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BRD_10_D-Mark_1972_J_Olympia_München_PP_Proof_Polierte_Platte.jpg
19 viewsBundesrepublik Deutschland

10 D-Mark 1972 (Silber)

Münzstätte Hamburg

Olympiade München 1972

Gewicht: 15,5g

Erhaltung: leicht angelaufen, Polierte Platte _1699
Antonivs Protti
Elis_Olympia_drachm.jpg
26 viewsELIS, Olympia. AR Drachm (4.63g), c. 245-210 BC.

Eagle flying with hare in talons / Thunderbolt, F A in field. BCD 250. good Very Fine, old toning.

Ex: Dr. Paul Rynearson, with his handwritten tag.
Collecting Ancient Greek Coins (Paul Rynearson) 16d (this coin pictured).
paul1888
Olympia.jpg
15 viewsELIS. Olympia. Circa 360 BC. AR hemidrachm (2.51 gm). Hera mint, time of the 106th-108th Olympiads. Head of the nymph Olympia right / Eagle with open wings standing right, head left. BCD 186paul1888
rjb_2016_06_08.jpg
149 viewsAugustus 27BC - 14 AD
Denarius
Northern Peleponesian mint
Obv: AVGVSTVS
Bare head right
Rev: IOVI OLV
Hexastyle temple to Zeus at Olympia
RIC 472
mauseus
ConstansVot.jpeg
1405a, Constans, 9 September 337 - 19 January 350 A.D. (Alexandria)39 viewsBronze AE 4, RIC 37, gVF, Egypt, Alexandria, 1.54g, 15.0mm, 180o, 345-347 A.D. Obverse: D N CONSTANS P F AVG, pearl diademed head right; Reverse: VOT XX MVLT XXX in wreath, SMALA• in exergue.

Flavius Julius Constans, third and youngest son of Constantine I and Fausta, was born between 320 and 323 A.D. Primary sources for the life and reign of Constans I are scarce. To reconstruct his life and career, one must draw on a variety of references in both fourth century and later works. Raised as a Christian, he was made a Caesar on 25 December 333 A.D. Constans I and his two brothers, after the death of their father on 22 May 337 and the subsequent "massacre of the princes" in which many other relatives were purged, met in the first part of September 337 in Pannonia to re-divide the empire among themselves. There they were acclaimed Augusti by the army. Constans' new realm included Italy, Africa, Illyricum, Macedonia, and Achaea. Shortly before his father's death, Constans' engagement to Olympias, the daughter of the Praetorian Prefect Ablabius, was announced; although the match was never solemnized because of political reasons.

It would appear that Constans was successful in the military sphere. Following his accession to the purple in 337, he seems to have won a victory over the Sarmatians. In 340 Constans was able to beat back an attempt by his brother Constantine II to seize some of his realm. The latter died in a battle fought near Aquileia and Constans absorbed his late brother's territory. In 341 and 342 he conducted a successful campaign against the Franci. He also visited Britain in 343, probably on a military campaign.

As an emperor Constans gets mixed reviews. In what may be a topos, sources suggest that the first part of his reign was moderate but in later years, however, he became overbearing. The emperor apparently attempted to obtain as much money as he could from his subjects and sold government posts to the highest bidder. His favorites were allowed to oppress his subjects. Sources also condemn his homosexuality. He did have some military success and, in addition to other military threats, he had to deal with Donatist-related bandits in North Africa.

Like his father Constantine I and his brother Constantius II, Constans had a deep interest in Christianity. Together with Constantius II he issued (or perhaps re-issued) a ban against pagan sacrifice in 341. The next year, they cautioned against the destruction of pagan temples. Unlike his brother Constantius II, who supported the Arian faction, he stood shoulder to shoulder with Athanasius and other members of the Orthodox clique. In fact, it is due to his request that the Council of Serdica was called to deal with the ecclesiastical squabble between Athanasius of Alexandria and Paul of Constantinople on one side and the Arian faction on the other.

When Magnentius was declared emperor in Gaul during January 350, Constans realized his reign was at an end. When he learned of the revolt, he fled toward Helena, a town in the Pyrenees. Constans was put to death by Gaeso and a band of Magnentius' assassins, who dragged their victim from a temple in which he had sought refuge.

By Michael DiMaio, Jr., Salve Regina University and Robert Frakes, Clarion UniversityPublished: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

Cleisthenes
Constans.jpg
1405n, Constans, 9 September 337 - 19 January 350 A.D. (Siscia)56 viewsConstans, 9 September 337 - 19 January 350 A.D. Bronze AE 3, RIC 241, S 3978, VM 69, VF, Siscia, 2.32g, 18.3mm, 180o. Obverse: D N CONSTANS P F AVG, pearl diademed draped and cuirassed bust right; Reverse: FEL TEMP REPARATIO, Phoenix radiate, standing on rocky mound, GSIS and symbol in ex; nice green patina.

Flavius Julius Constans, third and youngest son of Constantine I and Fausta, was born between 320 and 323 A.D. Primary sources for the life and reign of Constans I are scarce. To reconstruct his life and career, one must draw on a variety of references in both fourth century and later works. Raised as a Christian, he was made a Caesar on 25 December 333 A.D. Constans I and his two brothers, after the death of their father on 22 May 337 and the subsequent "massacre of the princes" in which many other relatives were purged, met in the first part of September 337 in Pannonia to re-divide the empire among themselves. There they were acclaimed Augusti by the army. Constans' new realm included Italy, Africa, Illyricum, Macedonia, and Achaea. Shortly before his father's death, Constans' engagement to Olympias, the daughter of the Praetorian Prefect Ablabius, was announced; although the match was never solemnized because of political reasons.

It would appear that Constans was successful in the military sphere. Following his accession to the purple in 337, he seems to have won a victory over the Sarmatians. In 340 Constans was able to beat back an attempt by his brother Constantine II to seize some of his realm. The latter died in a battle fought near Aquileia and Constans absorbed his late brother's territory. In 341 and 342 he conducted a successful campaign against the Franci. He also visited Britain in 343, probably on a military campaign.

As an emperor Constans gets mixed reviews. In what may be a topos, sources suggest that the first part of his reign was moderate but in later years, however, he became overbearing. The emperor apparently attempted to obtain as much money as he could from his subjects and sold government posts to the highest bidder. His favorites were allowed to oppress his subjects. Sources also condemn his homosexuality. He did have some military success and, in addition to other military threats, he had to deal with Donatist-related bandits in North Africa.

Like his father Constantine I and his brother Constantius II, Constans had a deep interest in Christianity. Together with Constantius II he issued (or perhaps re-issued) a ban against pagan sacrifice in 341. The next year, they cautioned against the destruction of pagan temples. Unlike his brother Constantius II, who supported the Arian faction, he stood shoulder to shoulder with Athanasius and other members of the Orthodox clique. In fact, it is due to his request that the Council of Serdica was called to deal with the ecclesiastical squabble between Athanasius of Alexandria and Paul of Constantinople on one side and the Arian faction on the other.

When Magnentius was declared emperor in Gaul during January 350, Constans realized his reign was at an end. When he learned of the revolt, he fled toward Helena, a town in the Pyrenees. Constans was put to death by Gaeso and a band of Magnentius' assassins, who dragged their victim from a temple in which he had sought refuge.

By Michael DiMaio, Jr., Salve Regina University and Robert Frakes, Clarion University
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
U2476F1OVDKUXTA.jpeg
1405t, Constans, 9 September 337 - 19 January 350 A.D. (Thessalonica )39 viewsConstans, 9 September 337 - 19 January 350 A.D., Bronze AE 3, unattributed; Thessalonica mint, 2.25g, 18.9mm, 0; aVF.

Flavius Julius Constans, third and youngest son of Constantine I and Fausta, was born between 320 and 323 A.D. Primary sources for the life and reign of Constans I are scarce. To reconstruct his life and career, one must draw on a variety of references in both fourth century and later works. Raised as a Christian, he was made a Caesar on 25 December 333 A.D. Constans I and his two brothers, after the death of their father on 22 May 337 and the subsequent "massacre of the princes" in which many other relatives were purged, met in the first part of September 337 in Pannonia to re-divide the empire among themselves. There they were acclaimed Augusti by the army. Constans' new realm included Italy, Africa, Illyricum, Macedonia, and Achaea. Shortly before his father's death, Constans' engagement to Olympias, the daughter of the Praetorian Prefect Ablabius, was announced; although the match was never solemnized because of political reasons.

It would appear that Constans was successful in the military sphere. Following his accession to the purple in 337, he seems to have won a victory over the Sarmatians. In 340 Constans was able to beat back an attempt by his brother Constantine II to seize some of his realm. The latter died in a battle fought near Aquileia and Constans absorbed his late brother's territory. In 341 and 342 he conducted a successful campaign against the Franci. He also visited Britain in 343, probably on a military campaign.

As an emperor Constans gets mixed reviews. In what may be a topos, sources suggest that the first part of his reign was moderate but in later years, however, he became overbearing. The emperor apparently attempted to obtain as much money as he could from his subjects and sold government posts to the highest bidder. His favorites were allowed to oppress his subjects. Sources also condemn his homosexuality. He did have some military success and, in addition to other military threats, he had to deal with Donatist-related bandits in North Africa.

Like his father Constantine I and his brother Constantius II, Constans had a deep interest in Christianity. Together with Constantius II he issued (or perhaps re-issued) a ban against pagan sacrifice in 341. The next year, they cautioned against the destruction of pagan temples. Unlike his brother Constantius II, who supported the Arian faction, he stood shoulder to shoulder with Athanasius and other members of the Orthodox clique. In fact, it is due to his request that the Council of Serdica was called to deal with the ecclesiastical squabble between Athanasius of Alexandria and Paul of Constantinople on one side and the Arian faction on the other.

When Magnentius was declared emperor in Gaul during January 350, Constans realized his reign was at an end. When he learned of the revolt, he fled toward Helena, a town in the Pyrenees. Constans was put to death by Gaeso and a band of Magnentius' assassins, who dragged their victim from a temple in which he had sought refuge.

By Michael DiMaio, Jr., Salve Regina University and Robert Frakes, Clarion University.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
olympic2.jpg
1976 Olympic Canadian Memorial Coin69 viewsA gold 1976 Olympic canadian memorial coin.

OBVERSE: Olympians
REVERSE: Queen Elizabeth
aarmale
PC_0004.JPG
19th Century framed uniface plaster cast Stater from Elis26 viewsObv:- Eagle's head left, below poplar leaf
Rev:- winged thunderbolt
Elis. Olympia. 93rd Olympiad, c. 408 BC. Stater

Famed uniface plaster cast from 19th century.
Originally mounted on velvet and one would assume in a display case. Traces of velvet still attached to underside of frame.
1 commentsmaridvnvm
CaligulaAsVesta.jpg
1ao Caligula30 views37-41

As
Bare head, left, C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT
Vesta std, VESTA SC

RIC 38

The son of Germanicus, modern research suggests, was not as bad a ruler as history generally supposes, but the winners write the history, and Caligula had the dubious honor of being the first loser to die in the purple at the hand of assassins.

Suetonius recorded: Gaius Caesar (Caligula) was born on the 31st of August AD12, in the consulship of his father, Germanicus, and Gaius Fonteius Capito. The sources disagree as to his place of birth. Gnaeus Lentulus Gaetulicus claims it was Tibur (Tivoli), Pliny the Elder, says it was among the Treveri in the village of Ambitarvium, above Confluentes (the site of Koblenz) at the junction of the Moselle and Rhine. . . . His surname Caligula (‘Little Boot’) was bestowed on him affectionately by the troops because he was brought up amongst them, dressed in soldier’s gear.

Caligula accompanied his father, Germanicus, to Syria (in AD 19). On his return, he lived with his mother, Agrippina the Elder until she was exiled (in 29 AD), and then with his great-grandmother Livia. When Livia died (in 29 AD), he gave her eulogy from the rostra even though he was not of age. He was then cared for by his grandmother Antonia the Younger, until at the age of eighteen Tiberius summoned him to Capreae (Capri, in AD 31). On that day he assumed his gown of manhood and shaved off his first beard, but without the ceremony that had attended his brothers’ coming of age.

On Capraea, though every trick was tried to lure him, or force him, into making complaints against Tiberius, he ignored all provocation, . . . behaving so obsequiously to his adoptive grandfather, Tiberius, and the entire household, that the quip made regarding him was well borne out, that there was never a better slave or a worse master.

Even in those days, his cruel and vicious character was beyond his control, and he was an eager spectator of torture and executions meted out in punishment. At night, disguised in wig and long robe, he abandoned himself to gluttony and adulterous behaviour. He was passionately devoted it seems to the theatrical arts, to dancing and singing, a taste in him which Tiberius willingly fostered, in the hope of civilizing his savage propensities.

And came near to assuming a royal diadem at once, turning the semblance of a principate into an absolute monarchy. Indeed, advised by this that he outranked princes and kings, he began thereafter to claim divine power, sending to Greece for the most sacred or beautiful statues of the gods, including the Jupiter of Olympia, so that the heads could be exchanged for his own. He then extended the Palace as far as the Forum, making the Temple of Castor and Pollux its vestibule, and would often present himself to the populace there, standing between the statues of the divine brothers, to be worshipped by whoever appeared, some hailing him as ‘Jupiter Latiaris’. He also set up a special shrine to himself as god, with priests, the choicest sacrificial victims, and a life-sized golden statue of himself, which was dressed each day in clothes of identical design to those he chose to wear.

He habitually committed incest with each of his three sisters, seating them in turn below him at large banquets while his wife reclined above. . . . His preferred method of execution was by the infliction of many slight wounds, and his order, issued as a matter of routine, became notorious: ‘Cut him so he knows he is dying.’
Blindado
1053_P_Hadrian_RPC5050.jpg
5050 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Tetradrachm 117-18 AD Dikaiosyne standing20 viewsReference.
RPC III, 5050 (this coin). Dattari-Savio Pl. 65, 1347 (this coin).Emmett 833.2

Issue L B = year 2

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙС ΤΡΑΝΟС (sic) ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС СƐΒ
Laureate head of Hadrian, r., drapery on l. shoulder

Rev. L Β
Dikaiosyne standing facing, head l., holding scales and cornucopia

12.52 gr
25 mm
12h

Note.
From the Dattari collection.

In ancient Greek culture, Dikē (/ˈdiːkeɪ/ or /ˈdɪkiː/; Greek: Δίκη, English translation: "justice") was the goddess of justice and the spirit of moral order and fair judgement based on immemorial custom, in the sense of socially enforced norms and conventional rules. According to Hesiod (Theogony, l. 901), she was fathered by Zeus upon his second consort, Themis. She and her mother were both personifications of justice. She is depicted as a young, slender woman carrying a physical balance scale and wearing a laurel wreath while her Roman counterpart (Justitia) appears in a similar fashion but blind-folded. She is represented in the constellation Libra which is named for the Latin name of her symbol (Scales). She is often associated with Astraea, the goddess of innocence and purity. Astraea is also one of her epithets referring to her appearance in the nearby constellation Virgo which is said to represent Astraea. This reflects her symbolic association with Astraea, who too has a similar iconography.

The sculptures of the Temple of Zeus at Olympia have as their unifying iconographical conception the dikē of Zeus, and in poetry she is often the attendant (paredros) of Zeus.
In the philosophical climate of late 5th century Athens, dikē could be anthropomorphised as a goddess of moral justice.
She was one of the three second-generation Horae, along with Eunomia ("order") and Eirene ("peace")
okidoki
978_P_Hadrian_RPC6020_1.jpg
6020 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Drachm 134-35 AD Poseidon in hippocamp biga28 viewsReference.
RPC III, 6020 (this coin illustrated). Dattari-Savio Pl. 89, 7759 (this coin); Emmett 1023 (triton biga)

Issue L ƐΝΝƐΑΚ·Δ = year 19

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙС ΤΡΑΙΑΝ - ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС СƐΒ
Laureate draped and cuirassed bust of Hadrian, r., seen from rear

Rev. L ƐΝΝƐΑΚ·Δ
Poseidon in hippocamp biga, r.raising hand and holding trident

23.35 gr
32 mm
12h

Note.
Poseidon was the Olympian god of the ocean, earthquakes and horses. His father Kronos swallowed him whole when he was born, later Zeus with the help of Metis managed to set him free. During the Titanomachy, the Cyclopes forged a unique trident for Poseidon, and together with his brothers they defeated the Titans and threw them into the Tartaros. The god is well known for his famous attributes such as the Trident, sometimes he also used to carry around a rock with sea creatures on it, and he is pictured on pottery with a wreath of celery leaves. His sacred animals are the dolphin, the bull and the horses. However he is also associated with animals such as the hippocampus, in fact, his chariot was driven by seahorses.
okidoki
306_P_Hadrian_Emmett.jpg
6252 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Tetradrachm 137-38 AD Pronoia standing36 viewsReference.
RPC III, 6252; Emmett 881.22; K&G 32.770; Dattari (Savio) pl. 68, 7457; Köln 1243 var. (distribution of rev. legend)

Issue L KB = year 22

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙС ΤΡΑ ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС СƐΒ
Laureate head of Hadrian, r., drapery on l. shoulder

Rev. ΠΡΟΝΟΙΑ LKB
Pronoia standing left, holding phoenix and sceptre.

13.60 gr
24 mm
12h.

