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Search results - "Ostia"
MAXENTIU-2.jpg
27 viewsMAXENTIVS - Follis - Ostia mint - 309 AD
Obv.: IMP C MAXENTIVS P F AVG, laureate head right
Rev.: AETERNITAS AVG N, Castor and Pollux standing facing each other, each leaning on sceptre and holding bridled horse. In ex. MOSTA
Gs. 6,7 mm. 27,5
Cohen 10
Maxentius
Maxentius_RIC_35-sm2.jpg
7 Maxentius35 viewsMaxentius. A.D. 306-312. Ć Follis (24.3 mm, 5.26 g, 11 h). Ostia, A.D. 309-312. IMP C MAXENTIVS P F AVG, laureate head right / AETERNITAS AVG, the Dioscuri standing facing each other, holding horses by their bridles; MOSTT in exergue. RIC 35. gVF.
Ex Agora Auctions #1, Nov 2013
1 commentsSosius
Maxentius_Ostia_RIC_45-sm2.jpg
7 Maxentius19 viewsMaxentius. A.D. 306-312. Ć Follis (24.5 mm, 5.69 g, 6 h). Ostia, A.D. 309-312. IMP C MAXENTIVS PF AVG, laureate head right / FIDES MILITVM AVG N, Fides standing left, holding standard in each hand: MOSTS in exergue. RIC 45. Good VF, brown patina.
Ex Agora Auctions - Nov 2013
Sosius
rjb_2009_09_07.jpg
Romulus8 viewsRomulus
Ostia mint
Obv: DIVO ROMVLO N V BIS CONS
Head right
Rev: AETERNAE MEMORIAE
Domed temple with open doors, eagle on roof
-/-//MOSTT
RIC (VI) Ostia 59
mauseus
maxentius_discouri_comb_res.jpg
(0306) MAXENTIUS (USURPER)58 views306 - 312 AD
struck 309 AD
AE FOLLIS 24.5 mm 5.78 g
O: IMP C MAXENTIVS PF AVG, LAUR BUST R
R: AETERNITAS AVG N, DIOSCURI STANDING FACING EACH OTHER, WITH STAR ABOVE EACH HEAD, HOLDING HORSES BY BRIDLES, SHE-WOLF AND TWINS BELOW
MOSTB IN EXE
(usurper, killed by Constantine I at Battle of the Milvian Bridge)
OSTIA
RIC (VI) 16
(ex G.Clark)
2 commentslaney
maxentius_discouri_comb_resb.jpg
(0306) MAXENTIUS (USURPER)23 views306 - 312 AD
struck 309 AD
AE FOLLIS 24.5 mm 5.78 g
O: IMP C MAXENTIVS PF AVG, LAUR BUST R
R: AETERNITAS AVG N, DIOSCURI STANDING FACING EACH OTHER, WITH STAR ABOVE EACH HEAD, HOLDING HORSES BY BRIDLES, SHE-WOLF AND TWINS BELOW
MOSTB IN EXE
(usurper, killed by Constantine I at Battle of the Milvian Bridge)
OSTIA
RIC (VI) 16
laney
max_discouri_comb_resized.jpg
(0306) MAXENTIUS (USURPER)/DIOSCURI AND SHE-WOLF WITH TWINS53 viewsAE FOLLIS 24.5 mm 5.78 g
306 - 12 AD; STRUCK 309 AD
O: IMP C MAXENTIVS PF AVG
LAUR BUST R
R: AETERNITAS AVG N
DIOSCURI STANDING FACING EACH OTHER, WITH STAR ABOVE EACH HEAD, HOLDING HORSES BY BRIDLES, SHE-WOLF AND TWINS BELOW
MOSTB IN EXE
(usurper, killed by Constantine I at Battle of the Milvian Bridge)
OSTIA
RIC (VI) 16
(ex G.Clark)
laney
OTA484-6.png
03. Celtic AE tetradrachm - KAPOSTALER type - c.100-75/50 BC673 viewsobv: Degraded head of Zeus right
rev: Horseman left, with large crest above head; crescent to left
ref: Pink 484-495; Göbl OTA 484-495; LaTour 9807; Kostial 766-797; Dembski 1413-1427;
mint: Szalacska oppidum
8.64gms, 22mm

Description of this type see my East celtic coins topic at the Classical Numismatics
berserker
OTA484-3.png
05. Celtic AE tetradrachm - KAPOSTALER type - c.100-75/50 BC475 viewsobv: Degraded head of Zeus right
rev: Horseman left, with large crest above head; crescent to left
ref: Pink 484-495; Göbl OTA 484-495; LaTour 9807; Kostial 766-797; Dembski 1413-1427;
mint: Szalacska oppidum
8.12gms, 22mm

Description of this type see my East celtic coins topic at the Classical Numismatics
berserker
OTA484-5.png
06. Celtic AE tetradrachm - KAPOSTALER type - c.100-75/50 BC446 viewsobv: Degraded head of Zeus right
rev: Horseman left, with large crest above head; crescent to left
ref: Pink 484-495; Göbl OTA 484-495; LaTour 9807; Kostial 766-797; Dembski 1413-1427;
mint: Szalacska oppidum
8.35gms, 21mm

Description of this type see my East celtic coins topic at the Classical Numismatics
berserker
1000-16-149.jpg
107. Pertinax35 viewsPertinax

Only a mediocre public speaker, Pertinax was first and foremost a gritty old soldier. He was heavily built, had a pot belly, although it was said, even by his critics, that he possessed the proud air of an emperor.
He possessed some charm, but was generally understood to be a rather sly character. He also acquired a reputation for being mean and greedy. He apparently even went as far as serving half portions of lettuce and artichoke before he became emperor. It was a characteristic which would not serve him well as an emperor.

When he took office, Pertinax quickly realized that the imperial treasury was in trouble. Commodus had wasted vast sums on games and luxuries. If the new emperor thought that changes would need to be made to bring the finances back in order he was no doubt right. But he sought to do too much too quickly. In the process he made himself enemies.

The gravest error, made at the very beginning of his reign, was to decide to cut some of the praetorian's privileges and that he was going to pay them only half the bonus he had promised.
Already on 3 January AD 193 the praetorians tried to set up another emperor who would pay up. But that senator, wise enough to stay out of trouble, merely reported the incident to Pertinax and then left Rome.

The ordinary citizens of Rome however also quickly had enough of their new emperor. Had Commodus spoilt them with lavish games and festivals, then now Pertinax gave them very little.
And a truly powerful enemy should be the praetorian prefect Laetus. The man who had after all put Pertinax on the throne, was to play an important role in the emperor's fate. It isn't absolutely clear if he sought to be an honest advisor of the emperor, but saw his advise ignored, or if he sought to manipulate Pertinax as his puppet emperor. In either case, he was disappointed.

And so as Pertinax grew ever more unpopular, the praetorians once more began to look for a new emperor. In early March, When Pertinax was away in Ostia overseeing the arrangements for the grain shipments to Rome, they struck again. This time they tried to set up one of the consuls, Quintus Sosius Falco.

When Pertinax returned to Rome he pardoned Falco who'd been condemned by the senate, but several praetorians were executed. A slave had given them away as being part of the conspiracy.
These executions were the final straw. On 28 March AD 193 the praetorians revolts.
300 hundred of them forced the gates to the palace. None of the guards sought to help their emperor.
Everyone, so it seemed, wanted rid of this emperor. So, too, Laetus would not listen as Pertinax ordered him to do something. The praetorian prefect simply went home, leaving the emperor to his fate.

Pertinax did not seek to flee. He stood his ground and waited, together with his chamberlain Eclectus. As the praetorians found him, they did not discover an emperor quivering with fear, but a man determined on convincing them to put down their weapons. Clearly the soldiers were over-awed by this brave man, for he spoke to them for some time. But eventually their leader found enough courage to step forwards and hurl his spear at the emperor. Pertinax fell with the spear in his chest. Eclectus fought bravely for his life, stabbing two, before he two was slain by the soldiers.
The soldiers then cut off Pertinax' head, stuck it on a spear and paraded through the streets of Rome.

Pertinax had ruled for only 87 days. He was later deified by Septimius Severus.

RI1. Pertinax. A.D. 193. AR denarius (18.0 mm, 2.74 g, 7 h). Rome mint. Rare. IMP CAES P HELV PERTIN AVG, laureate head right / OPI DIVIN TR P COS II, Ops seated left, holding two stalks of grain, resting hand on seat of throne. RIC 8a; RSC 33; BMCRE 19. aVF, flan crack.
ecoli
Maxentius-AE-Follis_RIC-VI-35_p-404_Ostia_309-12-AD_Q-001_h_mm_g-s.jpg
129 Maxentius (306-307 A.D. Caesar, 308-313 A.D. Augustus), Ostia, RIC VI 035, AE-1, -/-//MOSTT, AETERNITAS AVG N, Castor and Pollux standing facing,66 views129 Maxentius (306-307 A.D. Caesar, 308-313 A.D. Augustus), Ostia, RIC VI 035, AE-1, -/-//MOSTT, AETERNITAS AVG N, Castor and Pollux standing facing,
avers:- IMP C MAXENTIVS P F AVG, Laureate head right.
revers:- AETE RNITAS A VG N, Dioscuri Castor and Pollux standing facing each other, each holding sceptre and holding a horse by the bridle..
exergo: -/-//MOSTT, diameter: mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Ostia, date: 309-312 A.D., ref: RIC VI 35, p-404, C-5,
Q-001
quadrans
12c-Constantine-Ost-094.jpg
12c. Constantine: Ostia follis.23 viewsFollis, Oct 312 - May 313, Ostia mint.
Obverse: IMP C CONSTANTINVS P F AVG / Laureate bust of Constantine.
Reverse: SPQR OPTIMO PRINCIPI / Legionary eagle between two vexilla.
Mint mark: MOSTT
3.49 gm., 20 mm.
RIC #94; PBCC #631; Sear #16129.
Callimachus
Licinius-l__IMP-LICINIVS-PF-AVG_GENIO-P-OP-ROM_MOST-Q_RIC-VI-75b-p-408_Ostia_3a-B_312-13-AD_Scarce_Q-001_axis-1h_21-22mm_3,97g-s.jpg
132 Licinius l. (308-324 A.D.), Ostia, RIC VI 075b, -/-//MOSTQ, AE-2 Follis, GENIO POP ROM, Genius standing left,202 views132 Licinius l. (308-324 A.D.), Ostia, RIC VI 075b, -/-//MOSTQ, AE-2 Follis, GENIO POP ROM, Genius standing left,
avers:- IMP LICINIVS P F AVG, Laureate, cuirassed bust right.
revers:- GENIO P OP ROM, Genius standing left, modius on head, naked except for chlamys over left shoulder, holding patera and cornucopiae.
exerg: -/-//MOSTQ, diameter: 21-22mm, weight: 3,97g, axes: 1h,
mint: Ostia, date: 312-313A.D., ref: RIC-VI-75b, p-408 ,
Q-001
quadrans
schnurrbart-coin.jpg
14. Celtic AR tetradrachm - GALLIERKOPF / SCHNURRBART type - 2nd-1st century (?)487 viewsobv: Apollo head (?) with a mustache right
rev: Rider left, under the horse is rosette with a central point
ref: Göbl OTA 349 (Gallierkopf/Schnurrbart), Pink 349 (Gallischer Einflus); Dessewffy 1224; Dembski 1273-1278 (Kopf mit Schnurrbart); Kostial -; LaTour 9866;
mint: unknown
9.87gms, 24mm

The obverse is one of the most beautiful and the most characteristic product of the (east) celtic coinage. The tipical gallic (or Apollo ?) head without beard and the thick pleated hair belongs to celtic coins of Noricum, and this motive probably got to the Munkács area with transmit of Boii. Maybe that's why Pink is classified in category of Western influence coins (unter Westlichem Einfluss).
Reverse rider holds a zickzack line (lightning?) in right hand, while with his left hand is based on the horse (see: LaTour 9866)
Other description of this type see my East celtic coins topic at the Classical Numismatics
2 commentsberserker
RI 152g img.jpg
152 - Maxentius - RIC VI Ostia 035 (double strike)50 viewsObv:– IMP C MAXENTIVS P F AVG, Laureate Bust right
Rev:– AETERNITAS AVG N, Castor and Pollux
Minted in Ostia (MOSTP in exe. ) between Late A.D. 309 and October A.D. 312
References:– RIC VI Ostia 35 (C2)

Not great quality but a great example of a double strike on both sides.
maridvnvm
RI 152k img.jpg
152 - Maxentius - RIC VI Ostia 04565 viewsObv:– IMP C MAXENTIVS P F AVG, Laureate Bust right
Rev:– FIDES MILITVM AVG N, Fides holding two standards
Minted in Ostia (MOSTQ in exe.)
References:– RIC VI Ostia 45
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI 152e img.jpg
152 - Maxentius - RIC VI Ostia 045 19 viewsObv:– IMP C MAXENTIVS P F AVG, Laureate Bust right
Rev:– FIDES MILITVM AVG N, Fides holding two standards
Minted in Ostia (MOSTT in exe.)
References:– RIC VI Ostia 45
maridvnvm
RI_153a_img.jpg
153 - Romulus - Follis - RIC VI Ostia 33 15 viewsFollis
Obv:- IMP MAXENTIVS DIVO ROMVLO N V FILIO, bare headed bust of Romulus right
Rev:- AETERNA MEMORIA, eagle with spread winfs standing right on domed hexastyle temple, its’ right door ajar
Struck in Ostia. //MOSTP. ca. late 309 – 312 A.D.
References:- RIC VI Ostia 33 (Rated C)

24.13mm. 6.21 gms. 180 degrees,
maridvnvm
junlia_domna.JPG
201a. Julia Domna67 viewsIn Rome, when the worship of Cybele, as Magna Mater, was formally initiated in 203 BC, Rome was embroiled in the Second Punic War. The previous year, an inspection had been made of the Sibylline Books, and some oracular verses had been discovered that announced that if a foreign foe should carry war into Italy, he could be driven out and conquered if the Mater Magna were brought from Pessinos to Rome. Publius Cornelius Scipio Nasica was ordered to go to the port of Ostia, accompanied by all the matrons, to meet the goddess. He was to receive her as she left the vessel, and when brought to land he was to place her in the hands of the matrons who were to bear her to her destination, the Temple of Victory on the Palatine Hill. The day on which this event took place, 12 April, was observed afterwards as a festival, the Megalesian. (Livy, History of Rome, circa AD 10)

In Rome, her Phrygian origins were recalled by Catullus, whose famous poem on the theme of Attis includes a vivid description of Cybele's worship: "Together come and follow to the Phrygian home of Cybele, to the Phrygian forests of the goddess, where the clash of cymbals ring, where tambourines resound, where the Phrygian flute-player blows deeply on his curved reed, where ivy-crowned maenads toss their heads wildly."

Roman devotion to Cybele ran deep. Not coincidentally, when a Christian basilica was built over the site of a temple to Cybele, to occupy the site, it was dedicated as the Basilica di Santa Maria Maggiore.

The worship of Cybele penetrated as far as Mauretania, where, just outside Setif, the ceremonial "tree-bearers" and the faithful (religiosi) restored the temple of Cybele and Attis after a disastrous fire in AD 288. Lavish new fittings paid for by the private group included the silver statue of Cybele and the chariot that carried her in procession received a new canopy, with tassels in the form of fir cones. (Robin Lane Fox, Pagans and Christians, p 581.)

Today, a monumental statue of Cybele can be found in one of the principal traffic circles of Madrid, the Plaza de Cibeles (illustration, upper right).

In Roman mythology, Magna Mater deorum Idaea ("great Idaean mother of the gods") was the name for the originally Phrygian goddess Cybele, as well as Rhea.

Her cult moved from Phrygia to Greece from the 6th century to the 4th. In 205 BC, Rome adopted her cult.

Julia Domna Denarius. 212 AD. IVLIA PIA FELIX AVG, draped bust right / MATRI DEVM, Cybele standing left, leaning on column, holding drum & scepter, lion at foot. RSC 137. RIC 382
1 commentsecoli
rjb_fol11_01_09.jpg
30912 viewsRomulus d. 309 AD
AE Quarter Follis
Obv: DIVO ROMVLO N V BIS CONS
Head right
Rev: AETERNAE MEMORIAE
Domed temple with open doors, eagle on roof
-/-//MOSTT
Ostia Mint
RIC (VI) Ostia 59
mauseus
coin180.JPG
408. Maxentius34 viewsMarcus Aurelius Valerius Maxentius, more commonly known as Maxentius, was the child of the Emperor Maximianus Herculius and the Syrian Eutropia; he was born ca. 278 A.D. After Galerius' appointment to the rank of Caesar on 1 March 293, Maxentius married Galerius' daughter Valeria Maximilla, who bore him a son named Romulus and another son whose name is unknown. Due to his haughty nature and bad disposition, Maxentius could seldom agree with his father or his father-in-law; Galerius' and Maximianus Herculius' aversion to Maxentius prevented the young man from becoming a Caesar in 305. Little else is known of Maxentius' private life prior to his accession and, alth ough there is some evidence that it was spent in idleness, he did become a Senator.

On 28 October 306 Maxentius was acclaimed emperor, although he was politcally astute enough not to use the title Augustus; like the Emperor Augustus, he called himself princeps. It was not until the summer of 307 that he started usi ng the title Augustus and started offending other claimants to the imperial throne. He was enthroned by the plebs and the Praetorians. At the time of his acclamation Maxentius was at a public villa on the Via Labicana. He strengthened his position with promises of riches for those who helped him obtain his objective. He forced his father Maximianus Herculius to affirm his son's acclamation in order to give his regime a facade of legitimacy. His realm included Italy, Africa, Sardinia, and Corsica. As soon as Galerius learned about the acclamation of Herculius' son, he dispatched the Emperor Severus to quell the rebellion. With the help of his father and Severus' own troops, Maxentius' took his enemy prisoner.

When Severus died, Galerius was determined to avenge his death. In the early summer of 307 the Augustus invaded Italy; he advanced to the south and encamped at Interamna near the Tiber. His attempt to besiege the city was abortive because his army was not large enough to encompass the city's fortifications. Negotiations between Maxentius and Galerius broke down when the emperor discovered that the usurper was trying to win over his troops. Galerius' troops were open to Maxentius' promises because they were fighting a civil war between members of the same family; some of the soldiers went over to the enemy. Not trusting his own troops, Galerius withdrew. During its retreat, Galerius' army ravaged the Italian countryside as it was returning to its original base. If it was not enough that Maxentius had to deal with the havoc created by the ineffectual invasions of Severus and Galerius, he also had to deal with his father's attempts to regain the throne between 308 and 310. When Maximianus Herculius was unable to regain power by pushing his son off his throne, he attempted to win over Constantine to his cause. When this plan failed, he tried to win Diocletian over to his side at Carnuntum in October and November 308. Frustrated at every turn, Herculius returned to his son-in-law Constantine's side in Gaul where he died in 310, having been implicated in a plot against his son-in-law. Maxentius' control of the situation was weakened by the revolt of L. Domitius Alexander in 308. Although the revolt only lasted until the end of 309, it drastically cut the size of the grain supply availble for Rome. Maxentius' rule collapsed when he died on 27 October 312 in an engagement he had with the Emperor Constantine at the Milvian Bridge after the latter had invaded his realm.

