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Search results - "Romula"
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33 viewsROME. Romula Agas(iae?)
PB Tessera (22mm, 7.58 g, 12 h)
ROM/ VLA
Clipeus; A A/ C S
Rostowzew 1478; Mnchen 243; Turcan 194-5; Milan 211; Kircheriano 2004-7

Ex Classical Numismatic Group Electronic Auction 267, lot 685 (part of)

Rostowzew cites a surprising twenty-six specimens, including several with square flans.
Ardatirion
GaleriusAugCyz.jpg
1303a, Galerius, 1 March 305 - 5 May 311 A.D.39 viewsGalerius, RIC VI 59, Cyzicus S, VF, Cyzicus S, 6.4 g, 25.86 mm; 309-310 AD; Obverse: GAL MAXIMIANVS P F AVG, laureate bust right; Reverse: GENIO A-VGVS[TI], Genius stg. left, naked but for chlamys over left shoulder, holding patera and cornucopiae. A nice example with sharp detail and nice brown hoard patina. Ex Ancient Imports.


De Imperatoribus Romanis,
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors

Galerius (305-311 A.D.)

Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Salve Regina University


Caius Galerius Valerius Maximianus, more commonly known as Galerius, was from Illyricum; his father, whose name is unknown, was of peasant stock, while his mother, Romula, was from beyond the Danube. Galerius was born in Dacia Ripensis near Sardica. Although the date of his birth is unknown, he was probably born ca. 250 since he served under Aurelian. As a youth Galerius was a shepherd and acquired the nickname Armentarius. Although he seems to have started his military career under Aurelian and Probus, nothing is known about it before his accession as Caesar on 1 March 293. He served as Diocletian's Caesar in the East. Abandoning his first wife, he married Diocletian's daugher, Valeria.

As Caesar he campaigned in Egypt in 294; he seems to have taken to the field against Narses of Persia, and was defeated near Ctesiphon in 295. In 298, after he made inroads into Armenia, he obtained a treaty from the Persians favorable to the Romans. Between 299-305 he overcame the Sarmatians and the Carpi along the Danube. The Great Persecution of the Orthodox Church, which was started in 303 by the Emperor Diocletian, was probably instigated by Galerius. Because of the almost fatal illness that he contracted toward the end of 304, Diocletian, at Nicomedeia, and Maximianus Herculius, at Mediolanum, divested themselves of the purple on 1 May 305. Constantius and Galerius were appointed as Augusti, with Maximinus Daia and Severus as the new Caesars. Constantius and Severus reigned in the West, whereas Galerius' and Daia's realm was the East. Although Constantius was nominally senior Augustus, the real power was in the hands of Galerius because both Caesars were his creatures.

The balance of power shifted at the end of July 306 when Constantius, with his son Constantine at his side, passed away at York in Britain where he was preparing to face incursions by the Picts; his army proclaimed Constantine his successor immediately. As soon as he received the news of the death of Constantius I and the acclamation of Constantine to the purple, Galerius raised Severus to the rank of Augustus to replace his dead colleague in August 306. Making the best of a bad situation, Galerius accepted Constantine as the new Caesar in the West. The situation became more complicated when Maxentius, with his father Maximianus Herculius acquiesing, declared himself princes on 28 October 306. When Galerius learned about the acclamation of the usurper, he dispatched the Emperor Severus to put down the rebellion. Severus took a large field army which had formerly been that of Maximianus and proceeded toward Rome and began to besiege the city, Maxentius, however, and Maximianus, by means of a ruse, convinced Severus to surrender. Later, in 307, Severus was put to death under clouded circumstances. While Severus was fighting in the west, Galerius, during late 306 or early 307, was campaigning against the Sarmatians.

