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Search results - "Temple"
NERO-4~0.jpg
92 viewsNero Dupondius - 65 A.D. - Mint of Rome
Obv. NERO CLAVD CAESAR AVG GER P M TR P IMP P P
Radiate head left
Rev. PACE P R VBIQ PARTA IANVM CLVSIT
Temple of Janus with doors closed.
Cohen 174, RIC 290.
1 commentsMaxentius
NERO-3.jpg
35 viewsNero - As - 65/66 - Mint of Rome
Ob.: NERO CAESAR AVG GERM IMP; laureate head right
Rev.: PACE P R VBIQ PARTA IANVM CLVSIT S C; janus temple with doors closed.
gs. 10 mm. 27,8
Cohen 171, RIC 306
Maxentius
DenPetCapitolino.jpg
32 viewsDenarius - 43 BC. - PETILLIVS CAPITOLINVS - Gens Petillia
Ob.: Iupiter's head right; CAPITOLINVS behind.
rev.: hexastyle temple (Iupiter Capitolinus). PETILLIVS below.
gs. 3 mm. 18,8
Craw. 487/1, Sear RCV 485
1 commentsMaxentius
PHILIP1-2.jpg
46 viewsPhilip I - Sestertius - 249 AD - Mint of Rome.
Ob.: IMP M IVL PHILIPPVS AVG; laureate, draped & cuirassed bust right
Rev.: SAECVLVM NOVVM S C; Octastyle temple, statue of Rome within
gs. 16,4 mm. 28,2
Cohen 201
Maxentius
MAXENTIU-1.jpg
48 viewsMaxentius - Follis - 308/312 - Mint of Rome
Ob.: IMP C MAXENTIVS P F AVG; laureate head right
Rev.: CONSERV VRB SVAE; Rome holds sceptre & globe within hexastyle temple
gs. 7,1 mm. 25,4
Cohen 34, RIC 210
Maxentius
ricvi121maxaqp~0.jpg
55 viewsMaxentius AE 28 Follis 308-310 AD.
IMP C MAXENTIVS PF AVG- Laureate head right.
CONSERV VRB SVAC-Roma seated left within hexastyle temple, holding globe & scepter, a shield to her right and wreath in pediment.
In ex: RBT Rome Mint
newone
cc50283b.jpg
118 viewsPOSTUMUS: Double sestertius,
21.62g.

MINT: COLOGNE

IMP. C. M. CASS. LAT. POSTVMVS P. F. AVG. radiate, draped & cuirassed bust right
R/ HERC DEVSONIE[NSI] Hercules standing l. holding club and lionskin, within four-columned temple with three pellets in pediment.

Bastien-231 (7 spec.), C-99 (30 Fr.), RIC-134 (R2).
1 commentspostumus
cc50283a.jpg
113 viewsPOSTUMUS: Double sestertius,
21.62g.

MINT: COLOGNE

IMP. C. M. CASS. LAT. POSTVMVS P. F. AVG. radiate, draped & cuirassed bust right
R/ HERC DEVSONIE[NSI] Hercules standing l. holding club and lionskin, within four-columned temple with three pellets in pediment.

Bastien-231 (7 spec.), C-99 (30 Fr.), RIC-134 (R2).
postumus
philip_I_temple_new.jpg
57 viewsPHILIP I. 244-249 AD. AR Antoninianus, Rome, struck 248 AD. Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right / Statue standing half-left within hexastyle temple. RIC IV 25b; RSC 198.
Ex. S. Beagle collection; Ex. Dorchester Hoard

This is a fairly common coin but difficult to find with both the obverse and reverse of good quality as well as having such good metal quality.
1 commentspaul1888
Trajan.jpg
62 viewsTrajan AR Denarius. Rome, AD 113-114. IMP TRAIANO OPTIMO AVG GER DAC P M TR P, laureate and draped bust right / COS VI P P SPQR, Trajan's column surmounted by statue of the emperor; at base, two eagles. RIC 307; BMCRE 522; RSC 115. 3.53g, 20mm, 6h.
Of all of the truly monumental buildings and commemorative structures which the emperor Trajan built, only one, the Columna Traiani, has survived in a reasonable state of completeness. Indeed, it appears almost identical in person as it does on coins, except that the statue of Trajan that originally surmounted it was replaced in 1588 with a statue of St. Paul. When completed, the column occupied a prominent place between two libraries, the Basilica Ulpia and the Temple of Trajan and Plotina. The column was massive: it was over 12 feet in diameter at its base, and rose to a height of nearly 130 feet. Its core was comprised of 34 blocks of Carrara white marble that were made hollow so as to accommodate a circular staircase of 185 steps. The most remarkable feature of the column, however, was its ornamentation, for the friezes on its exterior are some of the most inspiring works of art ever produced. Monumental in scope and execution, they record Trajan’s two Dacian campaigns, from 101-3 and 104-6. All told, there are more than 2,500 individually sculpted figures distributed among more than 150 scenes. The emperor himself is represented no less than fifty times – not a surprise considering his penchant for commemorative architecture and his pride in having added Dacia to the provinces of the empire. “ Source: NAC”

Ex Michael Kelly Collection of Roman Silver Coins
4 commentspaul1888
Nero_As_RIC_306.jpg
6 Nero AE As27 viewsNERO
AE As
NERO CAESAR AVG GERM IMP, laureate head right / PACE P R VBIQ PARTA IANVM CLVSIT S-C, the Temple of Janus, latticed window to l., garland hung across closed double doors on the right.
RIC 306, Sear5 #1974

On the rare occasions when Rome was not at war with a foreign enemy the doors of the 'Twin Janus' temple were ceremonially closed, an event which Nero commemorated extensively on the coinage of 65-67 A.D. -- David R. Sear, Roman Coins and Their Values, Vol 1
RI0042
Sosius
1__antiochus_IV__j_hyrcanus_I.jpg
Hendin-45186 viewsMinted under the joint authority of Antiochos VII and John Hyrcanus I
130/131 BCE
Struck as a transitional issue at the mint of Jerusalem
Called the earliest "Jewish" coin.
Obv- ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΥ ΕΥΕΡΓΕΤΟΥ
Seleucid anchor, upside down, date below
Rev- Lily,Symbol of Jerusalem and the Temple
Mint: Jerusalem
Meshorer: AJC 1,Supplement II,A2
1 commentsbrian l
rjb_2016_06_08.jpg
149 viewsAugustus 27BC - 14 AD
Denarius
Northern Peleponesian mint
Obv: AVGVSTVS
Bare head right
Rev: IOVI OLV
Hexastyle temple to Zeus at Olympia
RIC 472
mauseus
Caracalla_Neocaesarea.jpg
25 Caracalla - Neocaesarea40 viewsCARACALLA
AE30, Neocaesarea, Pontus
14.03 grams.
198 AD-217 AD

Youthful bust of Caracalla right / Altar in Tetrastyle Temple

BMC6
1 commentsSosius
Elagabalus_SNG_Cop_145.jpg
29 Elagabalus18 viewsELAGABALUS
AE25 of Byblus, Phoenicia.

AV K M AVP ANTWNINOC, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right / IEPAC BYBLOY, hexastyle temple with central arch, Astarte standing facing within, foot on prow, holding sceptre, being crowned by Nike on column to r.

SNG Cop 145, BMC 52
Sosius
Sev_Alex_SGI_3390_.jpg
30 Severus Alexander and Julia Mamaea27 viewsSEVERUS ALEXANDER & JULIA MAMAEA
AE27, Edessa, Mesopotamia

Confronting portraits of Severus Alexander and Julia Mamaea / City-goddess seated left, holding small temple; River-god swimming beneath her

SGI 3390
Sosius
CaliDu01-2.jpg
37 AD Dedication of the temple of Divus Augustus286 viewsorichalcum dupondius (29mm). Rome mint. Struck AD 37.
CONSENSV SENAT·ET·EQ·ORDIN·P·Q·R Gaius seated left on curule chair
DIVVS AVGVSTVS S C radiate head of Augustus facing left
RIC (Gaius) 56; Cohen (August) 87; Foss (Roman historical coins) 60:4
ex old British (Oxford) collection

Minted under Caligula on the occasion of the dedication of a temple to Divus Agustus; the identity of the seated person is uncertain but probably Gaius. The legend 'ET EQ' refers to 'EQVES' (pl. EQVITES), 'horseman'. In the early empire, they were the holders of administrative posts of a class second only to the senators.
In the picture the obverse and reverse have accidentally been switched around.
Charles S
Treb_Gall_BMC_654.jpg
4 Trebonianus Gallus12 viewsTREBONIANUS GALLUS
Æ 30mm of Antioch, Syria.

O: AVTOK K G OVIB TPEB GALLOC CEB, laureate, draped & cuirassed bust r.; viewed from behind

R: ANTIOCEWN MHTRO KOLWN D-E, SC in ex, tetrastyle temple of Tyche of Antioch, river-god Orontes swimming at her feet; above shrine, ram leaping r.
Sear 2809, SNGCop 292, BMC 654, SGI 4350.

Coin discussed and authenticated on FORVM board
Sosius
rjb_all_40cf_10_05.jpg
40cf38 viewsAllectus 293-6
Antoninianus
IMP C ALLECTVS PF AVG
Radiate & cuirassed bust right
ROMAE AETER
Tetrastyle temple, figure (Roma?) standing left within
London mint
-/-//ML
RIC - (cf 40)
mauseus
rjb_nero_06_09.jpg
5431 viewsNero 54-68 AD
AE as
Obv "NERO CAESAR AVG GERM IMP"
Laureate head right
Rev "PACE P R VBIQ PARTA IANVM CLVSIT SC"
Temple of Janus with doors closed
Rome mint
RIC 306
mauseus
rjb_2012_05_32.jpg
5420 viewsNero 54-68 AD
AE as
Obv "NERO CAESAR AVG GERM IMP"
Laureate head right
Rev "PACE P R TERRA MARIQ PARTA IANVM CLVSIT SC"
Temple of Janus with doors closed
Rome mint
RIC 300
mauseus
001638_l.jpg
7 Maxentius53 viewsMAXENTIUS
AE Follis (24-27 mm, 5.96 g)
Aquileia Mint, late Summer 307.

O: IMP C MAXENTIVS P F AVG, Laureate head right.

R: CONSERV VRB SVAE, Roma seated l. on shield in tetrastyle temple, r. handing globe to Maxentius (in military dress, stading r.), l. hand holding sceptre; seated captive between;

Victories as acroteria; she-wolf and twins in pediment; AQP in ex.

RIC VI Aquileia 113.

Dark patina. Extremely fine.

Ex Auctiones GmbH
3 commentsSosius
Maxentius_RIC_Rome_258.jpg
7 Maxentius28 viewsMAXENTIUS
AE Follis, Rome Mint

IMP C MAXENTIVS PF AVG, laureate bust of Maxentius right / CONSERV VRB SVAE, Roma seated in temple, RET in ex.

RIC 258 Rome. aVF, very strong portrait in great style.
2 commentsSosius
Maxentius_RIC_202a_or_212.jpg
7 Maxentius34 viewsMAXENTIUS
AE Follis, Rome Mint, 308-310 AD
IM[P C] MAXENTIUS PF AVG, Laureate bust right / CONSERV-VRB SVAE, Roma seated facing, head left, holding globe and scepter, shield at side, in hexastyle temple, with victories in acrotera and wreath in pediment. H in left field. Mintmark R T
RIC 202a, third workshop

Thanks to FORVM members stinats and quadrans for helping attributing this coin!
3 commentsSosius
Maxentius_RIC_202a.jpg
7 Maxentius40 viewsMAXENTIUS
AE Follis, Rome Mint, 306-308AD
(27mm, 6.9g)

IMP C MAXENTIVS P F AVG, Lareate head right / CONSERV-VRB SVAE, Roma seated facing, head left, in hexastyle temple, right hand holding globe, left a sceptre, shield at left side; Victories as acroteria; wreath in pediment. RQ in exergue, H in left field.

RIC VI 202a (4th worksop), RCV 3779, Van Meter 018 EF
3 commentsSosius
rjb_2016_12_03.jpg
819 viewsDomitian 81-96 AD
AE as
Obv "IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM PM TRP VIII CENS PER PP"
Laureate bust left
Rev "COS XIIII LVD SAEC FEC SC"
Emperor left sacrificing in front of temple with two musicians right
Rome mint
RIC 385b
mauseus
AUGUSTUS_Cistophorus_Pergamum.JPG
AUGUSTUS. AR Cistophorus (3 denarii) of Pergamum. Struck c.19 - 18 B.C.602 viewsObverse: IMP IX TR PO V. Bare head of Augustus facing right.
Reverse: Triumphal arch surmounted by Augustus in facing triumphal quadriga; IMP IX TR POT V on architrave; S P R SIGNIS RECEPTIS in three lines within arch opening, standards at either side.
RIC I : 510 | BMC : 703 | RSC : 298.

This coin commemorates Augustus' triumphant agreement with the Parthians in 20 B.C. under which they returned the legionary standards captured from Crassus who was defeated and killed at Carrhae thirty-three years earlier (53 B.C.) Augustus installed these standards in the Temple of Mars Ultor.
The reverse of the coin shows the triumphal arch which was awarded to Augustus on the occasion of his recovery of the standards. This was the second triumphal arch awarded to Augustus and, like the earlier arch which had been constructed in 29 BC to honour his victory over Cleopatra, this second arch, which archaeological evidence suggests may actually have incorporated the first arch, stood in close proximity to the Temple of Divus Julius at the southern entrance to the Roman Forum.

This is the rarest cistophorus struck during the reign of Augustus with the exception of the exceedingly rare issues featuring a sphinx.
6 commentsdivvsavgvstvs
30350.jpg
Elagabalus 10 viewsPhoenicia, Tyre. Elagabalus. A.D. 218-222. AE 23 (23.21 mm, 9.45 g, 7 h). . [IMP C M AVR ANTONINVS AVG] or similar, laureate draped and cuirassed bust right / [SEPTIM] TYRO [COL]O or similar, Temple of the Phoenician Koinon seen in perspective from the right; murex shell below. . Rouvier 2384; AUB 258; SNG Copenhagen 368. Fine, porous, rough surfaces.ecoli
Gordian_Deultum_2.jpg
Gordian III - Deultum28 viewsAE Tetrasarion?
238-244 AD
laureate and draped bust right from behind
IMP GORDIAN_VS PIVS FEL (AV)G
Heracles? in tetrastyle temple facing, holding lion skin and club
COL F_L P_AC__DEV / LT
SNG Bulgaria 1338, Jurukova 264
7,1g
1 commentsJohny SYSEL
DSC00228.JPG
Pompeii Temple of Jupiter Steps121 viewsSteps leading up to the temple of JupiterTitus Pullo
rjb_2009_09_07.jpg
Romulus8 viewsRomulus
Ostia mint
Obv: DIVO ROMVLO N V BIS CONS
Head right
Rev: AETERNAE MEMORIAE
Domed temple with open doors, eagle on roof
-/-//MOSTT
RIC (VI) Ostia 59
mauseus
1000-15-102.jpg
Syria, Commagene. Zeugma. Philip II24 viewsSyria, Commagene. Zeugma. Philip II. A.D. 247-249. Æ 30 (29.8 mm, 17.59 g, 1 h). AVTOK K M IOVLI ΦIΛIΠΠOC CEB, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right / ZEVΓMATEΩN, tetrastyle temple with peribolos containing grove of trees; capricorn right below. BMC 37; SNG Cop 35. ecoli
008n.jpg
Δ in circular punch274 viewsIONIA. Smyrna. Civic. Æ 20. Time of Gordian to Valerian. Obv: .IEPACVNKΛHTOC. Laureate and draped bust of the Roman Senate right, countermark on bust. Rev: CMVPΓNE-ΩKOPΩN. Figure of Tyche holding rudder and cornucopia, inside tetrastyle temple. Ref: Ex. Lindgren II:556; BMC 233. Axis: 180°. Weight: 4.95 g. CM: Δ in circular punch, 5.5 mm. Howgego 791 (34 pcs). Note: The countermark was probably not applied before the time of the joint reign of Valerian and Gallienus. Collection Automan.Automan
013n~0.jpg
Δ, six-pointed star, eagle and Nike (6 cmks!)201 viewsCILICIA. Ninica-Claudiopolis. Maximinus I. Æ 27. A.D. 235-238. Obv: OIMPCSIVLVERMAXIMINVS. Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right; 6 countermarks: (1) to right, before bust, (2) on lower part of bust, (3) on neck, (4) behind and on back of head, (5) on upper part of head, (6) before head. Rev: NINIC-OL-CLA-UΔI, OPOLI in ex. Tetrastyle temple containing emperor, standing left, holding patera and spear. Ref: BMC 10; Sear GIC 3548 (same dies). Axis: 360°. Weight: 9.12 g. CM(1): Δ containing dot, all within circle; circular punch, 6 mm. Howgego 669 (49 pcs). Note: Not likely to be a denominational countermark. CM(2): Six-pointed star, incuse, 6 mm from point to point. Howgego 451 (45 pcs). CM(3): Eagle standing right with head left, in shaped punch, c. 4 x 7 mm. Howgego 338 (11 pcs). CM(4): Nike right, in oval punch, c. 5 x 8 mm. Howgego 262 (34 pcs). CM(5): Similar to CM(4). CM(6): Similar to CM(4). Note: The sequence of application appears to have been 669-451-262-338. Automan
189.jpg
Δ on GETA, AE20 ARABIA PETRAEA.197 viewsARABIA PETRAEA. Petra. Geta. Æ 20. A.D. 198-209 (as Caesar). Obv: (...)ΠCE(...)-(ГETACKAICAP) or similar. Bare-headed, draped and cuirassed bust right; countermark before. Rev: AΔ(PI-ΠEP)TA-MHT. Within distyle temple, Tyche seated left, holding small stele in extended right hand, holding trophy in left hand. Ref: Spijkerman 51. Axis: 330°. Weight: 7.75 g. CM: •Δ• in circular punch, 5.5 mm. Howgego 801 (19 pcs). Collection Automan.Automan
Oxyrhynchus_5312.jpg
23 viewsEGYPT, Oxyrhynchus
PB Tessera (25mm, 9.10 g, 2h)
Athena standing left, holding Nike and long scepter, all within distyle temple with pellet in pediment
Nike advancing left, holding palm frond and wreath; OΞ to left
Milne 5312-4; Dattari (Savio) -; Köln 3534 (same dies)
Ardatirion
00070x00.jpg
27 viewsEGYPT, Uncertain
PB Tessera (18mm, 2.83 , 1 h)
Tyche reclining left on couch (hiera klinê, or lectisternium), holding rudder in outstretched right hand and resting head on raised left set on pillow; all within distyle temple with pellet in pediment
Hercules standing left, holding club and small figure of Telesphorus
Milne -; Dattari (Savio) -; Köln -; Roma E-Live 3 (25 October 2018), lot 484 (same dies)
Ardatirion
richard1-denier-rouen.JPG
Richard I: denier au fronton (Rouen)12 viewsRichard I, duke of Normandy (943-996)
Denier au fronton (Rouen, circa 960-980)

Silver, 1.17 g, diameter 20 mm, die axis 3 h
A/ +RICΛRDVS I ; cross pattée with four pellets around
R/ ROTOMΛGVS ; temple with a pointed pediment, on top of it a small cross interrupts the legend. Below, an X with four pellets around, and a dash below
Droger
louis1-denier-temple.JPG
D.1179 Louis the Pious (denier, class 3)49 viewsLouis the Pious, king of the Franks and Holy Roman emperor (813-840)
"Temple" denier (unknown mint, class 3, 822-840)

Silver, 1.56 g, 20.5 mm diameter, die axis 3 h

O/ +HLVDOVVICVS IMP; cross pattée with 4 pellets
R/ +XPISTIANA RELIGIO; temple

The XPISTIANA should be read "χρISTIANA", nice mix of greek and latin letters.

This is the most common carolingian coin (Class 3 of Louis' coinage).
The obverse is the same as Class 2. However, the reverse is a signature of the alliance between the Carolingians and the Roman Church, which began with Louis' father (Charles the Great) and the systematic introduction of a cross on coins. Louis carried on...

There is no indication of the mint name on this coinage. This fact is generally interpreted as a reinforcement of the imperial autority. Many people tried to localize the precise location of mints. Simon Coupland proposed an attribution, using stylistic similarities to other coins of well known mints. Some cases are easy to attribute but not this one (maybe Quentovic or Verdun ?)...

Droger
louis1-denier-temple-2.JPG
D.1179 Louis the Pious (denier, class 3)29 viewsLouis the Pious, king of the Franks and Holy Roman emperor (813-840)
"Temple" denier (unknown mint, class 3, 822-840)

Silver, 1.52 g, 20 mm diameter, die axis 9 h

O/ +HLVDOVVICVS MP; cross pattée s with 4 pellets
R/ +XPISTIANA RELIGIO; temple

Another example of temple denier with a different style, which suggests a different mint. The letters are cruder and the legend is slightly degenerated (retrograd S, MP instead of IMP for the title).
Droger
louis1-obole-temple.JPG
D.1180 Louis the Pious (obol, class 3)9 viewsLouis the Pious, king of the Franks and Holy Roman emperor (813-840)
"Temple" obol (unknown mint, class 3, 822-840)

Silver, 0.69 g, 16 mm diameter, die axis 2 h

O/ +HLVDOVVICVS MP; cross pattée with 4 pellets
R/ +PSTIΛNΛ REICIO; temple

This obol is a reduced version of the temple denier.
Droger
lothaire1-denier-leg-ch.JPG
D.1176 Lothar I (denier)7 viewsLothar I, Holy Roman emperor (840-855), king of Middle Francia (843-855) and Italy (818-855)
"Temple" denier (unknown mint, 84-855)

Silver, 1.09 g, 17-20 mm diameter, die axis 12 h

O/ +HLOTΛPIVS ΛGVS; cross pattée with 4 pellets
R/ +XPISTIANA RELIGIO; temple

Lothar I re-used the temple type, which had been made popular by his father Louis the Pious. However, it was minted by Lothar in much smaller quantities.
Droger
charles2-denier-melle3.JPG
D.621 Charles II the Bald (denier, class 1a, Melle)25 viewsCharles the Bald, king of the Franks (840-877)
Denier (Melle, class 1a, 840-864)

Silver, 1.70 g, 21 mm diameter, die axis 9h

O/ +CΛRLVS REX FR; cross pattée
R/ META / • / LLVM

Class 1 of Charles the Bald's coinage is made of totally different types of coins, which may reflect the state of the kingdom after 3 years of civil war and the division of the Empire.

Class 1a: mint in the field, with a linear legend
Class 1b: bust
Class 1c: city gate
Class 1d: KRLS monogram
Class 1e: temple

Coupland suggests that this particular scarce type (with META/LLVM on the reverse) had been minted from June 848, just after Charles the Bald finally defeated his nephew Pippin II for Aquitaine's control. The aim of minting a special type like this was to show a clear difference with the previsous coinage of Pippin II. A little later, Charles the Blad went on with the typical coinage of Melle (monogram ; circular mint name).
1 commentsDroger
charles2-denier-temple.JPG
D.1189 Charles II the Bald (denier, class 1e,Orléans)40 viewsCharles the Bald, king of the Franks (840-877)
"Temple" denier (Orléans, class 1e, 840-864)

Silver, 1.64 g, 21 mm diameter, die axis 8h

O/ +CΛRLVS REX FR; cross pattée
R/ +XPISTIΛNΛ RELIGIO; temple

This other example of Class 1 is the continuation of Louis the Pious' temple denier. XPISTIANA RELIGIO is then most often replaced by the mint name.
Although this is not the case for this specimen, the mint attribution is very clear. It is Orléans, because of the exaggerated S of XPISTIANA and the first I of RELIGIO is in the angle of the L.
Droger
charles2-denier-temple-paris.JPG
D.762 Charles II the Bald (denier, class 1e, Paris)28 viewsCharles the Bald, king of the Franks (840-877)
"Temple" denier (Paris, class 1e, 840-864)

Silver, 1.70 g, 20 mm diameter, die axis 4h

O/ +CΛRLVS REX FR; cross pattée
R/ +PΛRISII CIVITΛS; temple

The mint's name (Paris) stands in for the usual legend XPISTIANA RELIGIO. The royal authority may have been quite weak in the beginning of Charles' reign, and each mint may have been tempted to make a clear legend to characterize its own coinage.
Droger
charles2-denier-temple-orleans.JPG
D.726 Charles II the Bald (denier, class 1e, Orléans)15 viewsCharles the Bald, king of the Franks (840-877)
"Temple" denier (Orléans, class 1e, 840-864)

Silver, 1.53 g, 19 mm diameter, die axis 9h

O/ +CΛRLVS REX FR; cross pattée with 4 pellets
R/ +ΛVR-ELI-ΛNIS; temple

Droger
postume-herc-devsoniensi.JPG
RIC.66 Postumus: antoninianus (Herc Devsoniensi)10 viewsPostumus, Gallic emperor (usurper) (260-269)
Antoninianus: Felicitas Avg (3rd emission, 1st phase, 263-265, Trèves)

Billon (150 ‰), 4.09 g, diameter 22.5 mm, die axis 7 h

A/ IMP C POSTVMVS P F AVG; radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
R/ HERC DEV-SONIENSI; Hercules standing left in temple of four columns, leaning on club and holding lion's skin


EG.40
Droger
lg004_quad_sm.jpg
"As de Nîmes" or "crocodile" Ӕ dupondius of Nemausus (9 - 3 BC), honoring Augustus and Agrippa31 viewsIMP DIVI F , Heads of Agrippa (left) and Augustus (right) back to back, Agrippa wearing rostral crown and Augustus the oak-wreath / COL NEM, crocodile right chained to palm-shoot with short dense fronds and tip right; two short palm offshoots left and right below, above on left a wreath with two long ties streaming right.

Ӕ, 24.5 x 3+ mm, 13.23g, die axis 3h; on both sides there are remains of what appears to be gold plating, perhaps it was a votive offering? Rough edges and slight scrapes on flan typical for this kind of coin, due to primitive technology (filing) of flan preparation.

IMPerator DIVI Filius. Mint of COLonia NEMausus (currently Nîmes, France). Known as "As de Nîmes", it is actually a dupontius (lit. "two-pounder") = 2 ases (sometimes cut in halves to get change). Dupondii were often made out of a golden-colored copper alloy (type of brass) "orichalcum" and this appears to be such case.

Key ID points: oak-wreath (microphotography shows that at least one leaf has a complicated shape, although distinguishing oak from laurel is very difficult) – earlier versions have Augustus bareheaded, no PP on obverse as in later versions, no NE ligature, palm with short fronds with tip right (later versions have tip left and sometimes long fronds). Not typical: no clear laurel wreath together with the rostral crown, gold plating (!), both features really baffling.

But still clearly a "middle" kind of the croc dupondius, known as "type III": RIC I 158, RPC I 524, Sear 1730. It is often conservatively dated to 10 BC - 10 AD, but these days it is usually narrowed to 9/8 - 3 BC.

It is a commemorative issue, honoring the victory over Mark Antony and conquest of Egypt in 30 BC. The heads of Augustus and Agrippa were probably positioned to remind familiar obverses of Roman republican coins with two-faced Janus. Palm branch was a common symbol of victory, in this case grown into a tree, like the victories of Augustus and Agrippa grown into the empire. The two offshoots at the bottom may mean two sons of Agrippa, Gaius and Lucius, who were supposed to be Augustus' heirs and were patrons of the colony. Palm may also be a symbol of the local Nemausian deity, which was probably worshiped in a sacred grove. When these coins were minted, the colony was mostly populated by the settled veterans of Augustus' campaigns, hence the reminiscence of the most famous victory, but some of the original Celtic culture probably survived and was assimilated by Romans. The crocodile is not only the symbol of Egypt, like in the famous Octavian's coins AEGYPTO CAPTA. It is also a representation of Mark Antony, powerful and scary both in water and on land, but a bit slow and stupid. The shape of the crocodile with tail up was specifically chosen to remind of the shape of ship on very common "legionary" denarius series, which Mark Antony minted to pay his armies just before Actium. It is probably also related to the popular contemporary caricature of Cleopatra, riding on and simultaneously copulating with a crocodile, holding a palm branch in her hand as if in triumph. There the crocodile also symbolized Mark Antony.

Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa was born c. 64-62 BC somewhere in rural Italy. His family was of humble and plebeian origins, but rich, of equestrian rank. Agrippa was about the same age as Octavian, and the two were educated together and became close friends. He probably first served in Caesar's Spanish campaign of 46–45 BC. Caesar regarded him highly enough to send him with Octavius in 45 BC to train in Illyria. When Octavian returned to Rome after Caesar's assassination, Agrippa became his close lieutenant, performing many tasks. He probably started his political career in 43 BC as a tribune of the people and then a member of the Senate. Then he was one of the leading Octavian's generals, finally becoming THE leading general and admiral in the civil wars of the subsequent years.

In 38 as a governor of Transalpine Gaul Agrippa undertook an expedition to Germania, thus becoming the first Roman general since Julius Caesar to cross the Rhine. During this foray he helped the Germanic tribe of Ubii (who previously allied themselves with Caesar in 55 BC) to resettle on the west bank of the Rhine. A shrine was dedicated there, possibly to Divus Caesar whom Ubii fondly remembered, and the village became known as Ara Ubiorum, "Altar of Ubians". This quickly would become an important Roman settlement. Agrippina the Younger, Agrippa's granddaughter, wife of Emperor Claudius and mother of Emperor Nero, would be born there in 15 AD. In 50 AD she would sponsor this village to be upgraded to a colonia, and it would be renamed Colonia Claudia Ara Agrippinensium (colony of Claudius [at] the Altar of Agrippinians – Ubii renamed themselves as Agrippinians to honor the augusta!), abbreviated as CCAA, later to become the capital of new Roman province, Germania Inferior.

In 37 BC Octavian recalled Agrippa back to Rome and arranged for him to win the consular elections, he desperately needed help in naval warfare with Sextus Pompey, the youngest son of Pompey the Great, who styled himself as the last supporter of the republican cause, but in reality became a pirate king, an irony since his father was the one who virtually exterminated piracy in all the Roman waters. He forced humiliating armistice on the triumvirs in 39 BC and when Octavian renewed the hostilities a year later, defeated him in a decisive naval battle of Messina. New fleet had to be built and trained, and Agrippa was the man for the job. Agrippa's solution was creating a huge secret naval base he called Portus Iulius by connecting together lakes Avernus, Avernus and the natural inner and outer harbors behind Cape Misenum at the northern end of the Gulf of Naples. He also created a larger type of ship and developed a new naval weapon: harpax – a ballista-launched grapnel shot with mechanisms that allowed pulling enemy ships close for easy boarding. It replaced the previous boarding device that Romans used since the First Punic War, corvus – effective, but extremely cumbersome. A later defence against it were scythe blades on long poles for cutting ropes, but since this invention was developed in secret, the enemy had no chance to prepare anything like it. It all has proved extremely effective: in a series of naval engagements Agrippa annihilated the fleet of Sextus, forced him to abandon his bases and run away. For this Agrippa was awarded an unprecedented honour that no Roman before or after him received: a rostral crown, "corona rostrata", a wreath decorated in front by a prow and beak of a ship.

That's why Virgil (Aeneid VIII, 683-684), describing Agrippa at Actium, says: "…belli insigne superbum, tempora navali fulgent rostrata corona." "…the proud military decoration, gleams on his brow the naval rostral crown". Actium, the decisive battle between forces of Octavian and Mark Antony, may appear boring compared to the war with Sextus, but it probably turned out this way due to Agrippa's victories in preliminary naval engagements and taking over all the strategy from Octavian.

In between the wars Agrippa has shown an unusual talent in city planning, not only constructing many new public buildings etc., but also greatly improving Rome's sanitation by doing a complete overhaul of all the aqueducts and sewers. Typically, it was Augustus who later would boast that "he had found the city of brick but left it of marble", forgetting that, just like in his naval successes, it was Agrippa who did most of the work. Agrippa had building programs in other Roman cities as well, a magnificent temple (currently known as Maison Carrée) survives in Nîmes itself, which was probably built by Agrippa.

Later relationship between Augustus and Agrippa seemed colder for a while, Agrippa seemed to even go into "exile", but modern historians agree that it was just a ploy: Augustus wanted others to think that Agrippa was his "rival" while in truth he was keeping a significant army far away from Rome, ready to come to the rescue in case Augustus' political machinations fail. It is confirmed by the fact that later Agrippa was recalled and given authority almost equal to Augustus himself, not to mention that he married Augustus' only biological child. The last years of Agrippa's life were spent governing the eastern provinces, were he won respect even of the Jews. He also restored Crimea to Roman Empire. His last service was starting the conquest of the upper Danube, were later the province of Pannonia would be. He suddenly died of illness in 12 BC, aged ~51.

Agrippa had several children through his three marriages. Through some of his children, Agrippa would become ancestor to many subsequent members of the Julio-Claudian dynasty. He has numerous other legacies.
Yurii P
helio_jup_temple_res.jpg
(0193) SEPTIMIUS SEVERUS34 views193 - 211 AD
AE 24 mm; 9.36 g
O: Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right;
R: Temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus Heliopolitanus, viewed in perspective from above; numerous columns and flight of steps in front
Syria, Heliopolis; cf. SNG Cop 429; SNG München 1031
laney
caracalla_pautalia_temple.jpg
(0198) CARACALLA (Pautalia)25 views198 – 217 AD
(struck 202-203 under Governor Sicinnius Clarus)
AE 28 mm, 12.20 g
O: AΥ K M AΥΡ – ANTΩNINOΣ Laureate draped bust right
R: .: HΓ ΣIKINNIO-Υ KΛAΡ OΥ/ΛΠIAΣ / ΠAΥTAΛIAΣ Asklepios with snake-encoiled rod standing in tetrastyle temple; snake in gable, tree in left field
Thrace, Pautalia; Ruzicka, Pautalia ¬; Varbanov, GIC II, 4958 (rare)
laney
sep_car_temp_b_resb.jpg
(0198) CARACALLA and SEPTIMIUS SEVERUS 37 views198-217 AD
Struck ca. 208 AD (on the tenth anniversary of Caracalla's reign)
AE 23 mm; 10.04 g
O: [IMPP CAESS SEVER ANT AVGG], laureate, draped and cuirassed bust of Severus, seen from behind, to left, facing bare-headed, draped and cuirassed bust of Caracalla, seen from behind, to right. (confronted busts)
R: [DECENNALES ANTONINI COS III /] COL BER, tetrastyle temple, with stairs from front, containing Astarte facing, crowned by Nike standing on column.
Berytus, Phoenicia; cf BMC 70.122-71.129; Sear GIC 2302, SNG Righetti 2246. Rare
laney
egal_gerizim_neapolis,_samaria.jpg
(0218) ELAGABALUS26 views218 - 222 AD
AE 23 mm 8.88 g
O: Bust right
R: Mt. Gerizim with arched colonnade, roadway, shrines, altar and temple; "A" Countermark
NEAPOLIS, SAMARIA
laney
elagabal_tripolis_res.jpg
(0218) ELAGABALUS41 views218 - 222 AD
AE 23.51 mm, 9.48 g
O: AVΩN, T KM AVP A[NTΩ NINOC] Laureate draped bust right
R: Three-part (decastyle temple) temple of Astarte, with center arch, two tetrastyle wings, curved roof line from wings to top of pediment, Astarte standing facing in doorway, ... ΓΛΦ (Seleukid year 532) in ex;
Phoenicia, Tripolis; BMC 223, 120.
1 commentslaney
temple_10_res.jpg
(0218) ELAGABALUS26 views218 - 222 AD
AE 24 mm; 11.06 g
O: Laureate, draped bust of Elagabalus right.
R: Statue of Marsyas standing right, holding wine skin over shoulder and extending arm, within arched gateway
Phoenicia, Berytus
laney
elag_temple_marsy_bery_res.jpg
(0218) ELAGABALUS25 views218 - 222 AD
AE 24 mm; 8.10 g
O: Laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right
R: The satyr Marsyas standing on pedestal playing pipes within arch of a tetrastule temple.
Phoenicia, Berytos.
Lindgren 2269
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elag_temple_bery_x3_res.jpg
(0218) ELAGABALUS21 views218 - 222 AD
AE 24 mm; 11.14 g
O: IMP CAES M AVP ANTONINVS AVG, laureate draped & cuirassed bust right
R: COL IVL AVG FEL BER, hexAstyle temple with peaked roof, Posiedon within holding dolphin and trident.
Berytos, Phoenicia. SNG Cop 121. No.3290.
laney
mt_gerizim.jpg
(0218) ELAGABALUS20 views218-222 AD
AE 21.5 mm max; 9.99 g.
O: Laureate bust right.
R: Mount Gerizim with colonnade and steps leading to temple.
Samaria, Neapolis
laney
egal_antipatris_temple_res.jpg
(0218) ELAGABALUS (ANTIPATRIS MINT)40 views218 -222 AD
AE 17.5 mm; 6 5 g
O ...NOC C... Laureate draped bust of Elagabalus right
R: Tetrastyle temple, central arch; within, Tyche in short chiton kneeling left holding small bust and spear, resting her foot on river god (Yarkon); ΑΝ(ΤΙΠ) (Antipatris) in exe.
Antipatris (very rare city), Judaea
cf. Sofaer Pl. 21 4, 5.; cf. BM-1, pl. II.7, cf. SNG ANS-635, cf. Rosenberger 1. Very rare.
(Antipatris struck coins only during the reign of Elagabalus)
laney
elagab_byblos_temple_b.jpg
(0218) ELAGABALUS--Byblus20 views218 - 222 AD
AE 20 mm, 5.7 g
O: Radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right
R: Astarte, holding aphlaston and rudder, standing left within tetrastyle temple.
Phoenicia, Byblus; BMC 57; SNG Copenhagen 147.
laney
sev_alex_caesarea_ad_libanum.jpg
(0222) SEVERUS ALEXANDER26 viewsIssued 221-222 AD (as Caesar, struck under Elagabalus)
AE 23 mm; 9.93 g
O: Radiate head right
R: Tetrastyle tripartite temple of Astarte; Astarte stands in middle section, facing, holding standard in right hand with left foot set on prow; Nike stands on cippus to Astarte's right, crowning her; river god beneath, swimming right; outside staircases lead to the side-wings; in the left wing goddess with kalathos stands facing between two animals; in the right wing female figure stands facing.
BMC 110, 9; Lindgren II, 1321, 2288 (Rare)
Phoenicia, Caesarea ad Libanum
laney
gordian_bery_copy.jpg
(0238) GORDIAN III34 views238-244 AD
Struck 241-244 AD
Æ 28 X 30 mm, 16.11 g
O: Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from behind
R: Tetrastyle temple of Astarte, half-length bust of Astarte facing, flanked by standards within; lion walking right below.
PHOENICIA, Berytus
Sawaya 2177 (D382/R830); BMC 228-9; SNG Copenhagen 123
laney
philip_temple_res.jpg
(0244) PHILIP I37 views244 - 249 AD
AE 29 mm 17.01 g
O: AVTOK K M IOVL FILIPPOC CEB, laureate draped bust right (COUNTERMARKED)
R: ZEVG[MATEWN], tetrastyle temple (of Zeus?) with peribolos containing grove of trees, capricorn in ex.
Zeugma, Commagene. Roman Syria
laney
treb_gal_temple.jpg
(0251) TREBONIANUS GALLUS17 views251 - 253 AD
AE (8 Assaria) 29 mm; 15.22 g
O:AYTOK K Γ OYIB TPEB ΓAΛΛOC CEB, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right, from behind;
R: ANTIOXEΩN MHTPO KOΛΩN, ∆-E above, SC below, tetrastyle temple; inside Tyche seated left with river god Orontes at her feet swimming left; ram above temple leaping right looking back
Syria, Seleucis and Pieria, Antioch ad Orontem mint
McAlee 1181, SNG Cop 292, BMC Galatia p. 229, 654, SGICV 4350
laney
gerizim_blk_res.jpg
(0251) TREBONIANUS GALLUS OR VOLUSIAN? (Mt. Gerizim)28 views251-253 AD
AE 25.5 mm 10.87 g
O: Bust right;
R:Mount Gerizim surmounted by Samaritan temple and altar, stairway to temple, colonnade below, all supported by facing eagle with wings spread
Samaria, Neapolis
laney
PROBUS__TEMPLE.jpg
(0276) PROBUS TEMPLE54 viewsAE ANT. 22 mm 3.13 g
276 - 282 AD
OBV: PROBVS PF AVG
RAD BUST L IN IMPERIAL MANTLE, HOLDING EAGLE-TIPPED SCEPTER
REV: ROMAE AETER
ROME SEATED FACING IN HEXASTULE TEMPLE, VICTORY IN R HAND, SCEPTER IN L
RVD IN EXE ROME
PORT OF AEQVITI SERIES, OFFICINA 4 EMISSION 7, STRUCK 282 AD
RIC 187
1 commentslaney
MAXIMIANUS_TEMPLE_RES.jpg
(0286) MAXIMIANUS27 views286 - 305, 306 - 308, and 310 A.D.
Struck 2nd reign; 307 - 308 AD
AE Follis 24 mm 5.14 g
O: IMP C MAXIMIANVS P F AVG, laureate head right
R: CONSERV VRB SVAE, Roma seated within hexastyle temple, head turned left, holding globe in right hand, scepter in left; TT in exe
Ticinum mint
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maxentius_temple_res.jpg
(0306) MAXENTIUS20 views306 - 312 AD
AE Follis 24 mm, 4.05 g
O: IMP C MAXENTIVS PF AVG, laureate head right
R: CONSERV VRB SVAE, Roma seated facing, head left, in hexastyle temple, holding globe and sceptre, shield at side, dots in pediment
Rome
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maxentius_temple.jpg
(0306) MAXENTIUS13 views306-312 AD
AE Follis 25 mm max., 6.43 g
O: IMP C MAXENTIVS P F AVG, laureate head right, bare right shoulder from behind.
R: CONSERV VRB SVAE, Roma seated facing in ornate hexastyle temple holding globe and spear, shield at feet, wreath in pediment, RBQ in exergue.
Rome mint
laney
maxentius_temple_bk_res.jpg
(0306) MAXENTIUS17 views306 - 312 AD
AE Follis 25 mm
O: IMP C MAXENTIVS P F AVG laureate head right
R: CONSERV VRB SVAE Roma steated in hexastyle temple holding globe and scepter
Aquileia mint
laney
maxentius_conserv.jpg
(0306) MAXENTIUS19 views306-312 AD
Struck 307-308 AD
AE Follis. 26.6 mm max. 6.71 g
O: IMP C MAXENTIVS PF AVG, laureate head right
R: CONSERV-VRB SVAE, Roma seated facing, head left, in hexastyle temple, holding globe and sceptre, shield at side, Victories as acroteria, wreath in pediment above row of dots, H in left field. Mintmark RQ.
Rome; RIC 202a; Sear 14986.
1 commentslaney
nero_janus.jpg
(06) NERO49 views54-68 AD
struck ca 65 AD
Æ As 29.5 mm 9.38 g
O: NERO CAESAR AVG GERM IMP, laureate head right
R: Temple of Janus, doors to the right; S/C
RIC I 306
laney
domitian_tomis_temple.jpg
(12) DOMITIAN19 views81 - 96 AD
AE 20 mm, 4.67 g
O: Laureate head right
R: TO-MI-TW-N in two lines to left and right of tetrastyle temple on podium; star (left) and cap of Dioscuri (right) at sides of gable
Moesia Inferior, Thrace, Tomis mint; RPC II 81, 404. AMNG I, 2, p. 679, 2595.
laney
Maxentius.jpg
*SOLD*13 viewsMaxentius Follis

Attribution: RIC VI 100, Ticinum, scarce
Date: AD 310-311
Obverse: IMP C MAXENTIVS PF AVG, laureate bust r.
Reverse: CONSERV VRB SVAE, Roma seated facing in hexastyle temple, TT in exergue
Size: 25 mm
Noah
zeugmaPius2.jpg
-Syria, Commagene, Zeugma. Antoninus Pius AE2422 viewsObv: laureate head of Antoninus Pius, r.
Rev: temple with four columns; before, colonnaded peribolos containing grove; all in laurel wreath.
ancientone
Prob3.jpg
001 - Probus Antoniniani - RIC 18763 viewsObv: PROBVS PF AVG, Radiate bust left in imperial mantle, holding sceptre surmounted by eagle.
Rev: ROMA AETER, Roma seated in temple, holding Victory and sceptre.
Minted in Rome (RV Δ in exe) Emission 7 Officina 4, AD 282.

This coin is part of the AEQVITI series of Rome (V).
pierre_p77
Octavius_AR-Den__IMP·CAESAR·DIVI·F·III·VIR·_ITER·R·P·C__COS·ITER_·ET·TER·DESIG_DIVO·IVL_Crawford_540·2_Rare_Q-001_axis-5h_18mm_3,89g-s.jpg
002 a Augustus (63 B.C.-14 A.D.), Octavianus, Crawford 540-2, Rome, AR-Denarius, COS·ITER·ET·TER·DESIG Tetrastyle temple, DIVO·IVL, Rare!!!,475 views002 a Augustus (63 B.C.-14 A.D.), Octavianus, Crawford 540-2, Rome, AR-Denarius, COS·ITER·ET·TER·DESIG Tetrastyle temple, DIVO·IVL, Rare!!!,
Octavianus. Denarius, mint moving with Octavian 36 B.C.,
avers:- IMP·CAESAR·DIVI·F·III·VIR· ITER·R·P·C Head of Octavian r., slightly bearded.
revers:- COS·ITER·ET·TER·DESIG Tetrastyle temple within which veiled figure standing facing and holding lituus ; on architrave, DIVO·IVL and within pediment, star.
exerg: -/-//--, diameter: 18mm, weight: 3,89g, axis:- 5h,
mint: Rome, date: 36 B.C., ref: Crawford 540-2, Sydenham-1338,
Q-001
6 commentsquadrans
Augustus_AR-Den_CAESARI_AVGVSTO-S_P-Q_R_RIC-119_C-279_Spain_c-18-BC_Q-001_axis-7h_18-19mm_3,35g-s.jpg
002 Augustus (63 B.C.-14 A.D.), RIC I 119, Spain, AR-Denarius, Temple with four columns, S•P-Q•R across the field,319 views002 Augustus (63 B.C.-14 A.D.), RIC I 119, Spain, AR-Denarius, Temple with four columns, S•P-Q•R across the field,
avers:- CAESARI-AVGVSTO, Laureate head right.
revers:- No legend, Temple with four columns, currus with legionary eagle within, S•P-Q•R across the field.
exe:S•P/Q•R//--, diameter: 18-19mm, weight: 3,35g, axis: 7h,
mint: Spain, date: 18 B.C., ref: RIC I 119, C-279,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
0024.jpg
0024 - Denarius Volteia 78 BC32 viewsObv/Laureate head of Jupiter r.
Rev/Capitoline temple, tetrastyle; M VOLTEI M F in ex.

Ag, 18.9mm, 3.94g
Moneyer: M. Volteius M.f.
Mint: Rome.
RRC 385/1 [dies o/r: 70/78] - Syd. 774 - RCV 312 - RSC Volteia 1 - Cohen Volteia 1
ex-Sayles & Lavender
dafnis
0028.jpg
0028 - Denarius Antoninus Pius 158-9 AC19 viewsObv/ANTONINVS AVG PIVS PP TR P XXII, Antoninus Pius laureate head r.
Rev/TEMPLVM DIV AVG REST, octastyle temple in which are seated statues of Divus Augustus and Livia.

Ag, 17.0mm, 3.30g
Mint: Rome.
RIC III/290a [S] - RSC 804 - BMCRE 939
ex-Pars Coins (vcoins)
dafnis
0044.jpg
0044 - Denarius Augustus 18 BC31 viewsObv/CAESARI AVGVSTO, Augustus head laureate r.
Rev/SP QR, to l. and r. of domed tetrastyle temple, in which triumphal currus stands r., shaft up, containing eagle and four miniature galloping horses.

Ag, 20.0mm, 3.55g
Mint: Colonia patricia (?)
RIC I/119 [S] - BMCRE 385
1 commentsdafnis
0045~0.jpg
0045 - Denarius Augustus 21 BC23 viewsObv/AVGVSTVS, Augustus bare head r.
Rev/IOVI OLV, to l. and r. of hexastyle temple with round shield in pediment and palmettes on top.

Ag, 19.0mm, 3.00g
Mint: North Peloponnese (?)
RIC I/472 [S] - BMCRE 666 (=BMCRR East 257) - RSC 182.
ex-DNW, auction 20 june 2007, lot 387
dafnis
Nero_janus.jpg
006 - Nero (54-68 AD), As - RIC 34738 viewsObv: IMP NERO CAESAR AVG GERM, laureate head right.
Rev: PACE P R VBIQ PARTA IANVM CLVSIT, S - C in fields, temple of Janus with closed doors on right.
Minted in Rome c. 66 AD.

(Sold)
pierre_p77
coin191.JPG
006. Nero (54 AD - 68 AD) 47 viewsNero, last of the Julio-Claudians, had been placed in the difficult position of absolute authority at a young age coupled with the often-contradictory efforts of those in a position to manipulate him. Augustus, however, had not been much older when he began his bid for power, and so a great deal of the responsibility for Nero's conduct must also rest with the man himself. Nero's reign was not without military operations (e.g., the campaigns of Corbulo against the Parthians, the suppression of the revolt of Boudicca in Britain), but his neglect of the armies was a critical error.

Nero As, 26x27 mm, 10.0 g. Obverse: Nero laureate right, NERO CAESAR AVG GERM IMP. Reverse: Temple of Janus, with latticed window to left and closed double doors to right, PACE PR VBIQ PARTA IANVM CLVSIT, SC.

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1 commentsecoli
0061.jpg
0061 - Denarius Petilia 43 BC32 viewsObv/ Eagle on thunderbolt r.; above, PETILLIVS; below, CAPITOLINVS.
Rev/ Temple of Jupiter Capitolinus; roof is decorated with armed figure at each side and cuadriga at apex; within pediment, uncertain figure; between central four columns, hanging decorations; on l., S; on r., F.

Ag, 18.0 mm, 3.85 g
Moneyer: Petilllius Capitolinus
Mint: Rome.
RRC 487/2b [dies o/r: 85/74 (all var.] - BMCRR Rome 4222
ex-Spink, auction march 2008, lot 994 (ex-Glendining, auction april 1980, lot 159)
1 commentsdafnis
0065~0.jpg
0065 - Denarius Septimius Severus 201-10 AC39 viewsObv/SEVERVS PIVS AVG, laureate head of Septimius r.
Rev/IOVI SOSPITATORI, distyle temple in which is Jupiter standing front, holding patera and sceptre.

Ag, 19.0mm, 3.39g
Mint: Rome.
RIC IVa/271 [R2] - BMCRE 341 - RCV 6292 - RSC 245
ex-Jean Elsen et Fils, auction 95, lot 346 (colln. A.Senden)
1 commentsdafnis
2100188.jpg
006b. Claudia Aug.37 viewsJUDAEA, Caesaraea Panias. Diva Poppaea and Diva Claudia. Died AD 65 and AD 63, respectively. Æ 20mm (6.00 g, 12h). Struck AD 65-68. Statue of Diva Poppaea seated left within distyle temple / Statue of Diva Claudia standing left within hexastyle temple. RPC I 4846; Meshorer, Caesarea, Pl. 7, H; SNG ANS 858; Hendin 578. Fine, dark green patina under light earthen deposits.

Ex-CNG
ecoli
Philip-I-RIC-012.jpg
01. Philip I.18 viewsAntoninianus, 248 AD, Rome mint.
Obverse: IMP PHILIPPVS AVG / Radiate bust of Philip I.
Reverse: SAECVLARES AVGG / Lion facing right. I in exergue.
4.60 gm., 23 mm.
RIC #12; Sear #8956.

During the reign of Philip I, the Empire celebrated the millennium of the founding of the City of Rome. The thousandth year of Rome was calculated as running from April 21, 247 to April 21, 248. During this year, celebrations were held throughout the empire, and in the city of Rome itself. Spectacular games were held for the people and a series of coins was issued depicting the animals which appeared in these games. Other reverse types looked back a 1000 years (wolf & twins) or ahead to the future (SAECVLVM NOVVM / temple) as Rome entered a "new age." The first 8 coins in this album are the coins issued for this occasion.
Callimachus
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010. Vespasian13 viewsSpes

In Roman mythology, Spes was the goddess of hope. She was traditionally defined as "the last goddess" (Spes, ultima dea), meaning that hope is the last resource available to men.
There was a temple to her in the Forum Holitorium. In art, Spes was depicted hitching her skirt while holding a cornucopia and flowers. Spes personified hope for good harvests, and for children, and was invoked at births, marriages, and other important times.

