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Search results - "Titi"
DenQTitio.jpg
25 viewsDenarius - 90 BC.
Q. TITIVS - Gens Titia
Obv.:Bearded head right, wearing winged diadem
Rev.: Pegasus springing right, Q TITI on base.
Gs. 3,8 mm. 17,3
Cr341/1, Syd 691.



Maxentius
DenQTitioLiber.jpg
22 viewsDenarius - 90 BC. - Rome mint
Q. TITIVS - Gens Titia
Obv.:Head of Liber right with ivy-wreath
Rev.: Pegasus springing right from a tablet on which is inscribed Q TITI.
Gs. 3,9 mm. 16,6
Crawf. 341/2, Sear RCV 239, Grueber 2225.
Maxentius
Tetricus_I_Laetitia.jpg
4 viewsAdrianus
gordian_III_laetitia_ant.jpg
49 viewsGORDIAN III. 238-244 AD. AR Antoninianus (23mm - 6.20 g). Rome mint. IMP GORDIANVS PIVS FEL AVG, radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right, seen from behind / LAETITA AVG N, Laetitia standing left, holding wreath and anchor. RIC IV 86; RSC 121.paul1888
REVERSESl.jpg
129 viewsThis "Otho" with "VÍCTORIA PR" reverse is an ingenious fabrication created by the famous forger "Tardani". He had obviously realized that there were a few VICTORIA OTHONIS dies recut from Galba's VICTORIA PR dies and created this fictitious but possible coin with copies of real dies. I used to have this coin and another with the same dies is in the Berlin coin cabinet. Both are overweight, around 3.9 gr. It took some time to find a Galba minted with this particular reverse die but finally I succeeded. The final proof is seen in this coin, there are a few regions were the die has broken, ie before the die ever could have been used for an Otho coin. The coin is quite convincing because of the dies, but the surfaces were a bit strange and the legends unusual in profile.jmuona
rjb_car3_06_09.jpg
98cf33 viewsCarausius 287-93AD
Antoninianus
Obv "IMP CARAVSIVS PF AVG"
Radiate, draped & cuirassed bust right
Rev "PAX AVG"
Pax-Laetitia/Fortuna standing left holding branch and resting on short baton or rudder
London or irregular(?) mint
F/O//[ML]
RIC - (cf 98ff)

A curious depiction of Pax on the reverse with a mixture of attributes. A coin of otherwise good style.
mauseus
Gordian_RIC_113.jpg
1 Gordian III13 viewsGORDIAN III
AE Antoninianus, Rome Mint
241-242 AD

O: IMP GORDIANVS PIVS FEL AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right

R: LAETITIA AVG N, Laetitia standing left, holding wreath and anchor

RIC IV-3 86; Cohen 121; Sear (5) 8617
Sosius
Screen_Shot_2017-05-11_at_10_49_26_AM.png
11.5 Julia Titi46 viewsJulia Titi, Daughter of Titus (A.D. 79-80). Augusta, A.D. 79-90/1. AE dupondius. Rome mint, struck A.D. 79/80 by Titus. From the RJM Collection.
Julia Titi, Daughter of Titus (A.D. 79-80). Augusta, A.D. 79-90/1. AE dupondius (27.82 mm, 10.08 g, 5 h). Rome mint, struck A.D. 79/80 by Titus. IVLIA IMP T AVG F AVGVSTA, draped bust of Julia right, hair drawn-up in bun / Vesta seated left holding palladium and scepter; S - C // VESTA. RIC 398 (Titus); BN (Titus) 270, 271; BMC (Titus) 256, 257. Fine, green patina, cleaning marks.

From the RJM Collection.

Ex Agora Auctions, 5/9/2017
3 commentsSosius
Quintillus_RIC_22.jpg
2 Quintillus20 viewsQuintillus 270 A.D.
AE Antoninianus.
IMP C M AVR CL QVINTILLVS AVG, radiate & draped bust right / LAETITIA AVG, Laetitia standing left with rudder.
RIC 22, Cohen 39, Sear 11444; VF
Sosius
rjb_al_22.jpg
2266 viewsAllectus 293-6
Antoninianus
IMP C ALLECTVS PF AVG
Radiate & cuirassed bust right
LAETITIA AVG
Laetitia standing left holding wreath and anchor(?)
London mint
S/A//ML
RIC 22
mauseus
rjb_all_22_03_06.jpg
2235 viewsAllectus 293-6
Antoninianus
IMP C ALLECTVS PF AVG
Radiate & cuirassed bust right
LAETITIA AVG
Laetitia standing left holding wreath and anchor(?)
London mint
S/A//MSL
RIC 22
mauseus
rjb_2015_01_01.jpg
2233 viewsAllectus 293-6
Antoninianus
IMP C ALLECTVS PF AVG
Radiate bust left wearing trabea
LAETITIA AVG
Laetitia standing left holding wreath and anchor
London mint
S/A//ML
RIC 22
1 commentsmauseus
Rjb_car_267_07_05.jpg
26772 viewsCarausius 287-93
Antoninianus
Obv "IMP C CARAVSIVS AVG"
Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev "LAETITIA AVGGG"
Laetitia standing left holding wreath and anchor
Camulodunum Mint
S/P//C
RIC 267
2 commentsmauseus
rjb_2013_01_16.jpg
267cf53 viewsCarausius 287-93
Antoninianus
Obv "IMP C CARAVSIVS AVG"
Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev "LAETITI AVGGG"
Laetitia standing left holding wreath and anchor
Camulodunum Mint
S/P//MC
RIC - (cf 267)
mauseus
rjb_05_07_09.jpg
45724 viewsCarausius 287-93AD
Antoninianus
Obv "IMP C CARAVSIVS P AVG"
Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev "LAETITIA AVG"
Laetitia standing left holding anchor and wreath
Uncertain mint
S/C//
RIC 457
mauseus
Probus_Siscia_RIC_698_tflip.jpg
6 Probus26 viewsPROBUS
AE Antoninianus
IMP PROBVS PF AVG, Radiate, cuirassed bust r. / LAETITIA AVG, Laetitia standing l. holding wreath and anchor, XXIV in ex.
RIC V-2 Siscia 698 VF
Sosius
rjb_2017_01_14.jpg
7616 viewsAllectus 293-6
Antoninianus
IMP C ALLECTVS PF AVG
Radiate, draped & cuirassed bust right
LAETIT AVG
Laetitia standing left holding wreath and rudder
Camulodunum mint
S/P//C
RIC 76
mauseus
rjb_all_79_03_05.jpg
7934 viewsAllectus 293-6
Antoninianus
IMP C ALLECTVS PF AVG
Radiate & cuirassed bust right
LAETITIA AVG
Laetitia standing left holding wreath and rudder
Camulodunum mint
S/P//C
RIC 79
mauseus
rjb_al_79.jpg
7935 viewsAllectus 293-6
Antoninianus
IMP C ALLECTVS PF AVG
Radiate, draped & cuirassed bust right
LAETITIA AVG
Laetitia standing left holding wreath and rudder
Camulodunum mint
S/P//C
RIC 79
mauseus
rjb_2014_07_02.jpg
7917 viewsAllectus 293-6
Antoninianus
IMP C ALLECTVS PF AVG
Radiate, cuirassed bust right
LAETITIA AVG
Laetitia standing left holding wreath and rudder
Camulodunum mint
S/P//CL
RIC 79
mauseus
rjb_car_982cf_02_05.jpg
82238 viewsCarausius 287-93AD
Antoninianus
Obv "IMP C CARAVSIVS PF AVG"
Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev "LAETITI AVG"
Laetitia standing left holding wreath and baton
Unmarked mint
RIC 822
This coin is an obverse and reverse die duplicate of the coin illustrated in "Some Stratified Coins Of c. AD 390-400 From Bourton-On-The-Water" by O'neil in Numismatic Chronicle 1935 pp 275-81. The Bourton specimen plus an obverse brockage die duplicate of this coin can be seen here.
mauseus
rjb_car_gal_03_07.jpg
822bis51 viewsCarausius 287-93AD
Antoninianus
Obv "IMP CARAVSIVS PF AVG"
Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev "LAETITI AVG"
Laetitia standing left holding wreath and baton
Unmarked mint
RIC - (822 bis)
mauseus
rjb_car_leatitia_05_05.jpg
822cf32 viewsCarausius 287-93
Antoninianus
Obv"[IMP CARAV]SIVS PF AV"
Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right with small right arm holding?
Rev "[LAETIT]A AV"
Laetitia standing right holding vertical sceptre and wreath
Unmarked mint
-/-//-
RIC - (cf 822ff)
mauseus
rjb_car_823_02_06.jpg
823?27 viewsCarausius 287-93AD
Antoninianus
Obv "........AVSIVS PF AVG"
Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev "LAE[TIT AVG?]"
Laetitia standing left holding wreath and baton
Unmarked mint
RIC 823?
mauseus
rjb_car_824_02_05.jpg
82430 viewsCarausius 287-93 AD
Antoninianus
Obv "IMP CARAVSIVS P AVG"
Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev "LAETITIA AVG"
Laetitia standing left
Unmarked mint
RIC 824
mauseus
rjb_car_824_06_06.jpg
82422 viewsCarausius 287-93 AD
Antoninianus
Obv "IMP CARAVSIVS P AVG"
Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev "LAETITIA AVG"
Laetitia standing left
Unmarked mint
RIC 824
mauseus
rjb_car_826_replace.jpg
82658 viewsCarausius 287-93AD
Antoninianus
Obv "VIRTVS CARAVSI"
Helmeted, radiate cuirassed bust left with spear & shield
Rev "LAETITIA AVG"
Laetitia stg left
Unmarked mint?
-/-//?
RIC 826?
1 commentsmauseus
rjb_2009_10_13.jpg
835cf29 viewsCarausius 287-93AD
Antoninianus
Obv "VICTORIA CARAVSI A"
Radiate, cuirassed bust right with spear & shield
Rev "LITiTI AV"
Laetitia/Pax stg left with vertical sceptre
Unmarked mint
RIC - (cf 835ff, also see RIC 786 for similar obverse)

Obverse die duplicate of two coins in the British Museum, one from the Little Orme hoard (no mintmark in exergue) the other with RSR in the exergue
mauseus
838cf.jpg
838cf55 viewsCarausius 287-93AD
AE Laureate
Obv: "..........AVSIVS P AV"
Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev: "LITI AV"
Laetitia standing left, altar at feet
Unmarked mint
RIC - (cf 838)
Obverse and reverse die duplicate of the next coin. It also looks to be an obverse die duplicate of Normanby 1580.
mauseus
rjb_car_laur_02_06.jpg
838cf53 viewsCarausius 287-93AD
AE Laureate
Obv: "IMP CARAVSIVS P AV"
Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev: "LITI AV"
Laetitia standing left, altar at feet
Unmarked mint
RIC - (cf 838)
Overstruck on a Rome mint coin of Claudius II, traces visible on the reverse. Obverse and reverse die duplicate of the previous coin. It also looks to be an obverse die duplicate of Normanby 1580.
mauseus
P1019337.JPG
Claudius II Gothicus. 268-270 AD. AE18mm16 views Claudius II Gothicus. 268-270 AD.
Obv. IMP CLAVDIVS P F AVG, radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right.
Rev. PA-X A-VG, Pax advancing left, holding transverse scepter in left hand and olive branch in right hand;
T in ex. Mediolanum (Milan) mint.
Ref. RIC 157
Ex Forvms Never-Ending Cleaning Competition.
Lee S
cr27.jpg
CRISPINA AE SESTERTIUS, WIFE OF COMMODUS, AUGUSTAS 178-182 C.E20 viewsObverse - CRISPINA AVGVSTA, draped bust right
Reverse - LAETITIA SC, Laetitia standing facing left, holding wreath in right hand and rudder set on globe in left hand. Cohen 27
31mm diam., 25.7 g
NORMAN K
Postumus_Double_Sest_RIC_207.jpg
Gallic 1 Postumus34 viewsPOSTUMUS
Double Sestertius, 15.89g
Radiate Bust r. / LAETITIA AVG, Galley
A Contemporary imitation, as indicated by the style and the fact that the E in the reverse legend is retrograde
Bastien 373; RIC 207
ex Harlan J. Berk
1 commentsSosius
KAFFA_PUL_cm.jpg
Pul with Kaffa c/m5 views
CRIMEA, GOLDEN HORDE, (with Genoese countermark)

Anonymous AE - Pul

Obverse: uncertain Ornament, Kaffa Genoese trading colony; Circular countermark arms of Genoa with partitioned portal, within circular frame of dots.

Reverse: uncertain Ornament

Mint: Uncertain (Bulghar?)

Minted: 14th Century (?) cm - 1420 - 1475

Notes: Fair/Fair(c/m a/VF), Crude

Ref: Retowski, Coins with Genoese Countermarks 2


jimbomar
tetau.jpg
Tetricus I, RIC 90, 271-274 CE. 18 viewsAE antoninianus Cologne mint, struck 272 CE.
Obverse: IMP C TETRICVS P F AVG, radiate and cuirassed bust right.
Reverse: LAETITIA AVG N, Laetitia standing facing, head left, holding wreath and anchor. RIC 90; Mairat 426-9; AGK 5b. 17 mm., 1.5 g.
NORMAN K
DSC_0195.jpg
74 viewsINDONESIA, Kingdom of Srivijaya.
7th-13th centuries AD
Ć (17mm, 0.32 g).
Cirebon or Tegal area. Struck in the early 11th century
Xian Ping Yuan Bao in crude Hŕnzě
Blank
Zeno 124661


The kingdom of Srivijaya (San Fo Chi, in Chinese) apparently petitioned the Emperor Zhēnzōng of China, seeking protection from the Chola Kingdom and permission to strike coins. This type, known only from recent finds near Palembang, likely represents the earliest native coinage of that area.
1 commentsArdatirion
NS_3A2.jpg
40 viewsCANADA, Nova Scotia. William IV King of Great Britain, 1830-1837
CU Halfpenny Token
Belleville (New Jersey) mint. Dated 1832, but struck circa 1835
PROVINCE OF NOVA SCOTIA, laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right
HALFPENNY TOKEN, thistle with two leaves; 1832 below
Charlton NS-3A2; Corteau 278, tentative die state 6; Breton 871

“Old residents state that these counterfeits were brought, in large quantities to St. John, N.B., and from thence distributed through fishing vessels to Nova Scotian out ports. And informant tells of having seen a fisherman from Yarmouth paid for his catch in this coin.” R.W. McLachlan (Annals of the Nova Scotian Coinage, p. 37)
1 commentsArdatirion
louis1-obole-2xlegchret.JPG
D.abs Louis the Pious (obol, class 3)19 viewsLouis the Pious, king of the Franks and Holy Roman emperor (813-840)
Obol (unknown mint in the south-east of France?, class 3, 822-840)

Silver, 0.77 g, 15 mm diameter, die axis 5 h

O/ +PISTIΛNΛ PI; cross pattée with 4 pellets
R/ +OPISTIΛNΛ PE; cross pattée

This obol may be due to a double reverse error because of the absence of the sovereign's name and the legend repetition on both sides. However several dies were used to strike this type (I could find 3 obverse and 3 reverse dies), one side always bears 4 pellets as the other does not. One of the reverse dies is associated to the more typical obverse legend +HLVDOVVICVS I. Consequently an error does not seem to be likely. Because of hoard localizations, these obols seem to come from a single mint, in the south-east of France (Lyon, Arles?).
1 commentsDroger
lothaire1-denier-leg-ch.JPG
D.1176 Lothar I (denier)7 viewsLothar I, Holy Roman emperor (840-855), king of Middle Francia (843-855) and Italy (818-855)
"Temple" denier (unknown mint, 84-855)

Silver, 1.09 g, 17-20 mm diameter, die axis 12 h

O/ +HLOTΛPIVS ΛGVS; cross pattée with 4 pellets
R/ +XPISTIANA RELIGIO; temple

Lothar I re-used the temple type, which had been made popular by his father Louis the Pious. However, it was minted by Lothar in much smaller quantities.
Droger
postume-laetitia.JPG
RIC.73 Postumus: antoninianus (Laetitia Avg)21 viewsPostumus, Gallic emperor (usurper) (260-269)
Antoninianus: Laetitia Avg (1st emission, 3rd phase, 261, Trčves)

Billon (200 ‰), 3.63 g, diameter 23 mm, die axis 1h

A/ IMP C POSTVMVS P F AVG; radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
R/ LAETITIA / AVG in exergue; galley left with 4 rowers and pilot

EG.19
Droger
elagab_denar_laet_res.jpg
(0218) ELAGABALUS18 views218 - 222 AD
AR Denarius 18 mm, 1.63 g
O: IMP ANTONNINVS AVG laureate head right
R: LAETITIA PVBL Laetitia standing left holding wreath and rudder set on globe
Rome
RIC 95; RSC 70
laney
gordian_laet_blk.jpg
(0238) GORDIAN III --LAETITIA16 viewsGORDIAN III
238 - 244 AD
AE SESTERTIUS 31mm (max) 16.79 g
OBV: IMP GORDIANVS PIVS FEL AVG
LAUR DR CUIR BUST R
REV: LAETITIA AVG N
LAETITIA STANDING L WITH WREATH & ANCHOR S-C
RIC 300
laney
VALERIAN_I.jpg
(0253) VALERIAN30 views253 - 260 AD
AE ANT 22 mm 4.09 g
O: IMP CP LIC VALERIANVS AVG
RAD DR CUIR BUST R
R: LAETITIA AVGG
LAETITIA STANDING FACING L HOLDING WREATH & ANCHOR
laney
TETRICUS_I.jpg
(0271) TETRICUS I23 views271 - 274AD
AE 16.5 mm 2.04 g
O: IMP TETRICVS P F AVG, radiate cuirassed bust right
R: LAETITIA AVGG, Laetitia standing left holding wreath & anchor.(UNCERTAIN ABOUT REVERSE)

laney
Severus_Alexander.jpg
*SOLD*37 viewsSeverus Alexander AE Sestertius

Attribution VM 68, Sear 7971
Date: AD 230
Obverse: IMP SEV ALE-XANDER AVG, laureate head r.
Reverse: IVSTITIA AVGVSTI S C, Justitia seated l., holding patera & scepter
Size: 30.37 mm
Weight: 19.7 grams
1 commentsNoah
coins2.JPG
000c. Sextus Pompey76 viewsSextus Pompeius Magnus Pius, in English Sextus Pompey, was a Roman general from the late Republic (1st century BC). He was the last focus of opposition to the second triumvirate.

Sextus Pompeius was the youngest son of Pompey the Great (Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus) by his third wife, Mucia Tertia. His older brother was Gnaeus Pompeius, from the same mother. Both boys grew up in the shadow of their father, one of Rome's best generals and originally non-conservative politician who drifted to the more traditional faction when Julius Caesar became a threat.

When Caesar crossed the Rubicon in 49 BC, thus starting a civil war, Sextus' older brother Gnaeus followed their father in his escape to the East, as did most of the conservative senators. Sextus stayed in Rome in the care of his stepmother, Cornelia Metella. Pompey's army lost the battle of Pharsalus in 48 BC and Pompey himself had to run for his life. Cornelia and Sextus met him in the island of Mytilene and together they fled to Egypt. On the arrival, Sextus watched his father being killed by treachery on September 29 of the same year. After the murder, Cornelia returned to Rome, but in the following years Sextus joined the resistance against Caesar in the African provinces. Together with Metellus Scipio, Cato the younger, his brother Gnaeus and other senators, they prepared to oppose Caesar and his army to the end.

Caesar won the first battle at Thapsus in 46 BC against Metellus Scipio and Cato, who committed suicide. In 45 BC, Caesar managed to defeat the Pompeius brothers in the battle of Munda. Gnaeus Pompeius was executed, but young Sextus escaped once more, this time to Sicily.

Back in Rome, Julius Caesar was murdered on the Ides of March (March 15) 44 BC by a group of senators led by Cassius and Brutus. This incident did not lead to a return to normality, but provoked yet another civil war between Caesar's political heirs and his assassins. The second triumvirate was formed by Octavian, Mark Antony and Lepidus, with the intention of avenging Caesar and subduing all opposition. Sextus Pompeius in Sicily was certainly a rebellious man, but the Cassius and Brutus faction was the second triumvirate's first priority. Thus, with the whole island as his base, Sextus had the time and resources to develop an army and, even more importantly, a strong navy operated by Sicilian marines.

Brutus and Cassius lost the twin battles of Philippi and committed suicide in 42 BC. After this, the triumvirs turned their attentions to Sicily and Sextus.

But by this time, Sextus was prepared for strong resistance. In the following years, military confrontations failed to return a conclusive victory for either side and in 39 BC, Sextus and the triumvirs signed for peace in the Pact of Misenum. The reason for this peace treaty was the anticipated campaign against the Parthian Empire. Antony, the leader, needed all the legions he could get so it was useful to secure an armistice in the Sicilian front. The peace did not last for long. Octavian and Antony's frequent quarrels were a strong political motivation for resuming the war against Sextus. Octavian tried again to conquer Sicily, but he was defeated in the naval battle of Messina (37 BC) and again in August 36 BC. But by then, Octavian had Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa, a very talented general, on his side. Only a month afterwards, Agrippa destroyed Sextus' navy off Naulochus cape. Sextus escaped to the East and, by abandoning Sicily, lost all his base of support.

Sextus Pompeius was caught in Miletus in 35 BC and executed without trial (an illegal act since Sextus was a Roman citizen) by order of Marcus Titius, Antony's minion. His violent death would be one of the weapons used by Octavian against Antony several years later, when the situation between the two became unbearable.

Sicilian Mint
Magn above laureate Janiform head
PIVS above, IMP below, prow of galley right
Sear RCV 348, RPC 671, Sydenham 1044a, Cohen 16
43-36 BC

Check
ecoli
99Hadrian__RIC6_en_wat_een_lange_titel,_die_beslaat_voor-_en_keerzijde.jpg
0019 Hadrian Denarius Roma 117 AD Justitia67 viewsReference.
Strack 4; C 875; RIC III, 19; RIC II, 6

Bust A4

Obv. IMP CAES TRAIAN HADRIAN OPT AVG GER DAC
Laureate bare bust with drapery

Rev. PARTHIC DIVI TRAIAN AVG F P M TR P COS P P, in ex IVSTITIA
Justitia seated left, holding patera & sceptre.

3.18 gr
19 mm
12h
1 commentsokidoki
Aigina_turtle.jpg
002a, Aigina, Islands off Attica, Greece, c. 510 - 490 B.C.88 viewsSilver stater, S 1849, SNG Cop 503, F, 12.231g, 22.3mm, Aigina (Aegina) mint, c. 510 - 490 B.C.; Obverse: sea turtle (with row of dots down the middle); Reverse: incuse square of “Union Jack” pattern; banker's mark obverse. Ex FORVM.


Greek Turtles, by Gary T. Anderson

Turtles, the archaic currency of Aegina, are among the most sought after of all ancient coins. Their early history is somewhat of a mystery. At one time historians debated whether they or the issuances of Lydia were the world's earliest coins. The source of this idea comes indirectly from the writings of Heracleides of Pontus, a fourth century BC Greek scholar. In the treatise Etymologicum, Orion quotes Heracleides as claiming that King Pheidon of Argos, who died no later than 650 BC, was the first to strike coins at Aegina. However, archeological investigations date the earliest turtles to about 550 BC, and historians now believe that this is when the first of these intriguing coins were stamped.

Aegina is a small, mountainous island in the Saronikon Gulf, about midway between Attica and the Peloponnese. In the sixth century BC it was perhaps the foremost of the Greek maritime powers, with trade routes throughout the eastern half of the Mediterranean. It is through contacts with Greeks in Asia Minor that the idea of coinage was probably introduced to Aegina. Either the Lydians or Greeks along the coast of present day Turkey were most likely the first to produce coins, back in the late seventh century. These consisted of lumps of a metal called electrum (a mixture of gold and silver) stamped with an official impression to guarantee the coin was of a certain weight. Aegina picked up on this idea and improved upon it by stamping coins of (relatively) pure silver instead electrum, which contained varying proportions of gold and silver. The image stamped on the coin of the mighty sea power was that of a sea turtle, an animal that was plentiful in the Aegean Sea. While rival cities of Athens and Corinth would soon begin limited manufacture of coins, it is the turtle that became the dominant currency of southern Greece. The reason for this is the shear number of coins produced, estimated to be ten thousand yearly for nearly seventy years. The source for the metal came from the rich silver mines of Siphnos, an island in the Aegean. Although Aegina was a formidable trading nation, the coins seemed to have meant for local use, as few have been found outside the Cyclades and Crete. So powerful was their lure, however, that an old proverb states, "Courage and wisdom are overcome by Turtles."

The Aeginean turtle bore a close likeness to that of its live counterpart, with a series of dots running down the center of its shell. The reverse of the coin bore the imprint of the punch used to force the face of the coin into the obverse turtle die. Originally this consisted of an eight-pronged punch that produced a pattern of eight triangles. Later, other variations on this were tried. In 480 BC, the coin received its first major redesign. Two extra pellets were added to the shell near the head of the turtle, a design not seen in nature. Also, the reverse punch mark was given a lopsided design.

Although turtles were produced in great quantities from 550 - 480 BC, after this time production dramatically declines. This may be due to the exhaustion of the silver mines on Siphnos, or it may be related to another historical event. In 480 BC, Aegina's archrival Athens defeated Xerxes and his Persian armies at Marathon. After this, it was Athens that became the predominant power in the region. Aegina and Athens fought a series of wars until 457 BC, when Aegina was conquered by its foe and stripped of its maritime rights. At this time the coin of Aegina changed its image from that of the sea turtle to that of the land tortoise, symbolizing its change in fortunes.

The Turtle was an object of desire in ancient times and has become so once again. It was the first coin produced in Europe, and was produced in such great quantities that thousands of Turtles still exist today. Their historical importance and ready availability make them one of the most desirable items in any ancient coin enthusiast's collection.

(Greek Turtles, by Gary T. Anderson .
1 commentsCleisthenes
SPAIN__Caesaraugusta__Augustus_(27_BC-14_AD)__AE-(26)As__Mn__Kaninius_Iter_and_L__Titius,_duoviri__RPC_I_322,_SNG_Cop_544,_Q-001,_6h,_26-27,mm,_10,85g-s.jpg
002p Augustus (63 B.C.-14 A.D.), Spain, Caesaraugusta, Tarraconensis, RPC I 0322, AE-26, Magistrate: Mn. Kaninius Iter and L. Titius, duoviri, CAESAR AVG MN KANINIO ITER L TITIO / II VIR, Priest plowing right with the yoke of two oxen, #174 views002p Augustus (63 B.C.-14 A.D.), Spain, Caesaraugusta, Tarraconensis, RPC I 0322, AE-26, Magistrate: Mn. Kaninius Iter and L. Titius, duoviri, CAESAR AVG MN KANINIO ITER L TITIO / II VIR, Priest plowing right with the yoke of two oxen, #1
avers: AVGVSTVS DIVI F, Laureate head right; simpulum to left, lituus to right.
reverse: CAESAR AVG MN KANINIO ITER L TITIO / II VIR, Priest plowing right with yoke of two oxen.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 26,0-27,0 mm, weight: 10,85g, axis:6h,
mint: City: Caesaraugusta, Region: Hispania, Province: Tarraconensis,
Magistrate: L Titius (duovir); Mn Kaninius Iter (duovir),
date: B.C.,
ref: RPC I 0322, SNG Cop 544, Vives 148–1, 2, Hill 14–5, Beltrán 9, NAH 979,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
80Hadrian__RIC11.jpg
0060 Hadrian Denarius Roma 117 AD. Justitia51 viewsReference.
Strack 15; RIC III, 60; RIC II, 11a

Bust A4 with Balteus strap

Obv. IMP CAES TRAIAN HADRIANO AVG DIVI TRA
Laureate bare bust with drapery, and balteus

Rev. PARTH F DIVI NER NEP PM TR P COS in excerque IVSTITIA
Justitia seated left holding patera en sceptre

2.66 gr
20 mm
6h
okidoki
Gordian_sest.JPG
007 - Gordian III (238-244 AD), Sestertius - RIC 300a113 viewsObv: IMP GORDIANVS PIVS FEL AVG, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right.
Rev: LAETITIA AVG N, Laetitia standing left, holding wreath and anchor.
Minted in Rome 241-243 AD.
4 commentspierre_p77
526Hadrian_RIC19.jpg
0084 Hadrian Denarius Roma 117 AD Justitia20 viewsReference.
Strack 28; RIC III, 84; C. 876; RIC II 19

Bust A4

Obv. IMP CAESAR TRAIAN HADRIANVS AVG
Laureate bare bust right, slight drapery

Rev. P M TR P COS DES II in ex.IVSTITIA
Justitia seated left, holding patera in right hand and sceptre in left.

3.05 gr
18.50 mm
h
okidoki
T387a.jpg
01 Julia Titi RIC 387140 viewsAR Denarius, 3.22g
Rome mint, 80-81 AD (Titus)
Obv: IVLIA AVGVSTA T AVG F•; Bust of Julia Titi, draped and diademed, r., hair in long plait
Rev: VENVS AVG; Venus stg. r., leaning on column, with helmet and spear
RIC 387 (R). BMC 140. RSC 12. BNC 103.
Acquired from Aegean Numismatics, February 2017.

A rare variant of the common Venus type for Julia Titi with shortened obverse and reverse legends. NB: Julia's denarii were not struck in plentiful numbers.

Lovely portrait in good metal.
6 commentsDavid Atherton
176Hadrian__RIC42a.JPG
0117 Hadrian Denarius Roma 118 AD Justitia34 viewsReference.
Strack 36; RIC III, 117 C.877

Bust A4

Obv. IMP CAESAR TRAIAN HADRIANVS AVG
Laureate bare bust with drapery

Rev. P M TR P COS II. in exergue IVSTITIA
Justitia seated left, holding patera and sceptre

3.08 gr
19 mm
6h
okidoki
84Hadrian__RIC42.jpg
0117 Hadrian Denarius Roma 118 AD Justitia26 viewsReference.
Strack 36; RIC III, 117

Bust A4

Obv. IMP CAESAR TRAIAN HADRIANVS AVG
Laureate bare bust with drapery

Rev. P M TR P COS II. in exergue IVSTITIA
Justitia seated left, holding patera and sceptre.

3.33 gr
19 mm
6h
okidoki
577Hadrian_RIC42.jpg
0117 Hadrian Denarius Roma 118 AD Justitia25 viewsReference.
Strack 36; RIC III, 117; C.877

Bust A4 with Aegis

Obv. IMP CAESAR TRAIAN HADRIANVS AVG
Laureate bare bust with Aegis

Rev. P M TR P COS II.in exergue IVSTITIA
Justitia, draped, seated left, holding patera in extended right hand and vertical sceptre in left

3.48 gr
20 mm
9h
okidoki
145197.jpg
011a. Julia Titi56 viewsJulia Flavia (17 September 64 - 91) was the only child to the Emperor Titus from his second marriage to the well-connected Marcia Furnilla. Titus divorced Furnilla after Julia's birth. Julia was born in Rome.

When growing up, Titus offered her in marriage to his brother Domitian, but he refused because of his infatuation with Domitia Longina. Later she married her second cousin Titus Flavius Sabinus, brother to consul Titus Flavius Clemens, who married her first cousin Flavia Domitilla. By then Domitian had seduced her.

When her father and husband died, she became Emperor Domitian’s mistress. He openly showed his love. Falling pregnant, Julia died of a forced abortion. Julia was deified and her ashes her mixed with Domitian by an old nurse secretly in the Temple of the Flavians.

AEOLIS, Temnus. Julia Titi. Augusta, AD 79-91. Ć 16mm (2.18 gm). Draped bust right / EPI AGNOU THMNIT, Athena standing left, holding palladium and scepter, shield resting on ground. RPC II 981. Near VF, dark green patina, small flan crack. Ex-CNG

From the Garth R. Drewry Collection. Ex Classical Numismatic Group 51 (15 September 1999), lot 875; Marcel Burstein Collection.
ecoli
Personajes_Imperiales_2.jpg
02 - Personalities of the Empire62 viewsCalígula, Claudius, Britannicus , Agrippina jr., Nero, Galba, Otho, Vitellius, Vespasian, Domitila, Titus, Domitia and Julia Titi1 commentsmdelvalle
T388aa.jpg
02 Julia Titi RIC 388103 viewsAR Denarius, 3.09g
Rome mint, 80-81 AD (Titus)
Obv: IVLIA AVGVSTA TITI AVGVSTI F•; Bust of Julia Titi, draped and diademed, r., hair in long plait
Rev: VENVS AVGVST; Venus stg. r., leaning on column, with helmet and spear
RIC 388 (C2). BMC 142. RSC 14. BNC 106.
Acquired from Aegean Numismatics, August 2017.

The most 'common' variant of Julia Titi's Venus denarii. However, I think RIC's frequency rating of 'C2' overstates the case. The same reverse type is also shared with Titus. Stylistic note - many of Julia's portraits have the facial features of either Titus or Domitian Caesar, this example is no exception.

Struck on a large flan in decent style.

8 commentsDavid Atherton
23.jpg
023 Julia Titi. AR Denarius 3.2gm50 viewsobv: JVLIA AVGVSTA TITI AVGVST IF drp. bust r.
rev: VENVS AVGVST Venus std. r. leaning on cippus,
holding helment and spear
"doughter of Titus, mistress of Domitian"
3 commentshill132
FaustinaI_denar.jpg
025 - Faustina I (138-141 AD), commemorative denarius - RIC 35835 viewsObv: DIVA FAVSTINA, draped bust right
Rev: AVGVSTA, Ceres standing right, holding scepter and grain ears.
Minted in Rome 148-161 AD.

Commemorative issues were struck in huge quantitis under the husband Antoninus Pius after Faustinas death in 141 AD.
pierre_p77
T389.jpg
03 Julia Titi RIC 389104 viewsAR Denarius, 3.10g
Rome mint, 80-81 AD (Titus)
Obv: IVLIA IMP T AVG F AVGVSTA•; Bust of Julia, draped, r., hair piled high in front and knotted low at back
Rev: VESTA in exergue; Vesta std. l., with palladium and sceptre
RIC 389 (R). BMC p. 144 note. RSC 16. BNC 108.

Titus struck a small issue of denarii for his daughter Julia Titi, most of which are fairly scarce. This Vesta reverse type is much rarer than the more commonly encountered Venus one. Julia is seen here sporting the classic Flavian lady hairdo.

Worn, but not unattractively so.
4 commentsDavid Atherton
gordianant.JPG
034. Gordian III, 238-244AD. AR Antoninianus.31 viewsAR Antoninianus. Rome mint.
Obv. Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust seen from right or slightly back IMP GORDIANVS PIVS FEL AVG.
Rev. Laetitia standing left LAETITIA AVG.

RSC 118, RIC 221
LordBest
Ant_Pius-AE-As_IMP-CAES-T-AEL-HADR-ANTONINVS-AVG-PIVS-P-P_TR-POT-XIIII-COS-IIII_S-C_IVSTITIA_RIC-881_C-474_Rome_140-144-AD_Q-001_5h_24,5-25,5mm_8,80g-s.jpg
035 Antoninus Pius (138-161 A.D.), RIC III 0881, Rome, AE-As, TR POT XIIII COS IIII, Justitia seated left, S/C//IVSTITIA, 159 views035 Antoninus Pius (138-161 A.D.), RIC III 0881, Rome, AE-As, TR POT XIIII COS IIII, Justitia seated left, S/C//IVSTITIA,
avers:- IMP-CAES-T-AEL-HADR-ANTONINVS-AVG-PIVS-P-P, Laureate head right.
revers:- TR-POT-XIIII-COS-IIII, Justitia seated left.
exe:S/C//IVSTITIA, diameter: 24,5-25,5mm, weight: 8,80g, axis: 5h,
mint: Rome, date: 140-144 A.D., ref: RIC-III-881-p-, C-474,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
RI_038b_img.jpg
038 - Nerva denarius - RIC II 857 viewsObv:– IMP NERVA CAES AVG P M TR P COS III P P, laureate head right
Rev:– IVSTITIA AVGVST, Justitia seated half-right, holding sceptre and branch
Minted in Rome, A.D. 97
Reference:– BMC 44. RIC II 18. RSC 101.

Good style. Decent surfaces.
5 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_038b_img~0.jpg
038 - Nerva denarius - RIC II 827 viewsObv:– IMP NERVA CAES AVG P M TR P COS III P P, laureate head right
Rev:– IVSTITIA AVGVST, Justitia seated half-right, holding sceptre and branch
Minted in Rome, A.D. 97
Reference:– BMC 44. RIC II 18. RSC 101.

Good style. Decent surfaces.

Updated image.
2 commentsmaridvnvm
hadrian_ar-denarius_-scales_feb2012.jpg
04 - Hadrian Denarius - Moneta standing.37 views~
~~~
Ancient Roman Empire
Emperor Hadrian ( 117 - 138 AD)
Silver Denarius. Rome Mint.

obv: IMP CAESAR TRAJAN HADRIANUS AUG - Laureate head of Emperor Hadrian facing right.
rev: PM TR P COS III - Moneta (?) standing holding scales in one hand and cornucopia in other.

3.1 Grams
~~~
~
2 commentsrexesq
D717sm.jpg
04 Diva Julia Titi RIC 76035 viewsĆ Sestertius, 24.33g
Rome mint, 92-94 AD (Domitian)
Obv: DIVAE IVLIAE AVG DIVI TITI F above; S P Q R in exergue; Carpentum drawn r. by two mules
Rev: IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM COS XVI CENS PER P P; S C, large, in centre
RIC 760 (R). BMC 471. BNC 502.
Acquired from Ken Dorney, January 2020. Ex Agora Auctions Sale 84, 4 September 2019, lot 187. Ex CNG E314, 6 November 2013, lot 364.

Titus' daughter Julia Titi was granted the title Augusta sometime in 80 or 81 during his reign. After Titus' death she lived with her uncle Domitian at the imperial residence. In 90 or 91 AD she died and was deified by Domitian, this was commemorated on the coinage. The ancient sources are quick to malign her reputation in the name of smearing Domitian. It is said she had an ongoing affair with Domitian and became pregnant. She then was forced by Domitian to abort the baby and died during the attempted abortion sometime in 90 or 91. The Flavian historian Brian Jones has called the supposed affair between Domitian and his niece Julia (some ten or eleven years his junior) and the subsequent forced abortion which killed her as "implausible" and "nonsense". Further he wrote "Scholars seem not to have stressed one of the most significant factors in assessing the rumour's accuracy - Martial's epigram 6.3, written not long after Julia's death and deification. In it, he expresses the hope that Domitian will produce a son, implies that the baby's name will be Julius (6.3.1) and states that (the now deified) Julia will be able to watch over him (6.3.5). Martial was neither a hero or a fool. Had there been the slightest hint of an affair between emperor and niece, he would hardly have written those lines; had Julia's recent death been caused by an abortion forced on her by Domitian, would Martial have so far neglected the bounds of 'safe criticism' and common sense as to humiliate Domitia publicly, urging her to become pregnant, to give the child a name reminiscent of her husband's mistress and finally to remember that same mistress, now dead and deified (thanks to her husband), would be able to protect the child?" No doubt, the Diva coins testify that Domitian felt great affection towards his niece, however, there is no evidence that they had an illicit love affair. The incestuous rumour was spread after Domitian's death.

This sestertius struck for Diva Julia Titi between 92 and 94 copies an early carpentum and mules type struck under Tiberius for Diva Livia and another under Titus struck for her grandmother Domitilla. It is the second issue of this type struck under Domitian and is slightly rarer than the earlier one produced in 90-91. In the early empire the carpentum was granted to ladies of the imperial house by the Senate as an imperial honour. It was frequently used to convey an image of the deceased Divae and to symbolise the event on the coinage. The style of the Diva Julia Titi sestertii are so similar to those of the earlier Memoriae Domitilla sestertii that the RIC authors speculate a few of the older Domitilla dies were recut for Julia's issues (p. 317, note). It's astonishing to think that the mint still had access to dies that were nearly a decade old and were able to re-use them for a new issue!

Dark brassy tone with some minor pitting.
5 commentsDavid Atherton
RI_044ai_img.jpg
044 - Hadrian denarius - RIC 011c23 viewsObv:- IMP CAES TRAIAN HADRIANO AVG DIVI TRA, Laureate cuirassed ust right with light drapery on far shoulder
Rev:- PARTH F DIVI NER NEP P M TR P COS / IVSTITIA, Justitia seated left on throne holding in right hand and verticaal sceptre in left
Rome Mint. A.D. 117. Group II.
Reference:- RIC 11c, RSC 874, BMC 26
1 commentsmaridvnvm
Septimius-Severus_AR-Billon-Den_L-SEPT-SEV-AVG-IMP-XI-PART-MAX_IVST-ITIA_RIC-IV-I-505-p-160_C-251_Laodicea-198-202-AD_Q-001_axis-11h_19mm_2,94g-s.jpg
049 Septimius Severus (193-211 A.D.), RIC IV-I 505, Laodicea ad Mare, AR-Denarius, IVSTITIA, Justitia seated left, Scarce, (but base metal, "limes" ?), #1137 views049 Septimius Severus (193-211 A.D.), RIC IV-I 505, Laodicea ad Mare, AR-Denarius, IVSTITIA, Justitia seated left, Scarce, (but base metal, "limes" ?), #1
avers:- L-SEPT-SEV-AVG-IMP-XI-PART-MAX, Laureate head right.
revers:- IVST-ITIA, Justitia seated left, holding patera and sceptre.
exe:-/-//--, diameter:19mm, weight:2,94g, axis: 11h,
mint: Laodicea, date: 198-202 A.D., ref: RIC-IV-505 (but base metal, "limes" ?), p-160, C-251,
Q-001
quadrans
Septimius-Severus_AR-Billon-Den_L-SEPT-SEV-AVG-IMP-XI-PART-MAX_IVST-ITIA_RIC-IV-I-505-p-160_C-251_Laodicea-198-202-AD_Q-001_11h_19mm_2,94g-s.jpg
049 Septimius Severus (193-211 A.D.), RIC IV-I 505, Laodicea ad Mare, AR-Denarius, IVSTITIA, Justitia seated left, Scarce, (but base metal, "limes" ?), #192 views049 Septimius Severus (193-211 A.D.), RIC IV-I 505, Laodicea ad Mare, AR-Denarius, IVSTITIA, Justitia seated left, Scarce, (but base metal, "limes" ?), #1
avers:- L-SEPT-SEV-AVG-IMP-XI-PART-MAX, Laureate head right.
revers:- IVST-ITIA, Justitia seated left, holding patera and sceptre.
exe:-/-//--, diameter:19mm, weight:2,94g, axis: 11h,
mint: Laodicea, date: 198-202 A.D., ref: RIC-IV-505 (but base metal, "limes" ?), p-160, C-251,
Q-001
quadrans
Septimius-Severus_AR-Billon-Den_L-SEPT-SEV-AVG-IMP-XI-PART-MAX_IVST-ITIA_RIC-IV-I-505-p-160_C-251_Laodicea-198-202-AD_Q-002_axis-0h_18-18,5mm_2,92g-s.jpg
049 Septimius Severus (193-211 A.D.), RIC IV-I 505, Laodicea ad Mare, AR-Denarius, IVSTITIA, Justitia seated left, Scarce, (but base metal, "limes" ?), #2113 views049 Septimius Severus (193-211 A.D.), RIC IV-I 505, Laodicea ad Mare, AR-Denarius, IVSTITIA, Justitia seated left, Scarce, (but base metal, "limes" ?), #2
avers:- L-SEPT-SEV-AVG-IMP-XI-PART-MAX, Laureate head right.
revers:- IVST-ITIA, Justitia seated left, holding patera and sceptre.
exe:-/-//--, diameter:18-18,5mm, weight:2,92g, axis: 0h,
mint: Laodicea, date: 198-202 A.D., ref: RIC-IV-505 (but base metal, "limes" ?), p-160, C-251,
Q-002
1 commentsquadrans
Septimius-Severus_AR-Billon-Den_L-SEPT-SEV-AVG-IMP-XI-PART-MAX_IVST-ITIA_RIC-IV-I-505-p-160_C-251_Laodicea-198-202-AD_Q-002_0h_18-18,5mm_2,92g-s.jpg
049 Septimius Severus (193-211 A.D.), RIC IV-I 505, Laodicea ad Mare, AR-Denarius, IVSTITIA, Justitia seated left, Scarce, (but base metal, "limes" ?), #292 views049 Septimius Severus (193-211 A.D.), RIC IV-I 505, Laodicea ad Mare, AR-Denarius, IVSTITIA, Justitia seated left, Scarce, (but base metal, "limes" ?), #2
avers:- L-SEPT-SEV-AVG-IMP-XI-PART-MAX, Laureate head right.
revers:- IVST-ITIA, Justitia seated left, holding patera and sceptre.
exe:-/-//--, diameter:18-18,5mm, weight:2,92g, axis: 0h,
mint: Laodicea, date: 198-202 A.D., ref: RIC-IV-505 (but base metal, "limes" ?), p-160, C-251,
Q-002
quadrans
051_Caracalla,_Laodicea,_RIC_IV-I_335,_AR-Den,_IMP_C_M_AVR_ANTON_AVG_P_TR_P,_IVSTITIA,_RSC_113,_BMC_637,_198_AD,_Q-001,_11h,_16,5-18,5mm,_3,48g-s.jpg
051 Caracalla (196-198 A.D. Caesar, 198-217 A.D. Augustus ), RIC IV-I 335, Laodiceia, AR-Denarius, IVSTITIA, Justitia seated left, #161 views051 Caracalla (196-198 A.D. Caesar, 198-217 A.D. Augustus ), RIC IV-I 335, Laodiceia, AR-Denarius, IVSTITIA, Justitia seated left, #1
avers: IMP C M AVR ANTON AVG P TR P, Youthful, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right.
reverse: IVSTITIA, Justitia seated left, holding globe and scepter.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 16,5-18,5mm, weight: 3,48g, axis: 11h,
mint: Laodiceia, date: 198 A.D., ref: RIC IV-I 335, RSC 113, BMCRE 637,
Q-001
quadrans
RI 056a img.jpg
056 - Crispina AE Sestertius - RIC 669120 viewsObv:– CRISPINA AVGVSTA, Draped bust right
Rev:– LAETITIA, Laetitia standing facing, head left, holding wreath in right hand and rudder set on globe in left hand, S C
Minted in Rome A.D. 180 - 183
Reference RIC 669
maridvnvm
Elagabalus_AR-Ant_IMP-ANTONINVS-AVG_LAETITIA-PVBL_218_Roma-RIC-94_Q-001_21-23mm_3_86g.jpg
056 Elagabalus (218-222 A.D.), RIC IV-II 094, Rome, AR-Antoninianus, LAETITIA PVBL, Laetitia standing left, #186 views056 Elagabalus (218-222 A.D.), RIC IV-II 094, Rome, AR-Antoninianus, LAETITIA PVBL, Laetitia standing left, #1
avers:-IMP-ANTONINVS-AVG, Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right.
revers:-LAETITIA-PVBL, Laetitia standing left, holding wreath and rudder on globe.
exe: -/-//--, diameter:21-23mm, weight:3,86g, axis: -h,
mint: Rome, date: 218 A.D., ref: RIC-IV-II-94, p-35, C-72,
Q-001
quadrans
Elagabalus_AR-Ant_IMP-ANTONINVS-AVG_LAETITIA-PVBL_218_Roma-RIC-94_Q-002_20-21mm_4_36g.jpg
056 Elagabalus (218-222 A.D.), RIC IV-II 094, Rome, AR-Antoninianus, LAETITIA PVBL, Laetitia standing left, #266 views056 Elagabalus (218-222 A.D.), RIC IV-II 094, Rome, AR-Antoninianus, LAETITIA PVBL, Laetitia standing left, #2
avers:-IMP-ANTONINVS-AVG, Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right.
revers:-LAETITIA-PVBL, Laetitia standing left, holding wreath and rudder on globe.
exe: -/-//--, diameter:20-21mm, weight: 4,36g, axis: -h,
mint: Rome, date: 218 A.D., ref: RIC-IV-II-94, p-35, C-72,
Q-002
quadrans
Iulia-Maesa_AR-Den_IVLIA-MAESA-AVG_LAETITIA-PVBL_RIC-261(Elagab)_Q-001_7h_18,5-19mm_2,71g-s.jpg
061 Iulia Maesa ( ?-223 A.D.), RIC IV-II 261, Rome, AR-Denarius, LAETITIA PVBL, Pudicitia seated left, #190 views061 Iulia Maesa ( ?-223 A.D.), RIC IV-II 261, Rome, AR-Denarius, LAETITIA PVBL, Pudicitia seated left, #1
avers: IVLIA MAESA AVG, Draped bust right.
reverse: LAETITIA PVBL, Laetitia standing left, holding wreath in right hand and rudder on a globe in left hand behind.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 18,5-19mm, weight: 2,71g, axis: 7h,
mint: Rome, date: 218-222 A.D., ref: RIC IV-II 261 (Elagab), p-, ,
Q-001
quadrans
RI_064md_img~0.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 27441 viewsDenarius
Obv:– SEVERVS PIVS AVG, laureate head right
Rev:– LAETITIA above, TEMPORVM below, ship with mast and fittings, sail raised, gangway to ground; above, four quadrigae; below, bird, lion, zebra, bear, stag, bull and a bear
Minted in Rome. A.D. 206
Reference:– BMC 343. RIC 274. RSC 253.

ex CGB.fr

Updated image.
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_064md_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 27427 viewsDenarius
Obv:– SEVERVS PIVS AVG, laureate head right
Rev:– LAETITIA above, TEMPORVM below, ship with mast and fittings, sail raised, gangway to ground; above, four quadrigae; below, bird, lion, zebra, bear, stag, bull and a bear
Minted in Rome. A.D. 206
Reference:– BMC 343. RIC 274. RSC 253.

ex CGB.fr
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_064pl_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 50516 viewsObv:– L SEPT SEV AVG IMP XI PART MAX, laureate head right
Rev:– IVST-ITIA, Justitia (Justice) seated left with patera & scepter
Minted in Laodicea-ad-Mare. A.D. 199-202
Reference:– RIC 505. RSC 251
maridvnvm
RI_064jb_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 510a29 viewsObv:– L SEPT SEV AVG IMP XI PART MAX, Laureate head right
Rev:– IVST-ITIA, Justitia (Justice) seated left with patera & scepter
Minted in Laodicea-ad-Mare, A.D. 198 - 202
References:– RIC 505. RSC 251

Nicely toned.