Maxentius Follis. Ostia mint. IMP C MAXENTIVS P F AVG, laureate head right / AETE-RNITAS A-VGN, Castor and Pollux standing facing each other, each leaning on sceptre and holding bridled horse.
ecoli
coins446.JPG
501. Constantine I Ostia Sol16 viewsOstia
Although Ostia was probably founded for the sole purpose of military defence — since through the Tiber's mouths armies could eventually reach Rome by water — in time the port became a commercial harbour, and a very important one too. Many of the goods that Rome received from its colonies and provinces passed through Ostia. In this role, Ostia soon replaced Pozzuoli (Puteoli, near Naples).

In 87 BC, the town was razed by Marius, and again in 67 BC it was sacked by pirates. After this second attack, the town was re-built and provided with protective walls by Cicero. The town was then further developed during the 1st century AD, mainly under the influence of Tiberius, who ordered the building of the first Forum. The town was also soon enriched by the construction of a new harbour on the northern mouths of the Tiber (which reaches the sea with a larger mouth in Ostia, Fiumara Grande, and a narrower one near to the current Fiumicino international airport). The new harbour, not surprisingly called Portus, was excavated from the ground at the orders of the emperor Claudius; it has an hexagonal form, in order to reduce the waves strength. The town was provided with all the services a town of the time could require; in particular, a famous lighthouse. Archaeologists also discovered the public latrinas, organised for collective use as a series of seats that lets us imagine today that the function was also a social moment. In addition, Ostia had a large theatre, public baths and a fire fighting service. You can still see the mosaic floors of the baths near today's entrance to the town.

Trajan too, required a widening of the naval areas, and ordered the building of another harbour, again pointing towards the north. It must be remembered that at a relatively short distance, there was also the harbour of Civitavecchia (Centum Cellae), and Rome was starting to have a significant number of harbours, the most important remaining Portus.

Ostia grew to 50,000 inhabitants in the 2nd century AD and in time focused its naval activities on Portus. With the end of the Roman Empire, Ostia fell slowly into decay, and was finally abandoned in the 9th century due to the fall of the Roman empire in combination with repeated invasions and sackings by Arab pirates; the inhabitants moved to Gregoriopolis. In the Middle Ages, bricks from buildings in Ostia were used for several other occasions. The Leaning Tower of Pisa was entirely built of material originally belonging to Ostia. A "local sacking" was carried out by baroque architects, who used the remains as a sort of marble store for the palazzi they were building in Rome. Soon after, foreign explorers came in search of ancient statues and objects. The Papacy started organising its own investigations with Pope Pius VII and the research still continues today. It has been estimated that two thirds of the ancient town have currently been found.

001. Constantine I Ostia

RIC VI Ostia 85 S

ecoli
Licinius_Black~0.jpg
57 Licinius RIC 77b16 viewsLicinius I. 308-324 AD. Ae Follis. Ostia 312 - 313 AD (4th officina)(23 mm. 4,33 g) Obv: IMP LICINIVS P F AVG, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right. Rev: GENO P-OP ROM, Genius standing left, patera with flowing water in right hand, cornucopiae in left hand, chlamys over shoulder.

RIC VI, Ostia 77b
Paddy
70-Maxentius-3.JPG
70-Maxentius-3.-S41 viewsAE Follis, Ostia mint, 306-312 AD.
Obv: IMP C MAXENTIVS PF AVG, Laureate head right.
Rev: AETERNITAS AVG N, Castor and Pollux standing facing, each leaning on a sceptre and restraining a horse.
MOSTQ in exergue.
23mm, 7.1gm.
RIC 14.
jdholds
roman_emperor_otho.jpg
708a, Otho64 viewsOtho (69 A.D.)
John Donahue
College of William and Mary

Introduction
In January 69 Otho led a successful coup to overthrow the emperor Galba. Upon advancing to the throne, he hoped to conciliate his adversaries and restore political stability to the Empire. These ambitions were never to be realized. Instead, our sources portray a leader never fully able to win political confidence at Rome or to overcome military anarchy abroad. As a result, he was defeated in battle by the forces of Vitellius, his successor, and took his own life at the conclusion of the conflict. His principate lasted only eight weeks.
Early Life and Career
Marcus Salvius Otho was born at Ferentium on 28 April 32 A. D. His grandfather, also named Marcus Salvius Otho, was a senator who did not advance beyond the rank of praetor. Lucius Otho, his father, was consul in 33 and a trusted administrator under the emperors Tiberius, Gaius and Claudius. His mother, Albia Terentia, was likely to have been nobly born as well. The cognomen "Otho" was Etruscan in origin, and the fact that it can be traced to three successive generations of this family perhaps reflects a desire to maintain a part of the Etruscan tradition that formed the family's background.
Otho is recorded as being extravagant and wild as a youth - a favorite pastime involved roving about at night to snare drunkards in a blanket. Such behavior earned floggings from his father, whose frequent absences from home on imperial business suggest little in the way of a stabilizing parental influence in Otho's formative years. These traits apparently persisted: Suetonius records that Otho and Nero became close friends because of the similarity of their characters; and Plutarch relates that the young man was so extravagant that he sometimes chided Nero about his meanness, and even outdid the emperor in reckless spending.
Most intriguing in this context is Otho's involvement with Nero's mistress, Poppaea Sabina, the greatest beauty of her day. A relationship between the two is widely cited in the ancient sources, but the story differs in essential details from one account to the next. As a result, it is impossible to establish who seduced whom, whether Otho ever married Poppaea, and whether his posting to Lusitania by Nero should be understood as a "banishment" for his part in this affair. About the only reliable detail to emerge is that Otho did indeed become governor of Lusitania in 59, and that he assumed the post as a quaestor, a rank below that of praetor or consul, the minimum usually required for the office. From here he would launch his initial thrust towards the imperial throne.
Overthrow of Galba
Nero's suicide in June 68 marked the end of the Julio-Claudian dynasty and opened up the principate to the prerogatives of the military beyond Rome. First to emerge was Servius Sulpicius Galba, governor of Hispania Tarraconensis, who had been encouraged to revolt by the praetorians and especially by Nymphidius Sabinus, the corrupt and scheming praetorian prefect at Rome. By this time Otho had been in Spain for close to ten years. His record seems to have been a good one, marked by capable administration and an unwillingness to enrich himself at the expense of the province. At the same time, perhaps seeing this as his best chance to improve his own circumstances, he supported the insurrection as vigorously as possible, even sending Galba all of his gold and his best table servants. At the same time, he made it a point to win the favor of every soldier he came in contact with, most notably the members of the praetorian guard who had come to Spain to accompany Galba to Rome. Galba set out from Spain in July, formally assuming the emperorship shortly thereafter. Otho accompanied him on the journey.
Galba had been in Rome little more than two months when on 1 January 69 the troops in Upper Germany refused to declare allegiance to him and instead followed the men stationed in Lower Germany in proclaiming their commander, Aulus Vitellius, as the new ruler. To show that he was still in charge Galba adopted his own successor, Lucius Calpurnius Piso Frugi Licinianus, an aristocrat completely without administrative or military experience. The choice meant little to the remote armies, the praetorians or the senate and particularly angered Otho, who had hoped to succeed Galba. Otho quickly organized a conspiracy among the praetorians with promise of a material reward, and on 15 January 69 they declared him emperor and publicly killed Galba; Piso, dragged from hiding in the temple of Vesta, was also butchered. On that same evening a powerless senate awarded Otho the imperial titles.
Otho's Principate in Rome
It is not possible to reconstruct a detailed chronology of Otho's brief eight and a half weeks as princeps in Rome (15 January-15 March). Even so, Galba's quick demise had surely impressed upon Otho the need to conciliate various groups. As a result, he continued his indulgence of the praetorian guard but he also tried to win over the senate by following a strict constitutionalist line and by generally keeping the designations for the consulship made by Nero and Galba. In the provinces, despite limited evidence, there are some indications that he tried to compensate for Galba's stinginess by being more generous with grants of citizenship. In short, Otho was eager not to offend anyone.
Problems remained, however. The praetorians had to be continually placated and they were always suspicious of the senate. On the other hand, the senate itself, along with the people, remained deeply disturbed at the manner of Otho's coming to power and his willingness to be associated with Nero. These suspicions and fears were most evident in the praetorian outbreak at Rome. Briefly, Otho had decided to move from Ostia to Rome a cohort of Roman citizens in order to replace some of Rome's garrison, much of which was to be utilized for the showdown with Vitellius. He ordered that weapons be moved from the praetorian camp in Rome by ship to Ostia at night so that the garrison replacements would be properly armed and made to look as soldierly as possible when they marched into the city. Thinking that a senatorial counter-coup against Otho was underway, the praetorians stormed the imperial palace to confirm the emperor's safety, with the result that they terrified Otho and his senatorial dinner guests. Although the praetorians' fears were eventually calmed and they were given a substantial cash payment, the incident dramatically underscored the unease at Rome in the early months of 69.
Otho's Offensive against Vitellius
Meanwhile, in the Rhineland, preparations for a march on Rome by the military legions that had declared for Vitellius were far advanced. Hampered by poor intelligence gathering in Gaul and Germany and having failed to negotiate a settlement with Vitellius in early 69, Otho finally summoned to Italy his forces for a counterattack against the invading Vitellian army. His support consisted of the four legions of Pannonia and Dalmatia, the three legions of Moesia and his own imperial retinue of about 9,000. Vitellius' own troops numbered some 30,000, while those of his two marshals, Aulus Caecina Alienus and Fabius Valens, were between 15,000 and 20,000 each.
Otho's strategy was to make a quick diversionary strike in order to allow time for his own forces to assemble in Italy before engaging the enemy. The strategy worked, as the diversionary army, comprised of urban cohorts, praetorians and marines all from Rome or nearby, was successful in Narbonese Gaul in latter March. An advance guard sent to hold the line on the Po River until the Danubian legions arrived also enjoyed initial success. Otho himself arrived at Bedriacum in northern Italy about 10 April for a strategy session with his commanders. The main concern was that the Vitellians were building a bridge across the Po in order to drive southward towards the Apennines and eventually to Rome. Otho decided to counter by ordering a substantial part of his main force to advance from Bedriacum and establish a new base close enough to the new Vitellian bridge to interrupt its completion. While en route, the Othonian forces, strung out along the via Postumia amid baggage and supply trains, were attacked by Caecina and Valens near Cremona on 14 April. The clash, know as the Battle of Bedriacum, resulted in the defeat of the Othonian forces, their retreat cut off by the river behind them. Otho himself, meanwhile, was not present, but had gone to Brixellum with a considerable force of infantry and cavalry in order to impede any Vitellian units that had managed to cross the Po.
The plan had backfired. Otho's strategy of obtaining victory while avoiding any major battles had proven too risky. Realizing perhaps that a new round of fighting would have involved not only a significant re-grouping of his existing troops but also a potentially bloody civil war at Rome, if Vitellius' troops reached the capital, Otho decided that enough blood had been shed. Two weeks shy of his thirty-seventh birthday, on 16 April 69, he took his own life.
Assessment
To be sure, Otho remains an enigma - part profligate Neronian wastrel and part conscientious military commander willing to give his life for the good of the state. Our sources are at a loss to explain the paradox. Perhaps, like Petronius, he saw it was safer to appear a profligate in Nero's court? In the final analysis, Otho proved to be an organized and efficient military commander, who appealed more to the soldier than to the civilian. He also seems to have been a capable governor, with administrative talents that recalled those of his father. Nevertheless, his violent overthrow of Galba, the lingering doubts that it raised about his character, and his unsuccessful offensive against Vitellius are all vivid reminders of the turbulence that plagued the Roman world between the reigns of Nero and Vespasian. Regrettably, the scenario would play itself out one more time before peace and stability returned to the empire.
Copyright (C) 1999, John Donahue
Edited by J.P.Fitzgerald, Jr.

Cleisthenes
57-Romulus-Ost-33.jpg
99 Romulus: Ostia follis.18 viewsFollis, 309 - 312 AD, Ostia mint.
Obverse: IMP MAXENTIVS DIVO ROMVLO N V FILIO / Bust of Romulus.
Reverse: AETERNA MEMORIA / Domed hexastyle shrine, doors ajar, eagle on top.
Mint mark: MOSTP
5.87 gm., 25.5 mm.
RIC #33; PBCC #605; Sear #15045.
Callimachus
Follis_Majencio_RIC_35.jpg
A117-16 - MAJENCIO (306 - 312 D.C.)38 viewsAE Follis 25 mm 7.1 gr.
Hijo de Maximiano, causó la crisis del sistema de la Tetrarquía, siendo proclamado “Principe”, luego César, y mas tarde Augusto, e invitando él mismo a su padre a reasumir el Imperio. Fue derrocado por las fuerzas conjuntas de Constantino I y Licinio.

Anv: "IMP C M[A]XENTIVS PF AVG " – Cabeza laureada viendo a derecha.
Rev: "AETE-RNITAS - [AVG] N” – Los Dioscuri (Castor y Pollux) desnudos de pié uno frente al otro, portando cetros largos verticales, sobre sus hombros un manto corto (Chlamys) y reteniendo a sus caballos por los frenos. "MOSTP" en exergo.

Acuńada 309 – 312 D.C.
Ceca: Ostia – (Ostia Antica, viejo puerto de Roma) -Italia
Rareza: C2

Referencias: RIC Vol.VI (Ostia) 35 Pag.404 - DVM #14 Pag.284 - Salgado MRBI Vol.III #7656.a. Pag.89 – Cohen Vol.VII #5 Pag.166
mdelvalle
RIC_35_Follis_Numus_Majencio.jpg
A117-16 - MAJENCIO (306 - 312 D.C.)18 viewsAE Follis 25 mm 7.1 gr.
Hijo de Maximiano, causó la crisis del sistema de la Tetrarquía, siendo proclamado “Principe”, luego César, y mas tarde Augusto, e invitando él mismo a su padre a reasumir el Imperio. Fue derrocado por las fuerzas conjuntas de Constantino I y Licinio.

Anv: "IMP C M[A]XENTIVS PF AVG " – Cabeza laureada viendo a derecha.
Rev: "AETE-RNITAS - [AVG] N” – Los Dioscuri (Castor y Pollux) desnudos de pié uno frente al otro, portando cetros largos verticales, sobre sus hombros un manto corto (Chlamys) y reteniendo a sus caballos por los frenos. "MOSTP" en exergo.

Acuńada 309 – 312 D.C.
Ceca: Ostia – (Ostia Antica, viejo puerto de Roma) -Italia
Rareza: C2

Referencias: RIC Vol.VI (Ostia) 35 Pag.404 - DVM #14 Pag.284 - Salgado MRBI Vol.III #7656.a. Pag.89 – Cohen Vol.VII #5 Pag.166 - Sear '88 #3776
mdelvalle
RIC_34_Follis_ROMULO_FORUM.jpg
A118-01 - ROMULO (309 - 312 D.C.)21 viewsAE Follis 16 mm 6,47 gr.
Hijo de Majencio y nieto de Galerio, muere a la edad de 14 ańos. A su muerte, fue deificado y su padre le dedicó el Templo del divo Rómulo en el Foro romano.

Anv: "DIVO ROMVLO N V BIS CONS" – Cabeza desnuda viendo a derecha.
Rev: "AETERNAE - MEMORIAE” – Águila estante a derecha, viendo a izquierda, sobre el domo de un templo con la puerta derecha abierta. "MOSTP" en exergo.

Acuńada 309 – 312 D.C.
Ceca: Ostia – (Ostia Antica, viejo puerto de Roma) -Italia

Referencias: RIC Vol.VI (Ostia) 34 Pag.404 - DVM #1 Pag.285 - Salgado MRBI Vol.III #7801.b Pag.93 – Cohen Vol.VII #6 Pag.183 - Sear RCTV IV #15050 Pag.356 - DROST #72 - Bauten S.26 f - Hill Monuments S.13 ff
mdelvalle
BCC_LS7_.jpg
BCC LS727 viewsLead Seal
Late Roman-Early Byzantine
Obv:Monogram with Greek
letters:C, T, E, Φ ,A , N, O, Υ
(“Stephanos”)
Rev:Monogram with Greek letters:
O, C, T, I, A, P, Υ (“Ostiarios”)
a court dignity reserved for eunuchs.
Pb 2ox16mm. 9.84gm. Axis:180
v-drome
0129.jpg
C. Censorin, As13 viewsC. Censorin, As

RRC 346/4
88 b.c.
14,31 gr

Av: Heads of Numa Pompilius (bearded) uand of Ancus Marcius to right. ("NVMA POMPILI", "ANCVS MARCI")
Rv: Two ships (in Ostia harbour?), behind column with statue of Victoria. Above: "C CENSO / ROMA "

