AVG] luar. bust rt.
Rev: COL TYRO METR
Male figure standing to front, looking left, holding leafy reed,
right hand over extended over uncertain object.  Murex shell to left.
AE 27mm. 16.34gm. Axis:180
Similar to BMC 465, but with Laureate instead of Radiate bust.
v-drome
valerian_tyre.jpg
BCC rgp3x80 viewsRoman Provincial - Tyre
Valerian I 253-260C.E.
Obv:IMP C P LIC VALERIANVS AVG
Luareated bust rt.
Rev:COL TV/RO MET
Dido of Carthage, wearing tall
kalathos, standing rt .before
lighted altar, raising both arms
towards two-columned temple,
seen in perspective, containing
the club of Melqart-Herakles.
Murex shell in field.
AE26.5x29mm. 11.07gm. Axis:180
Possible reference Rouvier 2501v. (Gallienus)
1 commentsv-drome
valerian_anton.png
BCC RI10 26 viewsRoman Imperial
Valerian I 253-260C.E.
Obv:IMP VALERIANVS AVG
Radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right.
Rev:P M TR P V COS IIII P P (257 CE)
Valerian and Gallienus standing facing each other.
Base Silver 19.5x20.5mm. 3.8gm. Axis:0
Sear 2791 (1981)
v-drome
saloninus_Dii.jpg
BCC RI1337 viewsRoman Imperial
Saloninus 258-260 CE
AR? Antoninianus
Obv:P COR SAL VALERIANVS CAES
radiate and draped bust rt.
Rev:DII NVTRITORES
Jupiter standing left, presenting Victory to prince.
19x20mm. 3.49gm. Axis:180
RIC 35 Antioch Mint
v-drome
BCC_RI36_Valerian_Pietas.jpg
BCC RI366 viewsRoman Imperial
Valerian I 253-260C.E.
AR Antoninianus
Obv: IMP C P LIC VALERIANVS
P F AVG Radiate, draped, and
cuirassed bust right.
Rev: PIETAS AVGG Valerian and
Gallienus standing facing each
other, sacrificing over a lit altar
between them.
20mm. 3.84gm. Axis: 0
RIC 285 Antioch or Samosata Mint
v-drome
BCC_RI38_Saloninus_Spes.jpg
BCC RI386 viewsRoman Imperial
Saloninus 258-260 CE
AR Antoninianus
Obv:SALON VALERIANVS NOB CAES
radiate and draped bust rt.
Rev:SPES PVBLICA
Saloninus standing right, receiving
flower from Spes standing left.
No field mark.
20 x 19.5mm. 3.36gm. Axis:150
RIC V 36 Antioch or Samosata Mint
v-drome
valerian_BCC_Ri9.jpg
BCC RI924 viewsRoman Imperial
Valerian I 253-260C.E.
AR Antoninianus
Obv: IMP VALERIANVS AVG
Radiate and draped bust right.
Rev: PM TR P V COS IIII P P (257 CE)
Valerian and Gallienus standing,
facing each other. Shields and
crossed spears between them.
20mm. 3.34gm. Axis: 0
RIC V 277 Antioch Mint
v-drome
ValerianI.jpg
Billion Antoninianus of Valerian I11 viewsA Roman billion antoninianus of Valerian I, minted in Syria between 258-260 AD. 20.1 mm, 3.272 g.

Obverse: IMP C P LIC VALERIANVS P F AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right

Reverse: RESTITVT ORIENTIS, turreted female (the Orient) presenting wreath to the Emperor standing left holding spear, pellet in wreath above

Attribution: Göbl MIR 1700l (Samosata), RIC V 287 (Antioch), SRCV III 9967
chuy1530
ED18CCFA-A49E-4161-9F54-38990D68C7D3.jpeg
BITHYNIA, Nicaea. Valerian I, with Gallienus and Valerian II23 views
BITHYNIA, Nicaea. Valerian I, with Gallienus and Valerian II Caesar. AD 253-260. Ć Tetrassarion (24mm, 7.35 g, 7h). Games issue. Radiate, draped, and cuirassed busts of Valerian I and Valerian II left and Gallienus right / Agonistic urn, containing two palm fronds, between two agonistic urns, each containing palm frond. Weiser 262; RG 823. Near VF, encrusted red and green patina. Rare.
1 commentsecoli
002~3.JPG
Bourgogne - Abbaye de Tournus - Anonyme vers 1100-11406 viewsDenier, argent, 0,94 g
Av./ + SCS VALERIAN, tęte ŕ droite.
Rv./ + TORNVCIO CAST, croix
Réfs : PA-5610
Gabalor
Burnt_Hoard_02_obv.jpg
Burnt Hoard Coin 2 obverse5 viewsAppears to be Valerian I. -- VALERIANVS PF AVG.otlichnik
Burnt_Hoard_02_rev.jpg
Burnt Hoard Coin 2 reverse6 viewsFaint image of female figure standing left holding cornucopia. A few letters which I have been unable to make out above. Obverse is Valerian I.otlichnik
Burnt_Hoard_07_obv.jpg
Burnt Hoard Coin 7 obverse6 viewsValerian I. IMP VALERIANVS---otlichnik
Burnt_Hoard_07_rev.jpg
Burnt Hoard Coin 7 reverse8 viewsFemale figure standing left, holding cornucopia. I hope the few letters visible above will give an expert some indication of what this Valerian I issue is.otlichnik
Burnt_Hoard_08_obv.jpg
Burnt Hoard Coin 8 obverse6 viewsIMP C??? Possibly another Valerian I.otlichnik
C__Valerius_C_f__Flaccus.jpg
C. Valerius C.f. Flaccus - AR Denarius10 viewsRome
˛144 BC
ą140 BC
head of Roma right wearing winged helmet
X
Victory in biga right, holding whip and reins
FLAC
C·(VAL)·C·F
ROMA
ąCrawford 228/2, SRCV I 104, Sydenham 440, RSC I Valeria 7
˛Mark Passehl - Roman moneyer & coin type chronology, 150 – 50 BC
4,0g
ex Aureo and Calico

Moneyer struck coins both with XVI (Cr. 228/1) and X (Cr. 228/2). He was probably grandson of C. Valerius Flaccus praetor in 183 BC and father of C. Valerius Flaccus consul in 93 BC.
Johny SYSEL
30823LG.jpg
C. Valerius Flaccus (82 B.C)90 viewsAR Denarius
O: Winged bust of Victory right.
R: C VA. FLA IMPERAT / EX - S.C., Aquila between two signa inscribed H (Hastati) and P (Principes).
Rome
3.5g
18.97mm
Crawford 365/1b, Valeria 12b, Syd 747b

Ex. VAuctions Sale 304, Lot 280
4 commentsMat
rsc_valeria_12a.jpg
C. Valerius Flaccus AR Denarius RSC Valeria 12a18 viewsAr Denarius of C. Valerius Flaccus 82-81BC

Obverse: Bust of Victory Right, Symbol in front of head.

Reverse: "C.VAL.FLA.IMPERAT" Legionary eagle between two standards inscribed H and P, EX S.C between them.

3.49g, 19mm, RSC Valeria 12a
284ad
coin118.JPG
Cappadocia, Caesarea; Gordian III24 viewsCappadocia, Caesarea, Gordian III 238-244 Ć26

The city has been continuously inhabited since perhaps c. 3000 BCE[citation needed] with the establishment of the ancient trading colony at Kultepe (Ash Mountain) which is associated with the Hittites. The city has always been a vital trade centre as it is located on major trade routes, particularly along what was called the Great Silk Road. Kültepe, one of the oldest cities in Asia Minor, lies nearby.

As Mazaca, the city served as the residence of the kings of Cappadocia. In ancient times, it was on the crossroads of the trade routes from Sinope to the Euphrates and from the Persian Royal Road that extended from Sardis to Susa. In Roman times, a similar route from Ephesus to the East also crossed the city.

The city stood on a low spur on the north side of Mount Erciyes (Mount Argaeus in ancient times). Only a few traces of the ancient site survive in the old town. The city was the centre of a satrapy under Persian rule until it was conquered by Perdikkas, one of the generals of Alexander the Great when it became the seat of a transient satrapy by another of Alexander's former generals, Eumenes of Cardia. The city was subsequently passed to the Seleucid empire after the battle of Ipsus but became once again the centre of an autonomous Greater Cappadocian kingdom under Ariarathes III of Cappadocia in around 250 BC. In the ensuing period, the city came under the sway of Hellenistic influence, and was given the Greek name of Eusebia in honor of the Cappadocian king Ariarathes V Eusebes Philopator of Cappadocia (163–130 BCE). Under the new name of Caesarea, by which it has since been known, given to it by the last Cappadocian King Archelaus[5] or perhaps by Tiberius,[6] the city passed under formal Roman rule in 17 BCE.
Walls of the Seljuk era Sahabiye Medresesi, built in 1267 by the Seljuk vizier Sahip Ata Fahreddin Ali.

Caesarea was destroyed by the Sassanid king Shapur I after his victory over the Emperor Valerian I in AD 260. At the time it was recorded to have around 400,000 inhabitants. The city gradually recovered, and became home to several early Christian saints: saints Dorothea and Theophilus the martyrs, Gregory of Nazianzus, Gregory of Nyssa and Basil of Caesarea.

Obv: Laureate bust of Gordian, right.
Rev: Agalma of Mount Argaeus set on altar. Year 243 AD
ecoli
Caracalla_Tium_Asklepios_AE25_10.0g.jpg
Caracalla, Tium, Asklepios, AE2582 viewsBITHYNIA. Tium. Caracalla; A.D. 209-217
15mm, 10.0g, 30°
Obv: ANTΩNEINOC-AVΓOVCTO(C); laureate head right; countermark on neck.
Rev: TIA-NΩN. Aesculapis standing facing, head left, holding serpent-encircled staff.
Ref: BMC -; SNG von Aulock 965.
CM: S (lunate sigma) in circular punch, 7 mm. Howego 809 (47 pcs).
Note: While the latest coin bearing this countermark listed by Howgego was issued for Gordian III, considering that other coins bearing denominational countermarks were issues as late as Hostilian, the countermark was likely not applied until the time of Valerian and Gallienus.

ex Automan (description stolen from him)
GICV -
areich
anazarbos_gordianIII_Lindgren1441.jpg
Cilicia, Anazarbos, Gordian III Lindgren 144139 viewsGordian III, AD 238-244
AE 31, 17.94g
struck AD 242/3
obv. AVT KM ANTWNINOC GORDIANOC CE
Bust, draped and cuirassed, radiate, r.
rev. ANAZARBO - V ENDOX MHTRO
Male figure, sitting on rocks l., head r., wearing working clothes and pointed
bonnet, resting with l. hand on the rocks, holding in raised r. hand fishing device
(kind of scoop with sieve)
B - G in field l. and r.
in ex. ET AXC
Lindgren 1441; BMC Lycaonia etc. 37, n.31
extremely rare, good F - about VF, attractive contrasting patina

G-B = capital of 3 provinces, 2 neocories (P. Weiss)
The legends are from Ziegler, Münzen Kilikiens aus kleineren deutschen Sammlungen, S.143, Nr.1114/15 (same dies).
This is a motiv of the world of the fishermen! There are a similar motiv on a coin for Valerian I.
Jochen
58953497-8C78-469D-A90E-8638A951F4C5.jpeg
CILICIA, Anazarbus. Valerian I22 viewsCILICIA, Anazarbus. Valerian I. AD 253-260. Ć Hexaassarion (30mm, 17.68 g, 6h). Dated CY 272 (AD 253/4). Laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right / Six agonistic urns; ЄT BOC (date) in field. Ziegler 837 (Vs1/Rs7); cf. SNG Levante 1518-20; SNG von Aulock 5509. VF, green patina.1 commentsecoli
8DA6E364-030C-4CFE-9F97-27E66F167971.jpeg
CILICIA, Anazarbus. Valerian I11 viewsCILICIA, Anazarbus. Valerian I. AD 253-260. Dated CY 272 (AD 253/4). Radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right / Prize urn, containing palm frond, set upon agonistic table with three decorated legs; ЄT BOC (date) in exergue. Ziegler 808; SNG von Aulock 5512; SNG Copenhagen 58; SNG Levante 1524.ecoli
valerianI_anemeurion_ lev513.jpg
Cilicia, Anemourion, Valerian I SNG Lev. 513105 viewsValerian I, AD 253-260
AE - AE 28, 11.71g
Anemourion (Anamurium), Year 2 = AD 254/5
obv. AVK PO LI OYALEPIANON
bust, draped and cuirassed, laureate, r.
rev. ET B ANE - MOY - REWN
Cult-statue of Artemis standing facing on pedestal, with great veil, both hands
outstretched, holding r. branch(?) and l. sistrum, crescent on left below
SNG Levante 513
good F
added to www.wildwinds.com

It seems to be an unknown local cult-statue in the style of the Artemis of Ephesos. Her body is completely covered with rows of breasts denoting her fertility. Another interpretation: That may be testicles of castrated adherants.
3 commentsJochen
valadcragum.jpg
Cilicia, Antiocheia ad Cragum. Valerian AE32 49 viewsRegion: Cilicia Locality: Mint: Antiocheia ad Cragum
Material: AE Denom.:
Weight: 10.3 Size: 32
Date: 253 / 260
Category: Person: Valerian I
ObvType: Valerian bust r.
RevType: eagle
SNG von Aulock 5530; SNG Levante 478
ancientone
3150198.jpg
CILICIA, Corycus. Valerian I34 viewsCILICIA, Corycus. Valerian I. AD 253-260. Ć (29mm, 17.00 g, 5h). Radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right / Dionysus standing left, holding grape bunch over panther and thyrsus; in left field, table carrying prize crown inscribed [ΘEMIA] and containing a caduceus, palm, and aplustre. SNG France 1122 (same dies); SNG Levante 820 (same dies). Good Fine, green patina, roughness. 1 commentsecoli
A2084A82-FEDD-49ED-9FE3-7B8110BDEDD5.jpeg
Cilicia, Flaviopolis-Flavias; Valerian I5 viewsCILICIA, Flaviopolis-Flavias. Valerian I. AD 253-260. Ć 32mm Radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right / Bust of Serapis right, wearing calathus. SNG France 2202; SNG Levante 1559
ecoli
korykos_valerianI_GIC4491.jpg
Cilicia, Korykos, Valerian I, BMC 2140 viewsValerian I, AD 253-260
AE 32, 22.19g, 32.07mm, 135°
obv. AV K PO - LIK OVALERIAN / OC
Bust, draped and cuirassed, radiate, r.
rev. KWRV (in ex.) KIW TW - N AV NAVAR, in r. field XI / C
Decorated price-urn inscribed QEMIA, with palmbranch between caduceus l.,
and aphlaston r., stg. on table with Dolphin shaped feet, wine pitcher under table; Dionysos,
nude, nebris around hip, wesring boots, stg. l., holding vine-grapes in r. hand and resting on tyrsos with raised l.
hand; l. at feet panther l., head turned r., raising r. foot.
ref. BMC 21; SNG Levante 820; SNG Copenhagen 123; SNG Paris 1123; SNG von Aulock 5686; Klose & Stumpf 259
about VF/VF
Jochen
valerianI_mallus_snglev1298.jpg
Cilicia, Mallos, Valerian I SNG Lev. 1298107 viewsValerian I AD 252-260
AE 31, 19.89g
obv. IMP C LIC VALERIANVS PI FE AVG (lat.)
bust, cuirassed, laureate, r.
rev. MALLO COLONIA (lat.)
Amphilochos, naked except chlamys, stg. l., holding laurel branch, boar below. Behind him tripod on podium with globe above, snake winding around.
S C in exergue
SNG Levante 1298 (same obv. die); SNG Paris 1933 (same obv. die); BMC 13; SGIC 4498
Rare (only 13 coins of Valerian's time known!), about VF, light roughness, small casting spots (from making)
added to www.wildwinds.com

MALLOS was one of the oldest cities in Cilicia. The hero AMPHILOCHOS is said to be the founder. He was fighting before in Thebes and Troy. He and his brother Mopsus were the most famous seers in Greece. They decided to rule Mallos alternately. Mopsus was first. But when he should give the rule to Amphilochos it came to a deadly duel where both were killed. After their death their souls got along peacefully and temples were built to celebrate them. The oracle of Mallos was said to be more real than that of Delphi!
Under Severus Alexander Mallos became a Roman Colonia. Therefore the Latin inscriptions.

For more information look at the thread 'Coins of mythological interest'
2 commentsJochen
coins16.JPG
Cilicia, Tarsus; Salonina14 viewsOn the rev., one can make out a gamma to the r. of Diana's shoulders (SNG calls her Demeter), and another gamma to the r. of her knees, meaning "presiding over three provinces, holder of three neocorates". Tarsus only acquired her third neocorate under Valerian; for Herennia Etruscilla, the second letter would have been a B=2 instead. So the gamma confirms the attribution to Salonina.ecoli
Valerian_I,_Cilicia-Irenopolis-Neronias,_biga_of_panthers.JPG
Cilicia-Irenopolis-Neronias, biga of panthers9 viewsValerian I, Cilicia-Irenopolis-Neronias, biga of panthers. 27mm, 15.95g. Obverse: radiate and cuirassed bust right. Reverse: Dionysos facing, head left, thyrsus in left hand, kantharos in right, in split biga of panthers. SNG Levante 1623; SNG BN 2271-2. ex areich, photo credit areichPodiceps
Claudia Octavia.jpg
Claudia Octavia, daughter of Claudius and Valeria Messalina, first wife of Nero. Augusta, 54-62 CE.252 viewsAlexandria, Egypt, Billon tetradrachm (25mm, 11.1gm), struck AD 56-7.
Obv: NER KLAU KAIS SEB GER AUTO, laur. hd. of Nero, r.
Rev: OKTAOUIA SEBASTOU, dr. bust of Octavia, r., L Gamma (=regnal year 3) before.
RPC 5202; BMCG 119; SGI 657; Cologne 122; Milne 133.
1 commentsEmpressCollector
ClaudAntoniaTet.jpg
Claudius & Antonia Tetradrachm175 viewsTI KΛAY∆I KAIΣ ΣEBA ΓEPMANI AYTOKP
laureate head right, date LB (year 2) before

ANTΩNIA ΣEBAΣTH
bust of Antonia right, hair in queue

29 Sep 41 - 28 Sep 42 A.D.

Alexandria mint

11.054g, 23.2mm, die axis 0o,

RPC 5117; Geissen 62; Milne 61; BMC Alexandria p. 9, 65; Dattari 114; SNG Milan 620, SNG Cop 57; Sommer 12.3, Emmett 73

Scarce

Ex-Forum

Antonia was the youngest daughter of Mark Antony and Octavia. She was a niece of the Emperor Augustus, sister-in-law of the Emperor Tiberius, paternal grandmother of the Emperor Caligula and Empress Agrippina the Younger, mother of the Emperor Claudius, and both maternal great-grandmother and paternal great-aunt of the Emperor Nero. She was additionally the maternal great-aunt of the Empress Valeria Messalina and Faustus Cornelius Sulla Felix, and paternal grandmother of Claudia Antonia, Claudia Octavia, and Britannicus.
3 commentsJay GT4
475ArteCombo.png
Cr 191/a Ć As Anonymous VAL 8 viewsValerius (?).c. 169-158 BCE
o: Laureate head of Janus; above, I
r: Prow right; above, VAL ligate; before, I; below, ROMA.
Cr. 191/1. Valeria 1. (34.78g 34.00mm)
Earthen dark green patina -- photos not great
Overweight for type?
PMah
CNGlot514Valeria.jpg
Cr 306/1 AR Denarius L. Valerius Flaccus 10 views108-107 BCE (19mm, 3.78 g, 5h). Rome mint.
o: Winged and draped bust of Victory right; mark of value below chin
r: Mars advancing left, holding spear and trophy; apex to left, stalk of grain to right, L VALERI FLACC

Crawford 306/1; Sydenham 565; Valeria 11; RBW 1147.
PMah
MAntDeL14.jpg
Crawford 544/29, Marc Antony, for Legio XIV, Denarius, 32-31 BC.84 viewsMarc Antony, for Legio XIV (Gemina Martia Victrix), Patras mint (?), 32-31 BC.,
Denarius (16-17 mm / 3,63 g),
Obv.: above: [AN]T AVG , below: [III VI]R R P C , under oar right, filleted scepter or mast with fluttering banners on prow.
Rev.: LEG - XIV , Aquila (legionary eagle) between two military standards.
Crawf. 544/29 ; Bab. (Antonia) 123 ; BMC 208 ; Sear 369 ; Syd. 1234 .

Die Legio XIV wurde 41 v. Chr. von Augustus aufgestellt. Sie war seit 9 n. Chr. in Moguntiacum (Mainz) stationiert und kämpfte später unter Claudius in Britannien, wo sie 60 oder 61 n. Chr. half, Boudicca niederzuwerfen. Später war die Legion u. a. in Vindobona (Wien) und Carnuntum stationiert. Sie war an den Usurpationen des Saturninus und Regalianus beteiligt.

Legio XIV Gemina Martia Victrix was a legion of the Roman Empire, levied by Octavian after 41 BC. The cognomen Gemina (twin in Latin) suggests that the legion resulted from fusion of two previous ones, one of them possibly being the Fourteenth legion that fought in the Battle of Alesia. Martia Victrix (martial victory) were cognomens added by Nero following the victory over Boudica. The emblem of the legion was the Capricorn, as with many of the legions levied by Augustus.
Invasion of Britain
Stationed in Moguntiacum, Germania Superior, since AD 9, XIIII Gemina Martia Victrix was one of four legions used by Aulus Plautius and Claudius in the Roman invasion of Britain in 43, and took part in the defeat of Boudicca in 60 or 61. In 68 it was stationed in Gallia Narbonensis.
Rebellion on the Rhine
In 89 the governor of Germania Superior, Lucius Antonius Saturninus, rebelled against Domitian, with the support of the XIVth and of the XXI Rapax, but the revolt was suppressed.
Pannonian defense
When the XXIst legion was lost, in 92, XIIII Gemina was sent in Pannonia to substitute it, camping in Vindobona (Vienna). After a war with the Sarmatians and Trajan's Dacian Wars (101-106), the legion was moved to Carnuntum, where it stayed for three centuries. Some subunits of Fourteenth fought in the wars against the Mauri, under Antoninus Pius, and the legion participated to the Parthian campaign of Emperor Lucius Verus. During his war against the Marcomanni, Emperor Marcus Aurelius based his headquarters in Carnuntum.
In support of Septimius Severus
In 193, after the death of Pertinax, the commander of the Fourteenth, Septimius Severus, was acclaimed emperor by the Pannonian legions, and above all by his own. XIIII Gemina fought for its emperor in his march to Rome to attack usurper Didius Julianus (193), contributed to the defeat of the usurper Pescennius Niger (194), and probably fought in the Parthian campaign that ended with the sack of the capital of the empire, Ctesiphon (198).
In support of imperial candidates
In the turmoil following the defeat of Valerian, tXIIII Gemina supported usurper Regalianus against Emperor Gallienus (260), then Gallienus against Postumus of the Gallic empire (earning the title VI Pia VI Fidelis — "six times faithful, six times loyal"), and, after Gallienus death, Gallic Emperor Victorinus (269-271).
5th century
At the beginning of the 5th century, XIIII Gemina still stayed at Carnuntum. It probably dissolved with the collapse of the Danube frontier in 430s. The Notitia Dignitatum lists a Quartodecimani comitatensis unit under the Magister Militum per Thracias; it is possible that this unit is XIV Gemina.

my ancient coin database
1 commentsArminius
s42.JPG
Crispus ALAMANNIA DEVICTA Sirmium39 viewsThe Alamanni were continually engaged in conflicts with the Roman Empire. They launched a major invasion of Gaul and northern Italy in 268, when the Romans were forced to denude much of their German frontier of troops in response to a massive invasion of the Goths. Their depredations in the three parts of Gaul remained traumatic: Gregory of Tours (died ca 594) mentions their destructive force at the time of Valerian and Gallienus (253–260), when the Alemanni assembled under their "king", whom he calls Chrocus, "by the advice, it is said, of his wicked mother, and overran the whole of the Gauls, and destroyed from their foundations all the temples which had been built in ancient times. And coming to Clermont he set on fire, overthrew and destroyed that shrine which they call Vasso Galatae in the Gallic tongue," martyring many Christians (Historia Francorum Book I.32–34). Thus 6th century Gallo-Romans of Gregory's class, surrounded by the ruins of Roman temples and public buildings, attributed the destruction they saw to the plundering raids of the Alemanni.

In the early summer of 268, the Emperor Gallienus halted their advance in Italy, but then had to deal with the Goths. When the Gothic campaign ended in Roman victory at the Battle of Naissus in September, Gallienus' successor Claudius II Gothicus turned north to deal with the Alamanni, who were swarming over all Italy north of the Po River.

After efforts to secure a peaceful withdrawal failed, Claudius forced the Alamanni to battle at the Battle of Lake Benacus in November. The Alamanni were routed, forced back into Germany, and did not threaten Roman territory for many years afterwards.

Their most famous battle against Rome took place in Argentoratum (Strasbourg), in 357, where they were defeated by Julian, later Emperor of Rome, and their king Chnodomar ("Chonodomarius") was taken prisoner.

On January 2, 366 the Alamanni crossed the frozen Rhine in large numbers, to invade the Gallic provinces.

In the great mixed invasion of 406, the Alamanni appear to have crossed the Rhine river, conquered and then settled what is today Alsace and a large part of Switzerland. Fredegar's Chronicle gives an account. At Alba Augusta (Aps) the devastation was so complete, that the Christian bishopric was removed to Viviers, but Gregory's account that at Mende in Lozčre, also deep in the heart of Gaul, bishop Privatus was forced to sacrifice to idols in the very cave where he was later venerated may be a generic literary trope epitomizing the horrors of barbarian violence.

Sirmium RIC 49

Crispus AE3. 324-325 AD. FL IVL CRISPVS NOB CAES, laureate head right / ALAMANNIA DEVICTA, Victory advancing right, holding trophy & palm, treading upon bound captive on right, .SIRM. in ex.

need new pic
ecoli
DAC_Valerian-I_AE-25_IMP-P-LIC-VALERIANO-AVG_PROVIN_CIA-DACIA_AN-VIII_Pick-na_PM-7-54-1_Mus-na_rare_Q-001_axis-h_25mm_9_73g-s.jpg
Dacia, Dacia, 088p Valerian I. (253-260 A.D.), PM 07-54-01, AE-Sestertius, -/-//ANVIII, PROVINCIA DACIA, Dacia standing left, Rare!270 viewsDacia, Dacia, 088p Valerian I. (253-260 A.D.), PM 07-54-01, AE-Sestertius, -/-//ANVIII, PROVINCIA DACIA, Dacia standing left, Rare!
avers: IMP P LIC VALERIANO AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right.
reverse: PROVIN CIA DACIA, Dacia standing left, holding two standards, between an eagle and a lion, Year ANVIII in exergue.
exergue: -/-//ANVIII, diameter: 25mm, weight: 9,73g, axis: h,
mint: Dacia, date: 253-254 A.D., ref: Pick-61var??, PM-7-54-1, Mus-23var??,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
DAC_Valerian-I_AE-25_IMP-P-L-VALERIANVS-AVG_PROVINCI-A-D-ACIA_AN-X_Pick-63var_PM-7-59-x-not-in_Mus-na_rare_Q-001_11h_26,5-28,5mm_8,75g-s~0.jpg
Dacia, Dacia, 088p Valerian I. (253-260 A.D.), PM 07-59-??, AE-Sestertius, -/-//ANX, PROVINCIA DACIA, Dacia standing left, Rare!64 viewsDacia, Dacia, 088p Valerian I. (253-260 A.D.), PM 07-59-??, AE-Sestertius, -/-//ANX, PROVINCIA DACIA, Dacia standing left, Rare!
avers: IMP P L VALERIANVS AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right
reverse: PROVINCI A D ACIA, Dacia standing left, between an eagle and a lion, right hand holding serpent, left hand holding standards, Year ANX in exergue.
exergue: -/-//ANX, diameter: 26,5-28,5mm, weight: 8,75g, axis: 11h,
mint: Dacia, date: 255-256 A.D., ref: Pick-63var??, PM-7-59-???, Mus-??,
Q-001
quadrans
014BValerianII.jpg
Divo Valerian II7 viewsSilver Antoninianus
Roman Imperial - The Crisis of the Third Century

Divo Valerian II

Colonia Agrippinensis mint, posthumous, 258 - 259 A.D.
Fine, toned, centered, flan cracks.
24.5 mm / 2.348 g / 180°

Obverse: "DIVO VALERIANO CAES", radiate and draped bust right, from behind.
Reverse: "CONSECRATIO", Valerian II carried into the heavens seated on eagle flying right, waiving his right hand, scepter in his left.

