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Sear-336.jpg
21 viewsJustinian I. 527-565. Decanummium (16mm, 2.75 g). Uncertain mint. Helmeted and cuirassed bust facing, holding globus cruciger and shield / Large six-pointed star within wreath. DOC 368; MIBE 239 (Ravenna); SB 336. VF, dark green patina. An attractive example of this rare issue. Quant.Geek
Athalaric_BMC_Ostrogoths_67,_52.jpg
4. Athalaric, in name of Justinian22 viewsATHALARIC
Ostrogoth King of Rome, in name of Justinian
AE 4, Ravenna mint

O: IVSTI..., diademed and cuirassed bust of Justinian I right

R: Monogram of Athalaric in wreath

BMC Ostrogoths p. 67, 52

1 commentsSosius
Decanummium Justiniano I SB00326.jpg
03-27 - Justiniano I (01/08/527 - 14/11/565 D.C.) 32 viewsAE Decanummium (10 nummi) 15 mm 3.7 gr.

Anv: "D.N. IVSTINIANVS PP.AVG." - Busto con yelmo y coraza, portando "Sphaira" "globus cruciger" u "Ordis" (Globo coronado por una cruz) en mano derecha y escudo en izquierda, viendo al frente. A su Izquierda " + ".
Rev: Gran " I ", " A/N/N/O " a izquierda y " XX/XV/II " (Ao de reinado) a derecha. " CON " en exergo.

Acuada Ao=37, 563/4 D.C.
Ceca: Ravenna

Referencias: Sear BCTV #326 Pag. 85 - Bellinger D.O. Vol.I #347/55 - B.M.C. #404/9 - Tolstoi M.B. #450/2 - Morrisson C.M.b.B.N. #2/7 - Hahn M.I.B. #229
1 commentsmdelvalle
MariusFundania1Denarius.jpg
0aa Caius Marius40 viewsC. Fundanius, moneyer
101-91 BC

Denarius

Helmeted head of Roma right, control-mark C behind

"Triumphator" (Marius) in quadriga right, holding laurel-branch and staff; a rider sits on near horse, holding laurel-branch, Q above, C FVNDAN in exergue

The reverse shows Marius as triumphator in the quadriga. He holds sceptre and laurel branch. On one of the horses rides his son. The children of the triumphator were - according to tradition - allowed to share the triumph of their father. The Q above refers to the office as quaestor the mintmaster held while minting these coins. FORVM Ancient Coins says of a similar piece, "The reverse refers to Marius triumph after victories over the Cimbri and Teutones. The rider on the near horse is Marius's son, at that time eight years old." Andrew McCabe comments, "The Triumphator on the Fundania denarius is usually taken to be Marius, with his young son on horseback. This would make it the first Roman coin to explicitly portray a living Roman politician. "

Seaby Fundania 1

Marius rose from common origins to become the First Man in Rome. Plutarch in his Life writes: There is a likeness of Marius in stone at Ravenna, in Gaul, which I myself saw quite corresponding with that roughness of character that is ascribed to him. Being naturally valiant and warlike, and more acquainted also with the discipline of the camp than of the city, he could not moderate his passion when in authority. . . . He was born of parents altogether obscure and indigent, who supported themselves by their daily labour; his father of the same name with himself, his mother called Fulcinia. He had spent a considerable part of his life before he saw and tasted the pleasures of the city; having passed previously in Cirrhaeaton, a village of the territory of Arpinum, a life, compared with city delicacies, rude and unrefined, yet temperate, and conformable to the ancient Roman severity. He first served as a soldier in the war against the Celtiberians, when Scipio Africanus besieged Numantia; where he signalized himself to his general by courage far above his comrades, and particularly by his cheerfully complying with Scipio's reformation of his army, being almost ruined by pleasures and luxury. It is stated, too, that he encountered and vanquished an enemy in single combat, in his general's sight. In consequence of all this he had several honours conferred upon him; and once when at an entertainment a question arose about commanders, and one of the company (whether really desirous to know, or only in complaisance) asked Scipio where the Romans, after him, should obtain such another general, Scipio, gently clapping Marius on the shoulder as he sat next him, replied, "Here, perhaps. . . ."

The consul Caecilius Metellus, being declared general in the war against Jugurtha in Africa took with him Marius for lieutenant; where, eager himself to do great deeds and services that would get him distinction, he did not, like others, consult Metellus's glory and the serving his interest, and attributing his honour of lieutenancy not to Metellus, but to fortune, which had presented him with a proper opportunity and theatre of great actions, he exerted his utmost courage. . . . Marius thus employed, and thus winning the affections of the soldiers, before long filled both Africa and Rome with his fame, and some, too, wrote home from the army that the war with Africa would never be brought to a conclusion unless they chose Caius Marius consul. . . .He was elected triumphantly, and at once proceeded to levy soldiers contrary both to law and custom, enlisting slaves and poor people; whereas former commanders never accepted of such, but bestowed arms, like other favours, as a matter of distinction, on persons who had the proper qualification, a man's property being thus a sort of security for his good behavior. . . .

[In Marius' fourth consulship,] The enemy dividing themselves into two parts, the Cimbri arranged to go against Catulus higher up through the country of the Norici, and to force that passage; the Teutones and Ambrones to march against Marius by the seaside through Liguria. . . . The Romans, pursuing them, slew and took prisoners above one hundred thousand, and possessing themselves of their spoil, tents, and carriages, voted all that was not purloined to Marius's share, which, though so magnificent a present, yet was generally thought less than his conduct deserved in so great a danger. . . . After the battle, Marius chose out from amongst the barbarians' spoils and arms those that were whole and handsome, and that would make the greatest show in his triumph; the rest he heaped upon a large pile, and offered a very splendid sacrifice. Whilst the army stood round about with their arms and garlands, himself attired (as the fashion is on such occasions) in the purple-bordered robe, and taking a lighted torch, and with both hands lifting it up towards heaven, he was then going to put it to the pile, when some friends were espied with all haste coming towards him on horseback. Upon which every one remained in silence and expectation. They, upon their coming up, leapt off and saluted Marius, bringing him the news of his fifth consulship, and delivered him letters to that effect. This gave the addition of no small joy to the solemnity; and while the soldiers clashed their arms and shouted, the officers again crowned Marius with a laurel wreath, and he thus set fire to the pile, and finished his sacrifice.
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MaximianusFollisGenio.jpg
1dt Maximianus22 views286-305, 306-308, 310

Quarter Follis

Laureate head, right, IMP C M A MAXIMIANVS P F AVG
Genius standing left, with modius on head, cornucopia & patera, GENIO POPVLI ROMANI, SIS in exergue

RIC 146

Eutropius records: [Diocletian] thus became master of the Roman empire; and when the peasants in Gaul made an insurrection, giving their faction the name of Bagaudae, and having for leaders Amandus and Aelianus, he despatched Maximian Herculius, with the authority of Caesar, to suppress them. Maximian, in a few battles of little importance, subdued the rustic multitude, and restored peace to Gaul. . . . While disorder thus prevailed throughout the world, while Carausius was taking arms in Britain and Achilleus in Egypt, while the Quinquegentiani were harassing Africa, and Narseus was making war upon the east, Diocletian promoted MAXIMIAN HERCULIUS from the dignity of Caesar to that "of emperor, and created Constantius and Maximian Galerius Caesars. . . .

Maximian the emperor, brought the war to an end in Africa, by subduing the Quinquegentiani, and compelling them to make peace. . . .

Herculius was undisguisedly cruel, and of a violent temper, and showed his severity of disposition in the sternness of his looks. Gratifying his own inclination, he joined with Diocletian in even the most cruel of his proceedings. But when Diocletian, as age bore heavily upon him, felt himself unable to sustain the government of the empire, he suggested to Herculius that they should both retire into private life, and commit the duty of upholding the state to more vigorous and youthful hands. With this suggestion his colleague reluctantly complied. Both of them, in the same day, exchanged the robe of empire for an ordinary dress, Diocletian at Nicomedia, Herculius at Milan, soon after a magnificent triumph which they celebrated at Rome over several nations, with a noble succession of pictures, and in which the wives, sisters, and children of Narseus were led before their chariots. The one then retired to Salonae, and the other into Lucania.