Note.
CNG
Pronoia (“foresight”) was an Oceanid nymph and wife of the Titan Prometheus, who was sentenced to eternal torture for stealing fire from the Olympian gods for use by humans.
2 commentsokidoki
septsev.jpg
Achaea. Elis, Elis. Septimius Severus AE18.272 viewsPeloponnesus.
Obv. - ΛCEPCEBHP.. Septimius Severus laureate, head rt.
Rev. - HΛEIWΝ Zeus standing rt. holding eagle in left hand and throwing lightning bolt with rt.

The first Olympic festival was organized in Olympia by the authorities of Elis in the 8th century BC, with tradition dating the first games at 776 BC.
ancientone
ATG_bust_Pergamon.jpg
Alexander III The Great, Macedonian Kingdom, 336 - 323 B.C.143 viewsAlexandros III Philippou Makedonon (356-323 BC), better known as Alexander the Great, single-handedly changed the entire nature of the ancient world in little more than ten years.

"Born in the northern Greek kingdom of Macedonia in 356 BC, to Philip II and his formidable wife Olympias, Alexander was educated by the philosopher Aristotle. Following his father's assassination in 336 BC, he inherited a powerful yet volatile kingdom, which he had to secure - along with the rest of the Greek city states - before he could set out to conquer the massive Persian Empire, in revenge for Persia's earlier attempts to conquer Greece.
Against overwhelming odds, he led his army to victories across the Persian territories of Asia Minor, Syria and Egypt without incurring a single defeat. With his greatest victory at the Battle of Gaugamela, in what is now northern Iraq, in 331 BC, the young king of Macedonia, leader of the Greeks, Overlord of Asia Minor and Pharaoh of Egypt also became Great King of Persia at the age of 25.

Over the next eight years, in his capacity as king, commander, politician, scholar and explorer, Alexander led his army a further 11,000 miles, founding over 70 cities and creating an empire that stretched across three continents and covered some two million square miles.

The entire area from Greece in the west, north to the Danube, south into Egypt and as far east as the Indian Punjab, was linked together in a vast international network of trade and commerce. This was united by a common Greek language and culture, whilst the king himself adopted foreign customs in order to rule his millions of ethnically diverse subjects.

Primarily a soldier, Alexander was an acknowledged military genius who always led by example, although his belief in his own indestructibility meant he was often reckless with his own life and that of those he expected to follow him. The fact that his army only refused to do so once, in the13 years of a reign during which there was constant fighting, indicates the loyalty he inspired.

Following his death in 323 BC at the age of only 32, his empire was torn apart in the power struggles of his successors. Yet Alexander's mythical status rapidly reached epic proportions and inspired individuals as diverse as Julius Caesar, Cleopatra, Louis XIV and Napoleon.

He continues to be portrayed according to the bias of those interpreting his achievements. He is either Alexander the Great or Iskander the Accursed, chivalrous knight or bloody monster, benign multi-culturalist or racist imperialist - but above all he is fully deserving of his description as 'the most significant secular individual in history'."

By Dr Joann Fletcher (http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/alexander_the_great.shtml)
Cleisthenes
ATGlifetimeDrachmLydiaSardes.jpg
Alexander III The Great, Macedonian Kingdom, 336 - 323 B.C. Lifetime Issue108 viewsSilver drachm, Price 2553, VF, 4.297g, 16.4mm, 0o, Lydia, Sardes mint, c. 334 - 323 B.C. Lifetime Issue; Obverse: Herakles' head right, clad in Nemean lion scalp headdress tied at neck; Reverse: BASILEWS ALEXANDROU, Zeus enthroned left, eagle in right, scepter in left, EYE monogram left, rose under throne. Ex FORVM.

Alexandros III Philippou Makedonon (356-323 BC)

"Alexander III of Macedon, better known as Alexander the Great, single-handedly changed the entire nature of the ancient world in little more than ten years.

Born in the northern Greek kingdom of Macedonia in 356 BC, to Philip II and his formidable wife Olympias, Alexander was educated by the philosopher Aristotle. Following his father's assassination in 336 BC, he inherited a powerful yet volatile kingdom, which he had to secure - along with the rest of the Greek city states - before he could set out to conquer the massive Persian Empire, in revenge for Persia's earlier attempts to conquer Greece.

Against overwhelming odds, he led his army to victories across the Persian territories of Asia Minor, Syria and Egypt without incurring a single defeat. With his greatest victory at the Battle of Gaugamela, in what is now northern Iraq, in 331 BC, the young king of Macedonia, leader of the Greeks, Overlord of Asia Minor and Pharaoh of Egypt also became Great King of Persia at the age of 25.

Over the next eight years, in his capacity as king, commander, politician, scholar and explorer, Alexander led his army a further 11,000 miles, founding over 70 cities and creating an empire that stretched across three continents and covered some two million square miles.

The entire area from Greece in the west, north to the Danube, south into Egypt and as far east as the Indian Punjab, was linked together in a vast international network of trade and commerce. This was united by a common Greek language and culture, whilst the king himself adopted foreign customs in order to rule his millions of ethnically diverse subjects.

Primarily a soldier, Alexander was an acknowledged military genius who always led by example, although his belief in his own indestructibility meant he was often reckless with his own life and that of those he expected to follow him. The fact that his army only refused to do so once, in the 13 years of a reign during which there was constant fighting, indicates the loyalty he inspired.

Following his death in 323 BC at the age of only 32, his empire was torn apart in the power struggles of his successors. Yet Alexander's mythical status rapidly reached epic proportions and inspired individuals as diverse as Julius Caesar, Cleopatra, Louis XIV and Napoleon.

He continues to be portrayed according to the bias of those interpreting his achievements. He is either Alexander the Great or Iskander the Accursed, chivalrous knight or bloody monster, benign multi-culturalist or racist imperialist - but above all he is fully deserving of his description as 'the most significant secular individual in history'."

By Dr. Joann Fletcher
http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/alexander_the_great.shtml

"When Alexander saw the breadth of his domain, he wept for there were no more worlds to conquer."--attributed to Plutarch, The Moralia.
http://www.pothos.org/alexander.asp?paraID=96

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
AlexTheGreatMemphisTet.jpg
Alexander III The Great, Macedonian Kingdom, 336 - 323 B.C., Possible Lifetime Issue108 viewsThis is the same coin in my collection, different picture, as the Alexander tetradrachm listed as [300mem].

Silver tetradrachm, Price 3971, VF, 16.081g, 26.1mm, 0o, Egypt, Memphis mint, c. 332 - 323 or 323 - 305 B.C.; obverse Herakles' head right, clad in Nemean lion scalp headdress tied at neck; reverse ALEXANDROU, Zeus enthroned left, legs crossed, eagle in right, scepter in left, rose left, DI-O under throne. Ex Pavlos S. Pavlou. Ex FORVM, "The Memphis issues are among the finest style Alexander coins. Experts disagree on the date of this issue. Some identify it as a lifetime issue and others as a posthumous issue (Joseph Sermarini).

Alexandros III Philippou Makedonon (356-323 BC)

"Alexander III of Macedon, better known as Alexander the Great, single-handedly changed the entire nature of the ancient world in little more than ten years.

Born in the northern Greek kingdom of Macedonia in 356 BC, to Philip II and his formidable wife Olympias, Alexander was educated by the philosopher Aristotle. Following his father's assassination in 336 BC, he inherited a powerful yet volatile kingdom, which he had to secure - along with the rest of the Greek city states - before he could set out to conquer the massive Persian Empire, in revenge for Persia's earlier attempts to conquer Greece.

Against overwhelming odds, he led his army to victories across the Persian territories of Asia Minor, Syria and Egypt without incurring a single defeat. With his greatest victory at the Battle of Gaugamela, in what is now northern Iraq, in 331 BC, the young king of Macedonia, leader of the Greeks, Overlord of Asia Minor and Pharaoh of Egypt also became Great King of Persia at the age of 25.

Over the next eight years, in his capacity as king, commander, politician, scholar and explorer, Alexander led his army a further 11,000 miles, founding over 70 cities and creating an empire that stretched across three continents and covered some two million square miles.

The entire area from Greece in the west, north to the Danube, south into Egypt and as far east as the Indian Punjab, was linked together in a vast international network of trade and commerce. This was united by a common Greek language and culture, whilst the king himself adopted foreign customs in order to rule his millions of ethnically diverse subjects.

Primarily a soldier, Alexander was an acknowledged military genius who always led by example, although his belief in his own indestructibility meant he was often reckless with his own life and that of those he expected to follow him. The fact that his army only refused to do so once, in the13 years of a reign during which there was constant fighting, indicates the loyalty he inspired.

Following his death in 323 BC at the age of only 32, his empire was torn apart in the power struggles of his successors. Yet Alexander's mythical status rapidly reached epic proportions and inspired individuals as diverse as Julius Caesar, Cleopatra, Louis XIV and Napoleon.

He continues to be portrayed according to the bias of those interpreting his achievements. He is either Alexander the Great or Iskander the Accursed, chivalrous knight or bloody monster, benign multi-culturalist or racist imperialist - but above all he is fully deserving of his description as 'the most significant secular individual in history'."

By Dr. Joann Fletcher
http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/alexander_the_great.shtml

"When Alexander saw the breadth of his domain, he wept for there were no more worlds to conquer."--attributed to Plutarch, The Moralia.
http://www.pothos.org/alexander.asp?paraID=96

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
1 commentsJames Fitzgerald
Antiochus_2b.jpg
Antiochus I (Soter) * Apollo, 280-261 BC67 views
Antiochus I * Apollo,* 280-261 BC
Ć hemidrachm (?)

Obv: Diademed head of Antiochus right
Rev: Apollo seated on omphalos (Delphi), holding arrow in right hand, leaning on strung bow with his left hand, left-facing.
BASILEOS to the right, [A]NTIOXOY to the left. Monograms to left and right, omitted by strike from the right, effaced by wear from the left.

Weight: ca. 4.0 grams
Die axis: 190 degs.

Patina: Quite lovely 'desert-patina.'

Sear, GCATV * (SG) Number 6866v (This example appears to be bronze, not silver: I have been unable to date to find any reference to an Ć variant of SG #6866).
BMC, 4.9, 10


This coin bears portrait of the middle-aged Antiochus I 'Soter,' from the time of his sole reign (280-261 BC.), following the death of his father, Seleukos I.
The reverse depicts Delphian Apollo holding a single arrow, as opposed to the two arrows as seen on the coins dating from his joint-reign with his father.

* Olympian

Tiathena
Elis_Olympia.jpg
Apollo right/ Zeus right with eagle and thunderbolt, AE 2129 viewsElis, Olympia, Late 3rd century-191 B.C. AE 21mm, 5.77g. Obv: Head of Apollo r. Rev: Zeus stg. r., hurling thunderbolt, eagle. BCD-292. Ex H.J.BerkPodiceps
AP_Apollo-Anchor~0.jpg
Apollonia Pontika, Thrace * Apollon / Anchor * AR Trihemiobol,103 views
Apollonia Pontika, Thrace
Silver Trihemiobol
Date: ca. 450-350 BC(?)
Obv: Laureate Head of Apollo facing
Rev: Inverted anchor, A at center, and perpendicular MA monogram to the left.

Weight: 1.10 g.
St. 12 * (Image shown, reverse is inverted to actual coin)


Similar to, Sear Greek Coins and their Values (SG) Number sg1657
SNG Cop 459-461.

* Olympian
Tiathena
DAEE35E0-C38D-4EBE-9DE8-381BAC801E6D.jpeg
Apollonia Pontika, Thrace, 410 - 323 B.C.8 viewsApollo is one of the most important and complex of the Olympian deities in ancient Greek and Roman religion and Greek and Roman mythology. The ideal of the kouros (a beardless, athletic youth), Apollo has been variously recognized as a god of light and the sun, truth and prophecy, healing, plague, music, poetry, and more. Apollo is the son of Zeus and Leto, and has a twin sister, the chaste huntress Artemis.
GS88290. Silver diobol, Topalov Apollonia p. 387, 6 and p. 596, 56; SGCV I 1657, SNG Cop 459 - 461; HGC 3.2 1315, aEF, slightly off center, some porosity, small edge split, Apollonia Pontica (Sozopol, Bulgaria) mint, weight 1.256g, maximum diameter 10.2mm, die axis 180o, 410/404 - 341/323 B.C.; obverse laureate head of Apollo facing with short hair; reverse anchor flukes up, thick flukes, A left, crayfish right; ex Numismatik Lanz (2010)
Mark R1
heraia__AE15_-_HGC_5,_840_(this_coin).jpg
Arkadia, Heraia, ca. mid-4th Century BC, Ć Dichalkon11 viewsHead of Athena wearing crested Attic helmet right.
Straight sided letter H.

HGC 5, 840 (this coin); BCD Peloponnesos 1367 (this coin); BMC 27; Traité 1020.

(15 mm, 2.70 g, 1h).
ex- BCD Collection: LHS 96 Lot 1367 (8 May 2006). Found near Phigaleia (in SW Arkadia) per BCD collection tag and acquired by BCD through exchange with AR in March 1994.

Heraia was a fortified city located in western Arkadia on the border with Elis. It was situated on one of the banks of the river Alpheios upstream from Olympia. Little is known of its history. The site of the ancient city was excavated in 1931, but it remains closed to the public. Phigaleia, where this coin was found, was a fortified city, located about 50 km due south of Heraia in one of the most elevated parts of the Peloponnesos. Phigaleia fell into decay under Roman rule in the third century AD.
n.igma
Kroton.jpg
Bruttium, Kroton (Circa 425-350 BC)25 viewsAR Stater

7.73 g

Obverse: Eagle standing left, head right, on stag’s head

Reverse: Tripod; ivy leaf to left, QPO to right.

HN Italy 2146; SNG ANS 351-2

Obeying a directive of the oracle of Delphi, A group of Achaean settlers founded Kroton around 710 BC. Like its neighbor to the north, Sybaris, it soon became a city of power and wealth. Kroton was especially celebrated for its successes in the Olympic Games from 588 BC onward (Milo of Kroton being the most famous of its athletes).

The philosopher Pythagoras established himself there about 530 BC and formed a society of 300 disciples who were sympathetic toward aristocratic government. In 510 BC Kroton was strong enough to defeat the Sybarites and raze their city to the ground. However, shortly after the sack of Sybaris the disciples of Pythagoras were driven out, and a democracy established.

The obverse was comparable with similar types on probably contemporary coins from Elis (which put on the Olympic games at the nearby sanctuary of Olympia) The coins of both cities were thus likely issued for athletic festivals in honor of Zeus. In Kroton’s case the coins probably commemorated its citizens’ Olympic victories with the eagle representing Zeus who presided over Olympia and the games themselves. The tripod (reverse) represented the divine sanction for the town's founding from the Oracle of Delphi (who sat on a three legged stool when producing her oracles).
2 commentsNathan P
Caracalla_Mars-Right.jpg
Caracalla, Silver Denarius "Mars, the Aggressor" * 196-217 AD *83 views
Caracalla, "Mars,* the Aggressor"
AR Denarius

Obverse: ANTONINVS PIVS AVG, laureate head right.
Reverse: PONTIF TR P X COS II, Mars advancing right carrying trophy over left shoulder and spear in right hand.

Mint: Rome
Struck: 213 AD

Size: 18 mm.
Weight: 2.85 grams
Die axis: 180 deg.

Beautiful luster.

RIC 88, RSC 431

* Olympian

1 commentsTiathena
Caracall_Mars_Def_~0.jpg
Caracalla, Silver Denarius "Mars, the defender" * 196-217 AD *351 views
Caracalla, "Mars*, the defender."
AR Denarius
Obv: ANTONINVS PIVS AVG BRIT - Laureate head right
Rev: MARTI PROPVGNATORI – Mars advancing left, holding spear and trophy

Mint: Rome
Struck: 213 AD

Size: 18 mm.
Weight: 4.5 grams(?)
Die axis: 180 deg.

RIC IVi, 223 (s) Scarce; Cohen 150; D. Sear II, 6819; pg. 521
SCARCE

* Olympian
6 commentsTiathena
2390320.jpg
CILICIA, Seleucia ad Calycadnum. Septimius Severus71 viewsCILICIA, Seleucia ad Calycadnum. Septimius Severus. AD 193-211. Ć (28mm, 11.64 g, 12h). Laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right / Athena standing left, holding shield and spear, about to attack serpent-legged Giant to right. SNG France -; SNG Levante 736 var. (view of bust); SNG Levante Suppl. -; SNG Copenhagen -. Near VF, dark green and brown patina, two scratches before bust.