Ex Forvm Ancient Coins 2015 (65658)

Göbl MIR 911e, SRCV III 10606, RIC V 9 (Lugdunum), RSC IV 5

MyID: 014B

Image Credit: Forvm Ancient Coins
TenthGen
041n.jpg
E in circular punch145 viewsPAMPHYLIA. Side. Gallienus. Ć 30. A.D. 253-260. Obv: AVTKAIΠOAI”star”ΓAΛΛIH-NOCCEB. Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right; before bust AI (?) obliterated by countermark. Rev: (CIΔHTΩN-NEΩKOPΩN) or similar. Tyche seated left. Ref: BMC -; SNG France (3) 905. Axis: 360°. Weight:14.86 g. Note: This coin was struck during the joint reign of Gallienus and Valerian. CM: E in circular punch, 7.5 mm. Howgego 805 (169 pcs). Note: The coin was devalued to 5 assaria, likely at the same time when (during the reign of Gallienus) coins bearing the denomination "I" (i.e. 10 assaria) were issued. Collection Automan.Automan
079n.jpg
E in circular punch170 viewsPAMPHYLIA. Side. Salonina. Ć 32. A.D. 253-260. Obv: KOPNHΛIA*CAΛΩNIN(A)-CEBA. Draped bust right, wearing stephane; before bust AI or I obliterated by countermark. Rev: CIΔHTΩN-NEΩKOPΩN. Tyche standing left, holding rudder and cornucopia. Ref: BMC -. Axis: 30°. Weight: 14.37 g. Note: Since the countermark was not applied to coins issued later than the joint reign of Gallienus and Valerian, this coin was likely struck between A.D. 253 and 260. CM: E in circular punch, 7 mm. Howgego 805 (169 pcs). Note: The coin was devalued to 5 assaria, likely at the same time when (during the reign of Gallienus) coins bearing the denomination "I" (i.e. 10 assaria) were issued. Collection Automan.Automan
EB0645b_scaled.JPG
EB0645 Valerian I / Eagle14 viewsValerian I, 253-260 AD, billon tetradrachm of Alexandria, year 3 = 255 AD.
Obverse: AK P L I OVAΛEPIANOC EVEVC, laureate, cuirassed bust right
Reverse: Eagle standing left, head right, wreath in beak; L-Γ.
References: Dattari 5189; Cf. Milne 3945 (year 4).
Diameter: 23mm Weight: 10.72g
EB
EB0752_scaled.JPG
EB0752 Galeria Valeria / Venus12 viewsGaleria Valeria (wife of Galerius), AE Follis, Heraclea 308-311 AD.
Obverse: GAL VAL-ERIA AVG, diademed and draped bust right.
Reverse: VENERI V-ICTRICI, Venus standing left, holding apple and raising drapery, star in left field. Mintmark HTΔ(A?).
References: Cf. RIC VI Heraclea 50 (mintmark HTA).
Diameter: 27mm, Weight: 7.204g.
EB
EB0837_scaled.JPG
EB0837 Valerian I / RESTITVT ORIENTIS10 viewsValerian I 253-260, Billon Antoninianus, Antioch.
Obverse: IMP C P LIC VALERIANVS PF AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right.
Reverse: RESTITVT ORI-ENTIS, the Orient, turreted, standing right, presenting wreath to Valerian, in military attire, standing left, holding spear.
References: RIC V-1, 287; RSC 189; Goebl 1685e; Sear 9967.
Diameter: 22mm, Weight: 3.897g.
EB
EB0838_scaled.JPG
EB0838 Gallienus / Pietas9 viewsGallienus 253-268, Billon Antoninianus, Samosata, 255-256.
Obverse: IMP C P LIC GALLIENVS AVG Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust of Gallienus to right.
Reverse: PIETAS AVGG Valerian and Gallienus standing facing each other, sacrificing over altar.
References: MIR 1676m, RIC V-1 (J) Rome 446.
Diameter: 21.5mm, Weight: 3.412g.
EB
EB0845_scaled.JPG
EB0845 Valerian II / Flying9 viewsValerian II 253-255, Posthumous Antoninianus, 257-258 AD.
Obverse: DIVO VALERIANO CAES, radiate & draped bust right.
Reverse: CONSACRATIO, eagle flying right, bearing the deceased young Caesar to heaven.
References: RIC 9, Cohen 5.
Diameter: 20mm, Weight: 2.676g.
EB
EB0910_scaled.JPG
EB0910 Saloninus / PRINC IVVENT4 viewsSaloninus, Antoninianus, Lugdunum 256 AD.
Obverse: SAL VALERIANVS CS, Bust of Saloninus, radiate, draped, right.
Reverse: PRINC IVVENT, Saloninus, in military attire, standing left, holding baton in right hand and spear in left hand; to right, one ensign.
References: RIC V Saloninus 10.
Diameter: 22.5mm, Weight: 2.12g.
EB
Alex_Q-001_axis-11h_20,5-21,5mm_10,44g-s.jpg
Egypt, Alexandria, 092 Valerianus-II. (256-258 A.D.), Bi-Tetradrachm, G-2991, D-5373, L/Δ//--, Eagle left, #1140 viewsEgypt, Alexandria, 092 Valerianus-II. (256-258 A.D.), Bi-Tetradrachm, G-2991, D-5373, L/Δ//--, Eagle left, #1
avers: Π ΛΙΚ ΚΟΡ ΟΩΑΛΕΡΙΑΝΟC KAIC CEB, Bare head right.
reverse: Eagle left, head right, his beak wreath, L-Δ, across the field (year 4 Valerianus-I.),
exergue: L/Δ//--, diameter: 20,5-21,5 mm, weight: 10,44g, axes: 11 h,
mint: Egypt, Alexandria, date: 256-257 A.D., L-Δ, across the field (year 4 Valerianus-I.), ref: Geissen-2991, Dattari-5373, Kapmann-Ganschow-92.2-p324,
Q-001
2 commentsquadrans
Valerianus_I_03.jpg
Egypt, Alexandria, AD 257/258, Valerian I, Eagle19 viewsValerian I
Alexandria
Billon-Tetradrachm
Obv.: A K Π ΛI OΥAΛEΡIANOC EΥEΥC,Laureate and cuirassed bust of Valerian I right
Rev.: Eagle standing left, head right, holding wreath in beak, year L - Є across fields (year 5 = 257-258 AD.)
Billon, 10.8g, 21.8mm
Ref.: Köln 2868, Dattari 5185, Kampmann&Ganschow 88.29, Emmett 3705
2 commentsshanxi
Valerianus_II_01.jpg
Egypt, Alexandria, AD 257/258, Valerian II, Eagle12 viewsValerian II
Alexandria
Billon-Tetradrachm
Obv.: Π ΛΙΚ ΚΟΡ ΟΩΑΛΕΡΙΑΝΟC KAIC CEB, laureate and cuirassed bust right.
Rev.: eagle standing left, head right, wreath in beak, year L - Є across fields (year 5 = 257-258 AD.)
Billon, 10.51g, 23mm
Ref.: Geissen 2997, Dattari 5374
shanxi
Köln-2867.jpg
Egypt, Alexandria: Valerian I (253-260 CE) Ć Tetradrachm, RY 4 (Köln 2867; Dattari (Savio) 5174; Milne 3936-38; Curtis 1520; Emmett 3721)15 viewsObv: A K Π ΛI OVAΛEPIANOC EV EVC; bust laureate, cuirassed right, fold of cloak on front shoulder, Medusa head on cuirass
Rev: Tyche seated upon a throne left, holding a rudder in her right hand & cornucopia in her left hand, in field LΔ

Former collection of the Art Institute of Chicago
Quant.Geek
207.jpg
EIPH (monogram of)117 viewsCILICIA. Irenopolis. Valerian. Ć 28 (8 Assaria). A.D. 253-256. Obv: AVTKΠΛI-(OVAΛEPIANOCCEB) or sim. Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right. Rev: I-PH(NOΠO-ΛITWNΔC) or sim., H in field. Dionysus, holding thyrsos and kantharos, standing behind two panthers. Ref: SNG Aul 5597. Axis: 210°. Weight: 25.56 g. Note: This specimen is remarkably thick and heavy. The average for 87 specimens of this denomination noted by Ziegler (1993) is only 17.6 g. CM: Monogram of EIPH (?), in circular punch, 6 mm. Howgego 616 (7 pcs). Note: Likely applied after the city ceased issuing its own coins. Collection Automan.Automan
valerian_felicitas.jpg
FELICITAS AVGG, RIC 876 viewsValerian I, October 253 - c. June 260 A.D. AR Antoninianus. 2.5g, 19mm. Rev. FELICITAS AVGG, Felicitas standing left holding long caduceus and cornucopiae. RIC 87, Sear RCV 9936, RSC 53 Podiceps
41752_Valerian_89_FIDES_MILITVM.jpg
FIDES MILITVM, RIC V 89 Rome10 viewsValerian I, October 253 - c. June 260 A.D. Silver antoninianus, SRCV III 9938, RIC V 89, RSC IV 65, VF, Rome mint, 2.582g, 21.3mm, 180o, 253 - 255 A.D.; obverse IMP C P LIC VALERIANVS AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse FIDES MILITVM, Fides standing half-left holding two military standards, one in each hand. Ex FORVM, photo credit FORVMPodiceps
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Galeria Valeria71 viewsVENERI V-ICTRICI
Diademed draped bust right

VENERIV-ICTRICI
stg. facing, head left, right hand holding up apple, left raising drape over lleft shoulder

MK(delta)

RIC Cyzicus 38; AE Follis
7.21g;25-27mm
arizonarobin
Galeria Valeria1.JPG
Galeria Valeria33 viewsObverse: GAL VALE - RIA AVG.

Reverser: VENERI V - ICTRICI...

Mint: ?
Marjan E
00349-GaleriaValeria.JPG
Galeria Valeria24 viewsGaleria Valeria Follis
26 mm 7.15 gm
O: GAL VALERIA AVG
Diademed bust right, wearing embroidered robes.
R: VENERI VICTRICI
Venus standing facing, head left, holding up apple in right hand and raising drapery over shoulder with left.
2 commentsKoffy
galeriavaleria3.jpg
GALERIA VALERIA16 viewsAE follis. Cyzicus 308-309 AD. 8,20 grs. Diademed and draped bust right. GAL VALERIA AVG / Venus standing facing, head left, right hand holding apple, left raising drapery over left shoulder. Delta and star in field, MKV in exergue.
RIC VI 46. Cohen 2.
benito
galeriavaleria3~0.jpg
GALERIA VALERIA20 viewsAE follis. Cyzicus 308-309 AD. 8,20 grs. Diademed and draped bust right. GAL VALERIA AVG / Venus standing facing, head left, right hand holding apple, left raising drapery over left shoulder. VENERI VICTRICI. Delta and star in field, MKV in exergue.
RIC VI 46. Cohen 2.
benito
galval.jpg
Galeria Valeria (293 - 311 A.D.)69 viewsĆ Follis
O: GAL VAL-ERIA AVG, diademed and draped bust right.
R: VENERI V-ICTRICI, Venus standing facing, head left, holding up apple and raising drapery; K-Γ/P, ALE in exergue.
Alexandria Mint
23mm
6.85g
RIC VI 110
5 commentsMat
00445b~0.jpg
Galeria Valeria (RIC 110, Coin #445)138 views
RIC 110, AE Follis, Alexandria, 308 - 310 AD.
Obv: GAL VALERIA AVG Draped & diademed bust right.
Rev: VENERI VICTRICI (ALE) Venus standing left, holding apple
and lifting robe. K - Gamma over P in fields.
Size: 24.4mm 6.82gm

1 commentsMaynardGee
00525.jpg
Galeria Valeria (RIC 56 var, Coin #525)28 views
Galeria Valeria, RIC 56 var (officina), AE Follis, Heraclea, 310 - 311 AD
Obv: GAL VALERIA AVG Diademed and draped bust right.
Rev: VENERI VICTRICI (HTЄ) Venus standing facing, head left, holding up
apple with right hand, raising drapery with left hand. Crescent in right field.
Size: 24.0mm, 5.52g

Note: RIC does not show an Є officina for any of Galeria Valeria's coins minted in Heraclea.

1 commentsMaynardGee
3.jpg
Galeria Valeria (wife of Galerius) 11 viewsSemi-Cleaned Follis. Will update after I have it cleaned.Chris C2
Galeria Valeria.jpg
Galeria Valeria - AE Follis 26 viewsGaleria Valeria, wife of Galerius. AE Follis, 26mm., mint of Anthioch.

Obv.: Her diademed and draped bust to right.

Rev.: VENERI VICTRICI. Venus standing left, holding apple.
Marjan E
GALVALTOGETHER.jpg
Galeria Valeria AD 305-311, AE follis of Thessalonica. RIC VI#3627 views
Galeria Valeria AD 305-311, AE follis of Thessalonica. 27.63mm/ 5.79 grams

Obverse > GAL VALE-RIA AVG, Diademed bust facing, head right, hair weaved in rows and curled around side of head at base of neck, wearing embroidered robes with two necklaces.

Reverse > VENERI V-ICTRICI,Venus standing facing, head left, apple in uplifted right hand, raising drapery over left shoulder with left hand. Star in left field,Gamma in right field.

Mintmark > dot SM dot TS dot. RIC VI #36 Thessalonica ; Officina 3, AD December 308- May 310.


1 commentsPaul R3
lg_galeria_valeria.jpg
Galeria Valeria AE Follis32 viewsGaleria Valeria (Augusta)
AE Follis 6.55g / 25mm / -
GAL VALERIA AVG - Diademed & draped bust right
VENERI VICTRICI - Venus standing left, holding apple & scepter, * to left, E to right
Exergue: SM dot TS
Mint: Thessalonica (308-311 AD)
Ref: RIC 36
Scotvs Capitis
roman56.jpg
Galeria Valeria AE Follis 39 views311 AD. Alexandria mint.
Obv.: GAL VALERIA AVG - Diademed and draped bust of Galeria Valeria.
Rev.: VENERI VICTRICI - Venus holding apple and raising drapery over shoulder. [crescent]/K in l. field, Γ/P in r..
RIC 128A
Minos
galval.jpg
Galeria Valeria AE Follis VENERI VICTRICI26 viewsGaleria Valeria Ć Follis. GAL VALERIA AVG, diademed & draped bust right / VENERI VICTRICI, Venus standing facing, head left, holding up apple & raising drapery over shoulderancientone
galeria-valeria-heraclea.jpg
Galeria Valeria AE Follis Heraclea Venus17 viewsRoman Imperial, Galeria Valeria AE Follis, Struck 309-310 AD.

Obverse: GAL VALERIA AVG, Diademed & draped bust right.

Reverse: VENERI VICTRICI, Venus standing facing, head left, holding apple upwards and raising drapery, HTB in ex. "Women of the Victor"

Reference: RIC Heraclea 43-B, Sear 14593.

Ex: Ancient Imports+photo
Gil-galad
Galeria_Valeria_2.jpg
GALERIA VALERIA AE Follis RIC 36B, Venus17 viewsOBV: GAL VALERIA AVG, diademed & draped bust right
REV: VENERI VICTRICI, Venus standing facing, head left, holding apple upwards and raising drapery, star left, B right; dot SM dot TS dot in ex
6.14g, 24mm

Minted at Thessalonica, 308-11 AD
Legatus
Galeria_Valeria.jpg
GALERIA VALERIA AE Follis RIC 43, Venus18 viewsOBV: GAL VALERIA AVG, diademed & draped bust right
REV: VENERI VICTRICI, Venus standing facing, head left, holding apple upwards and raising drapery, star left, HTA in ex.
4.8g, 29mm

Minted at Heraclea, 309-10 AD
Legatus
GalVal_b.jpg
Galeria Valeria follis43 viewswife of Galerius
VENERI VICTRICI
Tibsi
galeria valeria-.jpg
GALERIA VALERIA follis AD308-30910 viewsobv:GAL.VALERIA.AVG (diademed & draped bust right)
rev:VENERI.VICTRICI / Δ / MKV (Venus standing left, holding up apple in right hand & raising drapery over shoulder with left)
ref:RIC VI-Cyzicus46
mint:Cyzicus, 5.63g, 24mm
Diocletian's daughter and Galerius's wife. They married in June 293, and Valeria followed her husband to East provinces. When Galerius died (312 AD) she was banished by Maximinus II (Daza). After hidden for years she (and her mother) was captured and brutally executed at Thessalonica in 315 AD.
berserker
Galeria_Valeria_AE_Follis_-_RIC_VI_91_Antioquia(1).jpg
Galeria Valeria RIC VI 9110 viewsAntioch 308 AD.
GAL VALERIA AVG
VENERI VICTRICI
ANT in ex.
xokleng
galeria_valeria_thessalonica_36.jpg
Galeria Valeria RIC VI, Thessalonica 3634 viewsGaleria Valeria, daughter of Diocletian, 2nd wife of Galerius. killed AD 315 by Licinius I
AE - AE 3, 6.39g
Thessalonica 2nd officina, AD 308-310
obv. GAL VALE - RIA AVG
bust, draped and diademed, r.
rev. VENERI V - ICTRICI
Venus Victrix, draped, stg. l., holding up apple with r. hand, and raising hem of
her skirt over l. shoulder
star in l. field, B in r. field
in ex.: dot SM dot TS dot
RIC VI, Thessalonica 36
VF

I think this is one of the last depictions of Venus on Roman coins!
1 commentsJochen
Galeria_Valeria_Venus.JPG
Galeria Valeria Venus18 viewsBronze Galeria Valeria - West of Galarius - Follis Coin circa 305-311 A.D. Venus reverse. 25mm Sear-3730
Galeria Valeria Follis, .
RIC VI Thessalonica 33, rated common.
OBV: GAL VALE-RIA AVG, diademed & draped bust right, wearing necklace
REV: VENERI V-ICTRICI, Venus standing left, holding apple & scepter, * to left, A to rght
Mintmark: .SM.TS.
Romanorvm
GalValeria.JPG
Galeria Valeria, AE Follis62 viewsGAL VALERIA AVG
VENERI VICTRICI, HAdelta
RIC IV 43
Heraclea, 309-310 AD
This type records the last appearance of Venus on Imperial Coinage.
whitetd49
gv58.jpg
Galeria Valeria, AE follis 309-310 C.E., Second wife of Galerius 9 viewsObverse: GAL VAL ERIA AVG, diademed AND DRAPED BUST RIGHT.
Reverse: VENERI V ICTRICI, Venus standing left, holding apple in right hand and drapery over shoulder with left hand. D * in field
Mintmark MKV RIC VI 58 Cyzicus, 27.3 mm., 5.6 g.
NORMAN K
Galeria_Valeria_RIC_VI_Thessalonica_36.jpg
Galeria Valeria, AE Follis, RIC VI Thessalonica 3683 viewsGaleria Valeria
Augusta, 308-311 A.D.

Coin: AE Follis

Obverse: GAL VALE-RIA AVG, laureate, draped bust facing right, wearing a Necklace. Seen from the front.
Reverse: VENERI V-ICTRICI, Venus, standing, facing left, holding an Apple with her right hand and lifting her Stola with her left. ✳ - Γ across the fields.

Weight: 4.89 g, Diameter: 26.2 x 26.4 x 1.3 mm, Die axis: 0°, Mintmark: ●SM●TS● (Thessalonica), struck between 308-310 A.D. Reference: RIC VI Thessalonica 36
Masis
galval2.jpg
Galeria Valeria, Alexandria92 viewsGaleria Valeria. Augusta, AD 293(?)-311. Ć Follis (24mm, 7.21 g). Alexandria mint. Struck AD 308-310. Diademed and draped bust right / Venus standing facing, head left, holding up apple and raising drapery over shoulder; K-G/P//ALE. RIC VI 110. Good VF, dark brown patina, some green encrustation on the obverse.

The style of this portrait is my favorite of Galeria Valeria.
Ex-CNG
wildwinds example (this coin)
4 commentsarizonarobin
galeria_k.jpg
Galeria Valeria, Augusta, AD 293(?)-311 3 viewsĆ Follis, 25mm, 6.4g, 12h; Siscia mint, 1st officina. Struck circa AD 309-310.
Obv.: GAL VALERIA AVG; Diademed bust right, wearing embroidered robes.
Rev.: VENERI V-ICTRICI; Venus standing facing, head left, lifting dress and holding apple; (crescent) / A // SIS.
Reference: RIC VI 204, p. 479
John Anthony
ARI-Ga__Valeria-3.jpg
Galeria Valeria, BI Nummus, Alexandria6 viewsAD 293(?) - 311
6.91 grams
Obv.: GALVAL - ERIA AVG, Draped bust right, wearing stephane.
Rev.: VICTRIC - VICTRICI Pin left field Delta over R in Right field, Venus standing left, examining apple Mintmark ALE in ex
RIC VI 74
Purchased from Heritage Auctions
NGC AU: Strike 5/5: Surface 4/5
Richard M10
galeriavaleria.jpg
Galeria Valeria, daughter of Diocletian, wife of co-Emporer Galeria, Cyzicus mint, Turkey 308-309 AD134 viewsBust: Right facing, diademed, no crescent.
Obverse: GALVALERIAAVG
Reverse: VENERIVICTRICI
Type: Venus standing left, holding apple and raising skirt.

Mint = MKV = Cyzicus. Turkey.

Mark = triangle
308 -309 AD. (according to Aorta)

She doesn't come across as a great beauty in other busts, but I think she's rather beautiful in this version. She has a sad expression in her eyes, as if she can see what's coming for her...
Banjaxed
GALVALER-1.jpg
Galeria Valeria, daughter of Diocletian, wife of Galerius. Augusta, 293(?)-311 CE.176 viewsĆ Follis (26 mm, 6.64 gm). Nicomedia mint, 308-310 CE.
Obv: GAL VAL-ERIA AVG, diademed and draped bust right.
Rev: VENERI VI-CTRICI CMH, Venus standing facing, head left, holding apple and drapery; in exergue, SMNA.
RIC VI 57; Sear 3730 var.
EmpressCollector
0591-301.jpg
Galeria Valeria, Follis - 007550 viewsHeraclea mint, 1st officina
GAL VALERIA AVG, draped and diademed bust right
VENERI VICTRICI, Venus standing left, HTA at exergue
6.98 gr
Galeria Valeria, follis, Ref : Cohen # 2, TTB, R!
Potator II
Galeria_Valeria_RIC_211.JPG
Galeria Valeria, RIC 2119 viewsGAL VALERIA AVG
VENERI VICTRICI
AE2, 24mm, 4.95g
Draped bust wearing necklace, shoulders facing on crescent
Venus standing, facing, head left, holding apple and raising drapery over shoulder, A in right field

Poorly preserved example
SIS in ex
novacystis
galeria-valeria-ric_VI_41.jpg
Galeria Valeria, RIC VI 4113 viewsSerdica 307-308 AD.
25 mm, 4 g.
GAL VALERIA AVG
VENVS VICTRICI
.SM.SD. in ex.
xokleng
galeria_valeria_alex_81.jpg
Galeria Valeria, RIC VI, Alexandria 8112 viewsGaleria Valeria, AD 315 murdered by Licinius II
AE - Follis (AE 3), 5.98g, 22mm, 0°
Alexandria, 5th officina, late 308
obv. GAL VAL - ERIA AVG
Bust, draped, diademed, r.
rev. VENERI - V - ICTRICI
Venus Victric, inlonggarment and mantle, stg. frontal, head l., holding in raise l. hand garment over
shoulder and in r. hand apple
in l. and r. field E / X - K
in ex. ALE
ref. RIC VI, Alexandria 81; C. 2
F-about VF
Pedigree:
ex coll. Drexler, Würzburg, Christmas 1958
Jochen
galval867.jpg
Galeria Valeria, Venus72 viewsGAL VALE-RIA AVG

VENERI V-ICT RICI

:dot: SM :dot: TS :dot:
:star: /left field, B in right ( I think just worn down)

Thessalonica
2 commentsarizonarobin
Coin1001_quad_sm.jpg
Galerius Concordia Militum Ӕ post-reform radiate fraction (295 - 299), Cyzicus mint7 viewsGAL VAL MAXIMIANVS NOB CAES, radiate, draped (?) and cuirassed bust right / CONCORDIA MI-LITVM + KB in lower centre, Prince (the left figure) standing right in military dress, holding parazonium or baton of imperium, receiving small Victory with a wreath and palm branch on globe from naked Jupiter (the right figure) standing left holding tall scepter.

Ӕ, 20mm, 2.36g, die axis 6h, base metal seems red, high copper content.

Galerius ruled as Caesar from 293 to 305, but most sources give minting years for this type of coin as 295-299.

RIC VI Cyzicus 19b (18b?), Sear 3713. 19b has cuirassed and draped bust, 18b -- only cuirassed. I think the edge of the military cape on the shoulder means it is draped in this case, but distinction seems very vague to me. Looking at coins identified as 18b and 19b I cannot see any clear pattern, it seems that many are confused in this respect just like myself.

GALerius VALerius MAXIMIANUS NOBilitas CAESar (in this era the title of "junior" emperor while Augustus was a "senior" one), CONCORDIA MILITVM = [Dedicated to] harmony with the soldiers, K = Kysikos (Cyzicus) mint, B = officina Beta (workshop #2). The figure to the right is naked except for a cape, so it is a god, the sceptre points to him being Jupiter, the ruler of gods. Jupiter is also typically associated with Victory, he was often depicted with Victory in the right hand and sceptre in the left. The line across his head probably designates a wreath, also a common feature of Jupiter. Victory holds her common attributes, the triumphal wreath and a palm branch, the orb she stands on represents the world (thus meaning dominion over it). Round Earth was a firmly established concept in Roman times. The left figure, the prince (Galerius in this case) is identified by his full battle dress and the hand-held short elongated shape, which is either the ivory baton of imperium (the high command) or, more likely, a parazonium, a long triangular dagger, typically cradled in the bearer's left arm. A Roman parazonium blade tended to be leaf shape and approximately 15"-19" long. It was a ceremonial weapon, a mark of high rank, used to rally the troops.

GALERIUS, * c. 250, near Serdica, Dacia Ripensis (Sofia, Bulgaria) or in a Dacian place later called Felix Romuliana (Gamzigrad, Serbia) † late Apr or early May 311 (aged ~60), Serdica, Dacia Ripensis (Sofia, Bulgaria) ‡ 1 Mar or 21 May 293 – 1 May 305 (as Eastern Caesar, under Diocletian), 1 May 305 – late Apr or early May 311 (as Eastern Augustus with many co-emperors).

Galerius was born of humble parentage and had a distinguished military career. On March 1, 293, he was nominated as Caesar by Diocletian, the supreme ruler of the empire, to help him govern the East. Galerius divorced his wife and married Diocletian’s daughter, Valeria. After ruling from Egypt from 293 to 295, Galerius assumed command of defensive operations against the Sasanians in 297. After being defeated, he then won a decisive victory that increased his influence with Diocletian. Galerius next proceeded to the Balkans and won numerous victories in the region. A staunch pagan, he persuaded the emperor to initiate the persecution of the Christians at Nicomedia in 303.

When Diocletian abdicated on May 1, 305, Galerius became Augustus of the East, ruling the Balkans and Anatolia. Since Galerius had arranged the appointment of two of his favourites, Maximinus (his nephew) and Flavius Valerius Severus, to be Caesars in both East and West, he was in effect the supreme ruler. When Constantius Chlorus died in 306, Galerius insisted that Severus govern the West as Augustus, but he grudgingly conceded the subordinate title of caesar to Chlorus’s son, Constantine, who was correctly suspected of Christian sympathies. Galerius’s supremacy was, however, short-lived. Severus was soon overthrown (306) and killed by Maxentius (son of the former emperor Maximian). Galerius invaded Italy but was forced to retreat. In 308 he induced Diocletian and Maximian to meet him at Carnuntum on the Danube and to declare Maxentius a usurper. On November 11, Galerius proclaimed as Augustus of the West his friend Licinius, who had effective control only in the region of the Danube.

A ruthless ruler, Galerius imposed the poll tax on the urban population and maintained the persecution of the Christians. In the winter of 310–311, however, he became incapacitated with a horrible disease. Fearing, perhaps, that his illness was the vengeance of the Christian God, he issued on April 30, 311, an edict grudgingly granting toleration. Shortly afterward he died. He was succeeded by his nephew Maximinus Daia.

Diocletian's money reform of 293.