Ex-Lanz
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_064kf_img.JPG
064 - Septimius Severus limes denarius - copies RIC 50513 views064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 505
Obv:– L SEPT SEV AVG IMP XI PART MAX, laureate head left
Rev:– IVST-ITIA, Justitia (Justice) seated left with patera & scepter
Minted in style of Laodicea-ad-Mare. A.D. 199-202
Reference:– Copies RIC 505. Copies RSC 251
maridvnvm
RI_065r_img.jpg
065 - Julia Domna denarius - RIC 64117 viewsObv:– IVLIA AVGVSTA, Draped bust right, hair tied in bun behind
Rev:– LAETI-TIA, Laetitia standing left, holding wreath in right hand, anchor in left
Minted in Laodicea-ad-Mare. A.D. 196 - 202
References:– BMC 604. RIC 641. RSC 101.
Martin Griffiths
67b.jpg
067b Gordian III. AE sestertius20 viewsobv: IMP GORDIANVS PIVS FEL AVG laur. drp. bust r.
rev: LAETITIA AVG N Laetitia std. l. holding wreath and ancher
fld: SC
hill132
Caracalla-Prieur-1144.jpg
07. Caracalla.23 viewsTetradrachm, 205-207 AD, Laodiceia ad Mare.
Obverse: AVT KAI . ANTΩNEINOC . CE . / Laureate bust of Caracalla.
Reverse: ΔHMAPX EΞ VΠATOC B / Eagle, holding wreath in beak, star between legs.
12.91 gm., 25 mm.
Bellinger #57; Prieur #1144.

When Caracalla went to the East to wage war with the Parthians, he issued vast quantities of tetradrachms to finance the activity. This coin, however, is not from that series; it was minted about 10 years earlier when Septimius Severus was still emperor. The main distinguishing feature of this coin is a bust of Caracalla as an adolescent, with just the beginnings of sideburns. It is a fairly scare type. For more information see "Severan Tetradrachms of Laodiceia" by R. G. McAlee in ANS Museum Notes #29 (1984), pages 43-59.

Prieur #1144 has the same obverse die as this coin. However, the reverse legend of #1144 has a Γ at the end of it. Prieur knew of only one example of this coin. Several years ago CNG had a coin from similar dies with the reverse legend ending in a B. Unfortunately, the last letter of the reverse legend on this coin is not real clear.
Callimachus
GI 071b img.jpg
071 - Elagabalus, AE26, Markianopolis, Nemesis57 viewsAE26 (5 Assarion)
Obv:– AVT K M AVPH ANTWNEINOC, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust of Elagabalus facing right
Rev:– VP CEPG TITIANOY MARKIANOPOLITWN, Nemesis standing, holding scales and scepter
Minted in Marcianopolis, Thrace
Reference:– I was given the attribution of Pick 839var.

Any help with an accurate attribution welcome.
1 commentsmaridvnvm
Gordianus_III__AR-Ant_IMP-GORDIANVS-PIVS-FEL-AVG_LAETITIA-AVG-N_RIC-86_C-121_Rome_241-AD_Q-001_11h_22mm_4,84ga-s.jpg
072 Gordianus-III. (238-244 A.D.), RIC IV-III 086, AR-Antoninianus, Rome, LAETITIA AVG N, Laetitia standing left, #1157 views072 Gordianus-III. (238-244 A.D.), RIC IV-III 086, AR-Antoninianus, Rome, LAETITIA AVG N, Laetitia standing left, #1
avers:- IMP-GORDIANVS-PIVS-FEL-AVG, Radiate bust right, draped and cuirassed.
revers:- LAETITIA-AVG-N, Laetitia standing left with wreath and anchor.
exe:-/-//--, diameter: 22mm, weight: 4,84g, axis: 11h,
mint: Rome, date: 241-243 A.D.(4th. Issue), ref: RIC IV-III-86, p-25, C-121,
Q-001
quadrans
072_Gordianus-III__(238-244_A_D_),__AR-Ant_IMP-GORDIANVS-PIVS-FEL-AVG_LAETITIA-AVG-N_RIC-86_C-121_Rome_241-AD_Q-002_11h_22,5-23mm_3,86g-s.jpg
072 Gordianus-III. (238-244 A.D.), RIC IV-III 086, AR-Antoninianus, Rome, LAETITIA AVG N, Laetitia standing left, #265 views072 Gordianus-III. (238-244 A.D.), RIC IV-III 086, AR-Antoninianus, Rome, LAETITIA AVG N, Laetitia standing left, #2
avers:- IMP-GORDIANVS-PIVS-FEL-AVG, Radiate bust right, draped and cuirassed.
revers:- LAETITIA-AVG-N, Laetitia standing left with wreath and anchor.
exe:-/-//--, diameter: 22,5-23mm, weight: 3,86g, axis: 11h,
mint: Rome, date: 241-243 A.D.(4th. Issue), ref: RIC IV-III-86, p-25, C-121,
Q-001
quadrans
Gordianus_III__AR-Den_IMP-GORDIANVS-PIVS-FEL-AVG_LAETITIA-AVGN_RIC-113_C-120_Rome_241-AD_Q-001_19-20mm_2_33g-s.jpg
072 Gordianus-III. (238-244 A.D.), RIC IV-III 113, AR-Denarius, Rome, LAETITIA AVG N, Rare!, #183 views072 Gordianus-III. (238-244 A.D.), RIC IV-III 113, AR-Denarius, Rome, LAETITIA AVG N, Rare!, #1
avers:- IMP-GORDIANVS-PIVS-FEL-AVG, Laureate bust right, draped and cuirassed.
revers:- LAETITIA-AVG-N, Laetitia standing left holding wreath and anchor.
exe:-/-//--, diameter: 19-20mm, weight: 2,33g, axis: h,
mint: Rome, date: 241 A.D.(4th Issue-3rd officina? ), ref: RIC-113, C-120,
Q-001
quadrans
Gordianus-III__AE-Sest_IMP-GORDIANVS-PIVS-FEL-AVG_LAETITIA-AVG-N_S-C_Roma-241-43-RIC-300a_Q-001_20_05ga-s.jpg
072 Gordianus-III. (238-244 A.D.), RIC IV-III 300a, AE-Sestertius, Rome, S/C//--, LAETITIA AVG N, Laetitia standing left, #1176 views072 Gordianus-III. (238-244 A.D.), RIC IV-III 300a, AE-Sestertius, Rome, S/C//--, LAETITIA AVG N, Laetitia standing left, #1
avers: IMP GORDIANVS PIVS FEL AVG, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right.
reversre: LAETITIA AVG N, Laetitia standing left, holding wreath and anchor; S C across fields.
exergue: S/C//--, diameter: 28,5-32,0mm, weight: 20,05g, axis: 0h,
mint: Rome, date: 241-243 A.D., ref: RIC IV-III 300a, C-122,
Q-001
quadrans
100Hadrian__RIC727c.jpg
0727 Hadrian AS Roma 132-34 AD Justitia24 viewsReference.
RIC 727; C 886

Obv. HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS
Bare head, draped bust right, seen from back

Rev. IVSTITIA AVG COS III P P S C
Justitia seated left on throne, holding patera and sceptre.

9.44 gr
26 mm
6h
okidoki
074-Philippus-I_AR-Ant_IMP-M-IVL-PHILI(LI)PPVS-AVG_LAETIT-FVNDAT_RIC-36b-var_244-AD_Q-001_6h_20-21mm_3,00ga-s.jpg
074 Philippus I. (244-249 A.D.), RIC IV-III 0036bvar., Rome, AR-Antoninianus, LAETIT FVNDAT, Laetitia standing left,93 views074 Philippus I. (244-249 A.D.), RIC IV-III 0036bvar., Rome, AR-Antoninianus, LAETIT FVNDAT, Laetitia standing left,
avers:- IMP M IVL PHILI(LI)PPVS AVG, Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right. Legend Error !!!.
revers:- LAETIT FVNDAT, Laetitia standing left holding wreath and rudder.
exergo: -/-//--, diameter: 20,0-21,0mm, weight: 3,00g, axis: 6h,
mint: Rome, 2nd and 3rd Issues, 2nd Officina date:244A.D., ref: RIC-IV-III-036bvar., p-72, RSC 80var., Sear 2560var.,
Q-001
quadrans
RI_087aj_img.jpg
087 - Gordian denarius - RIC 11325 viewsObv:– IMP GORDIANVS PIVS FEL AVG, Laureate bust right, draped and cuirassed
Rev:– LAETITIA AVG N, Laetitia standing facing with wreath & rudder.
Minted in Rome
Reference:– RIC 113. RSC 120.
maridvnvm
RI_087ag_img.jpg
087 - Gordian III, Denarius - RIC 11318 viewsObv:– IMP GORDIANVS PIVS FEL AVG, Laureate bust right, draped and cuirassed
Rev:– LAETITIA AVG N, Laetitia standing facing with wreath & rudder.
Minted in Rome
Reference:– RIC 113. RSC 120.
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_087ai_img.jpg
087 - Gordian III, Sestertius - RIC 300a18 viewsObv:– IMP GORDIANVS PIVS FEL AVG, Laureate bust right, draped and cuirassed
Rev:– LAETITIA AVG N ,S - C, Laetitia standing left, with wreath and anchor
Minted in Rome.
Reference:– Cohen 122. RIC 300a.

18.10g, 29.36mm, 0o
maridvnvm
RI 089g img.jpg
089 - Phillip I Antoninianus - RIC 036b25 viewsObv:– IMP M IVL PHILIPPVS AVG, Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:– LAETIT FVNDAT, Laetitia standing left, holding a wreath and a rudder
Minted in Rome. A.D. 244 - 247
Reference:– RIC 36b. RSC 80.
maridvnvm
Rep_AR-Den_Q_Titius_Head_of_Mutinus_Titinus_(Priapus)_r_-wearing_winged_diad_Pegazus-r__Q-dot-TITI_Crawford-341-1_Syd-691_Rome_90-BC_Q-001_3h_18-20mm_3,38g-s.jpg
090 B.C. Q.Titius, Republic AR-Denarius, Crawford 341/1, Rome, Pegasus springing right, Q•TITI on base, #190 views090 B.C. Q.Titius, Republic AR-Denarius, Crawford 341/1, Rome, Pegasus springing right, Q•TITI on base, #1
avers: Head of Mutinus Titinus (Priapus) right, wearing a winged diadem.
reverse: Pegasus springing right, Q•TITI on base.
exergue: - -/-//Q•TITI, diameter:18-20 mm, weight: 3,38g, axis: 3h,
mint: Rome, date: 90 B.C., ref: Crawford 341/1, Sydenham 691,Titia 1,
Q-001
quadrans
Gallienus_AE-Ant_GALLIENVS-AVG_LAETITIA-AVG_RICV-I-489var-p-173-NIR_C-_Rome_253-268-AD__Q-001_axis-6h_19mm_1,89g-s.jpg
090b Gallienus (253-268 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-I 489var, Mediolanum, Sole Reign, LAETITIA AVG G, Laetitia left,88 views090b Gallienus (253-268 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-I 489var, Mediolanum, Sole Reign, LAETITIA AVG G, Laetitia left,
avers:- GALLIENVS AVG, Radiated bust right.
revers:- LAETITIA AVG G, Laetitia left, holding wreath and anchor.
exerg: -/-//--, diameter: 19mm, weight: 1,89g, axes: 6h,
mint: Mediolanum, date: 253-268 A.D., ref: RIC V-I 489var2.(489K var (no fieldmark or mintmark)), p-173, C-423,425, Göbl 1093h,
Q-001
quadrans
92.jpg
092 Tetricus I. AE antoninianus13 viewsobv: IMP TETRICVS PF AVG rad. drp. cuir. bust r.
rev: LAETITIA AVG Laet. std. l. holding wreath and anchor
hill132
Postumus_AE-Ant_IMP-C-POSTVMVS-PF-AVG_LAETITIA-AVG_RIC-73-p-_C-167_Lugdunum_260-69-AD___Q-001_7h_22mm_3,02ga-s.jpg
098 Postumus (260-269 A.D.), Cologne (???), RIC V-II 073, AE-Antoninianus, LAETITIA AVG, Galley right, #1324 views098 Postumus (260-269 A.D.), Cologne (???), RIC V-II 073, AE-Antoninianus, LAETITIA AVG, Galley right, #1
avers: IMP C POSTVMVS P F AVG, Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right.
reverse: LAETITIA AVG, Galley right.
exergue: -/-//AVG, diameter: 22mm, weight: 3,02g, axis: 7h,
mint: Cologne? or Trier?, (Lugdunum? are an error in RIC V-II), date: 260-69 AD.,
ref: RIC V-II 73, RSC 167, Sear 10958,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
coin306.JPG
103. Hadrian25 viewsHadrian AE Sestertius. HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS, laureate draped bust right / IVSTITIA AVG COS III P P, Justitia seated left holding patera & scepter, SC in ex. Cohen 889.
ecoli
1399Hadrian_Strack_p__219,_41.jpg
1037 Mule Hadrian Denarius Roma 129-30 AD Justitia12 viewsReference.
RIC, III 1037; RIC -; BMC-; Strack p. 219, 41 (Vienna); RSC 883c.

Bust C1

Obv. HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS. (P P missing)
Laureate, draped bust, viewed from front

Rev. IVSTITIA AVG COS III in ex.
Justitia seated left, patera in right, vertical long scepter in left.

3.30 gr
19 mm
6h

Note Curtis Clay.

These are mules from an old rev. die: the lack of P P in the obverse legend means that it should have been added to the rev. legend, but these coins are from one or more rev. dies that had been engraved before that change was made, and were later erroneously coupled with at least two of the new obv. dies without P P.
1 commentsokidoki
380Hadrian.jpg
1038 Mule Hadrian Denarius Roma 134-38 AD Justitia.60 viewsReference.
RIC III, 1038; plate; RIC -; BMC-; Strack p. 219, 41 (Vienna); RSC 883b.

Obv. HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS. (P P missing)
Bare head, draped bust right.

Rev. IVSTITIA AVG COS III in ex.
Justitia seated left, patera in right, vertical long scepter in left.

3.52 gr
18 mm
6h
Note Curtis Clay.
Strack p. 219, 41 (Vienna) = RSC 883b.

Vienna also has a similar denarius with bust laureate, draped r.

These are mules from an old rev. die: the lack of P P in the obverse legend means that it should have been added to the rev. legend, but these coins are from one or more rev. dies that had been engraved before that change was made, and were later erroneously coupled with at least two of the new obv. dies without P P.
1 commentsokidoki
coin219.JPG
105. Marcus Aurelius41 viewsMarcus Aurelius

The joint succession may have been motivated by military exigency. During his reign Marcus Aurelius was almost constantly at war with various peoples outside the Empire. Germanic tribes and other peoples launched many raids along the long European border, particularly into Gaul — Germans, in turn, may have been under attack from more warlike tribes farther east. In Asia, a revitalized Parthian Empire renewed its assault. A highly authoritative figure was needed to command the troops, yet the emperor himself could not defend both fronts at the same time. Neither could he simply appoint a general to lead one assault; earlier popular military leaders like Julius Caesar and Vespasian had used the military to overthrow the existing government and install themselves as supreme leaders.

Marcus Aurelius solved the problem by sending Verus to command the legions in the East. He was authoritative enough to command the full loyalty of the troops, but already powerful enough that he had little incentive to overthrow Marcus. The plan succeeded — Verus remained loyal until his death on campaign in 169. This joint emperorship was faintly reminiscent of the political system of the Roman Republic, which functioned according to the principle of collegiality and did not allow a single person to hold supreme power. Joint rule was revived by Diocletian's establishment of the Tetrarchy in the late 3rd century.

Virtus

In Roman mythology, Virtus was the god of bravery and military strength. His Greek equivalent was Arete. The word, "Virtus" is commonly used in mottos of universities and other entities.

Marcus Aurelius, as Caesar, Denarius. 155-156 AD. AVRELIVS CAES ANTON AVG PII F, bare head right / TR POT X COS II, Virtus, helmeted, standing left, holding parazonium & spear. RSC 703. RIC 468
ecoli
rjb_gallienus74_08_05.jpg
109515 viewsAntoninianus
Milan
Issue 4
LAETITIA AVG
G 1095
mauseus
T-3538_Tacitus_AE-Antoninianus_IMP-C-M-C-L-TACITVS-AVG-(A3)_LAETITIA-FVND-(Laet-1)_XXI-B_RIC-89_T-3538_Iss-3-off-2_Rome-276-AD_Q-001_4h_21,5-23mm_3,88g-s.jpg
110 Tacitus (275-276 A.D.), T-3538, RIC V-I 089, Rome, AE-Antoninianus, LAETITIA FVND, -/-//XXIB, Bust-A3, Laetitia standing left, #168 views110 Tacitus (275-276 A.D.), T-3538, RIC V-I 089, Rome, AE-Antoninianus, LAETITIA FVND, -/-//XXIB, Bust-A3, Laetitia standing left, #1
avers: IMP-C-M-CL-TACITVS-AVG, Head right, radiate, with traces of drapery to front and rear of truncation, (A3).
revers: LAETITIA-FVND, Laetitia standing left, holding wreath in right hand and anchor in left hand. (Laet-1).
exerg: -/-//XXIB, diameter: 21,5-23mm, weight: 3,88g, axes: 4h,
mint: Rome, issue-3., off-2., date: 276 A.D., ref: RIC-V-I-89, T-(Estiot)-3538,
Q-001
quadrans
T-3714_Tacitus_AE-Antoninianus_IMP-C-M-CL-TACITVS-P-AVG_LAETITIA-AVG_XXI-VI_RIC-temp-3714_Siscia_276-AD_Q-001_5h_22,5mm_3,85g-s.jpg
110 Tacitus (275-276 A.D.), T-3714, RIC V-I ???, Siscia, AE-Antoninianus, LAETITIA AVG, -/-//XXIVI, Bust-D1, Laetitia standig left, #170 views110 Tacitus (275-276 A.D.), T-3714, RIC V-I ???, Siscia, AE-Antoninianus, LAETITIA AVG, -/-//XXIVI, Bust-D1, Laetitia standig left, #1
avers:- IMP-C-M-CL-TACITVS-P-AVG, Bust right, radiate, cuirassed and draped with paludamentum. D1.
revers:- LAETITIA-AVG, Laetitia standig left, holding wreath in r. hand and anchor in l. hand. Laetitia 1.
exerg: -/-//XXIVI, diameter: 22,52mm, weight: 3,85g, axes: 5h,
mint: Siscia, 3rd.issue, Phase 2, 6th.off., date: 276 AD., ref: RIC-??., T-(Estiot)-3714, C-, BNC 1751,
Q-001
quadrans
Florianus_AE-Ant_IMP-C-FLORIANVS-AVG_LAETITIA-FVND_XXI-B_(D2,L1)_RIC-V-I-34_p-_T-4220_Rome_iss_-1_off_-2_276-AD_Q-001_10h_20-21mm_2,80g-s.jpg
111 Florianus (276-282 A.D.), T-4220, RIC V-I 034, Rome, AE-Antoninianus, LAETITIA FVND, -/-//XXIB, Bust-D2, Laetitia standing left, #179 views111 Florianus (276-282 A.D.), T-4220, RIC V-I 034, Rome, AE-Antoninianus, LAETITIA FVND, -/-//XXIB, Bust-D2, Laetitia standing left, #1
avers:- IMP-C-FLORIANVS-AVG, Bust right, radiate, cuirassed and draped with paludamentum, seen from rear, (D2).
revers:- LAETITIA-FVND, Laetitia standing left, holding wreath in right hand and anchor in left hand, (Laetitia1).
exerg: -/-//XXIB, diameter: 20-21mm, weight: 2,80g, axes: 10h,
mint: Roma, 1st.issue, 2nd.off., date: 276 A.D., ref: RIC-V-I-34, T-(Estiot)-4220,
Q-001
quadrans
RIC_031_112_Probus_AE-Ant_IMP-C-M-AVR-PROBVS-AVG_LAETITIA-AVGVSTI_IIII_Bust-F_RIC-31-p-23_Lugdunum_3rd-emision_282-AD_Scarce_Q-001_7h_21-22,5mm_4,25g-s.jpg
112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), Lugdunum, RIC V-II 031.2.4./A-B, -/-//IIII, LAETITIA AVGVSTI, AE-Ant., Laetitia standing left, #192 views112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), Lugdunum, RIC V-II 031.2.4./A-B, -/-//IIII, LAETITIA AVGVSTI, AE-Ant., Laetitia standing left, #1
avers: IMP C M AVR PROBVS AVG, Radiate, cuirassed bust right. (B-F),
reverse: LAETITIA AVGVSTI, Laetitia standing left, holding wreath and anchor, or staff. (A)
exergue: -/-//IIII, diameter: 21-22,5mm, weight: 4,25g, axis: 7h,
mint: Lugdunum, 2nd. em., 4th. off., date: 276 A.D., ref: RIC V-II 031.2.4./A-B, p-23, C-329, Bastien 172, HO-270,
Q-001
quadrans
rjb_gor113_01_07.jpg
11318 viewsDenarius
Rome mint
LAETITIA AVG N
RIC 113
mauseus
RIC_V-II_261F,_Carinus,_AE-Ant,_IMP_CARINVS_P_F_AVG,_LAETITIA_FVND,_KAGamma,_p_5th_em-Rome_284-AD_Q-001_0h_21,5-24,0mm_4,27g-s.jpg
115 Carinus (282-283 A.D. Caesar 283-285 A.D. Augustus), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 261F, Rome, -/-//KAΓ, LAETITIA FVND, Laetitia standing left,120 views115 Carinus (282-283 A.D. Caesar 283-285 A.D. Augustus), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 261F, Rome, -/-//KAΓ, LAETITIA FVND, Laetitia standing left,
avers:- IMP CARINVS P F AVG , Radiate, cuirassed bust right.
revers:- LAETITIA FVND, Laetitia standing left holding rudder.
exerg: -/-//KAΓ, diameter: 21,5-24,0mm, weight:4,27g, axes: 0h,
mint: Rome, 5th emission, date: 284 A.D., ref: RIC V-II 261F, p-,
Q-001
2 commentsquadrans
hadrian_RIC42.jpg
117-138 AD - HADRIAN AR denarius - struck 118 AD52 viewsobv: IMP CAESAR TRAIAN HADRIANVS AVG (laureate bust right, cuirassed, draped far shoulder)
rev: P M TR P COS II (Justice is seated on the curule chair, as on a tribunal: with the insignia of the hasta pura and the extended patera she displays her care for religion), IVSTITIA in ex.
ref: RIC II 42, RSC 877
mint: Rome
3.25gms, 19mm

Rare cuirassed bust, RIC not describes (c - not in RIC). Unfortunately the reverse is burned, but still valuable.
The reverse perhaps refer to the edictum perpetuum or Pretorian edict, what was an annual declaration made by the praetor urbanus in which he laid out the principles by which he would exercise his jurisdiction for his year in office. Under Hadrian, the edict became fixed and unchangeable.
And there's an other fact that can refer this reverse. When Hadrian arrived in Rome in July 118 to a hostile reception on the part of the senate, because of the death of the four consulars. The four men were Cornelius Palma, governor of Syria, Avidius Nigrinus, governor of Dacia, Publilius Celsus and Lusius Quietus, governor of Judaea, they were all Trajan's men, and their elimination certainly made Hadrian's course easier. But an Emperor had right everytime, and he was the justice.
berserker
rjb_p10_03_09.jpg
11949 viewsAE sestertius
Trier Mint
IMP C POSTVMVS PF AVG
Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust left with hand raised
LAETITIA AVG SC
Galley left
Bastien 119
1 commentsmauseus
13-Gordian-III-RIC-113.jpg
12. Gordian III / RIC 113.15 viewsDenarius, 240 AD, Rome mint.
Obverse: IMP GORDIANVS PIVS FEL AVG / Laureate bust of Gordian.
Reverse: LAETITIA AVG N / Laetitia standing, holding wreath and anchor.
2.14 gm., 20 mm.
RIC #113; Sear #8675.
Callimachus
RI_120h_img.jpg
120 - Tetricus I - Antoninianus - RIC 09011 viewsObv:– IMP TETRICVS P F AVG, Radiate cuirassed bust right
Rev:– LAETITIA AVG N, Laetitia standing facing, head left, holding wreath and anchor
Minted in mint II 272 A.D.
Reference:– RIC 90
maridvnvm
124_Carausius,_Camulodunum,_RIC_V-II_--,_IMP_C_CARAVSIVS_P_AVG,_LAETITIA_AVG,_S-C,_Q-001_h,_mm,_g-s.jpg
124 Carausius, (286-287, 293 A.D.), Camulodunum, RIC V-II ???, AE-Antoninianus, LAETITIA AVG, S/C//--, Laetitia standing left, #1135 views124 Carausius, (286-287, 293 A.D.), Camulodunum, RIC V-II ???, AE-Antoninianus, LAETITIA AVG, S/C//--, Laetitia standing left, #1
avers:- IMP C CARAIVSIVS P AVG, Radiate, draped, cuirassed bust right.
revers:- LAETITIA AVG, Laetitia standing left, holding wreath and anchor.
exerg: S/C//--, diameter: 21,5-25,0mm, weight: 4,39g, axes: 6h,
mint: Camulodunum, date: A.D., ref: RIC V-II ???,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
rjb_2016_02_24.jpg
124cf10 viewsAllectus 293-6
Antoninianus
IMP C ALLECTVS P AVG
Radiate & cuirassed bust right
LAETITIA AVG
Galley right
Camulodunum mint
QC
RIC -; Burnett 211
mauseus
rjb_2016_02_23.jpg
124cf11 viewsAllectus 293-6
Antoninianus
IMP C ALLECTVS P AVG
Radiate & cuirassed bust right
LAETITIA AVG
Galley right
Camulodunum mint
QC
RIC -; Burnett 211
mauseus
rjb_2017_07_07.jpg
12514 viewsAllectus 293-6
Antoninianus
IMP C ALLECTVS PF I AVG
Radiate & cuirassed bust right
LAETITIA AVG
Galley right
Camulodunum mint
QC
RIC 125
mauseus
rjb_al_126.jpg
12656 viewsAllectus 293-6
Antoninianus
IMP C ALLECTVS AVG
Radiate & cuirassed bust right
LAETITIA AVG
Galley right
Camulodunum mint
QC
RIC 126
mauseus
14-Gordian-III-RIC-116.jpg
13. Gordian III / RIC 116.25 viewsDenarius, 240 AD, Rome mint.
Obverse: IMP GORDIANVS PIVS FEL AVG / Laureate bust of Gordian.
Reverse: VIRTVTI AVGVSTI / Hercules standing, resting right hand on hip and left hand club set on rock; lion-skin beside club.
3.58 gm., 20 mm.
RIC #116; Sear #8684.

The chronology of the denarii coinage of Gordian III has been poorly understood because Roman Imperial Coinage (RIC) has it mixed up in its listings. For example, it will tell you that 5 denarii (Diana, Pietas, Salus, Securitas, and Venus) were issued in the summer of 241 to commemorate the marriage of Gordian and Tranquillina. Recent thinking tells another entirely different story. The following summary is based on a posting by Curtis Clay, November 25, 2011, on the Forum Ancient Coins Classical Numismatics Discussion Board.
Although antoniniani were issued for a while under Caracalla and Elagabalus, the denarius was the standard silver denomination throughout the reigns of Severus Alexander, Maximinus Thrax, and into the first part of the joint reign of Balbinus & Pupienus. (This, by the way, is when the PIETAS AVGG denarius of Gordian as Caesar was issued.) Sometime during the short reign of Balbinus & Pupienus, the antoninianus supplanted the denarius as the standard silver denomination. When Gordian III became emperor (July 238), his administration continued to follow the then current practice of issuing only antoniniani.

Early in 240, Gordian apparently decided to revert back to the traditional coinage of the Empire and began to issue only denarii. The denarii issued at this time were the following:

P M TR P III COS P P / Horseman
DIANA LVCIFERA
PIETAS AVGVSTI
SALVS AVGVSTI
SECVRITAS PVBLICA
VENVS VICTRIX

No antoniniani exist with these reverse types.

The next issue of denarii was issued in the summer of 240 after Gordian became COS II, and consists of these types:

P M TR P III COS II P P / Emperor standing
P M TR P III COS II P P / Apollo seated
AETERNITATI AVG
IOVIS STATOR
LAETITIA AVG N
VIRTVTI AVGVSTI

Within a short time, however, it was decided to go back to having the antoninianus as the standard silver denomination. Antoniniani were issued again, at first with the same reverse types as the second issue of denarii. That is why these reverse types exist on denarii and antoniniani even though they were not issued at the same time.

So the period the mint issued denarii rather than antoniniani as the standard silver denomination lasted from about March through August, 240. This was the last time denarii were issued for general circulation. The antoninianus lasted until Diocletian’s coinage reform of 295, after which Roman coinage was so vastly different that there was no question of returning to the denarius.

The 13 denarii of Gordian III are presented in this album in this order:
Gordian III as Caesar denarius - 1 coin.
First issue of denarii - 6 coins.
Second issue of denarii - 6 coins.
Callimachus
RI_130bo_img.jpg
130 - Tacitus - RIC 89.8 viewsObv:– IMP C M CL TACITVS AVG, Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:– LAEITITIA FVND, Laetitia standing left, holding wreath and anchor.
Minted in Rome (//XXIB). Issue 3, Officina 2. January – June A.D. 276
Reference(s) – LV 59-81 (22 examples). RIC 89. RIC MIR temp 3485 (76 examples cited)

Weight 4.20g. 22.88mm. 0 degrees
maridvnvm
DiocleAnt.jpg
1301a, Diocletian, 284-305 A.D. (Antioch)98 viewsDIOCLETIAN (284 – 305 AD) AE Antoninianus, 293-95 AD, RIC V 322, Cohen 34. 20.70 mm/3.1 gm, aVF, Antioch. Obverse: IMP C C VAL DIOCLETIANVS P F AVG, Radiate bust right, draped & cuirassed; Reverse: CONCORDIA MILITVM, Jupiter presents Victory on a globe to Diocletian, I/XXI. Early Diocletian with dusty earthen green patina.


De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Diocletian ( 284-305 A.D.)

Ralph W. Mathisen
University of South Carolina


Summary and Introduction
The Emperor Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus (A.D. 284-305) put an end to the disastrous phase of Roman history known as the "Military Anarchy" or the "Imperial Crisis" (235-284). He established an obvious military despotism and was responsible for laying the groundwork for the second phase of the Roman Empire, which is known variously as the "Dominate," the "Tetrarchy," the "Later Roman Empire," or the "Byzantine Empire." His reforms ensured the continuity of the Roman Empire in the east for more than a thousand years.

Diocletian's Early Life and Reign
Diocletian was born ca. 236/237 on the Dalmatian coast, perhaps at Salona. He was of very humble birth, and was originally named Diocles. He would have received little education beyond an elementary literacy and he was apparently deeply imbued with religious piety He had a wife Prisca and a daughter Valeria, both of whom reputedly were Christians. During Diocletian's early life, the Roman empire was in the midst of turmoil. In the early years of the third century, emperors increasingly insecure on their thrones had granted inflationary pay raises to the soldiers. The only meaningful income the soldiers now received was in the form of gold donatives granted by newly acclaimed emperors. Beginning in 235, armies throughout the empire began to set up their generals as rival emperors. The resultant civil wars opened up the empire to invasion in both the north, by the Franks, Alamanni, and Goths, and the east, by the Sassanid Persians. Another reason for the unrest in the army was the great gap between the social background of the common soldiers and the officer corps.

Diocletian sought his fortune in the army. He showed himself to be a shrewd, able, and ambitious individual. He is first attested as "Duke of Moesia" (an area on the banks of the lower Danube River), with responsibility for border defense. He was a prudent and methodical officer, a seeker of victory rather than glory. In 282, the legions of the upper Danube proclaimed the praetorian prefect Carus as emperor. Diocletian found favor under the new emperor, and was promoted to Count of the Domestics, the commander of the cavalry arm of the imperial bodyguard. In 283 he was granted the honor of a consulate.

In 284, in the midst of a campaign against the Persians, Carus was killed, struck by a bolt of lightning which one writer noted might have been forged in a legionary armory. This left the empire in the hands of his two young sons, Numerian in the east and Carinus in the west. Soon thereafter, Numerian died under mysterious circumstances near Nicomedia, and Diocletian was acclaimed emperor in his place. At this time he changed his name from Diocles to Diocletian. In 285 Carinus was killed in a battle near Belgrade, and Diocletian gained control of the entire empire.

Diocletian's Administrative and Military Reforms
As emperor, Diocletian was faced with many problems. His most immediate concerns were to bring the mutinous and increasingly barbarized Roman armies back under control and to make the frontiers once again secure from invasion. His long-term goals were to restore effective government and economic prosperity to the empire. Diocletian concluded that stern measures were necessary if these problems were to be solved. He felt that it was the responsibility of the imperial government to take whatever steps were necessary, no matter how harsh or innovative, to bring the empire back under control.

Diocletian was able to bring the army back under control by making several changes. He subdivided the roughly fifty existing provinces into approximately one hundred. The provinces also were apportioned among twelve "dioceses," each under a "vicar," and later also among four "prefectures," each under a "praetorian prefect." As a result, the imperial bureaucracy became increasingly bloated. He institutionalized the policy of separating civil and military careers. He divided the army itself into so-called "border troops," actually an ineffective citizen militia, and "palace troops," the real field army, which often was led by the emperor in person.

Following the precedent of Aurelian (A.D.270-275), Diocletian transformed the emperorship into an out-and-out oriental monarchy. Access to him became restricted; he now was addressed not as First Citizen (Princeps) or the soldierly general (Imperator), but as Lord and Master (Dominus Noster) . Those in audience were required to prostrate themselves on the ground before him.

Diocletian also concluded that the empire was too large and complex to be ruled by only a single emperor. Therefore, in order to provide an imperial presence throughout the empire, he introduced the "Tetrarchy," or "Rule by Four." In 285, he named his lieutenant Maximianus "Caesar," and assigned him the western half of the empire. This practice began the process which would culminate with the de facto split of the empire in 395. Both Diocletian and Maximianus adopted divine attributes. Diocletian was identified with Jupiter and Maximianus with Hercules. In 286, Diocletian promoted Maximianus to the rank of Augustus, "Senior Emperor," and in 293 he appointed two new Caesars, Constantius (the father of Constantine I ), who was given Gaul and Britain in the west, and Galerius, who was assigned the Balkans in the east.

By instituting his Tetrarchy, Diocletian also hoped to solve another problem. In the Augustan Principate, there had been no constitutional method for choosing new emperors. According to Diocletian's plan, the successor of each Augustus would be the respective Caesar, who then would name a new Caesar. Initially, the Tetrarchy operated smoothly and effectively.

Once the army was under control, Diocletian could turn his attention to other problems. The borders were restored and strengthened. In the early years of his reign, Diocletian and his subordinates were able to defeat foreign enemies such as Alamanni, Sarmatians, Saracens, Franks, and Persians, and to put down rebellions in Britain and Egypt. The easter frontier was actually expanded.

.
Diocletian's Economic Reforms
Another problem was the economy, which was in an especially sorry state. The coinage had become so debased as to be virtually worthless. Diocletian's attempt to reissue good gold and silver coins failed because there simply was not enough gold and silver available to restore confidence in the currency. A "Maximum Price Edict" issued in 301, intended to curb inflation, served only to drive goods onto the black market. Diocletian finally accepted the ruin of the money economy and revised the tax system so that it was based on payments in kind . The soldiers too came to be paid in kind.

In order to assure the long term survival of the empire, Diocletian identified certain occupations which he felt would have to be performed. These were known as the "compulsory services." They included such occupations as soldiers, bakers, members of town councils, and tenant farmers. These functions became hereditary, and those engaging in them were inhibited from changing their careers. The repetitious nature of these laws, however, suggests that they were not widely obeyed. Diocletian also expanded the policy of third-century emperors of restricting the entry of senators into high-ranking governmental posts, especially military ones.

Diocletian attempted to use the state religion as a unifying element. Encouraged by the Caesar Galerius, Diocletian in 303 issued a series of four increasingly harsh decrees designed to compel Christians to take part in the imperial cult, the traditional means by which allegiance was pledged to the empire. This began the so-called "Great Persecution."

Diocletian's Resignation and Death
On 1 May 305, wearied by his twenty years in office, and determined to implement his method for the imperial succession, Diocletian abdicated. He compelled his co-regent Maximianus to do the same. Constantius and Galerius then became the new Augusti, and two new Caesars were selected, Maximinus (305-313) in the east and Severus (305- 307) in the west. Diocletian then retired to his palace at Split on the Croatian coast. In 308 he declined an offer to resume the purple, and the aged ex-emperor died at Split on 3 December 316.

Copyright (C) 1996, Ralph W. Mathisen, University of South Carolina
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

1 commentsCleisthenes
DicletianConcordCyz.jpg
1301b, Diocletian, 20 November 284 - 1 March 305 A.D.62 viewsDiocletian. RIC V Part II Cyzicus 256 var. Not listed with pellet in exegrue
Item ref: RI141f. VF. Minted in Cyzicus (B in centre field, XXI dot in exegrue)Obverse:- IMP CC VAL DIOCLETIANVS AVG, Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right. Reverse:- CONCORDIA MILITVM, Diocletian standing right, holding parazonium, receiving Victory from Jupiter standing left with scepter.
A post reform radiate of Diocletian. Ex Maridvnvm.

De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Diocletian ( 284-305 A.D.)

Ralph W. Mathisen
University of South Carolina


Summary and Introduction
The Emperor Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus (A.D. 284-305) put an end to the disastrous phase of Roman history known as the "Military Anarchy" or the "Imperial Crisis" (235-284). He established an obvious military despotism and was responsible for laying the groundwork for the second phase of the Roman Empire, which is known variously as the "Dominate," the "Tetrarchy," the "Later Roman Empire," or the "Byzantine Empire." His reforms ensured the continuity of the Roman Empire in the east for more than a thousand years.

Diocletian's Early Life and Reign
Diocletian was born ca. 236/237 on the Dalmatian coast, perhaps at Salona. He was of very humble birth, and was originally named Diocles. He would have received little education beyond an elementary literacy and he was apparently deeply imbued with religious piety He had a wife Prisca and a daughter Valeria, both of whom reputedly were Christians. During Diocletian's early life, the Roman empire was in the midst of turmoil. In the early years of the third century, emperors increasingly insecure on their thrones had granted inflationary pay raises to the soldiers. The only meaningful income the soldiers now received was in the form of gold donatives granted by newly acclaimed emperors. Beginning in 235, armies throughout the empire began to set up their generals as rival emperors. The resultant civil wars opened up the empire to invasion in both the north, by the Franks, Alamanni, and Goths, and the east, by the Sassanid Persians. Another reason for the unrest in the army was the great gap between the social background of the common soldiers and the officer corps.

Diocletian sought his fortune in the army. He showed himself to be a shrewd, able, and ambitious individual. He is first attested as "Duke of Moesia" (an area on the banks of the lower Danube River), with responsibility for border defense. He was a prudent and methodical officer, a seeker of victory rather than glory. In 282, the legions of the upper Danube proclaimed the praetorian prefect Carus as emperor. Diocletian found favor under the new emperor, and was promoted to Count of the Domestics, the commander of the cavalry arm of the imperial bodyguard. In 283 he was granted the honor of a consulate.

In 284, in the midst of a campaign against the Persians, Carus was killed, struck by a bolt of lightning which one writer noted might have been forged in a legionary armory. This left the empire in the hands of his two young sons, Numerian in the east and Carinus in the west. Soon thereafter, Numerian died under mysterious circumstances near Nicomedia, and Diocletian was acclaimed emperor in his place. At this time he changed his name from Diocles to Diocletian. In 285 Carinus was killed in a battle near Belgrade, and Diocletian gained control of the entire empire.

Diocletian's Administrative and Military Reforms
As emperor, Diocletian was faced with many problems. His most immediate concerns were to bring the mutinous and increasingly barbarized Roman armies back under control and to make the frontiers once again secure from invasion. His long-term goals were to restore effective government and economic prosperity to the empire. Diocletian concluded that stern measures were necessary if these problems were to be solved. He felt that it was the responsibility of the imperial government to take whatever steps were necessary, no matter how harsh or innovative, to bring the empire back under control.

Diocletian was able to bring the army back under control by making several changes. He subdivided the roughly fifty existing provinces into approximately one hundred. The provinces also were apportioned among twelve "dioceses," each under a "vicar," and later also among four "prefectures," each under a "praetorian prefect." As a result, the imperial bureaucracy became increasingly bloated. He institutionalized the policy of separating civil and military careers. He divided the army itself into so-called "border troops," actually an ineffective citizen militia, and "palace troops," the real field army, which often was led by the emperor in person.

Following the precedent of Aurelian (A.D.270-275), Diocletian transformed the emperorship into an out-and-out oriental monarchy. Access to him became restricted; he now was addressed not as First Citizen (Princeps) or the soldierly general (Imperator), but as Lord and Master (Dominus Noster) . Those in audience were required to prostrate themselves on the ground before him.

Diocletian also concluded that the empire was too large and complex to be ruled by only a single emperor. Therefore, in order to provide an imperial presence throughout the empire, he introduced the "Tetrarchy," or "Rule by Four." In 285, he named his lieutenant Maximianus "Caesar," and assigned him the western half of the empire. This practice began the process which would culminate with the de facto split of the empire in 395. Both Diocletian and Maximianus adopted divine attributes. Diocletian was identified with Jupiter and Maximianus with Hercules. In 286, Diocletian promoted Maximianus to the rank of Augustus, "Senior Emperor," and in 293 he appointed two new Caesars, Constantius (the father of Constantine I ), who was given Gaul and Britain in the west, and Galerius, who was assigned the Balkans in the east.

By instituting his Tetrarchy, Diocletian also hoped to solve another problem. In the Augustan Principate, there had been no constitutional method for choosing new emperors. According to Diocletian's plan, the successor of each Augustus would be the respective Caesar, who then would name a new Caesar. Initially, the Tetrarchy operated smoothly and effectively.

Once the army was under control, Diocletian could turn his attention to other problems. The borders were restored and strengthened. In the early years of his reign, Diocletian and his subordinates were able to defeat foreign enemies such as Alamanni, Sarmatians, Saracens, Franks, and Persians, and to put down rebellions in Britain and Egypt. The easter frontier was actually expanded.

.
Diocletian's Economic Reforms
Another problem was the economy, which was in an especially sorry state. The coinage had become so debased as to be virtually worthless. Diocletian's attempt to reissue good gold and silver coins failed because there simply was not enough gold and silver available to restore confidence in the currency. A "Maximum Price Edict" issued in 301, intended to curb inflation, served only to drive goods onto the black market. Diocletian finally accepted the ruin of the money economy and revised the tax system so that it was based on payments in kind . The soldiers too came to be paid in kind.

In order to assure the long term survival of the empire, Diocletian identified certain occupations which he felt would have to be performed. These were known as the "compulsory services." They included such occupations as soldiers, bakers, members of town councils, and tenant farmers. These functions became hereditary, and those engaging in them were inhibited from changing their careers. The repetitious nature of these laws, however, suggests that they were not widely obeyed. Diocletian also expanded the policy of third-century emperors of restricting the entry of senators into high-ranking governmental posts, especially military ones.

Diocletian attempted to use the state religion as a unifying element. Encouraged by the Caesar Galerius, Diocletian in 303 issued a series of four increasingly harsh decrees designed to compel Christians to take part in the imperial cult, the traditional means by which allegiance was pledged to the empire. This began the so-called "Great Persecution."

Diocletian's Resignation and Death
On 1 May 305, wearied by his twenty years in office, and determined to implement his method for the imperial succession, Diocletian abdicated. He compelled his co-regent Maximianus to do the same. Constantius and Galerius then became the new Augusti, and two new Caesars were selected, Maximinus (305-313) in the east and Severus (305- 307) in the west. Diocletian then retired to his palace at Split on the Croatian coast. In 308 he declined an offer to resume the purple, and the aged ex-emperor died at Split on 3 December 316.

Copyright (C) 1996, Ralph W. Mathisen, University of South Carolina
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.


Cleisthenes
RI_132vs_img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 031 - Bust Type F17 viewsObv:– IMP C M AVR PROBVS AVG, Radiate cuirassed bust right
Rev:– LAETITIA AVGVSTI, Laetitia standing left holding wreath and staff
Minted in Lugdunum (IIII) Emission 3 Officina 4. Minted Start A.D. 277
Reference:– Cohen 329. Bastien 182 (29). RIC 31 Bust Type F

3.20 gms

Nearly fully silvered.

Clashed die resulting in obverse profile being seen on the reverse.
maridvnvm
RI_132f_img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 031 - Bust Type F (Lugdunum) (IIII)11 viewsObv:– IMP C M AVR PROBVS AVG, Radiate, cuirassed bust right
Rev:– LAETITIA AVGVSTI, Laetitia standing left holding wreath and staff
Mint – Lugdunum (IIII in exe) Emission 3 Officina 4. Start A.D. 277
Reference:– Cohen 329. Bastien 182. RIC 31 Bust Type F

4.51 gms

Ex Langcroft hoard
maridvnvm
RI_132co_img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 031 - Bust Type F (Lugdunum) (IIII)14 viewsObv:– IMP C M AVR PROBVS AVG, Radiate, cuirassed bust right
Rev:– LAETITIA AVGVSTI, Laetitia standing left holding wreath and staff
Mint – Lugdunum (IIII in exe) Emission 3 Officina 4. Start A.D. 277
Reference:– Cohen 329. Bastien 182. RIC 31 Bust Type F

3.36 gms
maridvnvm
RI_132ay_img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 032 - Bust Type F (Lugdunum) (IIII)11 viewsObv:– IMP C PROBVS • P • F • AVG, Radiate, cuirassed bust right.
Rev:– LAETITIA AVGVSTI, Laetitia standing left holding wreath and staff.
Minted in Lugdunum (IIII in exe) Emission 4 Officina 4. Mid to End December A.D. 277
Reference:– Cohen 328. Bastien 198. RIC 32 Bust type F.

3.06 gms
maridvnvm
rjb_pius3_02_06.jpg
13832 viewsAntoninus Pius 138-61 AD
AE sestertius
Obv "ANTONINVS AVG PIVS PP IMP II"
Laureate bust right
Rev "TR POT XX COS IIII SC"
Iustitia (or Securitas) seated left on a chair of crossed cornucopiae
Rome mint
RIC 967
mauseus
Julian2VotXConstantinople.jpg
1409a, Julian II "the Philosopher," February 360 - 26 June 363 A.D.143 viewsJulian II, A.D. 360-363; RIC 167; VF; 2.7g, 20mm; Constantinople mint; Obverse: DN FL CL IVLIANVS P F AVG, helmeted & cuirassed bust right, holding spear & shield; Reverse: VOT X MVLT XX in four lines within wreath; CONSPB in exergue; Attractive green patina. Ex Nemesis.


De Imperatoribus Romanis,
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors

Julian the Apostate (360-363 A.D.)

Walter E. Roberts, Emory University
Michael DiMaio, Jr., Salve Regina University

Introduction

The emperor Flavius Claudius Julianus reigned from 360 to 26 June 363, when he was killed fighting against the Persians. Despite his short rule, his emperorship was pivotal in the development of the history of the later Roman empire. This essay is not meant to be a comprehensive look at the various issues central to the reign of Julian and the history of the later empire. Rather, this short work is meant to be a brief history and introduction for the general reader. Julian was the last direct descendent of the Constantinian line to ascend to the purple, and it is one of history's great ironies that he was the last non-Christian emperor. As such, he has been vilified by most Christian sources, beginning with John Chrysostom and Gregory Nazianzus in the later fourth century. This tradition was picked up by the fifth century Eusebian continuators Sozomen, Socrates Scholasticus, and Theodoret and passed on to scholars down through the 20th century. Most contemporary sources, however, paint a much more balanced picture of Julian and his reign. The adoption of Christianity by emperors and society, while still a vital concern, was but one of several issues that concerned Julian.

