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00027x00.jpg
35 viewsClaudius. AD 41-53
Æ As (26mm, 5.71 g, 4 h). Britain. Struck circa AD 43-64.
Bare head left
Minerva advancing right, brandishing spear and holding round shield; S C flanking
Sutherland grade IV

Found near Canterbury, Kent
1 commentsArdatirion
00006x00~5.jpg
12 viewsEGYPT, Memphis
PB Tessera
Uncertain figure standing facing, holding bust of Harpokrates wearing skent crown; MEMΦIC to right
Serapis enthroned left, holding scepter, with Cerberus at feet; to left, Demeter(?) standing right, holding scepter; to right, Tyche standing left, holding rudder and cornucopia
Milne -; Dattari (Savio) -; Köln 3563
Ardatirion
RI_064fl_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC -50 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG, Laureate head right
Rev:– TR P IIII IMP II COS II, Mars standing right, resting on spear and shield
Minted in Alexandria, A.D. 194
References:– BMCRE -, RIC -, RSC -. RIN (Rivista Italiana di Nvmismatica Vol. XCVI (1994/1995)

2.72g. 17.78mm. 0o

Additional information from Curtis Clay:-
"Die match to example in British Museum, found at the site of a Roman villa in Kent, GB, in 1952. The same obv. die also occurs with the types MONETA AVG and LEG III IT AVG TR P COS.
Bickford-Smith recorded three other specimens, of which I also have plaster casts: his own coll. (probably now in BM), Klosterneuburg, and U.S. private collection. On these the rev. legend apparently ends COS rather than COS II.
This type was clearly struck in 194, when Septimius was TR P II and IMP III or IIII, so TR P IIII IMP II in the rev. legend is an error, the origin of which is obvious: the type is a rote copy of the identical type and legend on denarii of Lucius Verus of 164, Cohen 228-9. The titles apply to Lucius in 164, not Septimius in 194!"
maridvnvm
HENRY_III.JPG
1216 – 1272, Henry III, AR Penny, Struck 1248 - 1250 at London, England (Long cross type)45 viewsObverse: HENRICVS REX : III. Crowned bust of Henry III facing within circle of pellets. Mintmark: Six pointed star.
Reverse: NICOLE ON LVND. Voided long cross dividing legend into quarters, trefoil in each quarter of inner circle. Moneyer: Nicole, cognate with the modern English name of Nicholas. The surname Nicole originates in the Netherlands where it was notable for its various branches, and associated status or influence. The modern given name Nicole is a French feminine derivative of the masculine given name Nicolas.
Diameter: 19mm | Weight: 1.3gms | Die Axis: 6
SPINK: 1363

The First Barons' War (1215–1217) was a civil war in England in which a group of rebellious barons led by Robert Fitzwalter and supported by a French army under the future Louis VIII of France, waged war against King John of England. The war resulted from King John's refusal to accept and abide by the Magna Carta, which he had been forced to put his seal to on 15th June 1215, as well as from Louis' own ambitions regarding the English throne.
It was in the middle of this war that King John died leaving his son, the nine year old Henry III (who had been moved to safety at Corfe Castle in Dorset along with his mother, Queen Isabella) as his heir.
On his deathbed John appointed a council of thirteen executors to help Henry reclaim the kingdom, requesting that his son be placed into the guardianship of William Marshal, 1st Earl of Pembroke. The loyalists decided to crown Henry immediately to reinforce his claim to the throne. William knighted the boy, and Cardinal Guala Bicchieri, the papal legate to England, then oversaw his coronation at Gloucester Cathedral on 28th October 1216. In the absence of the archbishops of either Canterbury or York, Henry was anointed by the bishops of Worcester and Exeter, and crowned by Peter des Roches, bishop of Winchester. During the civil war the royal crown had been lost, so instead, the ceremony used a simple gold corolla belonging to Queen Isabella. In 1217, Henry's forces, led by William Marshal, finally defeated the rebels at the battles of Lincoln and Sandwich.
Henry's early rule was dominated first by Hubert de Burgh, 1st Earl of Kent and Justiciar of England and Ireland, then by Peter des Roches, and they re-established royal authority after the war. In 1225 Henry promised to abide by the final and definitative version of the Magna Carta, freely authenticated by the great seal of Henry III himself, which protected the rights of the major barons and placed a limit on royal power. It is the clauses of this, the 1225 Magna Carta signed by Henry III, not the King John Magna Carta of 1215, which are on the Statute Books of the United Kingdom today.
4 comments*Alex
Richard_II_halfpenny.JPG
1377 - 1399, Richard II, AR Halfpenny struck at London, England8 viewsObverse: + RICARD : REX : ANGL. Crowned facing bust of Richard II within circle of pellets. Cross pattée in legend.
Reverse: CIVITAS LONDON. Long cross pattée dividing legend around inner circle of pellets into quarters, trefoil in each quarter of circle.
Type II, intermediate style, lombardic n's in 'LONDON'
Diameter: 13mm | Weight: 0.55gms | Die Axis: 1
SPINK: 1699 | North: 1331b

Richard II was King of England from 1377 until he was deposed in 1399. Edward III's heir, Edward the Black Prince, was Richard's father but he died in 1376, leaving Richard as heir apparent. When Edward III died the following year, the 10-year-old Richard succeeded to the throne.
During Richard's first years as king the government was in the hands of a series of regency councils which were under the control of Richard's uncles John of Gaunt and Thomas of Woodstock. England then faced various problems, most notably the Hundred Years' War. Another major challenge of the reign was the Peasants' Revolt in 1381, a crisis which the young king played a central part in suppressing.
Richard sought to restrain the power of the aristocracy and this caused so much discontent that, in 1387, a group of aristocrats known as the Lords Appellant took control of the government. But by 1389 Richard had regained control and for the next eight years governed in apparent harmony with his former opponents. However, in 1397, Richard took his revenge on the Appellants, many of whom were executed or exiled. In 1399, after John of Gaunt died, the king disinherited Gaunt's son, Henry of Bolingbroke, who he had previously exiled. Henry invaded England in June 1399 with a small force that quickly grew in numbers. Meeting little resistance, Bolingbroke deposed Richard and had himself crowned as King Henry IV.
Henry had agreed to let Richard live after his abdication but this all changed when Henry discovered that Lord Despenser, the earls of Huntingdon, Kent and Salisbury, and possibly also the Earl of Rutland, who had all been demoted from the ranks they had been given by Richard, were conspiring to murder him and restore Richard to the throne. Although averted, the plot highlighted the danger of allowing Richard to live and he is reported to have been starved to death in captivity in Pontefract Castle on or around 14 February 1400.
Richard's body was then taken south from Pontefract and displayed in the old St Paul's Cathedral, London until the 6th of March after which it was taken for burial in King's Langley Priory, Hertfordshire. Sometime later, by the order of King Henry V, Richard's body was moved from the Priory to Westminster Abbey.
1 comments*Alex
f~0.jpg
1950's Bus fare token. Lexington, Kentucky14 viewsancientone
coin275.JPG
510. Valentinian I55 viewsFlavius Valentinianus, known in English as Valentinian I, (321 - November 17, 375) was a Roman Emperor (364 - 375). He was born at Cibalis, in Pannonia, the son of a successful general, Gratian the Elder.

He had been an officer of the Praetorian guard under Julian and Jovian, and had risen high in the imperial service. Of robust frame and distinguished appearance, he possessed great courage and military capacity. After the death of Jovian, he was chosen emperor in his forty-third year by the officers of the army at Nicaea in Bithynia on February 26, 364, and shortly afterwards named his brother Valens colleague with him in the empire.

The two brothers, after passing through the chief cities of the neighbouring district, arranged the partition of the empire at Naissus (Nissa) in Upper Moesia. As Western Roman Emperor, Valentinian took Italia, Illyricum, Hispania, the Gauls, Britain and Africa, leaving to Eastern Roman Emperor Valens the eastern half of the Balkan peninsula, Greece, Aegyptus, Syria and Asia Minor as far as Persia. They were immediately confronted by the revolt of Procopius, a relative of the deceased Julian. Valens managed to defeat his army at Thyatria in Lydia in 366, and Procopius was executed shortly afterwards.

During the short reign of Valentinian there were wars in Africa, in Germany and in Britain, and Rome came into collision with barbarian peoples never of heard before, specifically the Burgundians, and the Saxons.

Valentinian's chief work was guarding the frontiers and establishing military positions. Milan was at first his headquarters for settling the affairs of northern Italy. The following year (365) Valentinian was at Paris, and then at Reims, to direct the operations of his generals against the Alamanni. These people, defeated at Scarpona (Charpeigne) and Catelauni (Châlons-en-Champagne) by Jovinus, were driven back to the German bank of the Rhine, and checked for a while by a chain of military posts and fortresses. At the close of 367, however, they suddenly crossed the Rhine, attacked Moguntiacum (Mainz) and plundered the city. Valentinian attacked them at Solicinium (Sulz am Neckar, in the Neckar valley, or Schwetzingen) with a large army, and defeated them with great slaughter. But his own losses were so considerable that Valentinian abandoned the idea of following up his success.

Later, in 374, Valentinian made peace with their king, Macrianus, who from that time remained a true friend of the Romans. The next three years he spent at Trier, which he chiefly made his headquarters, organizing the defence of the Rhine frontier, and personally superintending the construction of numerous forts.

During his reign the coasts of Gaul were harassed by the Saxon pirates, with whom the Picts and Scots of northern Britain joined hands, and ravaged the island from the Antonine Wall to the shores of Kent. In 368 Count Theodosius was sent to drive back the invaders; in this he was completely successful, and established a new British province, called Valentia in honour of the emperor.

In Africa, Firmus, raised the standard of revolt, being joined by the provincials, who had been rendered desperate by the cruelty and extortions of Comes Romanus, the military governor. The services of Theodosius were again requisitioned. He landed in Africa with a small band of veterans, and Firmus, to avoid being taken prisoner, committed suicide.

In 374 the Quadi, a Germanic tribe in what is now Moravia and Slovakia, resenting the erection of Roman forts to the north of the Danube in what they considered to be their own territory, and further exasperated by the treacherous murder of their king, Gabinius, crossed the river and laid waste the province of Pannonia. The emperor in April, 375 entered Illyricum with a powerful army. But during an audience to an embassy from the Quadi at Brigetio on the Danube (near Komárom, Hungary), Valentinian suffered a burst blood vessel in the skull while angrily yelling at the people gathered. This injury resulted in his death on November 17, 375.

His general administration seems to have been thoroughly honest and able, in some respects beneficent. If Valentinian was hard and exacting in the matter of taxes, he spent them in the defence and improvement of his dominions, not in idle show or luxury. Though himself a plain and almost illiterate soldier, Valentinian was a founder of schools. He also provided medical attendance for the poor of Rome, by appointing a physician for each of the fourteen districts of the city.

Valentinian was a Christian but permitted absolute religious freedom to all his subjects. Against all abuses, both civil and ecclesiastical, Valentinian steadily set his face, even against the increasing wealth and worldliness of the clergy. His chief flaw was his temper, which at times was frightful, and showed itself in its full fierceness in the punishment of persons accused of witchcraft, fortune-telling or magical practices.

Valentinian I; RIC IX, Siscia 15(a); C.37; second period: 24 Aug. 367-17 Nov. 375; common. obv. DN VALENTINI-ANVS PF AVG, bust cuir., drap., r., rev. SECVRITAS-REI PVBLICAE, Victory advancing l., holding wreath and trophy. l. field R above R with adnex, r. field F, ex. gamma SISC rev.Z dot (type xxxv)
ecoli
Nastich-Fig45-2.jpg
Abbasid Governors, Transoxiana: Hamza (ca. 770s-790) Cast AE Fals, Kharashket (Nastich p. 48, fig. 45)27 viewsOne of 12 known specimens from a find reportedly centered on Kanka / Kharashket near Tashkent in modern Uzbekistan. All of them are were crudely cast and hence attribution is based on known information. The only publication that mentions these coins is Nastich.

Obv: In margin, لا إله إلا الله محمد رسول; within center circle, الله (There is no God but Allah. Muhammad is the apostle of Allah)
Rev: In margin, بسم الله كما أمر به معبد الا أمير; within central circle, حمزة (In the name of Allah from that ordered by the amir Hamza); outer circle.

The full name of Hamza is not known with certainty but Nastich believes the most likely candidate is Hamza b. 'Amr who is cited on a fals of Samarqand dated AH 153. A less likely possibility is Hamza b. Malik (fl. c. AH 176-177).

Reference

Nastich, Vladimir N., A Survey of the Abbasid Copper Coinage of Transoxiana, Nastich, 2012
Nastich, Vladimir N., Early Islamic Copper Coinage of Transoxiana - A Generic Survey Focused on Newly Discovered Coin Types, 3rd Simone Assemani Symposium on Islamic Coins, 2012
SpongeBob
Nastich-Fig45.jpg
Abbasid Governors, Transoxiana: Hamza (ca. 770s-790) Cast AE Fals, Kharashket (Nastich p. 48, fig. 45)19 viewsOne of 12 known specimens from a find reportedly centered on Kanka / Kharashket near Tashkent in modern Uzbekistan. All of them are were crudely cast and hence attribution is based on known information. The only publication that mentions these coins is Nastich.

Obv: In margin, لا إله إلا الله محمد رسول; within center circle, الله (There is no God but Allah. Muhammad is the apostle of Allah)
Rev: In margin, بسم الله كما أمر به معبد الا أمير; within central circle, حمزة (In the name of Allah from that ordered by the amir Hamza); outer circle.

The full name of Hamza is not known with certainty but Nastich believes the most likely candidate is Hamza b. 'Amr who is cited on a fals of Samarqand dated AH 153. A less likely possibility is Hamza b. Malik (fl. c. AH 176-177).

Reference

Nastich, Vladimir N., A Survey of the Abbasid Copper Coinage of Transoxiana, Nastich, 2012
Nastich, Vladimir N., Early Islamic Copper Coinage of Transoxiana - A Generic Survey Focused on Newly Discovered Coin Types, 3rd Simone Assemani Symposium on Islamic Coins, 2012
SpongeBob
Anonymous commemorative scripulum, c 530 AD.JPG
Anonymous commemorative scripulum, c 530 AD111 viewsAnonymous
AR scripulum, third-siliqua
Constantinople, c. 530 AD
Helmeted and draped bust of Constantinopolis right
Large K within beaded border
Bendall Type 8; RIC VII -; J.P.C. Kent, "Urbs Roma and Constantinopolis Medallions at the mint of Rome," Essays Sutherland, p. 112, pl. 13, 28; RSC -; Vagi 3051
Ex CNG
4 commentsArdatirion
009n.jpg
Aphrodite (standing figure of)221 viewsLYDIA. Tralles. Tranquillina. Æ 30. A.D. 241-244. Obv: ΦOY.CAB.T-PANKYΛΛINA. Draped bust right; countermark on lower front part of bust Rev: (…)ΩNΠ (…)I.KΛ.ΦIΛIΠΠON.KENTA(…). Inscription around oak-wreath; inside wreath TPAΛΛIA-ΠYθIA on either side of tripod, which is encircled by serpent . Ref: BMC -. Axis: 165°. Weight: 12.40 g. Note: Unpublished? CM: Cult statue of Aphrodite right, in oval punch, 6 x 8 mm. Howgego 228 (16 pcs). Note: The countermark of this coin was applied at Aphrodisias in Caria, where only foreign coins were countermarked to make them valid in that city. Collection Automan. Automan
CeolnothBiarnred1.jpg
Archbishop of Canterbury, Ceolnoth111 viewsStruck c.865-868AD Kent, Canterbury mint. AR Penny 1.20g Ceolnoth Group III. Floriated Cross type. Obv tonsured bust facing, breaking inner circle 'ARCHIEP- CEOLNOD'; Rev 'BIARNRED MONETA' (Moneyer Beornraed) around, in inner circle a floriated cross. S.895? (Group III) N.247.

There are 58 recorded coins of Ceolnoth at the SCBI/EMC but only 3 coins of this moneyer for him. He also struck 6 more recorded coins for Alfred, Edward the Elder and some Danish imitative Alfred coins from East Anglia. This actual type is not listed in the corpus. However, a fragment at the British Museum, see BNJ28 CE Blunt 'A new coin of Ceolnoth' and JJ North plate III/9, is likely the same. Infact, I believe these coins are of the same dies and moneyer. Blunt & North describe 'LD' in the fragmented moneyer legend though it is likely 'ED' with the top half of the 'E' missing at the break. The Floriated Cross design is also found on coins of Aethelberht for the moneyers Dudda and Oshere but only 4 on database (N.621). In superb condition, a single find from the Driffield area in Yorkshire. This coin is potentially the only complete specimum and should be considered a great rarity. It is now recorded in the 2011 'The Coinage of Southern England' by Rory Naismith, Volume 1 Plate 65 C218.2b.

Gareth Williams at the British Museum kindly commented:

'I agree with your reading of the coin, and think that it is probably from the same dies as our fragment 1947, 14-4, 6, as you suggest, although it's difficult to be absolutely certain - the angle of the D on the reverse in particular looks slightly different, but that may just be the lighting on the photograph'

Rory Naismith from the Fitzwilliam Museum in Cambridge is studying the period for his PhD dissertation. He kindly commented as below:

'The Ceolnoth in particular is quite spectacular: not only is it, as you say, the only known whole floreate cross penny of Ceolnoth, but it is also a stunning coin of considerable historical importance. There is some reason to believe that it was found as part of a small hoard comprising at least three floreate cross pennies, the other two both being of Aethelberht by the moneyer Dudda. One is unfortunately only a small fragment, but the other is beautifully preserved. As the only known hoard of floreate cross coins, this is understandably a find of some significance, although it is odd to find it deposited so far north. A trawl through the BM and as many other catalogues and find records as I could find turned up only a total of nineteen floreate cross pennies, including yours, struck by seven moneyers. It was probably a lot larger than this meagre record seems to suggest: were it not for the large Dorking hoard of 1817 the preceding Inscribed Cross phase would be almost as little-known, and many moneyers who produced this type reappeared in the Lunettes coinage, so they may well have continued over the intervening period as well'.

The initial coinage of Group III has as the reverse motif a cross crosslet with pellets in the angles [coin 1, illustrated above]. Those of Ceolnoth are of good style and feature a neater tonsured bust of the archbishop possibly wearing his pallium. Those of Aethelwulf for the same period, Phase II at Canterbury, tend to have a rather crude right facing bust with thick lettering in the legend - although a few are of better style. Not all of Aethelwulf's coins of this type have pellets in the angles of the cross crosslet. This type was struck until c.852, when it was replaced by a coinage that was to become standard at Canterbury throughout the remainder of Aethelwulf's reign and the majority of the reign of his son Aethelberht. The Inscribed Cross coinage, struck only by Ceolnoth and the two aforementioned kings, have an identical reverse with a large voided cross that contains the moneyers name within and in the angles. Comparitively large numbers of these coins survive and they have been the subject of much study with regard to dating, reduced silver content and so on. Toward the end of his reign, c.854, Aethelberht minted a new coinage mirrored by Ceolnoth, the extremely rare Floriate Cross issue. These coins as would be expected have a large floriated cross on the reverse and had a very limited striking - perhaps as little as a year. Less than ten examples survive today for the king and archbishop. Illustrated below is the only known complete example of the Floriate Cross type of archbishop Ceolnoth.


AlexB
nikomedia_plautilla_RecGen253.jpg
Bithynia, Nikomedeia, Plautilla, Rec.Gen. 253 var.53 viewsPlautilla, AD 202-211, wife of Caracalla
AE 20, 3.17g, 19.94mm, 225°
obv. FOV PLAV - TILLA CEBA / CTH.
Bust, draped, r.
rev. NEIKOMHDEW - N / DIC NEWKO / RWN
Female ichthyokentaur, diademed, nude, with forefeet of horse and fishtail, ring l. on waves, holding auloi in l. arm and dolphin (?)
in extended r. hand
Rec.Gen. 253 var. (has only CEBA)
extremely rare, good F, nearly black patina (not green!)