Her Greek equivalent was Elpis.

Vespasian Ae As REVERSE: Spes standing;

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ecoli
145197.jpg
011a. Julia Titi56 viewsJulia Flavia (17 September 64 - 91) was the only child to the Emperor Titus from his second marriage to the well-connected Marcia Furnilla. Titus divorced Furnilla after Julia's birth. Julia was born in Rome.

When growing up, Titus offered her in marriage to his brother Domitian, but he refused because of his infatuation with Domitia Longina. Later she married her second cousin Titus Flavius Sabinus, brother to consul Titus Flavius Clemens, who married her first cousin Flavia Domitilla. By then Domitian had seduced her.

When her father and husband died, she became Emperor Domitian’s mistress. He openly showed his love. Falling pregnant, Julia died of a forced abortion. Julia was deified and her ashes her mixed with Domitian by an old nurse secretly in the Temple of the Flavians.

AEOLIS, Temnus. Julia Titi. Augusta, AD 79-91. Æ 16mm (2.18 gm). Draped bust right / EPI AGNOU THMNIT, Athena standing left, holding palladium and scepter, shield resting on ground. RPC II 981. Near VF, dark green patina, small flan crack. Ex-CNG

From the Garth R. Drewry Collection. Ex Classical Numismatic Group 51 (15 September 1999), lot 875; Marcel Burstein Collection.
ecoli
Nero_AR-Den_NERO-CAESAR-AVGVSTVS_VESTA_RIC-I-62_p-153_C-335_Rome_65-66-AD_Rare_Q-001_6h_16-16,5mm_3,31g-s.jpg
014 Nero (54-68 A.D.), RIC I 0062, Rome, AR-Denarius, VESTA,96 views014 Nero (54-68 A.D.), RIC I 0062, Rome, AR-Denarius, VESTA,
avers: NERO CAESAR AVGVSTVS, laureate head right,
revers: VESTA, hexastyle temple of Vesta with domed roof and statue of Vesta within.
exerg: , diameter: 16-16,5mm, weight: g3,31, axes: 6h,
mint: Rome, date: 65-66 A.D., ref: RIC I 0062, p-153, RSC-335, BMC-104,
Q-001
quadrans
Nero_AE-AS_IMP-NERO-CAESAR-AVG-GERM_PACE-PR-VBIQ-PARTA-IANVM-CLVSIT_S-C_RIC-348_C-_Rome_66-AD_Q-001_6h_27mm_11,14g-s.jpg
014 Nero (54-68 A.D.), RIC I 0348, Rome, AE-As, PACE PR VBIQ PARTA IANVM CLVSIT, S-C,113 views014 Nero (54-68 A.D.), RIC I 0348, Rome, AE-As, PACE PR VBIQ PARTA IANVM CLVSIT, S-C,
avers: IMP-NERO-CAESAR-AVG-GERM, Laureate head left.
revers: PACE-PR-VBIQ-PARTA-IANVM-CLVSIT, View of one front of the temple of Janus, with latticed window to left, and garland hung across closed double doors on the right, S C across fields.
exe: S/C//--, diameter: 27mm, weight: 11,14g, axis: 6h,
mint: Rome, date: 66 AD., ref: RIC-348, C-,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
0155.jpg
0155 - Nummus Maxentius 308-10 AC8 viewsObv/ IMP C MAXENTIVS P F AVG, laureate head of M. r.
Rev/ CONSERV VRB SVAE, Roma seated facing, head l., holding globe in r.h., scepter in l., within hexastyle temple of Roma; wreath in pediment; RBQ in ex.

AE, 22.8 mm, 6.80 g
Mint: Roma.
RIC VI/210 [C2]
ex-A.Juliá Salas (denarios.org), aug 2011
dafnis
0172.jpg
0172 - Denarius Cassia 55 BC34 viewsObv/Head of Liberty r., LIBERT behind, Q CASSIVS before.
Rev/Curule chair within temple of Vesta; to l., urn; to r., voting tablet inscribed AC.

Ag, 18.1mm, 4.02g
Moneyer: Q. Cassius Longinus.
Mint: Rome.
RRC 428/2 [dies o/r: 60/67] - Syd. 918 - RSC Cassia 8
ex-Valencia Coin Market, Dec 2012
1 commentsdafnis
0208_RRC424_1.jpg
0208 - Denarius Considia 57 BC37 viewsObv/ Laureate and diademed bust of V. r., behind C CONSIDI NONIANI; before, SC.
Rev/ Tetrastyle temple on hill, surrounded by walls and gate, with ERVC above.

Ag, 18.7 mm, 3.75 g
Mint: Roma
RRC 424/1 [
3 commentsdafnis
RI_035l_img.jpg
035 - Domitian Ae AS - RIC II 385a78 viewsObv:- IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM P M TR P VIII CENS PER P P, Laureate head right
Rev:- COS XIIII LVD SAEC FEC - SC, Domitian , togate,standing left, sacrificing from patera over garlanded altar, on the other side of which are two flute players facing the emperor, one of which is partly obscured by the altar, hexastyle temple of Jupiter Capitolinus in background.

This variety, not distinguished in the catalogues, where the second musician's lower body is obscured by the large altar. see BMC pl. 79.3, with obv. portrait left, is from the same rev. die. On other dies, apparently the normal variety, the altar is narrower and you see the second musician's legs descending to the ground.

Celebrates the Secular Games
4 commentsmaridvnvm
Ant_Pius_Ar-Den_ANTONINVS-AVG-PIVS-PP_TEMPLVM-DIV-AVG-REST_COS-IIII_RIC-143_C-809_Roma_145-161-AD_Q-002_axis-6h_16,5-18,5mm_2,75g-s.jpg
035 Antoninus Pius (138-161 A.D.), RIC III 0143c, Rome, AR-Denarius, TEMPLVM DIV AVG REST, COS-IIII, Temple, Rare!,157 views035 Antoninus Pius (138-161 A.D.), RIC III 0143c, Rome, AR-Denarius, TEMPLVM DIV AVG REST, COS-IIII, Temple, Rare!,
avers:- ANTONINVS-AVG-PIVS-P-P, Laureate head right
revers:- TEMPLVM-DIV-AVG-REST, Octastyle temple, in which are seated figures of Divus Augustus & Livia, COS-IIII inexergo.
exerg: -/-//COS-IIII, diameter: 16,5-18,5 mm, weight: 2,75g, axis: 6h,
mint: Rome, date: 145-161 A.D., ref: RIC-III-143c var., p-44, C-809,
Q-001
quadrans
Ant_Pius_Ar-Den_ANTONINVS-AVG-PIVS-PP-TRP-XXII_TEMPLVM-DIV-AVG-REST_COS-IIII_RIC-290a_C-804_Q-001_axis-h_18mm_3,21g-s.jpg
035 Antoninus Pius (138-161 A.D.), RIC III 0290a, Rome, AR-Denarius, TEMPLVM DIV AVG REST, COS-IIII, Temple, Scarce!,261 views035 Antoninus Pius (138-161 A.D.), RIC III 0290a, Rome, AR-Denarius, TEMPLVM DIV AVG REST, COS-IIII, Temple, Scarce!,
avers:- ANTONINVS-AVG-PIVS-P-P-TR-P-XXII, Laureate head right
revers:- TEMPLVM-DIV-AVG-REST, Octastyle temple, in which are seated figures of Divus Augustus & Livia, COS-IIII inexergo.
exe: -/-//COS-IIII, diameter: 18mm, weight: 3,21g, axis: h,
mint: Rome, date: 159 A.D., ref: RIC-III-290a, C-804,
Q-001
3 commentsquadrans
Vespasian-RIC-15.jpg
035. Vespasian.39 viewsDenarius, 69-71 AD, Rome mint.
Obverse: IMP CAESAR VESPASIANVS AVG / Laureate bust of Vespasian.
Reverse: IVDAEA / Jewish woman captive seated on ground, mourning; trophy behind her.
3.44 gm., 18 mm.
RIC #15; Sear #2296.

When the Jewish Revolt began in 66 AD, Nero appointed Vespasian supreme commander in the East to put down the uprising. In 69 AD Vespasian made his own bid for the throne and left his son Titus to finish up the Jewish War -- which he did in 70 AD by capturing Jerusalem and destroying the Temple. This victory of Vespasian and Titus was the major military event of the reign, and numerous coins were issued to commemorate it.
2 commentsCallimachus
035_Antoninus_Pius_(138-161_A_D_),_AE-23,_V_,___V__rev-Z_or_E,_Commagene,Zeugma,_BMC-3v__Q-001_0h_23mm_ga-s.jpg
035p Antoninus Pius (138-161 A.D.), Commagene, Zeugma, BMC 3v., AE-23, ΖƐΥΓΜΑΤƐω(Ν), Temple with four columns,128 views035p Antoninus Pius (138-161 A.D.), Commagene, Zeugma, BMC 3v., AE-23, ΖƐΥΓΜΑΤƐω(Ν), Temple with four columns,
avers:- (ΑΥΤΟ ΚΑΙ ΤΙ ΑΙΛ ΑΔΡΙ) ΑΝΤωΝΙΝΟС СƐΒ ƐΥС, Laureate head left.
revers:- ΖƐΥΓΜΑΤƐω(Ν), Temple with four columns, before, colonnaded peribolos containing grove, all in laurel wreath, below, numeral letter E.
exe: -/-//E, diameter: 22-23,7mm, weight: 9,04g, axis:1h,
mint: Commagene, Zeugma, date: 138-161 A.D., ref: BMC 3v.,
Q-001
quadrans
Faustina_sen_Ag-Den_DIVA-FAVSTINA_AED-DIV-FAVSTINAE_RIC-III-AP-343_RSC-1_Rome_150-AD_Q-001_11h_17mm_2,95g-s~0.jpg
036 Faustina Senior (100-141 A.D.), RIC III 0343 (A.Pius), Rome, AR-Denarius, AED DIV FAVSTINAE, Hexastyle temple,84 views036 Faustina Senior (100-141 A.D.), RIC III 0343 (A.Pius), Rome, AR-Denarius, AED DIV FAVSTINAE, Hexastyle temple,
Wife of Antoninus Pius.
avers:- DIVA-FAVSTINA, Diademed and draped bust right.
revers:- AED-DIV-FAVSTINAE, Front view of temple of six columns on five steps, fencing before. Within is a statue of Faustina. Varying ornaments on temple.
exerg: -/-//--, diameter: 17mm, weight: 2,95g, axis: 11h,
mint: Rome, date: 150 A.D., ref: RIC-III-343 (Antoninus Pius)p- , RSC-191, BMCRE-306 (Pius),
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Faustina_sen_Ag-Den_DIVA-AVG-FAVSTINA_DEDICATIO-AEDIS_RIC-III-AP-388_RSC-191_Rome_141-AD_Q-001_7h_19-17mm_3,03g-s.jpg
036 Faustina Senior (100-141 A.D.), RIC III 0388 (A.Pius), Rome, AR-Denarius, DEDICATIO AEDIS, Hexastyle temple,88 views036 Faustina Senior (100-141 A.D.), RIC III 0388 (A.Pius), Rome, AR-Denarius, DEDICATIO AEDIS, Hexastyle temple,
Wife of Antoninus Pius.
avers:- DIVA-AVG-FAVSTINA, Draped bust right.
revers:- DEDICATIO-AEDIS, Frontal view of a hexastyle temple, Victories in corners.
exerg: , diameter: 17-19mm, weight: 3,03g, axis: 7h,
mint: Rome, date: 141-161 A.D., ref: RIC-III-388 (Antoninus Pius)p- , RSC-191, BMCRE-306 (Pius),
Q-001
This coin type records the dedication of the
temple of Divus Antoninus and Diva Faustina. The
dedication ceremonies took place in 142 AD, and
construction was completed in 150 AD. The temple
still stands today, overlooking the Forum.
quadrans
37.jpg
037 Annius Verus & Commodus AE17 2.6gm31 viewsobv: confronted busts of Verus l. and Commodus r. club and caduceus between
rev: facade of decastyle temple with eagle in pediment
"sons of M. Aurelius"
1 commentshill132
RI 048a img.jpg
048 - Antoninus Pius denarius - RIC 290a63 viewsObv:– ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P XXII, laureate head facing right
Rev:– TEMPLVM DIV AVG REST / COS III, Octastyle Temple of Divus Augustus, with cult images of Augustus and Livia inside
Mint – Rome
Date Minted – A.D. 158-159
Reference RIC 290a
maridvnvm
RIC_V_183_Probus.jpg
048. Probus A.D. 276-282. AE Antoninianus. 82 viewsAE Antoninianus. Rome mint.

Obv: IMP C PROBVS P F AVG, radiate bust left in imperial mantle, holding sceptre surmounted by eagle.
Rev: ROMAE AETER, Roma seated in temple, holding Victory and sceptre.
Ex: R(wreath)Δ.
21 mm, 3.39 g
RIC V, Part 2, 183

EF
1 commentsLordBest
049_Septimius-Severus_AE-26-Bithynia,_Nicomedia,_AVK-L-CE_T-CEVHPOC-laur_head-right_NIKOMH-_E_N-_IC-NE_KO-P_N-_ctastyle-temple-with-Counterm_BMC-41_Q-001_26-27mm_11,37gx-s.jpg
049p Septimius Severus (193-211 A.D.), Bithynia, Nicomedia, BMC-41, AE-26, Temple,64 views049p Septimius Severus (193-211 A.D.), Bithynia, Nicomedia, BMC-41, AE-26, Temple,
avers:- AVK-L-CEΠT-CEVHPOC, Radiate head right.
revers:- NIKOMH-ΔEΩN-ΔIC-NEΩKO-PΩN, Ο Ctastyle temple with Countermark.
exe: -/-//--, diameter: 26-27mm, weight:11,37g, axis:1h,
mint: Bithynia, Nicomedia, date: ?? , ref: BMC-41,
Q-001
quadrans
IMG_2890.JPG
050 Nero12 views Nero Denarius. NERO CAESAR AVGVSTVS, laureate head right / VESTA, hexastyle temple of Vesta with domed roof & statue of Vesta within. RIC 62, RSC 335, BMC 104Randygeki(h2)
Bar-Kochba-Hendin-734.jpg
053. 2'nd Jewish (bar Kokhba) Revolt.16 viewsZuz (denarius), attributed to Year 3 (134-35 AD).
Obverse: (Shim'on) / Bunch of Grapes.
Reverse: (For the Freedom of Jerusalem) / Lyre with three strings.
3.19 gm., 18.5 mm.
Mildenberg #205.19 (this coin); Hendin #734.

This coin likely started out as a denarius of one of the Roman emperors between Vespasian and Hadrian. Many coins of the Second Jewish Revolt show traces of the earlier Roman coin. This coin is no exception, and traces of the previous coin can be seen on the obverse in and around the bunch of grapes.

The bunch of grapes on the obverse is an ancient symbol of blessing and fertility. As such it occasionally appears on ancient coins of other areas besides this series. Given the messianic nature of the Bar Kokhba revolt, the bunch of grapes takes on added significance because in Jewish prophetic literature, grapes (and the vine or vineyard) are often symbolic of the restoration of Israel, or even symbolic of Israel itself.

The lyre on the reverse is associated with temple worship, as are trumpets, which are also found on coins of the Bar Kokhba Revolt. King David is mentioned as playing a lyre, and there are numerous Biblical references to praising the Lord with the lyre and trumpets. (The word "kinnor," sometimes translated as "harp," is really a type of lyre.) Even today the lyre is an important Jewish symbol and the state of Israel has chosen to portray it on the half New Israeli Sheqel coin.
Callimachus
053_Geta_(209-211_A_D_)_AE-17_Nikopolis_L-AVT-K-L-GETAC_NIKOPOLITON-PROC-I_Varbanov_4-column-Temple_Q-001_7h_16-18mm_3,52ga-s~0.jpg
053p Geta (209-211 A.D.), Moesia, Nicopolis Ad Istrum, HHJ-08.22.46.03, AE-17, NIKOΠOΛITΩN-ΠPOC-I,64 views053p Geta (209-211 A.D.), Moesia, Nicopolis Ad Istrum, HHJ-08.22.46.03, AE-17, NIKOΠOΛITΩN-ΠPOC-I,
avers:- Λ•AVP•KA-ΓETAC, Bare headed and draped of the younger Geta right.
revers:- ΝΙΚOΠO-ΛΙTΩN-ΠPOC-I, Front of tetrastyle temple, within statue of Asklepios with snake staff.
exe: -/-//ΠPOC-I, diameter: 16-18mm, weight: 3,52g, axis:7h,
mint: Moesia, Nicopolis Ad Istrum, date: 198-209 A.D., ref: HHJ-08.22.46.03,
Q-001
quadrans
MaxentiusFollisRic258.jpg
058. Maxentius, 306-312. AE Follis.71 viewsObv. Laureate head right IMP C MAXENTIVS PF AVG
Rev. Roma seated left holding sceptre and globe, within hexastyle temple with wreath within pediment CONSEERV VRB SVAE, RES below.
Rome Mint, 310-11. 24.5mm, 5.98g.
RIC 258.
1 commentsLordBest
059p_Annia_Faustina_(-221_A_D_),_RPC_IV_(T)_6277,_Pamphylia,_Aspendus,_AE-18,__________,_Q-001_6h_17-18mm_3,91g-s.jpg
059p Annia Faustina ( ?-221 A.D.), RPC IV (T) 6277, Pamphylia, Aspendus, AE-18, ΑСΠƐΝΔΙΩΝ, Front view of double-pediment temple, Rare !179 views059p Annia Faustina ( ?-221 A.D.), RPC IV (T) 6277, Pamphylia, Aspendus, AE-18, ΑСΠƐΝΔΙΩΝ, Front view of double-pediment temple, Rare !
avers: ΑΝΝΙΑΝ ΦΑΥϹΤƐΙΝΑΝ ϹƐΒ, Diademed and draped bust of Annia Faustina, right.
reverse: ΑСΠƐΝΔΙΩΝ, Front view of double-pediment temple enclosing a statue of Aphroditai Kastnietides each.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 17,0-18,0mm, weight: 3,91g, axis: 6 h,
mint: Pamphylia, Aspendus, date: 221 A.D., ref: RPC IV (T) 6277, Peus 388, 1 Nov. 2006, lot 1132, R !,
Q-001
2 commentsquadrans
062_Severus-Alexander_AE-22_M-AYP-_________C-K______-__N_Q-001_h_mm_g-s.jpg
062p Severus Alexander (222-235 A.D.), Bithynia, Nicomedia, AE-22, NI-KO/MH−ΔЄ/Ω−N/ΔIC NЄΩ/K, Octastyle temple,63 views062p Severus Alexander (222-235 A.D.), Bithynia, Nicomedia, AE-22, NI-KO/MH−ΔЄ/Ω−N/ΔIC NЄΩ/K, Octastyle temple,
avers:- M-AYP-ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟC-K, Laureate head right.
revers:- ΝΙ−ΚΟ / ΜΗ−ΔЄ / Ω−Ν / ΔΙC ΝЄΩ / Κ, octastyle temple set on two-tiered base, pellet in pediment.
exe: -/-//--, diameter: 22mm, weight: 9,07g, axis: 5h,
mint: Bithynia, Nicomedia, date: 222-235 A.D., ref: ,
Q-001
quadrans
VesII496.jpg
069-079 AD - Vespasian - RIC II 496 - Temple Reverse37 viewsProbable Emperor: Vespasian (r. 69-79 AD)
Date: 71 AD
Condition: Mediocre
Denomination: As

Obverse: IMP CAES VESPASIAN AVG COS III
Imperator Caesar Vespasian Emperor Consul Third Term
Head right; laureate

Reverse: (no legend)
"S - C" in field.
Hexastyle temple of Jupiter Capitolinus.

Rome mint
RIC II Vespasian 496
7.55g; 27.6mm; 180°
Pep
06e-Constantine-Rom-164.jpg
06e. Constantine as Caesar: Rome follis.44 viewsFollis, Summer 307, Rome mint.
Obverse: CONSTANTINVS NOB CAES / Laureate bust of Constantine.
Reverse: CONSERVATORES VRB SVAE / Roma seated in tetrastyle temple, holding globe and sceptre; knobs as acroteria, plain pediment.
Mint mark: RQ
5.64 gm., 25 mm.
RIC #164; PBCC #407; Sear #15512.
1 commentsCallimachus
A-11_Rep_AR-Den_M_Volteius-M_f_-Laur-Head-Jupiter-r__Capitolin-Temple-M_VOLTEI_M_F_-below_Crawford-385-1_Syd-774_Rome_78-BC_Q-001_axis-10h_16,5-17,5mm_3,69g-s.jpg
078 B.C., M.Volteius M.f., Republic AR-Denarius, Crawford 385/1, Rome, Capitoline temple, M•VOLTEI•M•F, 115 views078 B.C., M.Volteius M.f., Republic AR-Denarius, Crawford 385/1, Rome, Capitoline temple, M•VOLTEI•M•F,
avers: Laureate head of Jupiter right, border of dots.
reverse: M•VOLTEI•M•F, Temple of Jupiter Capitolinus with closed doors, thunderbolt on the pediment.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 17mm, weight: 3,69g, axis: 4h,
mint: Rome, date: 78 B.C., ref: Crawford 385/1, Sydenham 774,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Philip-I-RIC-086a.jpg
08. Philip I.41 viewsAntoninianus, 248 AD, Antioch mint.
Obverse: IMP M IVL PHILIPPVS AVG / Radiate bust of Philip I.
Reverse: SAECVLVM NOVVM / Hexastyle temple with seated statue of Roma.
4.25 gm., 21 mm.
RIC 86a.

This particular reverse type seems to be the only one of the Millennium types to have been minted in Antioch. Characteristics of the Antioch mint on this coin include a left-facing bust and the long obverse legend.
The temple is the Temple of Roma in Rome, begun by Hadrian and complete by Antoninus Pius in 141 AD.
1 commentsCallimachus
080_Herennia_Etruscilla,_Lydia,_Magnesia_ad_Sipylum,_AE-27,_Leypold_I,_1049,_BMC_91,_Paris_715,_249-51AD,_Q-001,_6h,_27mm,_7,95g-s~0.jpg
080p Herennia Etruscilla (?? A.D.), Lydia, Magnesia ad Sipylum, Leypold I 1049, AE-27, Tetrastyle temple, #01113 views080p Herennia Etruscilla (?? A.D.), Lydia, Magnesia ad Sipylum, Leypold I 1049, AE-27, Tetrastyle temple, #01
avers: ЄΡЄN ЄTΡOYCKIΛΛA, Draped bust right.
reverse: ЄΠ AΡTЄMA MAΓNHTΩN CIΠYΛOY CTΡ, Tetrastyle temple with open pediment, Tyche standing left within, holding rudder and cornucopiae. Magistrate Artema.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 26,5-27,5mm, weight: 7,95g, axis: 6h,
mint: Lydia, Magnesia ad Sipylum, date: 249-251 A.D., ref: Leypold I 1049, BMC 91, Paris 715
Q-001
quadrans
454_P_Hadrian.jpg
0968 Hadrian, Cistophorus BITHYNIA Koinon of Bithynia mint, Octastyle temple54 viewsReference.
RPC III, 968; RIC II 461b; Metcalf, Cistophori, type B1; RSC 240b; Pinder 100

Issue Reverse legend includes COM BIT

Obv. IMP CAES TRA HADRIANO AVG P P
Laureate head right

Rev. COM - BIT (in field), ROM S P AVG (in entablature)
Octastyle temple on podium of three steps

10.52 gr
27 mm
6 h

Note.

The temple depicted is that of Roma and Augustus erected by the koinon of Bithynia at Nicomedia, of which no archaeological remains have been discovered.

Cistophori were produced in the name of the Commune Bithyniae only once, under Hadrian. The inscription on the frieze, reconstructed as ROM(ae) S(enatui) P(opulo) AVG(usto) and translated as "To Rome, the Senate, the People, and Augustus" tentatively identifies the building as a temple of Rome and Augustus at Nicomedia. No archaeological remains of this structure have as yet been found, and reconstructions of it are based entirely on the second century numismatic evidence. Both Tacitus and Dio Cassius report that in 19 BC Augustus did authorize the construction of a temple to Rome and himself at Pergamum, an event commemorated on his cistophori there. No such evidence for a temple at Nicomedia occurs earlier than this cistophorus.
1 commentsokidoki
1206_P_Hadrian_RPC970.jpg
0970 Hadrian, Cistophorus BITHYNIA Koinon of Bithynia mint, Octastyle temple32 viewsReference.
RPC III, 970; Metcalf B3; RSC 240; RIC II 461c

Issue Reverse legend includes COM BIT

Obv. IMP CAES TRA HADRIANO AVG P P
Laureate and draped bust of Hadrian r., seen from rear

Rev. COM - BIT (in field), ROM S P AVG (in entablature)
Octastye temple on podium of three steps

10.76 gr
25 mm
6h
4 commentsokidoki
1207_P_Hadrian_RPC972.jpg
0972 Hadrian, Cistophorus BITHYNIA Koinon of Bithynia mint, Male in octastyle temple34 viewsReference.
RPC III, 972; RIC II 459a; RSC 241

Issue Reverse legend includes COM BIT

Obv. IMP CAES TRA HADRIANO AVG P P
Bare head of Hadrian, right

Rev. COM - BIT (in field), ROM S P AVG (in entablature)
Tetrastyle temple on podium of three steps; within, togate male standing r. holding spear in r. and Victory in left

9.89 gr
25 mm
6h
3 commentsokidoki
1337_P_Hadrian_RPC.jpg
0972 Hadrian, Cistophorus BITHYNIA Koinon of Bithynia mint, Male in octastyle temple11 viewsReference.
cf RPC III, 974; cf Metcalf B8

Issue Reverse legend includes COM BIT

Obv. IMP CAES TRA HADRIANO AVG P P
Laureate head right

Rev. COM - BIT (in field), ROM S P AVG (in entablature)
Tetrastyle temple on podium of three steps; within, togate male standing left. holding spear in r. and Victory in left

10.46 gr
26 mm
11h
2 commentsokidoki
hierapolis_AE18.jpg
098-217 AD - HIERAPOLIS (Phrygia) AE18 62 viewsobv: - (bare head of Hercules)
rev: IERAPO-LITWN (winged Nemesis standing left, holding bridle, within dotted border)
ref: SNG Cop. 422. Weber, Hierapolis 142, 8
4.43gms, 18mm
Rare
Hierapolis can mean "sacred city", because of the several temples. The city was devastated by an earthquake which took place in 17 A.D. during the reign of Tiberius. In 60 AD, during the rule of emperor Nero, an even more severe earthquake left the city completely in ruins. Afterwards the city was rebuilt in Roman style with the financial support from the emperor. Hierapolis was visited by the Emperor Hadrian in 129 A.D., the Emperor Caracalla in 215 and the Emperor Valens in 370.
On obverse is a typical Hercules head, compare to my CORNELIA 58 denarius.
berserker
987_P_Hadrian_RPC986.jpg
0986 BITHYNIA Koinon of Bithynia Hadrian Ae 33 Distyle temple13 viewsReference
RPC III, 986var (bust);

Issue Bronze; I. 1

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙС ΤΡΑΙ ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС СΕΒ
Laureate head of Hadrian, right.

Rev. ΚΟΙ-ΝΟΝ ΒΕΙΘΥΝΙΑС
Distyle temple on podium of two steps; within, Capitoline triad: in the centre, Zeus stands facing, resting with r. hand on long sceptre, between Hera, l. standing r. and Athena, r., standing l. Hera rests with l. hand on long sceptre. Athena crowns Zeus and holds an aphlaston in her l. hand; sacrificing Genius over altar with patera in hand, in pediment; Victories on raking cornices and on apex (?)

23.26 gr
33 mm
6h

Note.
New bust
Temple like RPC III, 986
Figures like RPC III, 985
okidoki
623_P_Sabina_RPC990var_.jpg
0990 BITHYNIA Koinon of Bithynia Sabina Ae 24 Tetrastyle temple female figure15 viewsReference.
RPC III, 990; Rec 60

Obv. СΑΒΕΙΝΑ СΕΒΑСΤΗ
Draped bust of Sabina, r., with hair coiled and piled on top of head above double stephane.

Rev. ΚΟΙ-ΝΟΝ ΒΕΙΘΥΝΙΑС
Tetrastyle temple on podium of two steps, with star in pediment; within, draped female figure (Empress?) stands facing Left, resting with r. hand on long sceptre, holding patera in l. hand

8.95 gr
23.50 mm
6h
okidoki
831_P_Hadrian_RPC992.jpg
0992 BITHYNIA Koinon of Bithynia Hadrian Ae 33 Octastyle temple17 viewsReference.
RPC III, 992; Rec 41

Obv, ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙС ΤΡΑΙ ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС СΕΒΑ
Laureate head of Hadrian, right

Rev. ΚΟΙ-ΝΟΝ ΒΕΙΘΥΝΙΑС
Octastyle temple on podium of two steps; in pediment, pellet

24.98 gr
33 mm
8h
okidoki
725_P_Hadrian_RPC999.jpg
0999 BITHYNIA Koinon of Bithynia Hadrian AE 22 Octastyle temple21 viewsReference.
RPC III, 999; RG 48 var., SNG Copenhagen 327 var. and SNG von Aulock 287 var. (one pellet in pediment).

Issue I. 3

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙС ΤΡΑΙ ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС СΕΒ
Laureate head of Hadrian, right

Rev. ΚΟΙ-ΝΟΝ ΒΕΙΘΥΝΙΑС
Octastyle temple on podium of two steps; 3 pellets in pediment

6.73 gr
22 mm
6h
1 commentsokidoki
Templo_4_columnas.jpg
1-1-1 - AUGUSTO (27 A.C. – 14 D.C.)54 views MYSIA Pergamun
Procónsul PLAUTIUS SILVANUS

AE 19 mm 5.7 gr

Anv: ”ΣIΛBANON ΠEPΓAMHNOI” – Silvanus vestido con toga siendo coronado por una figura masculina vistiendo ropas militares y coraza.
Rev: ”ΣEBAΣTON (sobre el templo) ΔHMOΦΩN” (debajo) – Estatua de Augustus dentro de un Templo (tetrástilo)con 4 columnas y 3 escalones.

Acuñada: aproximadamente 1 D.C.

Referencias: RPC #2364 – SNG France #2016-21
mdelvalle
islamicMENORAH.jpg
1.1 Islamic Menorah coin75 viewsIslamic Jerusalem
After 696 AD (possibly 715, comemorating the builing of the Al Aksa Mosque)

5 branched Menorah
fascinating coin. this possilby reflects the early Islamic attempts to place itself in a chain beginning with Judaism, being fulfilled with Islam. By portraying the Menorah of the Temple, the minters may be trying to connect the Islamic Jerusalem with the ancient Jerusalem of Solomon and the Temple, religiously justifying their administration of the city.
Zam
733_P_Hadrian_RPC1002.jpg
1002 BITHYNIA Koinon of Bithynia Hadrian AE 36 Octastyle temple13 viewsReference.
Waddington, RG pg. 241, 41; BMC Pontus -; SNG Copenhagen -; RPC III,cf 1002

Issue I. 4

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙС ΤΡΑΙ ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС СΕΒ
laureate head of Hadrian, r.

Rev. ΚΟΙ-ΝΟΝ ΒΕΙΘΥΝΙΑС
Octastyle temple on podium of two steps; in pediment, Globe

26.90 gr
36 mm
h
okidoki
850_P_Hadrian_RPC1005.jpg
1005 BITHYNIA Koinon of Bithynia Hadrian, Octastyle temple18 viewsReference
RPC III, 1005/2; vA 285

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙС ΤΡΑΙ ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС СΕΒ
Radiate head of Hadrian, right

Rev. ΚΟΙ-ΝΟΝ ΒΕΙΘΥΝΙΑС
Reverse design octastyle temple on podium of two steps; in pediment, clipeus

11.89 gr
26 mm
6h

Note
Pegasi Numismatics 2017, Auction 36 lot 316 2017 From Hoffman collection
CNG 2011, Auction lot 232 From the Deyo Collection.
CNG 2004, MBS 66, lot 1064
GM 1997, Auction 81, lot 477
Lanz 1995, Auction 74, lot 513
okidoki
1184_P_Hadrian_RPC996.jpg
1013A BITHYNIA Koinon of Bithynia Hadrian, Octastyle temple14 viewsReference.
RPC III, 1013A; Rec 43

Issue I. 6

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙС ΤΡΑΙ ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС СΕΒ
Radiate head of Hadrian, right

Rev. ΚΟΙ-ΝΟΝ ΒΕΙΘΥΝΙΑС
Octastyle temple on podium of two steps, pellet between columns; in pediment sacrificing Genius between two pellets

12.82 gr
27 mm
6h
okidoki
686_P_Hadrian_RPC1015.jpg
1014A BITHYNIA Koinon of Bithynia Hadrian AE 33 Octastyle temple37 viewsReference.
RPC 3, 1014A;cf SNG von Aulock-284; cf SNG Hun. 1049
S is graffito

Issue I. 7

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙС ΤΡΑΙ ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС СΕΒΑ
Laureate head of Hadrian, right Countermark dot/S

Rev. ΚΟΙ-ΝΟΝ ΒΕΙΘΥΝΙΑС
Octastyle temple on podium; Nikes on raking cornices and on apex

25.89 gr
32 mm
7h
okidoki
1340_P_Hadrian_RPC1017.jpg
1017 BITHYNIA Koinon of Bithynia Hadrian, Octastyle temple and Prow8 viewsReference.
RPC III, 1017; Rec 38; Rec. Gén. 41.

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙС ΤΡΑΙ ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС СΕΒ
Laureate head of Hadrian, right

Rev. KΟΙ-ΝΟΝ ΒΕΙΘΥΝΙΑС
Octastyle temple on podium of two steps; pellet between middle columns; figure in the pediment, below stairs forepart prow.

23.85 gr
34 mm
h
1 commentsokidoki
619_P_Hadrian_RPC_1017.jpg
1017 BITHYNIA Koinon of Bithynia Hadrian,Octastyle temple and Prow17 viewsReference.
RPC III, 1017; Rec 38; Rec. Gén. 41.

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙС ΤΡΑΙ ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС СΕΒ
Laureate head of Hadrian, right

Rev. KΟΙ-ΝΟΝ ΒΕΙΘΥΝΙΑС
Octastyle temple on podium of two steps; pellet between middle columns; figure in the pediment, below stairs forepart prow.

22.76 gr
34 mm
h
okidoki
101b.jpg
101b Probus. bill. antoninianus20 viewsobv: PROBV_S PF AVG rad. bust l. imp. mantle, holding scepter surmounted by eagle
rev: ROMAE_AETER Roma seated in temple holding victory and scepter
ex: R(thunderbolt)(delta)
hill132
101g.jpg
101gProbus. bill.antoninianus27 viewsobv: IMP PROB_VS PF AVG rad. bust l. imp. mantle holding eagle-tipped scepter
rev: ROMAE AETER Roma seated in temple holding victory ad scepter
ex: R(wreath)(delta)
hill132
3100378.jpg
102. Trajan. AD 98-11727 viewsTrajan. AD 98-117. Æ Sestertius (34mm, 25.52 g, 6h). Rome mint. Struck circa AD 103-104. Laureate and draped bust right / Front of the Temple of Jupiter: monumental votive arch/gateway; on the sides, from top to bottom, are the following reliefs: biga driven by Victory, aegis, Gigantomachy, arms, and she-wolf suckling twins; the second tier surmounted by a trophy and giant to either side, gateway spandrels with Victories, pediment with Jupiter between two seated figures, panel above pediment inscribed IOM (= Iovi Optimo Maximo), the whole surmounted by six-horse chariot driven by Jupiter and flanked by Victories. RIC II 572-3 var. (bust type); Woytek 187f; Banti 280. Fair, brown patina, some green, areas of minor porosity and cleaning scratches. Rare. Banti cites only one example with this bust type.

EX-CNG eAuction 310 lot 378 190/150
ecoli
788_P_Hadrian_RPC1020var.jpg
1020 BITHYNIA Koinon of Bithynia Hadrian, Octastyle temple11 viewsReference.
RPC III 1020 (no drapery); SNG von Aulock 289.

Obv: ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙС ΤΡΑΙ ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС СЄΒ.
Radiate head right.

Rev: ΚΟΙ - ΝΟΝ / ΒЄΙΘΥΝΙΑС.
Octastyle temple on podium of two steps; pellet between middle columns; star in the pediment; below, prow right.

10.82 gr
25 mm
6h
okidoki
288_P_Hadrian_BMC_.jpg
1020 BITHYNIA Koinon of Bithynia Hadrian, Octastyle temple40 viewsReference.
RPC III, 1020; SNG Von Aulock 289; BMC 25

Obv : AVT KAIC TPAI AΔΡIANOC CEB
Radiate bust right, drapery on far shoulder.

Rev : KOI-NON BEIΘYNIAC
octastyle temple on podium of two steps; pellet between middle columns; star in the pediment; below, prow right

12.50 gr
26 mm
2 commentsokidoki
1152_P_Sabina_RPC1024~0.jpg
1024 BITHYNIA Koinon of Bithynia Sabina Ae 32 Octastyle temple15 viewsReference.
RPC III, 1024; Rec 53; Paris 815; von Aulock 290; BMC 30; C/M Howgego 64 ( Hadrian Laureate head right)

Obv. СΑΒΕΙΝΑ СΕΒΑΣΤΗ
Draped bust of Sabina, r., with hair coiled and piled on top of head above double stephane

Rev. ΚΟΙ-ΝΟΝ ΒΕΙΘΥΝΙΑС
Octastyle temple on podium of two steps; pellet between middle columns; in pediment, sacrificing Genius in pediment; below, prow

25.17 gr
32 mm
6h
2 commentsokidoki
1152_P_Sabina_RPC1024.jpg
1024 BITHYNIA Koinon of Bithynia Sabina, Octastyle temple51 viewsReference.
RPC III, 1024; Rec 53; Paris 815; von Aulock 290; BMC 30; C/M Howgego 64 ( Hadrian Laureate head right)

Obv. СΑΒΕΙΝΑ СΕΒΑΣΤΗ
Draped bust of Sabina, r., with hair coiled and piled on top of head above double stephane

Rev. ΚΟΙ-ΝΟΝ ΒΕΙΘΥΝΙΑС
Octastyle temple on podium of two steps; pellet between middle columns; in pediment, sacrificing Genius in pediment; below, prow

25.17 gr
32 mm
6h
2 commentsokidoki
60304LG.jpg
102a. Plotina136 viewsPlotina, wife of Trajan.

Under Trajan, his female relations played enormously important roles in the empire's public life, and received honors perhaps unparalleled. Trajan's wife, Pompeia Plotina, is reported to have said, when she entered the imperial palace in Rome for the first time, that she hoped she would leave it the same person she was when she entered. She received the title Augusta no later than 105. She survived Trajan, dying probably in 121, and was honored by Hadrian with a temple, which she shared with her husband, in the great forum which the latter had built.

Æ trial strike of denarius dies (23 mm, 7.42 g). Rome. [PL]OTINA AVG IMP TRAIANI, diademed and draped bust right, hair in queue down neck / CAES AVG GERMA [D]A[C] COS V[I P P], Vesta seated left, holding palladium in right hand, sceptre in left. Cf. RIC 730 (Trajan); cf. BMC 526 (Trajan); cf. RSC 3. VF, rough green patina. Very unusual and probably unique. Ex Spink 160 (9-10 October 2002), 852.
ecoli73
coin213.JPG
103. Hadrian19 viewsHadrian

With execution of four power men in the beginning of his reign, his relations with the senate were irrevocably damaged, never really to improve until his death, when the senate hoped to have posthumous revenge. Much was said against him after his death, and by many persons. The senate wished to annul his acts, and would have refrained from naming him "the Deified" had not Antoninus requested it. Antoninus, moreover, finally built a temple for him at Puteoli to take the place of a tomb, and he also established a quinquennial contest and flamens and sodales and many other institutions which appertain to the honour of one regarded as a god. It is for this reason, as has been said before, that many think that Antoninus received the surname Pius.

AR Denarius. IMP CAESAR TRAIAN HADRIANVS AVG, laureate bust right / P M TR P COS III, Victory flying right with trophy. RSC 1132, RIC 101
ecoli
RI_108d_img.jpg
108 - Salonina - RIC 0056 viewsObv:- SALONINA AVG, diademed draped bust right on crescent
Rev:- DEAE SEGETIAE, Statue of Segetiae or Ceres, nimbate, standing facing in four-columned temple, both hands raised
Minted in Rome A.D. 258.
References:- RIC 5. Cohen 36. Elmer 96. Göbl 902c

4.00 gms, 24.76mm. 180 degrees.
maridvnvm
Probus_AE-Ant_IMP-PROBVS-AVG_ROMAE-AETER_R-wreath-E_Bust-H_RIC--p-37_Rome-_282-AD_Rare-Not-in-RIC_Q-001_axis-10h_21,5mm_3,50g-s.jpg
112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 185, Rome, ROMAE AETER, Bust-H, Roma seated in temple,319 views112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 185, Rome, ROMAE AETER, Bust-H, Roma seated in temple,
avers:- IMP-PROBVS-AVG, Radiate bust left in imperial mantle, holding sceptre surmounted by eagle. (H)
revers:- ROMAE-AETER, Roma seated in temple, holding Victory and sceptre.
exerg: -/-//R wreath E, diameter: 21,5mm, weight: 3,50g, axes: 10h,
mint: Rome, 5th emission, date: 280 A.D., ref: RIC V-II 185, p-37,
Q-001
quadrans
RIC_185_112_Probus_AE-Ant_IMP-PROBVS-AVG_ROMAE-AETER_R-crescent-E_Bust-H_RIC-185-p-37_Rome-_282-AD_Q-001_11h_22,0-23,0mm_3,86g-s.jpg
112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 185, Rome, ROMAE AETER, Bust-H, Roma seated in temple,122 views112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 185, Rome, ROMAE AETER, Bust-H, Roma seated in temple,
avers:- IMP PROBVS AVG, Radiate bust left in imperial mantle, holding sceptre surmounted by eagle. (H)
revers:- ROMAE AETER, Roma seated in temple, holding Victory and sceptre.
exerg: -/-//R crescent E, diameter: 22,0-23,0mm, weight: 3,86g, axes: 11h,
mint: Rome, 4th. emission, date: 279 A.D., ref: RIC V-II 185, p-37,
Q-001
3 commentsquadrans
Probus_AE-Ant_IMP-PROBVS-AVG_ROMAE-AETER_R-Crescent-Gamma_Bust-G_RIC-186-p-37_Rome-4th-em_279-AD_Q-001_axis-6h_22-23,5mm_3,82g-s.jpg
112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 186, Rome, ROMAE AETER, Bust-G, Roma seated in temple,236 views112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 186, Rome, ROMAE AETER, Bust-G, Roma seated in temple,
avers:- IMP-PROBVS-AVG, Radiate, helmeted, cuirassed bust left, holding spear and shield. (G).
revers:- ROMAE-AETER, Roma seated in temple, holding Victory and sceptre.
exerg: -/-//R Crescent Γ, diameter: 22-23,5mm, weight: 3,82g, axes: 6h,
mint: Rome, 4th emission, date: 279 A.D.,ref: RIC V-II 186, p-37,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Probus_AE-Ant_PROBV-S-P-F-AVG_ROMAE-AETER_R-thunderbolt-Delta_RIC-187-p-38_Rome-6th-em_281-AD_Q-001_h_mm_ga-s.jpg
112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 187, Rome, ROMAE AETER, Bust-H, -/-//R-thunderbolt-Δ, Roma seated in temple, #171 views112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 187, Rome, ROMAE AETER, Bust-H, -/-//R-thunderbolt-Δ, Roma seated in temple, #1
avers:- PROBVS-P-F-AVG, Radiate bust left in imperial mantle, holding sceptre surmounted by eagle. (H)
revers:- ROMAE-AETER, Roma seated in temple, holding Victory and sceptre.
exerg: -/-//R-thunderbolt-Δ, diameter: mm, weight: g, axes: h,
mint: Rome, 6th emission, date: 281 A.D., ref: RIC V-II 187, p-37,
Q-001
quadrans
Probus_AE-Ant_PROBV-S-P-F-AVG_ROMAE-AETER_R-Thunderbolt-Delta_RIC-187-p-_Rome-6th-em_281-AD_Q-001_5h_22mm_2,75ga-s.jpg
112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 187, Rome, ROMAE AETER, Bust-H, -/-//R-thunderbolt-Δ, Roma seated in temple, #2176 views112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 187, Rome, ROMAE AETER, Bust-H, -/-//R-thunderbolt-Δ, Roma seated in temple, #2
avers:- PROBVS-P-F-AVG, Radiate bust left in imperial mantle, holding sceptre surmounted by eagle. (H)
revers:- ROMAE-AETER, Roma seated in temple, holding Victory and sceptre.
exerg: -/-//R-thunderbolt-Δ, diameter: 22mm, weight: 2,75g, axes: 5h,
mint: Rome, 6th emission, date: 281 A.D., ref: RIC V-II 187, p-37,
Q-001
quadrans
Probus_AE-Ant_PROBV-S-P-F-AVG_ROMAE-AETER_R-Thunderbolt-Delta_RIC-187-p-_Rome-6th-em_281-AD_Q-003_0h_21mm_2,70g-s~0.jpg
112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 187, Rome, ROMAE AETER, Bust-H, -/-//R-thunderbolt-Δ, Roma seated in temple, #3177 views112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 187, Rome, ROMAE AETER, Bust-H, -/-//R-thunderbolt-Δ, Roma seated in temple, #3
avers:- PROBVS-P-F-AVG, Radiate bust left in imperial mantle, holding sceptre surmounted by eagle. (H)
revers:- ROMAE-AETER, Roma seated in temple, holding Victory and sceptre.
exerg: -/-//R-thunderbolt-Δ, diameter: 21mm, weight: 2,70g, axes: 0h,
mint: Rome, 6th emission, date: 281 A.D., ref: RIC V-II 187, p-37,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Probus_AE-Ant_IMP-C-M-AVR-PROBVS-P-F-AVG_ROMAE-AETERNAE_R-Delta-F_RIC-190-p-38_Rome-2nd-em_277-AD_Q-001_axis-h_mm_g-s.jpg
112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 190, Rome, ROMAE AETERNAE, Bust-F, Roma seated in temple,102 views112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 190, Rome, ROMAE AETERNAE, Bust-F, Roma seated in temple,
avers:- IMP-C-M-AVR-PROBVS-P-F-AVG, Radiate, cuirassed bust right with spear. (F )
revers:- ROMAE-AETERNAE, Roma seated in temple, holding Victory and sceptre.
exerg: -/-//R-Δ, diameter: mm, weight: g, axes: h,
mint: Rome, 2nd emission, date: 277 A.D., ref: RIC V-II 190, p-38,
Q-001
quadrans
Probus_AE-Ant_IMP-C-M-AVR-PROBVS-AVG_ROMAE-AETERNAE_R-A-C-var_RIC-191-p-38_Rome-2nd-em_277-AD_Q-001_axis-h_mm_g-s.jpg
112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 191, Rome, ROMAE AETERNAE, Bust-F var. with spear, Roma seated in temple,87 views112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 191, Rome, ROMAE AETERNAE, Bust-F var. with spear, Roma seated in temple,
avers:- IMP-C-M-AVR-PROBVS-AVG, Radiate, cuirassed bust right with spear. (F va. with spear)
revers:- ROMAE-AETERNAE, Roma seated in temple, holding Victory and sceptre.
exerg: -/-//R-A, diameter: mm, weight: g, axes: h,
mint: Rome, 2nd emission, date: 277 A.D., ref: RIC V-II 191, p-38,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Probus_AE-Ant_IMP-C-M-AVR-PROBVS-AVG_ROMAE-AETERNAE_R-Delta-(F)_RIC-191var-p-38_Rome-2nd-em_277-AD_Q-001_11h_22mm_3,51ga-s.jpg
112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 191, Rome, ROMAE AETERNAE, Bust-F, Roma seated in temple,80 views112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 191, Rome, ROMAE AETERNAE, Bust-F, Roma seated in temple,
avers:- IMP-C-M-AVR-PROBVS-AVG, Radiate, cuirassed bust right with spear. (F )
revers:- ROMAE-AETERNAE, Roma seated in temple, holding Victory and sceptre.
exerg: -/-//R-Δ, diameter: 22mm, weight: 3,51g, axes: 11h,
mint: Rome, 2nd emission, date: 277 A.D., ref: RIC V-II 191var, p-38,
Q-001
quadrans
Probus_AE-Ant_IMP-C-M-AVR-PROBVS-P-AVG_ROMAE-AETERNAE_R-star-Z-F_RIC-197var-p-38_Notin_this_Offic_Rome-3rd-em_278-AD_Q-001_axis-h_mm_g-s.jpg
112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 197 var, Not in RIC this officina, Rome, ROMAE AETERNAE, Bust-F, Roma seated in temple,74 views112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 197 var, Not in RIC this officina, Rome, ROMAE AETERNAE, Bust-F, Roma seated in temple,
avers:- IMP-C-M-AVR-PROBVS-P-AVG, Radiate, cuirassed bust right with spear. (F)
revers:- ROMAE-AETERNAE, Roma seated in temple, holding Victory and sceptre.
exerg: -/-//R*Z, diameter: mm, weight: g, axes: h,
mint: Rome, 3rd emission, date: 278 A.D., ref: RIC V-II 197 var, Not in RIC this officina, p-38,
Q-001
quadrans
Probus_AE-Ant_PROBV-S-P-F-AVG_ROMAE-AETER_R-Thunderbolt-Delta_RIC-Not_in_Rome--AD_Very_Rare_Q-001_7h_21,5-22mm_4,02gx-s.jpg
112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II Not in !!!, Rome, ROMAE AETER, Bust-H-var. right (Not in RIC), Roma seated in temple, Very Rare !!!127 views112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II Not in !!!, Rome, ROMAE AETER, Bust-H-var. right (Not in RIC), Roma seated in temple, Very Rare !!!
avers:- IMP-C-M-AVR-PROBVS-P-F-AVG, Radiate bust right in imperial mantle, holding sceptre surmounted by eagle, and globe in left hand. (H-var Not in RIC)
revers:- ROMAE-AETER, Roma seated in temple, holding Victory and sceptre.
exergo: -/-//R-Thunderbolt-Δ, diameter: 21,5-22mm, weight: 4,02g, axis: 7h,
mint: Rome, date: 281 A.D., ref: RIC V-II (Not in RIC), p-,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Probus_AE-Ant_IMP-C-M-AVR-PROBVS-P-F-AVG_ROMAE-AETERNAE_XXI-T_Siscia_RIC-V-II-739-p96_Alf-60-No-3_4th-emiss-277-AD_Q-001_h_mm_g-s.jpg
112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), Siscia, Alföldi 0060.0003, -/-//XXIT, Bust H2/H, RIC V-II 739, AE-Antoninianus, ROMAE AETERNAE, Roma seated in a temple, holding globe, #171 views112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), Siscia, Alföldi 0060.0003, -/-//XXIT, Bust H2/H, RIC V-II 739, AE-Antoninianus, ROMAE AETERNAE, Roma seated in a temple, holding globe, #1
avers: IMP C M AVR PROBVS P F AVG, Radiate bust left in imperial mantle, holding sceptre surmounted by an eagle. (H2/H).
reverse: ROMAE AETERNAE, Roma seated in a temple, holding globe and sceptre, beside her, shield.
exergue: -/-//XXIT, diameter: mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Siscia, 4th. emission of Siscia, date: 277 A.D., ref: RIC V-II 739, p-96, C-, Alföldi 0060.0003,
Q-001
quadrans
Probus_AE-Ant_IMP-C-M-AVR-PROBVS-P-F-AVG_ROMAE_AETERNAE_XXI-Q_Siscia_RIC-V-II-737-p96_277-AD-4off_Q-001_h_mm_ga-s.jpg
112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), Siscia, Alföldi 0061.0004, -/-//XXIQ, Bust H2/H, RIC V-II 737, AE-Antoninianus, ROMAE AETERNAE, Roma seated in a temple, holding Victory, Scarce! #1104 views112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), Siscia, Alföldi 0061.0004, -/-//XXIQ, Bust H2/H, RIC V-II 737, AE-Antoninianus, ROMAE AETERNAE, Roma seated in a temple, holding Victory, Scarce! #1
avers: IMP C M AVR PROBVS P F AVG, Radiate bust left in imperial mantle, holding sceptre surmounted by an eagle. (H2/H)
reverse: ROMAE AETERNAE, Roma seated in a temple, holding Victory and sceptre, beside her, shield.
exergue: -/-//XXIQ, diameter: mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Siscia, 4th emission of Siscia, late 277, date: 277 A.D., ref: RIC V-II 737, p-96, C-558-562, Alföldi 0061.0004, (11 specimens), Scarce!
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Probus_AE-Ant_IMP-C-M-AVR-PROBVS-PF-AVG_ROMAE_AETERNAE_XXI-V_Siscia_RIC-V-II-737-p96_277-AD-5off_Q-001_axis-5h_21-23mm_3,57g-s.jpg
112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), Siscia, Alföldi 0061.0005, -/-//XXIV, Bust H2/H, RIC V-II 737, AE-Antoninianus, ROMAE AETERNAE, Roma seated in a temple, holding Victory, Scarce! #1122 views112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), Siscia, Alföldi 0061.0005, -/-//XXIV, Bust H2/H, RIC V-II 737, AE-Antoninianus, ROMAE AETERNAE, Roma seated in a temple, holding Victory, Scarce! #1
avers: IMP C M AVR PROBVS P F AVG, Radiate bust left in imperial mantle, holding sceptre surmounted by an eagle. (H2/H).
reverse: ROMAE AETERNAE, Roma seated in a temple, holding Victory and sceptre, beside her, shield.
exergue: -/-//XXIV, diameter: 21-23 mm, weight: 3,57g, axis:5h,
mint: Siscia, 4th. emission of Siscia, date: 277 A.D., ref: RIC V-II 737, p-96, C-558-562, Alföldi 0061.0005, Scarce!
Q-001
quadrans
117.jpg
117 Maxentius. AE follis 7.3gm28 viewsobv: IMP C MAXENTIVS PF AVG laur. head r.
rev: CONSERV VRB SVEA Roma in hexastyle temple holding globe and scepter, shield at side. victories as acroteria. wreath in pediment
ex: H//RS
1 commentshill132
hadrian_RIC306d.jpg
117-138 AD - HADRIAN AR denarius - struck 134-138 AD54 viewsobv: HADRIANVS AVG COS III P P (laureate head right)
rev: HISPANIA (Hispania reclining left, resting on rock, holding branch, rabbit at her feet)
ref: RIC II 306d, RSC 837 (5frcs)
mint: Rome
2.53gms, 18mm
Scarce
A scarce denarius - part of the famous 'travel series'. Hadrian visited to Hispania at the end of 122 AD, spent the winter at Tarraco (today Tarragona), and here he restored at his own expense the temple of Augustus. He was also in Gades (Cadiz) and Italica (Sevilla), where was the birthplace of emperor Trajan. Hadrian was generous to his settled town, which he made a colonia; he added temples, including a Trajaneum venerating Trajan, and rebuilt several public buildings.
berserker
Maxentius-AE-Follis_IMP-C-MAXENTIVS-PF-AVG_CONSERV-VRBS_VAE_AQ-Gamma_RIC-VI-113_p-325_Aquilea_307-AD_Q-001_axis-0h_27mm_5,88g-s.jpg
129 Maxentius (306-307 A.D. Caesar, 308-313 A.D. Augustus), Aquilea, RIC VI 113, AE-1, -/-//AQΓ, CONSERV VRBS VAE, Roma seated left on shield in hexastyle temple,270 views129 Maxentius (306-307 A.D. Caesar, 308-313 A.D. Augustus), Aquilea, RIC VI 113, AE-1, -/-//AQΓ, CONSERV VRBS VAE, Roma seated left on shield in hexastyle temple,
avers:- IMP C MAXENTIVS P F AVG, Laureate head right.
revers:- CONSERV VRBS VAE, Roma seated left on shield in hexastyle temple, handing globe to Maxentius with right and holding scepter in left, captive seated between, Victories as acroteria, She-wolf and twins in pediment.
exergo: -/-//AQΓ, diameter: 27mm, weight: 5,88g, axis: 0h,
mint: Aquilea, date: 307 A.D., ref: RIC VI 113, p-325,
Q-001
quadrans
Maxentius-AE-Follis_IMP-C-MAXENTIVS-PF-AVG_CONSERV-VRBS_VAE_AQ-P_RIC-VI-113_p-325_Aquilea_307-AD_Q-001_axis-0h_27mm_5,67g-s.jpg
129 Maxentius (306-307 A.D. Caesar, 308-313 A.D. Augustus), Aquilea, RIC VI 113, AE-1, -/-//AQP, CONSERV VRBS VAE, Roma seated left on shield in hexastyle temple,278 views129 Maxentius (306-307 A.D. Caesar, 308-313 A.D. Augustus), Aquilea, RIC VI 113, AE-1, -/-//AQP, CONSERV VRBS VAE, Roma seated left on shield in hexastyle temple,
avers:- IMP C MAXENTIVS P F AVG, Laureate head right.
revers:- CONSERV VRBS VAE, Roma seated left on shield in hexastyle temple, handing globe to Maxentius with right and holding scepter in left, captive seated between, Victories as acroteria, She-wolf and twins in pediment.
exergo: -/-//AQP, diameter: 24-25,5mm, weight: 6,14g, axis: 1h,
mint: Aquilea, date: 307 A.D., ref: RIC VI 113, p-325,
Q-001
quadrans
Maxentius-AE-Follis_IMP-C-MAXENTIVS-P-F-AVG_CONSERV-VRB-SVAE_H_RQ_RIC-VI-202a_p-377_Roma_307-8-AD_Q-001_0h_24,5-26mm_6,66ga-s.jpg
129 Maxentius (306-307 A.D. Caesar, 308-313 A.D. Augustus), Roma, RIC VI 202a, H/-//RQ, AE-1, CONSERV VRB SVAE, Roma seated in a temple,122 views129 Maxentius (306-307 A.D. Caesar, 308-313 A.D. Augustus), Roma, RIC VI 202a, H/-//RQ, AE-1, CONSERV VRB SVAE, Roma seated in a temple,
avers:- IMP C MAXENTIVS P F AVG, Laureate head right.
revers:- CONSERV VRB SVAE, Roma seated facing, head left, in hexastyle temple, holding globe and sceptre, shield at side, Victories as acroteria, wreath in pediment above row of dots, H in left field.
exergo: H/-//RQ, diameter: 24,5-26,0mm, weight: 6,66g, axis: 0h,
mint: Roma, date: 307-308 A.D., ref: RIC VI 202a, p-377,
Q-001
quadrans
Maxentius-AE-Follis_IMP-C-MAXENTIVS-PF-AVG_CONSERV-VRBS_VAE_RB-P_RIC-VI-210_p-378_Roma_308-10-AD_Q-001_axis-0h_24mm_5,32g-s.jpg
129 Maxentius (306-307 A.D. Caesar, 308-313 A.D. Augustus), Roma, RIC VI 210, AE-1, -/-//RBP, CONSERV VRBS VAE, Roma seated in a temple,281 views129 Maxentius (306-307 A.D. Caesar, 308-313 A.D. Augustus), Roma, RIC VI 210, AE-1, -/-//RBP, CONSERV VRBS VAE, Roma seated in a temple,
avers:- IMP C MAXENTIVS P F AVG, Laureate head right.
revers:- CONSERV VRBS VAE, Temple with six columns, Roma seated within.
exergo: -/-//RBP, diameter: 24mm, weight: 5,32g, axis: 0h,
mint: Roma, date: 307 A.D., ref: RIC VI 210, p-378,
Q-001
quadrans
MaxHercRIC5iiRome.jpg
1302a, Maximian, 285 - 305, 306 - 308, and 310 A.D.47 viewsMaximianus AE Antoninianus. RIC V Part II 506 Bust Type C. Cohen 355; VF; Minted in Rome A.D. 285-286. Obverse: IMP MAXIMIANVS P F AVG, radiate, draped & cuirassed bust right; Rverse: IOVI CONSERVAT AVGG, Jupiter standing left holding thunderbolt & scepter, XXIZ in exergue. Ex maridvnvm.