In the early summer of 307 Galerius invaded Italy to avenge Severus's death; he advanced to the south and encamped at Interamna near the Tiber. His attempt to besiege the city was abortive because his army was too small to encompass the city's fortifications. Not trusting his own troops, Galerius withdrew. During its retreat, his army ravaged the Italian countryside as it was returning to its original base. When Maximianus Herculius' attempts to regain the throne between 308 and 310 by pushing his son off his throne or by winning over Constantine to his cause failed, he tried to win Diocletian and Galerius over to his side at Carnuntum in October and November 308; the outcome of the Conference at Carnuntum was that Licinius was appointed Augustus in Severus's place, that Daia and Constantine were denoted filii Augustorum, and that Herculius was completely cut out of the picture. Later, in 310, Herculius died, having been implicated in a plot against his son-in-law. After the Conference at Carnuntum, Galerius returned to Sardica where he died in the opening days of May 311.

By Michael DiMaio, Jr., Salve Regina University; Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Galerius was Caesar and tetrarch under Maximianus. Although a talented general and administrator, Galerius is better known for his key role in the "Great Persecution" of Christians. He stopped the persecution under condition the Christians pray for his return to health from a serious illness. Galerius died horribly shortly after. Joseph Sermarini, FORVM.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.



Cleisthenes
coin221.JPG
406. Galerius40 viewsChristians had lived in peace during most of the rule of Diocletian. The persecutions that began with an edict of February 24, 303, were credited by Christians to the influence of Galerius. Christian houses of assembly were destroyed, for fear of sedition in secret gatherings.

Detail of the Arch of Galerius in Thessaloniki.In 305, on the abdication of Diocletian and Maximian, he at once assumed the title of Augustus, with Constantius his former colleague, and having procured the promotion to the rank of Caesar of Flavius Valerius Severus, a faithful servant, and (Maximinus II Daia), his nephew, he hoped on the death of Constantius to become sole master of the Roman world. Having Constantius' son Constantine as guest at Galerius' court in the east helped to secure his position.

His schemes, however, were defeated by the sudden elevation of Constantine at Eboracum (York) upon the death of his father, and by the action of Maximianus and his son Maxentius, who were declared co-Augusti in Italy.

After an unsuccessful invasion of Italy in 307, he elevated his friend Licinius to the rank of Augustus, and moderating his ambition, he retired to the city Felix Romuliana (near present day Gamzigrada,Serbia/Montenegro)built by him to honor his mother Romula, and devoted the few remaining years of his life "to the enjoyment of pleasure and to the execution of some works of public utility."

It was at the instance of Galerius that the last edicts of persecution against the Christians were published, beginning on February 24, 303, and this policy of repression was maintained by him until the appearance of the general edict of toleration, issued from Nicomedia in April 311, apparently during his last bout of illness, in his own name and in those of Licinius and Constantine. Lactantius gives the text of the edict in his moralized chronicle of the bad ends to which all the persecutors came, De Mortibus Persecutorum ("On the Deaths of the Persecutors", chapters 34, 35). This marked the end of official persecution of Christians.