For more information please look at the thread 'Coins of mythological interest'
Jochen
prusiasII_SNGcop639_#1.jpg
Bithynia, Prusias I, SNG Copenhagen 639 #165 viewsKingdom of Bithynia, Prusias I., 183-149 BC
AE 20, 6.38g
obv. (anepigraphic)
Head of Dionysos, with ivy-wreath, r.
rev. Kentaur Cheiron, stg. r., holding Lyra with both hands, waving chlamys behind him
Monogram in lower r. field
SNG Copenhagen 639; BMC 9; SG 7266
about VF

For more information look at the thread 'Mythological interesting coins'
Jochen
prusiasII_SNGcop639_#2.jpg
Bithynia, Prusias I, SNG Copenhagen 639 #263 viewsKingdom of Bithynia, Prusias I., 183-149 BC
AE 20, 5.00g
obv. (anepigraphic)
Head of Dionysos, with ivy-wreath, r.
rev. Kentaur Cheiron, stg. r., holding Lyra with both hands, waving chlamys behind him
Monogram in lower r. field
SNG Copenhagen 639; BMC 9; SG 7266
about VF

For more information look at the thread 'Mythological interesting coins'
Jochen
FlatLinearPotinAllenA_2_Close.jpg
Celtic, Britain. Cantii. Uninscribed. Class I Flat Linear potin. Allen A.12 viewsCeltic, Britain. Cantii. Uninscribed, ca. 100 BC. Class I Flat Linear cast potin, 16.14mm x 19.89mm; 2.31 g, 3h.
Obverse: Celticized head of Apollo left; design scribed in mold with stylus.
Reverse: Celticized bull charging right; same comment.
References: Allen A; VA 104
Ex Leslie Ross, 4-19-2011. Found near Rochester, in Kent, England, in March or April of 2011.
Mark Fox
CeltMassTetrobol-Kent1.jpg
Celtic, Unknown tribe of southern Gaul(?), imitating Massalian drachm. Potentially unrecorded.30 viewsCeltic, Unknown tribe of southern Gaul(?). Circa 2nd century BC. AR Drachm, 16mm (4.42 g.), 6h. Imitating Massalia.
Obverse: Wreathed head of nymph right; her pendant earring having possibly been reinterpreted as hair(!).
Reverse: ΜΑΣΣΑ, lion walking right; diamond-shaped symbol below.
References: Cf. Triton IX, lot 666, for likely prototype.
Comments: Found in Whitfield, in Kent, England, probably in early or mid January of 2011. A very heavy, early imitation that is superior to the average work of the Insubres and/or Salluvi. Cut in antiquity for possible recycling. The bright silvery interior indicates the coin is silver through and through.
Ex solidv-x2, 1-29-2011.
Mark Fox
Cilicia,_Kelenderis__3rd_cent__BC__AR_Obol,_Horse,_KE,_Goat,_SNG_France_116-7,_SNG_Levante_29_,_Q-001,_9h,_9mm,_0,76g-s.jpg
Cilicia, Kelenderis, (3rd.century B.C.), SNG Levante 029, AR-Obol, -/KE//--, Kentaur/Goat(?) kneeling left,64 viewsCilicia, Kelenderis, (3rd.century B.C.), SNG Levante 029, AR-Obol, -/KE//--, Kentaur/Goat(?) kneeling left,
avers: Horse prancing right within beaded circle.
reverse: KE, Kentaur/Goat(?) kneeling left, head right.
exergue: -/KE//--, diameter: 9,0mm, weight: 0,76g, axes: 9h,
mint: Cilicia, Kelenderis, date: 3rd.century B.C., ref: SNG Levante 029, SNG France 116-7,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
DSC_0007.JPG
CILICIA. Celenderis. Ca. 425-350 BC. AR stater15 viewsCILICIA. Celenderis. Ca. 425-350 BC. AR stater (20mm, 10.84 gm, 3h). NGC XF 4/5 - 4/5. Persic standard, ca. 425-400 BC. Youthful nude male rider, reins in right hand, kentron in left, dismounting from horse prancing left; A below / KEΛ, goat with long whiskers kneeling left, head right; two long stalks above, one terminating in flower, the other in large ivy leaf, all in incuse circle. SNG France 2, 46.2 commentsMark R1
DSC_2175.JPG
CILICIA. Celenderis. Ca. 425-350 BC. AR stater (20mm, 10.69 gm, 9h)14 viewsCILICIA. Celenderis. Ca. 425-350 BC. AR stater (20mm, 10.69 gm, 9h). VF. Persic standard, ca. 425-400 BC. Youthful nude male rider, holding reins in right hand and kentron in left, dismounting from horse prancing to left; A below / KEΛ, goat with long whiskers kneeling left, head right; two long stalks above, one terminating in flower, the other in large ivy leaf, all in incuse circle. BMC -. SNG France 2, 46. Mark R1
Civil_War_Cannonball~0.jpg
Civil War Cannon Ball135 viewsWeight: Approx. 3 lbs.

Excavated from the Perryville, Kentucky Battlefield - Fought Oct. 8th, 1862.

Confederate Gen. Braxton Bragg's autumn 1862 invasion of Kentucky had reached the outskirts of Louisville and Cincinnati, but he was forced to retreat and regroup. On October 7, the Federal army of Maj. Gen. Don Carlos Buell, numbering nearly 55,000, converged on the small crossroads town of Perryville, Kentucky, in three columns.

Union forces first skirmished with Rebel cavalry on the Springfield Pike before the fighting became more general, on Peters Hill, as the grayclad infantry arrived. The next day, at dawn, fighting began again around Peters Hill as a Union division advanced up the pike, halting just before the Confederate line. The fighting then stopped for a time. After noon, a Confederate division struck the Union left flank and forced it to fall back.

When more Confederate divisions joined the fray, the Union line made a stubborn stand, counter attacked, but finally fell back with some troops routed. Buell did not know of the happenings on the field, or he would have sent forward some reserves. Even so, the Union troops on the left flank, reinforced by two brigades, stabilized their line, and the Rebel attack sputtered to a halt.

Later, a Rebel brigade assaulted the Union division on the Springfield Pike but was repulsed and fell back into Perryville. The Yankees pursued, and skirmishing occurred in the streets in the evening before dark. Union reinforcements were threatening the Rebel left flank by now. Bragg, short of men and supplies, withdrew during the night, and, after pausing at Harrodsburg, continued the Confederate retrograde by way of Cumberland Gap into East Tennessee. The Confederate offensive was over, and the Union controlled Kentucky.

Result(s): Union strategic victory

Location: Boyle County

Campaign: Confederate Heartland Offensive (1862)

Date(s): October 8, 1862

Principal Commanders: Maj. Gen. Don Carlos Buell [US]; Gen. Braxton Bragg [CS]

Forces Engaged: Army of the Ohio [US]; Army of the Mississippi [CS]

Estimated Casualties: 7,407 total (US 4,211; CS 3,196)
1 commentsNoah
ConstantineTrierSolFollis1a_Close.jpg
Constantine I Æ follis, Trier mint. RIC 873.19 viewsConstantine I (AD 307/310–337). Æ follis, 23mm, 4.58 g., 6h. Treveri (Trier) mint, 1st officina. Struck AD 310–313.
Obverse: CONSTANTINVS PF AVG, laureate and cuirassed bust right.
Reverse: SOLI INVIC–TO COMITI, Sol standing and facing with head left and right palm raised; wearing chlamys draped over upper chest and left shoulder and holding globe in left hand; T–F//PTR.
References: RIC VI Trier 873 (C2)
Ex Martyn Bodkin, 3-22-2013. Reportedly found 30 years ago, possibly at Aylesford, in Kent, England.
Mark Fox
Constantius II Victoriae.jpg
Constantius II- Victoria59 viewsConstantius II, 22 May 337 - 3 November 361 A.D.


Obverse:
Rosette-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right

CONSTANTI - VS PF AVG

CONSTANTI – VS: Constantius
PF: Pius Felix
AVG: Augustus, emperor

Reverse:
VICTORIAE DD AVGGQ NN
'The victories of our lords the emperors'

VICTORIAE: Victories
DD: Dominus Noster
AVGGQ: emperors
NN: Nost—Nostrorvm

Note - Doubled letters used as plurals, e.g. one ruler is AUG and two agusti AUGG, one Caesar is CAES and two is CAESS, or D N vs D D N N where N N is read as "our".

Two victories facing one another, each holding a wreath and palm frond, dot in center.

Domination: Bronze AE3/4, size 15 mm,

Mint: SMTS Δ = Thessalonica, Δ = Delta is fourth Oficina in ex. Dated 347-348; rarity C2.
RIC VIII, Thessalonica 99; LRBC. 859

Ex Aiello Collection. The center dot is a remnant from using a compass for centering during the die engraving process. Center dots such as this are not considered part of the design and are not included in RIC descriptions.

Comments:
RIC 100 is not possible, for that would be CONSTANS - PF AVG. And for the dot as mint symbol there is no information in RIC. I think it is only a centration dimple.

On Dane's spreadsheet she indicates a dot in the center for some issues and other issues have double dots. For example RIC IX, 57 does indicate the dots and double dots.
Here is what Hill and Kent, in Late Roman Bronze Coinage has to say about the dot between the two Victories:
The central dot which is sometimes regarded as a distinguishing sign of a separate mint-mark seems to be merely operational, such as those which are frequently seen in this and the Gloria (two standards) types.
John Schou
Smirnova-400.jpg
Eastern Sogdiana, Ikhshids of Samarqand: Imitation of Gurak (710-738) AE Cash (Smirnova-400)27 viewsThere coins are classified differently between Smirnova and Akhunbabaev. Smirnova indicates that these are imitation coins of Gurak and hence read the inscription as "wr`kk MLK". However, Akhunbabaev attributed these coins to Divashtish, ruler of Penjikent. In this case, the inscription is read as "prykk MLK" which indicates Afrig Ikhshid. The tamgha is the same as Tukaspadak's and Tarkhun's and differing from the tamgha of Gurak.SpongeBob
EB0177b_scaled.JPG
EB0177 Persephone / Plow3 viewsKentoripai, SICILY, AE 17 (hexas), 344-336 BC.
Obverse: Draped bust of Persephone right, grain ear in hair; stalk of grain behind.
Reverse: KENTOΡIΠINΩN, Plow with a small bird standing on the share; two dots.
References: SG 1084; Calciati 7; BMC 2.15.
Diameter: 17.5mm, Weight: 4.435g.
EB
alexandria_hadrian_Dattari7901.jpg
Egypt, Alexandria, Hadrian, Dattari 7901123 viewsHadrian, AD 117-138
AE33, drachm, 22.10g
Alexandria, AD 133/134 (year 18)
obv. AVT KAIC TRAIAN - ADRIANOC CEB
Bust, draped and cuirassed, laureate, r.
rev. Agathodaimon, bearded, erected r., and Uraeus-Snake, erected l., confronted;
Agathodaimon, representing Osiris, wearing shkent (double crown of Upper and Lower Egypt) and
holding kerykeion with his tail; Uraeus-Snake, representing Isis, wearing crown of Isis (sundisk
between horns) and holding sistrum.
across field L IH (year 18)
Ref.: Dattari 7901
Very rare, VF
Thanks to Salem!

For more information please look at the thread 'Coins of mythological interest'.
8 commentsJochen
alexandria_hadrian_Milne984.jpg
Egypt, Alexandria, Hadrian, Milne 98441 viewsHadrian, AD 117-138
AE 22 (tetradrachm), 11.9g
Alexandria, AD 120/1 (year 5)
obv. AVT KAI TRAI - ADRIANOC [CEB]
Bust, draped on l. shoulder?, laureate, r.
rev. Agathodaemon snake, wearing shkent, erected r., a coil behind head, holding unwinged kerykeion l.
in l. and r. field [L] - E (year 5)
Milne 984; Dattari 1546 var; Geissen 805 var. (have winged kerykeion and grain-ears too)
about VF
Jochen
Dover.jpg
England, County of Kent, Dover: Roman Lighthouse97 viewsA visit to Dover on 20 March 2016, the Roman Lighthouse still stands within Dover Castle, which is still an important port of Britain by the English Channel. The upper 1/3 is a mix of Medieval (when it was used as a Bell Tower) and 19th century restoration (when the Church of Saint Mary, next to it, was also restored). The Lighthouse stands on the "eastern heights". There was another on the "western heights", they both guarded the entrance into the Roman harbour of Dubris (Dover) which was also an important base for the "Classis Britannica".Masis
IMG_4763.JPG
German Notgeld: Frankenthal, Pfalz15 viewsCity: Frankenthal
State: Pfalz
Denomination: 10 Pfennig
Obverse: Fürs Vaterland, a woman carrying cannon shell inside a munitions plant.
Reverse: Stadt Frankenthal + Kriegsgeld 1918 +
Date: 1918
Grade: VF
Catalog #:
Matt Inglima
IMG_4761.JPG
German Notgeld: Frankenthal, Pfalz15 viewsCity: Frankenthal
State: Pfalz
Denomination: 10 Pfennig
Obverse: No legend, a foundry worker pouring metal into a mold; factories in the background.
Reverse: Stadt Frankenthal + Kriegsgeld 1918 +
Date: 1918
Grade: VF
Catalog #:
Matt Inglima
68354p00.jpg
GREEK, Macedonian Kingdom, Philip II, 359 - 336 B.C., Gold stater18 viewsSH68354. Gold stater, Le Rider p. 146 & pl. 58. 157 (D42/R112), SNG ANS 172 ff., SNG Cop 529, SNG Alpha Bank -, EF, perfect centering, weight 8.602 g, maximum diameter 18.0 mm, die axis 0o, Pella mint, posthumous, 323 - 317 B.C.; obverse laureate head of Apollo right; reverse ΦIΛIΠΠOY (in exergue), charioteer driving biga right, kentron in right, reins in left, kantharos below; ex Gorny & Mosch auction 215, lot 758Joe Sermarini
50028p00.jpg
GREEK, Macedonian Kingdom, Philip III Arrhidaeus and Alexander IV, 323 - 317 B.C., Gold stater24 viewsSH50028. Gold stater, Thompson Philip 13; SNG ANS 318, NGC Choice Uncirculated, weight 8.58 g, Teos (near Sigacik, Turkey) mint, c. 323 - 316 B.C.; obverse laureate head of Apollo right; reverse charioteer driving biga right, holding kentron in right hand, reins in left, star and filleted branch below horses, ΦIΛIΠΠOY and spear head in exergue; certified (slabbed) by NGC Ch AU, Strike 4/5, Surface 3/5Joe Sermarini
7xXDR4ayMW6mZt32n9C78jzFbN55N3.jpg
GREEK, Sicily, Gela, AR Tetradrachm circa 420-415 BC 27mm 16.42g Jenkins 471 O91/R18073 viewsCharioteer driving slow quadriga left,holding reins in both hands,kentron in right Nike flying above and placing wreath on horses head.Rev fourpart of man-headed bull right.
Jenkins 471 O91-R180
2 commentsGrant H
92000209~0.jpg
GREEK, Sicily, Gela, AR Tetradrachm circa 440-430 BC 25mm 17.37g 1h Jenkins Gela 384.7 [O78/R158] this coin.128 viewsCharioteer holding Kenton in left hand and reins in both,driving slow quadriga right,above Nike flyingright crowning horseswith open wreath held in both hands.Rev forepart of man-headed bull right the river god [Gelas swimming.
Ex CNG Triton 16 lot 209.
1 commentsGrant H
15516_8_2_1.jpg
GREEK, Sicily, Gela, AR Tetradrachm circa 480-470 BC 25mm 17.05g 3h Jenkins 181 O48/R10431 viewsCharioteer holding kentron and reins,driving slow quadriga right,above Nike flying right crowning horses with wreath/Forepart of man-headed bull right.1 commentsGrant H
86274q00.jpg
GREEK, Sicily, Syracuse, Deinomenid Tyranny, Time of Hieron, c. 478 - 467 B.C.37 viewsSH86274. Silver tetradrachm, Boehringer 338 (V166/R236); Randazzo 507 - 509 (same dies); SNG ANS -, gVF, fantastic style, toned, centered on a tight flan, small areas struck a little flat, marks, pre-strike flan casting sprues remaining (as usual for the type), weight 16.971 g, maximum diameter 29.0 mm, die axis 0o, Syracuse mint, c. 478 - 467 B.C.; obverse slow quadriga driven right by male charioteer, kentron in right hand, reigns in left hand, Nike above flying right crowning horses; reverse ΣVRA-KOS-I-ON (Latin R upside down, N reversed), Artemis-Arethusa right, archaic eye, hair slightly waved in front turned up in a krobylos under a diadem of beads, wearing earring and necklace, surrounded by four dolphins swimming clockwise; ex Roma Numismatics, auction 6 (29 Sep 2013), lot 441; ex Comery CollectionJoe Sermarini
85694p00.jpg
GREEK, Sicily, Syracuse, Second Democracy, 466 - 405 B.C.20 viewsSH85694. Silver tetradrachm, Boehringer Series XXII, 672 (V338/R459); SNG ANS 222 (same dies); BMC Sicily, p. 162, 123 (same); Jameson 778 (same); Pozzi 586 (same); HGC 2 1320, VF, fine classical style, obverse die wear, bumps and scratches, somewhat ragged tight flan, weight 16.769 g, maximum diameter 26.7 mm, die axis 90o, Syracuse mint, c. 430 - 420 B.C.; obverse slow quadriga driven right by male charioteer holding kentron and reins, Nike above flying right crowning horses; reverse ΣYPAKOΣION, head of Arethusa right, earring, necklace, hair bound with taenia and wound four times around; four dolphins swimming aroundJoe Sermarini
Boehringer_156_(plate_coin).jpg
GREEK, SICILY, Syracuse. Deinomenid Tyranny. 485-466 BC. AR Tetradrachm, struck ca. 480-475 BC.20 viewsBoehringer, Die Münzen von Syrakus, 1929 and reprint 1974, Plate 7, # 156

SICILY, Syracuse. Deinomenid Tyranny. 485-466 BC. AR Tetradrachm, struck ca. 480-475 BC.
16.93 g, 24 mm, 12 h, test cut.

Obverse: Charioteer driving slow quadriga right, holding kentron and reins; above, Nike flying right, crowning horses.

Reverse: ΣVRAK—ΟΣΙ—O—N, Head of Arethusa right, wearing pearl diadem, surrounded by four dolphins swimming clockwise.

Reference: Boehringer # 156 (V70/R108) (this coin), Prinz Waldeck # 488 (this coin), SNG ANS # 44

Pedigree:
- Ex-Prince (Fürst) Waldeck of Arolsen collection # 488.
- Berlin Coin Cabinet between ca. 1921 - 1931 (plaster casts were made).
- Boehringer plate coin # 156 ("Die Münzen von Syrakus", 1929).
- Ex-Münzhandel Basel, Vente publique N° 4, 1st of October, 1935, Lot # 488.
- Ex-Heinz Rühmann Collection (famous German movie actor).
- Ex-Gerhand Hirsch Nachfolger, Auction 332, 20th of September, 2017, Lot # 2069.
- Ex-Stock; Dealer Hamborg, Bernd.
- The Asena Collection (Burak Cebeci), purchased at Dortmund Coin Fair, 01.09.2019.
- Illustrated on Wildwinds as Boehringer 156 (http://wildwinds.com/coins/greece/sicily/syracuse/deinomenid/t.html)
Istinpolin
Scan0003.jpg
Hadrian Denarius29 viewsOBV; HADRIAN AVGVSTVS
REV; IVSTITIA AVG.P.P around COS III. in ex
justitia seated left on throne, holding patera and scetre.
R.I.C 215......R.S.C 894c

Found whilst metal detecting in Kent.
nigel nicholson
hiketas_biga.jpg
Hiketas; AE 21, Kore right/ Nike driving biga right8 viewsSYRACUSE. Hiketas 287-278 B.C. 9,3g. 21mm. Obs: Head of Kore right, wearing grain ear wreath. Rev: Charioteer, holding kentron in extended right hand, reins in left, driving fast biga right. Sear GCV II 1210v. Podiceps
Honorius_Lyon_2_ab.JPG
Honorius (RIC X 1361)41 viewsHonorius (384-423), Roman Emperor (393-395) and Western Roman emperor (395-423). Æ (1.63 g, 13 mm), minted in Lugdunum (Lyon) 411-423. Obverse: (DN H)ONORI-VS PF AVG. Reverse: GLORIA R-OVMAVM, emperor standing facing, head to right, holding standard and resting left hand on shield, LV(G) in exergue. Reverse legend GLORIA R-OMANORVM invariably garbled according to RIC X. RIC X 1361 (R4), LRBC 399.

Last Roman issue from Lugdunum. Bastien (1987) has suggested a date between the usurpations of Constantine III and Jovinus, while Kent (RIC X) suggests that the type is best placed in Honorius's later years when southern Gaul had been reorganized and was enjoying a temporary respite from invasions.
Ex Divus Numismatik 2010
Jan (jbc)
RIC_Julian_II_Securitas_REIPB_RIC_VIII_Arles_318.JPG
Julian II, The Apostate (Caesar, 355-360 A.D.; Augustus, 360-363 A.D.) (Flavius Claudius Julianus)52 viewsRIC VIII Arles 318 var.

AE1 (27 mm), Arles mint, third officina, struck 362 A.D.

Obv: D(ominus) N(oster) FL(avius) CL(audius) IVLI-ANVS P(ius) F(elix) AVG(ustus), bearded, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right.

Rev: SECVRITAS REIPVB, Bull standing right, two stars above, to right eagle standing right and holding wreath in beak, TCONST in exergue.