It is fortunate that extensive writings from Julian himself exist, which help interpret his reign in the light of contemporary evidence. Still extant are some letters, several panegyrics, and a few satires. Other contemporary sources include the soldier Ammianus Marcellinus' history, correspondence between Julian and Libanius of Antioch, several panegyrics, laws from the Theodosian Code, inscriptions, and coinage. These sources show Julian's emphasis on restoration. He saw himself as the restorer of the traditional values of Roman society. Of course much of this was rhetoric, meant to defend Julian against charges that he was a usurper. At the same time this theme of restoration was central to all emperors of the fourth century. Julian thought that he was the one emperor who could regain what was viewed as the lost glory of the Roman empire. To achieve this goal he courted select groups of social elites to get across his message of restoration. This was the way that emperors functioned in the fourth century. By choosing whom to include in the sharing of power, they sought to shape society.

Early Life

Julian was born at Constantinople in 331. His father was Julius Constantius, half-brother of the emperor Constantine through Constantius Chlorus, and his mother was Basilina, Julius' second wife. Julian had two half-brothers via Julius' first marriage. One of these was Gallus, who played a major role in Julian's life. Julian appeared destined for a bright future via his father's connection to the Constantinian house. After many years of tense relations with his three half-brothers, Constantine seemed to have welcomed them into the fold of the imperial family. From 333 to 335, Constantine conferred a series of honors upon his three half-siblings, including appointing Julius Constantius as one of the consuls for 335. Julian's mother was equally distinguished. Ammianus related that she was from a noble family. This is supported by Libanius, who claimed that she was the daughter of Julius Julianus, a Praetorian Prefect under Licinius, who was such a model of administrative virtue that he was pardoned and honored by Constantine.

Despite the fact that his mother died shortly after giving birth to him, Julian experienced an idyllic early childhood. This ended when Constantius II conducted a purge of many of his relatives shortly after Constantine's death in 337, particularly targeting the families of Constantine's half-brothers. ulian and Gallus were spared, probably due to their young age. Julian was put under the care of Mardonius, a Scythian eunuch who had tutored his mother, in 339, and was raised in the Greek philosophical tradition, and probably lived in Nicomedia. Ammianus also supplied the fact that while in Nicomedia, Julian was cared for by the local bishop Eusebius, of whom the future emperor was a distant relation. Julian was educated by some of the most famous names in grammar and rhetoric in the Greek world at that time, including Nicocles and Hecebolius. In 344 Constantius II sent Julian and Gallus to Macellum in Cappadocia, where they remained for six years. In 351, Gallus was made Caesar by Constantius II and Julian was allowed to return to Nicomedia, where he studied under Aedesius, Eusebius, and Chrysanthius, all famed philosophers, and was exposed to the Neo-Platonism that would become such a prominent part of his life. But Julian was most proud of the time he spent studying under Maximus of Ephesus, a noted Neo-Platonic philospher and theurgist. It was Maximus who completed Julian's full-scale conversion to Neo-Platonism. Later, when he was Caesar, Julian told of how he put letters from this philosopher under his pillows so that he would continue to absorb wisdom while he slept, and while campaigning on the Rhine, he sent his speeches to Maximus for approval before letting others hear them. When Gallus was executed in 354 for treason by Constantius II, Julian was summoned to Italy and essentially kept under house arrest at Comum, near Milan, for seven months before Constantius' wife Eusebia convinced the emperor that Julian posed no threat. This allowed Julian to return to Greece and continue his life as a scholar where he studied under the Neo-Platonist Priscus. Julian's life of scholarly pursuit, however, ended abruptly when he was summoned to the imperial court and made Caesar by Constantius II on 6 November 355.

Julian as Caesar

Constantius II realized an essential truth of the empire that had been evident since the time of the Tetrarchy--the empire was too big to be ruled effectively by one man. Julian was pressed into service as Caesar, or subordinate emperor, because an imperial presence was needed in the west, in particular in the Gallic provinces. Julian, due to the emperor's earlier purges, was the only viable candidate of the imperial family left who could act as Caesar. Constantius enjoined Julian with the task of restoring order along the Rhine frontier. A few days after he was made Caesar, Julian was married to Constantius' sister Helena in order to cement the alliance between the two men. On 1 December 355, Julian journeyed north, and in Augusta Taurinorum he learned that Alamannic raiders had destroyed Colonia Agrippina. He then proceeded to Vienne where he spent the winter. At Vienne, he learned that Augustudunum was also under siege, but was being held by a veteran garrison. He made this his first priority, and arrived there on 24 June 356. When he had assured himself that the city was in no immediate danger, he journeyed to Augusta Treverorum via Autessioduram, and from there to Durocortorum where he rendezvoused with his army. Julian had the army stage a series of punitive strikes around the Dieuse region, and then he moved them towards the Argentoratum/Mongontiacum region when word of barbarian incursions reached him.

From there, Julian moved on to Colonia Agrippina, and negotiated a peace with the local barbarian leaders who had assaulted the city. He then wintered at Senonae. He spent the early part of the campaigning season of 357 fighting off besiegers at Senonae, and then conducting operations around Lugdunum and Tres Tabernae. Later that summer, he encountered his watershed moment as a military general. Ammianus went into great detail about Julian's victory over seven rogue Alamannic chieftains near Argentoratum, and Julian himself bragged about it in his later writing. After this battle, the soldiers acclaimed Julian Augustus, but he rejected this title. After mounting a series of follow-up raids into Alamannic territory, he retired to winter quarters at Lutetia, and on the way defeated some Frankish raiders in the Mosa region. Julian considered this campaign one of the major events of his time as Caesar.

Julian began his 358 military campaigns early, hoping to catch the barbarians by surprise. His first target was the Franks in the northern Rhine region. He then proceeded to restore some forts in the Mosa region, but his soldiers threatened to mutiny because they were on short rations and had not been paid their donative since Julian had become Caesar. After he soothed his soldiers, Julian spent the rest of the summer negotiating a peace with various Alamannic leaders in the mid and lower Rhine areas, and retired to winter quarters at Lutetia. In 359, he prepared once again to carry out a series of punitive expeditions against the Alamanni in the Rhine region who were still hostile to the Roman presence. In preparation, the Caesar repopulated seven previously destroyed cities and set them up as supply bases and staging areas. This was done with the help of the people with whom Julian had negotiated a peace the year before. Julian then had a detachment of lightly armed soldiers cross the Rhine near Mogontiacum and conduct a guerilla strike against several chieftains. As a result of these campaigns, Julian was able to negotiate a peace with all but a handful of the Alamannic leaders, and he retired to winter quarters at Lutetia.

Of course, Julian did more than act as a general during his time as Caesar. According to Ammianus, Julian was an able administrator who took steps to correct the injustices of Constantius' appointees. Ammianus related the story of how Julian prevented Florentius, the Praetorian Prefect of Gaul, from raising taxes, and also how Julian actually took over as governor for the province of Belgica Secunda. Hilary, bishop of Poitiers, supported Ammianus' basic assessment of Julian in this regard when he reported that Julian was an able representative of the emperor to the Gallic provincials. There is also epigraphic evidence to support Julian's popularity amongst the provincial elites. An inscription found near Beneventum in Apulia reads:
"To Flavius Claudius Julianus, most noble and sanctified Caesar, from the caring Tocius Maximus, vir clarissimus, for the care of the res publica from Beneventum".

Tocius Maximus, as a vir clarissimus, was at the highest point in the social spectrum and was a leader in his local community. This inscription shows that Julian was successful in establishing a positive image amongst provincial elites while he was Caesar.

Julian Augustus

In early 360, Constantius, driven by jealousy of Julian's success, stripped Julian of many troops and officers, ostensibly because the emperor needed them for his upcoming campaign against the Persians. One of the legions ordered east, the Petulantes, did not want to leave Gaul because the majority of the soldiers in the unit were from this region. As a result they mutinied and hailed Julian as Augustus at Lutetia. Julian refused this acclamation as he had done at Argentoratum earlier, but the soldiers would have none of his denial. They raised him on a shield and adorned him with a neck chain, which had formerly been the possession of the standard-bearer of the Petulantes and symbolized a royal diadem. Julian appeared reluctantly to acquiesce to their wishes, and promised a generous donative. The exact date of his acclamation is unknown, but most scholars put it in February or March. Julian himself supported Ammianus' picture of a jealous Constantius. In his Letter to the Athenians, a document constructed to answer charges that he was a usurper, Julian stated that from the start he, as Caesar, had been meant as a figurehead to the soldiers and provincials. The real power he claimed lay with the generals and officials already present in Gaul. In fact, according to Julian, the generals were charged with watching him as much as the enemy. His account of the actual acclamation closely followed what Ammianus told us, but he stressed even more his reluctance to take power. Julian claimed that he did so only after praying to Zeus for guidance.

Fearing the reaction of Constantius, Julian sent a letter to his fellow emperor justifying the events at Lutetia and trying to arrange a peaceful solution. This letter berated Constantius for forcing the troops in Gaul into an untenable situation. Ammianus stated that Julian's letter blamed Constantius' decision to transfer Gallic legions east as the reason for the soldiers' rebellion. Julian once again asserted that he was an unwilling participant who was only following the desire of the soldiers. In both of these basic accounts Ammianus and Julian are playing upon the theme of restoration. Implicit in their version of Julian's acclamation is the argument that Constantius was unfit to rule. The soldiers were the vehicle of the gods' will. The Letter to the Athenians is full of references to the fact that Julian was assuming the mantle of Augustus at the instigation of the gods. Ammianus summed up this position nicely when he related the story of how, when Julian was agonizing over whether to accept the soldiers' acclamation, he had a dream in which he was visited by the Genius (guardian spirit) of the Roman state. The Genius told Julian that it had often tried to bestow high honors upon Julian but had been rebuffed. Now, the Genius went on to say, was Julian's final chance to take the power that was rightfully his. If the Caesar refused this chance, the Genius would depart forever, and both Julian and the state would rue Julian's rejection. Julian himself wrote a letter to his friend Maximus of Ephesus in November of 361 detailing his thoughts on his proclamation. In this letter, Julian stated that the soldiers proclaimed him Augustus against his will. Julian, however, defended his accession, saying that the gods willed it and that he had treated his enemies with clemency and justice. He went on to say that he led the troops in propitiating the traditional deities, because the gods commanded him to return to the traditional rites, and would reward him if he fulfilled this duty.

During 360 an uneasy peace simmered between the two emperors. Julian spent the 360 campaigning season continuing his efforts to restore order along the Rhine, while Constantius continued operations against the Persians. Julian wintered in Vienne, and celebrated his Quinquennalia. It was at this time that his wife Helena died, and he sent her remains to Rome for a proper burial at his family villa on the Via Nomentana where the body of her sister was entombed. The uneasy peace held through the summer of 361, but Julian concentrated his military operations around harassing the Alamannic chieftain Vadomarius and his allies, who had concluded a peace treaty with Constantius some years earlier. By the end of the summer, Julian decided to put an end to the waiting and gathered his army to march east against Constantius. The empire teetered on the brink of another civil war. Constantius had spent the summer negotiating with the Persians and making preparations for possible military action against his cousin. When he was assured that the Persians would not attack, he summoned his army and sallied forth to meet Julian. As the armies drew inexorably closer to one another, the empire was saved from another bloody civil war when Constantius died unexpectedly of natural causes on 3 November near the town of Mopsucrenae in Cilicia, naming Julian -- the sources say-- as his legitimate successor.

Julian was in Dacia when he learned of his cousin's death. He made his way through Thrace and came to Constantinople on 11 December 361 where Julian honored the emperor with the funeral rites appropriate for a man of his station. Julian immediately set about putting his supporters in positions of power and trimming the imperial bureaucracy, which had become extremely overstaffed during Constantius' reign. Cooks and barbers had increased during the late emperor's reign and Julian expelled them from his court. Ammianus gave a mixed assessment of how the new emperor handled the followers of Constantius. Traditionally, emperors were supposed to show clemency to the supporters of a defeated enemy. Julian, however, gave some men over to death to appease the army. Ammianus used the case of Ursulus, Constantius' comes sacrum largitionum, to illustrate his point. Ursulus had actually tried to acquire money for the Gallic troops when Julian had first been appointed Caesar, but he had also made a disparaging remark about the ineffectiveness of the army after the battle of Amida. The soldiers remembered this, and when Julian became sole Augustus, they demanded Ursulus' head. Julian obliged, much to the disapproval of Ammianus. This seems to be a case of Julian courting the favor of the military leadership, and is indicative of a pattern in which Julian courted the goodwill of various societal elites to legitimize his position as emperor.

Another case in point is the officials who made up the imperial bureaucracy. Many of them were subjected to trial and punishment. To achieve this goal, during the last weeks of December 361 Julian assembled a military tribunal at Chalcedon, empanelling six judges to try the cases. The president of the tribunal was Salutius, just promoted to the rank of Praetorian Prefect; the five other members were Mamertinus, the orator, and four general officers: Jovinus, Agilo, Nevitta, and Arbetio. Relative to the proceedings of the tribunal, Ammianus noted that the judges, " . . . oversaw the cases more vehemently than was right or fair, with the exception of a few . . .." Ammianus' account of Julian's attempt at reform of the imperial bureaucracy is supported by legal evidence from the Theodosian Code. A series of laws sent to Mamertinus, Julian's appointee as Praetorian Prefect in Italy, Illyricum, and Africa, illustrate this point nicely. On 6 June 362, Mamertinus received a law that prohibited provincial governors from bypassing the Vicars when giving their reports to the Prefect. Traditionally, Vicars were given civil authority over a group of provinces, and were in theory meant to serve as a middle step between governors and Prefects. This law suggests that the Vicars were being left out, at least in Illyricum. Julian issued another edict to Mamertinus on 22 February 362 to stop abuse of the public post by governors. According to this law, only Mamertinus could issue post warrants, but the Vicars were given twelve blank warrants to be used as they saw fit, and each governor was given two. Continuing the trend of bureaucratic reform, Julian also imposed penalties on governors who purposefully delayed appeals in court cases they had heard. The emperor also established a new official to weigh solidi used in official government transactions to combat coin clipping.

For Julian, reigning in the abuses of imperial bureaucrats was one step in restoring the prestige of the office of emperor. Because he could not affect all elements of society personally, Julian, like other Neo-Flavian emperors, decided to concentrate on select groups of societal elites as intercessors between himself and the general populace. One of these groups was the imperial bureaucracy. Julian made it very clear that imperial officials were intercessors in a very real sense in a letter to Alypius, Vicar of Britain. In this letter, sent from Gaul sometime before 361, the emperor praises Alypius for his use of "mildness and moderation with courage and force" in his rule of the provincials. Such virtues were characteristic of the emperors, and it was good that Alypius is representing Julian in this way. Julian courted the army because it put him in power. Another group he sought to include in his rule was the traditional Senatorial aristocracy. One of his first appointments as consul was Claudius Mamertinus, a Gallic Senator and rhetorician. Mamertinus' speech in praise of Julian delivered at Constantinople in January of 362 is preserved. In this speech, Claudius presented his consular selection as inaugurating a new golden age and Julian as the restorer of the empire founded by Augustus. The image Mamertinus gave of his own consulate inaugurating a new golden age is not merely formulaic. The comparison of Julian to Augustus has very real, if implicit, relevance to Claudius' situation. Claudius emphasized the imperial period as the true age of renewal. Augustus ushered in a new era with his formation of a partnership between the emperor and the Senate based upon a series of honors and offices bestowed upon the Senate in return for their role as intercessor between emperor and populace. It was this system that Julian was restoring, and the consulate was one concrete example of this bond. To be chosen as a consul by the emperor, who himself had been divinely mandated, was a divine honor. In addition to being named consul, Mamertinus went on to hold several offices under Julian, including the Prefecture of Italy, Illyricum, and Africa. Similarly, inscriptional evidence illustrates a link between municipal elites and Julian during his time as Caesar, something which continued after he became emperor. One concrete example comes from the municipal senate of Aceruntia in Apulia, which established a monument on which Julian is styled as "Repairer of the World."

Julian seems to have given up actual Christian belief before his acclamation as emperor and was a practitioner of more traditional Greco-Roman religious beliefs, in particular, a follower of certain late antique Platonist philosophers who were especially adept at theurgy as was noted earlier. In fact Julian himself spoke of his conversion to Neo-Platonism in a letter to the Alexandrians written in 363. He stated that he had abandoned Christianity when he was twenty years old and been an adherent of the traditional Greco-Roman deities for the twelve years prior to writing this letter.

(For the complete text of this article see: http://www.roman-emperors.org/julian.htm)

Julian’s Persian Campaign

The exact goals Julian had for his ill-fated Persian campaign were never clear. The Sassanid Persians, and before them the Parthians, had been a traditional enemy from the time of the Late Republic, and indeed Constantius had been conducting a war against them before Julian's accession forced the former to forge an uneasy peace. Julian, however, had no concrete reason to reopen hostilities in the east. Socrates Scholasticus attributed Julian's motives to imitation of Alexander the Great, but perhaps the real reason lay in his need to gather the support of the army. Despite his acclamation by the Gallic legions, relations between Julian and the top military officers was uneasy at best. A war against the Persians would have brought prestige and power both to Julian and the army.

Julian set out on his fateful campaign on 5 March 363. Using his trademark strategy of striking quickly and where least expected, he moved his army through Heirapolis and from there speedily across the Euphrates and into the province of Mesopotamia, where he stopped at the town of Batnae. His plan was to eventually return through Armenia and winter in Tarsus. Once in Mesopotamia, Julian was faced with the decision of whether to travel south through the province of Babylonia or cross the Tigris into Assyria, and he eventually decided to move south through Babylonia and turn west into Assyria at a later date. By 27 March, he had the bulk of his army across the Euphrates, and had also arranged a flotilla to guard his supply line along the mighty river. He then left his generals Procopius and Sebastianus to help Arsacius, the king of Armenia and a Roman client, to guard the northern Tigris line. It was also during this time that he received the surrender of many prominent local leaders who had nominally supported the Persians. These men supplied Julian with money and troops for further military action against their former masters. Julian decided to turn south into Babylonia and proceeded along the Euphrates, coming to the fortress of Cercusium at the junction of the Abora and Euphrates Rivers around the first of April, and from there he took his army west to a region called Zaitha near the abandoned town of Dura where they visited the tomb of the emperor Gordian which was in the area. On April 7 he set out from there into the heart of Babylonia and towards Assyria.

Ammianus then stated that Julian and his army crossed into Assyria, which on the face of things appears very confusing. Julian still seems to be operating within the province of Babylonia between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. The confusion is alleviated when one realizes that,for Ammianus, the region of Assyria encompassed the provinces of Babylonia and Assyria. On their march, Julian's forces took the fortress of Anatha, received the surrender and support of several more local princes, and ravaged the countryside of Assyria between the rivers. As the army continued south, they came across the fortresses Thilutha and Achaiachala, but these places were too well defended and Julian decided to leave them alone. Further south were the cities Diacira and Ozogardana, which the Roman forces sacked and burned. Soon, Julian came to Pirisabora and a brief siege ensued, but the city fell and was also looted and destroyed. It was also at this time that the Roman army met its first systematic resistance from the Persians. As the Romans penetrated further south and west, the local inhabitants began to flood their route. Nevertheless, the Roman forces pressed on and came to Maiozamalcha, a sizable city not far from Ctesiphon. After a short siege, this city too fell to Julian. Inexorably, Julian's forces zeroed in on Ctesiphon, but as they drew closer, the Persian resistance grew fiercer, with guerilla raids whittling at Julian's men and supplies. A sizable force of the army was lost and the emperor himself was almost killed taking a fort a few miles from the target city.
Finally, the army approached Ctesiphon following a canal that linked the Tigris and Euphrates. It soon became apparent after a few preliminary skirmishes that a protracted siege would be necessary to take this important city. Many of his generals, however, thought that pursuing this course of action would be foolish. Julian reluctantly agreed, but became enraged by this failure and ordered his fleet to be burned as he decided to march through the province of Assyria. Julian had planned for his army to live off the land, but the Persians employed a scorched-earth policy. When it became apparent that his army would perish (because his supplies were beginning to dwindle) from starvation and the heat if he continued his campaign, and also in the face of superior numbers of the enemy, Julian ordered a retreat on 16 June. As the Roman army retreated, they were constantly harassed by guerilla strikes. It was during one of these raids that Julian got caught up in the fighting and took a spear to his abdomen. Mortally wounded he was carried to his tent, where, after conferring with some of his officers, he died. The date was 26 June 363.

Conclusion

Thus an ignominious end for a man came about who had hoped to restore the glory of the Roman empire during his reign as emperor. Due to his intense hatred of Christianity, the opinion of posterity has not been kind to Julian. The contemporary opinion, however, was overall positive. The evidence shows that Julian was a complex ruler with a definite agenda to use traditional social institutions in order to revive what he saw as a collapsing empire. In the final assessment, he was not so different from any of the other emperors of the fourth century. He was a man grasping desperately to hang on to a Greco-Roman conception of leadership that was undergoing a subtle yet profound change.
Copyright (C) 2002, Walter E. Roberts and Michael DiMaio, Jr. Used by permission.

In reality, Julian worked to promote culture and philosophy in any manifestation. He tried to reduce taxes and the public debts of municipalities; he augmented administrative decentralisation; he promoted a campaign of austerity to reduce public expenditure (setting himself as the example). He reformed the postal service and eliminated the powerful secret police.
by Federico Morando; JULIAN II, The Apostate, http://www.forumancientcoins.com/NumisWiki/view.asp?key=Julian%20II

Flavius Claudius Iulianus was born in 331 or maybe 332 A.D. in Constantinople. He ruled the Western Empire as Caesar from 355 to 360 and was hailed Augustus by his legions in Lutetia (Paris) in 360. Julian was a gifted administrator and military strategist. Famed as the last pagan emperor, his reinstatement of the pagan religion earned him the moniker "the Apostate." As evidenced by his brilliant writing, some of which has survived to the present day, the title "the Philosopher" may have been more appropriate. He died from wounds suffered during the Persian campaign of 363 A.D. Joseph Sermarini, FORVM.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.




2 commentsCleisthenes
ANTPIUS_BRIT_BRIT_MNT.JPG
154 - 155 A.D. ANTONINUS PIUS AE AS (Britannia mint)17 viewsObverse: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P XVIII, laureate and draped bust of Antoninus Pius facing right.
Reverse: BRITANNIA COS IIII, Britannia seated facing left on rock, shield and vexillum in background; in exergue, S C.
Diameter: 26mm | Weight: 9.4gms | Die Axis: 7h
RIC III: 934 | RCV: 4296 | Cohen: 117
SCARCE

The bronze coins of Antoninus Pius bearing the "Britannia" reverse type have been found in considerable quantities in Britain, but are not generally recorded from Roman sites in France and Germany. The old theory that the "Britannia" issues of Antoninus Pius were minted in Britain is therefore not improbable, the many "Britannia" issues of Antoninus Pius found in Coventina's Well, Carrawburgh, seem to have come from only a few dies suggesting that the place of mintage for them was not far distant. It is possible though that the issue was struck at Rome and produced locally in Britannia as well.
The reverse type of Britannia seated on a rock, eventually adorned Great Britain's coinage many centuries later when the design was reintroduced by Charles II in 1672.

Dedications to Coventina and votive deposits were found in a walled area, now called “Coventina's Well”, which had been built to contain the outflow from a spring near the site of a Roman fort and settlement, on Hadrian's Wall. Now called Carrawburgh, the site is named as Procolita in the 5th century “Notitia Dignitatum”. The remains of a Roman Mithraeum and Nymphaeum were also found near the site.
*Alex
ANTPIUS_BRIT_ROM_MNT.JPG
154 - 155, ANTONINUS PIUS, AE AS24 viewsObverse: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P XVIII, laureate and draped bust of Antoninus Pius facing right.
Reverse: BRITANNIA COS IIII, Britannia seated facing left on rock, shield and vexillum in background; in exergue, S C.
Diameter: 26mm | Weight: 12.7gms | Die Axis: 6h
RIC III: 934 | RCV: 4296 | Cohen: 117 | BMC: 1971
SCARCE

The bronze coins of Antoninus Pius bearing the "Britannia" reverse type have been found in considerable quantities in Britain, but are not generally recorded from Roman sites in France and Germany. The old theory that the "Britannia" issues of Antoninus Pius were minted in Britain is therefore not improbable, though it is possible that the issue was both issued at Rome and produced locally in Britannia. The many "Britannia" issues of Antoninus Pius found in Coventina's Well, Carrawburgh, seem to have come from only a few dies, suggesting that the place of mintage for them was not far distant.
The reverse type of Britannia seated on a rock, eventually adorned Great Britain's coinage many centuries later when the design was reintroduced by Charles II in 1672.

Dedications to Coventina and votive deposits were found in a walled area, now called “Coventina's Well”, which had been built to contain the outflow from a spring near the site of a Roman fort and settlement, on Hadrian's Wall. Now called Carrawburgh, the site is named as Procolita in the 5th century “Notitia Dignitatum”. The remains of a Roman Mithraeum and Nymphaeum were also found near the site.
1 comments*Alex
JAMES_VI_AE_HARDHEAD.JPG
1567 - 1625, JAMES VI (James I of England), Billon Hardhead (Twopence) struck in 1588 at Edinburgh, Scotland4 viewsObverse: •IACOB•6•D•G•R•SCOTO•. Crown above IR within inner circle of pellets. Quatrefoil mintmark in legend.
Reverse: •VINCIT•VERITAS• Crowned lion rampant facing left, two pellets (mark of value = twopence) behind, all within inner circle of pellets. Quatrefoil mintmark in legend.
Second issue, November 1588.
Diameter: 21mm | Weight: 1.2gms | Die Axis: 3
SPINK: 5518

James VI issued billon and copper coins in much smaller quantities than that of previous monarchs, none at all being struck during the first sixteen years of his reign. After his accession to the English throne, James established a currency of similar weight and fineness in both countries although a 12:1 ratio between the Scottish and English denominations was still maintained.

James VI acceded to the throne of Scotland when only 1 year old on his mother’s abdication in 1567. A council of regency was established and his good education was largely due to George Buchanan. He married Anne of Denmark in 1589. The death of Elizabeth I left James as her nearest heir and he inherited the throne of England in 1603 and ruled both England and Scotland until his death in 1625. Following the gunpowder plot of 1605 James ordered severe sanctions against Roman Catholic priests and it was during his reign that the King James, or ‘authorised’ version of the Bible, still used today, was first published.

*Alex
maurel metal.jpg
161-180 AD - MARCUS AURELIUS Æ quadrans 58 viewsobv: diademed and draped female head right
rev: METAL AURELIANIS (three-line legend in wreath)
ref: RIC III 1255, Cohen 1515(Hadrian!!)
2.21gms, 16mm, mines coin
Very rare

The mines coins served as a substitute for the small copper Senate coins of which there were not sufficient quantities in circulation in the period between the years 98-180 AD in the province Illyricum and Noricum. The mining coins served also in the trade between miners and the inhabitants of localities where the respective mines were located.
berserker
rjb_2011_09_05.jpg
161a51 viewsFaustina junior
AE as
Obv "FAVSTINA AVGVSTA"
Diademed and draped bust right
Rev "LAETITIA SC"
Laetitia standing left holding staff and wreath
Rome mint
RIC 1656
2 commentsmauseus
064.JPG
162 Lucius Verus40 viewsLucius Verus, Ancient Counterfeit with Faustina II Reverse

Silver denarius, for reverse cf. RIC III Faustina II A506a, Fair, illegal mint, weight 1.553g, maximum diameter 17.3mm, die axis 0o,obverse L VERVS AVG ARM PARTH MAX, laureate head right; reverse LAETITIAE PVBLICAE, Laetitia standing left, diadem in right, scepter in right

"Interesting hybrid of a Marcus Aurelius obverse with a Faustina II reverse (RIC A506a.)" ex Forvm
Randygeki(h2)
1637_-_1638_Charles_I_Twenty_pence.JPG
1625 - 1649, CHARLES I, AR Twenty Pence, Struck 1637 - 1638 at Edinburgh, Scotland22 viewsObverse: CAR•D:G•SCOT•ANG•FR•ET•HIB•R•. Crowned bust of Charles I, which goes to the edge of the coin, facing left, XX with a small lozenge above and below behind bust; small B (for Briot) below.
Reverse: IVSTITIA•THRONVM•FIRMAT• small B (off flan, for Briot) at end of legend. Thistle with Scottish crown above. The reverse legend translates as 'Justice strengthens the Throne'.
This coin was produced using Briot's new coining press during the third coinage period which ran from 1637 to 1642.
Diameter: 17mm | Weight: 0,8gms | Die Axis: 6
SPINK: 5581

Nicholas Briot, a Frenchman previously employed by the French and English mints, was appointed Master of the Scottish mint in August 1634. He was later joined by his son-in-law John Falconer, who succeeded him in 1646.
Briot's work was of the highest calibre, and his introduction of the mill and screw press gave the Scottish series of coins a technical excellence previously unknown.
After Briot's departure from Scotland in 1638 there was a rapid falling off from his high standard of workmanship. Although considerable use was made of Briot's punches for Falconer's third coinage issues, many of the dies were badly executed, and there was even more of a deterioration during the fourth coinage period which resulted in poorly produced coins of no artistic merit.

After his succession, Charles quarrelled with the Parliament of England, which sought to curb his royal prerogative. Charles believed in the divine right of kings and thought he could govern according to his own conscience. Many of his subjects opposed his policies, in particular the levying of taxes without parliamentary consent, and perceived his actions as those of a tyrannical absolute monarch. His religious policies, coupled with his marriage to a Roman Catholic, generated the antipathy and mistrust of Reformed groups such as the English Puritans and the Scottish Covenanters, who thought his views were too Catholic. He supported high church Anglican ecclesiastics and his attempts to force the Church of Scotland to adopt high Anglican practices led to the Bishops' Wars, and helped precipitate his own downfall.
From 1642, Charles fought the Parliamentary army in the English Civil War. After his defeat in 1645, he surrendered to a Scottish force that eventually handed him over to the English Parliament. Charles refused to accept his captors' demands for a constitutional monarchy, and after temporarily escaping captivity in November 1647, he was re-imprisoned on the Isle of Wight. Although Charles had managed to forge an alliance with Scotland, by the end of 1648 Oliver Cromwell's New Model Army had consolidated its control over England and Charles was tried, convicted, and executed for high treason in January 1649. The monarchy was abolished and a republic called the Commonwealth of England was declared. The Parliament of Scotland however, proclaimed Charles I's son as King Charles II on the 5th of February 1649.
The political crisis in England that followed the death of Cromwell in 1658 resulted in the restoration of the monarchy whereby Charles II was invited to return and, on the 29th of May 1660, he was received in London to public acclaim. After 1660 all Charles II's legal documents in Britain were dated from 1649, the year when he had succeeded his father as king in Scotland.
2 comments*Alex
0030-0210.jpg
1749 - Octavian, Denarius272 viewsItalian mint, possibly Rome, 31-30 BC
Anepigraph, bare head of Octavian left
CAESAR - DIVI F, Victory standing right on globe, holding wreath
3.84 gr
Ref : HCRI # 408, RCV # 1552v, Cohen # 66, RIC # 255
The following comment is taken from CNG, sale 84 # 957 :
"Following his victory at Actium, Octavian ordered a golden statue of Victory, standing on a globe and holding a wreath and palm, to be set up on an altar in the Curia in Rome. This statue had been captured by the Romans from Pyrrhus in 272 BC, and it assumed a somewhat tutelary mystique, protecting the Roman state from dissolution. In AD 382, the emperor Gratian ordered its removal. Two years later, the senator and orator Symmachus urged Valentinian II to replace it, a request that was met with stiff opposition from the bishop of Milan, Ambrose. Though it was briefly returned to its place by the usurper Eugenius, it was again removed following his defeat. Petitions to Theodosius I for its subsequent replacement were refused, on grounds that the once-important symbol of the gods’ blessing on the Roman Empire was now nothing more than a piece of paganism"
11 commentsPotator II
crispina sest.jpg
177-183 AD - CRISPINA AE sestertius - struck 180-183 AD35 viewsobv: CRISPINA AVGVSTA (bust draped right, hair waved, rolled in front and knotted in bun on back of head)
rev: LAETITIA / S.C. (Laetitia standing facing, head left, holding wreath in right hand & rudder set on globe in left hand)
ref: RIC III 669(Commodus), C.27(6fr)
24.68gms, 29mm
Scarce
The beautiful Bruttia Crispina was married to the Emperor Commodus in 177 AD. A few years later Commodus divorced Crispina on account of her adultery and having being exiled to Capreae, she was put to death by strangulation on his orders (183 AD).
berserker
MOD_up_to_1899-USA-Vermont-3.jpg
1786 Vermont Copper61 viewsVariety RR7 (Rarity 3)

NGC VF-30 with CAC

Census (The last time I checked) - 63 NGC graded coins - 26 VF's (VF-30 = ?) - 22 graded higher
(From Heritage Auction Records Two VF20; eight VF25; three VF30; three VF35; ten = VF ?)

On June 15, 1785 the Vermont legislature granted Reuben Harmon, Jr. an exclusive franchise to make copper coins. They were to weigh 160 grs. which exceeded even the Tower Mint standards for halfpence. This weight was reduced to 111grs. in October of that year.

Vermont coinage initially had two basic designs with several varieties of each and one oddball issue

First design

Obv. – Shows the sun rising over the Green Mountains and a plough in the foreground with the date below. The obverse legend read VERMONT(I)S RESPUBLICA (the Republic of Vermont”). Later VERMONTIS became VERMONTENSIUM (better Latin).

Rev – Shows the All-Seeing Eye in the Blazing Sun within a constellation of 13 stars for the original 13 colonies. The reverse legend read STELLA QUARTA DECIMA or the 14th star referring to local pressure to join the union.

Second design

The mint operator petitioned the legislature to permit a change in design to approximate that similar to most other coppers then current (British halfpence and their local imitations including Connecticut). The Vermont legislature amended the act to specify the following:

Obv. – A head with the motto AUCTORITATE VERMONTENIUS, abridged

Rev. – A women with the letters, INDE: ET LIB: - for Independence and Liberty.

Third Design the “Immune Columbia” issue

Although the third design bears the date 1785, it was probably struck later. The obverse matches the requirements for the second design but the reverse shows a seated figure of Columbia (a poetical name for America) and the legend IMMUNE COLUMBIA, this reverse was not authorized by the Vermont Legislature.

Vermont coppers were produced from 1785 to 1788

I once had a very large collection of U.S. coins and this is the only coin I have that was part of my original collection.

My cost was $2,200, however, I actually did not have to pay a single cent out of pocket or provide any item in trade. But that is a long story.
Richard M10
1794_III_Grossi_s.jpg
1794 - III Grossi529 viewsGalicia & Lodomeria - Galician Poland
Obv: MONET AER EXERCIT CAES REG - Crowned double headed Russian eagle,
small shield on breast, above crossed flags.
Rev: III GROSSI POL - Value, Date above sprigs.
Size: 26mm; 9.97gms
This coin was minted in 1794 during the 2nd partition of Poland,
it seems that General Kosciusko, of Poland,(Later of the Kosciusko Bridge fame),
after assisting the Continental army during the American revolution,
went back to Poland and became a nationalist and didn't like the terms of 2nd partition.
He led a revolt of the Polish army and peasants in 1794, known as the "Kosciusko uprising",
against the Austrians, who were taking over Galicia, as per terms of the 2nd partition.
This coin was minted, by Austria, for the Austrian army,
for purchases what was still Polish Galicia. Later to become Austrian Galicia.
It was made specifically for Galicia in 1794,
the year Galicia stopped being Polish and was acquired by Austria.
To me this coin represents the beginning of Austrian Galicia
and the reason I am Austrian and not Polish.

Please advise of corrections to this brief history.
Brian L
1795_CHELSEA_HALFPENNY__.JPG
1795 AE Halfpenny, Chelsea, Middlesex.25 viewsObverse: CHELSEA✶. Sailor with wooden leg standing facing left presenting petition to Britannia facing right, seated on bale and holding spear in her right hand, right arm resting on shield, her left hand extended toward supplicant; in exergue, HALFPENNY.
Reverse: THE SUPPORT OF OUR ENDEAVOUR. Hope facing right, leaning on anchor; in exergue, 1795.
Edge: Engrailed.
Diameter: 28mm
Dalton & Hamer: 277

The engraver and diesinker for this token was F. Arnold, and it was manufactured by William Lutwyche at his works in Birmingham.

Although the authority responsible for the issue of this token is unknown, it is possibly associated with the Chelsea Military Hospital, home of the "Chelsea Pensioners". This token may have been issued as a reminder to the Nation of the debt owed to the army and navy, the obverse has been designed to attract attention to their plight, especially since the defeated troops from the disastrous Flanders Campaign of 1794 would have just returned home. The reverse is a reminder that the navy should not be neglected.
*Alex
193_Pertinax_As_RIC_33_1.jpg
193_Pertinax_As_RIC_33_115 viewsPertinax (January 1st – March 28th 193 AD)
AE As, Rome, January 1st – March 28th 193 AD
IMP CAES P HELV PERTIN AVG;
Laureate head right
LAETITIA TEMPORVM COS II, S-C;
Laetitia standing left, holding wreath and sceptre
9,43 gr, 24 mm
RIC IVa, 33; BMC V, 34 (Pl. 2, 8); C. 22; CMB I, 4
ga77
1997-161-3_SesGordianRIC_300a-Forum.jpg
1997.161.3 Rome, RIC 300a22 viewsSestertius, 20.06 g

Obverse: IMP GORDIANVS PIVS FEL AVG; Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right.
Reverse: LAETITIA AVG N S C; Laetitia standing left, holding wreath and anchor.
Ref: RIC 300a [Fourth Issue]; C 122, 100 fr
gordian_guy
JuliaTitiDupVesta.jpg
1ax2 Julia Titi15 viewsDupondius

Draped bust right, hair in bun at back of head, IVLIA IMP T AVG F AVGVSTA
S-C either side of Vesta enthroned left holding Victory, VESTA in ex

RIC 398

The daughter of Titus and Marcia Furnilla, she lived with her uncle Domitian for a time as his wife. Suetonius records, "He had been offered marriage with his niece, Julia, Titus’s daughter, while she was still a young girl, but refused her repeatedly because of his infatuation with Domitia Longina, yet he seduced Julia shortly afterwards, while Titus was still alive, and when she was newly married to Flavius Sabinus. After the deaths of her father and husband, he loved her ardently and openly, and indeed caused her death by forcing her to abort a child by him." When Domitian died at the age of 44, his nurse cremated his body and "secretly carried [the ashes] to the Flavian Temple and there mingled them with those of his niece Julia, Titus’s daughter whom she had also nurtured."
Blindado
GordianIIIAntLaetitia.jpg
1cl Gordian III21 views238-244

Antoninianus

Radiate, draped & cuirassed bust, right, IMP GORDINVS PIVS FEL AVG
Laetitia standing right with wreath & anchor, LAETITIA AVG N

RIC 86

Continuing his story of the deaths of Balbinus and Pupienus, Herodian wrote: Leaving the corpses exposed in the street, the praetorians took up Gordian Caesar and proclaimed him emperor, since at the moment they could find no other candidate for the office. Proclaiming that they had only killed the men whom the people did not want to rule them in the first place, they chose as emperor this Gordian who was descended from the Gordian whom the Romans themselves had forced to accept the rule. Keeping their emperor Gordian with them, they went off to the praetorian camp. . . . Gordian, at the age of about thirteen, was designated emperor and assumed the burden of the Roman empire. . . .

Eutropius continued the story: After Gordian, when quite a boy, had married Tranquillina at Rome, he opened the temple of Janus, and, setting out for the east, made war upon the Parthians, who were then proceeding to make an irruption. This war he soon conducted with success, and made havoc of the Persians in great battles. As he was returning, he was killed, not far from the Roman boundaries, by the treachery of Philip who reigned after him. The Roman soldiers raised a monument for him, twenty miles from Circessus, which is now a fortress of the Romans, overlooking the Euphrates. His relics they brought to Rome, and gave him the title of god.
Blindado
postume-laetitiaaug.jpg
1er Emission - 3e Phase - (261) - Trčves - LAETITIA AVG11 viewsIMP C POSTVMVS P F AVG
LAETITIA AVG
7 rames - 4 rameurs
EG 19
CUNETIO 2385
RIC 73
ELMER 130
AGK 41
de Witte 133
Cohen 167
PYL
postume-laetitia_2.JPG
1er Emission - 3e Phase - (261) - Trčves - LAETITIA AVG9 viewsIMP C POSTVMVS P F AVG
LAETITIA AVG
7 rames - 4 rameurs
EG 19
CUNETIO 2385
RIC 73
ELMER 130
AGK 41
de Witte 133
Cohen 167
PYL
HonoriusAE3Emperors.jpg
1fa Honorius20 views393-423

AE3

RIC 403

Pearl diademed, draped, cuirassed bust right, DN HONORIVS PF AVG
Two emperors standing facing, heads turned to one another, each holding spear and resting hand on shield, GLORIA ROMANORVM. Mintmark SMKA.

Zosimus wrote: [Theodosius] proceeded with his army to the war [against Eugenius], leaving behind him his son Arcadius, who had some time previously been made emperor. . . . Having done this, he took with him his younger son Honorius, quickly passed through the intermediate countries, and having exceded his expectations in crossing the Alps, arrived where the enemy was stationed. . . . The emperor Theodosius after these successes proceeded to Rome, where he declared his son Honorius emperor, and appointing Stilico to the command of his forces there, left him as guardian to his son. . . . The emperor Theodosius, having consigned Italy, Spain, Celtica, and Libya to his son Honorius, died of a disease on his journey towards Constantinople. . . .

THE whole empire being vested in Arcadius and Honorius, they indeed appeared by their title to possess the sovereign authority, although the universal administration of affairs was under Rufinus in the east, and under Stilico in the west. By these all causes were determined, at their own pleasure; for whoever bribed plentifully, or by any other means of friendship or consanguinity could make the judge his advocate, was sure to succeed in the process. From hence it happened that most of those great estates, which cause the possessors to be generally esteemed fortunate, devolved to these two; since some endeavoured by gifts to avoid false accusations, and others relinquished all their possessions to obtain an office, or in any other manner to purchase the ruin of particular cities. While iniquity of every kind presided, therefore, in the respective cities, the money from all quarters flowed into the coffers of Rufinus and Stilico ; while on the reverse, poverty preyed on the habitations of those who had formerly been rich. Nor were the emperors acquainted with anything that was done, but thought all that Rufinus and Stilico commanded was done by virtue of some unwritten law. . . .

After the autumn was terminated, and winter had commenced, Bassus and Philippus being chosen consuls, the emperor Honorius, who had long before lost his wife Maria, desired to marry her sister Thermantia. But Stilico appeared not to approve of the match, although it was promoted by Serena, who wished it to take place from these motives. When Maria was about to be married to Honorius, her mother, deeming her too young for the marriage-state and being unwilling to defer the marriage, although she thought that to submit so young and tender a person to the embraces of a man was offering violence to nature, she had recourse to a woman who knew how to manage such affairs, and by her means contrived that Maria should live with the emperor and share his bed, but that he should not have the power to deprive her of virginity. In the meantime Maria died a virgin, and Serena, who, as may readily be supposed, was desirous to become the grandmother of a young emperor or empress, through fear of her influence being diminished, used all her endeavours to marry her other daughter to Honorius. This being accomplished, the young lady shortly afterwards died in the same manner as the former. . . . .

For Stilico was desirous of proceeding to the east to undertake the management of the affairs of Theodosius, the son of Arcadius, who was very young, and in want of a guardian. Honorius himself was also inclined to undertake the same journey, with a design to secure the dominions of that emperor. But Stilico, being displeased at that, and laying before the emperor a calculation of the immense sum of money it would require to defray the expence of such an expedition, deterred him from the enterprise. . . .

In the mean time, the emperor Honorius commanded his wife Thermantia to be taken from the imperial throne, and to be restored to her mother, who notwithstanding was without suspicion. . . . Alaric began his expedition against Rome, and ridiculed the preparations made by Honorius. . . . The emperor Honorius was now entering on the consulship, having enjoyed that honour eight times, and the emperor Theodosius in the east three times. At this juncture the rebel Constantine sent some eunches to Honorius, to intreat pardon from him for having accepted of the empire. When the emperor heard this petition, perceiving that it was not easy for him, since Alaric and his barbarians were so near, to prepare for other wars ; and consulting the safety of his relations who were in the hands of the rebel, whose names were Verenianus and Didymius; he not only granted his request, but likewise sent him an imperial robe. . . .

Note: No ancient source reports the sack of Rome by the Goths in 410, they having besieged the city three times, all while Honorius huddled in a besieged Ravenna. Honorius retained his nominal capacity until he died in 423.
Blindado
Titi_denario_VENVS_AVGVST.jpg
20-01 - JULIA TITI (79 - 81 D.C.)30 viewsHija de Tito
AR Denario 20 mm 3.2 gr.

Anv: "IVLIA AVGVSTA TITI AVGVSTI F" - Busto vestido y con diadema viendo a derecha.
Rev: "VENVS AVGVST" - Venus semi-desnuda, viendo a derecha, apoyada en Cippus (columna corta), portando Yelmo en mano der. y jabalina en izq.

Acuńada 79 - 80 D.C.
Ceca: Roma
Rareza: R

Referencias: RIC Vol.II (Titus) #56 Pag.122 - Sear RCTV Vol.1 #2612 Pag.480 - BMCRE Titus #141 - Cohen Vol.1 #276 Pag.388 - DVM #3 Pag.108 - CBN Titus #106 - RSC Vol. II #14 Pag.60
mdelvalle
RIC_56_Denario_Julia_Titi.jpg
20-01 - JULIA TITI (79 - 81 D.C.)13 viewsHija de Tito
AR Denario 20 mm 3.2 gr.

Anv: "IVLIA AVGVSTA TITI AVGVSTI F" - Busto vestido y con diadema viendo a derecha.
Rev: "VENVS AVGVST" - Venus semi-desnuda, viendo a derecha, apoyada en Cippus (columna corta), portando Yelmo en mano der. y jabalina en izq.

Acuńada 79 - 80 D.C.
Ceca: Roma
Rareza: R

Referencias: RIC Vol.II (Titus) #56 Pag.122 - Sear RCTV Vol.1 #2612 Pag.480 - BMCRE Titus #141 - Cohen Vol.1 #276 Pag.388 - DVM #3 Pag.108 - CBN Titus #106 - RSC Vol. II #14 Pag.60
mdelvalle
savaria_01-stone_of_the_Caesars.JPG
2008-Savaria - The stone of the Caesars23 viewsOn the top of the red granite stone a sun-dial shows the time, and has six emperor relief. All of them played a significant role in the development of this town:
Claudius founded in AD 43 as Colonia Claudia Savaria;
during the reign of Domitian the town became a religion centre;
Emperor Trajan settled military troops from the civilians and they fought in Dacian War;
during the reign of Septimius Severus was built an Isis shrine;
Diocletian made the centre of jury during the Great Persecution;
and finally Constantine the Great, who partitioned Pannonia four province and Savaria was the capital of Pannonia Prima.
berserker
BOTLAUREL_2019.JPG
201941 viewsTHIS YEAR'S WINNERS
CLICK ON A COIN FOR ITS DETAILS

*Alex
1006205.JPG
210 Gordian III75 viewsRef Gordian III AR Antoninianus, RIC 86, RSC 121
Gordian III AR Antoninianus. IMP GORDIANVS PIVS FEL AVG, radiate, draped & cuirassed bust right / LAETITIA AVG N, Laetitia standing right with wreath & rudder . RSC 121.
4.7 g.

better photo
3 commentsRandygeki(h2)
349Hadrian_RIC214.jpg
214 Hadrian Denarius Roma 132-34 AD Justitia38 viewsReference.
RIC 214var; C. 884 var.

Obv. HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS.
Bare Head right, aegis on left shoulder and across back of neck.

Rev. IVSTITIA AVG in Ex. COS III P P
Justitia, draped, seated left on throne, holding patera in extended right hand and vertical sceptre in left.

3.11 gr
19 mm
2 commentsokidoki
936242_520584321311817_1930698935_n.jpg
215 Philip I41 viewsPhilip I AE Sestertius (18.42 gm). IMP M IVL PHILIPPVS AVG, Laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right / LAET FVNDATA, S-C, Laetitia standing left, holding wreath and rudder RIC 175. Ex Sosius3 commentsRandygeki(h2)
Project1~0.jpg
216 Otacilia Severa96 viewsOtacilia Severa, Augusta February or March 244 - September or October 249 A.D.

Silver antoninianus, SRCV III 9158, RIC IV 130, RSC IV 43, Choice gVF, 4.523g, 23.0mm, 180o, Rome mint, 247 A.D.; obverse OTACIL SEVERA AVG, draped bust right set on crescent; reverse PIETAS AVGVSTAE, Pietas, veiled, standing left, extending right, box of incense in left; full circles strike, bold portrait.

"Pietas in traditional Latin usage expressed a complex, highly valued Roman virtue; a man or woman with pietas respected his or her responsibilities to other people, gods and entities (such as the state), and understood his or her place in society with respect to others."
9 commentsRandygeki(h2)
rjb_p1_03_09.jpg
237cf23 viewsAE double sestertius
Atelier II
IMP C M CASS LAT POSTVMVS AG (sic)
Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
LETITIA AVG (sic)
Galley left
Bastien: 353 (obverse die duplicate), cf 237 (rev)

Although Bastien lists 237 as reading LAETITIA AVG close examination of the plate coin shows it to read LETITIA AVG. It is not a die duplicate of this reverse.
mauseus
rjb_post_25_01_05.jpg
238532 viewsIMP C POSTVMVS PF AVG
Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
LAETITIA AVG
Galley left
Mint 1 (Trier), Issue 1
Cunetio 2385
mauseus
rjb_2012_03_28.jpg
300b13 viewsAs
Rome mint
LAETITIA AVG N SC
RIC 300b
mauseus
rjb_p9_03_09.jpg
310cf38 viewsAE double sestertius
Atelier II
IMP C M CASS LAT POSTVMVS PF AVG?
Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
LAETITIA AVG
Galley left
Bastien - (cf 310)
1 commentsmauseus
coin251.JPG
312. Victorinus27 viewsMarcus Piav(v)onius Victorinus was emperor of the successionist Gallic Empire from 268 to 270 or 271, following the brief reign of Marius.