But after the death of Constantius, CONSTANTINE, his son by a wife of obscure birth, was made emperor in Britain, and succeeded his father as a most desirable ruler. In the meantime the praetorian guards at Rome, having risen in insurrection, declared MAXENTIUS, the son of Maximian Herculius, who lived in the Villa Publica not far from the city, emperor. At the news of this proceeding, Maximian, filled with hopes of regaining the imperial dignity, which he had not willingly resigned, hurried to Rome from Lucania. . . , and stimulated Diocletian by letters to resume the authority that he had laid down, letters which Diocletian utterly disregarded. Severus Caesar, being despatched to Rome by Galerius to suppress the rising of the guards and Maxentius, arrived there with his army, but, as he was laying siege to the city, was deserted through the treachery of his soldiers.

The power of Maxentius was thus increased, and his government established. Severus, taking to flight, was killed at Ravenna. Maximian Herculius, attempting afterwards, in an assembly of the army, to divest his son Maxentius of his power, met with nothing but mutiny and reproaches from the soldiery. He then set out for Gaul, on a planned stratagem, as if he had been driven away by his son, that he might join his son-in-law Constantine, designing, however, if he could find an opportunity, to cut off Constantine, who was ruling in Gaul with great approbation both of the soldiers and the people of the province, having overthrown the Franks and Alemanni with great slaughter, and captured their kings, whom, on exhibiting a magnificent show of games, he exposed to wild beasts. But the plot being made known by Maximian's daughter Fausta, who communicated the design to her husband, Maximian was cut off at Marseilles, whence he was preparing to sail to join his son, and died a well-deserved death. . . .
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SeverusIIFollisGenio.jpg
1dx Severus II14 views306-307

Quarter Follis

Laureate head, right, FL VAL SEVERVS NOB C
Genius standing left, modius on head, naked except for chlamys over left shoulder, holding patera and cornucopiae. Mintmark SIS, GENIO POPVLI ROMANI.

RIC 170a

According to Eutropius: Galerius, a man of excellent moral character, and skilful in military affairs, finding that Italy, by Constantius's permission, was put under his government, created two Caesars, MAXIMIN, whom he appointed over the east, and SEVERUS, to whom he committed Italy. He himself resided in Illyricum. But after the death of Constantius, CONSTANTINE, his son by a wife of obscure birth, was made emperor in Britain, and succeeded his father as a most desirable ruler. In the meantime the praetorian guards at Rome, having risen in insurrection, declared MAXENTIUS, the son of Maximian Herculius, who lived in the Villa Publica not far from the city, emperor. . . . Severus Caesar, being despatched to Rome by Galerius to suppress the rising of the guards and Maxentius, arrived there with his army, but, as he was laying siege to the city, was deserted through the treachery of his soldiers. . . .
The power of Maxentius was thus increased, and his government established. Severus, taking to flight, was killed at Ravenna.
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MaxentiusFollisRoma.jpg
1dz Maxentius22 views306-312

Follis

Laureate head, right, MAXENTIVS P F AVG
Roma in temple, CONSERVATORES VRB SVAE

RIC 194a

Eutropius reports: But after the death of Constantius, CONSTANTINE, his son by a wife of obscure birth, was made emperor in Britain, and succeeded his father as a most desirable ruler. In the meantime the praetorian guards at Rome, having risen in insurrection, declared MAXENTIUS, the son of Maximian Herculius, who lived in the Villa Publica not far from the city, emperor. At the news of this proceeding, Maximian, filled with hopes of regaining the imperial dignity, which he had not willingly resigned, hurried to Rome from Lucania. . . , and stimulated Diocletian by letters to resume the authority that he had laid down, letters which Diocletian utterly disregarded. Severus Caesar, being despatched to Rome by Galerius to suppress the rising of the guards and Maxentius, arrived there with his army, but, as he was laying siege to the city, was deserted through the treachery of his soldiers.

The power of Maxentius was thus increased, and his government established. Severus, taking to flight, was killed at Ravenna. Maximian Herculius, attempting afterwards, in an assembly of the army, to divest his son Maxentius of his power, met with nothing but mutiny and reproaches from the soldiery. . . .

At this time LICINIUS, a native of Dacia, was made emperor by Galerius, to whom he was known by old companionship, and recommended by his vigorous efforts and services in the war which he had conducted against Narseus. The death of Galerius followed immediately afterwards. The empire was then held by the four new emperors, Constantine and Maxentius, sons of emperors, Licinius and Maximian, sons of undistinguished men. Constantine, however, in the fifth year of his reign, commenced a civil war with Maxentius, routed his forces in several battles, and at last overthrew Maxentius himself (when he was spreading death among the nobility by every possible kind of cruelty,) at the Milvian bridge, and made himself master of Italy.
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ArcadiusAE4GlorRom.jpg
1ey Arcadius20 views383-408

AE4

Pearl-diademed, draped & cuirassed bust right, D N ARCADIVS P F AVG
Emperor advancing right, seizing bound captive by the hair & carrying labarum, BSISC in ex., GLORIA ROMANORVM

RIC 38c2

Zosimus recorded, [Theodosius] proceeded with his army to the war [against Eugenius], leaving behind him his son Arcadius, who had some time previously been made emperor. . . .

THE whole empire being vested in Arcadius and Honorius, they indeed appeared by their title to possess the sovereign authority, although the universal administration of affairs was under Rufinus in the east, and under Stilico in the west. By these all causes were determined, at their own pleasure; for whoever bribed plentifully, or by any other means of friendship or consanguinity could make the judge his advocate, was sure to succeed in the process. From hence it happened that most of those great estates, which cause the possessors to be generally esteemed fortunate, devolved to these two; since some endeavoured by gifts to avoid false accusations, and others relinquished all their possessions to obtain an office, or in any other manner to purchase the ruin of particular cities. While iniquity of every kind presided, therefore, in the respective cities, the money from all quarters flowed into the coffers of Rufinus and Stilico ; while on the reverse, poverty preyed on the habitations of those who had formerly been rich. Nor were the emperors acquainted with anything that was done, but thought all that Rufinus and Stilico commanded was done by virtue of some unwritten law. After they had amassed immense wealth, Rufinus began to concert the means of becoming emperor, by making his own daughter, who was now marriageable. . . . [A different cabal persuaded Arcadius to marry a different girl.]. . . .

Before this juncture a report had been circulated at Rome, that the emperor Arcadius was dead, which was confirmed after the departure of Arcadius for Ravenna. Stilico being at Ravenna while the emperor was at a city of Aemilia, called Bononia, about seventy miles distant, the emperor sent for him to chastise the soldiers, who mutinied amongst each other by the way. Stilico, therefore, having collected the mutinous troops together, informed them that the emperor had commanded him to correct them for their disobedience, and to punish them by a decimation, or putting to death every tenth man. At this they were in such consternation, that they burst into tears, and desiring him to have compassion on them, prevailed on him to promise them a pardon from the emperor. The emperor having performed what Stilico had promised, they applied themselves to public business. For Stilico was desirous of proceeding to the east to undertake the management of the affairs of Theodosius, the son of Arcadius, who was very young, and in want of a guardian. Honorius himself was also inclined to undertake the same journey, with a design to secure the dominions of that emperor. But Stilico, being displeased at that, and laying before the emperor a calculation of the immense sum of money it would require to defray the expence of such an expedition, deterred him from the enterprise.
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HonoriusAE3Emperors.jpg
1fa Honorius19 views393-423

AE3

RIC 403

Pearl diademed, draped, cuirassed bust right, DN HONORIVS PF AVG
Two emperors standing facing, heads turned to one another, each holding spear and resting hand on shield, GLORIA ROMANORVM. Mintmark SMKA.

Zosimus wrote: [Theodosius] proceeded with his army to the war [against Eugenius], leaving behind him his son Arcadius, who had some time previously been made emperor. . . . Having done this, he took with him his younger son Honorius, quickly passed through the intermediate countries, and having exceded his expectations in crossing the Alps, arrived where the enemy was stationed. . . . The emperor Theodosius after these successes proceeded to Rome, where he declared his son Honorius emperor, and appointing Stilico to the command of his forces there, left him as guardian to his son. . . . The emperor Theodosius, having consigned Italy, Spain, Celtica, and Libya to his son Honorius, died of a disease on his journey towards Constantinople. . . .

