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Search results - "Jerusalem"
coin158.jpg
19 views11180. Bronze prutah, Hendin 661, Jerusalem mint,
year 2, 67-68 A.D.; obverse amphora with broad rim
and two handles, year 2 (in Hebrew) around; reverse
vine leaf on small branch, the freedom of Zion (in
Hebrew) around. Coin #158
cars100
artid975_combined.jpg
26 viewsJudaea, Procurators. Antonius Felix. 52-59 CE. in the name of Britannicus Caesar (BPIT).
Æ Prutah (16mm, 2.64 gm.). Jerusalem mint. Dated RY 14 of Claudius (54 CE). Two crossed shields / Palm tree.

Ref : Hendin 1348
Meshorer TJC 340
RPC I 4971
GIC 5626
R. Smits, Numismatist for Numismall
1__antiochus_IV__j_hyrcanus_I.jpg
Hendin-45186 viewsMinted under the joint authority of Antiochos VII and John Hyrcanus I
130/131 BCE
Struck as a transitional issue at the mint of Jerusalem
Called the earliest "Jewish" coin.
Obv- ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΥ ΕΥΕΡΓΕΤΟΥ
Seleucid anchor, upside down, date below
Rev- Lily,Symbol of Jerusalem and the Temple
Mint: Jerusalem
Meshorer: AJC 1,Supplement II,A2
1 commentsbrian l
VESPSE06-2.jpg
70 AD: Vespasian - Defeat of the Jewish revolt and fall of Jerusalem345 viewsSestertius (28.6g, 37mm, 6h). Roman mint. Struck AD 71.
IMP CAES VESPASIAN AVG PM TR P P COS III laureate head right
IVDAEA CAPTA / S C [in ex.] Judaea seated, in attidue of sorrow, at the foot of a palm tree; behind Vespasian standing in military dress holding spear and parazonium; left foot on a helmet.
RIC 427 (scarce); BMC 543; Cohen 239
1 commentsCharles S
Jannaeus_Pendant_1.jpg
Alexander Jannaeus Prutah Pendant32 viewsOBV:BAΣIΛEΩΣ AΛEΞANΔΡOΥ (of King Alexander),
around anchor
REV:star made of eight pellets surrounded by diadem
and possible inscription
Hendin 470, Meshorer TJC J11, Jerusalem mint
103 - 76 B.C.
Set in Silver Pendant
goldenancients
iersab.jpg
Kingdom of JERUSALEM. Struck during the siege of Jerusalem by Sibylla, Queen of Jerusalem and Balian of Ibelin in 1187 . Bi Denier .122 viewsKingdom of Jerusalem . Struck during the siege of Jerusalem by Sibylla, Queen of Jerusalem and Balian of Ibelin in 1187 . Bi Denier .
+ TVRRIS DAVIT (legend retrograde), Tower of David
+ SЄPVLChRVM DOMINI, view of the Church of the Holy Sepulcher
Slocum 288; cf. C.J. Sabine, “Numismatic iconography of the Tower of David and the Holy Sepulchre,” NC 1979, pl. 17, 3; N. du Quesne Bird, “Two deniers from Jerusalem, Jordan,” NumCirc LXXIII.5 (May 1965), p. 109; Metcalf, Crusades, p. 77; CCS 51.
Very Rare . Thirteen known example .
The Ernoul chronicle refers to Balian of Ibelin and the patriarch Heraclius of Jerusalem stripped the silver and gold edicule from the Church of the Holy Sepulcher for striking coins to pay those defending the city at it's last stand .
2 commentsVladislav D
Domitian_Horseback.jpg
RIC 0539 variant Domitian denarius70 viewsCAES AV DOMIT COS II
Laureate head right

Domitian on horse left; right hand raised, sceptre in left

Rome? 73 AD

3.34g

RIC 539 (R2) variant?: Missing G and F in legend.