RIC rarity R

The bull has variously been referred to as a sacrificial bull, the Mithraic bull, the Apis bull, and a zodiacal representation of Julian. Most recently, it has been referred to as a solar symbol, representing Julian’s devotion to the god Sol/Helios, the message being “by his appointment of Julian as emperor in particular . . . Sol guarantees the security of his herds, the state.” Shaun Tougher. “Julian’s bull coinage: Kent revisited.” The Classical Quarterly (New Series 2004), 54, pp 327-330 at 327, quoting D. Woods. “Julian, Gallienus, and the Solar Bull.” American Journal of Numismatics, 12 (2000), 157-169, at 168 n.1.

The coin was issued in all mints except for Trier, Rome and Alexandria. The eagle only appears on the coins struck at Arelatum/Constantina. It typically is depicted standing on a wreath. This is a variant in which the eagle does not stand on a wreath. Cf., CNG Electronic Auction 74, Lot 96.
Stkp
KATANIA.JPG
Katania AR Tetradrachm.45 viewsHead of Apollo facing slightly left, in laurel wreath; HRAKLEIDAS downward in right field / KATANAIWN, charioteer driving fast quadriga left, holding kentron in right hand, reins in both; above, Nike flying right, placing open wreath on charioteer's head; in exergue, fish left. Basel 337, BMC 32.
Antonivs Protti
Kent_13.jpg
Kent 1319 viewsObv: KENTISH LIBERTY PRESERVED BY VIRTUE & COURAGE, Kentish men meeting William the Conqueror, who is on horseback, 1067 below.

Rev: PROSPERITY TO THE WOODEN WALLS OF OLD ENGLAND, the stern of the ROYAL GEORGE, KENT HALFPENNY / 1795 / TDH.

Edge: PAYABLE AT THO’S HAYCRAFTS DEBTFORD

Half Penny Conder Token

Dalton & Hamer: Kent 13
SPQR Coins
philip_III_Stater.jpg
KINGS of MACEDON. Philip III Arrhidaios. 323-317 BC. AV Stater109 viewsKINGS of MACEDON. Philip III Arrhidaios. 323-317 BC. AV Stater
(18mm, 8.61 g, 12h)

Obv: Laureate head of Apollo right
Rev: Charioteer, holding kentron and reins, driving biga right; Ξ and cornucopia below.
In the types of Philip II. Abydos mint. Struck under Leonnatos, Arrhidaios, or Antigonos I Monophthalmos.

Le Rider –; Thompson, Philip 24; ADM II Series V, 86 var. (same obv. die, additional control on rev.); SNG ANS 296. EF.

From the Kelly J. Krizan, M.D. Collection. Ex Classical Numismatic Review XX/1 (Spring 1995), no. SP1005 (part of; this coin illustrated).

CNG 93, Lot: 157.
9 commentsDino
LiciniusTrierGeniusFollis1_Close.jpg
Licinius I Æ follis, Trier mint. RIC 845b19 viewsLicinius I (AD 308–324). Æ follis, 22mm, 4.22 g., 5h. Treveri (Trier) mint, 1st officina. Struck AD 310–313.
Obverse: IMP LICINIVS PF AVG, laureate and cuirassed bust right.
Reverse: GENIO–POP ROM, turreted Genius standing and facing with head left; holding patera in right outstretched hand and cornucopia with end of himation in left arm; T–F//PTR.
References: RIC VI Trier 845b (C)
Ex Martyn Bodkin, 3-22-2013. Reportedly found 30 years ago, possibly at Aylesford, in Kent, England.
Mark Fox
IMG_4679.JPG
Lincoln Heritage Trail, 196912 viewsObv: LINCOLN HERITAGE TRAIL, beardless head of Abraham Lincoln facing right.

Rev: KENTUCKY * INDIANA * ILLINOIS 1969, a depiction of Lincoln riding the legal circuit in the Midwest, a log cabin with split-rail fence in background.
Matt Inglima
Lincoln_Heritage_Trail_1970.JPG
Lincoln Heritage Trail, 197014 viewsObv: LINCOLN HERITAGE TRAIL - 1970, bust of Lincoln facing right.

Rev: HISTORY'S HIGHWAY, a map of Illinois, Indiana and Kentucky showing the path of the Lincoln Heritage Trail through each state.

Mint: Medallic Art Company

Silver, Diameter: 38.65 mm
Matt Inglima
IMG_8665.JPG
Lincoln Heritage Trail, 197012 viewsObv: LINCOLN HERITAGE TRAIL - 1970, bust of Lincoln facing right.

Rev: HISTORY'S HIGHWAY, a map of Illinois, Indiana and Kentucky showing the path of the Lincoln Heritage Trail through each state.

Designer: C. Calverly, Mint: Medallic Art Company

Bronze, Diameter: 63 mm
Matt Inglima
Majorian.jpg
Majorian (undescribed, similar to RIC X 2650)82 viewsMajorian (420-461), Western Roman Emporer (457-461). AR half-siliqua (0.53 g, 11 mm), Arles. Obverse: (D N IVLI) MAIOR(IANVS), pearl-diademed, helmeted, draped, and cuirassed bust right, holding spear and shield with Christogram. Reverse: Victory standing left, holding long cross, V(ICTORIA AVGG), dotAxR in exergue. Similar to RIC X 2650, but obverse legend not in RIC and exergue undescribed.

The exergue AxR is to the best of my knowledge undescribed and indicates that the coin may be attributed to Arles. It thus suggests that silver coins where minted in Arles under the rule of Majorian, while Kent (RIC X) attributed similar coins to an unknown mint in northern Gaul. This coin has an obverse die match with a coin sold by CNG (CNG 72, lot 1942, 2006). The coin sold by CNG had the more common exergue consisting of stars and dots, and the die link thus indicates that at least some of the coins listed as RIC X 2650-2653 may have been minted in Arles.
1 commentsjbc
MaximianHerculiusAquileiaMonetaFollis1_Close.jpg
Maximian Herculius, first reign, Æ follis, Aquileia mint. RIC 31b.16 viewsMaximian Herculius, first reign (AD 286–305). Æ follis, 28mm, 10.47 g., 6h. Aquileia mint, 2nd officina. Struck AD 301.
Obverse: IMP MAXIMIANVS PF AVG, laureate head right.
Reverse: SACRA MONET AVGG ET CAESS NOSTR, Moneta standing and facing with head left, holding scales in right hand and cornucopia in left arm; V//AQS.
References: RIC VI Aquileia 31b (C)
Ex Martyn Bodkin, 3-22-2013. Reportedly found 30 years ago, possibly at Aylesford, in Kent, England.

Mark Fox
MessanaSicily.JPG
Messana, Sicily c. 470-466 B.C. AR Tetradrachm30 viewsMessana, Sicily c. 470-466 B.C. AR Tetradrachm (17.07 gm).
Obv: Charioteer, holding kentron and reins, driving slow biga of mules right; in exergue, leaf.
Rev: Hare springing right.
Ref: Cf. Caltabiano 167A (dies D94/R95A, but obv. die not certain) = Randazzo 128. SNG ANS 315.
Good fine.
1 commentsmjabrial
Philippou.JPG
Philip gold Stater46 viewsPhilippe II de Macédoine, Pella, 340-328 BC Statère en or 8.59g
D:/ Tête laurée d’Apollon à dr. avec baies dans la couronne
R:/ ΦIΛIΠΠOY, Bige galopant à droite, conduit par un aurige, tenant les rênes et le kentron ; au-dessous du bige, un canthare vu de face
Le Rider 133-226
Brennos
Clipboard17b.jpg
Projectile point in situ. Early to mid-Archaic, 9000-6000 B.P.49 viewsType: Kirk
Period: Early to mid-Archaic, 9000-6000 B.P.
Size: 1.25"
Found in Jessamine county, Kentucky. 2011.
1 commentsancientone
Clipboard15d.jpg
Projectile point in situ. Early to mid-Archaic, 9000-6000 B.P.44 viewsType: Kirk
Period: Early to mid-Archaic, 9000-6000 B.P.
Size: 1.75"
Found in Jessamine county, Kentucky. 2011.
1 commentsancientone
AntonyAugurCombined.jpg
ROMAN IMPERATORIAL, Marc Antony, AR Denarius - Crawford 533/217 viewsRome, The Imperators.
Marcus Antonius. 43 BCE.
AR Denarius (4.07g; 18mm).
Military mint in Athens, Summer 38 BCE.

Obverse: M ANTONIVS M F M N AVGVR IMP TER; Antony in the priestly robes of an augur, standing right and holding lituus.

Reverse: III VIR R P C COS DESIG ITER ET TERT; Radiate head of Sol facing right.

References: Crawford 533/2; HCRI 267; Sydenham 1199; BMCRR (East) 141; Antonia 80.

Provenance: Ex Kentfield Coll. [Heritage Auction 3067 (9 Jun 2018) Lot 33340]; Michele Baranowski Auction (25 Feb 1931), Lot 1274.

In 50 BCE, Antony was appointed to the College of Augurs, an important group whose job was divining the will of the gods by interpreting auspices (birds and such) and providing advice based on these divinations. Antony was particularly proud of this appointment and referred to it frequently on his coinage, perhaps as a means of highlighting his traditional republican sensibilities. On this coin, he is depicted in full augur regalia. Sol on the reverse is a reference to The East, which Antony controlled per the renewal of the Second Triumvirate several months earlier. The inscriptions reference his augurship, second imperatorial acclamation, and designated second and third consulships. The coin was likely struck in Athens where Antony and Octavia were living after their marriage.
2 commentsCarausius
pada-thrymsa-1.jpg
S.770 Anglo-Saxon pale gold thrymsa48 viewsThrymsa, approximately 655-675
Monarch: unknown, possible Eorcenberht, Ecgberht I, or Hlothere
Mint: unknown, probably Kent
PADA PIII
S.770
N.31
Abramson 1-50

Likely Kentish transitional pale gold thrymsa of the mid-late 7th century. Debasement of gold coinage took place during the production of several gold shillings or "thrymsas", culminating in a coinage that was mostly silver. These thrymsas predate the sceatta coinage.

Ex- Rare Coins and Tokens
Nap
series-b-1a.jpg
S.777 Anglo-Saxon sceat29 viewsPrimary phase Anglo-Saxon sceat
Series BI
Type 27a
S.777
N.126
Abramson 16-10
O: Diademed head right within serpent circle, pellets in front of face
R: Bird on cross

Series B sceattas likely originated in Kent and over time migrated up to East Anglia.

Possibly a contemporary imitation of a series B sceat, though many "official" types are extroardinarily blundered.

Ex- Leodis Hammered Coins, EMC 2013.0096
1 commentsNap
series-z-a.jpg
S.782 Anglo-Saxon sceat31 viewsPrimary (?) phase Anglo-Saxon sceat
Series Z
Type 66
S.782
N.145
Abramson 102-60
O: Haunted-appearing (almost ghostly) face (?Christ)
R: Hound or wolf standing with curled tail

This unusual sceatta was probably produced in Kent or East Anglia, and the bearded face is probably Christ. The reverse is a skinny quadriped, with a curled tail circling through its legs.

The origin of this design seems to have heavy Roman and Byzantine influences. The obverse bust parallels similar images of Christ found on contemporary Byzantine coins and Christian tokens that pilgrims would have brought back from the Holy Land. The face has a fairly haunted appearance, and is expressionless.

The reverse is a little more tricky. Anna Gannon (Coins, Images, and Tales from the Holy Land, in Studies in Early Medieval Coinage vol 2) suggests that it represents a stag, which would have had a religious meaning. In my opinion, however, even with the primitive art of the time, it's hard to call that a stag, as the small linear "horns" really look more like ears. Other scholars call the creature a hound or wolf, with origins in Celtic imagery (such as the "Norfolk wolf", which is also of East Anglian origin). Alternatively it has been suggested (Charles Wood, private correspondence) that the creature might be a crude copy of the Roman wolf, nursing Romulus and Remus, as appears on many earlier Roman coins. This imagery occurs on a later East Anglian coin, that of Aethelberht II. The East Anglian ruling dynasty in the 7th century was the Wuffingas, a name that probably means "kin of wolves", and the wolf may have been a representation of the dynasty.

This coin probably dates from the early 8th century. The legends are illegible, and could be erroneous copies of Greek, of which the Anglo-Saxons would have presumably known little.

Ex- Charles Wood
Nap
saroaldo-1.jpg
S.784 Anglo-Saxon sceat50 viewsPrimary phase Anglo-Saxon sceat
"Saroaldo" type
Type 11
S.784
Abramson 7-40
N.51
O: Stylized bust right
R: Pseudo-legend of "SAROALDO" around standard

Unusual primary phase sceatta, probably from Kent. The legend remains problematic, it does not sound like an Anglo-Saxon name, probably it is a corruption of something else, possibly a Frankish name.

Ex- AMR coins, PAS: IOW-BCF88E
1 commentsNap
series-k-3.jpg
S.803 Anglo-Saxon sceat38 viewsSecondary phase Anglo-Saxon sceat
Mint: Kent
Series K
Type 33
S.803
Abramson 38-10
O: Bust right facing cross
R: Lion right with long serpent tongue

The sceattas of series K represent a highlight of Anglo-Saon artistic merit. The figure on the reverse was long thought to be a wolf, but is now believed to represent a lion.

Ex- Shanna Schmidt, Triton XXI (lot 1353), Dr. JDR, SNC CIII
1 commentsNap
series-k-5.jpg
S.803A Anglo-Saxon sceat47 viewsSecondary phase Anglo-Saxon sceat
Mint: Kent
Series K
Type 42
S.803A
Abramson 41-10
O: Bust right with bird in hand, vine in hand
R: Animal (?hound) rounding bush with berries

Ex- eBay
1 commentsNap
series-k-4a.jpg
S.803A Anglo-Saxon sceat21 viewsSecondary phase Anglo-Saxon sceat
Mint: Kent
Series K
Type 42
S.803A
Abramson 41-35
O: Bust right with bird in hand, looking skyward
R: Animal (?hound) rounding bush with berries

Ex- eBay
Nap
series-k-1.jpg
S.803C Anglo-Saxon sceat14 viewsSceatta of uncertain origin, secondary phase
Mint: Kent
Series K
Type 32a
S.803C
Abramson 40-40
O: Bust right holding cross
R: Coiled serpent eating tail

Series K is presumed to be from Kent, possibly Canterbury

Ex- eBay
Nap
series-k-2.jpg
S.803D Anglo-Saxon sceat25 viewsSecondary phase Anglo-Saxon sceat
Mint: Kent
Series K
Type 32a
S.803D
Abramson 39-10
O: Bust right holding cross
R: Wolf-headed serpent right

Ex- eBay, Baldwins, Patrick Finn
Nap
aldfrith-2b.jpg
S.846 Aldfrith30 viewsSceat of Aldfrith, king of Northumbria 685-705
Moneyer: unknown
Mint: York (presumably)
S.846
N. 176
Abramson 69-10
O: +ALdFRIduS
R: Fantastic animal left

Aldfrith was the first king of Northumbria to issue coins in his name, and the second English monarch to put his name on coinage (after Eadbald of Kent). His coins depict an animal of crude style, probably is supposed to be a dragon. It is different than the animals on mid 8th century Northumbrian coins of Eadberht, Alchred, Æthelred I, and Ælfwald I.

Due to this difference, for a while the coins were attributed to a king of Lindsey of the same name, who flourished in the late 8th century. However the archaeologic evidence, coin composition, and distribution of metal detecting finds argues against this idea. Most experts consider this coin struck for Northumbria's Aldfrith.

Venerable Bede speaks highly of Aldfrith as a wise ruler. For whatever reason, Northumbrian inscribed coinage would stop after Aldfrith's reign and not start again for another 50 years until Eadberht.

Ex- eBay
Nap
eadberht-5.jpg
S.847F Eadberht64 viewsSceat of Eadberht, king of Northumbria 737-758
Moneyer: unknown
Mint: York (presumably)
S. 847F
Booth type Fxi
Abramson 70-280
Chapman I2
O: EOTBERHTVS:, mustached face in center
R: Fantastic animal facing right, triqueta below, cross under tail
Motif: face/fantastic animal

The mustached face is an interesting and quite unusual central motif, known from just a few specimens. I can trace 3 other specimens, two from the same dies as this example. The face could represent Eadberht himself, or perhaps was a pagan symbol that was kept on the nominally Christian coinage. I've heard it described as a representation of Odin/Wodan. However, the picture looks wrong for that, as most depictions of the old god show him with a beard. The face is not likely Christ, who is also typically shown bearded. However, mustaches were worn by Anglo-Saxons; following their conversion to Christianity many abandoned the long beards. A long handlebar style mustache is famously worn by Harold Godwinson on the Bayeaux Tapestry, and may have been stylish back to the 8th century.

Eadberht also issued coinage with his brother Ecgberht the Archbishop of York, which depicts a full length person holding crosses, presumably Ecgberht himself.

If the face is Eadberht's, it could represent one of the earliest depiction of a the face of a known king on English coinage, preceding the coinage of Offa by a few decades (aside from the possible 7th century coins of Eadbald of Kent).

Ex- Silbury Coins, EMC 2015.0297
Nap
aethelred-i-ceolbald-3a.jpg
S.856 Æthelred I (Ceolbald)23 viewsSceat of Æthelred I, king of Northumbria, second reign 789-796
Moneyer: Ceolbald
Mint: York (presumably)
S. 856
Phase Ia
O: +AEDILRED ℞
R: +CEOLBĀLD
Motif: 7/5

Ceolbald was Æthelred I's most prolific moneyer. His coins feature some interesting designs in the central motifs, like the ℞ on this issue.
The central ℞ motif (for "Rex") is also seen on Kentish coins of Ecgberht II (765-779). The symbol is also seen on pennies of Pepin the Short (751-768) and I would suspect both Æthelred and Ecgberht were copying the Pepin coins.

Ceolbald is not known to have coined for Æthelred's successors and it is believed that after his services were no longer needed in Northumbria, he packed up and moved to Mercia, where he coined for Coenwulf. Ceolbald is a known moneyer for Coenwulf and it is not beyond the realm of possibility that this was indeed the same person.

Ex- A.G.&S. Gillis
Nap
aethelred-ii-alghere.jpg
S.865 Aethelred II (Alghere)44 viewsStyca of Aethelred II, king of Northumbria (first reign) 841-844
Moneyer: Alghere
Mint: York (presumably)
S. 865
O: +ĀEDILRED ℞
R: +ĀLGHE'RE
Motif: 1/1

Alghere, sometimes referred to as Ealhere, coined for Aethelred II and Redwulf. This variety has the symbol '℞' on the obverse, something also found on Ceolbald's coinage of Aethelred I of Northumbria, and also on coins of Ecgberht of Kent.

Ex- York Coins, CNG Auction 90 (lot 2361 [part]), Peter Moffat
Nap
ceolwulf-i-werbald-1a.jpg
S.927 Ceolwulf I (Werbald)41 viewsPenny of Ceolwulf I, king of Mercia 821-823
Moneyer: Werbald
Mint: East Anglia, possible Ipswich
S. 927
N. 388
O: +CEOVVLF REX m
R: PER BALD mONE

Ceolwulf I, brother of Coenwulf, succeeded to the throne of Mercia, Kent, and East Anglia after his brother's death. He did produce coins in London, Canterbury, and East Anglia. Despite multiple mints, but due to the brevity of his reign, coins of Ceolwulf are very rare.