Victorinus, born to a family of great wealth, was a soldier under Postumus, the first of the so-called Gallic emperors. Victorinus held the title of tribunus praetorianorum in 266/267, and was co-consul with Postumus in 267 or 268. Following the death of Marius, Victorinus was declared emperor by the troops located at Augusta Treverorum (Trier, Germany), and he was recognized by the provinces of Gaul and Britain, but not Spain, which reunited with the Roman Empire.

During his reign, Victorinus successfully prevented the city of Augustodunum Haeduorum (Autun, France) from rejoining the Roman Empire. The city was besieged for seven months, before it was stormed and plundered.

Victorinus was murdered in 270 or early 271 by Attitianus, one of his officers, whose wife Victorinus had supposedly seduced. Victorinus' mother, Victoria (or Vitruvia), continued to hold power after the death of Victorinus and she arranged for his deification and, after considerable payment to the troops, the appointment of Tetricus I as his successor.

Victorinus is listed among the Thirty Tyrants in the Historia Augusta. The (dubius) Historia Augusta equally has a short description of Victorinus the Younger, allegedly the son of Victorinus that was appointed Emperor by his family the day his father was murdered, and would have been killed immediately afterwards by the troops.

Victorinus antoninianus. IMP C VICTORINVS P F AVG, radiate, draped & cuirassed bust right / PAX AVG, Pax standing left. RIC 118, Cohen 79.
ecoli
coin259.JPG
318. Florian28 viewsAfter Tacitus died, the army chose Florian to succeed him. His full name as Emperor was Imperator Caesar Marcus Annius Florianus Pius Felix Invictus Augustus. The Historia Augusta characterizes the succession as a dynastic coup in which the Senate was ignored, but since Florian like Tacitus issued coins inscribed SC, advertising the Senate's authority for minting them, the Historia Augusta's complaint may be factitious. Most of this biography is.

Florian had hardly assumed office when the armies and provinces of Phoenicia, Palestine, Syria and Egypt declared for Probus. Florian turned from pursuing the the Eruli north to return to Cilicia and confront Probus and his army. Florian appears to have had the larger army, but Probus, an experienced general, held back. After a few weeks of sporadic fighting, Florian was assassinated by his own troops near Tarsus. He had reigned about 88 days.

Florian's different nomen, Annius rather than Claudius, means that he cannot have been Tacitus's full brother as the Historia Augusta implies; but one passage identifies him as Tacitus's half brother by the same mother, which might be true. Some historians doubt, however, whether any blood connexion existed at all. Little can be said about Florian's reign. One inscription assigns him a consulate. Though neither reigned long, both Tacitus and Florian had a large and varied coinage, "lively with hope for a golden age neither emperor ever realized."



Florian, Antoninianus 276 AD 2.77g
Obv: Bust of Florian right 'IMP FLORIANVS AVG'
Rev: Victory presenting a wreath to Florian 'CONCORDIA MILITVM' 'T' in ex.
RIC 116
ecoli
1049_P_Hadrian_RPC3206.jpg
3206 CILICIA, Titiopolis. Hadrian, Hermes standing12 viewsReference.
RPC III, 3206=Krengel coll.; Ziegler -; SNG BN -; SNG Levante -; SNG Levante Supp. -; Levante —

Obverse inscription ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС ΚΑΙСΑΡ
Laureate head of Hadrian, right

Rev. ΤΙΤΙΟΠΟΛΙΤωΝ
Hermes standing l., holding purse and caduceus

5.61 gr
21 mm
12h

Note.
Ex Dr. P. Vogl Collection; ex Bankhaus Aufhäuser
okidoki
Denario_Faustina_II_RIC_702.jpg
34-05 - FAUSTINA HIJA (147 - 176 D.C.)64 viewsAR Denario 18.3 mm 3.24 gr.
Hija de Antonino Pio y Faustina, esposa de Marco Aurelio

Anv: "FAVSTINA AVGVSTA" - Busto con diadema y vestido viendo a derecha.
Rev: "LAETITIA" - Laetitia de pié a der., portando largo cetro inclinado en mano der. y corona de laureles en izq.

Acuńada 156 - 175 D.C.
Ceca: Roma
Rareza: S

Referencias: RIC Vol.III #702 Pag.270 - Sear RCTV Vol.II #5258 Pag.344 - BMCRE #127 - Cohen Vol.III #153 Pag.148 - DVM #152c Pag.224 - MIR #26
mdelvalle
RIC_702_Denario_Faustina_Jr_.jpg
34-05 - FAUSTINA Jr. (147 - 176 D.C.)12 viewsAR Denario 18.3 mm 3.24 gr.
Hija de Antonino Pio y Faustina, esposa de Marco Aurelio

Anv: "FAVSTINA AVGVSTA" - Busto con diadema y vestido viendo a derecha.
Rev: "LAETITIA" - Laetitia de pié a der., portando largo cetro inclinado en mano der. y corona de laureles en izq.

Acuńada 156 - 175 D.C.
Ceca: Roma
Rareza: S

Referencias: RIC Vol.III #702 Pag.270 - Sear RCTV Vol.II #5258 Pag.344 - BMCRE IV #127 Pag.402 (Plate 55 #16) - Cohen Vol.III #153 Pag.148 - DVM #152c Pag.224 - MIR #26
mdelvalle
rep_coin_Horseblack.jpg
341/1 Q. Titius26 viewsQ. Titius. Ar Denarius. 90 BC. (3.95 g). Obv: Head of Mutinus Titinus (Priapus) right. Rev: Pegasus springing right from tablet.
Syd 691; Titia 1; Crawford 341/1

Ex: Kunker
1 commentsPaddy
6086881046_32492fc6c4_b.jpg
341/4d6 viewsTitia Ascrawforde
185Hadrian_RIC362var.jpg
362 Hadrian Denarius Roma 134-38 AD Justitia21 viewsReference.
RIC 362 var; Strack 199 (same die pair); C. 882

Obv. HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS P P
Bare head, draped bust right, seen from back

Rev. IVSTITIA AVG, COS III in ex,
Justitia, draped, seated left on throne, holding patera in extended right hand and vertical sceptre in left.

2.96 gr
18 mm
6h
okidoki
Denario Julia Domna RIC 561D.jpg
47-05 - JULIA DOMNA (194 - 217 D.C.)32 viewsAR Denario 18 x 16 mm 3.1 gr.
Esposa de Septimio Severo y madre de Geta y Caracalla.

Anv: "IVLIA AVGVSTA" - Busto sin diadema y vestido viendo a derecha.
Rev: "LAETITIA" - Laetitia (La Alegria) de pié a izquierda portando corona de laureles en mano derecha y timón en izquierda.

Acuńada 2da. Emisión 198 D.C.
Ceca: Roma (Off.4ta)

Referencias: RIC Vol.IV Parte I #561D Pag.168 - Sear RCTV Vol.II #6590 Pag.494 - BMCRE #S45/6 Pag.162 - Cohen Vol.IV #101 Pag.114 - RSC Vol. III #101 Pag.55 - DVM #28 Pag.191 - Hill CSS#352
mdelvalle
RIC_561_Denario_Julia_Domna.jpg
47-05 - JULIA DOMNA (194 - 217 D.C.)11 viewsAR Denario 18 x 16 mm 3.1 gr.
Esposa de Septimio Severo y madre de Geta y Caracalla.

Anv: "IVLIA AVGVSTA" - Busto sin diadema y vestido viendo a derecha.
Rev: "LAETITIA" - Laetitia (La Alegria) de pié a izquierda portando corona de laureles en mano derecha y timón en izquierda.

Acuńada 2da. Emisión 198 D.C.
Ceca: Roma (Off.4ta)

Referencias: RIC Vol.IV Parte I #561D Pag.168 - Sear RCTV Vol.II #6590 Pag.494 - BMCRE #S45/6 Pag.162 - Cohen Vol.IV #101 Pag.114 - RSC Vol. III #101 Pag.55 - DVM #28 Pag.191 - Hill CSS#352 - Salgado II/1 #4207.h Pag.111
mdelvalle
RIC_641_denario_Julia_Domna.jpg
47-10 - JULIA DOMNA (194 - 217 D.C.)8 viewsAR Denario 20 mm 3.3 gr.
Esposa de Septimio Severo y madre de Geta y Caracalla.

Anv: "IVLIA AVGVSTA" - Busto sin diadema y vestido viendo a derecha.
Rev: "LAETITIA" - Laetitia estante a izq., portando guirnalda en mano der. y timón apoyado en tierra en izq..

Acuńada 198 D.C.
Ceca: Laodicea ad Mare (Siria)

Referencias: RIC IVa #641 P.272, BMCRE V #604 ss P.277 (Pl.43 #1), Sear RCV II # 6590 P.494, Cohen IV #101 P.114, RSC III #101 P.55, DVM #28 P.191, Salgado II/1 #4226.f Pag.116
mdelvalle
coin448.JPG
501. Constantine I Lyons Sol14 viewsLyons

Originally, the important city in this area was that of Vienne, at a crossroads of Celtic trails, and port for the Greek trade. They had been largly Hellanised during the 2nd - 1st centuries BCE, then caught up in the conflicts involving Rome and Athens. Roman traders had settled there and competition started a revolt, driving the Romans to the north. At the present site of Lyons, they sought and received refuge from the Gallic tribe called Segusiavi. At that time, Lyons was just a tribe of Celts occupying the top of a hill, later to be called Fourviere. A Roman settlement was begun, and then later used by Julius Caesar to launch his campaigns against the Helvetii in 58 BCE.

The site of Lyons, being on a crossroads as well as a connection to the Mediterranean, was early recognised as being strategically important. In 43 BCE, the city of Lugdunum became an official Roman colony recognised by the Roman senate, founded by the governor of Gallia Comata (province of Comata), Lucius Munatius Plancus. Later, in 27 BCE, then Emperor Augustus divided Gallia Comata into three provinces, and Lugdunum became the capital of Gallia Lugdunensis. [The third province was Gallia Aquitania.]

Lyons became the financial center for taxation purposes of Aquitania and Lugdunum provinces, and an official mint was established there. Also, the state cult honoring Augustus [or the present Emperor] was established at Lyons, drawing many pilgrims and supplicants. Drusus, the father of Claudius, (born 10 BCE) was stationed at Lyons, being in charge of Gallia Comata. Also, a cohort of Roman policemen were stationed at lyons, to protect the mint. A bronze inscription found at Lyons records the speech given to the Roman Senate in 48 CE by Emperor Claudius, arguing for the acceptance of admission of senators from Gallia Comata.

Through Lyons [and Vienne] passed the great roads leading to the different regions of Gaul and towards Italy. Trade with Gaul, Britain and Germany passed through Lyons, mostly supplying Roman colonies on the the frontier. Later, these routes were paved by the Romans to facilitate trade and troop movement. Lyons became an important trade and military center. However, intercity rivalry with Vienne to the south never died, and indeed Vienne became jealous over time.

Lyons was burnt to the ground in 65 CE but quickly rebuilt. It prospered until 197 when it was sacked in a civil war. The city of Lyons had backed the unfortunate loser in a battle between two Roman generals. Cities to the south [Arles, Vienne, and to the north, Trier] took over the economic functions of Lyons; and the city of Lyons was again plundered 269. Lyons fought back, and the trade wars raged on, until early in the 4th century when the aqueducts of Lyons were destroyed. Without water, the hillsite of Lyons [the Fourviere Hill] became untenable. The merchants moved down to the city below, or out of the city entirely. The protection of Lyons was thus much more difficult. And the decline of the Roman Empire also spelled the decline of many of its cities.

RIC VII Lyons 34 C3

ecoli
1053_P_Hadrian_RPC5050.jpg
5050 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Tetradrachm 117-18 AD Dikaiosyne standing21 viewsReference.
RPC III, 5050 (this coin). Dattari-Savio Pl. 65, 1347 (this coin).Emmett 833.2

Issue L B = year 2

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙС ΤΡΑΝΟС (sic) ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС СƐΒ
Laureate head of Hadrian, r., drapery on l. shoulder

Rev. L Β
Dikaiosyne standing facing, head l., holding scales and cornucopia

12.52 gr
25 mm
12h

Note.
From the Dattari collection.

In ancient Greek culture, Dikē (/ˈdiːkeɪ/ or /ˈdɪkiː/; Greek: Δίκη, English translation: "justice") was the goddess of justice and the spirit of moral order and fair judgement based on immemorial custom, in the sense of socially enforced norms and conventional rules. According to Hesiod (Theogony, l. 901), she was fathered by Zeus upon his second consort, Themis. She and her mother were both personifications of justice. She is depicted as a young, slender woman carrying a physical balance scale and wearing a laurel wreath while her Roman counterpart (Justitia) appears in a similar fashion but blind-folded. She is represented in the constellation Libra which is named for the Latin name of her symbol (Scales). She is often associated with Astraea, the goddess of innocence and purity. Astraea is also one of her epithets referring to her appearance in the nearby constellation Virgo which is said to represent Astraea. This reflects her symbolic association with Astraea, who too has a similar iconography.

The sculptures of the Temple of Zeus at Olympia have as their unifying iconographical conception the dikē of Zeus, and in poetry she is often the attendant (paredros) of Zeus.
In the philosophical climate of late 5th century Athens, dikē could be anthropomorphised as a goddess of moral justice.
She was one of the three second-generation Horae, along with Eunomia ("order") and Eirene ("peace")
okidoki
coin275.JPG
510. Valentinian I56 viewsFlavius Valentinianus, known in English as Valentinian I, (321 - November 17, 375) was a Roman Emperor (364 - 375). He was born at Cibalis, in Pannonia, the son of a successful general, Gratian the Elder.

He had been an officer of the Praetorian guard under Julian and Jovian, and had risen high in the imperial service. Of robust frame and distinguished appearance, he possessed great courage and military capacity. After the death of Jovian, he was chosen emperor in his forty-third year by the officers of the army at Nicaea in Bithynia on February 26, 364, and shortly afterwards named his brother Valens colleague with him in the empire.

The two brothers, after passing through the chief cities of the neighbouring district, arranged the partition of the empire at Naissus (Nissa) in Upper Moesia. As Western Roman Emperor, Valentinian took Italia, Illyricum, Hispania, the Gauls, Britain and Africa, leaving to Eastern Roman Emperor Valens the eastern half of the Balkan peninsula, Greece, Aegyptus, Syria and Asia Minor as far as Persia. They were immediately confronted by the revolt of Procopius, a relative of the deceased Julian. Valens managed to defeat his army at Thyatria in Lydia in 366, and Procopius was executed shortly afterwards.

During the short reign of Valentinian there were wars in Africa, in Germany and in Britain, and Rome came into collision with barbarian peoples never of heard before, specifically the Burgundians, and the Saxons.

Valentinian's chief work was guarding the frontiers and establishing military positions. Milan was at first his headquarters for settling the affairs of northern Italy. The following year (365) Valentinian was at Paris, and then at Reims, to direct the operations of his generals against the Alamanni. These people, defeated at Scarpona (Charpeigne) and Catelauni (Châlons-en-Champagne) by Jovinus, were driven back to the German bank of the Rhine, and checked for a while by a chain of military posts and fortresses. At the close of 367, however, they suddenly crossed the Rhine, attacked Moguntiacum (Mainz) and plundered the city. Valentinian attacked them at Solicinium (Sulz am Neckar, in the Neckar valley, or Schwetzingen) with a large army, and defeated them with great slaughter. But his own losses were so considerable that Valentinian abandoned the idea of following up his success.

Later, in 374, Valentinian made peace with their king, Macrianus, who from that time remained a true friend of the Romans. The next three years he spent at Trier, which he chiefly made his headquarters, organizing the defence of the Rhine frontier, and personally superintending the construction of numerous forts.

During his reign the coasts of Gaul were harassed by the Saxon pirates, with whom the Picts and Scots of northern Britain joined hands, and ravaged the island from the Antonine Wall to the shores of Kent. In 368 Count Theodosius was sent to drive back the invaders; in this he was completely successful, and established a new British province, called Valentia in honour of the emperor.

In Africa, Firmus, raised the standard of revolt, being joined by the provincials, who had been rendered desperate by the cruelty and extortions of Comes Romanus, the military governor. The services of Theodosius were again requisitioned. He landed in Africa with a small band of veterans, and Firmus, to avoid being taken prisoner, committed suicide.

In 374 the Quadi, a Germanic tribe in what is now Moravia and Slovakia, resenting the erection of Roman forts to the north of the Danube in what they considered to be their own territory, and further exasperated by the treacherous murder of their king, Gabinius, crossed the river and laid waste the province of Pannonia. The emperor in April, 375 entered Illyricum with a powerful army. But during an audience to an embassy from the Quadi at Brigetio on the Danube (near Komárom, Hungary), Valentinian suffered a burst blood vessel in the skull while angrily yelling at the people gathered. This injury resulted in his death on November 17, 375.

His general administration seems to have been thoroughly honest and able, in some respects beneficent. If Valentinian was hard and exacting in the matter of taxes, he spent them in the defence and improvement of his dominions, not in idle show or luxury. Though himself a plain and almost illiterate soldier, Valentinian was a founder of schools. He also provided medical attendance for the poor of Rome, by appointing a physician for each of the fourteen districts of the city.

Valentinian was a Christian but permitted absolute religious freedom to all his subjects. Against all abuses, both civil and ecclesiastical, Valentinian steadily set his face, even against the increasing wealth and worldliness of the clergy. His chief flaw was his temper, which at times was frightful, and showed itself in its full fierceness in the punishment of persons accused of witchcraft, fortune-telling or magical practices.

Valentinian I; RIC IX, Siscia 15(a); C.37; second period: 24 Aug. 367-17 Nov. 375; common. obv. DN VALENTINI-ANVS PF AVG, bust cuir., drap., r., rev. SECVRITAS-REI PVBLICAE, Victory advancing l., holding wreath and trophy. l. field R above R with adnex, r. field F, ex. gamma SISC rev.Z dot (type xxxv)
ecoli
FavstIIrevden.jpg
64.1 Faustina II denarius59 viewsFaustina II (wife of Marcus Aurelius and daughter of Antoninus Pius and Faustina I)
AR Denarius
Rome Mint (161 - 175 AD)

rev. LAETITIA
Laetitia standing l.
Zam
Gordian-III-RIC-086.jpg
65. Gordian III / RIC 86.18 viewsAntoninianus, 241 - 243 AD, Rome mint.
Obverse: IMP GORDIANVS PIVS FEL AVG / Radiate bust of Gordian.
Reverse: LAETITIA AVG N / Laetitia standing, holding wreath and anchor.
4.46 gm., 23 mm.
RIC #86; Sear #8617.
Callimachus
RIC_300a_Sestercio_Gordiano_III.jpg
69-42 - GORDIANO III (238 - 244 D.C.)14 viewsAE Sestercio 29 mm 17.0 gr.

Anv: "IMP GORDIANVS PIVS FEL AVG" - Busto laureado, vestido y acorazado, viendo a derecha.
Rev: "LAETITIA AVG N - [S C]" - Laetitia estante a izq. portando guirnalda en mano der. y ancla, apoyada en el suelo, en izq..

Acuńada 4ta. Emisión 241 - 243 D.C.
Ceca: Roma

Referencias: RIC Vol.IV Parte III #300a Pag.48 - Sear RCTV Vol.III #8712 Pag.127 - Cohen Vol.V #122 Pag.33 - DVM #87 Pag.225 - Hunter #140
mdelvalle
770Hadrian_RIC706~0.jpg
706 Hadrian Sestertius Roma 132-34 AD Galley left60 viewsReference
RIC 706; Strack 837; C. 657; Banti 337

Obv. HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS
Laureate head right.

Rev. FELICITATI AVG COS III P P S-C in field
Galley moving left with stearman and five rowers; vexillum on prow.

23.61 gr
31 mm
12h

Ex.
Stack's Bowers Galleries January 2013 N.Y.I.N.C. lot 5210

Note.
An acrostolium is an ornamental extension of the stem post on the prow of an ancient warship. Often used as a symbol of victory or of power at sea. (numiswiki)
1st-4th Century AD:
The Ship in Imperial Rome

Realizing its importance, Augustus established the Roman navy along lines similar to that of the legions. In addition to a number of key harbors, from which ships could be deployed, he stationed several fleets (Latin classes) in key areas throughout the empire. Among these, the classis Britannica patrolled the channel between Gaul and Britannia, protecting the shipping lanes. Its strategic regional importance is commemorated in the coinage of several of the period usurpers from the area. M. Aurelius Postumus was the first to do so (lots 676-679). His bronze ship issues carry the legend LAETITIA AVG, emphasizing the source of imperial well-being resides in a strong navy. The usurper M. Aurelius Carausius, commander of the classis Britannica under Diocletian, struck coins commemorating, in part, his control of that fleet and its abilities in keeping the sea lanes open (lot 680). His short-lived successor, Allectus, continued the type (lots 681-684).

One important function of the navy was the transportation of the imperial family on state visits. From the time of Augustus, vessels were dispatched to carry the emperor between the capital and the provinces. One such instance is commemorated in a rare bronze as, struck at Patrae in AD 66/7 (lot 609). The reverse depicts the quinquereme used to carry Nero on his infamous tour of Greece. Hadrian’s extensive travels were recorded with a wide variety of ship types struck at Rome (lots 610-622), and in the East (lot 623). An inscription from Ephesus (Syll. III 3241), records that a local captain, L. Erastus, used his ship to transport the emperor while he was in that area. A coin struck at Alexandria (lot 624) is of particular importance for, in the same year as the coin was struck Antinoüs drowned as the imperial party was sailing up the Nile. Hadrian’s successors continued to travel, now to shore up border conflicts or prepare for one of the periodic wars with Persia (lots 625-627; 631-675). By the middle of the third century AD local issues, rather than those minted at the imperial capital, recorded these events, a sign that the center of power was drifting away from Rome itself.

Warships were not the exclusive vessel of the Roman navy. Providing the empire with an uninterrupted supply of grain, as well as other necessary supplies, necessitated the construction of ship for such a purpose. Unlike the warship, which required speed and strength for ramming, the merchantman (Greek nau~ stroggulh; Latin navis oneraria) was of broader beam. Many of these vessels, like the ponto or more common actuaria resembled the shape of a trireme and could be powered by both oars and sails. Since ships of this type were used to transport vital commodities such as wine and grain, they, like the large ponto, are often those shown on coins from the Black Sea (lots 655 and 664-666). The great Roman merchantman, or corbita, often seen in part on imperial issues commemorating the annona, is more familiar (lots 607-608). Powered by two large sails, it featured a rear cabin in the shape of a swan and was the true workhorse of Roman merchant vessels; its type continued well into the Byzantine period.
3 commentsokidoki
Nero AE Sestertius.jpg
706a, Nero, 13 October 54 - 9 June 68 A.D.74 views6, Nero, 13 October 54 - 9 June 68 A.D. AE setertius, Date: 66 AD; RIC I 516, 36.71 mm; 25.5 grams; aVF. Obverse: IMP NERO CAESAR AVG PONT MAX TR POT PP, Laureate bust right; Reverse: S C, ROMA, Roma seated left, exceptional portrait and full obverse legends. Ex Ancient Imports.

NERO (54-68 A.D.)

It is difficult for the modern student of history to realize just how popular Nero actually was, at least at the beginning of his reign. Rome looked upon her new Emperor with hope. He was the student of Seneca, and he had a sensitive nature. He loved art, music, literature, and theatre. He was also devoted to horses and horse racing—a devotion shared by many of his subjects. The plebs loved their new Emperor. As Professor of Classics Judith P. Hallett (University of Maryland, College Park) says, “It is not clear to me that Nero ever changed or that Nero ever grew-up, and that was both his strength and his weakness. Nero was an extraordinarily popular Emperor: he was like Elvis” (The Roman Empire in the First Century, III. Dir. Margaret Koval and Lyn Goldfarb. 2001. DVD. PBS/Warner Bros. 2003).

De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Herbert W. Benario
Emory University

Introduction and Sources
The five Julio-Claudian emperors are very different one from the other. Augustus dominates in prestige and achievement from the enormous impact he had upon the Roman state and his long service to Rome, during which he attained unrivaled auctoritas. Tiberius was clearly the only possible successor when Augustus died in AD 14, but, upon his death twenty-three years later, the next three were a peculiar mix of viciousness, arrogance, and inexperience. Gaius, better known as Caligula, is generally styled a monster, whose brief tenure did Rome no service. His successor Claudius, his uncle, was a capable man who served Rome well, but was condemned for being subject to his wives and freedmen. The last of the dynasty, Nero, reigned more than three times as long as Gaius, and the damage for which he was responsible to the state was correspondingly greater. An emperor who is well described by statements such as these, "But above all he was carried away by a craze for popularity and he was jealous of all who in any way stirred the feeling of the mob." and "What an artist the world is losing!" and who is above all remembered for crimes against his mother and the Christians was indeed a sad falling-off from the levels of Augustus and Tiberius. Few will argue that Nero does not rank as one of the worst emperors of all.

The prime sources for Nero's life and reign are Tacitus' Annales 12-16, Suetonius' Life of Nero, and Dio Cassius' Roman History 61-63, written in the early third century. Additional valuable material comes from inscriptions, coinage, papyri, and archaeology.


Early Life
He was born on December 15, 37, at Antium, the son of Cnaeus Domitius Ahenobarbusand Agrippina. Domitius was a member of an ancient noble family, consul in 32; Agrippina was the daughter of the popular Germanicus, who had died in 19, and Agrippina, daughter of Agrippa, Augustus' closest associate, and Julia, the emperor's daughter, and thus in direct descent from the first princeps. When the child was born, his uncle Gaius had only recently become emperor. The relationship between mother and uncle was difficult, and Agrippina suffered occasional humiliation. But the family survived the short reign of the "crazy" emperor, and when he was assassinated, it chanced that Agrippina's uncle, Claudius, was the chosen of the praetorian guard, although there may have been a conspiracy to accomplish this.

Ahenobarbus had died in 40, so the son was now the responsibility of Agrippina alone. She lived as a private citizen for much of the decade, until the death of Messalina, the emperor's wife, in 48 made competition among several likely candidates to become the new empress inevitable. Although Roman law forbade marriage between uncle and niece, an eloquent speech in the senate by Lucius Vitellius, Claudius' closest advisor in the senatorial order, persuaded his audience that the public good required their union. The marriage took place in 49, and soon thereafter the philosopher Seneca [[PIR2 A617]] was recalled from exile to become the young Domitius' tutor, a relationship which endured for some dozen years.

His advance was thereafter rapid. He was adopted by Claudius the following year and took the name Tiberius Claudius Nero Caesar or Nero Claudius Caesar Drusus Germanicus, was preferred to Claudius' natural son, Britannicus, who was about three years younger, was betrothed to the emperor's daughter Octavia, and was, in the eyes of the people, the clear successor to the emperor. In 54, Claudius died, having eaten some poisoned mushrooms, responsibility for which was believed to be Agrippina's, and the young Nero, not yet seventeen years old, was hailed on October 13 as emperor by the praetorian guard.


The First Years of Rule
The first five years of Nero's rule are customarily called the quinquennium, a period of good government under the influence, not always coinciding, of three people, his mother, Seneca, and Sextus Afranius Burrus, the praetorian prefect. The latter two were allies in their "education" of the emperor. Seneca continued his philosophical and rhetorical training, Burrus was more involved in advising on the actualities of government. They often combined their influence against Agrippina, who, having made her son emperor, never let him forget the debt he owed his mother, until finally, and fatally, he moved against her.

Nero's betrothal to Octavia was a significant step in his ultimate accession to the throne, as it were, but she was too quiet, too shy, too modest for his taste. He was early attracted to Poppaea Sabina, the wife of Otho, and she continually goaded him to break from Octavia and to show himself an adult by opposing his mother. In his private life, Nero honed the musical and artistic tastes which were his chief interest, but, at this stage, they were kept private, at the instigation of Seneca and Burrus.

As the year 59 began, Nero had just celebrated his twenty-first birthday and now felt the need to employ the powers which he possessed as emperor as he wished, without the limits imposed by others. Poppaea's urgings had their effect, first of all, at the very onset of the year, with Nero's murder of his mother in the Bay of Naples.

Agrippina had tried desperately to retain her influence with her son, going so far as to have intercourse with him. But the break between them proved irrevocable, and Nero undertook various devices to eliminate his mother without the appearance of guilt on his part. The choice was a splendid vessel which would collapse while she was on board. As this happened, she swam ashore and, when her attendant, having cried out that she was Agrippina, was clubbed to death, Agrippina knew what was going on. She sent Nero a message that she was well; his response was to send a detachment of sailors to finish the job. When she was struck across the head, she bared her womb and said, "Strike here, Anicetus, strike here, for this bore Nero," and she was brutally murdered.

Nero was petrified with fear when he learned that the deed had been done, yet his popularity with the plebs of Rome was not impaired. This matricide, however, proved a turning point in his life and principate. It appeared that all shackles were now removed. The influence of Seneca and Burrus began to wane, and when Burrus died in 62, Seneca realized that his powers of persuasion were at an end and soon went into retirement. Britannicus had died as early as 55; now Octavia was to follow, and Nero became free to marry Poppaea. It may be that it had been Burrus rather than Agrippina who had continually urged that Nero's position depended in large part upon his marriage to Octavia. Burrus' successor as commander of the praetorian guard, although now with a colleague, was Ofonius Tigellinus, quite the opposite of Burrus in character and outlook. Tigellinus became Nero's "evil twin," urging and assisting in the performance of crimes and the satisfaction of lusts.


Administrative and Foreign Policy
With Seneca and Burrus in charge of administration at home, the first half-dozen years of Nero's principate ran smoothly. He himself devoted his attention to his artistic, literary, and physical bents, with music, poetry, and chariot racing to the fore. But his advisors were able to keep these performances and displays private, with small, select audiences on hand. Yet there was a gradual trend toward public performance, with the establishment of games. Further, he spent many nights roaming the city in disguise, with numerous companions, who terrorized the streets and attacked individuals. Those who dared to defend themselves often faced death afterward, because they had shown disrespect for the emperor. The die was being cast for the last phases of Nero's reign.


The Great Fire at Rome and The Punishment
of the Christians
The year 64 was the most significant of Nero's principate up to this point. His mother and wife were dead, as was Burrus, and Seneca, unable to maintain his influence over Nero without his colleague's support, had withdrawn into private life. The abysmal Tigellinus was now the foremost advisor of the still young emperor, a man whose origin was from the lowest levels of society and who can accurately be described as criminal in outlook and action. Yet Nero must have considered that he was happier than he had ever been in his life. Those who had constrained his enjoyment of his (seemingly) limitless power were gone, he was married to Poppaea, a woman with all advantages save for a bad character the empire was essentially at peace, and the people of Rome enjoyed a full measure of panem et circenses. But then occurred one of the greatest disasters that the city of Rome, in its long history, had ever endured.

The fire began in the southeastern angle of the Circus Maximus, spreading through the shops which clustered there, and raged for the better part of a week. There was brief success in controlling the blaze, but then it burst forth once more, so that many people claimed that the fires were deliberately set. After about a fortnight, the fire burned itself out, having consumed ten of the fourteen Augustan regions into which the city had been divided.

Nero was in Antium through much of the disaster, but his efforts at relief were substantial. Yet many believed that he had been responsible, so that he could perform his own work comparing the current fate of Rome to the downfall of Troy. All his efforts to assist the stricken city could not remove the suspicion that "the emperor had fiddled while Rome burned." He lost favor even among the plebs who had been enthusiastic supporters, particularly when his plans for the rebuilding of the city revealed that a very large part of the center was to become his new home.

As his popularity waned, Nero and Tigellinus realized that individuals were needed who could be charged with the disaster. It so happened that there was such a group ready at hand, Christians, who had made themselves unpopular because of their refusal to worship the emperor, their way of life, and their secret meetings. Further, at this time two of their most significant "teachers" were in Rome, Peter and Paul. They were ideal scapegoats, individuals whom most Romans loathed, and who had continually sung of the forthcoming end of the world.

Their destruction was planned with the utmost precision and cruelty, for the entertainment of the populace. The venue was Nero's circus near the Mons Vaticanus. Christians were exposed to wild animals and were set ablaze, smeared with pitch, to illuminate the night. The executions were so grisly that even the populace displayed sympathy for the victims. Separately, Peter was crucified upside down on the Vatican hill and Paul was beheaded along the Via Ostiensis. But Nero's attempt, and hope, to shift all suspicion of arson to others failed. His popularity even among the lower classes was irrevocably impaired.

[For a detailed and interesting discussion of Nero’s reign please see http://www.roman-emperors.org/nero.htm]

The End - Nero's Death and its Aftermath
Nero's and Tigellinus' response to the conspiracy was immediate and long-lasting. The senatorial order was decimated, as one leading member after another was put to death or compelled to commit suicide. The year 66 saw the suicides of perhaps the most distinguished victims of the "reign of terror," Caius Petronius and Thrasea Paetus. Petronius, long a favorite of Nero because of his aesthetic taste, had been an able public servant before he turned to a life of ease and indolence. He was recognized as the arbiter elegantiae of Nero's circle, and may be the author of the Satyricon. At his death, he left for Nero a document which itemized many of the latter's crimes. Thrasea, a staunch Stoic who had been for some years an outspoken opponent of Nero's policies, committed suicide in the Socratic manner. This scene is the last episode in the surviving books of Tacitus' Annals.

In the year 68, revolt began in the provinces. . . the end of Nero's reign became inevitable. Galba claimed the throne and began his march from Spain. Nero panicked and was rapidly abandoned by his supporters. He finally committed suicide with assistance, on June 9, 68, and his body was tended and buried by three women who had been close to him in his younger days, chief of whom was Acte. His death scene is marked above all by the statement, "Qualis artifex pereo," (What an artist dies in me.) Even at the end he was more concerned with his private life than with the affairs of state.

The aftermath of Nero's death was cataclysmic. Galba was the first of four emperors who revealed the new secret of empire, that an emperor could be made elsewhere than in Rome. Civil war ensued, which was only ended by the victory of the fourth claimant, Vespasian, who established the brief dynasty of the Flavians. The dynasty of the Julio-Claudians was at an end.

Nero's popularity among the lower classes remained even after his death.

. . . .

It is not excessive to say that he was one of the worst of Rome's emperors in the first two centuries and more of the empire. Whatever talents he had, whatever good he may have done, all is overwhelmed by three events, the murder of his mother, the fire at Rome, and his savage treatment of the Christians.

Precisely these qualities are the reasons that he has remained so well known and has been the subject of many writers and opera composers in modern times. These works of fiction particularly merit mention: Henryk Sienkiewicz's Quo Vadis, one of the finest works of the 1907 Nobel Laureate in Literature, and John Hersey's The Conspiracy. Nero unquestionably will always be with us.

Copyright (C) 2006, Herbert W. Benario.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

1 commentsCleisthenes
VitelliusARdenariusVesta.jpg
709a, Vitellius, 2 January - 20 December 69 A.D.44 viewsVITELLIUS AR silver denarius. RSC 72, RCV 2200. 19mm, 3.2 g. Obverse: A VITELLIVS GERM IMP AVG TR P, laureate head right; Reverse - PONT MAXIM, Vesta seated right, holding scepter and patera. Quite decent. Ex. Incitatus Coins. Photo courtesy of Incitatus Coins.

De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Vitellius (69 A.D.)

John F. Donahue
College of William and Mary


It is often difficult to separate fact from fiction in assessing the life and reign of Vitellius. Maligned in the ancient sources as gluttonous and cruel, he was also a victim of a hostile biographical tradition established in the regime of the Flavians who had overthrown him. Nevertheless, his decision to march against Rome in 69 was pivotal, since his subsequent defeat signalled the end of military anarchy and the beginning of an extended period of political stability under Vespasian and his successors.

Early Life and Career

Aulus Vitellius was born in September, 15 AD, the son of Lucius Vitellius and his wife Sestilia. One of the most successful public figures of the Julio-Claudian period, Lucius Vitellius was a three-time consul and a fellow censor with the emperor Claudius. Aulus seems to have moved with equal ease in aristocratic circles, successively winning the attention of the emperors Gaius, Claudius, and Nero through flattery and political skill.

Among his attested public offices, Vitellius was a curator of public works, a senatorial post concerned with the maintenance and repair of public buildings in Rome, and he was also proconsul of North Africa, where he served as a deputy to his brother, perhaps about 55 A. D. In addition, he held at least two priesthoods, the first as a member of the Arval Brethren, in whose rituals he participated from 57 A.D., and the second, as one of the quindecemviri sacris faciundis, a sacred college famous for its feasts.

With respect to marriage and family, Vitellius first wed a certain Petroniana, the daughter of a consul, sometime in the early to mid thirties A.D. The union produced a son, Petronianus, allegedly blind in one eye and emancipated from his father's control as a result of being named his mother's heir. Tradition records that Vitellius killed the boy shortly after emancipation amid charges of parricide; the marriage soon ended in divorce. A second marriage, to Galeria Fundana, daughter of an ex-praetor, was more stable than the first. It produced another son, who was eventually killed by the Flavians after the overthrow of Vitellius, as well as a daughter. Galeria is praised by Tacitus for her good qualities, and in the end it was she who saw to Vitellius' burial.

Rise to Power and Emperorship

Without doubt, the most fortuitous moment in Vitellius' political career was his appointment as governor of Lower Germany by the emperor Galba late in 68. The decision seemed to have caught everybody by surprise, including Vitellius himself, who, according to Suetonius, was in straitened circumstances at the time. The choice may have been made to reduce the possibility of rebellion by the Rhine armies, disaffected by Galba's refusal to reward them for their part in suppressing the earlier uprising of Julius Vindex. Ironically, it was Vitellius' lack of military achievement and his reputation for gambling and gluttony that may have also figured in his selection. Galba perhaps calculated that a man with little military experience who could now plunder a province to satisfy his own stomach would never become disloyal. If so, it was a critical misjudgement by the emperor.

The rebellion began on January 1, 69 ("The Year of the Four Emperors"), when the legions of Upper Germany refused to renew their oath of allegiance to Galba. On January 2, Vitellius' own men, having heard of the previous day's events, saluted him as emperor at the instigation of the legionary legate Fabius Valens and his colleagues. Soon, in addition to the seven legions that Vitellius now had at his command in both Germanies, the forces in Gaul, Britain, and Raetia also came over to his side. Perhaps aware of his military inexperience, Vitellius did not immediately march on Rome himself. Instead, the advance was led by Valens and another legionary general, Aulus Caecina Alienus, with each man commanding a separate column. Vitellius would remain behind to mobilize a reserve force and follow later.

Caecina was already one hundred fifty miles on his way when news reached him that Galba had been overthrown and Otho had taken his place as emperor. Undeterred, he passed rapidly down the eastern borders of Gaul; Valens followed a more westerly route, quelling a mutiny along the way. By March both armies had successfully crossed the Alps and joined at Cremona, just north of the Po. Here they launced their Batavian auxiliaries against Otho's troops and routed them in the First Battle of Bedriacum. Otho killed himself on April 16, and three days later the soldiers in Rome swore their allegience to Vitellius. The senate too hailed him as emperor.

When Vitellius learned of these developments, he set out to Rome from Gaul. By all accounts the journey was a drunken feast marked by the lack of discipline of both the troops and the imperial entourage. Along the way he stopped at Lugdunum to present his six-year-old son Germanicus to the legions as his eventual successor. Later, at Cremona, Vitellius witnessed the corpse-filled battlefield of Otho's recent defeat with joy, unmoved by so many citizens denied a proper burial.

The emperor entered Rome in late June-early July. Conscious of making a break with the Julio-Claudian past, Vitellius was reluctant to assume the traditional titles of the princes, even though he enthusiastically made offerings to Nero and declared himself consul for life. To his credit, Vitellius did seem to show a measure of moderation in the transition to the principate. He assumed his powers gradually and was generally lenient to Otho's supporters, even pardoning Otho's brother Salvius Titianus, who had played a key role in the earlier regime. In addition, he participated in Senate meetings and continued the practice of providing entertainments for the Roman masses. An important practical change involved the awarding of posts customarily held by freedmen to equites, an indication of the growth of the imperial bureaucracy and its attractiveness to men of ambition.

In other matters, he replaced the existing praetorian guard and urban cohorts with sixteen praetorian cohorts and four urban units, all comprised of soldiers from the German armies. According to Tacitus, the decision prompted a mad scramble, with the men, and not their officers, choosing the branch of service that they preferred. The situation was clearly unsatisfactory but not surprising, given that Vitellius was a creation of his own troops. To secure his position further, he sent back to their old postings the legions that had fought for Otho, or he reassigned them to distant provinces. Yet discontent remained: the troops who had been defeated or betrayed at Bedriacum remained bitter, and detachments of three Moesian legions called upon by Otho were returned to their bases, having agitated against Vitellius at Aquileia.

Flavian Revolt

The Vitellian era at Rome was short-lived. By mid-July news had arrived that the legions of Egypt under Tiberius Julius Alexander had sworn allegiance to a rival emperor, Titus Flavius Vespasianus, the governor of Judaea and a successful and popular general. Vespasian was to hold Egypt while his colleague Mucianus, governor of Syria, was to invade Italy. Before the plan could be enacted, however, the Danube legions, former supporters of Otho, joined Vespasian's cause. Under the leadership of Antonius Primus, commander of the Sixth legion in Pannonia, and Cornelius Fuscus, imperial procurator in Illyricum, the legions made a rapid descent on Italy.

Although his forces were only half of what Vitellius commanded in Italy, Primus struck first before the emperor could muster additional reinforcements from Germany. To make matters worse for the Vitellians, Valens was ill, and Caecina, now consul, had begun collaborating with the Flavians. His troops refused to follow his lead, however, and arrested him at Hostilia near Cremona. They then joined the rest of the Vitellian forces trying to hold the Po River. With Vitellius still in Rome and his forces virtually leaderless, the two sides met in October in the Second Battle of Bedriacum. The emperor's troops were soundly defeated and Cremona was brutally sacked by the victors. In addition, Valens, whose health had recovered, was captured while raising an army for Vitellius in Gaul and Germany; he was eventually executed.

Meanwhile, Primus continued towards Rome. Vitellius made a weak attempt to thwart the advance at the Apennine passes, but his forces switched to the Flavian side without a fight at Narnia in mid-December. At Rome, matters were no better. Vespasian's elder brother, Titus Flavius Sabinus, the city prefect, was successful in an effort to convince Vitellius to abdicate but was frustrated by the mob in Rome and the emperor's soldiers. Forced to flee to the Capitol, Sabinus was set upon by Vitellius' German troops and soon killed, with the venerable Temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus set ablaze in the process. Within two days, the Flavian army fought its way into Rome. In a pathetic final move, Vitellius disguised himself in dirty clothing and hid in the imperial doorkeeper's quarters, leaning a couch and a mattress against the door for protection. Dragged from his hiding place by the Flavian forces, he was hauled off half-naked to the Forum, where he was tortured, killed, and tossed into the Tiber. The principate could now pass to Vespasian.

Assessment

Vitellius has not escaped the hostility of his biographers. While he may well have been gluttonous, his depiction as indolent, cruel, and extravagant is based almost entirely on the propaganda of his enemies. On the other hand, whatever moderating tendencies he did show were overshadowed by his clear lack of military expertise, a deficiency that forced him to rely in critical situations on largely inneffective lieutenants. As a result he was no match for his Flavian successors, and his humiliating demise was perfectly in keeping with the overall failure of his reign.

Copyright (C) 1999, John Donahue.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
661Hadrian_RIC711.jpg
711 Hadrian Sestertius Roma 132-34 AD Justitia41 viewsReference.
RIC 711var; C. 895var.; Strack 823; Banti 481

Obv. HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS
Bare-headed draped, cuirassed bust right, wearing a paludamentum

Rev. IVSTITIA AVG P P in field S - C / in ex. COS III
Justitia seated left on chair, holding patera in her right hand and long vertical scepter with her left.

27.15 gr
32 mm
12h

Note.
Obolos | Webauction 5
1 commentsokidoki
1069Hadrian_RIC764.jpg
764 Hadrian Sestertius Roma 134-38 AD Justitia14 viewsReference.
RIC 764; Banti 464;

Obv. HADRIANVS AVG COS III P P
Bust of Hadrian, laureate, right

Rev. IVSTITIA AVG . S C
Justitia, draped, seated left, holding palm in right hand and sceptre in left

26.06 gr
32 mm
6h
okidoki
1121Hadrian_RIC764.jpg
764 Hadrian Sestertius Roma 134-38 AD Justitia14 viewsReference.
RIC 764; Banti 464 (obv.) Banti 465 (rev.); C.880; Strack 673

Obv. HADRIANVS AVG COS III P P
Bust of Hadrian, laureate, right

Rev. IVSTITIA AVG. S C
Justitia, draped, seated left, holding palm in right hand and sceptre in left

24.08 gr
31 mm
6h
okidoki
Antoniniano Valeriano I RIC 215.jpg
80-02 - VALERIANO I (253 - 260 D.C.)44 viewsAR Antoniniano 21 mm 2.9 gr.

Anv: "IMP C P LIC VALERIANVS AVG" - Busto radiado, vestido y acorazado (?) viendo a derecha.
Rev: "LAETITIA AVGG" - Laetitia de pié a izquierda, portando corona de laureles en mano de brazo derecho extendido y un ancla en la izquierda.

Acuńada 253 - 260 D.C.

Referencias:
RIC Vol.V Parte I #98 Pag.46 - Ceca: Roma (253 D.C.)
RIC Vol.V Parte I #215 Pag.55 - Ceca: Moesia (Viminacium) (254-5 D.C.)
Göbl #1570a - Ceca: Antiochia
Cohen Vol.V #101 Pag.307 - RSC Vol. IV #101/101a Pag.52 - DVM #40 Pag.240
mdelvalle
RIC_215_Antoniniano_Valeriano_I.jpg
80-02 - VALERIANO I (253 - 260 D.C.)9 viewsAR Antoniniano 21 mm 2.9 gr.

Anv: "IMP C P LIC VALERIANVS AVG" - Busto radiado, vestido y acorazado (?) viendo a derecha.
Rev: "LAETITIA AVGG" - Laetitia de pié a izquierda, portando corona de laureles en mano de brazo derecho extendido y un ancla en la izquierda.

Acuńada 253 - 260 D.C.

Referencias:
RIC Vol.V Parte I #98 Pag.46 - Ceca: Roma (253 D.C.)
RIC Vol.V Parte I #215 Pag.55 - Ceca: Moesia (Viminacium) (254-5 D.C.)
Göbl #1570a - Ceca: Antiochia
Cohen Vol.V #101 Pag.307 - RSC Vol. IV #101/101a Pag.52 - DVM #40 Pag.240
mdelvalle
Antoniniano Carausio RIC 824.jpg
A108-05 - CARAUSIO (287 - 293 D.C.)37 viewsAE Antoniniano 25 x 23 mm 3.4 gr.

Anv: "IMP [CAR]AVSIVS P AVG" - Busto radiado y vestido, viendo a derecha.
Rev: "[LA]ET[IT]IA AVG" - Laetitia (La Alegria) de pié a izquierda, portando corona de laureles en la mano de su brazo derecho extendido y ancla o jabalina en izquierda.
Exergo faltante, ceca inatribuible
Rareza: C

Referencias: RIC Vol.V Parte II #822 Pag.532 - Sear RCTV (1988) #3558 var - Cohen Vol.VII #123 Pag.15 - DVM #22 var Pag.272
mdelvalle
Antoniniano Alecto RIC 22.jpg
A109-05 - ALECTO (293 - 296 D.C.)30 viewsAE Antoniniano 22 mm 3.0 gr.

Anv: "IMP C ALLECTV[S P F] AVG" - Busto radiado y acorazado, viendo a derecha.
Rev: "LAETITIA AVG" - Laetitia (La Alegria) de pié a izquierda, portando corona de laureles en la mano de su brazo derecho extendido y ancla o bastón en izquierda. "S" en campo izquierdo, "A" en derecho y "MSL" en exergo.