Ex - CNG Esale 239 lot 320

230/100

After Zeus had defeated the Titans in the Titantomachy and apportioned their former relatives to his fellow Olympians, he was compelled to resolve a conflict with the Giants, offspring of Gaia and Cronus. Known as the Gigantomachy, these chthonic half-man, half-serpent creatures attempted to wrestle power from the Olympians by casting them out of Olympus. To accomplish this, the Giants attempted to reach Olympus by heaping up one mountain range on top of the other. From above, Zeus and the other Olympians defended themselves by hurling their weapons. In the end, however, it was the assistance of Hercules, that won the day.
5 commentsecoli
Treb_gallus~0.jpg
Coele-Syria. Damascus; COL Δ AMASMETRO around wreath, within which CEBA/CMIA; ram's head below. AE 2519 viewsTrebonianus Gallus. SYRIA, Coele-Syria. Damascus. A.D. 251-253. Ć 25mm (8.6g). Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right / COL Δ AMASMETRO around wreath, within which CEBA/CMIA; ram's head below. The Olympia Sebasmia were local games celebrated as part of the Imperial cult.Podiceps
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Constantine I, Follis, PROVIDENTIAE AVGG6 viewsAE Follis
Constantine I
Caesar: 306 - 307AD
Augustus: 307 - 337AD
Issued: 326AD
16.5mm 2.30gr
O: CONSTANTINVS AVG; Laureate head, right.
R: PROVIDENTIAE AVGG; City gate with two turrets, star above, no doors, seven layers of bricks.
Exergue: R(Wreath)S
Rome Mint
Aorta: 1519: B59, O4, R148, T12, M13.
RIC VII, 287, S.
olympiacoins 351659592236
2/28/16 1/29/17
Nicholas Z
6105_6106.jpg
Constantine I, Follis, VICTORIA AVGG NN3 viewsAE Follis
Constantine I
Caesar: 306 - 307AD
Augustus: 307 - 337AD
Issued: 319AD
17.0 x 15.0mm 2.35gr
O: CONSTANTINVS AVG; Laureate, cuirassed bust, right.
R: VICTORIA AVGG NN; Victory advancing left, holding wreath and palm.
Exergue: (Dot)TS(Dot)Γ(Dot)
Thessalonica Mint
Aorta: 2114: B68, O4, R204, T238, M17.
RIC VII 59, var. Γ.
olympiacoins 111912440111
2/28/16 1/29/17
Nicholas Z
6529_6530.jpg
Constantius II, AE4, VICTORIAE DD AVGG Q NN2 viewsAE4
Constantius II
Caesar: 324 - 337AD
Augustus: 337 - 361AD
Issued: 347 - 348AD
17.5mm 1.72gr
O: CONSTANTIVS PF AVG; Diademed (pearls), draped and cuirassed bust, right.
R: VICTORIAE DD AVGG Q NN; Victories (2) standing facing each other, each holding wreath and palm.
Exergue: (Branch), right; SMTSΔ, below line.
Thessalonica Mint
Aorta: 2757: B10, O8, R83, T107, M16.
RIC VIII Thessalonica 104, Var. Δ.
olympiacoins 111943814475
3/28/16 1/29/17
Nicholas Z
20333797.jpg
Corinthian helmets238 viewsMuseum - Olympia Johny SYSEL
_T2eC16R,!)8E9s4l7bLyBRYzULF)P!~~60_58.jpg
Deutschland Medaille 1988 (Bronze) von Victor Hustler11 viewsauf die Olympiade 1988 in Seoul
Gewicht: 17,0g
Erhaltung: stempelglanz _261
Antonivs Protti
Dionysus_x2a.jpg
Dionysus * Dionysus, Maroneia * Thrace * AR Tetradrachm * After 148 BC154 views
Dionysus / Front & Back, AR Tetradrachm, Maroneia

Obverse: Beautiful head of Dionysos* wreathed in ivy, right.
Reverse: Nude Dionysus standing left, holding cluster of grapes in right hand, and two narthex wands in his left hand; DIONYSO[Y] to his right; two monograms, one each to the left & the right; [T]WTHPOS, to the left (with test cut through the first letter)

Exe: MARWNIT[WN]
Weight: 16.0 grams
Size: 33 mm.

Sear Greek Coins and their Values:
Vol. 1, p.163, 1635

“After 148 BC (following the defeat of Andriscus and the organization of Macedonia into a Roman Province, the output of the great silver mines was sent to the Thracian mints of Maroneia and Thasos for conversion to coin)

B.M.C. 3, 48-63
These issues were imitated by the Danubian Celts of the interior.”
~ D. Sear, Ibid.

* Olympian

2 commentsTiathena
Elis,_AE_2Assaria_30__s_BC_.jpg
Elis, Civic Issue, ca. 30’s BC, Ć 2 Assaria17 viewsHead of Hera wearing stephane right.
F-Eagle with wings closed standing right on thunderbolt, MY monogram to right.

BCD Peloponnesos 695 (this coin); HGC 5, 544 (this coin) (S); BCD Olympia 307-313; SNG Copenhagen (Phliasia) 429; Wroth p. 335, 6.

(24.5 mm, 13.32 g, 1h).
Edward J. Waddell, June 2011; ex- BCD Collection, LHS 96, 8-9 May 2006, 695; ex- B. Kritt collection - acquired from Kritt in 1987 for $1,800 per BCD note in LHS 96 catalogue.

One of the best examples of the type known - Alan Walker in the LHS 96 catalogue noted that this coin is ‘Very well struck and of unusually good style for this normally fairly dreadful issue.’

Warren connects this issue with the presence of Marc Antony in Elis and sees the eagle standing on a thunderbolt as being a reference to the standard Ptolemaic reverse type (the eagle at Olympia never seems to grasp the thunderbolt of Zeus) and thus an allusion to Cleopatra.
n.igma
60319LG.jpg
Elis, Olympia192 viewsOlympia (Greek: Ολυμπία Olympí'a or Ολύμπια Olýmpia, older transliterations, Olimpia, Olimbia), a sanctuary of ancient Greece in Elis, is known for having been the site of the Olympic Games in classical times, comparable in importance to the Pythian Games held in Delphi. Both games were held every olympiad (i.e. every four years), the Olympic Games dating back possibly further than 776 BC. In 394 emperor Theodosius I, or possibly his grandson Theodosius II in 435, abolished them because they were reminiscent of paganism.

The sanctuary itself consists of an unordered arrangement of various buildings. To the north of the sanctuary can be found the prytaneion and the Philippeion, as well as the array of treasuries representing the various city states. The metroon lies to the south of these treasuries, with the Echo Stoa to the East. To the south of the sanctuary is the South Stoa and the Bouleuterion, whereas the West side houses the palaistra, the workshop of Pheidias, the Gymnasion and the Leonidaion. Enclosed within the temenos are the temples of Hera and Zeus, the Pelopion and the area of the altar, where the sacrifices were made. The hippodrome and later stadium were also to the East.

Olympia is also known for the gigantic ivory and gold statue of Zeus that used to stand there, sculpted by Pheidias, which was named one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World by Antipater of Sidon. Very close to the temple of Zeus (see photo of ruins below) which housed this statue, the studio of Pheidias was excavated in the 1950s. Evidence found there such as sculptor's tools, corroborates this opinion.

Excavation of the Olympia temple district and its surroundings began with a French expedition in 1829. German archaeologists continued the work in the latter part of the 19th century. The latter group uncovered, intact, the Hermes of Praxiteles statue, among other artifacts. In the middle of the 20th Century, the stadium where the running contests took place was excavated.

The Olympic flame of the modern-day Olympic Games is lit by reflection of sunlight in a parabolic mirror at the restored Olympia stadium and then transported by a torch to the place where the games are held.

When the modern Olympics came to Athens in 2004, the men's and women's shot put competition was held at the restored stadium.

The ancient ruins sits north of the Alfeios River and lies next to Cronius or Kronios hill (the hill of Kronos, or Saturn). Kladeos, a tributary of Alfeios, flows around the area.

The town has a school and a square (plateia). Tourism is popular throughout the late-20th century. The city has a train station and is the easternmost terminus of the line of Olympia-Pyrgos (Ilia). The train station which the freight yard is west of it is about 300 m east of the town centre.

It is linked by GR-74 and the new road was opened in the 1980s, the next stretch N and NE of Olympia will open in around 2005. Distance from Pyrgos is 20 km E(old: 21 km), about 50 km SW of Lampeia, W of Tripoli and Arcadia and 4 km north of Krestena and N of Kyparissia and Messenia. The highway passed north of the ancient ruins.

A reservoir is located 2 km southwest damming up the Alfeios river and has a road from Olympia and Krestena which in the late-1990s has been closed.

The area is hilly and mountainous, most of the area within Olympia is forested.

Elis, Olympia. After ca. 340/30-late 3rd century B.C. Ć unit (20 mm, 5.99 g). Laureate head of Zeus right / FA above, horse trotting right; [L]U below. BCD 339.3 (this coin). Near VF, dark brown patina.
Ex BCD Collection. Ex-John C Lavender G18
ecoli73
45-063.jpg
ELIS, Olympia 4 views
ELIS, Olympia. Time of the 101st-102nd Olympiad. Circa 421-365 BC. AR Hemidrachm (15mm, 2.54 gm, 1h). Hera mint. Struck circa 376-372 BC. Head of Hera right, wearing stephane / F A, eagle standing right, head reverted. Seltman, Temple -; BCD 111; BMC Peloponnesus -; SNG Copenhagen -. Fine, toned. Extremely rare.
Ancient Aussie
DSC05433.JPG
Elis, Olympia - 270s-260s BC. Time of the 115th-132nd Olympiad. 84 viewsAR Hemidrachm
obv: Laureate head of Zeus right
Thunderbolt within wreath; F-A above, A-P-I below.
BCD 213
2 commentsCGPCGP
Elis,_Olympia_111th-110th_Olympiad_336-2_BC_AR_Hemidrachm.jpg
Elis, Olympia, 113th -115th Olympiad ca. 328-320 BC, AR Hemidrachm 13 viewsHead of the nymph Olympia right.
Eagle standing right with open wings, F in right field.

BCD Olympia 336.10 (this coin) – previously unrecorded type. HGC 5, 454 - same obverse die with unrecorded reverse type (reverse variant – eagle standing left head reverted, F in left field); Seltman -.
Olympia, Hera mint.

(15 mm, 2.82 g, 6h).
ex- CNG e-Auction 144, 26 July 2006, 108; ex- CNG e-Auction 115, 25 May 2005, 66; ex- BCD collection: Leu Numismatik AG 90, 10 May 2004, 336.10 ; ex- Professor Athanasios Rhousopooulos (1823-1898) Collection.

This is a unique and unrecorded example of the last output of the Hera mint in the Olympia. Although from the same obverse die as HGC 5, 454 the reverse iconography involving a right facing eagle and right field ethnic is unrecorded by Hoover (Handbook of Greek Coinage) or Seltman (Temple Coins).
n.igma
Elis,_Olympia,_AR_Drachm_.jpg
Elis, Olympia, 134th-143rd Olympiad, 244-208 BC, AR Drachm 30 viewsEagle flying right, with both wings above its body, grasping hare with talons and tearing at it with beak.
F-A either side of thunderbolt with wings below and volutes above.

Schwabacher NumChron 1939 Group III; BCD Olympia 243 (same dies); HGC 5, 509 (S); Seltman pl. VIII/34. Struck from a worn and rusty obverse die.

(18 mm, 4.73 g, 12h).
Freeman & Sear.
1 commentsn.igma
Elis,_Olympia,_AE_15_Dichalkon.jpg
Elis, Olympia, 340-330 BC, Ć Dichalkon8 viewsLaureate head of Zeus right.
Eagle standing right, with wings closed; F-A across field, ΔI below, all within olive wreath.

BCD Peloponnesos 655; BCD Olympia 287 (same dies); HGC 5, 528 (incorrectly attributed as BCD Peloponessos 287) (R2); BMC 143.

(15 mm, 2.70 g, 2h).
Classical Numismatic Group, December 2008; ex- BCD Collection (not in LHS sale); found in Thessaly according to BCD collection tag.

Amongst the first Elean bronze issues. Rare, only a few dozen known.
n.igma
Elis,_Olympia_Stater_-_Seltman_76.jpg
Elis, Olympia, 83rd-85th Olympiads, 448-440 BC, AR Stater 17 views Eagle flying right, grasping a snake with its talons and its beak; two countermarks (crab and mule's leg).
F-A Thunderbolt with volutes and wings.

Seltman 76 (same dies AS/βς Seltman pl. III); BCD Olympia 372.1 (this coin); HGC 5, 306 (R2). Zeus Mint 448-440 BC (83rd-85th Olympiads).

(24 mm, 11.71 g, 2h).
Harlan J Berk Buy or Bid Sale 175, 7 July 2011, 144; ex- BCD Collection: Leu Numismatik AG 90, 10 May 2004, 327.1.

Although the tip of the beak of the eagle is off-flan, it remains a portrayal with a great deal of elegance. Seltman’s obverse die AS was used to strike 8 emissions – Seltman 75-82. This is the fourth known example of Seltman 76 and the only one outside a museum collection.
n.igma
Elis,_Olympia_Hemidrachm_.jpg
Elis, Olympia, 90th Olympiad, 420 BC, AR Hemidrachm 10 viewsEagle attacking hare right.
Winged thunderbolt.

HGC 5, 428 (variant F-A) (R2); BCD Olympia 60 var. (same obverse die, reverse with F-A); BCD Olympia 331.3 (this coin); Seltman pl. VIII/15; Sear 2878 variant (F-A on reverse).
Olympia, Zeus mint.

(17 mm, 2.68 g, 9h).
Kirk Davis Catalogue 50, Fall 2006, 59; ex- BCD Collection: Leu Numismatik AG 90, 10 May 2004, 331.3.
n.igma
ELIS,_Olympia__97th-100th_Olympiad__392-380_BC__AR_Hemidrachm__-_CNG_830947.jpg
Elis, Olympia, 97th-100th Olympiad, 392-380 BC, AR Hemidrachm 50 viewsHead of Eagle right; ΠO (Polykaon) below.
Thunderbolt with volutes above and wings below; F-A across field; all within olive wreath.

HGC 5, 433 (R2); BCD Olympia 95; Seltman, Temple pl. VIII, 20. Zeus Mint.

(15 mm, 2.58 g, 1h).
Classical Numismatic Group, August 2009; ex- BCD Collection (not in previous sales); ex- Dr. J. S. Wilkinson Collection: Malter 49, 15 November 1992, 627.
2 commentsn.igma
elis2.jpg
Elis, Olympia, after 191 BC.81 viewsAE
Apollo head right.
Zeus advancing right.
BMC 147.
exBCD Collection, ex Schulman's Oct. 1975.
1 commentsDino
IMG_0010~0.jpg
ELIS, Olympia, c. early mid. 3rd Century BC47 viewsAE Tetrachalkon. 5.77g 17mm
Obv: Laureate Zeus right;
Rev: F A Horse galloping right.
PYR
BMC 118. BCD 654.
ex BCD Collection, not in LHS Sale, AHB, May 73.
Dino
DSC05439.JPG
Elis, Olympia, mid and later 2nd Century71 viewsAE Tetrachalkon. Zeus right.
Re. FA/LEI/WN within wreath. BMC 672. SNG Cop. 448. BCD 673. exM&M Numismatics.
CGPCGP
Elis_Olympia_BCD-327_3.jpg
Elis, Olympia.14 viewsElis, Olympia. c. 452-432 BC. AR Stater (11.89 gm) Zeus mint, struck 450-440, Time of the 82th-87th Olympiad. Eagle flying r., tearing at hare in its talons. Several bankers' marks. / Nike running l., holding wreath in extended hand and raising hem of chiton; F–A in field. aVF. Ponterio 136 #1755. BCD Olympia 327.3 (same obv. die); Seltman 1921 Series VIII p 18 #69e; SNG Cop 358 (these dies). SNG Delepierre 2065; SNG Spencer-Churchill 165; HGC 5 #305.Christian T
IMG_0005_1.JPG
Elis, Olympia. 271-191 BC.205 viewsAR Hemidrachm
obv: Zeus head Laureate right
rev: F-A by thunderbolt within wreath
S2897var

Ex-BCD collection, via Leu 2004.
1 commentsDino
IMG_0012~0.jpg
ELIS, Olympia. Late 3rd Century to 191 BC.114 viewsAE Dichalkon. 3.7g 18mm.
Laureate head of Apollo right
FA/HR-S, Zeus striding right, hurling thunderbolt with eagle on wrist.

Moustaka 147. BCD 662.
ex BCD collection not in LHS sale.
2 commentsDino
olympia.jpg
ELIS. Olympia. 352-348 BC. AR hemidrachm.152 viewsAR hemidrachm (17mm, 2.52g). 107th-108th Olympiad.
Laureate head of Zeus right / Eagle standing right on Ionic column capital. BCD Olympia 139-42. Ex BCD (private sale). VF toned.

JHE E-Auction #7.
6 commentsDino
Etruria.jpg
ETRURIA, Central Italy Uncertain City AE26, 300-250BC.66 viewsETRURIA, Central Italy Uncertain City AE26, 300-250BC. Male figure with Scepter (or lance) and Patera n. l. standing. Dog Rt. Holding a Aryballos in the muzzle hanging on cords for R. 10.17 G. SNG Cop. 44. P. Visonŕ, Due monete etrusche inedite e rare into collezioni italiane, SNR 79 (2000), 30, fig. 5. Very rare. Dark Green patina.