THE whole empire being vested in Arcadius and Honorius, they indeed appeared by their title to possess the sovereign authority, although the universal administration of affairs was under Rufinus in the east, and under Stilico in the west. By these all causes were determined, at their own pleasure; for whoever bribed plentifully, or by any other means of friendship or consanguinity could make the judge his advocate, was sure to succeed in the process. From hence it happened that most of those great estates, which cause the possessors to be generally esteemed fortunate, devolved to these two; since some endeavoured by gifts to avoid false accusations, and others relinquished all their possessions to obtain an office, or in any other manner to purchase the ruin of particular cities. While iniquity of every kind presided, therefore, in the respective cities, the money from all quarters flowed into the coffers of Rufinus and Stilico ; while on the reverse, poverty preyed on the habitations of those who had formerly been rich. Nor were the emperors acquainted with anything that was done, but thought all that Rufinus and Stilico commanded was done by virtue of some unwritten law. . . .

After the autumn was terminated, and winter had commenced, Bassus and Philippus being chosen consuls, the emperor Honorius, who had long before lost his wife Maria, desired to marry her sister Thermantia. But Stilico appeared not to approve of the match, although it was promoted by Serena, who wished it to take place from these motives. When Maria was about to be married to Honorius, her mother, deeming her too young for the marriage-state and being unwilling to defer the marriage, although she thought that to submit so young and tender a person to the embraces of a man was offering violence to nature, she had recourse to a woman who knew how to manage such affairs, and by her means contrived that Maria should live with the emperor and share his bed, but that he should not have the power to deprive her of virginity. In the meantime Maria died a virgin, and Serena, who, as may readily be supposed, was desirous to become the grandmother of a young emperor or empress, through fear of her influence being diminished, used all her endeavours to marry her other daughter to Honorius. This being accomplished, the young lady shortly afterwards died in the same manner as the former. . . . .

For Stilico was desirous of proceeding to the east to undertake the management of the affairs of Theodosius, the son of Arcadius, who was very young, and in want of a guardian. Honorius himself was also inclined to undertake the same journey, with a design to secure the dominions of that emperor. But Stilico, being displeased at that, and laying before the emperor a calculation of the immense sum of money it would require to defray the expence of such an expedition, deterred him from the enterprise. . . .

In the mean time, the emperor Honorius commanded his wife Thermantia to be taken from the imperial throne, and to be restored to her mother, who notwithstanding was without suspicion. . . . Alaric began his expedition against Rome, and ridiculed the preparations made by Honorius. . . . The emperor Honorius was now entering on the consulship, having enjoyed that honour eight times, and the emperor Theodosius in the east three times. At this juncture the rebel Constantine sent some eunches to Honorius, to intreat pardon from him for having accepted of the empire. When the emperor heard this petition, perceiving that it was not easy for him, since Alaric and his barbarians were so near, to prepare for other wars ; and consulting the safety of his relations who were in the hands of the rebel, whose names were Verenianus and Didymius; he not only granted his request, but likewise sent him an imperial robe. . . .

Note: No ancient source reports the sack of Rome by the Goths in 410, they having besieged the city three times, all while Honorius huddled in a besieged Ravenna. Honorius retained his nominal capacity until he died in 423.
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coin253.JPG
407. Severus II35 viewsFlavius Valerius Severus was of humble origin and from Illyricum. Early in his career he had held a military command. When Diocletian, at Nicomedeia, and Maximianus Herculius, at Mediolanum, divested themselves of the purple (Milan) on 1 May 305, they appointed Constantius I and Galerius as Augusti in their place, with Severus and Maximinus Daia as the new Caesars. Both Caesars were Galerius' creatures and received their appointment at his hands. Constantius I and Severus ruled the west, while Galerius and Daia controlled the east.

When Galerius learned of the death of Constantius I in August 306 and the acclamation of Constantine to the purple, he raised Severus to the rank of Augustus to replace the dead Augustus. Matters went from bad to worse for Galerius when Maxentius, the son of Maximianus Herculius, was proclaimed emperor at Rome on 28 October 306. Galerius was disturbed when he heard the news of Maxentius' revolt because the usurper seized Rome, then part of Severus' realm. Galerius sent Severus from Mediolanum (Milan) to fight the enemy. Severus took a large field army which had formerly been that of Maximianus and proceeded toward Rome.

When Maxentius learned about the advance of Severus, he sent his own father the purple and offered to make him Augustus again to win Severus' army to his side; Maximianus accepted his offer. Meanwhile, Severus and his army reached Rome and began to besiege the city; Maxentius, however, bribed Severus' soldiers and, at a set signal, the Augustus' forces joined the usurper. Severus fled ro Ravenna with a few remaining soldiers. Maximianus went to Ravenna and, with false promises of safety, convinced Severus to surrender. He took this action because he realized that Severus' position was impregnable. Under house arrest Severus was brought to Rome and imprisoned at Tres Tabernae. Severus was put to death in 307 under clouded circumstances, when Galerius invaded Italy

Severus II AD 305-306 AE Follis "Genius Serdica" "The genius of the people of Rome." Obv: FL VAL SEVERVS NOB C - Laureate head right Rev: GENIO POPVLI ROMANI - Genius standing left, holding patera and cornucopia. Exe: SIS Siscia mint: AD 305-306 = RIC VI, p. 475, 170a Rare (r)
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s49.JPG
516. Honorius45 viewsFlavius Honorius (September 9, 384August 15, 423) was Emperor of the Western Roman Empire from 395 until his death. He was the younger son of Theodosius I and his first wife Aelia Flaccilla, and brother of the Eastern emperor Arcadius.

Honorius was declared Augustus in 393 by his father and became western emperor at the age of 10, following his father's death in January 395. For the first part of his reign he depended on the military leadership of the Vandal general Stilicho. To strengthen his bonds to the young emperor, Stilicho married his daughter Maria to him.

At first Honorius based his capital in Milan, but when the Visigoths entered Italy in 402 he moved his capital to the coastal city of Ravenna, which was protected by a ring of marshes and strong fortifications. While the new capital was easier to defend, it was poorly situated to allow Roman forces to protect central Italy from the barbarian incursions.

The most notable event of his reign was the assault and sack of Rome on August 24, 410 by the Visigoths under Alaric.

The city had been under Visigothic siege since shortly after Stilicho's deposition and execution in the summer of 408. Lacking a strong general to control the by-now mostly barbarian Roman Army, Honorius could do little to attack Alaric's forces directly, and apparently adopted the only strategy he could do in the situation: wait passively to Visigoths to grow weary and spend the time marshalling what forces he could. Unfortunately, this course of action appeared to be the product of Honorius' indecisive character and he suffered much criticism for it both from contemporaries and later historians.

Whether this plan could have worked is perhaps debatable, especially since he deprived himself of several skillful officers by only promoting Catholics to the top military positions. In any case it was overtaken by events. Stricken by starvation, somebody opened Rome's defenses to Alaric and the Goths poured in. The city had not been under the control of a foreign force since an invasion of Gallic Celts some seven centuries before. The victorious Visigoths did untold damage to the city and the shock of this event reverberated from Britain to Jerusalem, and inspired Augustine to write his magnum opus, The City of God.

The year 410 also saw Honorius reply to a British plea for assistance against local barbarian incursions. Preoccupied with the Visigoths and lacking any real capabilities to assist the distant province, Honorius told the Britons to defend themselves as best they could.

There is a story (which Gibbon disbelieved) that when he heard the news that Rome had "perished", Honorius was initially shocked; thinking the news was in reference to a favorite chicken he had named "Roma", he recalled in disbelief that the bird was just recently feeding out of his hand. It was then explained to him that the Rome in question was the city.

His reign of twenty-eight years was one of the most disastrous in the Roman annals. Honorius' supposed weakness and timidity in the face of internal dissension and the attacks of the Visigoths and Vandals is often said to have contributed to the rapid disintegration of the western half of the empire.



RIC X Antioch 153
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coin402.JPG
516a Johannes42 viewsAfter the death of Honorius on August 15, 423, his closest male relative was Valentinian, son of Galla Placidia. Valentinian was currently at Constantinople. This power vacuum allowed Ioannes, the primicerius notariorum (chief notary) to seize power in the west. Virtually nothing is known of Ioannes himself, though he was said to have had a mild character. He was supported by the magister militum Castinus and by Aetius, son of the magister militum Gaudentius. After his acclamation at Rome, Ioannes transferred his capital to Ravenna. Ioannes' rule was accepted in Gaul, Spain and Italy, but not in Africa. Ioannes' attempts to negotiate with the eastern emperor Theodosius II were unsuccessful. He seems not to have had a firm grasp of power and this encouraged eastern intervention. In 425, Theodosius II sent an expedition under the command of Ardabur the Elder to install Valentinian as emperor in the west. Ardabur was captured, but treated well, as Ioannes still hoped to be able to negotiate with Theodosius. Ardabur, however, persuaded some of Ioannes' officials to betray him. After his capture, Ioannes was taken to Aquileia where he was mutilated, then executed. Three days after Ioannes's execution, one of his generals, Aetius, arrived in Italy with a large force of Huns. Rather than continue the war, Valentinian bought off the Huns with gold and Aetius with the office of comes.
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coin401.JPG
602a. Valentinian III31 viewsIn the early years of his reign, Valentinian was overshadowed by his mother. After his marriage in 437, moreover, much of the real authority lay in the hands of the Patrician and Master of Soldiers Aetius. Nor does Valentinian seem to have had much of an aptitude for rule. He is described as spoiled, pleasure-loving, and influenced by sorcerers and astrologers. He divided his time primarily between Rome and Ravenna. Like his mother, Valentinian was devoted to religion. He contributed to churches of St. Laurence in both Rome and Ravenna. He also oversaw the accumulation of ecclesiastical authority in the hands of the bishop of Rome as he granted ever greater authority and prestige to pope Leo the Great (440-461) in particular.