Ex Kricheldorf Auct 49, 20.02.2017, Lot 199
Norbert
Celtic_AR-Drachm_Laur-Zeus-head-right_Horse-trotting-left-circle-above-dot-with-in_Göbl-xxx_Q-001_14mm_2_63g-s.jpg
Celtic AR-Drachm, 105 viewsCeltic AR-Drachm,
avers:- Laur-Zeus-head-right,
reverse:- Horse-trotting-left-
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 14mm, weight: 2,63g, axis: h,
mint: , date: Second-first century B.C., ref: Göbl-xx, Göbl-OTA-xx, Kostial-xx,
Q-001
quadrans
Celtic_AR-Drachm_Laur-Zeus-head-right_Horse-trotting-left-circle-above-dot-with-in_Göbl-xxx_Q-012_h_mm_g-s.jpg
Celtic AR-Drachm, #263 viewsCeltic AR-Drachm, #2
avers:- Laur-Zeus-head-right,
reverse:- Horse-trotting-left-wheel-above,
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Dachreiter type, date: Second-first century B.C., ref: Göbl-1892, Göbl-OTA-189-23, Kostial-459,
Q-001
quadrans
Celtic_AR-Drachm_Laur-Zeus-head-right_Horse-trotting-left-wheel-above_Dachreiter_type-Göbl-1892_Göbl-OTA-189-23_Kostial-459_Scarce_Second-first-century-BC__Q-001_14mm_2_56g-s.jpg
Celtic AR-Drachm, Dachreiter type, Scarce,92 viewsCeltic AR-Drachm,
avers:- Laur-Zeus-head-right,
reverse:- Horse-trotting-left-wheel-above,
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 14mm, weight: 2,56g, axis: h,
mint: Dachreiter type, date: Second-first century B.C., ref: Göbl-1892, Göbl-OTA-189-23, Kostial-459,
Q-001
quadrans
Celtic_AR-Drachm_Laur-Zeus-head-r__Horse-trotting-l_-wheel-above_Dachreiter_type-Göbl-1892_Göbl-OTA-189-23_Kostial-459_Scarce_2nd-1st_cent_BC_Q-002_axis-9h_15-15,5mm_2,74g-s.jpg
Celtic AR-Drachm, Dachreiter type, Scarce, #2178 viewsCeltic AR-Drachm, Dachreiter type, Scarce, #2
avers:- Laur-Zeus-head-right,
reverse:- Horse-trotting-left-wheel-above,
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 15-15,5mm, weight: 2,74g, axis: 9h,
mint: Dachreiter type, date: Second-first century B.C., ref: Göbl-1892, Göbl-OTA-189-23, Kostial-459,
Q-002
2 commentsquadrans
Celtic_AR-Drachm_Laur-Zeus-head-right_Horse-trotting-left-circle-above-dot-with-in_Göbl-xxx_Q-001_axis-7h_14mm_1,81g-s.jpg
Celtic AR-Drachm, Eastern Celts. AR Drachm. Uncertain Tribe, 2nd-1st centuries BC. Kugelwange (Ball cheek) Type.115 viewsCeltic AR-Drachm, Eastern Celts. AR Drachm. Uncertain Tribe, 2nd-1st centuries BC. Kugelwange (Ball cheek) Type.
avers:- Imitation of the issues of Philip II of Macedonia. Laureate head of Zeus right, large pellet on cheek.
reverse:- Stylized Horse trotting left, some pellet behind the neck of the horse and pellet within ring above.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 14mm, weight: 1,81g, axis: 7h,
mint: , date: Second-first century B.C., ref: Göbl, OTA pl. 17, 207. Kostial, Lanz 95, 507.
Q-001
quadrans
Celtic_AR-Drachm_Laur-Zeus-head-right_Horse-trotting-left-circle-above-dot-with-in_Göbl-xxx_Q-002_axis-9h_13-14mm_2,41g-s.jpg
Celtic AR-Drachm, Eastern Celts. AR Drachm. Uncertain Tribe, 2nd-1st centuries BC. Kugelwange (Ball cheek) Type. #2170 viewsCeltic AR-Drachm, Eastern Celts. AR Drachm. Uncertain Tribe, 2nd-1st centuries BC. Kugelwange (Ball cheek) Type. #2
avers:- Imitation of the issues of Philip II of Macedonia. Laureate head of Zeus right, large pellet on cheek.
reverse:- Stylized Horse trotting left, some pellet behind the neck of the horse and pellet within ring above.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 13-14mm, weight: 2,41g, axis: 9h,
mint: , date: Second-first century B.C., ref: Göbl, OTA pl. 17, 207. Kostial, Lanz 95, 507.
Q-002
quadrans
Celtic_AR-Drachm_Laur-Zeus-head-right_Horse-trotting-left-circle-above-dot-with-in_Göbl-xxx_Q-022_h_mm_ga-s.jpg
Celtic AR-Drachm, Eastern Celts. AR Drachm. Uncertain Tribe, 2nd-1st centuries BC. Kugelwange (Ball cheek) Type. #371 viewsCeltic AR-Drachm, Eastern Celts. AR Drachm. Uncertain Tribe, 2nd-1st centuries BC. Kugelwange (Ball cheek) Type. #3
avers:- Imitation of the issues of Philip II of Macedonia. Laureate head of Zeus right, large pellet on cheek.
reverse:- Stylized Horse trotting left, some pellet behind the neck of the horse and pellet within ring above.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: , date: Second-first century B.C., ref: Göbl, OTA pl. 17, 207. Kostial, Lanz 95, 507.
Q-003
quadrans
Celtic_AR-Drachm_Laur-Zeus-head-right-large_pellet_on_cheek_Horse-trotting-left_Göbl-xxx__Kugelwange-type,_3rd__2nd_c__B_C___Q-001_15mm_2_24g-s.jpg
Celtic AR-Drachm, Kugelwange-type108 viewsCeltic AR-Drachm,
avers:- Laur-Zeus-head-right,
reverse:- Horse-trotting-left,
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 15mm, weight: 2,24g, axis: h,
mint: Kugelwange-type, date: 3rd. and 2nd. century B.C., ref: Göbl-xx, Göbl-OTA-xx, Kostial-xx,
Q-001
quadrans
Celtic_AR-Drachm_Laur-Zeus-head-r__Horse-trotting-l__Göbl-OTA-_Pink-_BC_Q-001_3h_13,5mm_2,21g-s.jpg
Celtic AR-Drachm, Kugelwangen type, kugel-triskele,85 viewsCeltic AR-Drachm, Kugelwangen type, kugel-triskele, 2nd c. BC.
avers:- Laur-Zeus-head-right,
reverse:- Horse-trotting-left-
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 13,5mm, weight: 2,21g, axis: 3h,
mint: Kugelwangen type, date:, 2nd.c. B.C., ref: Göbl-xx, Göbl-OTA-xx, Kostial-xx,
Distribution : , Hungary/ n. Serbia
Q-001
quadrans
Celtic_AR-Drachm_Laur-Zeus-head-r__Horse-trotting-l__Göbl-OTA-_Pink-_BC_Q-002_0h_12-14mm_2,24gax-s.jpg
Celtic AR-Drachm, Kugelwangen type, kugel-triskele, 2nd c. BC. #274 viewsCeltic AR-Drachm, Kugelwangen type, kugel-triskele, 2nd c. BC. #2
avers:- Laur-Zeus-head-right,
revers:- Horse-trotting-left-
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 12-14mm, weight: 2,24g, axis: 0h,
mint: Kugelwangen type, date:, 2nd.c. B.C., ref: Göbl-xx, Göbl-OTA-xx, Kostial-xx,
Distribution : , Hungary/ n. Serbia
Q-002
quadrans
Celtic_AR-fouree-Drachm_Laur-Zeus-head-right_Horse-trotting-left-circle-above-curved_rectangle_below_Göbl-xxx_Q-001_14mm_2_14g-s.jpg
Celtic AR-fouree-Drachm, 82 viewsCeltic AR-fouree-Drachm,
avers:- Laur-Zeus-head-right,
reverse:- Horse trotting left, circle above, curved rectangle below,
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 14mm, weight: 2,14g, axis: h,
mint: , date: Second-first century B.C., ref: Göbl-xx, Göbl-OTA-xx, Kostial-xx,
Q-001
quadrans
Celtic_AR-fouree-Drachm_Laur-Zeus-head-right_Horse-trotting-left-circle-above_Göbl-xxx_Q-001_14mm_1_99g-s.jpg
Celtic AR-fouree-Drachm, 71 viewsCeltic AR-fouree-Drachm,
avers:- Laur-Zeus-head-right,
reverse:- Horse trotting left, circle above,
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 14mm, weight: 1,99g, axis: h,
mint: , date: Second-first century B.C., ref: Göbl-xx, Göbl-OTA-xx, Kostial-xx,
Q-001
quadrans
Celtic_AR-Obol_Laur-Zeus-head-r__Horse-trotting-l__Göbl-OTA-_Pink-_BC_Q-001_2h_8-8,5mm_0,39g-s.jpg
Celtic AR-Obol, East Celts, #163 viewsCeltic AR-Obol, East Celts, #1
avers:- Laur-Zeus-head-right,
reverse:- Horse-trotting-left-
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 8-8,5mm, weight: 0,39g, axis: 2h,
mint: East Celts, date: Second-first century B.C., ref: Göbl-, Göbl-OTA-, Kostial-,
Q-001
"One similar type was presented in Auktionshaus H. D. Rauch GmbH/Auction Numismata Wien 2011/15. Apr. 201/Lot 26/
KELTISCHE MÜNZEN/OSTKELTEN/Südserbien
(D) Obol (0,38g), Typus "Baumreiter" (?). Av.: Stilisierter Kopf n.r. Rv.: Stilisiertes Pferd n.l. Dembski - (cf 1093/1094), OTA - (cf 143), Lanz - , Slg. Flesche -.
RR"
quadrans
Celtic_AR-Obol_Laur-Zeus-head-r__Horse-trotting-l__Göbl-OTA-_Pink-_BC_Q-002_6h_7,5mm_0,43g-s.jpg
Celtic AR-Obol, East Celts, #269 viewsCeltic AR-Obol, East Celts, #2
avers:- Laur-Zeus-head-right,
reverse:- Horse-trotting-left-
exergue: -/-//--, diameter:7,5mm, weight: 0,43g, axis: 6h,
mint: East Celts, date: Second-first century B.C., ref: Göbl-, Göbl-OTA-, Kostial-,
Q-002
quadrans
Celtic-Tetradrachm_Kugelwange-type_Laur-Zeus-head-right_Horse-trotting-left-circle-above_Göbl-_Q-001_2h_22,5-26,5mm_6,40g-s.jpg
Celtic AR-Tetradrachm, Kugelwange-type, Göbl-OTA-193/10, Kostial-470, #769 viewsCeltic AR-Tetradrachm, Kugelwange-type, Göbl-OTA-193/10, Kostial-470, #7
avers:- Laurate Zeus head right.
reverse:- Horse-trotting-left, circle and dot in over the horse.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 22,5-26,5mm, weight: 6,40g, axis: 2h,
mint: Kugelwange-type, date: 3rd. and 2nd. century B.C., ref: Göbl-OTA-193/10, Kostial-470, p-89,
Q-007
quadrans
Celtic-fouree-Tetradrachm_Kugelwange-type_Laur-Zeus-head-right_Horse-trotting-left-circle-above_Göbl-xxx_Q-001_22-26mm_9,77g-s.jpg
Celtic fouree AR-Tetradrachm, Kugelwange-type,172 viewsCeltic fouree AR-Tetradrachm, Kugelwange-type,
avers:- Laurate Zeus head right.
reverse:- Horse-trotting-left, cicle and dot in over the horse.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 22-26mm, weight: 9,77g, axis: h,
mint: Kugelwange-type, date: 3rd. and 2nd. century B.C., ref: Göbl-xx, Göbl-OTA-xx, Kostial-xx,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
128.jpg
Celtic Imitatation 26 viewsAlexander III the great
Drachm
Eastern Celtic Imitatation 1st cent b.c

Obverse:Head of Alexander III the Great right wearing lions skin
Reverse:Zeus Aetophoros on throne

18.00 mm 3.40 gm

Kostial 941
maik
Macedon_PhilipIII_SNG-Cop_1086_gf.jpg
Celtic issue imitating Philip III Arrhidaios. AR Tetradrachm 3 viewsCelts, Lower Danube. Imitating Philip III Arrhidaios. 323-317 BC. AR Tetradrachm (17.14 gm). Head of Herakles r. clad in lion skin headdress. / ΒΙΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΦΙΛΙΠΠΟΥ (sic), Zeus Aetophoros enthroned l., holding eagle and sceptre; two monograms in l. field, I below throne. VF. Good style for issue. SNG Cop 2 #1086; HGC 3.1 #973g; Lukanc 2; Muller plate XXVIII #93 (Philip III); Price P151 (Aradus); Gobl OTA plate 44 #579.4; Dembski KMW 1468; Kostial Sammlung Lanz p. 154 #898ff; Sammlung Flesche 740; CCCBM I #192; cf. Roma Num. E32 #27; Goldberg 93 #1501.

Anaximander
Celtic_AR-Drachm_Laur-Zeus-head-r__Horse-trotting-l__xxxx_type-Göbl-xx_Göbl-OTA-xxx_Kostial-_xnd-xst_cent_BC_Q-001_axis-9h_13-13,5mm_1,97g-s.jpg
Celtic, AR-Drachm, Horse trotting left, Göbl OTA 503/2, Pink 505,190 viewsCeltic, AR-Drachm, Drachm types "Kapostaler" ("Kapostaler Kleingeld"=unit) from Dunátúl-Velem, late-type ca. 100 B.C.
avers: Laureate Zeus head right,
reverse: Horse trotting left,
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 13,0-13,5mm, weight: 1,97g, axis: 9h,
mint: , date: ca. 100 B.C., ref: Göbl OTA 503/2, Pink 505,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
AC-Danube_Celts-3~0.jpg
CELTIC, DANUBIAN CELTS52 viewsA drachm In the style of Alexander III
3rd Century BC or later
3.79 grams
Kostial 947
Obv. Head of Heracles right, wearing lion skin headdress
Rev. Zeus enthroned left, holding eagle and scepter, trident head and pseudo-monogram before.
Richard M10
celta-moeda1.jpg
CELTIC, Eastern Tribe ?27 viewsAR Tetradrachm of a Eastern Tribe ? 100BC

Weight: 8.44g
Ř: 24mm

Obv: Bust of ?

Rev: Saddle Head Horse.

Condition: gF/gVG

Ref: Pink 302, Kostial/Lanz 620.
Jorge C
VA11475LG.jpg
CELTIC. Danube Region. Imitating Philip III. Circa 2nd-1st Century BC. AR Tetradrachm42 viewsCELTIC. Danube Region. Imitating Philip III. Circa 2nd-1st Century BC. AR Tetradrachm (27mm - 16.44 g). Head of Herakles right, wearing lion's skin headdress / Zeus seated left, holding eagle and sceptre; monograms in inner left field; I under throne. Kostial 907; CCCBM I 189; Göbl, OTA 579.9. VF, weak reverse.

ex Vauctions
areich
AC-Danube_Celts-3.jpg
CELTS 3rd Century BC or later7 viewsA drachm In the style of Alexander III

Grade is AU, Strike 5/5, Surface 4/5

This coin was sold by Heritage and described as follows:

"DANUBIAN CELTS. Imitating Alexander. Ca. 3rd-2nd centuries BC. AR drachm."

Obv. Head of Heracles right, wearing lion skin headdress

Rev. Zeus enthroned left, holding eagle and scepter, trident head and pseudo-monogram before. Cf..

Kostial 947
Richard M10
Celts_Danube_ImitatingAlexanderIII_Göbl_OTA_581.jpg
Celts, Lower Danube15 viewsCelts, Lower Danube. 3rd-2nd c. BC. AR Tetradrachm (16.57 gm). Imitating Alexander III. Herakles r., wearing lionskin. High relief and crude style / Zeus Aëtophoros seated l on throne. Eagle on outstretched hand. Remnant of MA monogram l., Ξ below throne, & legend ΛΛΙΙΙΙΙΙΙΙΙΙΙ to r. and …MIMIVII… below. VF/F. Bt. Coral Gables 2001. Allen BMC (CCCBM I) 188; Castelin 1348; Göbl OTA 581/3; Kostial Lanz 906-918; KMW 1466; Pink 581. cf CNG EA 363 #213.Christian T
Celtic_PhilipIII_SNG-Cop_1086_bg.jpg
Celts, Lower Danube. Imitating Philip III Arrhidaios1 viewsImitation of Philip III Arrhidaios. 323-317 BC. AR Tetradrachm (17.14 gm) of Celts in the Lower Danube. Head of Herakles r. clad in lion skin headdress. / ΒΙΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΦΙΛΙΠΠΟΥ (sic), Zeus Aetophoros enthroned l., holding eagle and sceptre; two monograms in l. field, Ɪ below throne. Num. E32 #27; Goldberg 93 #1501. VF. Good style for issue. SNG Cop 2 #1086; HGC 3.1 #973g; Lukanc 2; Muller plate XXVIII #93 (Philip III); Price P151 (Aradus); Gobl OTA plate 44 #579.4; Dembski KMW 1468; Kostial Sammlung Lanz p. 154 #898ff; Sammlung Flesche 740; CCCBM I #192; cf. Roma Num. E32 #27; Goldberg 93 #1501.Anaximander
Ceres.JPG
Claudius AE Dupondius Ceres19 viewsClaudius (41 – 54 AD)

AE Dupondius, Rome, 42 – 50 AD

Struck to celebrate the works at Ostia port

Obv: TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP, bare bust left.
Rev: CERES AVGVSTA S C, Ceres seated on throne left.
RIC I 94

Weight: 9.9g.
Diameter: 26mm.
1 commentsJose Polanco
Ceres_2.JPG
Claudius AE Dupondius Ceres2 views Claudius AE Dupondius Ceres
Claudius (41 – 54 AD)

AE Dupondius, Rome, 42 – 50 AD

Struck to celebrate the works at Ostia port

Obv: TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP, bare bust left.
Rev: CERES AVGVSTA S C, Ceres seated on throne left.
RIC I 94

Weight: 11.4g.
Diameter: 29mm.
Jose Polanco
cns500_.jpg
Constantine I180 viewsConstantine AE3 Follis. 312-313 AD. IMP C CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, laureate cuirassed bust right / SPQR OPTIMO PRINCIPI, legionary eagle between two vexilla, the left surmounted by a hand, the right by a wreath, MOSTP in ex. Ostia RIC VI 94 10 commentsRandygeki(h2)
constantine_I_7.jpg
Constantine I Follis30 viewsConstantine the Great Follis. 312-313 AD.
Obv: IMP C CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, laureate cuirassed bust right
Rev: SOLI INVICTO COMITI, Sol standing left, holding right hand high in salute & globe close to body, MOSTP in ex.