Acuńada 293 - 296 D.C.
Ceca: Londinium - Hoy Londres
Rareza: C

Referencias: RIC Vol.V Parte II #22 Pag.560 - Sear RCTV (1988) #3586 var - Cohen Vol.VII #15 Pag.46 - DVM #4 var Pag.273
mdelvalle
R656_Julia_Titi_portrait.jpg
AD 064-091 - IVLIA TITI FLAVIA12 viewsJulia Flavia

Julia Flaviawas the daughter and only child to Roman Emperor Titus.

for obverse, reverse and coin details click here
shanxi
A-021.jpg
Allectus antoninianus, Laetitia reverse, C mint12 viewsIMP C ALLECTVS P F AVG
Radiate, cuirassed bust right
LAETITIA AVG / S P / C
Laetitia standing left, holding wreath & anchor
C mint

Burnett: 133
Ice
A-004.jpg
Allectus antoninianus, Laetitia reverse, C mint3 viewsIMP C ALLECTVS P F AVG
Radiate, cuirassed bust right
LAETITIA AVG / S P / C
Laetitia standing left, holding wreath & anchor
C mint

Burnett: 133
Ice
A-001.jpg
Allectus antoninianus, Laetitia reverse, C mint6 viewsIMP C ALLECTVS P F AVG
Radiate, cuirassed bust right
LAETITIA AVG / S P / CL
Laetitia standing left, holding wreath & anchor
C mint

Burnett: 203

Burnett places the CL mintmark at the end of Allectus' reign.
Ice
A-018.jpg
Allectus antoninianus, Laetitia reverse, C mint10 viewsIMP C ALLECTVS P F AVG
Radiate, draped & cuirassed bust right
LAETIT AVG / S P / C
Laetitia standing left, holding wreath & anchor
C mint

Burnett: 139
Ice
A-015.jpg
Allectus antoninianus, Laetitia reverse, Londinium mint8 viewsIMP C ALLECTVS P F AVG
Radiate, cuirassed bust right
LAETITIA AVG / S A / ML
Laetitia standing left, holding wreath & anchor
Londinium mint

Burnett: 36
Ice
A-025.jpg
Allectus antoninianus, Laetitia reverse, Londinium mint12 viewsIMP C ALLECTVS P F AVG
Radiate, cuirassed bust right
LAETITIA AVG / S A / MSL
Laetitia standing left, holding wreath & anchor
Londinium mint

Burnett: 93

Burnett places the MSL mintmark at the end of Allectus' reign.
Ice
A-027.jpg
Allectus antoninianus, Laetitia reverse, Londinium mint17 viewsIMP C ALLECTVS P F AVG
Radiate, draped bust right, seen from behind
LAETITIA AVG / S A / ML
Laetitia standing left, holding wreath & anchor
Londinium mint

Burnett: 38

This bust type is only seen on coins from the London mint.
Ice
Q-004.jpg
Allectus quinarius, galley (laetitia) reverse, C mint8 viewsIMP C ALLECTVS P F I AVG
Radiate, cuirassed bust right
LAETITIA AVG / - - / QC
Galley sailing left, waves below
C mint

Burnett: -, cf 212 & 214 - Obverse legend unlisted with galley sailing left
Ice
Q-011.jpg
Allectus quinarius, galley (laetitia) reverse, C mint9 viewsIMP C ALLECTVS P F AVG
Radiate, cuirassed bust right
LAETITIA AVG / - - / QC
Galley sailing right, waves below
C mint

Burnett: 210
Ice
Q-007.jpg
Allectus quinarius, galley (laetitia) reverse, C mint7 viewsIMP C ALLECTVS P F AVG
Radiate, cuirassed bust right
LAETITIA AVG / - - / QC
Galley sailing right (with figure walking on rigging?)
C mint

Burnett: 210
Ice
Q-015.jpg
Allectus quinarius, galley (laetitia) reverse, C mint4 viewsIMP C ALLECTVS P F AVG
Radiate, cuirassed bust right
LAETITIA AVG / - - / QC
Galley sailing right
C mint

Burnett: 210
Ice
Q-024.jpg
Allectus quinarius, galley (laetitia) reverse, C mint24 viewsIMP C ALLECTVS AVG
Radiate, cuirassed bust right
LAETITIA AVG / - - / QC
Galley sailing right
C mint

Burnett: 213

This short obverse legend only occurs on quinarii from the C mint.
1 commentsIce
Q-025.jpg
Allectus quinarius, galley (possibly virtvs) reverse, unattibuted mint (possibly Londinium)15 viewsIMP C ALLECTVS P F AVG
Radiate, cuirassed bust right
VIRTVS AVG ? / - - / QL ?
Galley sailing right (possibly waves below)
Unattributed mint, but possibly struck at Londinium.

Burnett:

Besides the mintmarks (QC & QL) in the exergue, there are 3 other ways to identify which mint struck a quinarius. Quinarii with the reverse legend LAETITIA AVG were only struck at the C mint; those with the reverse legend VIRTVS AVG and waves below the galley were struck at Londinium; but if there are no waves below the galley and the reverse legend is VIRTVS AVG then it was struck at the C mint.

Unfortunately, on this example the reverese legend and mintmark are not visble. However, the style of the galley suggests a coin with the reverse legend VIRTVS AVG. It seems also that there are waves below the galley (but I cannot be certain) which would mean that it was struck at London. Additionally galleys sailing right (with VIRTVS AVG reverse legend) are most commonly encountered from the London mint.
Ice
allectus_76~0.jpg
Allectus RIC V, 76188 viewsAllectus 293 - 296, British Empire
AR - Antoninianus, 3.97g, 22.6mm
Camulodunum 293 - 296
obv. IMP C ALLECTVS PF AVG
draped, cuirassed bust, radiate head r.
rev. LAETI - T [A]VG
Laetitia standing l., holding wreath r. and anchor l.
field: S and P
exergue: C
RIC V, 76; C.16
about VF, portrait!
from Forum Ancient Coins, thanks!
added to www.wildwinds.com

ANCHOR, because the power of Allectus based on his fleet
5 commentsJochen
0572-310.jpg
Allectus, Antoninianus84 viewsCamulodunum mint
IMP C ALLECTVS PF I AVG, Radiate and draped bust of Allectus right
LAETIT AVG, Laetitia standing left. SP in field, C at exergue
3,84 gr
Ref : RC #3591 v, Cohen #13
2 commentsPotator II
1allectus_unite.jpg
Alletto, antoniniano, zecca di Londinum (293-296 d.C.)23 viewsAe-Antoninian of Allectus (293-296 d.C.). zecca di Camulodunum (?)
AE , gr 3,1, mm 23x19
D/ IMP C ALLECTVS PF AVG, busto radiato a dx
R/ LAETITIA AVG, [S-P nel campo?] [C?], Laetitia stante a sx, regge ghirlanda e ancora (o timone?)
Ric 79 (?)
Provenienza: collezione Berardengo, Roma Italia (9 dicembre 2012, numero catalogo 165), ex André Cichos collection, Bad Zwischenahn, Germany
paolo
AnDid.jpg
Anonymous Didrachm / Quadrigatus **SOLD**131 viewsAnonymous. Silver Didrachm (6.80g, 22.5mm), ca. 225-214 BC. Uncertain mint.

O: Laureate head of Janus (Dioscuri?), two annulets atop head.
R: ROMA incuse on solid tablet in exergue, Jupiter, hurling thunderbolt and holding scepter, in galloping quadriga right driven by Victory.

- ex Dr. Busso Peus Nachf., Crawford ?

"Silver Quadrigatus Roman coinage was fortified during the Second Punic War. In addition to gold coins, the Romans issued copper and silver coins, sometimes in enormous quantities. The principal silver coin of the war was a reduced-weight didrachm called a "quadrigatus" after its reverse design, a four-horse chariot (quadriga) bearing Victory and Jupiter. There are many varieties of quadrigati, as revealed by differences in die engraving, metal purity and production standards, not to mention subtle variations of the main design. This suggests that several mints issued quadrigati at different times, and under quite different circumstances. The double-head on the obverse usually is described as the god Janus because of its distinctive form, but the faces are of young men, and it more likely represents the Dioscuri, the gods Castor and Pollux, who were credited with saving Rome at the Battle of Lake Regillus nearly three centuries before." - David Vagi
3 commentsNemonater
Laetitia_Barbare_OK.jpg
Antoninianus Gordian III Imitation "Barbarous" LAETITIA AVG N52 viewsIMP CAES MANT GORDIANVS AVG
LAETITIA AVG N

RIC : 221 (S) ; C 118 (3 Francs or) related as a "good" antoninianus
Prototype : an obverse of the Issues 1-3B and a reverse of the Issue 4

Coin Fourree

Weight : 4,15gr

A very beautiful style for this imitation. A typical "barbarous style".
1 commentsChut
Tetricus~0.jpg
Antoninianus of Tetricus I17 viewsTetricus I. Billion antoninianus, official issue.

Radiate head of emperor, right. IMP (C?) TETRICVS P F AVG. / Laetitia standing left, holding wreath & anchor. LAETITIA AVGG.

RIC 87 or 88, Sear5 11239, Cohen 72.
Belisarius
Antpiuspan.jpg
Antoninus Pius, 10Jul. 138-7 to Mar. 161 AD, Rome mint34 viewsOrichalcum sestertius, Sear RCV II 4252, RIC 967, (BMCRE 2016), (Cowen 1008); Weight 21.4 gr., Max Diameter 32.3 mm; Rome mint, 156-7 AD; Obv. ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P IMP II, laureate head right, Rev. TR POT XX COS IIII S C, Justitia (?) seated left on chair formed by 2 crossed cornuacopiae, holding sceptre; Thin olive patina with with brass showing through in areas, very worn, pitted and corrosion spots mainly on rev.Steve E
AntoAs36.jpg
Antoninus Pius, RIC 881, As of AD 150-151 (Justitia)23 viewsĆ As (10,46g, Ř 29mm, 6h). Rome, AD 150-151.
Obv.: IMP CAES T AEL HADR ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P, laureate head right.
Rev.: TR POT XIIII COS III around, IVSTITIA in ex., S | C, Justitia seated left, holding patera and sceptre.
RIC 881 (C); Cohen 474; Strack 1059
Ex ArtCoins Roma E-Auction 28, July 2015
1 commentsCharles S
kroton.jpg
AR Nomos of Kroton, Bruttium 500-480 BC11 viewsOBVERSE: KPO upwards on left, Tripod with legs terminating in lion's feet, heron standing left on right.
REVERSE: Incuse tripod.

A slightly chipped example. Bruttium was in the toe of Italy (Calabria). It is believed to have been settled by Greek colonists from Crotona, hence the KPO legend. The followers of the cult of Pythagoras resided here and the tripod/inverse tripod design may have been inspired by their ideas or, more likely, it depicts a trophy in Olympic events. The Greeks were mainly farmers then (and now) and were more attracted to homely themes like scenes from nature and sporting competition than philosophy as subjects on their coins.

SNG ANS 269 (5.99 gm) ex-Forvm Coins
daverino
Athens_tet.jpg
Athens, Greece, Old Style Tetradrachm, 449 - 413 B.C.118 viewsSilver tetradrachm, SNG Cop 31ff; Starr pl. xxii, 6; SGCV I 2526, VF, test cut, Athens mint, weight 16.870g, maximum diameter 24.5mm, die axis 225o, obverse head of Athena right, almond shaped eye, crested helmet with olive leaves and floral scroll, wire necklace, round earring, hair in parallel curves; reverse AQE right, owl standing right, head facing, erect in posture, olive sprig and crescent left, all within incuse square;


The old-style tetradrachm of Athens is famous for its almond shaped eye, archaic smile and charming owl reverse. Around 480 B.C. a wreath of olive leaves and a decorative scroll were added to Athena's helmet. On the reverse a crescent moon was added.

During the period 449 - 413 B.C. huge quantities of tetradrachms were minted to finance grandiose building projects such as the Parthenon and to cover the costs of the Peloponnesian War.

Ex Forum
1 commentsPhiloromaos
Athens_Tetradrachm.jpg
Athens, Greece, Old Style Tetradrachm, 449 - 413 B.C.463 viewsSilver tetradrachm, SNG Cop 31 ff., SGCV I 2526, EF, light scuff on cheek, 17.184g, 25.6mm, 180o, Athens mint, obverse head of Athena right, almond shaped eye, crested helmet with olive leaves and floral scroll, wire necklace, round earring, hair in parallel curves; reverse AQE right, owl standing right, head facing, erect in posture, olive sprig and crescent left, all within incuse square;

A superb beauty ex FORVM .


The old-style tetradrachm of Athens is famous for its almond shaped eye, archaic smile and charming owl reverse. Around 480 B.C. a wreath of olive leaves and a decorative scroll were added to Athena's helmet. On the reverse a crescent moon was added.

During the period 449 - 413 B.C. huge quantities of tetradrachms were minted to finance grandiose building projects such as the Parthenon and to cover the costs of the Peloponnesian War.

*With my sincere thank , Photo and Description courtesy of FORVM Ancient Coins Staff.

From The Sam Mansourati Collection.
9 commentsSam
Athens,_Greece,_Old_Style_Tetradrachm,_c__454_-_404_B_C_.jpg
Athens, Greece, Old Style Tetradrachm, c. 454 - 404 B.C.203 views*In honor of Christmas and Chanukah , from FORVM , new to my collection ;
A masterpiece example of group Copenhagen 31 .

My best wishes to all of you.


Silver tetradrachm, SNG Cop 31, SNG München 49, Kroll 8, Dewing 1611, Gulbenkian 519, HGC 4 1597, SGCV I 2526, EF, fabulous owl, well centered on a tight flan, no test cuts, a little obverse die wear, contact marks, 17.168g, 25.0mm, 90o, Athens mint, c. 454 - 404 B.C.; obverse head of Athena right, almond shaped eye, crested helmet with olive leaves and floral scroll, wire necklace, round earring, hair in parallel curves; reverse AQE right, owl standing right, head facing, erect in posture, olive sprig and crescent left, all within incuse square.

The old-style tetradrachm of Athens is famous for its almond shaped eye, archaic smile and charming owl reverse. Around 480 B.C. a wreath of olive leaves and a decorative scroll were added to Athena's helmet. On the reverse a crescent moon was added.

During the period 449 - 413 B.C. huge quantities of tetradrachms were minted to finance grandiose building projects such as the Parthenon and to cover the costs of the Peloponnesian War.
EX FORVM .
The Sam Mansourati Collection.
4 commentsSam
Athens,_Greece,_Old_Style_Tetradrachm,_c__454_-_404_B_C_~0.jpg
Athens, Greece, Old Style Tetradrachm, c. 454 - 404 B.C.115 viewsIn honor of Christmas :
Silver tetradrachm, SNG Cop 31, SNG Munchen 49, Kroll 8, Dewing 1611, Gulbenkian 519, HGC 4 1597, SGCV I 2526, Choice EF, bold well centered strike, high relief as usual for the type, attractive surfaces, graffito on reverse, small edge cracks, 17.176g, 24.7mm, 30o, Athens mint, c. 454 - 404 B.C.; obverse head of Athena right, almond shaped eye, crested helmet with olive leaves and floral scroll, wire necklace, round earring, hair in parallel curves; reverse owl standing right, head facing, erect in posture, olive sprig and crescent left, AQE downward on right, all within incuse square.

The old-style tetradrachm of Athens is famous for its almond shaped eye, archaic smile, and charming owl reverse. Around 480 B.C. a wreath of olive leaves and a decorative scroll were added to Athena's helmet. On the reverse, a crescent moon was added.

During the period 449 - 413 B.C. huge quantities of tetradrachms were minted to finance grandiose building projects such as the Parthenon and to cover the costs of the Peloponnesian War.

FORVM Ancient Coins. / From The Sam Mansourati Collection.
10 commentsSam
roman7.JPG
Augustus AE Dupondius45 viewsAVGVSTVS TRIBVNIC POTEST in wreath - Partial legend legible --RIVIN--IANVSIII -- around large S C (moderate pitting)
Coin obtained and cleaned for Forum Never-Ending Coin Cleaning Competition
CGPCGP
Barbaric_imitative_Tetricus_I~0[1].jpg
Barbaric Imitative Tetricus 13 viewsTetricus I AE Antoninianus, IMP C TETRICVS PF AVG,radiate bust right / LAETITIA AVGG, unofficial mint, 271-273 C.E.
16.1 mm, 1.8 g.
NORMAN K
tet16.jpg
Barbaric Imitative Tetricus Similar to RIC VII 86 Gallic mint, 270-273 CE18 viewsObverse: IMP TETRICVS PF AVG, radiate, cuirassed bust right.
Reverse: LAETITIA AVG, Laetitia standing left, holding wreath and anchor.
14.5 mm., .8 g.
NORMAN K
Barbarous_antoninianus_of_Tetricus_I_(issued_ca_270-280_AD),_hoard_coin_from_France.jpg
Barbarous antoninianus of Tetricus I (issued ca.270-280 AD), hoard coin from France18 viewsCrude inscriptions, radiate and draped bust right / Crude inscriptions, Laetitia standing, holding rudder and wreath. 18mm, 3.27 grams, nicer than the scan. . Found in a hoard in Northern France.
Antonio Protti
tacitus.jpg
BCC Lr10x48 viewsLate Roman
Tacitus 275-276 CE
AE Antoninianus
Obv: IMP C M CL TACITVS AVG
Radiate, cuirassed (draped?)bust right.
Rev: LAETITIA FVND
Laetitia standing left with wreath
and anchor. In exer. XXI[B]
22mm. 3.72 gm. Axis:180
RIC 89 Mint of Rome
v-drome
BCC_MA39_Enameled_Plate_Fibula.jpg
BCC MA3935 viewsEnameled Plate Fibula
Caesarea Maritima
Roman 2nd - 3rd Century CE
Rectangular bronze plate fibula
with two sections of brick-red
enamel separated by waviform
partition.  Rounded triangular
end pieces topped by circular
design with incised concentric
circles.  The missing pin was
articulated with a dual plaque
hinge and iron axis-pin.  
A hooked pin-catch extends
perpendicular from the foot,
parallel to the length of the fibula.
Length: 3.8 x 1.3cm. Weight:3.20gm.
Surface find, 1970
(click for larger pic)
1 commentsv-drome
pjimage_(20).jpg
Bruttia Crispina18 viewsAE As, Struck 180-182 AD, Rome Mint
Obverse: CRISPINA AVGVSTA, Draped bust right, hair knotted in a bun in back.
Reverse: LAETITIA S-C, Laetitia standing left, holding wreath & rudder on globe.
References: RIC 683; BMC 435; Cohen 28
Size: 25mm, 11.80g
1 commentsJustin L
Manuel 1~0.jpg
BYZANTINE, Manuel I, 1143 - 1180, AV Hyperpyron, Sear 155657 viewsA brave general but even more skillful diplomat and statesman. Impregnated with the idea of a universal Empire with passion for theological debate he was also perhaps the only chivalrous Emperor-Knight of Byzantine. He is a representitive of a new kind of Byzantine rulers that were influenced by the contact with the western crusaders. The customs kept in his court were not inspired by the traditional Byzantine opulence. He loved western customs and arranged jousting matches, even participating in them, an unusual and discomforting sight for the Byzantines.

Having distinguished himself in his father's war against the Seljuk Turks, he was nominated emperor in preference to his elder surviving brother. Endowed with a fine physique and great personal courage, he devoted himself whole-heartedly to a military career. He endeavoured to restore by force of arms the predominance of the Byzantine Empire in the Mediterranean countries, and so was involved in conflict with his neighbours on all sides.

[edit]
Second Crusade
In 1144 he brought back Raymond of Antioch to his allegiance, and in the following year drove the Seljuk Turks out of Isauria. In 1147 he granted a passage through his dominions to two armies of the Second Crusade under Conrad III of Germany and Louis VII of France; but the numerous outbreaks of overt or secret hostility between the Franks and the Greeks on their line of march, for which both sides were to blame, nearly precipitated a conflict between Manuel and his guests.

goldcoin
romI14.jpg
BYZANTINE, Romanus I Lecapenus A.D.920-944, AE Follis, struck at Constantinople98 viewsObv: +RWmAn bASILEVS RWM. Facing bearded bust of Romanus I, wearing crown and jewelled chlamys, holding labarum and globus cruciger.
Rev: +RWMA/n En θEW bA/SILEVS RW/MAIWn in four lines.
Sear: 1760

Romanus I Lecapenus (A.D.920-944), co-ruled with Constantine VII. Porphyrogenitus (A.D.913-959)
Large quantities of folles of this type appear to have been issued, and are often overstruck on folles of Leo VI.
1 commentsW. Kutschenko
226-1b-sb-blk.jpg
C TITINI XVI - Denarius, Crawford 226/1b13 viewsDenomination: Denarius
Era: c. 141 BC
Metal: AR
Obverse: Helmeted head of Roma r. with peaked visor; “XVI” behind; Border of dots
Reverse: Victory in biga right, holding whip in right hand and reins in left; below, C TITINI; in linear frame, ROMA.

Mint: Rome
Weight: 3.93 gm.
Reference: Crawford 226/1b
Provenance: Astarte XX, Lot 65; 30-Oct-2009.

Comments:
This is the scarce elegant style version of this otherwise common issue. In his introduction to RRC, Crawford says:

“…with the issue of C. Titinius, however,
a new style appears, with a rounded ornate head of Roma decorated by a necklace
of pendants instead of a necklace of beads. This new style reappears intermittently,
in the issues of M. Aurelius Cota (no. 229), M. Baebius Tampilus (no. 236) and C.
Serveilius M.f. (no. 239); it also influences what may be called the old style, so that the heads become broader while retaining basically the same features. The original
version of this style appears for the last time in the issues of C. Valerius Flaccus
(no. 228) and M. Aurelius Cota (no. 229)”

I have never seen an example of this style for C. Valerius Flaccus and Crawford does not call it out in his catalog, though he does for M. Aurelius Cota.

The reverse is slightly off-center, obscuring the far horse head so it isn’t complete. Otherwise the coin is GEF and among the finest dies of this engraver.
Steve B5
0086.jpg
C. Titinius, Denarius16 viewsC. Titinius. AR Denarius

RRC 226/1b
141 bc

Av: Helmeted head of Roma right; behind, XVI.
Rv: Rev. Victory in biga right; below horses, C. TITINI; in exergue, ROMA.

I love these horses. In the context of the traditional depiction of biga on the republican denarii this must have been quite a revolution.
--
Ex ArtemideAste, Antiquities 4, 19/20.03.2016
1 commentsNorbert
Caligula_RIC_16.jpg
Caligula RIC 001682 viewsSH86638. Silver denarius, RIC I 16 (R2, Rome), RSC I 2, Lyon 167, BnF II 21, BMCRE I 17, cf. SRCV I 1807 (aureus), VF, toned, attractive portraits, bumps and marks, some pitting, lamination defects, ex jewelry, Lugdunum (Lyon, France) mint, weight 3.443g, maximum diameter 18.2mm, die axis 180o, 2nd emission, 37 - 38 A.D.; obverse C CAESAR AVG GERM P M TR POT (counterclockwise from lower right), laureate head of Caligula right; reverse DIVVS AVG PATER PATRIAE (counterclockwise from lower right), radiate head of Divus Augustus right; ex Classical Numismatic Group, e-auction 69 (23 July 2003), lot 90
Ex: Forum Ancient coins, March 2, 2018.


This is my second denarius of Gaius. I was extremely happy to get this one. I know the surfaces are a bit rough, but it is still a VF example of a rare coin. Denarii of Caligula do not show up for sale very often outside of large auction houses. When they do appear they are often very expensive. I waited for about 2 1/2 years for a coin like this to show up. As soon as it did I bought it.

I want to share a quick word about where I bought this coin. It was a purchase from Forum Ancient Coins. Coins are guaranteed authentic for eternity, and the service is second to none. Forum is also an incredible source of information concerning ancient coins. If you have a question about ancient coins, chances are that question has been asked and answered on Forum Ancient Coins. Many experts frequent this site and they are always willing to share their expertise.

Anyone trying to assemble a set of the 12 Caesars in silver will need to find a denarius of Gaius. His is one of the most difficult to add along with denarii of Claudius and Otho. It has also been suggested by some that it is the fault of 12 Caesars collectors that drives the prices so high. While true that there is a lot of competition for these coins when they appear, it is also true that there are alternatives to the denarii of Gaius. One popular choice is the Vesta As. These are quite common and can be had in nice condition for reasonable prices.

On the obverse we have the typical portrait of Gaius, while on the reverse we see a portrait of his great grandfather Augustus. Augustus is depicted as a Divus or god. The reverse legend "Pater Patriae" refers to Augustus as the father of the country. One reason Augustus was on the reverse was to remind the people of Rome of their emperor's connection to the Julio-Claudian ruling dynasty.

Why are denarii of Gaius so scarce? One explanation is has to do with Gresham's law or bad money drives out good money. The theory is that the monetary reforms of Nero, which debased to coinage in both weight and fineness, caused people to hoard the older more valuable coins of emperors like Caligula and Claudius. The problem with this explanation is that there are plenty of "tribute penny" denarii of Tiberius. The other possibility is that perhaps smaller numbers of Gaius' denarii were originally minted. Maybe there was already enough silver coinage circulating and therefore fewer were needed. Whatever the real reason, we are unlikely to ever get a satisfactory answer.
5 commentsorfew
Temporum.jpg
Caracalla211 viewsANTONINVS PIVS AVG
Laureate head of Caracalla right

LAETITIA TEMPORVM
The spina of the Circus Maximus decorated as a ship facing l., with the turning posts at its prow and stern, a sail mounted on the central obelisk, and the spina's other monuments visible in between; above the ship, four quadrigas racing l.; below, seven animals: an ostrich at l. and bear at r.; between them a lion and a lioness chasing a wild ass and a panther attacking a bison.

Rome 206 AD

3.34g

Ex-Londinium coins, Ex Professor K.D. White with original envelope.

Sear 6813, RIC 157, BMCRE 257, CSS 793

Very rare! Only 2 examples in the Reka Devnia hoard

Better in hand

Notes by Curtis Clay:

This famous type commemorates the chariot races and animal hunt that took place on the seventh and final day of Severus' Saecular Games in 204 AD, as described in the inscriptional acts of those games which were found in Rome in the 1870s and 1930s. According to the acts, after three days of sacrifices and three days of honorary stage shows, Severus and Caracalla held circus games on the seventh day, consisting of chariot races and then a hunt of 700 beasts, 100 each of "lions, lionesses, panthers, bears, bisons, wild asses, ostriches". Dio Cassius describes the same hunt, adding the detail that the cage from which the animals were discharged was formed like a boat: "The entire receptacle in the theater had been fashioned in the shape of a boat and was capable of receiving or discharging four hundred beasts at once; and then, as it suddenly fell apart, there came rushing forth bears, lionesses, panthers, lions, ostriches, wild asses, bisons, so that 700 beasts in all, both wild and domesticated, at one and the same time were seen running about and were slaughtered. For to correspond with the duration of the festival, which lasted seven days, the number of the animals was also seven times one hundred." In Dio's text this passage follows directly on his account of Severus' Decennalian Games in 202 AD, causing scholars to accuse Dio of misdating the hunt or to postulate that similar hunts of 700 animals were held both in 202 and in 204. But the true explanation, in my opinion, is that Dio's Byzantine epitimator Xiphilinus, on whom we are dependent for this section of Dio's text, has simply jumped without warning or transition from Dio's description of the Decennalian Games of 202 to his description of the circus spectacle concluding the Saecular Games of 204. This hypothesis easily explains why Dio's text as we have it makes no mention of the Saecular Games themselves or of any event of 203: Xiphilinus omitted this whole section of Dio's history! The seven kinds of animals named by both Dio and the inscriptional acts are also depicted in the coin type: on good specimens, especially the aureus BM pl. 34.4, the ostrich and the bear are clear, the lion has a mane, the ass has long ears, the bison has horns and a hump. Two large felines remain, of which we may suppose that the one accompanying the lion is the lioness and the one attacking the bison is the panther. The animals are named somewhat differently in Cohen, BMC, and other numismatic works: though numismatists have long cited Dio's text to explain the coin type, no one previously seems to have posed the question whether the seven animals in the lower part of the type might not be the same seven that Dio and now the inscriptional acts too name! These circus games with the ship and 700 animals were held in 204 AD, but the coin type commemorating them did not appear until two years later: on aurei of Septimius the type is die linked to a dated type of 206 AD, and for Caracalla the type passes from a draped and cuirassed obverse type on the aureus to the "head only" type on his denarii, a transition that took place in 206 AD according to his dated coins.


SOLD October 2014
10 commentsJay GT4
CaracallaIvst.jpg
Caracalla (r. 198-217 AD) - AR Denarius - Laodicea ad Mare48 viewsObv: IMP C M AVR ANTON AVG P TR P - Laureate bust right, draped and cuirassed
Rev: IVSTITIA - Justitia seated left, holding patera and sceptre

Mint of Laodicea ad Mare (modern Latakia in Syria), struck in 198 AD
References: RIC IV 335 (S)
Weight: 2.85 g
Dimensions: 18 mm
1 commentskrazy
051_Caracalla_RSC_---,_AR-Den,_M_AVR_ANTONINVS_AVG,_IVSTITIA,_Roma,_198_AD,_KK-001,_0h,_17,1-17,7mm,_3,10g-s.jpg
Caracalla AR-Denarius, Not in RIC IV-I, Not in RSC,17 viewsCaracalla AR-Denarius, Not in RIC IV-I, Not in RSC,
0h,17,1-17,7mm,3,10g
1 commentsKaroly K2
Caracalla_RIC_335.jpg
Caracalla RIC 33518 viewsDenarius, Laodiceia, 198
Obv: IMP C M AVR ANTON AVG P TR P
Bust. laur. r., dr., cuirassed.
Rev: IVSTITIA
Justitia seated l., holding patera and sceptre.
20mm, 3.35g
klausklage
Caracalla_RIC_335-2.jpg
Caracalla RIC 33519 viewsDenarius, Laodiceia, 198
Obv: IMP C M AVR ANTON AVG P TR P
Bust. laur. r., dr., cuirassed.
Rev: IVSTITIA
Justitia seated l., holding patera and sceptre.
20mm, 3.12g
1 commentsklausklage
Caracalla_RIC_355a.jpg
Caracalla RIC 355a14 viewsDenarius, Laodiceia, ca. 202
Obv: ANTONINVS PIVS AVG
Laur. r.
Rev: IVSTITIA
Justitia seated l., holding patera and sceptre.
20mm, 3.05g

Poor condition, but hard to find (rated R in RIC).
klausklage
00477q00.jpg
Carausius6 viewsAE-Antoninianus
IMP C CARAVSIVS AVG; Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust to right.
LAETIT AVG; Laetitia standing left, holding wreath and anchor; S P in fields.
Ex: C
Camolodunum
RIC 258
Julianus of Pannonia
Carausius.png
Carausius Antoninianus - LITIT AV22 viewsCarausius antoninianus
286 - 293ad

Obverse:
IMP CARAVSIVS PF AVG
Bust facing right

Reverse:
LITIT AV
Laetitia standing facing left

Rarer type?
1 commentsHarry G
chinese_charm_pan.jpg
Chinese Charm with coin inscription from Later Zhou Dynasty 951 - 960 A.D.87 viewsCast Bronze Chinese Charm, Weight 8.8g, Max diameter 26.8mm, Obv. 周 元通宝 zhou yuan tong bao "Zhou First Currency", Rev. Dragon on left, Warrior with sword on right (depicting "Zhou Chu killing the dragon"), Rich brown patina.

Background info courtsey Primaltrek.com

In addition to official coinage, China also has a long history of producing "coin-like" charms, amulets and talismans.

Coins, as a form of money, represent power. Coin-shaped charms are, therefore, a very compact form of power. They are filled with symbolism and are believed by the multitude of Chinese to have vast powers.

Cast throughout the centuries, these ancient charms, informally referred to by the Chinese as "ya sheng coins" (压胜钱), "flower coins" (huaqian 花钱) or "play coins" (wanqian 玩钱), were not used as money but rather to suppress evil spirits, bring "good luck", "good fortune" and to avert misfortune.

For the most part, all these old charms,...were privately cast and their quantities and dates are almost impossible to determine. Nevertheless, they serve as important cultural artifacts from the life of the common Chinese throughout the centuries.

Emperor Shizong did cast coins in earnest beginning in 955 AD, the second year of his Xiande (显德) reign, with the inscription zhou yuan tong bao (周 元通宝). To obtain the copper to make the coins, Emperor Shizong ordered the confiscation of bronze statues from 3,336 Buddhist temples. He also mandated that citizens turn in to the government all bronze utensils with the exception of bronze mirrors.

Zhou yuan tong bao coins are very well made and still exist in large quantities. Because the coins were made from Buddhist statues, they are considered to have special powers. For example, it was believed that the zhou yuan tong bao coin could cure malaria and help women going through a difficult labor.

Because of the common belief that the coin has special powers, the zhou yuan tong bao became very popular as the basis for charms and amulets. There are many charms with the inscription zhou yuan tong bao on the obverse and a dragon and phoenix on the reverse. Images of the Buddha, zodiac animals, and other auspicious objects can also be found on the reverse sides of zhou yuan tong bao charms.

The theme of this charm is "Zhou Chu killing the dragon".

A folk story about Zhou Chu appeared in the 430AD book "A New Account of the Tales of the World" and proved to be very popular. The story claims that Zhou Chu was such a hot-headed bully in his younger days that he was called one of the "Three Scourges" by the villagers in his hometown (in today's Yixing), along with a dragon and a tiger. Upon hearing the term, Zhou Chu went on to kill the tiger and the dragon. After he and the dragon disappeared for 3 days fighting in Lake Tai, the villagers celebrated wildly, just when Zhou Chu returned with the dragon's head. That was when he realized that he was the last scourge that the villagers feared. Determined to mend his old ways, he sought out Eastern Wu generals Lu Ji and Lu Yun, and received encouragement. Eventually he became an accomplished general beloved by his people~Wikipedia
3 commentsSteve E
s Coat of Arms.jpg
Chulalongkorn Coat of Arms19 viewsChulalongkorn (Rama V--Chakri Dynasty) Coat of Arms

Origin/Meaning:
The arms of the Kingdom of Siam were created during the reign of King Chulalongkorn the Great, Rama V, when the Kingdom was exposed to Western traditions, ideas, and also European threat of colonialism. King Chulalongkorn, who visited Europe twice, modernized Siam and adopted many of the European traditions to his court, including the use of heraldry.

On the top of the coat of arms is the Great Victory Crown of Thailand, the most important royal regalia and the symbol of kingship. Under the crown is the symbol of the Royal House of Chakri, the King's royal family, which is a disc intersected with a trident. The royal multi-tiered umbrellas of state are also present on either side of the crown. To both sides of the coat of arms are the other regalia, the royal sword and the royal baton. In the background is the draped robe - either the Royal robe of the King or the robe of the Order of Chulachomklao - an order created by the King. The supporters are two (again) mythical creatures, one is the Royal Lion, rajasiha, and the other is Elephant Lion, gaja-siha.

The shield itself is partitioned into three parts, signifying the Thai part of the Kingdom (the 3-headed elephant) on the top, the Laotian suzerainty (another elephant), and the Malay suzerainty (two "kris", or Malayan short swords).

The chain under the Arms is a necklace that is a part of the Order of Chulachomklao.
The ribbon under the Arms is inscribed with the motto (in Pali, the language of the Buddhist canon) which may be translated as "Unity brings happiness".

When the present seal (the Garuda) was made the State symbol, King Chulalongkorn's great arms were no longer used as a State symbol, however, it still adorns the hats of Thai police officers to this day.
Literature : Information provided by Apirat Sugondhabhirom
________________________________________
Sitemap © Ralf Hartemink 1996, -
Cleisthenes
Civil_Wars_RIC_121.jpg
Civil Wars of 68-69 Clasped Hands76 viewsCivil Wars of 68-69 AD AR denarius. 3.49 g. Minted by pro-Vitellian forces in Southern Gaul.
O: FIDES EXERCITVVM, two clasped hands.
R: FIDES PRAETORIANORVM, two clasped hands.
-BMC 65; Martin 7; RIC˛ 121 (Group IV) , Ex Jonathan P. Rosen, Ex Auktion Myers/Adams 7, New York 1974, Nr. 269.

The message of a unified fidelity, or loyalty, of the 'armies' (FIDES EXERCITVVM) and the praetorians (FIDES PRAETORIANORVM) would only be an effective propaganda tool if it was distributed among the praetorians.

David R Sear, writing in RCV, agrees with Kraay (Num. Chron 1949, pp 78.) that this interesting, anonymous civil war issue was produced on behalf of Vitellius, to be used as 'bribe money' to suborn the soldiers, as well as the Praetorian Guard, loyal to Otho in the capital. "In March 69 AD, Vitellian commander Fabius Valens entered Italy from Southern Gaul at the head of a small band of secret agents. Their mission was to infiltrate the capital, especially the ranks of the Praetorians, with the object of disseminating pro-Vitellian propaganda and dissociating the guards from their allegiance to Otho. These coins, struck in advance in Southern Gaul, would thus have played a vital role as 'bribe money'. Despite these covert activities, the Praetorians remained loyal to their Emperor, though all was to be for naught, as the following month, the invading army of Vitellius was victorious at the battle of Bedriacum, and Otho took his own life" - David R Sear

Here is the ad from the New york times December 1, 1974 page 208, advertising the Myers/Adams auction 7:
Several thousand foreign coin collectors are expected here next weekend for the biggest event on their winter calendar, the third annual New York International Numismatic Convention. The three‐day show will be held in the Albert Hall of the Americana Hotel, Seventh Avenue between 52d and 53rd Streets. It will open at 11 A.M. on Friday, with the exhibit area and the dealer bourse to remain open till 8 P.M. On Saturday the hours are 10 A.M. to 8 P.M., and on Sunday from 11 A.M. to 6 P.M. There will be an admission charge of 50 cents, for which a badge will be issued that will be good for all three days.
As its title indicates, the show emphasizes foreign numismatics to the point of almost excluding U.S. material. This holds true in exhibits as well as in the bourse and throughout the convention program. All of the exhibits are, again, invitational—noncompetitive—and were selected to assure representation of a wide range of international numismatic interests.

One symbol of the convention's success is that the, number of exhibitors and dealers has grown each year. This year there will be 67 bourse tables, roughly a quarter of them occupied by dealers from Europe and Canada; the remainder will be taken by leading U.S. dealers who have established reputations as specialists in ancient and foreign coins.
The convention will have two auctions, both described in some detail in this column a couple of weeks ago. The first, a “prologue” to the convention, will he the Myers/ Adams auction of ancient Greek and Roman coins at 7 P.M. on Thursday. The second, a two‐session sale of foreign coins and paper money, will be conducted by Henry Christensen, Inc., at 7 P.M. on Friday and 1:30 P.M. on Saturday.
3 commentsNemonater
Victorinus_REV.JPG
Claudius Gothicus Rev7 viewsClaudius II, Gothicus;268-270AD
Bronze; AE Antoninianus
OBV: IMP CLAVDIVS AVG; Draped Bust Right
REV: LAETITIA AVG; Laetitia standing left, holding wreath and anchor
(RIC 235)
Philip G
Victorinus_OBV.JPG
Claudius Gothicus Obv7 viewsClaudius II, Gothicus;268-270AD
Bronze; AE Antoninianus
OBV: IMP CLAVDIVS AVG; Draped Bust Right
REV: LAETITIA AVG; Laetitia standing left, holding wreath and anchor
(RIC 235)
Philip G
coin102.JPG
Claudius II6 viewsIMP CLAVDIVS AVG
LAETITIA AVG
Laetitia Standing left, holding purse and cornecopiae
ecoli
Claudius II 145.jpg
Claudius II (Gothicus), RIC 56, Unknown15 viewsObv: IMP CLAVDIVS AVG
Bust: Radiate & cuirassed bust right
Rev: LAETITIA AVG
Laetitia, (personification of joy and good grace), standing left with wreath and cornucopia.
Exe: None
Date: 268-270 AD
Denom: Antoninianus
Bluefish
397_Claudius_II_Laetitia.jpg
Claudius II - AE antoninianus10 viewsSiscia
end 269 - early 270
Issue 3, Phase 2
radiate, cuirassed bust right
IMP CLAVDIVS AVG
Laetitia standing half left, holding wreath and cornucopia
LAETITIA AVG
Normanby 1092; RIC 1st 181
http://www.ric.mom.fr/en/coin/740
2,88 g
Johny SYSEL
805_Claudius_II_Laetitia.jpg
Claudius II - silvered antoninianus9 viewsSiscia
end 269 - early 270 AD
Issue 3, Phase 1
radiate, cuirassed bust right
IMP CLAVDIVS AVG
Laetitia standing half left, holding wreath and cornucopia
LAETITIA AVG
I
Cunetio 2288; RIC1st 181
http://www.ric.mom.fr/en/coin/649
Johny SYSEL
Claudius Goeticus  6 D.jpg
Claudius II Goeticus As17 viewsAE As.
Obv.: DIVO CLAVDIO ; Rev.: LAETITIA AVG ; Laetitia stg. l.
Tanit
CLAUD2-3.jpg
Claudius II RIC V-1 1819 viewsObv: IMP CLAVDIVS AVG
radiate, cuirassed bust right
Rev: LAETITIA AVG
Laetitia standing left with wreath & cornucopiae,
I right in right field
20mm 3.6gm
OWL365
q4.JPG
Claudius II, Laetitia15 viewsIMP CLAVDIVS AVG
LAETITIA AVG
Laetitia standing left , holding wreath and anchor
RIC V (1) 56 Rome c

ecoli
Laetitia.JPG
Claudius II- LAETITIA AVG26 views(IMP) CLAVDIVS AVG, radiate head rt. / L(AETITIA A)VG (Joy of the Emperor), Laetitia holds anchor or rudder on globe with wreath in rt. hand. Officina mark XII in field. 2.8 gr., 21 mm.

RIC 56, Sear 11346. Rome.
SkySoldier
ART_Dukat_weight_Hungarian.JPG
Coin Weight for Hungarian Ducat (=aranyforint = gulden)246 viewsAE 13 mm x 14 mm x 1.5 mm; original weight 3.5 gr.

Withers, P. and B.R., "Lions, Ships & Angels: The Galata Guide to Identifying Coin-Weights Found in Britain" (1995 & 2nd ed. revised 2011), p. 29 (per the dealer's flip).

Obv: Crowned St. Lászlo (= Ladislaus) standing facing, holding long cross in right hand and globus cruciger in left, flanked by H-D (= Hungaricus Ducatus), all in a beaded circle.

Rev: Blank.

The Hungarian aranyforint was struck in great quantities and circulated widely throughout Europe, so that they are found as far afield as England and Scotland. As many currencies circulated throughout Europe, coin weights were sold in boxed sets containing weights for a wide variety of coins that a merchant may encounter, together with a scale.

The obverse devise on this weight is similar to the medieval depiction of St. Lászlo which continuously appeared on the aranyforint from the reign of Lajos I (1342-1382) through the reign of Lajos II (1516-1526), and after the defeat of Hungary by the Ottoman Empire at the Battle of Mohács, on the ayanyforints of János Szapolyai (1526-1540), but not on those of his Habsburg rival, Ferdinand I (1526-1564), or on those of the subsequent Habsburg kings of Hungary (the depiction of St. Lászlo on the Habsburg coins, and even on some of the later Jagiellon issues, was in a Renaissance style). The devise on the weight differs from that on the aranyforint primarily in that (a) St. Lászlo is holding a long cross rather than a halberd; and (b) St. Lászlo is not nimbate (although he is not consistently nimbate on the later Jagiellon issues and is not nimbate on the issues of János Szapolyai). The style of this weight suggests that it was manufactured pre- Mohács, and according to Withers, it was made in Germany during the 1400’s to 1500’s (Note: I am reliant upon the dealer’s flip for this information, as I have not been able to obtain Withers). However, a number of similarly styled coin weights issued by Antwerp masters who were active in the mid to late 1500’s (i.e., Bernaert Foncq (active 1550-1578), his son, Hans Foncq (active 1577-1603) and Rogier Verpoorten (active ca. 1580 and later)) indicates that the medieval St. Lászlo continued to appear on coin weights even after that style had become obsolete on the actual coins. presenting the possibility that this weight may have been manufactured post-Mohács.
1 commentsStkp
laetitia_avg_n.JPG
Cologne - 5e Emission - (début - mi 272) - LAETITIA AVG N11 viewsIMP TETRICVS P F AVG
LAETITIA AVG N
EG 300
Cunetio 2639
RIC 90
Elmer 786
AGK 5b
de Witte 47
Cohen 75
PYL
laetitia_avgg_1.JPG
Cologne - 6e Emission - (mi-fin 272 ou début 273) - LAETITIA AVGG8 viewsIMP TETRICVS P F AVG
LAETITIA AVGG
EG 303
Cunetio 2645
RIC 88
Elmer 787
AGK 6b
de Witte 48
Cohen 71
PYL
laetitia_avgg_2.JPG
Cologne - 6e Emission - (mi-fin 272 ou début 273) - LAETITIA AVGG6 viewsIMP TETRICVS P F AVG
LAETITIA AVGG
EG 303
Cunetio 2645
RIC 88
Elmer 787
AGK 6b
de Witte 48
Cohen 71
PYL
laetitia_retrograde.JPG
Cologne - 6e Emission - (mi-fin 272 ou début 273) - LAETITIA AVGG8 viewscette monnaie est issue du trésor de Rockbourne, découvert en 1967
cette monnaie n'est pas incuse
la titulature est rétrograde
IMP TETRICVS P F AVG
LAETITIA AVGG
EG ...
Cunetio ...
RIC ...
Elmer ...
AGK ...
Normanby 1517
PYL
tetricus_2.JPG
Cologne - 6e Emission - (mi-fin 272 ou début 273) - LAETITIA AVGG12 viewsIMP TETRICVS P F AVG
LAETITIA AVGG
EG 303
Cunetio 2645
RIC 88
Elmer 787
AGK 6b
de Witte 48
Cohen 71
PYL
Constantin_RIC_28_Alex.jpg
Constantin RIC 28 Alex.19 viewsFollis, 337-347
Obv: DV CONSTANTINVS P T AVGG
Constantin veiled.
Rev: IVST VENER MEMOR - SMALA
Aequitas (Justitia?) winged., standing l., holding balance and transverse sceptre.
16mm, 1.74g

klausklage
Constantin,_RIC_64_Ant.jpg
Constantin RIC 64 Ant.18 viewsFollis, 337-347
Obv: DV CONSTANTINVS P T AVGG
Constantin veiled.
Rev: IVST VEN MEM - SMANA
Aequitas (Justitia?) dr., standing l., holding balance in r. hand.
15mm, 2.09g

The scale, today a regular attribute of every Justitia statue, was originally reserved for Aequitas. The first emperor who combined Justitia with a scale was Pescennius Niger on a Denarius.

klausklage
Constantin_RIC_VIII_35_Cyzicus.jpg
Constantin RIC VIII 35 Cyzicus9 views342-347 AD
Obv.: CONSTANTINVS PT AVGG
Veiled head of Constantine r.
Rev.: IVST VEN MEM, Exe: SMKA (SMKB?)
Aequitas (Justitia?) standing l., holding balance and scroll.

RIC VIII 35 Cyzicus
16mm, 1.84g
klausklage
Constitine_I_01.jpg
Constantine I ( Constatine the Great : Proclaimed AUGUSTUS) A.D. 313 Scicia Mint37 views
Metal: Bronze
Diam: 22 mm.
Weight: 2.7 gr.
OBV: Constantine I, Known as Constantine The Great :Diademed and cuirassed bust facing Right
OBV-LEGEND: CONSTANTINVS PF IVN
Marks-OBV: None
REV: Jupiter standing facing with head left, chlamys hanging from left shoulder, holding Victory on globe and leaning on sceptre, eagle left at his feet to left with wreath in beak. Mintmark: SIS, A right.
REV-LEGEND : IOVI CONSERVATORI AVGG NN
Marks-REV: A in te left field : Officina 2 ( Year 313) In Exergue: SIS
In Exer : SIS
Source : N/A
Age: 313 A.D.
Mint: Siscia *

Ref : Ric VII 234b,234c
Michel C2
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Constantine Reduced Follis 313-315 AD32 viewsObv Leg: IMP CONSTANTINVS PF AVG
Obv: Laureate Head Right
Rev Leg: IOVI CONSERVATORI
Rev: Jupiter standing left with Victory on globem scepter and eagle at foot.
SMK in exergue. Delta in right field.
REF: RIC VII. 3 Mint: Cyzicus Officina Delta
Coin obtained and cleaned in Forum Never-Ending Coin Cleaning Competition
CGPCGP
P1019330.JPG
Constantius II 348-350 AD. AE19mm.41 viewsConstantius II 348-350 AD.
Obv. Laureate, draped and curaissed bust right; D N CONSTAN TIVS P F AVG
Rev. FELTEMPREPARATIO. Phoenix, radiate, standing rt. on pyre/cairn.
ASIS (Symbol) in ex. Siscia mint.
Ex. Forvms Never-Ending Cleaning Competition .
Lee S
P1019403.JPG
Constantius II. 324-351 AD. AE 15mm20 viewsConstantius II. 324-351 AD.
Obv. CONSTANTIVS P F AVG Rosette-Diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust right.
Rev . VICTORIAE DD AVGG Q NN 2 Victories facing each other holding wreaths.
:Greek_epsilon: SIS in Ex. Siscia mint.
Ref. RIC VIII Siscia 182
( Ex. Forum Never-Ending Cleaning Competition )
Lee S
500Bert363.jpg
Cr 44/1 AR Victoriatus Anonymous 39 viewsafter 211 BC. AR Victoriatus (17mm, 3.14g, 11h) Rome mint
O: Laureate head of Jupiter r.
R: Victory standing r., crowning trophy
Crawford 44/1
[my opinion: Although Victoriati can be seen as excruciatingly repetitive, with good reason, the obverse of this coin shows considerable artistry in execution.]
3 commentsPMah
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Crawford 544/29, Marc Antony, for Legio XIV, Denarius, 32-31 BC.84 viewsMarc Antony, for Legio XIV (Gemina Martia Victrix), Patras mint (?), 32-31 BC.,
Denarius (16-17 mm / 3,63 g),
Obv.: above: [AN]T AVG , below: [III VI]R R P C , under oar right, filleted scepter or mast with fluttering banners on prow.
Rev.: LEG - XIV , Aquila (legionary eagle) between two military standards.
Crawf. 544/29 ; Bab. (Antonia) 123 ; BMC 208 ; Sear 369 ; Syd. 1234 .