Trying to fight the runaway inflation that he did not understand and to return people's faith in Roman coins, Diocletian did a complete overhaul of the Roman monetary system. He introduced a new theoretical base monetary unit called the denarius communis or d.c. (only rarely represented by actual coins, one example being old pre-Aurelian antoniniani still in circulation, valued now at 1 d. c., another – minted only on a small scale 1.5g coin with the reverse legend VTILITAS PVBLICA, "for public use"). Then he started minting new types of coins including a gold aureus of new purity and weight standard (1/60 pound of pure gold), a quality silver coin, argenteus, roughly similar to the early imperial denarius in size and weight, a new billon coin, of a copper alloy but with a small fraction of silver mostly in the form of coating, roughly similar to the old antoninianus when it was just introduced, however bearing now a laureate rather than a radiate bust. This type of coin is now commonly referred to as a follis or a nummus. Finally, a new radiate bronze coin, now referred to as a "radiate fraction" or a radiatus was introduced, similar to the early imperial aes in value, but much smaller in weight and size. There were also rare issues of ˝ and Ľ nummus coins, mostly in connection to some celebration. Interestingly, the obverses of these new coins were chosen to represent some identical "generic" image of a "good emperor" independent of the actual likeness of the August or Caesar in whose name they were issued, thus affirming the unity of all the tetrarchy rulers. Very roughly one may think of a new radiatus as a price of one loaf of bread, a new argenteus as a very good daily wage, and a new aureus as a price of a good horse. An approximate relationship between these units was as follows: 1 aureus ≈ 20 argentei ≈ 1000 d.c. (some scholars prefer 25 argentei and 1250 d.c.); 1 argenteus ≈ 5 nummi ≈ 50 d.c.; 1 nummus ≈ 5 radiati ≈ 10 d.c.; 1 radiatus ≈ 2 d.c. Of course we know that this reform was ineffective and inflation continued, so all these values were constantly shifting due to changing markets. Diocletian himself stopped minting argenteus in c. 305, and Constantine in his monetary reforms only re-established a new and highly successful gold standard, solidus (1/72 pound of pure gold, surprisingly actually first introduced also by Diocletian in 301, but only as a pilot version). As for billon and bronze coins, "folles" or "nummi", they were minted in all shapes and sizes all over the 4th century, often horribly debased by inflation, and their values at each point can only be guessed. It seems that in later times up to 1000 small bronze coins were sealed in a leather pouch to produce a reasonable unit of payment, thus giving rise to the name follis (lit. "bag" in Latin), which is now anachronistically applied to many billon and bronze coins of the late 3d and 4th century.
Yurii P
femaleOR.jpg
Galleria Valeria, RIC VI 35 Thessalonica19 viewsThessalonica, Galleria Valeria, 308-310 A.D. AE, 24mm 4.89g, RIC VI 35 Thessalonica
O: GAL VAL-ERIA AVG, bust draped and diademed (no necklace)
R: VENERI V-ICTRICI , Venus standing l., holding apple and raising drapery from shoulder, Star in left field, Δ in right
Ex: SMTS
casata137ec
Gallienus.jpg
Gallienus16 viewsObv: C P LIC GALLIENVS P F AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right, from behind
Rev: PIETAS AVGG, Valerian and Gallienus facing, sacrificing over altar, each togate and holding short scepter, wreath above
Size: 22.5mm, 3.683g
Id: RIC V 447
Mint: Antioch, 255-256AD
Notes: Ex-FORVM
ickster
PhilipI18_68.jpeg
Gallienus 13 viewsGallienus AE Sestertius, 18.68g. Rome Mint, joint reign with Valerian I. IMP C P LIC GALLIENVS AVG, laureate, cuirassed bust right / VIRTVS AVGG S-C, Soldier standing left, holding spear and resting left hand on shield. RIC 248. Cohen 1295. Sear5 10495.Molinari
RIC_Gallienus_RIC_V_442.JPG
Gallienus (Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus) (253-268 A.D.)17 viewscf SRCV 10250-10251, RIC V J-442, Göbl 1600b, Cohen 441, Van Meter --

AR Antoninianus, 21 mm., 180°

Antioch mint (per Göbl), struck during joint reign with Valerian (253-260 A.D.), in 256-257 A.D.

Obv: IMP GALLIENVS AVG, Radiate cuirassed bust right.

Rev: LAETITIA AVGG, Laetitia standing left holding wreath and anchor.

RIC rarity C, Van Meter --
Stkp
RIC_Gallienus_RIC_J-445.JPG
Gallienus (Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus) (253-268 A.D.)11 viewsSRCV 10298 [?], RIC V J-445 var. (no wreath), Göbl 1698b(1), Cohen 705, Van Meter 186

Antoninianus, 22 mm., 3.7 grams, 0°

Samosata mint (per Göbl), struck during joint reign with Valerian (253-260 A.D.) in 260 A.D.

Obv: IMP C P LIC GALLIENVS PF AVG, Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right.

Rev: ORIENS AVG, Oriens standing right presenting wreath to Gallienus, standing left, resting on spear held in left hand, wreath in upper field.

Oriens is the name for Sol when associated with the rising sun. It implies the rising fortune of the emperor, and thus of the Empire.

RIC rarity S, Van Meter VB2
Stkp
RIC_Gallienus_RIC_V_18.JPG
Gallienus (Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus) (253-268 A.D.)14 viewsSRCV 10224, RIC V J-18, Göbl 872d, Cohen 308, Van Meter 316

AR Antoninianus, 19-21 mm., 180°

Cologne mint (per Göbl), struck during joint reign with Valerian (253-260 A.D.) in 259 A.D.

Obv: GALLIENVS P F AVG, Radiate cuirassed bust right.

Rev: GERMANICVS MAX V, Trophy between two German captives.

Commemorates Gallienus’s victory over the Alemanni at the Battle of Mediolanum (Milan) in 259 A.D. (per Van Meter), which is inconsistent with the slightly earlier dating per RIC (258-259 A.D.) and Göbl (apparently 257-258 A.D.).

RIC rarity C, Van Meter VB2
Stkp
RIC_Gallienus_RIC_V_447A.JPG
Gallienus (Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus) (253-268 A.D.)12 viewsSRCV 10312, RIC V J-447, Göbl 1684m, Cohen 792, Van Meter 211

Billon Antoninianus, 20.5 mm., 0°

Samosata mint (per Göbl), struck during joint reign with Valerian (253-260 A.D.) in 256-257 A.D.

Obv: IMP C P LIC GALLIENVS P F AVG, Radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right.

Rev: PIETAS AVGG, Gallienus and Valerian standing facing one another and sacrificing over altar.

RIC rarity C, Van Meter VB1
Stkp
RIC_Gallienus_RIC_159.JPG
Gallienus (Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus) (253-268 A.D.)12 viewsSRCV 10338, RIC V J-159, Göbl 101q, Cohen 388, Van Meter 240

AR Antoninianus, 20 mm., 0°

Rome mint (per Göbl), struck during joint reign with Valerian (253-260 A.D.) in 255-256 A.D.

Obv: IMP C P LIC GALLIENVS PF AVG, Radiate cuirassed bust right.

Rev: PROVIDENTIA AVGG, Providentia standing facing left, holding baton and cornucopia, at foot globe.

RIC rarity C, Van Meter VB1
Stkp
RIC_Gallienus_RIC_V_143.JPG
Gallienus (Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus) (253-268 A.D.)11 viewsSRCV 10237, RIC V J-143, Göbl 25v, Cohen 351, Van Meter 101

Antoninianus, 20.5 mm., 0°

Rome mint (per Göbl), struck during joint reign with Valerian (253-260 A.D.) in 254-255 A.D.

Obv: IMP C P LIC GALLIENVS AVG, Radiate and cuirassed bust right.

Rev: IOVI CONSERVA, Jupiter standing left, holding thunderbolt and scepter.

RIC rarity C, Van Meter VB1
Stkp
RIC_Gallienus_RIC-V_(J)_456_virtvs_avgg.jpg
Gallienus (Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus) (253-268 A.D.)10 viewsSRCV 10414 var., RIC V J-456 (Antioch), Göbl 1687_, Van Meter 345.

BI Antoninianus, 3.29 g., 21.43 mm. max., 0°

Samosata mint, struck during joint reign (253-260 A.D.), in 255-256 A.D.

Obv: IMP C P LIC GALLIENVS P F AVG, radiate draped bust right.

Rev: VIRTVS AVGG, Valerian standing right, holding globe and spear, facing Gallienus standing left, holding Victory and transverse scepter.

RIC rarity C, Van Meter VB1.
Stkp
RIC_Gallienus_RIC_V_S)_221_iovi_vltori.jpg
Gallienus (Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus) (253-268 A.D.)8 viewsSRCV 10247, RIC V S-221 (Rome), Göbl 348a, Van Meter 117.

BI Antoninianus, 2.34 g., 19.12 mm. max., 0°

Rome mint, struck during solo reign (260-268 A.D.) in 260-261 A.D.

Obv: GALLIENVS AVG, radiate head right, one ribbon behind, one forward across shoulder.

Rev: IOVI [VLT]ORI, Jupiter naked standing right looking back, holding lightning bolt aloft in right hand, cloak flying right. S in left field.

The reverse dedicates this coin to Jupiter the Avenger. In 260-261 A.D., Balista, prefect of the pretorianus under Valerian, along with Odenathus, King of Palmyra, drove the Sassanian Shapur I from Syria into Persia, and re-established Roman power in the East.

RIC rarity C, Van Meter VB1.
Stkp
RIC_Gallienus_SRCV_10351_salus.jpg
Gallienus (Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus) (253-268 A.D.)5 viewsSRCV 10351, RIC V-J 399, Göbl 825q, Van Meter 256.

BI Antoninianus, 2.81 g., 21.31 mm. max., 180°

Mediolanum/Milan mint (per RIC & SRCV), Viminacium mint (per Göbl), struck during joint reign with Valerian (253-260 A.D.), 259-260 A.D.

Obv: [IMP G]ALLIENVS P AVG, radiate cuirassed bust (of Valerian) right.

Rev: S[ALV]S AVGG, Salus standing facing, head right, feeding serpent in arms from patera.

Salus is the goddess of health and safety. Based on an old Italic custom of propitiating the gods by having a virgin offer a sacrifice to sacred snakes, Salus is often depicted cradling a snake in her arms and feeding it from a patera. As a coin type, Salus frequently appears after the suppression of a coup against the emperor or when the emperor recovered from an illness.

RIC rarity C.

[coin is silver in color]
Stkp
RIC_Gallienus_SRCV_10408_virtus.jpg
Gallienus (Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus) (253-268 A.D.)9 viewsSRCV 10408, RIC V J-457, Göbl 1704b, Van Meter 338/7.

BI Antoninianus, 3.79 g., 22.79 mm. max., 0°

Samosata mint, struck during joint reign with Valerian (253-260 A.D.), in 259 A.D.

Obv: IMP C P LIC GALLIENVS P F AVG, radiate draped and cuirassed bust right.

Rev: VIRTVS AVG, Gallienus left, holding spear, receiving wreath from Roma right, holding spear and shield. Wreath above.

RIC rarity S, Van Meter VB1.
Stkp
RIC_Gallienus_SRCV_10277_liberalitas.jpg
Gallienus (Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus) (253-268 A.D.)17 viewsSRCV 10277 var. (0bverse legend) , RIC V J-444, Göbl 1601b, Van Meter 148

BI Antoninianus, 3.50 g., 20.82 mm. max., 180°

Antioch mint, 5th emission, struck during joint reign (253-260 A.D.), in 256-257 A.D.

Obv: IMP GALLIENVS AVG, radiate cuirassed bust right.

Rev: LIBERALITAS AVGG, Liberalitas standing left, holding cornucopia right and counting-board/tessera left.

Liberalitas is the personification of generosity, and frequently alludes to a specific imperial donative to the urban population of Rome. On this emission, it refers to the donative of 255 A.D. to mark the joint consulate of Gallienus and Valerian.

RIC rarity C, Van Meter VB1.
1 commentsStkp
Comb05042017094458.jpg
Gallienus - Roman Emperor: 253-268 A.D. - Joint Rule with his father Valerian I 253-260 A.D. 24 viewsObv. GALLIENVSAVG - Radiate head right.
Rev. LAETITIAAVG - Laetitia standing left, holding wreath and rudder.
Reference: RIC 226k, C 426.
Silvered Bronze Antoninianus 19mm (2.23 grams) Struck at the mint of Rome 260-268 A.D.
Canaan
gallienus_RIC86.jpg
GALLIENUS AE antoninianus - 257-258 AD (joint reign)35 viewsobv: IMP GALLIENVS PF AVG GM (radiate head, right)
rev: ORIENS AVGG (Sol with globe in the left hand, right hand raised)
ref: RIC Vi 86 (R), RSC 710
mint: Rome
2.50 gms, 18 mm
Rare

History: When the empire of Rome was on all sides assailed by barbarian arms, Valerianus declared his son Gallienus Emperor, and leaving him to the defence of Gaul and Germany, he himself, having assembled together the legions from the neighbouring provinces, resolved to march and give battle in the East to the Scythians and to the Persians. For this reason Oriens Augustorum - (the rising Sun of the Emperors) - was struck on their coins.
berserker
AAHFb_small.png
Gallienus Antoninianus8 viewsGallienus; joint reign with Valerian 253-260 AD; sole reign 260-268 AD

Antioch. 267 AD.

22mm., 3.73g.

GALLIENVS AVG. Bust of Gallienus, radiate, cuirassed, right | Bust of Gallienus, radiate, draped, right.

SALVS AVG. Apollo, nude, standing left, holding laurel-branch; to right, tripod. PXV in ex

References: RIC V Gallienus 610

AAHF
RL
AAECb_small.png
Gallienus Antoninianus7 viewsGallienus; joint reign with Valerian 253-260 AD; sole reign 260-268 AD

Rome. 260-268 AD.

19mm., 2.36g.

IMP GALLIENVS AVG: Head of Gallienus, radiate, right

DIANAE CONS AVG: Doe, walking right, looking backward

References: RIC V Gallienus 176

AAEC
RL
AAIGb.png
Gallienus Antoninianus8 viewsGallienus; joint reign with Valerian 253-260 AD; sole reign 260-268 AD

Asia, 267 AD

20mm., 3.39g.

GALLIENVS AVG. Bust of Gallienus, radiate, cuirassed, right

LVNA LVCIF. Diana, draped, walking right, holding torch. Mintmark: P[X]V

References: RIC V Gallienus 609

AAIG
RL
gallienus_RIC606(sole_reign).jpg
GALLIENUS AR antoninianus - 267 AD (sole reign)26 viewsobv: GALLIENVS AVG (radiate, draped & cuirassed bust right)
rev: AETERNITAS AVG (Saturn standing right holding scythe), PXV in ex.
ref: RIC Vi 606, RSC.44 (PXV = short for TR P XV)
mint: Antioch
1.92gms, 20mm, billon

Saturn, under the form of a man with a beard, veiled, and wearing the toga, who standing holds the harpa in his left hand, appears on coins of Valerianus and of Gallienus, as a symbol of Eternity. HARPA (scythe) is one of the symbols of Saturn who, according to a horrid myth, used it to mutilate (castrate) his father, Uranus. (See the famous paint of Giorgio Vasari: The Mutiliation of Uranus by Saturn).
While Cronus was considered a cruel and tempestuous deity to the Greeks, his nature under Roman influence became more innocuous, with his association with the Golden Age eventually causing him to become the god of "human time", and celebrated him in Saturnalias.
berserker
Gallienus_AR_antoninianus,_254-256_AD,_Antioch.JPG
Gallienus AR antoninianus, 254-256 AD, Antioch52 viewsGallienus
AR antoninianus – 19mm
Antioch, 255-256 AD
radiate draped bust r.
IMP CP LIC GALLIENVS PF AVG
Gallienus standing l. holding sceptre, presenting Victory to Valerian, standing r., holding globe and scepter
VIRTVS AVGG
RIC Va Antioch 456
1 commentsArdatirion
40247q00.jpg
Gallienus BI Antoninianus29 viewsGallienus
Billon Antoninianus
255 - 256 A.D
Samosata or Antioch Mint
IMP C P LIC GALLIENVS P F AVG
Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right, from behind
VIRTVS AVGG
Emperors standing confronted; Valerian on left, scepter in right, globe in left; Gallienus on right, offering Victory, transverse spear in left; pellet in wreath above
21.7mm
3.118g
Die axis 0*
Göbl MIR 1703m (Samosata), RIC V 456 (Antioch)

VF, flan cracks

RIC assigns this issue to Antioch but MIR gives the issue to a second Eastern mint located at Samosata. Samosata was an ancient city on the west bank of the Euphrates whose ruins existed at the modern city of Samsat, Adiyaman Province, Turkey until the site was flooded by the newly-constructed Atatürk Dam.
WindchildPunico
gal1-13-141s.jpg
Gallienus Billion Antoninianus31 viewsGallienus, bullion antoninianus, Augustus with Valerian I, 260 CE
Obverse: IMP C P LIC GALLIENVS P F AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right.
Reverse: VICTORIA AVG, Victoria standing right holding palm and wreath to emperor who is standing opposite holding spear.
Gobl 1702m 22mm diam., 3.2g
NORMAN K
gallienus.JPG
Gallienus Billon Antoninianus 255-56 AD49 viewsObv: IMPC P LIC GALLIENIVS PF AVG, Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust rt., dot below bust, Rev: VICTORIA AVG, Victory standing rt. holding palm and presenting wreath to Gallienus opposite holding spear. Dot in wreath, NO dot in Exergue

The coin is from an Asian mint the same as RIC 450(j) (Ref: Wildwinds) except there is no dot in exergue. Style belongs to joint reign with Valerian even though it is AVG
1 commentsdaverino
Gallienus_DIANAECONSAVG.jpg
Gallienus DIANAECONSAVG12 viewsObverse:
Head right with radiate crown
GALLIENVSAVG, Head right with radiate crown
IMP: IMPERATOR - Emperor
GALLIENVS: Gallienus
AVG: AUGUSTUS

Reverse:
Doe walking right, looking left
DIANAECONSAVG: Dianae Conservatrix Augusti

Domination: Bronze AE 3, size 19 mm
Exergue: E (Regnal Year "E"=5 or 569/70)
RIC 177 GOBL 728b CUNETIO 1361

Comments:
DIANAE CONS. AVG. Dianae Conservatrix Augusti. A stag. -- This legend and type, with variations, frequently appears on coins of Gallienus, whose father Valerianus was ingularly attached to the worship of Diana the Preserver, insomuch that he dedicated a temple to her honor at Rome, called Aedes Valeranae.
John S
Gallienus_Pietas_Alter.jpg
Gallienus Pietas Alter14 viewsGallienus Pietas Valerian and Gallienus over Alter, Billon antoninianus, RIC V 447, aVF, Antioch mint, weight 2.649g, maximum diameter 21.4mm, die axis 0o, 255 - 256 A.D.;
obverse IMP C P LIC GALLIENVS P F AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right, from behind; reverse PIETAS AVGG, Valerian and
Gallienus facing, sacrificing over altar, each togate and holding short scepter, wreath above;
Romanorvm
galienus-valerianus.jpg
Gallienus RIC 45615 viewsBillon Antoninianus. Joint reign,
Asian mint, 255-256 AD.
IMP C P LIC GALLIENVS P F AVG, radiate draped bust right
VIRTVS AVGG, Valerian and Gallienus standing facing each other,one holds Victory, the other a globe.
xokleng
Gallienus~0.jpg
Gallienus Sestertius20 viewsAE Sestertius
D.: 23-24 mm

IOVI CONSERVA S C,
Göbl 25dd.
same rev. die as Göbl pl. 4, 25k, of Valerian I.



Tanit
Gallienus_RIC_447~0.JPG
Gallienus, 253 - 268 AD17 viewsObv: IMP C P LIC GALLIENVS PF AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust of Gallienus facing right.

Rev: PIETAS AVGG, Valerian and Gallienus standing face to face, sacrificing at an altar, one holds an eagle-tipped scepter and the other a parazonium.

Billon Antoninianus, Samosata mint, 255 - 256 AD

4.5 grams, 20 mm, 180°

RIC Vi 447, RSC 792b, S10312, VM 211
Matt Inglima
AAIEb.png
Gallienus, AE Antoninianus 7 viewsGallienus; joint reign with Valerian 253-260 AD; sole reign 260-268 AD

Asia 260-268 AD.

20mm., 3.05g.

GALLIENVS P F AVG. Bust of Gallienus, laureate, cuirassed, right

AEQVITAS AVG. Aequitas, draped, standing left, holding scales in right hand and cornucopiae in left hand

References: RIC V Gallienus 679 (or possibly 626)

AAIE
RL
6527_6528.jpg
Gallienus, Antoninianus, PIETAS AVGG2 viewsAR Antoninianus
Gallienus
Augustus: 253 - 268AD
Issued: 255 - 256AD
23.0 x 20.0mm
O: IMP CP LIC GALLIENVS PF AVG; Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust, right.
R: PIETAS AVGG; Gallienus and Valerian I standing, facing each other, sacrificing over altar.
Antioch Mint
Aorta: 1279: B57, O24, 263, T83, M1.
RIC 447[j]; RSC 7926.
rimachda 172144654786
4/13/16 1/29/17
Nicholas Z
Gallienus_RIC_397.jpg
Gallienus, as joint ruler with Valerian, Billon Antoninianus RIC 397, RSC 940, Sear5 1035250 viewsIMP GALLIENVS P AVG, radiate draped bust right / SALVS AVGG, Salus standing left feeding snake rising from altar and holding sceptre in left hand. Viminacium mint.
Maximum Diameter: 21.4 mm
Weight: 3.80 g
4 commentsTheEmpireNeverEnded
Gallienus_antoninianus.jpg
Gallienus, August 253 - 24 March 268 A.D.11 viewsBillon antoninianus, RSC 122Ka, S 10401, RIC 317, aF, Rome, 2.790g, 20.2mm, 180o, 261 -262 A.D.;
obverse - GALLIENVS AVG, radiate bust right without drapery or cuirass;
reverse - VIRTVS AVG, Mars standing left, globe outstretched in right, vertical spear in left, P right; scarce variety;

Gallienus was the son of Valerian I and was named Caesar at his father's accession to the throne in 253 A.D. Upon his father's capture by the Parthians he assumed the rank of Augustus and began numerous reforms and military campaigns to defend the empire, as much from usurpers as from barbarians. At the same time he presided over perhaps the last flowering of classical Roman culture, patronizing poets, artists and philosophers. Gallienus was assassinated while besieging Milan.
b70
51306.jpg
Gallienus, August 253 - 24 March 268 A.D.9 viewsBronze antoninianus, RIC 613, F, Antioch, 3.278g, 22,34mm, 0o, 266 A.D.; obverse GALLIENVS AVG, radiate and cuirassed bust right; reverse FORTVNA REDVX, Fortuna standing left, caduceus in right, cornucopia in left, VIIC in ex;

Gallienus was the son of Valerian I and was named Caesar at his father's accession to the throne in 253 A.D. Upon his father's capture by the Parthians he assumed the rank of Augustus and began numerous reforms and military campaigns to defend the empire, as much from usurpers as from barbarians. At the same time he presided over perhaps the last flowering of classical Roman culture, patronizing poets, artists and philosophers. Gallienus was assassinated while besieging Milan.
b70
15652q00.jpg
Gallienus, August 253 - 24 March 268 A.D.30 viewsBronze antoninianus, RIC 610, F, Antioch mint, 3.344g, 21.5mm, 0o, 267 A.D.; obverse GALLIENVS AVG, radiate and cuirassed bust right; reverse SALVS AVG, Apollo standing left holding branch, resting elbow on tripod, PXV in ex

Gallienus was the son of Valerian I and was named Caesar at his father`s accession to the throne in 253 A.D. Upon his father`s capture by the Parthians he assumed the rank of Augustus and began numerous reforms and military campaigns to defend the empire, as much from usurpers as from barbarians. At the same time he presided over perhaps the last flowering of classical Roman culture, patronizing poets, artists and philosophers. Gallienus was assassinated while besieging Milan.


cwonsidler
GALLIEN-8-ROMAN.jpg
Gallienus, RIC V(1)-447.C Samosata34 viewsBillon Antoninianus
Samosata mint, 258-260 A.D.
22mm, 3.55g
RIC V(1)-447, RSCv.4-792c,
RCVv.3-10312

Obverse:
IMP C P LIC GALLIENVS P F AVG
Radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right.

Reverse:
PIETAS AVGG
Wreath with dot in center field.
Valerian and Gallienus standing facing each other, sacrificing over altar between them, one holding eagle-tipped sceptre, the other parazonium.
rubadub
felicitas.jpg
Gallienus/Diana Antoninianus.91 viewsGallienus Billon Antoninianus. Viminacium mint, 253-254 AD. IMP C P LIC GALLIENVS AVG, radiate draped bust right / FELICITAS SAECVLI, Diana advancing right holding long torch in both hands. RSC 206a. Ric v-1 291 Moesia/Viminacium. Joint reign of Gallienus with valerian. Rarity:S,253-254. Wonderful desert patina.6 commentstiberiusjulius
Gallienus_AE_1.JPG
Gallienus; joint reign with Valerian 253-260 AD; sole reign 260-268 AD13 viewsAntonivs Protti
coin_1_quart.jpg
GALLIENVS AVG / FIDES MILIT AE/Bi. antoninianus (260-268 A.D.)23 viewsGALLIENVS AVG, radiate head right, one ribbon behind, one forward across shoulder/ FIDES MILIT, Fides Militum standing left, holding vexillum and long scepter, MP or MD in exergue.

AE3, 17mm, 1.27g, die axis 6 (coin alignment), material: bronze/copper-based alloy

AVG = Augustus. Fides was the Roman goddess of trustworthiness and good faith. Fides Militum = "Military confidence" or "Army's loyalty". Sceptres, often two to three foot ivory rods topped with a globe or an eagle, were introduced by Augustus as a symbol of Rome's power. They would be carried by emperors while riding in chariots to celebrate military victories and thus a scepter is a symbol of emperor's leadership and victory. Vexillum -- ensign of a section of legion. MD may mean Mediolanum mint, MP may mean Mediolanum pecunia (coin) or Mediolanum mint, prima officina (workshop #1). Either way, it was probably minted at Mediolanum.

Very similar to a coin (with MP mintmark), listed at WildWinds with references to RIC V-1, Milan 481K; Goebl 1370a; Sear 10214. http://www.wildwinds.com/coins/ric/gallienus/RIC_0481.jpg

Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus Augustus. The son of emperor Valerian and his wife Mariniana. Born c. 218. Co-emperor with his father since Oct 253. His sons Valerian II and Saloninus were named his co-emperors and heirs, but both died early (Valerian II in 258 and Saloninus in 260). His father was infamously captured after the Battle of Edessa by Sassanian Persian king Shapur I, also in 260, leaving Gallienus a sole ruler. His whole career was spent dealing with innumerable invasions and revolts, which speaks to his credit, because despite this he managed to stay in power for so long. Famous for his military reforms and the first decree of tolerance of Christianity. Despite this some martyrologies mention his as a persecutor, probably mistaking him for his father's actions during their joint reign. Infamous for losing Gaul and Palmyra. Died in Sept 268 in Mediolanum as a result of yet another military coup, Fides Militum finally failed him. Succeeded by one of his generals Claudius Gothicus, later known as Claudius II. There were some rumors that Claudius was the one who murdered Gallienus, but this was never proved.
Yurii P
GordII.jpg
Gordian II Africanus / Victory64 viewsGordian II Africanus. Silver Denarius, AD 238. Rome.
O: IMP M ANT GORDIANVS AFR AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust of Gordian II right.
R: VICTO-RIA AVGG, Victory advancing left, holding wreath and palm.
- RIC 2; BMC 28; RSC 12.

Gordian II (Marcus Antonius Gordianus Sempronianus Romanus Africanus Augustus), was Roman Emperor for one month with his father Gordian I in 238, the Year of the Six Emperors. The double "GG" in "AVGG" (Augustus) on the reverse was to show that power was shared between the two men although Gordian II did not receive the additional title of high priest or Pontifex Maximus. He died in battle outside of Carthage.

Confronted by a local elite that had just killed Maximinus's procurator, Gordian's father (Gordian I) was forced to participate in a full-scale revolt against Maximinus in 238 and became Augustus on March 22.

Due to his advanced age, Gordian I insisted that his son, Marcus Antonius Gordianus (Gordian II), be associated with him. A few days later, Gordian entered the city of Carthage with the overwhelming support of the population and local political leaders. Meanwhile in Rome, Maximinus' praetorian prefect was assassinated and the rebellion seemed to be successful. Gordian in the meantime had sent an embassy to Rome, under the leadership of Publius Licinius Valerianus, to obtain the Senate’s support for his rebellion. The senate confirmed the new emperor on 2 April and many of the provinces gladly sided with Gordian.