De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Maximian, 285-305, 306-308, and 310 A.D.

Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Salve Regina University

Perhaps born ca. 249/250 A.D. in Sirmium in the area of the Balkans, Marcus Aurelius Valerius Maximianus, more commonly known as Maximianus Herculius (Maximian), had been a soldier before he put on the purple. A fellow soldier with the Emperor Diocletian, he had served in the military during the reigns of Aurelian and Probus.

When the Emperor Diocletian determined that the empire was too large for one man to govern on his own, he made Maximian his Caesar in 285/6 and elevated him to the rank of Augustus in perhaps the spring of 286. While Diocletian ruled in the East, Maximian ruled in the West. In 293, in order to maintain and to strengthen the stability of the empire, Diocletian appointed Constantius I Chlorus to serve Maximian as a Caesar in the West, while Galerius did the same job in the East. This arrangement, called the "Tetrarchy", was meant not only to provide a stronger foundation for the two emperors' rule, but also to end any possible fighting over the succession to the throne once the two senior Augusti had left the throne--a problem which had bedeviled the principate since the time of the Emperor Augustus. To cement the relationship between Maximian and his Caesar, Constantius married Maximian's elder daughter Theodora. A decade later, Constantius' son Constantine would marry Maximia's younger daughter Fausta.

On 1 May 305 Diocletian, at Nicomedeia, and Maximian, at Mediolanum, divested themselves of the purple. Their resignations seem largely due to the almost fatal illness that Diocletian contracted toward the end of 304. Diocletian seems to have forced his colleague to abdicate. In any case, Herculius had sworn an oath at the temple of Capitoline Jupiter to carry out the terms of the abdication. Constantius and Galerius were appointed as Augusti, with Maximinus Daia and Severus as the new Caesars. The retired emperors then returned to private life. Diocletian's retirement was at Salonae in Dalmatia, while Herculius' retreat was either in Lucania or Campania.

Maximian's retirement, however, was of short duration because, a little more than a year later on 28 October 306, his son Maxentius was proclaimed emperor at Rome. To give his regime an aura of legitimacy, Maximian was forced to affirm his son's acclamation. When Galerius learned of Maxentius' rebellion, he sent Severus against him with an army that had formerly been under his father's command. Maxentius invested his father with the purple again to win over his enemy's troops, a ruse which succeeded. Perhaps to strengthen his own position, in 307 Maximian went to Gaul and married his daughter Fausta to Constantine. When Constantine refused to become embroiled in the civil war between Galerius and Maxentius, Maximian returned to Rome in 308 and attempted to depose his son; however, he did not succeed. When Maximian was unable to convince Diocletian to take up the purple again at a meeting in Carnuntum in late 308, he returned to his son-in-law's side in Gaul.

Although Maximian was treated with all of the respect due a former emperor, he still desired to be more than a figurehead. He decided to seize the purple from Constantine when his son-in-law least expected it. His opportunity came in the summer of 310 when the Franks revolted. When Constantine had taken a small part of his army into enemy territory, Maximian proclaimed himself again emperor and paid the soldiers under his command a donative to secure their loyalty. As soon as Constantine received news about Maximian's revolt in July 310, he went south and reached Arelate before his father-in-law could mount a defense of the city. Although Maximian fled to Massilia, his son-in-law seized the city and took Maximian prisoner. Although he was deprived of the purple, he was granted pardon for his crimes. Unable to endure the humiliation of his defeat, he attempted to have Constantine murdered in his bed. The plot failed because he tried to get his daughter Fausta's help in the matter; she chose to reveal the matter to her husband. Because of this attempt on his son-in-law's life Maximian was dead by the end of July either by his own hand or on the orders of his intended victim.

Eutropia was of Syrian extraction and her marriage to Maximian seems to have been her second. She bore him two children: Maxentius and Fausta. An older daughter, Theodora, may have been a product of her first marriage. Fausta became the wife of Constantine I , while her sister Theodora was the second spouse of his father Constantius I Chlorus . Eutropia apparently survived all her children, with the possible exception of her daughter Fausta who seems to have died in 326. Eutropia is also said to have become a Christian.

By Michael DiMaio, Jr., Salve Regina University
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
Max.jpg
1302b, Maximian, 285-305, 306-308, and 310 A.D., commemorative issued by Constantine the Great (Siscia)55 viewsMaximian, 285-305, 306-308, and 310 A.D., commemorative issued by Constantine the Great. Bronze AE3, RIC 41, VF, Siscia, 1.30g, 16.1mm, 0o, 317-318 A.D. Obverse: DIVO MAXIMIANO SEN FORT IMP, laureate and veiled head right; Reverse: REQVIES OPTIMO-RVM MERITORVM, Emperor seated left on curule chair, raising hand and holding scepter, SIS in exergue; scarce (R3).


De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Maximian, 285-305, 306-308, and 310 A.D.

Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Salve Regina University

Perhaps born ca. 249/250 A.D. in Sirmium in the area of the Balkans, Marcus Aurelius Valerius Maximianus, more commonly known as Maximianus Herculius (Maximian), had been a soldier before he put on the purple. A fellow soldier with the Emperor Diocletian, he had served in the military during the reigns of Aurelian and Probus.

When the Emperor Diocletian determined that the empire was too large for one man to govern on his own, he made Maximian his Caesar in 285/6 and elevated him to the rank of Augustus in perhaps the spring of 286. While Diocletian ruled in the East, Maximian ruled in the West. In 293, in order to maintain and to strengthen the stability of the empire, Diocletian appointed Constantius I Chlorus to serve Maximian as a Caesar in the West, while Galerius did the same job in the East. This arrangement, called the "Tetrarchy", was meant not only to provide a stronger foundation for the two emperors' rule, but also to end any possible fighting over the succession to the throne once the two senior Augusti had left the throne--a problem which had bedeviled the principate since the time of the Emperor Augustus. To cement the relationship between Maximian and his Caesar, Constantius married Maximian's elder daughter Theodora. A decade later, Constantius' son Constantine would marry Maximia's younger daughter Fausta.

On 1 May 305 Diocletian, at Nicomedeia, and Maximian, at Mediolanum, divested themselves of the purple. Their resignations seem largely due to the almost fatal illness that Diocletian contracted toward the end of 304. Diocletian seems to have forced his colleague to abdicate. In any case, Herculius had sworn an oath at the temple of Capitoline Jupiter to carry out the terms of the abdication. Constantius and Galerius were appointed as Augusti, with Maximinus Daia and Severus as the new Caesars. The retired emperors then returned to private life. Diocletian's retirement was at Salonae in Dalmatia, while Herculius' retreat was either in Lucania or Campania.

Maximian's retirement, however, was of short duration because, a little more than a year later on 28 October 306, his son Maxentius was proclaimed emperor at Rome. To give his regime an aura of legitimacy, Maximian was forced to affirm his son's acclamation. When Galerius learned of Maxentius' rebellion, he sent Severus against him with an army that had formerly been under his father's command. Maxentius invested his father with the purple again to win over his enemy's troops, a ruse which succeeded. Perhaps to strengthen his own position, in 307 Maximian went to Gaul and married his daughter Fausta to Constantine. When Constantine refused to become embroiled in the civil war between Galerius and Maxentius, Maximian returned to Rome in 308 and attempted to depose his son; however, he did not succeed. When Maximian was unable to convince Diocletian to take up the purple again at a meeting in Carnuntum in late 308, he returned to his son-in-law's side in Gaul.

Although Maximian was treated with all of the respect due a former emperor, he still desired to be more than a figurehead. He decided to seize the purple from Constantine when his son-in-law least expected it. His opportunity came in the summer of 310 when the Franks revolted. When Constantine had taken a small part of his army into enemy territory, Maximian proclaimed himself again emperor and paid the soldiers under his command a donative to secure their loyalty. As soon as Constantine received news about Maximian's revolt in July 310, he went south and reached Arelate before his father-in-law could mount a defense of the city. Although Maximian fled to Massilia, his son-in-law seized the city and took Maximian prisoner. Although he was deprived of the purple, he was granted pardon for his crimes. Unable to endure the humiliation of his defeat, he attempted to have Constantine murdered in his bed. The plot failed because he tried to get his daughter Fausta's help in the matter; she chose to reveal the matter to her husband. Because of this attempt on his son-in-law's life Maximian was dead by the end of July either by his own hand or on the orders of his intended victim.

Eutropia was of Syrian extraction and her marriage to Maximian seems to have been her second. She bore him two children: Maxentius and Fausta. An older daughter, Theodora, may have been a product of her first marriage. Fausta became the wife of Constantine I , while her sister Theodora was the second spouse of his father Constantius I Chlorus . Eutropia apparently survived all her children, with the possible exception of her daughter Fausta who seems to have died in 326. Eutropia is also said to have become a Christian.

By Michael DiMaio, Jr., Salve Regina University
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
MaxentiusRIC163.jpg
1307a, Maxentius, February 307 - 28 October 312 A.D.60 viewsBronze follis, RIC 163, aEF, Rome mint, 5.712g, 25.6mm, 0o, summer 307 A.D.; obverse MAXENTIVS P F AVG, laureate head right; reverse CONSERVATO-RES VRB SVAE, Roma holding globe and scepter, seated in hexastyle temple, RT in ex; rare. Ex FORVM; Ex Maridvnvm


De Imperatoribus Romanis : An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Maxentius (306-312 A.D.)

Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Salve Regina University

Marcus Aurelius Valerius Maxentius, more commonly known as Maxentius, was the child of the Emperor Maximianus Herculius and the Syrian, Eutropia; he was born ca. 278 A.D. After Galerius' appointment to the rank of Caesar on 1 March 293, Maxentius married Galerius' daughter Valeria Maximilla, who bore him a son named Romulus and another son whose name is unknown. Due to his haughty nature and bad disposition, Maxentius could seldom agree with his father or his father-in-law; Galerius' and Maximianus Herculius' aversion to Maxentius prevented the young man from becoming a Caesar in 305. Little else is known of Maxentius' private life prior to his accession and, although there is some evidence that it was spent in idleness, he did become a Senator.

On 28 October 306 Maxentius was acclaimed emperor, although he was politically astute enough not to use the title Augustus; like the Emperor Augustus, he called himself princeps. It was not until the summer of 307 that he started using the title Augustus and started offending other claimants to the imperial throne. He was enthroned by the plebs and the Praetorians. At the time of his acclamation Maxentius was at a public villa on the Via Labicana. He strengthened his position with promises of riches for those who helped him obtain his objective. He forced his father Maximianus Herculius to affirm his son's acclamation in order to give his regime a facade of legitimacy. His realm included Italy, Africa, Sardinia, and Corsica. As soon as Galerius learned about the acclamation of Herculius' son, he dispatched the Emperor Severus to quell the rebellion. With the help of his father and Severus' own troops, Maxentius' took his enemy prisoner.

When Severus died, Galerius was determined to avenge his death. In the early summer of 307 the Augustus invaded Italy; he advanced to the south and encamped at Interamna near the Tiber. His attempt to besiege the city was abortive because his army was not large enough to encompass the city's fortifications. Negotiations between Maxentius and Galerius broke down when the emperor discovered that the usurper was trying to win over his troops. Galerius' troops were open to Maxentius' promises because they were fighting a civil war between members of the same family; some of the soldiers went over to the enemy. Not trusting his own troops, Galerius withdrew. During its retreat, Galerius' army ravaged the Italian countryside as it was returning to its original base. If it was not enough that Maxentius had to deal with the havoc created by the ineffectual invasions of Severus and Galerius, he also had to deal with his father's attempts to regain the throne between 308 and 310. When Maximianus Herculius was unable to regain power by pushing his son off his throne, he attempted to win over Constantine to his cause. When this plan failed, he tried to win Diocletian over to his side at Carnuntum in October and November 308. Frustrated at every turn, Herculius returned to his son-in-law Constantine's side in Gaul where he died in 310, having been implicated in a plot against his son-in-law. Maxentius' control of the situation was weakened by the revolt of L. Domitius Alexander in 308. Although the revolt only lasted until the end of 309, it drastically cut the size of the grain supply availble for Rome. Maxentius' rule collapsed when he died on 27 October 312 in an engagement he had with the Emperor Constantine at the Milvian Bridge after the latter had invaded his realm.

Copyright (C) 1996, Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
1 commentsCleisthenes
RI 132kf img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 185 - Bust type F (Rome) ((R crescent Γ) )73 viewsObv:–IMP PROBVS AVG, Radiate cuirassed bust right
Rev:– ROMAE AETER, Roma seated in temple, holding Victory and sceptre
Minted in Rome (R crescent Γ) Emission 4 Officina 3. A.D. 279
Reference(s) – RIC 185 Bust type F
2 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_132wt_img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 185 - Bust Type H16 viewsObv:– IMP PROBVS AVG, Radiate bust left in imperial mantle, holding sceptre surmounted by eagle
Rev:– ROMAE AETER, Roma seated in temple, holding Victory and sceptre
Minted in Rome (R Dotted Crescent B) Emission 4 Officina 2. A.D. 279
Reference:– RIC 185 Bust type H
maridvnvm
RI 132jd img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 186 - Bust type G (Rome) (R dotted crescent S)27 viewsObv:– IMP PROBVS AVG, Radiate, helmeted, cuirassed bust left, holding spear and shield
Rev:– ROMAE AETER, Roma seated in temple, holding Victory and sceptre
Minted in Rome (R dotted crescent S in exe) Emission 4 Officina 6. A.D. 279
Reference(s) – RIC 186 Bust Type G
Weight 4.33 gms
Size 23.03mm
maridvnvm
RI 132iy img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 187 - Bust type H (Rome) (R Thunderbolt Δ)47 viewsObv:– PROBVS P F AVG, Radiate, bust left in imperial mantle, holding scepter surmounted by eagle
Rev:– ROMAE AETER, Roma seated in temple, holding Victory and sceptre
Minted in Rome (R Thunderbolt Δ in exe) Emission 6 Officina 4. A.D. 281
Reference(s) – RIC 187 Bust type H
maridvnvm
RI 132gq img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 187 - Bust type H (Rome) (RVΔ)56 viewsObv:– PROBVS P F AVG, Radiate, bust left in imperial mantle, holding scepter surmounted by eagle
Rev:– ROMAE AETER, Roma seated in temple, holding Victory and sceptre
Minted in Rome (RVΔ in exe) Emission 7 Officina 4. A.D. 282
Reference(s) – RIC 187 Bust type H
Weight 3.43 gms
Size 22.68 mm

Part of the AEQVITI series of Rome (V)
2 commentsmaridvnvm
RI 132qd img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 190 var. - Bust type C (Rome) (RΔ)25 viewsObv:– IMP C M AVR PROBVS P F AVG, Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from the front
Rev:– ROMAE AETERNAE, Roma seated in temple, holding Victory and sceptre
Minted in Rome (RΔ in exe) Emission 2. A.D. 277
Reference(s) – RIC 190 var. Bust type C (Not listed with this bust type in RIC)
maridvnvm
RI_132jb_img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 190 var. - Bust type C (Rome) (RΓ)24 viewsObv:– IMP C M AVR PROBVS P F AVG, Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from the front
Rev:– ROMAE AETERNAE, Roma seated in temple, holding Victory and sceptre
Minted in Rome (RΓ in exe) Emission 2. A.D. 277
Reference:– RIC 190 var. Bust type C (Not listed with this bust type or officina in RIC)
Weight 3.62 gms
Size 24.59mm
maridvnvm
RI 132kv img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 190 var. - Bust type C (Rome) (RZ)40 viewsObv:– IMP C M AVR PROBVS P F AVG, Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from the front
Rev:– ROMAE AETERNAE, Roma seated in temple, holding Victory and sceptre
Minted in Rome (RZ in exe) Emission 2. A.D. 277
Reference(s) – RIC 190 var. Bust type C (Not listed with this bust type in RIC)
Weight 3.35 gms
Size 23.23 mm
maridvnvm
RI 132td img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 190 var. - Bust type F (Rome) (RΓ)27 viewsObv:– IMP C M AVR PROBVS P F AVG, Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from the front
Rev:– ROMAE AETERNAE, Roma seated in temple, holding Victory and sceptre
Minted in Rome (RΓ in exe) Emission 2. A.D. 277
Reference(s) – RIC 190 var. Bust type F (Not listed with this officina in RIC)
maridvnvm
RI_132td_img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 190 var. - Bust type F (Rome) (RΓ)33 viewsObv:– IMP C M AVR PROBVS P F AVG, Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from the front
Rev:– ROMAE AETERNAE, Roma seated in temple, holding Victory and sceptre
Minted in Rome (RΓ in exe) Emission 2. A.D. 277
Reference(s) – RIC 190 var. Bust type F (Not listed with this officina in RIC)

updated image of coin
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_132wy_img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 190 var. - Bust type F (Rome) (RD)25 viewsObv:– IMP C M AVR PROBVS P F AVG, Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from the front
Rev:– ROMAE AETERNAE, Roma seated in temple, holding Victory and sceptre
Minted in Rome (RD in exe) Emission 2. A.D. 277
Reference:– RIC 190 Bust type F
maridvnvm
RI 132te img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 194 - Bust type G (Rome) (RS)20 viewsObv:– IMP C PROBVS AVG, Radiate, helmeted, cuirassed bust left, holding spear and shield
Rev:– ROMAE AETERNAE, Roma seated in temple, holding Victory and sceptre
Minted in Rome (RS in exe) Emission 2, Officina 6. A.D. 277
Reference(s) – RIC 194 Bust type G
maridvnvm
RI_132fm_img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 737 - Bust Type G (Siscia) (XXIS)43 viewsObv:– IMP C M AVR PROBVS P F AVG, Radiate, helmeted (Attic helmet), cuirassed bust left, holding spear and shield (Shield decorated with Gorgoneion)
Rev:– ROMAE AETERNAE, Roma seated in temple, holding Victory and sceptre
Mint – Siscia (XXIS) Emission 4, Officina 2. A.D. 277
Reference:– Alföldi type 61, n° 25. RIC 737 Bust type G
Shame about the obverse but a nice example of this reverse type.
Martin Griffiths
RI 132hy img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 739 - Bust Type H (Siscia) (XXIQ)33 viewsObv:– IMP C M AVR PROBVS P F AVG, Radiate bust left in consular robe holding eagle-tipped scepter in left
Rev:– ROMAE AETERNAE, Roma seated in temple, holding globe and sceptre; beside her, shield
Minted in Siscia (XXIQ in exe) Emission 6 Officina 2. A.D. 279
Reference:– RIC 739 Bust type H (Scarce)
Weight 3.17 gms
Size 21.74mm
maridvnvm
RI 132mn img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 739 - Bust Type H (Siscia) (XXIVI)31 viewsObv:– IMP C M AVR PROBVS P F AVG, Radiate bust left in consular robe holding eagle-tipped scepter in left
Rev:– ROMAE AETERNAE, Roma seated in temple, holding globe and sceptre; beside her, shield
Minted in Siscia (XXIVI in exe) Emission 4 Officina 6. A.D. 279
Reference:– RIC 739 Bust type H (Scarce). Alföldi type 60, n° 6
maridvnvm
RI 132mx img~0.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 739 - Radiate, cuirassed bust left, holding spear and shield (Siscia) (XXIQ)42 viewsObv:– IMP C M AVR PROBVS P F AVG, Radiate bust left in consular robe holding eagle-tipped scepter in left
Rev:– ROMAE AETERNAE, Roma seated in temple, holding globe and sceptre; beside her, shield
Minted in Siscia (XXIQ in exe) Emission 4 Officina 4. A.D. 279
Reference:– RIC 739 Radiate, cuirassed bust left, holding spear and shield (Scarce). Alföldi type 60, n° 9
maridvnvm
RI 132nn img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 740 - Radiate, cuirassed bust left, holding spear (Siscia) (XXIT)69 viewsObv:– VIRTVS PROBI AVG, Radiate cuirassed bust left, holding spear.
Rev:– ROMAE AETERNAE, hexastyle temple; within Roma seated left, holding globe and sceptre
Minted in Siscia (XXIT) Emission 4, Officina 3. A.D. 277
Reference:– Cohen -. Alföldi type 60, n° 17. Pink VI/1, p. 50. RIC 740 Radiate cuirassed bust left, holding spear (C)

Ex. CNG
maridvnvm
RI 132fn img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 886 - Bust Type G (Serdica) (KAΔ)92 viewsObv:– IMP C M AVR PROBVS P F AVG, Radiate, helmeted, cuirassed bust left, holding spear and shield
Rev:– VIRTVS PROBI AVG, Roma seated in temple, holding Victory and sceptre
Minted in Serdica (KAΔ in exe)
Reference:– RIC 886 Bust type G
Medusa on breastplate. Pegasus ?? on shield.
Nice detail, lovely toning. Shame about the flan crack.
maridvnvm
745_P_Hadrian_RPC1332.jpg
1332 Hadrian, Cistophorus IONIA Ephesus mint 132-34 AD Tetrastyle temple Artemis standing63 viewsReference.
RPC III, 1332; Metcalf 8; RIC 475; RSC 536; BMCRE 1091; Pinder 70; Sear 3449.

Obv. HADRIANVS AVG COS III P P
Bare head right.

Rev. DIA-NA / EPHESIA
Tetrastyle temple on three or four steps; within, cult image of Artemis of Ephesus

10.15 gr
28 mm
6h

Note.
Overstruck on an uncertain cistophorus of Mark Antony and Octavia.
5 commentsokidoki
789_P_Hadrian_RPC_1335A.jpg
1335A Hadrian, Cistophorus IONIA Ephesus mint 132-34 AD Tetrastyle temple Artemis standing52 viewsReference.
RPC --; Metclaf 10; RIC 475 var. (legend); RPC III 1335 var. (obv. legend).

Obv. HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS
Bare head right

Rev. [D]IA-NA / EPHESIA
Tetrastyle temple on three or four steps; within, cult image of Artemis of Ephesus (no stags)

10.97 gr
27 mm
5h

note.
There is evidence of the undertype on the obverse, below the truncation of Hadrian's neck: 'IMP CAE
3 commentsokidoki
1352_P_Hadrian_RPC1353_10.jpg
1353 Hadrian, Cistophorus IONIA Miletus mint, Tetrastyle temple Apollo Didymaeus standing8 viewsReference.
RPC III, 1353/10; RIC 519; Metcalf 24; C. 287

Obv. HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS P P
Bare head right

Rev. COS III
Tetrastyle temple on podium of three steps; within, cult image of Apollo Didymeus standing facing, holding small stag on right hand and bow in left, within tetrastyle temple, shield in pediment

10.94 gr
28 mm
12h
1 commentsokidoki
rjb_zeug1_01_09.jpg
13816 viewsAntoninus Pius 138-61 AD
AE 24 mm
Zeugma
Rev: Shrine and temple enclosure
BMC 2; SNG Hunter 2631-2
mauseus
rjb_2009_08_18.jpg
13825 viewsAntoninus Pius 138-61 AD
AE drachm
Alexandria
Year 17
Rev: Temple complex of Caesarea, mount Argaeus behind
Milne 2251
2 commentsmauseus
rjb_2009_08_21.jpg
13814 viewsAntoninus Pius 138-61 AD
AE drachm
Alexandria
Year 12
Rev: Serapis seated left within a distyle temple
SNG Glasgow 4211, Koln 1620
mauseus
antpius_RIC1039.jpg
138-161 AD - ANTONINUS PIUS AE as - struck 159-160 AD38 viewsobv: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P XXIII (laureate head right)
rev: COS IIII (Genius of the Senate standing on cippus within arched temple), S-C in ex.
ref: RIC III 1039 (S), Cohen337 (5frcs)
10.21gms, 23mm
Rare

According to Cohen this temple is a tetrastyle (four columns) design, but just the front columns with the Victories are visible on the coin's reverse. The statue on cippus is maybe Antoninus as personification of Genius?
berserker
antpius-RIC70.jpg
138-161 AD - ANTONINUS PIUS AR denarius - struck 140-143 AD24 viewsobv: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P COS III (bare head right)
rev: GENIVS POP ROMANI (Genius standing front, head right, with scepter & cornucopiae)
ref: RIC III 70, RSC 405 (6frcs), BMC 207
3.15gms, 18mm

The Roman genius, representing man's natural optimism, always endeavoured to guide him to happiness; that man was intended to enjoy life is shown by the fact that the Roman spoke of indulging or cheating his genius of his due according as he enjoyed himself or failed to do so, when he had the opportunity. The genius publicus Populi Romani - probably distinct from the genius Urbis Romae, to whom an old shield on the Capitol was dedicated, stood in the forum near the temple of Concord, in the form of a bearded man, crowned with a diadem, and carrying a cornucopiae and sceptre. In imperial times the genius of Augustus and of the reigning emperor, as part of the sacra of the imperial family, were publicly worshipped. The reverse probably commemorate this (the scepter as Genius attributum is unusual).
berserker
antpius_RIC143d.jpg
138-161 AD - ANTONINUS PIUS AR denarius - struck 158-159 AD64 viewsobv: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS PP (laureate head right)
rev: TEMPLVM DIV AVG REST COS IIII (octastyle temple [8 columns] in which the statues of Augustus and Livia reside)
ref: RIC III 143D (R), Cohen 809 (8frcs)
3.01 gms, 18mm,
Rare

History: The Temple of Divus Augustus was built between the Palatine and Capitoline Hills, behind the Basilica Julia. It is known from Roman coinage that the temple was originally built to an Ionic hexastyle design (see my Caligula sestertius). During the reign of Domitian the Temple of Divus Augustus was destroyed by fire but was rebuilt and rededicated in 89/90 with a shrine to his favourite deity, Minerva. The temple was redesigned as a memorial to four deified emperors, including Vespasian and Titus.
It was restored again in the late 150s by Antoninus Pius, who was perhaps motivated by a desire to be publicly associated with the first emperor. The exact date of the restoration is not known, but the restored temple was an octostyle design with Corinthian capitals and two statues - presumably of Augustus and Livia - in the cella. The pediment displayed a relief featuring Augustus and was topped by a quadriga. Two figures stood on the eaves of the roof, that on the left representing Romulus and the one on the right depicting Aeneas leading his family out of Troy, alluding to Rome's origin-myth. The steps of the temple were flanked by two statues of Victory.
1 commentsberserker
faustina_I_RIC343.jpg
138-161 AD - FAUSTINA Senior AR denarius - struck 150 AD41 viewsobv: DIVA FAVSTINA (draped bust right)
rev: AED DIV FAVSTINAE (front view of temple of six columns on five steps, fencing before, statue of Faustina within)
ref: RIC III 343 (S) (AntPius), RSC 1 (10frcs), BMC 339
3.34gms, 18mm,
Scarce

This coin represents the aedes, or templum, with which, after her death, the elder Faustina was honoured by Antoninus Pius. According to Capitolinus, it was situated in the Via Sacra, and was at first dedicated to Faustina alone. But, after the decease of the husband, religious rites were paid therein to him also. A nice coin with an image of a building which still stands today in Rome.
berserker
AS NERON RIC 306_1.jpg
14-04 - NERON (54 - 68 D.C.)111 viewsAE AS 27 x 25 mm 11.2 gr.

Anv: "NERO CAESAR AVG GERM IMP" - Busto laureado viendo a derecha.
Rev: "PACE P.R. VBIQ PARTA IANVM CLVS[IT] - S C" – Templo de los gemelos Jano (Ianus Geminus) mostrando sus puertas dobles cerradas a la derecha y en la pared lateral izquierda una larga ventana enrejada .

Acuñada 4ta. Emisión 65 D.C.
Ceca: Roma
Rareza: C

Referencias: RIC Vol.1 #306 Pag.168 - Sear RCTV Vol.1 #1974 Pag.390 - BMCRE #227 - Cohen Vol.1 #171 Pag.290 - DVM #30 Pag.87 - CBN #400 - Mac Dowall WCN #288
mdelvalle
RIC_306_AS_Neron.jpg
14-14 - NERON (54 - 68 D.C.)16 viewsAE AS 27 x 25 mm 11.2 gr.

Anv: "NERO CAESAR AVG GERM IMP" - Busto laureado viendo a derecha.
Rev: "PACE P.R. VBIQ PARTA IANVM CLVS[IT] - S C" – Templo de los gemelos Jano (Ianus Geminus) mostrando sus puertas dobles cerradas a la derecha y en la pared lateral izquierda una larga ventana enrejada .

Acuñada 4ta. Emisión 65 D.C.
Ceca: Roma
Rareza: C

Referencias: RIC Vol.1 #306 Pag.168 - Sear RCTV Vol.1 #1974 Pag.390 - BMCRE #227 - Cohen Vol.1 #171 Pag.290 - DVM #30 Pag.87 - CBN #400 - Mac Dowall WCN #288
mdelvalle
ConstansVot.jpeg
1405a, Constans, 9 September 337 - 19 January 350 A.D. (Alexandria)39 viewsBronze AE 4, RIC 37, gVF, Egypt, Alexandria, 1.54g, 15.0mm, 180o, 345-347 A.D. Obverse: D N CONSTANS P F AVG, pearl diademed head right; Reverse: VOT XX MVLT XXX in wreath, SMALA• in exergue.

Flavius Julius Constans, third and youngest son of Constantine I and Fausta, was born between 320 and 323 A.D. Primary sources for the life and reign of Constans I are scarce. To reconstruct his life and career, one must draw on a variety of references in both fourth century and later works. Raised as a Christian, he was made a Caesar on 25 December 333 A.D. Constans I and his two brothers, after the death of their father on 22 May 337 and the subsequent "massacre of the princes" in which many other relatives were purged, met in the first part of September 337 in Pannonia to re-divide the empire among themselves. There they were acclaimed Augusti by the army. Constans' new realm included Italy, Africa, Illyricum, Macedonia, and Achaea. Shortly before his father's death, Constans' engagement to Olympias, the daughter of the Praetorian Prefect Ablabius, was announced; although the match was never solemnized because of political reasons.

It would appear that Constans was successful in the military sphere. Following his accession to the purple in 337, he seems to have won a victory over the Sarmatians. In 340 Constans was able to beat back an attempt by his brother Constantine II to seize some of his realm. The latter died in a battle fought near Aquileia and Constans absorbed his late brother's territory. In 341 and 342 he conducted a successful campaign against the Franci. He also visited Britain in 343, probably on a military campaign.

As an emperor Constans gets mixed reviews. In what may be a topos, sources suggest that the first part of his reign was moderate but in later years, however, he became overbearing. The emperor apparently attempted to obtain as much money as he could from his subjects and sold government posts to the highest bidder. His favorites were allowed to oppress his subjects. Sources also condemn his homosexuality. He did have some military success and, in addition to other military threats, he had to deal with Donatist-related bandits in North Africa.

Like his father Constantine I and his brother Constantius II, Constans had a deep interest in Christianity. Together with Constantius II he issued (or perhaps re-issued) a ban against pagan sacrifice in 341. The next year, they cautioned against the destruction of pagan temples. Unlike his brother Constantius II, who supported the Arian faction, he stood shoulder to shoulder with Athanasius and other members of the Orthodox clique. In fact, it is due to his request that the Council of Serdica was called to deal with the ecclesiastical squabble between Athanasius of Alexandria and Paul of Constantinople on one side and the Arian faction on the other.

When Magnentius was declared emperor in Gaul during January 350, Constans realized his reign was at an end. When he learned of the revolt, he fled toward Helena, a town in the Pyrenees. Constans was put to death by Gaeso and a band of Magnentius' assassins, who dragged their victim from a temple in which he had sought refuge.

By Michael DiMaio, Jr., Salve Regina University and Robert Frakes, Clarion UniversityPublished: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

Cleisthenes
Constans.jpg
1405n, Constans, 9 September 337 - 19 January 350 A.D. (Siscia)56 viewsConstans, 9 September 337 - 19 January 350 A.D. Bronze AE 3, RIC 241, S 3978, VM 69, VF, Siscia, 2.32g, 18.3mm, 180o. Obverse: D N CONSTANS P F AVG, pearl diademed draped and cuirassed bust right; Reverse: FEL TEMP REPARATIO, Phoenix radiate, standing on rocky mound, GSIS and symbol in ex; nice green patina.

Flavius Julius Constans, third and youngest son of Constantine I and Fausta, was born between 320 and 323 A.D. Primary sources for the life and reign of Constans I are scarce. To reconstruct his life and career, one must draw on a variety of references in both fourth century and later works. Raised as a Christian, he was made a Caesar on 25 December 333 A.D. Constans I and his two brothers, after the death of their father on 22 May 337 and the subsequent "massacre of the princes" in which many other relatives were purged, met in the first part of September 337 in Pannonia to re-divide the empire among themselves. There they were acclaimed Augusti by the army. Constans' new realm included Italy, Africa, Illyricum, Macedonia, and Achaea. Shortly before his father's death, Constans' engagement to Olympias, the daughter of the Praetorian Prefect Ablabius, was announced; although the match was never solemnized because of political reasons.

It would appear that Constans was successful in the military sphere. Following his accession to the purple in 337, he seems to have won a victory over the Sarmatians. In 340 Constans was able to beat back an attempt by his brother Constantine II to seize some of his realm. The latter died in a battle fought near Aquileia and Constans absorbed his late brother's territory. In 341 and 342 he conducted a successful campaign against the Franci. He also visited Britain in 343, probably on a military campaign.

As an emperor Constans gets mixed reviews. In what may be a topos, sources suggest that the first part of his reign was moderate but in later years, however, he became overbearing. The emperor apparently attempted to obtain as much money as he could from his subjects and sold government posts to the highest bidder. His favorites were allowed to oppress his subjects. Sources also condemn his homosexuality. He did have some military success and, in addition to other military threats, he had to deal with Donatist-related bandits in North Africa.

Like his father Constantine I and his brother Constantius II, Constans had a deep interest in Christianity. Together with Constantius II he issued (or perhaps re-issued) a ban against pagan sacrifice in 341. The next year, they cautioned against the destruction of pagan temples. Unlike his brother Constantius II, who supported the Arian faction, he stood shoulder to shoulder with Athanasius and other members of the Orthodox clique. In fact, it is due to his request that the Council of Serdica was called to deal with the ecclesiastical squabble between Athanasius of Alexandria and Paul of Constantinople on one side and the Arian faction on the other.

When Magnentius was declared emperor in Gaul during January 350, Constans realized his reign was at an end. When he learned of the revolt, he fled toward Helena, a town in the Pyrenees. Constans was put to death by Gaeso and a band of Magnentius' assassins, who dragged their victim from a temple in which he had sought refuge.

By Michael DiMaio, Jr., Salve Regina University and Robert Frakes, Clarion University
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
U2476F1OVDKUXTA.jpeg
1405t, Constans, 9 September 337 - 19 January 350 A.D. (Thessalonica )38 viewsConstans, 9 September 337 - 19 January 350 A.D., Bronze AE 3, unattributed; Thessalonica mint, 2.25g, 18.9mm, 0; aVF.

Flavius Julius Constans, third and youngest son of Constantine I and Fausta, was born between 320 and 323 A.D. Primary sources for the life and reign of Constans I are scarce. To reconstruct his life and career, one must draw on a variety of references in both fourth century and later works. Raised as a Christian, he was made a Caesar on 25 December 333 A.D. Constans I and his two brothers, after the death of their father on 22 May 337 and the subsequent "massacre of the princes" in which many other relatives were purged, met in the first part of September 337 in Pannonia to re-divide the empire among themselves. There they were acclaimed Augusti by the army. Constans' new realm included Italy, Africa, Illyricum, Macedonia, and Achaea. Shortly before his father's death, Constans' engagement to Olympias, the daughter of the Praetorian Prefect Ablabius, was announced; although the match was never solemnized because of political reasons.

It would appear that Constans was successful in the military sphere. Following his accession to the purple in 337, he seems to have won a victory over the Sarmatians. In 340 Constans was able to beat back an attempt by his brother Constantine II to seize some of his realm. The latter died in a battle fought near Aquileia and Constans absorbed his late brother's territory. In 341 and 342 he conducted a successful campaign against the Franci. He also visited Britain in 343, probably on a military campaign.

As an emperor Constans gets mixed reviews. In what may be a topos, sources suggest that the first part of his reign was moderate but in later years, however, he became overbearing. The emperor apparently attempted to obtain as much money as he could from his subjects and sold government posts to the highest bidder. His favorites were allowed to oppress his subjects. Sources also condemn his homosexuality. He did have some military success and, in addition to other military threats, he had to deal with Donatist-related bandits in North Africa.

Like his father Constantine I and his brother Constantius II, Constans had a deep interest in Christianity. Together with Constantius II he issued (or perhaps re-issued) a ban against pagan sacrifice in 341. The next year, they cautioned against the destruction of pagan temples. Unlike his brother Constantius II, who supported the Arian faction, he stood shoulder to shoulder with Athanasius and other members of the Orthodox clique. In fact, it is due to his request that the Council of Serdica was called to deal with the ecclesiastical squabble between Athanasius of Alexandria and Paul of Constantinople on one side and the Arian faction on the other.

When Magnentius was declared emperor in Gaul during January 350, Constans realized his reign was at an end. When he learned of the revolt, he fled toward Helena, a town in the Pyrenees. Constans was put to death by Gaeso and a band of Magnentius' assassins, who dragged their victim from a temple in which he had sought refuge.

By Michael DiMaio, Jr., Salve Regina University and Robert Frakes, Clarion University.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
RI_146dl_img.jpg
146 - Maximianus - Follis - RIC VI Rome 194b 18 viewsFollis
Obv:– IMP C MAXIMIANVS P F AVG, Laureate head right
Rev:– CONSERVATO-RES VRB SVAE, Roma seated facing, head left, shield at side, holding globe and sceptre in hexastyle temple with knobs as acroteria
Minted in Rome (//R*S). A.D. 305 to A.D. 306
Reference:– RIC VI Rome 194b (S)
1 commentsmaridvnvm
1160_P_Hadrian_RPC1480.jpg
1480 Hadrian, Cistophorus Uncertain mint in Asia Minor, Hexastyle temple35 viewsReference.
RPC III, 1480; Metcalf 124

Obv. HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS P P
Laureate head left.

Rev. COS-III
Hexastyle temple, with three stairs and palmette in pediment.

10.19 gr
27 mm
12h
3 commentsokidoki
RI 152j img.jpg
152 - Maxentius - RIC VI Aquilea 113221 viewsObv:– IMP C MAXENTIVS P F AVG, Laureate Bust right
Rev:– CONSERV VRB SVAE, Roma seated left, on shield in tetrastyle temple, right hand handing globe to Maxentius (in military dress standing right) left hand holding sceptre; seated captive between; victories as acroteria; wolf and twins in pedament
Minted in Aquilea (AQP in exe.) between 25th July 306 A.D. – Autumn 307 A.D.
References:– RIC VI Aquilea 113 (C)
5 commentsmaridvnvm
RI 152h img.jpg
152 - Maxentius - RIC VI Rome 16367 viewsObv:– MAXENTIVS P F AVG, Laureate Bust right
Rev:– CONSERVATO-RES VRB SVAE, Roma seated, facing,head left, in hexastyle temple, right holding globe, left sceptre, with shield at her side; knobs as acroteria
Minted in Rome (RT in exe), Summer A.D. 307
References:– RIC VI Rome 163 (Rare)
maridvnvm
RI 152f img.jpg
152 - Maxentius - RIC VI Rome 210 19 viewsObv:– IMP C MAXENTIVS P F AVG, Laureate Bust right
Rev:– CONSERV VRB SVAE, Roma seated facing, head left, in hexastyle temple (six columns), holding globe and sceptre
Minted in Rome (RBQ in exe.), between A.D. 308 and A.D.310
References:– RIC VI Rome 210
maridvnvm
RI 152a img.jpg
152 - Maxentius - RIC VI Rome 21266 viewsObv:– IMP C MAXENTIVS P F AVG, Laureate Bust right
Rev:– CONSERV VRB SVAE, Roma seated, facing, head left, in hexastyle temple, right holding globe, left sceptre, with shield at her side; knobs as acroteria, wreath in pediment
Minted in Rome (H in left field, RBP in exe.), between A.D. 308 and A.D.310
References:– RIC VI Rome 212 (Scarce)
maridvnvm
RI 152c img.jpg
152 - Maxentius - RIC VI Rome 21215 viewsObv:– IMP C MAXENTIVS P F AVG, Laureate Bust right
Rev:– CONSERV VRB SVAE, Roma seated facing, head left, in hexastyle temple (six columns), holding globe and sceptre
Minted in Rome (H in left field RBP in exe.), between A.D. 308 and A.D.310
References:– RIC VI Rome 212
maridvnvm
RI 152i img.jpg
152 - Maxentius - RIC VI Ticinum 09179 viewsObv:– MAXENTIVS P F AVG, Laureate Bust right
Rev:– CONSERV VRB SVAE, Roma seated, facing,head left, in hexastyle temple, right holding globe, left sceptre, with shield at her side; knobs as acroteria
Minted in Ticinum (ST in exe.), A.D. 307-308
References:– RIC VI Ticinum 91
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_152l_img.jpg
152 - Maxentius - RIC VI Ticinum 10332 viewsFollis
Obv:–IMP C MAXENTIVS P F AVG, Laureate bust left, holding eagle-tipped scepter in right hand, wearing imperial mantle
Rev:– CONSERV VRB SVAE, Roma seated facing, head left, in tetrastyle temple (four columns), holding globe and sceptre
Minted in Ticinum (//TT). 4/20/308 - end of 308 AD.
Reference(s) – RIC VI Ticinum 103
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI 152d img.jpg
152 - Maxentius - RIC VI Ticinum 108 18 viewsObv:– IMP MAXENTIVS P F AVG, Laureate Bust right
Rev:– CONSERV VRB SVAE, Victory standing, left, crowning Roma seated facing, head left, in tetrastyle temple (four columns), holding globe and sceptre
Minted in Ticinium (PT in exe.)
References:– RIC VI Ticinum 108 (Common)
maridvnvm
RI_153a_img.jpg
153 - Romulus - Follis - RIC VI Ostia 33 15 viewsFollis
Obv:- IMP MAXENTIVS DIVO ROMVLO N V FILIO, bare headed bust of Romulus right
Rev:- AETERNA MEMORIA, eagle with spread winfs standing right on domed hexastyle temple, its’ right door ajar
Struck in Ostia. //MOSTP. ca. late 309 – 312 A.D.
References:- RIC VI Ostia 33 (Rated C)

24.13mm. 6.21 gms. 180 degrees,
maridvnvm
1671_-_Nantes_-_2.JPG
1671 - mairie de Nantes15 viewscuivre
6,99g
26mm
mairie de Gratien Libault
GRATIEN . LIBAVLT. ESCVIER. SEIGr . DE. LA. TEMPLERIE.
Quintefeuille au début de la légende.Ecu des armes du Maire ( D'argent à 6 fleurs de lis de gueules, 3. 2. 1, au chef de gueules chargé de trois fers de lance d'argent), timbré d'un casque taré de face, orné de ses lambrequins, et portant pour cimier une tête de dauphin. Support deux sirènes tenant chacune un miroir et qui, comme l'écusson, sont placées sur une mer ondée
CAPne EN CHEF DE LA FOSSE ET MAIRE DE NANTES
1671
Le vaisseau Nantais voguant à droite. Au chef chargé de cinq hermines
PYL
RI_170cp_img.jpg
170 - Constantius II - AE2 - RIC VIII Amiens 4839 viewsAE2
Obv:– D N CONSTANTIVS P F AVG, Pearl diademed, draped & cuirassed bust right, A behind bust
Rev:– FEL TEMP REPARATIO, Helmeted soldier left, shield on left arm, spearing falling horseman; shield at ground to right. Horseman turns to face the soldier, and reaches his left arm up towards him. He is bare headed
Minted in Amiens (//AMB). 353 AD.
Reference:- RIC VIII Amiens 48 (C)

Ex John Casey Collection

22 mm, 5.08g

John was employed at Durham between 1972 and 2000, retiring as Reader in Archaeology. He was a well-known Romanist and numismatics scholar who undertook excavations at the Roman forts of Brecon Gaer (nr Aberyscir) and Segontium (Gwynedd), the Roman town of Venta Silurum (Caerwent), the Roman temple at Lydney (Gloucestershire) and the Greta Bridge vicus in County Durham.