Die Legio XIV wurde 41 v. Chr. von Augustus aufgestellt. Sie war seit 9 n. Chr. in Moguntiacum (Mainz) stationiert und kämpfte später unter Claudius in Britannien, wo sie 60 oder 61 n. Chr. half, Boudicca niederzuwerfen. Später war die Legion u. a. in Vindobona (Wien) und Carnuntum stationiert. Sie war an den Usurpationen des Saturninus und Regalianus beteiligt.

Legio XIV Gemina Martia Victrix was a legion of the Roman Empire, levied by Octavian after 41 BC. The cognomen Gemina (twin in Latin) suggests that the legion resulted from fusion of two previous ones, one of them possibly being the Fourteenth legion that fought in the Battle of Alesia. Martia Victrix (martial victory) were cognomens added by Nero following the victory over Boudica. The emblem of the legion was the Capricorn, as with many of the legions levied by Augustus.
Invasion of Britain
Stationed in Moguntiacum, Germania Superior, since AD 9, XIIII Gemina Martia Victrix was one of four legions used by Aulus Plautius and Claudius in the Roman invasion of Britain in 43, and took part in the defeat of Boudicca in 60 or 61. In 68 it was stationed in Gallia Narbonensis.
Rebellion on the Rhine
In 89 the governor of Germania Superior, Lucius Antonius Saturninus, rebelled against Domitian, with the support of the XIVth and of the XXI Rapax, but the revolt was suppressed.
Pannonian defense
When the XXIst legion was lost, in 92, XIIII Gemina was sent in Pannonia to substitute it, camping in Vindobona (Vienna). After a war with the Sarmatians and Trajan's Dacian Wars (101-106), the legion was moved to Carnuntum, where it stayed for three centuries. Some subunits of Fourteenth fought in the wars against the Mauri, under Antoninus Pius, and the legion participated to the Parthian campaign of Emperor Lucius Verus. During his war against the Marcomanni, Emperor Marcus Aurelius based his headquarters in Carnuntum.
In support of Septimius Severus
In 193, after the death of Pertinax, the commander of the Fourteenth, Septimius Severus, was acclaimed emperor by the Pannonian legions, and above all by his own. XIIII Gemina fought for its emperor in his march to Rome to attack usurper Didius Julianus (193), contributed to the defeat of the usurper Pescennius Niger (194), and probably fought in the Parthian campaign that ended with the sack of the capital of the empire, Ctesiphon (198).
In support of imperial candidates
In the turmoil following the defeat of Valerian, tXIIII Gemina supported usurper Regalianus against Emperor Gallienus (260), then Gallienus against Postumus of the Gallic empire (earning the title VI Pia VI Fidelis — "six times faithful, six times loyal"), and, after Gallienus death, Gallic Emperor Victorinus (269-271).
5th century
At the beginning of the 5th century, XIIII Gemina still stayed at Carnuntum. It probably dissolved with the collapse of the Danube frontier in 430s. The Notitia Dignitatum lists a Quartodecimani comitatensis unit under the Magister Militum per Thracias; it is possible that this unit is XIV Gemina.

my ancient coin database
1 commentsArminius
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Crispina AE Sestertius Laetitia51 views21.48 grams.
31 mm.
Ref Crispina AE Sestertius, RIC 669, Cohen 27, BMC 416
Crispina Ć Sestertius. Struck 180-183 AD. CRISPINA AVGVSTA, draped bust right / LAETITIA S-C, Laetitia standing facing, head left, holding wreath in right hand & rudder set on globe in left hand. Cohen 27.

*CRISPINA (Bruttia), daughter of Bruttius Praesens, a man of consular rank. Considered a woman of great beauty, she was married to the Emperor Commodus in A.D.177. A few years after his accession to the throne, Commodus divorced Crispina on account of her adultery and, having being exiled to Capreae, she was put to death by strangulation on his orders (A.D.183).


Antonio Protti
crispina1.jpg
CRISPINA AE SESTERTIUS, WIFE OF COMMODUS, AGUSTA 178-182 A.D.135 viewsObverse - CRISPINA AVGVSTS, draped bust right
Reverse - LAETITIA S-C, Laetitia facing left, wreath in right hand and rudder set on globe in left hand. Cohen 27
30mm max. dia.
NORMAN K
Crispina 10 D.jpg
Crispina Dupondius22 viewsAE Dupondius. Obv.: CRISPINA AVGGVSTA ; dr. bust r. ; Rev.: LAETITIA S C; Laeticia stg. l., holding a wreath and a rudder which rests open a globe . Tanit
0161-310np_noir.jpg
Crispina, Sestertius77 viewsRome mint, circa AD 180-182
CRISPINA AVGVSTA, draped bust right
LAETITIA, Laetitia standing left, holding wreath and rudder, SC in field
19.86 gr
Ref : Cohen # 27, RCV # 6007
Potator II
Faustina_II_5.jpg
Denar, RIC 3, p.094, 506b - Faustina II, Laetitia112 viewsFaustina Minor
AR-Denar, Rome, AD 147-148
Obv.: FAVSTINAE AVG. PII AVG. FIL. Draped bust right, the hair coiled in the back of the head in a chignon and decorated with string of pearls.
Rev.: LAETITIAE PVBLICAE, Laetitia, draped and diademed, standing left, holding long scepter in her left hand, wreath in her outstretched right hand.
Ag, 2.81g, 18mm
Ref.: Kamp. 38.9, RIC 506b, CRE 195 [S]

for the same type, but bust with stephane click here
4 commentsshanxi
R611_Faustina_II_fac.jpg
Denar, RIC 3, p.094, 506c - Faustina II, Laetitia47 viewsFaustina Minor
AR-Denar, Rome, AD 147-148
Obv.: FAVSTINAE AVG. PII AVG. FIL. Draped bust right, wearing stephane and pearls.
Rev.: LAETITIAE PVBLICAE, Laetitia, draped and diademed, standing left, holding long scepter in her left hand, wreath in her outstretched right hand.
Ag, 3.58g, 17mm
Ref.: RIC 506c, CRE 196 [S]


for the same type, but bust with band of pearls click here

2 commentsshanxi
Faustina_II_32.jpg
Denar, RIC 3, p.270, 701 - Faustina II, Laetitia37 viewsFaustina II
AR-Denar
Obv.: FAVSTINA AVGVSTA, draped and diademed bust right
Rev.: LAETITIA dot, Laetitia standing left, holding wreath and scepter.
Ag, 2.98g, 18.3mm
Ref.: RIC III 701, CRE 198 [S]
1 commentsshanxi
139-1-NACLondon.jpg
Denarius, Crawford 139/1 - Petite head11 viewsDenomination: Denarius
Era: after 189-180 BC
Metal: AR
Obverse: Helmeted head of Roma r. with peaked visor. Behind, “X”. Border of dots
Reverse: Dioscuri r.; in linear frame. “ROMA”. Line border
Mint: Rome
Weight: 3.65 gm.
Reference: Crawford 139/1
Provenance: Purchased from NAC at London offices, 12-Feb-11

Comments: This anonymous type is characterized by the short reverse frame around ROMA, extending perhaps 2/3 of the way across the exergue. There are two major obverse styles in this type, a long head, and a petite head. This is the petitie head variety.

Reverse slightly off center. Black encrustation from 1-4 oclock reverse rim, otherwise Considerable luster and EF,
Steve B5
domna_561.jpg
Denarius; LAETITIA, RIC 56132 viewsJulia Domna, Augusta 194 - 8 April 217 A.D. Silver denarius, RIC IV 561, RSC III 101, BMCRE V 45, VF, Rome mint, 3.498g, 17.5mm, 180o, 198 A.D.; obverse IVLIA AVGVSTA, draped bust right; reverse LAETITIA, Laetitia standing left, wreath in right and rudder in left. Laetitia was a minor Roman goddess of gaiety, her name deriving from the root word laeta, meaning happy. Ex FORVMPodiceps
Domitian_as_Caesar_RIC_II_T518.jpg
Domitian as Caesar under Titus RIC II T0518 cistophoric tetradrachm 63 viewsDomitian as Caesar under Titus. AR Cistophoric Tetradrachm. Rome Mint for Asia. 80-81 A.D. (10.64 g, 23,3m, 6h). Obv: CAES DIVI F DOMITIANVS COS VII, laureate head right. Rev: PRINC IVVENTVT, Domitian riding left, right hand raised, holding scepter. RIC II (Titus 518).

Subject to some dispute, cistophorii of the Flavians are thought to be minted in Rome for use in the East based on style. This coin mimics a denarius of Domitian as Caesar under Vespasian (RIC II V539), and likely refers to Domitian’s ride in the Judean triumph celebrated by Vespasian and Titius. Ex Incitatus, HBJ, and ACCG.
2 commentsLucas H
D78.jpg
Domitian RIC 7842 viewsĆ Sestertius, 25.82g
Rome mint, 81 AD
Obv: IMP CAES DIVI VESP F DOMITIAN AVG P M; Head of Domitian, laureate, bearded, r.
Rev: TR P COS VII DES VIII P P; S C in field; Minerva stg. l., with spear
RIC 78 (C2). BMC 261. BNC 276.
Acquired from Vilmar, December 2018. Formerly in NGC holder 4280613-006, grade 'F'.

While Domitian's initial denarius output is dominated by the carry-over pulvinar types from Titus, his first issue of sestertii have a more personal touch with the reverses featuring his patron deity Minerva. These first bronze coins were not struck in massive quantities and likely date between mid October and 31 December 81. The reverse legend indicates he is consul for the seventh time and has already been voted as consul for the eighth time beginning 1 January 82.

Superb portrait with an aged brassy appearance.
2 commentsDavid Atherton
D183.jpg
Domitian RIC-183332 viewsAR Denarius, 2.90g
Rome mint, 84 AD
Obv: IMP CAES DOMITIANVS AVG GERMANIC; Bust of Domitian, laureate, draped, bearded, l.
Rev: P M TR POT III IMP V COS X P P; Minerva stg. r. on capital of rostral column, with spear and shield; to r., owl (M2)
RIC 183 (R3). BMC -. RSC -. BNC -.
Acquired from Forvm Ancient Coins, April 2014.

84 AD probably saw the peak of artistic quality with Domitian's precious metal coinage. Two years previous, the fineness of the denarius was increased and the style radically changed from the earlier issues. Upon Domitian's accession the veristic style of Vespasian and Titus still dominated, after the reform it became more idealised and much finer. By 84 the style had evolved to such a high degree that the mint was able to produce these finely engraved draped busts, albeit in small quantities. This extremely rare coin struck in 84 is an exquisite example of the new idealised style. This is the second known specimen of the type. Much experimentation was going on at the mint at this time with reverse types, busts, and style. I assume the amount of time an engraver spent on rendering these highly polished pieces was considerable, which could perhaps explain why they were not struck more commonly. RIC theorises the drapery represents a military cloak commemorating Domitian's recent German victory. Afterwards, the style remained idealised and fine but the finer portraits would sometimes appear with an aegis, the draped busts consigned to an experimental cul-de-sac. The idealised style would continue to evolve throughout the reign reaching baroque proportions by 88. It's a shame that this fine portrait bust was struck sparingly.

Ian Carradice speculated in his 1983 monograph Coinage and Finances in the Reign of Domitian that the same engraver who did this piece may have worked on an earlier left facing portrait from 81 (see my Domitian RIC 75). Although left facing portraits are extremely rare in Domitian's reign and it is not out of the realm of possibility that the same engraver was working at the mint three years later and produced another left facing bust, to my eyes the styles seem too different to warrant that conclusion.

The bust of Domitian here is superbly rendered, one of the finest portraits of Domitian I've ever seen on a denarius. Same obverse die as the unique specimen cited in RIC.

13 commentsDavid Atherton
D251.jpg
Domitian RIC-25184 viewsĆ Quadrans, 3.32g
Rome Mint, 84-85 AD
Obv: (No legend) Rhinoceros stg. l.
Rev: IMP DOMIT AVG GERM; S C in centre
RIC 251 (R). BMC -. BNC 542.
Acquired from Marc Breitsprecher, February 2019.

A few years into Domitian's reign an extraordinary issue of quadrantes were struck featuring a rhinoceros. Although the coins are undated, their production can be narrowed down between late 83 when he assumed the title Germanicus and 85 when the consular date XI appeared on the quadrantes. The type is highly unusual and breaks with the standard obverses that were normally featured on the quadrans. One may ask, why a rhinoceros? Certainly the animal was rare in Rome and most difficult to obtain. The rhinoceros depicted on the coin is the African species, identified by the two horns. Martial in his book 'On Spectacles' tells of such a rhinoceros in the Colosseum. Presumably, these coins were struck with that very 'star performer' in mind. Ted Buttrey wrote about this coin type in his article Domitian, the Rhinoceros, and the Date of Martial's "Liber De Spectaculis": "it is wrong to write off the rhinoceros of Domitian's coin casually, as if the coin were a picture postcard from the zoo: 'This is a rhinoceros'. No, coin types are pointed. Everything has to do with imperial advertisement and with its importance at the moment of issue: 'This is my rhinoceros'. Domitian's rhinoceros, in its supremacy in the arena might well stand as a metaphor for the invincible success of the emperor conquering general who had recently assumed the historically-weighted title of Germanicus." Coming back to Martial, he also speaks of tokens being showered upon the cheering crowds - could these quadrantes struck cheaply and in massive quantities have been gifts to the cheering mob at the arena? In essence, can this coin double as currency and a souvenir from a long ago day at the games in the Colosseum?

This variant of the famous rhinoceros quadrans is somewhat rare (no examples in the BM) because of the obverse legend beginning in the upper right, more commonly it begins in the lower left. Artistically, most of the rhinos depicted on these coins have a lot to be desired. Some look like wild boars with horns added for effect. Happily, the animal depicted on this coin's obverse indeed looks every part the powerful and fearsome beast which awestruck Roman audiences - as a matter of fact, it appears to be charging with its head down. Perhaps the engraver was a witness to the very games martial describes?

As mentioned above, the rhino depicted on the coin is the two-horned African species. In contrast, the Indian rhino has one horn. Pliny in his Natural Histories describes the rhinoceros as a one horned creature (although confusingly he confirms its Ethiopian origins), Martial said it had two. The rhino was so rare in Rome, Pliny had to go all the way back to the games of Pompey the Great in 55 BC to find a reference for the animal on display in the city, apparently it was a one-horned Indian rhino. At any rate, both the numismatic evidence and Martial's description coincide rather nicely to confirm that Domitian, at great expense no doubt, brought to Rome an African rhinoceros for his shows in the new Colosseum. The surviving coins featuring this fantastic beast prove how important a feat this was to the emperor.

Well centred with a lovely green patina and fine style.
3 commentsDavid Atherton
D623b.jpg
Domitian RIC-623b86 viewsĆ As, 10.13g
Rome mint, 88 AD
Obv: IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM P M TR P VIII CENS PER P P; Head of Domitian, laureate, bearded, r.
Rev: COS XIIII LVD SAEC FEC; S C in exergue; Domitian stg. l., sacrificing over altar; to l., flute player and lyre player stg. r.; in background, temple, wreath in pediment
RIC 623b (C2). BMC 434. BNC 471.
Acquired from Künker, January 2019. Ex Heinrich Pilartz Münzhandlung.

In October 88 AD Domitian held the Secular Games, a festival featuring theatrical performances and circus games accompanied by six various daytime and nighttime religious ceremonies. The games marked the transition from one era (saeculum) to another and were supposedly held once every 110 years, or the maximum span of a human lifetime, making them a 'once in a lifetime' event. Domitian conducted his games on the Augustan calculation, rejecting the formula for the Claudian games held in 47 AD. The festival was important enough to interrupt the normal striking of reverse types on the coinage and for the mint to produce a new unique issue commemorating the event both in precious metal and bronze. The precious metal designs tended to be symbolic while the bronze were more narrative in nature, focusing on the various religious sacrifices that were at the heart of the games.

The reverse on this as features a daytime victimless sacrifice of cakes to Apollo and Diana on the sixth and last day of the celebrations, held in front of an unidentified hexastyle temple somewhere on the Palatine. The stylised nature of the reverse's design makes it difficult to pinpoint the temple in question. The generic decorative wreath in the pediment offers no clues. Another variant of the type (RIC 623a) has an eagle in the pediment, perhaps an indication the engravers were not intending to depict a specific temple at all. The scene could stand alone and be an excellent representation for all the religious ceremonies of the games. The main message of the design is to show the Roman people that Domitian provided and responsibly held the Secular Games. The fact this type was struck in fairly large quantities hints it was an important piece of Domitianic propaganda.

Struck on a large flan in fine style.
6 commentsDavid Atherton
D791.jpg
Domitian RIC-791115 viewsAR Denarius, 3.00g
Rome mint, 95-96 AD
Obv: IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM P M TR P XV; Head of Domitian, laureate, bearded, r.
Rev: IMP XXII COS XVII CENS P P P; Minerva, winged, flying l., with spear and shield
RIC 791 (C). BMC 237. RSC 294. BNC 210.
Ex Harry N. Sneh Collection.

This coin belongs to one of the final issues Domitian minted in the last year of his reign. It is interesting to note that this winged Minerva is a new type never before seen on his coinage. The type is common, thus it was minted in large quantities, which cannot be said of the other new types (the 'monumental' series, Maia, and warrior with spear & trophy) which were also introduced in the final year of his reign.

Mattingly observed Domitian's portraits at the time were "fine and ambitious ... with an upward lift of face, which, if it does not symbolize prayer, like the 'praying type' of Constantine, certainly suggests lofty aspirations". Those "lofty aspirations" were cut short by an assassin's knife on September 18th, 96 AD.
2 commentsDavid Atherton
JLTISE02-2.jpg
Domitian, RIC 717, for Julia Titi, Sestertius of AD 92-94 (Carpentum)29 viewsĆ Sestertius (23,63g, Ř 32mm, 6h). Rome, AD 92-94.
Obv.: IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM COS XVI CENS PER P P around large S·C, .
Rev.: DIVAE IVLIAE AVG DIVI TITI F around, SPQR in ex, Carpentum right drawn by two mules right; the tilt rests on standing figures at each corner, three corners showing; draperies or guirlands on the side of the body of the carpentum; six spokes in wheel.
RIC Domitian 717; BMC 458; Cohen (Julia) 9 (15fr); Roman Historical Coins 93/40
Ex Boule (Paris), Mail Bid Auction 107, Oct. 2015.

Issued in honour of the consecration of Julia Titi, daughter of Titus, in AD 91.
Charles S
EB0359_scaled.JPG
EB0359 Mutinus Titinus / Q•TITI, Pegasus19 viewsQ. Titius AR Denarius, 90 BC.
Obv: Bearded head of Mutinus Titinus right, wearing winged diadem.
Rev: Pegasus springing right from tablet inscribed Q•TITI.
References: Syd. 691; Crawford 341/1; RSC Titia 1.
Diameter: 19mm, Weight: 3.926 grams.
EB
EB0402_scaled.JPG
EB0402 Julia Titi / Ceres5 viewsJulia Titi AE Dupondius. 80-81 AD.
Obv: IVLIA IMP T AVG F AVGSTA, draped bust right, hair coiled in a bun at the back.
Rev: CERES [AVGVST] S-C, Ceres standing left with corn ears and long torch.
References: RIC 392; Sear 2615; Cohen 2.
Diameter: 27.5mm, Weight: 9.732 grams.
EB
EB0481_scaled.JPG
EB0481 Julia Domna / Laetitia24 viewsJulia Domna, AR Denarius, ca 198 AD.
Obv: IVLIA AVGVSTA, draped bust right.
Rev: LAETITIA, Laetitia standing left holding wreath and rudder.
References: RIC 561 (Rome) or, more likely RIC 641 (Laodicea).
Diameter: 20mm, Weight: 3.44 grams.
Coins of Julia Domna from the Laodicea mint can be identified by the loop coming up from her drapery at the neck.
2 commentsEB
EB0839_scaled.JPG
EB0839 Gallienus / Laetitia10 viewsGallienus 253-268, Billon Antoninianus, Rome mint?
Obverse: GALLIENVS AVG, radiate head right.
Reverse: LAETITIA AVG, Laetitia standing left, holding wreath and anchor.
References: Cf. RIC V-1 (S), Rome 226 (V in upper right field); Cohen 423.
Diameter: 17.5mm, Weight: 2.666g.
EB
Elagabal_RIC_94.jpg
Elagabalus - antoninianus RIC 9415 viewsElagabalus. Silver antoninianus, minted in Rome; 4.88 g; obv. IMP ANTONINVS AVG, radiate draped bust right; rev. LAETITIA PVBL, Laetitia standing left with wreath & rudder on globe. RIC 94, RSC 72. Bartosz Awianowicz
elamark.jpg
Elagabalus AE 26 of Markianopolis AD 22233 viewsOBV: AVT K M AVPH ANTWNEINOC; Laureate bust right, seen from behind.
REV: VP CERG TITIANOY MARKIANOPOTWN; Nemesis standing left holding scales and cornucopia with wheel at her feet.

The coin is a tetrassarion (4 assaria) of Markianopolis, a city in what is now Bulgaria founded by Trajan and named after his sister, Marciana. The pentassarions generally featured two busts on the obverse (Elagabalus and J.Maesa). The governor of Moesia when this coin was minted (222 AD) was Sergius Titianus. The coin is similar to AMNG 846 (Seleucus)
Purchased at the Boston Coin show Nov 2011

Diam 26 mm, wt 13.4 gm
1 commentsdaverino
sistertiii_046.JPG
Elagabalus AE26 of Markianopolis. Magistrate Titianus.55 viewsElagabalus AE26 of Markianopolis. Magistrate Titianus. AVT K M AVPH ANTWNEINOC, laureate head right / VP CEPG TITIANOV MAPKIANOPOLITWN, Hera standing left holding patera & sceptre.
Moushmov 656
Antonio Protti
ytg_060.JPG
Elagabalus AE26 of Markianopolis. Magistrate Titianus. 37 viewsMarkianopolis
Moushmov 656 Elagabalus AE26 of Markianopolis. Magistrate Titianus. AVT K M AVPH ANTWNEINOC, laureate head right / VP CEPG TITIANOV MAPKIANOPOLITWN, Hera standing left holding patera & sceptre.
Antonivs Protti
1.jpg
Elagabalus AE26 Tetrassarion of Marcianopolis.43 viewsAVT K M AVP H LI ANTWNEINOC, laureate head right,

VP IOVL ANT CELEVKOV MAPKIANOPOLITWN, Victory advancing left,

Issued under the Consular Legate Julius Antonius Seleucus, Governor of Moesia between AD218-222. A 5th century historian Polemius Silvius, mentions a usurper by the name of Seleucus during Elagabal's reign. Whether or not this usurper is our Legate or another Consul (AD 221) by the name of M. Flavius Vitellius Seleucus, is unknown. What is known is that Seleucus was succeeded by Sergius Titianus in AD 222, the year of Elagabal's murder.

AMNG Vol.I No.824, Pg.254

ex-Gitbud & Naumann Münzhandlung München
2 commentsWill Hooton
ELAGABALUS_AR_ANT.jpg
ELAGABALUS AR ANTONINIANUS30 views•Date: C, 219 AD
•Rev: LAETITIA PVBL
•Size: 21 mm
•Weight: 5.34g
•Ref: RCV 7490
•Condition: Good silver with super detail
_9000
2 commentsAntonivs Protti
s-l1600_(62).jpg
Elagabalus AR Antoninianus - LAETITIA PUBL13 viewsRoman Empire
Emperor Elagabalus (218 - 222 AD)
Silver Antoninianus.

obv: IMP ANTONINUS AUG - Radiate bust of Emperor right, draped.

rev: LAETITAE PUBL - Laetitia standing, holding wreath and rudder.

4.45 grams.
rexesq
s-l1600_(63).jpg
Elagabalus AR Antoninianus - LAETITIA PUBL7 viewsRoman Empire
Emperor Elagabalus (218 - 222 AD)
Silver Antoninianus.

obv: IMP ANTONINUS AUG - Radiate bust of Emperor right, draped.

rev: LAETITAE PUBL - Laetitia standing, holding wreath and rudder.

4.45 grams.
rexesq
D4.jpg
Elagabalus Provincial42 viewsComments (according to forvm discussion)
'...buried in near mint condition, found corroded and fixed as well as the practitioner could, by removing some of the corrosion on the reverse and then re-patinating. It is, however, still a rather nice Elagabalus with Apollo / Bonus Eventus (probably Apollo, with a laurel twig) of Nicopolis ad Istrum issued by Novius Rufus. See AMNG I, 1, p. 480, no. 1909 or 1910 and look for your die pair among those in HrJ 8.26.7.1—7, on pp. 387—389.'

Courtesy of Slokind
Xerxes King of Kings
coin295.jpg
Elagabalus Roman provincial , 218 - 222 AD bronze, Markianopolis in Moesien10 viewsElagabalus Roman provincial , 218 - 222 AD bronze, Markianopolis in Moesien, in the name of the governor Sergius Titianus. Head Homonoia with Patera and cornucopia. Packed, Dacien & Moesien I, 850th 9,47..Die match to --
http://imagedb.coinarchives.com/img/peus/369/01244p00.jpg Moushov 633 Coin #295
cars100
Elagabalus,_AE_26_of_Markianopolis,_Moesia__Magistrate_Sergius_Titianus_.jpg
Elagabalus, AE 26 of Markianopolis, Moesia. Magistrate: Sergius Titianus.36 viewsAVT K M AVPH ANTONEINOC, laureate head right /UP CERG TITIANOU MARKIANOPOLITWN (WN ligate), Homonoia standing left, wearing kalathos, holding patera and cornucopiae. AMNG 899
26mm.,9.18g,patine vert foncee.
Antonivs Protti
Elagabalus_Varbanov_I,_Marcianopolis_1457.jpg
Elagabalus, AE25, Hermes, Varbanov I 1457110 viewsElagabalus
Augustus, 218 – 11th March 222 A.D.

Coin: AE25

Obverse: AVT K M AVPH ● ANTΩNEINOC, Laureate bust facing right.
Reverse: VΠ CEPΓ TITIANOY MAPKIANOΠOΛΙΤΩΝ, Hermes, standing, facing left, holding a Purse with his right hand and a Caduceus with his left.

Weight: 10.65 g, Diameter: 25.3 x 26 x 3 mm, Die axis: 20°, Mint: Marcianopolis, Consular Legate: Sergius Titianus, Reference: Varbanov I 1457

Rated Rare (R3, 500 - 1000 examples known)
Masis
Elagabalus_Marcianopolis.jpg
Elagabalus, Marcianopolis, 4 assarion21 viewsMarkianopolis. Elagabalus. 4 Assaria. A.D. 218-222.
Obv. AVTKMAVPH ANT W NEINOC . Laureate bust right.
Rev. V P CEP G TITIANOVMAPKIANO POLITWN. Homonoia standing left, holding
patera and cornucopia.
Skyler
Elagabalus_Markianopolis_Homonoia~0.jpg
Elagabalus, Markianopolis, Homonoia, AE2534 viewsElgabalus
25mm, 7.35g, Ć 25 (4 Assaria)
Magistrate: Sergius Titianus
Obv: AVT K M AVP ANTΩNEINOC, laureate, draped & cuirassed bust right
Rev: V Π CEPΓ TITIANO MAPKIANOΠOΛITΩN, Homonoia standing left, patera in right, cornucopia in left hand
Moushmov 633

$20
GICV -
ex AAH
1 commentsareich
evarbi1449eORweb.jpg
Elagabalus, Varbanov I 1449 (e)34 viewsMarkianopolis mint Legat Titianus, Elagabalus, 218-222 A.D. AE, 27mm 12.98g., Varbanov I 1449 (e)
O: AVT K M AVPH ANTWNEINOC, laur. bust r.
R: VP CEPG TITIANOV MAPKIANOPOLITWN, Dikaiosyne stg. l., holding scales and cornucopia
1 commentscasata137ec
ehygvari1464ORweb.jpg
Elagabalus, Varbanov I 146433 viewsMarkianopolis Mint, Elagabalus, 218-222 A.D. AE, 24mm 9.7g, Varbanov I 1464
O: AVT K M AVP ANTΩNEINOC, laureate, bust r.
R: VN CEPΓ TITIANOY MAPKIANOΠOLITΩN, Hygeia standing facing, head r., feeding snake in arms from patera
1 commentscasata137ec
562-3.png
Elagabalus, Ć25 of Markianopolis, Magistrate Titianus13 viewsAD 218 - 222
8.82 grams
Obv. A VT K M AVRHANTWNEINOC, laureate head right
Rev. VP CERG TITIANOV MARKIANOPOLITWN, Hera standing left holding patera and sceptre.
Purchased on eBay
NGC Ch VF - Strike 5/5 - Surface 4/5
Richard M10
60319LG.jpg
Elis, Olympia192 viewsOlympia (Greek: Ολυμπία Olympí'a or Ολύμπια Olýmpia, older transliterations, Olimpia, Olimbia), a sanctuary of ancient Greece in Elis, is known for having been the site of the Olympic Games in classical times, comparable in importance to the Pythian Games held in Delphi. Both games were held every olympiad (i.e. every four years), the Olympic Games dating back possibly further than 776 BC. In 394 emperor Theodosius I, or possibly his grandson Theodosius II in 435, abolished them because they were reminiscent of paganism.

The sanctuary itself consists of an unordered arrangement of various buildings. To the north of the sanctuary can be found the prytaneion and the Philippeion, as well as the array of treasuries representing the various city states. The metroon lies to the south of these treasuries, with the Echo Stoa to the East. To the south of the sanctuary is the South Stoa and the Bouleuterion, whereas the West side houses the palaistra, the workshop of Pheidias, the Gymnasion and the Leonidaion. Enclosed within the temenos are the temples of Hera and Zeus, the Pelopion and the area of the altar, where the sacrifices were made. The hippodrome and later stadium were also to the East.

Olympia is also known for the gigantic ivory and gold statue of Zeus that used to stand there, sculpted by Pheidias, which was named one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World by Antipater of Sidon. Very close to the temple of Zeus (see photo of ruins below) which housed this statue, the studio of Pheidias was excavated in the 1950s. Evidence found there such as sculptor's tools, corroborates this opinion.

Excavation of the Olympia temple district and its surroundings began with a French expedition in 1829. German archaeologists continued the work in the latter part of the 19th century. The latter group uncovered, intact, the Hermes of Praxiteles statue, among other artifacts. In the middle of the 20th Century, the stadium where the running contests took place was excavated.

The Olympic flame of the modern-day Olympic Games is lit by reflection of sunlight in a parabolic mirror at the restored Olympia stadium and then transported by a torch to the place where the games are held.

When the modern Olympics came to Athens in 2004, the men's and women's shot put competition was held at the restored stadium.

The ancient ruins sits north of the Alfeios River and lies next to Cronius or Kronios hill (the hill of Kronos, or Saturn). Kladeos, a tributary of Alfeios, flows around the area.

The town has a school and a square (plateia). Tourism is popular throughout the late-20th century. The city has a train station and is the easternmost terminus of the line of Olympia-Pyrgos (Ilia). The train station which the freight yard is west of it is about 300 m east of the town centre.

It is linked by GR-74 and the new road was opened in the 1980s, the next stretch N and NE of Olympia will open in around 2005. Distance from Pyrgos is 20 km E(old: 21 km), about 50 km SW of Lampeia, W of Tripoli and Arcadia and 4 km north of Krestena and N of Kyparissia and Messenia. The highway passed north of the ancient ruins.

A reservoir is located 2 km southwest damming up the Alfeios river and has a road from Olympia and Krestena which in the late-1990s has been closed.

The area is hilly and mountainous, most of the area within Olympia is forested.

Elis, Olympia. After ca. 340/30-late 3rd century B.C. Ć unit (20 mm, 5.99 g). Laureate head of Zeus right / FA above, horse trotting right; [L]U below. BCD 339.3 (this coin). Near VF, dark brown patina.
Ex BCD Collection. Ex-John C Lavender G18
ecoli73
tacitus_10.jpg
Estiot 2332, La Venera 177617 viewsIMP C M CL TACITVS AVG
LAETITIA AVG
-/-/VI

Rare
Tacitus
Faustina_II_2_opt.jpg
FAUSTINA II Denarius RIC 702v, Laetitia15 viewsOBV: FAVSTINA AVGVSTA, diademed and draped bust right
REV: LAETITIA, Laetitia standing right, scepter in left, wreath in right


Minted at Rome
Legatus
021-3-horz.jpg
Faustina Junior, AR Denarius15 viewsAD 147 – 175/6
Roman Mint
2.99 grams
Obv: FAVSTINAE AVG PII AVG FIL, Bust draped right with double circlet of pearls around head.
Rev: LAETITIAE PVBLICAE, Laetitia standing left, holding wreath and scepter
RSC II, 155a; RIC 506b; Sear #4705
Purchased on eBay
NGC AU; Strike 5/5; Surface 4/5
Richard M10
1_Faustina_minore.jpg
Faustina junior, sestertius (Boyd collection)38 viewsFaustina minore, figlia di Antonino Pio, moglie di Marco Aurelio e madre di Commodo. Zecca di Roma sotto Antonino Pio (161 d.C.)
AE, 20.43 gr., 29,5 mm, 0°, VF (BB)
D/ FAVSTINA AVGVSTA, busto drappeggiato di Faustina a dx
R/ LAETITIA S C, Laetitia stante a sx con corona e scettro
RIC 1653
Provenienza: collezione Berardengo, Roma Italia (10 marzo 2008, numero catalogo 35), ex Antony Wilson collection (Yorkcoins, London-New York, 2005), ex Baldwin's Auctions 42 (London, 26 settembre 2005, parte del lotto 431), ex Sotheby's (London, 12 giugno 1891), ex W.C. Boyd collection (London, dal 12 giugno 1891).
paolo
1161Hadrian_Fouree.JPG
Fouree 042 Hadrian Denarius Roma 118 AD Justitia11 viewsReference.
Strack 36; RIC 42a C.877

Obv. IMP CAESAR TRAIAN HADRIANVS AVG
Laureate bust right, drapery on left shoulder, seen from front.

Rev. P M TR P COS II.(in exergue) IVSTITIA
Justitia seated left, holding patera and sceptre

3.1 gr
mm
h
okidoki
FF_Valence_Bishops_PDA_4690_2.JPG
France (Feudal): Valence (Bishops of Valence and Die), 12th – 13th Century38 viewsPoey d’Avant 4690, Roberts 4782 var., Boudeau 1021, Belaubre 965

AR denier, 18 mm.

Obv: + VRBS VALENTIAI, angel with spread wings, resembling an eagle, facing.

Rev: + S APOLLINARS, cross with annulet in second quarter.

In 1275 the bishoprics of Valence and Die were merged. The reverse legend refers to St. Apollinaris, who is the patron saint of the cathedral in Valence.

Valence deniers are found in significant quantities in coin hoards from the Crusader possessions in the east. For this reason, the emission is also catalogued as Metcalf (Crusades & Latin East), 39-40, Metcalf Group Di. It is possible that some of the cruder varieties, such as this, are in fact eastern imitations of the French issue.
Stkp
JET_Monneron_Confidence_Token.jpg
France. Monneron Confidence Token11 viewsAE/copper token; valued at 2 Sols; designed by Augustin Dupré and minted in 1791 (the first pieces leaving the mint on November 3, 1791) on the Watt steam presses of Matthew Boulton’s Soho Mint, Birminghan, England, for Frčres Monneron; 18.28 gr. (minted at 27 to the pound), 32 mm., 180°.

KM France TN23; Guilloteau.233l; Mazard153; Brandon 217c; Droulers.62; Bouchert 54/1; Hennin 342. Pl. 32.

Obv: France in the guise of Liberty seated, facing left, raising a spear surmounted by a Phrygian cap leaning on a tablet bearing the inscription DROITS / DE / L'HOMME / ARTIC. / V. (representing the Declaration of the Rights of Man), rooster on a pillar behind her, LIBERTE SOUS LA LOI (= Liberty Under the Law), L'AN III DE LA LIBERTE (= Year III/1791 of Liberty) in exergue.

Rev: MONNERON FRERES NEGOCIANS A PARIS (= Moneron Brothers, Merchats of Paris), MEDALLE / DE CONFIANCE / DE DEUX SOLS A / ECHANGER CONTRE / DES ASSIGNATS DE / 50L ET AU DESSUS / 1791 (= Medal of Confidence of Two Sols, to be Exchanged for Assignats of 50 Livres or Above, 1791).

Edge: ⁕ BON POUR BORD MARSEI ⁕. LYON ROUEN ⁕ NANT ET STRASB (= Good for Bordeaux, Marseilles, Lyon, Rouen, Nantes and Strasbourg).

Although the Bastille was stormed in 1789, the coinage of Louis XVI continued to be struck until 1792, with a new constitutional coinage in copper or bell-metal, silver and gold commencing in 1791. Thar coinage circulated alongside the ancien régime pieces, but did little to alleviate the shortage of specie. A short-term solution was attempted by the introduction of the assignats, which were paper money backed by confiscated church properties and land. Produced in vast quantities, the assignats eventually depreciated to the point of worthlessness. The tokens of Frčres Monneron were issued in response to this situation.

The Monneron brothers, Jean-Louis (1742-1805), Pierre-Antoine (1747-1811), and Joseph-François-Augustin (1756-1824), were the sons of a Huguenot lawyer from Annonay, who made his fortune by buying the rights to receive the gabelle (salt tax) for the town of Annonay. By 1791, Joseph-François-Augustin obtained the right to strike copper token coinage. Production began in late 1791. However, in March 1792, Frčres Monneron went bankrupt and Pierre-Antoine fled. His Francois-Augustin resumed the business, but a law of enacted on May 3, 1792 prohibited the manufacture of private coins. These currencies of necessity circulated only until the end of 1793.

The tokens were designed by the greatest engraver of the revolutionary era, Augustin Dupré (1748-1833), who had made his name as a medalist, producing many medals commemorating the American Revolution before becoming the Engraver General of the French mints in 1791.
Stkp
FRANCE,_Provincial__Valence__Anonymous_Bishops__12th_century__AR_Denier,_S_APOLLINARIS,_VRBS_VALENTIAI,_Metcalf_LE_39,_Q-001_h,_17mm,_0,95g-s.jpg
French, Provincial, Valence, Anonymous Bishop, 12th century, AR Denier, Metcalf LE 39, #1123 viewsFrench, Provincial, Valence, Anonymous Bishop, 12th century, AR Denier, Metcalf LE 39, #1
avers: ✠S APOLLINARIS, Cross with annulet.
reverse: ✠VRBS VALENTIAI, Angel with spread wings, resembling an eagle.
diameter: 17,0mm, weight: 0,951g, axis: h,
mint: French, Provincial, Valence, Anonymous Bishop, mint mark: -,
date: 12th. Century, A.D., ref: Metcalf (Di) LE 39, Poey d'Avant 4690,
Q-001
Note:
Valence deniers are found in significant quantities in coin hoards from the Crusader possessions in the east. It is possible that some of the cruder varieties, such as Metcalf’s Group D are in fact eastern imitations of the French issue.
1 commentsquadrans
GalbAs04-2.jpg
Galba, RIC 81, As of Sept-Dec. 68, Spanish mint (Tarraco?), 15 viewsĆ As (9.7g, Ř 18mm, 6h). Spanish mint (Tarraco?). Struck Sept-Dec. 68 AD.
Obv.: SER GALBA IMP [...AVGVSTVS?], laureate head right, globe at point of bust.
Rev.: QVADRAGENS REMISSAE around, S C in ex., triumphal arch with 2 equestrian statues, 3 prisoners followed by officer below.
RIC 81 (R) (in Wildwinds.com as RIC 80 var.)
Ex Walter C. Holt, April 2003

This is apparently an extremely rare coin. The portrait on this coin has suffered some damage, probably as damnatio memoriae following his murder at the hands of the Praetorians.

The reverse legend on this coin refers to the abolition of the 2˝% (1/40th of 100) customs duty, a reward to Gaul and Spain for their support. According to Walter Holt, The relationship between captives and the remission of a tax is unclear. The identities of the captives on this type are unknown but they may refer to his predecessor Nero, Clodius Macer, his rival for the purple, and the fallen rebel Vindex, though their depiction as captives (as all are dead by now) causes some problems.
According to Clive Foss ("Roman Historical Coins"), the captives probably represent financial officials of Nero who plundered the province and denounced Galba.
Charles S
TETRICUS_GD_PORTR.jpg
GALLIC EMPIRE/ROME - TETRICUS I47 viewsGALLIC EMPIRE/ROME - TETRICUS I (270-274 AD) AE Antoninianus. Obv.: Radiate bust right; rev.: Probably Laetitia. A decent portrait coin.dpaul7
Gallienus_2.jpg
Gallienus9 viewsAntoninianus
Obv: GALLIENVS AVG
Rev: LAETITIA AVG ; Laetitia stg. l.

C. 423
Tanit
Gallienus_3.jpg
Gallienus6 viewsAntoninianus
Obv: GALLIENVS AVG
Rev: LAETITIA AVG ; Laetitia stg. l.

C. 423
Tanit
coins315.JPG
GALLIENUS9 viewsGALLIENVS P AVG
Radiate (nude) bust right, seen (3/4) from back
LAETITIA AVG
RIC V-1, Milan 490 C
ecoli
gallienus pax com.JPG
Gallienus RIC V-1, Siscia 575 24 viewsAE 20.93 mm 3.8 grams Silvered
OBV :: GALLIENVS AVG. Radiate head right
REV :: PAX AVG, Pax standing left holding a scepter and olive branch..S in left field, I in right field
EX :: none
Siscia mint
RIC V-1, Siscia 575
rated as C by RIC
From uncleaned lot ( Forvm Uncleaned competition)
Oct 2007
Johnny
RIC_Gallienus_RIC_V_442.JPG
Gallienus (Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus) (253-268 A.D.)17 viewscf SRCV 10250-10251, RIC V J-442, Göbl 1600b, Cohen 441, Van Meter --

AR Antoninianus, 21 mm., 180°

Antioch mint (per Göbl), struck during joint reign with Valerian (253-260 A.D.), in 256-257 A.D.

Obv: IMP GALLIENVS AVG, Radiate cuirassed bust right.

Rev: LAETITIA AVGG, Laetitia standing left holding wreath and anchor.

RIC rarity C, Van Meter --
Stkp
RIC_Gallienus_RIC_V_S_656.JPG
Gallienus (Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus) (253-268 A.D.)27 viewsSRCV 10345, RIC V S-656 var. (reverse legend and bust type), Göbl 1626c, Alföldi, Weltkrise p. 159, Van Meter 251.

AR Antoninianus, 21 mm., 180°

Antioch mint, struck during solo reign (260-268 A.D.), in 264 or 265 A.D.

Obv: GALLIENVS AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust facing right.

Rev: SAECVLARHS AVG (Greek H [eta] instead of Latin E), stag standing right, palm branch in exergue.

The reverse legend means means “the Secular (Games) of the Emperor.” The Secular Games (Latin Ludi Saeculares) was a pagan celebration, involving sacrifices and theatrical performances, held for three days and nights to mark the end of a saeculum (supposedly the longest possible length of human life, considered to be either 100 or 110 years in length) and the beginning of the next. The only clearly attested celebrations under the Roman Republic took place in 249 B.C. and in the 140s B.C. The Games were revived in 17 B.C. by Augustus, who observed the traditional 110-year cycle. Claudius, however, introduced an alternative cycle for the games in 47 A.D. on the 800th anniversary of Rome's foundation, based on a century instead of a 110-year cycle, and from that point onward there were essentially two sets of games. Domitian followed Augustus in 88 A.D. using the traditional 110-year cycle, albeit with his games being six years ahead of schedule. Antoninus Pius followed the Claudian “century cycle” in 147/8 A.D. (though without his using the term saecular). Septimius Severus restored the 110-year cycle of Augustus in 204 A.D. Philip the Arab, whose Games of 247/8 marked the millennium of Rome, followed the Claudian cycle.

Alföldi, followed by Göbl, thinks this type proves that Gallienus intended to perform Saecular Games in 264 A.D. The repetition of Saecular games only sixteen years after Philip's games fits with the strong desire at the time to depict every emperor as the restorer of good times and the founder of a new Golden Age.

The stag refers to Diana as patroness of the Saecular Games and divine protectress of Gallienus. The palm branch symbol used with the type is also appropriate for anniversary celebrations.
1 commentsStkp
RIC_Gallienus_SRCV_10250_laetitia.jpg
Gallienus (Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus) (253-268 A.D.)11 viewsSRCV 10250, RIC V S-226 (Rome) or 489 (Milan), Göbl 1095k, Van Meter 123

BI Antoninianus, 2.99 gr., 22.08 mm. max., 180°

Milan or Rome mint, first officina, struck during solo reign (260-268 A.D.) in 262-263 A.D. (if Rome).

Obv: GALLIENVS AVG, Radiate head right, slight drapery on shoulder.

Rev: LAETI-TIA AVG, Laetitia standing left, holding wreath in right hand, resting left hand on anchor at feet. P (=1) in exergue.

RIC rarity C, Van Meter VB1
Stkp
RIC_Gallienus_SRCV_10250_var_laetitia_VIIC.jpg
Gallienus (Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus) (253-268 A.D.)12 viewsSRCV 10250 var. (mintmark), RIC V S-616 var. (dot in mintmark), Göbl 1642a, Van Meter 123.

BI Antoninianus, 3.14 g., 21.43 mm. max. 0°

Antioch mint, struck during sole reign (260-268 A.D.), 266-268 A.D.

Obv: GALLIENVS AVG, radiate draped cuirassed bust right.

Rev: LAETITIA AVG, Laetitia standing left holding a wreath and rudder/anchor, VIIC• in exergue.

RIC rarity R, Van Meter VB1.
Stkp
00317.jpg
Gallienus (RIC 226, Coin #317)11 viewsRIC 226 (C), BI Antoninianus, Rome, 260 - 268 AD.
Obv: GALLIENVS AVG Radiate head right.
Rev: LAETITIA AVG Laetitia standing left, wreath in right, rudder in left.
Size: 23.1mm 3.00gm
MaynardGee
824_Gallienus_Laetitia.jpg
Gallienus - BI antoninianus9 viewsMilan
263-264 AD
radiate head left
GALLIENVS AVG
Laetitia facing, head left, holding wreath and anchor
LAETITIA AVG
Cunetio hoard 1585 (S)
Johny SYSEL
Comb05042017094458.jpg
Gallienus - Roman Emperor: 253-268 A.D. - Joint Rule with his father Valerian I 253-260 A.D. 24 viewsObv. GALLIENVSAVG - Radiate head right.
Rev. LAETITIAAVG - Laetitia standing left, holding wreath and rudder.
Reference: RIC 226k, C 426.
Silvered Bronze Antoninianus 19mm (2.23 grams) Struck at the mint of Rome 260-268 A.D.
Canaan
29+ Gallienus.jpg
Gallienus AE Antoninianus14 viewsAntoninianus
Obv: GALLIENVS AVG
Obv: LAETITIA AVG
Tanit
Gallienus_LETITIA_AVGG_5b.jpg
Gallienus antoninianus36 viewsLETITIA AVGG
Rev.: LETITIA... (instead of LAETITIA...)
very rare
Tibsi
Gallienus_LETITIA_AVGG_6b.jpg
Gallienus antoninianus9 viewsLETITIA AVGG (instead of LAETITIA...)
very rare
Tibsi
Gallienus_RIC_616.jpg
Gallienus Billon Antoninianus RIC V 616, MIR 1642b, Cohen 425, SRCV III -, AHG 401 (this coin)12 viewsGALLIENVS AVG, radiate, draped, cuirassed bust right / LAETITIA AVG, Laetitia standing left, wreath in right, rudder in left, VII C in ex (seventh consulate). Antioch mint.
Maximum Diameter: 23.0 mm
Weight: 3.78 g

From the Antioch Hoard of Gallienus.
TheEmpireNeverEnded
gal101a.jpg
Gallienus RIC VI 226 Rome14 viewsGallienus, Bi. Antoninianus, Rome mint, sole reign
Obverse: GALLIVNUS AVG, radiate, cuirassed bust right.
Reverse: LAETITIA AVG, Latitia standing left, holding wreath and anchor.
19.8 mm., 4.4 g.
RIC VI, 226 Rome; Goebl 0498q, Sear 10250
NORMAN K
Gallienus_RIC_145.JPG
Gallienus, 253 - 268 AD24 viewsObv: IMP C P LIC GALLIENVS PF AVG, radiate, cuirassed bust of Gallienus facing right.

Rev: LAETITIA AVGG, Laetitia standing left, holding a wreath and a resting left hand on an anchor.