RIC VI Ostia 89.
Tanit
Celts_Danube_GöblOTA204.jpg
Danubian Celts15 viewsCelts, Danubian, Hungarian. 2nd-1st c. BC. AR Drachm (1.92 gm). Kugelwange type of Pannonia (Syrmia?) in imitation of Philip II. Laureate and bearded head of Zeus r. / Celticized prancing horse l., pellet in anulet above and pellet below tail. Mane of dots. gVF. Bt. Coral Gables 1999. Kostial Lanz 506-509; CCCBM I S134; KMW 1122; Göbl OTA pl 17 204-205.2.Christian T
Celts_Danube_GöblOTA488.jpg
Danubian Celts17 viewsCelts, Middle Danube (Velem, Hungary). 2nd c. BC. AE Stater (6.87 gm). Kapostal Type of the Hercuniates Imitating Philip II Celticized laureate head of Zeus r., arc of pellets before / Celticized horseman with large crest above head, riding l.; crescent to l. & ∞ below. VF. Bt. Gables Coin, 1999. Cf Göbl OTA 488/7; Kostial Lanz 777 or 780ff; CCCBM I 85 or 90; KMW 1413; Pink 500; Dessewffy 250; BMCC 98.Christian T
DanubeCelts_Kapostal_Lanz653v.jpg
Danubian Celts17 viewsCelts, Danubian, Hungarian Plains. 2nd-1st c. BC. AR Didrachm (5.61 gm). Imitation of Philip II of uncertain tribe in Transylvania. Devolved head of Zeus r., cheek piece resembling four-spoked wheel / Disjointed horse with slight remains of rider, l. Horse head of Saddlehead type. VF. Bt. Gables Coin, 1999. Göbl OTA 300/15-6 var. (symbols on rev.); Kostial Lanz 653 var. (same); CCCBM I 46 var. (same); KMW-.Christian T
Celts_Danube_ImitatingThasos_GöblOTAClassV.jpg
Danubian Celts, Carpathian Region34 viewsCelts, Danubian, Carpathian Region, Uncertain Tribe. 1st c. BC. AR Tetradrachm (14.83 gm). Imitating Thasos Celticized and degraded head of Dionysos right, wearing ivy wreath / Celticized Herakles, standing facing, holding club and lionskin. Legend degraded to mere dots. VF. CNG 51 #19. Göbl OTA Class V; cf Kostial Lanz 983-994.2 commentsChristian T
Divo_Maximian.jpg
DIVUS MAXIMIANUS 3 viewsDIVUS MAXIMIANUS DIED 310.
AE Follis. Ostia 22mm, 5.59gm, RIC 26
Struck under Maxentius, AD 309-312. Veiled head right / Eagle standing right on domed hexastyle temple, right door ajar; MOSTS. RIC VI 26
Ancient Aussie
284957_l.jpg
Divus Romulus.7 viewsDIVUS ROMULUS (Died 309). Follis. Ostia.
Obv: IMP MAXENTIVS DIVO ROMVLON V FILIO.
Bare head right.
Rev: AETERNA MEMORIA / MOSTT.
Domed hexastyle temple; on roof, eagle standing right, head left.
Weight: 6.0 g. Diameter: 25 mm.
RIC 33.
1 commentsAncient Aussie
Celtic_AR-Drachm_Laur-Zeus-head-right_Horse-trotting-left-circle-above-dot-with-in_Göbl-xxx_Q-021_3h_12,2mm_2,59g-s.jpg
East-Celtic AR-Drachm, #21126 viewsEast-Celtic AR-Drachm, #21
avers:- Laur-Zeus-head-right,
reverse:- Horse-trotting-left-
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 12,2mm, weight: 2,59g, axis: 3h,
mint: , date: Second-first century B.C., ref: Göbl-xx, Göbl-OTA-xx, Kostial-xx,
Q-021
quadrans
Celtic_AR-Drachm_Laur-Zeus-head-right_Horse-trotting-left-circle-above-dot-with-in_Göbl-xxx_Q-022_3h_14-15mm_1,54g-s.jpg
East-Celtic AR-Drachm, #22121 viewsEast-Celtic AR-Drachm, #22
avers:- Laur-Zeus-head-right,
reverse:- Horse-trotting-left-
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 14-15mm, weight: 1,54g, axis: 3h,
mint: , date: Second-first century B.C., ref: Göbl-xx, Göbl-OTA-xx, Kostial-xx,
Q-022
quadrans
Alexander_III_Thracian_imitation.jpg
Eastern Celts Imitating Alexander III30 viewsEastern Celts
Imitating Alexander III
AR drachm, 1st cent BC
Stylized bust r.
Stylized Zeus seated l.
Kostial 947
Ardatirion
drachm.jpg
Eastern Celts, near Sirmium21 viewsEastern Celts, near Sirmium
Imitating Philip II of Macedon
AR drachm , 1st cent BC
Kugelwange type
Stylized bust of Zeus r.
Stylized horse walking l.
Cf. Kostial 503
Ardatirion
Portus_Claaudii-2.jpg
HARBOUR, NERO, AE Sestertius (Portus Claudii)140 viewsĆ sestertius (22.54g, maximum Ř34.24mm, 6h), Lugdunum mint, struck AD 66.
Obv.: IMP NERO CAESAR AVG P MAX TR P P P, laureate head of Nero right, globe below tip of bust.
Rev.: PORT AVG (below) S C (above), aerial view of the harbour of Ostia, showing pier, breakwaters, lighthouse surmounted by the statue of Neptune, seven ships, and the figure of Tiber reclining left in foreground, holding rudder and dolphin.
Mac Dowall (The western Coinages of Nero, ANS SSN 161) 476; RIC 586 (R2); BMCRE 323 var. (different obv. legend); Cohen 253 var. (emperor's head to left); CBN 74 var. (different obv. legend); Sear (RCV) 1953var.

Rome's original harbour was Ostia, situated at the mouth of the Tiber. It could not easily handle large sea-going vessels such as those of the grain fleet. Therefore, Claudius initiated the construction of a new all-weather harboru at Portus, about 4 km north of Ostia. The project was completed under Nero who renamed the harbour "Portus Augusti".

It was a huge project enclosing an area of 69 hectares, with two long curving moles projecting into the sea, and an artificial island, bearing a lighthouse, in the centre of the space between the moles. The foundation of this lighthouse was provided by filling with concrete and sinking one of the massive ships that Caligula had used to transport an obelisk from Egypt for the Circus Maximus. These giant ships had a length of around 100m and displaced a minimum of 7400 tons. The harbour opened directly to the sea on the northwest and communicated with the Tiber by a channel on the southeast. However, it was very exposed to the weather and under Trajan was superseded by a new land-locked inner basin linked to the Tiber by a canal.
3 commentsCharles S
Portus_Traiani-2.jpg
HARBOUR, TRAJAN, AE Sestertius (Portus Trajani)175 viewsPortus Trajani
Ć Sestertius (26.66g, Ř35mm, 6h). Rome mint. Struck AD 104-111.
Obv.: IMP CAES NERVAE TRAIANO AVG GER DAC P M TR P COS V P P laureate draped bust of Trajan facing right.
Rev.: (PORTVM TRAIANI around, S C in ex.), Basin of Trajan's harbour (Portus Traiani), near Ostia, surrounded by warehouses, ships in centre.
RIC 471 (R2); Cohen 305; BMC 770A; Foss (Roman Historical Coins) 104:59
ex Jean Elsen Auction 95; ex coll. A. Senden: "L'architecture des monnaies Romaines".

Due to the vulnarability of Portus Claudii, witness the events of 62 AD when a violent storm destroyed some 200 ships in the port, Trajan built a second one farther inland behind the port of Claudius. The work was carried out in the years 100-112 AD, and included improvements of the Claudian harbour. It was a hexagonal basin enclosing an area of 39 hectares, and communicating by canals with the harbour of Claudius, with the Tiber directly, and with the sea. The capacity of the harbour was much enlarged, and many new warehouses were built around it, remains of which may still be seen: The fineness of the brickwork of which they are built is remarkable. The sides of the hexagonal basin were over 350 m, the maximum diameter more than 700 m., and 5m deep. The bottom was covered with stones, at the north end gradually sloping upwards, to reach a depth of only one meter at the edge of the basin.

The basin could contain more than 100 ships that did not moor alongside the quays, but at a straight angle. It was surrounded by a few wide treads (total width c. 6 m.). On the quays was a wall, with five narrow doorways (1.80) on each side of the hexagon. The doorways are too narrow for wagons. Apparently the goods were unloaded and carried by slaves. This can also be seen on several reliefs and mosaics. The wall facilitated the control of the flow of goods, for the Customs Service and the levying of import duties (the portorium).

The hexagon may have been designed by Apollodorus of Damascus, the architect of Trajan's Market in Rome. No other harbours are known with this shape, suggesting that it was chosen not only for practical purposes, but also for aesthetic reasons.

Portus was the main port of ancient Rome for more than 500 years and provided a conduit for everything from glass, ceramics, marble and slaves to wild animals caught in Africa and shipped to Rome for spectacles in the Colosseum.
3 commentsCharles S
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Italy, Ostia - 138 viewsJohny SYSEL
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Italy, Ostia - 148 viewsJohny SYSEL
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Italy, Ostia - 119 viewsJohny SYSEL
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Italy, Ostia - 129 viewsJohny SYSEL
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Italy, Ostia - 149 viewsJohny SYSEL
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Italy, Ostia - Alexander and Helix's inn629 viewsPosted by Strength And Honour.
Photo taken by my friend Hebe.
Strength And Honour
ost.JPG
Italy, Ostia - antica Thermae 160 viewsBohemian
IMG_2877.JPG
Italy, Ostia - capitol on forum180 viewsJohny SYSEL
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Italy, Ostia - Caupona722 viewsBeautifully preserved, it seems to step back in time.
Posted by Strength And Honour.
Photo taken by my friend Hebe.
1 commentsStrength And Honour
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Italy, Ostia - house near forum187 viewsJohny SYSEL
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Italy, Ostia - house near forum186 viewsJohny SYSEL
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Italy, Ostia - House of Amor and Psyche534 viewsPosted by Strength And Honour.
Photo taken by my friend Hebe.
Strength And Honour
IMG_2685q.JPG
Italy, Ostia - mosaique138 viewsHippocampsJohny SYSEL
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Italy, Ostia - mosaique128 viewsJohny SYSEL
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Italy, Ostia - mosaique152 viewsJohny SYSEL
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Italy, Ostia - mosaique137 viewsJohny SYSEL
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Italy, Ostia - mosaique floor189 viewsJohny SYSEL
Street.jpg
Italy, Ostia - Street545 viewsIt is like stepping back in time....
Posted by Strength And Honour.
Photo taken by my friend Hebe.
1 commentsStrength And Honour
IMG_2707.JPG
Italy, Ostia - temple of Ceres146 viewsJohny SYSEL
IMG_2719wp.jpg
Italy, Ostia - theatre137 viewsrebuilt by CommodusJohny SYSEL
Italy- Terracina- Jupiter temple.jpg
Italy- Terracina- Jupiter temple32 viewsTerracina HISTORY

Originally a Volscian town, it became a colony of Rome in 329 B.C. The construction of the Via Appia in 312 B.C. added to its importance. The Via Severiana, from Ostia to Tarracina, met the Appia some few miles east of Tarracina.

On the terrace the Temple of Jupiter Anxur, a Corinthian temple of the early imperial period, 110 by 65 ft.; the cella was decorated internally with engaged half-columns, and contained the pedestal for the statue of Jupiter Anxur worshipped as a child.
John Schou
Italy- Terracina- Jupiter temple 1.jpg
Italy- Terracina- Jupiter temple 133 viewsTerracina HISTORY

Originally a Volscian town, it became a colony of Rome in 329 B.C. The construction of the Via Appia in 312 B.C. added to its importance. The Via Severiana, from Ostia to Tarracina, met the Appia some few miles east of Tarracina.

On the terrace the Temple of Jupiter Anxur, a Corinthian temple of the early imperial period, 110 by 65 ft.; the cella was decorated internally with engaged half-columns, and contained the pedestal for the statue of Jupiter Anxur worshipped as a child.
John Schou
Italy- Terracina- Jupiter temple model.jpg
Italy- Terracina- Jupiter temple model31 viewsTerracina HISTORY

Originally a Volscian town, it became a colony of Rome in 329 B.C. The construction of the Via Appia in 312 B.C. added to its importance. The Via Severiana, from Ostia to Tarracina, met the Appia some few miles east of Tarracina.

On the terrace the Temple of Jupiter Anxur, a Corinthian temple of the early imperial period, 110 by 65 ft.; the cella was decorated internally with engaged half-columns, and contained the pedestal for the statue of Jupiter Anxur worshipped as a child.
John Schou
celtic_k.jpg
Lower Danube Celts5 viewsAR drachm, 20mm, 2.9g, 12h; 2nd-1st centuries BC.
Obv.: Stylized head of Herakles with wild hair, right.
Rev.: Stylized Zeus seated left holding an eagle, amphora to left.
Reference: CCCBM I 217, Kostial 896 / 16-424-69
John Anthony
Lower_Danube_Celt.jpg
LOWER DANUBE CELTS AR Drachm28 viewsOBVERSE: Stylized head of Herakles with wild hair, right
REVERSE: Stylized Zeus seated left holding an eagle, kantharus to left
Struck by the Lower Danube Celts, 2d-1st Century BC
2.9g, 20mm,
CCCBM I 217, Kostial 896
ex JAZ Numismatics
1 commentsLegatus
Saturninus_P.jpg
Lucius Appuleius Saturninus - AR denarius9 viewsRome
˛101 BC
ą104 BC
helmeted head of Roma left
Saturn in quadriga right holding harpa and reins
.
·P
L·SATVRN
ąCrawford 317/3a, SRCV I 193, Sydenham 578, RSC I Appuleia 1
˛Mark Passehl - Roman moneyer & coin type chronology, 150 – 50 BC
3,66g 19-17mm

According Richard Schaefer it's the first known example of these dies. Dies differ from ·P thus there, most probably, is dot above P although unfortunately off flan.

As quaestor Saturninus superintended the imports of grain at Ostia, but had been removed by the Roman Senate (an unusual proceeding), and replaced by Marcus Aemilius Scaurus, one of the chief members of the Optimates. Standard view is that injustice of his dismissal drove him into the arms of the Populares. In 103 BC he was elected tribune. Marius, on his return to Rome after his victory over the Cimbri, finding himself isolated in the senate, entered into a compact with Saturninus and his ally Gaius Servilius Glaucia, and the three formed a kind of triumvirate, supported by the veterans of Marius and many of the common people. By the aid of bribery and assassination Marius was elected (100 BC) consul for the sixth time, Glaucia praetor, and Saturninus tribune for the second time. Marius, finding himself overshadowed by his colleagues and compromised by their excesses, thought seriously of breaking with them, and Saturninus and Glaucia saw that their only hope of safety lay in their retention of office. Saturninus was elected tribune for the third time for the year beginning December 10, 100, and Glaucia, although at the time praetor and therefore not eligible until after the lapse of 2 years, was a candidate for the consulship. Marcus Antonius Orator was elected without opposition; the other Optimate candidate, Gaius Memmius, who seemed to have the better chance of success, was beaten to death by the hired agents of Saturninus and Glaucia, while the voting was actually going on. This produced a complete revulsion of public feeling. The Senate met on the following day, declared Saturninus and Glaucia public enemies, and called upon Marius to defend the State. Marius had no alternative but to obey. Saturninus, defeated in a pitched battle in the Roman Forum (December 10), took refuge with his followers in the Capitol, where, the water supply having been cut off, they were forced to capitulate. Marius, having assured them that their lives would be spared, removed them to the Curia Hostilia, intending to proceed against them according to law. But the more impetuous members of the aristocratic party climbed onto the roof, stripped off the tiles, and stoned Saturninus and many others to death. Glaucia, who had escaped into a house, was dragged out and killed. (wikipedia)
Johny SYSEL
Saturninus_T~0.jpg
Lucius Appuleius Saturninus - AR denarius18 viewsRome
˛101 BC
ą104 BC
helmeted head of Roma left
Saturn in quadriga right holding harpa and reins
·T·
L·SATVRN
ąCrawford 317/3a, SRCV I 193, Sydenham 578, RSC I Appuleia 1
˛Mark Passehl - Roman moneyer & coin type chronology, 150 – 50 BC
3,44g 19,5-18,5mm

As quaestor Saturninus superintended the imports of grain at Ostia, but had been removed by the Roman Senate (an unusual proceeding), and replaced by Marcus Aemilius Scaurus, one of the chief members of the Optimates. Standard view is that injustice of his dismissal drove him into the arms of the Populares. In 103 BC he was elected tribune. Marius, on his return to Rome after his victory over the Cimbri, finding himself isolated in the senate, entered into a compact with Saturninus and his ally Gaius Servilius Glaucia, and the three formed a kind of triumvirate, supported by the veterans of Marius and many of the common people. By the aid of bribery and assassination Marius was elected (100 BC) consul for the sixth time, Glaucia praetor, and Saturninus tribune for the second time. Marius, finding himself overshadowed by his colleagues and compromised by their excesses, thought seriously of breaking with them, and Saturninus and Glaucia saw that their only hope of safety lay in their retention of office. Saturninus was elected tribune for the third time for the year beginning December 10, 100, and Glaucia, although at the time praetor and therefore not eligible until after the lapse of 2 years, was a candidate for the consulship. Marcus Antonius Orator was elected without opposition; the other Optimate candidate, Gaius Memmius, who seemed to have the better chance of success, was beaten to death by the hired agents of Saturninus and Glaucia, while the voting was actually going on. This produced a complete revulsion of public feeling. The Senate met on the following day, declared Saturninus and Glaucia public enemies, and called upon Marius to defend the State. Marius had no alternative but to obey. Saturninus, defeated in a pitched battle in the Roman Forum (December 10), took refuge with his followers in the Capitol, where, the water supply having been cut off, they were forced to capitulate. Marius, having assured them that their lives would be spared, removed them to the Curia Hostilia, intending to proceed against them according to law. But the more impetuous members of the aristocratic party climbed onto the roof, stripped off the tiles, and stoned Saturninus and many others to death. Glaucia, who had escaped into a house, was dragged out and killed. (wikipedia)
Johny SYSEL
3350497.jpg
Marcus Aurelius25 viewsMarcus Aurelius. AD 161-180. Ć As (26mm, 9.49 g, 5h). Rome mint. Struck AD 175. Laureate head right / Tiber reclining left, resting hand on boat. RIC III 1142; MIR 18, 290-9/30. VF, dark brown patina.

The chief river in central Italy, the Tiber rises as a small southwestern flow in the Apennines near Arretium, separating Etruria from Umbria and Latium. It flows 250 miles to the Mediterranean Sea at Ostia, joined by the Nar river after 110 miles, where its swift current is navigable but dangerous, and by the Teverone river 70 miles further on, where it becomes truly navigable, three miles north of Rome. Inside Rome, 22 miles from the coast, the Tiber is about 300 feet wide, 12-18 feet deep, and swift-moving, regularly overflowing its banks with heavy rains. Augustus created the office of curatores riparum et alvei Tiberis to deal with this recurring problem (Suetonius, Vita Divi Augusti 37). Muddy from the silt it carried (the Roman poets called it flavus tiberis), it formed Tiber Island at one bend in Rome and Insula Sacra, an island sacred to Venus 4 miles from the coast at Ostia,which was the ancient source of salt deposits.