Opposition would come from the neighboring province of Numidia. Capelianus, governor of Numidia, loyal supporter of Maximinus Thrax, and who held a grudge against Gordian, renewed his alliance to the former emperor and invaded Africa province with the only legion stationed in the region, III Augusta, and other veteran units. Gordian II, at the head of a militia army of untrained soldiers, lost the Battle of Carthage and was killed, and Gordian I took his own life by hanging himself with his belt. The Gordians had reigned only twenty-two days.
3 commentsNemonater
rp219.jpg
Greek, Kyme Aeolis. Pseudo-autonomous coinage223 viewsAE 24 (7.8 g)
obv: IEPA CYNKΛHTOC, draped and diademed bust of the Senate right
rev: E ACK[Λ]ANIOV B KVM/AIΩN, Isis Pelagia on galley right holding inflated sail with both hands and left foot.

Ref: -

- BMC 116 (different magistrate) EΠ EΛΠIΔHΦOPOV KVMAI
- Forni 50 (different magistrate) EΠ EΛΠIΔHΦOPOV KVMAI
- Mionnet suppl VI n. 129 reverse legend CAC….. NOV B KVMAIΩN.

I think the actual reverse legend is probably E ACKΛANIOV B KVMAIΩN as appears on the reverse listed for another issue, Forni 46 (Senate bust vs Tyche, time of Gordianus (?), Valerianus and Gallienus).
1 commentstacrolimus
ValerianusI-AE35-SELEUCIAadCALYCADNUM-ArtemisApollo.JPG
I - VALERIANUS I - b-01 - AE36 - CILICIA // SELEUCIA AD CALYCADNOS - SNG Levante 786v 9 viewsAv) AV K ΠO ΛIK OVAΛEPIANOC
Radiate, draped & cuirassed bust right

Rv) CЄΛЄVKЄΩN TΩN ΠPOC KAΛVKAΔNΩ
Confronted busts of Apollo, laureate, facing right, laurel branch before, and Artemis-Tyche, wearing small modius and facing left, cornucopiae behind

Weight: 21.43 g; Ř: 36 mm, References: SNG Levante786v; SNG Leypold 2613


sulcipius
Valerianus-Provprg-NEOCAESAREA-PreisunrneKranz-vglSEAR4424.jpg
I - VALERIANUS I - b-02 - AE27 - POTUS // NEOCAESAREA - compare:SEAR/442413 viewsAv) AV K ΠΟΛIKO VAΛΛEPIANOC
Radiate, draped & cuirassed bust right

Rv) KOI ΠONT MHT NEOKAICA
Wearth in center prize crown

Weight: 12,48g; Ř: 27mm; Reference: vgl.: SEAR/4424
sulcipius
5171LG_Ionia,_Ephesus__Valerian_II_Caesar_AD_256-258,_20_5mm_(4_06g)___Possibly_unpublished.jpg
Ionia, Ephesus. AE20.5mm, Bust right/ TVXH EΦECIΩN; Tyche standing left17 viewsIonia, Ephesus. Valerian II Caesar A.D. 256-258, 20.5mm (4.06g) KOP OVΛEPIANOC KAI; Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right. TVXH EΦECIΩN; Tyche standing left, holding rudder and cornucopiae. Possibly unpublished; Ex Gert Boersema, photo credit Gert BoersemaPodiceps
Iran027.jpg
Iran, Naqsh-e-Rostam, Fars Province46 viewsThe Sasanian king Shahpur I (241-272 AD) with his characteristic hairdo, the korymbos, in front of two prisoners, the supplicant Roman emperor Valerian and Philip the Arab after the battle of Edessa in 240 AD
Schatz
flaccus.jpg
L Valerius Flaccus 108-107, Denarius28 viewsRoman Republic, L Valerius Flaccus 108-107, Denarius

Head of Victory winged right "*" below chin

Mars standing left carrying a trophy. Corn stalk behind. " L VALERI / FLACCO"

Valeria 11

3.80 gm
Philoromaos
L_VALERIUS_FLACCUS.jpg
L VALERIUS FLACCUS ROMAN REPUBLIC; GENS VALERIA AR Denarius10 viewsOBVERSE: Draped bust of Victory right, star under chin
REVERSE: Mars walking left, carrying trophy; L. VALERI./ FLACCI. and a flamen's cap before before and grain-ear behind
Struck at Rome 108-109 BC
3.7g, 18mm
Cr306/1, Syd 565, Valeria 11
Legatus
flac.jpg
L. Valerius Flaccus, (108 - 107 B.C.)122 viewsAR Denarius
O: Winged and draped bust of Victory right, X below chin.
R: LVALERI / FLACCI (downwards on left), Mars walking left, spear in right, trophy in left over shoulder, apex left, head of grain behind.
Rome
20.0mm
3.89g
SRCV I 183, Sydenham 565, Crawford 306/1, RSC I Valeria 11

Mars and the apex recall that the moneyer's father held the office of Flamen Martialis. Crawford concludes the office of moneyer may have been consider a career substitute for aedileship and the grain on the reverse advertises the moneyer would have distributed grain had he been elected Aedile. -- Roman Republican Coinage by Michael H. Crawford
5 commentsMat
Valeria_1a_img.jpg
L. Valerius Flaccus, denarius, 108 - 107 B.C.12 viewsObv:– Winged and draped bust of Victory right
Rev:– LVALERI / FLACCI (downwards on left), Mars walking left holding spear in right and trophy in left, apex left, head of grain behind
Minted in Rome from . 108 - 107 B.C.
Reference:– SRCV I 183, Sydenham 565, Crawford 306/1, RSC I Valeria 11
1 commentsmaridvnvm
mytilene2z.jpg
Lesbos, Mytilene. AE20, ca AD 250-26845 viewsMytilene, Lesbos. AE20, ca AD 250-268, time of Valerian to Gallienus. 2.4gm. Head of Zeus Ammon right with horn of Ammon / MUTILH-NAIWN, bearded herm of Dionysos facing, on prow, bunch of grapes at lower left. BMC 184ancientone
Aur_and_Jupiter_Siscia_.jpg
Lucius Domitius Aurelianus - Aurelian, Emperor 270 - 275 AD2 viewsAurelian -- Emperor and Jupiter -- Siscia

Obv: IMP AVRELIANVS AVG; bust of Aurelian radiate, cuirassed, facing r.
Rev: IOVI CON/SER; Emperor in military dress standing r., holding short scepter in l. hand, receiving in r. hand a globe from Juipter who is standing l. naked except for a cloak hanging from his l. arm, handing a globe to Aurelian with his r. hand while holding a long scepter in his l. hand, ✶Q in exergue.
Denomination: billon antoninianus; Mint: Siscia; Officina: 4; Issue: 5 or 6;1 Date: end 271 - autumn 272 AD or autumn 272 - early 274 AD;2 Weight: 3.37g; Diameter: 23.13mm; Die axis: 180ş; References, for example: RIC V v.1 225; Hunter IV 78 and 78 (except for officina mark); BnF XII.1 789 - 793 or 805 - 806; MER-RIC 2157 or 2220.

Notes:

1,2I am unable to discern the differences between issues 5 and 6, so I am unable to place this coin in its proper issue and date.

Photo Credit: Marc Breitsprecher - Classical Numismatist

Sources

BnF: Estiot, Sylviane. Monnaies de L’Empire romain XII.1: D’Aurelian ŕ Florien. Bibliothčque nationale de France: Poinsignon Numismatique, 2004.
MER - RIC: Maison de l’Orient et la Méditerranée: Monnaies de l’Empire Romain/Roman Imperial Coinage AD 268-276. http://www.ric.mom.fr/en/home
Robertson, Anne. Roman Imperial Coins in the Hunter Coin Cabinet, Vol. IV Valerian I to Allectus. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1978.
Webb, Percy. The Roman Imperial Coinage, Vol. V, Part 1: Valerian to Florian, edited by Harold Mattingly and Edward Sydenham. London: Spink & Son, 1927.
Tracy Aiello
Aur_and_Jupiter_Serdica_Off_P.jpg
Lucius Domitius Aurelianus - Aurelian, Emperor 270 - 275 AD1 viewsAurelian -- Emperor and Jupiter -- Serdica Officina 1

Obv: IMP AVRELIANVS AVG; bust of Aurelian radiate, cuirassed, facing r.
Rev: IOVI CON/SER; Emperor in military dress standing r., holding long scepter in l. hand, receiving in r. hand a globe from Juipter who is standing l. naked except for a cloak hanging from his l. arm, handing a globe to Aurelian with his r. hand while holding a long scepter in his l. hand, P in exergue.
Denomination: billon antoninianus; Mint: Serdica; Officina: 1; Issue: 4; Date: early 273 - early 274 AD; Weight: 3.5g; Diameter: 20.69mm; Die axis: 180ş; References, for example: RIC V v.1 260; BnF XII.1 1002;1 MER-RIC 2596.

Notes:

1With the exception of this reference mentioning Aurelian holding a short scepter, the reference is a match.

Photo Credit: Marc R. Breitsprecher, Classical Numismatist

Sources

BnF: Estiot, Sylviane. Monnaies de L’Empire romain XII.1: D’Aurelian ŕ Florien. Bibliothčque nationale de France: Poinsignon Numismatique, 2004.
MER - RIC: Maison de l’Orient et la Méditerranée: Monnaies de l’Empire Romain/Roman Imperial Coinage AD 268-276. http://www.ric.mom.fr/en/home
Webb, Percy. The Roman Imperial Coinage, Vol. V, Part 1: Valerian to Florian, edited by Harold Mattingly and Edward Sydenham. London: Spink & Son, 1927.
Tracy Aiello
Aurelian_Sol_Rome.jpg
Lucius Domitius Aurelianus - Aurelian, Emperor 270 - 275 AD1 viewsAurelian -- Oriens Augustus -- Sol -- Rome

Obv: IMP AVRELIANVS AVG; bust of Aurelian radiate, cuirassed, facing r.
Rev: ORI/ENS AVG; Sol standing half l., radiate, nude but for chlamys over shoulders, r. hand raised, l. hand holding a globe, bound captive in oriental dress seated l. in front of Sol, bound captive in oriental dress seated r. behind Sol and with head turned l., VI in r. field, XXI* in exergue.1
Denomination: reformed antoninianus, i.e. the aurelianus; Mint: Rome; Officina: 6; Issue: 8; Phase: 2; Date: spring - summer 274 AD; Weight: 4.558g; Diameter: 24.5mm; Die axis: 0ş; References, for example: RIC V v.1 63; BnF XII.1 144; MER-RIC 1755.

Notes:

1The presence of XXI on this coin indicates that it is post-reform. Volumes of ink have been spilled by numismatists discussing the meaning of XXI on Aurelian’s post-reform coinage. What do the marks mean? I will paraphrase short sections from Roger Bland’s summation and translation of Estiot (2004 v.1), pp. 39 - 48: Envisioning a restoration of a trimetallic monetary system composed of gold, silver and bronze, the radiate silver aurelianus was intended to be the central element of this restoration. A thin silver wash was applied in order to improve its appearance and its weight was raised to a theoretical 4.03g, or 1/80 of a Roman pound. XXI was a guarantee of the coin’s 5% silver content and can be taken to mean “20 for 1” or “20 to make 1”. This “1” refers to the intended reintroduction [never carried out] of a pure [100%] silver coin, the argenteus, such that 20 aureliani would equal 1 agrenteus. The aurelianus was valued at 2 denarii. (“Monetary System,” Maison de l’Orient et la Méditerranée: Monnaies de l’Empire Romain/Roman Imperial Coinage AD 268-276, accessed December 17, 2019, http://www.ric.mom.fr/en/info/sysmon).

Photo Credit: Forum Ancient Coins

Sources

BnF: Estiot, Sylviane. Monnaies de L’Empire romain XII.1: D’Aurelian ŕ Florien. Bibliothčque nationale de France: Poinsignon Numismatique, 2004.
MER - RIC: Maison de l’Orient et la Méditerranée: Monnaies de l’Empire Romain/Roman Imperial Coinage AD 268-276. http://www.ric.mom.fr/en/home
Webb, Percy. The Roman Imperial Coinage, Vol. V, Part 1: Valerian to Florian, edited by Harold Mattingly and Edward Sydenham. London: Spink & Son, 1927.
Tracy Aiello
Aurelian_Cyzicus.jpeg
Lucius Domitius Aurelianus - Aurelian, Emperor 270 - 275 AD7 viewsAurelian and the Palmyrene Empire

Obv: IMP AVRELIANVS AVG; bust of Aurelian, radiate, curaissed, facing r.
Rev: RESTITVT•OR/IENTIS; emperor in military dress standing l., holding a long sceptre in l. hand, with the r. hand raising a kneeling female figure who is facing r., a modius on her head, ✶C✶ in exergue.
Denomination: antoniniani; Mint: Cyzicus; Officina: 2nd; Issue: 5; Date: early - summer 272 AD; Weight: 4.25g; Diameter: 24.01mm; Die axis: 150ş; References, for example: RIC V v.1 351; Hunter IV 101; SRCV III 11596; BnF 1160; MER - RIC 2952.

Regarding this type/issue at Cyzicus Sylviane Estiot states “The type Restitut●Orientis, the emperor raising the hand of a kneeling woman crowned with a modius (not turreted), resumed a type contemporary with Sisica, 5th issue.” (Estiot 2004 v.1, p. 109. Translation is my own). Regarding the referenced type, 5th issue, at Sisica Estiot states “...the new type Restitutor Orientis depicts the emperor in a military costume standing left, under his hand the personification of a female of the Orient kneeling, not turreted, but with a modius: it is, again, an iconographic detail that alludes to the Roman supply of cereals, compromised by the expansionism of Palmyra in the Orient.” (Estiot 2004 v.1, p. 86. Translation is my own). Although the legends on the two coins at Cyzicus and Sisica are slightly different, the reverse types are the same. Thus, the coin here from Cyzicus is a reference to the threat of the Palmyrene Empire.

Photo Credit: Marc R. Breitsprecher, Classical Numismatist

Sources

BnF: Estiot, Sylviane. Monnaies de L’Empire romain XII.1: D’Aurelian ŕ Florien. Bibliothčque nationale de France: Poinsignon Numismatique, 2004.
MER - RIC: Maison de l’Orient et la Méditerranée: Monnaies de l’Empire Romain/Roman Imperial Coinage AD 268-276. http://www.ric.mom.fr/en/home
Robertson, Anne. Roman Imperial Coins in the Hunter Coin Cabinet, Vol. IV Valerian I to Allectus. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1978.
Sear, David. Roman Coins and Their Values, Vol. III: Maximinus I to Carinus. London: Spink, 2005.
Webb, Percy. The Roman Imperial Coinage, Vol. V, Part 1: Valerian to Florian, edited by Harold Mattingly and Edward Sydenham. London: Spink & Son, 1927.
1 commentsTracy Aiello
Aurelian_Billon_Denarius_Rome.jpg
Lucius Domitius Aurelianus - Aurelian, Emperor 270 - 275 AD10 viewsAurelian -- Victoria Augusta -- Rome

Obv: IMP AVRELI/ANVS AVG; bust of Aurelian, laureate, curaissed, facing r.
Rev: VICT/ORI/A AVG, Victory walking l., wreath extended in r. hand, palm frond in l. hand, bound captive in Parthian garb seated l. at Victory's feet, head turned back r. looking at Victory, B in exergue.
Denomination: billon denarius1; Mint: Rome; Officina: 2nd; Issue: 11; Date: early - September 275 AD; Weight: 2.756g; Diameter: 19.3mm; Die axis: 0ş; References, for example: RIC V v.1 73; Hunter IV, no. 3 pp. cviii-cix; SRCV III 116412; BnF XII.1 260; MER-RIC 1854.

Notes:

1Estiot (2004, v.1) interprets a denarius minted in Rome at this point in time (275 AD) as a coin playing a part in Aurelian’s coinage reform, best known by coins (aureliani) bearing the mark XXI (XX at the Ticinum mint, sometimes XX•I at the Siscia mint) and the Greek equivalent KA. For a discussion of this see Roger Bland’s summation and translation of Estiot (2004 v.1), pp. 39 - 48, at “Monetary System,” Maison de l’Orient et la Méditerranée: Monnaies de l’Empire Romain/Roman Imperial Coinage AD 268-276, http://www.ric.mom.fr/en/info/sysmon.
2I found Sear’s reference a bit confusing. I believe that it is not enough to look at the previous reference, per Sear’s write-up. Both 11640 and 11639 must be consulted in order to piece this coin together: 11640 for the obverse (which actually references 11637) and 11639 for the reverse.

Photo Credit: Forum Ancient Coins

Sources

BnF: Estiot, Sylviane. Monnaies de L’Empire romain XII.1: D’Aurelian ŕ Florien. Bibliothčque nationale de France: Poinsignon Numismatique, 2004.
MER - RIC: Maison de l’Orient et la Méditerranée: Monnaies de l’Empire Romain/Roman Imperial Coinage AD 268-276. http://www.ric.mom.fr/en/home
Robertson, Anne. Roman Imperial Coins in the Hunter Coin Cabinet, Vol. IV Valerian I to Allectus. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1978.
Sear, David. Roman Coins and Their Values, Vol. III: Maximinus I to Carinus. London: Spink, 2005.
Webb, Percy. The Roman Imperial Coinage, Vol. V, Part 1: Valerian to Florian, edited by Harold Mattingly and Edward Sydenham. London: Spink & Son, 1927.
4 commentsTracy Aiello
Aur_and_Jupiter_Serdica_Off_S.jpg
Lucius Domitius Aurelianus - Aurelian, Emperor 270 - 275 AD1 viewsAurelian -- Emperor and Jupiter -- Serdica Officina 2

Obv: IMP AVRELIANVS AVG; bust of Aurelian radiate, cuirassed, facing r.
Rev: IOVI CON/SER; Emperor in military dress standing r., holding scepter1 in l. hand, receiving in r. hand a globe from Juipter who is standing l. naked except for a cloak hanging from his l. arm, handing a globe to Aurelian with his r. hand while holding a long scepter in his l. hand, S in exergue.
Denomination: billon antoninianus; Mint: Serdica; Officina: 2; Issue: 4; Date: early 273 - early 274 AD; Weight: 3.76g; Diameter: 26.75mm; Die axis: 180ş; References, for example: RIC V v.1 260; BnF XII.1 1005;2 MER-RIC 2612 (Aurelian’s scepter is long) or 2617 (Aurelian’s scepter is short).

Notes:

1Since this part of the coin is worn off I cannot determine if Aurelian holds a short or a long scepter.
2If this coin represented Aurelian holding a short scepter, then the reference would be an exact match.

Photo Credit: Marc R. Breitsprecher, Classical Numismatist

Sources

BnF: Estiot, Sylviane. Monnaies de L’Empire romain XII.1: D’Aurelian ŕ Florien. Bibliothčque nationale de France: Poinsignon Numismatique, 2004.
MER - RIC: Maison de l’Orient et la Méditerranée: Monnaies de l’Empire Romain/Roman Imperial Coinage AD 268-276. http://www.ric.mom.fr/en/home
Webb, Percy. The Roman Imperial Coinage, Vol. V, Part 1: Valerian to Florian, edited by Harold Mattingly and Edward Sydenham. London: Spink & Son, 1927.
Tracy Aiello
Aurelian_Concordia_Siscia_270.jpg
Lucius Domitius Aurelianus - Aurelian, Emperor 270 - 275 AD1 viewsAurelian -- Concordia Mili -- Siscia

Obv: IMP C AVRELIANVS AVG; bust of Aurelian radiate, draped, cuirassed, facing r.
Rev: CONC/ORDIA MILI; two Concordiae standing facing each other slightly inward, Concordia on the l. holds a standard in the r. hand while the Concordia on r. holds a standard in the l. hand; between them another standard is held by both, S in exergue.
Denomination: billon antoninianus; Mint: Siscia; Officina: 2; Issue: 1; Date: October - November 270 AD; Weight: 2.96g; Diameter: 20.9mm; Die axis: 180ş; References, for example: RIC V v.1 199; Hunter IV, no. 1 p. cxii ; SRCV III 11521;1 BnF XII.1 681 (same legend break, different officina mark); MER-RIC 1952.

Notes:

1This reference matches the obverse legend, the reverse legend, and the reverse type. One must go back to 11479 for the bust type.

Photo Credit: Forum Ancient Coins

Sources

BnF: Estiot, Sylviane. Monnaies de L’Empire romain XII.1: D’Aurelian ŕ Florien. Bibliothčque nationale de France: Poinsignon Numismatique, 2004.
MER - RIC: Maison de l’Orient et la Méditerranée: Monnaies de l’Empire Romain/Roman Imperial Coinage AD 268-276. http://www.ric.mom.fr/en/home
Robertson, Anne. Roman Imperial Coins in the Hunter Coin Cabinet, Vol. IV Valerian I to Allectus. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1978.
Sear, David. Roman Coins and Their Values, Vol. III: Maximinus I to Carinus. London: Spink, 2005.
Webb, Percy. The Roman Imperial Coinage, Vol. V, Part 1: Valerian to Florian, edited by Harold Mattingly and Edward Sydenham. London: Spink & Son, 1927.
Tracy Aiello
Valeria_11.JPG
Lucius Valerius Flaccus25 viewsObv: Winged and draped bust of Victory facing right, XVI below chin.

Rev: L VALERI / FLACCI (downwards on left), Mars walking left, holding a spear in his right hand and a trophy in his left, an apex before him on left, head of grain behind.

Silver Denarius, Rome mint, 108 - 107 BC

3.7 grams, 19.5 mm, 225°

RSC Valeria 11, S183

Ex: FORVM
SPQR Matt
V4521LG_Lydia,_Thyatira__Valerian_II_Caesar_AD_256-258,_AE_17_7mm.jpg
Lydia, Thyatira. Bust right/ ΘVATEIPHNΩN; Apollo Tyrimnaeus standing left with branch and double axe21 viewsLydia, Thyatira. Valerian II Caesar A.D. 256-258, AE 17.7mm. K OVΛEPIANOC; Bare-headed, draped bust right, ΘVATEIPHNΩN; Apollo Tyrimnaeus standing left, nude but for cloak hanging from his shoulders, holding branch in l.hand, double axe in r. Apparently unpublished; Ex Gert Boersema, photo credit Gert BoersemaPodiceps
BouleTrallesProvincial1a.jpg
Lydia, Tralles. Possibly time of Valerian. Unrecorded.19 viewsLydia, Tralles. Time of Valerian(?) (AD 253–260). Ć 32mm, 8.4 g, 6h.
Obverse: [ΚΛ]ΑΥΔΙΑ ΒΟΥΛΗ, laureate head of the Boule right.
Reverse: [ΕΠ?] • [Γ?] Μ ΑΥΡ Ζ - ΩΣΙΜ[...], unknown goddess to left, standing right with raised scepter(?) in left hand; Demeter to right, standing left with staff in left hand and unknown object in right; lit altar between.
References: Cf. Weber 6946 (for obv. and magistrate)
Ex Slaven Georgiev, 6-25-2011.

Appears to be the same obverse die as Weber 6946 (pl. 246).
Mark Fox
Mariniana14_50g_S_10073.jpeg
Mariniana30 viewsDiva Mariniana, wife of Valerian I, Ć Sestertius, 14.50g. Rome mint. DIVAE MARINIANAE, veiled, diademed & draped bust right / CONSECRATIO S-C, peacock standing facing, head left, feathers in full display. RIC 9, Sear 10073.1 commentsMolinari
mariniana ant-.jpg
MARINIANA AR antoninianus AD25466 viewsobv:DIVAE MARINIANAE
rev:CONSECRATIO (peacock flying right, carrying Mariniana, veiled, with raised hand & scepter)
ref:RIC6, C.14
mint:Rome
Rare
Mariniana was the wife of Valerian and mother of Gallienus. The absence
of the title Augusta would suggest that she died before the their accessions.
2 commentsberserker
mariniana.jpg
Mariniana, CONSECRATIO, giant peacock flying right, carrying Mariniana12 viewsMariniana, AR Antoninianus. Rome AD 253-254. DIVAE MARINIANAE, veiled & draped bust right on crescent (without diadem)/ CONSECRATIO, peacock flying right, carrying Mariniana, veiled, with raised hand & scepter. RIC 6, RSC 16. Sear RCV III: 10070. Mariniana was the wife of Valerian and mother of Gallienus. The absence of the title Augusta would suggest that she died before their accessions. According to Sear RSC III, issues lacking the diadem may represent a provincial issue (Viminacium?) as being stylistically distinctive.Podiceps
MARISE01-1.jpg
Mariniana, RIC (Valerian) 10, Sestertius of AD 253-2608 viewsĆ Sestertius (12,96g, Ř 28mm, 12h). Rome mint. Struck AD 253-260
Obv.: DIVAE MARINIANAE, Veiled and draped bust right, w. stephane & set on crescent.
Rev.: CONSECRATIO around, S C below, Peacock standing right, with tail spread.
RIC (Valerian) 10 ; Banti 5
Ex CNG Electronic Auction 349 (2015); ex Wayne C. Phillips estate.
Charles S
MARINIAN-1.jpg
Mariniana, wife of Valerian I.213 viewsAR antoninianus (23.5 mm, 3.04 gm). Rome mint, 253-257 CE.
Obv: DIVAE MARINIANVAE, diademed, veiled bust right on crescent.
Rev: CONSECRATIO, peacock standing facing, head left, tail in splendor.
RIC 3; Cohen 3; Göbl 212b; RSC 2; Sear4 2927; Eauze hoard 1318 (23 spec.); Cunetio hoard 646 (22 spec.). Ex Harlan Berk.
1 commentsEmpressCollector
Mariniana_Diva.JPG
MARINIANA. Commemorative AR Antoninianus of Rome. Struck A.D.253 - 254 under Valerian I.133 viewsObverse: DIVAE MARINIANAE. Diademed and veiled bust of Mariniana, resting on crescent, facing right.
Reverse: CONSECRATIO. Mariniana being borne to heaven seated on the back of a peacock flying right.
Diameter: 21mm | Weight: 2.18gms | Die Axis: 6
RIC V i : 6
RARE

Mariniana was the wife of Valerian I but it would seem that she must have died before he became emperor because all of her coins are posthumous commemoratives.
1 comments*Alex
LEG_XX_002.jpg
Mark Antony Legionary Denarius LEG XX 47 viewsANT AVG III VIR R P C
galley r. mast with banners at prow

Rev LEG XX legionary eagle between two standards

Patrae mint 32-31BC

SOLD

The 20th legion was founded in 49 BC by Julius Caesar.

B. The 20th Valeria was founded by Pompey in 84 BC, it was given the vacant 20th number by Augustus in 31-30 BC. Augustus granted the legion the title "Victrix" in about 25 BC.

Unfortunately I can't link the 20th legion of Mark Antony to an exact Imperial Legion. David Sear writes that Legio XX may have been raised after Actium, in which case it could have contained some elements of Antony's disbanded twentieth.
Titus Pullo
LEG_XX.jpg
Mark Antony Legionary Denarius LEG XX55 viewsANT AVG III VIR R P C
galley right, mast with banners at prow

LEG XX
legionary eagle between two standards

IE bankers marks on the reverse.

Patrae mint 32-31BC
2.89g

The 20th legion was founded in 49 BC by Julius Caesar.

B. The 20th Valeria was founded by Pompey in 84 BC, it was given the vacant 20th number by Augustus in 31-30 BC. Augustus granted the legion the title "Victrix" in about 25 BC.

Unfortunately I can't link the 20th legion of Mark Antony to an exact Imperial Legion. David Sear writes that Legio XX may have been raised after Actium, in which case it could have contained some elements of Antony's disbanded twentieth.
1 commentsJay GT4
bigun_jg_01_smaller.jpg
MAXIMIANUS60 viewsMAXIMIANUS
28.6 mm, 180ş,
Laureate head right / Fides standing left holding two standards.
Obverse legend: IMP MAXIMIANVS P F AVG
Reverse legend: FIDES MILITVM AVGG ET CAESS NN
In ex.: AQP
-------------------------------------
RIC VI 60b p319
A reverse legend that appears only at Aquileia c. 305-306.