His books included Coins and the Archaeologist (1974, 2nd ed. 1988), The end of Roman Britain (1979), Roman coinage in Britain (1980), Understanding Ancient Coins (1986). He was the author of numerous articles on Roman coinage and hoards, including the finds from Piercebridge.
1 commentsmaridvnvm
rjb_com_04_09.jpg
17717 viewsCommodus 177-92 AD
AE 30 mm
Anazarbus in Cilicia
Rev Decastyle temple
Zeigler 264-6
mauseus
commodus_RIC218.jpg
177-192 AD - COMMODUS AR denarius - struck 191 AD37 viewsobv: M COMM ANT P FEL AVG BRIT P P (laureate head right)
rev: APOL PAL P M TR P XVI COS VI (Apollo attired in the stola, holding the plectrum in the right hand and resting his left on the lyre, which surmounts on a short column)
ref: RIC III 218 (S), C.24 (8frcs)
mint: Rome
2.7gms, 17mm
Scarce

Apollini Palatino – this coin has reference to the temple, which Emperor Augustus erected at Rome, in honour of his guardian divinity in the Palatium. This temple was destroyed by fire during the reign of Julian the Apostate.
berserker
1794_LACKINGTON_HALFPENNY.JPG
1794 AE Halfpenny Token. J. Lackington, London, Middlesex.36 viewsObverse: J. LACKINGTON ✤. Three-quarter facing bust of J.Lackington left, 1794 below.
Reverse: HALFPENNY OF LACKINGTON • ALLEN & Co ★ / CHEAPEST BOOKSELLERS IN THE WORLD • in a double line of text around Fame, portrayed as a winged female figure facing right, head left, holding a laurel-wreath and blowing a trumpet.
Edge: PAYABLE AT THE TEMPLE OF THE MUSES ★ / ★ / ★.
Diameter 29mm | Die Axis 6
Dalton & Hamer: 353

This token was manufactured by William Lutwyche in Birmingham and the dies were engraved by Roger Dixon.
It was issued by James Lackington who was a bookseller with a large business at his premises known as “The Temple of the Muses”, No 32 Finsbury Place South, Finsbury Square, London. This token marked the sale of a 25% interest in his company to Robert Allen.
*Alex
rjb_2011_03_01~0.jpg
193c24 viewsJulia Domna
AE as
Obv "IVLIA PIA FELIX AVG"
Diademed draped bust right
Rev "Vesta SC"
Sacrificial scene in front of circular temple of Vesta
Rome mint
RIC 607

mauseus
196_Julia_Domna_As_RIC_892a_1.jpg
196_Julia_Domna_As_RIC_892a_118 viewsJulia Domna (ca. 170 – 217 AD)
AE As/Dupondius, Rome, 196 – 209
IVLIA AVGVSTA;
Bust draped right, hair waved and coiled at back
VESTA MATER, SC in exergue;
Six Vestals sacrificing in front of temple of Vesta
10,68 gr, 27 mm
RIC IVa, 892a; BMC V, 796 note; C. 243
Ex iNumis, Mail Bid Sale 22, lot 209
ga77
rjb_2016_08_01.jpg
1983 viewsCaracalla 198-217 AD
AE 30mm
Neocaesarea in Pontus
Tetrastyle temple with internal brick structure visible and statue on pedestal
Rec Gen 22
mauseus
1997-161-172_ProbusRomaeAeter-Forum.jpg
1997.161.17211 viewsRome, 3.43 g

Obverse: IMP PROBVS AVG; Radiate, cuirassed bust right.
Reverse: ROMAE AETER; RCrescentB in exergue; Roma seated in hexastyle temple, holding Victory and scepter.
Ref: RIC 185; Pink VI/1, pg 57, 4th emission, 279 AD;
gordian_guy
1997-161-173_ProbusRomaeAeter-Forum.jpg
1997.161.17322 viewsRome, 3.46 g

Obverse: IMP PROBVS AVG; Radiate, wearing Imperial Mantle, left, holding scepter surmounted by eagle.
Reverse: ROMAE AETER; RDotCrescentB in exergue; Roma seated in hexastyle temple, holding Victory and scepter.
Ref: RIC 185; Pink VI/1, pg 57, 4th emission, 279 AD;
gordian_guy
1997-161-174_ProbusRomaeAeter-Forum.jpg
1997.161.17430 viewsRome, 4.01 g

Obverse: PROBVS PF AVG; Radiate, wearing Imperial Mantle, left, holding scepter surmounted by eagle.
Reverse: ROMAE AETER; RThunderboltDelta in exergue; Roma seated in hexastyle temple, holding Victory and scepter.
Ref: RIC 187; Pink VI/1, pg 58, 6th emission, 281 AD;
1 commentsgordian_guy
1997-161-186_ProbusRomaeAeternae-Forum.jpg
1997.161.18614 viewsSiscia, 3.62 g

Obverse: IMP C M AVR PROBVS PF AVG; Radiate, wearing Imperial Mantle, bust right; in right hand scepter surmounted by eagle.
Reverse: ROMAE AETERNAE; XXIS in exergue; Roma seated left in temple; holds globe in extended right hand and scepter in left.
Ref: RIC 739; Alfoldi Type 60, no. 2;
gordian_guy
APlautiusDenJudea.jpg
1ab Conquest of Judea11 viewsA. Plautius, moneyer
c. 54 BC

Denarius

Turreted head of Cybele, A PLAVTIVS before, AED CVR SC behind
Bacchius kneels right with camel at his side, extending olive branch, BACCHIVS in ex., IVDAEVS in right

Seaby, Plautia 13

The reverse appears to Pompey's conquest of Judaea in 63 BC.

Josephus recorded of Pompey's conquest of Jerusalem: And when he was come to the city, he looked about where he might make his attack; for he saw the walls were so firm, that it would be hard to overcome them; and that the valley before the walls was terrible; and that the temple, which was within that valley, was itself encompassed with a very strong wall, insomuch that if the city were taken, that temple would be a second place of refuge for the enemy to retire to. . . . Aristobulus's party was worsted, and retired into the temple, and cut off the communication between the temple and the city, by breaking down the bridge that joined them together, and prepared to make an opposition to the utmost; but as the others had received the Romans into the city, and had delivered up the palace to him, Pompey sent Piso, one of his great officers, into that palace with an army, who distributed a garrison about the city, because he could not persuade any one of those that had fled to the temple to come to terms of accommodation; he then disposed all things that were round about them so as might favor their attacks, as having Hyrcanus's party very ready to afford them both counsel and assistance. . . . But Pompey himself filled up the ditch that was oil the north side of the temple, and the entire valley also, the army itself being obliged to carry the materials for that purpose. And indeed it was a hard thing to fill up that valley, by reason of its immense depth, especially as the Jews used all the means possible to repel them from their superior situation; nor had the Romans succeeded in their endeavors, had not Pompey taken notice of the seventh days, on which the Jews abstain from all sorts of work on a religious account, and raised his bank, but restrained his soldiers from fighting on those days; for the Jews only acted defensively on sabbath days.
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TiberiusAsSC.jpg
1al Tiberius26 views14-37

As
Laureate head, left, TI CAESAR AVGVST F IMPERAT V
PONTIF MAXIM TRIBVN POTEST XXIII SC

This is one of a series of 12 Caesars pieces that were local finds in Serbia. There are better coins out there, but I'll hang onto these because they really got me into the hobby.

RIC 469

Per Suetonius: Within three years, however, both Lucius Caesar and Gaius Caesar were dead [in AD2 and 4 respectively], and Augustus now adopted both their brother Agrippa Postumus, and Tiberius, who was first required to adopt his nephew Germanicus [in 4 AD]. . . .

From that moment onwards, Augustus did all he could to enhance Tiberius’ prestige, especially after the disowning and banishment of Postumus [ca 6 AD] made it obvious that Tiberius was the sole heir to the succession. . . .

Tiberius acted like a traditional citizen, more modestly almost than the average individual. He accepted only a few of the least distinguished honours offered him; it was only with great reluctance that he consented to his birthday being recognised, falling as it did on the day of the Plebeian Games in the Circus, by the addition of a two-horse chariot to the proceedings; and he refused to have temples, and priests dedicated to him, or even the erection of statues and busts, without his permission; which he only gave if they were part of the temple adornments and not among the divine images. . . .

Moreover, in the face of abuse, libels or slanders against himself and his family, he remained unperturbed and tolerant, often maintaining that a free country required free thought and speech. . . . He even introduced a species of liberty, by maintaining the traditional dignities and powers of the Senate and magistrates. He laid all public and private matters, small or great, before the Senate consulting them over State revenues, monopolies, and the construction and maintenance of public buildings, over the levying and disbanding of troops, the assignment of legions and auxiliaries, the scope of military appointments, and the allocation of campaigns, and even the form and content of his replies to letters from foreign powers. . . .

Returning to Capreae, he abandoned all affairs of state, neither filling vacancies in the Equestrian Order’s jury lists, nor appointing military tribunes, prefects, or even provincial governors. Spain and Syria lacked governors of Consular rank for several years, while he allowed the Parthians to overrun Armenia, Moesia to be ravaged by the Dacians and Sarmatians, and Gaul by the Germans, threatening the Empire’s honour no less than its security. Furthermore, with the freedom afforded by privacy, hidden as it were from public view, he gave free rein to the vices he had concealed for so long. . . .
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DrususAsSC.jpg
1am Drusus22 viewsHeir to throne until assassination by Sejanus in 23

As

Bare head, left, DRVSVS CAESAR TI AVG F DIVI AVG N
PONTIF TRIBVN POTEST ITER SC

RIC 45

Nero Claudius Drusus, later adopted as Drusus Julius Caesar (13BC - 23AD), called Drusus the Younger, was the only child of Tiberius and his first wife, Vipsania Agrippina. Tiberius and Drusus delivered the only two eulogies for Augustus in front of the temple to the god Julius. In 14, after the death of Augustus, Drusus suppressed a mutiny in Pannonia. In 15 he became consul. He governed Illyricum from 17 to 20. In 21 he was again consul, while in 22 he received tribunicia potestas (tribunician power), a distinction reserved solely for the emperor or his immediate successor. Drusus married his paternal cousin Livilla in 4. Their daughter Julia was born shortly after. Their son Tiberius Gemellus (his twin brother Germanicus Gemellus died in infancy) was born in 19. By 23 Drusus, who made no secret of his antipathy towards Sejanus, looked likely to succeed Tiberius as emperor. Sources concur that with Livilla as his accomplice Sejanous poisoned her husband Drusus.

Suetonius says, "He lacked affection not only for his adopted son Germanicus, but even for his own son Drusus the Younger, whose vices were inimical to him, Drusus indeed pursing loose and immoral ways. So inimical, that Tiberius seemed unaffected by his death (in 23AD), and quickly took up his usual routine after the funeral, cutting short the period of mourning. When a deputation from Troy offered him belated condolences, he smiled as if at a distant memory, and offered them like sympathy for the loss of their famous fellow-citizen Hector!"
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CaligulaAsVesta.jpg
1ao Caligula30 views37-41

As
Bare head, left, C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT
Vesta std, VESTA SC

RIC 38

The son of Germanicus, modern research suggests, was not as bad a ruler as history generally supposes, but the winners write the history, and Caligula had the dubious honor of being the first loser to die in the purple at the hand of assassins.

Suetonius recorded: Gaius Caesar (Caligula) was born on the 31st of August AD12, in the consulship of his father, Germanicus, and Gaius Fonteius Capito. The sources disagree as to his place of birth. Gnaeus Lentulus Gaetulicus claims it was Tibur (Tivoli), Pliny the Elder, says it was among the Treveri in the village of Ambitarvium, above Confluentes (the site of Koblenz) at the junction of the Moselle and Rhine. . . . His surname Caligula (‘Little Boot’) was bestowed on him affectionately by the troops because he was brought up amongst them, dressed in soldier’s gear.

Caligula accompanied his father, Germanicus, to Syria (in AD 19). On his return, he lived with his mother, Agrippina the Elder until she was exiled (in 29 AD), and then with his great-grandmother Livia. When Livia died (in 29 AD), he gave her eulogy from the rostra even though he was not of age. He was then cared for by his grandmother Antonia the Younger, until at the age of eighteen Tiberius summoned him to Capreae (Capri, in AD 31). On that day he assumed his gown of manhood and shaved off his first beard, but without the ceremony that had attended his brothers’ coming of age.

On Capraea, though every trick was tried to lure him, or force him, into making complaints against Tiberius, he ignored all provocation, . . . behaving so obsequiously to his adoptive grandfather, Tiberius, and the entire household, that the quip made regarding him was well borne out, that there was never a better slave or a worse master.

Even in those days, his cruel and vicious character was beyond his control, and he was an eager spectator of torture and executions meted out in punishment. At night, disguised in wig and long robe, he abandoned himself to gluttony and adulterous behaviour. He was passionately devoted it seems to the theatrical arts, to dancing and singing, a taste in him which Tiberius willingly fostered, in the hope of civilizing his savage propensities.

And came near to assuming a royal diadem at once, turning the semblance of a principate into an absolute monarchy. Indeed, advised by this that he outranked princes and kings, he began thereafter to claim divine power, sending to Greece for the most sacred or beautiful statues of the gods, including the Jupiter of Olympia, so that the heads could be exchanged for his own. He then extended the Palace as far as the Forum, making the Temple of Castor and Pollux its vestibule, and would often present himself to the populace there, standing between the statues of the divine brothers, to be worshipped by whoever appeared, some hailing him as ‘Jupiter Latiaris’. He also set up a special shrine to himself as god, with priests, the choicest sacrificial victims, and a life-sized golden statue of himself, which was dressed each day in clothes of identical design to those he chose to wear.

He habitually committed incest with each of his three sisters, seating them in turn below him at large banquets while his wife reclined above. . . . His preferred method of execution was by the infliction of many slight wounds, and his order, issued as a matter of routine, became notorious: ‘Cut him so he knows he is dying.’
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CaligulaAE27Caesonia.jpg
1ao2 Caesonia (?)19 viewsAE 27 of Carthago Nova, Spain

Laureate head of Caligula, right, C CAESAR AVG GERMANIS
Draped bust of Caesonia (as Salus) right, DN ATEL FLAC CN POM FLAC II VIR Q V I N C, SAL AVG across field

Generally held to portray the fourth wife of Caligula.

Sear 624

Caesonia, Milonia, (d41AD) was the fourth and last wife of Caligula. Her younger half-brother was the Consul Gnaeus Domitius Corbulo. Her niece, Domitia Longina, married Domitian. In 41, Caligula was assassinated and Caesonia and her daughter Julia Drusilla murdered.

Suetonius states: As for Caesonia, who was neither young nor beautiful, had three daughters by another man, and was wildly promiscuous and extravagant, he not only loved her more passionately for it, but also more faithfully, taking her out riding, and showing her to the soldiers, dressed in a cloak with helmet and shield: while he exhibited her to his friends stark naked. He did not honour her with the title of wife until she had given him a child, announcing his paternity and the marriage on the very same day. This child, whom he named Julia Drusilla, he carried round all the temples of the goddesses, before finally entrusting her to Minerva’s lap, calling on that goddess to nurture and educate his daughter. Nothing persuaded him more clearly that she was his own issue than her violent temper, which was so savage the infant would tear at the faces and eyes of her little playmates. . . .

And as [Caligula] kissed the neck of wife or sweetheart, he never failed to say: ‘This lovely thing will be slit whenever I say.’ Now and then he even threatened his dear Caesonia with torture, if that was the only way of discovering why he was so enamoured of her. . . . Some think that Caesonia his wife administered a love potion that had instead the effect of driving him mad.
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VitelliusDenVesta.jpg
1av Vitellius42 views69

Denarius
Portrait, right, A VITELLIVS GERMAN IMP TR P
Vesta std., PONT MAX

RIC 107

According to Suetonius: Lucius’s son Aulus, the future emperor, was born on the 24th of September 15AD, or according to some authorities on the 7th, during the consulship of Drusus Caesar and Norbanus Flaccus. . . . His boyhood and early youth were spent on Capreae (Capri) among Tiberius’s creatures, he himself being marked by the nickname of ‘Spintria’ (sex-token) throughout his life, and suspected of having secured his father’s first promotion to office by surrendering his own chastity. As he grew older, though contaminated by every kind of vice, Vitellius gained and kept a prominent place at court, winning Caligula’s friendship by his devotion to chariot-racing and Claudius’s by his love of dice. With Nero he was even closer. . . .

Honoured, as these emperors’ favourite, with high office in the priesthood, as well as political power, he governed Africa (under Nero, in 60/61AD) as proconsul, and was then Curator of Public Works (in 63AD), employing a contrasting approach, and with a contrasting effect on his reputation. In his province he acted with outstanding integrity over two successive years, since he served as deputy also to his brother who succeeded him (61/62AD) yet during his administration of the City he was said to have stolen various temple offerings and ornaments, and substituted brass and tin for the gold and silver in others. . . .

Contrary to all expectations, Galba appointed Vitellius to Lower Germany (in 68AD). Some think it was brought about by Titus Vinius, whose influence was powerful at that time, and whose friendship Vitellius had previously won through their mutual support for the ‘Blues’ in the Circus. But it is clear to everyone that Galba chose him as an act of contempt rather than favour, commenting that gluttons were among those least to be feared, and Vitellius’s endless appetite would now be able to sate itself on a province. . . .

He entered Rome to the sound of trumpets, surrounded by standards and banners, wearing a general’s cape, sword at his side, his officers in their military cloaks also, and the men with naked blades. With increasing disregard for the law, human or divine, he then assumed the office of High Priest on the anniversary of the Allia (18th July), arranged the elections for the next ten years, and made himself consul for life. . . .

Vitellius’s worst vices were cruelty and gluttony. . . . By the eighth month of his reign (November 69AD) the legions in Moesia and Pannonia had repudiated Vitellius, and sworn allegiance to Vespasian despite his absence, following those of Syria and Judaea who had done so in Vespasian’s presence. . . .

The vanguard of Vespasian’s army had now forced its way into the Palace, unopposed, and the soldiers were ransacking the rooms, in their usual manner. They hauled Vitellius, unrecognised, from his hiding place, asked his name and where the Emperor might be. He gave some lying answer, but was soon identified, so he begged for safe custody, even if that meant imprisonment, claiming he had important information for Vespasian regarding his security. However his arms were bound behind him and a noose flung over his head, and he was dragged along the Sacred Way to the Forum, amid a hail of mockery and abuse, half-naked, with his clothes in tatters. His head was held back by the hair, like a common criminal and, with a sword-point under his chin so that he was forced to look up and reveal his face, he was pelted with filth and dung, denounced as arsonist and glutton, and taunted with his bodily defects by the crowd. For, Vitellius was exceptionally tall, and his face was usually flushed from some drinking bout. He had a huge belly, too, and one thigh crippled by a blow from a four-horse chariot which struck him when he was in attendance on Caligula who was driving. At last, after being tormented by a host of cuts from the soldiers’ swords, he was killed on the Gemonian Stairs, and his body dragged with a hook to the Tiber.
1 commentsBlindado
JuliaTitiDupVesta.jpg
1ax2 Julia Titi15 viewsDupondius

Draped bust right, hair in bun at back of head, IVLIA IMP T AVG F AVGVSTA
S-C either side of Vesta enthroned left holding Victory, VESTA in ex

RIC 398

The daughter of Titus and Marcia Furnilla, she lived with her uncle Domitian for a time as his wife. Suetonius records, "He had been offered marriage with his niece, Julia, Titus’s daughter, while she was still a young girl, but refused her repeatedly because of his infatuation with Domitia Longina, yet he seduced Julia shortly afterwards, while Titus was still alive, and when she was newly married to Flavius Sabinus. After the deaths of her father and husband, he loved her ardently and openly, and indeed caused her death by forcing her to abort a child by him." When Domitian died at the age of 44, his nurse cremated his body and "secretly carried [the ashes] to the Flavian Temple and there mingled them with those of his niece Julia, Titus’s daughter whom she had also nurtured."
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FaustinaSestVesta.jpg
1bi Faustina22 viewsWife of Antoninus Pius, died 141

Sestertius

Draped bust, right, DIVA FAVSTINA
Vesta stg, AVGVSTA SC

RIC 1178

The Historia Augusta recounts: On the death of his wife Faustina, in the third year of his reign, the senate deified her, and voted her games and a temple and priestesses and statues of silver and of gold. These the Emperor accepted, and furthermore granted permission that her statue be erected in all the circuses ; and when the senate voted her a golden statue, he undertook to erect it himself.
Blindado
ElagabDenEleg.jpg
1bz Elagabalus_217 views218-222

Denarius

Laureate, horned & draped bust rightt, IMP ANTONINVS PIVS AVG
Elagabalus standing left, sacrificing from patera over lit tripod altar, holding branch, star in field left, SVMMVS SACERDOS AVG

RIC 146

The Historia Augusta, in the life of Caracalla, notes: Bassianus lived for forty-three years and ruled for six. . . . He left a son, who afterward received, like his father, the name Antoninus Marcus Antoninus Elagabalus; for such a hold had the name of the Antonines that it could not be removed from the thoughts of the people, because it had taken root in the hearts of all, even as had the name of Augustus.

In the life of Macrinus is recorded: Now there was a certain woman of the city of Emesa, called [Julia] Maesa or Varia; she was the sister of Julia, the wife of [Septimius] Severus Pertinax the African, and after the death of Antoninus Bassianus she had been expelled from her home in the palace through the arrogance of Macrinus. . . . This woman had two daughters, [Julia Soaemias] and [Julia] Mamaea, the elder of whom was the mother of Elagabalus; he assumed the names Bassianus and Antoninus, for the Phoenicians give the name Elagabalus to the Sun. Elagabalus, moreover, was notable for his beauty and stature and for the priesthood which he held, and he was well known to all who frequented the temple, and particularly to the soldiers. To these, Maesa, or Varia as she was also called, declared that this Bassianus was the son of Antoninus, and this was gradually made known to all the soldiers. Maesa herself, furthermore, was very rich (whence also Elagabalus was most wasteful of money), and through her promises to the soldiers the legions were persuaded to desert Macrinus. . . .

Finally, when he received the imperial power, he took the name Antoninus and was the last of the Antonines to rule the Roman Empire. . . . He was wholly under the control of his mother [Soaemias], so much so, in fact, that he did no public business without her consent, although she lived like a harlot and practised all manner of lewdness in the palace. For that matter, her amour with Antoninus Caracalla was so notorious that Varius, or rather Elagabalus, was commonly supposed to be his son. . . . In short, when Elagabalus' message was read in the senate, at once good wishes were uttered for Antoninus and curses on Macrinus and his son, and, in accordance with the general wish and the eager belief of all in his paternity, Antoninus was hailed as emperor. . . .

After he had spent the winter in Nicomedia, [218-219] living in a depraved manner and indulging in unnatural vice with men, the soldiers soon began to regret that they had conspired against Macrinus to make this man emperor, and they turned their thoughts toward his cousin Alexander, who on the murder of Macrinus had been hailed by the senate as Caesar. . . . Among the base actions of his life of depravity he gave orders that Alexander, whom he had formally adopted, be removed from his presence, saying that he regretted the adoption. Then he commanded the senate to take away from Alexander the name of Caesar. But when this was announced to the senate, there was a profound silence. For Alexander was an excellent youth, as was afterwards shown by the character of his rule, even though, because he was chaste, he was displeasing to his adoptive father he was also, as some declare, his cousin. Besides, he was loved by the soldiers and acceptable to the senate and the equestrian order. Yet the Emperor's madness went the length of an attempt to carry out the basest design; for he despatched assassins to kill Alexander. . . . The soldiers, however, and particularly the members of the guard, either because they knew what evils were in store for Elagabalus, or because they foresaw his hatred for themselves, formed a conspiracy to set the state free. First they attacked the accomplices in his plan of murdering Alexander. . . . Next they fell upon Elagabalus himself and slew him in a latrine in which he had taken refuge.
Blindado
GordianIIIAntLaetitia.jpg
1cl Gordian III21 views238-244

Antoninianus

Radiate, draped & cuirassed bust, right, IMP GORDINVS PIVS FEL AVG
Laetitia standing right with wreath & anchor, LAETITIA AVG N

RIC 86

Continuing his story of the deaths of Balbinus and Pupienus, Herodian wrote: Leaving the corpses exposed in the street, the praetorians took up Gordian Caesar and proclaimed him emperor, since at the moment they could find no other candidate for the office. Proclaiming that they had only killed the men whom the people did not want to rule them in the first place, they chose as emperor this Gordian who was descended from the Gordian whom the Romans themselves had forced to accept the rule. Keeping their emperor Gordian with them, they went off to the praetorian camp. . . . Gordian, at the age of about thirteen, was designated emperor and assumed the burden of the Roman empire. . . .

Eutropius continued the story: After Gordian, when quite a boy, had married Tranquillina at Rome, he opened the temple of Janus, and, setting out for the east, made war upon the Parthians, who were then proceeding to make an irruption. This war he soon conducted with success, and made havoc of the Persians in great battles. As he was returning, he was killed, not far from the Roman boundaries, by the treachery of Philip who reigned after him. The Roman soldiers raised a monument for him, twenty miles from Circessus, which is now a fortress of the Romans, overlooking the Euphrates. His relics they brought to Rome, and gave him the title of god.
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AurelianusAntPietas.jpg
1dk Aurelian28 views270-275

Radiate, cuirassed bust, right, IMP AVRELIANVS AVG
Aurelian & Severina or priest standing facing each other, each holding short sceptre, sacrificing at altar between them, S in ex, PIETAS AVG

Zosimus recorded: Aurelianus, having regulated the empire, went from Rome to Aquileia, and from thence into Pannonia, which he was informed the Scythians were preparing to invade. For this reason he sent orders to the inhabitants of that country to carry into the towns all their corn and cattle, and every thing that could be of use to the enemy, in order to distress them with famine, with which they were already afflicted. The Barbarians having crossed the river into Pannonia had an engagement, the result of which was nearly equal. But the same night, the Barbarians recrossed the river, and as soon as day appeared, sent ambassadors to treat for peace. |25

The Emperor, hearing that the Alemanni and the neighbouring nations intended to over-run Italy, was with just reason more concerned for Rome and the adjacent places, than for the more remote. Having therefore ordered a sufficient force to remain for the defence of Pannonia, he marched towards Italy, and on his route, on the borders of that country, near the Ister, slew many thousands of the Barbarians in one battle. Several members of the senate being at this time accused of conspiring against the emperor were put to death ; and Rome, which before had no walls, was now surrounded with them. This work was begun in the reign of Aurelianus, and was finished by Probus. At the same time Epitimius, Urbanus, and Domitianus, were likewise suspected as innovators, and were immediately apprehended and punished. During these occurrences in Italy and Pannonia, the emperor prepared to march against the Palmyrenians, who had subdued all Egypt, and the east, as far as Ancyra in Galatia, and would have acquired Bithynia even as far as Chalcedon, if the inhabitants of that country had not learned that Aurelianus was made emperor, and so shook off the Palmyrenian yoke. As soon as the emperor was on his march thither, Ancyra submitted to the Romans, and afterwards Tuana, and all the cities between that and Antioch. There finding Zenobia with a large army ready to engage, as he himself also was, he met and engaged her as honour obliged him [an defeated the enemy. . . .

[Having crushed Palmyra and razed it] He then entered Rome in triumph, where he was most magnificiently received by the senate and people. At this period also be erected that sumptuous temple of the sun, which he ornamented with all the sacred spoils that he brought from Palmyra; placing in it the statues of the sun and Belus. After this he easily reduced Tatricus with his rebellious accomplices, whom he brought to signal punishment. He likewise called in all the counterfeit money, and issued new, to avoid confusion in trade. Besides which he bestowed on the people a gift of bread, as a mark of his favour; and having arranged all affairs set out on a journey from Rome. . . .

During his stay at Perinthus, now called Heraclea, a conspiracy was thus formed against him. There was in the court a man named Eros, whose office was to carry out the answers of the emperor. This man had been for some fault threatened by the emperor, and put in great fear. Dreading therefore lest the emperor should realize his menaces by actions, he went to some of the guard, whom he knew to be the boldest men in the court; be told them a plausible story, and shewed them a letter of his own writing, in the character of the emperor (which he had long before learned to counterfeit), and persuading them first that they themselves were to be put to death, [h]e endeavoured to prevail on them to murder the emperor. The deception answered. Observing Aurelianus to go out of the city with a small retinue, they ran out upon him and murdered him.

RIC 138
Blindado
MaxentiusFollisRoma.jpg
1dz Maxentius22 views306-312

Follis

Laureate head, right, MAXENTIVS P F AVG
Roma in temple, CONSERVATORES VRB SVAE

RIC 194a

Eutropius reports: But after the death of Constantius, CONSTANTINE, his son by a wife of obscure birth, was made emperor in Britain, and succeeded his father as a most desirable ruler. In the meantime the praetorian guards at Rome, having risen in insurrection, declared MAXENTIUS, the son of Maximian Herculius, who lived in the Villa Publica not far from the city, emperor. At the news of this proceeding, Maximian, filled with hopes of regaining the imperial dignity, which he had not willingly resigned, hurried to Rome from Lucania. . . , and stimulated Diocletian by letters to resume the authority that he had laid down, letters which Diocletian utterly disregarded. Severus Caesar, being despatched to Rome by Galerius to suppress the rising of the guards and Maxentius, arrived there with his army, but, as he was laying siege to the city, was deserted through the treachery of his soldiers.

The power of Maxentius was thus increased, and his government established. Severus, taking to flight, was killed at Ravenna. Maximian Herculius, attempting afterwards, in an assembly of the army, to divest his son Maxentius of his power, met with nothing but mutiny and reproaches from the soldiery. . . .

At this time LICINIUS, a native of Dacia, was made emperor by Galerius, to whom he was known by old companionship, and recommended by his vigorous efforts and services in the war which he had conducted against Narseus. The death of Galerius followed immediately afterwards. The empire was then held by the four new emperors, Constantine and Maxentius, sons of emperors, Licinius and Maximian, sons of undistinguished men. Constantine, however, in the fifth year of his reign, commenced a civil war with Maxentius, routed his forces in several battles, and at last overthrew Maxentius himself (when he was spreading death among the nobility by every possible kind of cruelty,) at the Milvian bridge, and made himself master of Italy.
Blindado
the_walhalla_01b.JPG
2009-Germany - The Walhalla16 viewsThe Walhalla is a hall of fame for "famous personalities in German history – politicians, sovereigns, scientists and artists" housed in a neo-classical building above the Danube River east of Regensburg.
This picture shows the back of the Walhalla Temple.
berserker
the_walhalla_02.JPG
2009-Germany - The Walhalla15 viewsThe front of the temple.berserker
coins124.JPG
201. Septimius Severus14 viewsPax

In Roman mythology, Pax (Latin for peace) (she had the Greek equivalent Eirine) was recognized as a goddess during the rule of Augustus. On the Campus Martius, she had a temple called the Ara Pacis, and another temple on the Forum Pacis. She was depicted in art with olive branches, a cornucopia and a scepter. There was a festival in her honor on January 3.

Septimius Severus 193-211AD

Denarius 3.15g Obv: Head of Septimius Severus right 'L SEPT SEV PERT AVG IMP VIII' Rev: Pax seated left holding a branch and scepter 'P M TR P V COS II PP'

ecoli
2014-051-3_ProbusRomaeAternaeRomaTemple-Forum.jpg
2014.051.341 viewsSiscia, 3.25 g

Obverse: IMP C M AVR PROBVS PF AVG; Radiate, wearing helmet, cuirassed bust right; holding spear in right over right shoulder; shield with Pegasus left and other decorations on left shoulder.
Reverse: ROMAE AETERNAE; XXIP in exergue; Roma seated left in hexa-style temple; holding globe(?) in extended right; scepter in left; shield beneath seat; wreath in pediment.
Ref: RIC 739; Alfoldi Type 60, no 14, though type 14 does not show the same decorated shield, only Pegasus shown and not additional decorations.
gordian_guy
2014-051-4_ProbusRomaeAternaeRomaTemple-Forum.jpg
2014.051.428 viewsSiscia; 3.90 g

Obverse: IMP C M AVR PROBVS AVG; Probus, radiated, helmet, cuirassed bust right; spear in right hand over right shoulder; shield decorated with Medusa head (Gorgon) on left shoulder, strap across chest;
Reverse: ROMAE AETERNAE; XXIS in exergue; Roma seated left in hexa-style temple; holding in extended right hand Victory standing left; scepter in left; shield beneath seat; wreath in pediment.
Ref: RIC 737; Alfoldi Type 61, no 27
gordian_guy
2014-054-8_ProbusRomaeAeter-Forum.jpg
2014.054.812 viewsRome; 3.74 g

Obverse: IMP PROBVS PF AVG; Radiate, wearing Imperial Mantle, right; holding eagle tipped scepter in right.
Reverse: ROMAE AETER; RThunderboldDelta in exergue; Roma seated in hexa-style temple; holding victory in left and scepter in right.
Ref: RIC 183; Pink V1/1 pg 46, 6th emission
gordian_guy
2014-060-3_ProbusRomaeAeter-Forum.jpg
2014.060.315 viewsRome, 4.01 g

Obverse: PROBVS PF AVG; Radiated, wearing Imperial Mantle, left, holding scepter surmounted by eagle.
Reverse: ROMAE AETER; RThunderboldDelta; Roma Seated in hexastyle temple, holding Victory and scepter.
Ref: RIC 187; Pink V1/1 pg 57, 6th Emission, 280 AD
gordian_guy
2014-060-4_ProbusRomaeAeter-Forum.jpg
2014.060.441 viewsRome, 4.64 g

Obverse: IMP PROBVS AVG; Radiated, wearing Imperial Mantle, left, holding scepter surmounted by eagle.
Reverse: ROMAE AETER; RCrescentB; Roma Seated in hexastyle temple, holding Victory and scepter.
Ref: RIC 185; Pink V1/1 pg 57, 4th Emission, 279 AD
gordian_guy
coins127.JPG
201a. Julia Domna11 viewsVesta

Vesta was introduced in Rome by King Numa Pompilius. She was a native Roman deity (some authors suggest received from the Sabine cults), sister of Zeus, Poseidon, Hades, Hera and Demeter, and presumably the daughter of Saturn and Ops (or Rea). However, the similarity with the cult of Greek Hestia is notable. Vesta too protected familial harmony and the res publica. Apollo and Neptune had asked for her in marriage, but she refused both, preferring to preserve her virginity, whose symbol was the perpetually lit fire in her circular fane next to the Forum which the Romans always distinguished from a temple by calling it her "house".

As Goddess of the Hearth she was the symbol of the home, around which a newborn child must be carried before it could be received into the family. Every meal began and ended with an offering to her:

Vesta, in all dwellings of men and immortals
Yours is the highest honor, the sweet wine offered
First and last at the feast, poured out to you duly.
Never without you can gods or mortals hold banquet.

Landscape with Vesta temple in Tivoli, Italy, c. 1600.Each city too had a public hearth sacred to Vesta, where the fire was never allowed to go out. If a colony was to be founded, the colonists carried with them coals from the hearth of the mother-city with which to kindle the fire on the new city's hearth.

The fire was guarded by her priestesses, the Vestales. Every March 1 the fire was renewed. It burned until 391, when the Emperor Theodosius I forbade public pagan worship. One of the Vestales was Rea Silvia, who with Mars conceived Romulus and Remus (see founding of Rome).

3070. Silver denarius, RIC 538, RSC 221, VF, 2.30g, 17.5mm, 0o, Rome mint, 193-196 A.D.; obverse IVLIA DOMNA AVG, draped bust right; reverse VESTA, Vesta seated left, holding palladium and scepter. Ex Forum
ecoli
junlia_domna.JPG
201a. Julia Domna66 viewsIn Rome, when the worship of Cybele, as Magna Mater, was formally initiated in 203 BC, Rome was embroiled in the Second Punic War. The previous year, an inspection had been made of the Sibylline Books, and some oracular verses had been discovered that announced that if a foreign foe should carry war into Italy, he could be driven out and conquered if the Mater Magna were brought from Pessinos to Rome. Publius Cornelius Scipio Nasica was ordered to go to the port of Ostia, accompanied by all the matrons, to meet the goddess. He was to receive her as she left the vessel, and when brought to land he was to place her in the hands of the matrons who were to bear her to her destination, the Temple of Victory on the Palatine Hill. The day on which this event took place, 12 April, was observed afterwards as a festival, the Megalesian. (Livy, History of Rome, circa AD 10)

In Rome, her Phrygian origins were recalled by Catullus, whose famous poem on the theme of Attis includes a vivid description of Cybele's worship: "Together come and follow to the Phrygian home of Cybele, to the Phrygian forests of the goddess, where the clash of cymbals ring, where tambourines resound, where the Phrygian flute-player blows deeply on his curved reed, where ivy-crowned maenads toss their heads wildly."

Roman devotion to Cybele ran deep. Not coincidentally, when a Christian basilica was built over the site of a temple to Cybele, to occupy the site, it was dedicated as the Basilica di Santa Maria Maggiore.

The worship of Cybele penetrated as far as Mauretania, where, just outside Setif, the ceremonial "tree-bearers" and the faithful (religiosi) restored the temple of Cybele and Attis after a disastrous fire in AD 288. Lavish new fittings paid for by the private group included the silver statue of Cybele and the chariot that carried her in procession received a new canopy, with tassels in the form of fir cones. (Robin Lane Fox, Pagans and Christians, p 581.)

Today, a monumental statue of Cybele can be found in one of the principal traffic circles of Madrid, the Plaza de Cibeles (illustration, upper right).

In Roman mythology, Magna Mater deorum Idaea ("great Idaean mother of the gods") was the name for the originally Phrygian goddess Cybele, as well as Rhea.

Her cult moved from Phrygia to Greece from the 6th century to the 4th. In 205 BC, Rome adopted her cult.

Julia Domna Denarius. 212 AD. IVLIA PIA FELIX AVG, draped bust right / MATRI DEVM, Cybele standing left, leaning on column, holding drum & scepter, lion at foot. RSC 137. RIC 382
1 commentsecoli
coins51.JPG
201a. JULIA DOMNA29 viewsLuna

In Greek mythology, Selene was an ancient lunar deity and the daughter of the titans Hyperion and Theia. She was identified with the Roman moon goddess, Luna.

Like most moon deities, Selene plays a fairly large role in her pantheon. However, Selene was eventually largely supplanted by Artemis, and Luna by Diana. In the collection known as the Homeric hymns, there is a Hymn to Selene (xxxii), paired with the hymn to Helios. Selene is described in Apollodorus 1.2.2; Hesiod's Theogony 371; Nonnius 48.581; Pausanias 5.1.4; and Strabo 14.1.6, among others.

The Roman goddess of the moon, Luna, had a temple on the Aventine Hill. It was built in the 6th century BC, but was destroyed in the Great Fire of Rome during Nero's reign. There was also a temple dedicated to Luna Noctiluca ("Luna that shines by night") on the Palatine Hill. There were festivals in honor of Luna on March 31, August 24 and August 28

JULIA DOMNA, - 217 AD. Antoninianus, Rome, 215 - 217 AD Bust, no crescent, right / Luna Lucifera in biga left. Rare. RIC 379.
1 commentsecoli
RIC_0264b.jpg
202. CARACALLA254 viewsCARACALLA. 198-217 AD.

The emperor visited Alexandria for intellectual and religious reasons, staying at the Serapeum and being present at the temple's sacrifices and cultural events. Earlier, during the German war, the emperor visited the shrine of the Celtic healing-god Grannus. Caracalla also visited the famous temple of Asclepius in Pergamum and fully participated in its program, which involved sleeping inside the temple compound and having his dreams interpreted.

It was this religious devotion that led to Caracalla's murder in 217. Although suspicious of the praetorian prefect Macrinus, Caracalla allowed himself to be accompanied by only a small, select corps of bodyguards on an early spring trip from the camp at Edessa to the temple of the moon-god at Carrhae, about 25 miles away. During the journey back on 8 April 217, Caracalla was killed. The returning guards claimed the emperor was ambushed while defecating, and that the alleged assassin was one of their own, a soldier named Martialis. Martialis was himself killed by the avenging guards, or so the story went. Suspicion was strong that Macrinus arranged the entire affair.

Caracalla's violent end seemed appropriate for an emperor who, early in his reign, had his own brother killed. Yet the moralizing about fratricide by both ancient and modern historians obscures the energetic, reformist and even intellectual character of Caracalla's reign. Some of the reforms, especially the pay raise for soldiers, would prove burdensome for future emperors, but the changes brought about in the little more than five years of Caracalla's sole rule would have long-lasting implications throughout the empire for generations to come.

AR Denarius (19mm, 3.11 gm). Struck 215 AD. ANTONINVS PIVS AVG GERM, laureate head right / P M TR P XVIII COS IIII PP, Sol standing left, radiate, raising right hand and holding globe. RIC IV 264a; BMCRE 139; RSC 288. EF
Ex - CNG
2 commentsecoli73
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202a. Plautilla60 viewsVenus

The Roman goddess of love and beauty, but originally a vegetation goddess and patroness of gardens and vineyards. Later, under Greek influence, she was equated with Aphrodite and assumed many of her aspects. Her cult originated from Ardea and Lavinium in Latium. The oldest temple known of Venus dates back to 293 BCE, and was inaugurated on August 18. Later, on this date the Vinalia Rustica was observed. A second festival, that of the Veneralia, was celebrated on April 1 in honor of Venus Verticordia, who later became the protector against vice. Her temple was built in 114 BCE. After the Roman defeat near Lake Trasum in 215 BCE, a temple was built on the Capitol for Venus Erycina. This temple was officially opened on April 23, and a festival, the Vinalia Priora, was instituted to celebrate the occasion.

Venus is the daughter of Jupiter, and some of her lovers include Mars and Vulcan, modeled on the affairs of Aphrodite. Venus' importance rose, and that of her cult, through the influence of several Roman political leaders. The dictator Sulla made her his patroness, and both Julius Caesar and the emperor Augustus named her the ancestor of their (Julian) family: the 'gens Julia' was Aeneas, son of Venus and the mortal Anchises. Ceasar introduced the cult of Venus Genetrix, the goddess of motherhood and marriage, and built a temple for her in 46 BCE. She was also honored in the temple of Mars Ultor. The last great temple of Venus was built by the emperor Hadrianus near the Colusseum in 135 CE.

Roman statues and portraits of Venus are usually identical to the Greek representations of Aphrodite.

AR Denarius. PLAVTILLA AVGVSTA, draped bust right / VENVS VICTRIX, Venus standing left holding apple & palm, leaning on shield, Cupid at her feet. RSC 25.
ecoli
452_P_Hadrian.JPG
2061 IONIA, Ephesus Hadrian, Artemis 32 viewsReference.
RPC III, 2061; BMC 229

Obv. ΑΥT ΚΑΙ ΤΡΑΙ ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС СΕ
Laureate head right

Rev: ΕΦΕ-СΙΩΝ
tetrastyle temple within which cult statue of Artemis Ephesia with supports

8.2 gr
24 mm
okidoki
rjb_geta_01_09.jpg
20920 viewsGeta 209-12 AD
AE 26mm
Petra in Arabia
Roma seated left in distyle temple. Small countermark, male bust right, on obverse
BMC 28; countermark Howgego 126
mauseus
608_P_Hadrian_rpc218.JPG
218 CORINTHIA, Corinth Hadrian As 117-28 AD Isthmus11 viewsReference. very rare
RPC III, 218.7; NCP 14/6 and pl. C, XXXVII

Obv. IMP CAES TRAIAN HADRIANVS AVG
Laureate and cuirassed bust of Hadrian, r., with paludamentum, seen from front

Rev. COL LAV IVL COR
Tetrastyle temple; within, Isthmus seated l., his right hand on his head, l. resting on rudder.

7.7 gr
20 mm
3h
1 commentsokidoki
rjb_eleg_ber_04_08.jpg
218a17 viewsElagabalus 218-22 AD
AE 24 mm
Berytus in Phoenicia
Tetrastyle temple with curved arch containing a statue of Marsyas right
BMC 204, SNG Cop 116
1 commentsmauseus
rjb_elag6_10_07.jpg
218a24 viewsElagabalus 218-22 AD
AE 19 mm
Bostra in Arabia Petraea
Distyle temple with Serapis (?) standing left, small animal to left
BMC 20, SNG ANS 1212
mauseus
rjb_2013_04_05.jpg
218a37 viewsElagabalus 218-22 AD
AE 29 mm
Tyre in Phoenicia
Hexastyle temple with curved arch containing a statue of Astarte left, palm tree and murex shell flanking an altar in the foreground
BMC 393, Rouvier 2363, countermark Howgego 359
1 commentsmauseus
rjb_2016_09_03.jpg
2224 viewsSeverus Alexander as Caesar 222AD
AE 23mm
Nicaea in Bithynia
Hexastyle temple
Rec Gen - (cf 579)
mauseus
1165_P_Hadrian_RPC2329_5.jpg
2329 PHRYGIA, Laodicea Hadrian Medallion Zeus standing53 viewsReference.
RPC III, 2329.5; Von Aulock, Phrygiens -; SNG München -; SNG von Aulock-; SNG Copenhagen 575; BMC 195

Obv. ΑΥ ΚΑΙ ΤΡΑ ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС ΟΛΥΜΠΙΟС
Laureate head of Hadrian, r. with drapery on l. shoulder

Rev. ΛΑΟΔΙΚΕΩΝ
Zeus Laodiceus standing facing, head l., holding eagle in his extended r. hand, l. resting on sceptre

36.37 gr
39 mm
12h

Note.
From the Group CEM Collection, Classical Numismatic Group 90, 23 May 2012, 1058 and ex Waddell II, 12 September 1987, 363.

The epithet 'Olympios' was adopted by Hadrian in 128/9 following the dedication of the temple of Zeus Olympios in Athens. It emphasized the emperor's Panhellenic program and enthusiastic Philhellenism, for Zeus Olympios, chief god of the Greek peoples, was the Panhellenic god before all others. RPC suggests that the impressive Laodicean medallions bearing the new epithet were struck on the occasion of Hadrian's visit to the city in June 129.
6 commentsokidoki
GordIIIMoush3735.jpg
238-244 AD - Gordian III - Moushmov 3735 - Temple with Concordia Reverse43 viewsEmperor: Gordian III (r. 238-244 AD)
Date: 238-244 AD
Condition: aFine
Size: AE24

Obverse: IMP GORDIANVS PIVS AVG
Imperator Gordian Pius Emperor
Bust right; laureate

Reverse: COL FL PAC DEVLT
Tetrastyle temple with Concordia sacrificing over altar.

Mint: Deultum, Thrace
Moushmov 3735
7.80g; 24.3mm; 45°
Pep
853_P_Hadrian_RPC2400~0.JPG
2400 LYDIA, Sardis Hadrian, Temple of Aphrodite at Paphos21 viewsReference.
RPC III, 2400; BMC 134; Sardis 285

Issue No magistrate name

Obv. ΑΥ ΚΑΙ ΤΡΑΙΑΝΟС ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС
Laureate head of Hadrian, r., with drapery over shoulders

Rev. ΠΑΦΙΗ СΑΡΔΙΑΝΩΝ
Temple of Aphrodite at Paphos, in which conical xoanon with star and crescent above; to l. and r., flaming torch and column; paved semi-circular walled courtyard in front

10.36 gr
25 mm
6h
1 commentsokidoki
rjb_2009_10_14.jpg
240917 viewsIMP C POSTVMVS PF AVG
Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
HERC PACIFERO
Hercules standing left in tetrastyle temple
Mint 1 (Trier), Issue 3
Cunetio 2409
mauseus
rjb_2009_08_34.jpg
24415 viewsPhilip I 244-9 AD
AR antoninianus
Obv "IMP PHILIPPVS AVG"
Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev "SAECVLVM NOVVM"
Roma seated in hexastyle temple
Rome mint
RIC 25b
1 commentsmauseus
rjb_2012_08_05.jpg
24418 viewsPhilip I 244-9 AD
AE 18mm
Zeugma
Obv Laureate bust right
Rev Tetrastyle temple on top of rocky hill, buildings at base and colonnades or steps up the sides
Butcher CRS 33a, BMC 47 (Philip II in error)
mauseus
rjb_2012_08_07.jpg
24416 viewsPhilip I 244-9 AD
AE 30mm
Zeugma
Obv Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right viewed from the rear, weak countermark of eagle standing right in oval applied to obverse
Rev Tetrastyle temple on top of rocky hill, buildings at base and colonnades or steps up the sides, Capricorn right below
Butcher CRS 31a, BMC 29, countermark GIC 340
mauseus
rjb_2012_08_08.jpg
24735 viewsPhilip II 247-9 AD
AE 30mm
Zeugma
Obv Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right viewed from the front
Rev Tetrastyle temple on top of rocky hill, buildings at base and colonnades or steps up the sides, Capricorn right below
Butcher CRS –
Not recorded with this bust type.
The coins of Zeugma would seem to be struck at the same location as those of Antioch, Cyrrhus, Hierapolis, Philippopolis and Samosata. It is likely that an obverse die duplicate may exist among the coinages of those cities
mauseus
rjb_juno_109_05_06.jpg
251b22 viewsTrebonianus Gallus 251-3 AD
AE sestertius
Obv "IMP CAES C VIBIVS TREBONIANVS GALLVS AVG"
Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev "IVNONI MARTIALI SC"
Juno seated left in a distyle circular temple, peacock to left
Rome mint
RIC 110a
mauseus
rjb_juno_252a_05_06.jpg
251c22 viewsVolusian 251-3 AD
AE sestertius
Obv "IMP CAE C VIB VOLVSIANO AVG"
Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev "IVNONI MARTIALI SC"
Juno seated left in a tetrastyle circular temple, peacock to left
Rome mint
RIC 252a
mauseus
rjb_juno_252b_05_06.jpg
251c21 viewsVolusian 251-3 AD
AE as
Obv "IMP CAE C VIB VOLVSIANO AVG"
Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev "IVNONI MARTIALI SC"
Juno seated left in a tetrastyle circular temple, peacock to left
Rome mint
RIC 252b
mauseus
rjb_val2_04_06.jpg
253a23 viewsValerian I 253-60 AD
AE 30 mm
Sagalassus in Pisidia
Cult statue in octastyle temple
Countermark of eaglestanding facing with head turned left, wreath in beak - Howgego 335
mauseus
772_P_Hadrian_RPC2699var_.JPG
2705A PAMPHYLIA, Perga Hadrian AE 14 Artemis standing in temple17 viewsReference.
RPC III, 2705A; SNG Pfälzer IV, 278

Obv. [ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟ]C KAI
Laureate, draped, cuirassed bust right

Rev. [ΠƐΡΓ]ΑΙΩΝ
Tetrastyle temple; within which cult statue of Artemis of Perga; eagle in pediment.

2.46 gr
14 mm
6h
okidoki
1060_P_Hadrian_RPV2706cf.jpg
2706 PAMPHYLIA, Perga Hadrian Ae after 128 AD Artemis of Perga in temple34 viewsReference.
RPC III, 2706 cf=Berlin 5296 cf weight

Issue Hadrian Olumpios

Obv. ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС ΚΑΙСΑΡ ΟΛΥΜΠΙΟС
Laureate head of Hadrian, r., with drapery on l. shoulder, and over back of neck

Rev. ΑΡΤΕΜΙΔΟС ΠΕΡΓΑΙΑС
Hexastyle temple on podium within which cult statue of Artemis of Perga

25.88 gr
38 mm
6h

Note.
apparently there are two dominations this one being 25.88 gr and Berlin coin is 17.34 gr
2 commentsokidoki
SevAlex-RIC-144.jpg
30. Severus Alexander.12 viewsDenarius, ca 225 AD, Rome mint.
Obverse: IMP C M AVR SEV ALEXAND AVG / Laureate bust of Severus Alexander.
Reverse: IOVI VLTORI / Jupiter seared, holding Victory and spear.
3.01 gm., 18 mm.
RIC #144; Sear #7873.

The reverse legend is of some interest on this coin: IOVI VLTORI. The epithet Ultori (Avenger) is usually applied to Mars, not Jove. When Severus Alexander's cousin and predecessor Elagabalus was emperor, the temple of Jupiter (Jove) in Rome became the temple of the eastern sun-god El-Gabal. The religious excesses of the reign finally ended with the murder of Elagabalus, and things began to get back to normal. The temple was cleansed and rededicated to Jupiter. It is likely that the epithet Ultor was given to Jupiter at this time to appease him for the affront he suffered during the previous reign.
Callimachus
rjb_max_11_07.jpg
30628 viewsMaxentius 306-312 AD
AE Follis
Obv: IMP MAXENTIVS PF AVG
Laureate bust right
Rev: CONSERVATORES KART SVAE
Carthage standing left in hexastyle temple
-/-//PKΓ
Carthage Mint
RIC (VI) Carthage 60
1 commentsmauseus
rjb_fol9_01_09.jpg
30617 viewsMaxentius 306-312 AD
AE Follis
Obv: IMP C MAXENTIVS PF AVG
Laureate bust right
Rev: CONSERV VRB SVAE
Roma seated left in hexastyle temple
H/-//REP
Rome Mint
RIC (VI) Rome 258
1 commentsmauseus
coin245.JPG
308. Valerian I23 viewsRIC 209 Valerian I 253-260 AD AR Antoninianus of Moesia. Radiate draped bust/Aequitas standing holding balance and cornucopia.