Ex-Jerusalem Haydaya

Stylistically this coin resembles some others of this type but without the legend errors. The fabric is similar to those from Antioch. Is this an ancient imitation or perhaps an apprentice cut the legend? Or is it an unknown type from Antioch?
3 commentsJay GT4
Marcus-Antonius_AR-Den_LEG-XV_ANT-AVG-III__VIR_R_P_C__Crafw-544-30_Syd-1235_RSC-30_Q-001_5h_16,8-17mm_2,72g-s.jpg
001a Marc Antony ( 83-30 B.C.), Crawf 544-30, AR-denarius, LEG-XV, ANT AVG III VIR•R•P•C•, Praetorian galley right,129 views001a Marc Antony ( 83-30 B.C.), Crawf 544-30, AR-denarius, LEG-XV, ANT AVG III VIR•R•P•C•, Praetorian galley right,
avers:- LEG-XV, legionary eagle (aquila) between two standards.
revers:- ANT-AVG-III-VIR•R•P•C•, Praetorian galley sailing right, mast with banners at prow.
exerg: -/-//--, diameter: 16,8-17mm, weight: 2,72g, axes: 5h,
mint: Legionary Denarius, date: 32-31 B.C., ref: Crawford-544/30, Sydneham-1235, RSC-47,
Q-001
"Legion XV Apollinaris was raised by Caesar in Gallia Cisalpina in 53 BC. In the time of Augustus-Tiberius the legion was stationed in Ljubljana, then in Carnuntum and later in Alexandria and took part in the Jewish War and the capture of Jerusalem. In the 2nd and 3rd century the legion fought mainly in the East against the Parthians."
1 commentsquadrans
Antonius_Felix_procurator,_AE-16,_Prutah__Jerusalems_Israel_Palm_Hedin-652,_54_AD_Q-001_0h,_2,28_g_,_16_mm-s~0.jpg
012p Claudius-I (41-54 A.D.), Judaea, Antonius Felix Procurator, under Claudius, (52-60 A.D.), AE-16(Prutah), Hedin 652, BRIT, Six branched palm tree,93 views012p Claudius-I (41-54 A.D.), Judaea, Antonius Felix Procurator, under Claudius, (52-60 A.D.), AE-16(Prutah), Hedin 652, BRIT, Six branched palm tree,
avers:- NEPΩ KΛAV KAICP, Two crossed shields and spears.
revers:- BRIT, Six branched palm tree bearing two bunches of dates, L-IΔ, K-AI across field.
exerg: L/IΔ//K/AI, diameter: 16,0mm, weight: 2,28g, axes: 0h,
mint: Judaea, date: Dated Year of Claudius (Year 14 = 54 A.D.) ref: Hedin 652,
Q-001
quadrans
Vespasian-RIC-15.jpg
035. Vespasian.39 viewsDenarius, 69-71 AD, Rome mint.
Obverse: IMP CAESAR VESPASIANVS AVG / Laureate bust of Vespasian.
Reverse: IVDAEA / Jewish woman captive seated on ground, mourning; trophy behind her.
3.44 gm., 18 mm.
RIC #15; Sear #2296.

When the Jewish Revolt began in 66 AD, Nero appointed Vespasian supreme commander in the East to put down the uprising. In 69 AD Vespasian made his own bid for the throne and left his son Titus to finish up the Jewish War -- which he did in 70 AD by capturing Jerusalem and destroying the Temple. This victory of Vespasian and Titus was the major military event of the reign, and numerous coins were issued to commemorate it.
2 commentsCallimachus
HerodTJC59d.jpg
037 - 004 BC - Herod the Great - TJC 59d - Prutah36 viewsKing: Herod the Great (r. 37-4 BC)
Date: (37-4 BC)
Condition: aFine
Denomination: Prutah

Obverse: HΡΩΔ BAΣIΛ
King Herod
Anchor.

Reverse: no legend
Double cornucopiae with caduceus between horns, five pellets above.