Valentinian's reign saw the continued dissolution of the western empire. By 439, nearly all of North Africa was effectively lost to the Vandals; Valentinian did attempt to neutralize that threat by betrothing his sister Placidia to the Vandal prince Huneric. In Spain, the Suevi controlled the northwest, and much of Gaul was to all intents and purposes controlled by groups of Visigoths, Burgundians, Franks, and Alans. In 454, Valentinian murdered his supreme general Aetius, presumably in an attempt to rule in his own right. But in the next year, he himself was murdered by two members of his bodyguard, ex-partisans of Aetius.

Although Valentinian was ineffectual as a ruler, his legitimate status and connection to the old ruling dynasty provided a last vestige of unity for the increasingly fragmented Roman empire. After his death, the decay of the west accelerated. The different regions of the west went their own way, and the last several western emperors, the so-called "Shadow" or "Puppet" Emperors, not only were usually overshadowed by one barbarian general or other, but also were limited primarily to Italy.
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domitian_RIC96.jpg
81-96 AD - DOMITIAN AR denarius - struck 82 AD54 viewsobv: IMP CAES DOMITIANVS AVG P M (laureate head right)
rev: TR POT COS VIII P P (dolphin twined around anchor)
ref: RIC Vol 2.1 (2008) 96, RSC 593 (2frcs), not too common issue
mint: Rome
2.81gms, 18.5mm

This reverse reminds me of Legio II Adiutrix. This legion was formed in (early March?) 70 by the emperor Vespasian. Its soldiers were marines from the Ravenna navy, who had sided with Vespasian during his war against the emperor Vitellius.
berserker
sear_472.jpg
AE decanummiun Tiberius II Constantine, SB 47230 viewsObverse: DM TIb CONSTANT PP AVG or similar, Crowned, cuir bust facing holding gl. cr.
Reverse: LArge I between two crosses all within wreath
Mint: Sicily per Hahn, Ravenna per Sear
Date: 578-582 CE
Sear 472 DO 66
14mm 2.61gm
wileyc
Athalaric.jpg
Athalaric - Ravenna - quarter siliqua29 viewsAthalaric (516-534), Ostrogothic king (526-534). AR quarter siliqua (11 mm, 0.60 g) in the name of Justinian I, minted in Ravenna 527-534. Obverse: diademed bust right, D N IVSTI-NIAN AVC. Reverse: DN/ATHAL/ARICVS/RIX within wreath. Metlich 59.
Jan
Justinian-527-565-AD_AR-half-Siliqua_DN-IVSTINI-ANVS-PP-AVG_Chi-Rho_Star-Star-in_wreath_Ravenna_SB-320-p84_552-564-AD_Q-001_6h_12mm_0,72g-s.jpg
B 004 Justinianus I. (527-565 A.D.), SB 0320, Ravenna, AR-1/2-Siliqua, Chi-Ro on globe, star both side, 254 viewsB 004 Justinianus I. (527-565 A.D.), SB 0320, Ravenna, AR-1/2-Siliqua, Chi-Ro on globe, star both side,
avers: D N IVSTINI ANVS P P AVG, Diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right.
reverse: Monogram (Chi-Ro) on globe, at sides, stars. Around, laurel wreath.
exergue: */*//--, diameter: 12mm, weight: 0,72g, axis:6h,
mint: Ravenna, date: 552-564A.D., ref: SB 0320, p-84,
Q-001
quadrans
Sear-915.jpg
Byzantine Empire: Heraclius (610-641) Follis, Ravenna, RY 23 (Sear-915; DOC 302; MIB-254; Ranieri-610)12 viewsObv: Figures of Heraclonas, Heraclius, and Heraclius Constantine standing facing, each crowned (except Heraclonas who wears a plain cap) and holding globus cruciger; cross to upper left
Rev: Large M; monogram above, A/N/N/O to left, X/X/I[I]/I (date) to right, Λ (A without crossbar) below; RAV

From the Prue Morgan Fitts Collection; Ex Triton XIII (5 January 2010), lot 1658
SpongeBob
Sear-326a.jpg
Byzantine Empire: Justinian I (527-565) Decanummium, Ravenna (Sear-326; MIBE 229a (Rome); Ranieri 393)19 viewsObv: Helmeted and cuirassed bust facing, holding globus cruciger and shield
Rev: Large I; A/N/N/O - XX/XIIII (date) across field; all within wreath
Quant.Geek
Sear-326.jpg
Byzantine Empire: Justinian I (527-565) Decanummium, Ravenna, RY 36 (Sear-326; DOC I-353; MIBE-229a; Ranieri-395)28 viewsObv: Helmeted and cuirassed bust facing, holding globus cruciger and shield
Rev: Large I flanked by date; all within wreath
SpongeBob
Sear-326(1).jpg
Byzantine Empire: Justinian I (527-565) Decanummium, Ravenna, RY 37 (Sear-326; MIBE 229a (Rome); Ranieri 393)10 views Obv: Helmeted and cuirassed bust facing, holding globus cruciger and shield
Rev: Large I; A/N/N/O - XX/XV/II across field; all within wreath
Quant.Geek
Sear-472.jpg
Byzantine Empire: Tiberius II Constantine (578-582) Decanummium, Ravenna (Sear-472)9 viewsObv: DM TIB CONSTAN PP AVI (or similar); Crowned, cuirassed bust of Tiberius II facing, holding globus cruciger
Rev: Large I between two crosses; all within wreath
SpongeBob
constantinII_ticinum_121.jpg
Constantius II, RIC VII, Ticinum 1215 viewsConstantin II, AD 317-340
AE 3, 2.68g, 19.95mm, 180
Ticinum, 1. officina
obv. CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C
Bust, laureate and draped, l., holding in r. hand Victoriola and in l. hand mappa
rev. VIRTVS - EXERCIT
Standard with inscription VOT / XX on drapery; captive on ground on either side
in upper l. field stylized Chi-Rho
in ex. ST
ref. RIC VII, Ticinum 121
rare (R3), F+, some incrustations

The symbol in the upper left field sometimes is called Iota-Chi, but probably in error. The actually Iota-Chi is found later, e.g. in an arc of the of the apsis in San Vitale in Ravenna. Alfoldi interprets Lactantius in that way, that it is a hastily painted Chi-Rho.
Jochen
Demo-80.jpg
Gepids: Uncertain King (454-552) AR Quarter Siliqua, Sirmium (MEC-1; Demo-80; Stefan-2; COI, p. 43, Fig. 22; Gennari-111b)14 viewsObv: D N VƧ(M over W)VISTΛIWS P P Λ[VC], pearl-diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust right
Rev: (star) IИMVIT + IROИVΛ, Theoderic monogram

Imitation of a Ravenna mint Quarter Siliqua of Theoderic in the name of Justinian I

Quant.Geek
ravenna_felix.jpg
Gotic Ravenna, deka, Ravenna Felix126 views1 commentsantvwala
her-rav1a.jpg
Heraclius, Follis, Ravenna mint, 630-631 AD (year 21), Sear 91425 viewsHeraclius (610-641 AD)

630-631 AD (year 21)

Follis

Obverse: DD NN HЄRACLIVS ЄT HЄRA CONST PP AVCC (or similar), Heraclius, crowned, in military attire and holding long cross, standing facing, foot on prostrate figure (a Persian?) below; to right, Heraclius Constantine, wearing crown and chlamys, holding globus cruciger, standing facing

Reverse: Large M; Above, cross; To left, ANNO; To right, XXI ; Exergus, RAV

Ravenna mint

This issue commemorates the victory of Heraclius over the Sasanid kingdom in 629 AD.