Publius Licinius Valerianus (ca. 200-260), known in English as Valerian, was Roman emperor from 253 to 260. His full Latin title was IMPERATOR · CAESAR · PVBLIVS · LICINIVS · VALERIANVS · PIVS FELIX · INVICTVS · AVGVSTVS — in English, "Emperor Caesar Publius Licinus Valerianus Pious Lucky Undefeated Augustus."

Unlike the majority of the usurpers of the crisis of the third century, Valerian was of a noble and traditional Senatorial family. Details of his early life are elusive, but his marriage to Egnatia Mariniana who gave him two sons: Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus and Valerianus Minor is known.

In 238 he was princeps senatus, and Gordian I negotiated through him for Senatorial acknowledgement for his claim as Emperor. In 251, when Decius revived the censorship with legislative and executive powers so extensive that it practically embraced the civil authority of the Emperor, Valerian was chosen censor by the Senate. Under Decius he was nominated governor of the Rhine provinces of Noricum and Raetia and retained the confidence of his successor, Trebonianus Gallus, who asked him for reinforcements to quell the rebellion of Aemilianus in 253. Valerian headed south, but was too late: Gallus' own troops killed him and joined Aemilianus before his arrival. The Raetian soldiers then proclaimed Valerian emperor and continued their march towards Rome. At the time of his arrival in September, Aemilianus' legions defected, killing him and proclaiming Valerian emperor. In Rome, the Senate quickly acknowledged him, not only for fear of reprisals, but also because he was one of their own.

Valerian's first act as emperor was to make his son Gallienus colleague. In the beginning of his reign the affairs in Europe went from bad to worse and the whole West fell into disorder. In the East, Antioch had fallen into the hands of a Persian vassal, Armenia was occupied by Shapur I (Sapor). Valerian and Gallienus split the problems of the Empire between the two, with the son taking the West and the father heading East to face the Persian threat.

By 257, Valerian had already recovered Antioch and returned the Syrian province to Roman control but in the following year, the Goths ravaged Asia Minor. Later in 259, he moved to Edessa, but an outbreak of plague killed a critical number of legionaries, weakening the Roman position. Valerian was then forced to seek terms with Shapur I. Sometime towards the end of 259, or at the beginning of 260, Valerian was defeated and made prisoner by the Persians (making him the only Roman Emperor taken captive). It is said that he was subjected to the greatest insults by his captors, such as being used as a human stepladder by Shapur when mounting his horse. After his death in captivity, his skin was stuffed with straw and preserved as a trophy in the chief Persian temple. Only after Persian defeat in last Persia-Roman war three and a half centuries later was his skin destroyed.
ecoli
rjb_fol10_01_09.jpg
30913 viewsRomulus d. 309 AD
AE Follis
Obv: DIVO ROMVLO N V BIS CONS
Head right
Rev: AETERNAE MEMORIAE
Domed temple with open doors, eagle on roof
-/-//RBS
Rome Mint
RIC (VI) Rome 207
mauseus
rjb_fol11_01_09.jpg
30912 viewsRomulus d. 309 AD
AE Quarter Follis
Obv: DIVO ROMVLO N V BIS CONS
Head right
Rev: AETERNAE MEMORIAE
Domed temple with open doors, eagle on roof
-/-//MOSTT
Ostia Mint
RIC (VI) Ostia 59
mauseus
coin509.JPG
319. Probus13 viewsOBV.: IMP PROBVS AVG
Radiate, cuirassed bust right.

REV.: ROMAE AETER

Roma seated in temple, holding Victory and sceptre.

Mintmark: // R star A

3rd emission of Rome, 278 CE.
ecoli
caligula_RIC36-R.jpg
37-41 AD - CALIGULA AE sestertius - struck 37-38 AD79 viewsobv: C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS P M TR POT (Pietas, veiled, seated left and holding patera, left elbow resting on small statue of Spes), PIETAS in exergue
rev: DIVO-AVG (Gaius sacrificing before garlanded hexastyle temple; one attendant leading bull to altar, the other holding a patera), S-C across field
ref: RIC I 36 (R), BMCRE 41, Cohen 9 (15frcs)
27.38gms, 33mm
Very rare

This issue commemorates Gaius Caligula's dedication of the Temple of the Divus Augustus and the young emperor's sense of pietas. The PIETAS beneath the figure of the emperor drives home the point that he is fulfilling his duty by dedicating the temple to his great-grandfather. Construction of the Temple of the Divus Augustus began under Tiberius and, perhaps, under the direction of Livia herself, in the general area behind the Basilica Julia (though the actual site remains unknown), and was subsequently dedicated by Caligula.
2 commentsberserker
rjb_2019_02_03.jpg
3854 viewsM Voltei M F c.78 BC
AR denarius
Obv Laureate head of Jupiter right
Rev "M VOLTEI M F"
Tetrastyle temple of Jupiter
Rome mint
Crawford 385/1
mauseus
706Hadrian_RIC389.jpg
389B Hadrian Denarius Roma 138 AD Eagle standing24 viewsReference.
RIC 389B; RSC 271;

Obv. DIVVS HADRIANVS AVG
Head of Divus Hadrian, bare, right

Rev. CONSECRATIO
Eagle standing front on globe, head turned left, wings spread

3.04 gr
18 mm
6h

Note.
From the estate of Thomas Bentley Cederlind.

Consecratio was the apotheosis of the dead Roman emperors, which however was only bestowed on those who were judged worthy of her by the Senate or by their successors.
However, it is well known, how generous people in Rome with this honor mishandled. Even empresses enjoyed after their death the privilege of consecratio. After their consecratio they got the nickname of Divi or Divae. Several ceremonies at the funeral went to the consecratio advance. In burning the corpse on the pyre rose include becoming an eagle from the flames to heaven. The emperors and empresses thus become the god had their own temples, priests and parties. They were so entirely assimilated to the gods.

The emperors themselves have mocked their deification. In the Historia Augusta is sick of Vespasian told that he says "I feel to be a God." In his famous poem "Animula vagula blandula" Hadrian doubt his deification.
okidoki
192_P_Hadrian__BMC_palestina_23_Zeus.jpg
3932 JUDAEA, Tiberias Claudiopolis Hadrian 118-19, Zeus26 viewsReference.
RPC III, 3932; BMC Palestine 23 (pg.8) ;Rosenberger 12; SNG ANS 1109

Issue Year 101

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΤΡΑ ΑΔΡΙΑΝΩ ΚΑΙС СƐΒ
Laureate and cuirassed bust right, [slight drapery] seen from front

Rev.ΤΙΒΣΡ ΚΛΑVΔ / ΣΤΑ in exergue. ЄT AP dated CY 101 (119-120 AD)
Zeus seated left, holding patera and scepter, within tetrastyle temple.
ΤΙΒƐΡ ΚΛΑΥΔ, ΕΤ ΑΡ (in exergue)
Temple with four columns enclosing Zeus seated l., with patera and sceptre

10.46 gr
24 mm
12 h
okidoki
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3e Emission - (263-265) - Trèves - HERC DEVSONIENSI11 viewsIMP C POSTVMVS P F AVG
HERC DEVSONIENSI
EG 40
CUNETIO 2409
RIC 66
ELMER 316
AGK 26
de Witte 78
Cohen 98
PYL
Antony_RSC12_Fouree_2.jpg
4) Antony: RSC 12 Fouree17 viewsMarc Antony
AR Fouree Denarius
42 BC, Greek Mint.

M ANTONI IMP, bare head right / III VIR R P C, facing head of Sol in a temple of two columns.

Syd 1168, Cr496/1, RSC 12, Sear5 #1467
RM0014
1 commentsSosius
0001SOS.jpg
4) Antony: Sosius49 viewsGAIUS SOSIUS
General to Antony
Æ 26mm (14.5 g). ~ 38 BC.
Cilicia, Uncertain Mint.

Bare head right / Fiscus, sella, quaestoria and hasta; Q below.

Coin has been attributed to multiple rulers, including Julius Caesar, Augustus and Brutus. Now believed to be Sosius, General to Antony and Governor of Syria.

RPC I 5409; Laffaille 324; Grant, FITA, pg. 13. aFine, brown patina, scratches. Rare.
0001SOS


Sosius was wily and accomplished man. A talented general, he received a triumph. However, he consistently picked the wrong side in Rome's Civil Wars (Senate vs. Caesar, then Antony vs. Octavian) yet somehow managed to keep his head.

According to Wikipedia:

Gaius Sosius was a Roman general and politician.

Gaius Sosius was elected quaestor in 66 BC and praetor in 49 BC. Upon the start of the civil war, he joined the party of the Senate and Pompey. Upon the flight of Pompey to Greece, Sosius returned to Rome and submitted to Julius Caesar.

After the assassination of Caesar, Sosius joined the party of Mark Antony, by whom in 38 BC he was appointed governor of Syria and Cilicia in the place of Publius Ventidius. As governor, Sosius was commanded by Antony to support Herod against Antigonus the Hasmonean, when the latter was in possession of Jerusalem. In 37 BC, he advanced against Jerusalem and after he became master of the city, Sosius placed Herod upon the throne. In return for this services, he was awarded a triumph in 34 BC, and he became consul along with Gnaeus Domitius Ahenobarbus as his colleague in 32 BC.

When civil war broke out between Antony and Octavian, Sosius espoused the cause of Antony and violently attacked Octavian in the senate, for which he was forced to flee to the east. In 31 BC, Sosius commanded a squadron in Mark Antony's fleet with which he managed to defeat the squadron of Taurius Rufus – according to Dio 50.14 – and put it to flight, but when the latter was reinforced by Marcus Agrippa, Sosius's ally Tarcondimotus – the king of Cilicia – was killed and Sosius himself was forced to flee. At Actium, Sosius commanded the left wing of Antony's fleet. After the battle, from which he managed to escape, his hiding place was detected and Sosius was captured and brought before Octavian but, at the intercession of Lucius Arruntius, Octavian pardoned him. He returned to Rome and completed his building project on the temple of Apollo Medicus (begun in 34 BC), dedicating it in Octavian's name.

Unknown sons, but two daughters : Sosia and Sosia Galla, possibly by an Asinia,[1] a Nonia or an Aelia. However the name reappears with Q. Sosius Senecio, (consul in 99 and 107).[2] and Saint Sosius (275-305 AD).

Sosius attended the Ludi Saeculares in 17 according to an inscription CIL 6.32323 = ILS 5050 as a quindecimvir.
RM0002
4 commentsSosius
567_P_Hadrian_RPC.jpg
4029 JUDAEA, Gaza Hadrian 132-33 AD Io and Tyche standing20 viewsReference.
RPC III, 4029; De Saulcy 5; BMC 25; Cop. - Lindgren- - ANS.920

http://rpc.ashmus.ox.ac.uk/coins/3/4029/12/

Issue Year 4 = 193

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙ ΤΡΑΙ ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС С
Laureate and draped bust of Hadrian, right seen from rear.

Rev. ΕΙW ΓΑΖΑ in ex. Δ ΕΠI Γ P
Io, in long dress, standing r., and City-goddess, in long dress, turreted and holding cornucopia in her l. hand, clasping hands

12.88 gr
26 mm
12h

Note.
Hadrian visited Gaza more than once, and it was upon such a visit in AD 128 that an additional reckoning date, that of the επιδημία (imperial visit), was added. During one of his trips the great temple of Zeus-Marnas may have been founded, as it first appears on the coins of Hadrian.
1 commentsokidoki
939_P_Hadrian_RPC4031.jpg
4031 JUDAEA, Gaza Hadrian AE 21 132-33 AD Heracles standing13 viewsReference.
RPC III, 4031; Sofaer 73

Issue Year 4 = 193

Obv. Α ΚΑ ΤΡ ΑΔΡΙΑΝ СƐ
Laureate head of Hadrian, right with slight drapery

Rev. ΓΑΖΑ Δ ΕΠΙ ΓЧΡ
Heracles standing r., with club and lion-skin; to l., מ

4.16 gr
17 mm
12h

Note.
From the François Righetti Collection.

Hadrian visited Gaza more than once, and it was upon such a visit in AD 128 that an additional reckoning date, that of the επιδημία (imperial visit), was added. During one of his trips the great temple of Zeus-Marnas may have been founded, as it first appears on the coins of Hadrian.
okidoki
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42442 viewsC. Considius Nonianus; c.56 BC
AR denarius
Obv: "C. CONSIDI. NONIANI SC"
Laureate and diademed bust of Venus Erycina right
Rev: "ERVC"
Temple on summit of mountain, surrounded with rampart and central gateway
Crawford 424/1.
3 commentsmauseus
Caesar~0.jpg
46-45 BC Gauis Julius Caesar91 viewsDiademed head of Venus right, small cupid at shoulder behind


CAESAR
trophy of Gallic arms between two seated male and female captives

Spain 46-45 BC

3.71g
Sear 1404

ex-Calgary coins

Minted for the Spanish campaign against the Pompey brothers, the obverse of this series is occupied by the head of Venus, ancestress of the Julia gens along with a small Cupid identifying her as Venus Genetrix. Caesar had recently dedicated a temple in the forum to her. The reverse revives the theme of victory in Gaul probably to remind his veteran legions of the glory and success in years past. These veterans who were overdue for discharge were now being called on to face the Pompeian threat for the third time in two and a half years.


SOLD Forum Auction May 2016
2 commentsJay GT4
Moushmov_489_Marcianopolis_Julia_Domna_y_Caracala.jpg
47-22 - JULIA DOMNA y CARACALLA (198 - 211 D.C.)13 viewsMARCIANOPOLIS Moesia Inferior
Legado Consular QUINTILLIANUS

AE Pentasarión (5 Asarias)
27 mm 8.3 gr.

Anv: "ANTΩNINOC AVΓOVCTOC IOVΛIA ΔMNA" – Bustos enfrentados, Caracalla vestido y laureado viendo a derecha y Julia Domna vestiday sin diadema viendo a izquierda.
Rev: ”VΠ KVNTIΛIANOV MARKIANOΠOΛITΩN – Templo tetrástilo c/estatua de Tyche en su interior portando Timón en mano der. y cornucopia en izq - "E" en exergo.

Acuñada: 213 - 216 D.C.

Referencias: Moushmov #503, AMNG I parte 2 #693 P.230, Mionnet S.2 #186 P.85, Varbanov I #1052 P.132 (R4), Jurukova #503, Hristova & Jekov 6.19.46.14
mdelvalle
Marc_Antony_Cr496.jpg
496/1 Marc Antony45 viewsMarc Antony AR Denarius. 42 BC, Greek Mint. (3.62g, 17.8m, 2.3h). Obv: M ANTONI IMP, bare head right. Rev: III VIR R P C, facing head of Sol in a temple of two columns. RSC 12, Sear5 1467, Syd 1168, Cr496/1.

After Caesar’s death, Antony, Octavian, and Lepidus formed the Second Triumvirate. Ultimately, Lepidus was pushed to the side and Antony was defeated by Octavian at the battle of Actium. Fleeing back to Egypt, Antony and Cleopatra committed suicide in the face of their defeat by Octavian.
2 commentsLucas H
177.jpg
5-pointed star171 viewsSYRIA: COMMAGENE. Zeugma. Antoninus Pius. Æ 20. A.D. 138-161. Obv: AYT(OKAITIANAΔPIANTWNEINOCCE) or similar. Laureate head right; Countermark on neck. Rev: (ZEV)-ГMA-(TWN), (A) in upper field to left (?). Tetrastyle temple, with periobolos containing grove, and having on right and left a collonade and in front a portico or panelled wall of two stories. Ref: BMC 1 (obv. or sim.)/2 (rev.; var. leg. breaks, though). Axis: 360°. Weight: 6.03 g. Note: The meaning of the numerals on the reverse is not known, but may indicate issue. CM: 5-pointed star, in roughly square punch with rounded corners, 4 mm. Howgego 453 var. (32 pcs). Collection Automan.Automan
089n.jpg
5-pointed star in shaped punch188 viewsSYRIA: COMMAGENE. Zeugma. Antoninus Pius. Æ 20. A.D. 138-161. Obv: (AYTOKAITIAAΔ)PIA.-AN(TWNINOCCEB...) or similar. Laureate head right; countermark on neck. Rev: ZEY-ΓMA-TEWN, A above to left. Tetrastyle temple, with periobolos containing grove, and having on right and left a colonnade and in front a portico or panelled wall of two stories. Ref: BMC 1 (obv)/2 (rev). Axis: 360°. Weight: 8.37 g. Note: The meaning of the numerals on the reverse is not known, but may indicate issue. CM: 5-pointed star in shaped punch, 5 mm from point to point. Howgego 453 (32 pcs). Collection Automan.Automan
Moushmov_3079_Augusta_Traiana_Geta.jpg
50-35 - GETA (209 - 212 D.C.) 38 viewsAUGUSTA TRAIANA - Tracia

AE Tetrasarión
29.0 mm 16.1 gr.

Anv: "AVT K ΠO CEΠ ΓETAC CEB" – Busto. laur., vest. y acoraz. a der.
Rev: "AYΓOYCTHC TPAIA / NHC. " En exergo, Templo tetrástilo con estatua de Apolo portando pátera en der. y flecha en izq.

Acuñada: 209 - 212 D.C.

Referencias: Moushmov #3115 var. (Apollo en lugar de Asclepio), Varbanov II #1358 P.112 (R4), Schonert-Geiss #449
mdelvalle
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501. Constantine I Alexandria Posthumous23 viewsAlexandria

The city passed formally under Roman jurisdiction in 80 BC, according to the will of Ptolemy Alexander but after it had been previously under Roman influence for more than a hundred years. Julius Caesar dallied with Cleopatra in Alexandria in 47 BC, saw Alexander's body (quipping 'I came to see a king, not a collection of corpses' when he was offered a view of the other royal burials) and was mobbed by the rabble. His example was followed by Marc Antony, for whose favor the city paid dearly to Octavian, who placed over it a prefect from the imperial household.

From the time of annexation onwards, Alexandria seems to have regained its old prosperity, commanding, as it did, an important granary of Rome. This fact, doubtless, was one of the chief reasons which induced Augustus to place it directly under imperial power. In AD 215 the emperor Caracalla visited the city and for some insulting satires that the inhabitants had directed at him, abruptly commanded his troops to put to death all youths capable of bearing arms. This brutal order seems to have been carried out even beyond the letter, for a general massacre ensued.

Even as its main historical importance had formerly sprung from pagan learning, now Alexandria acquired fresh importance as a centre of Christian theology and church government. There Arianism was formulated and where also Athanasius, the great opponent of both Arianism and pagan reaction, triumphed over both, establishing the Patriarch of Alexandria as a major influence in Christianity for the next two centuries.

As native influences began to reassert themselves in the Nile valley, Alexandria gradually became an alien city, more and more detached from Egypt and losing much of its commerce as the peace of the empire broke up during the 3rd century AD, followed by a fast decline in population and splendour.

In the late 4th century, persecution of pagans by Christians had reached new levels of intensity. Temples and statues were destroyed throughout the Roman empire: pagan rituals became forbidden under punishment of death, and libraries were closed. In 391, Emperor Theodosius I ordered the destruction of all pagan temples, and the Patriarch Theophilus, complied with his request. It is possible that the great Library of Alexandria and the Serapeum was destroyed about this time. The pagan mathematician and philosopher Hypathia was a prominent victim of the persecutions.

The Brucheum and Jewish quarters were desolate in the 5th century, and the central monuments, the Soma and Museum, fell into ruin. On the mainland, life seemed to have centred in the vicinity of the Serapeum and Caesareum, both which became Christian churches. The Pharos and Heptastadium quarters, however, remained populous and left intact.

veiled head only
DV CONSTANTI-NVS PT AVGG
RIC VIII Alexandria 32 C3

From uncleaned lot; one of the nicer finds.
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501. Constantine I Cyzicus GLORIA EXERCITVS29 viewsCyzicus

Cyzicus was an ancient town of Mysia in Asia Minor, situated on the shoreward side of the present peninsula of Kapu-Dagh (Arctonnesus), which is said to have been originally an island in the Sea of Marmara, and to have been artificially connected with the mainland in historic times.

It was, according to tradition, occupied by Thessalian settlers at the coming of the Argonauts, and in 756 BC the town was founded by Greeks from Miletus.

Owing to its advantageous position it speedily acquired commercial importance, and the gold staters of Cyzicus were a staple currency in the ancient world till they were superseded by those of Philip of Macedon. (For more information on ancient coinage click here) During the Peloponnesian War (431-404 BC) Cyzicus was subject to the Athenians and Lacedaemonians alternately, and at the peace of Antalcidas (387 BC), like the other Greek cities in Asia, it was made over to Persia.

The history of the town in Hellenistic times is closely connected with that of the Attalids of Pergamon, with whose extinction it came into direct relations with Rome. Cyzicus was held for the Romans against Mithradates in 74 BC till the siege was raised by Lucullus: the loyalty of the city was rewarded by an extension of territory and other privileges. Still a flourishing centre in Imperial times, the place appears to have been ruined by a series of earthquakes —the last in AD 1063— and the population was transferred to Artaki at least as early as the 13th century, when the peninsula was occupied by the Crusaders.

The site is now known as Bal-Kiz and entirely uninhabited, though under cultivation. The principal extant ruins are the walls, which are traceable for nearly their whole extent, a picturesque amphitheatre intersected by a stream, and the substructures of the temple of Hadrian. Of this magnificent building, sometimes ranked among the seven wonders of the ancient world, thirty-one immense columns still stood erect in 1444. These have since been carried away piecemeal for building purposes.

RIC VII Cyzicus 110 R5

Ex-Varangian

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501. Constantine I Heraclea VOTA35 viewsHeraclea

Heraclea (Greek ‘Ηράκλεια), an ancient city of Lucania, situated near the modern Policoro, 3 m. from the coast of the Gulf of Taranto, between the rivers Aciris (Agri) and Sinis (Sinni) about 13 m. S.S.W. of Metapontum. It was a Greek colony founded by the Tarentines and Thurians in 432 BC, the former being predominant. It was chosen as the meeting-place of the general assembly of the Italiot Greeks, which Alexander of Epirus, after his alienation from Tarentum, tried to transfer to Thurii. Here Pyrrhus, king of Epirus, defeated the consul Laevinus in 280 BC, after he had crossed the river Sinis (see Battle of Heraclea). In 278 BC, or possibly in 282 BC, probably in order to detach it from Tarentum, the Romans made a special treaty with Heraclea, on such favourable terms that in 89 B.C. the Roman citizenship given to the inhabitants by the Lex Plautia Papiria was only accepted after considerable hesitation. We hear that Heraclea surrendered under compulsion to Hannibal in 212 BC and that in the Social War the public records were destroyed by fire. Cicero in his defence of the poet Archias, an adopted citizen of Heraclea, speaks of it as a flourishing town. As a consequence of its having accepted Roman citizenship, it became a municipium; part of a copy of the Lex Iulia Municipalis of 46 BC (engraved on the back of two bronze tablets, on the front of which is a Greek inscription of the 3rd century BC defining the boundaries of lands belonging to various temples), which was found between Heraclea and Metapontum, is of the highest importance for our knowledge of that law. It was still a place of some importance under the empire; a branch road from Venusia joined the coast road here. The circumstances of its destruction and abandonment was unknown; the site is now marked by a few heaps of ruins. Its medieval representative was Anglona, once a bishopric, but now itself a heap of ruins, among which are those of an 11th-century church.

Constantine I (AD 307-337)
AE3 - Vot XXX, .SMHB (Eyes to God)
AE-3 (AD 327-329)
OB: Plain-diademed head, right, looking upwards
CONSTANTINVS AVG.
REV: Wreath with VOT. /
XXX inscribed within
D. N. CONSTANTINI MAX. AVG.
. SMHB in exergue
Heraclea mint
RIC, Vol. VII, #92
Rated “Scarce” in RIC
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502. Constantine II Siscia GLORIA EXERCITVS24 viewsSiscia

All that remains from prehistoric inhabitants on this area are small statues of idols and tools. Indigenous Illyrian tribes were conquered in the 4th century by the Celts. Celts ethically and culturally mixed with Illyric tribes and established on the right bank of the river Kupa a settlement called Segestica. Illyric and Celtic tribes succeeded in withstanding Roman pressures until the year 35 BC when Emperor Octavian with 12,000 soldiers conquered Segestica after a thirty - day siege.

After Romans had conquered Segestica, they built Siscia on the left bank of the river Kupa (right below the centre of today's Sisak). Siscia was the capital town of the Province of Pannonia Savia, where 40,000 inhabitants resided. The town had the forum, basilicas, temples, an empire mint, a theatre and two ports.
Christianity was spreading unstoppably and encompassed the town of Sisak. The first known Bishop of Sisak was Kvirin from 284 AD until his martyr's death, probably in the year 303 AD.
With gradual collapse of the Roman Empire, the importance of Sisak declined and the great migration brought to Sisak Huns, Gauls, Avars and Slavs. Slav tribes remained in this area and eventually the Slav language became dominant.

RIC VII Siscia 253 R3
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504. Constantius II Campgate Nicomedia18 viewsNicomedia

Titular see of Bithynia Prima, founded by King Zipoetes. About 264 B.C. his son Nicodemes I dedicated the city anew, gave it his name, made it his capital, and adorned it with magnificent monuments. At his court the vanquished Hannibal sought refuge. When Bithynia became a Roman province Nicomedia remained its capital. Pliny the Younger mentions, in his letters to Trajan, several public edifices of the city — a senate house, an aqueduct which he had built, a forum, the temple of Cybele, etc. He also proposed to join the Black Sea with the Sea of Marmora by a canal which should follow the river Sangarius and empty the waters of the Lake of Sabandja into the Gulf of Astacus. A fire then almost destroyed the town. From Nicomedia perhaps, he wrote to Trajan his famous letter concerning the Christians. Under Marcus Aurelius, Dionysius, Bishop of Corinth, addressed a letter to his community warning them against the Marcionites (Eusebius, "Hist. Eccl.", IV, xxiii). Bishop Evander, who opposed the sect of the Ophites (P.L., LIII, 592), seems to have lived at the same time. Nicomedia was the favorite residence of Diocletian, who built there a palace, a hippodrome, a mint, and an arsenal. In 303 the edict of the tenth persecution caused rivers of blood to flow through the empire, especially in Nicomedia, where the Bishop Anthimus and a great many Christians were martyred. The city was then half Christian, the palace itself being filled with them. In 303, in the vast plain east of Nicomedia, Diocletian renounced the empire in favour of Galerius. In 311 Lucian, a priest of Antioch, delivered a discourse in the presence of the judge before he was executed. Other martyrs of the city are numbered by hundreds. Nicomedia suffered greatly during the fourth century from an invasion of the Goths and from an earthquake (24 Aug., 354), which overthrew all the public and private monuments; fire completed the catastrophe. The city was rebuilt, on a smaller scale. In the reign of Justinian new public buildings were erected, which were destroyed in the following century by the Shah Chosroes. Pope Constantine I visited the city in 711. In 1073 John Comnenus was there proclaimed emperor and shortly afterwards was compelled to abdicate. In 1328 it was captured by the Sultan Orkhan, who restored its ramparts, parts of which are still preserved.

RIC VII Nicomedia 158 R2

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504. CONSTANTIUS II GLORIA EXERCITVS Antioch18 viewsAntioch

Under the empire we chiefly hear of the earthquakes which shook Antioch. One, in AD 37, caused the emperor Caligula to send two senators to report on the condition of the city. Another followed in the next reign; and in 115, during Trajan's sojourn in the place with his army of Parthia, the whole site was convulsed, the landscape altered, and the emperor himself forced to take shelter in the circus for several days. He and his successor restored the city; but in 526, after minor shocks, the calamity returned in a terrible form; the octagonal cathedral which had been erected by the emperor Constantius II suffered and thousands of lives were lost, largely those of Christians gathered to a great church assembly. We hear also of especially terrific earthquakes on November 29, 528 and October 31, 588.

At Antioch Germanicus died in AD 19, and his body was burnt in the forum. Titus set up the Cherubim, captured from the Jewish temple, over one of the gates. Commodus had Olympic games celebrated at Antioch, and in 266 the town was suddenly raided by the Persians, who slew many in the theatre. In 387 there was a great sedition caused by a new tax levied by order of Theodosius, and the city was punished by the loss of its metropolitan status. Zeno, who renamed it Theopolis, restored many of its public buildings just before the great earthquake of 526, whose destructive work was completed by the Persian Chosroes twelve years later. Justinian I made an effort to revive it, and Procopius describes his repairing of the walls; but its glory was past.

The chief interest of Antioch under the empire lies in its relation to Christianity. Evangelized perhaps by Peter, according to the tradition upon which the Antiochene patriarchate still rests its claim for primacy (cf. Acts xi.), and certainly by Barnabas and Paul, who here preached his first Christian sermon in a synagogue, its converts were the first to be called Christians

004. CONSTANTIUS II Antioch

RIC VII Antioch 88 C3

From Uncleaned Lot

ecoli
1053_P_Hadrian_RPC5050.jpg
5050 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Tetradrachm 117-18 AD Dikaiosyne standing17 viewsReference.
RPC III, 5050 (this coin). Dattari-Savio Pl. 65, 1347 (this coin).Emmett 833.2

Issue L B = year 2

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙС ΤΡΑΝΟС (sic) ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС СƐΒ
Laureate head of Hadrian, r., drapery on l. shoulder

Rev. L Β
Dikaiosyne standing facing, head l., holding scales and cornucopia

12.52 gr
25 mm
12h

Note.
From the Dattari collection.

In ancient Greek culture, Dikē (/ˈdiːkeɪ/ or /ˈdɪkiː/; Greek: Δίκη, English translation: "justice") was the goddess of justice and the spirit of moral order and fair judgement based on immemorial custom, in the sense of socially enforced norms and conventional rules. According to Hesiod (Theogony, l. 901), she was fathered by Zeus upon his second consort, Themis. She and her mother were both personifications of justice. She is depicted as a young, slender woman carrying a physical balance scale and wearing a laurel wreath while her Roman counterpart (Justitia) appears in a similar fashion but blind-folded. She is represented in the constellation Libra which is named for the Latin name of her symbol (Scales). She is often associated with Astraea, the goddess of innocence and purity. Astraea is also one of her epithets referring to her appearance in the nearby constellation Virgo which is said to represent Astraea. This reflects her symbolic association with Astraea, who too has a similar iconography.

The sculptures of the Temple of Zeus at Olympia have as their unifying iconographical conception the dikē of Zeus, and in poetry she is often the attendant (paredros) of Zeus.
In the philosophical climate of late 5th century Athens, dikē could be anthropomorphised as a goddess of moral justice.
She was one of the three second-generation Horae, along with Eunomia ("order") and Eirene ("peace")
okidoki
896_P_Hadrian_Emmett1037_5.jpg
5292 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Drachm 120-21 AD Serapis17 viewsReference.
RPC III, 5292.6; Dattari-Savio Suppl. 154 (this coin); Emmett 1037.5

Issue L E = year 5

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙ ΤΡΑΙ - ΑΔΡΙΑ СƐΒ
Laureate head of Hadrian, r., drapery on l. shoulder.

Rev. L Ε
Temple (classical) with two columns enclosing Sarapis standing facing, head l., holding sceptre; to l., altar, Temple with sun disc between horns

15.91 gr
33 mm
12h

Note.
From the Dattari collection.
okidoki
1040Hadrian_RIC549.jpg
549 Hadrian Sestertius Roma 118 AD Annona standing59 viewsReference.
RIC 549; C 184; Strack 513; Banti 102; BMC 1125

Obv. IMP CAESAR TRAIANVS HADRIANVS AVG
Laureate bust r., drapery on l. shoulder

Rev. PONT MAX - TR POT COS II in ex. ANNONA AVG in field, S - C
Annona standing r., holding cornucopiae in front of her, modius and corn-ears and high prow of ship.

20.56 gr
31.2 mm
6h

Note.
In ancient Rome, the Romans used the term Cura Annonae ("care for the grain supply"), in honour of their goddess Annona and the grain dole was distributed from the Temple of Ceres.
5 commentsokidoki
478_P_Hadrian_Emmett1042.jpg
5844 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Drachm 132-33 AD Hadrian & Serapis18 viewsReference.
Emmett 1042.17; RPC III, 5844; Köln 1085-6; Dattari (Savio) 1944-5

Issue L IZ = year 17

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙС ΤΡΑΙΑΝ - ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС СƐΒ
Laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right.

Rev. [L] IZ (date) in exergue.
temple (classical) with two columns enclosing Sarapis standing, r. holding sceptre and raising arm; to r., Emperor (Hadrian), laureate-headed, wearing toga, standing l., holding sceptre; between, altar inscribed ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟΝ

27.60 gr
33 mm
11 h.

Note.
CNG E-auction 360
Ex Coin Galleries (12 April 2000), lot 497 (listed as Ex Dattari, but not one of the plated examples).
okidoki
1006_P_Hadrian_RPC5845.jpg
5845 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Drachm 132-33 AD Hadrian & Serapis52 viewsReference.
RPC III 5845/2; Köln 1084; Dattari (Savio) 1946 (this coin); K&G 32.554; Emmett 1042.17; Staffieri, Alexandria In Nummis 69 (this coin)

Issue L IZ = year 17

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙС ΤΡΑΙΑΝ - ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС СƐΒ
Laureate draped and cuirassed bust of Hadrian, r., seen from rear

Rev. L ΙΖ
Temple (classical) with two columns enclosing Sarapis standing, r. holding sceptre and presenting globe; to r., Emperor (Hadrian), laureate-headed, wearing toga, standing l.,
holding sceptre; between, altar inscribed ΑΔΡ/ΙΑ/ΝΟΝ

23.82 gr
34 mm
12h

Note.
From the Giovanni Maria Staffieri Collection, purchased from Renzo Canavesi, Sagno, 1996. Ex Renzo Canavesi Collection (Sagno); Dr. Piero Beretta Collection (Milan); Giovanni Dattari Collection, no. 1946.

A rare variety with Sarapis holding a globe instead of saluting the emperor. The authors of RPC cite two coins: this coin, and the one in the Köln collection. There is also an example in the Ashmolean Museum collection (Milne 1380).
8 commentsokidoki
1274_P_Hadrian_RPC6040_13.jpg
6040 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Drachm 134-35 AD Isis as mother5 viewsReference.
RPC III, 6040.13; Dattari-Savio Pl. 96, 7874 (this coin); Emmett 998.19

Issue L ƐΝΝƐΑΚ·Δ = year 19

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙС ΤΡΑΙΑΝ - ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС СƐΒ
Laureate draped and cuirassed bust of Hadrian, r., seen from rear

Rev. L ƐΝΝƐΑΚ·Δ
Temple (Greco-Egyptian) with two columns enclosing Isis, crowned with disc, horns and plumes, seated r.; on knee, Harpocrates, crowned with pschent, raising hand and holding club

20.22 gr
33 mm
12h
okidoki
504_P_Hadrian_Emmett1036.jpg
6044 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Drachm 134-35 AD Sarapis18 viewsReference.
Emmett 1036.19; RPC III, 6044; Cf. Milne 1469 (division of legend); D 1966

Issue L ƐΝΝƐΑΚ·Δ = year 19

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙС ΤΡΑΙΑΝ - ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС СƐΒ
Laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust of Hadrian right, seen from behind.

Rev. L ƐΝΝƐΑΚ·Δ
temple (classical) with two columns enclosing Sarapis seated, l.; to l., Cerberus

21.31 gr
33 mm
11h
okidoki
1202_P_Hadrian_RPC6212_3.jpg
6212 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Drachm 136-37 AD Egyptian temple21 viewsReference.
RPC III, 6212.3; Dattari-Savio Pl. 97, 1975 (this coin); Emmett 996.21; Köln 1230 same die pair

Issue L KA = year 21

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙС ΤΡΑΙΑΝ - ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС СƐΒ
Bare head of Hadrian, left

Rev. L ΚΑ
Egyptian temple with pylons with statue of Isis, holding sceptre

21.50 gr
33 mm
12h
1 commentsokidoki
Philip-II-RIC-232.jpg
68. Philip II as Augustus.21 viewsAntoninianus, ca 247 - 249AD, Antioch mint.
Obverse: IMP IVL V PHILIPPVS AVG / Radiate bust of Philip II.
Reverse: PM TR P IIII COS P P / Felicitas standing, holding long caduceus and cornucopiae.
4.19 gm., 21 mm.
RIC #232; Sear #9268.

No coins were minted at Antioch for Philip II when he was Caesar. It is only after 247 when his father made him Augustus and co-emperor with himself do we find coins of Philip II being minted in Antioch. The dated reverse legends on the coins of both Philips from Antioch are a bit puzzling. Philip I was already COS II (247) and COS III (248), and these numbers are not shown on coins minted at Antioch. The Philip II coins of Antioch seem use the TR P numbers of his father. It is thought that perhaps the mint at Antioch was just copying reverse types from coins in general circulation (Aequitas, Felicitas, the temple & lion of the millennium series, etc.). If the mint personnel spoke Greek and did not fully understand what TR P, COS, and various Roman numerals actually meant, it is understandable how they could come up with legends that did not make sense.
1 commentsCallimachus
69-Maxentius-2.JPG
69-Maxentius -2-S30 viewsAE Follis, Aquileia mint, 307 AD.
Obv: IMP C MAXENTIVS PF AVG, Laureate head right.
Rev: CONSERV VRB SVAE, Roma seated in tetrastyle temple handing globe to Maxentius, seated captive between them. Victory as acroteria, she wolf and twins in pediment.
AQS in exergue.
25mm , 6.9gm
RIC 113
jdholds
AugustusAE19Sardeis.jpg
702a, Augustus, 16 January 27 B.C. - 19 August 14 A.D.35 viewsAugustus, 27 BC - 14 AD. AE 19mm (5.98 gm). Lydia, Sardeis. Diodoros Hermophilou. Obverse: head right. Reverse: Zeus Lydios standing facing holding scepter and eagle. RPC I, 489, 2986; SNG von Aulock 3142. aVF. Fine portrait. Ex Tom Vossen.

De Imperatoribus Romanis:
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers

AUGUSTUS (31 B.C. - 14 A.D.)

Garrett G. Fagan
Pennsylvania State University

In the course of his long and spectacular career, he put an end to the advancing decay of the Republic and established a new basis for Roman government that was to stand for three centuries. This system, termed the "Principate," was far from flawless, but it provided the Roman Empire with a series of rulers who presided over the longest period of unity, peace, and prosperity that Western Europe, the Middle East and the North African seaboard have known in their entire recorded history. Even if the rulers themselves on occasion left much to be desired, the scale of Augustus's achievement in establishing the system cannot be overstated. Aside from the immense importance of Augustus's reign from the broad historical perspective, he himself is an intriguing figure: at once tolerant and implacable, ruthless and forgiving, brazen and tactful. Clearly a man of many facets, he underwent three major political reinventions in his lifetime and negotiated the stormy and dangerous seas of the last phase of the Roman Revolution with skill and foresight. With Augustus established in power and with the Principate firmly rooted, the internal machinations of the imperial household provide a fascinating glimpse into the one issue that painted this otherwise gifted organizer and politician into a corner from which he could find no easy exit: the problem of the succession.

(For a very detailed and interesting account of the Age of Augustus see: http://www.roman-emperors.org/auggie.htm)

Death and Retrospective

In his later years, Augustus withdrew more and more from the public eye, although he continued to transact public business. He was getting older, and old age in ancient times must have been considerably more debilitating than it is today. In any case, Tiberius had been installed as his successor and, by AD 13, was virtually emperor already. In AD 4 he had received grants of both proconsular and tribunician power, which had been renewed as a matter of course whenever they needed to be; in AD 13, Tiberius's imperium had been made co-extensive with that of Augustus. While traveling in Campania, Augustus died peacefully at Nola on 19 August, AD 14. Tiberius, who was en route to Illyricum, hurried to the scene and, depending on the source, arrived too late or spent a day in consultation with the dying princes. The tradition that Livia poisoned her husband is scurrilous in the extreme and most unlikely to be true. Whatever the case about these details, Imperator Caesar Augustus, Son of a God, Father of his Country, the man who had ruled the Roman world alone for almost 45 years, or over half a century if the triumviral period is included, was dead. He was accorded a magnificent funeral, buried in the mausoleum he had built in Rome, and entered the Roman pantheon as Divus Augustus. In his will, he left 1,000 sesterces apiece to the men of the Praetorian guard, 500 to the urban cohorts, and 300 to each of the legionaries. In death, as in life, Augustus acknowledged the true source of his power.

The inscription entitled "The Achievements of the Divine Augustus" (Res Gestae Divi Augustae; usually abbreviated RG) remains a remarkable piece of evidence deriving from Augustus's reign. The fullest copy of it is the bilingual Greek and Latin version carved into the walls of the Temple of Rome and Augustus at Ancyra in Galatia (for this reason the RG used to be commonly referred to as the Monumentum Ancyranum). Other evidence, however, demonstrates that the original was inscribed on two bronze pillars that flanked the entrance to the Mausoleum of Augustus in Rome. The inscription remains the only first-person summary of any Roman emperor's political career and, as such, offers invaluable insights into the Augustan regime's public presentation of itself.

In looking back on the reign of Augustus and its legacy to the Roman world, its longevity ought not to be overlooked as a key factor in its success. People had been born and reached middle age without knowing any form of government other than the Principate. Had Augustus died earlier (in 23 BC, for instance), matters may have turned out very differently. The attrition of the civil wars on the old Republican aristocracy and the longevity of Augustus, therefore, must be seen as major contributing factors in the transformation of the Roman state into a monarchy in these years. Augustus's own experience, his patience, his tact, and his great political acumen also played their part. All of these factors allowed him to put an end to the chaos of the Late Republic and re-establish the Roman state on a firm footing. He directed the future of the empire down many lasting paths, from the existence of a standing professional army stationed at or near the frontiers, to the dynastic principle so often employed in the imperial succession, to the embellishment of the capital at the emperor's expense. Augustus's ultimate legacy, however, was the peace and prosperity the empire was to enjoy for the next two centuries under the system he initiated. His memory was enshrined in the political ethos of the Imperial age as a paradigm of the good emperor; although every emperor adopted his name, Caesar Augustus, only a handful earned genuine comparison with him.

Copyright © 1999, Garrett G. Fagan.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Augustus (the first Roman emperor, in whose reign Jesus Christ was born) is without any doubt one of the most important figures in Roman history.

It is reported that when he was near death, Augustus addressed those in attendance with these words, "If I have played my part well, applaud!"

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr
Cleisthenes
TiberiusHierapolis.jpg
703b, Tiberius, 19 August 14 - 16 March 37 A.D., Hierapolis, Phrygia104 viewsBronze AE 16, RPC I 2966 (1 specimen), F, Phrygia, Hierapolis, 3.300g, 15.6mm, 0o; Obverse: TIBEPIOC KAISAR, laureate head right; Reverse: IERAPOLEITWN ZOSIMOS [...], Apollo Archegetes (Lairbenos) standing left, playing lyre; reverse countermarked with star of six rays, in oval punch, 2.5 x 3.5 mm, Howgego 445 (3 pcs, 1 of which from this magistrate); dark patina; very rare. Ex FORVM.

De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

TIBERIUS (A.D. 14-37)

Garrett G. Fagan
Pennsylvania State University

The reign of Tiberius Claudius Nero (b. 42 B.C., d. A.D. 37, emperor A.D. 14-37) is a particularly important one for the Principate, since it was the first occasion when the powers designed for Augustus alone were exercised by somebody else. In contrast to the approachable and tactful Augustus, Tiberius emerges from the sources as an enigmatic and darkly complex figure, intelligent and cunning, but given to bouts of severe depression and dark moods that had a great impact on his political career as well as his personal relationships. His reign abounds in contradictions. Despite his keen intelligence, he allowed himself to come under the influence of unscrupulous men who, as much as any actions of his own, ensured that Tiberius's posthumous reputation would be unfavorable; despite his vast military experience, he oversaw the conquest of no new region for the empire; and despite his administrative abilities he showed such reluctance in running the state as to retire entirely from Rome and live out his last years in isolation on the island of Capri. His reign represents, as it were, the adolescence of the Principate as an institution. Like any adolescence, it proved a difficult time.

. . . .

It is all but inevitable that any historical assessment of Tiberius will quickly devolve into a historiographical assessment of Tacitus. So masterful is Tacitus's portrayal of his subject, and so influential has it been ever since, that in all modern treatments of Tiberius, in attempting to get at the man, must address the issue of Tacitus's historiographical methods, his sources, and his rhetoric. The subject is too vast to address here, but some points are salient. Tacitus's methods, especially his use of innuendo and inference to convey notions that are essentially editorial glosses, makes taking his portrayal of Tiberius at face value inadvisable. Further, his belief in the immutable character of people -- that one's character is innate at birth and cannot be changed, although it can be disguised -- prevents him from investigating the possibility that Tiberius evolved and developed over his lifetime and during his reign. Instead, Tacitus's portrayal is one of peeling back layers of dissimulation to reach the "real" Tiberius lurking underneath.

Overall, Tiberius's reign can be said to show the boons and banes of rule by one man, especially a man as dark, awkward, and isolated as Tiberius. For the people of the provinces, it was a peaceful and well-ordered time. Governors behaved themselves, and there were no destructive or expensive wars. In the domestic sphere, however, the concentration of power in one person made all the greater the threat of misbehavior by ambitious satellites like Sejanus or foolish friends like Piso. Furthermore, if the emperor wished to remain aloof from the mechanics of power, he could do so. Administrators, who depended on him for their directions, could operate without his immediate supervision, but their dealings with a man like Sejanus could lead to disaster if that man fell from grace. As a result, although he was not a tyrant himself, Tiberius's reign sporadically descended into tyranny of the worst sort. In the right climate of paranoia and suspicion, widespread denunciation led to the deaths of dozens of Senators and equestrians, as well as numerous members of the imperial house. In this sense, the reign of Tiberius decisively ended the Augustan illusion of "the Republic Restored" and shone some light into the future of the Principate, revealing that which was both promising and terrifying.

[For the complete article please refer to http://www.roman-emperors.org/tiberius.htm]

By Garrett G. Fagan, Pennsylvania State University.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.


Hierapolis in History

Usually said to be founded by Eumenes II, king of Pergamum (197-159 BC), Hierapolis may actually have been established closer to the 4th century BC by the Seleucid kings.

The name of the city may derive from Hiera, the wife of Telephus (son of Hercules and grandson of Zeus), the mythical founder of Pergamum. Or it may have been called the "sacred city" because of the temples located at the site. (The name Pamukkale is sometimes used just to refer to the white terraces, but the modern name of the whole area is also Pamukkale.)

With Colossae and Laodicea, Hierapolis became part of the tri-city area of the Lycus River valley. Hierapolis was located across the river from the other two cities and was noted for its textiles, especially wool. The city was also famous for its purple dye, made from the juice of the madder root.

The hot springs at Hierapolis (which still attract visitors today) were believed to have healing properties, and people came to the city to bathe in the rich mineral waters in order to cure various ailments.

Hierapolis was dedicated to Apollo Lairbenos, who was said to have founded the city. The Temple of Apollo that survives in ruins today dates from the 3rd century AD, but its foundations date from the Hellenistic period.

Also worshipped at Hierapolis was Pluto, god of the underworld, probably in relation to the hot gases released by the earth (see the Plutonium, below). The chief religious festival of ancient Hierapolis was the Letoia, in honor of the the goddess Leto, a Greek form of the Mother Goddess. The goddess was honoured with orgiastic rites.

Hierapolis was ceded to Rome in 133 BC along with the rest of the Pergamene kingdom, and became part of the Roman province of Asia. The city was destroyed by an earthquake in 60 AD but rebuilt, and it reached its peak in the 2nd and 3rd centuries AD.

Famous natives of Hierapolis include the Stoic philosopher Epictetus (c.55-c.135 AD) and the philosopher and rhetorician Antipater. Emperor Septimus hired Antipater to tutor his sons Caracalla and Geta, who became emperors themselves.

Hierapolis had a significant Jewish population in ancient times, as evidence by numerous inscriptions on tombs and elsewhere in the city. Some of the Jews are named as members of the various craft guilds of the city. This was probably the basis for the Christian conversion of some residents of Hierapolis, recorded in Colossians 4:13.

In the 5th century, several churches as well as a large martyrium dedicated to St. Philip (see "In the Bible," below) were built in Hierapolis. The city fell into decline in the 6th century, and the site became partially submerged under water and deposits of travertine. It was finally abandoned in 1334 after an earthquake. Excavations began to uncover Hierapolis in the 19th century.

Hierapolis in the Bible

Hierapolis is mentioned only once in the Bible, when St. Paul praises Epaphras, a Christian from Colossae, in his letter to the Colossians. Paul writes that Epaphras "has worked hard for you and for those in Laodicea and in Hierapolis" (Colossians 4:12-13). Epaphras was probably the founder of the Christian community at Hierapolis.

Ancient tradition also associates Hierapolis with a biblical figure, reporting that Philip died in Hierapolis around 80 AD. However, it is not clear which Philip is menat. It could be Philip the Apostle, one of the original 12 disciples, who is said to have been martyred by upside-down crucifixion (Acts of Philip) or by being hung upside down by his ankles from a tree.

Or Philip could be Philip the Evangelist, a later disciple who helped with administrative matters and had four virgin-prophetess daughters (Acts 6:1-7; 21:8-9). Early traditions say this Philip was buried in Hierapolis along with his virgin daughters, but confusingly call him "Philip the Apostle"! In any case, it seems a prominent person mentioned in Acts did die in Hierapolis.
http://www.sacred-destinations.com/turkey/hierapolis-pamukkale.htm

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
GalbaAEAs.jpg
707a, Galba, 3 April 68 - 15 January 69 A.D.66 viewsGalba AE As, 68-69 AD; cf. SRC 727, 729ff; 27.85mm, 12g; Rome: Obverse: GALBA IMP CAESAR…, Laureate head right; Reverse: S P Q R OB CIV SER in oak wreath; gF+/F Ex. Ancient Imports.

De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Galba (68-69 A.D.)

John Donahue
College of William and Mary


Introduction
The evidence for the principate of Galba is unsatisfactory. The sources either concentrate on the personality of the man, thereby failing to offer a balanced account of his policies and a firm chronological base for his actions; or, they focus on the final two weeks of his life at the expense of the earlier part of his reign. As a result, a detailed account of his principate is difficult to write. Even so, Galba is noteworthy because he was neither related to nor adopted by his predecessor Nero. Thus, his accession marked the end of the nearly century-long control of the Principate by the Julio-Claudians. Additionally, Galba's declaration as emperor by his troops abroad set a precedent for the further political upheavals of 68-69. Although these events worked to Galba's favor initially, they soon came back to haunt him, ending his tumultuous rule after only seven months.

Early Life and Rise to Power
Born 24 December 3 BC in Tarracina, a town on the Appian Way, 65 miles south of Rome, Servius Galba was the son of C. Sulpicius Galba and Mummia Achaica. Galba's connection with the noble house of the Servii gave him great prestige and assured his acceptance among the highest levels of Julio-Claudian society. Adopted in his youth by Livia, the mother of the emperor Tiberius, he is said to have owed much of his early advancement to her. Upon her death, Livia made Galba her chief legatee, bequeathing him some 50 million sesterces. Tiberius, Livia's heir, reduced the amount, however, and then never paid it. Galba's marriage proved to be a further source of disappointment, as he outlived both his wife Lepida and their two sons. Nothing else is known of Galba's immediate family, other than that he remained a widower for the rest of his life.

Although the details of Galba's early political career are incomplete, the surviving record is one of an ambitious Roman making his way in the Emperor's service. Suetonius records that as praetor Galba put on a new kind of exhibition for the people - elephants walking on a rope. Later, he served as governor of the province of Aquitania, followed by a six-month term as consul at the beginning of 33. Ironically, as consul he was succeeded by Salvius Otho, whose own son would succeed Galba as emperor. Over the years three more governorships followed - Upper Germany (date unknown), North Africa (45) and Hispania Tarraconensis, the largest of Spain's three provinces (61). He was selected as a proconsul of Africa by the emperor Claudius himself instead of by the usual method of drawing lots. During his two-year tenure in the province he successfully restored internal order and quelled a revolt by the barbarians. As an imperial legate he was a governor in Spain for eight years under Nero, even though he was already in his early sixties when he assumed his duties. The appointment showed that Galba was still considered efficient and loyal. In all of these posts Galba generally displayed an enthusiasm for old-fashioned disciplina, a trait consistent with the traditional characterization of the man as a hard-bitten aristocrat of the old Republican type. Such service did not go unnoticed, as he was honored with triumphal insignia and three priesthoods during his career.