This moneyer, Werbald, also coined for Ceolwulf's successors Beornwulf and Ludica

Ex- BSJ Auction 38 (lot 1017)
2 commentsNap
Syracuse_4th_Democracy.jpg
Sicily - Syracuse - Fourth Republic c. 289-287 B.C10 viewsSicily - Syracuse - Fourth Republic Hemilitron c. 289-287 B.C. Ae 23.2mm. 8.48 g.
Obv: Head of Kore (Persephone) right Rev: Biga galloping right, driven by a charioteer holding kentron (stick) with the right hand and the reins in the left hand, six-pointed star above. Countermarked below and above. Laffaille242 MIAMG.5211 Ref. BMC -. ANS.767. Calciati 122.
ddwau
92000209.jpg
Sicily Gela AR Tetradrachm circa 440-430 BC 25mm 17.37g 1h Jenkins 384.7 O78/R158 ex A. Moretti collection28 viewsCharioteert holding kentron in left hand and reins in both,driving slow quadriga right above Nike flying right crowning horses with open wreath held in both hands .Forepart of man-headed bull right.Grant H
dKe5c6QjqTd3R54se9AfWk8ofJX2q7.jpg
Sicily Syracuse AR Tetradrachm circa 478-466 BC 17.23 g 23 mm44 viewsCharioteer holding kentron in right hand,reins in left,driving slow quadriga right,above Nike with wings spread,flying right,crowning horses with wreath held in both hands.Rev head of Arethusa right, hair in band and pearl diadem,wearing pearl necklace,and four dolphins swimming around.Struck circa 478-475 BC.Very rare only three examples from this reverse die,one in public collection Munich,one sold by Classical Numismatic Group 94 lot 104.Grant H
BeFunky-collage_(22).jpg
Sicily Syracuse AR Tetradrachm circa 480-475 BC 17.40 g 25 mm 11h Boehringer 11011 viewsCharioteer driving slow quadriga right holding kentron and reins./Nike flying right crowning the horses,head of Arethusa facing right,four dolphins around.
1 commentsGrant H
db_file_img_163777_544x262.jpg
Sicily Syracuse AR Tetradrachm circa 480-475 BC 25mm 17.17g 9h40 viewsDeinomenid Tyranny,Time of Hieron I.
Charioteer holding kentron and reins,driving slow quadriga right,Nike flying right above,crowning horses.Rev head of Arethusa right,wearing earring,necklace and headband,her hair tied in a krobylos,and four dolphins swimming around.
Overstruck on unknown type?
Grant H
1537269_m.jpg
Sicily Syracuse AR Tetradrachm circa 485-480 BC 28mm 17.34 g 3h Boehringer 84{V41/R54}9 viewsDeinomenid Tyranny Time of Gelon.Charioteer driving walking quadriga right,holding kentron and reins,Nike flyingright crowning horses.Head of Arethusa right,wearing earring and necklace,hair tied with pearl headband,and four dolphins around.
Extremely Rare
ex Roma auc 5 lot 103 3-23-13,from the Comery collection.NGC 3598769-002 AU Star 5/5
Grant H
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Sicily Syracuse circa 485-466 BC AR Tetradrachm 23mm 16.86g 6h Boehringer 117 {V53/R42}20 viewsDeinomenid Tyranny Gelon,Charioteer holding kentron and reins, driving slow quadriga right,Nike flying above right crowning the horses./Head of Arethusa right,wearing oearl diadem and necklace,four dolphins around.Grant H
Sicily,_Kentoripai,_AE_Dekonkion.jpg
Sicily, Kentoripai, 344-336 BC, Æ Dekonkion 22 viewsLaureate head of Zeus right.
KENTO-PIΠINΩN winged thunderbolt, Δ in exergue.

Calciati III 3; SNG ANS 1311-15; Sear GCV 1081.

(26.6 mm, 13.34 g, 9h).
ex-Gemini IV, 8 January 2008, 594.3; ex- Albert M. Potts Collection; ex-MMAG Basel List 289, 248.
1 commentsn.igma
Syracuse_Tetradrachm_16_96g.jpg
Sicily, Syracuse, Agathokles , tetradrachm384 viewsAgathokles (317 - 289 BC), struck ca. 310 - 305 BC
24.5mm, 16.96g
obv: wreathed head of Arethusa left, wearing triple-pendant earring and necklace; three dolphins around, NI below neck
rev: Charioteer, holding kentron and reins, driving fast quadriga left; above, triskeles; ΣΥΡΑΚΟΣΙΩΝ and AN monogram in exergue
(Ierardi 40 (O 7/R 23). SNG ANS 639 (same dies))
10 commentsareich
ArethusaXS.jpg
SICILY, Syracuse. Agathokles tetradrachm135 viewsstruck 310-305 BC
AR tetradrachm, 17.40 g, 24 mm
Obv: head of the nymph Arethusa left, wearing grain wreath, earring and necklace; around, three dolphins; under, monogram (NK?)
Rev: ΣYPAKOΣIΩN, fast chariot charioteer leads to left, holding reins and kentron; above, triskeles; in exergue, monogram.
Ref: Ierardi 9; SNG Copenhagen 573 goes., SNG ANS 637
from ArtCoinsRoma, auction 8.

Well... this is now far and away my finest coin and will likely remain so for a long time. I'm in love!

Acquiring this coin was challenging to the point of comedy. I detailed the saga here, if you are interested: http://www.cointalk.com/threads/ancient-adventures-in-bidland-agathokles-tetradrachm.243930/
11 commentsTIF
FotorCreated~24.jpg
Siculo Punic Sicily Rasch Melqart AR Tetradrachm circa 350-300 BC 16.97g 26MM 7H30 viewsChairoteer driving quadriga right holding kentron in right hand and reins in left,Nike flying left above to crown charioteer.Rev wreath head of Arethusa wearing triple drop earring, three dolphins swimmingGrant H
BMC_122_Tetradracma_SIRACUSA.jpg
SIRACUSA - Sicilia - Italia22 views2da. Democracia (466-405 A.C.)
AR Tetradracma 26.2 mm - 16.52 gr

Luego de la muerte del dictador Hieron, una democracia similar a la de Atenas fue restaurada en el 466 A.C., la Polis era gobernada por un Consejo y Asamblea Popular, con un Ejecutivo que consistía en Generales y Estrategas elegidos. Siracusa se enfrentó con Atenas en el 427-424 A.C. y luego entre el 415-413 A.C., resultando victoriosa.

Anv: Cuadriga avanzando lentamente a derecha, conducida por auriga que sostiene kentron y las riendas. Arriba una Nike volando que corona a los caballos.
Rev: Cabeza de la Náyade Aretusa viendo a derecha, vistiendo su cabello atado con cuatro cintas, aros de doble lazo y fino collar, Cuatro delfines nadando a su alrededor. "ΣYΡAKOΣION", delante.

En la mitología griega, Aretusa era una náyade hija de un dios fluvial arcadio y conocida cazadora. Alfeo se enamoró perdidamente de ella, pero Aretusa, que se había prometido permanecer siempre virgen, pidió auxilio a su compañera Artemisa, que la transformó en corriente de agua para que huyera así de las solicitudes del dios. Cuando se vio totalmente acorralada, Aretusa dirigió su curso bajo el mar y apareció en la isla de Ortigia, generando el manantial que lleva su nombre, cerca de Siracusa. Queriendo aún así materializar su amor, el río Alfeo mezcló desde entonces sus aguas con las de la fuente Aretusa. La ninfa fue divinizada por los habitantes del lugar, que le dedicaron numerosa poesía bucólica y la representaron en las monedas rodeada de delfines.

Acuñación: 430 - 420 A.C.
Ceca: Siracusa - Sicilia - Italia

Referencias: B.M.C. (Sicily) #122 Pag. 162 (Mismos cuños) - HGC 2 #1320 - SNG ANS #219 (Misma moneda) - SNG Cop #661 (Mismos cuños) - Boehringer, serie XXII #675 (V338/R462) - Sear GTV I #932 Pag.98
mdelvalle
Clipboarda.jpg
Spear points, Drills and Arrowheads22 viewsMercer county, Kentucky.ancientone
claudius_barbarous.jpg
Struck Imitation of Claudius as, 1st century AD21 viewsStruck Imitation of the 1st century
Minerva as
bare head r.
Minerva advancing r., holding shield and brandishing spear, SC
Sutherland Grade III

Found in Canterbury, Kent.
Ardatirion
SyracuseAgathokles4dr.jpg
Syracuse Agathokles Tetradrachm113 viewsSyracuse, Sicily. Agathokles (317-289BC). AR tetradrachm- 17,02 gram, ca 310-305BC
Obv: Wreathed head of Arethusa left, three dolphins around, NI below neck
Rev: SURAKOSIWN Charioteer driving quadriga left, holding kentron in right hand, reins in left, triskeles above, AI monogram in exergue. SNG ANS 639. Mac Clean 2818. gVF.
2 commentsLordBest
SyracuseAgathoklesTetradrachm.JPG
Syracuse Agathokles Tetradrachm 154 viewsSyracuse, Sicily. Agathokles (317-289BC). AR tetradrachm- 17,02 gram, ca 310-305BC
Obv: Wreathed head of Arethusa left, three dolphins around, NI below neck
Rev: SURAKOSIWN Charioteer driving quadriga left, holding kentron in right hand, reins in left, triskeles above, AI monogram in exergue. SNG ANS 639. Mac Clean 2818. gVF.

The scratch is barely visible in hand, far less distracting that it appears in the picture.
8 commentsLordBest
Syracuse.JPG
Syracuse tetradrachm103 viewsSICILY, Syracuse. Deinomenid Tyranny. 485-466 BC. AR Tetradrachm. Struck under Hieron I, circa 475-470 BC. Charioteer driving slow quadriga right, holding kentron and reins; above, Nike flying right, crowning horses with wreath / Diademed head of Arethusa right, wearing single-pendant earring and necklace; four dolphins around. SNG ANS 1072 commentsAuer
syrac4bis.jpg
Syracuse Tetradrachm25 viewsSicile, Syracuse, 466-406 av. J.C. AR Tétradrachme 17.11g.
D:/Bige au pas à d., conduit par un aurige tenant les rênes et le kentron ; le bige est couronné par Niké volant à droite. A l'exergue un Ketos.
R:/ΣVRΑΚΟ-ΣΙ-Ο-Ν , Tête d'Aréthuse à d., les cheveux relevés et retenus par un large bandeau, entourée de quatre dauphins.
ref. Boehringer 536 (V 274 / R 374), HGC Sicily 1316
1 commentsBrennos
syrac2bis.jpg
Syracuse Tetradrachm21 viewsSicile, Syracuse, 480-470 av. J.C. AR Tétradrachme 17.31g.
D:/Bige au pas à d., conduit par un aurige tenant les rênes et le kentron ; le bige est couronné par Niké volant à droite.
R:/ΣVRΑΚΟΣΙΟ-Ν , Tête d'Aréthuse à d., les cheveux relevés et retenus par un diadème de perles, entourée de quatre dauphins.
ref. Boehringer 270 (V123/R187), HGC Sicily 1307
Brennos
syrac5_B_676.jpg
Syracuse Tetradrachm24 viewsSicile, Syracuse, 435-420 av. J.C. AR Tétradrachme 17.22g.
D:/Bige au pas à d., conduit par un aurige tenant les rênes et le kentron ; les chevaux sont couronnés par Niké volant à droite.
R:/ΣVRΑ-ΚΟ-Σ(Ι)-ΟΝ , Tête d'Aréthuse à d., le chignon ligaturé horizontal derrière la tête, entourée de quatre dauphins.
ref. Boehringer 676.1 this coin (V338/R463), HGC Sicily 1320
Ex Merzbacher Auktion 2 nov. 1909 lot 2563
1 commentsBrennos
Syracuse4D.jpg
Syracuse Tetradrachm Boehringer.59674 viewsSICILY, Syracuse.
Circa 440-430 BC.
Tetradrachm (17.27 gm)
Charioteer driving walking quadriga left, holding kentron in right hand, reins in both; Nike flying above crowning horses; ketos swimming left in exergue

SY-PAKOSION, head of Arethusa right wearing earrings and necklace with pendant, hair tied with two hair bands, surrounded by four dolphins swimming clockwise.

Boehringer 596 (V294/R402); SNG ANS 194 (same dies); SNG Lockett 947 (same dies); Kraay-Hirmer pl. 30, 89 (reverse die illustrated).

beautiful portrait
rare coin
1 commentsgb29400
Sicily_Syracuse_SNG-Lockett_941_gf.jpg
Syracuse, Second Democracy18 viewsSicily, Syracuse, Second Democracy. 466-405 BC. AR Tetradrachm (17.21 gm) struck 450-440 BC. Charioteer driving slow quadriga r., holding kentron, Nike overhead. ex: ketos (sea serpent) r. / Hd. of Arethusa r., hair in krobylos bound by taenia, wearing earrings and necklace; four dolphins around. Σꓦ-ꓣΑΚΟΣ-Ι-Ο-Ͷ (Ν retrograde). EF. 19 known. SNG Lockett 941 (same dies); SNG Lloyd 1326 (same rev. die); Bement 475 (same dies); Boehringer series XVIb #564 (V285/R379); HGC 2 #1311; SNG Munchen 1023 (same dies). SNG ANS -; SNG Cop -; cf. NAC 82 #56; Baldwin 75 #2158.
You can see a near identical type here, in the Best of Type gallery, from the collection of Joe Sermarini.
2 commentsAnaximander
009~1.JPG
Syracuse, Sicily82 views405-400 B.C.
Slavey Replica of Kimon Signed Silver Tetradrachm
16.78 gm, 28 mm
Obv.: Head of Arethusa facing three-quarters left wearing pearl earrings and necklace; hair flowing in loose tresses; across her forehead ampyx with the signature KIMΩN. Around her, four dolphins emerging from curls. APEΘOSA above, outside linear border. In field left, ΣΩ (savior).
Rev.: Quadriga at speed with prancing horses driven left by chiton-clad charioteer, holding kentron in right hand and reins in left; above, Nike flying right to crown him.
ΣYPAKOΣIΩN in exergue.

Stamped СЛАВЕИ (Slavey in Cyrillic) on edge.

Ancients.info Slavey GK-0944
4 commentsJaimelai
065_1.jpg
Syracuse, Sicily83 views317-289 B.C.
Slavey Replica of Agathokles Silver Tetradrachm
16.42 gm, 30 mm
Obv.: Head of Arethusa facing left wreathed in grain leaves, wearing triple pendant earrings and pearl necklace; Around her swim three dolphins.
Rev.: Quadriga with prancing horses driven left by chiton-clad charioteer, holding kentron in right hand and reins in left; above, Nike flying right to crown.
ΣYPAKOΣIΩN in exergue, AI mongram below.

Stamped СЛАВЕИ (Slavey in Cyrillic) on edge and engraved in exergue line.

Ancients.info Slavey GK-0971
1 commentsJaimelai
obv_rev.jpg
Syracuse, Sicily108 viewsRobert Ready Electrotype Replica of Kimon Signed Silver Tetradrachm
14.61 gm, 27 mm
Obv.: Head of Arethusa facing three-quarters left wearing pearl earrings and necklace; hair flowing in loose tresses; across her forehead ampyx with the signature KIMΩN. Around her, four dolphins emerging from curls. APEΘOSA above, outside linear border. In field left, ΣΩ (savior).
Rev.: Quadriga at speed with prancing horses driven left by chiton-clad charioteer, holding kentron in right hand and reins in left; above, Nike flying right to crown him.
ΣYPAKOΣIΩN in exergue.

Stamped RR on edge
3 commentsJaimelai
sicily.jpg
Syracuse, Sicily, Tyrant Agathokles, 317 - 289 B.C.220 viewsSilver tetradrachm, Ierardi 40 (O7/R23), SNG ANS 639 (same dies), SNG Delepierre 701, SNG Lloyd 1479, Boston MFA 460, HGC 2 1348 (S), SNG Cop -, SNG München -, gVF, superb classical style, excellent centering on a tight flan, toned, flan flaw on obverse, Syracuse mint, weight 16.954g, maximum diameter 25.2mm, die axis 270o, c. 317 - 310/305 B.C.; obverse head of Persephone (or Arethusa) left, crowned with grain, wearing triple-drop earrings and a pearl necklace, surrounded by three dolphins, NI below; reverse quadriga galloping left, young charioteer wearing long chiton, kentron in right hand, reins in left hand, triskeles above; ΣYPAKOΣIΩN over AI monogram in exergue; ex Helios Numismatik, auction 6 (9 March 2011), lot 345; scarce.



With an army of mercenaries, through deceit, and after banishing or murdering some 10,000 citizens, Agathocles made himself master of Syracuse and later most of Sicily. Machiavelli wrote of him, "It cannot be called prowess to kill fellow-citizens, to betray friends, to be treacherous, pitiless, and irreligious" and cited him as an example of "those who by their crimes come to be princes." According to the historian Justin, very early in life Agathocles parlayed his remarkable beauty into a career as a prostitute, first for men, and later, after puberty, for women, and then made a living by robbery before becoming a soldier and marrying a rich widow.

FOVM Ancient Coins / From The Sam Mansourati Collection.
7 commentsSam
Vespasian_RIC_II_740_Second_example.jpg
Vespasian, AE Dupondius, RIC II 7404 viewsVespasian
Augustus, 69 – 79 A.D.

Coin: AE Dupondius

Obverse: IMP CAESAR VESPASIAN AVG COS IIII, radiate bust facing right.
Reverse: PAX AVG, Pax, standing left, pouring libations over an Altar, to the left, with her right hand and holding a Caduceus and an Olive branch with her left. S - C across the fields.

Weight: 11.06 g, Diameter: 26.8 x 26 x 2.6 mm, Die axis: 170°, Mint: Lyon, struck between 72 -73 A.D. Reference: RIC II 740

A metal detecting find from the County of Kent
Masis
Vespasian_RIC_II_740.jpg
Vespasian, AE Dupondius, RIC II 740 Second example6 viewsVespasian
Augustus, 69 – 79 A.D.

Coin: AE Dupondius

Obverse: IMP CAESAR VESPASIAN AVG COS IIII, radiate bust facing right.
Reverse: PAX AVG, Pax, standing left, pouring libations over an Altar, to the left, with her right hand and holding a Caduceus and an Olive branch with her left. S - C across the fields.

Weight: 10.65 g, Diameter: 26.7 x 27.2 x 2.2 mm, Die axis: 200°, Mint: Lyon, struck between 72 -73 A.D. Reference: RIC II 740

A metal detecting find from the County of Kent
Masis
Visigoths_Honorius_ab.jpg
Visigoths in Gaul (RIC X 3703)180 viewsVisigoths in Gaul, circa 415-423 (Athaulf - Theodoric I), AR siliqua (13mm, 0.99 g). Minted in Narbonne(?), Gaul. Obverse: D N HONORI-VS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust right. Reverse: [VICTOR] IA AVGG, Roma seated left on cuirass, holding Victory on globe and spear; PSRV in exergue. RIC X 3703, rare.

After sacking Rome in 410 the Visigoths settled in southern Gaul. The successive kings of the Visigoths were Athaulf (410-415), Sigeric (415, only seven days), Wallia (415-419), and Theodoric I (419-451). The Visigoths minted issues in the name of Priscus Attalus (RIC X 3701-2) around 415 during an attempt to resurrect their candidate for Western emperor. Kent (NC 149 [1989], pp. i-xvi) dated the present related issue to circa 418-423 when the Visigoths made peace with Honorius and became official foederati.
2 commentsJan (jbc)
Valerian1RIC232.jpg
[1112a] Valerian I, October 253 - c. June 260 A.D.70 viewsSilver antoninianus, RIC 232, RSC 10, VF, worn die reverse, Mediolanum mint, 3.909g, 22.2mm, 180o, 257 A.D.; Obverse: IMP VALERIANVS P AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right; Reverse: AETERNITATI AVGG, Sol standing left, raising right, globe in left; nice portrait, good silver for the reign. Ex FORVM.


De Imperatoribus Romanis,
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors and their Families

Valerian (A.D. 253-260) and Gallienus (A.D. 253-268)

Richard D. Weigel
Western Kentucky University


P. Licinius Valerianus, or Valerian, was unusual for his time period in that he was an emperor who came from an old Roman senatorial family. He was likely born shortly before 200 A.D., but little is known of his early life. Valerian married Egnatia Mariniana and had two sons, Gallienus and Valerian Junior. Gallienus was born around 218. Valerian makes his first appearance in the sources in 238 A.D. as an ex-consul and princeps senatus negotiating with (more likely than serving on) the embassy sent to Rome by Gordian I's African legions to secure senatorial approval of Gordian's rebellion against and replacement of Maximinus Thrax as emperor. The Scriptores Historiae Augustae probably report accurately that Trajan Decius, on the recommendation of the Senate, offered Valerian the censorship in 251. Although the senatus consultum cited and the specific office are of doubtful authenticity, the high reputation Valerian possessed in the Senate and his association with the government under Decius probably are truthful aspects of the story. In 253 Valerian was apparently commanding in Raetia and Noricum when Trebonianus Gallus sent him to bring legions from Gaul and Germany to Italy for the struggle with the forces of Aemilianus. After Gallus' troops killed him and his son and joined Aemilianus, Valerian's men proclaimed their general emperor and their arrival in Italy caused Aemilianus' soldiers to desert and kill their commander and join Valerian's forces in acclaiming Valerian as emperor.

The Senate presumably was pleased to ratify the position of Valerian, one of their own, as emperor and they also accepted his son and colleague, P. Licinius Egnatius Gallienus, as Augustus, rather than just as Caesar. Valerian apparently realized the necessity of sharing power equally with his son and of dividing their efforts geographically, with Gallienus responsible for the West and Valerian himself concentrating on the East. The biographies of Valerian and Gallienus in the Scriptores Historiae Augustae, attributed to Trebellius Pollio, are not especially helpful in putting together an account of their joint reign. The life of Valerian is fragmentary and that of Gallienus projects an extremely biased negative interpretation of his career.

Gallienus in the early years of the joint reign concentrated, with some success, on protecting Gaul and the Rhine frontier by driving back Germanic tribes and fortifying cities such as Cologne and Trier. In a move which would characterize later diplomacy with Germans, Gallienus concluded an alliance with one of their chieftains, presumably to assist the Romans in protecting the empire from other Germanic tribes. The invasions increased in number around 257-258 as the Franks entered Gaul and Spain, destroying Tarraco (Tarragona), and the Alamanni invaded Italy. Gallienus defeated the Alamanni at Milan, but soon was faced with the revolts in Pannonia and Moesia led first by his general there, Ingenuus, and then by Regalianus, commander in Illyricum. Gallienus put down these rebellions by 260 and secured stability in the region by concluding an alliance with the Marcomannic king, whose daughter Pipa the emperor apparently accepted as his concubine although he was still married to Cornelia Salonina.