The Tiber River is the symbolic father of Rome, guiding Aeneas in a dream to the future site of Rome (Vergil, AEN. VIII. 31-67), bearing the infant twins Romulus and Remus to safety, and serving as a safe and profitable pathway for early Roman commerce.
ecoli
1massenzio_follis_unite.jpg
Massenzio, follis (309 d.C.) zecca di Ostia28 viewsFollis di Massenzio (306-312 d.C.), zecca di Ostia, I officina, seconda metŕ del 309.
AE, 4,55 gr, 26 mm. , BB
D/ IMP C MAXENTIVS PF AVG, Massenzio, capo laureato a dx.
R/ AETE-RNITAS AVG N, Dioscuri, Castore e Polluce, con una stella sopra il capo, nudi e con la clamide sulla spalla, rivolti l'uno verso l'altro: si appoggiano con una mano a uno scettro e con l'altra tengono, ciascuno, un cavallo imbrigliato. Tra di essi, la Lupa rivolta a sinistra e Romolo e Remo. In esergo MOSTA.
RIC VI Ostia 16
Provenienza: collezione Berardengo, Roma Italia (28 marzo 2008, numero catalogo 54), ex collezione Massimo Campani (Studio Tintinna, Canossa Reggio Emilia Italia, fino al 2008).
paolo
0621-310.jpg
MAUSOLEUM or SHRINE, Romulus, Posthumous follis256 viewsFollis struck in Ostia, 1st officina
DIVO ROMVLO N V BIS CONS, Bare head of Romulus right
AETERNAE MEMORIAE, Temple with domed roof surmounted by eagle, M OST P at exergue
7.35 gr
RC #3786 var, Cohen #4

The Temple of Divus Romulus is a circular building with a concave facade preceded by columns on the Via Sacra. It was probably a temple for Romulus, the son of emperor Maxentius, but it has also been identified as the Temple of Jupiter Stator and as the sanctuary of the penates publici. The building is located between the Temple of Antoninus and Faustina and the Basilica of Maxentius.

When emperor Maxentius' son Romulus died in 307 CE, he was deified and hence a temple was built in his honour. Coins commemorating Romulus often depict a round building with a varying number columns in front. Some of them probably show the round mausoleum of Romulus on the Appian Way, others might portray the temple, which has led to the identification of the rotunda on the Via Sacra with the Temple of Divus Romulus. The location would be likely, given Maxentius' building activities nearby.
Explanations are copied from : http://sights.seindal.dk/sight/176_Temple_of_Romulus.html
5 commentsPotator II
coin450.JPG
Maxentius14 viewsMaxentius. AD 307-312. Ć Follis . Ostia mint, 2nd officina. Struck AD 309-312. Laureate head right / The Dioscuri standing facing one another, each holding scepter and bridle of horse; MOSTS.ecoli
massenzio_aeternitas_avg_ostia_ric14.jpg
Maxentius6 viewsAeternitas Avg
Ric Ostia 14
antvwala
Maxentius_RIC_VI_Ostia_14.jpg
Maxentius34 viewsAE (7,14g - 26mm)
obv. IMP C MAXENTIVS P F AVG
laureate head right
rev. AETERNITAS AVG N, the Dioscuri Castor and Pollux standing facing each other, each holding sceptre and holding a horse by the bridle
in exergue. MOSTS
mint Ostia
Struck 309 AD
RIC VI Ostia 14
Holger G
maxent.jpg
Maxentius (306 - 312 A.D.)30 viewsĆ Follis
O: IMP C MAXENTIVS P F AVG, laureate bust right.
R: VICTORIA AETERNA AVG N, Victory advancing left with wreath & palm.
In ex. MOSTT
6.70g
Ostia mint
RIC 54
1 commentsMat
625_Maxentius_Ostia.jpg
Maxentius - AE follis8 viewsOstia
309-312 AD
laureate head right
IMP C MAXENTIVS P F AVG
Castor and Pollux, each with star above cap, chlamys over shoulder, leaning on scepter with outer arm, holding bridled horse with inner hand
AETE_RNITAS__AVG N
MOSTS
RIC 35; Cohen 5; Sear 14975
6,25g
ex Jiří Militký
Johny SYSEL
maxentius-ostia.jpg
Maxentius - RIC 4513 viewsOstia 309-312 AD.
Maxentius AE Follis.
IMP C MAXENTIVS P F AVG, laureate head right /
FIDES MILITVM AVG N, Fides standing left with standard in each hand,
MOSTP in ex.
xokleng
Maxentius R-09.jpg
Maxentius 306-312 CE, Ostia mint, Æ 22mm x 26 mm, 6.41 gm., Follis19 viewsMaxentius 306-312 CE, Ostia mint, Ć 22mm x 26 mm, 6.41 gm., Follis

Obverse: IMP C MAXENTIVS P F AVG, laureate head right

Reverse: AETERNITAS AVG N, Castor and Pollux (The Dioscuri) standing facing one another, holding horses to center & spears to outside, MOSTΓ in ex.

Reference: S3776, RIC 35 of Ostia.
1 commentsDaniel Friedman
maxentius follis2.jpg
MAXENTIUS AE follis - 312 AD18 viewsobv:IMP.C.MAXENTIVS.PF.AVG (laureate head right)
rev:AETER-NITAS.-AVG.N (Castor and Pollux - the Dioscuri facing one another, holding horses to center & spears to outside) / MOSTS in ex.
ref:RIC VI-Ostia35, C.10, Sear 3776, Van Meter 15
6.41gms, 25mm
berserker
maxentiusdioscuri.jpg
Maxentius AE Follis, Ostia21 views Obv. IMP C MAXENTIVS P F AVG, laureate head right
Rev. AETE-RNITAS AVGN, Castor and Pollux standing facing each other, each leaning on sceptre and holding bridled horse
NOSTS in exergue
1 commentsSkyler
006 Maxentius.jpg
Maxentius Follis23 viewsMaxentius Follis. Ostia mint. IMP C MAXENTIVS P F AVG, laureate head right / AETE-RNITAS A-VGN, Castor and Pollux standing facing each other, each leaning on sceptre and holding bridled horse.

Ostia RIC 14
Tanit
Maxentius D 1.jpg
Maxentius Follis35 viewsMaxentius Follis. Ostia mint. IMP C MAXENTIVS P F AVG, laureate head right / AETE-RNITAS A-VGN, Castor and Pollux standing facing each other, each leaning on sceptre and holding bridled horse.

Ostia RIC 14
Tanit
maxentius 2 +.jpg
Maxentius Follis20 viewsMaxentius Follis. Ostia mint. IMP C MAXENTIVS P F AVG, laureate head right / AET-ERNITAS A-VGN, Castor and Pollux standing facing each other, each leaning on sceptre and holding bridled horse/ MOSTQ in ex.

Ostia RIC 35
Tanit
maxentius 1+~0.jpg
Maxentius Follis23 viewsMaxentius AE Follis. IMP C MAXENTIVS P F AVG, laureate bust right / VICTORIA AETERNA AVG N, Victory advancing left with wreath & palm, MOSTP in ex.

Cohen 122, RIC 54 of Ostia.

Tanit
Maxentius_2.jpg
Maxentius Follis20 viewsMaxentius Ć Follis.
Obv: IMP C MAXENTIVS P F AVG, laureate head right
Rev: AETERNITAS AVG N, Castor and Pollux facing one another, holding horses to center & spears to outside, MOSTS in ex.

RIC 35 of Ostia.
Tanit
Maxentius~2.jpg
Maxentius Follis7 viewsMaxentius. 306-312 AD. Ć Follis. Struck 309 AD. Ostia mint.
IMP C MAXENTIVS P F AVG, laureate head right / AETE-RNITAS A-VGN, Castor and Pollux standing facing
each other, each leaning on sceptre with outer left arm and holding bridled horse with inner arm; MOST.

RIC VI 14.
Tanit
MaxentiusOstia.jpg
Maxentius Half follis Ostia Mint125 viewsMAXENTI - VS PG AVG
helmeted, cuirassed, bust left, spear over right shoulder, shield on left arm
R/ VICTORIA A-ETERNAE AVG N
Victory standing right, left foot on base of cippus supporting shield inscribing VOT X, captive seated left
MOSTP in ex.

Half follis struck 310 in Ostia
C.118 (1f.) - RIC.61
20 mm -- 3,51 g

4 commentsgb29400
maxentius_ostia16.jpg
Maxentius RIC VI, Ostia 1637 viewsMaxentius AD 306-312, son of Maximianus
AE - Follis, 6.80g, 24mm
Ostia 1st officina, middle to late 309
obv. IMP C MAXENTIVS PF AVG
bust, laureate, r.
rev. AET - ERNITAS - AVG N
The dioscurs Castor and Pollux, each with a star above cap, nude but for chlamys
hanging from shoulder, standing facing each other, each leaning on sceptre with outer
arm and holding bridled horse with inner arm; she-wolf with twins between them.
MOSTA in ex.
RIC VI, Ostia 16; C.10
about EF
added to www.wildwinds.com
1 commentsJochen
maxentius_ostia_35.jpg
Maxentius RIC VI, Ostia 3513 viewsMaxentius, AD 306-312, son of Maximianus
AE - Follis, 5.55g, 26mm
Ostia, 2nd officina, AD 309-Oct. 312
obv. IMP C MAXENTIVS PF AVG
Head, laureate, r.
rev. AETE - RNITAS - AVG N
The Dioscurs, Castor and Pollux, each with star above his cap, stg. looking at
each other, nude except chlamys hanging down from their shoulders, resting
with outer arm on sceptre and holding with the other hand bridled horses.
in ex. M[OS]TS
RIC VI, Ostia 35
good F-about VF
Jochen
Maxentius_RIC_35.JPG
Maxentius, 306 - 312 AD19 viewsObv: IMP C MAXENTIVS PF AVG, laureate head of Maxentius facing right.

Rev: AETERNITAS AVG N, Dioscuri, Castor and Pollux, standing facing each other, each holding a horse by the bridle; MOSTQ in exergue.

Billon Follis, Ostia mint, 309 - 312 AD

7.1 grams, 24 mm, 180°

RIC VI 35, S14975, VM 14
1 commentsSPQR Coins
5t5RyWJ2m3kSPjE968QegK7f4sGobZ.jpg
Maxentius, 306-312 AD. AE Follis, Ostia, AD 309. R1 Rare14 viewsIMP C MAXENTIVS PF AVG, laureate head right /
AETERNITAS AVG N, the Dioscuri Castor and Pollux, each with a star above their caps, naked but for chlamys hanging from shoulder, standing facing each other, each leaning on sceptre and holding horse's bridle; she-wolf with twins between them.
Mintmark: MOSTΓ
RIC VI Ostia 16; Cohen 10.
25mm.,6.36g., _4600E
Antonivs Protti
43~0.jpg
Maxentius, AD 307-31239 viewsAE Follis, 27.11mm (5.59 gm).

IMP C MAXENTIVS P F AVG, laureate head right / AETE-RNITAS A-VG N, Castor and Pollux, wolf and twins left between them, each with star above cap, naked but for chlamys hanging from shoulders, standing facing each other, each leaning on sceptre with outer arm and holding bridled horse with inner arm; MOSTΔ in exergue. Ostia mint, struck AD 309.

RIC VI, 16 Ostia (pg. 403).
socalcoins
maxentius.jpg
Maxentius, AE Follis.49 viewsIMP C MAXENTIVS P F AVG, Laureate head right

AETERNITAS AVG N, the Dioscuri facing one another, nude but for chalmys hanging off shoulder, holding horses to center & spears to outside.

MOSTP (Prima Officina.)
RIC 35 of Ostia.


Very strong double strike on both sides, particularly the reverse.

ex-Martin Griffiths collection.

3 commentsGaiusCaligula
045-3-horz.jpg
Maxentius, BI Nummus, Ostia Mint6 viewsAD 306-312
6.57 grams
Obv.: IMP C MAXENTIVS PF AVG, Laur. hd. r.
Rev.: AETERNITAS AVG N, The Dioscuri, Castor and Pollux, stg., facing each other, each holding his bridled horse and resting on his scepter, mint mark M OST followed by officina mark S
As best I can determine this is a RIC VI #35 (A very common variety)
Purchased on eBay
NGC AU*: Strike 5/5: Surface 5/5
Richard M10
0620-320.jpg
Maxentius, Follis102 viewsOstia mint, 3rd officina AD 309
IMP C MAXENTIVS PF AVG, Laureate head of Maxentius right
AET ERNITAS AVGN, Dioscuri facing each other, holding their horse by bridle. Between them she wolf suckling Remus and Romulus. MOSTΓ at exergue
7.43 gr
Ref : Cohen # 10, RCV # 14976 (100), RIC VI # 16
3 commentsPotator II
0620-320~0.jpg
Maxentius, Follis34 viewsOstia mint, 3rd officina AD 309
IMP C MAXENTIVS PF AVG, Laureate head of Maxentius right
AET ERNITAS AVGN, Dioscuri facing each other, holding their horse by bridle. Between them she wolf suckling Remus and Romulus. MOSTΓ at exergue
7.43 gr
Ref : Cohen # 10, RCV # 14976 (100), RIC VI # 16
Potator II
0620-321.jpg
Maxentius, Follis87 viewsOstia mint, 1st officina AD 309-312
IMP C MAXENTIVS PF AVG, Laureate head of Maxentius right
SAECVLI FELICITAS AVG N, She wolf left, suckling Romulus and Remus, MOSTP at exergue

Ref : RIC VI # 52, RCV # 15024, Cohen # 101 (12)
4 commentsPotator II
MAXENTIU-2-ROMAN~0.jpg
Maxentius, Ostia RIC VI-54(T)13 viewsAE Folles
Ostia mint, 309-312 A.D.
25mm, 6.72g
RIC VI-54, RCV'88-3783

Obverse:
IMP C MAXENTIVS P F AVG
Laureate head right

Reverse:
VICTORIA AETERNA AVG N
MOST T
Victory advancing left, right hand holding wreath, left holding palm.
rubadub
Maxentius_RIC_45.JPG
Maxentius, RIC 459 viewsIMP C MAXENTIVS PF AVG
FIDES MILITVM AVG
AE Follis , 25mm, 6.50g
Diademed draped bust right
Fides standing left with two standards
MOSTS in ex.
Ostia mint
novacystis
68-Maxentius-1~0.JPG
Maxentius-1.68 viewsAE Follis, Ostia Mint, 306-312 AD.
Obv: IMP C MAXENTIVS PF AVG, Laureate head right.
Rev: VICTORIA AETERNA AVG N , Victory advancing left with wrath.
MOSTT in exergue.
25mm , 7.2 gm
RIC 54
jdholds
C102.jpg
MAXENTIVS33 viewsIMP C MAXENTIVS PF AVG
AETERNITAS AVG N / MOSTP
mint: Ostia
follis
309 AD
1 commentsfrederic
maximinus-II_ae-follis_sol-invicto_obv_04_rev_03.JPG
Maximinus II - AE Follis - Sol Invicto14 viewsMaximinus II.
Minted in Ostia, 3rd officina. 312 - 313 AD
obv: IMP MAXIMINVS PF AVG - Laureate bust right, cuirassed. Seen from the front.

rev: SOLI INVICTO COMITI - Sol radiate standing facing left, raising right arm and holding globe in other hand.
M OST T - in exergue.

4.8 Grams

* Slightly off color in this photo. The paper behind the coin is plain white...
rexesq
maximinus-II_ae-follis_sol-invicto_obv_02.JPG
Maximinus II - AE Follis - Sol Invicto. Obv8 viewsMaximinus II.
Minted in Ostia, 3rd officina. 312 - 313 AD
obv: IMP MAXIMINVS PF AVG - Laureate bust right, cuirassed. Seen from the front.

rev: SOLI INVICTO COMITI - Sol radiate standing facing left, raising right arm and holding globe in other hand.
M OST T - in exergue.

4.8 Grams
rexesq
maximinus-II_ae-follis_sol-invicto_rev_01.JPG
Maximinus II - AE Follis - Sol Invicto. Rev.10 viewsMaximinus II.
Minted in Ostia, 3rd officina. 312 - 313 AD
obv: IMP MAXIMINVS PF AVG - Laureate bust right, cuirassed. Seen from the front.

rev: SOLI INVICTO COMITI - Sol radiate standing facing left, raising right arm and holding globe in other hand.
M OST T - in exergue.

4.8 Grams
rexesq
maximinus-II_AE-Follis-Ostia_Constantine-I_AE-Follis-Rome_sol-invicto_obv_06_off-color.JPG
Maximinus II and Constantine I - AE Follis'11 viewsleft:
Emperor Maximinus II.
Minted in Ostia, 3rd officina. 312 - 313 AD
obv: IMP MAXIMINVS PF AVG - Laureate bust right, cuirassed. Seen from the front.

rev: SOLI INVICTO COMITI - Sol radiate standing facing left, raising right arm and holding globe in other hand.
M OST T - in exergue.

right:
Emperor Constantine I - 307-337 A.D. - AE Follis
Rome Mint, 314-315 AD

obv. IMP CONSTANTINVS PF AVG - Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right. Seen from the front.

rev: SOL INVICTO COMITI - Sol standing left, raising right arm and holding globe.
in exergue: R P
in fields: 'R' above 'X' to right of Sol and 'F' in left field.
----------------

* Slightly off color in this photo. The paper behind the coin is plain white...
rexesq
maximinus-II_AE-Follis-Ostia_Constantine-I_AE-Follis-Rome_sol-invicto_obv_03.JPG
Maximinus II and Constantine I - AE Follis'7 viewsleft:
Emperor Maximinus II.
Minted in Ostia, 3rd officina. 312 - 313 AD
obv: IMP MAXIMINVS PF AVG - Laureate bust right, cuirassed. Seen from the front.

rev: SOLI INVICTO COMITI - Sol radiate standing facing left, raising right arm and holding globe in other hand.
M OST T - in exergue.

right:
Emperor Constantine I - 307-337 A.D. - AE Follis
Rome Mint, 314-315 AD

obv. IMP CONSTANTINVS PF AVG - Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right. Seen from the front.

rev: SOL INVICTO COMITI - Sol standing left, raising right arm and holding globe.
in exergue: R P
in fields: 'R' above 'X' to right of Sol and 'F' in left field.
rexesq
maximinus-II_AE-Follis-Ostia_Constantine-I_AE-Follis-Rome_sol-invicto_rev_07_off-color.JPG
Maximinus II and Constantine I - AE Follis' - Rev.12 viewsleft:
Emperor Maximinus II.
Minted in Ostia, 3rd officina. 312 - 313 AD
obv: IMP MAXIMINVS PF AVG - Laureate bust right, cuirassed. Seen from the front.

rev: SOLI INVICTO COMITI - Sol radiate standing facing left, raising right arm and holding globe in other hand.
M OST T - in exergue.

right:
Emperor Constantine I - 307-337 A.D. - AE Follis
Rome Mint, 314-315 AD

obv. IMP CONSTANTINVS PF AVG - Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right. Seen from the front.

rev: SOL INVICTO COMITI - Sol standing left, raising right arm and holding globe.
in exergue: R P
in fields: 'R' above 'X' to right of Sol and 'F' in left field.
----------------

* Slightly off color in this photo. The paper behind the coin is plain white...
rexesq
maximinus-II_AE-Follis-Ostia_Constantine-I_AE-Follis-Rome_sol-invicto_rev_05.JPG
Maximinus II and Constantine I - AE Follis' - Rev.14 viewsleft:
Emperor Maximinus II.
Minted in Ostia, 3rd officina. 312 - 313 AD
obv: IMP MAXIMINVS PF AVG - Laureate bust right, cuirassed. Seen from the front.

rev: SOLI INVICTO COMITI - Sol radiate standing facing left, raising right arm and holding globe in other hand.
M OST T - in exergue.