The Etruscan civilization was responsible for much of the Greek culture imported into early Republican Rome, including the twelve Olympian gods, the growing of olives and grapes, the Latin alphabet (adapted from the Greek alphabet), and architecture like the arch, sewerage and drainage systems.
1 commentsancientone
13679959.jpg
Greece, Athens - Temple of Olympian Zeus321 viewscompleted by HadrianusJohny SYSEL
Temple_of_Olympian_Zeus.jpg
Greece, Athens - The Temple of Olympian Zeus 212 viewsLloyd T
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Greece, Olympia - Entrence to Olypmic stadium207 viewsJohny SYSEL
Epigraphic_Olympia.jpg
Greece, Olympia - Epigraphy211 viewsTo be found on the approach to the ancient Olympic stadium.Lloyd T
Epigraphy_-_Olympia.jpg
Greece, Olympia - epigraphy215 viewsTo be found on the approach to the ancient Olympic stadium.Lloyd T
Stadium_Olympia.jpg
Greece, Olympia - In the Stadium at Olympia186 viewsThe winner of the 2006 Ride on Mower final crosses the line in the stadium.Lloyd T
20277650.jpg
Greece, Olympia - start line at Olympic stadium203 viewsgrooves hold Athlets' toes during startJohny SYSEL
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Greece, Olympia - temple of Hera198 viewsJohny SYSEL
Temple_of_Hera_-_Olympia.jpg
Greece, Olympia - Temple of Hera199 viewsLloyd T
Temple_of_zeus_-_Olympia.jpg
Greece, Olympia - Temple of Zeus fallen columns208 viewsLloyd T
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Greece, Olympia - tholos183 viewsJohny SYSEL
Olympia.jpg
Greece, Olympia in Spring259 viewsA magical site at any time, but resplendent in Spring!1 commentsLloyd T
Elis,_Olympia,_AE_Tetrachalkon,_2nd_century_BC_~0.jpg
GREEK, Elis, Civic Issue, mid 2nd century BC, AE Tetrachalkon - BCD Peloponnesos 673 (this coin)167 viewsLaureate head of Zeus right / FA-ΛEI-ΩN within wreath, EY below.
BCD Olympia 302; BCD Peloponnesos 673 (this coin); BMC 155; SNG Copenhagen 448; Kroll, Agora, 752.
(21 mm, 5.65 g, 1h)
EF with flan adjustment marks on both sides.
Classical Numismatic Group Mail Bid Auction 78 (14 May 2008) Lot 704; ex- BCD Collection - LHS 96 (8 May 2006), Lot 673
2 commentsLloyd T
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Herakles and Zeus157 viewsMacedonian Kingdom, Philip III and Alexander IV, 323 - 317 B.C.
GS70917. Silver drachm, Price 1515; ADM II Series V, 91 - 95; SNG München 474; Müller Alexander -, VF, attractive style, Troas, Abydus mint, weight 4.097g, maximum diameter 18.1mm, die axis 180o, Leonnatos, Arrhidaios, or Antigonos I;

obverse Herakles' head right, clad in Nemean lion scalp headdress tied at neck;

reverse AΛEΞAN∆POY, Zeus seated left on throne, right leg drawn back, eagle in extended right, long scepter vertical behind in left, horse leg left, Ξ under throne; ex Nemesis;

Herakles is the son of the divine Zeus and mortal Alcemene who was cursed by the jealous Hera to murder his entire family. He then had to overcome twelve labors given to him by King Eurystheus to repent for the atrocity. The first labor (defeating the Nemean Lion) is portrayed on the obverse of this coin.

Zeus is the main king of the Olympians ruling over the realm of man. He is known to be a notorious womanizer having affairs with several divine and mortal women, which constantly makes his wife Hera extremely jealous. He is associated with lightning and the eagle (as shown on the reverse of this coin) among other symbols.
Colby S
Praxiteles_Hermes_carrying_the_infant_Dionysos_Hirmer_Munich.jpg
Hermes Bearing the Infant Dionysos195 viewsHermes bearing the infant Dionysos, made by Praxiteles, around 364 BC. Hellenistic marble copy, now in the Archaeological Museum of Olympia/Greece. Depicted on a coin from Philippopolis.
Jochen
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Hermes with infant Dionysos132 viewsmuseum in OlympiaJohny SYSEL
Thasos.jpg
ISLAND OFF THRACE. Thasos62 viewsCirca 480-463 B.C. AR Stater (21mm, 8.80gm). Le Rider, Thassienes 5; HPM pl. X, 12; HGC 6, 331; SNG Copenhagen 1010-2. Obverse: Ithyphallic satyr advancing right, carrying off protesting nymph. Reverse: quadripartite incuse square. VF, toned.

Ex CNG

The motif of the satyr abducting a maenad appears on several northern Greek coins. In the case of Thasos, an island just off the coast of Thrace in northern Greece, this Dionysiac motif serves to promote the island's famous wine. Satyrs belong to the retinue of Dionysos, the god of wine. They are only interested in drinking wine and having sex, usually with the maenads, the female followers of Dionysos. Satyrs are commonly represented as half-man, half-horse or goat, often with a horse tail and pointy horse ears. On the obverse of this coin, however, the satyr has mostly human traits, except for his goat legs. In addition, his bestial nature is made clear by means of his nudity (which visibly contrasts with the maenad's modest chiton), his obvious sexual arousal, and the fact that he is trying to abduct a maenad against her will, as evidenced by raising her right arm in protest (and about to slap her abductor!). The overtly sexual displays seen on many early Greek coins can be disconcerting to the modern eye, viewing them through the lens of centuries of Christian fulminations against ‘paganism’ and its erotic excesses. These scenes are at their most graphic in northern Greece, for example, on the archaic coins of Lete and the island of Thasos, showing the interplay of nymphs and satyrs. The towns and tribes of this region were only newly introduced to the ‘civilizing’ influences of the south, and were still close to their roots in farming and herding cultures. Their gods were not the Olympian super beings, but the spirits of nature, and the emphasis was on celebrating the fecundity of fields and flocks. Thasos gained its enormous wealth by virtue of its local silver mines as well as mines it controlled on the Thracian mainland opposite the island city-state. According to Herodotos (VI, 46), the city derived 200-300 talents annually from her exploitation of this mineral wealth. Such source of the sought-after white metal attracted foreign interest on the mines. The famous of these was when Athens attacked Thasos, ironically one of its members in the Delian League, in 465 B.C. with a single purpose in taking control of these mines. Additionally, Thasos gained much material wealth as a producer and exporter of high quality wines, which was tightly regulated by the government, and it was perhaps due to this trade in wine that her coinage spread throughout the Aegean making it a widely recognized and accepted coinage in distant lands.

2 commentsJason T
Isle_of_Man_1_Crown_1980_Olympiade_Lake_Placid_Winter_Olympia.jpg
Isle of Man21 viewsIsle of Man

1 Crown 1980 (Kupfer-Nickel)

Winterolympiade Lake Placid 1980

Gewicht: 28,28g

Erhaltung: unzirkuliert _1038
Antonivs Protti
Julia_Mamaea_Juno.jpg
Julia Mamaea, Juno with peacock, Silver Denarius * 222-235 A.D.66 views
AR Denarius

Obv: IVLIA MAMAEA AVG. Draped bust, right.
Rev: IVNO CONSERVATRIX. Juno* standing left, holding patera in left hand and scepter in right hand, peacock at her feet to left and both left-facing.

Mint: Rome
Struck: 222 AD.

Size: 1.9 cm.
Weight: 3.1 grams.
Die axis: 0 degs.

Beautiful clear luster, with ‘minor’ shock damage to lower edge.

RIC IV/2, 343; C.35
Sear 2310
BMCR.43

* Olympian

Mamaea's imperial title was Iulia Augusta, mater Augusti nostri et castrorum et senatus et patriae, recalling the titulature of Julia Domna. Her position in the government was confirmed by the title consors imperii. Recognized as religiosissima, she had conversation with Origen while in the East as She accompanied Alexander on campaign there against the Persians in 230-231. In 235, she was with him in Germany, at Mainz, when they were assassinated by the troops, with Maximinus Thrax chosen as successor. She suffered damnatio memoriae.
Tiathena
Julian_Siscia.JPG
Julian II 'The Philosopher' (as Augustus)26 views361-363 AD
AE3 (19mm, 2.65g)
O: Diademed, helmeted and cuirassed bust left, holding shield and spear; DN FL CL IVLIANVS PF AVG.
R: VOT X MVLT XX in four lines within wreath; BSISC· below.
Siscia mint
RIC VIII 421; Sear 4074v
ex Munzen Sann

“Are you not aware that all offerings whether great or small that are brought to the gods with piety have equal value, whereas without piety, I will not say hecatombs, but, by the gods, even the Olympian sacrifice of a thousand oxen is merely empty expenditure and nothing else?”
~ Julian
1 commentsEnodia
Philip_II~0.jpg
Kings of Macedon. Philip II (Circa 359-336 BC)20 viewsAE 16, 6.23 g

Obverse: Head of Apollo right

Reverse: "ΦIΛIΠΠOY" (FILIPPOY) above naked youth on horse right, theta p control mark below

SNG ANS 927

The rise of Macedon during the reign of Philip II was achieved in part by his reformation of the Ancient Macedonian army, establishing the Macedonian phalanx that proved critical in securing victories on the battlefield. After defeating Athens and Thebes at the Battle of Chaeronea in 338 BC, Philip II led the effort to establish a federation of Greek states known as the League of Corinth, with him as the elected hegemon and commander-in-chief of a planned invasion of the Achaemenid Empire of Persia. However, his assassination in 336 BC (perhaps orchestrated by one of his wives, Olympias, and son, Alexander the Great) led to the immediate succession of Alexander.
Nathan P
phillip iii.jpg
MACEDON KINGDOM - PHILIP III43 viewsPhilip III brother of Alexander the Great AR drachm Philip III 323 - 317 BC was half brother of Alexander III the Great and was ruling together with the infant son of Alexander - Alexander IV. Philip III was king for only 6 years and was murdered by Olympias, mother of Alexander the Great. Obv.: Head of Herakles right. Rev.: Zeus enthroned left, holding an eagle and scepter. Legend in Greek. , 4.01 g.
dpaul7
GRK_Macedonia_Philip_tetradrachm.JPG
Macedonian Kingdom32 viewsSear 6684 var., Le Rider pl. 47, 18 var. (without the I to the right of the Δ).

AR Tetradrachm (23-24 mm.), struck in the name of Philip II (359-336 B.C.) under Cassander (Regent 317-305 B.C.; King 305-297 B.C.) or his sons, Philip IV (297 B.C.) and Alexander V (297-294 B.C.) at Amphipolis, ca. 315-294 B.C. (per Le Rider) or ca. 320-315 B.C. (per Price).

Obv: Laureate head of Zeus right.

Rev: ΦIΛΙΠ-ΠΟΥ above young naked jockey astride racehorse prancing right, carrying long palm frond of victory in right hand and holding reins in left hand; Λ above race-torch below horse; Δ below horse’s foreleg.

Philip II claimed descent from Zeus, and hence adopted the head of Zeus for his obverse. The image is thought to possibly be inspired by the great statue of Zeus by Phidias at Olympia, which was one of the seven wonders of the ancient world. The reverse celebrates Philip's victories at the Olympic games, where his racehorses were victorious in the games of 356 B.C. and possibly again in 348 B.C.

Philip adopted the Chalcidian weight standard (c. 14.45 g.) for his tetradrachm, in an effort to replace the Chalcidian League's coinage at that standard after his sacking of Olynthus in Chalcidice in 348 B.C. The expansion of Macedonia under Philip resulted in its coinage overtaking Athenian owls as the leading currency of the Greek world. The type continued to be struck long after the death of Philip. The type was imitated in tribal lands north of Macedonia up to the first century B.C.
1 commentsStkp
PhilipIIMacedonLifetimeTet.jpg
Macedonian Kingdom, Philip II, 359 - 336 B.C., Lifetime Issue134 viewsSilver tetradrachm, Le Rider 233 (D130/R188); SNG ANS 385 ff., VF, Pella, 14.163g, 25.4mm, 225o, 342 - 336 B.C.; obverse laureate head of Zeus right; reverse "FILIPPOU", naked youth on horse pacing right on horseback holding palm, thunderbolt below; ex CNG 214, 82; very high relief sculptural portrait, nice style, lifetime issue. Ex FORVM.

Philip II expanded the size and influence of the Macedonian Kingdom, but is perhaps best known as the father of Alexander the Great. He personally selected the design of his coins.

Philip II of Macedon (382 BC–336 BC; in Greek Φίλιππος = φίλος (friend) + ίππος (horse), transliterated Philippos) was the King of Macedon from 359 BC until his assassination. He was the father of Alexander the Great, Phillip III Arrhidaeus, and possibly Ptolemy I Soter, founder of the Ptolemaic dynasty.

Born in Pella, Philip was the youngest son of King Amyntas III and Eurydice. In his youth, (ca. 368 BC–365 BC) Philip was a hostage in Thebes, which was the leading city of Greece during the Theban hegemony. While a captive there, Philip received a military and diplomatic education from Epaminondas, was involved in a pederastic relationship with Pelopidas and lived with Pammenes, who was an enthusiastic advocate of the Sacred Band of Thebes. In 364 BC, Philip returned to Macedonia. The deaths of Philip's elder brothers, King Alexander II and Perdiccas III, allowed him to take the throne in 359 BC. Originally appointed regent for his infant nephew Amyntas IV, who was the son of Perdiccas III, Philip managed to take the kingdom for himself that same year.

Philip's military skills and expansionist vision of Macedonian greatness brought him early success. The hill tribes were broken by a single battle in 358 BC, and Philip established his authority inland as far as Lake Ohrid. He used the Social War as an opportunity for expansion. In 357 BC, he took the Athenian colony of Amphipolis, which commanded the gold mines of Mount Pangaion. That same year Philip married the Epirote princess Olympias, who was the daughter of the king of the Molossians. In 356 BC, Philip conquered the town of Crenides and changed its name to Philippi. Philip also attacked Abdera and Maronea, on the Thracian sea-board. Also in 356 Alexander was born and his race horse won in the Olympics in He took Methone in 354 BC, a town which had belonged to Athens. During the siege of Methone, Philip lost an eye.

Not until his armies were opposed by Athens at Thermopylae in 352 BC did Philip face any serious resistance. Philip did not attempt to advance into central Greece because the Athenians had occupied Thermopylae. Also in 352 BC, the Macedonian army won a complete victory over the Phocians at the Battle of Crocus Field. This battle made Philip tagus of Thessaly, and he claimed as his own Magnesia, with the important harbour of Pagasae.
Hostilities with Athens did not yet take place, but Athens was threatened by the Macedonian party which Philip's gold created in Euboea. From 352 to 346 BC, Philip did not again come south. He was active in completing the subjugation of the Balkan hill-country to the west and north, and in reducing the Greek cities of the coast as far as the Hebrus (Maritza). For the chief of these coastal cities, Olynthus, Philip continued to profess friendship until its neighboring cities were in his hands.

In 349 BC, Philip started the siege of Olynthus. Olynthus at first allied itself with Philip, but later shifted its allegiance to Athens. The Athenians did nothing to help Olynthus. Philip finally took Olynthus in 348 BC and razed the city to the ground. In 346 BC, he intervened effectively in the war between Thebes and the Phocians, but his wars with Athens continued intermittently.

Macedonia and the regions adjoining it having now been securely consolidated, Philip celebrated his Olympic games at Dium. In 347 BC, Philip advanced to the conquest of the eastern districts about the Hebrus, and compelled the submission of the Thracian prince Cersobleptes. Meanwhile, Athens had made overtures for peace, and when Philip, in 346 BC, again moved south, peace was sworn in Thessaly. With key Greek city-states in submission, Philip turned to Sparta; he sent them a message, "You are advised to submit without further delay, for if I bring my army into your land, I will destroy your farms, slay your people, and raze your city." Their reply was "If." Philip and Alexander would both leave them alone. Later, the Macedonian arms were carried across Epirus to the Adriatic Sea. In 342 BC, Philip led a great military expedition north against the Scythians, conquering the Thracian fortified settlement Eumolpia to give it his name, Philippoupolis (modern Plovdiv).

In 340 BC, Philip started the siege of Perinthus. Philip began another siege in 339 BC of the city of Byzantium. After unsuccessful sieges of both cities, Philip's influence all over Greece was compromised. However, Philip successfully reasserted his authority in the Aegean by defeating an alliance of Thebans and Athenians at the Battle of Chaeronea in 338 BC. He erected a memorial of a marble lion to the Sacred Band of Thebes for their bravery that still stands today. Philip created and led the League of Corinth in 337 BC. Members of the League agreed never to wage war against each other, unless it was to suppress revolution. Philip was elected as leader (hegemon) of the army of invasion against the Persian Empire. In 336 BC, when the invasion of Persia was in its very early stage, Philip was assassinated, and was succeeded on the throne of Macedon by his son Alexander the Great.

Philip’s Assassination

The murder happened in October of 336 BC, at Aegae, the ancient capital of the kingdom of Macedon. The court had gathered there for the celebration of the marriage between Alexander of Epirus and Philip's daughter. While the king was entering unprotected into the town's theatre (highlighting his approachability to the Greek diplomats present), he was killed by Pausanias of Orestis, one of Philip's seven bodyguards. The assassin immediately tried to escape and reach his associates who were waiting for him with horses at the entrance of Aegae. He was pursued by three of Philip's bodyguards and died by their hands.
The reasons for Pausanias' assassination of Phillip are difficult to fully expound, since there was controversy already among ancient historians. The only contemporary account in our possession is that of Aristotle, who states rather tersely that Philip was killed because Pausanias had been offended by the followers of Attalus, the king's father-in-law.

Whatever else that may be written about Philip II it must be recognized that he was responsible for making Macedon the ascendant Greek power. He reorganized the Macedonian army. It was this army that Alexander the Great inherited. Phillip II trained some of Alexander’s best generals: Antigonus Cyclops, Antipater, Nearchus, Parmenion, and Perdiccas.

According to the Greek historian Theopompus of Chios, Europe had never seen a man like king Philip of Macedonia, and he called his history of the mid-fourth century BCE the Philippic History. Theopompus had a point. Not even his better known son Alexander has done so much to change the course of Greek history. Philip reorganized his kingdom, gave it access to the sea, expanded its power so that it could defeat the Achaemenid Empire, and subdued the Greek city-states, which never regained their independence again. To achieve this, he modernized the Macedonian economy, improved the army, and concluded several marital alliances. The result was a superpower with one weakness: it was as strong as its king. When Philip's son Alexander died, the institutions were too weak, and Macedonia never recovered.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Philip_II_of_Macedon
http://www.livius.org/phi-php/philip/philip_ii.htm
Ed. by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
1 commentsCleisthenes
GRK_Macedonian_Kings_Philip_III_Arrhidaeus_Sear_6750-51.jpg
Macedonian Kingdom. Philip III Arrhidaeus (323-317 B.C.)15 viewsSear 6750-6751 var.; Price P57; Müller P89.