In the East, Valerian had succeeded by A.D. 257 in rescuing Antioch in Syria from Persian control, at least temporarily, but was soon faced with a major invasion of the Goths in Asia Minor. The Scriptores Historiae Augustae biography of Aurelian has Valerian appear to speak in the Baths at Byzantium to publicly commend Aurelian for his success in driving back the Goths and reward him with the consulship and even with adoption as imperial successor. However, it is not clear that Valerian even reached Byzantium because he sent Felix to that city while he remained to protect the eastern section of Asia Minor and then returned to Antioch to guard it against renewed Persian attacks. It was at this point, around 259, that Valerian moved to defend Edessa and his troops lost significant numbers to the plague. Valerian tried to negotiate a peace with the Persian king, Sapor, but was captured by treachery and taken into captivity. The ultimate humiliation of a Roman emperor by a foreign leader was enacted through Sapor's use of Valerian as a human stepping-stool to assist the Persian king in mounting his horse and Valerian's body was later skinned to produce a lasting trophy of Roman submission.

Eusebius discusses the policy of Valerian toward the Christians and says that, after initially treating them most positively, Valerian was persuaded by Macrianus to lead another persecution against them. Valerian in fact after his brutal imprisonment and death in Persia would serve as a negative moral exemplum for some Latin Christian writers who gleefully pointed out that those who oppose the true God receive their just desserts.

Eusebius also credits Gallienus with reversing his father's policy and establishing peace with the Church, citing imperial edicts which established freedom of worship and even restored some lost property. Paul Keresztes claims that Gallienus in fact established a peace with Christians that lasted for forty-three years, from A.D. 260 until 303, and gave the community a kind of legal status which they had previously lacked.

Andreas Alföldi details a growing separation between Gallienus and his father which goes well beyond the geographical one which had developed out of military necessity. In addition to the strikingly different policies, just described, which they pursued toward the Christians, Gallienus began to make his military independence clear through changes in coin inscriptions and by 258 he had created his central cavalry unit and stationed it at Milan. This independent force, which was under the command of a man of equestrian rank and soon stood on a level at least equal to that of the Praetorian Guard, would play a significant role in Gallienus' upcoming battles and, of course, was a foretoken of a new trend for military organization in the future. Alföldi cites as evidence of the increasing separation between the joint emperors the statement that Gallienus did not even seek his father's return from captivity, which Lactantius of course interpreted as part of Valerian's divine punishment, but one wonders what indeed Gallienus might have done and his "indifference" may have been instead his attempt to reassert confidence in his armies and not dwell on the depressing and humiliating servitude and ultimate death of Valerian. Another reform which Alföldi discusses as part of Gallienus' independent stand is his exclusion of the senatorial class from major military commands. H.M.D. Parker credits Gallienus with beginning to separate the civil and military functions of Rome's provincial governors, thus making senatorial governors purely civil administrators and starting to replace them even in this reduced role by equestrians. The disappearance in this period of the S.C. stamp of senatorial authority on bronze coins was probably also seen as an attack on the prestige of the order, although the debasement of the silver coinage had by this time practically reached the point where the "silver" coins were themselves essentially bronze and the change may have been more for economic than for political reasons. Gallienus' exclusion of senators from military command further broke down class distinctions because sons of centurions were by this time regularly given equestrian rank and the move further accelerated the alienation of Rome as center of the Empire. In addition, the bitterness of the senatorial class over Gallienus' policy most likely explains the hatred of Latin writers toward this particular emperor.

Although Gallienus' military innovations may have made his forces more effective, he still had to face numerous challenges to his authority.In addition to systemic invasions and revolts, the plague wreaked havoc in Rome and Italy and probably in several provinces as well. It must have seemed that every commander he entrusted to solve a problem later used that authority to create another threat. When Gallienus was involved in putting down the revolt of Ingenuus in Pannonia, he put Postumus in charge of the armies guarding the Rhine and Gaul. There is some doubt about which of Gallienus' sons, Cornelius Valerianus or P. Cornelius Licinius Saloninus, was left in Cologne under the care of the Praetorian Prefect Silvanus and perhaps also Postumus. In any case, when Postumus revolted and proclaimed his independent Gallic Empire, Silvanus and one of the emperor's sons were killed. Gallienus probably restricted Postumus' expansion, but he never gained the personal revenge that, according to one source, drove him to challenge Postumus to single combat. While Gallienus was thus engaged, and after Valerian's capture by the Persians, Macrianus had his soldiers proclaim his sons, Macrianus and Quietus, emperors in Syria, Asia Minor, and Egypt. Gallienus sent Aureolus to defeat Macrianus and one son in the area of Illyria and Thrace; Odenathus of Palmyra defeated the other son and restored stability in Syria and, with Gallienus' approval, followed that up with a victory over the Persians. After Odenathus' assassination ca. 267, his wife Zenobia continued to rule the independent Palmyrene section of the Empire.

In A.D. 262 Gallienus concluded his tenth year in office by celebrating in Rome his Decennalia with a spectacular procession involving senators, equestrians, gladiators, soldiers, representatives of foreign peoples, and many other groups. This festival included feasts, games, entertainment, and spectacle which probably reminded Romans of the millennial Secular Games celebrations of Philip I and likely were intended to secure popular support at home for Gallienus. Over the next five years little is known about specific activities of the emperor and he presumably spent more time in Rome and less along the frontiers.

Gallienus and Salonina as rulers patronized a cultural movement which collectively is known as the Gallienic Renaissance. The imperial patrons are most directly connected with the philosophical aspects of this movement because Porphyry testifies to their friendship for the Neoplatonic philosopher Plotinus. Porphyry goes on to say that Plotinus asked Gallienus to rebuild an abandoned former city of philosophers in Campania, rename it Platonopolis, and govern it as a kind of Platonic Republic, but that the jealousy and spite of others at court scuttled the plan. In addition to Neoplatonic philosophy, according to Gervase Matthew, the Gallienic Renaissance included the "upward glance" and other stylistic changes in imperial sculpture and religious beliefs that were characterized by "an overwhelming sense of the transcendent and immutable." Matthew points out both the return to artistic models of Augustus, Hadrian, and even Severus Alexander and also "a new Romantic tension" which breaks with the past and points toward a new and very different world. The Hellenic character of much of the Gallienic Renaissance is also stressed in the emperor's trip to Athens where he, likely in imitation of Hadrian, became eponymous archon and received initiation into the Eleusinian cult of Demeter.
Late in his reign, Gallienus issued a series of coins in Rome which honored nine deities as Conservator Augusti or protector of the emperor by pairing his portrait with reverses picturing an animal or animals symbolic of each deity. Included in this group of celestial guardians are Apollo, Diana, Hercules, Jupiter, Juno, Liber Pater, Mercury, Neptune, and Sol. For example, Apollo's coin-types portray a centaur, a gryphon, or Pegasus; Hercules is represented by either the lion or the boar. It appears that Gallienus was issuing the "animal series" coins both to secure, through some religious festival, the aid of Rome's protective gods against continuing invasions, revolts, and plague and to entertain the Roman populace with pageantry and circus games, thus to divert their attention away from the same problems and maintain the security of the regime in power.

In A.D. 268, Gallienus saw his third son, Marinianus, become consul, but in the spring another Gothic invasion brought the emperor back to Greece. He defeated the invaders at Naissus in Moesia , but was deterred from pursuing them further by a revolt of the commander of his elite cavalry, Aureolus. He besieged this last rebel emperor in Milan, but a plot involving his Praetorian Prefect and two future emperors, Claudius and Aurelian, all three men Illyrians popular with many of the soldiers, lured Gallienus away from the city on a false pretext and assassinated him.The emperor's brother Valerian and young son Marinianus were also murdered. In spite of the bitter resentment which many of the senators must have felt toward the dead emperor and his reform policies, Claudius II, perhaps only to legitimize his own reign, persuaded the Senate to deify Gallienus.

Copyright Richard D. Weigel, 2007. Published on De Imperatoribus Romanis,
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors and their Families

Valerian I was proclaimed emperor after the death of Trajan Decius. He successfully repulsed many barbarian incursions but the standard of living declined and would never recover. In 260 A.D., after four years of war during which Roman forces suffered great losses in battle and to plague, he arranged for peace talks. He set off with a small group to discuss terms with the Sassinian emperor Sapor and was never seen again. The date of his death is unknown, but in Rome it was rumored that he had been murdered and that Sapor was using his stuffed body as a footstool. Joseph Sermarini, FORVM.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
GalllienusRIC163.jpg
[1113a] Gallienus, August 253 - 24 March 268 A.D.72 viewsBronze antoninianus, RIC 163, RSC 72, choice EF, Rome mint, 3.716g, 21.6mm, 180o, 268 A.D.; Obverse: GALLIENVS AVG, radiate head right; Reverse: APOLLINI CONS AVG, centaur walking right drawing bow, Z in exergue; struck on a full and round flan, rare this nice. Commemorates vows to Apollo invoking his protection against the revolt of Aureolus. Ex FORVM.


De Imperatoribus Romanis,
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors and their Families

Valerian (A.D. 253-260) and Gallienus (A.D. 253-268)

Richard D. Weigel
Western Kentucky University


P. Licinius Valerianus, or Valerian, was unusual for his time period in that he was an emperor who came from an old Roman senatorial family. He was likely born shortly before 200 A.D., but little is known of his early life. Valerian married Egnatia Mariniana and had two sons, Gallienus and Valerian Junior. Gallienus was born around 218. Valerian makes his first appearance in the sources in 238 A.D. as an ex-consul and princeps senatus negotiating with (more likely than serving on) the embassy sent to Rome by Gordian I's African legions to secure senatorial approval of Gordian's rebellion against and replacement of Maximinus Thrax as emperor. The Scriptores Historiae Augustae probably report accurately that Trajan Decius, on the recommendation of the Senate, offered Valerian the censorship in 251. Although the senatus consultum cited and the specific office are of doubtful authenticity, the high reputation Valerian possessed in the Senate and his association with the government under Decius probably are truthful aspects of the story. In 253 Valerian was apparently commanding in Raetia and Noricum when Trebonianus Gallus sent him to bring legions from Gaul and Germany to Italy for the struggle with the forces of Aemilianus. After Gallus' troops killed him and his son and joined Aemilianus, Valerian's men proclaimed their general emperor and their arrival in Italy caused Aemilianus' soldiers to desert and kill their commander and join Valerian's forces in acclaiming Valerian as emperor.

The Senate presumably was pleased to ratify the position of Valerian, one of their own, as emperor and they also accepted his son and colleague, P. Licinius Egnatius Gallienus, as Augustus, rather than just as Caesar. Valerian apparently realized the necessity of sharing power equally with his son and of dividing their efforts geographically, with Gallienus responsible for the West and Valerian himself concentrating on the East. The biographies of Valerian and Gallienus in the Scriptores Historiae Augustae, attributed to Trebellius Pollio, are not especially helpful in putting together an account of their joint reign. The life of Valerian is fragmentary and that of Gallienus projects an extremely biased negative interpretation of his career.

Gallienus in the early years of the joint reign concentrated, with some success, on protecting Gaul and the Rhine frontier by driving back Germanic tribes and fortifying cities such as Cologne and Trier. In a move which would characterize later diplomacy with Germans, Gallienus concluded an alliance with one of their chieftains, presumably to assist the Romans in protecting the empire from other Germanic tribes. The invasions increased in number around 257-258 as the Franks entered Gaul and Spain, destroying Tarraco (Tarragona), and the Alamanni invaded Italy. Gallienus defeated the Alamanni at Milan, but soon was faced with the revolts in Pannonia and Moesia led first by his general there, Ingenuus, and then by Regalianus, commander in Illyricum. Gallienus put down these rebellions by 260 and secured stability in the region by concluding an alliance with the Marcomannic king, whose daughter Pipa the emperor apparently accepted as his concubine although he was still married to Cornelia Salonina.

In the East, Valerian had succeeded by A.D. 257 in rescuing Antioch in Syria from Persian control, at least temporarily, but was soon faced with a major invasion of the Goths in Asia Minor. The Scriptores Historiae Augustae biography of Aurelian has Valerian appear to speak in the Baths at Byzantium to publicly commend Aurelian for his success in driving back the Goths and reward him with the consulship and even with adoption as imperial successor. However, it is not clear that Valerian even reached Byzantium because he sent Felix to that city while he remained to protect the eastern section of Asia Minor and then returned to Antioch to guard it against renewed Persian attacks. It was at this point, around 259, that Valerian moved to defend Edessa and his troops lost significant numbers to the plague. Valerian tried to negotiate a peace with the Persian king, Sapor, but was captured by treachery and taken into captivity. The ultimate humiliation of a Roman emperor by a foreign leader was enacted through Sapor's use of Valerian as a human stepping-stool to assist the Persian king in mounting his horse and Valerian's body was later skinned to produce a lasting trophy of Roman submission.

Eusebius discusses the policy of Valerian toward the Christians and says that, after initially treating them most positively, Valerian was persuaded by Macrianus to lead another persecution against them. Valerian in fact after his brutal imprisonment and death in Persia would serve as a negative moral exemplum for some Latin Christian writers who gleefully pointed out that those who oppose the true God receive their just desserts.

Eusebius also credits Gallienus with reversing his father's policy and establishing peace with the Church, citing imperial edicts which established freedom of worship and even restored some lost property. Paul Keresztes claims that Gallienus in fact established a peace with Christians that lasted for forty-three years, from A.D. 260 until 303, and gave the community a kind of legal status which they had previously lacked.

Andreas Alföldi details a growing separation between Gallienus and his father which goes well beyond the geographical one which had developed out of military necessity. In addition to the strikingly different policies, just described, which they pursued toward the Christians, Gallienus began to make his military independence clear through changes in coin inscriptions and by 258 he had created his central cavalry unit and stationed it at Milan. This independent force, which was under the command of a man of equestrian rank and soon stood on a level at least equal to that of the Praetorian Guard, would play a significant role in Gallienus' upcoming battles and, of course, was a foretoken of a new trend for military organization in the future. Alföldi cites as evidence of the increasing separation between the joint emperors the statement that Gallienus did not even seek his father's return from captivity, which Lactantius of course interpreted as part of Valerian's divine punishment, but one wonders what indeed Gallienus might have done and his "indifference" may have been instead his attempt to reassert confidence in his armies and not dwell on the depressing and humiliating servitude and ultimate death of Valerian. Another reform which Alföldi discusses as part of Gallienus' independent stand is his exclusion of the senatorial class from major military commands. H.M.D. Parker credits Gallienus with beginning to separate the civil and military functions of Rome's provincial governors, thus making senatorial governors purely civil administrators and starting to replace them even in this reduced role by equestrians. The disappearance in this period of the S.C. stamp of senatorial authority on bronze coins was probably also seen as an attack on the prestige of the order, although the debasement of the silver coinage had by this time practically reached the point where the "silver" coins were themselves essentially bronze and the change may have been more for economic than for political reasons. Gallienus' exclusion of senators from military command further broke down class distinctions because sons of centurions were by this time regularly given equestrian rank and the move further accelerated the alienation of Rome as center of the Empire. In addition, the bitterness of the senatorial class over Gallienus' policy most likely explains the hatred of Latin writers toward this particular emperor.

Although Gallienus' military innovations may have made his forces more effective, he still had to face numerous challenges to his authority.In addition to systemic invasions and revolts, the plague wreaked havoc in Rome and Italy and probably in several provinces as well. It must have seemed that every commander he entrusted to solve a problem later used that authority to create another threat. When Gallienus was involved in putting down the revolt of Ingenuus in Pannonia, he put Postumus in charge of the armies guarding the Rhine and Gaul. There is some doubt about which of Gallienus' sons, Cornelius Valerianus or P. Cornelius Licinius Saloninus, was left in Cologne under the care of the Praetorian Prefect Silvanus and perhaps also Postumus. In any case, when Postumus revolted and proclaimed his independent Gallic Empire, Silvanus and one of the emperor's sons were killed. Gallienus probably restricted Postumus' expansion, but he never gained the personal revenge that, according to one source, drove him to challenge Postumus to single combat. While Gallienus was thus engaged, and after Valerian's capture by the Persians, Macrianus had his soldiers proclaim his sons, Macrianus and Quietus, emperors in Syria, Asia Minor, and Egypt. Gallienus sent Aureolus to defeat Macrianus and one son in the area of Illyria and Thrace; Odenathus of Palmyra defeated the other son and restored stability in Syria and, with Gallienus' approval, followed that up with a victory over the Persians. After Odenathus' assassination ca. 267, his wife Zenobia continued to rule the independent Palmyrene section of the Empire.

In A.D. 262 Gallienus concluded his tenth year in office by celebrating in Rome his Decennalia with a spectacular procession involving senators, equestrians, gladiators, soldiers, representatives of foreign peoples, and many other groups. This festival included feasts, games, entertainment, and spectacle which probably reminded Romans of the millennial Secular Games celebrations of Philip I and likely were intended to secure popular support at home for Gallienus. Over the next five years little is known about specific activities of the emperor and he presumably spent more time in Rome and less along the frontiers.

Gallienus and Salonina as rulers patronized a cultural movement which collectively is known as the Gallienic Renaissance. The imperial patrons are most directly connected with the philosophical aspects of this movement because Porphyry testifies to their friendship for the Neoplatonic philosopher Plotinus. Porphyry goes on to say that Plotinus asked Gallienus to rebuild an abandoned former city of philosophers in Campania, rename it Platonopolis, and govern it as a kind of Platonic Republic, but that the jealousy and spite of others at court scuttled the plan. In addition to Neoplatonic philosophy, according to Gervase Matthew, the Gallienic Renaissance included the "upward glance" and other stylistic changes in imperial sculpture and religious beliefs that were characterized by "an overwhelming sense of the transcendent and immutable." Matthew points out both the return to artistic models of Augustus, Hadrian, and even Severus Alexander and also "a new Romantic tension" which breaks with the past and points toward a new and very different world. The Hellenic character of much of the Gallienic Renaissance is also stressed in the emperor's trip to Athens where he, likely in imitation of Hadrian, became eponymous archon and received initiation into the Eleusinian cult of Demeter.

Late in his reign, Gallienus issued a series of coins in Rome which honored nine deities as Conservator Augusti or protector of the emperor by pairing his portrait with reverses picturing an animal or animals symbolic of each deity. Included in this group of celestial guardians are Apollo, Diana, Hercules, Jupiter, Juno, Liber Pater, Mercury, Neptune, and Sol. For example, Apollo's coin-types portray a centaur, a gryphon, or Pegasus; Hercules is represented by either the lion or the boar. It appears that Gallienus was issuing the "animal series" coins both to secure, through some religious festival, the aid of Rome's protective gods against continuing invasions, revolts, and plague and to entertain the Roman populace with pageantry and circus games, thus to divert their attention away from the same problems and maintain the security of the regime in power.

In A.D. 268, Gallienus saw his third son, Marinianus, become consul, but in the spring another Gothic invasion brought the emperor back to Greece. He defeated the invaders at Naissus in Moesia , but was deterred from pursuing them further by a revolt of the commander of his elite cavalry, Aureolus. He besieged this last rebel emperor in Milan, but a plot involving his Praetorian Prefect and two future emperors, Claudius and Aurelian, all three men Illyrians popular with many of the soldiers, lured Gallienus away from the city on a false pretext and assassinated him.The emperor's brother Valerian and young son Marinianus were also murdered. In spite of the bitter resentment which many of the senators must have felt toward the dead emperor and his reform policies, Claudius II, perhaps only to legitimize his own reign, persuaded the Senate to deify Gallienus.

Copyright (C) 1998, Richard D. Weigel. Published on De Imperatoribus Romanis,
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/gallval.htm. Used by permission.


Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus was born in about AD 213. This means that he was about 40 years old when his father Valerian, in AD 253, was hailed emperor by his troops in Raetia. Gallienus was made Caesar immediately by his father. But within a month, when Valerian got to Rome, Gallienus received the rank of Augustus.

Compared to other Roman emperors of the age, Gallienus was an exception, as far as he was not a soldier-emperor. He was rather a thoughtful, intellectual ruler, possessing sophisticated Greek tastes. However, this made him deeply unpopular with the gritty Danubian generals, who very much understood it as their right to choose a leader among their own ranks to rule the empire.

If the Danubian military elite didn't like Gallienus, then he certainly soon proved that he was a capable military leader. Between AD 254 to AD 256 he campaigned along the Danube, securing this troubled frontier against the barbarians. In AD 256 he then moved west to fight the Germans along the Rhine.

Then by autumn AD 260 the message of Valerian's capture by the Persians reached Gallienus. If Gallienus had always been unpopular among the military leaders, then now with his father gone and Roman authority crumbling, rebellion was in the air.

