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rome_sestertius_ANACS-VF-20_rev_04_cut.JPG
44 viewsEmperor Severus Alexander. AD232. AE Sestertius. Reverse, cut.

obv: IMP ALEXANDER PIVS AVG - Laureate bust right, seen from front, draped and cuirassed.
rev: MARS VLTOR - Mars with spear and shield in the 'Ready-for-Action' position.
'S C' to either side of Mars.

22.3 grams.
rexesq
rome_AD232_AE-sestertius_mars-ultor_ANACS-VF20_opened_obv_01.JPG
255 viewsFree at last, free at last.5 commentsrexesq
rome_AD232_AE-sestertius_mars-ultor_ANACS-VF20_rev_01.JPG
52 viewsSeverus Alexander. AD232. AE Sestertius. Reverse.

obv: IMP ALEXANDER PIVS AVG - Laureate bust right, seen from front, draped and cuirassed.
rev: MARS VLTOR - Mars with spear and shield in the 'Ready-for-Action' position.
'S C' to either side of Mars.

22.3 grams.
rexesq
rome_AD232_AE-sestertius_mars-ultor_ANACS-VF20_obv_01.JPG
68 viewsSeverus Alexander. AD232. AE Sestertius. Obverse.

obv: IMP ALEXANDER PIVS AVG - Laureate bust right, seen from front, draped and cuirassed.
rev: MARS VLTOR - Mars with spear and shield in the 'Ready-for-Action' position.
'S C' to either side of Mars.

22.3 grams.
1 commentsrexesq
rome_AD232_AE-sestertius_mars-ultor_ANACS-VF20_opened_obv_01-rev_01_cut_02.JPG
14 viewsSeverus Alexander AD 232 AE Sestertiusrexesq
rome_AD232_AE-sestertius_mars-ultor_ANACS-VF20_opened_obv_01-rev_01.JPG
200 viewsSeverus Alexander. AD232. AE Sestertius. Obverse.

obv: IMP ALEXANDER PIVS AVG - Laureate bust right, seen from front, draped and cuirassed.
rev: MARS VLTOR - Mars with spear and shield in the 'Ready-for-Action' position.
'S C' to either side of Mars.

22.3 grams.

**Photo w/ Flash
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rexesq
rome_AD232_AE-sestertius_mars-ultor_ANACS-VF20_opened_obv_01-rev_01_cut_01.JPG
18 viewsSeverus Alexander AD 232 AE Sestertiusrexesq
rome_sestertius_ANACS-VF-20_rev_03_cut.JPG
123 viewsEmperor Severus Alexander. AD232. AE Sestertius. Reverse, cut.

obv: IMP ALEXANDER PIVS AVG - Laureate bust right, seen from front, draped and cuirassed.
rev: MARS VLTOR - Mars with spear and shield in the 'Ready-for-Action' position.
'S C' to either side of Mars.

22.3 grams.
--------------------------
Fantastic 'MARS ULTOR' reverse!
rexesq
rome_sestertius_ANACS-VF-20_rev_03.JPG
182 viewsEmperor Severus Alexander. AD232. AE Sestertius. Reverse.

obv: IMP ALEXANDER PIVS AVG - Laureate bust right, seen from front, draped and cuirassed.
rev: MARS VLTOR - Mars with spear and shield in the 'Ready-for-Action' position.
'S C' to either side of Mars.

22.3 grams.
--------------------------
Fantastic 'MARS ULTOR' reverse!!
1 commentsrexesq
rome_sestertius_ANACS-VF-20_obv_06.JPG
29 viewsEmperor Severus Alexander. AD232. AE Sestertius. Obverse.

obv: IMP ALEXANDER PIVS AVG - Laureate bust right, seen from front, draped and cuirassed.
rev: MARS VLTOR - Mars with spear and shield in the 'Ready-for-Action' position.
'S C' to either side of Mars.

22.3 grams.
1 commentsrexesq
rome_sestertius_ANACS-VF-20_obv_05.JPG
25 viewsEmperor Severus Alexander. AD232. AE Sestertius. Obverse.

obv: IMP ALEXANDER PIVS AVG - Laureate bust right, seen from front, draped and cuirassed.
rev: MARS VLTOR - Mars with spear and shield in the 'Ready-for-Action' position.
'S C' to either side of Mars.

22.3 grams.
rexesq
AUGUSTUS_Cistophorus_Pergamum.JPG
AUGUSTUS. AR Cistophorus (3 denarii) of Pergamum. Struck c.19 - 18 B.C.604 viewsObverse: IMP IX TR PO V. Bare head of Augustus facing right.
Reverse: Triumphal arch surmounted by Augustus in facing triumphal quadriga; IMP IX TR POT V on architrave; S P R SIGNIS RECEPTIS in three lines within arch opening, standards at either side.
RIC I : 510 | BMC : 703 | RSC : 298.

This coin commemorates Augustus' triumphant agreement with the Parthians in 20 B.C. under which they returned the legionary standards captured from Crassus who was defeated and killed at Carrhae thirty-three years earlier (53 B.C.) Augustus installed these standards in the Temple of Mars Ultor.
The reverse of the coin shows the triumphal arch which was awarded to Augustus on the occasion of his recovery of the standards. This was the second triumphal arch awarded to Augustus and, like the earlier arch which had been constructed in 29 BC to honour his victory over Cleopatra, this second arch, which archaeological evidence suggests may actually have incorporated the first arch, stood in close proximity to the Temple of Divus Julius at the southern entrance to the Roman Forum.

This is the rarest cistophorus struck during the reign of Augustus with the exception of the exceedingly rare issues featuring a sphinx.
6 commentsdivvsavgvstvs
cl_goth_mars_ultor_res.jpg
(0268) CLAUDIUS II GOTHICUS21 views268 - 270 AD
AE 17.5 mm max. 2.47 g
O: IMP CLAVDIVS AVG, radiate and cuirassed bust right;
R: MARS VLTOR, Mars walking right, holding spear in right hand and spear across shoulder in left, H in right field
Rome mint; RIC V 67
(EB)
laney
coins123.JPG
202a. Plautilla61 viewsVenus

The Roman goddess of love and beauty, but originally a vegetation goddess and patroness of gardens and vineyards. Later, under Greek influence, she was equated with Aphrodite and assumed many of her aspects. Her cult originated from Ardea and Lavinium in Latium. The oldest temple known of Venus dates back to 293 BCE, and was inaugurated on August 18. Later, on this date the Vinalia Rustica was observed. A second festival, that of the Veneralia, was celebrated on April 1 in honor of Venus Verticordia, who later became the protector against vice. Her temple was built in 114 BCE. After the Roman defeat near Lake Trasum in 215 BCE, a temple was built on the Capitol for Venus Erycina. This temple was officially opened on April 23, and a festival, the Vinalia Priora, was instituted to celebrate the occasion.