After years of war between Romans and Sasanids, in 612, Heraclius launched a major counter-offensive in Syria in 613. He was decisively defeated outside Antioch by Shahrbaraz and Shahin, and the Roman position collapsed. Over the following decade the Persians were able to conquer Palestine and Egypt and to devastate Anatolia. Meanwhile, the Avars and Slavs took advantage of the situation to overrun the Balkans, bringing the Roman Empire to the brink of destruction.
During these years, Heraclius strove to rebuild his army, slashing non-military expenditures, devaluing the currency and melting down Church plate, with the backing of Patriarch Sergius, to raise the necessary funds to continue the war. In 622, Heraclius left Constantinople, entrusting the city to Sergius and general Bonus as regents of his son. He assembled his forces in Asia Minor and, after conducting exercises to revive their morale, he launched a new counter-offensive, which took on the character of a holy war. In the Caucasus he inflicted a defeat on an army led by a Persian-allied Arab chief and then won a victory over the Persians under Shahrbaraz. Following a lull in 623, while he negotiated a truce with the Avars, Heraclius resumed his campaigns in the East in 624 and routed an army led by Khosrau at Ganzak in Atropatene. In 625 he defeated the generals Shahrbaraz, Shahin and Shahraplakan in Armenia, and in a surprise attack that winter he stormed Shahrbaraz's headquarters and attacked his troops in their winter billets. Supported by a Persian army commanded by Shahrbaraz, the Avars and Slavs unsuccessfully besieged Constantinople in 626, while a second Persian army under Shahin suffered another crushing defeat at the hands of Heraclius' brother Theodore. Meanwhile, Heraclius formed an alliance with the Turks, who took advantage of the dwindling strength of the Persians to ravage their territories in the Caucasus. Late in 627, Heraclius launched a winter offensive into Mesopotamia, where, despite the desertion of the Turkish contingent that had accompanied him, he defeated the Persians at the Battle of Nineveh. Continuing south along the Tigris, he sacked Khosrau's great palace at Dastagird and was only prevented from attacking Ctesiphon by the destruction of the bridges on the Nahrawan Canal. Discredited by this series of disasters, Khosrau was overthrown and killed in a coup led by his son Kavadh II, who at once sued for peace, agreeing to withdraw from all occupied territories. Heraclius restored the True Cross to Jerusalem with a majestic ceremony in 629.


Sear 914, D.O. 297, B.M.C. 452, T. 282, B.N. 5, M.I.B. 253a.

RRR

VF

6,98 g.
L.e.
her-rav1a~0.jpg
Heraclius, Follis, Ravenna mint, 630-631 AD (year 21), Sear 914, celebrating the defeat of the Sasanid kingdom and the restoration of the True Cross to Jerusalem. 103 viewsHeraclius (610-641 AD)

630-631 AD (year 21)

Follis

Obverse: DD NN HЄRACLIVS ЄT HЄRA CONST PP AVCC (or similar), Heraclius, crowned, in military attire and holding long cross, standing facing, foot on prostrate figure (a Persian?) below; to right, Heraclius Constantine, wearing crown and chlamys, holding globus cruciger, standing facing

Reverse: Large M; Above, cross; To left, ANNO; To right, XXI ; Exergus, RAV

Ravenna mint

This issue commemorates the victory of Heraclius over the Sasanid kingdom in 629 AD.

After years of war between Romans and Sasanids, in 612, Heraclius launched a major counter-offensive in Syria in 613. He was decisively defeated outside Antioch by Shahrbaraz and Shahin, and the Roman position collapsed. Over the following decade the Persians were able to conquer Palestine and Egypt and to devastate Anatolia. Meanwhile, the Avars and Slavs took advantage of the situation to overrun the Balkans, bringing the Roman Empire to the brink of destruction.
During these years, Heraclius strove to rebuild his army, slashing non-military expenditures, devaluing the currency and melting down Church plate, with the backing of Patriarch Sergius, to raise the necessary funds to continue the war. In 622, Heraclius left Constantinople, entrusting the city to Sergius and general Bonus as regents of his son. He assembled his forces in Asia Minor and, after conducting exercises to revive their morale, he launched a new counter-offensive, which took on the character of a holy war. In the Caucasus he inflicted a defeat on an army led by a Persian-allied Arab chief and then won a victory over the Persians under Shahrbaraz. Following a lull in 623, while he negotiated a truce with the Avars, Heraclius resumed his campaigns in the East in 624 and routed an army led by Khosrau at Ganzak in Atropatene. In 625 he defeated the generals Shahrbaraz, Shahin and Shahraplakan in Armenia, and in a surprise attack that winter he stormed Shahrbaraz's headquarters and attacked his troops in their winter billets. Supported by a Persian army commanded by Shahrbaraz, the Avars and Slavs unsuccessfully besieged Constantinople in 626, while a second Persian army under Shahin suffered another crushing defeat at the hands of Heraclius' brother Theodore. Meanwhile, Heraclius formed an alliance with the Turks, who took advantage of the dwindling strength of the Persians to ravage their territories in the Caucasus. Late in 627, Heraclius launched a winter offensive into Mesopotamia, where, despite the desertion of the Turkish contingent that had accompanied him, he defeated the Persians at the Battle of Nineveh. Continuing south along the Tigris, he sacked Khosrau's great palace at Dastagird and was only prevented from attacking Ctesiphon by the destruction of the bridges on the Nahrawan Canal. Discredited by this series of disasters, Khosrau was overthrown and killed in a coup led by his son Kavadh II, who at once sued for peace, agreeing to withdraw from all occupied territories. Heraclius restored the True Cross to Jerusalem with a majestic ceremony in 629.


Sear 914, D.O. 297, B.M.C. 452, T. 282, B.N. 5, M.I.B. 253a.

RRR

VF

6,98 g.
L.e.
her_rav.jpg
Heraclius, Follis, Ravenna mint, Sicilian countermark, 637-638 AD (year 28), Spahr 5334 viewsHeraclius (610-641 AD)

637-638 AD (Year 28)

Follis

Obverse: no legend, Heraclius, Heraclius Constantine and Heraclonas standing facing and holding globe bearing a cross.

Reverse: Large M; Above, monogram; To left, ANNO; To right, XXVIII ; exergus, RAV

Ravenna follis (sear 916) with sicilian countermark (sear 883), Spahr 53 (RRRR)

Ravenna/Sicily mint

Sear -, D.O.-, B.M.C.-, T.-, R-, B.N.-, M.I.B.,-. Spahr 53

RRRR

VF

10,79 g., 32 mm
L.e.
onorio_solido~0.jpg
Honorius98 viewssolidus
Ravenna
2 commentsantvwala
Honorius_Gold_Solidus~0.JPG
Honorius Gold Solidus45 viewsHonorius Gold solidus, RIC X 1328, VF, Ravenna, 4.350g, 20.4mm, die axis 180o, 412 - 422 A.D.
OBV: D N HONORI-VS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right;
REV: VICTORI-A AVGGG, Honorius standing right, active stance, standard in right, Victory on globe in left, left foot treading on captive with bent knees;
R-V across fields, COMOB in ex;

EX: Forvm Ancient Coins
Romanorvm
honorius_ravenna_1310.jpg
Honorius RIC X, Ravenna 1310162 viewsHonorius AD 393-423
AV - Solidus, 4.37g, 21mm
Ravenna, after the death of Arcadius AD 408-423
obv. DN HONORI - VS PF AVG
Bust helmeted r., draped, cuirassed and diademed, bearded, helmet with three stars
rev. VICTORI - A AVGGG
Emperor stg. facing, holding long staff topped by Tau-Rho and placing l. hand on hilt of
sword; he is crowned by the Hand of God and places r. foot on neck of prostrate
serpent-tailed lion.
in field: R/V
exergue: COB
RIC X, Ravenna 1310; C.43
Rare; nearly EF
added to www.wildwinds.com

This type was struck probably soon after the death of Arcadius. The uncharacteristically warlike effigy of Honorius may bee seen as a response to the threat posed by the usurpation of Constantine III and the mutinous state of the army. He is bearded, perhaps in mourning for his brother Arcadius. (RIC X)
3 commentsJochen
honorius_1340_3.jpg
Honorius RIC X, Ravenna 134051 viewsHonorius 393 - 423
AV - Tremissis, 1.41g, 12mm
Ravenna AD 408 - 423 (after death of Arcadius)
obv. DN HONORI - VS PF AVG
draped, cuirassed bust, rosette-diademed head r.
rev. VICTORIA - AVGVSTORV[M]
Victory in military dress advancing r., holding cross-globe li. and wreath r.
field: R and V
exergue: COMOB
RIC X, Ravenna 1340; C.47
Rare; about VF (obv. with scratches, rev. with dagger's marks, bended)
added to www.wildwinds.com

Die-links with Johannes RIC 1906 and Theodosius RIC 1339 and RIC 1802!
Jochen
Honorius2.jpg
Honorius Silver Not Official33 viewsAncient not official Silver Imitation of Gold Solidus.
(Size, 19.7 mm ; Weight: 1.6 g.)