On a night in September, AD 268, at the siege of Mediolanum (Milan), an alarm was suddenly raised in the camp of the emperor. In the brief moment of confusion, Gallienus was struck down in the dark as he emerged from his tent.

During his reign, Gallienus began numerous reforms and military campaigns to defend the empire, as much from usurpers as from barbarians. In doing so, he perhaps saved the empire from oblivion. At the same time he presided over perhaps the last flowering of classical Roman culture, patronizing poets, artists and philosophers.

As a last gesture of disrespect to this, most unfortunate of emperors, the Romans should lay Gallienus to rest not in one of the great mausoleums in Rome, but in a tomb nine miles south of the capital, along the Via Appia.

Ironically, he was deified by the senate at the request of Claudius II Gothicus, one of the men who must be held accountable for the assassination of Gallienus.
See: http://www.roman-empire.net/decline/gallienus.html


Gallienus was the son of Valerian I and was named Caesar at his father's accession to the throne in 253 A.D. Upon his father's capture by the Parthians he assumed the rank of Augustus and began numerous reforms and military campaigns to defend the empire, as much from usurpers as from barbarians. At the same time he presided over perhaps the last flowering of classical Roman culture, patronizing poets, artists and philosophers. Gallienus was assassinated while besieging Milan. Joseph Sermarini, FORVM.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
CIIGRICV197unlistedvar.jpg
[1114a] Claudius II Gothicus, September 268 - August or September 270 A.D.58 viewsSilvered antoninianus, RIC V 197 var (pellet in exergue), aEF, 3.880g, 21.1mm, 0o, Antioch mint, 268 - 270 A.D.; Obverse: IMP C CLAVDIVS AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right; Reverse: AEQVITAS AVG, Aequitas standing left, scales in right, cornucopia in left, • in exergue; full silvering, bold strike, excellent centering and eastern style, rare this nice; rare variety. Ex FORVM.


De Imperatoribus Romanis
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors

Claudius II Gothicus (268-270)

Richard D. Weigel
Western Kentucky University

M. Aurelius Claudius, known to history as Claudius Gothicus or Claudius II, was born in either Dalmatia or Illyria on May 10, probably in A.D. 213 or 214. Although the most substantive source on Claudius is the biography in the Scriptores Historiae Augustae (SHA), this account is riddled with fabrications and slanted with fawning praise for this particular emperor, who in the fourth century was viewed as an ancestor of Constantine's father and thus of the ruling imperial family. This biography, attributed to one Trebellius Pollio, must be read with extreme caution and supplemented with information from other sources, including Aurelius Victor, the Epitome de Caesaribus, Eutropius, Orosius, Zonaras, and Zosimus, as well as coins and inscriptions.

The SHA account describes Claudius as being tall, with fiery eyes, and so strong that he could knock out the teeth of man or beast with one punch. It also says that Trajan Decius rewarded him after Claudius demonstrated his strength while wrestling another soldier in the Campus Martius. The SHA author suggests that Claudius may have been descended from the Trojan King Ilus and even from Dardanus, son of Zeus and ancestor of the Trojan royal family, but these suggestions are very likely fabricated to further ennoble Claudius and his putative descendants, the family of Constantine. The SHA biography also includes false letters attributed to the emperors Trajan Decius, Valerian, and Gallienus, all attesting to their high opinions of Claudius. Reference is made in these letters to Claudius' service as tribune in an otherwise unattested legion V Martialis and also as general in command of Illyria, but these positions may also be fictitious. One can assume that Claudius had served for some time in the army, at least under Gallienus and perhaps also under several earlier emperors.

There is some evidence that Claudius was wounded in Gallienus' campaign to put down the revolt of Ingenuus and that he later served with Aureolus under Gallienus in the war with Postumus. By 268, when Gallienus took his troops into Italy to put down Aureolus' revolt, Claudius had emerged as heir-apparent to Gallienus and may also have been involved in the plot to assassinate the emperor. Aurelius Victor says that when Gallienus was killed by his own troops besieging Aureolus in Milan, Claudius as tribune was commanding the soldiers stationed at Ticinum, some twenty miles to the south, and that prior to dying Gallienus designated Claudius as his heir. Victor goes on to claim that after succeeding to the purple Claudius forced the Senate to deify Gallienus. The SHA account states that the soldiers mutinied after Gallienus' death and had to be quieted with a donative of twenty aurei each before settling down and accepting their new emperor. Once in power, Claudius quickly dealt with Aureolus, who surrendered and was killed almost immediately. The new emperor also demanded clemency for the supporters of Gallienus.

The story of Gallienus' deathbed selection of his successor is doubtful at best and is very likely an attempt to deflect blame for the assassination plot from Claudius. The suggestion that the new emperor pressured the Senate to deify Gallienus is more difficult to assess. It is true that securing divine status for one's predecessor is generally seen as a pious act (e.g. Antoninus Pius requesting deification of Hadrian) that reflects positively on the initiator and the story, recorded only in Aurelius Victor, could just be a fabrication used to build up Claudius' moral reputation. What is difficult to penetrate is the biased condemnation of Gallienus that particularly dominates the Latin sources. They make it hard to see why anyone would want to deify Gallienus and so the story seems out of place. However, deification of a predecessor could also be interpreted as the expected thing to do and the act could have fostered legitimacy of the new emperor and gained support from those who were still loyal to Gallienus so it may well have taken place.

The first major challenge facing the new emperor was that of the Alemanni, who had invaded Raetia and Italy. After an early defeat, Claudius replaced some irresponsible officers and soldiers, designated Aurelian as cavalry commander, and led the army to a decisive victory over the Alemanni. This victory earned Claudius the title of Germanicus Maximus and several of his coin-types appear to refer to victory over the Germans.

In 269 Claudius served as consul with Paternus. This year would also feature his major campaign against the Goths. There are indications that Spain separated itself from the Gallo-Roman Empire of Postumus and Tetricus and recognized Claudius, at least nominally, as emperor. In addition, rebellion within Gaul itself demonstrated the weakening of this independent state, although Claudius avoided engagement at Augustodunum and chose only to send a small force to protect Narbonese Gaul. While Claudius concentrated on protecting Roman territory against the Alemanni and Goths, Zenobia extended her Palmyrene Empire by taking Antioch, parts of Asia Minor, and most of Egypt. Although Eusebius and Sulpicius Severus portray the period between the reign of Valerian and that of Diocletian as a peaceful pause in the persecution of Christians, the Acts of the Martyrs does list some individuals allegedly martyred during Claudius II's reign.

The coins issued by Claudius II provide some limited insight into his reign. In addition to the standard "personified virtues" coins that are common with most emperors of the second and third centuries, Claudius struck coin-types proclaiming the security of the Empire (SECVRITAS PERPETVA and PAX AETERNA), the fidelity of the army (FIDES MILITVM), and military victories over the Germans and Goths (VICTORIA GERMAN and VICTORIAE GOTHIC). In addition, Claudius Gothicus' mints struck some other interesting and unusual coin-types. For example, Claudius is one of very few emperors who issued coins portraying the god Vulcan. These must have been limited issues because they are struck only by the Antioch mint and are very rare. The type shows Vulcan standing, with his special tools, the hammer and tongs, and features the unique inscription REGI ARTIS. A variant type with a similar image has been described as carrying another unique coin inscription, DEO CABIRO, and interpreted as depicting one of Vulcan's sons, the Cabiri, with the same tools. However, the existence of this variant type is doubtful. Although the reason for honoring Vulcan (and his sons?) with these coins is unclear, there may be a connection to the fact that the Cabiri were patron gods of Thessalonica who had protected that city against an attack by the Goths. Although a connection between Claudius Gothicus and the Cabiri as defenders against Gothic attacks is relatively attractive, it is weakened somewhat by the fact that Valerian and Gallienus had also issued coins with Vulcan in a temple so there may be some other reason for his reappearance on coins in this period.

Claudius II issued an unusual and scarce series of coins that features a pair of deities, who are presumably conservatores Augusti, on each reverse. The AETER AVG type depicts Apollo and Diana, who, as gods of the sun and moon, are associated with the concept of aeternitas. A type featuring Serapis and Isis is combined with a CONSER AVG inscription and one of Hercules and Minerva with one of CONSERVATORES AVG. Apollo and Diana are depicted with a SALVS AVG inscription, Aesculapius and Salus with one of SPES PVBLIC, and Vulcan and Minerva with VIRT AVG. The general message is that these deities will protect the future of the empire and the emperor.

Other unusual coin-types include MARS VLTOR, the god Augustus had honored with a temple for securing revenge for Caesar's assassination. This deity had appeared on Roman coins in the reigns of Galba and Severus Alexander. Claudius II also minted coins with rarely-seen NEPTVN AVG [see this reverse type in my collection] and SOL AVG types. The latter coin indicates some early interest in the god who would become so dominant a few years later on the coins of Aurelian, yet Claudius also used the INVICTVS AVG inscription that Gallienus had paired with an image of Sol with one of Hercules. ROMAE AETERNAE coin-types were fairly common in the mid-third century, but Claudius II issued an unusual variant type on an aureus that showed the goddess in her temple and echoed the SAECVLVM NOVVM images associated with Philip I. In addition, Claudius introduced a IOVI VICTORI reverse combined with the image normally paired with a IOVI STATORI inscription and a IOVI FVLGERAT reverse inscription, both of which had not been used by any of his predecessors. Andreas Alföldi suggested that Claudius' GENIVS SENATVS type signified improvement of the relationship between emperor and Senate following the senatorial hostility toward Gallienus.

Claudius Gothicus also produced coin-types with reverses of goddesses customarily found paired on coins with images of the Roman empresses. The deities portrayed include Ceres, Diana, Diana Lucifera, and Diana Victrix, Minerva, Venus, and the goddess naturally associated with the image of an empress, Juno Regina. One might suggest that Claudius issued these images because he had no empress with which to pair them, but an examination of other emperors' reigns during this period reveals that those emperors who did not issue coins bearing the empress' image also did not strike these particular goddess types. Although Ceres and Venus images are sometimes paired with an emperor's portrait, Diana Lucifera is rarely found on emperors' coins and Claudius II is the only emperor paired on coins with Juno Regina. In addition, Claudius was the first emperor to issue imperial coins that featured an isolated image of the exotic Egyptian goddess, Isis Faria.

Claudius II's short reign was vulnerable to internal as well as external attack. There may have been a revolt in 269-270 led by a Censorinus, although the date and even the existence of this usurper remain in doubt. The SHA includes him as the last of the "thirty tyrants" and lists a whole series of offices for him, including two consulships, but no other record exists to confirm such service. The SHA account states that he was proclaimed emperor by his soldiers, but soon afterwards killed by them because of his enforcement of strict discipline. His tomb is listed as being in Bologna, which may provide some idea of the location for the revolt. Henry Cohen dates the revolt to the beginning of the year 270, perhaps on the basis of a reference in the Epitome de Caesaribus, but suggests that coins attributed to Censorinus in earlier works may not exist.

The Gothic challenge in 269 proved to be the greatest that Claudius II would face. The Goths assembled a large invading force, reportedly amounting to 320,000 men transported on a fleet of at least 2,000 ships, and first attacked coastal cities along the Black Sea in Moesia. After passing into the Aegean the Goths besieged Thessalonica. At this point, in 269, Claudius left Rome to stop the invasion. The Goths then sent the larger segment of their troops on land toward the Danube, while the fleet took the remaining group to continue the naval attack on Aegean coastal cities. Claudius sent Aurelian's cavalry to Macedonia to protect Illyria from attack, while he commanded the forces blocking the route to the Danube. In the area of Doberus and Pelagonia, the Goths lost 3,000 men to Aurelian's cavalry. At Naissus in Moesia, Claudius' force succeeded in killing some 50,000 Goths. There were follow-up operations on both land and sea, but the Gothic War had essentially been won. Staving off the attacks of the Goths was a major contribution to the survival of the Roman Empire. It was a significant step leading to the subsequent success of Aurelian and the resurrection of the Empire under Diocletian and Constantine. When the Goths eventually succeeded in taking parts of the western Empire in the fifth century, their disruption to the course of civilization was likely much less violent than it would have been had they succeeded in the third century.

In addition to bad weather, a lack of supplies, and hunger, plague was a major factor in the defeat of the Goths. Many of the Gothic prisoners were either impressed into Roman military service or settled on farms as coloni. Claudius received the title Gothicus in recognition of his triumph over the Goths. At some point he had also been given the title Parthicus, but the unlikelihood of any conflict with the Parthians in his short reign makes this difficult to explain. Perhaps Damerau was correct in his suggestion that a Parthian unit may have been involved in one of the battles with the Palmyrenes, although on this front there were few achievements to claim. In any case, Claudius' victory over the Goths was short-lived. The emperor himself caught the plague and died at Sirmium early in 270. He was 56 years old. Claudius' brother, Quintillus, became emperor briefly before losing out to Aurelian. Claudius also had another brother, Crispus, and the SHA traces the link to Constantius through Crispus' daughter Claudia.

The Roman Senate showed its respect for Claudius Gothicus by setting up a gold portrait-shield in the Curia and by approving his deification. He was also honored with a golden statue in front of the great temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus and a silver statue set on a column on the Rostra.

In many ways, Claudius II received more adulation and honor in his Nachleben than he had during his lifetime. In the fourth century, attempts to link Constantine's family to Claudius resulted in the phrases of adoration and outright fabrication that dominate the SHA life and most of our other sources. Constantine even issued commemorative coins honoring Claudius. These carried inscriptions such as: DIVO CLAVDIO OPT[IMO] IMP[ERATORI], MEMORIAE AETERNAE, and REQVIES OPT[IMORVM] ME[RITORVM]. A tradition grew that changed the story of Claudius' death in some sources. In this version, Claudius, instead of dying from the plague, had actually performed a devotion, in response to an oracle found in the Sibylline Books, and sacrificed his life so that Rome could win the Gothic War. One of the most surprising things about the SHA account is that it ignores this more dramatic tradition and has Claudius simply dying from the plague.

One must, of course, reject the excessive claims of the SHA to the effect that Claudius II was "destined to rule for the good of the human race" and would, had he lived longer, "…by his strength, his counsel, and his foresight have restored to us the Scipios, the Camilli, and all those men of old." However, Claudius Gothicus was clearly a good emperor who made a significant contribution to protecting and restoring the Empire. In the third century there aren't too many emperors who merit such an assessment.

Copyright (C) 2001, Richard D. Weigel. Used by permission.
http://www.roman-emperors.org/claudgot.htm


Claudius II Gothicus was born in Illyricum around 215 A.D. Under Valerian and Gallienus he was recognized as a superb general. After the murder of Gallienus, Claudius Gothicus was proclaimed emperor and preceded to crush the Alemani tribe who had invaded Roman territory. Soon after an enormous horde of Goths poured into the empire. Against all advice, Claudius confronted the barbarians at Naissus in Upper Moesia. He fought a brilliant battle and annihilated them. Unfortunately for the empire, he died of plague after a reign of only two years (Joseph Sermarini, FORVM;
http://www.forumancientcoins.com/catalog/roman-and-greek-coins.asp?vpar=741&pos=0#Recovery%20of%20the%20Empire%20Coins).

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
CIIGRICV214.jpg
[1114b] Claudius II Gothicus, September 268 - August or September 270 A.D.53 viewsBronze antoninianus, RIC V 214, VF, 2.930g, 20.3mm, 180o, Antioch mint; Obverse: IMP C CLAVDIVS AVG, radiate bust right; Reverse: NEPTVN AVG, Neptune standing left, dolphin in right, trident in left hand, • in exergue; excellent centering. Ex FORVM.


De Imperatoribus Romanis
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors

Claudius II Gothicus (268-270)

Richard D. Weigel
Western Kentucky University

M. Aurelius Claudius, known to history as Claudius Gothicus or Claudius II, was born in either Dalmatia or Illyria on May 10, probably in A.D. 213 or 214. Although the most substantive source on Claudius is the biography in the Scriptores Historiae Augustae (SHA), this account is riddled with fabrications and slanted with fawning praise for this particular emperor, who in the fourth century was viewed as an ancestor of Constantine's father and thus of the ruling imperial family. This biography, attributed to one Trebellius Pollio, must be read with extreme caution and supplemented with information from other sources, including Aurelius Victor, the Epitome de Caesaribus, Eutropius, Orosius, Zonaras, and Zosimus, as well as coins and inscriptions.

The SHA account describes Claudius as being tall, with fiery eyes, and so strong that he could knock out the teeth of man or beast with one punch. It also says that Trajan Decius rewarded him after Claudius demonstrated his strength while wrestling another soldier in the Campus Martius. The SHA author suggests that Claudius may have been descended from the Trojan King Ilus and even from Dardanus, son of Zeus and ancestor of the Trojan royal family, but these suggestions are very likely fabricated to further ennoble Claudius and his putative descendants, the family of Constantine. The SHA biography also includes false letters attributed to the emperors Trajan Decius, Valerian, and Gallienus, all attesting to their high opinions of Claudius. Reference is made in these letters to Claudius' service as tribune in an otherwise unattested legion V Martialis and also as general in command of Illyria, but these positions may also be fictitious. One can assume that Claudius had served for some time in the army, at least under Gallienus and perhaps also under several earlier emperors.

There is some evidence that Claudius was wounded in Gallienus' campaign to put down the revolt of Ingenuus and that he later served with Aureolus under Gallienus in the war with Postumus. By 268, when Gallienus took his troops into Italy to put down Aureolus' revolt, Claudius had emerged as heir-apparent to Gallienus and may also have been involved in the plot to assassinate the emperor. Aurelius Victor says that when Gallienus was killed by his own troops besieging Aureolus in Milan, Claudius as tribune was commanding the soldiers stationed at Ticinum, some twenty miles to the south, and that prior to dying Gallienus designated Claudius as his heir. Victor goes on to claim that after succeeding to the purple Claudius forced the Senate to deify Gallienus. The SHA account states that the soldiers mutinied after Gallienus' death and had to be quieted with a donative of twenty aurei each before settling down and accepting their new emperor. Once in power, Claudius quickly dealt with Aureolus, who surrendered and was killed almost immediately. The new emperor also demanded clemency for the supporters of Gallienus.

The story of Gallienus' deathbed selection of his successor is doubtful at best and is very likely an attempt to deflect blame for the assassination plot from Claudius. The suggestion that the new emperor pressured the Senate to deify Gallienus is more difficult to assess. It is true that securing divine status for one's predecessor is generally seen as a pious act (e.g. Antoninus Pius requesting deification of Hadrian) that reflects positively on the initiator and the story, recorded only in Aurelius Victor, could just be a fabrication used to build up Claudius' moral reputation. What is difficult to penetrate is the biased condemnation of Gallienus that particularly dominates the Latin sources. They make it hard to see why anyone would want to deify Gallienus and so the story seems out of place. However, deification of a predecessor could also be interpreted as the expected thing to do and the act could have fostered legitimacy of the new emperor and gained support from those who were still loyal to Gallienus so it may well have taken place.

The first major challenge facing the new emperor was that of the Alemanni, who had invaded Raetia and Italy. After an early defeat, Claudius replaced some irresponsible officers and soldiers, designated Aurelian as cavalry commander, and led the army to a decisive victory over the Alemanni. This victory earned Claudius the title of Germanicus Maximus and several of his coin-types appear to refer to victory over the Germans.

In 269 Claudius served as consul with Paternus. This year would also feature his major campaign against the Goths. There are indications that Spain separated itself from the Gallo-Roman Empire of Postumus and Tetricus and recognized Claudius, at least nominally, as emperor. In addition, rebellion within Gaul itself demonstrated the weakening of this independent state, although Claudius avoided engagement at Augustodunum and chose only to send a small force to protect Narbonese Gaul. While Claudius concentrated on protecting Roman territory against the Alemanni and Goths, Zenobia extended her Palmyrene Empire by taking Antioch, parts of Asia Minor, and most of Egypt. Although Eusebius and Sulpicius Severus portray the period between the reign of Valerian and that of Diocletian as a peaceful pause in the persecution of Christians, the Acts of the Martyrs does list some individuals allegedly martyred during Claudius II's reign.

The coins issued by Claudius II provide some limited insight into his reign. In addition to the standard "personified virtues" coins that are common with most emperors of the second and third centuries, Claudius struck coin-types proclaiming the security of the Empire (SECVRITAS PERPETVA and PAX AETERNA), the fidelity of the army (FIDES MILITVM), and military victories over the Germans and Goths (VICTORIA GERMAN and VICTORIAE GOTHIC). In addition, Claudius Gothicus' mints struck some other interesting and unusual coin-types. For example, Claudius is one of very few emperors who issued coins portraying the god Vulcan. These must have been limited issues because they are struck only by the Antioch mint and are very rare. The type shows Vulcan standing, with his special tools, the hammer and tongs, and features the unique inscription REGI ARTIS. A variant type with a similar image has been described as carrying another unique coin inscription, DEO CABIRO, and interpreted as depicting one of Vulcan's sons, the Cabiri, with the same tools. However, the existence of this variant type is doubtful. Although the reason for honoring Vulcan (and his sons?) with these coins is unclear, there may be a connection to the fact that the Cabiri were patron gods of Thessalonica who had protected that city against an attack by the Goths. Although a connection between Claudius Gothicus and the Cabiri as defenders against Gothic attacks is relatively attractive, it is weakened somewhat by the fact that Valerian and Gallienus had also issued coins with Vulcan in a temple so there may be some other reason for his reappearance on coins in this period.