Venus is the daughter of Jupiter, and some of her lovers include Mars and Vulcan, modeled on the affairs of Aphrodite. Venus' importance rose, and that of her cult, through the influence of several Roman political leaders. The dictator Sulla made her his patroness, and both Julius Caesar and the emperor Augustus named her the ancestor of their (Julian) family: the 'gens Julia' was Aeneas, son of Venus and the mortal Anchises. Ceasar introduced the cult of Venus Genetrix, the goddess of motherhood and marriage, and built a temple for her in 46 BCE. She was also honored in the temple of Mars Ultor. The last great temple of Venus was built by the emperor Hadrianus near the Colusseum in 135 CE.

Roman statues and portraits of Venus are usually identical to the Greek representations of Aphrodite.

AR Denarius. PLAVTILLA AVGVSTA, draped bust right / VENVS VICTRIX, Venus standing left holding apple & palm, leaning on shield, Cupid at her feet. RSC 25.
ecoli
515_Hadrian_RIC255.jpg
255 Hadrian Denarius Roma 134-38 AD Mars standing21 viewsReference. rare 1 specimen in Reka Devnia hoard
Strack 250; RIC 255c; BMCRE 675; RSC 951b;

Obv. HADRIANVS AVG COS III P P
Bare head, draped bust right, seen from back.

Rev. MAR-TI ( Mar[ti]s Ultor = Mars the Avenger)
Mars standing left holding inverted spear and shield.

3.43 gr
18 mm
6h.
1 commentsokidoki
297-1b_Quinctia.jpg
297/1b. Quinctia - denarius (112-111 BC)31 viewsAR Denarius (Rome, 112-111 BC)
O/ Bust of Hercules seen from behind, with head turned to left and club over shoulder.
R/ Desultor right, wearing cuirass; control-mark behind; rat right between TI Q below; D.S.S. incuse on tablet in exergue.
3.82g; 118mm
Crawford 297/1b (87 obverse dies/109 reverse dies)
- Naville Numismatics Live Auction 36, lot 534.

* Tiberius Quinctius:

The attribution of this issue to a Tiberius Quinctius is dubious as the few letters on the reverse could mean different things. Crawford rules out the possibility that the Q stands for Quaestor, so it should only be the first letter of a nomen, hence the attribution to a Quinctius. However a Quinctilius is also possible.

The significance of the rat below the horses is an enigma. It apparently cannot be related to any cognomen; Crawford may be right to reject previous attempts to link it to a name -- the solution is probably not as easy as simply translating "rat", "mouse" or "rodent" in Latin. Mus ("mouse") was nonetheless an attested cognomen, but the gens Decia that bore it was already extinct by the end of the 2nd century.

The reverse with the desultor was perhaps a statue, as the legend DSS stands for "de Senatus Sententia", usually found on public monuments.
2 commentsJoss
SevAlex-RIC-144.jpg
30. Severus Alexander.12 viewsDenarius, ca 225 AD, Rome mint.
Obverse: IMP C M AVR SEV ALEXAND AVG / Laureate bust of Severus Alexander.
Reverse: IOVI VLTORI / Jupiter seared, holding Victory and spear.
3.01 gm., 18 mm.
RIC #144; Sear #7873.

The reverse legend is of some interest on this coin: IOVI VLTORI. The epithet Ultori (Avenger) is usually applied to Mars, not Jove. When Severus Alexander's cousin and predecessor Elagabalus was emperor, the temple of Jupiter (Jove) in Rome became the temple of the eastern sun-god El-Gabal. The religious excesses of the reign finally ended with the murder of Elagabalus, and things began to get back to normal. The temple was cleansed and rededicated to Jupiter. It is likely that the epithet Ultor was given to Jupiter at this time to appease him for the affront he suffered during the previous reign.
Callimachus
Antose22-2.jpg
Antoninus Pius, RIC 609, Sestertius of AD 140-144 (Mars Ultor) 59 viewsÆ Sestertius (21.9g, Ø33mm, 12h). Rome mint. Struck AD 140-144.
Obv.: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P COS III laureate head of Antoninus Pius facing right
Rev.: MARTI VLTORI (around) S C (in field), Mars, helmeted and in military dress, standing right, holding inverted spear, resting left hand on a shield.
RIC 609; Cohen 550; BMCRE IV 1252, Strack 839 (3 coll.); Banti (I Grandi Bronzi Imperiali II-3) 232 (10 spec.); Sear (Roman Coins and their Values II) 4193

ex D. Ruskin (Oxford, UK, 1995)

Marti Ultori = "to Victorious Mars"
1 commentsCharles S
AUGUSTUS_ARCH_Cistophorus.JPG
ARCH, AUGUSTUS, RIC I : 510.159 viewsAR Cistophorus (Cistophoric Tetradrachm = 3 denarii) of Pergamum. Struck 19 - 18 B.C.
Obverse: IMP•IX•TR•PO•V. Bare head of Augustus facing right.
Reverse: Triumphal arch surmounted by Augustus in facing triumphal quadriga; IMP IX TR POT V on architrave; S P R SIGNIS RECEPTIS in three lines within arch opening, standards at either side.
Diameter: 24 - 25mm | Weight: 11.7gms | Die Axis: 12
RIC I : 510 | BMC : 703 | RSC : 298

This coin commemorates Augustus' triumphant agreement with the Parthians in 20 B.C. under which they returned the legionary standards captured from Crassus who was defeated and killed at Carrhae thirty-three years earlier (53 B.C.). Augustus installed these standards in the Temple of Mars Ultor.
The reverse of the coin shows the triumphal arch which was awarded to Augustus on the occasion of his recovery of the standards. This was the second triumphal arch awarded to Augustus and, like the earlier arch which had been constructed in 29 BC to honour his victory over Cleopatra, this second arch, which archaeological evidence suggests may actually have incorporated the first arch, stood in close proximity to the Temple of Divus Julius at the southern entrance to the Roman Forum.
2 comments*Alex
augustopeke~0.jpg
AUGUSTUS27 viewsAR denarius. Spanish mint (Colonia Patricia ?). 18 BC. 3,81 grs. 7 h. Laureate head right. CAESARI AVGVSTO / Temple of Mars Ultor: round-domed, hexastyle temple with acroteria ,set on podium of three steps. Within, aquila between two signa. MAR VLT across field.
RIC I 105a. RSC 190
1 commentsbenito
augustopeke.jpg
AUGUSTUS30 viewsAR denarius. Spanish mint (Colonia Patricia ?). 18 BC. 3,81 grs. 7 h. Laureate head right. CAESARI AVGVSTO / Temple of Mars Ultor: round-domed, hexastyle temple with acroteria ,set on podium of three steps. Within, aquila between two signa. MAR VLT across field.
RIC I 105a. RSC 190
2 commentsbenito
218344.jpg
Augustus2 viewsAugustus denarius 18 BC, Spanish mint (Colonia Partica?) Denarius AR 17mm., 3,48g.
CAESAR AVGVSTO, laureate head right / S P -Q R, temple of Mars Ultor: round-domed, tetrastyle temple set on podium of three steps, within which is a chariot right, carrying an aquila and miniature galloping horses.