(Marcus Aurelius Valerianus Maximianus)
Junior co-Emperor of the First Tetrarchy
AD 286-305
Tkonnova
Claudius_and_Messalina.jpg
Messalina23 viewsClaudius & Valeria Messalina, Tetradrachm
Struck at Alexandria in Egypt in regnal year 1 (A.D. 41/2).
Obv: TI KΛAΩΔI KAIΣ ΣEBA ΓEPMANI AYTOKP, laureate head of Claudius right,
Rev: MEΣΣAΛI-NA KAIΣ ΣEBAΣ, Messalina standing facing, head left, leaning on draped column,
holding figures of two children (Octavia and Britannicus) in extended right hand and cradling two grain ears in left arm.
25 mm 13.21gm.
RPC I 5113.
1 commentsMarsman
CLAUDIUS-1.jpg
Messalina (Valeria), third wife of Claudius. Augusta, 41-48 CE.543 viewsAlexandria, Egypt.
Billon Tetradrachm (24 mm, 10.32 g).
Year 6=AD 45/46.
Obv: TI KLAUDI KAIS SEBA GERMANI AUTOKR, Laureate head of Claudius, right, Ls (=year 6) before.
Rev: MESSALINA KAIS SEBAS, Messalina standing, left, veiled and wearing long chiton and peplos, resting l. elbow on column, holding in the r. hand two figures (their children, Octavia and Britannicus), on her l. arm are two stalks of corn; in lower l. field, a lituus. Sear 1869; SGI 495; RPC 5164; BMCG 75; Cologne 88; Milne 106.
1 commentsEmpressCollector
VIM_Valerianus-I-AE-26_IMP-VALERIANVS-PF-AVG_PMSC_OL-VIM_AN-XVI_Pick-190_PM-7-06-2_Mus-62v_Q-001_h_26mm_7,03gx-s~0.jpg
Moesia, Viminacium, 088p Valerian I. (253-260 A.D.), PM 07-06-02, AE-Sestertius, -/-//ANXVI, P M S COL VIM, Female figure standing, facing left, Rare! #0162 viewsMoesia, Viminacium, 088p Valerian I. (253-260 A.D.), PM 07-06-02, AE-Sestertius, -/-//ANXVI, P M S COL VIM, Female figure standing, facing left, Rare! #01
avers: IMP VALERIANVS P F AVG, laureate cuirassed bust right.
reverse: P M S C OL VIM (Provinciae Moesiae Superioris Colonia Viminacium), Female figure (Viminacium or Provincia Moesia) standing, facing left, between bull to left and lion to right, in exergue ANXVI.
exergue: -/-//ANXVI, diameter: 26mm, weight: 7,03g, axis: h,
mint: Viminacium, date: 254-255 A.D., ref: Pick-190, PM-7-06-2, Mus-62var,
Q-001
quadrans
VIM_Valerianus-I-AE-26_IMP-VALERIANVS-P-AVG_PMSC_OL-VIM_AN-XVI_Pick-190_PM-7-06-5_Mus-62v_Q-001_h_mm_g-s.jpg
Moesia, Viminacium, 088p Valerian I. (253-260 A.D.), PM 07-06-05, AE-Sestertius, -/-//ANXVI, P M S COL VIM, Female figure standing, facing left, Rare! #0174 viewsMoesia, Viminacium, 088p Valerian I. (253-260 A.D.), PM 07-06-05, AE-Sestertius, -/-//ANXVI, P M S COL VIM, Female figure standing, facing left, Rare! #01
avers: IMP VALERIANVS P AVG, laureate cuirassed bust right.
reverse: P M S C OL VIM (Provinciae Moesiae Superioris Colonia Viminacium), Female figure (Viminacium or Provincia Moesia) standing, facing left, between bull to left and lion to right, in exergue ANXVI.
exergue: -/-//ANXVI, diameter: mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Moesia, Viminacium, date: 254-255 A.D., ref: Pick-190, PM-7-06-5, Mus-,
Q-001
quadrans
VIM_Valerianus-I-AE-26_IMP-VALERIANVS-P-AVG_PMSC_OL-VIM_AN-XVI_Pick-190_PM-7-06-5_Mus-62v_Q-002_0h_26,5-28,5mm_8,96ga-s.jpg
Moesia, Viminacium, 088p Valerian I. (253-260 A.D.), PM 07-06-05, AE-Sestertius, -/-//ANXVI, P M S COL VIM, Female figure standing, facing left, Rare! #0299 viewsMoesia, Viminacium, 088p Valerian I. (253-260 A.D.), PM 07-06-05, AE-Sestertius, -/-//ANXVI, P M S COL VIM, Female figure standing, facing left, Rare! #02
avers: IMP VALERIANVS P AVG, laureate cuirassed bust right.
reverse: P M S C OL VIM (Provinciae Moesiae Superioris Colonia Viminacium), Female figure (Viminacium or Provincia Moesia) standing, facing left, between bull to left and lion to right, in exergue ANXVI.
exergue: -/-//ANXVI, diameter: 26,5-28,5mm, weight: 8,96g, axis: 0h,
mint: Moesia, Viminacium, date: 254-255 A.D., ref: Pick-190, PM-7-06-5, Mus-,
Q-002
quadrans
VIM_Mariniana_AE-27_DIVAE-MARINIANAE_PMSC_OL-VI_AN-XVI_Pick-na_PM-7-08-2_Mus-64_Q-001_axis-h_27mm_9_76gx-s.jpg
Moesia, Viminacium, 089p Mariniana (??? A.D.), PM 07-08-02, AE-Sestertius, -/-//ANXVI, P M S COL VIM, Female figure standing, facing left, Rare! #01293 viewsMoesia, Viminacium, 089p Mariniana (??? A.D.), PM 07-08-02, AE-Sestertius, -/-//ANXVI, P M S COL VIM, Female figure standing, facing left, Rare! #01
Wife of Valerian I.
avers: DIVAE MARINIANAE, Veiled and draped bust right.
reverse: P M S C OL VIM (Provinciae Moesiae Superioris Colonia Viminacium), Female figure (Viminacium or Provincia Moesia) standing, facing left, between bull to left and lion to right, in exergue ANXVI.
exergue: -/-//ANXVI, diameter: 27mm, weight:9,76g, axis: h,
mint: Moesia, Viminacium, date: 254-255 AD., ref: Pick-not listed, PM-7-08-2, Mus-not listed,
Q-001
4 commentsquadrans
ParionFounder.jpg
Mysia, Parion. Bust of Parios AE22. Capricorn.39 viewsObv: Youthful male head r. of founder Parios.
Rev: CGIHP / Capricorn r., holding globe, behind cornucopia.
Time of Valerian (253 to 260 A.D.)
ancientone
w0680.jpg
Nike125 viewsHierapolis, Phrygia, time of Caracalla - Valerian. AE-24 mm, 6.59 grs. AV: LAIR-[...]ANOC, Head of Apollo Lairbenos to right, oval CM. RV: IERAPOLEITWN, Honomoia standing to left. CM: Nike. Collection: Mueller.Automan
side_valerianII_SNGpfps882.jpg
Pamphylia, Side, Valerian II, probably unpublished30 viewsValerian II, Caesar AD 256-258, son of Gallienus
AE 30, 18.04g
obv. POV LIK KOR OVALERIANON KAI CEB
Bust, draped and cuirassed, bare-headed, r.; beneath eagle, standing r., with opened wings and head r.
c/m E in circular incus (Howgego 805)
rev. CIDHTWN - NEWKORWN
Athena (Sidetes), helmeted and wearing narrow peplos, stg. facing, head l., holding palmbranch over l. shoulder and dropping voting pebble with r. hand into amphora with two handles l. beside her; r. beside her a branch with a pomegranate.
ref.: cf. SNG Pfälzer Privatsammlungen 882 (Gallienus); probably unpublished
F/about VF, rough obv., rev. with slight strike weakness and distinct circular traces of the ancient smoothing process.
The E of the c/m should probably devaluate the coin from 10 units to 5 units.
Coins from Side often show pomegranates because 'side' in Pamphylian means 'pomegranate'.

For more informations please look at the thread 'Coins of mythological interest'.
Jochen
side_valerianII_SNGpfps882~0.jpg
Pamphylia, Side, Valerian II, probably unpublished (devaluation)17 viewsValerian II, Caesar AD 256-258, son of Gallienus
AE 30, 18.04g
obv. POV LIK KOR OVALERIANON KAI CEB
Bust, draped and cuirassed, bare-headed, r.; beneath eagle, standing r., with opened wings and head r.
c/m E in circular incus (Howgego 805)
rev. CIDHTWN - NEWKORWN
Athena (Sidetes), helmeted and wearing narrow peplos, stg. facing, head l., holding palmbranch over l. shoulder and dropping voting pebble with r. hand into amphora with two handles l. beside her; r. beside her a branch with a pomegranate.
ref.: cf. SNG Pfälzer Privatsammlungen 882 (Gallienus); probably unpublished
F/about VF, rough obv., rev. with slight strike weakness and distinct circular traces of the ancient smoothing process.

The E of the c/m should probably devaluate the coin from 10 units to 5 units.
Jochen
bpP1X1SasanianShapur.jpg
PARTHIA/PERSIA, Shapur I, A.D. 240/42 – 270/7265 viewsObv: Robed bust, right, wearing turreted crown with ear flaps surmounted by lined globe. Pahlavi script within dotted border.
Rev: Unadorned Zoroastrian fire altar with two crowned attendants facing outward and holding staffs. Pahlavi script to either side.
Drachm, 3.4 gm, 25.1 mm, Gobl SN I/1.
Comment: The Eastern bane for the reigns of six Roman Emperors. In at least one account responsible for the death of Gordian III on the battlefield. Captured and tortured the emperor, Valerian I, ultimately having him skinned and displayed as a warning to the Romans to stay out of his affairs. Finally brought under control during the reign of Gallienus by Odaenathus of Palmyra, the great ally of Rome within the Eastern Empire.
The dates of Shapur's reign are commonly given as A.D. 240/42 – 270/72, but it is likely that he also reigned as co-regent with his father, Ardashir I, prior to the latter's death.
Massanutten
berytosValerian.jpg
Phoenicia, Berytos. Valerian AE30. Astarte 39 viewsObv: IMP CP LIC VALERIANVS AVG, Radiate bust right.
Rev: COL IVL AVG FEL BER, Astarte standing front with head right, left foot on prow, holding standard in right hand and aphlastron in left, raising robe. To right Nike on column, crowning her.
30mm and 15.3g.
ancientone
tyros_valerian_BMC458.jpg
Phoenicia, Tyros, Valerian I, BMC 45818 viewsValerian I, AD 253-260
AE - AE 30, 15.54g, 29.87mm, 180°
obv. IMP CP LIC VALERIANVS AVG
Bust, draped and cuirassed, radiate, r.
rev. COL TV - RO METRo
Hermes-Thoth in imation, stg. l., holding kerykeion in l. arm and in extended r. hand papyros role; l. at
his feet Ibis stg. l., on his r. side a date palm with murex snake above.
ref. BMC 458

For more information look at the thread "Coins of mythological interest"
Jochen
tyros_valerianI_Rouvier2502.jpg
Phoenicia, Tyros, Valerian I, Rouvier 250217 viewsValerian I, AD 253-260
AE 28, 13.17g, 27.97mm, 0°
obv. [IMP C P VALERIANVS A]VG
Bust, draped and cuirassed, laureate, r.
rev. [COL T]VRO ME - T
Dido, in long double chiton, himation over l. arm, wearing stephane, stg. l. on Phoenician galley sailing l.,
holding aphlaston in l. arm and reaching with r. hand to person bending l. over side of prow; at her r.
side another small person (helmsman) bending down to the rudder and stretching hand to Dido; stern
decorated with a shield
in exergue murex shell
ref. Rouvier 2502
scarce, F/F+, dark green patina with some earthen incrustations

For more information take a look at the article about Dido in the Mythology Thread.
Jochen
tyros_valerian_SNG cop381.jpg
Phoenicia, Tyros, Valerian I, SNG Copenhagen 38130 viewsValerian I, AD 253-260
AE 30, 17.28g
obv. IMP C LIC VALERIANVS AVG
Bust, draped and radiate, r.
rev. COL TYRO MET
Diomedes, nude except chlamys, stg. l., r. foot on rock, holding palladium in r.
hand and sceptre in l. hand; behind murex-shell
SNG Copenhagen 381; BMC 467
rare, about VF

For more information see the thread 'Mythological coins'.
Jochen
Hierapolis.jpg
Phrygia, Hierapolis in alliance with Ephesus. AE22 Pseudo-autonomous. Boule/Men. 101 viewsObv: IEPAPOLEITWN K EFECIWN, Veiled bust of Boule r.
Rev: NEWKOPWN OMON(OIA), Men in Phrygian cap standing r., head l., r. foot on bull's skull, holding pine cone and scepter.

BMC 187, pl. 52.5 and SNG Copenhagen 470, but seems to be from new dies on both sides.

Commemorating the harmony with Ephesus in Ionia, assigned to the time of Valerian/Gallienus.

Thanks to Curtis Clay for help with attribution.
1 commentsancientone
c4.jpg
Phrygia, Hierapolis in alliance with Ephesus. AE22 Pseudo-autonomous. Boule/Men.20 views
Obv: IEPAPOLEITWN K EFECIWN, Veiled bust of Boule r.
Rev: NEWKOPWN OMON(OIA), Men in Phrygian cap standing r., head l., r. foot on bull's skull, holding pine cone and scepter.
BMC 187, pl. 52.5 and SNG Copenhagen 470, but seems to be from new dies on both sides.

Commemorating the harmony with Ephesus in Ionia. Assigned to the time of Valerian/Gallienus.
ancientone
valerian_285.jpg
PIETAS AVGG, RIC V 285 Antioch8 viewsValerian I, October 253 - c. June 260 A.D. Billon antoninianus, RIC V 285, F, Antioch mint, 2.877g, 21.2mm, 180o, 255 - 256 A.D.; obverse IMP C P LIC VALERIANVS P F AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse PIETAS AVGG, Valerian and Gallienus facing, sacrificing over altar, each togate and holding short scepter, star above. Ex FORVMPodiceps
valerian_285~0.jpg
PIETAS AVGG, Valerian and Gallienus facing; RIC V 285 Antioch6 viewsValerian I, October 253 - c. June 260 A.D. Billon antoninianus, RIC V 285, VF, Antioch mint, 3.370g, 20.2mm, 180o, 255 - 256 A.D.; obverse IMP C P LIC VALERIANVS P F AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse PIETAS AVGG, Valerian and Gallienus facing, sacrificing over altar, each togate and holding short scepter, star above; Ex FORVMPodiceps
valerian_285_antioch.jpg
PIETAS AVGG, Valerian and Gallienus; RIC V 285 Antioch/ Samosata7 viewsValerian I, October 253 - c. June 260 A.D. Billon antoninianus, RIC V 285 (Antioch), MIR 1699l (Samosata), VF, Antioch or Samosata mint, 3.617g, 20.9mm, 0o, 255 - 256 A.D.; obverse IMP C P LIC VALERIANVS P F AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse PIETAS AVGG, Valerian and Gallienus standing confronted, sacrificing over altar between them, each togate and holding short scepter, pellet in wreath above. RIC assigns this issue to Antioch but MIR gives the issue to a second Eastern mint located at Samosata. Samosata was an ancient city on the west bank of the Euphrates whose ruins existed at the modern city of Samsat, Adiyaman Province, Turkey until the site was flooded by the newly-constructed Atatürk Dam. Ex FORVMPodiceps
Gallienus_447_antioch.jpg
PIETAS AVGG, Valerian and Gallienus; RIC V 447 Antioch/ Samosata6 viewsGallienus, August 253 - 24 March 268 A.D. Billon antoninianus, RIC V 447 (Antioch), MIR 1699r (Samosata), gF, Antioch or Samosata mint, 4.351g, 21.6mm, 180o, 255 - 256 A.D.; obverse IMP C P LIC GALLIENVS P F AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right, from behind; reverse PIETAS AVGG, Valerian and Gallienus standing confronted, sacrificing over altar between them, each togate and holding short scepter, star above. RIC assigns this issue to Antioch but MIR gives the issue to a second Eastern mint located at Samosata. Pietas in traditional Latin usage expressed a complex, highly valued Roman virtue; a man or woman with pietas respected his responsibilities to other people, gods and entities (such as the state), and understood his or her place in society with respect to others. Ex FORVMPodiceps
Valerian_I_,_Pisidia,_Antioch,_AE-22_IMP_CAERAS_LL_OVNAHHIR_ANTIOC-HIO_CL__S_R_SNG_France_3-1316__Krzy__VII-35__Q-001_0h_21-22mm_4,24g-s.jpg
Pisidia, Antioch, 088p Valerian I., (253-260 A.D.), SNG France 3 1316, AE-22, S/R//--, ANTIO CHIO CL, Vexilium surmounted by eagle, #1118 viewsPisidia, Antioch, 088p Valerian I., (253-260 A.D.), SNG France 3 1316, AE-22, S/R//--, ANTIO CHIO CL, Vexilium surmounted by eagle, #1
avers: IMP CAERAS LL OVNAHHIR, Radiate, draped, cuirassed bust right.
reverse: ANTIO CHIO CL, Vexilium surmounted by an eagle, between two standards. S-R between the masts.
exergue: S/R//--, diameter: 21-22mm, weight: 4,24g, axis: 0h,
mint: Pisidia, Antioch, date: 253 A.D., ref: SNG France 3, 1316; Krzy. VII, 35.,
Q-001
quadrans
sagalassos_valerianI_SNGaulock5198.jpg
Pisidia, Sagalassos, Valerian I SNG von Aulock 519827 viewsValerian I, AD 253-260
AE 31, 17.61g, 30°
obv. AV K P L - OVALERIANOC
Bust, draped and cuirassed, seen from behind, laureate, r.
in r. field I (for 10 assaria)
rev. CAGA - L - ACCEWN
Hermes, with waving chlamys, running l., holding kerykeion in raised r. hand
and burning torch in raised l. hand
ref. SNG von Aulock 5198
rare, about VF, sand-patina

A similar type is known from Sagalassos for Claudius II, where Hermes with kerykeion and torch is running r., SNG von Aulock 5202
1 commentsJochen
PolemoII.jpg
Polemo II-Mark Antony's great grandson480 views Silver drachm

BACΙΛΕΩC ΠΟΛΕΜΩΝΟC
diademed head of Polemo right

ETOYC - K (year 20)
laureate head of Nero right;

57 - 58 A.D.
3.645g

18.1mm, die axis 180o

RPC I 3832, SNG Cop 242, BMC Pontus 7 - 8, SNG von Aulock 6691

Ex-Forum

Marcus Antonius Polemon Pythodoros, also known as Polemon II of Pontos and Polemon of Cilicia is the only known direct descendant of Mark Antony who bares his name. Through his maternal grandmother he was a direct descendant of Mark Antony and his second wife Antonia Hybrida Minor. Antony and Antonia Hybrida were first paternal cousins. He was Antony’s second born great grandson. Through Antony, he was a distant cousin to Roman Client King Ptolemy of Mauretania and Drusilla of Mauretania. He was also a distant cousin to Roman Emperors Caligula, Claudius and Nero and Roman Empresses Valeria Messalina, Agrippina the Younger and Claudia Octavia.

Polemon II’s father Polemon Pythodoros King of Pontos died in 8 BC. His mother then married King Archelaus of Cappadocia, and the family moved to the court of his stepfather. In 17 AD Archelaus died and Polemon II and his mother moved back to Pontus. From 17 until 38, Polemon II assisted his mother in the administration of Pontos. When his mother died in 38, Polemon II succeeded her as the sole ruler of Pontus, Colchis and Cilicia.

Around 50 AD, Polemon II met the Judean princess Julia Berenice in Tiberias during a visit to King Agrippa I. Berenice was widowed in 48 AD when her second husband and paternal uncle Herod of Chalcis, died. She had two sons by him, Berenicianus and Hyrcanus. Berenice set the condition that Polemon II had to convert to Judaism before marriage, which included undergoing the rite of circumcision. Polemon II complied, and the marriage went ahead but it did not last long. Berenice left Pontus with her sons and returned to the court of her brother. Polemon II abandoned Judaism and, according to the legend of Bartholomew the Apostle, accepted Christianity, only to become a pagan again.

In 62, Nero compelled Polemon II to abdicate the Pontian throne. Pontos and Colchis became a Roman province. From then until his death, Polemon II only ruled Cilicia. He never remarried and had no children that are known.

Polemon's sister Antonia Tryphaena's Royal lineage goes all the way down to Nana Queen of Iberia, who died in 363 AD. Truly Antony may have lost the battle of Actium but won the war of genetics!
8 commentsJay GT4
6058_6059.jpg
Probus, Antoninianus, AEQVITAS AVG, Γ, XXI5 viewsAE Antoninianus
Probus
Augustus: 276 - 282AD
Issued: 276AD
22.0mm 3.20gr
O: IMP CM AVR PROBVS AVG; Radiate, cuirassed bust, right.
R: AEQVITAS AVG; Aequitas standing left, holding scales and cornucopiae.
Exergue: Γ, in right field; XXI, below line.
Rome Mint
Aorta: 1404: B72, O25, R7, T3, M4.
RIC 150,C; Cohen 74.
galeriavaleria 262314705298
3/8/16 1/26/17
Nicholas Z
092_Valerian-II_(256-258_A_D_Caesar),_AE-21,_Ionia,_Smyrna,_Klose_1_8,_SNG_München_456,_255-60AD_Q-001_0h_20,7mm_3,85g-s~0.jpg
R., Ionia, Smyrna, 092 Valerian II. (256-258 A.D.), (third Neokoros), SNG München 456, AE-21, Herakles,111 viewsIonia, Smyrna, 092 Valerian II. (256-258 A.D.), (third Neokoros), SNG München 456, AE-21, Herakles,
avers: - ΠO ΛIK O VAΛEPIANOC, Bare-headed, draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from behind.
revers: - CMΥRNAIΩN Γ NEΩKO/R ΩN, ( Γ are = third Neokoros), Herakles, naked, standing left, holding kantharos and club, lionskin over arm.
exe: -/-//--, diameter: 20,7mm, weight: 3,85g, axis: 0h,
mint: Ionia, Smyrna, date: 255-260B.C., ref: SNG München 456, Klose 1.8, CNG Elec. Auc. 160 (3/2007), lot 198,
Q-001
quadrans
088p_Valerian-I_(253-260_A_D_),_Mysia,_Kyzikos,_AE-25,_Burning_altar,Q-001_7h_25mm_7,68g-s~0.jpg
R., Mysia, Kyzikos, 088p Valerian-I (253-260 A.D.), AE-25, Burning altar,139 viewsR., Mysia, Kyzikos, 088p Valerian-I (253-260 A.D.), AE-25, Burning altar,
avers:- AVK ΛIK Λ VAΛEPIANOC, Laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right .
revers:- CTΡACΩ CTΡATΩY KYZIKEΩN NΩN (retrograde), NEΩKOΡ in ex. Burning altar between two serpent-entwined, burning torches. CΩCTΡATΩY (magistrate).
exergo: -/-//NEΩKOΡ, diameter: 25,0mm, weight: 7,68g, axis: 7h,
mint: Mysia, Kyzikos, date: 253-260 A.D., ref:SNG France 858, CNG e-Auction #68, closed 9 July, 2003, cf. SNG von Aulock 1286 (no altar); cf. SNG Copenhagen (same).
Q-001
quadrans
GI_105a_img.jpg
Reigns of Valerian and Gallienus. AE23, Alexandria, Troas17 viewsAE23
Obv:– CO-L TROA, turreted bust of Tyche right, vexillum behind;
Rev:– CO AVG TRO, eagle, with open wings, standing right on forepart of a bull
Minted in Alexandria, Troas, c. 253 - 268 A.D. reigns of Valerian and Gallienus

22.38 mm. 5.22 gms.
1 commentsmaridvnvm
GI_105a_img~0.jpg
Reigns of Valerian and Gallienus. AE23, Alexandria, Troas 18 viewsAE23
Obv:– CO-L TROA, turreted bust of Tyche right, vexillum behind;
Rev:– CO AVG TRO, eagle, with open wings, standing right on forepart of a bull
Minted in Alexandria, Troas, c. 253 - 268 A.D. reigns of Valerian and Gallienus

22.38 mm. 5.22 gms.
1 commentsmaridvnvm
Valerian_I_restitut_orientis.jpg
RESTITVT ORIENTIS, RIC 287 Antioch7 viewsValerian I, October 253 - c. June 260 A.D. Billon antoninianus, RIC V 287, VF, Antioch mint, 3.433g, 20.8mm, 180o, 255 - 256 A.D.; obverse IMP C P LIC VALERIANVS P F AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse RESTITVT ORIENTIS, turreted female (the Orient) presenting wreath to the Emperor standing left holding spear. Ex FORVM, photo credit FORVMPodiceps
Valerianus_I_02.jpg
RIC 5a, p.045, 74 - Valerian I, Apollo16 viewsValerianus I (253-260)
Antoninianus, Rome
Obv.: IMP C P LIC VALERIANVS AVG, Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right.
Rev.: APOLLINI PROPVG, Apollo standing right, drawing bow.
3.16 g, 21 mm
Ref.: MIR 44d, RIC 74
Ex Helios Numismatik
shanxi
Valerianus_01.jpg
RIC 5a, p.060, 285 - Valerian I, Valerian and Gallienus35 viewsValerian I (253-260)
Antoninianus, AD 255-256, Antioch
Obv.: IMP C P LIC VALERIANVS P F AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev.: PIETAS AVGG, Valerian and Gallienus facing, sacrificing over altar
AE, 3.57g, 19.7mm
Ref.: RIC V 285
shanxi
Valerianus_II_02.jpg
RIC 5a, p.116, 3 - Valerian II, Jupiter, goat22 viewsValerianus II as Caesar
AR Antoninianus, AD 255
Obv.: VALERIANVS CAES, radiate and draped bust right
Rev.: IOVI CRESCENTI, young Jupiter seated facing on goat standing right.
Ag, 3.86g, 20.5mm
Ref.: RIC 3
shanxi
Saloninus_01.jpg
RIC 5a, p.127, 36 - Saloninus, Spes12 viewsSaloninus
Antoninian, Samosata
Obv.: SALON VALERIANVS NOB CAES, Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev.: SPES PVBLICA, Saloninus standing right, holding spear, receiving flower from Spes standing left and lifting hem of dress
Billon, 3.74g, 20 mm
Ref.: RIC V 36
shanxi
Galeria_Valeria_01.jpg
RIC 6, p.536, 43 - Galeria Valeria, Venus20 viewsGaleria Valeria
Ć Follis, Heraclea, circa AD 308-310
Obv.: GAL VALERIA AVG, diademed and draped bust right.
Rev.: VENERI VICTRICI, Venus standing left, holding apple and raising drapery over shoulder; in ex HTB.
Ć, 5.88g, 25.9 mm
Ref.: RIC 43
Ex Helios Numismatik
shanxi
ValerianII.jpg
Roman Coin being Cleaned12 viewsA Roman coin that I'm in the process of cleaningchuy1530
GALERIA_VALERIA.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE - Galeria Valeria14 viewsROMAN EMPIRE - Galeria Valeria, Augusta (293-311 AD) Follis “Venus” Diocletian’s ill-fated daughter, wife of Galerius. Obv: GAL VALERIA AVG – Draped bust right Rev: VENERI VICTRICI – Venus standing left, holding apple and scepter. , 5.8 g. I believe it is Heraclia Mint, RIC 63.
dpaul7
VALERIAN ANT.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE - VALERIAN I19 viewsRIC 285 Valerian AR Antoninianus. Milan mint, 253 AD. IMP C P LIC VALERIANVS P F AVG, radiate, draped bust right / PIETAS AVGG. Emperors sacrificing at altar. Cohen 152. dpaul7
12196q00.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE - VALERIAN I27 viewsBillon antoninianus, RIC 287, aVF, 3.54g, 20.4mm, 0o, Antioch mint, 255 - 256 A.D.; obverse IMP C P LIC VALERIANVS P F AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse RESTITVT ORIENTIS, turreted female (the Orient) presenting wreath to the Emperor standing left holding spear, wreath abovedpaul7
VALERIAN.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE - Valerian I11 viewsROMAN EMPIRE - Valerian I (253-260 AD) AR Antoninianus, Antioch mint, made 257 AD. Obv.: IMP VALERIANVS AVG, radiate, draped bust right Rev.: P M TR P V COS IIII P P, Valerian and Gallienus standing facing each other, resting hands on shields between them, two spears behind. 22mm, 3.93 g. RIC 277; RSC 169; Goebl 1598a.dpaul7
VALERIAN II.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE - VALERIAN II57 viewsSilver antoninianus, RIC 9 (Lugdunum), VF, Koln mint, 3.779g, 23.1mm, 0o, 258 - 259 A.D.; obverse DIVO VALERIANO CAES, radiate and draped bust right; reverse CONSACRATIO (sic), eagle bearing Caesar to heaven; toned, weak reverse strike
dpaul7
GordianusPius-AE25_-TARSOS-Tyche-SNG_Aulock_6042.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE PROVINCIAL, GORDIANUS III, AE35 // CILICIA // TARSOS - SNG Aulock 604250 viewsAv) AVT K M ANT ΓOPΔIANOC CEB
Feld: Π - Π
Radiated, draped and cuirassed bust, senn from the back, looking right

Rv) TAPCOV MHTPOΠOΛEΩC
Feld: A / M / K / B / Γ
Tyche standing left, holding rudder and cornucopiae

Weight:: 18.45 g; Ř: 35 mm: Reference. SNG Aulock 6042

Explanations:

Revers:
A = ΠPOTE =stands for the the number “one“ = THE FIRST
M = MEΓIΣTH = THE GREATEST
K = KAΛΛIΣTH = THE MOST BEAUTIFUL

Tarsos got these three Epitheta from Caracalla

You have to read Γ B and it means:

Γ = 3 = Head oft the three " Eparchia“ (means Provinces) Cilicia, Isauria and Lycaonia
B = 2 = Owner of two " Neokoria“ , (under Valerianus, Tarsos had then three )

Avers:
Π - Π = pater patridos = in Latin Pater Patriae
sulcipius
valeriano8as.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE PROVINCIAL, VALERIAN I105 viewsAE 33. Corycus. 253-260 AD. 22,18,grs. Radiate,draped and cuirassed bust right. AVT K ΠO ΛIK OVAΛEPIAN-OC. / Dionysus standing facing, head left, holding grape cluster and thyrsus, before marked prize crown of which emerge palm branch, aplustre and caduceus, resting on three-legged table. Panther with head reverted towards grapes standing left at his feet . KIΩTΩN AV NAVAP around ,KΩPV in exergue. PX IC in right field.
SNG Levante 819. Same dies.
3 commentsbenito
valerian_anemurium2.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE PROVINCIAL, Valerian I, AE 28, Anemurium Cilicia, SNG Lev 520 (this coin)554 viewsValerian I AE 28mm from Anemurium in Cilicia (SNG Lev 520 = this coin).