Claudius II issued an unusual and scarce series of coins that features a pair of deities, who are presumably conservatores Augusti, on each reverse. The AETER AVG type depicts Apollo and Diana, who, as gods of the sun and moon, are associated with the concept of aeternitas. A type featuring Serapis and Isis is combined with a CONSER AVG inscription and one of Hercules and Minerva with one of CONSERVATORES AVG. Apollo and Diana are depicted with a SALVS AVG inscription, Aesculapius and Salus with one of SPES PVBLIC, and Vulcan and Minerva with VIRT AVG. The general message is that these deities will protect the future of the empire and the emperor.

Other unusual coin-types include MARS VLTOR, the god Augustus had honored with a temple for securing revenge for Caesar's assassination. This deity had appeared on Roman coins in the reigns of Galba and Severus Alexander. Claudius II also minted coins with rarely-seen NEPTVN AVG [see this reverse type in my collection] and SOL AVG types. The latter coin indicates some early interest in the god who would become so dominant a few years later on the coins of Aurelian, yet Claudius also used the INVICTVS AVG inscription that Gallienus had paired with an image of Sol with one of Hercules. ROMAE AETERNAE coin-types were fairly common in the mid-third century, but Claudius II issued an unusual variant type on an aureus that showed the goddess in her temple and echoed the SAECVLVM NOVVM images associated with Philip I. In addition, Claudius introduced a IOVI VICTORI reverse combined with the image normally paired with a IOVI STATORI inscription and a IOVI FVLGERAT reverse inscription, both of which had not been used by any of his predecessors. Andreas Alföldi suggested that Claudius' GENIVS SENATVS type signified improvement of the relationship between emperor and Senate following the senatorial hostility toward Gallienus.

Claudius Gothicus also produced coin-types with reverses of goddesses customarily found paired on coins with images of the Roman empresses. The deities portrayed include Ceres, Diana, Diana Lucifera, and Diana Victrix, Minerva, Venus, and the goddess naturally associated with the image of an empress, Juno Regina. One might suggest that Claudius issued these images because he had no empress with which to pair them, but an examination of other emperors' reigns during this period reveals that those emperors who did not issue coins bearing the empress' image also did not strike these particular goddess types. Although Ceres and Venus images are sometimes paired with an emperor's portrait, Diana Lucifera is rarely found on emperors' coins and Claudius II is the only emperor paired on coins with Juno Regina. In addition, Claudius was the first emperor to issue imperial coins that featured an isolated image of the exotic Egyptian goddess, Isis Faria.

Claudius II's short reign was vulnerable to internal as well as external attack. There may have been a revolt in 269-270 led by a Censorinus, although the date and even the existence of this usurper remain in doubt. The SHA includes him as the last of the "thirty tyrants" and lists a whole series of offices for him, including two consulships, but no other record exists to confirm such service. The SHA account states that he was proclaimed emperor by his soldiers, but soon afterwards killed by them because of his enforcement of strict discipline. His tomb is listed as being in Bologna, which may provide some idea of the location for the revolt. Henry Cohen dates the revolt to the beginning of the year 270, perhaps on the basis of a reference in the Epitome de Caesaribus, but suggests that coins attributed to Censorinus in earlier works may not exist.

The Gothic challenge in 269 proved to be the greatest that Claudius II would face. The Goths assembled a large invading force, reportedly amounting to 320,000 men transported on a fleet of at least 2,000 ships, and first attacked coastal cities along the Black Sea in Moesia. After passing into the Aegean the Goths besieged Thessalonica. At this point, in 269, Claudius left Rome to stop the invasion. The Goths then sent the larger segment of their troops on land toward the Danube, while the fleet took the remaining group to continue the naval attack on Aegean coastal cities. Claudius sent Aurelian's cavalry to Macedonia to protect Illyria from attack, while he commanded the forces blocking the route to the Danube. In the area of Doberus and Pelagonia, the Goths lost 3,000 men to Aurelian's cavalry. At Naissus in Moesia, Claudius' force succeeded in killing some 50,000 Goths. There were follow-up operations on both land and sea, but the Gothic War had essentially been won. Staving off the attacks of the Goths was a major contribution to the survival of the Roman Empire. It was a significant step leading to the subsequent success of Aurelian and the resurrection of the Empire under Diocletian and Constantine. When the Goths eventually succeeded in taking parts of the western Empire in the fifth century, their disruption to the course of civilization was likely much less violent than it would have been had they succeeded in the third century.

In addition to bad weather, a lack of supplies, and hunger, plague was a major factor in the defeat of the Goths. Many of the Gothic prisoners were either impressed into Roman military service or settled on farms as coloni. Claudius received the title Gothicus in recognition of his triumph over the Goths. At some point he had also been given the title Parthicus, but the unlikelihood of any conflict with the Parthians in his short reign makes this difficult to explain. Perhaps Damerau was correct in his suggestion that a Parthian unit may have been involved in one of the battles with the Palmyrenes, although on this front there were few achievements to claim. In any case, Claudius' victory over the Goths was short-lived. The emperor himself caught the plague and died at Sirmium early in 270. He was 56 years old. Claudius' brother, Quintillus, became emperor briefly before losing out to Aurelian. Claudius also had another brother, Crispus, and the SHA traces the link to Constantius through Crispus' daughter Claudia.

The Roman Senate showed its respect for Claudius Gothicus by setting up a gold portrait-shield in the Curia and by approving his deification. He was also honored with a golden statue in front of the great temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus and a silver statue set on a column on the Rostra.

In many ways, Claudius II received more adulation and honor in his Nachleben than he had during his lifetime. In the fourth century, attempts to link Constantine's family to Claudius resulted in the phrases of adoration and outright fabrication that dominate the SHA life and most of our other sources. Constantine even issued commemorative coins honoring Claudius. These carried inscriptions such as: DIVO CLAVDIO OPT[IMO] IMP[ERATORI], MEMORIAE AETERNAE, and REQVIES OPT[IMORVM] ME[RITORVM]. A tradition grew that changed the story of Claudius' death in some sources. In this version, Claudius, instead of dying from the plague, had actually performed a devotion, in response to an oracle found in the Sibylline Books, and sacrificed his life so that Rome could win the Gothic War. One of the most surprising things about the SHA account is that it ignores this more dramatic tradition and has Claudius simply dying from the plague.

One must, of course, reject the excessive claims of the SHA to the effect that Claudius II was "destined to rule for the good of the human race" and would, had he lived longer, "…by his strength, his counsel, and his foresight have restored to us the Scipios, the Camilli, and all those men of old." However, Claudius Gothicus was clearly a good emperor who made a significant contribution to protecting and restoring the Empire. In the third century there aren't too many emperors who merit such an assessment.

Copyright (C) 2001, Richard D. Weigel. Used by permission.
http://www.roman-emperors.org/claudgot.htm


Claudius II Gothicus was born in Illyricum around 215 A.D. Under Valerian and Gallienus he was recognized as a superb general. After the murder of Gallienus, Claudius Gothicus was proclaimed emperor and preceded to crush the Alemani tribe who had invaded Roman territory. Soon after an enormous horde of Goths poured into the empire. Against all advice, Claudius confronted the barbarians at Naissus in Upper Moesia. He fought a brilliant battle and annihilated them. Unfortunately for the empire, he died of plague after a reign of only two years (Joseph Sermarini, FORVM;
http://www.forumancientcoins.com/catalog/roman-and-greek-coins.asp?vpar=741&pos=0#Recovery%20of%20the%20Empire%20Coins).

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
ClaudiusIIGothicusRIC34.jpg
[1114c] Claudius II Gothicus, September 268 - August or September 270 A.D.51 viewsAntoninianus. RIC 34. Weight, Size. F. Rome mint. Obverse: IMP C CLAVDIVS AVG, Radiate, draped bust right; Reverse: FIDES EXERCI, Fides standing left, holding two standards. Ex Maridvnvm


De Imperatoribus Romanis
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors

Claudius II Gothicus (268-270)

Richard D. Weigel
Western Kentucky University

M. Aurelius Claudius, known to history as Claudius Gothicus or Claudius II, was born in either Dalmatia or Illyria on May 10, probably in A.D. 213 or 214. Although the most substantive source on Claudius is the biography in the Scriptores Historiae Augustae (SHA), this account is riddled with fabrications and slanted with fawning praise for this particular emperor, who in the fourth century was viewed as an ancestor of Constantine's father and thus of the ruling imperial family. This biography, attributed to one Trebellius Pollio, must be read with extreme caution and supplemented with information from other sources, including Aurelius Victor, the Epitome de Caesaribus, Eutropius, Orosius, Zonaras, and Zosimus, as well as coins and inscriptions.

The SHA account describes Claudius as being tall, with fiery eyes, and so strong that he could knock out the teeth of man or beast with one punch. It also says that Trajan Decius rewarded him after Claudius demonstrated his strength while wrestling another soldier in the Campus Martius. The SHA author suggests that Claudius may have been descended from the Trojan King Ilus and even from Dardanus, son of Zeus and ancestor of the Trojan royal family, but these suggestions are very likely fabricated to further ennoble Claudius and his putative descendants, the family of Constantine. The SHA biography also includes false letters attributed to the emperors Trajan Decius, Valerian, and Gallienus, all attesting to their high opinions of Claudius. Reference is made in these letters to Claudius' service as tribune in an otherwise unattested legion V Martialis and also as general in command of Illyria, but these positions may also be fictitious. One can assume that Claudius had served for some time in the army, at least under Gallienus and perhaps also under several earlier emperors.

There is some evidence that Claudius was wounded in Gallienus' campaign to put down the revolt of Ingenuus and that he later served with Aureolus under Gallienus in the war with Postumus. By 268, when Gallienus took his troops into Italy to put down Aureolus' revolt, Claudius had emerged as heir-apparent to Gallienus and may also have been involved in the plot to assassinate the emperor. Aurelius Victor says that when Gallienus was killed by his own troops besieging Aureolus in Milan, Claudius as tribune was commanding the soldiers stationed at Ticinum, some twenty miles to the south, and that prior to dying Gallienus designated Claudius as his heir. Victor goes on to claim that after succeeding to the purple Claudius forced the Senate to deify Gallienus. The SHA account states that the soldiers mutinied after Gallienus' death and had to be quieted with a donative of twenty aurei each before settling down and accepting their new emperor. Once in power, Claudius quickly dealt with Aureolus, who surrendered and was killed almost immediately. The new emperor also demanded clemency for the supporters of Gallienus.

The story of Gallienus' deathbed selection of his successor is doubtful at best and is very likely an attempt to deflect blame for the assassination plot from Claudius. The suggestion that the new emperor pressured the Senate to deify Gallienus is more difficult to assess. It is true that securing divine status for one's predecessor is generally seen as a pious act (e.g. Antoninus Pius requesting deification of Hadrian) that reflects positively on the initiator and the story, recorded only in Aurelius Victor, could just be a fabrication used to build up Claudius' moral reputation. What is difficult to penetrate is the biased condemnation of Gallienus that particularly dominates the Latin sources. They make it hard to see why anyone would want to deify Gallienus and so the story seems out of place. However, deification of a predecessor could also be interpreted as the expected thing to do and the act could have fostered legitimacy of the new emperor and gained support from those who were still loyal to Gallienus so it may well have taken place.

The first major challenge facing the new emperor was that of the Alemanni, who had invaded Raetia and Italy. After an early defeat, Claudius replaced some irresponsible officers and soldiers, designated Aurelian as cavalry commander, and led the army to a decisive victory over the Alemanni. This victory earned Claudius the title of Germanicus Maximus and several of his coin-types appear to refer to victory over the Germans.

In 269 Claudius served as consul with Paternus. This year would also feature his major campaign against the Goths. There are indications that Spain separated itself from the Gallo-Roman Empire of Postumus and Tetricus and recognized Claudius, at least nominally, as emperor. In addition, rebellion within Gaul itself demonstrated the weakening of this independent state, although Claudius avoided engagement at Augustodunum and chose only to send a small force to protect Narbonese Gaul. While Claudius concentrated on protecting Roman territory against the Alemanni and Goths, Zenobia extended her Palmyrene Empire by taking Antioch, parts of Asia Minor, and most of Egypt. Although Eusebius and Sulpicius Severus portray the period between the reign of Valerian and that of Diocletian as a peaceful pause in the persecution of Christians, the Acts of the Martyrs does list some individuals allegedly martyred during Claudius II's reign.

The coins issued by Claudius II provide some limited insight into his reign. In addition to the standard "personified virtues" coins that are common with most emperors of the second and third centuries, Claudius struck coin-types proclaiming the security of the Empire (SECVRITAS PERPETVA and PAX AETERNA), the fidelity of the army (FIDES MILITVM), and military victories over the Germans and Goths (VICTORIA GERMAN and VICTORIAE GOTHIC). In addition, Claudius Gothicus' mints struck some other interesting and unusual coin-types. For example, Claudius is one of very few emperors who issued coins portraying the god Vulcan. These must have been limited issues because they are struck only by the Antioch mint and are very rare. The type shows Vulcan standing, with his special tools, the hammer and tongs, and features the unique inscription REGI ARTIS. A variant type with a similar image has been described as carrying another unique coin inscription, DEO CABIRO, and interpreted as depicting one of Vulcan's sons, the Cabiri, with the same tools. However, the existence of this variant type is doubtful. Although the reason for honoring Vulcan (and his sons?) with these coins is unclear, there may be a connection to the fact that the Cabiri were patron gods of Thessalonica who had protected that city against an attack by the Goths. Although a connection between Claudius Gothicus and the Cabiri as defenders against Gothic attacks is relatively attractive, it is weakened somewhat by the fact that Valerian and Gallienus had also issued coins with Vulcan in a temple so there may be some other reason for his reappearance on coins in this period.

Claudius II issued an unusual and scarce series of coins that features a pair of deities, who are presumably conservatores Augusti, on each reverse. The AETER AVG type depicts Apollo and Diana, who, as gods of the sun and moon, are associated with the concept of aeternitas. A type featuring Serapis and Isis is combined with a CONSER AVG inscription and one of Hercules and Minerva with one of CONSERVATORES AVG. Apollo and Diana are depicted with a SALVS AVG inscription, Aesculapius and Salus with one of SPES PVBLIC, and Vulcan and Minerva with VIRT AVG. The general message is that these deities will protect the future of the empire and the emperor.

Other unusual coin-types include MARS VLTOR, the god Augustus had honored with a temple for securing revenge for Caesar's assassination. This deity had appeared on Roman coins in the reigns of Galba and Severus Alexander. Claudius II also minted coins with rarely-seen NEPTVN AVG [see this reverse type in my collection] and SOL AVG types. The latter coin indicates some early interest in the god who would become so dominant a few years later on the coins of Aurelian, yet Claudius also used the INVICTVS AVG inscription that Gallienus had paired with an image of Sol with one of Hercules. ROMAE AETERNAE coin-types were fairly common in the mid-third century, but Claudius II issued an unusual variant type on an aureus that showed the goddess in her temple and echoed the SAECVLVM NOVVM images associated with Philip I. In addition, Claudius introduced a IOVI VICTORI reverse combined with the image normally paired with a IOVI STATORI inscription and a IOVI FVLGERAT reverse inscription, both of which had not been used by any of his predecessors. Andreas Alföldi suggested that Claudius' GENIVS SENATVS type signified improvement of the relationship between emperor and Senate following the senatorial hostility toward Gallienus.

Claudius Gothicus also produced coin-types with reverses of goddesses customarily found paired on coins with images of the Roman empresses. The deities portrayed include Ceres, Diana, Diana Lucifera, and Diana Victrix, Minerva, Venus, and the goddess naturally associated with the image of an empress, Juno Regina. One might suggest that Claudius issued these images because he had no empress with which to pair them, but an examination of other emperors' reigns during this period reveals that those emperors who did not issue coins bearing the empress' image also did not strike these particular goddess types. Although Ceres and Venus images are sometimes paired with an emperor's portrait, Diana Lucifera is rarely found on emperors' coins and Claudius II is the only emperor paired on coins with Juno Regina. In addition, Claudius was the first emperor to issue imperial coins that featured an isolated image of the exotic Egyptian goddess, Isis Faria.

Claudius II's short reign was vulnerable to internal as well as external attack. There may have been a revolt in 269-270 led by a Censorinus, although the date and even the existence of this usurper remain in doubt. The SHA includes him as the last of the "thirty tyrants" and lists a whole series of offices for him, including two consulships, but no other record exists to confirm such service. The SHA account states that he was proclaimed emperor by his soldiers, but soon afterwards killed by them because of his enforcement of strict discipline. His tomb is listed as being in Bologna, which may provide some idea of the location for the revolt. Henry Cohen dates the revolt to the beginning of the year 270, perhaps on the basis of a reference in the Epitome de Caesaribus, but suggests that coins attributed to Censorinus in earlier works may not exist.

The Gothic challenge in 269 proved to be the greatest that Claudius II would face. The Goths assembled a large invading force, reportedly amounting to 320,000 men transported on a fleet of at least 2,000 ships, and first attacked coastal cities along the Black Sea in Moesia. After passing into the Aegean the Goths besieged Thessalonica. At this point, in 269, Claudius left Rome to stop the invasion. The Goths then sent the larger segment of their troops on land toward the Danube, while the fleet took the remaining group to continue the naval attack on Aegean coastal cities. Claudius sent Aurelian's cavalry to Macedonia to protect Illyria from attack, while he commanded the forces blocking the route to the Danube. In the area of Doberus and Pelagonia, the Goths lost 3,000 men to Aurelian's cavalry. At Naissus in Moesia, Claudius' force succeeded in killing some 50,000 Goths. There were follow-up operations on both land and sea, but the Gothic War had essentially been won. Staving off the attacks of the Goths was a major contribution to the survival of the Roman Empire. It was a significant step leading to the subsequent success of Aurelian and the resurrection of the Empire under Diocletian and Constantine. When the Goths eventually succeeded in taking parts of the western Empire in the fifth century, their disruption to the course of civilization was likely much less violent than it would have been had they succeeded in the third century.

In addition to bad weather, a lack of supplies, and hunger, plague was a major factor in the defeat of the Goths. Many of the Gothic prisoners were either impressed into Roman military service or settled on farms as coloni. Claudius received the title Gothicus in recognition of his triumph over the Goths. At some point he had also been given the title Parthicus, but the unlikelihood of any conflict with the Parthians in his short reign makes this difficult to explain. Perhaps Damerau was correct in his suggestion that a Parthian unit may have been involved in one of the battles with the Palmyrenes, although on this front there were few achievements to claim. In any case, Claudius' victory over the Goths was short-lived. The emperor himself caught the plague and died at Sirmium early in 270. He was 56 years old. Claudius' brother, Quintillus, became emperor briefly before losing out to Aurelian. Claudius also had another brother, Crispus, and the SHA traces the link to Constantius through Crispus' daughter Claudia.

The Roman Senate showed its respect for Claudius Gothicus by setting up a gold portrait-shield in the Curia and by approving his deification. He was also honored with a golden statue in front of the great temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus and a silver statue set on a column on the Rostra.

In many ways, Claudius II received more adulation and honor in his Nachleben than he had during his lifetime. In the fourth century, attempts to link Constantine's family to Claudius resulted in the phrases of adoration and outright fabrication that dominate the SHA life and most of our other sources. Constantine even issued commemorative coins honoring Claudius. These carried inscriptions such as: DIVO CLAVDIO OPT[IMO] IMP[ERATORI], MEMORIAE AETERNAE, and REQVIES OPT[IMORVM] ME[RITORVM]. A tradition grew that changed the story of Claudius' death in some sources. In this version, Claudius, instead of dying from the plague, had actually performed a devotion, in response to an oracle found in the Sibylline Books, and sacrificed his life so that Rome could win the Gothic War. One of the most surprising things about the SHA account is that it ignores this more dramatic tradition and has Claudius simply dying from the plague.

One must, of course, reject the excessive claims of the SHA to the effect that Claudius II was "destined to rule for the good of the human race" and would, had he lived longer, "…by his strength, his counsel, and his foresight have restored to us the Scipios, the Camilli, and all those men of old." However, Claudius Gothicus was clearly a good emperor who made a significant contribution to protecting and restoring the Empire. In the third century there aren't too many emperors who merit such an assessment.