RIC 119.
Ancient Aussie
BrettAugustus2.jpg
Augustus Denarius45 viewsLaureate head right, CAESARI AVGVSTO / Domed hexastyle temple of Mars Ultor (the Avenger) containing legionary eagle between two standards, MAR VLT. Uncertain Spanish mint (Colonia Patricia?), 18 BC. RIC I 105a (pg.48); BMCRE 373; RSC 190; RCV 1623 (Millennium Edition).
socalcoins
augustus_86a.JPG
Augustus RIC I, 86a176 viewsAugustus, 27 BC - AD 14
AR - Denar, 3.74g, 19mm
Colonia Patricia(?), ca. 19 BC - 18 BC
obv. CAESAR AVGVSTVS
bare head r.
rev. SIGNIS above, RECEPTIS under round shield inscribed with CL.V between
eagle l. and standard r. S.P.Q.R. at the corners of the shield
RIC I, 86a; BMCR 417; RSC 265
good VF, toned

The eagle standards were introduced by Marius similar to the Ptolemaic eagle to each of his legions. This issue celebrates the recovery of the 3 eagle-standards 20 BC by Augustus, which were lost by Crassus 53 BC at the battle of Carrhae against the Parthians. The 3 eagles thereafter were erected in the new temple of Mars Ultor on the Forum of Augustus. The day of recovery was determined public holiday.
5 commentsJochen
augustus_86a~0.JPG
Augustus RIC I, 86a1418 viewsJochen's Augustus RIC I, 86a
Augustus, 27 BC - AD 14
AR - Denar, 3.74g, 19mm
Colonia Patricia(?), ca. 19 BC - 18 BC
obv. CAESAR AVGVSTVS
bare head r.
rev. SIGNIS above, RECEPTIS under round shield inscribed with CL.V between
eagle l. and standard r. S.P.Q.R. at the corners of the shield
RIC I, 86a; BMCR 417; RSC 265
good VF, toned

The eagle standards were introduced by Marius similar to the Ptolemaic eagle to each of his legions. This issue celebrates the recovery of the 3 eagle-standards 20 BC by Augustus (by negotiations), which were lost by Crassus 53 BC at the battle of Carrhae against the Parthians. The 3 eagles thereafter were erected in the new temple of Mars Ultor on the Forum of Augustus. The day of recovery was determined public holiday.
11 commentsJochen
105034.jpg
BOEOTIA, Thebes171 viewsIn the late 6th century BC the Thebans were brought for the first time into hostile contact with the Athenians, who helped the small village of Plataea to maintain its independence against them, and in 506 repelled an inroad into Attica. The aversion to Athens best serves to explain the unpatriotic attitude which Thebes displayed during the Persian invasion of Greece (480–479 BC). Though a contingent of 700 was sent to Thermopylae and remained there with Leonidas until just before the last stand when they surrendered to the Persians[1], the governing aristocracy soon after joined King Xerxes I of Persia with great readiness and fought zealously on his behalf at the battle of Plataea in 479 BC. The victorious Greeks subsequently punished Thebes by depriving it of the presidency of the Boeotian League, and an attempt by the Spartans to expel it from the Delphic amphictyony was only frustrated by the intercession of Athens.

In 457 Sparta, needing a counterpoise against Athens in central Greece, reversed her policy and reinstated Thebes as the dominant power in Boeotia. The great citadel of Cadmea served this purpose well by holding out as a base of resistance when the Athenians overran and occupied the rest of the country (457–447). In the Peloponnesian War the Thebans, embittered by the support which Athens gave to the smaller Boeotian towns, and especially to Plataea, which they vainly attempted to reduce in 431, were firm allies of Sparta, which in turn helped them to besiege Plataea and allowed them to destroy the town after its capture in 427 BC. In 424 at the head of the Boeotian levy they inflicted a severe defeat upon an invading force of Athenians at the Battle of Delium, and for the first time displayed the effects of that firm military organization which eventually raised them to predominant power in Greece.

After the downfall of Athens at the end of the Peloponnesian War the Thebans, finding that Sparta intended to protect the states which they desired to annex, broke off the alliance. In 404 they had urged the complete destruction of Athens, yet in 403 they secretly supported the restoration of its democracy in order to find in it a counterpoise against Sparta. A few years later, influenced perhaps in part by Persian gold, they formed the nucleus of the league against Sparta. At the battles of Haliartus (395) and Coronea (394) they again proved their rising military capacity by standing their ground against the Spartans. The result of the war was especially disastrous to Thebes, as the general settlement of 387 stipulated the complete autonomy of all Greek towns and so withdrew the other Boeotians from its political control. Its power was further curtailed in 382, when a Spartan force occupied the citadel by a treacherous coup-de-main. Three years later the Spartan garrison was expelled, and a democratic constitution definitely set up in place of the traditional oligarchy. In the consequent wars with Sparta the Theban army, trained and led by Epaminondas and Pelopidas, proved itself the best in Greece. Some years of desultory fighting, in which Thebes established its control over all Boeotia, culminated in 371 in a remarkable victory over the pick of the Spartans at Leuctra. The winners were hailed throughout Greece as champions of the oppressed. They carried their arms into Peloponnesus and at the head of a large coalition permanently crippled the power of Sparta. Similar expeditions were sent to Thessaly and Macedon to regulate the affairs of those regions.

However the predominance of Thebes was short-lived; the states which she protected refused to subject themselves permanently to her control, and the renewed rivalry of Athens, which had joined with Thebes in 395 in a common fear of Sparta, but since 387 had endeavoured to maintain the balance of power against her ally, prevented the formation of a Theban empire. With the death of Epaminondas at Mantinea in 362 the city sank again to the position of a secondary power. In a war with the neighbouring state of Phocis (356–346) it could not even maintain its predominance in central Greece, and by inviting Philip II of Macedon to crush the Phocians it extended that monarch's power within dangerous proximity to its frontiers. A revulsion of feeling was completed in 338 by the orator Demosthenes, who persuaded Thebes to join Athens in a final attempt to bar Philip's advance upon Attica. The Theban contingent lost the decisive battle of Chaeronea and along with it every hope of reassuming control over Greece. Philip was content to deprive Thebes of her dominion over Boeotia; but an unsuccessful revolt in 335 against his son Alexander was punished by Macedon and other Greek states by the severe sacking of the city, except, according to tradition, the house of the poet Pindar.

BOEOTIA, Thebes. Circa 395-338 BC. AR Stater (21mm, 11.98 gm). Boeotian shield / Amphora; magistrate AM-FI. Hepworth, "The 4th Century BC Magistrate Coinage of the Boiotian Confederacy," in Nomismatika Xronika (1998), 2; BMC Central Greece -. Fine.

Ex-Cng eAuction 105, Lot: 34 225/200

2 commentsecoli
233689_l.jpg
Boeotia, Thebes (Circa 379-368 BC)20 viewsAR Stater

22 mm, 11.44 g

Obverse: Boeotian shield

Reverse: Amphora; ΠO-ΘI (Pothi - magistrate) across field.