AR drachm; struck circa 323-319 B.C. at the Ionia, Magnesia ad Maeandrum (Magneasia on the Meander) mint, 3.92 g., 17.04 mm. max, 0°.

Obv.: Head of Herakles right, wearing Nemean lion's skin headdress.

Rev.: ΦIΛIΠΠOY, Zeus Aëtophoros seated left, holding eagle and sceptre, IAT monogram below throne.

Arrhidaeus was the illegitimate son of King Philip II of Macedonia by Philinna of Larissa, and thus an elder half-brother of Alexander III the Great. He had mild learning difficulties. Alexander was fond of Arrhidaeus and took him on his campaigns, both to protect his life and to prevent his use as a pawn in any prospective challenge for the throne. After Alexander's death in Babylon in 323 B.C., the Macedonian army in Asia proclaimed Arrhidaeus as king, and he was re-named Philip. He served merely as a figurehead and as the pawn of a series of powerful generals. He was murdered in October 317 by Olympias, Alexander's mother, to ensure the succession of her grandson.
Stkp
PhilipAplustre_Tet_b.jpg
Macedonian Kingdom. Philip II, Amphipolis mint52 viewsMacedonian Kingdom. Philip II, 359-336 BC. Silver Tetradrachm, Amphipolis mint. Early posthumous issue, struck under Kassander.
O: Zeus right wearing laurel wreath with berries.
R: Φ I Λ I Π - Π OY (Of Philip) Naked youth on horse prancing right holding long palm branch and reins; aplustre below; Γ under foreleg. Rider pl. 46, 18; SNG ANS 740. Light golden toning.

Plutarch (Alex., 3)
"To Philip, however, who had just taken Potidaea, there came three messages at the same time:
the first that Parmenio had conquered the Illyrians in a great battle, the second that his race-horse had won a victory at the Olympic games, while a third announced the birth of Alexander. These things delighted him, of course, and the seers raised his spirits still higher by declaring that the son whose birth coincided with three victories would be always victorious."

Plutarch (Alex., 4.10)
"...and (Philip) took care to have the victories of his chariots at Olympia engraved upon his coins..."

The reverse-types of Philip’s coins are nearly all agonistic, and refer either to the games celebrated by him at Dium in
honour of the Olympian Zeus (Müller, Mon. d'Alex., pp. II and 344), or, preferably, to the great Olympian games where his
chariots were victorious. We have, indeed, the direct assertion of Plutarch (Alex., c. 4) in favour of the latter
hypothesis, τας εν ‘Ολυμπια νικας των αρματων εγχαραττων τοις νομισμασιν. Philip was also successful at Olympia with the
race-horse (ιππω κελητι νενικηκέναι; Plut., Alex., 3), a victory of which he perpetuated the memory on his tetradrachms. The horseman
with kausia and chlamys is less certainly agonistic, and may (perhaps with a play upon his name) represent the king
himself as a typical Macedonian ιππευς.
Philip’s coins were struck at many mints in various parts of his empire. For the various mint-marks which they bear see
Müller’s Num. d'Alex. le Grand, the local attributions in which are, however, to be accepted with great caution. They
continued to circulate in Europe long after his death, and the Gauls, when they invaded and pillaged Greece, took vast
numbers of them back into their own land, where they long continued to serve as models for the native currency of Gaul and
Britain. (Historia Numorum, Barclay V. Head, 1887)

It is clear that, trying hard to show off, to pass and ultimately to impose his Greek character, Philip was especially
interested in the aesthetic aspect of his coins and also in the propaganda and psychological effects they would have
on the rest of the Greek world, and especially on "those sarcastic, democratic Athenians" and on "the more barbarian" people than himself...

Demosthenes (19, 308)
"And as for Philip,—why, good Heavens, he was a Greek of the Greeks, the finest orator and the most thorough—going
friend of Athens you could find in the whole world. And yet there were some queer, ill-conditioned fellows in Athens who
did not blush to abuse him, and even to call him a barbarian! "
4 commentsNemonater
metapontum.jpg
Metapontion, Lucania, Italy, c. 330 - 290 B.C.90 viewsSilver stater, HN Italy 1581; SGCV I 416 var; Noe-Johnston 3, class C 1.2-72, VF, obverse off center, weight 7.851g, maximum diameter 20.2mm, die axis 150o, c. 330 - 290 B.C.; obverse head of Demeter right; reverse head of grain, META on left, plough above leaf on right, M[AX] lower right; ex CNG; ex FORVM

Demeter in Greek mythology is the goddess of grain and fertility, the pure; nourisher of the youth and the green earth, the health-giving cycle of life and death; and preserver of marriage and the sacred law. In the Homeric Hymn to Demeter, dated to about the seventh century B.C. she is invoked as the "bringer of seasons," a subtle sign that she was worshipped long before she was made one of the Olympians. She and her daughter Persephone were the central figures of the Eleusinian Mysteries that also predated the Olympian pantheon.
3 commentsAdrian S
20277801.jpg
museum in Olympia - Zeus throwing lightning 201 viewsJohny SYSEL
Olympia_wreath.jpg
Olympia - AE tetrachalkon10 viewsmid 2nd century BC
laureate head of Zeus right
legend within wreath
FA / ΛEI / ΩN
Cf. BCD Olympia 302-5; cf. SNG Copenhagen 446-8; cf. BMC 150
Johny SYSEL
Olympia_eagle.jpg
Olympia - AR hemidrachm13 views312-271 BC
laureate head of Zeus right
eagle right; olive leaf right
F _ A
BMC 84. Dewing 1896. McClean 6637. SNG Delepierre 2158
2,65g
ex Aurea
Johny SYSEL
olympia~0.jpg
Olympia hemidrachm24 views390/380 BC, signed by Polykaon (signature not visible on this coin)
16-17 mm, 2.73 g
obv: head of eagle left
rev: F-A; winged thunderbolt in wreath
Slg. BCD 103
ex Künker, ex. Robert Ball Nachf., Berlin
1 commentsareich
Olympia.jpg
Olympia, Elis, drachm42 views17 mm, 4.33g, ca. 440-430 BC
obv: eagle flying left with wings spread, grasping hare with his talons; to right, flower.
rev: thunderbolt, with lily above, wings below and volutes above; in fields, F - A.
Seltman pl. VIII, 12 (same reverse die)

From the BCD collection and ex Leu 90 (2004), 51., Auctiones eAuction #1, Lot 30
1 commentsareich
philserapis.jpg
Philip II Pentassarian of Markianopolis AD 24933 viewsOBV: M IOVLIOC PILIPPOC ;KAICAP(below) ;Confronted busts of Philip II and Serapis
REV: MAPKIANOPOLEITYN; Asklepios standing right head left, leaning on a serpent entwined staff, 'E' in right field.
One of the last (and scarce)issues of Marcianopolis which minted coins from the time of Commodus to Phillip. The E on the reverse and two busts on the obverse distinguished the coin from tetrassaria which were about the same size and weight. Asklepios was the god of health in the ancient world and snakes were used in many healing rituals.
The ancients record that once Phillip II of Macedonia (father of Alex the Great) paid a nocturnal visit to his wife, Olympias, and found a huge snake lying next to her in bed. Their marriage was never the same.

Moushmov 858, Varbanov 2090 (ref. W'winds)

diameter 27 mm, wt 12.5 gm
daverino
Phillip_II_Apollo~0.jpg
Philip II of Macedon -1st- 359-336 BC AE1888 views
Macedonia, Philip II, AE 18 * (copper or bronze)

Obv.: Head of Apollo* right, hair bound with tainia.
Rev.: Equestrian; Nude youth on horseback prancing right. ΦΙΛΙΠΠΟΥ above (mostly worn), independent spearhead symbol (nearly completely worn) beneath horse, between horse's legs.

Mint: Pella (?)
Struck: 359-336 BC.
Size: 18 mm.
Weight: 6.5 grams

Patina: Luscious jade-green, semi-glossy

Similar to D. Sear GCATV; 6696v, Vol. 2, pg. 620
Similar to SNG ANS 880-882 (?)

* Olympian
Tiathena
Phill_Apollo_Horse_c~0.jpg
Philip II of Macedon -2nd- 359-336BC Æ 1885 views
Macedonia, Philip II, Ć 18 * (copper or bronze)

Obv.: Head of Apollo* right, hair bound with tainia.
Rev.: Equestrian; Nude youth on horseback running forward, front legs extended, rear legs firmly planted, right facing. ΦΙΛΙΠΠΟΥ above (mostly worn), Monogram E beneath horse, between horse's legs.

Mint: Pella (probable)
Struck: 359-336 BC.
Size: 18 mm.
Weight: 5.79 grams

Patina: Light green, flat.

Similar to D. Sear, Greek coins and their values, Vol. II, 6696; pg. 620
SNG Cop. 594

* Olympian
Tiathena
Phillip_II_Apollo-Horse~0.jpg
Philip II of Macedon -3rd- 359-336BC Æ 1886 views
Macedonia, Philip II, Ć 18 * (copper or bronze)

Obv.: Diademed head of Apollo* right
Rev.: Equestrian; Nude youth holding long palm(?), on prancing horse, right facing. ΦΙΛΙΠΠ[ΟΥ] above, symbol or monogram formed with Lambda L and pellet centered within, beneath horse, between horse's legs.

Mint: Pella (probable)
Struck: 359-336 BC.
Size: 18 mm.
Weight: ca. 5.9 grams

Patina: Beautiful multi-color, subtle-blending of dark olive, copper, near-jade green and some lighter tones toward silver, gray, brown. Lovely eloquent gloss over-all.

Similar to SNGCop 583 (?)

* Olympian
1 commentsTiathena
Philip_III__2_Tetradrachm.jpg
Philip III 1/5 Tetradrachm in Style of Philip II -- 323-326 BC18 views2.46 g, 14 mm, 150°
Amphipolis Mint
Silver 1/5 Tetradrachm; Toned, Scratches on Reverse
Minted During the Reign of Philip III; In the Style of Philip II
Le Rider (Plate 44, 4); SNG ANS 575

Obverse: Head of Apollo Right, Wearing Taenia.
Reverse: FILIPPOU (Fillipou),Youth on Horseback Right, Monogram Below.

Philip II (382–336 BC) became the ruler of all Greece when he defeated the Athenians at the Battle of Chaeroneia in 338 B.C. Philip personally selected the design of his coins. His horse, on the reverse of this coin, won a race in the Olympic Games in 356 B.C., the year his son Alexander the Great was born. Philip III Arrhidaeus was the half-brother of Alexander the Great and the bastard son of Philip II and a dancer, Philinna of Larissa. On the death of Alexander he was elected king by the Macedonian Army. He was, however, imprisoned upon his return to Macedonia and in October 317 B.C. he was executed under orders from Olympias, Alexander's mother, to ensure the succession of her grandson.
Hydro
Macedonian Kingdom 1b img.jpg
Philip III Arrhidaeus, drachm, Price P4355 viewsSilver drachm
Obv:– Head of Herakles right, wearing lion skin headdress knotted at base of neck
Rev:– FILIPPOU, Zeus on throne, feet on footstool, right leg drawn back, holding eagle and scepter, lyre left
Minted in Ionia, Kolophon, posthumus issue, , c. 323 - c. 319 B.C.
Reference:– Price P43

Minted shortly after Alexander's death, under the rule his brother, Philip III Arrhidaeus. Philip III was mentally disabled and power was divided among his advisors and Alexander's generals. Philip was murdered in October 317 by Olympias, Alexander's mother, to ensure the succession of her grandson.

Ex-Forvm
maridvnvm
Philip_II.jpg
Philip III Tetradrachm in Style of Philip II -- 323-317 BC29 views13.709 g, 22.6 mm, 225°
Amphipolis Mint
Silver Tetradrachm
Minted During the Reign of Philip III; In the Style of Philip II
Le Rider pl. 46, 17-18; SNG Cop 559; SNG ANS 738 ff; SNG Alpha Bank 289

Obverse: Laureate Head of Zeus Right
Reverse: FILIPPOU (Fillipou), Naked Youth on Horse Pacing Right, Holding Palm. Acrostolion below. G and Pellet Below Foreleg.

Philip II (382–336 BC) became the ruler of all Greece when he defeated the Athenians at the Battle of Chaeroneia in 338 B.C. Philip personally selected the design of his coins. His horse, on the reverse of this coin, won a race in the Olympic Games in 356 B.C., the year his son Alexander the Great was born. Philip III Arrhidaeus was the half-brother of Alexander the Great and the bastard son of Philip II and a dancer, Philinna of Larissa. On the death of Alexander he was elected king by the Macedonian Army. He was, however, imprisoned upon his return to Macedonia and in October 317 B.C. he was executed under orders from Olympias, Alexander's mother, to ensure the succession of her grandson.
__________________________
My first FORVM coin. A great price for a beautiful coin. Spent a while looking for a nice Philip II design; imagine my surprise when I found this on FORVM, not only cheaper than any other similar quality coin, but more beautiful as well. Been a return FORVM customer ever since.
1 commentsHydro
Philip_III_and_Alexander_IV_Drachm.jpg
Philip III/Alexander IV Drachm -- 323-317 BC18 views3.955 g, 15.4 mm, 0°
Sardes Mint
Silver Drachm
Minted During the Reign of Philip III or Alexander IV; In the Style of Alexander III
Price P103 (Philip) or 2626 (Alexander)

Obverse: Head of Herakles Wearing Nemean Skin Headdress Right.
Reverse: Zeus Aëtophoros Enthroned Left Holding Eagle and Staff. Legend Off Flan. Bee Head Over TI in Left Field.

Philip III Arrhidaeus was the mentally deficient, bastard son of Philip II and a dancer, Philinna of Larissa, and therefore the half-brother of Alexander the Great. On the death of Alexander he was elected king by the Macedonian Army. He was, however, imprisoned upon his return to Macedonia and in October 317 B.C. he was executed under orders from Olympias, Alexander's mother, to ensure the succession of her grandson through Alexander III and Princess Roxanna of Bactria. Alexander IV was poisoned by the regent of Macedonia, Cassander, in 311 BC at age 12 when defenders of the Argead Dynasty began to declare that a regent was no longer needed and Alexander should be placed on the throne.
_________________________
Another great FORVM purchase of mine.
Hydro
Phillip_V_Poseidon-Athena.jpg
Philip V of Macedonia * Poseidon & Athena Alkidemos (221-179 BC)66 views
Philip V, Ć22 * Poseidon* & Athena* Alkidemos

Obverse: (Kemp) Laureate head of Poseidon, facing right.
Reverse: Athena Alkidemos striding/advancing left with shield, hurling a thunderbolt. Monograms in left and right fields.

Mint: Pella (?)

Bronze *
Size: 22 mm.
Weight: 8.72 grams
Die axis: 0 degs.

Patina: Lovely deep-sea green, towards dark-olive.

This coin appears to be unlisted in standard references; however, it is listed in
SNG Greece 2 - The Alpha Bank Collection #1071 ( I P ) in the right field ( I G{amma} in present instance).
It is also listed in Mamroth ZFN 42 ( a specialized work on Philip V in German).
Mamroth 42

* Olympian

Tiathena
10118_10119.jpg
Probus, Antoninianus, SALVS AVG, V, (Star), TXXI0 viewsAE Antoninianus
Probus
Augustus: 276 - 282AD
Issued: 282AD
23.5 x 22.0mm 3.50gr 0h
O: IMP C PROBVS AVG; Radiate, mantled bust left, holding eagle-tipped scepter in right hand.
R: SALVS AVG; Salus standing right, holding and feeding snake.
Exergue: V, left field; (Star), right field; TXXI, below line.
Ticinum Mint
RIC V-2 Ticinum 499, V; A: 935: B48, O50, R141, T119, M7.
olympiacoins/Sar Stankovic 352801705085
10/1/19 10/31/19
Nicholas Z
Julia_Domna,_Augusta_194_-_8_April_217_A_D_.jpg
Roman Empire , empress Julia Domna, Augusta 194 - 8 April 217 A.D. (Wife of emperor Septimius Severus , mother of emperor Caracalla and co-emperor Geta.)94 viewsSilver Denarius, RIC IV S546, RSC III 14, BMCRE V S10, SRCV II 6576, Choice VF, excellent portrait, well centered, 3.253 gr, 18.9 mm , 0o, Rome mint, struck in year 200 A.D.
Obverse : IVLIA AVGVSTA, draped bust right.
Reverse : CERERI FRVGIF, Ceres seated left, heads of grain in right hand, long torch behind in left hand.
Scarce.
Gorgeous portrait.

The most powerful woman in Roman Empire history.

FORVM Ancient Coins/ The Sam Mansourati Collection / Given as a Christmas present to a superb dear friend.

*Ceres a goddess of agriculture, grain crops, fertility and motherly relationships, was listed among the Di Consentes, Rome's equivalent to the Twelve Olympians of Greek mythology. The Romans saw her as the counterpart of the Greek goddess Demeter, whose mythology was reinterpreted for Ceres in Roman art and literature.