Jerusalem mint
TJC 59d; Hendin 500
1.46g; 14.4mm; 180°
Pep
Bar-Kochba-Hendin-734.jpg
053. 2'nd Jewish (bar Kokhba) Revolt.16 viewsZuz (denarius), attributed to Year 3 (134-35 AD).
Obverse: (Shim'on) / Bunch of Grapes.
Reverse: (For the Freedom of Jerusalem) / Lyre with three strings.
3.19 gm., 18.5 mm.
Mildenberg #205.19 (this coin); Hendin #734.

This coin likely started out as a denarius of one of the Roman emperors between Vespasian and Hadrian. Many coins of the Second Jewish Revolt show traces of the earlier Roman coin. This coin is no exception, and traces of the previous coin can be seen on the obverse in and around the bunch of grapes.

The bunch of grapes on the obverse is an ancient symbol of blessing and fertility. As such it occasionally appears on ancient coins of other areas besides this series. Given the messianic nature of the Bar Kokhba revolt, the bunch of grapes takes on added significance because in Jewish prophetic literature, grapes (and the vine or vineyard) are often symbolic of the restoration of Israel, or even symbolic of Israel itself.

The lyre on the reverse is associated with temple worship, as are trumpets, which are also found on coins of the Bar Kokhba Revolt. King David is mentioned as playing a lyre, and there are numerous Biblical references to praising the Lord with the lyre and trumpets. (The word "kinnor," sometimes translated as "harp," is really a type of lyre.) Even today the lyre is an important Jewish symbol and the state of Israel has chosen to portray it on the half New Israeli Sheqel coin.
Callimachus
IMG_0134.JPG
1.0 Khusroe II69 viewsKhusroe II
Sassanian (Persian) Empire
Silver Dirhem
30 mm.

Khusroe II conquered Jerusalem from the Byzantine Empire, but soon lost it in a counter offensive by Emperor Heraclius.
Zam
islamicMENORAH.jpg
1.1 Islamic Menorah coin75 viewsIslamic Jerusalem
After 696 AD (possibly 715, comemorating the builing of the Al Aksa Mosque)

5 branched Menorah
fascinating coin. this possilby reflects the early Islamic attempts to place itself in a chain beginning with Judaism, being fulfilled with Islam. By portraying the Menorah of the Temple, the minters may be trying to connect the Islamic Jerusalem with the ancient Jerusalem of Solomon and the Temple, religiously justifying their administration of the city.
Zam
MENORAHrev.jpg
1.2 Islamic Menorah coin43 viewsIslamic Jerusalem
after 696 AD.

"Muhammed is Allah's Prophet"
Zam
crus_121[1].jpg
1.3 Crusader - Jerusalem106 viewsDenier of Amuary, King of Jerusalem from 1163 to 1174.
obv. AMALRICVS REX
cross, two pellets.
rev. DE IERVSALEM
Sun shining on the Church of the Holy Sepulchre. X through church, probably imprint from Cross on obverse.

hole in top, probably worn as jewlry around the neck, maybe as a Christian souvenir. Desert patina.
Zam
1189_-_1199_Richard_I_AR_Denier.JPG
1189 - 1199, RICHARD I (the lionheart), AR Denier minted at Melle, Poitou, France43 viewsObverse: +RICARDVS REX. Cross pattée within braided inner circle, all within braided outer circle.
Reverse: PIC / TAVIE / NSIS in three lines within braided circle.
Diameter: 20mm | Weight: 1.0gms | Die Axis: 2
SPINK: 8008 | Elias: 8

Poitou was an Anglo-Gallic province in what is now west-central France and its capital city was Poitiers, the mint at this time was however located at Melle. Melle was an active centre of minting during the early Middle Ages due to the important silver mines located under and around the city. This is the only coin issue struck during the reign of Richard I to bear his own name and titles as King of England.