Dating to 255-6 AD this large provincial features a rather startled looking portrait of Valerian, crude yet somewhat charming.
3 commentsmauseus
erf_rp1464.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE PROVINCIAL, Valerian II, AE21, Alexandria Troas749 viewsIMP LICI COR VALERIA, Bare-headed draped bust (of Valerian II) right / COL AVG TROA, Horse grazing right.

Bellinger --, Sear --, Lindgren & Kovacs --, Lindgren III --, SNG von Aulock --, SNG Copenhagen --, BMC --

Per Curtis Clay, also Cohen --, SNG Righetti --, SNG Leypold --, Winsemann Falghera --, Berk photofile --
3 commentsflinn
erf_rp2448.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE PROVINCIAL, Valerian, AE21, Alexandria Troas317 viewsIMP LIC VALERIANVS AVG, Laureate draped cuirassed bust right / COL AVG TROAC, Apollo Smintheus standing right, holding patera and bow right, raven at feet right.2 commentsflinn
mZE7L3q2kb6D2F5zNt4DZ5Edi69H8K_(1).jpg
Roman Empire, Galeria Valeria 308-311, Follis25 views7.74g, 24mm
Diademed bust of Galeria right "GAL VALERIA AVG"
Venus standing left, lifting dress and holding apple. "VENERI VICTRICI" "OB" to right, "ANT" in exergue
RIC VI 115
Antioch mint
1 commentsAntonivs Protti
bot18.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Galeria Valeria AE Follis 225 views311 AD. Alexandria mint.
Obv.: GAL VALERIA AVG - Diademed and draped bust of Galeria Valeria.
Rev.: VENERI VICTRICI - Venus holding apple and raising drapery over shoulder. [crescent]/K in l. field, Γ/P in r.; ALE in exergue.
RIC 128A
Minos
bpTetGalVal.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Galeria Valeria, AE Follis54 viewsFollis 7.1 gm 24.8 mm
Obv: GAL VALERIA AVG
Diademed and draped bust, right.
Rev: VENERI VICTRICI CMH
Venus standing, left, raising drapery and holding an apple.
Minted 308-10 at Nicomedia mm: SMNΓ RIC VI, 57
Massanutten
0591-310.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, GALERIA VALERIA, follis RIC 11091 viewsAlexandria mint, 3rd officina, AD 308-310
GAL VAL ERIA AVG, draped and diademed bust right
VENERI V ICTRICI, Venus standing left, holding apple and raising her dress, K | P in lower field, Γ in right field, ALE at exergue
8.46 gr
Ref : RIC # 110, Cohen # 2 var, RCV # 14607 (250)
Potator II
GalValNico.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Galeria Valeria-Nicomedia305 viewsAE Follis (24.8 mm, 7.1 gm). Nicomedia mint, 308-310 CE.
Obv: GAL VAL-ERIA AUG, diademed and draped bust right.
Rev: VENERI VI-CTRICI CMH, Venus standing facing, head left, holding apple and drapery; in exergue SMNGamma.
RIC VI 57; Sear 3730 var.
Submitted by Massanutten
1 commentsMassanutten
bpS1O8Gallienus.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Gallienus (254-268)52 viewsObv: GALLIENVS P F AVG
Radiate and cuirassed bust, right.
Rev: VICT GERMANICA
Victory on globe advancing right with trophy over left shoulder. Captives seated left and right.
Antoninianus, 3.7 gm, 21.8 mm, Cologne RIC 49.
Commentary: Celebrates his expulsion of the Jethungi from Italy.
History (As co-Augustus, 253-260): He was raised to the rank of co-Augustus in 253 by his father, Valerian, and tasked to bring order to the Western half of the Empire. Until 256 he concentrated his efforts against the barbarian hordes crossing the Danube. Having largely met with success, he then turned to the Rhine where until 258, he continued his string of successes in securing the borders against the German invasions. Between 255 and 258, the Senate awarded him the title of Germanicus Maximus five times for his stupendous victories and a belated Dacicus Maximus in 257. In 258 he returned to the Danube to meet fresh incursions by the Goths. In the following year, the Jethungi crossed the Upper Danube and invaded Italy forcing Gallienus to return to the homeland. Initial success was met at Milan followed by complete victory in early 260 at Augsburg with the recovery of thousands of Roman captives. But those successes were marred by the capture of his father by Shapur I.
Massanutten
bpS1O4Gallienus.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Gallienus, Antoninianus40 viewsObv: GALLIENVS AVG
Radiate head, right.
Rev: APOLLINI CONS AVG
Centaur drawing bow, right.
Antoninianus, 2 gm, 19.4 mm, Rome RIC 163
History (As sole Augustus, 260-265, Part I): The loss of Valerian led many to believe that the Empire was ripe for their grab of a portion of the imperial power. The first to revolt in the East was Ingenuus, the Governor of Pannonia and Moesia. Proclaimed Emperor by his Legions, he was defeated soon after by Aureolus, one of Gallienus' field generals. Next to rise was Regalianus who quickly realized a similar fate. Also in 260 the family Macriani revolted, taking with them Syria, Egypt and Asia Minor. Again, Aureolus came through by defeating Macrianus in 261 while his younger brother, Quitus, was removed by Odaenathus, the ruler of Palmyra and ally of Rome. Gallienus could do little about the flood of barbarous incursions in the West, short of sending his young and inexperienced son, Saloninus, to establish the Imperial Presence. Postumus, the Governor of Lower Germany, filled the power vacuum by allowing his Legions to declare him Emperor in 260. thus establishing the seed for a breakaway empire that would last for the next fourteen years. Meanwhile back in the East, the next to revolt was the trusted field commander, Aureolus in 262, but he reneged on the gambit through the intercessions of Gallienus. In the following year or perhaps 264, Gallienus and Aureolus, now put in Command of the newly established mobile cavalry, initiated a campaign in the West to depose Postumus. Greatly successful, the campaign came to a sudden halt in 265 when Gallienus was seriously wounded and Aureolus failed to prevent Postumus from escaping. No further action would be taken against Postumus for the remainder of the reign of Gallienus.
Massanutten
ON_FORVM_Gallienus.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, GALLIENUS. AR ANTONINIANUS of Cologne. Struck A.D.259. 34 viewsObverse: GALLIENVS•P•F•AVG. Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust of Gallienus facing left, holding spear over his right shoulder and shield on his left arm.
Reverse: GERMANICVS MAX V. Trophy, at foot of which, two seated captives, hands bound behind their backs.
RIC V i : 18 (Lugdunum) | RSC IV : 310
SOLD ON FORVM

Entrusted with the defence of the Rhine frontier by Valerian I in A.D.254, Gallienus achieved many victories culminating in a crushing defeat of the Alemanni at Milan in A.D.259, this coin was struck to commemorate the event.
*Alex
GALL_MINERVA.JPG
ROMAN EMPIRE, GALLIENUS. Silvered Antoninianus of Antioch. Struck A.D.266 - 268.181 viewsObverse: GALLIENVS AVG. Radiate and cuirassed bust of Gallienus facing right.
Reverse: MINERVA AVG. Minerva standing facing left, leaning on shield and holding spear in right hand. In exergue, VIIC, which denotes Gallienus' seventh consulate.
RIC V i : 617 Weight 3.7gms.

Gallienus was born c.A.D.213 and made co-emperor with his father, Valerian, soon after the latter's elevation in A.D.253 and became sole ruler after his father's capture by the Persians in A.D.260. He was murdered in camp at the seige of Milan in A.D.268 and buried in a tomb on the Via Appia.
3 comments*Alex
Mariniana_Diva_Antoninianus~0.JPG
ROMAN EMPIRE, MARINIANA. Commemorative AR Antoninianus of Rome. Struck A.D.253 - 254 under Valerian I18 viewsObverse: DIVAE MARINIANAE. Diademed and veiled bust of Mariniana, resting on crescent, facing right.
Reverse: CONSECRATIO. Mariniana being borne to heaven seated on the back of a peacock flying right.
Diameter: 21mm | Weight: 2.18gms | Die Axis: 6
RIC V i : 6
RARE

Mariniana was the wife of Valerian I but it would seem that she must have died before he became emperor because all of her coins are posthumous commemoratives.
*Alex
POSTUMUS_IOVI_STATORI.JPG
ROMAN EMPIRE, POSTUMUS. AR ANTONINIANUS of Treveri. Struck A.D.265 - 268.74 viewsObverse: IMP C POSTVMVS P F AVG. Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust of Postumus facing right.
Reverse: IOVI STATORI. Jupiter standing facing left, head turned to right, holding thunderbolt in his left hand and sceptre in his right.
RIC V : 309 | RSC IV : 159a.

M. Cassianius Latinius Postumus was appointed commander of the Rhine legion by Valerian I. In AD 259 he rebelled against Gallienus and ruled Gaul, Spain and Britain for almost a decade. He was assassinated by his own troops in AD 268 for refusing to allow them to sack Moguntiacum which had supported Laelianus.
1 comments*Alex
SALONINA CONCORD.JPG
ROMAN EMPIRE, SALONINA. AR ANTONINIANUS of Antioch. Struck A.D.254 - 255.93 viewsObverse: CORN SALONINA AVG. Diademed and draped bust of Salonina facing right and resting on crescent.
Reverse: CONCORDIA AVG. Gallienus and Salonina standing facing each other, clasping one anothers right hands; in upper field, between figures, laurel-wreath.
RSC : 31a | Cf.VM : 9.

Cornelia Salonina was the wife of Gallienus and mother of Valerian II and Saloninus. She was created Augusta by her husband in A.D.254 and although she was a patron of philosophy little else is known about her. It is presumed that she was murdered with Gallienus in his camp outside Milan in A.D.268.

This coin was struck to celebrate her accession as Augusta.

SOLD ON FORVM

1 comments*Alex
ValerianVictoria.JPG
ROMAN EMPIRE, Valerian - Victoria - Antoninianus13 viewsVALERIAN I AR silver antoninianus.

IMP C P LIC VALERIANVS AVG, radiate, draped & cuirassed bust right.

Reverse - VICTORIA AVGG, Victory standing facing with wreath and palm.

RIC 125, RSC 230.
Sylvianus
ValVolkano.JPG
ROMAN EMPIRE, Valerian - Vulcan - Antoninianus9 viewsValerian I, 253-260 AD.
Obverse: Radiate, draped bust right.
VALERIANVS P F AVG
Reverse: Tetrastyle temple containing Vulcan standing left holding hammer and tongs, anvil to left.
DEO VOLKANO
Sylvianus
Km2i5CSkSZo83J2dj6wBzA7d4tsXyP_(1).jpg
Roman Empire, Valerian 253-260, Antoninianus11 views3.66g
Radiate and draped bust of Valerian right "IMP CP LIC VALERIANVS AVG"
"VOTA ORBIS" two victories placing a shield inscribed "SC" on a palm tree
RIC V 294
Samasota mint
Antonivs Protti
7MG_0996_Valerian_Avers_320_320.JPG
ROMAN EMPIRE, VALERIAN I23 viewsSchätzpreis-Estimation: EUR 75.-
Antoninian, 253. IMP C P LIC VALERIANVS AVG. Büste mit Strahlenkrone, Paludament und Panzer rechts. Rs: FIDES MILITVM. Fides mit Standarte in beiden Händen en face stehend. RIC 89 var. C. 65. MIR 22 d. 4,02g. Vorzüglich.
dupondius
val02_Antioch_257AD.JPG
ROMAN EMPIRE, Valerian I "GAIVS & LVCIVS" antoninianus133 viewsRIC 277 (4,1 gm, 22 mm).
Mint of Antioch, 257 AD.

Bold, lustrous & very sharp coin!
1 commentsneander
Valerianus_AR-Ant_IMP-C-P-LIC-VALERIANVS-AVG_APOLINI-PROPVG_RIC-V-I-74-p-45-1A_C-25_Rome_253-AD_Q-001_axis-1h_18,5-20mm_3,60g-s.jpg
Roman Empire, Valerian I (253-260 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-I 074, Rome, APOLINI PROPVG, 311 views088 Valerianus-I (253-260 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-I 074, Rome, APOLINI PROPVG,
avers:- IMP-C-P-LIC-VALERIANVS-AVG, Radiate, draped bust right.
revers:- APOLINI-PROPVG, Apollo standing right, drawing bow.
exergo: - , diameter: 18,5-20mm, weight: 3,60g, axis: 1h,
mint: Rome, date: 253 A.D., ref: RIC-V-I-74, p-45, C-25,
Q-001
quadrans
bpS1X2Valerian.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Valerian I (253-260)35 viewsObv: IMP C P LIC VALERIANVS AVG
Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust, right.
Rev: AEQVITAS AVGG
Aequitas standing left, holding scales and cornucopiae
Antoninianus, 3 gm, 20 mm, Rome RIC 209
History: Commissioned by Gallus to the Rhine to gather an Army, the news that Gallus had subsequently been murdered prompted the Legions to proclaim him Emperor. On his arrival to Italy, the forces of the pretender Aemilian had no heart for battle and executed him. The Senate quickly ratified his regime and the appointment of his son, Gallienus as co-Augustus. With all points of the Empire collapsing under the strain of barbarous invasions, father and son agreed to geographically split their responsabilities with the son headed to the West and Valerian focused to the East. His first order of business was to quell the widespread and destructive rampage of Shapur I. The Battle Order implemented by Valerian met with great success in the recovery of territory and elimination of localized revolts. Then disaster struck. The plague decimated his legions to the point where he was forced to withdraw into the city of Edessa. He saw little option, but to sue for peace and proceeded to make the colossal error of going to Shapur in person with a small retinue of advisors. Shapur was delighted to take advantage of the situation and promptly placed this unwise emperor in chains. He spent the remainder of his life being tortured and tormented by his captor who found it amusing to use him as a footstool to mount his horse. On his eventual death, Shapur reportedly had his body skinned and put on display, truly the low point of a profoundly troubled Empire.
Massanutten
bpS1X4Valerian.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Valerian I (253-260)30 viewsObv: IMP C P LIC VALERIANVS AVG
Radiate and draped bust, right.
Rev: RESTITVTI GENER HVMANI
Emperor advancing right, raising hand and holding globe.
Antoninianus, 2.8 gm, 21.6 mm, Antioch RIC 220
Commentary: Reverse translates to "Restorer of the human race". Cited in Foss' text for 'Roman Historical Coins' commemorating the suppression of the revolt of Uranius Antoninus and the restoration of Antioch.
Massanutten
0430-320~0.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, VALERIAN I AS RIC 195177 viewsRome mint, AD 255-258
IMP C P LIC VALERIANVS P F AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right
IOVI CONSERVATORI, Jupiter standing left, holding thunderbolt and scepter. S - C in field
10.0 gr
Ref : RIC # 195, RCV # 10032, Cohen # 96

Although it's not superb, I posted this example here as it's far better than the one shown on Wildwinds. It's quite rare and I don't remember seeing a better one during the last few years.
4 commentsPotator II
047C.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Valerian I Sestertius54 viewsRIC V 157 Rome, MIR 36, 73h, Banti 8 corr. (legends), Sear 10011
2nd emission, A.D. 254-256
19.04 g, 29 mm, 12 h
IMP C P LIC VALERIANVS P F AVG, laureate & cuirassed bust right
FELICITAS AVGG, S-C, Felicitas standing left, holding long caduceus in right hand & cornucopiae in left
2 commentsMark Z
5591bLG.jpg
Roman Empire, Valerian I, AE 22, Phrygia, Temenothyrae309 viewsPhrygia, Temenothyrae. Valerian I. A.D. 253-260. Ć 22 mm (5.55 g). Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right / Herakles standing facing, head left, leaning on club held in right hand, holding lion's skin in left. SNG von Aulock -; SNG Copenhagen -; SNG Leypold -; BMC -; Lindgren -; Weber -; McClean -.1 commentsfeatherz
moneta 506b large~1.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Valerian I, Antioch, RIC V (Part 1) 285332 viewsValerian Antoninianus
obv: IMP C P LIC VALERIANVS P F AVG. Radiate and draped bust right.
rev: PIETAS AVGG. Valerian and Galliernus standing facing each other, sacrificing over altar.
Struck 255-256 A.D. at Antioch
RIC V 5 (part 1) 285
Van Meter 54
Jericho
valerianus.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Valerian I, Antoninianus12 viewsGöbl 802d (R, only 2 coins known)Numis-Student
valerian.JPG
Roman Empire, Valerian I, antoninianus.78 viewsThe early Valerian antoniniani were usually of "fairly good silver" and this one both looks and sounds like a silver coin. The portrait is excellent and unlike many of the less accomplished ones seen on these coins. The flan crack is not a problem either. One of my favourites! RIC 259.2 commentsjmuona
Valerian I votaorbis.JPG
ROMAN EMPIRE, VALERIAN I, AR Antoninianus of Antioch or Samosata. Struck A.D.253.91 viewsObverse: IMP C P LIC VALERIANVS AVG. Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust of Valerian facing right.
Reverse: VOTA ORBIS. Two Victories hanging shield inscribed S C on palm tree.
RIC V i : 294 Asia-Antioch | Göbl 1682e Samosata. 3.94gms

This coin is one of the issues struck on the accession of Valerian with vows alluding to his popularity.

Ex Vel Garnett Collection
Ex Harlan J Berk

SOLD ON FORVM
1 comments*Alex
Valerianus_IMP_Oriens_beidseitig.jpg
Roman Empire, Valerian I, Oriens, Cologne mint, RIC 107105 viewsObverse: IMP VALERIANVS AVG
Revers: ORIENS AVGG
RIC:107
4,55 Gramm
23mm
256-258
Great Example of this R2 Cologne mint (3. Emission) of Valerianus with IMP in Obverse
3 commentsVipsanius
valeriaN.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Valerian I. AD 253-260. AR Antoninianus 52 viewsValerian I. AD 253-260. AR Antoninianus .IMP C P LIC VALERIANVS P F AVG Radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right / Victory standing left, holding wreath and palm frond.
In ancient Roman religion, Victoria was the personified goddess of victory. She is the Roman equivalent of the Greek goddess Nike, and was associated with Bellona. She was adapted from the Sabine agricultural goddess Vacuna and had a temple on the Palatine Hill. The goddess Vica Pota was also sometimes identified with Victoria.

Unlike the Greek Nike, Victoria (Latin for "victory") was a major part of Roman society. Multiple temples were erected in her honor. When her statue was removed in 382 CE by Emperor Gratianus there was much anger in Rome. She was normally worshiped by triumphant generals returning from war.

Also unlike the Greek Nike, who was known for success in athletic games such as chariot races, Victoria was a symbol of victory over death and determined who would be successful during war.

Victoria appears widely on Roman coins, jewelry, architecture, and other arts
3 commentsAdrian W
valer1-horz.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Valerian II Billon Antoninianus139 viewsDIVO CAES VALERIANO, Radiate head right.
CONSECRATIO, eagle standing left, head right.

There is only AR antoninianus listed in RIC (RIC 27), not billon.
Pedja R
Valerian_2_Consecratio_eagle~0.JPG
ROMAN EMPIRE, VALERIAN II CAESAR. Commemorative AR Antoninianus of Lugdunum. Struck A.D.255 - 256 under Gallienus11 viewsObverse: DIVO VALERIANO CAES. Radiate and draped bust of Valerian II facing right.
Reverse: CONSACRATIO. Valerian II being borne to heaven seated on the back of an eagle flying right.
Diameter: 20mm | Weight: 2.4gms | Die Axis: 2
RIC V i : 9
*Alex
0442-520~0.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, VALERIAN II, ANTONINIANUS, RIC # 2434 viewsRome mint, AD 258
DIVO CAES VALERIANO, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust of Valerianus junior right
CONSECRATIO, altar
2.88 gr
Ref : RCV # 10608, RIC # 24, RSC # 13
Potator II
moneta 506b large.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Valerian, Antioch - RIC V (Part 1) 285237 viewsValerian Antoninianus
obv: IMP C P LIC VALERIANVS P F AVG. Radiate and draped bust right.
rev: PIETAS AVGG. Valerian and Galliernus standing facing each other, sacrificing over altar.
Struck 255-256 A.D. at Antioch
RIC V (Part 1) 285
Van Meter 54
2 commentsJericho
Acisculuscombined.jpg
ROMAN IMPERATORIAL, L. Valerius Acisculus, AR Denarius - Crawford 474/1b - SEAR PLATE COIN!13 viewsRome, The Republic.
L. Valerius Acisculus, 45 BCE.
AR Denarius (4.17g; 21mm).
Rome Mint.

Obverse: Filleted head of Apollo facing right; star above; pick-axe and ACISCVLVS behind; all within a wreath border.

Reverse: Europa riding bull to right with billowing veil; L VALERIVS in exergue.

References: Crawford 474/1b; HCRI 90a; Sydenham 998a; BMCRR 4102; Sear RCV I 469/2 (this coin illustrated); Banti 35/2 (this coin illustrated); Valeria 16.

Provenance: Ex Student and his Mentor Collection [NAC 83 (2015) Lot 442]; Credit de la Bourse (1995) Lot 1146; Munzen und Medaillen Liste 412 (1979), Lot 43; E.J. Haeberlin Collection [Cahn-Hess (17 Jul 1933) Lot 2800].

L. Valerius Acisculus issued an interesting series of types in 45 BCE. Not much is known about the moneyer except that he was also a Tribune of the Plebs. The pick-axe on obverse of these types is a punning allusion to the moneyer’s name, as the Latin word for pick-axe is “acisculus”. Scholars have long debated the meanings of the other devices, some going to great lengths to argue connections to the moneyer’s family. However, more recently, Crawford and Sear both concluded that the types, including the laurel wreath border on the obverse of this coin, likely allude to Julius Caesar’s military successes against Pompey and in the East.
2 commentsCarausius
4484237l.jpg
ROMAN IMPERATORIAL, L. Valerius Acisculus, AR Denarius - Crawford 474/52 viewsRome, The Republic.
L. Valerius Acisculus, 45 BCE.
AR Denarius (4.17g; 22mm).
Rome Mint.

Obverse: Radiate, draped head of Sol facing right; pick-axe and ACISCVLVS behind

Reverse: Luna in biga galloping right; L. VALERIVS in exergue.

References: Crawford 474/5; HCRI 94; Sydenham 1002; BMCRR 4110; FFC 1171 (this coin illustrated); Valeria 20.

Provenance: Ex Jose Fernandez Molina Collection [Aureo & Calico Alba Longa Auction (7 Nov 2018) Lot 716]; NAC 18 (29 Mar 2000) Lot 337.

L. Valerius Acisculus issued an interesting series of types in 45 BCE. Not much is known about the moneyer except that he was also a Tribune of the Plebs. The pick-axe on obverse of these types is a punning allusion to the moneyer’s name, as the Latin word for pick-axe is “acisculus”. Scholars have long debated the meanings of the other devices, some going to great lengths to argue connections to the moneyer’s family. However, more recently, Crawford and Sear both concluded that the types likely allude to Julius Caesar’s military successes against Pompey and in the East. The obverse of this coin, in particular, is likely a nod to Caesar's eastern victories, with Sol's cult having a strong eastern following.

Carausius
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Roman Imperial, Valerian I as Augustus, Billon Antoninianus. Added to the Wildwinds site.8 viewsAntioch 256 A.D. 2.87g, 21.2mm, Axis 11h.

Obv: IMP C P LIC VALERIANVS PF AVG - Radiate, draped bust right, seen from behind.

Rev: ROMAE AETRNAE (sic) - Rome seated left on Shield, holding Victory and Spear. Engravers error with an E missing (AETRNAE).

Goebl 1571d.
scarli
Mariniana.jpg
Roman Mariniana Sestertius34 viewsMARINIANA, wife of Valerianus I, †254.
AE Sestertius, posthumous. AE 16.16 g.
Obv: DIVAE MARINIANAE Draped, veiled and diademed bust r.
Rev: CONSECRATIO / S-C Peacock in splendour standing facing, head turned l.