***Julia Domna was the second wife of Septimius Severus and mother of Caracalla and Geta. An intelligent, talented and beautiful woman, Julia Domna exercised great influence during her husband's reign and practically administered the empire for her sons. In 217 A.D. after the assassination of Caracalla, she possibly committed suicide by starvation or she died of breast cancer.
3 commentsSam
Caracalla_Mars_Def.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Caracalla, Silver Denarius "Mars, the defender" * 196-217 AD *654 views
Caracalla, "Mars*, the defender."
AR Denarius
Obv: ANTONINVS PIVS AVG BRIT - Laureate head right
Rev: MARTI PROPVGNATORI – Mars advancing left, holding spear and trophy

Mint: Rome
Struck: 213 AD

Size: 18 mm.
Weight: 4.5 grams(?)
Die axis: 180 deg.

RIC IVi, 223 (s) Scarce; Cohen 150; D. Sear II, 6819; pg. 521
SCARCE

* Olympian
Tiathena
pixodaros.jpg
SATRAPS OF CARIA, Pixodaros.38 viewsCirca 341/0-336/5 BC. AR Didrachm (20mm, 6.94g, 12h). Pixodarus 11-47 (unlisted dies); Konuk, Identities 30; SNG Copenhagen 596-7. Obverse: Head of Apollo/Helios facing slightly right, wearing laurel wreath, drapery around neck. Reverse: Zeus Labraundos standing right. ΠIΞOΔAPO[Y] to right field. Good VF, toned, minor die rust.

Ex-CNG.

The Pixodaros Affair
Pixodaros was a satrap of Caria in south-western Asia Minor, the youngest brother of Maussolos, and a member of the Hecatomnid Dynasty who remained loyal to the Persian King. When Persia was in turmoil after the eunuch Bagoas murdered Artaxerxes III, in the midst of the confusion, Pixodaros decided in 337 B.C. to offer his eldest daughter’s hand in marriage to Phillip II’s son Arridaios as a diplomatic move. The pact was accepted. According to Plutarch, Phillip II’s wife Olympias and a number of Alexander’s friends conspired to convince Alexander that Philip intended to marry Arridaios to Pixodaros’ daughter as a prelude to giving him the Macedonian throne. Alexander felt that his father had left him out and decided to act on his own. He sent his friend, the famous tragic actor Thessalos, to Caria to tell Pixodaros that not only was Arridaios an illegitimate son of the Macedonian king but feeble-minded as well. To make sure that the marriage did not go ahead, Alexander offered to marry Pixodaros’ daughter himself. Pixodaros, of course, could not have asked for a better deal. When Philip found it out he was enraged and went to Alexander’s quarters and scolded his son for wanting to marry the daughter of a man “who was no more than the slave of a barbarian king”. The whole affair concluded with Philip canceling the Macedonian-Carian alliance and ordering Thessalos to be brought back to Macedon in chains, and exiled four of Alexander’s friends Erygius, Harpalos, Nearchos, and Ptolemy. Pixodaros died some time before the landing of Alexander in Asia Minor in 334 BC. He was succeeded by his son-in-law Orontobates, a Persian, who married the princess who was once supposed to have married Arridaios.

2 commentsJason T
Philip_III_Tetradrachm2.jpg
Seleukos I Nicator Tetradrachm -- Babylon -- 309-300 BC37 views16.407 g, 26.2 mm, 270°
Babylonian Mint
Silver Tetradrachm; High Relief, Tight Flan, Corrosion
Minted by Seleukos as King of Syria; In Name and Style of Alexander
Price 3704; Müller Alexander 714; Armenak Hoard 135

Obverse: Head of Herakles Wearing Nemean Skin Headdress Right.
Reverse: BΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ AΛEΞAN∆POY (Of King Alexander), Zeus Aëtophoros Enthroned Left Holding Eagle and Staff.

Philip III Arrhidaeus was the mentally deficient, bastard son of Philip II and a dancer, Philinna of Larissa, and therefore the half-brother of Alexander the Great. On the death of Alexander he was elected king by the Macedonian Army. He was, however, imprisoned upon his return to Macedonia and in October 317 B.C. he was executed under orders from Olympias, Alexander's mother, to ensure the succession of her grandson. Seleukos served under Alexander III as an infantry general. Following, Alexander's death, he served as Commander of the Companions in Babylon under Perdiccas and Satrap of of Babylon under Antipater. During the renewed Wars of the Diadochi, Seleukos founded the Seleukid Empire in 312 BC. The Seleukid dynasty ruled Syria until Pompey made Syria a Roman province in 63 BC.
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Newest FORVM purchase. A great coin; the picture really doesn't do it justice.
1 commentsHydro
Philip_III_Tetradrachm.jpg
Seleukos I Nikator as Satrap for Philip III Tetradrachm -- 320-315 BC35 views16.94 g, 27 mm, 300°
2nd Babylonian Mint
Silver Tetradrachm
Minted during reign of Philip III; Under Seleukos
Price 140

Obverse: Head of Herakles Wearing Nemean Skin Headdress Right.
Reverse: BΑΣΙΛΕΛΣ FILIPPOU (Of King Philip), Zeus Aëtophoros Enthroned Left Holding Eagle and Staff.

Philip III Arrhidaeus was the mentally deficient, bastard son of Philip II and a dancer, Philinna of Larissa, and therefore the half-brother of Alexander the Great. On the death of Alexander he was elected king by the Macedonian Army. He was, however, imprisoned upon his return to Macedonia and in October 317 B.C. he was executed under orders from Olympias, Alexander's mother, to ensure the succession of her grandson. Seleukos served under Alexander III as an infantry general. Following, Alexander's death, he served as Commander of the Companions in Babylon under Perdiccas and Satrap of of Babylon under Antipater. During the renewed Wars of the Diadochi, Seleukos founded the Seleucid Empire in 312 BC.
______________________________
Either my #1 or #2 favorite coin. Slight evidence of it having been cleaned a bit harshly by a past owner, but I still love how it ended up. Slightly impaired surface, but an amazing strike.
Hydro
00047q00.jpg
Sicily, Syracuse. Second Democracy(Circa 415-405 BC)19 viewsHemilitron

16mm, 3.82 g

Obverse: Head of Arethusa to left, hair in sphendone.

Rev. ΣY-PA Wheel of four spokes, dolphins in lower quarters.

CNS 22. SNG ANS 404-410.

Arethusa was a naiad (a water nymph) who frolicked in the vicinity of Olympia and was desired and pursued by the river-god Alpheios. She appealed for assistance from Artemis, goddess of the moon and the hunt and the protector of women. Aretemis transformed her into an underground stream emerging as a freshwater spring on the Sicilian island of Ortygia, the future site of Syracuse. Undaunted, Alpheios diverted his river’s flow underground to follow Arethusa, and both of their waters now mingle eternally in the Fountain of Arethusa in Ortygia. Arethusa’s image on coins is usually accompanied by dolphins, which were common in the sea around Ortygia in classical times.
Nathan P
Artemis_WTbolt~0.jpg
SICILY, Syracuse; Agathokles - Artemis/Winged Thunderbolt. 317-289 BC. Æ Litra79 views
Syracuse; Agathokles, 317-289 BC. Ć Litra

Obv: SWTEIRA type: Adorned head of Artemis* right, wearing triple-pendant, earring and necklace, with quiver over her shoulder.

Rev: Winged thunderbolt, [AGA](Theta)OKLEOS above, B[ASIL]EOS below.
( AGAQOKLEOS BASILEOS )

Mint: Syracuse, Sicily
Struck: Period 4 / ca. 295 BC.

Size: 21 mm.
Weight: Litra (5.9 grams)
Condition: Fine
Patina: Rich flat brown

SNG ANS 708; SNG Copenhagen 779.

(Better photo pending)
* Olympian
1 commentsTiathena
6F0173A9-02C1-4828-B2F6-71D857883D2F.jpeg
Sikyon, Peloponnesos, Greece, c. 100 - 60 B.C.9 viewsThe affectionate dove, the bird of love, was sacred to the goddess of love, Venus (Aphrodite). Doves were said to draw her heavenly chariot, and the Syrian Aphrodite Ashtarte was said to have been hatched from an egg and nursed by doves. The phrase attributed to Jesus, "Be ye therefore wise as serpents, and harmless as doves" (Matthew 10.16), was no random metaphor but a traditional Syrian invocation.
GS87458. Silver triobol, BCD Peloponnesos 344.1; BMC Peloponnesus p. 52, 197; HGC 5 217 (S), aVF, toned, off center, reverse double struck, die wear, porous, Sikyon mint, weight 2.158g, maximum diameter 15.5mm, die axis 135o, magistrate Olympiadas, c. 100 - 60 B.C.; obverse dove flying right, no control symbol; reverse large Σ, OΛYM/ΠI-A/∆AΣ in three horizontal lines, all within incuse square
1 commentsMark R1
Sikyonia_BCD-Pelop344.jpg
Sikyonia, Sikyon.12 viewsSikyonia, Sikyon. 100-60 BC. AR Hemidrachm (2.18 gm). Dove flying r. / Large Σ, ΟΛΥM-ΠΙ-ΔΑΕ (Olympiadas, magistrate) in fields. EF. Pegasi VI #157. BCD Peloponnesos 344.1; BMC Peloponnesus 52, 195-198; HGC 5 #217 (S); SNG Cop. 100; Warren Silver 28-31.Christian T
Stratonikeia.jpg
Stratonikeia, Caria53 viewscirca 100 BC
AE 20 (20mm, 6.38g)
O: Lareate head of Hekate right, wearing crescent moon crown.
R: Nike advancing right, holding palm and wreath; ΣTPATO above, [NIK]EΩN below.
cf SNG Cop 489; cf Sear 4942; BMC 151,31
Scarce
ex Aegean Numismatics

Stratonikeia was located in SW Asia Minor, about 11km from Lagina, the largest known sanctuary of the goddess Hekate, "whom Zeus honored above all others" (Hesiod). It is likely that the cult of Hekate originated in this area a millennium or more before Her introduction into Greek religion at the conclusion of the Titanomachy, the legendary battle between the Titans and Olympians.
During an annual ritual the Priestess would lead a procession from the polis to Lagina where she would open the sanctuary with a sacred key. This key would eventually become one of the attributes depicted on later images of Hekate.
5 commentsEnodia
laodikeia_elagabal_SNGcop272-373.jpg
Syria, Laodikeia ad Mare, Elagabal, BMC 10537 viewsElagabal, AD 218-222
AE 19, 4.60g
obv. IMP CM AVR.ANTONINUS
Head, radiate, r.
rev. LA[V]D[ICEWN]
Naked bearded Herakles, club behind, wrangling with naked youthful
Dionysos, with ivy wreath, [thyrsos behind]
in ex. DE
BMC 105; SNG Copenhagen 372-273
good F, red-brown patina

These male figures indicate certain certamina or public sports celebrated at Laodicea. On such occasions the competitors for the prize were stripped of clothing and annointed with oil and wax. They contended together with mutual grappling and liftingn whilst each endeavoured to give the other "a flooring." Hercules was, according to Pausanias, the reputed institutor of the olympic games. There are colonial medals of Caracalla which inform us that the certamina olympia were performed at Tyre; and this coin shows the probability of the same contests having been celebrated at Laodicea. (Stevenson, Dictionary of Roman Coins)
Jochen
Zeus_Athena_S1obrv~0.jpg
Thessalian League Zeus / Athena, Silver Stater83 views
Zeus / Athena AR Stater
Thessaly / Thessalian League
Date: 196-146 BC.

Obverse: Bearded Head of Zeus*, Crowned with Oak-wreath, Facing Right.
Reverse: Thessalian Athena* Itonia (Paus. x. 1. 10) in fighting attitude, Standing Right, Brandishing Spear in Right Hand, Holding Shield on Left Arm.

Weight: 6.1 gms.
Size: 22mm.

* Olympian

2 commentsTiathena
Lysimachus_Athena-Lion.jpg
Thrace, Lysimachus. 323 - 287 BC. Bronze drachm135 views
AE Drachm

Obv: Head of Athena*, facing right.
Rev: Pouncing lion, BASILEOS above, spearhead and LYSIMACHOY below.

Size: 19 mm.
Weight: 5.50 grams

Mint: Pella (?)
Struck: 323-287 BC.

SNG C 1149


* Olympian
1 commentsTiathena
philippopolis_sept_severus_AE18_unbekannt.jpg
Thracia, Philippopolis, Septimius Severus, probably unpublished26 viewsSeptimius Severus, AD 193-211
AE 18
obv. AV.K.L.CE. - [C]EVHROC
Bust, draped and cuirassed, seen from behind, laureate, r.
rev. FILIPPO - POLEITWN
Hermes, nude, stg. r., resting with l. arm on column, holding in child Dionysos, in raised r. hand bunch of grapes.
Ref.: Varbanov (engl.) 1252 (described as Apollo with bow and unkown object)
very rare, good F

The rev. probably shows the famous statue 'Hermes with child Dionysos' from Praxiteles. Described by Pausanias the statue was found at the Hera temple in Olympia.
Jochen
hadtempdet.jpg
Turkey, Ephesus - temple of Hadrian960 viewsA magnificent relief of Medusa filling the interior arch of the temple of Hadrian. Other reliefs of Amazons and the Olympian gods grace the interior.memphius
Phil2AE21.jpeg
[103b] Macedonian Kingdom, Philip II, 359 - 336 B.C.54 viewsMacedonian Kingdom, Philip II, 359 - 336 B.C. Bronze AE 21, Heavy or Double Unit, SNG ANS 833, aVF, 8.40g, 21.2mm, 0o, lifetime issue. Obverse: head Apollo right, wearing tania; Reverse: FILIPPOU, young male rider right, right hand raised, E right.
Ex FORVM.

Philip II expanded the size and influence of the Macedonian Kingdom, but is perhaps best known as the father of Alexander the Great. He personally selected the design of his coins.

Struck in commemoration of Philip's Olympic victory. This is one of his earliest issues in bronze.

Philip II of Macedon (382 BC–336 BC; in Greek Φίλιππος = φίλος (friend) + ίππος (horse), transliterated Philippos) was the King of Macedon from 359 BC until his assassination. He was the father of Alexander the Great, Phillip III Arrhidaeus, and possibly Ptolemy I Soter, founder of the Ptolemaic dynasty.

Born in Pella, Philip was the youngest son of King Amyntas III and Eurydice. In his youth, (ca. 368 BC–365 BC) Philip was a hostage in Thebes, which was the leading city of Greece during the Theban hegemony. While a captive there, Philip received a military and diplomatic education from Epaminondas, was involved in a pederastic relationship with Pelopidas and lived with Pammenes, who was an enthusiastic advocate of the Sacred Band of Thebes. In 364 BC, Philip returned to Macedonia. The deaths of Philip's elder brothers, King Alexander II and Perdiccas III, allowed him to take the throne in 359 BC. Originally appointed regent for his infant nephew Amyntas IV, who was the son of Perdiccas III, Philip managed to take the kingdom for himself that same year.

Philip's military skills and expansionist vision of Macedonian greatness brought him early success. The hill tribes were broken by a single battle in 358 BC, and Philip established his authority inland as far as Lake Ohrid. He used the Social War as an opportunity for expansion. In 357 BC, he took the Athenian colony of Amphipolis, which commanded the gold mines of Mount Pangaion. That same year Philip married the Epirote princess Olympias, who was the daughter of the king of the Molossians. In 356 BC, Philip conquered the town of Crenides and changed its name to Philippi. Philip also attacked Abdera and Maronea, on the Thracian sea-board. Also in 356 Alexander was born and his race horse won in the Olympics in He took Methone in 354 BC, a town which had belonged to Athens. During the siege of Methone, Philip lost an eye.

Not until his armies were opposed by Athens at Thermopylae in 352 BC did Philip face any serious resistance. Philip did not attempt to advance into central Greece because the Athenians had occupied Thermopylae. Also in 352 BC, the Macedonian army won a complete victory over the Phocians at the Battle of Crocus Field. This battle made Philip tagus of Thessaly, and he claimed as his own Magnesia, with the important harbour of Pagasae.
Hostilities with Athens did not yet take place, but Athens was threatened by the Macedonian party which Philip's gold created in Euboea. From 352 to 346 BC, Philip did not again come south. He was active in completing the subjugation of the Balkan hill-country to the west and north, and in reducing the Greek cities of the coast as far as the Hebrus (Maritza). For the chief of these coastal cities, Olynthus, Philip continued to profess friendship until its neighboring cities were in his hands.

In 349 BC, Philip started the siege of Olynthus. Olynthus at first allied itself with Philip, but later shifted its allegiance to Athens. The Athenians did nothing to help Olynthus. Philip finally took Olynthus in 348 BC and razed the city to the ground. In 346 BC, he intervened effectively in the war between Thebes and the Phocians, but his wars with Athens continued intermittently.

Macedonia and the regions adjoining it having now been securely consolidated, Philip celebrated his Olympic games at Dium. In 347 BC, Philip advanced to the conquest of the eastern districts about the Hebrus, and compelled the submission of the Thracian prince Cersobleptes. Meanwhile, Athens had made overtures for peace, and when Philip, in 346 BC, again moved south, peace was sworn in Thessaly. With key Greek city-states in submission, Philip turned to Sparta; he sent them a message, "You are advised to submit without further delay, for if I bring my army into your land, I will destroy your farms, slay your people, and raze your city." Their reply was "If." Philip and Alexander would both leave them alone. Later, the Macedonian arms were carried across Epirus to the Adriatic Sea. In 342 BC, Philip led a great military expedition north against the Scythians, conquering the Thracian fortified settlement Eumolpia to give it his name, Philippoupolis (modern Plovdiv).