On the basis of his ancestry, family tradition and service to the state Galba was the most distinguished Roman alive (with the exception of the houses of the Julii and Claudii) at the time of Nero's demise in 68. The complex chain of events that would lead him to the Principate later that year began in March with the rebellion of Gaius Iulius Vindex, the governor of Gallia Lugdunensis. Vindex had begun to sound out provincial governors about support for a rebellion perhaps in late 67 or early 68. Galba did not respond but, because of his displeasure with Neronian misgovernment, neither did he inform the emperor of these treasonous solicitations. This, of course, left him dangerously exposed; moreover, he was already aware that Nero, anxious to remove anyone of distinguished birth and noble achievements, had ordered his death. Given these circumstances, Galba likely felt that he had no choice but to rebel.

In April, 68, while still in Spain, Galba "went public," positioning himself as a vir militaris, a military representative of the senate and people of Rome. For the moment, he refused the title of Emperor, but it is clear that the Principate was his goal. To this end, he organized a concilium of advisors in order to make it known that any decisions were not made by him alone but only after consultation with a group. The arrangement was meant to recall the Augustan Age relationship between the emperor and senate in Rome. Even more revealing of his imperial ambitions were legends like LIBERTAS RESTITUTA (Liberty Restored), ROM RENASC (Rome Reborn) and SALUS GENERIS HUMANI (Salvation of Mankind), preserved on his coinage from the period. Such evidence has brought into question the traditional assessment of Galba as nothing more than an ineffectual representative of a bygone antiquus rigor in favor of a more balanced portrait of a traditional constitutionalist eager to publicize the virtues of an Augustan-style Principate.
Events now began to move quickly. In May, 68 Lucius Clodius Macer, legate of the III legio Augusta in Africa, revolted from Nero and cut off the grain supply to Rome. Choosing not to recognize Galba, he called himself propraetor, issued his own coinage, and raised a new legion, the I Macriana liberatrix. Galba later had him executed. At the same time, 68, Lucius Verginius Rufus, legionary commander in Upper Germany, led a combined force of soldiers from Upper and Lower Germany in defeating Vindex at Vesontio in Gallia Lugdunensis. Verginius refused to accept a call to the emperorship by his own troops and by those from the Danube, however, thereby creating at Rome an opportunity for Galba's agents to win over Gaius Nymphidius Sabinus, the corrupt praetorian prefect since 65. Sabinus was able to turn the imperial guard against Nero on the promise that they would be rewarded financially by Galba upon his arrival. That was the end for Nero. Deposed by the senate and abandoned by his supporters, he committed suicide in June. At this point, encouraged to march on Rome by the praetorians and especially by Sabinus, who had his own designs on the throne, Galba hurriedly established broad-based political and financial support and assembled his own legion (subsequently known as the legio VII Gemina). As he departed from Spain, he abandoned the title of governor in favor of "Caesar," apparently in an attempt to lay claim to the entire inheritance of the Julio-Claudian house. Even so, he continued to proceed cautiously, and did not actually adopt the name of Caesar (and with it the emperorship) until sometime after he had left Spain.

The Principate of Galba
Meanwhile, Rome was anything but serene. An unusual force of soldiers, many of whom had been mustered by Nero to crush the attempt of Vindex, remained idle and restless. In addition, there was the matter concerning Nymphidius Sabinus. Intent on being the power behind the throne, Nymphidius had orchestrated a demand from the praetorians that Galba appoint him sole praetorian prefect for life. The senate capitulated to his pretensions and he began to have designs on the throne himself. In an attempt to rattle Galba, Nymphidius then sent messages of alarm to the emperor telling of unrest in both the city and abroad. When Galba ignored these reports, Nymphidius decided to launch a coup by presenting himself to the praetorians. The plan misfired, and the praetorians killed him when he appeared at their camp. Upon learning of the incident, Galba ordered the executions of Nymphidius' followers. To make matters worse, Galba's arrival was preceded by a confrontation with a boisterous band of soldiers who had been formed into a legion by Nero and were now demanding legionary standards and regular quarters. When they persisted, Galba's forces attacked, with the result that many of them were killed.
Thus it was amid carnage and fear that Galba arrived at the capital in October, 68, accompanied by Otho, the governor of Lusitania, who had joined the cause. Once Galba was within Rome, miscalculations and missteps seemed to multiply. First, he relied upon the advice of a corrupt circle of advisors, most notably: Titus Vinius, a general from Spain; Cornelius Laco, praetorian prefect; and his own freedman, Icelus. Second, he zealously attempted to recover some of Nero's more excessive expenditures by seizing the property of many citizens, a measure that seems to have gone too far and to have caused real hardship and resentment. Third, he created further ill-will by disbanding the imperial corps of German bodyguards, effectively abolishing a tradition that originated with Marius and had been endorsed by Augustus. Finally, he seriously alienated the military by refusing cash rewards for both the praetorians and for the soldiers in Upper Germany who had fought against Vindex.

This last act proved to be the beginning of the end for Galba. On 1 January 69 ("The Year of the Four Emperors"), the troops in Upper Germany refused to declare allegiance to him and instead followed the men stationed in Lower Germany in proclaiming their commander, Aulus Vitellius, as the new ruler. In response, Galba adopted Lucius Calpurnius Piso Frugi Licinianus to show that he was still in charge and that his successor would not be chosen for him. Piso, although an aristocrat, was a man completely without administrative or military experience. The choice meant little to the remote armies, the praetorians or the senate, and it especially angered Otho, who had hoped to succeed Galba. Otho quickly organized a conspiracy among the praetorians with the now-familiar promise of a material reward, and on 15 January 69 they declared him emperor and publicly killed Galba; Piso, dragged from hiding in the temple of Vesta, was also butchered.

Assessment
In sum, Galba had displayed talent and ambition during his lengthy career. He enjoyed distinguished ancestry, moved easily among the Julio-Claudian emperors (with the exception of Nero towards the end of his principate), and had been awarded the highest military and religious honors of ancient Rome. His qualifications for the principate cannot be questioned. Even so, history has been unkind to him. Tacitus characterized Galba as "weak and old," a man "equal to the imperial office, if he had never held it." Modern historians of the Roman world have been no less critical. To be sure, Galba's greatest mistake lay in his general handling of the military. His treatment of the army in Upper Germany was heedless, his policy towards the praetorians short sighted. Given the climate in 68-69, Galba was unrealistic in expecting disciplina without paying the promised rewards. He was also guilty of relying on poor advisors, who shielded him from reality and ultimately allowed Otho's conspiracy to succeed. Additionally, the excessive power of his henchmen brought the regime into disfavor and made Galba himself the principal target of the hatred that his aides had incited. Finally, the appointment of Piso, a young man in no way equal to the challenges placed before him, further underscored the emperor's isolation and lack of judgment. In the end, the instability of the post-Julio-Claudian political landscape offered challenges more formidable than a tired, septuagenarian aristocrat could hope to overcome. Ironically, his regime proved no more successful than the Neronian government he was so eager to replace. Another year of bloodshed would be necessary before the Principate could once again stand firm.

Copyright (C) 1999, John Donahue.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.


Cleisthenes
roman_emperor_otho.jpg
708a, Otho64 viewsOtho (69 A.D.)
John Donahue
College of William and Mary

Introduction
In January 69 Otho led a successful coup to overthrow the emperor Galba. Upon advancing to the throne, he hoped to conciliate his adversaries and restore political stability to the Empire. These ambitions were never to be realized. Instead, our sources portray a leader never fully able to win political confidence at Rome or to overcome military anarchy abroad. As a result, he was defeated in battle by the forces of Vitellius, his successor, and took his own life at the conclusion of the conflict. His principate lasted only eight weeks.
Early Life and Career
Marcus Salvius Otho was born at Ferentium on 28 April 32 A. D. His grandfather, also named Marcus Salvius Otho, was a senator who did not advance beyond the rank of praetor. Lucius Otho, his father, was consul in 33 and a trusted administrator under the emperors Tiberius, Gaius and Claudius. His mother, Albia Terentia, was likely to have been nobly born as well. The cognomen "Otho" was Etruscan in origin, and the fact that it can be traced to three successive generations of this family perhaps reflects a desire to maintain a part of the Etruscan tradition that formed the family's background.
Otho is recorded as being extravagant and wild as a youth - a favorite pastime involved roving about at night to snare drunkards in a blanket. Such behavior earned floggings from his father, whose frequent absences from home on imperial business suggest little in the way of a stabilizing parental influence in Otho's formative years. These traits apparently persisted: Suetonius records that Otho and Nero became close friends because of the similarity of their characters; and Plutarch relates that the young man was so extravagant that he sometimes chided Nero about his meanness, and even outdid the emperor in reckless spending.
Most intriguing in this context is Otho's involvement with Nero's mistress, Poppaea Sabina, the greatest beauty of her day. A relationship between the two is widely cited in the ancient sources, but the story differs in essential details from one account to the next. As a result, it is impossible to establish who seduced whom, whether Otho ever married Poppaea, and whether his posting to Lusitania by Nero should be understood as a "banishment" for his part in this affair. About the only reliable detail to emerge is that Otho did indeed become governor of Lusitania in 59, and that he assumed the post as a quaestor, a rank below that of praetor or consul, the minimum usually required for the office. From here he would launch his initial thrust towards the imperial throne.
Overthrow of Galba
Nero's suicide in June 68 marked the end of the Julio-Claudian dynasty and opened up the principate to the prerogatives of the military beyond Rome. First to emerge was Servius Sulpicius Galba, governor of Hispania Tarraconensis, who had been encouraged to revolt by the praetorians and especially by Nymphidius Sabinus, the corrupt and scheming praetorian prefect at Rome. By this time Otho had been in Spain for close to ten years. His record seems to have been a good one, marked by capable administration and an unwillingness to enrich himself at the expense of the province. At the same time, perhaps seeing this as his best chance to improve his own circumstances, he supported the insurrection as vigorously as possible, even sending Galba all of his gold and his best table servants. At the same time, he made it a point to win the favor of every soldier he came in contact with, most notably the members of the praetorian guard who had come to Spain to accompany Galba to Rome. Galba set out from Spain in July, formally assuming the emperorship shortly thereafter. Otho accompanied him on the journey.
Galba had been in Rome little more than two months when on 1 January 69 the troops in Upper Germany refused to declare allegiance to him and instead followed the men stationed in Lower Germany in proclaiming their commander, Aulus Vitellius, as the new ruler. To show that he was still in charge Galba adopted his own successor, Lucius Calpurnius Piso Frugi Licinianus, an aristocrat completely without administrative or military experience. The choice meant little to the remote armies, the praetorians or the senate and particularly angered Otho, who had hoped to succeed Galba. Otho quickly organized a conspiracy among the praetorians with promise of a material reward, and on 15 January 69 they declared him emperor and publicly killed Galba; Piso, dragged from hiding in the temple of Vesta, was also butchered. On that same evening a powerless senate awarded Otho the imperial titles.
Otho's Principate in Rome
It is not possible to reconstruct a detailed chronology of Otho's brief eight and a half weeks as princeps in Rome (15 January-15 March). Even so, Galba's quick demise had surely impressed upon Otho the need to conciliate various groups. As a result, he continued his indulgence of the praetorian guard but he also tried to win over the senate by following a strict constitutionalist line and by generally keeping the designations for the consulship made by Nero and Galba. In the provinces, despite limited evidence, there are some indications that he tried to compensate for Galba's stinginess by being more generous with grants of citizenship. In short, Otho was eager not to offend anyone.
Problems remained, however. The praetorians had to be continually placated and they were always suspicious of the senate. On the other hand, the senate itself, along with the people, remained deeply disturbed at the manner of Otho's coming to power and his willingness to be associated with Nero. These suspicions and fears were most evident in the praetorian outbreak at Rome. Briefly, Otho had decided to move from Ostia to Rome a cohort of Roman citizens in order to replace some of Rome's garrison, much of which was to be utilized for the showdown with Vitellius. He ordered that weapons be moved from the praetorian camp in Rome by ship to Ostia at night so that the garrison replacements would be properly armed and made to look as soldierly as possible when they marched into the city. Thinking that a senatorial counter-coup against Otho was underway, the praetorians stormed the imperial palace to confirm the emperor's safety, with the result that they terrified Otho and his senatorial dinner guests. Although the praetorians' fears were eventually calmed and they were given a substantial cash payment, the incident dramatically underscored the unease at Rome in the early months of 69.
Otho's Offensive against Vitellius
Meanwhile, in the Rhineland, preparations for a march on Rome by the military legions that had declared for Vitellius were far advanced. Hampered by poor intelligence gathering in Gaul and Germany and having failed to negotiate a settlement with Vitellius in early 69, Otho finally summoned to Italy his forces for a counterattack against the invading Vitellian army. His support consisted of the four legions of Pannonia and Dalmatia, the three legions of Moesia and his own imperial retinue of about 9,000. Vitellius' own troops numbered some 30,000, while those of his two marshals, Aulus Caecina Alienus and Fabius Valens, were between 15,000 and 20,000 each.
Otho's strategy was to make a quick diversionary strike in order to allow time for his own forces to assemble in Italy before engaging the enemy. The strategy worked, as the diversionary army, comprised of urban cohorts, praetorians and marines all from Rome or nearby, was successful in Narbonese Gaul in latter March. An advance guard sent to hold the line on the Po River until the Danubian legions arrived also enjoyed initial success. Otho himself arrived at Bedriacum in northern Italy about 10 April for a strategy session with his commanders. The main concern was that the Vitellians were building a bridge across the Po in order to drive southward towards the Apennines and eventually to Rome. Otho decided to counter by ordering a substantial part of his main force to advance from Bedriacum and establish a new base close enough to the new Vitellian bridge to interrupt its completion. While en route, the Othonian forces, strung out along the via Postumia amid baggage and supply trains, were attacked by Caecina and Valens near Cremona on 14 April. The clash, know as the Battle of Bedriacum, resulted in the defeat of the Othonian forces, their retreat cut off by the river behind them. Otho himself, meanwhile, was not present, but had gone to Brixellum with a considerable force of infantry and cavalry in order to impede any Vitellian units that had managed to cross the Po.
The plan had backfired. Otho's strategy of obtaining victory while avoiding any major battles had proven too risky. Realizing perhaps that a new round of fighting would have involved not only a significant re-grouping of his existing troops but also a potentially bloody civil war at Rome, if Vitellius' troops reached the capital, Otho decided that enough blood had been shed. Two weeks shy of his thirty-seventh birthday, on 16 April 69, he took his own life.
Assessment
To be sure, Otho remains an enigma - part profligate Neronian wastrel and part conscientious military commander willing to give his life for the good of the state. Our sources are at a loss to explain the paradox. Perhaps, like Petronius, he saw it was safer to appear a profligate in Nero's court? In the final analysis, Otho proved to be an organized and efficient military commander, who appealed more to the soldier than to the civilian. He also seems to have been a capable governor, with administrative talents that recalled those of his father. Nevertheless, his violent overthrow of Galba, the lingering doubts that it raised about his character, and his unsuccessful offensive against Vitellius are all vivid reminders of the turbulence that plagued the Roman world between the reigns of Nero and Vespasian. Regrettably, the scenario would play itself out one more time before peace and stability returned to the empire.
Copyright (C) 1999, John Donahue
Edited by J.P.Fitzgerald, Jr.

Cleisthenes
VitelliusARdenariusVesta.jpg
709a, Vitellius, 2 January - 20 December 69 A.D.42 viewsVITELLIUS AR silver denarius. RSC 72, RCV 2200. 19mm, 3.2 g. Obverse: A VITELLIVS GERM IMP AVG TR P, laureate head right; Reverse - PONT MAXIM, Vesta seated right, holding scepter and patera. Quite decent. Ex. Incitatus Coins. Photo courtesy of Incitatus Coins.

De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Vitellius (69 A.D.)

John F. Donahue
College of William and Mary


It is often difficult to separate fact from fiction in assessing the life and reign of Vitellius. Maligned in the ancient sources as gluttonous and cruel, he was also a victim of a hostile biographical tradition established in the regime of the Flavians who had overthrown him. Nevertheless, his decision to march against Rome in 69 was pivotal, since his subsequent defeat signalled the end of military anarchy and the beginning of an extended period of political stability under Vespasian and his successors.

Early Life and Career

Aulus Vitellius was born in September, 15 AD, the son of Lucius Vitellius and his wife Sestilia. One of the most successful public figures of the Julio-Claudian period, Lucius Vitellius was a three-time consul and a fellow censor with the emperor Claudius. Aulus seems to have moved with equal ease in aristocratic circles, successively winning the attention of the emperors Gaius, Claudius, and Nero through flattery and political skill.

Among his attested public offices, Vitellius was a curator of public works, a senatorial post concerned with the maintenance and repair of public buildings in Rome, and he was also proconsul of North Africa, where he served as a deputy to his brother, perhaps about 55 A. D. In addition, he held at least two priesthoods, the first as a member of the Arval Brethren, in whose rituals he participated from 57 A.D., and the second, as one of the quindecemviri sacris faciundis, a sacred college famous for its feasts.

With respect to marriage and family, Vitellius first wed a certain Petroniana, the daughter of a consul, sometime in the early to mid thirties A.D. The union produced a son, Petronianus, allegedly blind in one eye and emancipated from his father's control as a result of being named his mother's heir. Tradition records that Vitellius killed the boy shortly after emancipation amid charges of parricide; the marriage soon ended in divorce. A second marriage, to Galeria Fundana, daughter of an ex-praetor, was more stable than the first. It produced another son, who was eventually killed by the Flavians after the overthrow of Vitellius, as well as a daughter. Galeria is praised by Tacitus for her good qualities, and in the end it was she who saw to Vitellius' burial.

Rise to Power and Emperorship

Without doubt, the most fortuitous moment in Vitellius' political career was his appointment as governor of Lower Germany by the emperor Galba late in 68. The decision seemed to have caught everybody by surprise, including Vitellius himself, who, according to Suetonius, was in straitened circumstances at the time. The choice may have been made to reduce the possibility of rebellion by the Rhine armies, disaffected by Galba's refusal to reward them for their part in suppressing the earlier uprising of Julius Vindex. Ironically, it was Vitellius' lack of military achievement and his reputation for gambling and gluttony that may have also figured in his selection. Galba perhaps calculated that a man with little military experience who could now plunder a province to satisfy his own stomach would never become disloyal. If so, it was a critical misjudgement by the emperor.

The rebellion began on January 1, 69 ("The Year of the Four Emperors"), when the legions of Upper Germany refused to renew their oath of allegiance to Galba. On January 2, Vitellius' own men, having heard of the previous day's events, saluted him as emperor at the instigation of the legionary legate Fabius Valens and his colleagues. Soon, in addition to the seven legions that Vitellius now had at his command in both Germanies, the forces in Gaul, Britain, and Raetia also came over to his side. Perhaps aware of his military inexperience, Vitellius did not immediately march on Rome himself. Instead, the advance was led by Valens and another legionary general, Aulus Caecina Alienus, with each man commanding a separate column. Vitellius would remain behind to mobilize a reserve force and follow later.

Caecina was already one hundred fifty miles on his way when news reached him that Galba had been overthrown and Otho had taken his place as emperor. Undeterred, he passed rapidly down the eastern borders of Gaul; Valens followed a more westerly route, quelling a mutiny along the way. By March both armies had successfully crossed the Alps and joined at Cremona, just north of the Po. Here they launced their Batavian auxiliaries against Otho's troops and routed them in the First Battle of Bedriacum. Otho killed himself on April 16, and three days later the soldiers in Rome swore their allegience to Vitellius. The senate too hailed him as emperor.

When Vitellius learned of these developments, he set out to Rome from Gaul. By all accounts the journey was a drunken feast marked by the lack of discipline of both the troops and the imperial entourage. Along the way he stopped at Lugdunum to present his six-year-old son Germanicus to the legions as his eventual successor. Later, at Cremona, Vitellius witnessed the corpse-filled battlefield of Otho's recent defeat with joy, unmoved by so many citizens denied a proper burial.

The emperor entered Rome in late June-early July. Conscious of making a break with the Julio-Claudian past, Vitellius was reluctant to assume the traditional titles of the princes, even though he enthusiastically made offerings to Nero and declared himself consul for life. To his credit, Vitellius did seem to show a measure of moderation in the transition to the principate. He assumed his powers gradually and was generally lenient to Otho's supporters, even pardoning Otho's brother Salvius Titianus, who had played a key role in the earlier regime. In addition, he participated in Senate meetings and continued the practice of providing entertainments for the Roman masses. An important practical change involved the awarding of posts customarily held by freedmen to equites, an indication of the growth of the imperial bureaucracy and its attractiveness to men of ambition.

In other matters, he replaced the existing praetorian guard and urban cohorts with sixteen praetorian cohorts and four urban units, all comprised of soldiers from the German armies. According to Tacitus, the decision prompted a mad scramble, with the men, and not their officers, choosing the branch of service that they preferred. The situation was clearly unsatisfactory but not surprising, given that Vitellius was a creation of his own troops. To secure his position further, he sent back to their old postings the legions that had fought for Otho, or he reassigned them to distant provinces. Yet discontent remained: the troops who had been defeated or betrayed at Bedriacum remained bitter, and detachments of three Moesian legions called upon by Otho were returned to their bases, having agitated against Vitellius at Aquileia.

Flavian Revolt

The Vitellian era at Rome was short-lived. By mid-July news had arrived that the legions of Egypt under Tiberius Julius Alexander had sworn allegiance to a rival emperor, Titus Flavius Vespasianus, the governor of Judaea and a successful and popular general. Vespasian was to hold Egypt while his colleague Mucianus, governor of Syria, was to invade Italy. Before the plan could be enacted, however, the Danube legions, former supporters of Otho, joined Vespasian's cause. Under the leadership of Antonius Primus, commander of the Sixth legion in Pannonia, and Cornelius Fuscus, imperial procurator in Illyricum, the legions made a rapid descent on Italy.

Although his forces were only half of what Vitellius commanded in Italy, Primus struck first before the emperor could muster additional reinforcements from Germany. To make matters worse for the Vitellians, Valens was ill, and Caecina, now consul, had begun collaborating with the Flavians. His troops refused to follow his lead, however, and arrested him at Hostilia near Cremona. They then joined the rest of the Vitellian forces trying to hold the Po River. With Vitellius still in Rome and his forces virtually leaderless, the two sides met in October in the Second Battle of Bedriacum. The emperor's troops were soundly defeated and Cremona was brutally sacked by the victors. In addition, Valens, whose health had recovered, was captured while raising an army for Vitellius in Gaul and Germany; he was eventually executed.

Meanwhile, Primus continued towards Rome. Vitellius made a weak attempt to thwart the advance at the Apennine passes, but his forces switched to the Flavian side without a fight at Narnia in mid-December. At Rome, matters were no better. Vespasian's elder brother, Titus Flavius Sabinus, the city prefect, was successful in an effort to convince Vitellius to abdicate but was frustrated by the mob in Rome and the emperor's soldiers. Forced to flee to the Capitol, Sabinus was set upon by Vitellius' German troops and soon killed, with the venerable Temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus set ablaze in the process. Within two days, the Flavian army fought its way into Rome. In a pathetic final move, Vitellius disguised himself in dirty clothing and hid in the imperial doorkeeper's quarters, leaning a couch and a mattress against the door for protection. Dragged from his hiding place by the Flavian forces, he was hauled off half-naked to the Forum, where he was tortured, killed, and tossed into the Tiber. The principate could now pass to Vespasian.

Assessment

Vitellius has not escaped the hostility of his biographers. While he may well have been gluttonous, his depiction as indolent, cruel, and extravagant is based almost entirely on the propaganda of his enemies. On the other hand, whatever moderating tendencies he did show were overshadowed by his clear lack of military expertise, a deficiency that forced him to rely in critical situations on largely inneffective lieutenants. As a result he was no match for his Flavian successors, and his humiliating demise was perfectly in keeping with the overall failure of his reign.

Copyright (C) 1999, John Donahue.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
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71-Maxentius-438 viewsAE Follis , Ticinum Mint, 306-312 AD.
Obv: IMP MAXENTIVS PF AVG, Laureate head right.
Rev:CONSERV VRB SVAE, Roma seated in Tetrastyle temple being crowned by Victory.
TT in exergue.
23m , 7.4 gm
RIC 108
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VespasianPax_RICii10.jpg
710a, Vespasian, 1 July 69 - 24 June 79 A.D.134 viewsSilver denarius, RIC II, 10, aVF, 3.5 g, 18mm, Rome mint, 69-71 AD; Obverse: IMP CAESA[R] VESPASIANV[S AV]G - Laureate head right; Reverse: COS ITER [T]R POT - Pax seated left holding branch and caduceus. Ex Imperial Coins.


De Imperatoribus Romanis:
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Titus Flavius Vespasianus (A.D. 69-79)

John Donahue
College of William and Mary

Introduction

Titus Flavius Vespasianus (b. A.D. 9, d. A.D. 79, emperor A.D. 69-79) restored peace and stability to an empire in disarray following the death of Nero in A.D. 68. In the process he established the Flavian dynasty as the legitimate successor to the Imperial throne. Although we lack many details about the events and chronology of his reign, Vespasian provided practical leadership and a return to stable government - accomplishments which, when combined with his other achievements, make his emperorship particularly notable within the history of the Principate.

Early Life and Career

Vespasian was born at Falacrina near Sabine Reate on 17 November, A.D. 9, the son of T. Flavius Sabinus, a successful tax collector and banker, and Vespasia Polla. Both parents were of equestrian status. Few details of his first fifteen years survive, yet it appears that his father and mother were often away from home on business for long periods. As a result, Vespasian's early education became the responsibility of his paternal grandmother, Tertulla. [[1]] In about A.D. 25 Vespasian assumed the toga virilis and later accepted the wearing of the latus clavus, and with it the senatorial path that his older brother, T. Flavius Sabinus, had already chosen. [[2]] Although many of the particulars are lacking, the posts typically occupied by one intent upon a senatorial career soon followed: a military tribunate in Thrace, perhaps for three or four years; a quaestorship in Crete-Cyrene; and the offices of aedile and praetor, successively, under the emperor Gaius. [[3]]

It was during this period that Vespasian married Flavia Domitilla. Daughter of a treasury clerk and former mistress of an African knight, Flavia lacked the social standing and family connections that the politically ambitious usually sought through marriage. In any case, the couple produced three children, a daughter, also named Flavia Domitilla, and two sons, the future emperors Titus and Domitian . Flavia did not live to witness her husband's emperorship and after her death Vespasian returned to his former mistress Caenis, who had been secretary to Antonia (daughter of Marc Antony and mother of Claudius). Caenis apparently exerted considerable influence over Vespasian, prompting Suetonius to assert that she remained his wife in all but name, even after he became emperor. [[4]]

Following the assassination of Gaius on 24 January, A.D. 41, Vespasian advanced rapidly, thanks in large part to the new princeps Claudius, whose favor the Flavians had wisely secured with that of Antonia, the mother of Germanicus, and of Claudius' freedmen, especially Narcissus. [[5]] The emperor soon dispatched Vespasian to Argentoratum (Strasbourg) as legatus legionis II Augustae, apparently to prepare the legion for the invasion of Britain. Vespasian first appeared at the battle of Medway in A.D. 43, and soon thereafter led his legion across the south of England, where he engaged the enemy thirty times in battle, subdued two tribes, and conquered the Isle of Wight. According to Suetonius, these operations were conducted partly under Claudius and partly under Vespasian's commander, Aulus Plautius. Vespasian's contributions, however, did not go unnoticed; he received the ornamenta triumphalia and two priesthoods from Claudius for his exploits in Britain. [[6]]

By the end of A.D. 51 Vespasian had reached the consulship, the pinnacle of a political career at Rome. For reasons that remain obscure he withdrew from political life at this point, only to return when chosen proconsul of Africa about A.D. 63-64. His subsequent administration of the province was marked by severity and parsimony, earning him a reputation for being scrupulous but unpopular. [[7]] Upon completion of his term, Vespasian returned to Rome where, as a senior senator, he became a man of influence in the emperor Nero's court. [[8]] Important enough to be included on Nero's tour of Greece in A.D. 66-67, Vespasian soon found himself in the vicinity of increasing political turbulence in the East. The situation would prove pivotal in advancing his career.

Judaea and the Accession to Power

In response to rioting in Caesarea and Jerusalem that had led to the slaughter in the latter city of Jewish leaders and Roman soldiers, Nero granted to Vespasian in A.D. 66 a special command in the East with the objective of settling the revolt in Judaea. By spring A.D. 67, with 60,000 legionaries, auxiliaries, and allies under his control, Vespasian set out to subdue Galilee and then to cut off Jerusalem. Success was quick and decisive. By October all of Galilee had been pacified and plans for the strategic encirclement of Jerusalem were soon formed. [[9]] Meanwhile, at the other end of the empire, the revolts of Gaius Iulius Vindex, governor of Gallia Lugdunensis, and Servius Sulpicius Galba , governor of Hispania Tarraconensis, had brought Nero's reign to the brink of collapse. The emperor committed suicide in June, A.D. 68, thereby ensuring chaos for the next eighteen months, as first Galba and then Marcus Salvius Otho and Aulus Vitellius acceded to power. Each lacked broad-based military and senatorial support; each would be violently deposed in turn. [[10]]

Still occupied with plans against Jerusalem, Vespasian swore allegiance to each emperor. Shortly after Vitellius assumed power in spring, A.D. 69, however, Vespasian met on the border of Judaea and Syria with Gaius Licinius Mucianus, governor of Syria, and after a series of private and public consultations, the two decided to revolt. [[11]] On July 1, at the urging of Tiberius Alexander, prefect of Egypt, the legions of Alexandria declared for Vespasian, as did the legions of Judaea two days later. By August all of Syria and the Danube legions had done likewise. Vespasian next dispatched Mucianus to Italy with 20,000 troops, while he set out from Syria to Alexandria in order to control grain shipments for the purpose of starving Italy into submission. [[12]] The siege of Jerusalem he placed in the hands of his son Titus.

Meanwhile, the Danubian legions, unwilling to wait for Mucianus' arrival, began their march against Vitellius ' forces. The latter army, suffering from a lack of discipline and training, and unaccustomed to the heat of Rome, was defeated at Cremona in late October. [[13]] By mid-December the Flavian forces had reached Carsulae, 95 kilometers north of Rome on the Flaminian Road, where the Vitellians, with no further hope of reinforcements, soon surrendered. At Rome, unable to persuade his followers to accept terms for his abdication, Vitellius was in peril. On the morning of December 20 the Flavian army entered Rome. By that afternoon, the emperor was dead. [[14]]

Tacitus records that by December 22, A.D. 69, Vespasian had been given all the honors and privileges usually granted to emperors. Even so, the issue remains unclear, owing largely to a surviving fragment of an enabling law, the lex de imperio Vespasiani, which conferred powers, privileges, and exemptions, most with Julio-Claudian precedents, on the new emperor. Whether the fragment represents a typical granting of imperial powers that has uniquely survived in Vespasian's case, or is an attempt to limit or expand such powers, remains difficult to know. In any case, the lex sanctioned all that Vespasian had done up to its passing and gave him authority to act as he saw fit on behalf of the Roman people. [[15]]

What does seem clear is that Vespasian felt the need to legitimize his new reign with vigor. He zealously publicized the number of divine omens that predicted his accession and at every opportunity he accumulated multiple consulships and imperial salutations. He also actively promoted the principle of dynastic succession, insisting that the emperorship would fall to his son. The initiative was fulfilled when Titus succeeded his father in A.D. 79.[[16]]

Emperorship

Upon his arrival in Rome in late summer, A.D. 70, Vespasian faced the daunting task of restoring a city and a government ravaged by the recent civil wars. Although many particulars are missing, a portrait nevertheles emerges of a ruler conscientiously committed to the methodical renewal of both city and empire. Concerning Rome itself, the emperor encouraged rebuilding on vacated lots, restored the Capitol (burned in A.D. 69), and also began work on several new buildings: a temple to the deified Claudius on the Caelian Hill, a project designed to identify Vespasian as a legitimate heir to the Julio-Claudians, while distancing himself from Nero ; a temple of Peace near the Forum; and the magnificent Colosseum (Flavian Amphitheatre), located on the site of the lake of Nero 's Golden House. [[17]]

Claiming that he needed forty thousand million sesterces for these projects and for others aimed at putting the state on more secure footing, Vespasian is said to have revoked various imperial immunities, manipulated the supply of certain commodities to inflate their price, and increased provincial taxation. [[18]] The measures are consistent with his characterization in the sources as both obdurate and avaricious. There were occasional political problems as well: Helvidius Priscus, an advocate of senatorial independence and a critic of the Flavian regime from the start, was exiled after A.D. 75 and later executed; Marcellus Eprius and A. Alienus Caecina were condemned by Titus for conspiracy, the former committing suicide, the latter executed in A.D. 79.
As Suetonius claims, however, in financial matters Vespasian always put revenues to the best possible advantage, regardless of their source. Tacitus, too, offers a generally favorable assessment, citing Vespasian as the first man to improve after becoming emperor. [[19]] Thus do we find the princeps offering subventions to senators not possessing the property qualifications of their rank, restoring many cities throughout the empire, and granting state salaries for the first time to teachers of Latin and Greek rhetoric. To enhance Roman economic and social life even further, he encouraged theatrical productions by building a new stage for the Theatre of Marcellus, and he also put on lavish state dinners to assist the food trades. [[20]]

In other matters the emperor displayed similar concern. He restored the depleted ranks of the senatorial and equestrian orders with eligible Italian and provincial candidates and reduced the backlog of pending court cases at Rome. Vespasian also re-established discipline in the army, while punishing or dismissing large numbers of Vitellius ' men. [[21]]
Beyond Rome, the emperor increased the number of legions in the East and continued the process of imperial expansion by the annexation of northern England, the pacification of Wales, and by advances into Scotland and southwest Germany between the Rhine and the Danube. Vespasian also conferred rights on communities abroad, especially in Spain, where the granting of Latin rights to all native communities contributed to the rapid Romanization of that province during the Imperial period. [[22]]

Death and Assessment

In contrast to his immediate imperial predecessors, Vespasian died peacefully - at Aquae Cutiliae near his birthplace in Sabine country on 23 June, A.D. 79, after contracting a brief illness. The occasion is said to have inspired his deathbed quip: "Oh my, I must be turning into a god!" [[23]] In fact, public deification did follow his death, as did his internment in the Mausoleum of Augustus alongside the Julio-Claudians.

A man of strict military discipline and simple tastes, Vespasian proved to be a conscientious and generally tolerant administrator. More importantly, following the upheavals of A.D. 68-69, his reign was welcome for its general tranquility and restoration of peace. In Vespasian Rome found a leader who made no great breaks with tradition, yet his ability ro rebuild the empire and especially his willingness to expand the composition of the governing class helped to establish a positive working model for the "good emperors" of the second century.

Bibliography

Since the scholarship on Vespasian is more comprehensive than can be treated here, the works listed below are main accounts or bear directly upon issues discussed in the entry above. A comprehensive modern anglophone study of this emperor is yet to be produced.

Atti congresso internazionale di studi Flaviani, 2 vols. Rieti, 1983.

Atti congresso internazionale di studi Vespasianei, 2 vols. Rieti, 1981.

Bosworth, A.B. "Vespasian and the Provinces: Some Problems of the Early 70s A.D." Athenaeum 51 (1973): 49-78.

Brunt, P. A. "Lex de imperio Vespasiani." JRS (67) 1977: 95-116.

D'Espèrey, S. Franchet. "Vespasien, Titus et la littérature." ANRW II.32.5: 3048-3086.

Dudley, D. and Webster, G. The Roman Conquest of Britain. London, 1965.

Gonzalez, J. "The Lex Irnitana: A New Copy of the Flavian Municipal Law." JRS 76 (1986): 147-243.

Grant, M. The Roman Emperors: A Biographical Guide to the Rulers of Rome, 31 B.C. - A.D. 476. New York, 1985.

Homo, L. Vespasien, l'Empereur du bons sens (69-79 ap. J.-C.). Paris, 1949.

Levi, M.A. "I Flavi." ANRW II.2: 177-207.

McCrum, M. and Woodhead, A. G. Select Documents of the Principates of the Flavian Emperors Including the Year of the Revolution. Cambridge, 1966.

Nicols, John. Vespasian and the Partes Flavianae. Wiesbaden, 1978.

Scarre, C. Chronicle of the Roman Emperors. The Reign-by-Reign Record of the Rulers of Imperial Rome. London, 1995.

Suddington, D. B. The Development of the Roman Auxiliary Forces from Caesar to Vespasian, 49 B.C. - A.D. 79. Harare: U. of Zimbabwe, 1982.

Syme, R. Tacitus. Oxford, 1958.

Wardel, David. "Vespasian, Helvidius Priscus and the Restoration of the Capitol." Historia 45 (1996): 208-222.

Wellesley, K. The Long Year: A.D. 69. Bristol, 1989, 2nd ed.


Notes

[[1]] Suet. Vesp. 2.1. Suetonius remains the major source but see also Tac. Hist. 2-5; Cass. Dio 65; Joseph. BJ 3-4.

[[2]] Suetonius (Vesp. 2.1) claims that Vespasian did not accept the latus clavus, the broad striped toga worn by one aspiring to a senatorial career, immediately. The delay, however, was perhaps no more than three years. See J. Nicols, Vespasian and the Partes Flavianae (Wiesbaden, 1978), 2.

[[3]] Military tribunate and quaestorship: Suet. Vesp. 2.3; aedileship: ibid., 5.3, in which Gaius, furious that Vespasian had not kept the streets clean, as was his duty, ordered some soldiers to load him with filth;,they complied by stuffing his toga with as much as it could hold. See also Dio 59.12.2-3; praetorship: Suet. Vesp. 2.3, in which Vespasian is depicted as one of Gaius' leading adulators, an account consistent with Tacitus' portrayal (Hist 1.50.4; 2.5.1) of his early career. For a more complete discussion of these posts and attendant problems of dating, see Nicols, Vespasian, 2-7.

[[4]] Marriage and Caenis: Suet. Vesp. 3; Cass. Dio 65.14.

[[5]] Nicols, Vespasian, 12-39.

[[6]] Suet. Vesp. 4.1 For additional details on Vespasian's exploits in Britain, see D. Dudley and G. Webster, The Roman Conquest of Britain (London, 1965), 55 ff., 98.

[[7]] Concerning Vespasian's years between his consulship and proconsulship, see Suet. Vesp. 4.2 and Nicols, Vespasian, 9. On his unpopularity in Africa, see Suet. Vesp. 4.3, an account of a riot at Hadrumentum, where he was once pelted with turnips. In recording that Africa supported Vitellius in A.D. 69, Tacitus too suggests popular dissatisfaction with Vespasian's proconsulship. See Hist. 2.97.2.

[[8]] This despite the fact that the sources record two rebukes of Vespasian, one for extorting money from a young man seeking career advancement (Suet. Vesp. 4.3), the other for either leaving the room or dozing off during one of the emperor's recitals (Suet. Vesp. 4.4 and 14, which places the transgression in Greece; Tac. (Ann. 16.5.3), who makes Rome and the Quinquennial Games of A.D. 65 the setting; A. Braithwaite, C. Suetoni Tranquilli Divus Vespasianus, Oxford, 1927, 30, who argues for both Greece and Rome).

[[9]] Subjugation of Galilee: Joseph. BJ 3.65-4.106; siege of Jerusalem: ibid., 4.366-376, 414.

[[10]] Revolt of Vindex: Suet. Nero 40; Tac. Ann. 14.4; revolt of Galba: Suet. Galba 10; Plut. Galba, 4-5; suicide of Nero: Suet. Nero 49; Cass. Dio 63.29.2. For the most complete account of the period between Nero's death and the accession of Vespasian, see K. Wellesley, The Long Year: A.D. 69, 2nd. ed. (Bristol, 1989).

[[11]] Tac. Hist. 2.76.

[[12]] Troops in support of Vespasian: Suet. Vit. 15; Mucianus and his forces: Tac. Hist. 2.83; Vespasian and grain shipments: Joseph. BJ 4.605 ff.; see also Tac. Hist. 3.48, on Vespasian's possible plan to shut off grain shipments to Italy from Carthage as well.

[[13]] On Vitellius' army and its lack of discipline, see Tac. Hist. 2.93-94; illness of army: ibid., 2.99.1; Cremona: ibid., 3.32-33.

[[14]] On Vitellius' last days, see Tac. Hist. 3.68-81. On the complicated issue of Vitellius' death date, see L. Holzapfel, "Römische Kaiserdaten," Klio 13 (1913): 301.

[[15]] Honors, etc. Tac. Hist. 4.3. For more on the lex de imperio Vespasiani, see P. A. Brunt, "Lex de imperio Vespasiani," JRS (67) 1977: 95-116.

[[16]] Omens: Suet. Vesp. 5; consulships and honors: ibid., 8; succession of sons: ibid., 25.

[[17]] On Vespasian's restoration of Rome, see Suet. Vesp. 9; Cass. Dio 65.10; D. Wardel, "Vespasian, Helvidius Priscus and the Restoration of the Capitol," Historia 45 (1996): 208-222.

[[18]] Suet. Vesp. 16.

[[19]] Ibid.; Tac. Hist. 1.50.

[[20]] Suet. Vesp. 17-19.

[[21]] Ibid., 8-10.

[[22]] On Vespasian's exploits in Britain, see esp. Tac., Agricola, eds. R. M. Ogilvie and I. A. Richmond (1967), and W. S. Hanson, Agricola and the Conquest of the North (1987); on the granting of Latin rights in Spain, see, e.g., J. Gonzalez, "The Lex Irnitana: a New Copy of the Flavian Municipal Law." JRS 76 (1986): 147-243.

[[23]] For this witticism and other anecdotes concerning Vespasian's sense of humor, see Suet. Vesp. 23.

Copyright (C) 1998, John Donahue. Published on De Imperatoribus Romanis, an Online Encyplopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families.
http://www.roman-emperors.org/vespasia.htm
Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.





Cleisthenes
TitusCommColosseum.jpg
711a, Titus, 24 June 79 - 13 September 81 A.D. 110 viewsTITUS AUGUSTUS AR silver denarius. Struck at Rome, 80 AD. IMP TITVS CAESAR VESPASIAN AVG PM, laureate head right. Reverse - TRP IX IMP XV COS VIII PP, elephant walking left. Fully legible legends, about Very Fine, nice golden toning. Commemmorates the completion and dedication of the Colosseum and the opening of games. SCARCE. RCV 2512, valued at $544 in EF. 17mm, 3.1g. Ex Incitatus.

De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Titus Flavius Vespasianus (A.D. 79-81)

John Donahue
College of William and Mary

Titus Flavius Vespasianus was born on December 30, 39 A.D. He was the oldest of the three children of the founder of the Flavian Dynasty, Vespasian. Beginning in the year 70 Titus was named Cæsar and coregent; he was highly educated and a brilliant poet and orator in both Latin and Greek. He won military fame during the Jewish Revolt of 69-70. In April, 70, he appeared before the walls of Jerusalem, and conquered and destroyed the city after a siege of five months. He wished to preserve the Temple, but in the struggle with the Jews who rushed out of it a soldier threw a brand into the building. The siege and taking of the city were accompanied by barbarous cruelties. The next year Titus celebrated his victory by a triumph; to increase the fame of the Flavian dynasty the inscription on the triumphal arch represented the overthrow of the helpless people as a heroic achievement. Titus succeeded his father as Emperor in 79.

Before becoming emperor, tradition records that Titus was feared as the next Nero, a perception that may have developed from his association with Berenice, his alleged heavy-handedness as praetorian prefect, and tales of sexual debauchery. Once in office, however, both emperor and his reign were portrayed in universally positive terms. The suddenness of this transformation raises immediate suspicions, yet it is difficult to know whether the historical tradition is suspect or if Titus was in fact adept at taking off one mask for another. What is clear, however, is that Titus sought to present the Flavians as the legitimate successors of the Julio-Claudian dynasty. Proof came through the issuing of a series of restoration coins of previous emperors, the most popular being Augustus and Claudius. In A.D. 80 Titus also set out to establish an imperial cult in honor of Vespasian. The temple, in which cult (the first that was not connected with the Julio-Claudians) was housed, was completed by Domitian and was known as the Temple of Vespasian and Domitian.
Legitimacy was also sought through various economic measures, which Titus enthusiastically funded. Vast amounts of capital poured into extensive building schemes in Rome, especially the Flavian Amphitheater, popularly known as the Colosseum. In celebration of additions made to the structure, Titus provided a grand 100-day festival, with sea fights staged on an artificial lake, infantry battles, wild beast hunts, and similar activities. He also constructed new imperial baths to the south-east of the Amphitheater and began work on the celebrated Arch of Titus, a memorial to his Jewish victories. Large sums were directed to Italy and the provinces as well, especially for road building. In response to the eruption of Vesuvius in A.D. 79, Titus spent large sums to relieve distress in that area; likewise, the imperial purse contributed heavily to rebuilding Rome after a devastating fire destroyed large sections of the city in A.D. 80. As a result of these actions, Titus earned a reputation for generosity and geniality. For these reasons he gained the honourable title of "amor et deliciæ generis humani" (the darling and admiration of the human race). Even so, his financial acumen must not be under-estimated. He left the treasury with a surplus, as he had found it, and dealt promptly and efficiently with costly natural disasters. The Greek historian of the third-century A.D., Cassius Dio, perhaps offered the most accurate and succinct assessment of Titus' economic policy: "In money matters, Titus was frugal and made no unnecessary expenditure." In other areas, the brevity of Titus' reign limits our ability to detect major emphases or trends in policy. As far as can be discerned from the limited evidence, senior officials and amici were well chosen, and his legislative activity tended to focus on popular social measures, with the army as a particular beneficiary in the areas of land ownership, marriage, and testamentary freedom. In the provinces, Titus continued his father's policies by strengthening roads and forts in the East and along the Danube.

Titus died in September, A.D. 81 after only 26 months in office. Suetonius recorded that Titus died on his way to the Sabine country of his ancestors in the same villa as his father. A competing tradition persistently implicated his brother and successor, Domitian, as having had a hand in the emperor's demise, but the evidence is highly contradictory and any wrongdoing is difficult to prove. Domitian himself delivered the funeral eulogy and had Titus deified. He also built several monuments in honor of Titus and completed the Temple of Vespasian and Titus, changing the name of the structure to include his brother's and setting up his cult statue in the Temple itself.

Titus was the beneficiary of considerable intelligence and talent, endowments that were carefully cultivated at every step of his career, from his early education to his role under his father's principate. Cassius Dio suggested that Titus' reputation was enhanced by his early death. It is true that the ancient sources tend to heroicize Titus, yet based upon the evidence, his reign must be considered a positive one. He capably continued the work of his father in establishing the Flavian Dynasty and he maintained a high degree of economic and administrative competence in Italy and beyond. In so doing, he solidified the role of the emperor as paternalistic autocrat, a model that would serve Trajan and his successors well. Titus was used as a model by later emperors, especially those known as the Five Good Emperors (Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian, Antoninus Pius and Marcus Aurelius).

Copyright (C) 1997, John Donahue.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Catholic Encyclopedia, http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/14746b.htm

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
Titus_Colosseum_Commem_AR_denarius.jpg
711a, Titus, 24 June 79 - 13 September 81 A.D.136 viewsTitus, 24 June 79 - 13 September 81 A.D. AR denarius, RCV 2512, aVF, struck at Rome, 80 A.D., 17.5mm, 3.4g. Obverse: IMP TITVS CAESAR VESPASIAN AVG PM, laureate head right; Reverse: TRP IX IMP XV COS VIII PP, elephant walking left. Fully legible legends; nice golden toning. This coin was struck in order to commemorate the completion and dedication of the Flavian Amphitheatre (the Colosseum) and its opening games. Very scarce. Ex Incitatus; photo courtesy Incitatus.

De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Titus Flavius Vespasianus (A.D. 79-81)

John Donahue
College of William and Mary

Titus Flavius Vespasianus was born on December 30, 39 A.D. He was the oldest of the three children of the founder of the Flavian Dynasty, Vespasian. Beginning in the year 70 Titus was named Cæsar and coregent; he was highly educated and a brilliant poet and orator in both Latin and Greek. He won military fame during the Jewish Revolt of 69-70. In April, 70, he appeared before the walls of Jerusalem, and conquered and destroyed the city after a siege of five months. He wished to preserve the Temple, but in the struggle with the Jews who rushed out of it a soldier threw a brand into the building. The siege and taking of the city were accompanied by barbarous cruelties. The next year Titus celebrated his victory by a triumph; to increase the fame of the Flavian dynasty the inscription on the triumphal arch represented the overthrow of the helpless people as a heroic achievement. Titus succeeded his father as Emperor in 79.

Before becoming emperor, tradition records that Titus was feared as the next Nero, a perception that may have developed from his association with Berenice, his alleged heavy-handedness as praetorian prefect, and tales of sexual debauchery. Once in office, however, both emperor and his reign were portrayed in universally positive terms. The suddenness of this transformation raises immediate suspicions, yet it is difficult to know whether the historical tradition is suspect or if Titus was in fact adept at taking off one mask for another. What is clear, however, is that Titus sought to present the Flavians as the legitimate successors of the Julio-Claudian dynasty. Proof came through the issuing of a series of restoration coins of previous emperors, the most popular being Augustus and Claudius. In A.D. 80 Titus also set out to establish an imperial cult in honor of Vespasian. The temple, in which cult (the first that was not connected with the Julio-Claudians) was housed, was completed by Domitian and was known as the Temple of Vespasian and Domitian.
Legitimacy was also sought through various economic measures, which Titus enthusiastically funded. Vast amounts of capital poured into extensive building schemes in Rome, especially the Flavian Amphitheater, popularly known as the Colosseum. In celebration of additions made to the structure, Titus provided a grand 100-day festival, with sea fights staged on an artificial lake, infantry battles, wild beast hunts, and similar activities. He also constructed new imperial baths to the south-east of the Amphitheater and began work on the celebrated Arch of Titus, a memorial to his Jewish victories. Large sums were directed to Italy and the provinces as well, especially for road building. In response to the eruption of Vesuvius in A.D. 79, Titus spent large sums to relieve distress in that area; likewise, the imperial purse contributed heavily to rebuilding Rome after a devastating fire destroyed large sections of the city in A.D. 80. As a result of these actions, Titus earned a reputation for generosity and geniality. For these reasons he gained the honourable title of "amor et deliciæ generis humani" (the darling and admiration of the human race). Even so, his financial acumen must not be under-estimated. He left the treasury with a surplus, as he had found it, and dealt promptly and efficiently with costly natural disasters. The Greek historian of the third-century A.D., Cassius Dio, perhaps offered the most accurate and succinct assessment of Titus' economic policy: "In money matters, Titus was frugal and made no unnecessary expenditure." In other areas, the brevity of Titus' reign limits our ability to detect major emphases or trends in policy. As far as can be discerned from the limited evidence, senior officials and amici were well chosen, and his legislative activity tended to focus on popular social measures, with the army as a particular beneficiary in the areas of land ownership, marriage, and testamentary freedom. In the provinces, Titus continued his father's policies by strengthening roads and forts in the East and along the Danube.

Titus died in September, A.D. 81 after only 26 months in office. Suetonius recorded that Titus died on his way to the Sabine country of his ancestors in the same villa as his father. A competing tradition persistently implicated his brother and successor, Domitian, as having had a hand in the emperor's demise, but the evidence is highly contradictory and any wrongdoing is difficult to prove. Domitian himself delivered the funeral eulogy and had Titus deified. He also built several monuments in honor of Titus and completed the Temple of Vespasian and Titus, changing the name of the structure to include his brother's and setting up his cult statue in the Temple itself.

Titus was the beneficiary of considerable intelligence and talent, endowments that were carefully cultivated at every step of his career, from his early education to his role under his father's principate. Cassius Dio suggested that Titus' reputation was enhanced by his early death. It is true that the ancient sources tend to heroicize Titus, yet based upon the evidence, his reign must be considered a positive one. He capably continued the work of his father in establishing the Flavian Dynasty and he maintained a high degree of economic and administrative competence in Italy and beyond. In so doing, he solidified the role of the emperor as paternalistic autocrat, a model that would serve Trajan and his successors well. Titus was used as a model by later emperors, especially those known as the Five Good Emperors (Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian, Antoninus Pius and Marcus Aurelius).