RIC V/1, 65, 9var. (peacock looking r.). C. 7
Extremely rare
Tanit
Milne-3945.jpg
Roman Provincial: Valerian I (253-260) Potin Tetradrachm, Alexandria (Milne-3945)5 viewsObv.: AK Π L I OVALEPIANOC EVEVC; Laureate, cuirassed bust right.
Rev.: Eagle standing left, head right, wreath in beak. Regnal date L-Δ across fields (Year 4).
SpongeBob
rrepde03-2.jpg
Roman Republic, 140 BC, Valeria 45 viewsAR Denarius (3.7g, 19mm, 12h). Rome mint. Struck 140 BC, Monneyer: C.Valerius C.f.Flaccus
obv.: X behind helmeted head of Roma, facing right
rev.: FLAC above, C·VAL·C·F below, (ROMA in ex.) Victory galloping in biga to the right.
Seaby (RSC I.) Valeria 7.
Charles S
Valerian_I~0.jpg
Roman, Valerian I41 viewsValerian I AR Antoninianus
253-255 AD
Minted in Rome
22mm 3.68g
Obverse: IMP C P LIC VALERIANVS AVG, radiate, drape bust right
Reverse: FIDES MILITVM, Fides standing left holding 2 standards.
RIC 89 SEAR 9938
Travis C
valerien.jpg
Rome, Valerianus22 viewsicos
048n.jpg
S (lunate sigma)155 viewsBITHYNIA. Tium. Caracalla. Ć 26. A.D. 209-217. Obv: ANTΩNEINOC-AVΓOVCTO(C). Laureate head right; countermark on neck. Rev: TIA-NΩN. Aesculapis standing facing, head left, holding serpent-encircled staff. Ref: BMC -; SNG von Aulock 965. Axis: 30°. Weight: 9.97 g. CM: S (lunate sigma) in circular punch, 7 mm. Howego 809 (47 pcs). Note: While the latest coin bearing this countermark listed by Howgego was issued for Gordian III, considering that other coins bearing denominational countermarks were issues as late as Hostilian, the countermark was likely not applied until the time of Valerian and Gallienus. Collection Automan.Automan
saloni16.jpg
Salonin - PIETAS AVG8 viewsSALON VALERIANVS CAES
PIETAS AVG
instruments pontificaux
Trčves - 1ere Émission - automne 258
Bourdel 379
Göbl 914e
Eauze 1532
Elmer 69/107
PYL
Salonin_-_pietas_aug.JPG
Salonin - PIETAS AVG8 viewsSALON VALERIANVS CAES
PIETAS AVG
instruments pontificaux
Trčves - 1ere Émission - automne 258
Bourdel 379
Göbl 914e
Eauze 1532
Elmer 69/107
PYL
salonin_-_pietas.jpg
Salonin - PIETAS AVG8 viewsSALON VALERIANVS CAES
PIETAS AVG
instruments pontificaux
Trčves - 1ere Émission - automne 258
Bourdel 379
Göbl 914e
Eauze 1532
Elmer 69/107
PYL
Salonin_-_Pietas_2.jpg
Salonin - PIETAS AVG7 viewsSALON VALERIANVS CAES
PIETAS AVG
instruments pontificaux
Trčves - 1ere Émission - automne 258
Bourdel 379
Göbl 914e
Eauze 1532
Elmer 69/107
PYL
salonin_-_principi_iuventutis_2.jpg
Salonin - PRINCIPI IVVENTVTIS11 viewsSALON VALERIANVS CAES
PRINCIPI IVVENTVTIS
Salonin debout ŕ gauche vętue militairement, il tient un bâton et une lance, ŕ sa droite un trophée.
Trčves - 1ere Émission - automne 258
Bourdel 381
Gobl 913e
Eauze 1534
Elmer 106
PYL
Salonin_-_spes_publica.JPG
Salonin - SPES PVBLICA13 viewsSALON VALERIANVS CAES
SPES PVBLICA
L'Espérance marchant ŕ gauche, relevant sa robe de la main gauche et tenant une fleur de la main droite
Trčves - 1ere Émission - automne 258
Bourdel 383
Göbl 915e
Eauze 1533
Elmer 105
PYL
salonin_-_spes_publica~0.jpg
Salonin - SPES PVBLICA8 viewsSALON VALERIANVS CAES
SPES PVBLICA
L'Espérance marchant ŕ gauche, relevant sa robe de la main gauche et tenant une fleur de la main droite
Trčves - 1ere Émission - automne 258
Bourdel 383
Göbl 915e
Eauze 1533
Elmer 105
PYL
salonina sest.jpg
SALONINA sestertius - c.255-256 AD69 viewsobv: CORNELIA.SA[L]O[NINA.AVG] (diademed & draped bust right)
rev: IVNO.REGINA / S.C. (Juno standing left, holding patera & scepter)
ref: RIC Vi-46, C.62
mint: Rome
21.11gms, 26-29mm
Rare
Wife of Gallienus, and mother of Valerianus II, Saloninus, and Egnatius Marinianus. She was married to Gallienus before 242. Salonina saw the murder of her husband in 268, in front of the walls of sieged Milan.
berserker
salonina_congiunte_1_(1).jpg
Salonina, antoniniano, ex Hatfield hoard35 viewsSalonina Billon Antoninianus. Rome mint, 256-257 AD.
AE, mm 21,0 gr. 3,1, B
D/ SALONINA AVG, diademed and draped bust right on crescent
R/ PIETAS AVGG, Salonina seated left, reaching down to two children standing before her, a third child at her side. (Valerian II, Saloninus and Gallienus Junior)
RIC V-1, 35 Rome; Göbl 229b; RSC 84; Sear 10647.
Provenienza: ex Hatfield hoard (settembre 1993), ex Coin uk trust-Pineapple (2012)
paolo
111c.jpg
SALONINO Cesare (R/ PIETAS AVG), 258-260 d.C., zecca di Colonia o Lugdunum26 viewsSalonino, figlio di Gallieno e Cornelia Salonina e fratello di Valeriano II. Antoniniano d'argento. Zecca di Colonia Agrippinensis o Lugdunum (258-260 d.C.)
AR, 1.9 gr., 22 mm, B (F), S
D/ SALON VALERIANVS CAES, busto radiato e drappeggiato a dx.
R/ PIETAS AVG, accessori sacrificali
RIC 9, RSC 41
Provenienza: collezione Berardengo, Roma Italia (22 luglio 2008, numero catalogo 109); ex Steve McBride collection (Incitatus coins, St. Johns's NL Canada, fino al 2008).
paolo
00264-Saloninus.JPG
Saloninus11 viewsSaloninus Denarius
21 mm 3.64 gm
O: SALON VALERIANVS NOB CAES
Radiate, draped bust right
R: SPES PVBLICA
Spes presenting flower to Saloninus; wreath above.
1 commentsKoffy
saloniu.jpg
Saloninus (258 - 260 A.D.)56 viewsAR Antoninianus
O: SALON VALERIANVS CAES, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right.
R: PIETAS AVG, priestly implements - littus, knife, jug, simpulum, and sprinkler.
Rome
4.3g
21.1mm
RIC V 9, RSC IV 41
1 commentsMat
saluutet.jpg
Saloninus (258 - 260 A.D.)42 viewsEgypt, Alexandria
Billon Tetradrachm
O: PO LI KORCA VALERIANOC K CEB, Bareheaded, draped, and cuirassed bust right.
R: Eagle standing left, head turned, holding wreath, L Z(?) in fields. 
23.3mm
7.38g
Köln 3005; Dattari (Savio) 5377; K&G 93.8; Emmett 3776.7.
2 commentsMat
CD-17.jpg
Saloninus (A.D. 260)21 viewsAR Antoninianus, A.D. 258 - 259 (as Caesar), Lugdunum, 23mm, 2.24g, 0°, RIC 10 C 61.
Obv: SAL VALERIANVS CS. Radiate, draped bust right.
Rev: PRINC IVVENT. Saloninus standing left, holding scepter and spear, standard to the right.
Marti Vltori
Valerian Junior 40.jpg
Saloninus - UNIFACE PLASTER CAST72 viewsObv:- LIC COR SAL VALERIANVS N CAES, Draped, bare headed bust right

Cast of a silvered AE Medallion,
Gnecchi 3.
Reverse is PRINCIPI IVVENTVTIS, Saloninus in military attire left with globe and spear, captive at feet.
There are three originals known, this one in Paris (41 mm / 60 gr).

UNIFACE PLASTER CAST
maridvnvm
050.jpg
Saloninus Antoninianus25 viewsRIC Va 13, RSC 13 Rome; Cohen 93, Sear 3082A; Sear5 10774.
2.56 g, 21 mm x 23 mm
SALON VALERIANVS CAES, radiate & draped bust right
SPES PVBLICA, Spes walking left, holding flower & raising hem of dress.
1 commentsMark Z
Saloninus1_opt.jpg
SALONINUS Antoninianus RIC 10, Prince10 viewsOBV: SAL VALERIANVS CAES, radiate draped bust right
REV: PRINC IVVENT, prince standing left holding baton & standard
2.2g, 21mm

Minted at Lugdunum, 259-260 AD
Legatus
Saloninus2_opt.jpg
SALONINUS Antoninianus RIC V 36 var, Spes18 viewsOBV: SALON VALERIANVS NOB CAES Radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right, seen from behind
REV: SPES PVBLICA, Prince, holding spear and Spes, holding flower standing face to face; wreath above
2.81g, 22mm

Minted at Samosata, 259-60 AD
Legatus
saloninus_RIC36.jpg
SALONINUS AR antoninianus - 256 AD26 viewsobv: SALON VALERIANVS NOB CAES (draped, cuirassed, radiare bust right)
rev: SPES PVBLICA (Spes presenting flower to prince, wreath above)
ref: RIC Vi 36 (C), Cohen 95 (3frcs)
mint: Asia (Antioch), billon
3.20gms, 21mm
Scarce

P.Licinius Cornelius Saloninus Valerianus was the second son of Gallienus and Salonina. He received the title of Caesar on the death of his elder brother in A.D.255. He was raised to the rank of Augustus by Gallienus in A.D.259 but was killed a short time later by Postumus, the commander of the Rhine legions.
berserker
SaloninusARantoninianus259ADAntioch.jpg
Saloninus AR antoninianus, AD 258-260, Samosata mint33 viewsSaloninus
AR antoninianus
Samosata, AD 258-260
SALON VALERIANVS NOB CAES
Radiate draped r.
Spes presenting flower to Prince
SPES PVBLICA
RIC V 36 (Antioch); MIR 36, 1707
Ardatirion
saloninus-reshoot.jpg
Saloninus AR Antoninianus, Antioch mint, 260 AD53 viewsRoman Imperial, Saloninus AR Antoninianus, Antioch mint, (260 AD), 3.8g, 20mm

Obverse: SALON VALERIANVS NOB CAES, Radiate draped bust right.

Reverse: SPE PVBLICA, Spes presenting flower to prince.

Reference: RIC 36, Cohen 95

Ex: Rudi Smits
2 commentsGil-galad
Saloninus_1.jpg
Saloninus RIC 2615 viewsSaloninus, as Caesar
AR Antoninianus
Obv: LIC COR SAL VALERIANVS N CAES, radiate and draped bust right, seen from behind
Rev: PIETAS AVGG, lituus, knife, patera, vase, simpulum and sprinkler
Mint: Rome, AD 256
Size: 4.95g, 22mm, 6h
Ids: RIC 26; C. 49; RSC 49
ickster
0443-210np_noir.jpg
Saloninus, Antoninianus27 viewsCologne mint, AD 258-260
SALON VALERIANVS CAES, radiate and draped bust right
PIETAS AVG, sacrificial implements
2.85 gr
Ref : Cohen # 41, RCV # 10767
Potator II
5526_5527.jpg
Saloninus, Antoninianus, SPES PVBLICA9 viewsAR Antoninianus
Saloninus
Caesar: 258 - 260AD
Augustus: 260AD
Issued: 258 - 260AD
20.0mm 3.80gr 0h
O: SALON VALERIANVS NOB CAES; Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust, right.
R: SPES PVBLICA; Saloninus standing right on left, holding spear, receiving flower from Spes to right.
Antioch Mint
RIC V-1 Antioch 36; Cohen 45; Sear 10775; Aorta: B5, O11, R15, T19.
RIC 36(?)
okta2000-2013 272031215205
11/8/15 11/24/19
Nicholas Z
saloninus_9.jpg
Saloninus, Göbl 914 (Cologne)57 viewsSaloninus, AD 258-260, son of Gallienus
AE - Antoninianus, 3.24g, 21mm, 180°
struck AD 256(?) in Cologne
obv. SALON VALERIANVS CAES
bust, draped, radiate, r.
rev. PIETAS AVG
priestly implement; from left: lituus, knife, guttus, simpuvium, aspergillum
Göbl 914 (Cologne); RIC V/1, 9; C.41
about VF, some wear of the legends, but nice portrait nevertheless
4 commentsJochen
0443-310.jpg
Saloninus, Middle bronze - *76 viewsRome mint, AD 258-260
LIC COR SAL VALERIANVS N CAES, draped bust right
PRINCIPI IVVENTVTIS, Saloninus standing left holding globe and spear. A captive at his feet. S - C in field Mintmark ? at exergue
7.1 gr
Ref : RCV # 10778 v, Cohen # 90, RIC # 34
Potator II
Saloninus_RIC_10~0.JPG
Saloninus, RIC 1016 viewsSAL VALERIANVS CS
PRINC IVVENT
AR antoninianus, 23mm, 3.18g
Radiate, draped bust right
Saloninus standing, holding baton and spear next to two standards right
novacystis
saloninus.jpg
Saloninus, SPES PVBLICA4 viewsSaloninus, as Caesar, Billon Antoninianus. SALON VALERIANVS CAES, radiate & draped bust right / SPES PVBLICA, Spes walking left, holding flower & raising hem of dress. RIC 13, Cohen 93, Sear 1988 3082A. Podiceps
saloninus~0.jpg
SPES PVBLICA9 viewsSaloninus Antoninianus. Unknown Syrian mint, AD 258-260. SALON VALERIANVS NOB CAES, radiate draped bust right / SPES PVBLICA, Spes presenting flower to prince. RIC 36, Cohen 95. Sear RCV III: 10775. Podiceps
165.jpg
Standing figure hld. staff (or similar)135 viewsCILICIA. Irenopolis. Valerian. Ć 28 (8 Assaria). A.D. 254/255 (year 203). Obv: AVTKΠΛI-(OVAΛEPIANC). Radiate and draped bust right; Countermark before. Rev: IPENOΠOΛITWN, ΓC in ex. Hygieia to left facing right, feeding serpent; Asklepios to right, facing left, resting on serpent-staff. Ref: Sear GIC 4495 var. Axis: 30°. Weight: 20.60 g. CM: Standing figure, holding staff, palm-branch or similar object in left hand, uncertain object (patera?) in right hand.Howgego -. Note: Does not resemble Howgego 270, which is described as Tyche (?). Collection Automan.Automan
Mariniana_Diva_Antoninianus.JPG
Struck A.D.253 - 254 under Valerian I. DIVA MARINIANA. Commemorative AR Antoninianus of Rome12 viewsObverse: DIVAE MARINIANAE. Diademed and veiled bust of Mariniana, resting on crescent, facing right.
Reverse: CONSECRATIO. Mariniana being borne to heaven seated on the back of a peacock flying right.
Diameter: 21mm | Weight: 2.18gms | Die Axis: 6
RIC V i : 6
RARE

Mariniana was the wife of Valerian I but it would seem that she must have died before he became emperor because all of her coins are posthumous commemoratives.
1 comments*Alex
Valerian_2_Consecratio_eagle.JPG
Struck A.D.255 - 256 under Gallienus. DIVUS VALERIAN II CAESAR. Commemorative AR Antoninianus of Lugdunum34 viewsObverse: DIVO VALERIANO CAES. Radiate and draped bust of Valerian II facing right.
Reverse: CONSACRATIO. Valerian II being borne to heaven seated on the back of an eagle flying right.
Diameter: 20mm | Weight: 2.4gms | Die Axis: 2
RIC V i : 9
3 comments*Alex
heliopolis_valerianI_BMC28.jpg
Syria, Coele-Syria, Heliopolis, Valerian I, BMC 2850 viewsValerian I, AD 253-260
AE 28, 16.0g
obv. IMP CAES P LIC VALERIANVS PF AVG
Bust, draped and cuirassd, laureate, r.
rev. COL IVL AVG FEL HEL
Price-urn with two palmbranchs between two price-urns with one palm-branchs
in ex. CERT.SACR / CAP.OECV / ISE.HEL (in 3 lines)
BMC 28; SNG Copenhagen 440; Lindgren III, 1284
rare, VF

The solution of the ex. is Certamina Sacra Capitolina Oecumenica Iselastica Heliopolitana. In total this inscription describes the holy games (certamina sacra) held at Heliopolis (heliopolitana) in honor of Jupiter Capitolinus (capitolina). The ludi iselastica were games in which the victors had the privilege of a triumphal entry into their home cities. Baalbek-Heliopolis was famous for its temple of Jupiter.
2 commentsJochen
DEE7B434-1C2A-4241-A550-18828196DFE1.jpeg
SYRIA, Coele-Syria. Heliopolis . Valerian I10 views SYRIA, Coele-Syria. Heliopolis . Valerian I. AD 253-260. Ć. Laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right / Agonistic urn with three palms set on table. SNG München 1043 var. (rev. legend); SNG Copenhagen 439 var. (same); SNG Hunterian -; BMC -.ecoli
ValerianTroas.jpg
Troas, Alexandreia. Valerian I20 viewsObv: IMP LIC VALERIANVS AV, laureate, draped, cuirassed bust right.
Rev: COL AVGO TROA, eagle standing facing on bucranium, wings spread, head right.
ancientone
A_and_V_Antioch_1st_Wkshp_Large.jpg
Vabalathus and Aurelian Antioch 1st Officina16 viewsVabalathus: 270 - 272 AD; Aurelian: 270 - 275 AD
Julius Aurelius Septimius Vabalathus Athenodorus (Wahb Allat), son of Septimius Odaenathus and Septimia Zenobia. Palmyrene Empire.
Obv: VABALATHVS V C R IM D R1; Bust of Vabalathus, laureate, diademed, draped and curiassed, facing right.
Rev: IMP C AVRELIANVS AVG; Bust of Aurelian, radiate and curiassed, facing right, from the front, A in exergue.
Denomination: billon antoninianus; Mint: Antioch; Officina: 1st; Issue: 1st; Date: Nov. 270 - Mar. 272; Weight: 2.73g; Diameter: 20.5mm; Die axis: 0ş; References, for example: RIC V v.1 381 correc; MER - RIC 3102; SRCV III 11718

Notes:

1VABALATHVS V[IR] C[LARISSIMUS] R[EX] IM[PERATOR] D[UX] R[OMANORUM]. See for example, Bland (2011), pp. 135, 141 and Estiot, p. 118, esp. note 462. Although Potter, page 267 and footnote 24 postulates V[IR] C[ONSULARIS] for the mint at Antioch I would certainly side with Bland and Estiot.

Which side of this coin is the obverse and which side is the reverse?
Webb in RIC V, v.1 puts great weight on the titulature of Aurelian and mentions that mint marks on the obverse of coins were not unknown at Antioch. He considers the coin to have been struck as a sign of vassalage instead of having been struck as an insult. Webb states that Aurelian’s bust is on the obverse of the coin (p. 260). Robertson, pp. cxix and 142 also considers Aurelian’s bust to be on the obverse of the coin, but does not state an explicit reason for her position. Mattingly (1936) holds that the mint mark is the determining factor, and therefore believes that Aurelian’s bust is on the reverse of the coin. In SRCV III, p. 442 Sear follows the reasoning of Mattingly and although Vagi agrees that Aurelian’s bust is on the reverse of the coin (p. 403) he does not explicitly state his reason for believing so. Estiot states that the officina mark under the bust of Aurelian clearly indicates that his portrait is on the reverse of the coin (p. 118). Bland (2011) follows suit. When discussing this issue from Antioch he states that the officina mark is always placed on the reverse of coins. He notes that the placement of the officina mark sent a signal that Aurelian was “...being accorded a lower status than Vabalathus, although he was given his correct titles of Imperator and Augustus, and he wore a radiate crown, also traditionally associated with the senior Augustus” (p. 142 - 3). Watson argues that Queen Zenobia’s assertion of Palmyrene independence from Rome took place gradually (pp. 67 - 9). Bland believes that the placement of the officina mark under the bust of Aurelian on this coin was just another step in that assertion of independence.

Photo credits: Forum Ancient Coins

Sources

Bland 2011: Bland, Roger. “The Coinage of Vabalathus and Zenobia from Antioch and Alexandria" in Numismatic Chronicle, 171 (2011): 133 - 186.
Estiot, Sylviane. Monnaies de L’Empire romain XII.1: D’Aurelian ŕ Florien (270 - 276 apres J.-C.). Paris: Bibliothčque nationale de France, 2004.
Mattingly 1936: Mattingly, Harold. “The Palmyrene Princes and the Mints of Antioch and Alexandria.” The Numismatic Chronicle and Journal of the Royal Numismatic Society, fifth Series, vol. 16, no. 62 (1936): pp. 89 - 114.
MER - RIC: Maison de l’Orient et la Méditerranée: Monnaies de l’Empire Romain / Roman Imperial Coinage AD 268-276. Accessed March 6, 2019. http://www.ric.mom.fr/en/home.
Potter, David S. The Roman Empire at Bay: AD 180 - 395. New York: Routledge, 2004
RIC V v.1: Webb, Percy. The Roman Imperial Coinage, Vol. V, Part 1: Valerian to Florian, edited by Harold Mattingly and Edward Sydenham. London: Spink & Son, 1927.
Robertson, Anne. Roman Imperial Coins in the Hunter Coin Cabinet, Vol. IV Valerian I to Allectus. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1978.
SRCV III: Sear, David. Roman Coins and Their Values, Vol. III: Maximinus I to Carinus. London: Spink, 2005.
Vagi, David. Coinage and History of the Roman Empire, Volume One: History. Sidney, Ohio: Coin World, 1999.
Watson, Alaric. Aurelian and the Third Century. New York: Routledge, 1999.
Tracy Aiello
A_and_V_Antioch_2nd_Wkshp_Large.jpg
Vabalathus and Aurelian Antioch 2nd Officina 13 viewsVabalathus: 270 - 272 AD; Aurelian: 270 - 275 AD
Julius Aurelius Septimius Vabalathus Athenodorus (Wahb Allat), son of Septimius Odaenathus and Septimia Zenobia. Palmyrene Empire.
Obv: VABALATHVS V C R IM D R1; Bust of Vabalathus, laureate, diademed, draped and curiassed, facing right, seen from behind.
Rev: IMP C AVRELIANVS AVG; Bust of Aurelian, radiate and curiassed, facing right, from the front, B in exergue.
Denomination: billon antoninianus; Mint: Antioch; Officina: 2nd; Issue: 1st; Date: Nov. 270 - Mar. 272; Weight: 3.855g; Diameter: 20.5mm; Die axis: 180ş; References, for example: RIC V v.1 381 correc; MER - RIC 3103; SRCV III 11718

Notes:

1VABALATHVS V[IR] C[LARISSIMUS] R[EX] IM[PERATOR] D[UX] R[OMANORUM]. See for example, Bland (2011), pp. 135, 141 and Estiot, p. 118, esp. note 462. Although Potter, page 267 and footnote 24 postulates V[IR] C[ONSULARIS] for the mint at Antioch I would certainly side with Bland and Estiot.

Which side of this coin is the obverse and which side is the reverse?
Webb in RIC V, v.1 puts great weight on the titulature of Aurelian and mentions that mint marks on the obverse of coins were not unknown at Antioch. He considers the coin to have been struck as a sign of vassalage instead of having been struck as an insult. Webb states that Aurelian’s bust is on the obverse of the coin (p. 260). Robertson, pp. cxix and 142 also considers Aurelian’s bust to be on the obverse of the coin, but does not state an explicit reason for her position. Mattingly (1936) holds that the mint mark is the determining factor, and therefore believes that Aurelian’s bust is on the reverse of the coin. In SRCV III, p. 442 Sear follows the reasoning of Mattingly and although Vagi agrees that Aurelian’s bust is on the reverse of the coin (p. 403) he does not explicitly state his reason for believing so. Estiot states that the officina mark under the bust of Aurelian clearly indicates that his portrait is on the reverse of the coin (p. 118). Bland (2011) follows suit. When discussing this issue from Antioch he states that the officina mark is always placed on the reverse of coins. He notes that the placement of the officina mark sent a signal that Aurelian was “...being accorded a lower status than Vabalathus, although he was given his correct titles of Imperator and Augustus, and he wore a radiate crown, also traditionally associated with the senior Augustus” (p. 142 - 3). Watson argues that Queen Zenobia’s assertion of Palmyrene independence from Rome took place gradually (pp. 67 - 9). Bland believes that the placement of the officina mark under the bust of Aurelian on this coin was just another step in that assertion of independence.

Photo credits: Forum Ancient Coins

Sources

Bland 2011: Bland, Roger. “The Coinage of Vabalathus and Zenobia from Antioch and Alexandria" in Numismatic Chronicle, 171 (2011): 133 - 186.
Estiot, Sylviane. Monnaies de L’Empire romain XII.1: D’Aurelian ŕ Florien (270 - 276 apres J.-C.). Paris: Bibliothčque nationale de France, 2004.
Mattingly 1936: Mattingly, Harold. “The Palmyrene Princes and the Mints of Antioch and Alexandria.” The Numismatic Chronicle and Journal of the Royal Numismatic Society, fifth Series, vol. 16, no. 62 (1936): pp. 89 - 114.
MER - RIC: Maison de l’Orient et la Méditerranée: Monnaies de l’Empire Romain / Roman Imperial Coinage AD 268-276. Accessed March 7, 2019. http://www.ric.mom.fr/en/home.
Potter, David S. The Roman Empire at Bay: AD 180 - 395. New York: Routledge, 2004
RIC V v.1: Webb, Percy. The Roman Imperial Coinage, Vol. V, Part 1: Valerian to Florian, edited by Harold Mattingly and Edward Sydenham. London: Spink & Son, 1927.
Robertson, Anne. Roman Imperial Coins in the Hunter Coin Cabinet, Vol. IV Valerian I to Allectus. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1978.
SRCV III: Sear, David. Roman Coins and Their Values, Vol. III: Maximinus I to Carinus. London: Spink, 2005.
Vagi, David. Coinage and History of the Roman Empire, Volume One: History. Sidney, Ohio: Coin World, 1999.
Watson, Alaric. Aurelian and the Third Century. New York: Routledge, 1999.
Tracy Aiello
A_and_V_Antioch_3rd_Wkshp_Large.jpg
Vabalathus and Aurelian Antioch 3rd Officina18 viewsVabalathus: 270 - 272 AD; Aurelian: 270 - 275 AD
Julius Aurelius Septimius Vabalathus Athenodorus (Wahb Allat), son of Septimius Odaenathus and Septimia Zenobia. Palmyrene Empire.
Obv: VABALATHVS V C R IM D R1; Bust of Vabalathus, laureate, diademed, draped and curiassed, facing right, seen from behind.
Rev: IMP C AVRELIANVS AVG; Bust of Aurelian, radiate and curiassed, facing right, from the front, Γ in exergue.
Denomination: billon antoninianus; Mint: Antioch; Officina: 3rd; Issue: 1st; Date: Nov. 270 - Mar. 272; Weight: 3.146g; Diameter: 21.2mm; Die axis: 180ş; References, for example: RIC V v.1 381 correc; MER - RIC 3105; SRCV III 11718

Notes:

1VABALATHVS V[IR] C[LARISSIMUS] R[EX] IM[PERATOR] D[UX] R[OMANORUM]. See for example, Bland (2011), pp. 135, 141 and Estiot, p. 118, esp. note 462. Although Potter, page 267 and footnote 24 postulates V[IR] C[ONSULARIS] for the mint at Antioch I would certainly side with Bland and Estiot.

Which side of this coin is the obverse and which side is the reverse?
Webb in RIC V, v.1 puts great weight on the titulature of Aurelian and mentions that mint marks on the obverse of coins were not unknown at Antioch. He considers the coin to have been struck as a sign of vassalage instead of having been struck as an insult. Webb states that Aurelian’s bust is on the obverse of the coin (p. 260). Robertson, pp. cxix and 142 also considers Aurelian’s bust to be on the obverse of the coin, but does not state an explicit reason for her position. Mattingly (1936) holds that the mint mark is the determining factor, and therefore believes that Aurelian’s bust is on the reverse of the coin. In SRCV III, p. 442 Sear follows the reasoning of Mattingly and although Vagi agrees that Aurelian’s bust is on the reverse of the coin (p. 403) he does not explicitly state his reason for believing so. Estiot states that the officina mark under the bust of Aurelian clearly indicates that his portrait is on the reverse of the coin (p. 118). Bland (2011) follows suit. When discussing this issue from Antioch he states that the officina mark is always placed on the reverse of coins. He notes that the placement of the officina mark sent a signal that Aurelian was “...being accorded a lower status than Vabalathus, although he was given his correct titles of Imperator and Augustus, and he wore a radiate crown, also traditionally associated with the senior Augustus” (p. 142 - 3). Watson argues that Queen Zenobia’s assertion of Palmyrene independence from Rome took place gradually (pp. 67 - 9). Bland believes that the placement of the officina mark under the bust of Aurelian on this coin was just another step in that assertion of independence.

Photo credits: Forum Ancient Coins

Sources

Bland 2011: Bland, Roger. “The Coinage of Vabalathus and Zenobia from Antioch and Alexandria" in Numismatic Chronicle, 171 (2011): 133 - 186.
Estiot, Sylviane. Monnaies de L’Empire romain XII.1: D’Aurelian ŕ Florien (270 - 276 apres J.-C.). Paris: Bibliothčque nationale de France, 2004.
Mattingly 1936: Mattingly, Harold. “The Palmyrene Princes and the Mints of Antioch and Alexandria.” The Numismatic Chronicle and Journal of the Royal Numismatic Society, fifth Series, vol. 16, no. 62 (1936): pp. 89 - 114.
MER - RIC: Maison de l’Orient et la Méditerranée: Monnaies de l’Empire Romain / Roman Imperial Coinage AD 268-276. Accessed March 7, 2019. http://www.ric.mom.fr/en/home.
Potter, David S. The Roman Empire at Bay: AD 180 - 395. New York: Routledge, 2004
RIC V v.1: Webb, Percy. The Roman Imperial Coinage, Vol. V, Part 1: Valerian to Florian, edited by Harold Mattingly and Edward Sydenham. London: Spink & Son, 1927.
Robertson, Anne. Roman Imperial Coins in the Hunter Coin Cabinet, Vol. IV Valerian I to Allectus. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1978.
SRCV III: Sear, David. Roman Coins and Their Values, Vol. III: Maximinus I to Carinus. London: Spink, 2005.
Vagi, David. Coinage and History of the Roman Empire, Volume One: History. Sidney, Ohio: Coin World, 1999.
Watson, Alaric. Aurelian and the Third Century. New York: Routledge, 1999.
Tracy Aiello
A_and__V_Antioch_4th_Wkshp_Large.jpg
Vabalathus and Aurelian Antioch 4th Officina11 viewsVabalathus: 270 - 272 AD; Aurelian: 270 - 275 AD
Julius Aurelius Septimius Vabalathus Athenodorus (Wahb Allat), son of Septimius Odaenathus and Septimia Zenobia. Palmyrene Empire.
Obv: VABALATHVS V C R IM D R1; Bust of Vabalathus, laureate, diademed, draped and curiassed, facing right, seen from behind.
Rev: IMP C AVRELIANVS AVG; Bust of Aurelian, radiate and curiassed, facing right, from the front, Δ in exergue.
Denomination: billon antoninianus; Mint: Antioch; Officina: 4th; Issue: 1st; Date: Nov. 270 - Mar. 272; Weight: 3.563g; Diameter: 21.8mm; Die axis: 180ş; References, for example: RIC V v.1 381 correc; MER - RIC 3106; SRCV III 11718

Notes:

1VABALATHVS V[IR] C[LARISSIMUS] R[EX] IM[PERATOR] D[UX] R[OMANORUM]. See for example, Bland (2011), pp. 135, 141 and Estiot, p. 118, esp. note 462. Although Potter, page 267 and footnote 24 postulates V[IR] C[ONSULARIS] for the mint at Antioch I would certainly side with Bland and Estiot.