Hepworth 81; BCD Boiotia 515; HGC 4, 1331

Thebes was the largest city of the ancient region of Boeotia. It was a major rival of ancient Athens, and sided with the Persians during the 480 BC invasion under Xerxes and Sparta during the Peloponnesian war (431-404 BC). In 404 BC, they had urged the complete destruction of Athens; yet, in 403 BC, they secretly supported the restoration of its democracy in order to find in it a counterpoise against Sparta. A few years later, influenced perhaps in part by Persian gold, they formed the nucleus of the league against Sparta. The result of the war was disastrous to Thebes, and by 382 BC a Spartan force was occupying its citadel. Three years later, the Spartan garrison was expelled and a democratic constitution was set up in place of the traditional oligarchy. In the consequent wars with Sparta, the Theban army, trained and led by Epaminondas and Pelopidas, proved itself formidable. Years of desultory fighting, in which Thebes established its control over all Boeotia, culminated in 371 BC in a remarkable victory over the Spartans at Leuctra.
Nathan P
20536.jpg
C. Censorinus6 viewsC. Censorinus. 88 B.C. AR denarius (17.5 mm, 3.87 g, 2 h). Rome mint. Jugate heads of Numa Pompilius and Ancus Marcius right / C · CENSO in exergue, Desultor riding the nearer of two horses galloping right; X below. Crawford 346/1d; Sydenham 713a; Marcia 18. VF/F, weak areas.ecoli
1312_346_Censorinus.JPG
C. Marcius Censorinus - AR denarius6 viewsRome
88 BC
jugate heads of bearded Numa Pompilius and Ancus Marcius right
Desultor right riding two horses, wearing conical cap, holding whip
XXXIII
C·CENSO
Crawford 346/1b, SRCV I 256, Sydenham 713b, RSC I Marcia 18
ex Savoca

Marcia family claimed their descent from legendary kings Numa Pompilius and Ancus Marcius.
Desultor commemorates ludi Apollinares which were held for the first time in 212 BC as memento of Marcius' prophecy of Roman victory over Hannibal in the battle of Cannae 216 BC.
Johny SYSEL
Capture~2.PNG
C. Marcius Censorinus AR Denarius. Rome, 88 BC.20 viewsObv. Jugate heads right of Numa Pompilius, bearded, and Ancus Marcius, beardless.
Rev. Desultor, wearing conical cap and holding whip; below horses, spear and in exergue., C. CENSO.
References: Babelon Marcia 18; Sydenham 713a; Crawford 346/1d.
18mm and 2.6grams.
Canaan
1re_roma_unita_1.jpg
Gens Marcia, denario (88 a.C.), zecca di Roma12 viewsGens Marcia, denario coniato da C. Marcius Censorinus (88 a.C.), Roma
AR, 3.55 gr, 18 mm, MB
D/ Teste accollate di Numa Pompilio barbato e di Anco Marzio imberbe a dx; dietro, un simbolo.
R/ C CENSO; Desultor conduce due cavalli al galoppo verso destra; con berretto conico, tiene la frusta con la mano destra. In basso, XVI
Crawford 346/1a
Provenienza: collezione Berardengo (Roma, Italia dal 25 dicembre 2016, numero catalogo 265), ex collezione Vanni, Tinia numismatica (Follonica, Grosseto, Italia fino al dicembre 2016)
paolo
Unknown_Fourré.jpg
Imitative denarius serratus subaeratus55 viewsObv: Anepigraphic; female jugate heads (?) right, front head laureate.
Rev: two horses galloping right, desultor on front horse, [..]NS in exergue.
Serrate subaerate denarius, 1,9 mm; 2,74 g

There does not seem to be a model for this subaerate, which might be a Dacian or Celtic imitative, based on the counterfeiters vague recollection of Republican coins from the period between 75-50 B.C. (thanks to Andrew McCabe for the information). It also features serration, interpreted by some as an anti-counterfeiting device (if an unsuccessful one).
Syltorian
IMG_1335.JPG
Italy, Rome, Forum of Augustus159 viewsIt includes the Temple of Mars UltorJohny SYSEL
julia-mamaea_sev-alexander-mars_sesterces_05.JPG
Julia Mamaea 003 Sestertius with Severus Alexander Sestertius26 viewsJulia Mamaea 'FELICITAS PUBLICA' AE Sestertius,19.6 grams
next to
Severus Alexander 'MARS ULTOR' AE Sestertius. 22.3 grams.
2 commentsrexesq
julia-mamaea-venus_sev-alexander-mars_sesterces_both-together_01.JPG
Julia Mamaea 004 Sestertius with Severus Alexander Sestertius 00217 viewsMother and Son.
Venus and Mars.

Julia Mamaea - VENUS VICTRIX -SC- - Venus holding helmet and sceptre, shield at her feet.
AD 228-9. 24.9 grams.
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Severus Alexander - MARS ULTOR - Mars advancing, in the ready-for-action-position, holding spear and shield. 'S C' to either side of Mars.
AD 232. 22.3 grams.
rexesq
severus_alexander_246~0.jpg
Mars Ultor263 viewsSeverus Alexander 222-235
AR - Denar, 3.12g, 20.5mm
Rome 232
obv. IMP ALEXANDER PIVS AVG
draped, cuirassed bust, laureate head r.
rev. MARS - VLTOR
Mars walking r., holding spear and shield
RIC IV/2, 246; BMCR 831; C.161
near EF, toned

MARS ULTOR, Mars the Avenger. Two temples were dedicated to him during the reign of Augustus. The first 20 BC on the Capitol for the standards recovered from the Parthians (showed on coins!), the second 2 BC vowed during the battle of Philippi in 42 BC as a memorial to Julius Caesar.
1 commentsJochen
rome_sestertius_ANACS-VF-20_rev_04_cut~0.JPG
MARS ULTOR146 viewsEmperor Severus Alexander. AD232. AE Sestertius. MARS ULTOR Reverse, cut.

obv: IMP ALEXANDER PIVS AVG - Laureate bust right, seen from front, draped and cuirassed.
rev: MARS VLTOR - Mars with spear and shield in the 'Ready-for-Action' position.
'S C' to either side of Mars.

22.3 grams
1 commentsrexesq
rome_AD232_AE-sestertius_mars-ultor_ANACS-VF20_obv_01_rev_01_90%.JPG
MARS ULTOR - Severus Alexander AE Sestertius203 viewsSeverus Alexander. AD232. AE Sestertius.
Graded VF 20 by ANACS before I removed it from the slab.

obv: IMP ALEXANDER PIVS AVG - Laureate bust right, seen from front, draped and cuirassed.
rev: MARS VLTOR - SC below - Mars with spear and shield in the 'Ready-for-Action' position.
22.3 grams.
2 commentsrexesq
HGC_874_Tetras_MESSANA_Sicilia.jpg
MESSANA (Los Mamertini) - Sicilia - Italia14 viewsBajo dominación de Los Mamertinos
AE Tetras 18 mm 3,45 gr.