Copyright (C) 1997, John Donahue.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Catholic Encyclopedia, http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/14746b.htm

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
3 commentsCleisthenes
72-Maxentius-5.JPG
72-Maxentius-5-S37 viewsAE Follis , Rome Mint, 308-310AD.
Obv: IMP C MAXENTIVS PF AVG, Laureate head right.
Rev:CONSERV VRB SVAE, Roma seated in Hexstyle temple holding globe and sceptre, shield at her side.
RBP in exergue
24mm, 6.8gm
RIC 210
jdholds
1212Hadrian_RIC783.jpg
783 Hadrian Sestertius Roma 134-38 AD Decastyle Temple26 viewsReference.
RIC II 783; Strack 696; c. 1422; BMC 1554

Obv. HADRIANVS AVG COS III P P
Laureate head right

Rev. [SPQR] S-C
Decastyle temple set on base; temple is flanked by two columns, each decorated with a statue on top columns surmounted by statues and set on pedestals on either side

22.71 gr
31 mm
12h

Note.
The great temple of Venus and Rome, was actually two temples that were built back-to-back. Dedigned by Hadrian, the temple of Venus faced the Flavian ampitheatre and that of Rome overlooked the Forum. Construction began in 121 AD, but was not completed until 141 AD under Antoninus Pius. The temple was destroyed by fire in 307 AD, and later rebuilt by Maxentius. Its remains can still be seen in Rome today.
3 commentsokidoki
AntoSeRIC644.jpg
8. Janus, first king of Italy, and inventor of civilisation65 viewsSestertius minted AD 140, Rome. 24.70g, Ø 32mm, 12h. RIC 644, Cohen 881, Foss 55
Obv.: ANTONINVS - AVG PIVS PP, laurate head right.
Rev.: TR POT COS III round edge SC in field, Janus standing facing, holding sceptre.
ex CNG eAuction 233 lot 335 (June 2010); ex the John Bitner Collection of Secular Games Coinage; ex Astarte XV (27 November 2004), lot 234.

Sestertius issued in preparation of the 900th anniversary of Rome, celebrated on 21 April 147.
Janus was believed to be first king of Italy, serving as both leader and teacher to all within his lands. In honor of his deeds, he was elevated to the status of a deity by the Romans, with Romulus himself, one of the mythical founders of Rome, building and dedicating the Temple of Janus.
2 commentsCharles S
53-Maxentius-Aqu-113.jpg
96 Maxentius: Aquileia follis.28 viewsFollis, late 307 AD, Aquileia mint.
Obverse: IMP C MAXENTIVS P F AVG / Laureate bust of Maxentius.
Reverse: CONSERV VRB SVAE / Roma seated on shield in tetrastyle temple, handing globe to Maxentius, seated captive between them. Victories as acroteria, wolf & twins in pediment.
Mint mark: AQS
6.26 gm., 24 mm.
RIC #113; PBCC #728; Sear #14992
1 commentsCallimachus
218.jpg
A in rectangular punch146 viewsSAMARIA. Neapolis. Elagabalus. Æ 22. A.D. 218-222. Obv: AVTKMAVPA-NTWNINOC. Laureade, draped and cuirassed bust right; countermark on neck. Rev: (ΦΛNEACΠOΛCVPΠAΛ). Mt. Gerzim, consisting of two rocky masses; the left surmounted by temple approached by stairway; the right has altar on summit. Ref: BMC 95; Sear GIC 3122. Axis: 30°. Weight: 11.38 g. CM: A in rectangular punch, 2 x 3 mm. Howgego 666 (37 pcs). Note: The "A" may stand for (Severus) Alexander. Collection Automan.Automan
A_Postumius_Albinus~0.jpg
A. Postumius A.f. S.n. Albinus - AR serratus denarius9 views²Sardinia
¹Rome
¹²81 BC
draped bust of Diana right, bow and quiver over shoulder, bucranium above
togate figure standing left before flaming altar, holding sprinkler over sacrificial bull, all on stone platform
A·POST_·A·F__S·N·(AL)BIN
¹Crawford 372/1, SRCV I 296, Sydenham 745, RSC I Postumia 7
²Mark Passehl - Roman moneyer & coin type chronology, 150 – 50 BC
3,7g
ex Gitbud and Naumann

According story described by Livy: in Sabina a cattle of admirable size and beauty was born. Animal was sacrificed and his skull (bucranium) was placed in temple of Diana where it commemorate this wonder. The event was considered to be a prophetic sign that town whose citizen sacrifice the animal will rule. Before battle at Regillius Lake Roman citizen (Postumius' ancestor) took the cattle and sacrificed it in the temple of Diana on Aventine.
Johny SYSEL
RIC_190F_Antoniniano_Probo.jpg
A101-04 - PROBO (276 - 282 D.C.)9 viewsAE Antoniniano 23 x 22 mm 3.2 gr.

Anv: "IMP C M AVR PROBVS P F AVG" - Busto radiado y con coraza, viendo a derecha.
Rev: "ROMAE AETERNAE" - Roma sentada en un templo de seis columnas, portando Victoriola en mano derecha ylargo cetro vertical en izquierda. "R" en exergo.

Acuñada 2da. Emisión 277 D.C.
Ceca: Roma

Referencias: RIC Vol.V Parte II #190F (C) Pag.38 - Cohen Vol.VI #558 Pag.310
mdelvalle
RIC_184_Antoniniano_Probo.jpg
A101-05 - PROBO (276 - 282 D.C.)8 viewsAE Antoniniano 23 mm 3.7 gr.

Anv: "IMP C PROBVS AVG" - Busto radiado, con manto imperial y cetro coronado con águila.
Rev: "ROMAE AETER" - Roma sentada en un templo de seis columnas, portando Victoriola en mano derecha y largo cetro vertical en izquierda. "R rayo Δ" en exergo.

Acuñada 6ta. Emisión 281 D.C.
Ceca: Roma (4ta.Off.)

Referencias: RIC Vol.Vb #184 (C) Pag.37 - Cohen Vol.VI #535 Pag.308
mdelvalle
Follis Majencio RIC Ticinum 95.jpg
A117-12 - MAJENCIO (306 - 312 D.C.)44 viewsAE Follis 24 mm 6.1 gr.
Hijo de Maximiano, causó la crisis del sistema de la Tetrarquía, siendo proclamado “Principe”, luego César, y mas tarde Augusto, e invitando él mismo a su padre a reasumir el Imperio. Fue derrocado por las fuerzas conjuntas de Constantino I y Licinio.

Anv: "MAXENTIVS P F AVG" - Busto laureado, con coraza y Paludamentum (capote militar) sobre ella, viendo a derecha.
Rev: "CONSERV VRB SVAE" - Roma sentada de frente, viendo a izquierda, portando un globo en la mano de su brazo derecho extendido y largo cetro vertical en izquierda, dentro de un templo hexástilo (6 columnas). "P T" en exergo.

Acuñada Otoño 307 - primavera 308 D.C.
Ceca: Ticinum (Off.1ra.)
Rareza: C

Referencias: RIC Vol.VI (Ticinum) #95 Pag.294 - Cohen Vol.VII #28 Pag.168 - DVM #18 var Pag.284 - Salgado MRBI Vol.III #7653.a. Pag.89
1 commentsmdelvalle
RIC_95_Follis_Numus_Majencio.jpg
A117-12 - MAJENCIO (306 - 312 D.C.)33 viewsAE Follis 24 mm 6.1 gr.
Hijo de Maximiano, causó la crisis del sistema de la Tetrarquía, siendo proclamado “Principe”, luego César, y mas tarde Augusto, e invitando él mismo a su padre a reasumir el Imperio. Fue derrocado por las fuerzas conjuntas de Constantino I y Licinio.

Anv: "MAXENTIVS P F AVG" - Busto laureado, con coraza y Paludamentum (capote militar) sobre ella, viendo a derecha.
Rev: "CONSERV VRB SVAE" - Roma sentada de frente, viendo a izquierda, portando un globo en la mano de su brazo derecho extendido y largo cetro vertical en izquierda, dentro de un templo hexástilo (6 columnas). "P T" en exergo.

Acuñada Otoño 307 - primavera 308 D.C.
Ceca: Ticinum (Off.1ra.)
Rareza: C

Referencias: RIC Vol.VI (Ticinum) #95 Pag.294 - Cohen Vol.VII #28 Pag.168 - DVM #18 var Pag.284 - Salgado MRBI Vol.III #7653.a. Pag.89
mdelvalle
RIC_210_Follis_Numus_Majencio.jpg
A117-13 - MAJENCIO (306 - 312 D.C.)13 viewsAE Follis 24 mm 6,1 gr.

Anv: "IMP C MAXENTIVS PF AVG " – Cabeza laureada viendo a derecha.
Rev: "CONSERV VRB SVAE" - Roma sentada de frente, viendo a izq., portando globo en mano derecha y largo cetro vertical en izquierda, dentro de un templo hexástilo (6 columnas). "RBQ" en exergo.

Acuñada 308 - 310 D.C.
Ceca: Roma (Off.4ta.)
Rareza: C2

Referencias: RIC Vol.VI (Roma) #210 Pag.378 - Cohen Vol.VII #21 Pag.168 - DVM #19 Pag.284 - Salgado MRBI Vol.III #7653.c. Pag.89 - Sear '88 #3779
mdelvalle
RIC_34_Follis_ROMULO_FORUM.jpg
A118-01 - ROMULO (309 - 312 D.C.)21 viewsAE Follis 16 mm 6,47 gr.
Hijo de Majencio y nieto de Galerio, muere a la edad de 14 años. A su muerte, fue deificado y su padre le dedicó el Templo del divo Rómulo en el Foro romano.

Anv: "DIVO ROMVLO N V BIS CONS" – Cabeza desnuda viendo a derecha.
Rev: "AETERNAE - MEMORIAE” – Águila estante a derecha, viendo a izquierda, sobre el domo de un templo con la puerta derecha abierta. "MOSTP" en exergo.

Acuñada 309 – 312 D.C.
Ceca: Ostia – (Ostia Antica, viejo puerto de Roma) -Italia

Referencias: RIC Vol.VI (Ostia) 34 Pag.404 - DVM #1 Pag.285 - Salgado MRBI Vol.III #7801.b Pag.93 – Cohen Vol.VII #6 Pag.183 - Sear RCTV IV #15050 Pag.356 - DROST #72 - Bauten S.26 f - Hill Monuments S.13 ff
mdelvalle
Silvanus.jpg
aa Mysia, Pergamum. M. Plautius Silvanus / Augustus Æ2023 viewsM. Plautius Silvanus, proconsul; Demophon, grammateus. Togate figure standing facing and holding phiale, being crowned by figure in military outfit / Statue of Augustus, standing facing and holding scepter, within distyle temple façade. RPC 2364; SNG France 2016-21.ancientone
HadrianPergeTemple.jpg
aa Pamphylia, Perge. Hadrian AE12. Artemis Pergaia62 viewsObv: Laureate bust of Hadrian r.
Rev: Temple containing simulacrum of Artemis Pergaia, eagle in pediment.
SNG Aulock 4671
ancientone
1087.jpg
abilaspijk0246 viewsElagabalus
Abila

Obv: Laureate draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from behind.
Rev: In exergue, CεABIΛ. Left downward, IεACV. Right upward, NWNKC. Above, BΠ C. Hexastyle temple with central arch and pediment on top of which figure is standing; flaming altar within temple; on either side square towers with doors below and three windows on upper floors; steps in front.
24 mm, 10.70 gms

Spijkerman 24
Charles M
Thelpusa.jpg
Achaea. Arcadia, Thelpusa. Septimius Severus AE17. Unpublished106 viewsPeloponnesus. Thelpusa, Arcadia. Septimius Severus bust rt., Θ Ε Λ in wreath. Obverse die and reverse type not listed in BCD. BCD Pelop. I -; BCD Pelop II -; SNG Cop -; BMC -.

Thelpusa or Thelpousa (Greek: Θέλπουσα, also known as Telphusa/Τέλφουσα or Thelphusa/Θέλφουσα) was an ancient city-state in Azania in Arcadia.

The city was built on the left bank of the Ladon and bounded with Kleitor and Psophis. The name comes from the nymph Thelpousa or Thelpusa, daughter of Ladon. The city contained the temple of Eleusinian Demeter, and nearby, a stone statue of the goddess of the daughter and Dionysus and Ongius, chief of Thelpousa and the son of Apollo, Asclepius' children with the memory of Trygon and the temple of the twelve gods. When Pausanias] visited the city, Thelpousa was abandoned and ruined for many years. In 352 BC, its city residents took part with the Lacedaemonians. It was a member of the Achaean League and was cut off from the rights of law. Thelpusa was the patriot of Asclepius and Artion.
ancientone
nerocorinth2.jpg
Achaea. Corinthia, Corinth. Nero Æ20. Claudius Anaxilaus and P. Ventidius Fronto151 viewsCorinthia, Corinth. Nero. 54-68 AD. Æ 20mm . Ti. Claudius Anaxilaus and P. Ventidius Fronto, Duovirs. Struck 67-68 AD. Laureate head of Nero left / Nero stands facing within tetrastyle temple. BCD Corinth 480. SNG Copenhagen 235-236. RPC I 1208.

Duoviri, "the two men" was the official style of two joint magistrates. Such pairs of magistrates were appointed at various periods of Roman history both in Rome itself and in the colonies and municipia.
2 commentsancientone
Tiberius,_Emerita.jpg
Ae As Emerita Augusta (Merida). SPAIN3 viewsTiberius, AE27 As of Emerita, Spain, AD 14-37.
TI CAESAR AVG PONT MAX IMP, laureate head right / AETERNITATI AVGVSTAE CAE, tetrastyle temple.
RPC 48; Burgos 1062.
27 mm / 13.37 gr.
Antonivs Protti
Lg007_quad_sm.jpg
AE provincial, Saitta, Lydia (Sidas Kaleh, Turkey), Senate/River-God (mid-2nd to early 3d century AD) 5 viewsIЄΡA - [CYNKΛHTOC], bare-headed youthful draped bust of Senate right / CAIT[THNΩN] + [ЄPMOC] in exergue, River-God Hermos reclining left, holding reed and cornucopiae, resting arm on urn (hydria) from which waters flow.

Ӕ (base metal yellow, orichalcum?), 22 mm, 5.68 g, die axis 6.5h (coin alignment)

It is difficult to read the name of the river. I think that ЄPMOC is more likely, but VΛΛΟС is also possible, representing the other important local river, Hyllos.

Possible catalog references are BMC Lydia 25 (or 26-27?), SNG Copenhagen 398, SNG München 439.
For the Hyllos reverse, Leypold 1153.

To emphasize the autonomy of certain Hellenistic polises, even under the Roman rule they sometimes used allegorical figures of Senate or Demos on obverses of their coins instead of imperial portraits. Saitta was issuing similar-looking coins with busts of emperors and their family as well, but in this issue the town Senate is honoured as the ruler. IЄΡA CYNKΛHTOC = Holy Senate. CAITTHNΩN = Saitta, ЄPMOC = Hermos, the name of the river and its god.

River-Gods or Potamoi (Ποταμοί) were the gods of the rivers and streams of the earth, all sons of the great earth-encirling river Okeanos (Oceanus) and his wife Tethys. Their sisters were the Okeanides (Oceanids), goddesses of small streams, clouds and rain, and their daughters were the Naiades, nymphs of springs and fountains. A River-God was depicted in one of three forms: as a man-headed bull; a bull-horned man with the tail of a serpentine-fish in place of legs; or as a reclining man with an arm resting upon a pitcher pouring water, which we see in this case. The addition of cornucopia symbolizes the blessings that a particular river bestows on those who live near it.

Saitta or Saittae (Σαίτται, Ptolemy 5.2.21: Σέτται, Σάετται) was a polis in eastern Lydia (aka Maeonia), in the rivers' triangle between the upper Hyllus (modern Demirci Çayı, c. 12 km to the west) and the Hermus or Hermos (modern Gediz Nehri, c. 20 km to the south). In Roman imperial times it belonged to the "conventus" of Sardis in the Roman province of Asia (conventus was a territorial unit of a Roman province, mostly for judicial purposes).

Now its ruins are known now as Sidas Kaleh or Sidaskale in Turkey, near the village of İçikler (İcikler Mahallesi, 45900 Demirci/Manisa). They were never excavated, so are little known or cared for. Ruins of a stadium and a theatre survive, together with remains of some temples and tombs.

Not much is known about it. It was a regional centre for the production of textiles. In 124 AD the town was probably visited by emperor Hadrianus. During the Roman period the cult of the moon god Mēn Axiottenus was very popular in the city. Because of its reference to "angels" (both literally as the Greek word and by their function as god's messengers) it was possibly close to the more general Asia Minor cult of Theos Hypsistos, Θεος ὕψιστος, "the highest god" (200 BC – 400 AD), which in turn was perhaps related to the gentile following of the Second Temple in Jerusalem.

Known Roman provincial coins issued by this city feature portraits of emperors from Hadrian to Gallienus, thus covering the period from 117 to 268 AD, with the peak around the Severan dynasty. The semi-autonomous issues are usually dated from mid-2nd to mid-3d century AD.

Later Saittae was the seat of a Byzantine bishopric. Bishop Limenius signed the Chalcedon Creed, while Bishop Amachius spoke at the Council of Chalcedon. Although an Islamic area now, Saittae remains a titular see of the Roman Catholic Church.
Yurii P
AE19_SEMIS_CARTAGONOVA-CARTAGENA_SPAIN-_TEMPLE.JPG
AE19 SEMIS CARTAGONOVA (Cartagena, Spain).TEMPLE29 views14 - 36 D. C. Antonivs Protti
elagabalusberytos121026.jpg
AE26 Elagabalus Berytos24 viewsAE26 10.5 g
Tetrastyle temple with the statue of Marsyas
Berytos ( Phoenicia )
philippe B2
1263.jpg
aelia111-14 viewsElagabalus
Aelia Capitolina, Judaea

Obv: IMP C M AVR ANTONINVS AVG. Radiate draped and cuirassed bust right.
Rev: COL AEL CAP COMM, → P F. Tyche within tetrastyle temple with central arch, holding bust and scepter, right foot on uncertain object. Nikes between outer columns.
26 mm, 10.71 gms

Sofaer 111
Charles M
myrina~0.jpg
Aeolis, Myrina. Pseudo-autonomous AE17. AD 253-268. Amazon Myrina47 viewsObv: MVPE-INA, draped, turreted bust of Amazon Myrina left.
Rev: ΜVΡEΙΝΑΩΝ, Tyche in long chiton with cornucopia in l. and rudder in r., standing left.

Myrina, mythological queen of the Amazons. According to Diodorus Siculus she led a military expedition in Libya and won a victory over the people known as the Atlantians, destroying their city Cerne; but was less successful fighting the Gorgons (who are described by Diodorus as a warlike nation residing in close proximity to the Atlantians), failing to burn down their forests. During a later campaign, she struck a treaty of peace with Horus, ruler of Egypt, conquered several peoples, including the Syrians, the Arabians, and the Cilicians (but granted freedom to those of the latter who gave in to her of their own will). She also took possession of Greater Phrygia, from the Taurus Mountains to the Caicus River, and several Aegean islands, including Lesbos; she was also said to be the first to land on the previously uninhabited island which she named Samothrace, building the temple there. The cities of Myrina (in Lemnos), possibly another Myrina in Mysia, Mytilene, Cyme, Pitane, and Priene were believed to have been founded by her, and named after herself, her sister Mytilene, and the commanders in her army, Cyme, Pitane and Priene, respectively. Myrina's army was eventually defeated by Mopsus the Thracian and Sipylus the Scythian; she, as well as many of her fellow Amazons, fell in the final battle. -Wikipedia
1 commentsancientone
358.jpg
akko00112 viewsElagabalus
Akko Ptolemias, Samaria

Obv: Laureate head right.
Rev: COL PTO Tyche, holding rudder and cornucopia, standing left, crowned by Nike on column; all within tetrastyle temple.
26 mm, 7.50 gms

Kadman 171; Nomos, Obolos Web Auction 8, Lot 426
Charles M
Alexander_II_Zebina.JPG
Alexander II Zabinas62 viewsAlexander II Zebina, Antioch, 128-123 BC, Houghton CSE 307, Sear 7127, SNGIs 2341, 21.14mm, 7g
OBV: Radiate head right
REV: BAΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ (BASILEOS ALEXANDROU), double cornucopiae bound with a fillet, club in left field

Zabinas, the "bought one", the pretender king who spent most of his
pathetic reign fighting Demetrius II and Antiochus VII. He failed to ward
off Antiochus and was forced to plunder the temples of Antioch in order to
come up with getaway money. Unfortunately he was captured and forced to
commit suicide.
1 commentsRomanorvm
artet1.JPG
Alexander III554 viewsAlexander III AR Tetradrachm. ‘Amphipolis’ mint. Struck under Kassander, circa 316-314 BC. Head of Herakles right, wearing lion skin headdress / Zeus Aëtophoros seated left; shield in left field, pellet-in-Π below throne. 17.1 g.

Price 136; Troxell, Studies, issue L8.

Thanks for the atribution Lloyd!


Most lifetime issues of Alexander the Great were usualy bulky/thick, which did not alow for the entire design of the die to imprint on the coin. IMO looked better then the wide thin flan. (edit: though this one is Struck under Kassander)

The coin was hand stuck with a die/avil. Dies were usually made of Bronze because it was sofeter and easier to work with then iron, (though some were made of iron as well) then the was anealed to make it stronger and less brittle.

The planchets were made by pouring molten metal into a mold and saved until needed. When it was ready to be used, they heated it just below melting point and placed it between the dies and the punch die was struck with a hammer.


-----------------------------


"Building upon his father's success in Greece, Alexander III (Alexander the Great, reigned 336-323 BC) set about the conquest of the Achaemenid Persian Empire. By the time of his death at the age of 31, he ruled most of the known world from Greece to Afghanistan. Initially Alexander continued to mint Philip's gold and silver coins. Soon, however, the need for a silver coinage that could be widely used in Greece caused him to begin a new coinage on the Athenian weight-standard. His new silver coins, with the head of Herakles on one side and a seated figure of Zeus on the other, also became one of the staple coinages of the Greek world. They were widely imitated within the empire he had forged."

--------------------------------------

"......Alexander seems to have liked Amphipolis, because one of his last plans was to spend no less than 315 ton silver for a splendid new temple in the city that was to be dedicated to Artemis Tauropolus. It was never built, but after Alexander's death on 11 June 323 in Babylon, his wife queen Roxane settled in Amphipolis, which appears to have become one of the residences of the Macedonian royals. In 179, king Philip V died in the town."


------------------

Amphipolis , ancient city of Macedonia, on the Strymon (Struma) River near the sea and NE of later Thessaloníki. The place was known as Ennea Hodoi [nine ways] before it was settled and was of interest because of the gold and silver and timber of Mt. Pangaeus (Pangaion), to which it gave access. Athenian colonists were driven out (c.464 BC) by Thracians, but a colony was established in 437 BC Amphipolis became one of the major Greek cities on the N Aegean. This colony was captured by Sparta, and Brasidas and Cleon were both killed in a battle there in 422 BC After it was returned to Athens in 421 BC, it actually had virtual independence until captured (357 BC) by Philip II of Macedon. He had promised to restore it to Athens, and his retention of Amphipolis was a major cause of the war with Athens. In 148 BC it became the capital of the Roman province of Macedonia. Paul, Silas, and Timothy passed through Amphipolis (Acts 17.1). Nearby is the modern Greek village of Amfípolis."

--------------------------------

"A quick look at the WildWinds database( http://www.wildwinds.com/coins/greece/macedonia/kings/alexander_III/t.html ) indicates that the style and monograms are consistent with an Amphipolis issue, with perhaps a little less care than usual in the engraving of the reverse. The closest I could locate with a quick look is Price 133 (variant), although yours appears to have a shield rather than dolphin in the left field reverse."
16 commentsrandy h2
Hadrien Alexandrie.jpg
Alexandria - Bronze drachm of Hadrian59 viewsObv. legend out of flan ; laureate bust of Hadrian.
Rev. : Decorated front of Egyptian temple, the cultus statue is visible between the pylons.
1 commentsGinolerhino
piusemmett1584.jpg
Alexandria. Antoninus Pius. 138-161 AD. Æ Drachm. Isis with infant Harpocrates17 viewsAlexandria. Antoninus Pius. 138-161 AD. Æ Drachm (35mm, 24.20 gm). Laureate head of Antoninus Pius right / Temple of two columns supporting pediment, ornamented with the crown of Uraeus, within, Isis enthroned right, holding Harpocrates.ancientone
91~2.jpg
ALFOLDI 058.001 ROMAE AETERNAE WITH ROMA OUTSIDE TEMPLE RRR33 viewsOBVERSE: IMP PROBVS INV AVG
REVERSE: ROMAE AETERNAE
BUST TYPE: A2 (BASTIEN'S CLASSIFICATION)
FIELD / EXERGUE MARKS: --//XXI
WEIGHT 3.69g / AXIS: 12h / WIDTH 21mm
RIC 742
ALFOLDI 058.001
COLLECTION NO. 358
NOTE: EXTREMELY RARE AND SOUGHT-AFTER REVERSE TYPE!
Barnaba6
00491q00.jpg
Allectus12 viewsAE-Antoninianus
IMP C ALLECTVS PF AVG; Radiate and cuirassed bust to right.
ROMA AETER; Roma stg. in temple, holding two ensigns; S A in Fields.
Ex: ML
Londinium
RIC 40
Julianus of Pannonia
pontos_1000.jpg
Amisos, Pontos, time of Mithridates VI27 viewsAE 18mm; 4.6g, circa 120-63 BC.
Obv.: Bust of Mithridates as Perseus right, wing at his temple.
Rev.: Cornucopiae between two pilei (caps of the Dioskuri) each surmounted by a star; AMI-ΣOY.
Reference: SNG Stockholm 1848; SNG Cop. 161; BMC 65; Waddington 32.
1 commentsJohn Anthony
IM002341.JPG
Amman - Citadel - Pillars of the Temple of Hercules17 views2 commentsotlichnik
IM002342.JPG
Amman - Citadel - Temple of Hercules and View of City11 viewsThe remains of the 2nd century AD Temple of Hercules on the Amman citadel high above the Forum. otlichnik
IM002362.JPG
Amman - Forum - Temple at top of Theatre13 viewsA photo of me (from ten years ago) looking at the remains of the small temple at the back of the Roman Theatre in Amman. Though the appearance of a temple was no longer required at this time - unlike during the late Republican era when they were included to avoid the legal prohibition against building permanent temples - the tradition of including a small temple at the top rear of Roman theatres prevailed in many cases. otlichnik
amph_goats_pan.jpg
Amphipolis, Macedonia, c. 168 - 149 B.C.62 viewsBronze AE 20, SGCV I 1394; (SNG Cop 62), weight 7.8 g, max. diameter 21.75 mm, Amphipolis mint, Roman rule, c. 168 - 149 B.C.; Obv. diademed head of Artemis Tauropolos right, bow and quiver at shoulder; Rev. ΑΜΦΙΠΟΛΙΤΩΝ, two goats on their hind legs, contending head to head. Green patina, very worn.

Artemis Tauropolos was an epithet for the goddess Artemis, variously interpreted as worshipped at Tauris, or pulled by a yoke of bulls, or hunting bull goddess. A statue of Artemis "Tauropolos" in her temple at Brauron in Attica was supposed to have been brought from the Taurians by Iphigenia. Tauropolia was a festival of Artemis in Athens. - Wikipedia
Steve E
Tikal~0.jpg
Ancient Maya, Tikal, Guatemala123 viewsMayadigger - Tikal was the home to 45,000 + citizens from 200-800 AD. This truly maginificent site is located deep in the Peten rainforest. The pyramid seen here is approx. 140 feet tall, whose temple is topped with a "cox-comb" roof decoration. In the right foreground is seen the Great Plaza with a number of stone stelae commemorating the city's kings. In the right background is the acropolis, where the elites not only lived, but were also buried with great pomp.2 commentsMayadigger
ANTOAS05-2~0.jpg
Ancilia31 viewsÆ As (9.9g, Ø27mm, 12h). Rome mint. Struck AD 143-144.
Obv.: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P COS III, bare head of Antoninus Pius facing right.
Rev.: IMPERATO(R II) (around edge) S C (in field), Two ancilia: oval shields with rounded projections above and below).
RIC 736a; BMC 1629-31; Cohen 30

The anicilia were twelve shields which were believed to protect Rome. They consisted of an original, which fell from heaven in the time of Numa. Rome would rule the world as long as the shield was preserved. Numa ordered eleven other identical shields to be made to protect it from theft. These Ancilia were preserved in the temple of Mars, and were committed to the care of twelve priests of Salii, instituted for that purpose. Every year in March they were caried in procession around Rome until they were put back in their place on the 30th.
Charles S
antiochia_maximinusII_Vagi2955_2.jpg
Anonymous Civic Issue of Antiochia, Vagi 295525 viewsAE 15, 0.80g (1/4 Follis)
Antiochia 1st officina, struck in the time of Maximinus I., AD 310-312(?)
obv. IOVI CONS - ERVATORI
Jupiter seated l., holding globus and sceptre
rev. VICTOR - IA AVGG
Victoria stg. l., holding wreath and palm
A in r. field
in ex. ANT
Vagi 2955; not in RIC
rare, VF+

The obv. could be the Zeus Nikephoros of the Temple of Apollo at Daphne (near Antiochia) which Antiochos IV commissioned for his great festival of 167 BC.
Jochen
Trebonianus_Gallus.JPG
Antioch AE30 Trebonianus Gallus AE 30 of Antiochia ad Orontem, Syria. 38 views15.03 grams.
27 mm.
Antioch AE30
Trebonianus Gallus AE 30 of Antiochia ad Orontem, Syria. Bust right / tetrastyle temple, Tyche seated left within, river-god below. SGI 4350. BMC 653 sold
Antonio Protti
antioch_ad_m__boule.jpg
Antiochia ad Maeandrum; Boule/ Tyche within temple, AE 2416 viewsCaria, Antiochia ad Maeandrum, Reign of Valerian-Gallienus, AE 24, 7.01g. Obv: IEPA - BOVΛH Draped, veiled bust of Boule r. Rev: ANT - IOX around, EΩN in exergue, Four-columned temple with arched lintel, within which Tyche standing l., kalathos on head, holding rudder and cornucopia. SNG Cop-37 (same dies). Ex H.J.BerkPodiceps
coin324.JPG
Antiochia ad Orontem; Volusian14 viewsSYRIA, Seleucis and Pieria. Antioch. Volusian. AD 251-253. Æ 29mm Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right / Tetrastyle temple of Tyche of Antioch, river-god Orontes swimming at her feet; above shrine, ram leaping right, head left; D-E above. BMC Galatia etc. p. 231, 665; SNG Copenhagen 295; SNG München 790.ecoli
66a.jpg
antipatris0016 viewsElagabalus
Antipatris, Samaria

Obv: Laureate draped bust right.
Rev: Tyche standing left, holding small bust and scepter, within tetrastyle temple; below, river-god swimming left.
16 mm, 5.6 gms

Rosenberger 1; Sofaer 3
Charles M
1434.jpg
antipatris001_210 viewsElagabalus
Antipatris, Samaria

Obv: ...K M AVP ANTWN..., Laureate draped bust right.
Rev: Tyche standing left, holding small bust and scepter, within tetrastyle temple; below, river-god swimming left.
17 mm, 6.41 gms

Rosenberger 1; Sofaer 3
Charles M
031313JSF020.jpg
ANTIQUITIES, Greek, Hellenistic period terracotta statue of a monkey15 viewsA very rare, genuine ancient Greek Hellenistic period terracotta statue of a monkey, dating to approximately 300 - 250 B.C.
The charming creaure is shown seated and clutching a cylindrical vessel under its left arm.
Possibly a votive piece which would have been dedicated at a temple or sanctuary, in thanks for, or in anticipation of a favor.
A fascinating and unusual piece of ancient Greek art.
Condition: Very good, age related encrustation, as shown. Unrestored.

Height: 3 3/4 inches

Provenance:

Ex. Collection of Mr. E. Ohly, United Kingdom.
superflex
philip_I_temple.jpg
Antoninianus; SAECVLVM NOVVM, Hexastyle temple; RIC 25b11 viewsPhilip I Antoninianus. 249 AD. IMP PHILIPPVS AVG, radiate, draped & cuirassed bust right / SAECVLVM NOVVM, Hexastyle temple with statue of Roma within. RIC 25b, RSC 198. Sear RCV III: 8963. 1 commentsPodiceps
1000-26-133.jpg
Antoninus Pius11 viewsAntoninus Pius. A.D. 138-161. AR denarius (17.1 mm, 2.80 g, 6 h). Rome mint, Struck A.D. 158-159. ANTONINVS AVG PIVS PP, laureate head right / TEMPL DIVI AVG REST, COS IIII, seated figures of Divus Augustus and Livia, set on podium, within octastyle temple. RIC 143; BMCRE 549; RSC 799b. VF.ecoli
Augustus_temple_(800x387).jpg
Antoninus Pius 7 viewsAntoninus Pius Sestertius temple of Augustus and Livia
Catalog: Temple of Divus Augustus
weight 28,6gr. | bronze Ø 32mm.
obv. Laureate head right ANTONINVS AVG PIVS PP TR P XXII
rev. Octastyle temple of Divus Augustus, containing cult-statues of Augustus
and Livia TEMPLVM DIVI AVG REST COS IIII S C

The Temple of Divus Augustus was a major temple originally built to commemorate the deified first Roman emperor, Augustus. It was built between the Palatine and Capitoline Hills, behind the Basilica Julia, on the site of the house that Augustus had inhabited before he entered public life in the mid-1st century BC. The temple′s construction took place during the 1st century AD, having been vowed by the Roman Senate shortly after the death of the emperor in AD 14. It is known from Roman coinage that the temple was originally built to an Ionic hexastyle design. However, its size, physical proportions and exact site are unknown. During the reign of Domitian the Temple of Divus Augustus was destroyed by fire but was rebuilt and rededicated in 89/90 with a shrine to his favourite deity, Minerva. The temple was redesigned as a memorial to four deified emperors, including Vespasian and Titus. It was restored again in the mid 150s by Antonius Pius, and that was the reason for this coinage. The last known reference to the temple was on 27 May 218 | at some point thereafter it was completely destroyed and its stones were presumably quarried for later buildings. Its remains are not visible and the area in which it lay has never been excavated.

Cohen 805 | RIC 1004 | BMC 2063 | Sear 4235 R
vf
1 commentsAncient Aussie
Roma.jpg
Antoninus Pius 28 views
Antoninus Pius. AD 138-161. Æ Sestertius (32mm, 25.3g, 10h). Rome mint. Struck circa AD 141-143. Laureate head right / Decastyle temple, with statues on roof and in pediment. RIC II 622. Good Fine.

The great temple of Venus and Roma was actually composed of two temples back to back. The temple of Venus faced the Flavian ampitheatre and that of Rome overlooked the Forum - both were designed by Hadrian himself. Construction began in 121 AD and and remained unfinished on the emperor’s death in 138 AD. Work was at last completed in 141 AD under Antoninus Pius, the event commemorated on this coin. The temple would be destroyed by fire in 307 and later rebuilt by Maxentius, the remains of which can still be seen in Rome today.
Ancient Aussie
2015-01-07_01_08_08-9.jpg
Antoninus Pius 3 views
Antoninus Pius. AD 138-161. Æ Dupondius (27mm, 10.58 g, 11h). Rome mint. Struck AD 159. Radiate head right / TEMPLVM DIV AVG REST, octastyle temple within which are the seated figures of Divus Augustus and Livia. RIC III 1017. VF, dark brown surfaces with touches of green, some pitting and minor smoothing.


The second Temple of Divus Augustus, commenced under Tiberius and dedicated by Caligula in August AD 37, suffered during the great fire of 80, which began on the Capitoline Hill and spread into the Forum and onto the Palatine. It was possibly restored or rebuilt under Domitian, although it is not mentioned in the Chronographia. It received further restoration under Antoninus Pius in 158. The temple under Antoninus was Corinthian octastyle and contained the seated figures of Divus Augustus and Livia within, generally drawn on the coinage at an elevated level to suggest perspective.
Ancient Aussie
Pius_Zeugma.jpg
Antoninus Pius Zeugma17 viewsAntoninus Pius, 138 - 161 AD
AE Diassarion, Commagene, Zeugma Mint, 23mm, 10.26 grams
Obverse: Laureate head of Antoninus right.
Reverse: Tetrastyle temple on hill with structures at base and up either side and a path going up, A in right field.
RPC Online 5752
The second known example, the other in the Biblioteque Nationale.
Ancient Aussie
Antoninus_Pius_AD_138-161__Rome_34_mm_,_32,21_g.jpg
Antoninus Pius (Augustus) Coin: Brass Sestertius4 viewsANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P COS III - Laureate head right
VENERI FELICI SC - Decastyle temple of Venus set on three-tiered base; pediment decorated with statues; statues of Aeternitas as acroteria.
Exergue: SC


Mint: Rome (141-143 AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 32.21g / 34mm / 12h
Rarity: Rare
References:
RIC III 651
BMCRE 1322
Cohen 1074
Provenances:
Savoca Coins
Acquisition/Sale: Savoca Coins Internet 38th Silver Auction #297 $0.00 11/19
Notes: Nov 2, 19 - The Gary R. Wilson Collection

From CNG: The great temple of Venus and Rome, actually two temples that were back to back, the temple of Venus faced the Flavian ampitheatre and that of Rome overlooked the Forum, was designed by Hadrian himself. Construction began in 121 AD and and remained unfinished on Hadrian's death in 138 AD. Construction was finally completed in 141 AD under Antoninus Pius, the event celebrated by this coin. The temple would be destroyed by fire in 307 and later rebuilt by Maxentius, the remains of which can still be seen in Rome today.

Rated as Rare with the Temple of Venus seemingly the scarcer of the two temple reverses with the Temple of Roma being the other. This coin weighs in at a whopping 32.21 grams.
GRWilson
Divus_Antoninus_Pius_Æ_Sestertius.jpg
Antoninus Pius (Augustus) Coin: Brass Sestertius 4 viewsDIVVS ANTONINVS - Bare head right
CONSECRATIO - Funeral pyre of four tiers decorated with garlands, surmounted by facing quadriga; S-C across fields.
Exergue:


Mint: Rome (161 AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 20.68g / 32mm / 360
References:
RIC III 1266 (Aurelius)
Banti 74
Provenances:
Roma Numismatics
Acquisition/Sale: Roma Numismatics Internet E-Sale 45 #596

The Gary R. Wilson Collection

Antoninus Pius' funeral ceremonies were described as elaborate but, despite the pyre depicted on this coin, according to his Historia Augusta biography, Antoninus' body (and not his ashes) was buried in Hadrian's mausoleum. After a seven-day interval (justitium) Marcus and Lucius nominated their father for deification. In contrast to their behavior during Antoninus' campaign to deify Hadrian, the senate did not oppose the emperors' wishes. A flamen, or cultic priest, was appointed to minister the cult of the deified Antoninus, now Divus Antoninus. A column was dedicated to Antoninus on the Campus Martius, and the temple he had built in the Forum in 141 to his deified wife Faustina was rededicated to the deified Faustina and the deified Antoninus. It survives as the church of San Lorenzo in Miranda.
Gary W2
lg_capitolina.jpg
Antoninus Pius (Augustus) Judea, Aelia Capitolina (Jerusalem)20 viewsAntoninus Pius (Augustus)
Judea, Aelia Capitolina (Jerusalem)
AE - / 22mm / -
(IMP ANTONINVS AVG PPP) - Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right
C Α C - tetrastyle arched temple; inside Tyche-Astarte stands half left in chiton, parazonium at side, foot raised (on globe), small bust in right, scepter in left
Mint: (138-161 AD)
Ref: SNG 594; Y. Meshorer, The Coinage of Aelia Capitolina (1989), 72, 70; BMC p. 84, 12; L. Kadman, The Coins of Aelia Capitolina (Jerusalem 1956), 12
Scotvs Capitis
Antoninus_1014v.jpg
Antoninus Pius - AE dupondius49 viewsRome
157-158 AD
radiate head right
ANTONINVS AVG__PIVS P P TR P XXI
distyle shrine with arched roof containing statue of the Genius of the Senate, togate, raising hand, holding eagle-tipped scepter, standing on pedestal
COS__IIII
S C
RIC 989
13,04g 24,5-23,5 mm
2 commentsJohny SYSEL
Antoninus_Pius_denar_temple.jpg
Antoninus Pius - AR denarius8 viewsRome
158-159 AD
laureate hwad right
ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P XXII
temple of Augustus and Livia
TEMPLVM DIV AVG REST
COS IIII
not in RIC (RIC III Antoninus Pius 272A/1004 var.), BMCRE IV 939, RSC II 804
2,68g

This issue comemorates reconstruction of the temple of Augustus and Livia by Antoninus.
Johny SYSEL
Antonin denier.jpg
Antoninus Pius - denarius44 viewsANTONINVS AVG. PIVS P.P., laureate bust right
TEMPLVM DIVI AVG. REST. / COS. IIII, front-view of the Temple of Divine Augustus, with 8 columns and 2 statues inside.

The legend should be read as one single sentence, starting from the obverse : Antoninus Augustus Pius, Pater Patriae, templum Divi Augusti restituit consul IIII : Antoninus Augustus Pious, father of the country, 4 times consul, restored the temple of the Divine Augustus.
1 commentsGinolerhino
capitolina.jpg
Antoninus Pius Aelia Capitolina41 viewsAntoninus Pius (Augustus)
Judea, Aelia Capitolina (Jerusalem)
AE22
Ob: (IMP ANTONINVS AVG PPP) - Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rv: C Α C beneath tetrastyle arched temple; inside Tyche-Astarte stands half left in chiton, parazonium at side, foot raised (on globe), small bust in right, scepter in left
Ref: SNG 594; Y. Meshorer, The Coinage of Aelia Capitolina (1989), 72, 70; BMC p. 84, 12; L. Kadman, The Coins of Aelia Capitolina (Jerusalem 1956), 12

http://rpc.ashmus.ox.ac.uk/coins/6397/
Scotvs Capitis
Antoninus_Pius_Denarius_Temple_of_Augustus_.jpg
Antoninus Pius Denarius Temple of Augustus64 viewsObv.
ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P XXII
Laureate head right

Rev.
TEMPL DIVI AVG REST
COS IIII
Octastyle temple of Divus Augustus and Livia, statues within
2 commentsancientdave
Antoninus_Pius_Perga_Pamphylia.JPG
Antoninus Pius Perga Pamphylia39 viewsAntoninus Pius, Perga, Pamphylia, 138 - 161 AD, AE 15, 2.4g, 180o, Von Aulock 4672, SNG Cop 319, SNG France 411, not in BMC
OBV: ANTWNEINOC KAISAP, Laureate head right
REV: APTEMIDOS PERGAIAS, Distyle temple of Artemis Pergaia
Romanorvm
Antoninus_Pius_Sest_RIC_999.JPG
Antoninus Pius Sest RIC 999 Temple of the Genius of the Senate33 viewsAntoninus Pius, Rome, Sestertius, 153 - 154 AD, 30.24mm, 24.1g, RIC 999,
OBV: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P XXII, laureate head right
OBV: COS IIII, Genius of the Senate standing on cippus within arched temple, SC in exergue

Rare issue commemorating the Temple of the Genius of the Senate, of which little is known
Per Curtis Clay, probably RIC 999 (XXII)
Romanorvm
Antoninus_Pius.jpg
Antoninus Pius Sestertius23 viewsAntoninus Pius AE Sestertius. 153-154 AD.
Obv: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P XXII, laureate head right
Rev: COS IIII S C, Genius of the Senate standing on cippus within arched temple.
Rare
RIC 999, Cohen 332.


Tanit
Antoninus_Pius_Temple_of_Divus_Aug_and_Livia.jpg
Antoninus Pius Temple of Divus Aug and Livia52 viewsAntoninus Pius denarius, RIC III 290a, Rome, 3.197g, 16.8mm, die axis 180o, 158 A.D.;
OBV: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P XXII, laureate head right;
REV: TEMPLVM DIV AVG REST COS IIII, statues of Divus Augustus and Livia seated in an octastyle temple, two statues in front of the outer columns, statue on pediment, two others and a quadriga on roof;
This interesting type commemorates the restoration of the temple of Divus Augustus and Livia.

EX: Forvm Ancient Coins

SCARCE
1 commentsRomanorvm
Antoninus_Pius_Temple_of_Perga.JPG
Antoninus Pius Temple of Perga75 viewsANTONINUS PIUS, 138 - 161 AD, AE32, Perga, Pamphylia, 24.4g,
OBV: KAI ADRIA ANTWNEINOS, Laureate head right.
REV: ARTEMODOS PERGAIAS, Distyle temple, with fluted Ionic columns, with eagle in pediment,
containing simulacrum of Pergean Artemis; on either side of which, sphinx on pedestal.
Not in BMC, nor von Aulock.
SNG FRANCE 3, 0406(1) / COLL PARIS 317A(1)

Extremely Rare
5 commentsRomanorvm
41077_Ant_Pius_drachm_Isis___Harpokrates.jpg
Antoninus Pius, drachm; Isis & Harpokrates14 viewsAntoninus Pius, August 138 - 7 March 161 A.D., Roman Provincial Egypt. Bronze drachm, BMC Alexandria p. 142, 1195, Fair, Alexandria mint, 17.012g, 33.2mm, 0o, obverse “ΑΥΤ Κ Τ ΑΙΛ ΑΔΡ ΑΝΤΩΝΙΝΟ”C CEB EVC, laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right; reverse “ΔΩΔΕ ΚΑΤΟ”V L, Isis seated right, wearing horns, disk, plumes, chiton and mantle, suckling Harpokrates; within distyle temple with papyrus capitals and rounded pediment with disk with uraei; Ex FORVM, photo credit FORVMPodiceps
APiusSestRIC621.JPG
Antoninus Pius, RIC 621, Sestertius of AD 140-144 (Roma)163 viewsÆ Sestertius (28.4g, Ø 33-34mm, 12h) Rome mint. Struck AD 140-144.
Obv.: ANTONINVS AVG PI-VS P P TR P COS III, laurate head right
Rev.: ROMA AETERNA (around), S C (in ex.), Roma seated left on throne, holding palladium and spear; shield at side.
RIC 621; BMCRE 1276; C. 694; Strack 846; Banti (I Grandi Bronzi Imperiali II-3) 330 (7 spec.); Foss (Roman Historical Coins) 24b; Sear (Roman Coins and their Values II) 1276
ex CNG Auction #29, lot 62687, May 2001

Issued to celebrate the completion in AD141 of the temple of Venus and Rome, designed and begun by Hadrian. This could also belong to the series of ancient Roman legends issued in this same period, as the Palladium held by Roma is the statue of Pallas Athena, stolen from Troy and brought to Italy by Aeneas. It was regarded by the Romans as guardian of their city.
2 commentsCharles S
AntoSe53-2.jpg
Antoninus Pius, RIC 622, Sestertius of AD 141-144 (Temple of Venus and Roma)81 viewsÆ Sestertius (25.5g, Ø 33mm, 12h), Rome mint, struck AD 141-143.
Obv.: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P COS III, laurate and draped bust of Antoninus Pius facing right
Rev.: ROMAE AETERNAE (around) S C (in field below) Decastyle temple with statues on roof and pediment.
RIC 622 (S); BMCRE 1279-82; Cohen 700 (Fr.12); Strack 848; Banti (I Grandi Bronzi Imperiali II-3) 333 var. (bust not draped); Foss (Roman Historical Coins) 125:24a; Sear (Roman Coins & Their Values II) 4212.
ex Mike R. Vosper (UK, 2000)

Coin issued on the occasion of the completion of the temple of Venus and Rome, begun by Hadrian in AD 121. The temple was be destroyed by fire in 307 and later rebuilt by Maxentius. Remains of the temple can still be seen today.
Charles S
AntoSef0-2.jpg
Antoninus Pius, RIC 622c, Sestertius of AD 140-144 (Temple of Venus & Roma)33 viewsÆ Sestertius (29,1g, Ø 33mm, 10h). Rome mint. Struck AD 140-144.
Obv.: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P COS III, laureate head left.
Rev.: ROMAE AETERNAE (around) S C (ex.), decastyle temple on podium of four steps with statues on roof and in pediment.
RIC 622(c) (scarce); BMCRE 1345v. (hd. r.); Cohen 702 (12 fr.); Strack 848 (2 spec. for left-headed var.); Banti (I Grandi Bronzi Imperiali II-3) 335 (1 spec. w/o illustration); Sear (Roman Coins and their Values II) 4212v. (hd. r.)
Ex Guy BRAUN collection (France, 2015).
very rare left headed variety

The temple of Roma, designed by Hadrian in 121 and completed by Antoninus Pius in 141, facing the forum, was built back to back with the temple of Venus, which faced the Flavian Amphitheater. The building containing the two temples was referred to as the Temple of Venus and Roma ("Templum Veneris et Romae"). The remains are still visible and show that both temples consisted of ten colums. The coins suggest many decorative details.
Charles S
antose63~0.jpg
Antoninus Pius, RIC 623, Sestertius of AD 141-144 (Temple of Venus and Roma)45 viewsÆ sestertius (25.11, 6h) Rome mint. Struck AD 141-144.
ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P COS III laureate head of Antoninus Pius facing right
ROMAE AETERNAE (around) S C (in field below) ornamented dekastyle temple with the statue of Roma inside; tympanum adorned with high relief statues; quadriga (suggested) at top and statues at each side.
RIC 623 (scarce); Cohen 703 (12 Fr.); BMCRE 1279; Strack 849; Banti (I Grandi Bronzi Imperiali III) 336 (4 spec.); Foss (Roman Historical Coins) 125:24a
ex CNG EAuction 52 (2002)

The temple of Roma was designed by Hadrian (himself) in AD 121 and completed by Antoninus Pius in 141. It stood facing the forum, and was built back to back with the temple of Venus, which faced the Flavian Amphitheater. The two temples in one building were referred to as the Temple of Venus and Roma ("Templum Veneris et Romae"). Hadrian had to have the colossal statue of Nero removed in order to make room for the temples, which were built on the site of the vestibule of Nero's golden house. (He had Nero's statue placed near the entrance to the Ampitheater, and this provided the nickname, "Colloseum".) Their ruins prove both temples consisted of ten colums, and the coins suggest many decorative details.
Charles S
AntoSe63-2.jpg
Antoninus Pius, RIC 623, Sestertius of AD 141-144 (Temple of Venus and Roma)35 viewsÆ sestertius (25.11g, 31.5mm 6h) Rome mint. Struck AD 141-144.
ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P COS III laureate head of Antoninus Pius facing right
ROMAE AETERNAE (around) S C (ex.) ornamented dekastyle temple with the statue of Roma inside; tympanum adorned with high relief statues; quadriga (suggested) at top and statues at each side.
RIC 623 (scarce); Cohen 703 (12 Fr.); BMCRE 1279; Strack 849; Banti (I Grandi Bronzi Imperiali II-3) 336 (4 spec.); Sear(Roman Coins and their Values II) 4212 var. (rev. no figure of Roma); Foss (Roman Historical Coins) 125:24a
ex CNG EAuction 52 (2002)

The temple of Roma was designed by Hadrian (himself) in AD 121 and completed by Antoninus Pius in 141. It stood facing the forum, and was built back to back with the temple of Venus, which faced the Flavian Amphitheater. The building with the two temples was referred to as the Temple of Venus and Roma ("Templum Veneris et Romae"). Hadrian had to have the colossal statue of Nero (Colossus) removed in order to make room for the temples, which were built on the site of the vestibule of Nero's golden house. (He had the Colossus placed near the entrance to the amphitheater, and this provided the nickname, "Colosseum".) The ruins show that both temples consisted of ten colums, and the coins suggest many decorative details.
1 commentsCharles S
ANTOSEb5~0.jpg
Antoninus Pius, RIC 637, Sestertius of AD 140-144 (Salus)88 viewsorichalcum sestertius (25,61g, 30mm, 12h). Rome mint. Struck AD 140-144.
Obv.: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P COS III laureate head right.
Rev.: SALVS AVG (around edge) S C (in ex.) Salus seated left, holding a patera to feed a snake coiled around altar, and resting left elbow on chair.
RIC 637; Cohen 724; Strack 853
ex Dr. Busso Peus Nachf., Auction 401 (2010)