Copyright (C) 2001, Richard D. Weigel. Used by permission.
http://www.roman-emperors.org/claudgot.htm


Claudius II Gothicus was born in Illyricum around 215 A.D. Under Valerian and Gallienus he was recognized as a superb general. After the murder of Gallienus, Claudius Gothicus was proclaimed emperor and preceded to crush the Alemani tribe who had invaded Roman territory. Soon after an enormous horde of Goths poured into the empire. Against all advice, Claudius confronted the barbarians at Naissus in Upper Moesia. He fought a brilliant battle and annihilated them. Unfortunately for the empire, he died of plague after a reign of only two years (Joseph Sermarini, FORVM;
http://www.forumancientcoins.com/catalog/roman-and-greek-coins.asp?vpar=741&pos=0#Recovery%20of%20the%20Empire%20Coins).

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
AntoninusPiusAequitasSear4053.jpg
[904a] Antoninus Pius, August 138 - 7 March 161 A.D.127 viewsAntoninus Pius, AD 138 to 161. Silver denarius. Sear-4053; gVF; Rome;16.4 x 17.9 mm, 3.61 g; issue of AD 138; Obverse : Head of Antoninus Pius right, with IMP T AEL CAES HADRI ANTONINVS around; Reverse : Aequitas standing left, holding scales and a cornucopiae, with AVG PIVS P M TR P COS DES II around. This is an interesting part of the Antoninus Pius series, struck in the first year of his reign, using his adoptive name of Hadrianus, and with the reverse inscription a continuation from the obverse.


De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Antoninus Pius (A.D. 138-161)

Richard D. Weigel
Western Kentucky University

Introduction
The long reign of the emperor Antoninus Pius is often described as a period of peace and quiet before the storm which followed and plagued his successor, Marcus Aurelius. In addition to the relative peacefulness, this emperor set the tone for a low-keyed imperial administration which differed markedly from those of his two immediate predecessors, Trajan and Hadrian. Antoninus managed to govern the empire capably and yet with such a gentle hand that he earned the respect, acclaim, and love of his subjects.

Early Life
The future emperor was born T. Aurelius Fulvus Boionius Arrius Antoninus on September 19, A.D. 86 at Lanuvium, an old Latin city southeast of Rome. His father's family had originally migrated to Rome from Nemausus (Nîmes) in Narbonese Gaul, but his paternal grandfather, T. Aurelius Fulvus, had served twice as Roman consul and also as city prefect and his father, Aurelius Fulvus, also held the consulship. The future emperor's mother was Arria Fadilla and her father, Arrius Antoninus, had also been consul twice. Young Antoninus was raised at Lorium, on the via Aurelia, where he later built a palace.

Career Under Hadrian
Very little is known about Antoninus' life before he became emperor. The brief biography in the Scriptores Historiae Augustae credited to Julius Capitolinus refers to his services as quaestor, praetor, and consul and P. von Rohden's entry in Pauly-Wissowa dates his tenure of these offices to A.D. 112, 117, and 120 respectively. At some point between A.D. 110 and 115, Antoninus married Annia Galeria Faustina, the daughter of M. Annius Verus. Hadrian later appointed Antoninus as one of his consular administrators of Italy and between A.D. 130 and 135 Antoninus served as proconsul of Asia.
Antoninus had achieved a distinguished career under Hadrian. and could have retired from imperial service with great pride, but events in A.D. 138 changed Antoninus' future quite radically. Early in the year, the death of Aelius Verus, whom Hadrian had previously adopted and named Caesar, opened a new path. Hadrian met with the Senate and announced his decision to adopt Antoninus as his son and heir and to share both proconsular and tribunician power with him. After giving this offer careful thought, Antoninus accepted and agreed in return to adopt as his heirs his wife's nephew, M. Antoninus, the future Marcus Aurelius, and L. Verus, the son of Aelius Verus.

Imperial Reign
When Hadrian died in the following summer, Antoninus oversaw the conveyance of his body from Baiae to Rome for interment in the new imperial tomb (now Castel Sant' Angelo). To honor his adoptive father, Antoninus set up a magnificent shield, established a priesthood, and, against serious opposition in the Senate, requested and bargained for senatorial confirmation of Hadrian's deification. Antoninus' devotion to Hadrian's memory is one of the reasons cited for the Senate's bestowal upon the new emperor of the name "pius". After initially refusing the Senate's recognition of Antoninus as "pater patriae", the new emperor accepted the honor with thanks. He declined, however, the Senate's decree authorizing the renaming of the months of September and October after the new emperor and empress. The Senate did honor the new empress with the title of "Augusta". On her death only a few years later in A.D. 141, the Senate deified Faustina and voted her a temple and priestesses. In memory of his wife, Antoninus also instituted an alimentary program, similar to those of his immediate predecessors, which combined loans to Italian farmers with funds, generated by interest on those loans, set aside for the care of orphaned girls. On coins these orphans are designated as puellae Faustinianae.

Antoninus returned all of Italy's share of the aurum coronarium, the money raised in honor of his accession, and one-half of that contributed from the provinces. His economic policy in general was relatively conservative and avoided luxurious waste while supporting public works of practical application. His procurators were told to keep provincial tribute reasonable and they were held accountable for exceeding fixed bounds. The provinces in general prospered under his administration and the use of informers was ended. Julius Capitolinus summarizes the excellence of Antoninus' administration when he says: "With such care did he govern all peoples under him that he looked after all things and all men as if they were his own." In spite of his caution in raising imperial revenues, however, Antoninus provided regular gifts of money to the people and to the soldiers and produced spectacular public games with a great variety of animals on display. The emperor also used his own funds to distribute oil, grain, and wine free in a time of famine and helped relieve the devastation caused in Rome by fire, flood, and a collapse of stands in the Circus Maximus and by fires and earthquakes in the provinces.

Although the reigns of his two immediate predecessors, Trajan and Hadrian, had seen prolific building activity in Rome and throughout the empire, Antoninus chose to be less lavish in his public works projects. He felt an obligation to complete work begun or promised by Hadrian. Antoninus completed the Mausoleum of Hadrian along the Tiber and built the temples of the Divine Hadrian in the Campus Martius and of Faustina in the Forum. He also restored the oldest bridge in Rome, the Pons Sublicius, the Graecostadium, and the Colosseum. He may even have put some finishing touches on the Pantheon because Julius Capitolinus mentions restoration of a templum Agrippae, but the text may be corrupt and the temple of the Divine Augustus, the restoration of which is recorded on some of Antoninus' coins, may be the intended reference here. Outside Rome, Antoninus repaired several roads and renovated ports in Alexandria, Caieta, and Terracina, a bath at Ostia, an aqueduct at Antium, and the temples in his birthplace, Lanuvium.

Although some sources suggest that Antoninus went in person to Egypt and Syria to put down a revolt of peoples along the Red Sea, Julius Capitolinus says that Antoninus made his home in Rome where he could receive messages from all parts of the empire equally quickly . He also states that to avoid burdening the provinces with the expenses of housing an emperor and his associates Antoninus took expeditions out of Rome only to his estates in Campania. If correct, these actions marked a decided break with the visibility of his two predecessors in the provinces and recreated a more Rome- and Italy-centered empire. Wilhelm Weber commented on this policy: "As if, perhaps, in criticism of Hadrian's conception of his task, he sat like a beneficent spider at the centre of his web, power radiating steadily from him to the farthest bounds of the empire and as steadily returning to him again. For the last time in Imperial history the Emperor was wholly one with Rome and its centralization."

During his third consulship (A.D. 140-144), Antoninus issued a series of unusual coins and medallions which featured entirely new or modified religious/mythological images. Jocelyn Toynbee correctly pointed out that these types were issued to prepare for the celebration of Rome's nine hundredth birthday in A.D. 147/148 and she also discussed two images which represent the emperor's reaction against Hadrian's "cosmopolitanism" and his attempt to restore Rome and Italy to a superior position over the provinces. This unusual series, issued especially in bronze, commemorated Rome's connection to her distant roots from Trojans, Latins, and Sabines and honored gods who had protected the city in the past. Themes associated with Aeneas, Romulus, Numa Pompilius, and Augustus by implication tied in Antoninus as successor to these four model Roman leaders. Although the death of Faustina may have motivated Antoninus' display of public piety to some degree on these coins and medallions, the series also set the tone for the games and rituals of the birthday celebration in 147/148, renewed religious values, and restored Rome's proper relationship with protective gods who had brought the city past success both in war and in peace. Another series of coins, the "anonymous quadrantes", combines a portrait of a god or goddess on the obverse with a reverse symbol of an animal associated with the same deity. The absence of an imperial portrait or any inscription aside from the S.C. authorization of the Senate makes it especially difficult to date this series. However, the similarity of the Jupiter and Venus portraits to images of Antoninus and Faustina and other links to Antoninus' coin-types make it probable that several of these types were issued in Antoninus' reign, perhaps again in connection with Rome's birthday celebration in A.D. 147/148.

Although Antoninus' reign was generally peaceful, Capitolinus says that he fought wars, through legates, against the Britons, Moors, Germans, Dacians, and the Alans and suppressed revolts in Achaea, in Egypt, and among the Jews. The war in Britain was fought around A.D. 142 against the Brigantes and led to the construction of the Antonine Wall across the island as a second line of defense north of Hadrian's Wall. In foreign relations, the emperor's authority was respected among peoples bordering on the empire. Antoninus approved the appointment of kings for the Armenians, for the Lazi, and for the Quadi and he successfully prevented a Parthian attack on Armenia by sending the Parthian king a letter of warning.

Antoninus did continue his predecessor's interest in law and his imperial legislation is cited frequently in Justinian's Digest. Several lawyers served in the emperor's consilium and presumably advised him on legal matters. Antoninus' legislation included protections for slaves, freedmen, and for illegitimate children and further defined family and inheritance law, including consideration of a daughter's wishes in marriage arrangements.

In preparation for the succession, Antoninus' daughter Faustina married Marcus Aurelius in A.D. 145 and she soon became Augusta in place of her deceased mother. Marcus Aurelius was associated in imperial powers and he and L. Verus both held the consulship multiple times in preparation for their accession. Antoninus made sure that he would leave the Empire secure and in sound financial condition and his adopted sons inherited a large surplus (reportedly 675 million denarii) in the Treasury .

Antoninus Pius died in March of A.D. 161, after giving the appropriate imperial watchword which so typified his reign, "equanimity". He was soon afterward deified by the Senate. His adopted sons and successors, Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus, erected a column of red granite in his honor in the Campus Martius. The marble base for this column, which is preserved in the Vatican, includes a sculpted image of the apotheosis of Antoninus and Faustina. In his Meditations, Marcus Aurelius expressed his enduring love and respect for his adoptive father: "Do all things as a disciple of Antoninus. Think of his constancy in every act rationally undertaken, his invariable equability, his piety, his serenity of countenance, his sweetness of disposition, his contempt for the bubble of fame, and his zeal for getting a true grasp of affairs." In many ways Antoninus Pius was a model emperor who justifiably earned comparison with his own model, Numa Pompilius, and provided the Empire with a period of fortune, religious piety, and security perhaps unmatched in imperial annals.

Copyright (C) 1998, Richard D. Weigel.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.



Cleisthenes
AntoPiusDenar.jpg
[904z] Antoninus Pius, August 138 - 7 March 161 A.D.143 viewsAntoninus Pius, August 138 - 7 March 161 A.D. Silver denarius, RIC 232, RSC 271, F, Rome, 1.699g, 17.3mm, 0o, 153 - 154 A.D. Obverse: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P XVII, laureate head right; Reverse: COS IIII, Fortuna standing right, cornucopia in left, long rudder on globe in right.


De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Antoninus Pius (A.D. 138-161)

Richard D. Weigel
Western Kentucky University

Introduction
The long reign of the emperor Antoninus Pius is often described as a period of peace and quiet before the storm which followed and plagued his successor, Marcus Aurelius. In addition to the relative peacefulness, this emperor set the tone for a low-keyed imperial administration which differed markedly from those of his two immediate predecessors, Trajan and Hadrian. Antoninus managed to govern the empire capably and yet with such a gentle hand that he earned the respect, acclaim, and love of his subjects.

Early Life
The future emperor was born T. Aurelius Fulvus Boionius Arrius Antoninus on September 19, A.D. 86 at Lanuvium, an old Latin city southeast of Rome. His father's family had originally migrated to Rome from Nemausus (Nîmes) in Narbonese Gaul, but his paternal grandfather, T. Aurelius Fulvus, had served twice as Roman consul and also as city prefect and his father, Aurelius Fulvus, also held the consulship. The future emperor's mother was Arria Fadilla and her father, Arrius Antoninus, had also been consul twice. Young Antoninus was raised at Lorium, on the via Aurelia, where he later built a palace.

Career Under Hadrian
Very little is known about Antoninus' life before he became emperor. The brief biography in the Scriptores Historiae Augustae credited to Julius Capitolinus refers to his services as quaestor, praetor, and consul and P. von Rohden's entry in Pauly-Wissowa dates his tenure of these offices to A.D. 112, 117, and 120 respectively. At some point between A.D. 110 and 115, Antoninus married Annia Galeria Faustina, the daughter of M. Annius Verus. Hadrian later appointed Antoninus as one of his consular administrators of Italy and between A.D. 130 and 135 Antoninus served as proconsul of Asia.
Antoninus had achieved a distinguished career under Hadrian. and could have retired from imperial service with great pride, but events in A.D. 138 changed Antoninus' future quite radically. Early in the year, the death of Aelius Verus, whom Hadrian had previously adopted and named Caesar, opened a new path. Hadrian met with the Senate and announced his decision to adopt Antoninus as his son and heir and to share both proconsular and tribunician power with him. After giving this offer careful thought, Antoninus accepted and agreed in return to adopt as his heirs his wife's nephew, M. Antoninus, the future Marcus Aurelius, and L. Verus, the son of Aelius Verus.

Imperial Reign
When Hadrian died in the following summer, Antoninus oversaw the conveyance of his body from Baiae to Rome for interment in the new imperial tomb (now Castel Sant' Angelo). To honor his adoptive father, Antoninus set up a magnificent shield, established a priesthood, and, against serious opposition in the Senate, requested and bargained for senatorial confirmation of Hadrian's deification. Antoninus' devotion to Hadrian's memory is one of the reasons cited for the Senate's bestowal upon the new emperor of the name "pius". After initially refusing the Senate's recognition of Antoninus as "pater patriae", the new emperor accepted the honor with thanks. He declined, however, the Senate's decree authorizing the renaming of the months of September and October after the new emperor and empress. The Senate did honor the new empress with the title of "Augusta". On her death only a few years later in A.D. 141, the Senate deified Faustina and voted her a temple and priestesses. In memory of his wife, Antoninus also instituted an alimentary program, similar to those of his immediate predecessors, which combined loans to Italian farmers with funds, generated by interest on those loans, set aside for the care of orphaned girls. On coins these orphans are designated as puellae Faustinianae.

Antoninus returned all of Italy's share of the aurum coronarium, the money raised in honor of his accession, and one-half of that contributed from the provinces. His economic policy in general was relatively conservative and avoided luxurious waste while supporting public works of practical application. His procurators were told to keep provincial tribute reasonable and they were held accountable for exceeding fixed bounds. The provinces in general prospered under his administration and the use of informers was ended. Julius Capitolinus summarizes the excellence of Antoninus' administration when he says: "With such care did he govern all peoples under him that he looked after all things and all men as if they were his own." In spite of his caution in raising imperial revenues, however, Antoninus provided regular gifts of money to the people and to the soldiers and produced spectacular public games with a great variety of animals on display. The emperor also used his own funds to distribute oil, grain, and wine free in a time of famine and helped relieve the devastation caused in Rome by fire, flood, and a collapse of stands in the Circus Maximus and by fires and earthquakes in the provinces.

Although the reigns of his two immediate predecessors, Trajan and Hadrian, had seen prolific building activity in Rome and throughout the empire, Antoninus chose to be less lavish in his public works projects. He felt an obligation to complete work begun or promised by Hadrian. Antoninus completed the Mausoleum of Hadrian along the Tiber and built the temples of the Divine Hadrian in the Campus Martius and of Faustina in the Forum. He also restored the oldest bridge in Rome, the Pons Sublicius, the Graecostadium, and the Colosseum. He may even have put some finishing touches on the Pantheon because Julius Capitolinus mentions restoration of a templum Agrippae, but the text may be corrupt and the temple of the Divine Augustus, the restoration of which is recorded on some of Antoninus' coins, may be the intended reference here. Outside Rome, Antoninus repaired several roads and renovated ports in Alexandria, Caieta, and Terracina, a bath at Ostia, an aqueduct at Antium, and the temples in his birthplace, Lanuvium.

Although some sources suggest that Antoninus went in person to Egypt and Syria to put down a revolt of peoples along the Red Sea, Julius Capitolinus says that Antoninus made his home in Rome where he could receive messages from all parts of the empire equally quickly . He also states that to avoid burdening the provinces with the expenses of housing an emperor and his associates Antoninus took expeditions out of Rome only to his estates in Campania. If correct, these actions marked a decided break with the visibility of his two predecessors in the provinces and recreated a more Rome- and Italy-centered empire. Wilhelm Weber commented on this policy: "As if, perhaps, in criticism of Hadrian's conception of his task, he sat like a beneficent spider at the centre of his web, power radiating steadily from him to the farthest bounds of the empire and as steadily returning to him again. For the last time in Imperial history the Emperor was wholly one with Rome and its centralization."

During his third consulship (A.D. 140-144), Antoninus issued a series of unusual coins and medallions which featured entirely new or modified religious/mythological images. Jocelyn Toynbee correctly pointed out that these types were issued to prepare for the celebration of Rome's nine hundredth birthday in A.D. 147/148 and she also discussed two images which represent the emperor's reaction against Hadrian's "cosmopolitanism" and his attempt to restore Rome and Italy to a superior position over the provinces. This unusual series, issued especially in bronze, commemorated Rome's connection to her distant roots from Trojans, Latins, and Sabines and honored gods who had protected the city in the past. Themes associated with Aeneas, Romulus, Numa Pompilius, and Augustus by implication tied in Antoninus as successor to these four model Roman leaders. Although the death of Faustina may have motivated Antoninus' display of public piety to some degree on these coins and medallions, the series also set the tone for the games and rituals of the birthday celebration in 147/148, renewed religious values, and restored Rome's proper relationship with protective gods who had brought the city past success both in war and in peace. Another series of coins, the "anonymous quadrantes", combines a portrait of a god or goddess on the obverse with a reverse symbol of an animal associated with the same deity. The absence of an imperial portrait or any inscription aside from the S.C. authorization of the Senate makes it especially difficult to date this series. However, the similarity of the Jupiter and Venus portraits to images of Antoninus and Faustina and other links to Antoninus' coin-types make it probable that several of these types were issued in Antoninus' reign, perhaps again in connection with Rome's birthday celebration in A.D. 147/148.

Although Antoninus' reign was generally peaceful, Capitolinus says that he fought wars, through legates, against the Britons, Moors, Germans, Dacians, and the Alans and suppressed revolts in Achaea, in Egypt, and among the Jews. The war in Britain was fought around A.D. 142 against the Brigantes and led to the construction of the Antonine Wall across the island as a second line of defense north of Hadrian's Wall. In foreign relations, the emperor's authority was respected among peoples bordering on the empire. Antoninus approved the appointment of kings for the Armenians, for the Lazi, and for the Quadi and he successfully prevented a Parthian attack on Armenia by sending the Parthian king a letter of warning.

Antoninus did continue his predecessor's interest in law and his imperial legislation is cited frequently in Justinian's Digest. Several lawyers served in the emperor's consilium and presumably advised him on legal matters. Antoninus' legislation included protections for slaves, freedmen, and for illegitimate children and further defined family and inheritance law, including consideration of a daughter's wishes in marriage arrangements.

In preparation for the succession, Antoninus' daughter Faustina married Marcus Aurelius in A.D. 145 and she soon became Augusta in place of her deceased mother. Marcus Aurelius was associated in imperial powers and he and L. Verus both held the consulship multiple times in preparation for their accession. Antoninus made sure that he would leave the Empire secure and in sound financial condition and his adopted sons inherited a large surplus (reportedly 675 million denarii) in the Treasury .

Antoninus Pius died in March of A.D. 161, after giving the appropriate imperial watchword which so typified his reign, "equanimity". He was soon afterward deified by the Senate. His adopted sons and successors, Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus, erected a column of red granite in his honor in the Campus Martius. The marble base for this column, which is preserved in the Vatican, includes a sculpted image of the apotheosis of Antoninus and Faustina. In his Meditations, Marcus Aurelius expressed his enduring love and respect for his adoptive father: "Do all things as a disciple of Antoninus. Think of his constancy in every act rationally undertaken, his invariable equability, his piety, his serenity of countenance, his sweetness of disposition, his contempt for the bubble of fame, and his zeal for getting a true grasp of affairs." In many ways Antoninus Pius was a model emperor who justifiably earned comparison with his own model, Numa Pompilius, and provided the Empire with a period of fortune, religious piety, and security perhaps unmatched in imperial annals.

Copyright (C) 1998, Richard D. Weigel.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
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