Anv: Cabeza laureada e imberbe del Joven Zeus Hellanos, viendo a izquierda,"ΔIOΣ" frente al busto.
Rev: Águila de pié sobre un trueno a izquierda, con sus alas desplegadas. "MAMEP (en campo derecho) TINΩN" (en campo izquierdo)

Los Mamertini o "Hijos de Marte" eran una banda de mercenarios de la Campania (o samnitas), que alrededor del 289 A.C. se apoderaron de Mesina, luego de haber sido contratados por Agatocles para defenderla.
Los mamertinos dominaron Messana por más de 20 años, convirtiendo este pueblo de agricultores y comerciantes en una base de incursiones de piratas en tierra y mar.
En el 265 A.C., después que Hierón de Siracusa los había derrotado y sitiada Messana, la mamertinos apelaron a Cartago por ayuda y poco después debieron solicitarla ayuda de Roma para librarlos de los cartagineses. Los Mamertinos luego desaparecen de la historia, hasta siglos más tarde cuando los habitantes de Messana fueron llamados Mamertinos.
El "Vino mamertino" de los viñedos de la punta noreste de Sicilia era el favorito de Julio César, quien lo hizo popular al servirlo en una fiesta para celebrar su tercer consulado. (Fuente Fórum Ancient Coins)

Acuñada 288 - 278 A.C.
Ceca: Messana - Sicilia - Italia

Referencias: HGC II #874 (R2) - Calciati I #15 Pag.66 - Särström Serie V, Grupo C #111 ff - BAR issue 9 - BMC Sicily #14 Pag.110 - Carollo Morello #20a
1 commentsmdelvalle
AUGUSTUS_Cistophorus_Pergamum~0.JPG
ROMAN EMPIRE, AUGUSTUS AR Cistophorus (3 denarii) of Pergamum. Struck 19 - 18 B.C. 297 viewsObverse: IMP IX TR PO V. Bare head of Augustus facing right.
Reverse: Triumphal arch surmounted by Augustus in facing triumphal quadriga; IMP IX TR POT V on architrave; S P R SIGNIS RECEPTIS in three lines within arch opening, standards at either side.
RIC I : 510 | BMC : 703 | RSC : 298
Very Rare.

This coin commemorates Augustus' triumphant agreement with the Parthians in 20 B.C. under which they returned the legionary standards captured from Crassus who had been defeated and killed at Carrhae thirty-three years earlier (53 B.C.). Augustus installed these standards in the Temple of Mars Ultor.
The reverse of the coin shows the triumphal arch which was awarded to Augustus on the occasion of his recovery of the standards. This was the second triumphal arch awarded to Augustus and, like the earlier arch which had been constructed in 29 BC to honour his victory over Cleopatra, this second arch, which archaeological evidence suggests actually incorporated the first arch, stood in close proximity to the Temple of Divus Julius at the southern entrance to the Roman Forum.

This is the rarest cistophorus struck during the reign of Augustus with the exception of the exceedingly rare issues featuring a sphinx.
9 comments*Alex
mars_ultor_mini.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Claudius II Gothicus AE Antoninianus12 viewsobv. IMP C CLAVDIVS AVG,
radiate draped bust right
rev. MARS VLTOR,
Mars walking right, holding spear and trophy.
Ref.: RIC 66A(?)

Claudius Gothicus (aka Claudius II) was the first of the soldier-emperors. He ruled for less than two years (268–270 AD). His destruction of the Gothic cavalry earned him the name of Gothicus. He died of smallpox in January 270 AD.
Jani
Vespasian_Sesterz.jpg
Roman Empire, Vespasian, Sestertius111 viewsObv. IMP CAESAR VESPASIANVS AVG P M T P P P COS III, laureate head right.
Rev. S C, Mars, helmeted, naked except for cloak around waist, advancing right, holding transverse spear in right hand and trophy over left shoulder in left hand.
Mint: Rome, 71 AD.

34mm 25.46g

RIC 113

Ex Portuguese Collection, purchased 2019.
Ex A. E. Cahn, Auction 75, 30th May 1932, lot 1017.

Curtis Clay
This example: no. 102d (A139/P184) in Kraays unpublished die catalogue (Cahn 75, 1017).
Other examples of the same dies: BMC 570, Hall 1189, Fitzwilliam 59.

The reverse type of Mars advancing (and likely an image of Mars Ultor) is common to all three Flavians. The representation of Mars is different from the Augustan types but likely has a similar inference – here being that of avenging the rebellion of the Jews. Even so the connection to earlier Augustan issues was probably well recognized at the time. (NAC)
5 commentskc
p63B2jD9r8bT4Q4rwj7N6YLyGea59X.jpg
ROMAN IMPERATORIAL, M. Antony, 44 BCE36 viewsRome, The Imperators.
Marcus Antonius, Apr-May 44 BCE
AR Denarius (4.09g; 19mm)
Rome Mint.

Obv: Antony's bearded, veiled head facing right; jug behind; lituus before.

Rev: P.SEPVLLIVS//MACER. Desultor on horseback, holding whip, galloping right with second horse; wreath and palm behind.

References: Crawford 480/22; HCRI 142; Antonia 2.

Provenance: Ex Kuenker 262 (13 Mar 2015), Lot 7819; ex Gorny & Mosch 141 (10 Oct 2005), Lot 238; Gorny & Mosch 133 (11 Oct 2004), Lot 378.

Minted in 44 BCE, shortly after the assassination of Julius Caesar, this denarius depicts Antony in mourning - veiled and unshaven - likely as he appeared in the Forum when he gave his famous funeral oration. It is probably the first depiction of Antony on a coin. The reverse shows a desultor with two horses, and likely refers to games held in 44 BCE which were largely dedicated to Caesar's memory. The type can be found in better condition, but rarely this complete.

Desultors appear on several Republican coin types, including Crawford 297/1, 346/1 and 480/21. Desultors rode multiple horses and likely changed horses through some sort of fancy leap or dismount maneuver. The practice, with four horses rather than two, is referenced in the Illiad (II.15.680), so likely dates to Homeric times or earlier. As depicted on Republican coins, a Roman desultor rode two horses, bare-back which he managed by reins and whip, and he wore a pileus (felt cap) typically associated with the Dioscuri. The pileus raises the possibility thst the practice had religious connotations rather than a mere circus trick.
2 commentsCarausius
republicanOR.jpg
ROMAN REPUBLIC, C. Marcius Censorinus, Sydenham 713c31 viewsRome mint, C. Marcius Censorinus Denarius, 88 B.C. AR, 3.037g 18.5mm, Sydenham 713c. Crawford 346/1f
O: Jugate heads of Numa Pompilius and Ancus Marcius r.; the former diademed
R: Desultor r., wearing conical headgear and holding whip; below horses, Y, In exergue, C•CENSO
casata137ec
NumaAncus.JPG
Roman Republic, Censorinus - Numa - Ancus - Denarius18 viewsC Marcius Censorinus AR silver denarius. Struck 88 BC. Jugate heads of Numa Pompilius, bearded & in diadem, & Ancus Marcius, without beard, right. Reverse - C CENSO in exergue, Desultor riding one of two horses galloping right, in conical cap, holding whip in right hand; counter mark below. RCV 256.