Billon Antoninianus, Rome mint, 256 - 257 AD

3.2 grams, 20.39 mm, 45°

RIC Vi 145, RSC 435, S10251 (var.), VM 124
SPQR Coins
Gallienus,_August_253_-_24_March_268_A_D_.jpeg
Gallienus, LAETITIA AVGG20 viewsGallienus, Billon antoninianus, RIC V 442, F, Antioch mint, 3.094 grams, 22.3 mm, die axis 0o, 256 - 257 A.D.; obverse IMP GALLIENVS AVG, radiate and cuirassed bust right; reverse LAETITIA AVGG, Laetitia standing left holding wreath and rudder; ex FORVM, photo credit FORVMPodiceps
GALLIEN-26-ROMAN.jpg
Gallienus, RIC V(1)-226.K Rome14 viewsBillon Antoninianus
Rome mint, 262-263 A.D.
18mm, 3.21g
RIC V(1)-226var, RSCv.4-423var, RCV.3-10250


Obverse:
GALLIENVS AVG
Radiate head right

Reverse:
LAETITIA AVG
Laetitia standing left, holding wreath and anchor.
rubadub
GALLIEN-27-ROMAN.jpg
Gallienus, RIC V(1)-226.K Rome14 viewsBillon Antoninianus
Rome mint, 262-263 A.D.
19mm, 2.53g
RIC V(1)-226, RSCv.4-423, RCVv.3-10250

Obverse:
GALLIENVS AVG
Radiate head right

Reverse:
LAETITIA AVG
V in right field
Laetitia standing left, holding wreath and anchor.
rubadub
GALLIEN-70-ROMAN.jpg
Gallienus, RIC V(1)-489.A Mediolanum19 viewsBillon Antoninianus
Mediolanum mint, 260-268 A.D.
19mm, 1.92g
RIC V(1)-489, RSCv.4-423a

Obverse:
GALLIENVS AVG
Radiate and draped bust right.

Reverse:
LAETITIA AVG
Laetitia standing left, holding wreath and anchor.
rubadub
GALLIEN-49-ROMAN.jpg
Gallienus, RIC V(1)-489.A(S) Mediolanum10 viewsBillon Antoninianus
Mediolanum mint, 260-268 A.D.
20mm, 1.66g
RIC V(1)-489, RSCv.4-423a

Obverse:
GALLIENVS AVG
Radiate and draped bust right.

Reverse:
LAETITIA AVG
S in exergue
Laetitia standing left, holding wreath and anchor.
rubadub
coin_2_quart.jpg
GALLIENVS AVG / LAETITIA AVG AE/Bi antoninianus (260-268 A.D.)21 viewsGALLIENVS AVG, radiate head right, one ribbon behind, one forward across shoulder / LAETITIA AVG, Laetitia standing left, holding wreath in right hand and anchor or rudder in left. No discernible field or mint marks.

AE3/4, 16mm, 1.15g, die axis 6 (coin alignment), material: bronze/copper-based alloy

AVG = Augustus, LAETITIA AVG = "the Joy of the Emperor", Laetitia was the goddess of joy, wreath = celebration, anchor = stability or rudder = guiding fortune.

Looking at WildWinds examples, it is similar to the different RIC 489 variations of the Mediolanum mint. The Laetitia reverse was also minted at other mints, but either during the joint reign (with AVGG, which might still be the case here ) or, at Rome, as a much larger and heavier coin (20-21mm, 3-5g). So this one is likely to be from Milan.

Gallienus (reign 253-, alone 260-268), see more info at http://www.forumancientcoins.com/gallery/displayimage.php?pos=-147472
Yurii P
1Titia_unita.jpg
Gens Titia, denario (90 a.C.)11 viewsGens Titia, denario, Roma (90 a.C.)
AR, 3.43 gr, 18 mm, qBB
D/ Testa di Libero con corona d'edera, rivolta a destra.
R/ Q TITI, Pegaso che vola verso destra.
Crawford 341/2
Provenienza: collezione Berardengo (Roma, Italia dal 30 aprile 2017, numero catalogo 276); ex collezione Vanni, Tinia numismatica (Follonica, Italia, fino all'aprile 2017)
paolo
1quinario_titia_foto.jpg
Gens Titia, quinarius (90 a.C.)10 viewsQ. Titius, quinario, Roma 90 a.C.
AR, 1.65 gr, 14 mm, MB+
D/ Busto drappeggiato della Vittoria.
R/ Q TITI; Pegaso in atto di spiccare il volo.
Crawford 341/3
Provenienza: collezione Berardengo (Roma, Italia, dal 10 giugno 2018, numero catalogo 395), ex collezione Alessandro Vanni, Tinia numismatica (Follonica, Italia fino al 10 giugno 2018)
paolo
MISC_Schwabisch_Hall_handheller.JPG
German States. Schwäbisch Hall (Württemberg).25 viewsSaurma 1365/608, DeWitt 2491, Torongo 1.5.

AR handheller, minted ca. 1180-1430, 16-17 mm.

Obv: Open right hand.

Rev: Cross forchée with a pellet at the end of each arm.

Since they were struck at Hall in Swabia, these coins became known as "hellers" (or as handhellers, due to the devise on the obverse). They were struck in large quantities but of a poor quality, and circulated widely, quickly droving all other small coins out of circulation. The name "heller" became associated with coins of the same type struck in other cities, and by extension, to coins of low grade billon throughout Germany.

The obverse devise also appears on the coat-of-arms of Hall, and it is not clear whether or not the coin preceded the coat-of-arms. The word "handel" means trade or commerce in German, and the hand may be a pun.
Stkp
gordian_laetitia.jpg
GORDIAN III30 viewsAR denarius. 238-244 AD. 3,32 grs. 6h. Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right, from behind. IMP GORDIANVS PIVS FEL AVG / Laetitia
standing left holding wretah inright hand. Anchor to left. LAETITIA AVG N.
RIC IV 113; RSC 120.


1 commentsbenito
gordian_laetitia~0.jpg
GORDIAN III70 viewsAR denarius. 238-244 AD. 3,32 grs. 6h. Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right, from behind. IMP GORDIANVS PIVS FEL AVG / Laetitia
standing left holding wretah in right hand. Anchor to left. LAETITIA AVG N.
RIC IV 113. RSC 120.
benito
IMG_3375.JPG
Gordian III13 viewsGordian III, AR Antoninianus. IMP GORDIANVS PIVS FEL AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right; LAETITIA AVG N, Laetitia standing right with wreath and anchor. RIC 86; Sear 8617; RSC 121.Molinari
00026.jpg
Gordian III (RIC 86, Coin #26)11 viewsRIC 86 (C), AR Antoninianus, Rome, 238-244 AD.
OBV: IMP GORDIANVS PIVS FEL AVG; Radiate, draped & cuirassed bust right.
REV: LAETITIA AVG N; Laetitia standing right with wreath and anchor.
SIZE: 22.4mm 5.22g
MaynardGee
00307.jpg
Gordian III (RIC 86, Coin #307)16 viewsRIC 86 (C), AR Antoninianus, Rome, 241-243 AD.
Obv: IMP GORDIANVS PIVS FEL AVG Radiate, draped & cuirassed bust right.
Rev: LAETITIA AVG N Laetitia standing left, wreath in right, anchor in left.
Size: 21.7mm 3.02gm
MaynardGee
00005.jpg
Gordian III (RIC 86, Coin #5)6 viewsRIC 86 (C), AR Antoninianus, Rome, 238 - 244 AD.
Obv: IMP GORDIANVS PIVS FEL AVG Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right.
Rev: LAETITIA AVG N Laetitia standing right with wreath and anchor.
Size: 23.9mm 4.64gm
MaynardGee
031.jpg
Gordian III - AE Sestertius - LAETITIA AUG N 12 viewsAncient Roman Empire
Emperor Gordian III (238 - 244 AD)
AE Sestertius

obv: IMP GORDIANUS PIUS FEL AUG - Laureate bust right, draped and cuirassed.
rev: LAETITIA AUG N - Laetitia standing holding wreath, and resting arm on ship's anchor.

Weight: 19.76 grams
Size: 29.84 mm diameter, 4.12mm thick
rexesq
Gordian_III_86.jpg
Gordian III - AR antoninianus27 viewsRome
late 240 - VII 243 AD
8th - 11th emission
radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right from behind
IMP GORDIANVS PIVS FEL AVG
Laetitia standing left, holding wreath and anchor
LAETITIA AVG N
SRCV III 8617, RIC IV 86, RSC IV 121
5,39 g 22-21,5 mm
Johny SYSEL
Gordian_Laetitia.jpg
Gordian III Antoninianus31 viewsSilver antoninianus, RIC IV 86, near EF, Rome mint, 1 January 241 - July 243 A.D.; obverse IMP GORDIANVS PIVS FEL AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right, from behind; reverse LAETITIA AVG N, Laetitia standing left, wreath in right, anchor in left; well centered;Philoromaos
geord1.jpg
Gordian III Antoninianus 238-244AD27 viewsOb. IMP GORDIANVS PIVS FEL AVG, radiate, draped & cuirassed bust right
Rev. LAETITIA AVG N, Laetitia standing right with wreath & anchor.

Ref. RIC 86, RSC 121
weight 3.7g

LAETITIA AVG N The joy of the Emperor. The anchor is symbolic of the longlasting joy

-:Bacchus:-
Bacchus
laetitia.jpg
Gordian III AR antoninianus, 238-244 AD, Rome39 viewsGordian III
AR antoninianus – 23mm
Rome, 238-244 AD
IMP GORDIANVS PIVS FEL AVG
radiate, draped & cuirassed bust r.
LAETITIA AVG N
Laetitia standing r. holding wreath and anchor
RIC IV 86
Ardatirion
gord.jpg
Gordian III AR Antoninianus, RIC 86.18 viewsGordian III AR Antoninianus. IMP GORDIANVS PIVS FEL AVG, radiate, draped & cuirassed bust right / LAETITIA AVG N, Laetitia standing right with wreath & anchor. RSC 121. Britanikus
gordian_III_Denarius_Laetitia.jpg
Gordian III Denarius, RIC 113, RSC 12038 viewsGordian III AR Denarius. IMP GORDIANVS PIVS FEL AVG, laureate, draped & cuirassed bust right / LAETITIA AVG N, Laetitia standing facing with wreath & rudder.1 commentsBritanikus
Gordian_Laetitia.jpg
Gordian III Laetitia Antoninianus28 viewsGordian III
AD 238-244
AR Antoninianus
Rome mint
RIC 86, RSC 121, Sear5 8617

O: IMP GORDIANVS PIVS FEL AVG, Radiate bust right, draped and cuirassed

R: LAETITIA AVG N, Laetitia standing right with wreath & anchor
2 commentsGao
gord_3_9com.JPG
Gordian III RIV IV ( 3 ) Rome 8610 views AR 21-22 mm 3.7 grams
OBV :: IMP GORDIANVS PIVS FEL AVG. Radiate, draped and cuirassed seen from read bust right
REV :: LAETITIA AVG N. Laetitia standing left holding anchor and wreath
RIV IV ( 3 ) Rome 86
RIC rated Common
Johnny
Gordian_2.jpg
Gordian III Sestertius15 viewsAE Sestertius
Obv: IMP GORDIANVS PIVS FEL AVG
Rev: LAETITIA AVG N SC ; Laetitia stg. l.

C.122
Tanit
gordian2.jpg
Gordian III Sestertius5 viewsAE Sestertius
Obv: IMP GORDIANVS PIVS FEL AVG
Rev: LAETITIA AVG N SC ; Laetitia stg. l.

C.122
Tanit
Gordian_III_RIC_86_(a).JPG
Gordian III, 238 - 244 AD23 viewsObv: IMP GORDIANVS PIVS FEL AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust of Gordian III facing right.

Rev: LAETITIA AVG N, Laetitia standing left, holding a wreath and resting hand on an anchor.

Silver Antoninianus, Rome mint, 241 - 243 AD

4.6 grams, 22.2 mm, 180°

RIC IViii 86, RSC 121, S8617, VM 22
1 commentsSPQR Coins
009BGordianIII.jpg
Gordian III, Fourree25 viewsFourree Antoninianus
Roman Imperial - The Crisis

Gordian III
Base metal underneath silver surface. Fine
Unofficial Mint, 241-243 A.D.

23.5 mm / 3.891 g / 180°

Obverse: "IMP GORDIANVS PIVS FEL AVG", radiate, draped, cuirassed bust right.
Reverse: "LAETITIA AVG N", Laetitia standing right with wreath and anchor.

RIC 86. RSC 121.

MyID: 009B
TenthGen
gordianIII_86.jpg
Gordian III, RIC IV, 8644 viewsGordian III, AD 238-244
AR - Antoninianus, 4.82g
Rome, c.241/242
obv. IMP GORDIANVS PIVS FEL AVG
Bust, draped and cuirassed, seen from behind, radiate, r.
rev. LAETITIA AVG N
Laetitia, stg. facing, head l., holding wreath in lowered r. hand and anchor in l.
hand
RIC IV/3, 86; C.121
EF, fine toned
1 commentsJochen
gordianus_iii_ric_86.jpg
Gordianus III - RIC 866 viewsGordian III
AR Antoninianus.
IMP GORDIANVS PIVS FEL AVG, radiate,
draped & cuirassed bust right /
LAETITIA AVG N, Laetitia standing right with wreath & anchor.
xokleng
bpGS1D9Cherron2.jpg
GREEK, Cherronesos, Thrace82 viewsHemidrachm, 1.9 gm, 13.3 mm, 400-350 BC, Sear (GC) 1602
Obv: Anepigraphic with forepart of lion, right, looking back with paws raised.
Rev: Quadripartite incuse square with deeper partition containing pellet with 'A' above, opposite partition contains bunch of grapes with stem attached.
Massanutten
bpGB1E2Mesembria.jpg
GREEK, Messembria, Thrace, AE 2044 viewsAe20, 6.5 gm, 19mm, 450-350 BC, SNG BM Black Sea 276
Obv: Anepigraphic with crested helmet.
Rev: ΜΕΤΑΜ ΒΡΙΑΝΩΝ
Partitioned oval with legend above and below.
Massanutten
ptolemy2~0.jpg
Greek, Ptolemy II Philadelphus AR Tetradrachm127 viewsObverse: Diademed head of Ptolemy I Soter
Reverse: Eagle with folded wings standing on thunderbolts. PTOLEMAIOY SOTHROS; Regnal Year 31 (255/54 BC) of Ptolemy II (285-246 BC) Monograms and control marks of the Gaza mint in the fields

Many of the portraits of Ptolemy Soter (the Savior) are little more than caricatures on the tetradrachms that are commonly for sale. Perhaps after engraving the same features for centuries the man behind the image became lost. I think this coin portrait has great quality and I imagine it looks a lot like the original Ptolemy I although cut about thirty years after his death. Ptolemy I may have been regarded as the George Washington of his day and the the notion of "father of his country" is exemplified in this portrait.
It is ironic that his patron, Alexander, overthrew the Persian God-Kings and was a major factor in preserving the role of the individual in Western values. Ptolemy's dynasty generally followed the Egyptian model with family members succeeding family members for over two centuries rather than the highly competitive and dynamic model that shaped Western politics and history.

Gaza mint; Svoronos 828; wt 13.7 gm
daverino
Hacksilber.jpg
Hacksilber Fragment, Earliest Coinage Period, Holy Land98 viewsHacksilber Ingot, c. 8-6 centuries BC, Israel. 21 x 14 x 5 mm, 8.4 grams. Cut in antiquity from a larger piece. Possibly an overweight Pym or underweight Nezef?

Similar ingots were found at Ein Gedi, Israel in a terra cotta cooking pot, hidden in a building destroyed near the end of Iron Age II, early 6th century BC (Avi-Yonah Encylcopedia of the Holy Land, volume 2, p. 374.)

The basic weight in use was the shekel, weighing 11.4 g on average. Other weight groups include, but are not limited to, the following:

(1) Beqa, a half shekel (Ex. 38:26), 5.7 g. (2) Nezef, averaging 9.12 g. The Judaean equivalent to an Egyptian qedet. (3) Pym, 7.6 g. (1 Samuel 13:21) The Judaean equivalent to the Phoenician shekel.

The weight of this ingot is identical to the Mesopotamian shekel. During the 9th to 6th centuries BCE in the Assyrian and Babylonian empires, the common form of expressing prices was in quantities equivalent to one shekel (8.4 g) of silver.

In ancient times, livestock were often used in barter. Indicative of this is the fact that the Latin word for money (pecunia) is drawn from pecus, meaning “cattle.” However, livestock (Ge 47:17) and foodstuffs (1Ki 5:10, 11) were obviously not a convenient medium of exchange.

Instead, pieces of precious metals began to be used, the weight being checked at the time the transaction was made.

Ge 23:16 "Abraham weighed out to E′phron the amount of silver that he had spoken in the hearing of the sons of Heth, four hundred silver shekels current with the merchants."; Jer 32:10 "Then I wrote in a deed and affixed the seal and took witnesses as I went weighing the money in the scales."

The usual Hebrew term translated as “money,” keseph, literally means “silver.” (Ge 17:12) There was no coined money in Israel during the First Temple Period (1006-586 BCE). Rather, it consisted of cut pieces of silver and gold, or molded for convenience into bars, rings, bracelets, having a specific weight. - Ge 24:22

At Judges 5:19, bâtsa‛ keseph, which is commonly rendered as, “No gain of silver did they take,” literally means to break off or cut off silver.
Nemonater
Hadrian_Titiopolis.jpg
Hadrian - Titiopolis17 views117-138 AD
laureate head right
KAICAP__AΔPIANOC
turreted head of Tyche right
TITIOΠOΛITωN
SNG Levante Supp. 125; SNG France -.
8,6g
1 commentsJohny SYSEL
Scan0003.jpg
Hadrian Denarius29 viewsOBV; HADRIAN AVGVSTVS
REV; IVSTITIA AVG.P.P around COS III. in ex
justitia seated left on throne, holding patera and scetre.
R.I.C 215......R.S.C 894c

Found whilst metal detecting in Kent.
nigel nicholson
Hadr_den_6.jpg
Hadrian Denarius19 viewsAR Denarius
Obv: IMP CAESAR TRAIAN HADRIANVS AVG; laur. bust r. with drapery on l. shoulder
Rev: PM TR P COS II ; Justitia seated left with patera & scepter, IVSTITIA in ex.

RIC 42 - BMC 877.
Tanit
Hadrian4.jpg
Hadrian Denarius37 viewsAR Denarius
Obv: IMP CAESAR TRAIAN HADRIANVS AVG; draped and laur. bust r.
Rev: PM TR P COS II ; Justitia seated left with patera & scepter, IVSTITIA in ex.

RIC 42 - BMC 877.
2 commentsTanit
Ancient_Counterfeits_Hadrian_Fourre_Justitia.jpg
Hadrian Fourre Justitia24 viewsFourre Denarius, imitating Hadrian RIC 19 (obv.) / RIC 42 (rev.)
Obv: IMP CAES TRAIAN HADRIANO AVG DIVI TRA
Head laur. r., dr. and cuirassed.
Rev: P M TR P COS II – IVSTITIA in ex.
Justitia seated l., holding patera and sceptre.

3.04g, 19mm
1 commentsklausklage
Hadrian_Justicia.JPG
Hadrian Justicia16 viewsHadrian Denarius, 19mm, 2.3g, Cohen 884, RIC 214, Rome  
OBV: HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS, bust draped, cuirassed and laureate left
REV: IVSTITIA AVG, COS III P P in exergue, Justitia seated l., holding patera and sceptre

RARE
Romanorvm
had_den_pan.jpg
Hadrian, 11 August 117 - 10 July 138 A.D.89 viewsSilver denarius, RIC II 45a, (RSC II 1027), weight 2.47g, max. diameter 19mm, Rome mint, 118 A.D.; Obv. IMP CAESAR TRAIAN HADRIANVS AVG, laureate bare-chest bust right, drapery on left shoulder; Rev. P M TR P COS II, Pietas standing left, veiled, raising right hand, PIE-TAS across fields; Scarce, nice toning.

Ex. Sphinx Numismatics

Background info, courtesy Forvm Ancient Coins

Pietas in traditional Latin usage expressed a complex, highly valued Roman virtue; a man or woman with pietas respected his or her responsibilities to other people, gods and entities (such as the state), and understood his or her place in society with respect to others.
4 commentsSteve E
Hadrse53c.jpg
Hadrian, RIC 710c, Sestertius of AD 132-134 (Justitia)16 viewsObv.: HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS, bare headed draped bust right.
Rev.: IVSTITIA AGG COS III P P around, S C in ex., Justitia seated left holding patera and sceptre.
RIC 710c; Cohen 885; Strack 818.
Ex Künker Auktion 153
Charles S
Hadrse27-2.jpg
Hadrian, RIC 710f, Sestertius of AD 130 (Justitia)21 viewsĆ Sestertius (22.7g, Ø 33mm, 12h). Rome mint. Struck AD 130.
Obv.: HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS, draped, bare-headed bust left.
Rev.: IVSTITIA AVG COS III P P (around) S C (ex.), Justitia seated l, holding patera and sceptre.
RIC 710 f ; BMCRE 1425; Cohen 887; Strack 818.
Ex G.Henzen (1997).
Charles S
herennius_etruscus_143.jpg
Herennius Etruscus RIC IV, 14366 viewsHerennius Etruscus AD 250-251, son of Trajan Decius
AR - Antoninian, 4.32g, 21mm
Rome 6. officin, Jan.-Dec. 250
obv. Q HER ETR MES DECIVS NOB C
bust draped, radiate r.
rev. PIETAS AVGVSTORVM
priestley implement
RIC IV/3, 143; C.14
Scarce; good VF, mint luster

Priestly implement from l. to r.:
1. ASPERGILLUM, a whisk for sprinkling holy water. Word not used in ancient authors!
2. SIMPUVIUM, an earthen ladle, Symbol of the PONTIFICES of Rome. Often called incorrectly Simpulum!
3. GUTTURNIUM, a narrow-necked jug for small quantities of liquids
4. PATERA, a shallow bowl for pouring liquids, grain or salt upon the fire or victims. In the early times symbol of the VI VIRI EPULONES, then used by many emperors or deities without a special meaning.
5. LITUUS, a curved staff, top hooked. With this staff the AUGURES marked out the 'templum', the area to undertake observations of birds. Origin of the Bishop's Staff.
1 commentsJochen
217.jpg
hj6.26.01.0515 viewsElagabalus
Marcianopolis

Obv: AVT K M AVP. ANTΩNEINOC, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev: VΠ CEPΓ TITIANOV MAPKIANOΠOΛITΩN, Zeus standing left, holding phiale and sceptre.
26 mm, 7.93 gms

Hristova-Jekov 6.26.1.5, Varbonov 1473
Charles M
1707__Dr__Busso_Peus_Nachf__Auction(s).jpg
hj6.26.01.05_26 viewsElagabalus
Marcianopolis

Obv: AVT K M AVP. ANTΩNEINOC, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev: VΠ CEPΓ TITIANOV MAPKIANOΠOΛITΩ, in lower left field, N; Zeus standing left, holding phiale and sceptre.
26 mm, 9.29 gms

Hristova-Jekov 6.26.1.5, Varbonov 1473
Charles M
859.jpg
hj6.26.03.1011 viewsElagabalus
Marcianopolis

Obv: AVT K M AVPH ANTΩNEINOC, laureate head right
Rev: VΠ CEPΓ TITIANOV MAPKIANOΠOΛITΩN, Hera standing left, holding patera and sceptre.
25 mm, 10.47 gms

Hristova-Jekov 6.26.3.10
Charles M
1214c.jpg
hj6.26.03.122 viewsElagabalus
Marcianopolis

Obv: AVT K M AVPH ANTΩNEINOC, laureate head right
Rev: VΠ CEPΓ TITIANOV MAPKIANOΠOΛIT, in left field Ω, in right field N, Hera standing left, holding patera and sceptre.
25 mm, 8.30 gms

Hristova-Jekov 6.26.3.12
Charles M
577d.jpg
hj6.26.03.1312 viewsElagabalus
Marcianopolis

Obv: AVT K M AVPHΛI ANTΩNEINOC (AVΓ), laureate head right
Rev: VΠ [CEP]Γ TITIANOV MAPKIANOΠOΛIT(ΩN), Hera standing left, holding patera and sceptre.
27 mm, 9.8 gms

Hristova-Jekov 6.26.3.13
Charles M
654c.jpg
hj6.26.03.13_213 viewsElagabalus
Marcianopolis

Obv: AVT K M AVPHΛI ANTΩNEINOC (AVΓ), laureate head right
Rev: VΠ CEPΓ TITIANOV MAPKIANOΠOΛIT(ΩN), Hera standing left, holding patera and sceptre.
26 mm, 8.32 gms

Hristova-Jekov 6.26.3.13
Charles M
1863_(2).jpg
hj6.26.03.13_30 viewsElagabalus
Marcianopolis

Obv: AVT K M AVPHΛI ANTΩNEINOC A(VΓ), laureate head right
Rev: VΠ CEPΓ TITIANOV MAPKIANOΠOΛIT(ΩN), Hera standing left, holding patera and sceptre.
25 mm, 8.23 gms

Hristova-Jekov 6.26.3.13
Charles M
1781c.jpg
hj6.26.03.xx0 viewsElagabalus
Marcianopolis

Obv: AVT K M AVP ANT..., laureate draped and cuirassed bust right seen from rear.
Rev: VΠ CEPΓ TITIANOV MAPKIANOΠOΛI →TΩN, Hera standing left, holding patera and sceptre.
25 mm, 8.02 gms

Hristova-Jekov 6.26.3.xx (This die combination not in HJ.)
Charles M
621.jpg
hj6.26.04.110 viewsElagabalus
Marcianopolis

Obv: AVT K M AVPHΛI ANTΩNEINOC, laureate head right
Rev: VΠ CEPΓ TITIANOV MAPKIANOΠOΛITΩN, Athena standing left, right hand on shield at feet, spear in left hand.
25 mm, 6.93 gms

Hristova-Jekov 6.26.4.1
Charles M
1254c.jpg
hj6.26.04.xx2 viewsElagabalus
Marcianopolis

Obv: AVT K M AVPHΛIOC ANTΩNEINOC, laureate head right
Rev: VΠ [CEPΓ TITIA]NOV MAPKIANOΠOΛIT(ΩN), Athena standing left, right hand on shield at feet, spear in left hand.
26 mm, 9.97 gms

Hristova-Jekov 6.26.4.xx (this obverse legend not in Hristova-Jekov)
Charles M
966c.jpg
hj6.26.10.0510 viewsElagabalus
Marcianopolis

Obv: AVT K M AVP. ANTΩNEINOC, laureate draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev: VΠ CEPΓ. TITIANOV MAPKIANOΠOΛITΩN, Hermes standing left, holding purse and caduceus.
28 mm, 9.70 gms

Hristova-Jekov 6.26.10.5 (different obverse legend)
Charles M
1841c.jpg
hj6.26.10.05_23 viewsElagabalus
Marcianopolis

Obv: AVT K M AVPHΛ ANTΩNEINOC, laureate draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev: VΠ CEPΓ. TITIANOV MAPKIANOΠOΛITΩN, Hermes standing left, holding purse and caduceus.
26 mm, 9.70 gms

Hristova-Jekov 6.26.10.5
Charles M
927.jpg
hj6.26.10.06_212 viewsElagabalus
Marcianopolis

Obv: AVT K M AVPH. ANTΩNEINOC, laureate head right
Rev: VΠ CEPΓ. TITIANOV MAPKIANOΠOΛIT(ΩN), Hermes standing left, holding purse and caduceus.
26 mm, 10.08 gms

Hristova-Jekov 6.26.10.6 variant (obverse legend)
Charles M
1867_(3).jpg
hj6.26.10.xx20 viewsElagabalus
Marcianopolis

Obv: AVT K M AVPH. ANTΩNEINOC, laureate head right
Rev: VΠ CEPΓ TITIANOV MAPKIANOΠOΛITΩN, Hermes standing left, holding purse and caduceus.
2 mm, 8.92 gms

Hristova-Jekov 6.26.10.xx (This die combination not in HJ.)
Charles M
724.jpg
hj6.26.20.04var12 viewsElagabalus
Marcianopolis

Obv: AVT K M AVPHΛ ANTΩNEINOC, laureate draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev: VΠ CEPΓ TITIANOV MAPK[IANOΠOΛIT(ΩN)], Asklepios standing facing, head to left, holding serpent entwined staff in right hand.
27 mm, 9.20 gms

Hristova-Jekov 6.26.20.04 variant (bust style)
Charles M
865.jpg
hj6.26.20.059 viewsElagabalus
Marcianopolis

Obv: AVT K M AVPHΛ ANTΩNEINOC, laureate head right
Rev: VΠ CEPΓ TITIANOV MAPKIANOΠOΛIT, in lower right field (ΩN), Asklepios standing facing, head to left, holding serpent entwined staff in right hand.
26 mm, 10.00 gms

Hristova-Jekov 6.26.20.5
Charles M
1030.jpg
hj6.26.20.05_211 viewsElagabalus
Marcianopolis

Obv: AVT K M AVPHΛ ANTΩNEINOC, laureate head right
Rev: VΠ CEPΓ TITIANOV MAPKIANOΠOΛIT, in lower right field (ΩN), Asklepios standing facing, head to left, holding serpent entwined staff in right hand.
25 mm, 8.63 gms

Hristova-Jekov 6.26.20.5
Charles M
1265.jpg
hj6.26.20.xx1 viewsElagabalus
Marcianopolis

Obv: AVT K M AVP ANTΩNEINOC, laureate draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev: VΠ CEPΓ TITIANOV MAPKIANOΠOΛIT(ΩN), Asklepios standing facing, head to left, holding serpent entwined staff in right hand.
27 mm, 10.11 gms

Hristova-Jekov 6.26.20.xx (not in Hristova-Jekov)
Charles M
1799c.jpg
hj6.26.21.060 viewsElagabalus
Marcianopolis

Obv: AVT K M AVPHΛ ANT[ΩNEINOC], laureate head right
Rev: VΠ CEPΓ TITIANOV MAPKIANOΠOΛIT(ΩN), Hygeia standing right feeding snake from patera.
25 mm, 10.23 gms

Hristova-Jekov 6.26.21.6
Charles M
610.jpg
hj6.26.21.xx2formerlyhj6.26.21.07var15 viewsElagabalus
Marcianopolis

Obv: AVT K M AVPHΛI ANTΩNEINOC A(VΓ), laureate head right
Rev: VΠ CEPΓ TITIAN(OV)-MAPKIANOΠOΛIT(ΩN), Hygeia standing right feeding snake from patera.
26 mm, 10.55 gms

Hristova-Jekov 6.26.21.xx (This die combination not in HJ.)
Charles M
821c.jpg
hj6.26.21.xxformerlyhj6.26.21.06var8 viewsElagabalus
Marcianopolis

Obv: AVT K M AVPHΛIOC ANTΩNEINOC, laureate head right
Rev: [VΠ CEPΓ] TITIAN(OV) MAPKIANOΠOΛITΩN, Hygeia standing right feeding snake from patera.
27 mm, 9.67 gms

Hristova-Jekov 6.26.21.xx (This die combination not in HJ.)
Charles M
1534c.jpg
hj6.26.35.1810 viewsElagabalus
Marcianopolis

Obv: AVT K M AVP ANTΩNEINOC, laureate draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev: VΠ CEPΓ TITIANOV MAPKIANOΠOΛIT(ΩN), Nemesis standing left, holding scales and cornucopia, wheel at her feet.
25 mm, 9.63 gms

Hristova-Jekov 6.26.35.18
Charles M
1024.jpg
hj6.26.35.249 viewsElagabalus
Marcianopolis

Obv: AVT K M AVPH ANTΩNEINOC, laureate head right
Rev: VΠ CEPΓ TITIANOV MAPKIANOΠOΛITΩN, Nemesis standing left, holding scales and cornucopia.
25 mm, 10.90 gms

Hristova-Jekov 6.26.35.24 (no ligate letters in this coin)
Charles M
1299.jpg
hj6.26.35.24_23 viewsElagabalus
Marcianopolis

Obv: AVT K M AVPH ANTΩNEINOC, laureate head right
Rev: VΠ CEPΓ TITIANOV MAPKIANOΠOΛIT(ΩN), Nemesis standing left, holding scales and cornucopia.
26 mm, 10.91 gms

Hristova-Jekov 6.26.35.24
Charles M
108.jpg
hj6.26.35.3215 viewsElagabalus
Marcianopolis

Obv: AVT K M AVPHΛ ANTΩNEINOC, laureate head right
Rev: VΠ CEPΓ TITIANOV MAPKIANOΠOΛITΩN, Nemesis standing left, holding scales and sceptre, wheel at her feet.
25 mm, 10.12 gms

Hristova-Jekov 6.26.35.32, Varbonov 1468
Charles M
998c.jpg
hj6.26.36.0110 viewsElagabalus
Marcianopolis

Obv: AVT K M AVP ANTΩNEINOC, laureate draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev: VΠ CEPΓ TITIANOV MAPKIANOΠOΛIT(ΩN), Concordia standing left, holding patera and cornucopia.
26 mm, 8.70 gms

Hristova-Jekov 6.26.36.1
Charles M
265c.jpg
hj6.26.36.0313 viewsElagabalus
Marcianopolis

Obv: AVT K M AVPH ANTΩNEINOC, laureate head right
Rev: VΠ CEPΓ TITIANOV MAPKIANOΠOΛIT →(ΩN), Concordia standing left, holding patera and cornucopia.
26 mm, 10.13 gms

Hristova-Jekov 6.26.36.3
Charles M
172.jpg
hj6.26.36.03_210 viewsElagabalus
Marcianopolis

Obv: AVT K M AVPH ANTΩNEINOC, laureate head right
Rev: VΠ CEPΓ TITIANOV MAPK(...), Concordia standing left, holding patera and cornucopia.
26 mm, 10.13 gms

Cf. Hristova-Jekov 6.26.36.3
Charles M
991.jpg
hj6.26.36.03_37 viewsElagabalus
Marcianopolis

Obv: AVT K M AVPH ANTΩNEINOC, laureate head right
Rev: VΠ CEPΓ TITIANOV MAPKIANOΠOΛIT →(ΩN), Concordia standing left, holding patera and cornucopia.
25 mm, 9.34 gms

Hristova-Jekov 6.26.36.3
Charles M
633.jpg
hj6.26.36.089 viewsElagabalus
Marcianopolis

Obv: AVT K M AVPHΛI ANTΩNEINOC, laureate head right
Rev: VΠ CEPΓ [TITIANOV] MAPKIANOΠOΛIT →ΩN, Concordia standing left, holding patera and cornucopia.
23 mm, 8.59 gms

Hristova-Jekov 6.26.36.8
Charles M
1662.jpg
hj6.26.36.xx_34 viewsElagabalus
Marcianopolis

Obv: AVT K M AVPHΛI ANTΩNEINOC, laureate head right
Rev: VΠ CEPΓ TITIAN(OV) MAPKIANOΠOΛI →T(ΩN), Concordia standing left, holding patera and cornucopia.
25 mm, 10.69 gms

Hristova-Jekov 6.26.36.xx Not in HJ
Charles M
665c.jpg
hj6.28.04.0416 viewsElagabalus and Julia Maesa
Marcianopolis

Obv: [AVT] K M AVPH ANTΩNEINOC AVΓ IOVΛIA MAICA, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust of Elagabalus on left facing draped bust of Julia Maesa on right .
Rev: VΠ CEPΓ TITIANOV MAPKIANOΠOΛITΩ, in right field N, Athena standing left holding patera and staff, shield resting on ground left. E in left lower field.
26 mm, 12.05 gms

Hristova-Jekov 6.28.4.4
Charles M
1345.jpg
hj6.28.04.04_23 viewsElagabalus and Julia Maesa
Marcianopolis

Obv: [AVT] K M AVPH ANTΩNEINOC [AVΓ IOVΛIA MAICA], laureate, draped and cuirassed bust of Elagabalus on left facing draped bust of Julia Maesa on right .
Rev: VΠ CEPΓ TITIANOV MAPKIANOΠOΛITΩ, in right field N, Athena standing left holding patera and staff, shield resting on ground left. E in left lower field.
28 mm, 10.30 gms

Hristova-Jekov 6.28.4.4
Charles M
2017__Savoca_Coins,_27th_Blue_Auction_lot_589.jpg
hj6.28.04.04_31 viewsElagabalus and Julia Maesa
Marcianopolis

Obv: AVT K M AVPH ANTΩNEINOC AVΓ IOVΛIA MAICA, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust of Elagabalus on left facing draped bust of Julia Maesa on right .
Rev: VΠ CEPΓ TITIANOV MAPKIANOΠOΛITΩ, in right field N, Athena standing left holding patera and staff, shield resting on ground left. E in left lower field.
27 mm, 12.80 gms

Hristova-Jekov 6.28.4.4

From Savoca Coins 27th Blue Auction, lot 589.
Charles M
2021__Savoca_Coins,_27th_Blue_Auction_lot_599.jpg
hj6.28.04.04_40 viewsElagabalus and Julia Maesa
Marcianopolis

Obv: AVT K M AVPH ANTΩNEINOC AVΓ IOVΛIA MAICA, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust of Elagabalus on left facing draped bust of Julia Maesa on right .
Rev: VΠ CEPΓ TITIANOV MAPKIANOΠOΛITΩ, in right field N, Athena standing left holding patera and staff, shield resting on ground left. E in left lower field.
27 mm, 12.82 gms

Hristova-Jekov 6.28.4.4

From Savoca Coins 27th Blue Auction, lot 599.
Charles M
1722.jpg
hj6.28.38.xx2 viewsElagabalus and Julia Maesa
Marcianopolis

Obv: AVT K M AVP ANTΩNEINOC KAI IOVΛIAMAICA ♦ , laureate draped and cuirassed bust of Elagabalus on left facing draped bust of Julia Maesa on right .
Rev: VΠ IOVΛ CEPΓ TITIANOV MAPKIANOΠOΛIT(ΩN), Fortuna standing facing, head left, holding rudder and cornucopia. E in right field.
28 mm, 12.13 gms

Hristova-Jekov 6.28.38.xx (This die combination not in HJ)
Charles M
1772.jpg
hj6.28.38.xx_21 viewsElagabalus and Julia Maesa
Marcianopolis

Obv: AVT K M AVPH ANTΩNEINOC AVΓ IOVΛIA MAICA ♦ , laureate draped and cuirassed bust of Elagabalus on left facing draped bust of Julia Maesa on right .
Rev: VΠ IOVΛ CEPΓ TITIANOV MAPKIANOΠOΛIT(ΩN), Fortuna standing facing, head left, holding rudder and cornucopia. E in right field.
28 mm, 12.91 gms

Hristova-Jekov 6.28.38.xx (This die combination not in HJ)
Charles M
HUN_Anonymous_Vienna_Huszar_400.JPG
Huszár 400, Unger 310, RĂ©thy I 35069 viewsHungary. Anonymous Vienna denar (possibly Ladislaus IV (László, in Hun.) (1272-1290), per Unger; or Béla IV (1235-1270), per Rádóczy and Nagy). AR denar, 13-14 mm.

Obv: Agnus Dei facing left with cross-banner.

Rev: Hebrew letter ט (tet) in floral wreath.

Huszár wrote that “t cannot be determined under which ruler th[is] w[as] minted” (Huszár 1977). However, Rádóczy and Nagy determined that coins bearing the Hebrew letter ט (tet) were issued by Teka, who was a kammergraf in 1232 under András II (András, in Hun.) (1205-1235) and 1235-1245 under Béla IV (1235-1270 (per Friedenberg; also per Pohl). They attributed it to Béla IV (per Friedenberg).

“[F]oreign influence spread to contemporary Hungarian coinage from the Vienna denars, a collective term applied to the coins issued by Austrian princes beginning with the end of the 12th century through various mints. Such coins appeared as commercial currency in large quantities all over Hungary in the course of the 13th century . . . [T]he types virtually vied vied with the fantastic animal shapes of contemporary sculpture . . . Of these motifs, that of the Agnus Dei enjoyed particular favour in contemporary Romanesque sculpture.” (Huszár (1963) at 12).

Huszár rarity rating R1.
Stkp
India, Yaudheya Republic bk.jpg
India, Yaudheya Republic, Rohtak mint, c. 3rd Century AD125 views24mm. 11.38 gm
obv: Brahmi Yaudheya Ganasya Jaya. Karttikeys standing facing, holding scepter; peacock at right. Word Dvi ("two") added at end of legend.
rev: Female goddess standing left with hand on hip; lotus and nandipada in field.
Struck 3rd Century A.D. at Rohtak mint
MACW 4711-4715

From the dealer's description: As Kushan influence waned in the Ganges Valley, the Yaudheyas and other local/ tribal entities established their own states. The Yaudheya Republic was centered on Rohtak, northwest of Delhi. By the mid-3rd century, the Yaudheyas controlled and extensive territory served by three parallel issues of coinage, likely corresponding to three administrative areas. The present coin is designated "two".

Jericho
Ionia-Teos-ARtrihemiobol-013500.png
Ionia, Teos, silver trihemiobol, ca. 500-450 BC.15 viewsObverse- griffin seated right, forepaw raised.
Reverse- quadripartite incuse square, bold partition lines forming cross, irregular (unknown) shapes within incuse quarters.

10.5 mm, 1.47 g. In an NGC Ch VF (Strike 3/5, Surface: 5/5) slab. Ex-FORVM Ancient Coins, 7/18/2012. Lot# GA58821. Purchased raw. FORVM gave a narrower date range of ca. 510-490 BC.
lordmarcovan
rjb_car_laetitia_irreg.jpg
Irregular Laetitia29 viewsCarausius 287-93AD
Antoninianus
Obv “IMP CARAVSIVS [.......]”
Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev “LAETITIV AVG”
Laetitia standing left holding anchor
Irregular mint

mauseus
rjb_2012_06_03.jpg
Irregular Laetitia21 viewsCarausius 287-93AD
AE Antoninianus
Obv: "IMP CARAVSI[VS A]V"
Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev: "LITIT AV"
Laetitia standing left holding baton and cornucopia
Irregular mint
mauseus
rjb_car_06_07.jpg
Irregular Pax/Laetitia26 viewsCarausius 287-93 AD
Antoninianus
Obv "IMP CARAVSIVS P AVG"
Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev "PAX AVG"
Laetitia standing left holding wreath and anchor
Irregular mint
mauseus
Qumran_Cistern_(or_Mikveh)_with_earthquake_faultA.jpg
Israel, Qumran - Miqvah156 viewsThis is L48-49, a water storage feature. The low, plastered partitions on the steps make it likely that this was a miqvah (a ritual bath), rather than a cistern. The damage on the left side of the steps dates from the earthquake of 31 BCE. Abu Galyon
Italy- Napoli- Mount_vesuvius.jpg
Italy- Napoli- Mount_vesuvius67 viewsOn August 24 of 79 A.D., the area around Mount Vesuvius shook with a huge earthquake. The mountain's top split open and a monstrous cloud raced upward. The inhabitants of Pompeii were showered with ash, stones, and pumice. A river of mud was beginning to bury the city of Herculaneum. The uncle of Pliny the Younger, known as Pliny the Elder, was a commander of a fleet of war ships at Misenum (see map). He decided to use his ships to rescue people close to the volcano. The nephew describes the huge cloud towering over the area (Radice, 1969):

. . . its general appearance can best be expressed as being like a pine rather than any other tree, for it rose to a great height on a sort of trunk and then split off into branches, I imagine because it was thrust upwards by the first blast and then left unsupported as the pressure subsided, or else it was borne down by its own weight so that it spread out and gradually dispersed. Sometimes it looked white, sometimes blotched and dirty, according to the amount of soil and ashes it carried with it. (p. 427)

Pliny the Elder's ship approached the shore near Pompeii.

Ashes were already falling, hotter and thicker as the ships drew near, followed by bits of pumice and blackened stones, charred and cracked by the flames . . . Meanwhile on Mount Vesuvius broad sheets of fire and leaping flames blazed at several points, their bright glare emphasized by the darkness of night. (pp. 429, 431)

But they could not land because the shore was blocked by volcanic debris, so they sailed south and landed at Stabiae. Hoping to quiet the frightened people, the uncle asked to be carried to the bath house. Afterward he lay down and ate. Next, hoping to quiet the inhabitants, he went to bed. The volcano did not do likewise, however.

By this time the courtyard giving access to his room was full of ashes mixed with pumice-stones, so that its level had risen, and if he had stayed in the room any longer he would never had got out. . . . They debated whether to stay indoors or take their chance in the open, for the buildings were now shaking with violent shocks, and seemed to be swaying to and fro as if they were torn from their foundations. Outside on the other hand, there was the danger of falling pumice-stones, even though these were light and porous. . . . As a protection against falling objects they put pillows on their heads tied down with cloths. (pp. 431, 433)

Finally, the uncle decided to leave. The level of ash and pumice-stone had risen to the point that a hasty departure seemed the best option.

. . . the flames and smell of sulphur which gave warning of the approaching fire drove the others to take flight and roused him to stand up . . . then [he] suddenly collapsed, I imagine because the dense fumes choked his breathing by blocking his windpipe which was constitutionally weak and narrow and often inflamed . . . his body was found intact and uninjured, still fully clothed and looking more like sleep than death. (p. 433)

Later, Pliny the Younger and his mother leave Misenam to escape from the approaching volcanic conflagration. They travel across country to avoid being trampled by the crowds of people on the road.

We also saw the sea sucked away and apparently forced back by the earthquake: at any rate it receded from the shore so that quantities of sea creatures were left stranded on dry sand. On the landward side a fearful black cloud was rent by forked and quivering bursts of flame, and parted to reveal great tongues of fire, like flashes of lightning magnified in size. . . . We had scarcely sat down to rest when darkness fell, not the dark of a moonless or cloudy night, but as if the lamp had been put out in a closed room. You could hear the shrieks of women, the wailing of infants, and the shouting of men; some were calling their parents, others their children or their wives, trying to recognize them by their voices. People bewailed their own fate or that of their relatives, and there were some who prayed for death in their terror of dying
John Schou
Italy- Rome- The Arch of Vespasian.jpg
Italy- Rome- The Arch of Tito50 viewsThe Arch of Titus (Arcus Titi) is a triumphal arch that commemorates the victory of the emperors Vespasian and Titus in Judea in 70 CE, which lead to the conquest of Jerusalem and the destruction of the Jewish temple there, and the triumphal procession the two held in Rome in 71 CE. It is situated at the E. entrance to the Forum Romanum, on the Via Sacra, south of the Temple of Amor and Roma, close to the Colosseum.

The arch was definitely erected sometimes after after the death of Titus in 81 CE, since Titus is referred to as Divus in the inscription. The deification of an emperor only happened posthumously after decision by the senate. It was most probably erected by emperor Domitian who succeeded his brother Titus in 81 CE, but it has also been suggested that it was built later, by Trajan, because of stylistic similarities with the Arch of Trajan at Benevento.

The Arch of Titus is a single arch, measuring 15.4m in height, 13.5m in width and 4.75m in depth, originally constructed entirely in Pantelic marble, with four semi-columns on each side. The external decorations include figures of Victoria with trophies on the spandrels and images of Roma and the Genius of Rome on the two keystones.

The inscription on the E. side is the original dedication of the arch by the senate. It reads:

Senatus
Populusque Romanus
divo Tito divo Vespasiani f(ilio)
Vespasiano Augusto

The senate
and people of Rome
to the divine Titus, son of the divine Vespasian,
Vespasianus Augustus

The inside the archway the monument is decorated with reliefs in marble. The S. side shows the beginning of the triumphal entry into Rome of the victorious emperor and his troops. The soldiers, walking left to right, are carrying the spoils of war, which include the seven armed candelabrum and the silver trumpets from the temple of Jerusalem. The signs carried by some soldiers displayed the names of the conquered cities and people. To the right the procession is entering the city through the Porta Triumphalis.

The N. side of the arch is decorated with a relief of the emperor in the triumphal procession. The emperor is riding a quadriga, which is lead by the goddess Roma, and he is crowned by Victoria flying above him. The lictors are walking in front of the chariot with their long ceremonial axes. After the emperor follow as a young man, who represents the Roman people, and an older man in toga, representing the senate. In the middle, under the vault a small relief shows the apotheosis of Titus, flying to the heavens on the back of an eagle.
John Schou
Italy- Rome- The arch of Tito and inside the arches.jpg
Italy- Rome- The arch of Tito and inside the arches47 viewsThe Arch of Titus (Arcus Titi) is a triumphal arch that commemorates the victory of the emperors Vespasian and Titus in Judea in 70 CE, which lead to the conquest of Jerusalem and the destruction of the Jewish temple there, and the triumphal procession the two held in Rome in 71 CE. It is situated at the E. entrance to the Forum Romanum, on the Via Sacra, south of the Temple of Amor and Roma, close to the Colosseum.

The arch was definitely erected sometimes after after the death of Titus in 81 CE, since Titus is referred to as Divus in the inscription. The deification of an emperor only happened posthumously after decision by the senate. It was most probably erected by emperor Domitian who succeeded his brother Titus in 81 CE, but it has also been suggested that it was built later, by Trajan, because of stylistic similarities with the Arch of Trajan at Benevento.

The Arch of Titus is a single arch, measuring 15.4m in height, 13.5m in width and 4.75m in depth, originally constructed entirely in Pantelic marble, with four semi-columns on each side. The external decorations include figures of Victoria with trophies on the spandrels and images of Roma and the Genius of Rome on the two keystones.

The inscription on the E. side is the original dedication of the arch by the senate. It reads:

Senatus
Populusque Romanus
divo Tito divo Vespasiani f(ilio)
Vespasiano Augusto

The senate
and people of Rome
to the divine Titus, son of the divine Vespasian,
Vespasianus Augustus

The inside the archway the monument is decorated with reliefs in marble. The S. side shows the beginning of the triumphal entry into Rome of the victorious emperor and his troops. The soldiers, walking left to right, are carrying the spoils of war, which include the seven armed candelabrum and the silver trumpets from the temple of Jerusalem. The signs carried by some soldiers displayed the names of the conquered cities and people. To the right the procession is entering the city through the Porta Triumphalis.