Which side of this coin is the obverse and which side is the reverse?
Webb in RIC V, v.1 puts great weight on the titulature of Aurelian and mentions that mint marks on the obverse of coins were not unknown at Antioch. He considers the coin to have been struck as a sign of vassalage instead of having been struck as an insult. Webb states that Aurelian’s bust is on the obverse of the coin (p. 260). Robertson, pp. cxix and 142 also considers Aurelian’s bust to be on the obverse of the coin, but does not state an explicit reason for her position. Mattingly (1936) holds that the mint mark is the determining factor, and therefore believes that Aurelian’s bust is on the reverse of the coin. In SRCV III, p. 442 Sear follows the reasoning of Mattingly and although Vagi agrees that Aurelian’s bust is on the reverse of the coin (p. 403) he does not explicitly state his reason for believing so. Estiot states that the officina mark under the bust of Aurelian clearly indicates that his portrait is on the reverse of the coin (p. 118). Bland (2011) follows suit. When discussing this issue from Antioch he states that the officina mark is always placed on the reverse of coins. He notes that the placement of the officina mark sent a signal that Aurelian was “...being accorded a lower status than Vabalathus, although he was given his correct titles of Imperator and Augustus, and he wore a radiate crown, also traditionally associated with the senior Augustus” (p. 142 - 3). Watson argues that Queen Zenobia’s assertion of Palmyrene independence from Rome took place gradually (pp. 67 - 9). Bland believes that the placement of the officina mark under the bust of Aurelian on this coin was just another step in that assertion of independence.

Photo credits: Forum Ancient Coins

Sources

Bland 2011: Bland, Roger. “The Coinage of Vabalathus and Zenobia from Antioch and Alexandria" in Numismatic Chronicle, 171 (2011): 133 - 186.
Estiot, Sylviane. Monnaies de L’Empire romain XII.1: D’Aurelian ŕ Florien (270 - 276 apres J.-C.). Paris: Bibliothčque nationale de France, 2004.
Mattingly 1936: Mattingly, Harold. “The Palmyrene Princes and the Mints of Antioch and Alexandria.” The Numismatic Chronicle and Journal of the Royal Numismatic Society, fifth Series, vol. 16, no. 62 (1936): pp. 89 - 114.
MER - RIC: Maison de l’Orient et la Méditerranée: Monnaies de l’Empire Romain / Roman Imperial Coinage AD 268-276. Accessed March 7, 2019. http://www.ric.mom.fr/en/home.
Potter, David S. The Roman Empire at Bay: AD 180 - 395. New York: Routledge, 2004
RIC V v.1: Webb, Percy. The Roman Imperial Coinage, Vol. V, Part 1: Valerian to Florian, edited by Harold Mattingly and Edward Sydenham. London: Spink & Son, 1927.
Robertson, Anne. Roman Imperial Coins in the Hunter Coin Cabinet, Vol. IV Valerian I to Allectus. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1978.
SRCV III: Sear, David. Roman Coins and Their Values, Vol. III: Maximinus I to Carinus. London: Spink, 2005.
Vagi, David. Coinage and History of the Roman Empire, Volume One: History. Sidney, Ohio: Coin World, 1999.
Watson, Alaric. Aurelian and the Third Century. New York: Routledge, 1999.
Tracy Aiello
A_and_V_Antioch_5th_WKshp_Large.jpg
Vabalathus and Aurelian Antioch 5th Officina16 viewsVabalathus: 270 - 272 AD; Aurelian: 270 - 275 AD
Julius Aurelius Septimius Vabalathus Athenodorus (Wahb Allat), son of Septimius Odaenathus and Septimia Zenobia. Palmyrene Empire.
Obv: VABALATHVS V C R IM D R1; Bust of Vabalathus, laureate, diademed, draped and curiassed, facing right, seen from behind.
Rev: IMP C AVRELIANVS AVG; Bust of Aurelian, radiate and curiassed, facing right, from the front, ϵ in exergue.
Denomination: billon antoninianus; Mint: Antioch; Officina: 5th; Issue: 1st; Date: Nov. 270 - Mar. 272; Weight: 3.262; Diameter: 20.3mm; Die axis: 315ş; References, for example: RIC V v.1 381 correc; MER - RIC 3107; SRCV III 11718

Notes:

1VABALATHVS V[IR] C[LARISSIMUS] R[EX] IM[PERATOR] D[UX] R[OMANORUM]. See for example, Bland (2011), pp. 135, 141 and Estiot, p. 118, esp. note 462. Although Potter, page 267 and footnote 24 postulates V[IR] C[ONSULARIS] for the mint at Antioch I would certainly side with Bland and Estiot.

Which side of this coin is the obverse and which side is the reverse?
Webb in RIC V, v.1 puts great weight on the titulature of Aurelian and mentions that mint marks on the obverse of coins were not unknown at Antioch. He considers the coin to have been struck as a sign of vassalage instead of having been struck as an insult. Webb states that Aurelian’s bust is on the obverse of the coin (p. 260). Robertson, pp. cxix and 142 also considers Aurelian’s bust to be on the obverse of the coin, but does not state an explicit reason for her position. Mattingly (1936) holds that the mint mark is the determining factor, and therefore believes that Aurelian’s bust is on the reverse of the coin. In SRCV III, p. 442 Sear follows the reasoning of Mattingly and although Vagi agrees that Aurelian’s bust is on the reverse of the coin (p. 403) he does not explicitly state his reason for believing so. Estiot states that the officina mark under the bust of Aurelian clearly indicates that his portrait is on the reverse of the coin (p. 118). Bland (2011) follows suit. When discussing this issue from Antioch he states that the officina mark is always placed on the reverse of coins. He notes that the placement of the officina mark sent a signal that Aurelian was “...being accorded a lower status than Vabalathus, although he was given his correct titles of Imperator and Augustus, and he wore a radiate crown, also traditionally associated with the senior Augustus” (p. 142 - 3). Watson argues that Queen Zenobia’s assertion of Palmyrene independence from Rome took place gradually (pp. 67 - 9). Bland believes that the placement of the officina mark under the bust of Aurelian on this coin was just another step in that assertion of independence.

Photo credits: Forum Ancient Coins

Sources

Bland 2011: Bland, Roger. “The Coinage of Vabalathus and Zenobia from Antioch and Alexandria" in Numismatic Chronicle, 171 (2011): 133 - 186.
Estiot, Sylviane. Monnaies de L’Empire romain XII.1: D’Aurelian ŕ Florien (270 - 276 apres J.-C.). Paris: Bibliothčque nationale de France, 2004.
Mattingly 1936: Mattingly, Harold. “The Palmyrene Princes and the Mints of Antioch and Alexandria.” The Numismatic Chronicle and Journal of the Royal Numismatic Society, fifth Series, vol. 16, no. 62 (1936): pp. 89 - 114.
MER - RIC: Maison de l’Orient et la Méditerranée: Monnaies de l’Empire Romain / Roman Imperial Coinage AD 268-276. Accessed March 7, 2019. http://www.ric.mom.fr/en/home.
Potter, David S. The Roman Empire at Bay: AD 180 - 395. New York: Routledge, 2004
RIC V v.1: Webb, Percy. The Roman Imperial Coinage, Vol. V, Part 1: Valerian to Florian, edited by Harold Mattingly and Edward Sydenham. London: Spink & Son, 1927.
Robertson, Anne. Roman Imperial Coins in the Hunter Coin Cabinet, Vol. IV Valerian I to Allectus. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1978.
SRCV III: Sear, David. Roman Coins and Their Values, Vol. III: Maximinus I to Carinus. London: Spink, 2005.
Vagi, David. Coinage and History of the Roman Empire, Volume One: History. Sidney, Ohio: Coin World, 1999.
Watson, Alaric. Aurelian and the Third Century. New York: Routledge, 1999.
Tracy Aiello
A_and_V_Antioch_6th_Wksp_Large.jpg
Vabalathus and Aurelian Antioch 6th Officina22 viewsVabalathus: 270 - 272 AD; Aurelian: 270 - 275 AD
Julius Aurelius Septimius Vabalathus Athenodorus (Wahb Allat), son of Septimius Odaenathus and Septimia Zenobia. Palmyrene Empire.
Obv: VABALATHVS V C R IM D R1; Bust of Vabalathus, laureate, diademed, draped and curiassed, facing right, seen from behind.
Rev: IMP C AVRELIANVS AVG; Bust of Aurelian, radiate and curiassed, facing right, from the front, S in exergue.
Denomination: billon antoninianus; Mint: Antioch; Officina: 6th; Issue: 1st; Date: Nov. 270 - Mar. 272; Weight: 2.812g; Diameter: 21.3mm; Die axis: 150ş; References, for example: RIC V v.1 381 correc; MER - RIC 3108; SRCV III 11718

Notes:

1VABALATHVS V[IR] C[LARISSIMUS] R[EX] IM[PERATOR] D[UX] R[OMANORUM]. See for example, Bland (2011), pp. 135, 141 and Estiot, p. 118, esp. note 462. Although Potter, page 267 and footnote 24 postulates V[IR] C[ONSULARIS] for the mint at Antioch I would certainly side with Bland and Estiot.

Which side of this coin is the obverse and which side is the reverse?
Webb in RIC V, v.1 puts great weight on the titulature of Aurelian and mentions that mint marks on the obverse of coins were not unknown at Antioch. He considers the coin to have been struck as a sign of vassalage instead of having been struck as an insult. Webb states that Aurelian’s bust is on the obverse of the coin (p. 260). Robertson, pp. cxix and 142 also considers Aurelian’s bust to be on the obverse of the coin, but does not state an explicit reason for her position. Mattingly (1936) holds that the mint mark is the determining factor, and therefore believes that Aurelian’s bust is on the reverse of the coin. In SRCV III, p. 442 Sear follows the reasoning of Mattingly and although Vagi agrees that Aurelian’s bust is on the reverse of the coin (p. 403) he does not explicitly state his reason for believing so. Estiot states that the officina mark under the bust of Aurelian clearly indicates that his portrait is on the reverse of the coin (p. 118). Bland (2011) follows suit. When discussing this issue from Antioch he states that the officina mark is always placed on the reverse of coins. He notes that the placement of the officina mark sent a signal that Aurelian was “...being accorded a lower status than Vabalathus, although he was given his correct titles of Imperator and Augustus, and he wore a radiate crown, also traditionally associated with the senior Augustus” (p. 142 - 3). Watson argues that Queen Zenobia’s assertion of Palmyrene independence from Rome took place gradually (pp. 67 - 9). Bland believes that the placement of the officina mark under the bust of Aurelian on this coin was just another step in that assertion of independence.

Photo credits: Forum Ancient Coins

Sources

Bland 2011: Bland, Roger. “The Coinage of Vabalathus and Zenobia from Antioch and Alexandria" in Numismatic Chronicle, 171 (2011): 133 - 186.
Estiot, Sylviane. Monnaies de L’Empire romain XII.1: D’Aurelian ŕ Florien (270 - 276 apres J.-C.). Paris: Bibliothčque nationale de France, 2004.
Mattingly 1936: Mattingly, Harold. “The Palmyrene Princes and the Mints of Antioch and Alexandria.” The Numismatic Chronicle and Journal of the Royal Numismatic Society, fifth Series, vol. 16, no. 62 (1936): pp. 89 - 114.
MER - RIC: Maison de l’Orient et la Méditerranée: Monnaies de l’Empire Romain / Roman Imperial Coinage AD 268-276. Accessed March 7, 2019. http://www.ric.mom.fr/en/home.
Potter, David S. The Roman Empire at Bay: AD 180 - 395. New York: Routledge, 2004
RIC V v.1: Webb, Percy. The Roman Imperial Coinage, Vol. V, Part 1: Valerian to Florian, edited by Harold Mattingly and Edward Sydenham. London: Spink & Son, 1927.
Robertson, Anne. Roman Imperial Coins in the Hunter Coin Cabinet, Vol. IV Valerian I to Allectus. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1978.
SRCV III: Sear, David. Roman Coins and Their Values, Vol. III: Maximinus I to Carinus. London: Spink, 2005.
Vagi, David. Coinage and History of the Roman Empire, Volume One: History. Sidney, Ohio: Coin World, 1999.
Watson, Alaric. Aurelian and the Third Century. New York: Routledge, 1999.
Tracy Aiello
A_and_V_Antioch_7th_Wksp_Large.jpg
Vabalathus and Aurelian Antioch 7th Officina27 viewsVabalathus: 270 - 272 AD; Aurelian: 270 - 275 AD
Julius Aurelius Septimius Vabalathus Athenodorus (Wahb Allat), son of Septimius Odaenathus and Septimia Zenobia. Palmyrene Empire.
Obv: VABALATHVS V C R IM D R1; Bust of Vabalathus, laureate, diademed, draped and curiassed, facing right, seen from behind.
Rev: IMP C AVRELIANVS AVG; Bust of Aurelian, radiate and curiassed, facing right, from the front, Z in exergue.
Denomination: billon antoninianus; Mint: Antioch; Officina: 7th; Issue: 1st; Date: Nov. 270 - Mar. 272; Weight: 4.137g; Diameter: 20.3mm; Die axis: 0ş; References, for example: RIC V v.1 381 correc; MER - RIC 3110; SRCV III 11718

Notes:

1VABALATHVS V[IR] C[LARISSIMUS] R[EX] IM[PERATOR] D[UX] R[OMANORUM]. See for example, Bland (2011), pp. 135, 141 and Estiot, p. 118, esp. note 462. Although Potter, page 267 and footnote 24 postulates V[IR] C[ONSULARIS] for the mint at Antioch I would certainly side with Bland and Estiot.

Which side of this coin is the obverse and which side is the reverse?
Webb in RIC V, v.1 puts great weight on the titulature of Aurelian and mentions that mint marks on the obverse of coins were not unknown at Antioch. He considers the coin to have been struck as a sign of vassalage instead of having been struck as an insult. Webb states that Aurelian’s bust is on the obverse of the coin (p. 260). Robertson, pp. cxix and 142 also considers Aurelian’s bust to be on the obverse of the coin, but does not state an explicit reason for her position. Mattingly (1936) holds that the mint mark is the determining factor, and therefore believes that Aurelian’s bust is on the reverse of the coin. In SRCV III, p. 442 Sear follows the reasoning of Mattingly and although Vagi agrees that Aurelian’s bust is on the reverse of the coin (p. 403) he does not explicitly state his reason for believing so. Estiot states that the officina mark under the bust of Aurelian clearly indicates that his portrait is on the reverse of the coin (p. 118). Bland (2011) follows suit. When discussing this issue from Antioch he states that the officina mark is always placed on the reverse of coins. He notes that the placement of the officina mark sent a signal that Aurelian was “...being accorded a lower status than Vabalathus, although he was given his correct titles of Imperator and Augustus, and he wore a radiate crown, also traditionally associated with the senior Augustus” (p. 142 - 3). Watson argues that Queen Zenobia’s assertion of Palmyrene independence from Rome took place gradually (pp. 67 - 9). Bland believes that the placement of the officina mark under the bust of Aurelian on this coin was just another step in that assertion of independence.

Photo credits: Forum Ancient Coins

Sources

Bland 2011: Bland, Roger. “The Coinage of Vabalathus and Zenobia from Antioch and Alexandria" in Numismatic Chronicle, 171 (2011): 133 - 186.
Estiot, Sylviane. Monnaies de L’Empire romain XII.1: D’Aurelian ŕ Florien (270 - 276 apres J.-C.). Paris: Bibliothčque nationale de France, 2004.
Mattingly 1936: Mattingly, Harold. “The Palmyrene Princes and the Mints of Antioch and Alexandria.” The Numismatic Chronicle and Journal of the Royal Numismatic Society, fifth Series, vol. 16, no. 62 (1936): pp. 89 - 114.
MER - RIC: Maison de l’Orient et la Méditerranée: Monnaies de l’Empire Romain / Roman Imperial Coinage AD 268-276. Accessed March 7, 2019. http://www.ric.mom.fr/en/home.
Potter, David S. The Roman Empire at Bay: AD 180 - 395. New York: Routledge, 2004
RIC V v.1: Webb, Percy. The Roman Imperial Coinage, Vol. V, Part 1: Valerian to Florian, edited by Harold Mattingly and Edward Sydenham. London: Spink & Son, 1927.
Robertson, Anne. Roman Imperial Coins in the Hunter Coin Cabinet, Vol. IV Valerian I to Allectus. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1978.
SRCV III: Sear, David. Roman Coins and Their Values, Vol. III: Maximinus I to Carinus. London: Spink, 2005.
Vagi, David. Coinage and History of the Roman Empire, Volume One: History. Sidney, Ohio: Coin World, 1999.
Watson, Alaric. Aurelian and the Third Century. New York: Routledge, 1999.
1 commentsTracy Aiello
A_and_V_Antioch_8th_Wksp.jpeg
Vabalathus and Aurelian Antioch 8th Officina25 viewsVabalathus: 270 - 272 AD; Aurelian: 270 - 275 AD
Julius Aurelius Septimius Vabalathus Athenodorus (Wahb Allat), son of Septimius Odaenathus and Septimia Zenobia. Palmyrene Empire.
Obv: VABALATHVS V C R IM D R1; Bust of Vabalathus, draped and curiassed, facing right.
Rev: IMP C AVRELIANVS AVG; Bust of Aurelian, radiate and curiassed, facing right, from the rear, H in exergue.
Denomination: billon antoninianus; Mint: Antioch; Officina: 8th; Issue: 1st; Date: Nov. 270 - Mar. 272; Weight: 3.96g; Diameter: 21mm; Die axis: 180ş; References, for example: RIC V v.1 381 correc; MER - RIC 3113; SRCV III 11718

Notes:

1VABALATHVS V[IR] C[LARISSIMUS] R[EX] IM[PERATOR] D[UX] R[OMANORUM]. See for example, Bland (2011), pp. 135, 141 and Estiot, p. 118, esp. note 462. Although Potter, page 267 and footnote 24 postulates V[IR] C[ONSULARIS] for the mint at Antioch I would certainly side with Bland and Estiot.

Which side of this coin is the obverse and which side is the reverse?
Webb in RIC V, v.1 puts great weight on the titulature of Aurelian and mentions that mint marks on the obverse of coins were not unknown at Antioch. He considers the coin to have been struck as a sign of vassalage instead of having been struck as an insult. Webb states that Aurelian’s bust is on the obverse of the coin (p. 260). Robertson, pp. cxix and 142 also considers Aurelian’s bust to be on the obverse of the coin, but does not state an explicit reason for her position. Mattingly (1936) holds that the mint mark is the determining factor, and therefore believes that Aurelian’s bust is on the reverse of the coin. In SRCV III, p. 442 Sear follows the reasoning of Mattingly and although Vagi agrees that Aurelian’s bust is on the reverse of the coin (p. 403) he does not explicitly state his reason for believing so. Estiot states that the officina mark under the bust of Aurelian clearly indicates that his portrait is on the reverse of the coin (p. 118). Bland (2011) follows suit. When discussing this issue from Antioch he states that the officina mark is always placed on the reverse of coins. He notes that the placement of the officina mark sent a signal that Aurelian was “...being accorded a lower status than Vabalathus, although he was given his correct titles of Imperator and Augustus, and he wore a radiate crown, also traditionally associated with the senior Augustus” (p. 142 - 3). Watson argues that Queen Zenobia’s assertion of Palmyrene independence from Rome took place gradually (pp. 67 - 9). Bland believes that the placement of the officina mark under the bust of Aurelian on this coin was just another step in that assertion of independence.

Photo credits: Aegean Numismatics

Sources

Bland 2011: Bland, Roger. “The Coinage of Vabalathus and Zenobia from Antioch and Alexandria" in Numismatic Chronicle, 171 (2011): 133 - 186.
Estiot, Sylviane. Monnaies de L’Empire romain XII.1: D’Aurelian ŕ Florien (270 - 276 apres J.-C.). Paris: Bibliothčque nationale de France, 2004.
Mattingly 1936: Mattingly, Harold. “The Palmyrene Princes and the Mints of Antioch and Alexandria.” The Numismatic Chronicle and Journal of the Royal Numismatic Society, fifth Series, vol. 16, no. 62 (1936): pp. 89 - 114.
MER - RIC: Maison de l’Orient et la Méditerranée: Monnaies de l’Empire Romain / Roman Imperial Coinage AD 268-276. Accessed March 7, 2019. http://www.ric.mom.fr/en/home.
Potter, David S. The Roman Empire at Bay: AD 180 - 395. New York: Routledge, 2004
RIC V v.1: Webb, Percy. The Roman Imperial Coinage, Vol. V, Part 1: Valerian to Florian, edited by Harold Mattingly and Edward Sydenham. London: Spink & Son, 1927.
Robertson, Anne. Roman Imperial Coins in the Hunter Coin Cabinet, Vol. IV Valerian I to Allectus. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1978.
SRCV III: Sear, David. Roman Coins and Their Values, Vol. III: Maximinus I to Carinus. London: Spink, 2005.
Vagi, David. Coinage and History of the Roman Empire, Volume One: History. Sidney, Ohio: Coin World, 1999.
Watson, Alaric. Aurelian and the Third Century. New York: Routledge, 1999.
Tracy Aiello
4389137209_98040e726a_o.jpg
Valerian38 viewsValerian AR Antononianus. Rome, 253-255 AD. IMP C P LIC VALERIANVS AVG, radiate, draped bust right / FIDES MILITVM, Fides standing left holding two standards. Cohen 71.1 commentsrmon
00250-Valerian.JPG
Valerian11 viewsValerian Antoninians
23 mm 3.1 gm
O: IMP P LIC VALERIANVS AVG
Radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right
R: VOTA ORBIS S C
Two Victories placing shield inscribed S C on palm
John Campbell
VIM_Valerian-I-AE-26_IMP-VALERIANVS-PF-AVG_PMSC_OL-VIM_AN-XVI_Pick-190_PM-7-06-2_Mus-62v_kjg-001_7,03g-s.jpg
Valerian (253-260 A.D.), Moesia, Viminacium, PM 07-06-02, AE-Sestertius, Rare!, #01372 views088 Valerian (253-260 A.D.), Moesia, Viminacium, PM 07-06-02, AE-Sestertius, Rare!, #01
avers:- IMP-VALERIANVS-PF-AVG, laureate cuirassed bust right .
revers:- PMSC_OL-VIM, female figure (Viminacium or Provincia Moesia) standing, facing left, between bull to left and lion to right, in ex. AN XVI .
exergo: AN-XVI, diameter: 26mm, weight: 7,03g, axis: h,
mint: Viminacium, date: 254-255 A.D., ref: Pick-190, PM-7-06-2, Mus-62var,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
VIM_Valerian-I-AE-26_IMP-VALERIANVS-P-AVG_PMSC_OL-VIM_AN-XVI_Pick-190_PM-7-06-5_Mus-62v_Q-001_axis-h_mm_g-s.jpg
Valerian (253-260 A.D.), Moesia, Viminacium, PM 07-06-05, AE-Sestertius, Rare!, #01 160 views088 Valerian (253-260 A.D.), Moesia, Viminacium, PM 07-06-05, AE-Sestertius, Rare!, #01
avers:- IMP-VALERIANVS-P-AVG, laureate cuirassed bust right .
revers:- PMSC_OL-VIM, female figure (Viminacium or Provincia Moesia) standing, facing left, between bull to left and lion to right, in ex. AN XVI .
exergo: AN-XVI, diameter: mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Moesia, Viminacium, date: 254-255 A.D., ref: Pick-190, PM-7-06-5, Mus-,
Q-001
quadrans
CD-15.jpg
Valerian (A.D. 253-260)21 viewsAE Antoninianus, A.D. 256, Viminacium, 23mm, 3.92g, 0°, RIC Vi 211a.
Obv: IMP C P LIC VALERIANVS P F AVG. Radiate, draped bust right.
Rev: AETERNITATI AVGG. Sol standing left raising right hand and holding globe in left.
1 commentsJoseph D5
Valerian_Alexandria.jpg
Valerian - Alexandria11 viewsBI tetradrachm
29 Aug 255 - 28 Aug 256 AD
laureate cuirassed bust right
A K Π ΛI OVAΛEPIANOC EV EV C
Homonoia seated left, holding double cornucopiae and rising hand
L Γ
Emmett 3712, Milne 3905
11,1g
ex London Coin Galleries
Johny SYSEL
1371_Valerian_Alexandria.jpg
Valerian - Alexandria7 viewsBI tetradrachm
29 Aug 259 - 28 Aug 260 AD
laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right
A K Π ΛI OVAΛEPIANOC EV EV C
eagle standing left, head right, wreath in beak
L_Z
BMC Alexandria p. 281, 2149; Milne 4034; Dattari 5183 ff. var. (date)
ex Rauch
Johny SYSEL
Valerian_Anazarbus.jpg
Valerian - Anazarbus13 viewstriassarion
253-254 AD
radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
AVT K OVAΛEPIANOC CE
Tyche standing left, agnostic crown in both hands
ANAZAPBOV EN_ΔOX M(HT) ET BOC
T // Γ / Γ _ A / K / M
SNG Levante 1521, Zeigler 806, BMC 40, SNG France 2141-3, SNG von Aulock 5513
9,0g
Johny SYSEL
Valerian_I_Liberalitas_Aug.jpg
Valerian - BI antoninianus4 viewsRome
255-256 AD
radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
IMP C P LIC VALERIANVS P F AVG
Liberalitas holding abacus and cornucopia
LIBERALITAS AVGG III
Göbl MIR 69c, RIC V 104, RSC IV 119, SRCV III 9948
2,43g
Johny SYSEL
935_Valerian_Mercur_.JPG
Valerian - BI antoninianus9 viewsAntioch
254-255 AD
radiate and draped bust right
IMP C P LIC VALERIANVS AVG
Mercury standing left, holding purse and caduceus
FORTVNA REDVX
RIC V 214; MIR 36, 1561a; RSC 75
Johny SYSEL
978_Valerian_Ant-Sam.jpg
Valerian - BI antoninianus9 viewsAntioch / Samosata
255-256 AD
radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
IMP C P LIC VALERIANVS AVG
turreted woman standing right, presenting wreath to Valerian standing half left, wearing military dress, holding scepter
RESTITVT ORI_ENTIS
1st emission
RIC 286var (Büste), RSC 188var (dito), MIR 1677e.
Johny SYSEL
112_Valerian_Dacia2.jpg
Valerian - Dacia7 viewsAE 25
253-254 AD
laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right from behind
IMP P LIC VALERIANO AVG
Dacia holding branch and scepter standing half-left between lion and eagle
PROVIN_CIA DACIA
AN VIII
Pick-Martin Ref.: 7.56.(1/2)
10,48 g 26,5-26 mm
Johny SYSEL
Valerian_Mopsus.jpg
Valerian - Mopsus11 views255-256 AD
Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
AVT·K·OVAΛEPIANOC·CEB
Tyche standing right, presenting agonistic urn containing two palm fronds to Valerian I and Gallienus, each seated left on curule chair.
AΔP OVA ΓAΛ MOΨEATΩN DΩPEAI ET ΓKT
SNG Levante 1358 (var)
16,2g
Johny SYSEL
ValerianProv.JPG
Valerian / Hekate50 viewsEphesus, Ionia
253-260 AD
AE26 (7.86g)
O: Laureate and draped bust of Valerian right; AYT K ΠO ΛIK BAΛEPIANOΣ.
R: Hekate standing facing, head left, wearing long chiton and holding two torches; EΦEΣIΩN Γ NEΩKOPΩN.
Lindgren 474; SNG Cop 499
ex Gerhard Rohde

"The Sibyl first lined up four black-skinned bullocks, poured a libation of wine upon their foreheads, and then, plucking the topmost hairs from between their brows, she placed these on the altar fires as an initial offering, calling aloud upon Hecate, powerful in heaven and hell.
While other laid their knives to these victim’s throats, and caught the fresh warm blood in bowls, Aeneas sacrifices a black-fleeced lamb to Nox, the mother of the Furiae, and her great sister, Terra, and a barren heifer to Proserpine. Then Aeneas set up altars by night to the god of the Underworld, laying upon the flames whole carcasses of bulls and pouring out rich oil over the burning entrails. But listen! - at the very first crack of dawn, the ground underfoot began to mutter, the woody ridges to quake, and a baying of hounds was heard through the half-light: the goddess was coming, Hecate!"
~ Virgil (Aeneid 6,257)
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