Ex Roma Numismatics
Sylvianus
Imitiative_Fourré.jpg
ROMAN REPUBLIC, Fourre Imitiative146 viewsObv: Anepigraphic; female jugate heads (?) right, front head laureate.
Rev: two horses galloping right, desultor on front horse, [..]NS in exergue.
Serrate subaerate denarius, 1,9 mm; 2,74 g

There does not seem to be a model for this subaerate, which might be a Dacian or Celtic imitative, based on the counterfeiters vague recollection of Republican coins from the period between 75-50 B.C. (thanks to Andrew McCabe for the information). It also features serration, interpreted by some as an anti-counterfeiting device (if an unsuccessful one).
Syltorian
la_gal10.jpg
Rome, IOVI ULTORI30 viewsicos
severus-alexander_AD232_AE-sestertius_ANACS-VF20.JPG
Sev Alexander AE Sestertius 'Mars Ultor' ANACS29 viewsSeverus Alexander. AD232. AE Sestertius.

obv: IMP ALEXANDER PIVS AVG - Laureate bust right, seen from front, draped and cuirassed.
rev: MARS VLTOR - Mars with spear and shield in the 'Ready-for-Action' position.
'S C' to either side of Mars.

Weight: 22.3 Grams
rexesq
rome_AD232_AE-sestertius_mars-ultor_ANACS-VF20_03.JPG
Sev Alexander AE Sestertius 'Mars Ultor' ANACS25 viewsSeverus Alexander. AD232. AE Sestertius.

obv: IMP ALEXANDER PIVS AVG - Laureate bust right, seen from front, draped and cuirassed.
rev: MARS VLTOR - Mars with spear and shield in the 'Ready-for-Action' position.
'S C' to either side of Mars.

Weight: 22.3 Grams
rexesq
rome_AD232_AE-sestertius_mars-ultor_ANACS-VF20_04.JPG
Sev Alexander AE Sestertius 'Mars Ultor' ANACS24 viewsSeverus Alexander. AD232. AE Sestertius.

obv: IMP ALEXANDER PIVS AVG - Laureate bust right, seen from front, draped and cuirassed.
rev: MARS VLTOR - Mars with spear and shield in the 'Ready-for-Action' position.
'S C' to either side of Mars.

Weight: 22.3 Grams
rexesq
AUGCIST_ARCH.JPG
Struck 19 - 18 B.C. AUGUSTUS. AR Cistophorus (Cistophoric Tetradrachm = 3 denarii) of Pergamum22 viewsObverse: IMP•IX•TR•PO•V. Bare head of Augustus facing right.
Reverse: Triumphal arch surmounted by Augustus in facing triumphal quadriga; IMP IX TR POT V on architrave; S P R SIGNIS RECEPTIS in three lines within arch opening, standards at either side.
Diameter: 24 - 25mm | Weight: 11.7gms | Die Axis: 12
RIC I : 510 | BMC : 703 | RSC : 298
Ex ROMA NUMISMATICS (London) | Ex Künker, 2006
RARE

This coin commemorates Augustus' triumphant agreement with the Parthians in 20 B.C. under which they returned the legionary standards captured from Crassus who was defeated and killed at Carrhae thirty-three years earlier (53 B.C.). Augustus installed these standards in the Temple of Mars Ultor.
The reverse of the coin shows the triumphal arch which was awarded to Augustus on the occasion of his recovery of the standards. This was the second triumphal arch awarded to Augustus and, like the earlier arch which had been constructed in 29 BC to honour his victory over Cleopatra, this second arch, which archaeological evidence suggests may actually have incorporated the first arch, stood in close proximity to the Temple of Divus Julius at the southern entrance to the Roman Forum.
This is the rarest cistophorus struck during the reign of Augustus with the exception of the exceedingly rare issues featuring a sphinx.
2 comments*Alex
AugustusARdenariusMARS(COMBINED).jpg
TEMPLE, Augustus, AR Denarius MAR VLT586 viewsAugustus, AR Denarius (3.61 gm). Laureate head right, CAESARI AVGVSTO / Domed hexastyle temple of Mars Ultor (the Avenger) containing legionary eagle between two standards, MAR VLT. RIC I 105a (pg.48); BMCRE 373; RSC 190.4 commentssocalcoins
Quinctia_6~0.JPG
Tiberius Quinctius108 viewsObv: Laureate bust of Hercules seen from behind with head turned left, wearing a lion's skin and resting a club on his right shoulder.

Rev: Two horses galloping left, the nearer being ridden by a laureate disultor; TI - Q divided by a rat below horses; D-S-S incuse on tablet in exergue; control letter M, with a dot above in field behind rider.

Silver Denarius, Rome mint, 112 - 111 BC

3.74 grams, 19.8 mm, 180°

RSC Quinctia 6, S174
1 commentsSPQR Coins
gallienus_valerian_apollo-propug_ants_obv_DSC07079_DSC07082_ovc-95%.JPG
VI - Gallienus and Valerian Antoninianii - 'IOVI ULTORI' and 'APOLINI PROPUG'32 viewsAncient Rome, Roman Empire. 253 - 260 A.D. Both are possibly from the Rome Mint.
Emperor Valerian (left) Father of Gallienus (right).
Father and Son AR/BI Antoninianii:
--------------
LEFT :

Emperor Valerian I (253-260 AD) Husband of Empress Salonina and Father of Gallienus and Valerian II.
AR Antoninianus. Struck 253 AD. Rome Mint.

obv: IMP C P LIC VALERIANVS AVG - Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right. Seen from the front.
rev: APOLINI PROPVG - Apollo standing right, drawing bow.

Weight: 3.0 grams
---------------
----------------------------------------------------
---------------
RIGHT:

Gallienus Antoninianus - IOVI ULTORI - Jupiter standing w/ thunderbolt 'S' in left field - #01
Gallienus (253 - 268 AD) Son of Emperor Valerian I (253 - 260 AD) and Empress Salonina.
Silver/billon Antoninianus.

obv: GALLIENUS AUG - Radiate bust right, cuirassed and seen from the front.
rev: IOVI ULTORI - Jupiter standing, facing right preparing to hurl thunderbolt. 'S' in left field.

Weight: 3.43 Grams
Size: 24 x 23 mm
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---
-
2 commentsrexesq
gallienus_valerian_apollo-propug_ants_obv_DSC07077.JPG
VI - Gallienus and Valerian Antoninianii - 'IOVI ULTORI' and 'APOLINI PROPUG' - obverses.23 viewsAncient Rome, Roman Empire. 253 - 260 A.D. Both are possibly from the Rome Mint.
Emperor Valerian (left) Father of Gallienus (right).
Father and Son AR/BI Antoninianii:
--------------
LEFT :

Emperor Valerian I (253-260 AD) Husband of Empress Salonina and Father of Gallienus and Valerian II.
AR Antoninianus. Struck 253 AD. Rome Mint.

obv: IMP C P LIC VALERIANVS AVG - Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right. Seen from the front.
rev: APOLINI PROPVG - Apollo standing right, drawing bow.

Weight: 3.0 grams
---------------
----------------------------------------------------
---------------
RIGHT:

Gallienus Antoninianus - IOVI ULTORI - Jupiter standing w/ thunderbolt 'S' in left field - #01
Gallienus (253 - 268 AD) Son of Emperor Valerian I (253 - 260 AD) and Empress Salonina.
Silver/billon Antoninianus.

obv: GALLIENUS AUG - Radiate bust right, cuirassed and seen from the front.
rev: IOVI ULTORI - Jupiter standing, facing right preparing to hurl thunderbolt. 'S' in left field.