Honorius. (393-423 AD). Gold solidus. Ravenna, 402-406 AD.
D N HONORIVS P F AVG, bust draped, cuirassed right, seen from front, wearing pearl diadem / VICTORIA AVGGG, emperor standing right placing foot on captive and holding labarum and Victory on globe, RV in fields, COMOB in exergue.

RIC 1287. Cohen 44
1 commentsTanit
onorio_solido.jpg
Honorius, solidus, Victoria Avggg, Ravenna42 views2 commentsantvwala
MISC_Italian_States_Ravenna.jpg
Italian States: Ravenna. Archbishopric12 viewsBiaggi 1966; MIR 1251; CNI v.X p. 683, 8, plate XLIII/23

AR denaro, struck after 1232 and before 1440. 0.48 g., 15.29 mm. max.; 90

Obv.: + ARCHEPISCO, VPS around central pellet.

Rev.: DE RAVENA, cross patte; trefoil in second and third quarters.
Stkp
21320341.jpg
Italy, Ravenna, Mausoleum of Galla Placidia64 viewsit is describbed as "the earliest and best preserved of all mosaic monuments, and at the same time one of the most artistically perfect"

The building was formerly the oratory of the Church of the Holy Cross and now contains three sarcophagi. The largest sarcophagus was thought to contain the remains of Galla Placidia (died 450). Other is attributed to her husband, Emperor Constantius III. The last sarcophagus is attributed to Galla's son, Emperor Valentinian III, or to her brother, Emperor Honorius.
Johny SYSEL
21320354.jpg
Italy, Ravenna, Mausoleum of Galla Placidia138 viewsit is describbed as "the earliest and best preserved of all mosaic monuments, and at the same time one of the most artistically perfect"

The building was formerly the oratory of the Church of the Holy Cross and now contains three sarcophagi. The largest sarcophagus was thought to contain the remains of Galla Placidia (died 450). Other is attributed to her husband, Emperor Constantius III. The last sarcophagus is attributed to Galla's son, Emperor Valentinian III, or to her brother, Emperor Honorius.
1 commentsJohny SYSEL
21320438.jpg
Italy, Ravenna, Mausoleum of Galla Placidia140 viewsit is describbed as "the earliest and best preserved of all mosaic monuments, and at the same time one of the most artistically perfect"

The building was formerly the oratory of the Church of the Holy Cross and now contains three sarcophagi. The largest sarcophagus was thought to contain the remains of Galla Placidia (died 450). Other is attributed to her husband, Emperor Constantius III. The last sarcophagus is attributed to Galla's son, Emperor Valentinian III, or to her brother, Emperor Honorius.
1 commentsJohny SYSEL
21320330.jpg
Italy, Ravenna, Mausoleum of Galla Placidia62 viewsThe building was formerly the oratory of the Church of the Holy Cross and now contains three sarcophagi. The largest sarcophagus was thought to contain the remains of Galla Placidia (died 450). Other is attributed to her husband, Emperor Constantius III. The last sarcophagus is attributed to Galla's son, Emperor Valentinian III, or to her brother, Emperor Honorius.Johny SYSEL
Iustinianus_I_(527-565)_16_nummi_(AE).png
Iustinianus I (527-565) 16 nummi (AE)74 viewsObv.: DN IVSTINIANVS PP AVG (Draped bust of emperor) Rev.: I central, A S P in field Exergue: TES Diameter: 22 mm Weight: 6,51 g SB 175

Though Justinian is often hailed as the greatest of the Byzantine emperors, his Gothic Wars as well as lavish building projects in Ravenna and Constantinople proved to be a very costly affair. The empire was as good as bankrupt when Justinian passed away. The hexagonal shape of the coin is typical for this type.
Nick.vdw
sb314.jpg
Justinian AR 250 nummi Ravenna Sear 31414 viewsTask_Force
Justinian_ab.jpg
Justinian I - Rome101 viewsJustinian I (527-565). denarius (9 mm, 0.63 g), Rome mint c. 537-546. Obverse: (I)VSTINI-ANVS, diademed bust right. Reverse: Latin version of Justinian's monogram within wreath. Undescribed, similar to MIBE 94 (Rome); Sear 340 (uncertain mint).

I have not found an earlier description of this monogram. It is similar to MIBE 94, which has the same form except that the S is placed below instead of above. The monogram is also similar to those of Athalaric and Theodahad on 2 nummi minted in Rome 526-536. This type of "A" in the monogram is not found on coins from Ravenna. The byzantine army lead by Belisarius entered Rome in December 536 unopposed by the Ostrogoths. Rome was later besieged and occupied by Baduila in 546 and again reoccupied by Belisarius in 547. In addition, the frontal bust was introduced on Italian copper coins in the late 540s. These facts combined suggest that this coin was minted in Rome during the period from about 537 to 546. Hahn suggests that MIBE 94 belongs to the mid-540s.
Jan (jbc)
Justinian_Ravenna_4.jpg
Justinian I Ravenna14 viewsJustinian I (527-565). 10 nummi (16 mm, 3.85 g), minted in Ravenna year 561/562. Obverse: D N IVSTINIANVS P P AV, Helmeted, cuirassed bust facing holding globus cruciger and shield. Reverse: Large I between ANNO and XX/XV. SB 326.Jan
Lixus_in_Morocco.jpg
Morocco, Lixus64 viewsLixus is the site of an ancient Roman city located in Morocco just north of the modern seaport of Larache on the bank of the Loukkos River. The location was one of the main cities of the Roman province of Mauretania Tingitana .

Ancient Lixus is located on Tchemmich Hill on the right bank of the Loukkos River (other names: Oued Loukous; Locus River), just to the north of the modern seaport of Larache. The site lies within the urban perimeter of Larache, and about three kilometers inland from the mouth of the river and the Atlantic ocean. From its 80 meters above the plain the site dominates the marshes through which the river flows. To the north, Lixus is surrounded by hills which themselves are bordered to the north and east by a forest of cork oaks.

Among the ruins there are Roman baths, temples, 4th century walls, a mosaic floor, a Christian church and the intricate and confusing remains of the Capitol Hill.

Lixus was first settled by the Phoenicians in the 7th century BC and was later annexed by Carthage. Lixus was part of a chain of Phoenician/Carthaginian settlements along the Atlantic coast of modern Morocco; other major settlements further to the south are Chellah (called Sala Colonia by the Romans) and Mogador. When Carthage fell to Ancient Rome, Lixus, Chellah and Mogador became imperial outposts of the Roman province Mauretania Tingitana.

The ancient sources agree to make of Lixus a counter Phoenician, which is confirmed by the archaeological discovery of material dating from 8th century BC. It gradually grew in importance, later coming under Carthaginian domination. After the destruction of Carthage, Lixus fell to Roman control and was made an imperial colony, reaching its zenith during the reign of the emperor Claudius I (AD 41-54).

Some ancient Greek writers located at Lixus the mythological garden of the Hesperides, the keepers of the golden apples. The name of the city was often mentioned by writers from Hanno the Navigator to the Geographer of Ravenna, and confirmed by the legend on its coins and by an inscription. The ancients believed Lixus to be the site of the Garden of the Hesperides and of a sanctuary of Hercules, where Hercules gathered gold apples, more ancient than the one at Cadiz, Spain. However, there are no grounds for the claim that Lixus was founded at the end of the second millennium BC.

Lixus flourished during the Roman Empire, mainly when Claudius established a Roman Colonia with full rights for the citizens. Lixus was one of the few Roman cities in Berber Africa that enjoyed an amphitheater: the amphitheater at Lixus. In the third century Lixus become nearly fully Christian and there are even now the ruins of a paleochristian church overlooking the archeological area. The Arab invasions destroyed the Roman city. Some berber life was maintained there nevertheless until one century after the Islamic conquest of North Africa by the presence of a mosque and a house with patio with the covered walls of painted stuccos.