right:
Emperor Constantine I - 307-337 A.D. - AE Follis
Rome Mint, 314-315 AD

obv. IMP CONSTANTINVS PF AVG - Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right. Seen from the front.

rev: SOL INVICTO COMITI - Sol standing left, raising right arm and holding globe.
in exergue: R P
in fields: 'R' above 'X' to right of Sol and 'F' in left field.
rexesq
nero_sestertius.jpg
Nero Ć sestertius35 viewsNero Ć sestertius. Lugdunum, 67 A.D.. Laureate bust left, globe at point of bust / Port of Ostia with ships in the harbor and pharos; below is a reclining figure of Tiber, holding rudder and dolphin. 34 mm, 20.54 g, 6 h. RIC 589; WCN 470. Ex. John C. LavenderHolding_History
NeroSe21-2.jpg
Nero, RIC 179, Sestertius of AD 64 (port of Ostia) 109 viewsĆ sestertius (26.8g, Ř33mm, 5h), Rome mint, struck AD 64.
Obv.: NERO CLAVD CAESAR AVG GER P M TR P IMP P P, laureate head of Nero facing left.
Rev.: AVGVSTI (around above) S POR OST C (around below), Bird's-eye view of the harbour of Ostia, with at the top a statue of Neptune on pharos; at the bottom reclining Tiber river-god holding a dolphin; to left, crescent-shaped pier with portico; to right, crescent shaped row of breakwaters; in the centre, eight ships.
RIC 179 (S); Cohen 40; BMC 223
ex Künker Auction 153
1 commentsCharles S
nerose14-2.jpg
Nero, RIC 586, Sestertius of AD 66 (Ostia harbour)77 viewsĆ sestertius (22.6g, Ř34mm, 6h), Lugdunum mint, struck AD 66.
Obv.: IMP NERO CAESAR AVG P MAX TR P P P, laureate head of Nero facing left, globe below tip of bust.
Rev.: PORT AVG (below) S C (above, left and right in field), Port of Ostia, seven ships, top Neptune on pharos, bottom reclining Tiber.
RIC 586 (R2); Sear 2000 (RCV) 1953var.
Charles S
nerose14c.jpg
Nero, RIC 586, Sestertius of AD 66 (Portus Augusti)72 viewsĆ sestertius (22.54g, maximum Ř34.24mm, 6h), Lugdunum mint, struck AD 66.
Obv.: IMP NERO CAESAR AVG P MAX TR P P P, laureate head of Nero right, globe below tip of bust.
Rev.: PORT AVG (below) S C (above), aerial view of the harbor of Ostia, showing pier, breakwaters, lighthouse surmounted by the statue of Neptune, seven ships, and the figure of Tiber reclining left in foreground, holding rudder and dolphin.
Mac Dowall (The western Coinages of Nero, ANS SSN 161) 476; RIC 586 (R2); BMCRE 323 var. (different obv. legend); Cohen 253 var. (emperor's head to left); CBN 74 var. (different obv. legend); Sear (RCV) 1953var.

Certificate of Authenticity: David R Sear / A.C.C.S. Ref. 100CR/RI/C/V (January 6, 2015): "Grade: F and very rare, one of the most interesting types of Nero's sestertius series "

Extract of Sear's Historical and Numismatic Note: "This example commemorates the completion of the great harbor project to serve the needs of the imperial capital initiated by Claudius and completed under Nero. Ostia is situated at the mouth of the Tiber, but could not easily handle large sea-going vessels such as those of the grain fleet. Accordingly, Claudius initiated the construction of a new all-weather harbor at Portus, about two miles along the coast line to the north. This was a huge project, involving the construction of two great moles jutting out into the sea. The lighthouse erected at the end of one of these moles was built on foundations formed by sinking a large ship that Caligula had used to transport an obelisk from Egypt. This harbor, however, was very exposed to the weather and under Trajan was superseded by a new land-locked inner basin linked to the Tiber by a canal (cf. P.Connolly and H.Hodge, The Ancient City. Life in Classical Athens and Rome, pp. 128-30)"
3 commentsCharles S
Constantine Providentiae Avgg, Arles.jpg
Providentiae Avgg RIC Arles 30var212 viewsAE Follis 313ce

[IMP] CONSTANTINVS PF AVG, bust left, cuir., laureate, shield over left shoulder, spear over right

PROVIDE-NT-IAE AVGG, female figure (possibly Moneta) on prow, holding cornucopia, facing what must be the personification of Arles, who is holding a standard (Ben informs me that this may be a symbol of Constantine's Italian victory).

QARL in exergue

3.57g, 21.4mm
RIC Arles 30

This particular issue is quite unusual with this obverse type, however I am aware of one other in existence. The symbolism of this type and it's partner, VTILITAS PVBLICA, is rather special. On the VTILITAS issue, Moneta is on prow also, but facing away from the figure (probably the personification of Ostia) on the shore, as if departing. On the Providentiae issue, Moneta is depicted as arriving at Arles. An interesting oddity of my example however: On most of these coins, the figure on shore is not wearing a turreted headdress, while on this example, she is.
3 commentswolfgang336
maxentius.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE - MAXENTIUS18 viewsMaxentius AE Follis. IMP C MAXENTIVS P F AVG, laureate bust right / VICTORIA AETERNA AVG N, Victory advancing left with wreath & palm, MOSTQ in ex. Cohen 122, RIC 54 of Ostia. dpaul7
Co725qeMA67rzJz2Qa9K8EmsBCg4k3.jpg
Roman Empire, Maxentius 306-312, AE Follis10 views5.85g, 24mm
Laureate head of Maxentius right "IMP C MAXENTIVS PF AVG"
Dioscouri standing, facing eachother, each with a horse and scepter. "AETERNITAS AVGN" "MOSTP"
Ref.: RIC VI 35
Ostia mint

Antonivs Protti
Maxentius_Follis2.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Maxentius Follis85 viewsMaxentius AE or silvered follis 307-312 A.D. Obverse: IMP C MAXENTIVS PF AVG; Laureate head of Maxentius right. Reverse: AETERNITAS AVG N, in exergue MOSTP; The Dioscuri, Castor and Pollux, standing facing each other, each holding a bridled horse and scepter. 24-25 mm. Mint: Ostia. RIC VI 35.James A2
bpTetMaxent2.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Maxentius, Follis75 viewsReduced follis, 5.4 gm. 24.4 mm.
Obv: IMP C MAXENTIVS P F AVG
Laureate head, right.
Rev: AET_ERNITAS A_VG N
The Dioscuri (Castor and Pollox) standing naked with Chlamys over shoulder and leaning on scepter, facing each other while each restains a horse.
Minted between 309-312 at Ostia. mm: MOSTT, RIC VI, 35.
Comment: Pollox on the right seems especially happy!
Massanutten
Divo-Galerius_Temple~0.JPG
Roman Empire, MAXIMIANUS. Commemorative Follis of Ostia. Struck A.D.310 - 312 under Maxentius20 viewsObverse: IMP MAXENTIVS DIVO MAXIMIANO PATRI. Veiled head of Maximianus facing right.
Reverse: AETERNA MEMORIA. Temple with domed roof surmounted by eagle, right door ajar; in exergue, MOSTS.
Weight: 5.2gms
RIC VI : 26
RARE

The temple depicted on the reverse of this coin is in all probability the Temple of Divus Romulus begun by Maxentius around A.D.311 but left unfinished on his death in A.D.312.
*Alex
86120q00.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Nero, 13 October 54 - 9 June 68 A.D.20 viewsSH86120. Orichalcum sestertius, RIC I 178, BMCRE I 131, Cohen I 37, Mac Dowall WCN 120, BnF I -, VF, well centered, nice portrait, near black patina, scratches on obverse lower right field, some porosity and tiny pitting, weight 26.031 g, maximum diameter 34.0 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, c. 64 A.D.; obverse NERO CLAVD CAESAR AVG GER P M TR P IMP P P, laureate bust right, wearing aegis; reverse AVGVSTI above, S - C divided by POR OST below, bird's-eye view Ostia harbor: pharos lighthouse with Neptune statue on top at far side center; crescent-shaped pier with building and figure sacrificing at far end, crescent-shaped row of breakwaters or slips on right with figure seated on rock at far end, 7 ships within port; river god Tiber reclining left holding rudder and dolphin below; ex Gorny & Mosch auction 195 (7 Mar 2011), lot 405Joe Sermarini
Nero_Harbour.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Nero, Sestertius, AE Rome mint, struck 64 AD658 viewsNERO CLAVD CAESAR AVG GER P M TR P IMP P P laureate-headed bust right with aegis on left shoulder
AVGVSTI, POR OST, SC bird’s eye view of a the new Ostia harbor; at top pharos surmounted by a statue (light house); at bottom, reclining figure of Neptune left, holding rudder and dolphin
RIC 181, Cohen 33 (20 Fr.)

ex. Arthur Bally-Herzog collection

15 commentsdupondius
m29RWf358WQoBn3PbFp6y4Ts7Cz4Hj.jpg
Roman Empire, Romulus Died 309, Follis14 views5.92g
"IMP MAXENTIVS DIVO ROMVLO NV FILIO" Bust of Romulus right
"AETERNA MEMORIA" eagle with wings spread, standing on a domed hexastyle shrine, right door open "MOST[?]"
RIC VI 33
Ostia mint
Antonivs Protti
00384q00.jpg
Romulus18 viewsQuarter Follis
DIVO ROMVLO NVBIS CONS; Bare head to right
AETERNAE MEMORIAE; Mausoleum of Romulus with bronze gates and eagle on top.
EX: M OST P
Ostia
RIC 58
Julianus of Pannonia
00383q00.jpg
Romulus18 viewsAE-Follis
DIVO ROMVLO NVBIS CONS; Bare head to right
AETERNAE MEMORIAE; Mausoleum of Romulus with bronze gates and eagle on top
EX: M OST P
Ostia
RIC 34
Julianus of Pannonia
0621-310np_noir.jpg
Romulus, Posthumous follis - *132 viewsPosthumous issue under the reign of his father Maxentius
Ostia mint, 1st officina, AD 309-310
DIVO ROMVLO N V BIS CONS, Bare head of Romulus right
AETERNAE MEMORIAE, Temple with domed roof surmounted by eagle, M OST P at exergue
7.35 gr
RCV # 15050 (550), Cohen #6, RIC VI # 34
3 commentsPotator II
MAXENTIUS_STATUES_OF_DIOSCURI.JPG
STATUE, MAXENTIUS71 viewsAE Follis of Ostia. Struck A.D.309.
Obverse: IMP C MAXENTIUS P F AVG. Laureate head of Maxentius facing right.
Reverse: AET-ERNITAS A-VG N. The Dioscuri standing facing each other, each holding horse by bridle, between them, wolf and twins; in exergue, MOSTA.
RIC VI : 16.

The statues of the Dioscuri represented on this coin are likely those which were situated in the precinct of the Lacus Juturnae and probably dated from the 5th century B.C. The moneyer, L. Memmius struck denarii with this type during the Republic and although the positions of the Dioscuri relative to their mounts differ on this coin it is possible that, as the statues occupied separate bases, they had been transposed at some period during the intervening four centuries.
*Alex
MAXENT_DIOSCURI_MOSTDelta.JPG
Struck A.D.309. MAXENTIUS as Augustus. AE Follis of Ostia9 viewsObverse: IMP C MAXENTIUS P F AVG. Laureate head of Maxentius facing right.
Reverse: AET-ERNITAS A-VG N. The Dioscuri standing facing each other, each holding horse by bridle, between them, wolf and twins; in exergue, MOSTA.
RIC VI : 16.

The statues of the Dioscuri represented on this coin are likely those which were situated in the precinct of the Lacus Juturnae and probably dated from the 5th century B.C. The moneyer, L. Memmius struck denarii with this type during the Republic and although the positions of the Dioscuri relative to their mounts differ on this coin it is possible that, as the statues occupied separate bases, they had been transposed at some period during the intervening four centuries.
1 comments*Alex
Divo-Galerius_Temple.JPG
Struck A.D.310 - 312 under Maxentius. DIVUS MAXIMIANUS. Commemorative Follis of Ostia5 viewsObverse: IMP MAXENTIVS DIVO MAXIMIANO PATRI. Veiled head of Maximianus facing right.
Reverse: AETERNA MEMORIA. Shrine or temple with domed roof surmounted by eagle, right door ajar; in exergue, MOSTS.
Diameter: 24mm | Weight: 5.2gms | Die Axis: 12
RIC VI : 26
RARE

The temple depicted on the reverse of this coin is in all probability the Temple of Divus Romulus begun by Maxentius around A.D.311 but left unfinished on his death in A.D.312. The original bronze doors of the Temple of Divus Romulus still survive and are pictured below. They are set between two porphyry columns that support a reused marble architrave and open into a rotunda fifty Roman feet in diameter covered by a cupola which is accessible from the rear through the Basilica of Santi Cosma e Damiano. The temple was converted into a vestibule for the church early in the 6th century.
*Alex
GALERIUS_SHRINE_1.JPG
TEMPLE, GALERIUS77 viewsCommemorative Follis of Ostia, struck A.D.311 under Maxentius.
Obverse: IMP MAXENTIVS DIVO MAXIMIANO SOCERO. Veiled head of Galerius facing right.
Reverse: AETERNA MEMORIA. Temple with domed roof surmounted by eagle, right door ajar; in exergue, MOSTS.
Diameter: 24mm | Weight: 5.2gms | Die Axis: 12
RIC VI : 31
SCARCE

The temple depicted on the reverse of this coin is in all probability the Temple of Divus Romulus begun by Maxentius around A.D.311 but left unfinished on his death in A.D.312.
*Alex
Imitating_types_of_Alexander_the_Great,_AR_Drachm.jpg
Thraco-Getae, Imitating types of Alexander the Great, AR Drachm.36 viewsObv. Stylized head of young Heracles right in lion skin headdress
Rev. Stylized Zeus enthroned left, holding eagle & scepter, amphora in left field.
BMC Celtic 215. Kostial 896.
16mm,.2,76g _sold :o(((
Antonivs Protti
trajse34-2.jpg
Trajan, RIC 632, Sestertius of AD 112-114 (Portus Traiani)195 viewsĆ Sestertius (26.66g, Ř35mm, 6h). Rome mint. Struck AD 112-114.
Obv.: IMP CAES NERVAE TRAIANO AVG GER DAC P M TR P CO[S VI P P] laureate draped bust of Trajan facing right.
Rev.: [PORTVM TRAIANI] around, S C in ex., Basin of Trajan's harbour at Portus Traiani, near Ostia, surrounded by warehouses, ships in centre.
RIC 632 (R2); Cohen 305; STrack 438; MIR 470v (18 spec.; same die pair as Woytek Plate 94-470v3); BMC 770A (but COS V must be COS VI); RHC 104:59
ex Jean Elsen Auction 95; ex coll. A. Senden: "L'architecture des monnaies Romaines".
2 commentsCharles S
TrajSepphorisGalilee.jpg
[18H907] Trajan, 25 January 98 - 8 or 9 August 117 A.D., Sepphoris, Galilee220 viewsBronze AE 23, Hendin 907, BMC 5, Fair, 7.41g, 23.1mm, 0o, Sepphoris mint, 98 - 117 A.D.; obverse TPAIANOS AYTO]-KPA[TWP EDWKEN, laureate head right; reverse SEPFW/RHNWN, eight-branched palm bearing two bunches of dates.

At the crossroads of the Via Maris and the Acre-Tiberias roads, Sepphoris was the capital of Galilee and Herod Antipas' first capital. Damaged by a riot, Antipas ordered Sepphoris be rebuilt. Flavius Josephus described the rebuilt Sepphoris as the "ornament of all Galilee." Since Sepphoris was only five miles north of Nazareth, Jesus and Joseph may have found work in Antipas' rebuilding projects. Sepphoris was built on a hill and visible for miles. This may be the city that Jesus spoke of when He said, "A city set on a hill cannot be hidden."

Marcus Ulpius Traianus, a brilliant general and administrator was adopted and proclaimed emperor by the aging Nerva in 98 A.D. Regarded as one of Rome's greatest emperors, Trajan was responsible for the annexation of Dacia, the invasion of Arabia and an extensive and lavish building program across the empire. Under Trajan, Rome reached its greatest extent. Shortly after the annexation of Mesopotamia and Armenia, Trajan was forced to withdraw from most of the new Arabian provinces. While returning to Rome to direct operations against the new threats, Trajan died at Selinus in Cilicia.
See: http://www.forumancientcoins.com/catalog/indexfrm.asp?vpar=55&pos=0.


De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Trajan (A.D. 98-117)

Herbert W. Benario
Emory University

Introduction and Sources
"During a happy period of more than fourscore years, the public administration was conducted by the virtue and abilities of Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian, and the two Antonines. It is the design of this and of the two succeeding chapters to describe the prosperous condition of their empire, and afterwards, from the death of Marcus Antoninus, to deduce the most important circumstances of its decline and fall, a revolution which will ever be remembered and is still felt by the nations of the earth."

This is perhaps the most important and best known of all Edward Gibbon's famous dicta about his vast subject, and particularly that period which he admired the most. It was a concatenation of chance and events which brought to the first position of the principate five men, each very different from the others, who each, in his own way, brought integrity and a sense of public duty to his tasks. Nerva's tenure was brief, as many no doubt had expected and hoped it would be, and perhaps his greatest achievement was to choose Trajan as his adoptive son and intended successor. It was a splendid choice. Trajan was one of Rome's most admirable figures, a man who merited the renown which he enjoyed in his lifetime and in subsequent generations.

The sources for the man and his principate are disappointingly skimpy. There is no contemporaneous historian who can illuminate the period. Tacitus speaks only occasionally of Trajan, there is no biography by Suetonius, nor even one by the author of the late and largely fraudulent Historia Augusta. (However, a modern version of what such a life might have been like has been composed by A. Birley, entirely based upon ancient evidence. It is very useful.) Pliny the Younger tells us the most, in his Panegyricus, his long address of thanks to the emperor upon assuming the consulship in late 100, and in his letters. Pliny was a wordy and congenial man, who reveals a great deal about his senatorial peers and their relations with the emperor, above all, of course, his own. The most important part is the tenth book of his Epistulae, which contains the correspondence between him, while serving in Bithynia, and the emperor, to whom he referred all manner of problems, important as well as trivial. Best known are the pair (96,97) dealing with the Christians and what was to be done with them. These would be extraordinarily valuable if we could be sure that the imperial replies stemmed directly from Trajan, but that is more than one can claim. The imperial chancellery had developed greatly in previous decades and might pen these communications after only the most general directions from the emperor. The letters are nonetheless unique in the insight they offer into the emperor's mind.