Richard I was King of England from 1189 until his death on 6th April 1199. He also ruled several territories outwith England, and was styled as Duke of Normandy, Aquitaine and Gascony, Lord of Cyprus, Count of Poitiers, Anjou, Maine, and Nantes, as well as being overlord of Brittany at various times during the same period. He was the third of five sons of King Henry II of England and Duchess Eleanor of Aquitaine. He was known as Richard the Lionheart (Richard Cœur de Lion) because of his reputation as a great military leader and warrior when, at the age of 16 and commanding his own army, he had put down rebellions against his father in Poitou.
Richard was a commander during the Third Crusade, and led the campaign after the departure of Philip II of France. However, although he scored several notable victories against the Muslims led by Saladin, he failed to retake Jerusalem from them.
Although Richard was born in England and spent his childhood there before becoming king, he lived most of his adult life in the Duchy of Aquitaine. Following his accession, his life was mostly spent on Crusade, in captivity, or actively defending his lands in France. Rather than regarding England as a responsibility requiring his presence as ruler, he appears to have used it merely as a source of revenue to support his armies. Nevertheless, he was seen as a pious hero by his subjects and he remains one of the few kings of England who is remembered by his epithet rather than by his regnal number, and even today he is still an iconic figure in both England and France.
3 comments*Alex
12th_Century_Talmud_Rear.jpg
12th Century Handwritten Vellum Leaf of the Talmud13 viewsThis page of the Talmud predates publication of the first complete edition of the Talmud in 1540 by Daniel Bomberg. Bomberg employed rabbis, scholars, and apostates at his Venetian publishing house, and was responsible for the first Rabbinic Bible, as well as the first complete Babylonian and Jerusalem Talmuds. It was once customary for Jews to use old manuscripts as binding material for their newly printed and bound books. This piece is an example of that practice

Ex Living Torah Museum collection
Quant.Geek
12th_Century_Talmud_Front.jpg
12th Century Handwritten Vellum Leaf of the Talmud18 viewsThis page of the Talmud predates publication of the first complete edition of the Talmud in 1540 by Daniel Bomberg. Bomberg employed rabbis, scholars, and apostates at his Venetian publishing house, and was responsible for the first Rabbinic Bible, as well as the first complete Babylonian and Jerusalem Talmuds. It was once customary for Jews to use old manuscripts as binding material for their newly printed and bound books. This piece is an example of that practice

Ex Living Torah Museum collection
Quant.Geek
St.Helena.jpg
1401a, St. Helena, Augusta 8 November 324 - 328 to 330 A.D., mother of Constantine the Great96 viewsBronze AE 3, RIC 148, VF, Alexandria mint, 3.243g, 19.4mm, 165o, 327 - 328 A.D. Obverse: FL HELENA AVGVSTA, diademed and mantled bust right wearing double necklace; Reverse: SECVRITAS REIPVBLICE, Securitas holding branch downward in right and lifting fold of robe in left, wreath left, I right, SMAL in exergue; rare.

The mother of Constantine the Great, born about the middle of the third century, possibly in Drepanum (later known as Helenopolis) on the Nicomedian Gulf; died about 330. She was of humble parentage; St. Ambrose, in his "Oratio de obitu Theodosii", referred to her as a stabularia, or inn-keeper. Nevertheless, she became the lawful wife of Constantius Chlorus. Her first and only son, Constantine, was born in Naissus in Upper Moesia, in the year 274. The statement made by English chroniclers of the Middle Ages, according to which Helena was supposed to have been the daughter of a British prince, is entirely without historical foundation. It may arise from the misinterpretation of a term used in the fourth chapter of the panegyric on Constantine's marriage with Fausta, that Constantine, oriendo (i. e., "by his beginnings," "from the outset") had honoured Britain, which was taken as an allusion to his birth, whereas the reference was really to the beginning of his reign.