The site was excavated continuously from 1948 to 1969. In the 1960s, Lixus was restored and consolidated. In 1989, following an international conference which brought together many scientists, specialists, historians and archaeologists of the Mediterranean around the history and archaeology of Lixus, the site was partly enclosed. Work was undertaken to study the Roman mosaics of the site, which constitute a very rich unit. In addition to the vestiges interesting to discover the such mosaics whose one of sixty meters representing Poseidon. Lixus was on a surface of approximately 75 hectares (190 acres). The excavated zones constitute approximately 20% of the total surface of the site.

This site was added to the UNESCO World Heritage Tentative List on July 1, 1995 in the Cultural category.
Joe Sermarini
Odovacar_4.jpg
Odovacar - Ravenna59 viewsOdovacar (also Odoacer, Odovacer, Odoacre) (c. 433-493), king of Italy (476-493). (10 mm, 0.75 g). Obverse: ODO-(VAC), Odovacar draped and cuirassed right. Reverse: monogram of Odovacar. Reference: RIC X 3502, R3.1 commentsJan (jbc)
MEC-117.jpg
Ostrogoths: Theoderic (493-518) AR Half-siliqua, i.n.o Anastasius I, Ravenna (Metlich-43a; MIBE-V77; MEC-117)19 viewsObv: D N ANASTASIVS P P AVC, pearl-diademed and cuirassed bust right
Rev: Star within wreath

Size: 12mm
Wgt: 1.27g
1 commentsSpongeBob
MEC-120.jpg
Ostrogoths: Theoderic (493-518) AR Quarter-Siliqua, i.n.o Anastasius I, Ravenna (MEC-120; Metlich-44a)9 viewsObv: D N ANASTASIVS P P AVC, pearl-diademed and cuirassed bust right
Rev: INVICTA ROMA, monogram

Size: 11mm
Wgt: 0.79g

SpongeBob
Phocas_Ravenna_2_ab.jpg
Phocas - Ravenna54 viewsPhocas (-610), Byzantine emperor (602-610). 20 Nummi (15 mm, 3.66 g), Ravenna. Obverse: crowned, draped, and cuirassed facing bust. Reverse: large XX with star between, RAV in exergue. SB 707; MIB 113; Ranieri 527. Jan (jbc)
107B~0.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Valentinian III Solidus48 viewsRIC X 2010 Ravenna, C19, Depeyrot 17/1, 426-430 A.D.
4.47 g, 22 mm
D N PLA VALENTINIANVS P F AVG, rosette-diademed, draped & cuirassed bust right
VICTORIA AVGGG, Valentinian standing facing, holding long cross & Victory on globe, foot on human-headed serpent
R-V across fields
COMOB in exergue
Scarce
Mark Z
Sear_0472.jpg
Sear 047231 viewsTiberius II Constantine (578 582 CE) Decanummium, weight 5.22g, diameter 17mm. Uncertain western mint: DOC lists this type under Ravenna while Hahn argues for a Sicilian origin.Abu Galyon
Sear_0922.jpg
Sear 092219 viewsHeraclius (610 641 CE). Half-follis, weight 4.9g, diameter 27 x 19 mm. Mint of Ravenna, fourth [Δ] officina, struck in 629/30 [= regnal year XX]. Scarce.Abu Galyon
CsIISear1137A.jpg
Sear 1137A - Follis - 643-644 AD (Year 3) - Ravenna mint180 viewsEmperor: Constans II (r. 641-668 AD)
Date: 643-644 AD (Year 3)
Condition: Fine/VF
Denomination: Follis

Obverse: Illegible legend
Bust facing, beardless, wearing chlamys and crown with cross on circlet. In right hand, globus cruciger.

Reverse: Large ""; Above, cross; To left, ///; To right, //; Beneath, .
Exergue:

Ravenna mint
Sear 1137A; MIB 224A
6.61g; 20.6mm; 180

Ex CNG
Pep
CsIISear1139.jpg
Sear 1139 - Follis - 659-668 AD - Ravenna mint161 viewsEmperor: Constans II (r. 641-668 AD)
Date: 659-668 AD
Probable Date: 662-663 AD (Year 22)
Condition: Fine/Fair
Denomination: Follis

Obverse: Illegible legend
To left, bust of Constans, with long beard, To right, bust of Constantine, beardless, each wearing chlamys and crown with cross. Between heads, cross.

Reverse: Large ""; Above, (/?); To left and right, Heraclius and Tiberius, standing, each wearing chlamys and crown, Heraclius holding globus cruciger.
Exergue:

Ravenna mint
Sear 1139
1.48g; 17.6mm; 180
Pep
ConIVDOC89.jpg
Sear 1239 - Follis - 679-680 AD (Year 26) - Ravenna mint102 viewsEmperor: Constantine IV (r. 668-685 AD)
Date: 679-680 AD (Year 26)
Condition: aVF
Denomination: Follis

Obverse: DNCOTINVSPP (or similar)
Bust 3/4 facing, with short beard, wearing cuirass and helmet with plume and diadem, the ties of which are visible to the left. In right hand, spear held behind head; on left shoulder, shield.

Reverse: Large "M"; To left and right, Heraclius and Tiberius standing, each wearing chlamys and crown with cross, and holding globus cruciger; Above, NNO over XXVI; Beneath, .
Exergue: RAV

Ravenna mint
DO 89; Sear 1239; MIB 117
2.40g; 22.3mm; 165

Ex Dr. Michael Metlich Collection
Pep
ConIVSear1239_VIII.jpg
Sear 1239 - Follis - 681-682 AD (Year 28) - Ravenna mint84 viewsEmperor: Constantine IV (r. 668-685 AD)
Date: 681-682 AD (Year 28)
Condition: Fine
Denomination: Follis

Obverse: DNCOTINVSPP (or similar)
Bust 3/4 facing, with short beard, wearing cuirass and helmet with plume and diadem, the ties of which are visible to the left. In right hand, spear held behind head; on left shoulder, shield.

Reverse: Large "M"; To left and right, Heraclius and Tiberius standing, each wearing chlamys and crown with cross, and holding globus cruciger; Above, NNO over VIII; Beneath, .
Exergue: RAV

Ravenna mint
Sear 1239; MIB 117
4.23g; 23.5mm; 165

Ex Dr. Michael Metlich Collection
Pep
JnnIIDO72.jpg
Sear 1310 - Follis - 685-687 AD - Ravenna mint72 viewsEmperor: Justinian II (First Reign: 685-695 AD)
Date: 685-687 AD
Condition: aFine
Denomination: Follis

Obverse: No legend
Bust facing, bearded, wearing chlamys and crown (with cross?). In right hand, globus cruciger.

Reverse: Large ""; Above, cross.
Exergue:

Ravenna mint
DO 72; Sear 1310; MIB 78
3.61g; 20.0mm; 180

Ex Dr. Michael Metlich Collection
Pep
LeontDO30.jpg
Sear 1358 - Follis - 695-698 AD - Ravenna mint43 viewsEmperor: Leontius (r. 695-698 AD)
Date: 695-698 AD
Condition: Fine
Denomination: Follis

Obverse: ] - [ ][
Bust facing, bearded, wearing loros and crown with cross on circlet, and holding globus cruciger in right hand.

Reverse: Large ""; Above, cross.
Exergue:

Ravenna mint
DO 30; Sear 1358
2.76g; 22.6mm; 180
Pep
TibIIIDO48.jpg
Sear 1411 - Follis - 698-705 AD - Ravenna mint51 viewsEmperor: Tiberius III (Apsimar) (r. 698-705 AD)
Date: 698-705 AD
Condition: aVF
Denomination: Follis

Obverse: Illegible legend
Bust facing, with close beard, wearing cuirass and crown with cross on circlet. In right hand, spear held before body. On left shoulder, shield with horseman device.

Reverse: Large ""; Above, cross.
Exergue:

Ravenna mint
DO 48; Sear 1411; MIB 82; Ranieri 776-80
3.17g; 21.2mm; 165

Ex CNG
Pep
JnnII2ndDO24.jpg
Sear 1446 - Follis - 705-711 AD - Ravenna mint45 viewsEmperor: Justinian II (Second Reign: 705-711 AD)
Date: 705-711 AD
Condition: Fine
Denomination: Follis

Obverse: No legend (?)
To left, bust of Justinian bearded; to right, bust of Tiberius, beardless, each wearing chlamys and crown with cross. They hold between them long cross potent (on globus?).