In 340 BC, Philip started the siege of Perinthus. Philip began another siege in 339 BC of the city of Byzantium. After unsuccessful sieges of both cities, Philip's influence all over Greece was compromised. However, Philip successfully reasserted his authority in the Aegean by defeating an alliance of Thebans and Athenians at the Battle of Chaeronea in 338 BC. He erected a memorial of a marble lion to the Sacred Band of Thebes for their bravery that still stands today. Philip created and led the League of Corinth in 337 BC. Members of the League agreed never to wage war against each other, unless it was to suppress revolution. Philip was elected as leader (hegemon) of the army of invasion against the Persian Empire. In 336 BC, when the invasion of Persia was in its very early stage, Philip was assassinated, and was succeeded on the throne of Macedon by his son Alexander the Great.

Philip’s Assassination

The murder happened in October of 336 BC, at Aegae, the ancient capital of the kingdom of Macedon. The court had gathered there for the celebration of the marriage between Alexander of Epirus and Philip's daughter. While the king was entering unprotected into the town's theatre (highlighting his approachability to the Greek diplomats present), he was killed by Pausanias of Orestis, one of Philip's seven bodyguards. The assassin immediately tried to escape and reach his associates who were waiting for him with horses at the entrance of Aegae. He was pursued by three of Philip's bodyguards and died by their hands.
The reasons for Pausanias' assassination of Phillip are difficult to fully expound, since there was controversy already among ancient historians. The only contemporary account in our possession is that of Aristotle, who states rather tersely that Philip was killed because Pausanias had been offended by the followers of Attalus, the king's father-in-law.

Whatever else that may be written about Philip II it must be recognized that he was responsible for making Macedon the ascendant Greek power. He reorganized the Macedonian army. It was this army that Alexander the Great inherited. Phillip II trained some of his Alexander’s best generals: Antigonus Cyclops, Antipater, Nearchus, Parmenion, and Perdiccas.

While Alexander was a bold and charismatic leader, he owes much of his success to his father.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Philip_II_of_Macedon
J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.


Cleisthenes
Phillip2Ae.jpg
[103c] Macedonian Kingdom, Philip II, 359 - 336 B.C.43 viewsBronze AE Unit, SNG ANS 896, SNG Cop 589, F, 5.554g, 16.8mm, 0o, Macedonian mint, c. 359 - 336 B.C.; lifetime issue. Obverse: head Apollo right wearing tania; Reverse: FILIPPOU, young male riding horse prancing to right, AI below. Ex FORVM.


Philip II expanded the size and influence of the Macedonian Kingdom, but is perhaps best known as the father of Alexander the Great. He personally selected the design of his coins.

Philip II of Macedon (382 BC–336 BC; in Greek Φίλιππος = φίλος (friend) + ίππος (horse), transliterated Philippos) was the King of Macedon from 359 BC until his assassination. He was the father of Alexander the Great, Phillip III Arrhidaeus, and possibly Ptolemy I Soter, founder of the Ptolemaic dynasty.

Born in Pella, Philip was the youngest son of King Amyntas III and Eurydice. In his youth, (ca. 368 BC–365 BC) Philip was a hostage in Thebes, which was the leading city of Greece during the Theban hegemony. While a captive there, Philip received a military and diplomatic education from Epaminondas, was involved in a pederastic relationship with Pelopidas and lived with Pammenes, who was an enthusiastic advocate of the Sacred Band of Thebes. In 364 BC, Philip returned to Macedonia. The deaths of Philip's elder brothers, King Alexander II and Perdiccas III, allowed him to take the throne in 359 BC. Originally appointed regent for his infant nephew Amyntas IV, who was the son of Perdiccas III, Philip managed to take the kingdom for himself that same year.

Philip's military skills and expansionist vision of Macedonian greatness brought him early success. The hill tribes were broken by a single battle in 358 BC, and Philip established his authority inland as far as Lake Ohrid. He used the Social War as an opportunity for expansion. In 357 BC, he took the Athenian colony of Amphipolis, which commanded the gold mines of Mount Pangaion. That same year Philip married the Epirote princess Olympias, who was the daughter of the king of the Molossians. In 356 BC, Philip conquered the town of Crenides and changed its name to Philippi. Philip also attacked Abdera and Maronea, on the Thracian sea-board. Also in 356 Alexander was born and his race horse won in the Olympics in He took Methone in 354 BC, a town which had belonged to Athens. During the siege of Methone, Philip lost an eye.

Not until his armies were opposed by Athens at Thermopylae in 352 BC did Philip face any serious resistance. Philip did not attempt to advance into central Greece because the Athenians had occupied Thermopylae. Also in 352 BC, the Macedonian army won a complete victory over the Phocians at the Battle of Crocus Field. This battle made Philip tagus of Thessaly, and he claimed as his own Magnesia, with the important harbour of Pagasae.
Hostilities with Athens did not yet take place, but Athens was threatened by the Macedonian party which Philip's gold created in Euboea. From 352 to 346 BC, Philip did not again come south. He was active in completing the subjugation of the Balkan hill-country to the west and north, and in reducing the Greek cities of the coast as far as the Hebrus (Maritza). For the chief of these coastal cities, Olynthus, Philip continued to profess friendship until its neighboring cities were in his hands.

In 349 BC, Philip started the siege of Olynthus. Olynthus at first allied itself with Philip, but later shifted its allegiance to Athens. The Athenians did nothing to help Olynthus. Philip finally took Olynthus in 348 BC and razed the city to the ground. In 346 BC, he intervened effectively in the war between Thebes and the Phocians, but his wars with Athens continued intermittently.

Macedonia and the regions adjoining it having now been securely consolidated, Philip celebrated his Olympic games at Dium. In 347 BC, Philip advanced to the conquest of the eastern districts about the Hebrus, and compelled the submission of the Thracian prince Cersobleptes. Meanwhile, Athens had made overtures for peace, and when Philip, in 346 BC, again moved south, peace was sworn in Thessaly. With key Greek city-states in submission, Philip turned to Sparta; he sent them a message, "You are advised to submit without further delay, for if I bring my army into your land, I will destroy your farms, slay your people, and raze your city." Their reply was "If." Philip and Alexander would both leave them alone. Later, the Macedonian arms were carried across Epirus to the Adriatic Sea. In 342 BC, Philip led a great military expedition north against the Scythians, conquering the Thracian fortified settlement Eumolpia to give it his name, Philippoupolis (modern Plovdiv).

In 340 BC, Philip started the siege of Perinthus. Philip began another siege in 339 BC of the city of Byzantium. After unsuccessful sieges of both cities, Philip's influence all over Greece was compromised. However, Philip successfully reasserted his authority in the Aegean by defeating an alliance of Thebans and Athenians at the Battle of Chaeronea in 338 BC. He erected a memorial of a marble lion to the Sacred Band of Thebes for their bravery that still stands today. Philip created and led the League of Corinth in 337 BC. Members of the League agreed never to wage war against each other, unless it was to suppress revolution. Philip was elected as leader (hegemon) of the army of invasion against the Persian Empire. In 336 BC, when the invasion of Persia was in its very early stage, Philip was assassinated, and was succeeded on the throne of Macedon by his son Alexander the Great.

Philip’s Assassination

The murder happened in October of 336 BC, at Aegae, the ancient capital of the kingdom of Macedon. The court had gathered there for the celebration of the marriage between Alexander of Epirus and Philip's daughter. While the king was entering unprotected into the town's theatre (highlighting his approachability to the Greek diplomats present), he was killed by Pausanias of Orestis, one of Philip's seven bodyguards. The assassin immediately tried to escape and reach his associates who were waiting for him with horses at the entrance of Aegae. He was pursued by three of Philip's bodyguards and died by their hands.
The reasons for Pausanias' assassination of Phillip are difficult to fully expound, since there was controversy already among ancient historians. The only contemporary account in our possession is that of Aristotle, who states rather tersely that Philip was killed because Pausanias had been offended by the followers of Attalus, the king's father-in-law.

Whatever else that may be written about Philip II it must be recognized that he was responsible for making Macedon the ascendant Greek power. He reorganized the Macedonian army. It was this army that Alexander the Great inherited. Phillip II trained some of his Alexander’s best generals: Antigonus Cyclops, Antipater, Nearchus, Parmenion, and Perdiccas.

While Alexander was a bold and charismatic leader, he owes much of his success to his father.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Philip_II_of_Macedon
J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
Antiochos1ARTetPhiletairos.jpg
[2400c] Pergamene Kingdom: Attalid Dynasty: Philetairos: 282-- 263 B.C. 53 viewsPergamene Kingdom, Attalid Dynasty; AR Tetradrachm (17.10 gm, 29 mm), VF, Struck in Pergamon under Philetairos, in the name of Seleukos I, circa 279-274 BC. Obverse: head of Herakles right, wearing lion's skin headdress; Reverse: Zeus seated left, holding eagle and sceptre; helmeted head of Athena in left field; crescent under throne. SC 308a. Nicely toned and scarce. Ex Eukratides. Photo by Eukratides.

Philetairos first struck in the name of Lysimachos, then posthumous Alexander types under Seleukos I (such as this specimen), then Seleukos portrait types under Antiochos I, and lastly a type with his own portrait.

The Attalid dynasty was a Hellenistic dynasty that ruled the city of Pergamon after the death of Lysimachus, a general of Alexander the Great. The Attalid kingdom was the rump state left after the collapse of the Lysimachian Empire. One of Lysimachus' officers, Philetaerus, took control of the city in 282 BC. The later Attalids were descended from his father, and they expanded the city into a kingdom. Attalus I proclaimed himself King in the 230s BC, following his victories over the Galatians. The Attalids ruled Pergamon until Attalus III bequeathed the kingdom to the Roman Republic in 133 BC to avoid a likely succession crisis.

On the interior of the Pergamon Altar is a frieze depicting the life of Telephos, son of Herakles, whom the ruling Attalid dynasty associated with their city and utilized to claim descendance from the Olympians. Pergamon, having entered the Greek world much later than their counterparts to the west, could not boast the same divine heritage as older city-states, and had to retroactively cultivate their place in Greek mythos.

The Attalid Dynasty of Pergamum

Philetaerus (282 BC–263 BC)
Eumenes I (263 BC–241 BC)
Attalus I Soter (241 BC–197 BC)
Eumenes II (197 BC–158 BC)
Attalus II Philadelphus (160 BC–138 BC)
Attalus III (138 BC–133 BC)
Eumenes III Aristonicus (pretender, 133 BC–129 BC)
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Attalid_dynasty


The Relationship between the Attalids and the Seleucids

September 281 A.D.: death of Seleucus I; accession of Antiochus I; Philetaerus of Pergamon buys back the corpse of Seleucus I (the father of Antiochos I and a member of the Diodochi: the period of the Diadochi is said to end with the victory of Seleucus I over Lysimachus at the battle of Corupedion in 281, fixing the boundaries of the Hellenistic world for the next century).

Antiochus I Soter (Greek Ἀντίoχoς Σωτήρ, i.e. "Saviour"; 324/​323-​262/​261 B.C.), was an emperor of the Hellenistic Seleucid Empire. He reigned from 281 - 261 B.C. He was half Persian, his mother Apama being one of the eastern princesses whom Alexander the Great had given as wives to his generals in 324 B.C. In in 294 B.C., prior to death of his father Seleucus I, Antiochus married his step-mother, Stratonice, daughter of Demetrius Poliorcetes. His elderly father reportedly instigated the marriage after discovering that his son was in danger of dying of lovesickness.

On the assassination of his father in 281 B.C., the task of holding together the empire was a formidable one, and a revolt in Syria broke out almost immediately. Antiochus was soon compelled to make peace with his father's murderer, Ptolemy Keraunos, abandoning apparently Macedonia and Thrace. In Asia Minor he was unable to reduce Bithynia or the Persian dynasties that ruled in Cappadocia.

In 278 BC the Gauls broke into Asia Minor, and a victory that Antiochus won over these hordes is said to have been the origin of his title of Soter (Gr. for "saviour").

At the end of 275 B.C. the question of Coele-Syria, which had been open between the houses of Seleucus and Ptolemy since the partition of 301 B.C., led to hostilities (the First Syrian War). It had been continuously in Ptolemaic occupation, but the house of Seleucus maintained its claim.

About 262 B.C. Antiochus tried to break the growing power of Pergamum by force of arms, but suffered defeat near Sardis and died soon afterwards. His eldest son Seleucus, who had ruled in the east as viceroy from 275 BC(?) till 268/267 BC, was put to death in that year by his father on the charge of rebellion. He was succeeded (261 BC) by his second son Antiochus II Theos

263 A.D.: Eumenes I of Pergamon, successor of Philetaerus, declares himself independent.

262 A.D.: Antiochus defeated by Eumenes.
http://www.livius.org/am-ao/antiochus/antiochus_i_soter.html

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

Cleisthenes
PergamumRegalIssueSNGfrance5_1683.jpg
[2410a] Mysia, Pergamon. Regal Issue, 281-133 BC.74 viewsMysia, Pergamon. Regal Issue, 281-133 BC. AE 14mm (1.94 gm). Obverse: Athena in Attic helmet right. Reverse: ΦIΛE-TAIPOY; bow. SNG France 5, 1683. Good very fine. Ex Tom Vossen.


The Attalid dynasty was a Hellenistic dynasty that ruled the city of Pergamon after the death of Lysimachus, a general of Alexander the Great. The Attalid kingdom was the rump state left after the collapse of the Lysimachian Empire. One of Lysimachus' officers, Philetaerus, took control of the city in 282 BC. The later Attalids were descended from his father, and they expanded the city into a kingdom. Attalus I proclaimed himself King in the 230s BC, following his victories over the Galatians. The Attalids ruled Pergamon until Attalus III bequeathed the kingdom to the Roman Republic in 133 BC to avoid a likely succession crisis.

On the interior of The Great Altar of Zeus at Pergamon is a frieze depicting the life of Telephos, son of Herakles, whom the ruling Attalid dynasty associated with their city and utilized to claim descendance from the Olympians. Pergamon, having entered the Greek world much later than their counterparts to the west, could not boast the same divine heritage as older city-states, and had to retroactively cultivate their place in Greek mythos.

The Pergamon Museum (in German, Pergamonmuseum) is one of the museums on the Museum Island in Berlin. It was planned by Alfred Messel and Ludwig Hoffmann and was built over a period from 1910 to 1930. It houses original-sized, reconstructed monumental buildings such as the Pergamon Altar. Sections of The Telephos Frieze, originaly composed of the sequnce of 52 panels--only some scenes of this beautiful frieze were "saved" by German archeologists in the 19th century--are exhibited there.

The Attalid Dynasty of Pergamum

Philetaerus (282 BC–263 BC)
Eumenes I (263 BC–241 BC)
Attalus I Soter (241 BC–197 BC)
Eumenes II (197 BC–158 BC)
Attalus II Philadelphus (160 BC–138 BC)
Attalus III (138 BC–133 BC)
Eumenes III Aristonicus (pretender, 133 BC–129 BC)
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Attalid_dynasty

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
ATGlifetime TetMemphis.jpg
[300mem] Alexander III, The Great, 336-323 BC, AR Tetradrachm (Possible Lifetime Issue)82 viewsAlexander III, The Great; 336-323BC. AR tetradrachm; Price 3971, SNG Cop.7; 16.07g. Memphis mint, Egypt. Possible Lifetime issue. Obverse: Beardless bust of young Herakles right wearing lions scalp. Reverse: Zeus enthroned left; holding eagle in outstretched right hand and sceptre in left , rose in left field; between legs of throne and O next to right leg of throne; gVF/VF, light encrustation obverse, small chip reverse; together with several light scratches both sides. Ex Pavlos S. Pavlou. Ex FORVM, "The Memphis issues are among the finest style Alexander coins. Experts disagree on the date of this issue. Some identify it as a lifetime issue and others as a posthumous issue (Joseph Sermarini)..

Alexandros III Philippou Makedonon (356-323 BC)

"Alexander III of Macedon, better known as Alexander the Great, single-handedly changed the entire nature of the ancient world in little more than ten years.

Born in the northern Greek kingdom of Macedonia in 356 BC, to Philip II and his formidable wife Olympias, Alexander was educated by the philosopher Aristotle. Following his father's assassination in 336 BC, he inherited a powerful yet volatile kingdom, which he had to secure - along with the rest of the Greek city states - before he could set out to conquer the massive Persian Empire, in revenge for Persia's earlier attempts to conquer Greece.

Against overwhelming odds, he led his army to victories across the Persian territories of Asia Minor, Syria and Egypt without incurring a single defeat. With his greatest victory at the Battle of Gaugamela, in what is now northern Iraq, in 331 BC, the young king of Macedonia, leader of the Greeks, Overlord of Asia Minor and Pharaoh of Egypt also became Great King of Persia at the age of 25.

Over the next eight years, in his capacity as king, commander, politician, scholar and explorer, Alexander led his army a further 11,000 miles, founding over 70 cities and creating an empire that stretched across three continents and covered some two million square miles.

The entire area from Greece in the west, north to the Danube, south into Egypt and as far east as the Indian Punjab, was linked together in a vast international network of trade and commerce. This was united by a common Greek language and culture, whilst the king himself adopted foreign customs in order to rule his millions of ethnically diverse subjects.

Primarily a soldier, Alexander was an acknowledged military genius who always led by example, although his belief in his own indestructibility meant he was often reckless with his own life and that of those he expected to follow him. The fact that his army only refused to do so once, in the13 years of a reign during which there was constant fighting, indicates the loyalty he inspired.

Following his death in 323 BC at the age of only 32, his empire was torn apart in the power struggles of his successors. Yet Alexander's mythical status rapidly reached epic proportions and inspired individuals as diverse as Julius Caesar, Cleopatra, Louis XIV and Napoleon.