Galerius as Caesar, 305-311AD. GENIO POPVLI ROMANI reverse type with Genius standing left holding scales and cornucopia
ecoli
auli~0.jpg
Augustus and Livia , Colonial Romula (Seville), Minted by Tiberus13 viewsAugustus and Livia, minted by Tiberius, 14 Aug 19 - 16 Mar 37 A.D.
This coin associates Livia with globe and crescent symbols and refers to her as Augusta Genetrix Orbis, Sacred Mother of the World. This extraordinary title was never official and is not used on any other coin type for any empress.
5474. Orichalcum dupondius, RPC I 73, Alverez Burgos 1587, aF, Colonia Romula mint, 25.1g, 33.4mm, 180, obverse PERM DIVI AVG COL ROM, Augustus radiate head right, star above, thunderbolt right; reverse IVLIA AVGVSTA GENETRIX ORBIS, Livia head left on globe, crescent above;
sold 4-2018
NORMAN K
Livia_and_Augustus_Megaglion.JPG
DIVINE AUGUSTUS & LIVIA (by Tiberius). AE34 medallion? of Colonia Romula (Seville), RPC 73. Obverse: PERM. DIVI AVG. COL. ROM. Radiate head of Divus Augustus right; six-rayed star 21 viewsDIVINE AUGUSTUS & LIVIA (by Tiberius). AE34 medallion? of Colonia Romula (Seville), RPC 73. Obverse: PERM. DIVI AVG. COL. ROM. Radiate head of Divus Augustus right; six-rayed star above; thunderbolt before. Reverse: IVLIA AVGVSTA GENETRIX ORBIS. Head of Livia left on globe of the world; crescent moon above. RPC I, 73. SNG Copenhagen 421. F. Scarce. Livia, the mother of the emperor Tiberius, is honored as mother of the world by him on this exceptional coin.Antonivs Protti
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GERMANICUS18 viewsd. 19 AD
STRUCK UNDER TIBERIUS, 14 - 37 AD
AE SEMIS 24 mm 8.45 g
O: GERMANICVS CAESAR TI AVG F
BARE HEAD R
R: PERM AVG COL ROM
LEGEND AROUND CIRCULAR SHIELD WITHIN WREATH
ROMULA, SPAIN
laney
auli.jpg
Livia and Augustus, Colonial Romula (Seville), Minted by Tiberus12 viewsAugustus and Livia, minted by Tiberius, 14 Aug 19 - 16 Mar 37 A.D.
This coin associates Livia with globe and crescent symbols and refers to her as Augusta Genetrix Orbis, Sacred Mother of the World. This extraordinary title was never official and is not used on any other coin type for any empress.
5474. Orichalcum dupondius, RPC I 73, Alverez Burgos 1587, aF, Colonia Romula mint, 25.1g, 33.4mm, 180, obverse PERM DIVI AVG COL ROM, Augustus radiate head right, star above, thunderbolt right; reverse IVLIA AVGVSTA GENETRIX ORBIS, Livia head left on globe, crescent above;
NORMAN K
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Livia, wife of Augustus. Augusta 14-29 CE.185 viewsSpain, Hispalis. (31mm, 21.48 g).
Minted in Colonia Romula (modern Seville) under Tiberius.
Obv: PERM DIVI AVG COL ROM, Radiate head of Augustus right; thunderbolt before, star above.
Rev: IVLIA AVGVSTA GENETRIX ORBIS, Head of Livia left; globe beneath, crescent above.
RPC 73; SGI 189; Heiss 393,2; Cohen 169,3; Alvarez Burgos 1587.

This coin associates Livia with globe and crescent symbols and refers to her as Augusta Genetrix Orbis, Sacred Mother of the World. This extraordinary title was never official and is not used on any other coin type for any empress.
EmpressCollector
Augustus_Livia_Colonia_Romula.jpg
SPAIN - AUGUSTUS, Colonia Romula - (Sevilla) Ae Dupondius 35 mm / 29.92 gr.20 viewsDivus Augustus and Livia AE33 of Romula, Spain. Struck under Tiberius, 14-37 AD. PERM DIVI AVG COL ROM, radiate head of Augustus right, thunderbolt before / IVLIA AVGVSTA GENETRIX ORBIS, head of Livia left on globe, star above. RPC 73, Villaronga 1060. Sear'88 #551 _80.00eAntonivs Protti
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Spain - Colonia Romula (Sevilla) Ae Dupondius, 4 viewsAugustus and Livia, minted by Tiberius
Obverse: PERM DIVI AVG COL ROM radiate bust of deified Augustus right, star above, thunderbolt before
Reverse: head of Liva left on globe, crescent above.
32 mm / 19.44 gr.
Antonivs Protti
Colonia_Romula,_Sevilla,_Ae_As_-_28_mm_,_13,63_grams___.jpg
Spain - Colonia Romula, Sevilla, Ae As 21 views- 28 mm / 13.63 gr. RPC 74, Burgos (1992) 1588.
Tiberius AE As, 28mm of Colonia Romula (Seville), Spain. PERM DIVI AVG COL ROM, laureate head of Tiberius left / GERMANICVS CAESAR DRVSVS CAESAR, confronted heads of Germanicus and Drusus.
Antonivs Protti
Tiberius_Germ_Drus.jpg
Tiberius with Germanicus and Drusus76 viewsCOL ROM PERM DIVI AVG

laureate head of Tiberius left

GERMANICVS CAESAR DRVSVS CAESAR

Confronted heads of Germanicus and Drusus

Spain, Colonia Romula (Seville).

10.28g

RPC 74; Burgos 1588.
Rare

SOLD!
Jay GT4
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