On the death of Constantius Chlorus, in 308, Constantine, who succeeded him, summoned his mother to the imperial court, conferred on her the title of Augusta, ordered that all honour should be paid her as the mother of the sovereign, and had coins struck bearing her effigy. Her son's influence caused her to embrace Christianity after his victory over Maxentius. This is directly attested by Eusebius (Vita Constantini, III, xlvii): "She (his mother) became under his (Constantine's) influence such a devout servant of God, that one might believe her to have been from her very childhood a disciple of the Redeemer of mankind". It is also clear from the declaration of the contemporary historian of the Church that Helena, from the time of her conversion had an earnestly Christian life and by her influence and liberality favoured the wider spread of Christianity. Tradition links her name with the building of Christian churches in the cities of the West, where the imperial court resided, notably at Rome and Trier, and there is no reason for rejecting this tradition, for we know positively through Eusebius that Helena erected churches on the hallowed spots of Palestine. Despite her advanced age she undertook a journey to Palestine when Constantine, through his victory over Licinius, had become sole master of the Roman Empire, subsequently, therefore, to the year 324. It was in Palestine, as we learn from Eusebius (loc. cit., xlii), that she had resolved to bring to God, the King of kings, the homage and tribute of her devotion. She lavished on that land her bounties and good deeds, she "explored it with remarkable discernment", and "visited it with the care and solicitude of the emperor himself". Then, when she "had shown due veneration to the footsteps of the Saviour", she had two churches erected for the worship of God: one was raised in Bethlehem near the Grotto of the Nativity, the other on the Mount of the Ascension, near Jerusalem. She also embellished the sacred grotto with rich ornaments. This sojourn in Jerusalem proved the starting-point of the legend first recorded by Rufinus as to the discovery of the Cross of Christ.

Constantine I, in 327, improved Drepanum, his mother's native town, and decreed that it should be called Helenopolis, it is probable that the latter returned from Palestine to her son who was then residing in the Orient. Constantine was with her when she died, at the advanced age of eighty years or thereabouts (Eusebius, "Vita Const.", III, xlvi). This must have been about the year 330, for the last coins which are known to have been stamped with her name bore this date. Her body was brought to Constantinople and laid to rest in the imperial vault of the church of the Apostles. It is presumed that her remains were transferred in 849 to the Abbey of Hautvillers, in the French Archdiocese of Reims, as recorded by the monk Altmann in his "Translatio". She was revered as a saint, and the veneration spread, early in the ninth century, even to Western countries. Her feast falls on 18 August.

(See The Catholic Encyclopedia: http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/07202b.htm)

Cleisthenes
14th_Century_Torah_Front.jpg
14th Century Handwritten Vellum Leaf of the Torah 18 viewsThis page of the Talmud predates publication of the first complete edition of the Talmud in 1540 by Daniel Bomberg. Bomberg employed rabbis, scholars, and apostates at his Venetian publishing house, and was responsible for the first Rabbinic Bible, as well as the first complete Babylonian and Jerusalem Talmuds. It was once customary for Jews to use old manuscripts as binding material for their newly printed and bound books. This piece is an example of that practice.

Ex Living Torah Museum collection
Quant.Geek
Saladin_A788.jpg
1701a, Saladin, 1169-11932042 viewsAYYUBID: Saladin, 1169-1193, AR dirham (2.92g), Halab, AH580, A-788, lovely struck, well-centered & bold, Extremely Fine, Scarce.

His name in Arabic, in full, is SALAH AD-DIN YUSUF IBN AYYUB ("Righteousness of the Faith, Joseph, Son of Job"), also called AL-MALIK AN-NASIR SALAH AD-DIN YUSUF I (b. 1137/38, Tikrit, Mesopotamia--d. March 4, 1193, Damascus), Muslim sultan of Egypt, Syria, Yemen, and Palestine, founder of the Ayyubid dynasty, and the most famous of Muslim heroes.

In wars against the Christian crusaders, he achieved final success with the disciplined capture of Jerusalem (Oct. 2, 1187), ending its 88-year occupation by the Franks. The great Christian counterattack of the Third Crusade was then stalemated by Saladin's military genius.