Salus is the Roman goddess of health and a temple was dedicated to her in 302 BC. The reverse legend, Salus Aug(usti), refers to the health of the emperor.
1 commentsCharles S
AntoSeb1.jpg
Antoninus Pius, RIC 644, Sestertius of AD 140-144 (Janus) 43 viewsÆ Sestertius (24.70g, Ø32mm, 12h). Rome mint. Struck AD 140-144.
Obv.: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P, laureate head of Antoninus Pius facing right
Rev.: TR POT COS III (around) S C (in field) Janus standing facing, holding a long sceptre.
RIC 644 (S), Cohen 881, BMC 1317, Strack 886; Banti (I Grandi Bronzi Imperiali II-3) 435 (3 spec.); Sear (Roman Coins & Their Values II) 4240.
ex CNG eAuction 233, 2010; ex the John Bitner Collection of Secular Games Coinage; ex Astarte XV, 2004

This issue is part of a series of coins struck in preparation of the 900th anniversary of Rome, figuring scenes from Ancient Roman legends. Janus was believed to have been the first king of Italy. He was elevated to the status of a deity and a temple was dedicated to him.
Charles S
AntoSe75~0.jpg
Antoninus Pius, RIC 651(a), Sestertius of AD 141-144 (Temple of Venus and Roma)46 viewsÆ sestertius (23.78g, 12h). Rome mint struck AD 141-144.
ANTONINVS AVG PIVS PP TR P COS III laureate head of Antoninus Pius facing right
VENERI FELICI (around) S C (in ex.) decastyle temple
RIC 651(a); Cohen 1075var. (dr. bust); BMC 1322; Strack 864; Foss (Roman Historical Coins) 125:23
ex Jean Elsen et ses Fils (Bruxelles) auction 97; ex coll. A. Senden: l'architecture des monnaies Romaines
F, dark green patina, corroded

Issued on the occasion of the completion of the temple of Venus and Roma in AD 141. This was the largest temple in Rome dedicated to Venus Felix (Happy Venus) and Roma Aeterna (Eternal Rome). Actually it consists of two temples back under one roof. It was designed by Hadrian himself (who, by the way, executed his architect for critisising the project) and dedicated by him in AD 135, and completed by Antoninus Pius.
Charles S
ANTOSEf5-1.jpg
Antoninus Pius, RIC 651(b), Sestertius of AD 141-143 (Temple of Venus & Roma)43 viewsÆ Sestertius (25,45g, Ø 30mm, 7h). Rome mint. Struck AD 141-143.
Obv.: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P COS III, laureate draped bust right.
Rev.: VENERI FELICI around, S C in ex., Decastyle temple with statues on roof and pediment; pellet between columns in the centre.
RIC 651(b); Cohen 1075 (4 fr.); Strack 864); Banti 504 (Paris spec.); Foss (Roman Historical Coins) 125:23
Ex Roma Numismatics E-Sale 17 (April 2015).
2 commentsCharles S
antosed2.jpg
Antoninus Pius, RIC 652, Sestertius of AD 141-143 (Temple of Venus and Roma)31 viewsÆ sestertius (24.06g, 33, 12h). Rome mint struck AD 141-143.
ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P COS III laureate head of Antoninus Pius facing right
VENERI FELICI (around) S C (in ex.) decastyle temple on podium of four steps; figure (of Venus) in the center in space between columns seated front; in pediment three standing figures in the center flanked by reclining figures; on roof, seated figure in the center flanked by two smaller kneeling figures; on angles, Victories standing front, holding wreaths in both hands.
RIC 652 (rare); Cohen 1074 (12 fr.); BMCRE 1324 var. (but no figure in space between columns); Strack 865 (3 specimens); Sear (Roman Coins & Their Values II) 4257; Foss (Roman Historical Coins) 125:23;
ex Nomisma

This commemorates the completion in AD 141 of the celebrated double-temple of Venus and Roma designed by Hadrian and begun two decades before. The two sanctuaries were placed back to back and the complex formed the largest temple in Rome. A parallel issue depicts the other element of the structure, the temple of Roma.
1 commentsCharles S
AntoSed2-2.jpg
Antoninus Pius, RIC 652, Sestertius of AD 141-143 (Temple of Venus and Roma)25 viewsÆ sestertius (24.06g, 33, 12h). Rome mint struck AD 141-143.
ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P COS III laureate head of Antoninus Pius facing right
VENERI FELICI (around) S C (in ex.) decastyle temple on podium of four steps; statue of seated figure (Venus) in center space between columns; in pediment three standing figures in the center flanked by reclining figures; on roof, seated figure in the center flanked by two smaller kneeling figures; on angles, Victories standing front, holding wreaths in both hands.
RIC 652 (rare); Cohen 1074 (12 fr.); BMCRE 1324 var. (no statue between columns); Strack III 865 (listed in 3 collections: Berlin, Paris, Vienna; plate X 864: same obv. & rev. dies); Banti (I Grandi Bronzi Imperiali II-3) 507 (3 spec.); Sear (Roman Coins & Their Values II) 4257; Foss (Roman Historical Coins) 125:23
ex Nomisma auction 46 (2012)

This commemorates the completion in AD 141 of the celebrated double-temple of Venus and Roma designed by Hadrian and begun two decades before. The two sanctuaries were placed back to back and the complex formed the largest temple in Rome. A parallel issue depicts the other element of the structure, the temple of Roma.
Charles S
AntoDu11-2.jpg
Antoninus Pius, RIC 664, Dupondius of AD 141-144 (Temple of Venus and Roma)68 viewsÆ Dupondius (13.2g, Ø25mm, 6h). Rome mint. Struck AD 141-144.
Obv.: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P COS III, radiate head of Antoninus Pius facing right.
Rev.: ROMAE AETERNAE (around), S C (in ex.), decastyle temple with statues in pediment and on the roof.
RIC 664 (S); BMC 1345; Cohen 701; Strack 848

ex Artcoins Roma

In AD 141, Antoninus Pius completed the temple of Venus and Roma which had been designed by Hadrian (in person) twenty years earlier. A series of coins was issued to celebrate this event. The temple consisted actually of two temples built back to back to form a single building. The ruins, which can still be seen today, prove that both temples consisted of ten colums. The coins suggest many decorative details.
Charles S
ANTOAS05-2.jpg
Antoninus Pius, RIC 736a, As of AD 143-144 (Ancilia) 33 viewsÆ As (9.9g, Ø27mm, 12h). Rome mint. Struck AD 143-144.
Obv.: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P COS III, bare head of Antoninus Pius facing right.
Rev.: IMPERATOR II (around) ANCILIA (in ex.) S C (in field), Two ancilia: oval shields with rounded projections above and below).
RIC 736a; BMC 1629-31; Cohen 30; Strack 925

Coin belonging to a series struck between AD 140 and 144 depicting scenes from ancient Roman legends, struck in preparation of the 900th anniversary of Rome in AD 147. The anicilia were twelve shields which were believed to protect Rome. They consisted of an original, which fell from heaven in the time of Numa. Rome would rule the world as long as the shield was preserved. Numa ordered eleven other identical shields to be made to protect it from theft. These Ancilia were preserved in the temple of Mars, and were committed to the care of twelve priests of Salii, instituted for that purpose. Every year in March they were caried in procession around Rome until they were put back in their place on the 30th.
Charles S
AntoSe76-2.jpg
Antoninus Pius, RIC 755, Sestertius of AD 159 (Temple of Divus Augustus) 43 viewsÆ Sestertius (19.91g, Ø33mm, 6h). Rome mint. Struck AD 159.
Obv.: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P, laureate head of Antoninus Pius facing right.
Rev.: AED DIVI AVG REST (around) COS IIII (below) S C (in field), Octastyle temple with statues of Divus Augustus and Livia inside.
RIC 755 (R); BMC 1652; Cohen 3 (20Fr.); Strack 1174.
ex Jean Elsen (Bruxelles) auction 97; ex coll. A.Senden: L'architecture des monnaies Romaines.
Charles S
AntoSe29-2.jpg
Antoninus Pius, RIC 1003, Sestertius of AD 158-159 (Temple of Divus Augustus)25 viewsÆ Sestertius (25.4g, Ø32mm, 12h). Rome mint. Struck AD 158-159.
Obv.: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P XXII, laureate head of Antoninus Pius right.
Rev.: TEMPL DIVI AVG REST (round) COS IIII (in ex.) S C (in field), Octastyle temple of with statues of Divus Augustus and Livia. Both statues in the centre, standing on a base, have the right arms raised. There are statues to the left near the foot of the steps and other statues of soldiers on pedestals at each side of the top step. In the roof is a quadriga in the centre, and statues at each corner; further statues in the pediment.
RIC 1003 (S); BMC 2063-66; Cohen 797; Foss (RHC) 132:88a
ex D. Ruskin, Oxford: found in Reigate (Surrey), 1864

Coin issued on the occasion of the restoration of the temple of Divus Ausustus and Diva Augusta (Livia) in AD 158.
Charles S
AntoSe29-4.jpg
Antoninus Pius, RIC 1003A, Sestertius of AD 158-159 (Temple of Divus Augustus) 17 viewsÆ Sestertius (25.4g, Ø32mm, 12h). Rome mint. Struck AD 158-159.
Obv.: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P XXII, laureate head of Antoninus Pius right.
Rev.: TEMPL DIVI AVG REST (around) COS IIII (ex.) S C (field), Octastyle temple of with statues of Divus Augustus and Livia. Both statues in the centre, standing on a base, have the right arms raised. There are statues to the left near the foot of the steps and other statues of soldiers on pedestals at each side of the top step. In the roof is a quadriga in the centre, and statues at each corner; further statues in the pediment.
RIC 1003A (S); BMCRE 2063 var. (rev. legend TEMPLVM DIV); Cohen 797; Strack 1168; Banti (I Grandi Bronzi Imperiali II-3) 404 (2 specimens); Sear (Roman Coins and their Values II) 4235 var. (different rev. legend); Foss (Roman Historical Coins) 132:88a
ex D. Ruskin, Oxford, 1995 ("found in Reigate (Surrey), 1864")

Coin issued on the occasion of the restoration of the temple of Divus Ausustus and Diva Augusta (Livia) in AD 158. he temple was probably situated in the valley between the Palatine and Capitoline Hills, behind the Basilica Julia. No trace has survived.
Charles S
AntoSe65-2~1.jpg
Antoninus Pius, RIC 1004, Sestertius of AD 159 (Temple of Divus Augustus)47 viewsÆ Sestertius (22.23g, Ø30mm, 12h). Rome mint. Struck AD 159.
Obv.: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P XXII laureate head of Antoninus Pius facing right.
Rev.: TEMPLVM DIV AVG REST (around) COS IIII (in ex.) S C (in field), Octastyle temple of Divus Augustus with statues of Divus Augustus and Livia in the centre.
RIC 1004 (S); BMCRE 2063; Cohen 805; Strack 1167; Banti 406.
ex Triton VI (2003)

The second temple of Divus Augustus was restored under Antoninus Pius in 158. The reliefs on the pediment cannot be identified with certainty, but the statuary on the roof can be identified as Augustus in quadriga flanked by Romulus on the left and Aeneas carrying Anchises on the right.
Charles S
AntoSe65-4.jpg
Antoninus Pius, RIC 1004, Sestertius of AD 159 (Temple of Divus Augustus)25 viewsÆ Sestertius (22.23g, Ø30mm, 12h). Rome mint. Struck AD 159.
Obv.: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P XXII laureate head of Antoninus Pius facing right.
Rev.: TEMPLVM DIV AVG REST (around) COS IIII (in ex.) S C (in field), Octastyle temple of Divus Augustus with statues of Augustus and Livia. The temple stands on a podium of three steps. Both statues in the centre, standing on a base, have the right arms raised. There are statues to the left near the foot of the steps and other statues of soldiers on pedestals at each side of the top step. The statuary on the roof can be identified as Augustus in quadriga flanked by Romulus on the right and Aeneas carrying Anchises on the left. Unidentified statuary in the pediment.

RIC 1004 (S); BMCRE 2063; Cohen 805; Strack 1167; Banti (I Grandi Bronzi Imperiali II-3) 406; Sear (Roman Coins and their Values II) 4235.
ex Triton VI (2003)

The second Temple of Divus Augustus, commenced under Tiberius and dedicated by Caligula in August AD 37, suffered during the great fire of 80 which began on the Capitoline Hill and spread into the Forum and onto the Palatine. It was possibly restored or rebuilt under Domitian, although it is not mentioned in the Chronographia, and it certainly received further restoration under Antoninus Pius in 158. The temple under Antoninus was Corinthian octastyle and contained the seated figures of Divus Augustus and Livia within, generally drawn on the coinage at an elevated level to suggest perspective.
Charles S
AntoDu08-2.jpg
Antoninus Pius, RIC 1017, Dupondius of AD 159 (Temple of Divus Augustus)43 viewsÆ Dupondius (14.77g, Ø25mm, 12h). Rome mint. Struck AD 159 .
Obv.: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P XXII, radiate head of Antoninus Pius facing right.
Rev.: TEMPLVM DIV AVG REST (around), COS IIII (in ex.) S C (in field), Octastyle temple with the statues of Augustus and Livia.
RIC 1017; Cohen 807; Strack 1167
ex Old Roman Coins

This type was issued to celebrate the restoration of the temple of Divus Augustus in AD 158.
This specimen is listed in Wildwinds
Charles S
AntoAs27.jpg
Antoninus Pius, RIC 1021, As of AD 158-15942 viewsÆ As (10.92g, Ø26mm, 7h). Rome mint. Struck AD 158-159.
Obv.: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P XXII, laureate head right, draped left shoulder.
Rev.: AEDE DIVI AVG REST (around) COS IIII (in ex.) S C (in field), Octastyle temple with the statues of Divus Augustus and Livia inside; soldiers on pedestal left and right before outer columns; statuary in pediment; on roof, quadriga facing and standing figures on angles.
RIC 1021a (S); BMCRE IV p.355 *; Cohen 12; Strack 1162
ex Jean Elsen (Bruxelles), Auction 97; ex coll. A. Senden: l'architecture des monnaies Romaines

Issued to celebrate the completion of the restauration of the temple of Augustus and Livia
Charles S
temple_com.JPG
Antoninus Pius. Zeugma, commagene54 viewsAE 22 mm 10.3 grams 138-161 AD
OBV :: AUTO KAI TI AIL ADRI ANTWNEINOC CEB EUCEBHC. Laureate head right
REV :: ZEU-GMA-TEWN. Tetrastyle temple with peribolos , 2 rows of blocks supporting . groove descending stairwell
EX :: none
Minted in Zeugma , Commagene
SNG COP 28, BMC p. 124, 1 ff.; SGICV 1492 (AE 25); SNG Righetti 1847
Purchases 12/2008
Johnny
coins103.JPG
Antoninus Pius. Thrace, Philippopolis; 25 viewsAres

In Greek mythology, Ares ("battle strife") is the god of war and son of Zeus (king of the gods) and Hera. The Romans identified Mars, the god of war (whom they had inherited from the Etruscans) with Hellenic Ares, but among them, Mars stood in much higher esteem. Among the Hellenes, Ares was always mistrusted: his birthplace and true home was placed far off, among the barbarous and warlike Thracians (Iliad 13.301; Ovid); to Thrace he withdrew after he was discovered on a couch with Aphrodite ( Odyssey 8.361).

Although important in poetry, Ares was only rarely the recipient of cult worship, save at Sparta, where he was propriated before battle, and in the founding myth of Thebes, and he appeared in few myths (Burkert 1985, p.169). At Sparta there was a statue of the god in chains, to show that the spirit of war and victory was never to leave the city. At Sparta young dogs and even humans were sacrificed to him. The temple to Ares in the agora of Athens that Pausanias saw in the 2nd century AD had only been moved and rededicated there during the time of Augustus; in essence it was a Roman temple to Mars. The Areopagus, the "hill of Ares" where Paul preached, is sited at some distance from the Acropolis; from archaic times it was a site of trials. Its connection with Ares, perhaps based on a false etymology, may be purely etiological. Ares s throne at Mount Olympus is said to be covered with human skin.

Antoninus Pius AE18 of Philippopolis, Thrace. AVT AI ADRIA ANTWNEIN, bare head right / FILIPPOPOLEITWN, Ares standing left, holding spear in left hand, shield leaning against him at right. BMC 10.
ecoli
Sistertii_045.JPG
Antoninus Pius/Temple AE Sestertius 50 viewsAntoninus Pius AE Sestertius, RIC 622, Cohen 699, BMC 1279
25.06 grams.
31 mm.
Antoninus Pius Æ Sestertius. ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P COS III, laureate head right / ROMAE AETERNAE S-C, decastyle temple with statues on roof and in pediment
Antonio Protti
Antonius_Pius.JPG
ANTONIUS PIUS AE2346 viewsOBVERSE: [AVT]O KAI TI AIΛ AΔ[ ] (retrograde)
Laureate head left
REVERSE: ZEVΓMATEWN,
Tetrastyle temple with peribolos containing grove and having a colonnade (only roof slabs shown) to left and right, and in front a portico or panelled wall of two storeys; all within wreath
Struck at Commagene Zeugma Syria, 138-161AD
8.80g, 23mm
BMC 3, GIC 1492v
1 commentsLegatus
Apameia_-_Artemis.jpg
Apameia, Phrygia 133-48 B.C.14 viewsApameia, Phrygia, c. 133 - 48 B.C. Apameia mint, Ae 18~20.6mm. 7.97g. Obv: Laureate head of Zeus right. Rev: AΠAME AΡTEMIΔ BABA, cultus-statue of Artemis Anaitis standing facing, wearing long chiton, kalathos and veil, a taenia or support hanging from each extended hand; BMC Phrygia p. 77, 48
Artemis Anaïtis was a fusion of the Persian goddess Anahita and the Greek Artemis. Tacitus (Annals 62) refers to the syncretic deity simply as the “Persian Diana”, who had a temple in Lydia “dedicated in the reign of Cyrus” (presumably Cyrus the Great).
ddwau
14187006_Big.jpg
Apollo357 viewsDenarius 194 ; 1,97 g. ; 17 mm.
Obv:- L SEPT SEV PERT AVG IMP IIII His laureate head right.
Rev:- APOLLINI AVGVSTO Apollo draped standing in front, looking at left, holding a patera in the right hand and a lyre in the left.
Cohen 42, RIC 40.

This representation of apollo is probably a roman copy of a statue of Apollo citharede which we can see on Augustus and Antoninus Pius' coins too. This statue was in the temple on the Palatino.
septimus
bm_apollo.jpg
Apollo546 viewsFrom the Temple of Apollo at Cyrene in modern LibyaBacchus
thasostdrachm.jpg
AR Tetradrachm of Thasos, Roman imitative 148 -80 BC40 viewsOBV: Head of Dionysos right wreathed with ivy leaves
REV :HPAKLEOYS SUTHPOS THASIUN (Hercules, Saviour of the Thasians); nude Heracles standing left holding club and lionskin; MH monogram to left
SNG Cop 1040, Dewing 1344, BMC 74 (Ref. Wildwinds)
These tet's were minted on Thasos off the coast of Thrace, and became an important international medium of exchange after Rome closed the Macedonian mints. The obverse celebrates the wine for which Thasos was renowned and the reverse may refer to a temple of Heracles. The type was widely copied among the Thracian tribes (imitatives) and the Celts (barbaric types).
According to Dr. Prokopov this coin is probably a Roman imitative, struck by Roman authorities between 148 and 80 BC, hence the fine classical style. The weight is right for the Rhodian standard. Holed and plugged.

Diameter ~30 mm, wt. 13.7 gm
daverino
esbus_elagabal_Spijkerman3.jpg
Arabia, Esbus, Elagabal, Spijkerman 325 viewsElagabal, AD 218-222
AE 22, 9.49g, 22.34mm, 210°
mint of Esbus
obv. AVT M AVR ANTONINVS
Bust, draped and cuirassed, seen from behind, laureate, r.
rev. tetrastyle temple with central arch and side-wings with flat roofs; in the center Tyche as City-Goddes with short chiton and turreted, stg. half left, r. foot set on unknown object (head of bull?), holding in raised l. hand long sceptre and in extended r. hand unknown object (bust of emperor?)
l. and r. on the flat roofs A - V (Aurelia)
in ex. ECBOVC
ref. Spijkerman 3; Rosenberger IV, 3; Sofaer Collection 4; BMC Arabia p.29, 3
very rare, F+, dark green patina with sand incrustations which strengthen the contour
From Forum Ancient Coins, thanks!

Note: The obv. legend is a mix of Greek and Latin expressions: After AVT (Greek for Imperator) follows the name of the emperor in Latin.

Aurelia Esbus was situated near today's Amman/Jordan and is mentioned several times in the Bible under the name Heshbon. Originally it was a city of the Moabites which was conquered by the Israelites. During the Roman Empire it was known for its excellent springs.

Esbus has minted only under Elagabal. There are known only 6 types with no more than 3 obv. dies (Catalog of the BM).
1 commentsJochen
arch of Titus.jpg
arch of Titus59 viewsPart of the Arch of Titus showing the spoils from the destruction of the Temple in JerusalemTitus Pullo
AUGUSTUS_ARCH_Cistophorus.JPG
ARCH, AUGUSTUS, RIC I : 510.157 viewsAR Cistophorus (Cistophoric Tetradrachm = 3 denarii) of Pergamum. Struck 19 - 18 B.C.
Obverse: IMP•IX•TR•PO•V. Bare head of Augustus facing right.
Reverse: Triumphal arch surmounted by Augustus in facing triumphal quadriga; IMP IX TR POT V on architrave; S P R SIGNIS RECEPTIS in three lines within arch opening, standards at either side.
Diameter: 24 - 25mm | Weight: 11.7gms | Die Axis: 12
RIC I : 510 | BMC : 703 | RSC : 298

This coin commemorates Augustus' triumphant agreement with the Parthians in 20 B.C. under which they returned the legionary standards captured from Crassus who was defeated and killed at Carrhae thirty-three years earlier (53 B.C.). Augustus installed these standards in the Temple of Mars Ultor.
The reverse of the coin shows the triumphal arch which was awarded to Augustus on the occasion of his recovery of the standards. This was the second triumphal arch awarded to Augustus and, like the earlier arch which had been constructed in 29 BC to honour his victory over Cleopatra, this second arch, which archaeological evidence suggests may actually have incorporated the first arch, stood in close proximity to the Temple of Divus Julius at the southern entrance to the Roman Forum.
2 comments*Alex
Nabataean_Kingdom,_Aretas_IV,_9_B_C__-_40_A_D__eagle.jpg
Aretas IV, 9 B.C. - 40 A.D. 33056. Bronze AE 11, Meshorer Nabataean 9311 viewsNabataean Kingdom, Aretas IV, 9 B.C. - 40 A.D. Bronze AE 11, Meshorer Nabataean 93, F, Petra mint, 0.982g, 11.2mm, 0o, 5 - 6 A.D.; obverse Aretas' Aramaic monogram O / H (ayin / het) within wreath; reverse , eagle standing left, wings closed, H (Aramaic het) behind. Aretas' daughter was married to Herod Antipas, Herod the Great's son, and the Tetrarch of Galilee. This coin resembles a coin minted by King Herod and the reverse probably depicts the golden bird Herod placed above the entrance to the Jerusalem Temple. Ex FORVM, photo credit FORVMPodiceps
82000559.jpg
ARGOLIS, Argos33 viewsA Neolithic settlement was located near the central sanctuary of Argois, removed 45 stadia (8 km; 5 miles) from Argos, closer to Mycenae. The temple was dedicated to "Argivian Hera". The main festival of that temple was the Hekatombaia, one of the major festivals of Argos itself. Walter Burkert (Homo necans, p. 185) connected the festival to the myth of the slaying of Argus Panoptes by Hermes ("shimmering" or "quick"), and only secondarily associated with mythological Argus (or the toponym).

Argos was a major stronghold of Mycenaean times, and along with the neighbouring acropolis of Mycenae and Tiryns became a very early settlement because of its commanding positions in the midst of the fertile plain of Argolis.

During Homeric times it belonged to a follower of Agamemnon and gave its name to the surrounding district; the Argolid which the Romans knew as Argeia. The importance of Argos was eclipsed by nearby Sparta after the 6th century BC.[dubious – discuss]

Because of its refusal to fight or send supplies in the Graeco-Persian Wars, Argos was shunned by most other city-states.[citation needed] Argos remained neutral or the ineffective ally of Athens during the 5th century BC struggles between Sparta and Athens.

The Mythological kings of Argos are (in order): Inachus, Phoroneus, Argus, Triopas, Agenor, Iasus, Crotopus, Pelasgus (aka Gelanor), Danaus, Lynceus, Abas, Proetus, Acrisius, Perseus, Megapénthês, Argeus, and Anaxagoras. An alternative version (supplied by Tatiānus[2]) of the original 17 consecutive kings of Argōs includes Apis, Argios, Kriasos, and Phorbas between Argus and Triopas, explaining the apparent unrelation of Triopas to Argus.

After the original 17 kings of Argos, there were three kings ruling Argos at the same time (see Anaxagoras), one descended from Bias, one from Melampus, and one from Anaxagoras. Melampus was succeeded by his son Mantius, then Oicles, and Amphiaraus, and his house of Melampus lasted down to the brothers Alcmaeon and Amphilochus.

Anaxagoras was succeeded by his son Alector, and then Iphis. Iphis left his kingdom to his nephew Sthenelus, the son of his brother Capaneus.

Bias was succeeded by his son Talaus, and then by his son Adrastus who, with Amphiaraus, commanded the disastrous Seven Against Thebes. Adrastus bequethed the kingdom to his son, Aegialeus, who was subsequently killed in the war of the Epigoni. Diomedes, grandson of Adrastus through his son-in-law Tydeus and daughter Deipyle, replaced Aegialeus and was King of Argos during the Trojan war. This house lasted longer than those of Anaxagoras and Melampus, and eventually the kingdom was reunited under its last member, Cyanippus, son of Aegialeus, soon after the exile of Diomedes.

Argos played a role in the Peloponnesian war and beyond.

ARGOLIS, Argos. Circa 90-50 BC. AR Triobol (2.16 g, 1h). Trypis, magistrate. Forepart of wolf at bay right / Large A; T-PY/ΠI-C in two lines around, piloi of the Dioskouroi below crossbar; all within incuse square. BCD Peloponnesos 1169. VF, darkly toned.

Ex BCD Collection (not in previous BCD sales).

Ex-CNG eAuction 82, Lot: 559 110/150

ecoli
Pheneos_AE_Dichalkon.jpg
Arkadia, Pheneos, ca. 300-240 BC, Æ Dichalkon 17 viewsWreathed bust of Artemis Heurippa right, with bow and quiver over shoulder.
ΦENEΩN Mare grazing right; AP monogram below, HP monogram in exergue.

HGC 5, 988; BCD Peloponnesos 1626; SNG Copenhagen 274; BMC 24.

(16 mm, 3.07 g, 3h)
Gorny & Mosch 216, 16 October 2013, 2446.

Amongst the finest examples of the type known, with a beautifully detailed bust of Artemis.

Pheneos lies at the foot of Mount Kyllene, located near the modern village of Kalyvia and in the ancient region of Arkadia in the Peloponnese. It served as an important cultural centre, notably for holding the Hermaea, a series of ancient Greek festivals in honour of Hermes. The latter god figures prominently on most of the coinage of Pheneos. However, the basis for the iconography of this rare coin is the tradition that Odysseus discovered his lost mares in Phenean territory. In gratitude he erected a temple to Artemis Heurippa (the finder of horses). The legend is recounted by Pausanius (8.14.5) "There stands also a bronze Poseidon, surnamed Horse, whose image, it is said, was dedicated by Odysseus. The legend is that Odysseus lost his mares, traversed Greece in search of them, and on the site in the land of Pheneos where he found his mares founded a sanctuary of Artemis, calling the goddess Horse-finder (Heurippa), and also dedicated the image of Horse Poseidon." Little remains of the ancient city of Pheneos. Like many ancient cities, its coinage, which is of limited volume, remains the most tangible evidence of its existence.
n.igma
Diana_of_Ephesus_-_Claudius_AR_Tetradrachm.jpg
Artemis, (Diana of Ephesus), in her Temple138 viewsTI. CLAVD CAES AVG. Claudius bare head, facing left. / DIAN-EPHE Cult statue of Diana (Artemis) of Ephesus inside a tetra style temple, set on three tiered base; pediment decorated by figures flanking three windows.
RIC I 118; RPC I 2222; BMCRE 229; RSC 30; Sear Millennium 1839. Ephesus ca. 41-42 AD.
(25 mm, 11.14 g, 6h)

The statue of Artemis (Diana) at Ephesus was one of the Seven Wonders of the ancient world. Depicted on this coin, which was minted shortly after Claudius’ accession to the throne, there remains no trace of the statue, or the temple that housed it, other than some recently stacked column remnants to mark the location. Pliny The Elder described the temple as 115 meters in length, 55 meters in width, made almost entirely of marble; consisting of 127 Ionic style columns 18 meters in height. The original temple, which stood on the site from about 550 BC, was destroyed by arson in 356 BC. It was rebuilt around 330 BC in the form depicted on the coin, only to be destroyed by the Goths in 262 AD. Again rebuilt it was destroyed for the final time by Christians in 401 AD. The columns and marble of the temple were used to construct other buildings. Some of the columns found their way into the church of Hagia Sophia in Constantinople (Istanbul).

The site of the temple was rediscovered in 1869 by an expedition sponsored by the British Museum, but little remains to be seen today. A Christian inscription found at Ephesus reads Destroying the delusive image of the demon Artemis, Demeas has erected this symbol of Truth, the God that drives away idols, and the Cross of priests, deathless and victorious sign of Christ. This Christian zeal explains why so little remains of the site despite its repute in the ancient pre-Christian world.

This coin is rare with a few dozen examples known. In contrast to most examples, which show a four tiered temple base, the reverse of this coin shows a three-tiered temple base. The rectangles on the pediment of the temple are frequently identified as tables, or altars. However, it is more likely that these are windows in the pediment to facilitate lighting of the statue in the interior of the temple. The Ionic style of the columns, as described by Pliny, is clearly visible in the reverse image.
1 commentsLloyd T
Nero_As_Janus.JPG
As, Temple of Janus with closed doors5 viewsNero As, struck 66-68 AD in Rome. 27mm, 10.4g. Obverse: IMP NERO CAESAR AVG GERM; laureate head right. Reverse: PACE P R VBIQ PARTA IANVM CLVSIT / S - C; view of one front of the temple of Janus, with latticed window to l. and garland hung across closed double doors to r. Attribution: RIC² 347 (C); BMC 230; WCN 294, Romanatic-ID: 1314. ex areich, photo credit areichPodiceps
Maximus_1.jpg
Asia Minor, Kilikia, Koropissos, Maximus Caesar18 viewsMaximus Caesar, 235-238 AD
Kilikia, Koropissos, AE28
Obv.: Γ I OVH MAΞIMON KЄCAPA, Radiate and draped bust right, seen from behind.
Rev.: [ΚOPOΠIC]CЄΩNT-HC KHT-ΩN MHTP/[O]ΠOΛЄΩC, Tyche seated left in tetrastyle temple
Ae, 11.99 g, 28 mm
Ref.: SNG Levante 591
Ex Lanz Numismatik
shanxi
Antoninus_Pius_1.jpg
Asia Minor, Kilikia, Tarsus, Antoninus Pius22 viewsAntoninus Pius
Kilikia, Tarsus
Ae32
Obv.: laureate bust right, wearing cuirass and paludamentum,
[.... ]Σ ΚΑΙΣΑΡ ΑΝΤΩΝΙΝΟΣ ΣΕ
Rev.: ΚΟΙΝΟΣ ΚΙΛΙΚΙΑΣ on architrave, [ΑΔΡΙΑΝΩΝ ΤΑΡ]ΣΕΩΝ ΜΗΤΡΟΠΟΛ[ΕΩΣ], temple with ten columns, eagle in pediment
Ae, 22.7g, 32mm
Ref.: Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale 1232
1 commentsshanxi
Commodus_09.jpg
Asia Minor, Lydia, Hierocaesarea, Commodus, Artemis, temple21 viewsLydia. Hierocaesaraea
Commodus
Bronze, Æ 31
Obv: AVT KAI Λ AVPH KOMMOΔOC, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right.
Rev: ЄΠ AI APTЄMIΔOPOV APX IЄPOKAICAPЄΩN, Tetrastyle temple, with pellet in pediment and containing Artemis standing right, drawing bow; behind, stag standing right.
RPC IV online -; SNG von Aulock -; SNG Copenhagen -; BMC -
Ex Numismatik Naumann, auction 52, Lot 1030
Ex Plankenhorn Collection
1 commentsshanxi
Trajan_07.jpg
Asia Minor, Lydia, Nacrasa, Trajan, Artemis, temple28 viewsTrajan
Lydia, Nacrasa
AD 98-117
Obv: AV NЄP TPAIANON CЄ, Laureate head right.
Rev: NAKPACITΩN, Tetrastyle temple, with pellet in pediment and containing Artemis standing left, holding bow and drawing arrow from quiver on back.
AE, 4.91g, 19mm
Ref.: Lindgren III 492; Hunter 1
Ex Gitbud&Naumann, auction 43, lot 676
2 commentsshanxi
Augustus_02.jpg
Asia Minor, Mysia, RPC, Pergamon, Augustus23 viewsAugustus
Pergamon, Mysia, AD 1
Ae 21
Obv.: CEBACTON KE ΦA…, Statue of Augustus, standing facing and holding scepter, within distyle temple.
Rev.: ΠEPΓAMHNΩN KAI CAPΔIANΩN, Demos of Pergamon crowning Demos of Sardeis.
AE, 5.46g, 20.8x22.2mm
Ref.: RPC 2362, SNG Copenhagen 519.
ex Künker auction 83, lot 707
shanxi
R649_Augustus_Pergamon_fac.jpg
Asia Minor, Mysia, RPC, Pergamon, Augustus, RPC I 23559 viewsAugustus
Pergamon, Mysia, 27 BC-AD 14
Ae 18
Obv.: ΠЄPΓAMHNOI CЄBACTON, Laureate head right; to right, capricorn right.
Rev.: AYTOKPATOPA KAICAPA, Tetrastyle temple, containing facing statue of Augustus.
AE, 18mm, 4.37g
Ref.: RPC I 2355
shanxi
Claudius_06.jpg
Asia Minor, Mysia, RPC, Pergamon, Claudius, Temple10 viewsClaudius
Pergamon, Mysia, AD 41-54
Ae 18
Obv.: KΛΑΥΔΙΟΝ ΚΑΙCΑΡΑ CEBACTON, Bare head right.
Rev.: CEBACTON / PERΓΑΜΕΝΟΙ, Statue of Augustus, holding spear, within tetrastyle temple.
AE, 6.01 g, 18 mm
Ref.: RPC 2370
shanxi
Trajan_R609fac.jpg
Asia Minor, Mysia, RPC, Pergamon, Trajan, Temple12 viewsTrajan
Pergamon, Mysia
AE 29, AD 98-117
Obv: ΑVΤΟΚ ΚΑΙС ΝЄΡΒΑС ΤΡΑΙΑΝΟС СЄB ΓЄPM ΔΑΚI, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right.
Rev: ΦΙΛΙΟС ΖЄVС ΤΡΑΙΑΝΟС ΠЄΡΓΑΜΗΝΩΝ, tetrastyle temple of Zeus Philios on podium with three steps within which Zeus Philios seated r., his left resting on sceptre and Trajan standing facing, his head turned left, in military dress, his left resting on spear
AE, 13.82g, 29mm
Ref.: RPC III 1716
Ex Numismatik Naumann, auction 62, lot 466
shanxi
Trajan_06.jpg
Asia Minor, Mysia, RPC, Pergamon, Trajan, Temple16 viewsTrajan
Pergamon, Mysia
AE 18, AD 98-117
Obv: TPAIANOC CTPIΠΩΛΛIΩNOC, Tetrastyle temple containing cult statue standing facing; in pediment, pellet.
Rev: AVΓOVCTOC / ΠEPΓA, Tetrastyle temple containing statue of emperor standing facing; in pediment, capricorn.
AE, 4.59g, 18mm
Ref.: SNG France 2063
Ex Gitbud & Naumann, auction 39, lot 568
shanxi
Perge_01.jpg
Asia Minor, Pamphylia, Perge, Artemis Pergaia 22 viewsPerge
Asia Minor, Pamphylia
Obv.: Cult statue of Artemis Pergaia within distyle temple, eagle in pediment
Rev:: ΠEPΓAIAΣ, magistrate's name [A]PTEMIΔ[OΣ], bow and quiver
AE, 3.64g, 16mm
Ref.: BMC Pamphylia p. 121, 12
shanxi
68411q00.jpg
Athens, Mithradatic War Issue, 87-86 B.C.27 views"In 87 B.C., Mithridates moved his forces into Greece and established Aristion as a tyrant in Athens. Sulla landed in Epirus and marched through Boeotia into Attica. Most cities declared their allegiance to Rome, foremost among them Thebes. Athens, however, remained loyal to Mithridates. After a long and brutal siege, Sulla's rough battle hardened legions, veterans of the Social War, took Athens on the Kalends of March 86 B.C. They looted and burned temples and structures built in the city by various Hellenistic kings to honor themselves and gain prestige. Months later, only after they ran out of water, Aristion surrendered the Akropolis. Athens was looted and punished severely. Roman vengeance ensured Greece would remain docile during later civil wars and Mithridatic wars."

Bronze chalkous, SNG Cop 307, BMC Attica p. 81, 554; Kroll 97; Svoronos Athens pl. 84, 45 - 48, F, thick flan, 9.775g, 19.7mm, 45o, Athens mint, Mithradates VI of Pontos & Aristion, 87 - 86 B.C.; obverse head of Athena right, wearing crested Corinthian helmet; reverse Zeus advancing right, nude, hurling thunderbolt with right, left extended, A/Q-E flanking below arms, star between two crescents (one above and one below) in lower right field;
jimmynmu
augustopeke~0.jpg
AUGUSTUS26 viewsAR denarius. Spanish mint (Colonia Patricia ?). 18 BC. 3,81 grs. 7 h. Laureate head right. CAESARI AVGVSTO / Temple of Mars Ultor: round-domed, hexastyle temple with acroteria ,set on podium of three steps. Within, aquila between two signa. MAR VLT across field.
RIC I 105a. RSC 190
1 commentsbenito
augustopeke.jpg
AUGUSTUS30 viewsAR denarius. Spanish mint (Colonia Patricia ?). 18 BC. 3,81 grs. 7 h. Laureate head right. CAESARI AVGVSTO / Temple of Mars Ultor: round-domed, hexastyle temple with acroteria ,set on podium of three steps. Within, aquila between two signa. MAR VLT across field.
RIC I 105a. RSC 190
2 commentsbenito
collagemaker_2018060_Tdyos.jpg
Augustus12 viewsAE21, Corinthian, Struck by Tiberius, Issued by L. Arrius Peregrinus and L. Furius Labeo, duoviri. Struck 32-33 AD
Obverse: LARRIO PEREGRINO IIVIR, radiate head of Augustus left.
Reverse: LFVRIOLABEONE IIVIR, COR, hexastyle temple, GENT IVLI on pediment.
References: RPC 1151; BCD 379; BMC 520
Justin L
218344.jpg
Augustus2 viewsAugustus denarius 18 BC, Spanish mint (Colonia Partica?) Denarius AR 17mm., 3,48g.
CAESAR AVGVSTO, laureate head right / S P -Q R, temple of Mars Ultor: round-domed, tetrastyle temple set on podium of three steps, within which is a chariot right, carrying an aquila and miniature galloping horses.

RIC 119.
Ancient Aussie
BrettAugustus2.jpg
Augustus Denarius45 viewsLaureate head right, CAESARI AVGVSTO / Domed hexastyle temple of Mars Ultor (the Avenger) containing legionary eagle between two standards, MAR VLT. Uncertain Spanish mint (Colonia Patricia?), 18 BC. RIC I 105a (pg.48); BMCRE 373; RSC 190; RCV 1623 (Millennium Edition).
socalcoins
augustus_86a.JPG
Augustus RIC I, 86a174 viewsAugustus, 27 BC - AD 14
AR - Denar, 3.74g, 19mm
Colonia Patricia(?), ca. 19 BC - 18 BC
obv. CAESAR AVGVSTVS
bare head r.
rev. SIGNIS above, RECEPTIS under round shield inscribed with CL.V between
eagle l. and standard r. S.P.Q.R. at the corners of the shield
RIC I, 86a; BMCR 417; RSC 265
good VF, toned

The eagle standards were introduced by Marius similar to the Ptolemaic eagle to each of his legions. This issue celebrates the recovery of the 3 eagle-standards 20 BC by Augustus, which were lost by Crassus 53 BC at the battle of Carrhae against the Parthians. The 3 eagles thereafter were erected in the new temple of Mars Ultor on the Forum of Augustus. The day of recovery was determined public holiday.
5 commentsJochen
augustus_86a~0.JPG
Augustus RIC I, 86a1415 viewsJochen's Augustus RIC I, 86a
Augustus, 27 BC - AD 14
AR - Denar, 3.74g, 19mm
Colonia Patricia(?), ca. 19 BC - 18 BC
obv. CAESAR AVGVSTVS
bare head r.
rev. SIGNIS above, RECEPTIS under round shield inscribed with CL.V between
eagle l. and standard r. S.P.Q.R. at the corners of the shield
RIC I, 86a; BMCR 417; RSC 265
good VF, toned

The eagle standards were introduced by Marius similar to the Ptolemaic eagle to each of his legions. This issue celebrates the recovery of the 3 eagle-standards 20 BC by Augustus (by negotiations), which were lost by Crassus 53 BC at the battle of Carrhae against the Parthians. The 3 eagles thereafter were erected in the new temple of Mars Ultor on the Forum of Augustus. The day of recovery was determined public holiday.
11 commentsJochen
Augustus18.jpg
Augustus Æ Semis, RPC I 192, Hexastyle Temple34 viewsOBV: AVGVSTVS DIVI·F, Laureate head right
REV: Q.PAPIR.CAR.Q.TER.MONT.II.VIR.Q., Hexastyle temple with IVNONI inscribed on the entablature, C I IL A among the columns of the temple.
5g, 21 mm

Minted at Ilici (Elche - Spain), after 12 BC
Legatus
Augustus_RIC_472.JPG
Augustus, 27 BC - 14 AD31 viewsObv: AVGV(STVS) bare head of Augustus facing right.

Rev: (IO)VI - OLV, to the left and to the right of the hexastyle temple of the Olympic Zeus, with a round shield in the pediment and palmettes on top.

Silver Denarius, Northern Peloponnesian mint, 21 BC

3.7 grams, 17.33 mm, 45°

RIC I 472, RSC 182, S1614, VM 68
2 commentsSPQR Coins
0030-205.jpg
Augustus, Denarius93 viewsColonia Patricia mint ? ca. 19-18 BC
CAESARI AVGVSTO, laureate head right
SP - QR on either side of a domed terastyle temple, in which is a chariot with aquila.
3,66 gr
Ref : RSC # 279, RIC # 119
6 commentsPotator II
augustus_120cf_replica.jpg
Augustus, RIC 120 cf., replica49 viewsAugustus, 27 BC- AD 14
AR - denarius, 4.37g, 19.46mm
Colonia Patricia(?), 18 BC
obv. CAESARI AVGVSTO
Head, laureate, l.
rev. Frontal view of tetrastyle temple of Mars, domed roof and decorated with 9 figures and acroterias; within
triumphal chariot with eagle-sceptre and 4 small horses galopping r.
in l. and r. field S.P. - Q.R.
ref. RIC I, 120 cf.; BMCR 386; RSC 282
(for the original only!)

This is a replica struck from new dies. Easily recognized by the odd portrait on the obv. It is made by CopyCoins.com
Jochen
jerusalem_1.JPG
BCC 561 viewsCrusader Kingdom of Jerusalem
Amalricus Rex 1162-1174 CE
Rev: [D]E IER[VSALEM+]
Octastyle temple (Dome of the Rock)
10mm approx 0.9 g.
I have seen fragments with the same reverse
issued by his brother, Baldwin III 1144-1162 CE.
(or perhaps his son Baldwin IV)
I think all of these are extremely rare.
1 commentsv-drome
Caracalla_temple_CM7.jpg
BCC CM743 viewsRoman Provincial BCC CM7
Caesarea Maritima
Caracalla 211-217C.E.
OBV: M AVP(sic) ANTO[..........]
Laureate, draped bust right.
REV: [COL P F AV] F C - in ex. CAESA
Tyche standing left in tetrastyle temple with
two figures flanking.
22.5mm. 10.74gm. Axis:210
Kadman 66v. (obv. and rev. inscriptions, axis)
v-drome
caracalla_caesarea_tyche.png
BCC CM8 (BCC 9)90 viewsRoman Provincial
Caesarea Maritima
Caracalla? 211-217C.E.
Obv: IM C M AV [ANTON-
INUS] laur. draped bust rt.
Rev: COL P[ ] in ex.
CAESA Tyche standing left in
tetrastyle temple.
20mm. 10.24gm. Axis:180
Kadman #66 v. (rev. inscription)
v-drome
demeter_dion_BCC_LT24.jpg
BCC LT2437 viewsLead Tessera
Caesarea Maritima
Obv: Demeter facing, head turned right,
holding torch (and grain).
Rev: Dionysus standing left, thyrsus in
left hand, (?) in right, Panther at feet.
The tetrastyle temple represented on coins
of Caesarea show Tyche-Astarte in the center,
possibly flanked by Demeter on the left and
Dionysos on the right. (Kadman, pp. 53 f.)
Truncated conical shape.
8.5 x 10mm 1.08gm. Axis:180
v-drome
serapis_tessera_BCC_Lt9.jpg
BCC Lt956 viewsLead Tessera
Caesarea Maritima
Obv: Mummiform Zeus Heliopolites standing facing, holding
whip and grain ears; at feet, foreparts of bulls on either side.
Rev: Standing figure,head turned to the left, perhaps
Venus/Aphrodite, who also was honored with a temple
at Heliopolis (Baalbek).
9mm. 0.38gm. Axis:0
1 commentsv-drome
treb_gallus_neapolis.png
BCC rgp13 (BCC 14)101 viewsRoman Provincial
Neapolis-Samaria
Trebonianus Gallus 251-253CE
Obv:ΑΥT ΚΑΙ Γ ΟΥΕ(or I) TΡΕΒ
ΓΑΛΟϹ ϹΕΒΑϹ laur. head rt.
Rev:ΦΛ ΝΕΑϹ/ΠΟΛΕWϹ/ΕΠΙ
ϹΗΜΟΥ/ΝΕΝ(sic)WΚΟ/ΡΟΥ
Inscription in five lines, Mt. Gerazim with temples, above.
Crescent and star to right and left.
AE25mm. 12.52gm. Axis: 0

(click on pic for higher resolution)

I believe this inscription refers to the
granting of privileges related to the
religious precinct known as Neokoros,
to the city of Neapolis-Samaria. As far
as I can tell, Neapolis was the only city
in this region granted such a status.
This elegant inscription contains an extra
"N" in the fourth line, which I have not
seen on any other on-line published coin
of this type. The profiles of Mt. Gerazim
represented on coins of Neapolis have
been used by archaeologists to help
locate the remains of this important
temple complex. Any other information
or ideas on this topic would be welcome.
I do not have access to RPC or other major
reference works at this time. The reverse die
for this coin is not listed in Harl's "Coinage
of Neapolis in Samaria" ANSMN 29, 1984.
The obverse is very similar to Harl's A26,
but with a slight discrepancy with regard
to his inscription as described.
1 commentsv-drome
philip_I_neapolis.png
BCC rgp14x137 viewsRoman Provincial
Neapolis-Samaria
Philip I 244-249CE
Obv:IMP C M IVL PHILIPPO
P F AVG laur. draped bust rt.
Rev: COL SERG NEAPOL
Eagle with spread wings below
Mt. Gerizim, showing colonnade
and stairs to temple compound.
AE29mm. 17.1g. Axis :180
Harl's obverse die A6, rev. unlisted?
Extremely Rare
These coin types were used by archaeologists
in the 1950's and 60's to locate the remains
of the temple complex by comparing the profile
of the mountain to the surrounding terrain.
Surface find, Caesarea Maritima, 1976.
J. Berlin Caesarea Collection
3 commentsv-drome
philip_II_Neapolis.png
BCC rgp15 (BCC 16)97 viewsRoman Provincial
Neapolis-Samaria
Philip II 247-249CE
Obv:IMP M IVL PHILIPPVS
AVG laur. draped bust rt.
Rev:[COL SE]RG NEAPOL
Wreath encl. image of Mt. Ger-
azim, colonade, and stairs to
temple. Eagle below, hd. lt.
AE29mm. 17.9g. Axis :180
Harl's obv. die A19 (with M)
rev.die P7? die break.
1 commentsv-drome
gallus_tyre_astarte.jpg
BCC rgp2422 viewsRoman Provincial
Tyre-Phoenicia
Treb. Gallus 251-253CE
Obv:[IMP C C VIBI]VS TREBO GALLVS AVG
Laureate and draped bust right.
Rev:COL TYRO METRO
Bust of Tyche/Astarte to right in distyle temple with curverd roof.
AE26mm. 13.82gm. Axis:210
Possible ref: BMC 437 (but with Curved Roof)
v-drome
elagabalus_C_M_Neapolis.jpg
BCC rgp3118 viewsRoman Provincial
Neapolis-Samaria
Elagabalus 218-222C.E.
Obv:[AYT K M ] AYP ANTΩN[INOC]
Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right.
C/M “A” in incuse square.
Rev: [ΦΛ ΝΕΑC ΠΟ] CΥΡ ΠΑΛ
Mt. Gerazim with stairs, temple and colonnade.
Poss. ref.: Rosenberger 36
countermark: Howgego 666
21mm. 12.65 gm. Axis:330
v-drome
valerian_tyre.jpg
BCC rgp3x74 viewsRoman Provincial - Tyre
Valerian I 253-260C.E.
Obv:IMP C P LIC VALERIANVS AVG
Luareated bust rt.
Rev:COL TV/RO MET
Dido of Carthage, wearing tall kalathos,
standing rt .before lighted altar, raising
both arms towards two-columned temple,
seen in perspective, containing the club
of Melqart-Herakles. Murex shell in field.
AE26.5x29mm. 11.07gm. Axis:180
Possible reference Rouvier 2501v. (Gallienus)
1 commentsv-drome
BCC_rgp48_tyre.jpg
BCC rgp4821 viewsRoman Provincial
Tyre - Phoenicia
Elagabalus 218-222C.E.
Obv: [IMP CAES M AV AN]TONINVS AVG
Laureate. draped and cuirassed bust right.
Rev: SEP TIM TYR COL
Astarte standing in hexastyle temple,
[palm], altar and murex below.
29mm. 16.37gm. Axis:330
possible ref: BMC-Phoenicia 393
v-drome
gordian_III_gadara.jpg
BCC rgp633 viewsRoman Greek Provincial
Gordian III 238-244CE
Gadara Decapolis
Obv:[ΑΥTΟΚ ΚΑΙ Μ] ΑΝTW[Ν ΓΟΡΔΙΑΝΟϹ]
laur. and dr. bust rt.
Rev:[ΠΟ]ΜΠ [ΓΑΔΑΡ]ΕWΝ
Zeus seated left within tetrastyle temple.
Date :star Γ T on pediment (year 303 of the Pompeian era)
21.5mm. 7.82gm. Axis:330
Possible references: Spijkerman 90; SNG ANS 6, 1339-1340
v-drome
gallienus_tyre.jpg
BCC rgp933 viewsRoman Provincial
Tyre - Phoenicia
Gallienus 253-268 CE
Obv: IMP C P LIC GALLIENUS AVG
Laureate, draped bust rt.
Rev: [CO]L TVR O MET[R]
Dido, standing rt .before lighted
altar, temple, containing club of
Melqart-Herakles. Murex in fld.
26mm. 9.85g. Axis: 150
v-drome
Beirut_Mint_Gordian_III_Bronze_Coin.JPG
Beirut Mint Gordian III Bronze Coin unclean37 viewsGordian III circa 298 - 244 AD
Beirut Mint
Bronze 27 mm 12.6 gram
Obverse: Bust Right
Reverse: Tetrastyle temple containing facing bust of Astarte
Antonivs Protti
Beirut_Mint,_Elagabalus_Bronze.jpg
Beirut Mint, Elagabalus Bronze Coin 218 - 222 AD 78 views23 mm 8.7 gram coin
BMC 202 Elagabalus AE 25mm of Phoenicia, Berytus. Laureate draped and cuirassed bust right / Tetrastyle temple with arched pediment, statue of Marsyas within. SNGCop 117; Lindgren I 2269.
http://www.wildwinds.com/coins/ric/elagabalus/_berytos_AE25_BMC_202.jpg
Antonivs Protti