He continues to be portrayed according to the bias of those interpreting his achievements. He is either Alexander the Great or Iskander the Accursed, chivalrous knight or bloody monster, benign multi-culturalist or racist imperialist - but above all he is fully deserving of his description as 'the most significant secular individual in history'."

By Dr. Joann Fletcher
http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/alexander_the_great.shtml

"When Alexander saw the breadth of his domain, he wept for there were no more worlds to conquer."--attributed to Plutarch, The Moralia.
http://www.pothos.org/alexander.asp?paraID=96

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
ATG_Susa_Price3827_incitatus.jpg
[300sus] Alexander III, The Great, 336-323 BC, AR Tetradrachm (Lifetime Issue)54 viewsAlexander III, AR silver tetradrachm; Price 3827; struck 336-323 BC. Susa mint; VF; Sturck during the lifetime of Alexander the Great. Obverse: Head of Herakles right in lion skin; Reverse - AΛEΞANΔPOY, Zeus seated left with eagle & scepter; monogram in left field, monogram below throne; BASILEOS below. Ex Incitatus.

Alexandros III Philippou Makedonon (356-323 BC)

"Alexander III of Macedon, better known as Alexander the Great, single-handedly changed the entire nature of the ancient world in little more than ten years.

Born in the northern Greek kingdom of Macedonia in 356 BC, to Philip II and his formidable wife Olympias, Alexander was educated by the philosopher Aristotle. Following his father's assassination in 336 BC, he inherited a powerful yet volatile kingdom, which he had to secure - along with the rest of the Greek city states - before he could set out to conquer the massive Persian Empire, in revenge for Persia's earlier attempts to conquer Greece.

Against overwhelming odds, he led his army to victories across the Persian territories of Asia Minor, Syria and Egypt without incurring a single defeat. With his greatest victory at the Battle of Gaugamela, in what is now northern Iraq, in 331 BC, the young king of Macedonia, leader of the Greeks, Overlord of Asia Minor and Pharaoh of Egypt also became Great King of Persia at the age of 25.

Over the next eight years, in his capacity as king, commander, politician, scholar and explorer, Alexander led his army a further 11,000 miles, founding over 70 cities and creating an empire that stretched across three continents and covered some two million square miles.

The entire area from Greece in the west, north to the Danube, south into Egypt and as far east as the Indian Punjab, was linked together in a vast international network of trade and commerce. This was united by a common Greek language and culture, whilst the king himself adopted foreign customs in order to rule his millions of ethnically diverse subjects.

Primarily a soldier, Alexander was an acknowledged military genius who always led by example, although his belief in his own indestructibility meant he was often reckless with his own life and that of those he expected to follow him. The fact that his army only refused to do so once, in the13 years of a reign during which there was constant fighting, indicates the loyalty he inspired.

Following his death in 323 BC at the age of only 32, his empire was torn apart in the power struggles of his successors. Yet Alexander's mythical status rapidly reached epic proportions and inspired individuals as diverse as Julius Caesar, Cleopatra, Louis XIV and Napoleon.

He continues to be portrayed according to the bias of those interpreting his achievements. He is either Alexander the Great or Iskander the Accursed, chivalrous knight or bloody monster, benign multi-culturalist or racist imperialist - but above all he is fully deserving of his description as 'the most significant secular individual in history'."

By Dr. Joann Fletcher
http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/alexander_the_great.shtml

"When Alexander saw the breadth of his domain, he wept for there were no more worlds to conquer."
--attributed to Plutarch, The Moralia.
http://www.pothos.org/alexander.asp?paraID=96

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
ATGlifetimeDrachm.jpg
[301aby] Alexander III, The Great, 336-323 BC, AR Drachm (Lifetime Issue)67 viewsAlexander III, 336-323 BC, Silver Drachm; Minted during lifetime of Alexander the Great. Price-1503, Müller-907, struck 328-323BC at Abydus, 4.27 grams, 17.3 mm. Nice VF. Obverse: Head of young Herakles facing right, clad in lion's skin; Reverse: Zeus enthoned facing left, holding eagle and sceptre, his legs are parallel and resting on a stool, Hermes standing facing left in left field, monogram beneath throne. A very nice specimen of a lifetime drachm of Alexander III 'the Great' with Hermes as the mint symbol in the left field of the reverse. Just a touch of wear on both surfaces, but still quite attractive. Ex Glenn W. Woods.

Alexandros III Philippou Makedonon (356-323 BC)

"Alexander III of Macedon, better known as Alexander the Great, single-handedly changed the entire nature of the ancient world in little more than ten years.

Born in the northern Greek kingdom of Macedonia in 356 BC, to Philip II and his formidable wife Olympias, Alexander was educated by the philosopher Aristotle. Following his father's assassination in 336 BC, he inherited a powerful yet volatile kingdom, which he had to secure - along with the rest of the Greek city states - before he could set out to conquer the massive Persian Empire, in revenge for Persia's earlier attempts to conquer Greece.

Against overwhelming odds, he led his army to victories across the Persian territories of Asia Minor, Syria and Egypt without incurring a single defeat. With his greatest victory at the Battle of Gaugamela, in what is now northern Iraq, in 331 BC, the young king of Macedonia, leader of the Greeks, Overlord of Asia Minor and Pharaoh of Egypt also became Great King of Persia at the age of 25.

Over the next eight years, in his capacity as king, commander, politician, scholar and explorer, Alexander led his army a further 11,000 miles, founding over 70 cities and creating an empire that stretched across three continents and covered some two million square miles.

The entire area from Greece in the west, north to the Danube, south into Egypt and as far east as the Indian Punjab, was linked together in a vast international network of trade and commerce. This was united by a common Greek language and culture, whilst the king himself adopted foreign customs in order to rule his millions of ethnically diverse subjects.

Primarily a soldier, Alexander was an acknowledged military genius who always led by example, although his belief in his own indestructibility meant he was often reckless with his own life and that of those he expected to follow him. The fact that his army only refused to do
so once, in the13 years of a reign during which there was constant fighting, indicates the loyalty he inspired.

Following his death in 323 BC at the age of only 32, his empire was torn apart in the power struggles of his successors. Yet Alexander's mythical status rapidly reached
epic proportions and inspired individuals as diverse as Julius Caesar, Cleopatra, Louis XIV and Napoleon.

He continues to be portrayed according to the bias of those interpreting his achievements. He is either Alexander the Great or Iskander the Accursed, chivalrous knight or bloody monster, benign multi-culturalist or racist imperialist - but above all he is fully deserving of his
description as 'the most significant secular individual in history'."

By Dr. Joann Fletcher
http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/alexander_the_great.shtml

"When Alexander saw the breadth of his domain, he wept for there were no more worlds to conquer."--attributed to Plutarch, The Moralia.
http://www.pothos.org/alexander.asp?paraID=96

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

Cleisthenes
ATGBronzeAE19Price310.jpg
[302mac] Alexander III, The Great, 336-323, AE19 (Lifetime Issue)43 viewsAlexander III, The Great, Macedonian Kingdom, 336 - 323 B.C. Minted during lifetime of Alexander the Great. Bronze AE 19, Price 310, VF, Macedonian, 6.613g, 19.1mm, 90o, c. 336 - c. 323 B.C. Obverse: head of Herakles right, in lion skin headdress; Reverse: ALEXANDRS, club above, quiver and bow below, P upper right. Ex FORVM.


Alexandros III Philippou Makedonon (356-323 BC)

"Alexander III of Macedon, better known as Alexander the Great, single-handedly changed the entire nature of the ancient world in little more than ten years.

Born in the northern Greek kingdom of Macedonia in 356 BC, to Philip II and his formidable wife Olympias, Alexander was educated by the philosopher Aristotle. Following his father's assassination in 336 BC, he inherited a powerful yet volatile kingdom, which he had to secure - along with the rest of the Greek city states - before he could set out to conquer the massive Persian Empire, in revenge for Persia's earlier attempts to conquer Greece.

Against overwhelming odds, he led his army to victories across the Persian territories of Asia Minor, Syria and Egypt without incurring a single defeat. With his greatest victory at the Battle of Gaugamela, in what is now northern Iraq, in 331 BC, the young king of Macedonia, leader of the Greeks, Overlord of Asia Minor and Pharaoh of Egypt also became Great King of Persia at the age of 25.

Over the next eight years, in his capacity as king, commander, politician, scholar and explorer, Alexander led his army a further 11,000 miles, founding over 70 cities and creating an empire that stretched across three continents and covered some two million square miles.

The entire area from Greece in the west, north to the Danube, south into Egypt and as far east as the Indian Punjab, was linked together in a vast international network of trade and commerce. This was united by a common Greek language and culture, whilst the king himself adopted foreign customs in order to rule his millions of ethnically diverse subjects.

Primarily a soldier, Alexander was an acknowledged military genius who always led by example, although his belief in his own indestructibility meant he was often reckless with his own life and that of those he expected to follow him. The fact that his army only refused to do so once, in the13 years of a reign during which there was constant fighting, indicates the loyalty he inspired.

Following his death in 323 BC at the age of only 32, his empire was torn apart in the power struggles of his successors. Yet Alexander's mythical status rapidly reached epic proportions and inspired individuals as diverse as Julius Caesar, Cleopatra, Louis XIV and Napoleon.

He continues to be portrayed according to the bias of those interpreting his achievements. He is either Alexander the Great or Iskander the Accursed, chivalrous knight or bloody monster, benign multi-culturalist or racist imperialist - but above all he is fully deserving of his description as 'the most significant secular individual in history'."

By Dr. Joann Fletcher
http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/alexander_the_great.shtml

"When Alexander saw the breadth of his domain, he wept for there were no more worlds to conquer."--attributed to Plutarch, The Moralia.
http://www.pothos.org/alexander.asp?paraID=96

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
HadrianAequitasAR_denarius.jpg
[903a] Hadrian, 11 August 117 - 10 July 138 A.D.93 viewsSilver denarius, RIC II 228 var (bust type), gVF, Rome, 2.849g, 17.8mm, 180o, 134 A.D.; Obverse: HADRIANVS AVG COS III P P, head right; Reverse: AEQVITAS AVG, Aequitas standing left, scales in right, scepter in left; excellent portrait; scarce. Ex FORVM. Photo courtesy of FORVM.

De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Hadrian (A.D. 117-138)
Herbert W. Benario
Emory University

Introduction and Sources
"During a happy period of more than fourscore years, the public administration was conducted by the virtue and abilities of Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian, and the two Antonines. It is the design of this and of the two succeeding chapters to describe the prosperous condition of their empire, and afterwards, from the death of Marcus Antoninus, to deduce the most important circumstances of its decline and fall, a revolution which will ever be remembered and is still felt by the nations of the earth."

So Edward Gibbon concluded the first paragraph of his massive The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, referring to a period which he also styled the happiest of mankind's history. Hadrian was the central figure of these "five good emperors," the one most responsible for changing the character and nature of the empire. He was also one of the most remarkable and talented individuals Rome ever produced.

The sources for a study of Hadrian are varied. There is no major historian for his reign, such as Tacitus or Livy. The chief literary sources are the biography in the Historia Augusta, the first surviving life in a series intended to continue Suetonius' Lives of the Caesars. Debate about this collection of imperial biographies has been heated and contentious for more than a century. The most convincing view is that which sees the whole as the work of a single author writing in the last years of the fourth century. The information offered ranges from the precisely accurate to the most wildly imaginative.

Cassius Dio, who wrote in the decade of the 230s, produced a long history of the empire which has survived, for the Hadrianic period, only in an abbreviated version. Fourth century historians, such as Aurelius Victor and Eutropius, occasionally furnish bits of information. Contemporaries or near-contemporaries of Hadrian, such as Arrian, Fronto, Pausanias, and Plutarch, are also useful. Papyri, inscriptions, coins, and legal writings are extremely important. Archaeology in all its aspects contributes mightily to any attempt to probe the character of a man and emperor whose personality and thoughts defy close analysis and understanding.

Early Life and Career
Hadrian was born on January 24, 76. Where he saw the light of day was, even in antiquity, matter for debate. Italica, in Hispania Baetica, was the birthplace of Trajan and was also considered that of Hadrian. But the HA reports that he was born in Rome, and that seems the more likely choice, since it is the more unexpected. The actual place of one's birth was, however, unimportant, since it was one's patria which was crucial. Hadrian's ancestors had come to Spain generations before, from the town of Hadria in Picenum, at the end of the Second Punic War. Italica's tribus, to which Hadrian belonged, was the Sergia. His father, P. Aelius Afer, had reached the praetorship by the time of his death in 85/86, his mother, Domitia Paulina, came from a distinguished family of Gades, one of the wealthiest cities in the empire. His sister Paulina married Servianus, who played a significant role in Hadrian's career. Trajan was the father's cousin; when Afer died, Trajan and P. Acilius Attianus, likewise of Italica, became Hadrian's guardians.

At the age of about ten, Hadrian went to Italica for the first time (or returned, if he had been there earlier in his childhood), where he remained for only a brief time. He then returned to the capital and soon began a rapid rise through the cursus honorum; he was a military tribune of three different legions in consecutive years, a series of appointments which clearly marked him for a military career, and reached the consulate as a suffect at the age of 32, the earliest possible under the principate. At Trajan's death, he was legate of the province of Syria, with responsibility for the security of the east in the aftermath of Trajan's Parthian War.

(For a detailed and interesting discussion of Hadrian's reign please see: http://www.roman-emperors.org/hadrian.htm])

Literary and artistic achievements
Hadrian was a man of extraordinary talents, certainly one of the most gifted that Rome ever produced. He became a fine public speaker, he was a student of philosophy and other subjects, who could hold his own with the luminaries in their fields, he wrote both an autobiography and poetry, and he was a superb architect. It was in this last area that he left his greatest mark, with several of the empire's most extraordinary buildings and complexes stemming from his fertile mind. The anonymous author of the Historia Augusta described Hadrian as Fuit enim poematum et litterarum nimium studiosissimus. Arithmeticae, geometriae, picturae peritissimus.

He rebuilt Agrippa's Pantheon into the remarkable building that survives today, reconstructing the accustomed temple facade, with columns and pediment, but attaching it to a drum which was surmounted by a coffered dome. The latter was pierced by an oculus nine meters in diameter, which was the main source of illumination. Height and diameter were identical, 43.3 meters. The dome remained the largest in the world until the twentieth century. As was his custom, he replaced the original inscription of Agrippa on the architrave; seldom did he put his own name on a monument.

He also left his mark on almost every city and province to which he came. He paid particular attention to Athens, where he completed the great temple of Olympian Zeus, some six centuries after construction had begun, and made it the centerpiece of a new district of the city.

Hadrian's relationship with philosophers and other scholars was generally fractious. He often scorned their achievements while showing his own superiority. An anecdote about an argument which he had with the eminent philosopher and sophist Favorinus revealed the inequity of such disagreement. Although Favorinus was correct, he gave way to Hadrian, and when rebuked by friends, replied, "You advise me badly, friends, since you do not permit me to believe that he who commands thirty legions is the most learned of all."

Hadrian's literary taste inclined toward the archaic and the odd. He preferred Cato to Cicero, Ennius to Vergil, Coelius Antipater to Sallust, and disapproved of Homer and Plato as well. Indeed, the epic writer Antimachus of Colophon supplanted Homer in Hadrian's estimation. The biographer Suetonius held office under Hadrian but was discharged in 122 for disrespect to the empress. The historian Tacitus, who may have lived into Hadrian's reign, seems to have found no favor with the emperor.

His best known literary work is the short poem which he is said to have composed shortly before his death. These five lines have caused commentators much interpretative woe.

animula vagula blandula
hospes comesque corporis
quae nunc abibis in loca
pallidula rigida nudula
nec ut soles dabis iocos! (25.9)

"Little soul, wandering and pale, guest and companion of my body, you who will now go off to places pale, stiff, and barren, nor will you make jokes as has been your wont."
. . .

Reputation
Hadrian died invisus omnibus, according to the author of the Vita. But his deification placed him in the list of "good" emperors, a worthy successor to the optimus princes Trajan. Hadrian played a significant role both in developing the foreign policies of the empire and in its continuing centralization in administration. Few would disagree that he was one of the most remarkable men Rome ever produced, and that the empire was fortunate to have him as its head. When Aelius Aristides delivered his oration To Rome in 143, he had Hadrian's empire in mind when he said,

"But there is that which very decidedly deserves as much attention and admiration now as all the rest together. I mean your magnificent citizenship with its grand conception, because there is nothing like it in the records of all mankind. Dividing into two groups all those in your empire - and with this word I have indicated the entire civilized world - you have everywhere appointed to your citizenship, or even to kinship with you, the better part of the world's talent, courage, and leadership, while the rest you recognized as a league under your hegemony. Neither sea nor intervening continent are bars to citizenship, nor are Asia and Europe divided in their treatment here. In your empire all paths are open to all. No one worthy of rule or trust remains an alien, but a civil community of the World has been established as a Free Republic under one, the best, ruler and teacher of order; and all come together as into a common civic center, in order to receive each man his due.”

Scholarly work on the emperor, above all biographies, has been varied in quality. Much the best, as the most recent, is by A.R. Birley, who presents all that is known but underscores how much is conjecture, nay even guesswork. We still do not really know the man. An enigma he was to many while alive, and so he remains for us. Semper in omnibus varius; omnium curiositatum explorator; varius multiplex multiformis: these are descriptions of him from antiquity. They are still valid more than 1900 years after the emperor's death.

Copyright (C) 2000, Herbert W. Benario.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
2 commentsCleisthenes
     
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