Weight: 3.43 Grams
Size: 24 x 23 mm
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---
-
1 commentsrexesq
gallienus_ants_DSC07068_DSC07074_95%.JPG
VI - Gallienus Antoninianii - 'GERMANICUS MAX V' and 'IOVI ULTORI'28 viewsRoman Empire
Two (2x) individual AR/Billon Antoninianii of Gallienus (253 - 268 AD)
----------------------------------------------
LEFT:

Gallienus AR Antoninianus - GERMANICUS MAX V - German Captives bound at base of Roman Trophy. - #01

Emperor Gallienus, as Joint Ruler with his father, the Emperor Valerian.
Minted in AD 258 - 259. Silver/billon Antoninianus struck at the Lyons Mint.

obv: GALLIENVS P F AVG - Radiate, draped & cuirassed bust right. Seen from the front.
rev: GERMANICUS MAX V - Two German captives bound and seated at the foot of a trophy.

Weight: 5.1 Grams - Nice silver coin struck on a very large and heavy flan for the time period.
Size: 26 mm x 25 mm
-----------
--------------------------------------------------------------------
-----------
RIGHT:

Gallienus AR Antoninianus - IOVI ULTORI - Jupiter standing w/ thunderbolt 'S' in left field - #01

Gallienus (253 - 268 AD) Silver/billon Antoninianus.

~ Unsure of which Mint this coin was struck at ~

obv: GALLIENUS AUG - Radiate bust right, cuirassed. Seen from the front.
rev: IOVI ULTORI - Jupiter standing, facing right preparing to hurl thunderbolt.
'S' in left field.

Weight: 3.43 Grams
Size: 24 x 23 mm
--------------------------------------------------------------------
2 commentsrexesq
gallienus_ant_obv_16_DSC07127_rev_09_DSC07134.JPG
VI - Gallienus Antoninianus - Jupiter - IOVI ULTORI22 viewsRoman Empire
Gallienus (253 - 268 AD) Silver/billon Antoninianus.

obv: GALLIENUS AUG - Radiate bust right, cuirassed and seen from the front.
rev: IOVI ULTORI - Jupiter standing, facing right preparing to hurl thunderbolt. 'S' in left field.

Weight: 3.43 Grams
Size: 24 x 23 mm
rexesq
gallienus_Jupiter_iovi-ultori_3_43gr_01.jpg
VI - Gallienus Antoninianus - Jupiter - IOVI ULTORI29 viewsRoman Empire
Emperor Gallienus (253 - 268 AD)
Silver/billon Antoninianus - Struck 260-268 AD (sole reign).

obv: GALLIENUS AUG - Radiate bust right, cuirassed and seen from the front.
rev: IOVI ULTORI - Jupiter standing, facing right preparing to hurl thunderbolt. 'S' in left field.

Weight: 3.43 Grams
3 commentsrexesq
gallienus_ant_obv_08_DSC07116.JPG
VI - Gallienus Antoninianus - Jupiter - IOVI ULTORI - obverse.13 viewsRoman Empire
Gallienus (253 - 268 AD) Silver/billon Antoninianus.

obv: GALLIENUS AUG - Radiate bust right, cuirassed and seen from the front.
rev: IOVI ULTORI - Jupiter standing, facing right preparing to hurl thunderbolt. 'S' in left field.

Weight: 3.43 Grams
Size: 24 x 23 mm
rexesq
gallienus_ant_obv_16_DSC07127.JPG
VI - Gallienus Antoninianus - Jupiter - IOVI ULTORI - obverse.10 viewsRoman Empire
Gallienus (253 - 268 AD) Silver/billon Antoninianus.

obv: GALLIENUS AUG - Radiate bust right, cuirassed and seen from the front.
rev: IOVI ULTORI - Jupiter standing, facing right preparing to hurl thunderbolt. 'S' in left field.

Weight: 3.43 Grams
Size: 24 x 23 mm
rexesq
gallienus_ant_obv_07_DSC07110.JPG
VI - Gallienus Antoninianus - Jupiter - IOVI ULTORI - obverse.13 viewsSame coin, Less lighting.
--
Ancient Roman Empire
Gallienus (253 - 268 AD) Silver/billon Antoninianus.

obv: GALLIENUS AUG - Radiate bust right, cuirassed and seen from the front.
rev: IOVI ULTORI - Jupiter standing, facing right preparing to hurl thunderbolt. 'S' in left field.

Weight: 3.43 Grams
Size: 24 x 23 mm
rexesq
gallienus_ant_obv_02_DSC07109.JPG
VI - Gallienus Antoninianus - Jupiter - IOVI ULTORI - obverse.11 viewsSame coin, Less lighting.
--

Ancient Roman Empire
Gallienus (253 - 268 AD) Silver/billon Antoninianus.

obv: GALLIENUS AUG - Radiate bust right, cuirassed and seen from the front.
rev: IOVI ULTORI - Jupiter standing, facing right preparing to hurl thunderbolt. 'S' in left field.

Weight: 3.43 Grams
Size: 24 x 23 mm
rexesq
Z1546TN.jpeg
[1119a] Probus, Antoninianus, 276-282 A.D.84 viewsProbus (AD 276-282) AE Antoninianus; Obverse: Radiate bust, left, wearing imperial mantel and holding scepter surmounted by eagle IMP. PROBVS P. F. AVG. Reverse: Cult image of Roma seated within six column temple ROMAE AETER. R thunderbolt A in exergue; Rome mint 21mm x 22mm, 3.59g; VF; RIC, Vol. 5. Part 2, #183.


De Imperatoribus Romanis,
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors

Probus (276-282 A.D.) and Rival Claimants (Proculus, Bonosus, and Saturninus)of the 280s

Robin Mc Mahon
New York University

Probus's Background
M. Aurelius Probus was most likely born in Sirmium in 232 A.D. It is difficult to reconstruct Probus' career before he became emperor because of the unreliable nature of the account in the Historia Augusta, but it is certainly possible that he was a tribune under Valerian. Perhaps all that can be said with any reliability is that he served in the military and was on Aurelian's staff during his Eastern campaigns. There is a certain amount of confusion in the sources about him because of the fact that he has often been confused with a certain Tenagino Probus, who served as prefect in Egypt under Claudius II Gothicus.

Accession to Power
After the murder of Aurelian, the Senate chose as his successor the septuagenarian senator, Tacitus, who took up the burdens of state and headed with the army to the East. The Eruli had overrun Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia and finally Cilicia, where Tacitus, with help from his half-brother Florianus, defeated them. Tacitus, however, either died of an illness or was killed by his own troops; he was succeeded by Florianus. In the meantime, Probus had been declared Emperor by his own troops in mid-276, and prepared to meet Florianus, who was marching from the Bosporus, having broken off his victorious engagement against the Eruli. Florianus was acknowledged in Rome and was supported by Gaul, Spain, Britain, and Italy; Probus was supported by Syria, Phoenicia, Palestine and Egypt. The two fought a desultory campaign near Tarsus. With a much smaller force, Probus decided his best strategy would be to avoid a pitched battle and let the heat overcome the troops of Florianus. The latter, having reigned barely two months, was murdered by his own troops. Probus became sole Emperor, possibly by August 276.
Probus in the West: 276-279
His first order of business was to punish the murderers of Aurelian, who may have also had a hand in the murder of Tacitus. On the basis of numismatic evidence, Probus appears to have traveled from the east across the Propontis, and then through the provinces of Thrace, Moesia and Pannonia. It is at this time that he must have defeated the Goths because he already had the title Gothicus by 277 A.D. Shortly after he arrived at the Rhine River he made a trip to Rome to have his powers ratified by the Senate.