The N. side of the arch is decorated with a relief of the emperor in the triumphal procession. The emperor is riding a quadriga, which is lead by the goddess Roma, and he is crowned by Victoria flying above him. The lictors are walking in front of the chariot with their long ceremonial axes. After the emperor follow as a young man, who represents the Roman people, and an older man in toga, representing the senate. In the middle, under the vault a small relief shows the apotheosis of Titus, flying to the heavens on the back of an eagle.
John Schou
Italy- Rome- The entrance to Forum and the arch of Tito.jpg
Italy- Rome- The entrance to Forum and the arch of Tito40 viewsThe Arch of Titus (Arcus Titi) is a triumphal arch that commemorates the victory of the emperors Vespasian and Titus in Judea in 70 CE, which lead to the conquest of Jerusalem and the destruction of the Jewish temple there, and the triumphal procession the two held in Rome in 71 CE. It is situated at the E. entrance to the Forum Romanum, on the Via Sacra, south of the Temple of Amor and Roma, close to the Colosseum.

The arch was definitely erected sometimes after after the death of Titus in 81 CE, since Titus is referred to as Divus in the inscription. The deification of an emperor only happened posthumously after decision by the senate. It was most probably erected by emperor Domitian who succeeded his brother Titus in 81 CE, but it has also been suggested that it was built later, by Trajan, because of stylistic similarities with the Arch of Trajan at Benevento.

The Arch of Titus is a single arch, measuring 15.4m in height, 13.5m in width and 4.75m in depth, originally constructed entirely in Pantelic marble, with four semi-columns on each side. The external decorations include figures of Victoria with trophies on the spandrels and images of Roma and the Genius of Rome on the two keystones.

The inscription on the E. side is the original dedication of the arch by the senate. It reads:

Senatus
Populusque Romanus
divo Tito divo Vespasiani f(ilio)
Vespasiano Augusto

The senate
and people of Rome
to the divine Titus, son of the divine Vespasian,
Vespasianus Augustus

The inside the archway the monument is decorated with reliefs in marble. The S. side shows the beginning of the triumphal entry into Rome of the victorious emperor and his troops. The soldiers, walking left to right, are carrying the spoils of war, which include the seven armed candelabrum and the silver trumpets from the temple of Jerusalem. The signs carried by some soldiers displayed the names of the conquered cities and people. To the right the procession is entering the city through the Porta Triumphalis.

The N. side of the arch is decorated with a relief of the emperor in the triumphal procession. The emperor is riding a quadriga, which is lead by the goddess Roma, and he is crowned by Victoria flying above him. The lictors are walking in front of the chariot with their long ceremonial axes. After the emperor follow as a young man, who represents the Roman people, and an older man in toga, representing the senate. In the middle, under the vault a small relief shows the apotheosis of Titus, flying to the heavens on the back of an eagle.

John Schou
Italy- Rome- The honoury column of Trajan.jpg
Italy- Rome- The honory column of Trajan36 viewsThe Trajan's Column -
This elegant marble column was inaugurated by Trajan in AD 113, and celebrates his two campaigns in Dacia (Romania) in AD 101-3 and AD 107-8. The column, base and pedestal are 40 m (131 ft.) tall - precisely the same height as the spur of the Quirinal hill which was excavated to make room for Trajan's Forum.
The Trajan Column
The Trajan Column is constructed of giant marble blocks and a spiral staircase leading to the top. The base, excavated inside to re-excavate the tomb, was sculpted with panels of stacked Dacian arms.
A long embellishment goes around the column shaft like a roll of papyrus, leaving the fluting under the Doric capital visible.
The embellishment narrates two Dacian wars, representing the enemy with pride and humanity.
There were 2,500 figures sculpted in similar but various poses to avoid repetitiveness.
The column reaches in height to the top according to correct optics.

A- Hollowness in the Column: The Trajan column is a hollow shaft made of marble. In the area of the Basilica Ulpia, a gray granite fragment is visible with an interesting wavy border.
This was probably from one of the temple columns of 50 feet in height (around 15 meters).
It was probably impossible to extract such monolithic blocks from the mines, so the column was probably constructed by stacking hollow blocks, using these wavy borders to hide the joined areas and reinforce the column's structure.


Spiralling up the column are minutely detailed scenes from the campaigns, beginning whit the Romans preparing for war and ending with the Dacians being ousted from their homeland. The column is pierced with small windows to illuminate its internal spiral staircase (closed to the public). If you wish to see the reliefs in detail there is a complete set of casts in the Museo della Civiltŕ Romana at EUR. When Trajan died in AD 117 his ashes, along with those of his wife Plotina, were placed in a golden urn in the column's hollow base.

The column's survival was largely thanks to the intervention of Pope Gregory the Great (reigned 590-604). He was so moved by a relief showing Trajan helping a woman whose son had been killed that he begged God to release the emperor's soul from hell. God duly appeared to the pope to say that Trajan had been rescued, but asked him not to pray for the souls of any more pagans. According to legend, when Trajan's ashes were exhumed his skull and tongue were not only intact, but his tongue told of his release from hell.

The land around the column was then declared sacred and the column itself was spared. The statue of Trajan remained on top of the column until 1587, when it was replaced with one of St Peter.
John Schou
Sest_Dl_Iustia_.jpg
Ivstitia Dl12 viewsObverse: IMP SEV ALE_XANDER AVG
Bust laureate right,
Reverse: IVSTITIA AVGVSTI SC exergue
IVSTITIA draped, seated on throne, holding patera in right hand and sceptre in left
BMC 612-4 (Slightly draped), RIC 563
Weight, 24.10g; die axis, 12h.
mix_val
Ivstitia_Dlsd.jpg
Ivstitia Dlsd56 viewsObverse: IMPSEVALE_XANDERAVG
Bust laureate right, left shoulder slightly draped
Reverse: IVSTITIA_A_VGVSTI SC exergue
IVSTITIA draped, seated on throne, holding patera in right hand and sceptre in left
BMC 612-4, RIC 563
Weight, 16.48g; die axis, 12h.
1 commentsmix_val
JAP_KM_C_1_1.JPG
Japan. Shogunate.192 viewsHartill 4.139, Jones (1984) 75, Jones (2007) 224, KM C 1.1 var.

1 mon (cast copper alloy), from 1728 (Kyoho 13), Ishinomaki, Sendai mint, 24 mm. This variety is known as isho choutsu (different writing, high tsu).

Obv: Kanei tsuho.

Rev: Blank.

Kanei Tsuho coins were first cast in small quantities in 1626 in Mito, but in 1636, the Tokugawa government ordered that large quantities be cast, and distributed model coins to private subcontractors in locations throughout Japan. By the 1650’s 16 different locations were casting these coins. When the Kanei era ended in 1643 the legend was kept in use until the 1860’s. All of the Kanei coins cast before 1668 are known as “old Kanei” and those cast from 1668 are now known as “new Kanei.” They are distinguished by the legs of the Ho character. This coin is a new Kanei. In the early 1700’s copper mines began to be exhausted in Japan and it gradually became too expensive to manufacture copper coins. In response, the government authorized the casting of iron coins in 1739. Copper alloy coins continued to be made but were frequently of less weight and lower quality, and from 1768 were mainly minted in a higher denomination.

Attribution assistance courtesy of Eric Crawford and Diego M. Santos
Stkp
JAP_KM_C_4_2.JPG
Japan. Shogunate.156 viewsHartill 4.253, Jones (1984) 205, Jones (2007) 295, KM C 4.2 var.

4 mon (cast copper alloy), from 1769 (Meiwa 11), Edo Fukagawa mint, 28 mm. This variety is known as fuei (looking down ei) because the second stroke of the ei character is slightly slanted down. There are subvarieities of fuei.

Obv: Kanei tsuho.

Rev: Eleven waves.

Kanei Tsuho coins were first cast in small quantities in 1626 in Mito, but in 1636, the Tokugawa government ordered that large quantities be cast, and distributed model coins to private subcontractors in locations throughout Japan. By the 1650’s 16 different locations were casting these coins. When the Kanei era ended in 1643 the legend was kept in use until the 1860’s. In the early 1700’s copper mines began to be exhausted in Japan and it gradually became too expensive to manufacture copper coins. In response, the government authorized the casting of iron coins in 1739. Copper alloy coins continued to be made but were frequently of less weight and lower quality. The Tokugawa government first commissioned a Kanei Tsuho coin valued at 4 mon in 1768. The first version was made at the Fukagawa mint in Edo and had a design of 21 waves on the reverse. In 1769 the design changed to have only 11 waves and all subsequent versions used the 11 wave design. It was not much larger than a 1 mon coin so it was cost effective to produce.

Attribution assistance courtesy of Eric Crawford and Diego M. Santos
Stkp
judaea_matttathias_antigon_Hendin481.jpg
Judaea, Mattathias Antigonus, TJC 3646 viewsMatthathias Antigonus (Mattatayah), 40-37 BC
AE 24 (big bronze), 13.25g, 24.13mm
obv. Double cornucopiae with fruits and Palaeo-Hebrew legend:
[ימ / רהיוד / וחב / הגד / ן]הכה / תתיה[מ]
from r. to l.:
= [M]TTYH / H KH[N / H GDL / W (Ch)B / R H YWD / YM]
= Matitiah Ha Kohen H Gadol We Chaver Ha Yehudim
= Matitiah the Highpriest and the Council of the Jewish
rev. Ivy wreath with legend around in Greek:
[BAC]ILEO ANTIG[ONOV] (N of ANTIG retrograd)
ref. Hendin IV, 481; AJC type U; TJC 36
VF, dark green patina
Jochen
judaea_mattathias_antigonos_Hendin482.jpg
Judaea, Mattathias Antigonus, TJC 37c101 viewsMatthathias Antigonus (Mattatayah), 40-37 BC
AE 21 (prutah), 6.47g, 20.74mm, 90°
obv. Cornucopiae with fruits and Palaeo-Hebrew legend:
מתתיההכהןהג
from r. to l:
[MT]TYH H KHN H G
= Matitiah Ha Kohen Ha Ga[dol]
= Matitiah the Highpriest
rev. Laurel wreath, Greek legend within in two lines:
BACIL / ANTIG
Hendin 482; AJC type V4; TJC group 37c
about VF, nice green patina, rev. a bit excentric
Jochen
G301.jpg
Julia Domna14 viewsIVLIA AVGVSTA
LAETITIA
mint: Roma
198 AD
frederic
julia.jpg
Julia Domna (wife of Septimus Severus) Denarius21 viewsIVLIA AVGVSTA Draped bust right, hair in bun behind / LAETITIA, Laetitia standing, head left, holding patera and rudder. RIC 561, RSC 101. (193 – 210 AD).mestreaudi
45624q00.jpg
Julia Domna, Augusta 194 - 8 April 217 A.D19 viewsJulia Domna, Augusta 194 - 8 April 217 A.D
Silver denarius . 2.775g, 20.7mm, 180o, Laodicea ad Mare mint, 198 - 202 A.D.
Obverse : IVLIA AVGVSTA, draped bust right, loop at shoulder
Reverse : LAETITIA, Laetitia standing half left, wreath in right, anchor in left
RIC IV 641, RSC III 101, BMCRE V 604, SRCV II 6590
Ex Forum .
Vladislav D
4341_(1)_4342_(1).jpg
Julia Domna, Denarius, LAETITIA10 viewsAR Denarius
Julia Domna
Born circa 170AD; Died 217AD
Augusta: 193 - 211AD
Issued: 196 - 211AD
17.0 x 16.5mm
O: IVLIA AVGVSTA; Draped bust, right.
R: LAETITIA; Laetitia standing left, holding wreath in right hand, rudder in left hand.
Rome Mint
RIC 561; RSC 101; Sear '88 #1842.
Aorta: 104: B6, O2, R51, T84, M4.
Pegasi Numismatics
CSNS 2017 Show Schaumburg, IL
4/27/17 4/28/17
Nicholas Z
1-2014-11-11_coinsnov20142.jpg
Julia Domna, Laetitia28 viewsAr denarius; 18-21mm; 4.50g

IVLIA (dot) AVGVSTA
draped bust right

LAETITIA
Laetitia standing left, holding wreath and rudder

RIC 641; RSC 101; BMC 604
1 commentsRobin Ayers
Julia_Paula_RIC_220.jpg
Julia Paula RIC 2209 viewsAncient cast denarius, approx. 219/220
Obv.: IVLIA PAVLA AVG
Bust r., dr., diad.
Rev. IV [I] STITIA (sic)
Justitia seated l., raising r. hand; her l. hand resting on sceptre.

2.03g, 17-20mm

RIC 220 (Elagabal) (R), C. 20
klausklage
00iuliatiti.jpg
JULIA TITI24 viewsAE dupondius. 80-81 AD (Titus) 12.36 gr. 6h. Draped bust right . IVLIA IMP T AVG F AVGVSTA. / Vesta seated left, holding small palladium in extended right hand and sceptre. VESTA . S C across field. RIC II 180 (Titus); Cohen 18.
CNG 157720.
benito
00089-JuliaTiti.JPG
Julia Titi13 viewsJulia Titi Denarius
21 mm 3.04 gm
O: IVLIA AVGVSTA TITI AVGVSTI
Diademed and draped bust right
R: VENVS AVGVST
Venus standing right, leaning against cippus, holding helmet in right hand, sceptre in left
1 commentsKoffy
00iuliatiti~0.jpg
JULIA TITI64 viewsAE dupondius. 80-81 AD (Titus) 12.36 gr. 6h. Draped bust right . IVLIA IMP T AVG F AVGVSTA. / Vesta seated left, holding small palladium in extended right hand and sceptre. VESTA . S C across field. RIC II 180 (Titus); Cohen 18.
2 commentsbenito
juliatiti88~0.jpg
JULIA TITI40 viewsAR denarius. 80-81 AD. 3,71 grs. Diademed and draped bust right. IVLIA AVGVSTA TITI AVGVSTI F / Venus standing right, leaning against cippus, holding helmet in right hand, sceptre in left. VENVS AVGVST.
RIC II 56 (Titus). BMCRE 141 (Titus). RSC 14
benito
juliatiti88.jpg
JULIA TITI20 viewsAR denarius. 80-81 AD. 3,71 grs. Diademed and draped bust right. IVLIA AVGVSTA TITI AVGVSTI F / Venus standing right, leaning against cippus, holding helmet in right hand, sceptre in left. VENVS AVGVST.
RIC II 56 (Titus). BMCRE 141 (Titus). RSC 14

1 commentsbenito
iulia_titi_VESTA_dup_(Tito)_Ric180.jpg
Julia Titi - dupondius8 viewsVESTA
Tito Ric 180
antvwala
titi.jpg
Julia Titi Denarius27 viewsJulia Titi Denarius. Rome mint, under Titus, 79-81 AD
IVLIA AVGVSTA TITI AVGVSTI F, diademed & draped bust right, hair in long plait down back
VENVS AVGVST, Venus, drapery hanging loosely below waist, standing right, seen from behind, leaning back on column, cradling long scepter in left arm & holding crested helmet in outstretched right hand

BN 106. RIC 56. BMC 141. C. 14. RCV # 2612
1 commentsTanit
Julia Titi.JPG
Julia Titi Denarius with Venus-Ca.AD 79-80 AD21 views
Obverse: IVLIA AVGVSTA TITI AVGVSTI F, diademed & draped bust right, hair in long plait down back

Reverse: VENVS AVGVST, Venus, nude except for drapery around thighs & strap across back, standing right, leaning on column. Reverse damaged in antiquity

BMC 140, RSC 12.
Marjan E
JuliaTiti_Dupondius_Vesta.jpg
Julia Titi Dupondius Vesta52 viewsObv.
IVLIA IMP T AVG F AVGVSTA
Draped bust right, hair in bun at back of head

Rev.
S-C either side of Vesta enthroned left holding Victory, VESTA in ex.
2 commentsancientdave
julia_titi_55.jpg
Julia Titi RIC II, 55a157 viewsJulia Titi, died 88(?), daughter of Titus
AR - Denar, 3.63g, 18mm
Rome AD 91(?), struck under Domitian
obv. IVLIA AVGVSTA T AVG F
bust draped, head diademed r.
rev. VENVS - AVG
Venus standing r., leaning on cippus, holding helmet and spear
RIC II, Titus 55a; C.12; BMCR. 141
Rare; about VF(?)

CIPPUS, a squared stone pillar or block, set up as a boundary marker or as a funerary monument (as here!). Sometimes bearing an inscription (Greek stele)
2 commentsJochen
TITI-1.jpg
Julia Titi, daughter of Titus, lived for a time with her uncle Domitian as his wife. Augusta, c. 79-90/91 CE.188 viewsAR denarius, (20 mm, 3.2g). c. 79 CE.
Obv: IVLIA AVGVSTA TITI AVGVSTI F, Draped bust right, hair in plaits behind.
Rev: VENVS AVGVST, Venus standing right, against column, holding helmet and scepter.
Sear 2612; RIC 56 (Titus); RSC 14; BMC 141; Vagi 1052.

This is the more common type which portrays Venus topless. There are reverse variants which depict her with a bra: http://www.forumancientcoins.com/board/index.php?board=1;action=display;threadid=6719;start=msg49161#msg49161
EmpressCollector
0092-210np_noir.jpg
Julia Titi, Denarius - *170 viewsDenarius minted in Rome, c.79-81 AD
IVLIA AVGVSTA T AVG F, Bust of Julia right
VENVS AVG, Venus leaning on a column, holding helmet and sceptre
3.03 gr
Ref : Cohen #12, RCV #2611
2 commentsPotator II
00jultit.jpg
JULIA TITI. Daughter of Titus. Lover of Domitian.285 viewsAE dupondius. 80-81 AD (Titus) 12.36 gr. 6h. Draped bust right . IVLIA IMP T AVG F AVGVSTA. / Vesta seated left, holding small palladium in extended right hand and sceptre. VESTA . S C across field. RIC II 180 (Titus); Cohen 18.

3 commentsbenito
Julia_Titi__AE-20__5_76g__Troas,_Assos__RPC_II_899.jpg
Julia Titi. AE-20. Troas, Assos. Griffin62 viewsTroas, Assos. Julia Titi, the daughter of Titus. Augusta, AD 79 - 91. Ć 20. 5.79 g. Draped bust rt. / Griffin reclining lt. RPC II 899; SNG Copenhagen -; SNG von Aulock -. Very rare, only one specimen cited in RPC.1 commentsFausta
JC_Elephant.jpg
Julius Caesar178 viewsJulius Caesar. 49-48 BC. AR Denarius (19 mm, 3.66 g). Military mint traveling with Caesar.
O: Elephant right, trampling on serpent
R: Simpulum, sprinkler, axe and priest's hat. - Crawford 443/1; CRI 9; Sydenham 1006; RSC 49.
Variant type recognized by B. Woytek, in cruder style and with the elephant's two front legs and two back legs virtually parallel with each other.

Julius Caesar and his armies assembled on the banks of the Rubicon River on 10 January 49 BC, ready to invade Italy. Since large quantities of denarii were necessary to pay Caesar's military expenses, the mint traveled with them. This issue was ordered, not by a moneyer, as was usual, but by Julius Caesar himself. In all likelihood, this type was used by Caesar's military forces at least until the decisive battle of Pharsalus.

"It is the inscription CAESAR in the exergue that has led to the modern identification of the elephant as Caesar. But the exergue is the traditional place for the moneyer’s name and Caesar is separated from the field by the ground line. When Hirtius minted, he put his own name there. Presumably the Caesarian message remained the same with or without CAESAR inscribed on the coin. So whatever that message was, it had to be using symbols easily recognized by the people he was speaking to.

The main problem with a Good over Evil interpretation is that the snake was not a symbol of evil in the pagan Roman mind. As for the elephant, the most frequent use of the elephant on coinage had been by the Metelli. Of all the families of Rome they had done more to connect their name with the elephant image than any other family line. And Metellus Scipio himself even used the elephant again (without snake, of course) after Caesar minted his coin.

As others have pointed out, the other side of the coin with the implements of the pontifex maximus makes an unmistakable reference to Caesar with or without the name Caesar. But that also got me to thinking. Why did he want to advertise that position? Simply put, the main concern of the Roman state religion was the Salus of the state, hence it was Caesar’s chief concern as Pontifex Maximus. If the Metellan elephant was trampling on the Salus of the state, it was his duty as Pontifex Maximus to protect and restore Salus." - mharlan, http://www.forumancientcoins.com/board/index.php?topic=88757.0
4 commentsNemonater
JCaesarFatEle.jpg
Julius Caesar160 viewsJulius Caesar. 49-48 BC. AR Denarius (18.07 mm, 3.87 g). Military mint traveling with Caesar.
O: Elephant right, trampling on serpent
R: Emblems of the pontificate - Simpulum, sprinkler, axe and priest's hat.
- Crawford 443/1; Sear (History and Coinage of the Roman Imperators) 9; Sydenham 1006; BMCRR (Gaul) 27; Cohen/RSC 49; Babelon (Voconia) 1; Sear (Roman Coins & Their Values I) 1399.

Julius Caesar and his armies assembled on the banks of the Rubicon River on 10 January 49 BC, ready to invade Italy. Since large quantities of denarii were necessary to pay Caesar's military expenses, the mint traveled with them. This issue was ordered, not by a moneyer, as was usual, but by Julius Caesar himself. In all likelihood, this type was used by Caesar's military forces at least until the decisive battle of Pharsalus.

"It is the inscription CAESAR in the exergue that has led to the modern identification of the elephant as Caesar. But the exergue is the traditional place for the moneyer’s name and Caesar is separated from the field by the ground line. When Hirtius minted, he put his own name there. Presumably the Caesarian message remained the same with or without CAESAR inscribed on the coin. So whatever that message was, it had to be using symbols easily recognized by the people he was speaking to.

The main problem with a Good over Evil interpretation is that the snake was not a symbol of evil in the pagan Roman mind. As for the elephant, the most frequent use of the elephant on coinage had been by the Metelli. Of all the families of Rome they had done more to connect their name with the elephant image than any other family line. And Metellus Scipio himself even used the elephant again (without snake, of course) after Caesar minted his coin.

As others have pointed out, the other side of the coin with the implements of the pontifex maximus makes an unmistakable reference to Caesar with or without the name Caesar. But that also got me to thinking. Why did he want to advertise that position? Simply put, the main concern of the Roman state religion was the Salus of the state, hence it was Caesar’s chief concern as Pontifex Maximus. If the Metellan elephant was trampling on the Salus of the state, it was his duty as Pontifex Maximus to protect and restore Salus." - mharlan, http://www.forumancientcoins.com/board/index.php?topic=88757.0
5 commentsNemonater
Screen_Shot_2018-06-09_at_10_02_08_AM.png
Julius Caesar Craw. 480/5b150 viewsJulius Caesar. AR Denarius, 44 BC.
(19.00 mm 3.68 g)
Obv:. Laureate head right; before, CAESAR IMP; behind, star of eight rays.
Rev: P. SEPVLLIVS MACER. Venus standing left, holding Victory and sceptre (resting on star?).
Cr. 480/5b RSC 41 BMC 4165 Syd 1071Sear (2000) 1412
A very elegant portrait. Perfectly struck on broad flan. Areas of flatness and scratch on obverse, otherwise about VF.
Ex: Artemide Asti E-Auction 43 E, June 9, 2018.

This coin features a lifetime portrait of Julius Caesar as dictator. It took me a while to find one that I liked. When these come up for auction there is much competition for them. It is not that they are particularly rare, one can find numerous examples for sale at any given time, it is the fact that these are sought after by many collectors. A lifetime portrait of Julius Caesar is a major purchase (at least for me), and would be the centerpiece of many ancient coin collections.

This particular coin features a portrait of Julius Caesar on the obverse with the legend “Caesar Imp”, meaning Julius Caesar Imperator. At this time “Imperator” did not exactly mean emperor it was more like victorious general. On the reverse we see Venus standing and the name of the moneyer who issued the coin. Venus is important as Julius Caesar claimed he was a descendant of Venus. The moneyer’s name is P. Sepullius Macer. On some other lifetime denarii the obverse legend is “Dict Perpetuo” or dictator for life. For some Romans this was too much to stand for. The Romans had a troubled history with their kings and did not want to return to those times. Some believe that this coin so troubled high ranking Romans that it led to the assassination of Ceasar.

One fascinating aspect of these lifetime denarii is that they were minted before the assassination. This coin in particular was issued near the end of February which means it was minted mere weeks before the death of Julius Caesar on March 15. One of the ideas that attracted me to ancient coins in the first place concerned holding a piece of important history in one’s hand. It can be argued that the life and death of Caesar were very important to history. Holding one of these coins takes us back to an important and fascinating historical period.

As to the coin itself, it is struck on a large flan, the portrait is well centered, the obverse legend is very easy to read, and the reverse is quite pleasing as well with good details preserved. The obverse portrait has a deep scratch across the head. However, given the other qualities of the coin this was easy to overlook.
7 commentsorfew
JCElephantII.jpg
Julius Caesar Elephant Denarius62 viewsJulius Caesar. 49-48 BC. AR Denarius. Military mint traveling with Caesar.
O: Elephant right, trampling on serpent
R: Emblems of the pontificate - Simpulum, sprinkler, axe and priest's hat.
- Crawford 443/1; Sear (History and Coinage of the Roman Imperators) 9; Sydenham 1006; BMCRR (Gaul) 27; Cohen/RSC 49; Babelon (Voconia) 1; Sear (Roman Coins & Their Values I) 1399. Ex HJBerk 90th Buy or Bid Sale, 4/17/96, Lot 232, listed as Mint state.

Julius Caesar and his armies assembled on the banks of the Rubicon River on 10 January 49 BC, ready to invade Italy. Since large quantities of denarii were necessary to pay Caesar's military expenses, the mint traveled with them. This issue was ordered, not by a moneyer, as was usual, but by Julius Caesar himself. In all likelihood, this type was used by Caesar's military forces at least until the decisive battle of Pharsalus.

"It is the inscription CAESAR in the exergue that has led to the modern identification of the elephant as Caesar. But the exergue is the traditional place for the moneyer’s name and Caesar is separated from the field by the ground line. When Hirtius minted, he put his own name there. Presumably the Caesarian message remained the same with or without CAESAR inscribed on the coin. So whatever that message was, it had to be using symbols easily recognized by the people he was speaking to.

The main problem with a Good over Evil interpretation is that the snake was not a symbol of evil in the pagan Roman mind. As for the elephant, the most frequent use of the elephant on coinage had been by the Metelli. Of all the families of Rome they had done more to connect their name with the elephant image than any other family line. And Metellus Scipio himself even used the elephant again (without snake, of course) after Caesar minted his coin.

As others have pointed out, the other side of the coin with the implements of the pontifex maximus makes an unmistakable reference to Caesar with or without the name Caesar. But that also got me to thinking. Why did he want to advertise that position? Simply put, the main concern of the Roman state religion was the Salus of the state, hence it was Caesar’s chief concern as Pontifex Maximus. If the Metellan elephant was trampling on the Salus of the state, it was his duty as Pontifex Maximus to protect and restore Salus." - mharlan, http://www.forumancientcoins.com/board/index.php?topic=88757.0
2 commentsNemonater
Charles_II.jpg
Kingdom of Scotland - Charles I AR 20 pence, 1637-1642 AD19 viewsCharles I
AR 20 pence
Edinburgh, 1637-1642 AD
CAR DG SCOT ANG FR & HIB R
Crowned bust l., XX behind head
IVSTITIA THRONVM FIRMAT
Crowned, leaved thistle
Spink 5591
Ardatirion
Patraos.jpg
Kings of Paeonia. Patraos AR Tetradrachm.34 viewsCirca 335-315 BC. AR Tetradrachm (24mm, 12.66 g, 3h). Paeonian Hoard 185 (same dies); SNG ANS 1032. Obverse Laureate head of Apollo right. Reverse Warrior on horse rearing right, spearing enemy who defends with shield and spear; kantharos behind horse’s rear legs. Good VF, toned. Well centered and struck on a broad flan.

Ex Bank Leu. Ex CNG.

Much of the kingdom of ancient Paeonia could be roughly located in the modern day Republic of Macedonia (FYROM). The Paeonian tribes were thought to descend from Thracian and Illyrian peoples and settled on the lower Axios River around the end of the Bronze Age. Although much of the early history and ruling classes of Paeonians were obscure, the last seven kings were recorded with certainty. Patraos (or Patreus) was thought to be the son of Lykkeios, also king of the Paeonians. It is also thought that he supported Alexander III in his conquest of the East. Much debate revolved around the reverse of Patraos’ numerous coins. Who represent the horseman and the warrior? A current consensus put forward by Gaebler and Merker was that the reverse represented a very specific event during Alexander’s crossing of the Tigris River and a fight between the cavalry headed by Ariston (supposedly a Paeonian and brother of Patraos) and the Persian commander Satropates, with the ultimate defeat and beheading of the latter. The horseman was identified as Ariston at the moment he struck down Satropates. The costume of the fallen warrior was identified as “Persian”, especially the pair of trousers he is wearing. So it is natural to assume in assigning the identities represented on the reverse as the two historical figures mentioned above. However, an argument put forward by Nicholas Wright in his paper “The Horseman and the Warrior: Paionia and Macedonia in the 4th Century BC” discussed with certainty that the reverse might be a generic representation of Paeonia subduing a foreign enemy. He surveyed the entire corpus of Patraos’ coinage and made detailed analyses of the different iconography of the fallen warrior. A percentage of the reverse showed the warrior holding a Macedonian shield (Persians used wicker shields) and a number of coins showed him wearing long-sleeved chiton, thought to be the traditional attire of the Macedonians and other Balkan tribes, and kausia. Such anachronistic representation and iconography of the coins struck across a short timespan begs us to reconsider and reassess the identity of the warrior. The inherent antipathy of Paeonia towards their southern as well as their Balkan neighbors and the inclusion of the name of Patraos in his coins instead of Alexander reflect the king’s opposition to the supposed overlordship of Macedonia over Paeonia. Such evidence would only lead us to conclude that the reverse shows an allegorical representation of Paeonians defeating a foreign enemy and not to a specific event or a single ethnic group.




Jason T
224-1-SB-Jencek.jpg
l IVLI - XVI Denarius, Crawford 224/112 viewsDenomination: Denarius
Era: c. 141 BC
Metal: AR
Obverse: Helmeted head of Roma r. with peaked visor; “XVI” behind; Border of dots
Reverse: Dioscuri riding r. l IVLI below and to right of horsemen. ROMA in exergue

Mint: Rome
Weight: 3.75 gm.
Reference: Crawford 224/1
Provenance: John Jencek, 6-July-2009.

Comments:
One of the five issues listed by Crawford in RRC with mark of value XVI, and connected with the retariffing of the denarius from 10 to 16 asses. This retariffing would reduce the amount of silver that could be exchanged for a given amount of bronze.

After these five issues in 141-140 BC, this value marking was mysteriously dropped in favor of the X mark of value, and later the x-dash symbol but the reckoning of 16 asses to 1 denarius remained for the duration of the denarius as a denomination for about 450 years.

Some interesting facts that may help to explain the transition to 16 Asses include:
• The weight of the bronze coinage had significantly dropped over time to well below the uncial standard.
• About the same time as the denarius mark of value change from X to XVI around 140 BC, the As bronze coin ceased to be produced, although its fractions continued to be minted in small quantities.
• The Roman Army was paid in silver, so this retariffing presumably had no impact on their compensation and was not controversial within the army.

The explanation for the abandonment of the XVI mark of value in favor of the (obsolete) X mark of value is unknown.

This coin is the most common of the five issue with XVI mark of value. The reverse is from a somewhat worn die and is off-center, obscuring some of the far dioscuri at 1:00 to 3:00. Otherwise, AEF / VF
Steve B5
den001_quad_sm.jpg
L SEPT SEV PERT AVG IMP [VIIII?] / P M TR P V COS II P P / Septimius Severus Fortuna denarius (197 AD) 18 viewsL SEPT SEV PERT AVG IMP [VIIII?], laureate head right / P M TR P V COS II P P, Fortuna standing left, holding rudder on globe in right hand, cornucopiae in left.

AR (post 196 mint, so probably 54% purity), 17 mm, 3.48g, die axis 12h.

Both small flan and image style (bust, wreath, shape of the rudder etc.) point towards the mint of Rome rather than the Eastern one. A bit heavier than expected (the standard supposed to be 3.41g), but WildWinds reports a 3.63g denarius of this type. Unfortunately it is impossible to read the number after IMP (it can be either VIIII or X for TR P V), but based on the spacing and, perhaps, a hint of V I think it is VIIII. So this must be RIC IV 104, BMCRE 229, RSC 442 type. Two other, less probable ID possibilities: RIC 115A (Rome, IMP X) and RIC 493 (Eastern mint, Laodicea ad Mare(?) IMP VIIII).

Lucius SEPTimius SEVeverus PERTinax AVGustus IMPerator (in this case not just an imperial title, but a military one, "invested with the Nth imperial acclaim", a victorious general, the number refers to important victories when the title was renewed); Pontifex Maximus (the high priest, starting with Augustus the emperor was always the head of state religion) TRibunitia Potestas (Tribunal power, the function of the tribune of the people, originally an important republican official, was "hijacked" by Augustus when he was building the imperial structure of power and subsequently became another emperor's title, renewed every year and thus very useful for dating coins) V (5th year means 193+4=197, give or take the actual date of renewing the title), COnSul (under the Empire, the office of Consul remained of some importance and was held by the Emperor with some frequency) II (during or after the consulship of 194 and before next one in 202), Pater Patriae (Father of his Country, the title was held by most Augusti but was usually not assumed at the very beginning of the reign). Denarius was the staple of Roman monetary system from 211 BC to mid 3d century AD.

SEPTIMIUS SEVERUS, *11 Apr 145 in Leptis Magna (Khoms, Libya) † 4 Feb 211 (aged 65) Eboracum (York, England) ‡ 14 April 193 – 4 February 211

Septimius Severus was born in the Roman province of Africa. He came from a wealthy and distinguished family of equestrian rank, had Roman ancestry on his mother's side (gens Fulvia was one of the most famous plebeian clans in Rome) and descended from Punic, and perhaps also Libyan, forebears on his father's side. Several members of his family held important imperial offices (although, strangely, not his father who seemed to have no career to speak about). He was trilingual, speaking Punic, Latin and Greek, and got some classical education, but probably less than he wanted to. At 17 he was helped by his influential relatives to relocate to Rome, to be presented to the Emperor Marcus Aurelius, and start his political career. With some difficulty he started to advance through the cursus honorum, holding a variety of offices. His career was helped by the Antonine Plague of 166, Septimius avoided it by returning to Leptis Magna for a while, and when he was back in Rome he found his competition conveniently thinned out. Despite him going through an impressive number of offices in a very short time there is very little record of his actual accomplishments in 170s and 180s.

In 191 Severus was appointed governor of Pannonia Superior (one of the provinces on Danube frontier) by Emperor Commodus (on advice from one of Septimius' friends). When the hell was unleashed by the assassination of Commodus on 31 December 192 and 193, , the infamous Year of the Five Emperors started, as a general in charge of significant army Severus was able to fight for the highest office. While he moved on Rome, Pertinax, the first Emperor of 193, was killed by the Praetorian Guard, and the next one, Didius Julianus, who famously bought the emperorship at an auction, was condemned by the Senate and executed, so Septimius entered Rome virtually unopposed. He then wisely appeased the powerful governor of Britannia, Clodius Albinus, who was also proclaimed the Emperor, by offering him the title of Caesar, which implied some degree of co-ruling and a chance to succession (Albinus did not give up that easy, reasserting his claim in three years, but then he was easily dealt with at the Battle of Lugdunum in Gaul). Afterwards he had to fight off the final pretender, Pescennius Niger, the former governor of Syria, who was proclaimed the Emperor by the eastern legions. Losing no time, Severus sent a considerable vanguard force to the East and, later, joined in with additional armies. In a series of battles in 193-195 Niger and his supporters were defeated. The last to surrender was Byzantium, which held even after the head of Niger was sent there. It is interesting to note that during this campaign Septimius visited the tomb of his famous fellow countryman, Hannibal Barca in Libyssa (Gebze, Turkey) and ordered to cover it with fine marble. Severus also took an opportunity to wage a short punitive campaign beyond the eastern frontier, annexing the Kingdom of Osroene as a new province.

After consolidating his rule over the western provinces, Severus waged another brief, more successful war in the east against the Parthian Empire, sacking their capital Ctesiphon in 197 and expanding the eastern frontier to the Tigris. He then enlarged and fortified the Limes Arabicus in Arabia Petraea. In 202 he campaigned in Africa and Mauretania against the Garamantes; capturing their capital Garama and expanding the Limes Tripolitanus along the southern desert frontier of the empire. In 208 he travelled to Britain, strengthening Hadrian's Wall and reoccupying the Antonine Wall. In the same year he invaded Caledonia (modern Scotland), but his ambitions were cut short when he fell fatally ill in late 210, dying in early 211 at Eboracum (York, England), and was succeeded by his sons Caracalla and Geta, thus founding the Severan dynasty. It was the last dynasty of the Roman empire before the Crisis of the Third Century.

In the context of this coin it is interesting to note, that, due to huge military expenses, upon his accession Severus decreased the silver purity of the denarius from 81.5% to 78.5%, although the silver weight actually increased, rising from 2.40 grams to 2.46 grams. Nevertheless, the following year he debased the denarius again because of rising military expenditures. The silver purity decreased from 78.5% to 64.5% – the silver weight dropping from 2.46 grams to 1.98 grams. In 196 he reduced the purity and silver weight of the denarius again, to 54% and 1.82 grams respectively [corresponds to this issue]. Severus' currency debasement was the largest since the reign of Nero.
Yurii P
Titurius_rev.jpg
L TITURIUS L F SABINUS 26 viewsL TITURIUS L F SABINUS

AR-Denarius, 4.03 g.
Rome, 89 BC.
Obv.: SABIN
Bearded head of King Tatius r.
Rev.: L TITVRI / VIIII
Victory in biga r.
Cr. 344/3; RSC Tituria 6a; BMC 2344.
FDC
1 commentsZeeuwsepiep
453,1c_Plautius_Plancus.jpg
L. Plautius Plancus - AR denarius10 viewsRome
47 BC
facing head Medusa wearing hoop earrings
L·PLAVTIVS
Aurora flying right with head slightly left conducting 4 horses
PLANCVS
Crawford 453/1c, SRCV I 429, Sydenham 959b, RSC I Plautia 14
3,9g
ex Roma Numismatics

This moneyer was adopted into the Plautia gens. Sear suggests that the reverse type may be related to a picture by Nichomachus of Thebes which was placed in the Capitol by L. Munatius Plancus as a part of the celebrations of his Gallic triumph. In his Fasti, Ovid relates the origin of the festival of the lesser Quinquatria Minerva. He states that an aedile exiled Rome’s flute-players to Tibur, and that the moneyer’s adopted ancestor C. Plautius, who was consul that year, smuggled them back into Rome to appease the citizens. The flute-players wore masks to conceal their identities and this became a tradition of the annual festival.
1 commentsJohny SYSEL
Philippus_I_ap_b.jpg
LAET FVNDATA36 viewsPhilippus I. antoninianus
Rome mint
2 commentsTibsi
Gordianus_LAETIA_AVG_N_go15_b.jpg
LAETIA AVG N9 viewsGordianus III. denarius
LAETIA... (instead of LAETITIA...)
extremely rare

Tibsi
Philippus_I_LAETIT_FVNDAT_ay_b.jpg
LAETIT FVNDAT18 viewsPhilippus I. antoninianus
Rome mint
Tibsi
Philippus_I_LAETIT_FVNDAT_bw_b.jpg
LAETIT FVNDAT10 viewsPhilippus I. antoninianus
Rome mint
Tibsi
laetitia_8_25g.JPG
LAETITIA14 viewsDouble sesterce
atelier II
IMP C M CASS LAT POSTVMVS P F AVG
LAETITITA AVG
8.25g
Bastien 304b
de Witte ...
Cohen 202
RIC 212
PYL
laetitia_19_53g.jpg
LAETITIA AVG13 viewsDouble Sesterce
atelier officiel
19.53g
IMP C M CASS LAT POSTVMVS P F AVG
LAETITIA
AVG
Bastien 87
de Witte ...
Cohen 177
RIC 143
Elmer 243
PYL
laetitia_9_50g.JPG
LAETITIA AVG27 viewsSesterce
atelier officiel
9.50g
VIRTVS POSTVMI AVG
LAETITIA
AVG
Bastien 114
de Witte ...
Cohen 182
RIC 145
Elmer 240
PYL
postume_-_double_sesterce_-_mât_-atelier_II_-_laetitia_aug-24_30g-33mm.JPG
LAETITIA AVG9 viewsdouble-sesterce
atelier II
24.30g - 33mm
IMP C M CASS LAT POSTVMVS P F AVG
LAETITIA AVG
proche du Bastien 297 le mât porte des fanions
de Witte 137
Cohen 184
RIC 207
Elmer ...
PYL
laetitia_-_PIVS_-_14_60g.JPG
LAETITIA AVG14 viewssesterce
atelier officiel
14,60g
IMP C POSTVMVS PIVS F AVG
LAETITIA
AVG
C'est étonnant bien qu'il s'agisse d'une titulature peu commune puisqu'elle emploie en toute lettre PIVS, elle n'est pas référencé dans le Bastien car il n'a rencontré que des titulatures ponctués : IMP C POSTVMVS . PIVS . F . AVG, or comme pour la série des bustes exceptionnels, on ne connait que trčs peu de coins d'avers pour cette série ŕ la titulature exceptionnelle.
Sinon proche du Bastien 83.
PYL
Postume_-_DS_-_LAETITIA_AVG_-_2.jpg
LAETITIA AVG11 views17,36g
IMP C M CASS LAT POSTVMVS P AVG
LAETITIA AVG
PYL
Postume_-_DS_-_LAETITIA_AVG.jpg
LAETITIA AVG13 views17,36g
IMP C M CASS LAT POSTVMVS P F AVG
LAETITIA AVG
PYL
laetitia_23_01g.jpg
LAETITIA AVG - SC15 viewssesterce
atelier officiel
23.01g
IMP C POSTVMVS.P.F.AVG
LAETITIA AVG
SC
inédit - pas référencé dans le Bastien
cet avers ŕ la titulature pointés associé ŕ ce revers avec SC en exergue n'a pas été relevé par Dr. P. Bastien
PYL
laetitia_20_85g.jpg
LAETITIA AVG - SC22 viewsdouble sesterce
atelier officiel
20.85g
IMP C M CASS LAT POSTVMVS P F AVG
LAETITIA AVG
SC
Bastien 81
de Witte 136a
Cohen 179
RIC 143
Elmer 243
PYL
laetitia_-_sc.JPG
LAETITIA AVG - SC10 viewsdouble sesterce
atelier officiel
8,14g
IMP C M CASS LAT POSTVMVS P F AVG
LAETITIA AVG
SC
Bastien 81
de Witte 136a
Cohen 179
RIC 143
Elmer 243
PYL
Gordianus_pb.jpg
LAETITIA AVG N27 viewsGordianus III. antoninianus
Rome mint
Tibsi
Gordianus_al_b.jpg
LAETITIA AVG N49 viewsGordianus III. denarius1 commentsTibsi
LAETITIA_AVG_N.jpg
LAETITIA AVG N20 viewsobv IMP GORDIANVS PIVS FEL AVG laurate, draped and cuirassed bust of gordian right seen from behind
rev LAETITIA AVG N Laetitia standing left holding wreath and anchor

RIC 113
C 120

refered R by RIC but seems more likely C
leseullunique
numari25.jpg
LAETITIA AVG N29 viewsobv: IMP GORDIANVS PIVS FEL AVG laurate, draped and cuirassed bust of gordian right seen from behind
rev LAETITIA AVG N Laetitia standing left holding wreath and anchor

RIC 300
leseullunique
Gordianus_LAETITIA_AVGN_go23_bx.jpg
LAETITIA AVG N40 viewsGordianus III. antoninianus
rare hybrid
a gift from F. Óvári numismatic expert of antoniniani of 238-253 coinage
Tibsi
Gallienus LAETITIA AVG RIC 226.jpg
LAETITIA AVG, RIC 22696 viewsAnt, 20mm, 1.83g.

Obverse: GALLIENVS AVG, Radiate head R.

Reverse: LAETITIA AVG, Laetitia standing L holding wreath and anchor. S in exe.

Rome, RIC 226.

Struck in high relief on an 'interesting' flan.
Robert_Brenchley
Elagabalus_LAETITIA_PVBL_7b.jpg
LAETITIA PVBL27 viewsElagabalus antoninianusTibsi
FAUSTJR-32.jpg
Laetitia, the personification of gladness and happiness.215 viewsFaustina Junior, wife of Marcus Aurelius. Augusta, 147-175/6 CE.

Ć As (25 mm, 8.6 gm), Rome mint, 161-175 CE.
Obv: FAVSTINA AVGVSTA, draped bust right, wearing circlet of pearls, hair in chignon behind.
Rev: LAETITIA SC, Laetitia standing right, holding scepter and wreath.
RIC-1657; Sear-5300; BMC-987; Cohen-152.

Laetitia personifies happiness, and as such, she resembles Hilaritas. There seems to be no set iconography for her and she has a variety of attributes: she may hold a scepter, ears of grain, a wreath, an anchor or a rudder on globe.

Jones (1990), p. 156, states that on the coins of empresses, Laetitia may signal a birth in the Imperial family.
EmpressCollector
as_LAETITIA.jpg
LEATITIA AVG N14 viewsobv: IMP GORDIANVS PIVS FEL AVG laurate, draped and cuirassed bust of gordian right seen from behind
rev LAETITIA AVG N Laetitia standing left holding wreath and anchor

RIC 300
C 123
leseullunique
IVSTITIA_Stamped_a-removebg.png
LIVIA AE Dupondius28 viewsOBVERSE: IVSTITIA, draped bust of Livia as Justitia right, wearing stephane
REVERSE: IMP T CAES DIVI VESP F AVG REST, around large SC
Restoration issue under Titus.
Rome, AD 80-81
9.9g, 27mm
Cohen 9, RIC II 424 (Titus), BMC 289 (Titus), Komnick 15
Modern stamp, 7 over 36 on obverse
1 commentsLegatus
Livia_IVSTITIA.jpg
Livia Dupondius91 viewsIVSTITIA
Diad. and draped bust of Livia as Justitia right

TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVG P M TR POT XXIIII around large SC

Rome 22-23AD

12.61g

Sear 1739

Countermark on reverse NCAP?:
There are several interpretations of what this, the most interesting of all Julio-Caludian ctmk., means. The two most likely are:
1. Nero Ceasar Augustus Populi Romani
2. Nero Caesar Augustus Probavit
In the first instance it is a congiarium or public dole given by Nero to the people of Rome. In the second, it is a revalidation of the earlier coins of ones predecessors still in circulation.
Possible is also a later use, eg. by Nerva, or that no emperors name was part of the countermark, Countermark Martini Pangerl Collection 1; 20; 60 depending on subtype
2 commentsTitus Pullo
Livia_IVSTITIA~0.jpg
Livia dupondius with Nero Countermark119 viewsIVSTITIA
Diad. and draped bust of Livia as Justitia right

TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVG P M TR POT XXIIII around large SC

Rome 22-23AD

Sear 1739

Countermark on reverse NCAP:
There are several interpretations of what this, the most interesting of all Julio-Caludian ctmk., means. The two most likely are:
1. Nero Ceasar Augustus Populi Romani
2. Nero Caesar Augustus Probavit
In the first instance it is a congiarium or public dole given by Nero to the people of Rome. In the second, it is a revalidation of the earlier coins of ones predecessors still in circulation.
Possible is also a later use, eg. by Nerva, or that no emperors name was part of the countermark, Countermark Martini Pangerl Collection 1; 20; 60 depending on subtype
Titus Pullo
livia_(tiberius)46var.jpg
Livia RIC I, (Tiberius) 46 var. 46 viewsLivia, died AD 29, wife of Augustus
AE - Dupondius, 13.59g, 27mm
struck under Tiberius, Rome, AD 14-37
obv. Bust of Livia as Iustitia, draped, r., wearing stephane decorated with floral element; hair bound in knot
on back
rev. TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVG PM TR POT XXIIII (beginning upper r.)
in field big SC
ref. RIC I, Tiberius 46 var. (legend without PM); C.4 var. (legend without F AVG); BMCR (Tiberius) 79, pl. 24, 1
Scarce, about VF

These dupondii were made of Bronze. It is discussed which side is obv. or rev.
Jochen
lucillae.jpg
Lucilla (164 - 182 A.D.)102 viewsAR Denarius
O: LVCILLA AVGVSTA, Draped bust right.
R: LAETITIA; Laetitia standing left, holding wreath and rudder.
Rome, 166 - 169 A.D.
18mm
3.5g
RIC 773; BMC 346; RSC 45

Rare
5 commentsMat
Moushmov_6845_244-249_Philippus_I__Arabs.jpg
Macedonia_Thessalonika_Philippus_Arabs_Moushmov 68458 viewsPhilippus Arabs
AE, Macedonia, Thessalonika
Struck: 244-245 / 23,5-26 mm / 10,77 g

Av: AY K MA IOYΛΙ ΦΙΛΙΠΠΟC
Laureate, cuirassed and draped bust right seen from behind

Rv: ΘECCAΛONIKEΩN NEΩKOPΩN
Price crown, five apples and urn on competition table

Reference: Moushmov 6845
Andicz