Cassius Dio, who wrote in the decade of the 230s, wrote a long imperial history which has survived only in abbreviated form in book LXVIII for the Trajanic period. The rhetorician Dio of Prusa, a contemporary of the emperor, offers little of value. Fourth-century epitomators, Aurelius Victor and Eutropius, offer some useful material. Inscriptions, coins, papyri, and legal texts are of major importance. Since Trajan was a builder of many significant projects, archaeology contributes mightily to our understanding of the man.

Early Life and Career
The patria of the Ulpii was Italica, in Spanish Baetica , where their ancestors had settled late in the third century B.C. This indicates that the Italian origin was paramount, yet it has recently been cogently argued that the family's ancestry was local, with Trajan senior actually a Traius who was adopted into the family of the Ulpii. Trajan's father was the first member of the family to pursue a senatorial career; it proved to be a very successful one. Born probably about the year 30, he perhaps commanded a legion under Corbulo in the early sixties and then was legate of legio X Fretensis under Vespasian, governor of Judaea. Success in the Jewish War was rewarded by the governorship of an unknown province and then a consulate in 70. He was thereafter adlected by the emperor in patricios and sent to govern Baetica. Then followed the governorship of one of the major military provinces, Syria, where he prevented a Parthian threat of invasion, and in 79/80 he was proconsul of Asia, one of the two provinces (the other was Africa) which capped a senatorial career. His public service now effectively over, he lived on in honor and distinction, in all likelihood seeing his son emperor. He probably died before 100. He was deified in 113 and his titulature read divus Traianus pater. Since his son was also the adoptive son of Nerva, the emperor had officially two fathers, a unique circumstance.

The son was born in Italica on September 18, 53; his mother was Marcia, who had given birth to a daughter, Ulpia Marciana, five years before the birth of the son. In the mid seventies, he was a legionary legate under his father in Syria. He then married a lady from Nemausus (Nimes) in Gallia Narbonensis, Pompeia Plotina, was quaestor about 78 and praetor about 84. In 86, he became one of the child Hadrian's guardians. He was then appointed legate of legio VII Gemina in Hispania Tarraconensis, from which he marched at Domitian's orders in 89 to crush the uprising of Antonius Saturninus along the Rhine. He next fought in Domitian's war against the Germans along Rhine and Danube and was rewarded with an ordinary consulship in 91. Soon followed the governorship of Moesia inferior and then that of Germania superior, with his headquarters at Moguntiacum (Mainz), whither Hadrian brought him the news in autumn 97 that he had been adopted by the emperor Nerva, as co-ruler and intended successor. Already recipient of the title imperator and possessor of the tribunician power, when Nerva died on January 27, 98, Trajan became emperor in a smooth transition of power which marked the next three quarters of a century.

Early Years through the Dacian Wars
Trajan did not return immediately to Rome. He chose to stay in his German province and settle affairs on that frontier. He showed that he approved Domitian's arrangements, with the establishment of two provinces, their large military garrisons, and the beginnings of the limes. Those who might have wished for a renewed war of conquest against the Germans were disappointed. The historian Tacitus may well have been one of these.

Trajan then visited the crucial Danube provinces of Pannonia and Moesia, where the Dacian king Decebalus had caused much difficulty for the Romans and had inflicted a heavy defeat upon a Roman army about a decade before. Domitian had established a modus vivendi with Decebalus, essentially buying his good behavior, but the latter had then continued his activities hostile to Rome. Trajan clearly thought that this corner of empire would require his personal attention and a lasting and satisfactory solution.

Trajan spent the year 100 in Rome, seeing to the honors and deification of his predecessor, establishing good and sensitive relations with the senate, in sharp contrast with Domitian's "war against the senate." Yet his policies essentially continued Domitian's; he was no less master of the state and the ultimate authority over individuals, but his good nature and respect for those who had until recently been his peers if not his superiors won him great favor. He was called optimus by the people and that word began to appear among his titulature, although it had not been decreed by the senate. Yet his thoughts were ever on the Danube. Preparations for a great campaign were under way, particularly with transfers of legions and their attendant auxiliaries from Germany and Britain and other provinces and the establishment of two new ones, II Traiana and XXX Ulpia, which brought the total muster to 30, the highest number yet reached in the empire's history.

In 101 the emperor took the field. The war was one which required all his military abilities and all the engineering and discipline for which the Roman army was renowned. Trajan was fortunate to have Apollodorus of Damascus in his service, who built a roadway through the Iron Gates by cantilevering it from the sheer face of the rock so that the army seemingly marched on water. He was also to build a great bridge across the Danube, with 60 stone piers (traces of this bridge still survive). When Trajan was ready to move he moved with great speed, probably driving into the heart of Dacian territory with two columns, until, in 102, Decebalus chose to capitulate. He prostrated himself before Trajan and swore obedience; he was to become a client king. Trajan returned to Rome and added the title Dacicus to his titulature.

Decebalus, however, once left to his own devices, undertook to challenge Rome again, by raids across the Danube into Roman territory and by attempting to stir up some of the tribes north of the river against her. Trajan took the field again in 106, intending this time to finish the job of Decebalus' subjugation. It was a brutal struggle, with some of the characteristics of a war of extirpation, until the Dacian king, driven from his capital of Sarmizegethusa and hunted like an animal, chose to commit suicide rather than to be paraded in a Roman triumph and then be put to death.

The war was over. It had taxed Roman resources, with 11 legions involved, but the rewards were great. Trajan celebrated a great triumph, which lasted 123 days and entertained the populace with a vast display of gladiators and animals. The land was established as a province, the first on the north side of the Danube. Much of the native population which had survived warfare was killed or enslaved, their place taken by immigrants from other parts of the empire. The vast wealth of Dacian mines came to Rome as war booty, enabling Trajan to support an extensive building program almost everywhere, but above all in Italy and in Rome. In the capital, Apollodorus designed and built in the huge forum already under construction a sculpted column, precisely 100 Roman feet high, with 23 spiral bands filled with 2500 figures, which depicted, like a scroll being unwound, the history of both Dacian wars. It was, and still is, one of the great achievements of imperial "propaganda." In southern Dacia, at Adamklissi, a large tropaeum was built on a hill, visible from a great distance, as a tangible statement of Rome's domination. Its effect was similar to that of Augustus' monument at La Turbie above Monaco; both were constant reminders for the inhabitants who gazed at it that they had once been free and were now subjects of a greater power.

Administration and Social Policy
The chief feature of Trajan's administration was his good relations with the senate, which allowed him to accomplish whatever he wished without general opposition. His auctoritas was more important than his imperium. At the very beginning of Trajan's reign, the historian Tacitus, in the biography of his father-in-law Agricola, spoke of the newly won compatibility of one-man rule and individual liberty established by Nerva and expanded by Trajan (Agr. 3.1, primo statim beatissimi saeculi ortu Nerva Caesar res olim dissociabiles miscuerit, principatum ac libertatem, augeatque cotidie felicitatem temporum Nerva Traianus,….) [13] At the end of the work, Tacitus comments, when speaking of Agricola's death, that he had forecast the principate of Trajan but had died too soon to see it (Agr. 44.5, ei non licuit durare in hanc beatissimi saeculi lucem ac principem Traianum videre, quod augurio votisque apud nostras aures ominabatur,….) Whether one believes that principate and liberty had truly been made compatible or not, this evidently was the belief of the aristocracy of Rome. Trajan, by character and actions, contributed to this belief, and he undertook to reward his associates with high office and significant promotions. During his principate, he himself held only 6 consulates, while arranging for third consulates for several of his friends. Vespasian had been consul 9 times, Titus 8, Domitian 17! In the history of the empire there were only 12 or 13 private who reached the eminence of third consulates. Agrippa had been the first, L. Vitellius the second. Under Trajan there were 3: Sex. Iulius Frontinus (100), T. Vestricius Spurinna (100), and L. Licinius Sura (107). There were also 10 who held second consulships: L. Iulius Ursus Servianus (102), M.' Laberius Maximus (103), Q. Glitius Atilius Agricola (103), P. Metilius Sabinus Nepos (103?), Sex. Attius Suburanus Aemilianus (104), Ti. Iulius Candidus Marius Celsus (105), C. Antius A. Iulius Quadratus (105), Q. Sosius Senecio (107), A. Cornelius Palma Frontonianus (109), and L. Publilius Celsus (113). These men were essentially his close associates from pre-imperial days and his prime military commanders in the Dacian wars.

One major administrative innovation can be credited to Trajan. This was the introduction of curators who, as representatives of the central government, assumed financial control of local communities, both in Italy and the provinces. Pliny in Bithynia is the best known of these imperial officials. The inexorable shift from freedmen to equestrians in the imperial ministries continued, to culminate under Hadrian, and he devoted much attention and considerable state resources to the expansion of the alimentary system, which purposed to support orphans throughout Italy. The splendid arch at Beneventum represents Trajan as a civilian emperor, with scenes of ordinary life and numerous children depicted, which underscored the prosperity of Italy.

The satirist Juvenal, a contemporary of the emperor, in one of his best known judgments, laments that the citizen of Rome, once master of the world, is now content only with "bread and circuses."

Nam qui dabat olim / imperium, fasces, legiones, omnia, nunc se / continet, atque duas tantum res anxius optat, / panem et circenses. (X 78-81)

Trajan certainly took advantage of that mood, indeed exacerbated it, by improving the reliabilty of the grain supply (the harbor at Ostia and the distribution system as exemplified in the Mercati in Rome). Fronto did not entirely approve, if indeed he approved at all. The plebs esteemed the emperor for the glory he had brought Rome, for the great wealth he had won which he turned to public uses, and for his personality and manner. Though emperor, he prided himself upon being civilis, a term which indicated comportment suitable for a Roman citizen.

There was only one major addition to the Rome's empire other than Dacia in the first decade and a half of Trajan's reign. This was the province of Arabia, which followed upon the absorption of the Nabataean kingdom (105-106).

Building Projects
Trajan had significant effect upon the infrastructure of both Rome and Italy. His greatest monument in the city, if the single word "monument" can effectively describe the complex, was the forum which bore his name, much the largest, and the last, of the series known as the "imperial fora." Excavation for a new forum had already begun under Domitian, but it was Apollodorus who designed and built the whole. Enormous in its extent, the Basilica Ulpia was the centerpiece, the largest wood roofed building in the Roman world. In the open courtyard before it was an equestrian statue of Trajan, behind it was the column; there were libraries, one for Latin scrolls, the other for Greek, on each side. A significant omission was a temple; this circumstance was later rectified by Hadrian, who built a large temple to the deified Trajan and Plotina.

The column was both a history in stone and the intended mausoleum for the emperor, whose ashes were indeed placed in the column base. An inscription over the doorway, somewhat cryptic because part of the text has disappeared, reads as follows:

Senatus populusque Romanus imp. Caesari divi Nervae f. Nervae Traiano Aug. Germ. Dacico pontif. Maximo trib. pot. XVII imp. VI p.p. ad declarandum quantae altitudinis mons et locus tant[is oper]ibus sit egestus (Smallwood 378)

On the north side of the forum, built into the slopes of the Quirinal hill, were the Markets of Trajan, which served as a shopping mall and the headquarters of the annona, the agency responsible for the receipt and distribution of grain.

On the Esquiline hill was constructed the first of the huge imperial baths, using a large part of Nero's Domus Aurea as its foundations. On the other side of the river a new aqueduct was constructed, which drew its water from Lake Bracciano and ran some 60 kilometers to the heights of the Janiculum Hill. It was dedicated in 109. A section of its channel survives in the basement of the American Academy in Rome.

The arch in Beneventum is the most significant monument elsewhere in Italy. It was dedicated in 114, to mark the beginning of the new Via Traiana, which offered an easier route to Brundisium than that of the ancient Via Appia.

Trajan devoted much attention to the construction and improvement of harbors. His new hexagonal harbor at Ostia at last made that port the most significant in Italy, supplanting Puteoli, so that henceforth the grain ships docked there and their cargo was shipped by barge up the Tiber to Rome. Terracina benefited as well from harbor improvements, and the Via Appia now ran directly through the city along a new route, with some 130 Roman feet of sheer cliff being cut away so that the highway could bend along the coast. Ancona on the Adriatic Sea became the major harbor on that coast for central Italy in 114-115, and Trajan's activity was commemorated by an arch. The inscription reports that the senate and people dedicated it to the []iprovidentissimo principi quod accessum Italiae hoc etiam addito ex pecunia sua portu tutiorem navigantibus reddiderit (Smallwood 387). Centumcellae, the modern Civitavecchia, also profited from a new harbor. The emperor enjoyed staying there, and on at least one occasion summoned his consilium there.

Elsewhere in the empire the great bridge at Alcantara in Spain, spanning the Tagus River, still in use, testifies to the significant attention the emperor gave to the improvement of communication throughout his entire domain.

Family Relations; the Women
After the death of his father, Trajan had no close male relatives. His life was as closely linked with his wife and female relations as that of any of his predecessors; these women played enormously important roles in the empire's public life, and received honors perhaps unparalleled. His wife, Pompeia Plotina, is reported to have said, when she entered the imperial palace in Rome for the first time, that she hoped she would leave it the same person she was when she entered. She received the title Augusta no later than 105. She survived Trajan, dying probably in 121, and was honored by Hadrian with a temple, which she shared with her husband, in the great forum which the latter had built.

His sister Marciana, five years his elder, and he shared a close affection. She received the title Augusta, along with Plotina, in 105 and was deified in 112 upon her death. Her daughter Matidia became Augusta upon her mother's death, and in her turn was deified in 119. Both women received substantial monuments in the Campus Martius, there being basilicas of each and a temple of divae Matidiae. Hadrian was responsible for these buildings, which were located near the later temple of the deified Hadrian, not far from the column of Marcus Aurelius.

Matidia's daughter, Sabina, was married to Hadrian in the year 100. The union survived almost to the end of Hadrian's subsequent principate, in spite of the mutual loathing that they had for each other. Sabina was Trajan's great niece, and thereby furnished Hadrian a crucial link to Trajan.

The women played public roles as significant as any of their predecessors. They traveled with the emperor on public business and were involved in major decisions. They were honored throughout the empire, on monuments as well as in inscriptions. Plotina, Marciana, and Matidia, for example, were all honored on the arch at Ancona along with Trajan.

The Parthian War
In 113, Trajan began preparations for a decisive war against Parthia. He had been a "civilian" emperor for seven years, since his victory over the Dacians, and may well have yearned for a last, great military achievement, which would rival that of Alexander the Great. Yet there was a significant cause for war in the Realpolitik of Roman-Parthian relations, since the Parthians had placed a candidate of their choice upon the throne of Armenia without consultation and approval of Rome. When Trajan departed Rome for Antioch, in a leisurely tour of the eastern empire while his army was being mustered, he probably intended to destroy at last Parthia's capabilities to rival Rome's power and to reduce her to the status of a province (or provinces). It was a great enterprise, marked by initial success but ultimate disappointment and failure.

In 114 he attacked the enemy through Armenia and then, over three more years, turned east and south, passing through Mesopotamia and taking Babylon and the capital of Ctesiphon. He then is said to have reached the Persian Gulf and to have lamented that he was too old to go further in Alexander's footsteps. In early 116 he received the title Parthicus.

The territories, however, which had been handily won, were much more difficult to hold. Uprisings among the conquered peoples, and particularly among the Jews in Palestine and the Diaspora, caused him to gradually resign Roman rule over these newly-established provinces as he returned westward. The revolts were brutally suppressed. In mid 117, Trajan, now a sick man, was slowly returning to Italy, having left Hadrian in command in the east, when he died in Selinus of Cilicia on August 9, having designated Hadrian as his successor while on his death bed. Rumor had it that Plotina and Matidia were responsible for the choice, made when the emperor was already dead. Be that as it may, there was no realistic rival to Hadrian, linked by blood and marriage to Trajan and now in command of the empire's largest military forces. Hadrian received notification of his designation on August 11, and that day marked his dies imperii. Among Hadrian's first acts was to give up all of Trajan's eastern conquests.

Trajan's honors and reputation
Hadrian saw to it that Trajan received all customary honors: the late emperor was declared a divus, his victories were commemorated in a great triumph, and his ashes were placed in the base of his column. Trajan's reputation remained unimpaired, in spite of the ultimate failure of his last campaigns. Early in his principate, he had unofficially been honored with the title optimus, "the best," which long described him even before it became, in 114, part of his official titulature. His correspondence with Pliny enables posterity to gain an intimate sense of the emperor in action. His concern for justice and the well-being of his subjects is underscored by his comment to Pliny, when faced with the question of the Christians, that they were not to be sought out, "nor is it appropriate to our age." At the onset of his principate, Tacitus called Trajan's accession the beginning of a beatissimum saeculum, and so it remained in the public mind. Admired by the people, respected by the senatorial aristocracy, he faced no internal difficulties, with no rival nor opposition. His powers were as extensive as Domitian's had been, but his use and display of these powers were very different from those of his predecessor, who had claimed to be deus et dominus. Not claiming to be a god, he was recognized in the official iconography of sculpture as Jupiter's viceregent on earth, so depicted on the attic reliefs of the Beneventan arch. The passage of time increased Trajan's aura rather than diminished it. In the late fourth century, when the Roman Empire had dramatically changed in character from what it had been in Trajan's time, each new emperor was hailed with the prayer, felicior Augusto, melior Traiano, "may he be luckier than Augustus and better than Trajan." That reputation has essentially survived into the present day.

Copyright (C) 2000, Herbert W. Benario.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

Cleisthenes
AntoninusPiusAequitasSear4053.jpg
[904a] Antoninus Pius, August 138 - 7 March 161 A.D.127 viewsAntoninus Pius, AD 138 to 161. Silver denarius. Sear-4053; gVF; Rome;16.4 x 17.9 mm, 3.61 g; issue of AD 138; Obverse : Head of Antoninus Pius right, with IMP T AEL CAES HADRI ANTONINVS around; Reverse : Aequitas standing left, holding scales and a cornucopiae, with AVG PIVS P M TR P COS DES II around. This is an interesting part of the Antoninus Pius series, struck in the first year of his reign, using his adoptive name of Hadrianus, and with the reverse inscription a continuation from the obverse.


De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Antoninus Pius (A.D. 138-161)

Richard D. Weigel
Western Kentucky University

Introduction
The long reign of the emperor Antoninus Pius is often described as a period of peace and quiet before the storm which followed and plagued his successor, Marcus Aurelius. In addition to the relative peacefulness, this emperor set the tone for a low-keyed imperial administration which differed markedly from those of his two immediate predecessors, Trajan and Hadrian. Antoninus managed to govern the empire capably and yet with such a gentle hand that he earned the respect, acclaim, and love of his subjects.

Early Life
The future emperor was born T. Aurelius Fulvus Boionius Arrius Antoninus on September 19, A.D. 86 at Lanuvium, an old Latin city southeast of Rome. His father's family had originally migrated to Rome from Nemausus (Nîmes) in Narbonese Gaul, but his paternal grandfather, T. Aurelius Fulvus, had served twice as Roman consul and also as city prefect and his father, Aurelius Fulvus, also held the consulship. The future emperor's mother was Arria Fadilla and her father, Arrius Antoninus, had also been consul twice. Young Antoninus was raised at Lorium, on the via Aurelia, where he later built a palace.