Following the death of Postumus in 258, the situation in Gaul had rapidly deteriorated and numerous bands of invaders had swept across the Rhine. In the south, the Longiones, together with the Alamanni, had advanced through the Neckar valley into Gaul. The Franks had crossed the Rhine further north. In order to meet this simultaneous threat, Probus divided his forces having his generals campaign against the Franks, while he himself fought against the Longiones and Alamanni. Both Probus and his generals were victorious; in fact, Probus even captured Semnon, the leader of the Longiones, with his son. Both groups of invaders agreed to terms and booty and prisoners were returned; in the end, Probus allowed Semnon and his son their freedom.

Probus is next reported to have fought victoriously against the Burgundians and to have secured his victory with some ingenuity. Because his forces were smaller than those of the invaders, he wanted to engage the enemy on terms as favorable as possible; the Romans were on one side of the river and the barbarians were on the other. Probus was able to induce them to cross the river by having his soldiers hurl insults at them, and being enraged, they began crossing the river. Before the barbarians were able to organize themselves, the Roman army soundly routed them. Smarting from their defeat, the enemy did not live up to their end of the treaty, with the result that, in a second battle, they were again worsted by Probus. The barbarians who were taken prisoner were enrolled in the Roman Army and sent to Britain.

Not content with merely defeating the barbarians along the Rhine, Probus took important steps to secure the boundary for the future. He planned and constructed a series of forts and depots on the German side of the Rhine at various crossing points, which he garrisoned with troops. Further, Probus apparently took measures to restore economic stability to Gaul by encouraging the planting of vineyards. Probus' titles Gothicus Maximus and Germanicus Maximus suggest claims to the success of his operations in the area.

Events in the East 279-280
The sources do not give many details of Probus's activities in Raetia and Illyricum, but Zosimus does say he repulsed an invasion of Vandals from Illyricum in a battle along a river generally identified as the Lech. In 279, theatre of operations was Lycia. Zosimus records the curious story of the adventures and death of a robber chieftain name Lydius who may be the same individual called Palfuerius in the Historia Augusta. In order to prevent further troubles, Probus constructed fortresses, and settled large groups of veterans in this area, giving them land in exchange for the promise that their sons would also serve in the legions when they were old enough.

Probus's Military and Economic Activities In Egypt
Meanwhile, Probus had sent his generals to Egypt, where the Blemmyes were stirring up trouble in 280; they had broken through the border, advanced up the Nile, and, in league with the city of Ptolemais, captured the city of Koptus. They were eventually expelled and order was restored by Probus' generals. Once Probus had restored order, he set about the task of a large-scale reconstruction of the dikes, canals, and bridges along the Nile, something which not been done since it had been undertaken by Augustus in the years 27-25 B.C. More specifically, the Vita Probi notes, "On the Nile, moreover, he did so much that his sole efforts added greatly to the tithes of grain. He constructed bridges and temples porticos and basilicas, all by the labour of the soldiers, he opened up many river-mouths, and drained many marshes, and put in their place grain-fields and farms"(9.3-4). The importance of this type of work cannot be underestimated since a large percentage of the food supply for Rome came from Egypt and the African provinces.

The Revolts of Proculus, Bonosus, and Saturninus
According to the Historia Augusta, although the Persian King, Vahram II, had made peaceful overtures, Probus had rejected these and was planning to push the war forward when he was faced with a series of revolts both in the West and East. It is difficult to place them in their exact time-frame since the sources do not agree. Nevertheless, the situation was serious enough for Probus to cancel his plans for war with Persia and hurry back to the West. On his return Probus settled large numbers of barbarians in the Empire. Perhaps this was done to repopulate areas which had been left abandoned by the effects of invasions and plague. This policy, which Probus did not begin, and which was continued by his successors was, however, destined to bring trouble to Rome in the future.

The writer of the Vita Probi in the Historia Augusta indicates that in 280 A.D. Proculus revolted in the vicinity of the city of Lugdunum, which had been severely dealt with by Aurelian and, for reasons not given, spurred on by this fear, had adopted a hostile attitude towards Probus. Proculus apparently had some connections to the Franks and he had hoped to rally them to his cause. They appear, however, to have handed him over to Probus when he arrived on the scene. Probably at the same time, Bonosus revolted. His rebellion seems to have been serious as it appears to have required considerable force to be suppressed. Bonosus, an officer in charge of the Rhine fleet, had somehow let the Germans slip over the border and burn the fleet. Fearful of retribution, he apparently took shelter in proclaiming himself emperor. He was, in spite of his lapse with the fleet, an excellent soldier. The fighting was only stopped when Bonosus, despairing of his position, hanged himself. Probus spared the lives of his sons as well as that of his wife.

Julius Saturninus, one of Probus 's commanders in Syria, probably seized power in the year 281. A close friend and associate of Probus, he may have been compelled to adopt the purple by his unruly troops. Although he initially rejected a request of the people of Alexandria to put on the purple, he later changed his mind and proclaimed himself Augustus. In any case, Probus planned to put down the rebellion. However, Saturninus was killed by his own troops before Probus had a chance to act.

The sources do not provide much in the way of material to analyze the extent of these revolts and how widespread the feeling was against Probus in the West. There are indications that the revolts were more than local affairs because inscriptions from as far away as Spain have been found where Probus's name has been erased.

In 281 Probus was in Rome to celebrate his victories. Although the Historia Augusta goes into great detail to describe the events of Probus’s triumph and celebrations of his victories in respect to the number of animals and prisoners involved, there may be some truth to its description because Zosimus states there was a uprising which at this time required a force of soldiers to suppress. On a more substantial note, Probus completed the wall around Rome which had been begun by Aurelian.

Probus' Assassination
Probus was too anxious to push ahead with his plans for an invasion of Persia, which had been postponed due to the revolts and unrest in the West, and, to this end, he left Rome in 282 and proceeded first to his native town of Sirmium when news came that M. Aurelius Carus, Perfect of the Guard, had been proclaimed emperor. When troops sent by Probus to quell the rebellion went over to Carus, Probus' remaining troops killed the emperor. His death occurred sometime between September or October 282.
Copyright (C) 1999, Robin Mc Mahon. Published on De Imperatoribus Romanis, An Online Encyclopedia of the Roman Emperors and their Families; http://www.roman-emperors.org/probus.htm. Used by permission.

Probus started as a simple soldier but advanced to general and was declared emperor after the death of Tacitus. Florian's murder left him as undisputed ruler. His leadership brought peace and prosperity but he was murdered by mutinous soldiers, enraged at being employed on public building projects. Joseph Sermarini, FORVM.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
 
63 files on 1 page(s)