Reverse: Large ""; Above, cross; To left, ///; To right, // (?)
Exergue:

Ravenna mint
DO 24; Sear 1446
1.16g; 13.4mm; 165

Ex VAuctions
Pep
HclsDO281.jpg
Sear 907 - 120 Nummi - 610-641 AD - Ravenna mint237 viewsEmperor: Heraclius (r. 610-641 AD)
Date: 610-641 AD
Condition: aEF
Denomination: 120 Nummi

Obverse: ] -
Bust right, beardless, draped and diademed.

Reverse: Cross potent, in wreath-like border.

Ravenna mint
DO 281; Sear 907
0.35g; 10.7mm; 165

Ex VAuctions
2 commentsPep
HclsDO301.jpg
Sear 922 - Half Follis - 630-631 AD (Year 21) - Ravenna mint218 viewsEmperor: Heraclius (r. 610-641 AD)
Date: 630-631 AD (Year 21)
Condition: aFine/aVF
Denomination: Half Follis

Obverse: Illegible legend
To left, Heraclius facing, with long beard, wearing military dress and crown with cross, with left foot on captive; in right hand, long cross. To right, Heraclius Constantine facing, wearing chlamys and crown with cross; in right hand, globus cruciger. Between heads, cross.

Reverse: Large ""; Above, cross; To left, ///; To right, ; Beneath, .

Ravenna mint
DO 301; Sear 922
4.01g; 16.3mm; 180

Ex ArtCoins Roma
Pep
Felix_Ravenna_Victory_ab.jpg
Theoderic the Great - Ravenna - 5 nummi156 viewsTheoderic the Great (454-526), Ostrogothic king (471-526), ruler of Italy (494-526). 5 Nummi (15 mm, 1.67 g), Ravenna. Obverse: crowned head of Ravenna right, [FELIX R]-AVENNA (retrograde). Reverse: Victory advancing left, holding wreath and palm branch, R-V in fields. Metlich 81; Ranieri 252-4; MEC .

Rare. Metlich (2004) cites six coins, four of which are in museums (Ravenna, Milan, Torino, Vienna), and suggests that they belong to the very earliest of Theoderic's coinage from the 490's. This is the only coin of Theoderic that is believed to belong to Ravenna; all other coins where minted in Rome.

Ex Dix Noonan Webb 2009, A8, Lot 5968.
1 commentsjbc
Theoderic_quarter_siliqua_ab.jpg
Theoderic the Great - Ravenna - quarter siliqua71 viewsTheoderic the Great (454-526), Ostrogothic king (471-526) and ruler of Italy (494-526). AR quarter siliqua (11 mm, 0.64 g) in the name of Justin I, minted in Ravenna 518-526. Obverse: diademed bust right, D N IVSTI-NVS AVC. Reverse: Monogram of Theoderic with cross above, all within wreath. Metlich 55.1 commentsJan (jbc)
Felix_Ravenna_2.jpg
Theoderic the Great - Rome - 10 nummi127 viewsTheoderic the Great (454-526), Ostrogothic king (471-526), ruler of Italy (494-526). 10 Nummi (16 mm, 2.32 g), Rome. Obverse: crowned head of Ravenna right, FELIX R-AVENNA. Reverse: monogram of Ravenna, cross above, all in wreath. Metlich 78b; MIB 72b; MEC 150; Kraus 5.

This type with a cross above the monogram is less common than the type without a cross. The minting is believed to have continued into the reign of Athalaric (526-536) (Metlich, 2004). The existence of two hybrid coins where the Ravenna monogram reverse is combined with an INVICTA ROMA obverse indicates that the coins may have been produced in Rome (Metlich, 2004).
1 commentsjbc
Felix_Ravenna_eagle_ab.jpg
Theoderic the Great - Rome - 10 nummi95 viewsTheoderic the Great (454-526), Ostrogothic king (471-526), ruler of Italy (494-526). 10 Nummi (16 mm, 2.72 g), Rome. Obverse: crowned head of Ravenna right, FELIX R-AVENNA. Reverse: Eagle left between two stars, X in exergue. Metlich 77; Ranieri 255-6; MEC .

Approximately 20-30 coins known. Metlich (2004) cites thirteen coins in museums and sold at major auctions. Metrological evidence suggests that this type was emitted at about the same time as the more common type with the Ravenna monogram on the reverse (Metlich, 2004).
jbc
Tiberius_Constantine_Ravenna.jpg
Tiberius II Constantine - Ravenna87 viewsTiberius II Constantine (-582), Byzantine emperor (574-582). 10 nummi (14 mm, 3.27 g), Ravenna or Sicilian mint. Obverse: crowned facing bust, holding globus cruciger. Reverse: large I between two crosses. DOC I 66 (Ravenna); SB 472 (Ravenna); Hahn, Numismatic Circular, 1979, p. 553 (Sicily).3 commentsjbc
valentinianIII_2010.jpg
Valentinian III RIC X, 2010151 viewsValentinian III 425 - 455, son of Constantius III
AV - Solidus, 4.51g, 21mm
Ravenna 5. officina, 425 - ca. 430
obv. DN PLA VALENTI - NIANVS PF AVG
bust draped and cuirassed, head rosette-diademed r.
rev. VICTORI - A AVGGG
Emperor in military dress standing frontal, holding long cross
in r. hand and globe with Victory holding wreath in l. hand,
r. foot on snake with human head
field: R and V
exergue: COMOB
RIC X, 2010; C.19; DOCLR. 841?
Scarce; VF

Foot on snake, so the emperor will tread on his enemies. So the snake in Christianity has changed to a symbol of evil. Remind the different meaning of a snake f.e. on SALUS types!
Jochen
107B.jpg
Valentinian III Solidus88 viewsRIC X 2010 Ravenna, C19, Depeyrot 17/1, 426-430 A.D.
4.47 g, 22 mm
D N PLA VALENTINIANVS P F AVG, rosette-diademed, draped & cuirassed bust right
VICTORIA AVGGG, Valentinian standing facing, holding long cross & Victory on globe, foot on human-headed serpent
R-V across fields
COMOB in exergue
Scarce
6 commentsMark Z
Witiges_2ab.jpg
Witigis - Ravenna - 10 nummi164 viewsWitigis, Ostrogothic king (536-539). 10 Nummi (16 mm, 3.23 g), Ravenna. Obverse: helmeted bust of Roma right, (INVICT)-A ROMA. Reverse: DN/VVIT/ICES/REX within wreath. Metlich 92.3 commentsJan (jbc)
Witiges_ab.jpg
Witigis - Ravenna - 10 nummi101 viewsWitigis, Ostrogothic king (536-539). 10 Nummi (3.54 g, 17 mm), Ravenna. Obverse: helmeted bust of Roma right, (INVICT)-A ROMA. Reverse: DN/VVIT/ICIS/REX within wreath. Metlich 92.Jan (jbc)
LarryW1814.jpg
X, 1287 Honorius, 393-42367 viewsAV solidus, 20mm, 4.45g, gVF
Struck 402-408 at Ravenna
DN HONORI-VS PF AVG, pearl-diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust right / VICTORI-A AVGGG, Honorius standing right, holding labarum and Victory on globe, foot set on captive. R - V in fields, COMOB in exg.
RIC X 1287; Depeyrot 7/1; DOCLR 735; Cohen 44
Consigned to Forvm
Lawrence Woolslayer
LarryW1817.jpg
X, 1328 Honorius, 393-42339 viewsAV solidus, 21.2mm, 4.34g, EF
Struck 412-422 at Ravenna
DN HONORI-VS PF AVG, pearl diademed, draped and cuirassed bust of Honorius facing right / VICTORI-A AVGGG, emperor standing right, in active posture, holding standard and Victory on globe, with his left foot he spurns a seated bound captive with knee bent. R - V in fields, COMOB in exg.
RIC X, 1328
Consigned to Forvm
Lawrence Woolslayer
LarryW1816.jpg
X, 2019 Valentinian III, 425-45599 viewsAV solidus, 20.8mm, 4.41g, EF
Struck 430-445 at Ravenna
DN PLA VALENTI-NIANVS PP AVG, pearl and rosette diademed, draped and cuirassed bust of Valentinian III facing right / VICTORI-A AVGGG, emperor standing facing, holding long cross and Victory on globe, drapery formed like parentheses, right foot on head of human headed open coiled sperpent. R - V in fields, COMOB in exg.
RIC X, 2011 Rare
Consigned to Forvm
Lawrence Woolslayer
     
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