Career Under Hadrian
Very little is known about Antoninus' life before he became emperor. The brief biography in the Scriptores Historiae Augustae credited to Julius Capitolinus refers to his services as quaestor, praetor, and consul and P. von Rohden's entry in Pauly-Wissowa dates his tenure of these offices to A.D. 112, 117, and 120 respectively. At some point between A.D. 110 and 115, Antoninus married Annia Galeria Faustina, the daughter of M. Annius Verus. Hadrian later appointed Antoninus as one of his consular administrators of Italy and between A.D. 130 and 135 Antoninus served as proconsul of Asia.
Antoninus had achieved a distinguished career under Hadrian. and could have retired from imperial service with great pride, but events in A.D. 138 changed Antoninus' future quite radically. Early in the year, the death of Aelius Verus, whom Hadrian had previously adopted and named Caesar, opened a new path. Hadrian met with the Senate and announced his decision to adopt Antoninus as his son and heir and to share both proconsular and tribunician power with him. After giving this offer careful thought, Antoninus accepted and agreed in return to adopt as his heirs his wife's nephew, M. Antoninus, the future Marcus Aurelius, and L. Verus, the son of Aelius Verus.

Imperial Reign
When Hadrian died in the following summer, Antoninus oversaw the conveyance of his body from Baiae to Rome for interment in the new imperial tomb (now Castel Sant' Angelo). To honor his adoptive father, Antoninus set up a magnificent shield, established a priesthood, and, against serious opposition in the Senate, requested and bargained for senatorial confirmation of Hadrian's deification. Antoninus' devotion to Hadrian's memory is one of the reasons cited for the Senate's bestowal upon the new emperor of the name "pius". After initially refusing the Senate's recognition of Antoninus as "pater patriae", the new emperor accepted the honor with thanks. He declined, however, the Senate's decree authorizing the renaming of the months of September and October after the new emperor and empress. The Senate did honor the new empress with the title of "Augusta". On her death only a few years later in A.D. 141, the Senate deified Faustina and voted her a temple and priestesses. In memory of his wife, Antoninus also instituted an alimentary program, similar to those of his immediate predecessors, which combined loans to Italian farmers with funds, generated by interest on those loans, set aside for the care of orphaned girls. On coins these orphans are designated as puellae Faustinianae.

Antoninus returned all of Italy's share of the aurum coronarium, the money raised in honor of his accession, and one-half of that contributed from the provinces. His economic policy in general was relatively conservative and avoided luxurious waste while supporting public works of practical application. His procurators were told to keep provincial tribute reasonable and they were held accountable for exceeding fixed bounds. The provinces in general prospered under his administration and the use of informers was ended. Julius Capitolinus summarizes the excellence of Antoninus' administration when he says: "With such care did he govern all peoples under him that he looked after all things and all men as if they were his own." In spite of his caution in raising imperial revenues, however, Antoninus provided regular gifts of money to the people and to the soldiers and produced spectacular public games with a great variety of animals on display. The emperor also used his own funds to distribute oil, grain, and wine free in a time of famine and helped relieve the devastation caused in Rome by fire, flood, and a collapse of stands in the Circus Maximus and by fires and earthquakes in the provinces.

Although the reigns of his two immediate predecessors, Trajan and Hadrian, had seen prolific building activity in Rome and throughout the empire, Antoninus chose to be less lavish in his public works projects. He felt an obligation to complete work begun or promised by Hadrian. Antoninus completed the Mausoleum of Hadrian along the Tiber and built the temples of the Divine Hadrian in the Campus Martius and of Faustina in the Forum. He also restored the oldest bridge in Rome, the Pons Sublicius, the Graecostadium, and the Colosseum. He may even have put some finishing touches on the Pantheon because Julius Capitolinus mentions restoration of a templum Agrippae, but the text may be corrupt and the temple of the Divine Augustus, the restoration of which is recorded on some of Antoninus' coins, may be the intended reference here. Outside Rome, Antoninus repaired several roads and renovated ports in Alexandria, Caieta, and Terracina, a bath at Ostia, an aqueduct at Antium, and the temples in his birthplace, Lanuvium.

Although some sources suggest that Antoninus went in person to Egypt and Syria to put down a revolt of peoples along the Red Sea, Julius Capitolinus says that Antoninus made his home in Rome where he could receive messages from all parts of the empire equally quickly . He also states that to avoid burdening the provinces with the expenses of housing an emperor and his associates Antoninus took expeditions out of Rome only to his estates in Campania. If correct, these actions marked a decided break with the visibility of his two predecessors in the provinces and recreated a more Rome- and Italy-centered empire. Wilhelm Weber commented on this policy: "As if, perhaps, in criticism of Hadrian's conception of his task, he sat like a beneficent spider at the centre of his web, power radiating steadily from him to the farthest bounds of the empire and as steadily returning to him again. For the last time in Imperial history the Emperor was wholly one with Rome and its centralization."

During his third consulship (A.D. 140-144), Antoninus issued a series of unusual coins and medallions which featured entirely new or modified religious/mythological images. Jocelyn Toynbee correctly pointed out that these types were issued to prepare for the celebration of Rome's nine hundredth birthday in A.D. 147/148 and she also discussed two images which represent the emperor's reaction against Hadrian's "cosmopolitanism" and his attempt to restore Rome and Italy to a superior position over the provinces. This unusual series, issued especially in bronze, commemorated Rome's connection to her distant roots from Trojans, Latins, and Sabines and honored gods who had protected the city in the past. Themes associated with Aeneas, Romulus, Numa Pompilius, and Augustus by implication tied in Antoninus as successor to these four model Roman leaders. Although the death of Faustina may have motivated Antoninus' display of public piety to some degree on these coins and medallions, the series also set the tone for the games and rituals of the birthday celebration in 147/148, renewed religious values, and restored Rome's proper relationship with protective gods who had brought the city past success both in war and in peace. Another series of coins, the "anonymous quadrantes", combines a portrait of a god or goddess on the obverse with a reverse symbol of an animal associated with the same deity. The absence of an imperial portrait or any inscription aside from the S.C. authorization of the Senate makes it especially difficult to date this series. However, the similarity of the Jupiter and Venus portraits to images of Antoninus and Faustina and other links to Antoninus' coin-types make it probable that several of these types were issued in Antoninus' reign, perhaps again in connection with Rome's birthday celebration in A.D. 147/148.

Although Antoninus' reign was generally peaceful, Capitolinus says that he fought wars, through legates, against the Britons, Moors, Germans, Dacians, and the Alans and suppressed revolts in Achaea, in Egypt, and among the Jews. The war in Britain was fought around A.D. 142 against the Brigantes and led to the construction of the Antonine Wall across the island as a second line of defense north of Hadrian's Wall. In foreign relations, the emperor's authority was respected among peoples bordering on the empire. Antoninus approved the appointment of kings for the Armenians, for the Lazi, and for the Quadi and he successfully prevented a Parthian attack on Armenia by sending the Parthian king a letter of warning.

Antoninus did continue his predecessor's interest in law and his imperial legislation is cited frequently in Justinian's Digest. Several lawyers served in the emperor's consilium and presumably advised him on legal matters. Antoninus' legislation included protections for slaves, freedmen, and for illegitimate children and further defined family and inheritance law, including consideration of a daughter's wishes in marriage arrangements.

In preparation for the succession, Antoninus' daughter Faustina married Marcus Aurelius in A.D. 145 and she soon became Augusta in place of her deceased mother. Marcus Aurelius was associated in imperial powers and he and L. Verus both held the consulship multiple times in preparation for their accession. Antoninus made sure that he would leave the Empire secure and in sound financial condition and his adopted sons inherited a large surplus (reportedly 675 million denarii) in the Treasury .

Antoninus Pius died in March of A.D. 161, after giving the appropriate imperial watchword which so typified his reign, "equanimity". He was soon afterward deified by the Senate. His adopted sons and successors, Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus, erected a column of red granite in his honor in the Campus Martius. The marble base for this column, which is preserved in the Vatican, includes a sculpted image of the apotheosis of Antoninus and Faustina. In his Meditations, Marcus Aurelius expressed his enduring love and respect for his adoptive father: "Do all things as a disciple of Antoninus. Think of his constancy in every act rationally undertaken, his invariable equability, his piety, his serenity of countenance, his sweetness of disposition, his contempt for the bubble of fame, and his zeal for getting a true grasp of affairs." In many ways Antoninus Pius was a model emperor who justifiably earned comparison with his own model, Numa Pompilius, and provided the Empire with a period of fortune, religious piety, and security perhaps unmatched in imperial annals.

Copyright (C) 1998, Richard D. Weigel.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.



Cleisthenes
AntoPiusDenar.jpg
[904z] Antoninus Pius, August 138 - 7 March 161 A.D.143 viewsAntoninus Pius, August 138 - 7 March 161 A.D. Silver denarius, RIC 232, RSC 271, F, Rome, 1.699g, 17.3mm, 0o, 153 - 154 A.D. Obverse: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P XVII, laureate head right; Reverse: COS IIII, Fortuna standing right, cornucopia in left, long rudder on globe in right.


De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Antoninus Pius (A.D. 138-161)

Richard D. Weigel
Western Kentucky University

Introduction
The long reign of the emperor Antoninus Pius is often described as a period of peace and quiet before the storm which followed and plagued his successor, Marcus Aurelius. In addition to the relative peacefulness, this emperor set the tone for a low-keyed imperial administration which differed markedly from those of his two immediate predecessors, Trajan and Hadrian. Antoninus managed to govern the empire capably and yet with such a gentle hand that he earned the respect, acclaim, and love of his subjects.

Early Life
The future emperor was born T. Aurelius Fulvus Boionius Arrius Antoninus on September 19, A.D. 86 at Lanuvium, an old Latin city southeast of Rome. His father's family had originally migrated to Rome from Nemausus (Nîmes) in Narbonese Gaul, but his paternal grandfather, T. Aurelius Fulvus, had served twice as Roman consul and also as city prefect and his father, Aurelius Fulvus, also held the consulship. The future emperor's mother was Arria Fadilla and her father, Arrius Antoninus, had also been consul twice. Young Antoninus was raised at Lorium, on the via Aurelia, where he later built a palace.

Career Under Hadrian
Very little is known about Antoninus' life before he became emperor. The brief biography in the Scriptores Historiae Augustae credited to Julius Capitolinus refers to his services as quaestor, praetor, and consul and P. von Rohden's entry in Pauly-Wissowa dates his tenure of these offices to A.D. 112, 117, and 120 respectively. At some point between A.D. 110 and 115, Antoninus married Annia Galeria Faustina, the daughter of M. Annius Verus. Hadrian later appointed Antoninus as one of his consular administrators of Italy and between A.D. 130 and 135 Antoninus served as proconsul of Asia.
Antoninus had achieved a distinguished career under Hadrian. and could have retired from imperial service with great pride, but events in A.D. 138 changed Antoninus' future quite radically. Early in the year, the death of Aelius Verus, whom Hadrian had previously adopted and named Caesar, opened a new path. Hadrian met with the Senate and announced his decision to adopt Antoninus as his son and heir and to share both proconsular and tribunician power with him. After giving this offer careful thought, Antoninus accepted and agreed in return to adopt as his heirs his wife's nephew, M. Antoninus, the future Marcus Aurelius, and L. Verus, the son of Aelius Verus.

Imperial Reign
When Hadrian died in the following summer, Antoninus oversaw the conveyance of his body from Baiae to Rome for interment in the new imperial tomb (now Castel Sant' Angelo). To honor his adoptive father, Antoninus set up a magnificent shield, established a priesthood, and, against serious opposition in the Senate, requested and bargained for senatorial confirmation of Hadrian's deification. Antoninus' devotion to Hadrian's memory is one of the reasons cited for the Senate's bestowal upon the new emperor of the name "pius". After initially refusing the Senate's recognition of Antoninus as "pater patriae", the new emperor accepted the honor with thanks. He declined, however, the Senate's decree authorizing the renaming of the months of September and October after the new emperor and empress. The Senate did honor the new empress with the title of "Augusta". On her death only a few years later in A.D. 141, the Senate deified Faustina and voted her a temple and priestesses. In memory of his wife, Antoninus also instituted an alimentary program, similar to those of his immediate predecessors, which combined loans to Italian farmers with funds, generated by interest on those loans, set aside for the care of orphaned girls. On coins these orphans are designated as puellae Faustinianae.

Antoninus returned all of Italy's share of the aurum coronarium, the money raised in honor of his accession, and one-half of that contributed from the provinces. His economic policy in general was relatively conservative and avoided luxurious waste while supporting public works of practical application. His procurators were told to keep provincial tribute reasonable and they were held accountable for exceeding fixed bounds. The provinces in general prospered under his administration and the use of informers was ended. Julius Capitolinus summarizes the excellence of Antoninus' administration when he says: "With such care did he govern all peoples under him that he looked after all things and all men as if they were his own." In spite of his caution in raising imperial revenues, however, Antoninus provided regular gifts of money to the people and to the soldiers and produced spectacular public games with a great variety of animals on display. The emperor also used his own funds to distribute oil, grain, and wine free in a time of famine and helped relieve the devastation caused in Rome by fire, flood, and a collapse of stands in the Circus Maximus and by fires and earthquakes in the provinces.

Although the reigns of his two immediate predecessors, Trajan and Hadrian, had seen prolific building activity in Rome and throughout the empire, Antoninus chose to be less lavish in his public works projects. He felt an obligation to complete work begun or promised by Hadrian. Antoninus completed the Mausoleum of Hadrian along the Tiber and built the temples of the Divine Hadrian in the Campus Martius and of Faustina in the Forum. He also restored the oldest bridge in Rome, the Pons Sublicius, the Graecostadium, and the Colosseum. He may even have put some finishing touches on the Pantheon because Julius Capitolinus mentions restoration of a templum Agrippae, but the text may be corrupt and the temple of the Divine Augustus, the restoration of which is recorded on some of Antoninus' coins, may be the intended reference here. Outside Rome, Antoninus repaired several roads and renovated ports in Alexandria, Caieta, and Terracina, a bath at Ostia, an aqueduct at Antium, and the temples in his birthplace, Lanuvium.

Although some sources suggest that Antoninus went in person to Egypt and Syria to put down a revolt of peoples along the Red Sea, Julius Capitolinus says that Antoninus made his home in Rome where he could receive messages from all parts of the empire equally quickly . He also states that to avoid burdening the provinces with the expenses of housing an emperor and his associates Antoninus took expeditions out of Rome only to his estates in Campania. If correct, these actions marked a decided break with the visibility of his two predecessors in the provinces and recreated a more Rome- and Italy-centered empire. Wilhelm Weber commented on this policy: "As if, perhaps, in criticism of Hadrian's conception of his task, he sat like a beneficent spider at the centre of his web, power radiating steadily from him to the farthest bounds of the empire and as steadily returning to him again. For the last time in Imperial history the Emperor was wholly one with Rome and its centralization."

During his third consulship (A.D. 140-144), Antoninus issued a series of unusual coins and medallions which featured entirely new or modified religious/mythological images. Jocelyn Toynbee correctly pointed out that these types were issued to prepare for the celebration of Rome's nine hundredth birthday in A.D. 147/148 and she also discussed two images which represent the emperor's reaction against Hadrian's "cosmopolitanism" and his attempt to restore Rome and Italy to a superior position over the provinces. This unusual series, issued especially in bronze, commemorated Rome's connection to her distant roots from Trojans, Latins, and Sabines and honored gods who had protected the city in the past. Themes associated with Aeneas, Romulus, Numa Pompilius, and Augustus by implication tied in Antoninus as successor to these four model Roman leaders. Although the death of Faustina may have motivated Antoninus' display of public piety to some degree on these coins and medallions, the series also set the tone for the games and rituals of the birthday celebration in 147/148, renewed religious values, and restored Rome's proper relationship with protective gods who had brought the city past success both in war and in peace. Another series of coins, the "anonymous quadrantes", combines a portrait of a god or goddess on the obverse with a reverse symbol of an animal associated with the same deity. The absence of an imperial portrait or any inscription aside from the S.C. authorization of the Senate makes it especially difficult to date this series. However, the similarity of the Jupiter and Venus portraits to images of Antoninus and Faustina and other links to Antoninus' coin-types make it probable that several of these types were issued in Antoninus' reign, perhaps again in connection with Rome's birthday celebration in A.D. 147/148.

Although Antoninus' reign was generally peaceful, Capitolinus says that he fought wars, through legates, against the Britons, Moors, Germans, Dacians, and the Alans and suppressed revolts in Achaea, in Egypt, and among the Jews. The war in Britain was fought around A.D. 142 against the Brigantes and led to the construction of the Antonine Wall across the island as a second line of defense north of Hadrian's Wall. In foreign relations, the emperor's authority was respected among peoples bordering on the empire. Antoninus approved the appointment of kings for the Armenians, for the Lazi, and for the Quadi and he successfully prevented a Parthian attack on Armenia by sending the Parthian king a letter of warning.

Antoninus did continue his predecessor's interest in law and his imperial legislation is cited frequently in Justinian's Digest. Several lawyers served in the emperor's consilium and presumably advised him on legal matters. Antoninus' legislation included protections for slaves, freedmen, and for illegitimate children and further defined family and inheritance law, including consideration of a daughter's wishes in marriage arrangements.

In preparation for the succession, Antoninus' daughter Faustina married Marcus Aurelius in A.D. 145 and she soon became Augusta in place of her deceased mother. Marcus Aurelius was associated in imperial powers and he and L. Verus both held the consulship multiple times in preparation for their accession. Antoninus made sure that he would leave the Empire secure and in sound financial condition and his adopted sons inherited a large surplus (reportedly 675 million denarii) in the Treasury .

Antoninus Pius died in March of A.D. 161, after giving the appropriate imperial watchword which so typified his reign, "equanimity". He was soon afterward deified by the Senate. His adopted sons and successors, Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus, erected a column of red granite in his honor in the Campus Martius. The marble base for this column, which is preserved in the Vatican, includes a sculpted image of the apotheosis of Antoninus and Faustina. In his Meditations, Marcus Aurelius expressed his enduring love and respect for his adoptive father: "Do all things as a disciple of Antoninus. Think of his constancy in every act rationally undertaken, his invariable equability, his piety, his serenity of countenance, his sweetness of disposition, his contempt for the bubble of fame, and his zeal for getting a true grasp of affairs." In many ways Antoninus Pius was a model emperor who justifiably earned comparison with his own model, Numa Pompilius, and provided the Empire with a period of fortune, religious piety, and security perhaps unmatched in imperial annals.

Copyright (C) 1998, Richard D. Weigel.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
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