Saladin was born into a prominent Kurdish family. On the night of his birth, his father, Najm ad-Din Ayyub, gathered his family and moved to Aleppo, there entering the service of 'Imad ad-Din Zangi ibn Aq Sonqur, the powerful Turkish governor in northern Syria. Growing up in Ba'lbek and Damascus, Saladin was apparently an undistinguished youth, with a greater taste for religious studies than military training.
His formal career began when he joined the staff of his uncle Asad ad-Din Shirkuh, an important military commander under the amir Nureddin, son and successor of Zangi. During three military expeditions led by Shirkuh into Egypt to prevent its falling to the Latin-Christian (Frankish) rulers of the states established by the First Crusade, a complex, three-way struggle developed between Amalric I, the Latin king of Jerusalem, Shawar, the powerful vizier of the Egyptian Fatimid caliph, and Shirkuh. After Shirkuh's death and after ordering Shawar's assassination, Saladin, in 1169 at the age of 31, was appointed both commander of the Syrian troops and vizier of Egypt.

His relatively quick rise to power must be attributed not only to the clannish nepotism of his Kurdish family but also to his own emerging talents. As vizier of Egypt, he received the title king (malik), although he was generally known as the sultan. Saladin's position was further enhanced when, in 1171, he abolished the Shi'i Fatimid caliphate, proclaimed a return to Sunnah in Egypt, and consequently became its sole ruler.

Although he remained for a time theoretically a vassal of Nureddin, that relationship ended with the Syrian emir's death in 1174. Using his rich agricultural possessions in Egypt as a financial base, Saladin soon moved into Syria with a small but strictly disciplined army to claim the regency on behalf of the young son of his former suzerain.
Soon, however, he abandoned this claim, and from 1174 until 1186 he zealously pursued a goal of uniting, under his own standard, all the Muslim territories of Syria, northern Mesopotamia, Palestine, and Egypt.

This he accomplished by skillful diplomacy backed when necessary by the swift and resolute use of military force. Gradually, his reputation grew as a generous and virtuous but firm ruler, devoid of pretense, licentiousness, and cruelty. In contrast to the bitter dissension and intense rivalry that had up to then hampered the Muslims in their resistance to the crusaders, Saladin's singleness of purpose induced them to rearm both physically and spiritually.

Saladin's every act was inspired by an intense and unwavering devotion to the idea of jihad ("holy war")-the Muslim equivalent of the Christian crusade. It was an essential part of his policy to encourage the growth and spread of Muslim religious institutions.

He courted its scholars and preachers, founded colleges and mosques for their use, and commissioned them to write edifying works especially on the jihad itself. Through moral regeneration, which was a genuine part of his own way of life, he tried to re-create in his own realm some of the same zeal and enthusiasm that had proved so valuable to the first generations of Muslims when, five centuries before, they had conquered half the known world.

Saladin also succeeded in turning the military balance of power in his favour-more by uniting and disciplining a great number of unruly forces than by employing new or improved military techniques. When at last, in 1187, he was able to throw his full strength into the struggle with the Latin crusader kingdoms, his armies were their equals. On July 4, 1187, aided by his own military good sense and by a phenomenal lack of it on the part of his enemy, Saladin trapped and destroyed in one blow an exhausted and thirst-crazed army of crusaders at Hattin, near Tiberias in northern Palestine.

So great were the losses in the ranks of the crusaders in this one battle that the Muslims were quickly able to overrun nearly the entire Kingdom of Jerusalem. Acre, Toron, Beirut, Sidon, Nazareth, Caesarea, Nabulus, Jaffa (Yafo), and Ascalon (Ashqelon) fell within three months.

But Saladin's crowning achievement and the most disastrous blow to the whole crusading movement came on Oct. 2, 1187, when Jerusalem, holy to both Muslim and Christian alike, surrendered to the Sultan's army after 88 years in the hands of the Franks. In stark contrast to the city's conquest by the Christians, when blood flowed freely during the barbaric slaughter of its inhabitants, the Muslim reconquest was marked by the civilized and courteous behaviour of Saladin and his troops. His sudden success, which in 1189 saw the crusaders reduced to the occupation of only three cities, was, however, marred by his failure to capture Tyre, an almost impregnable coastal fortress to which the scattered Christian survivors of the recent battles flocked. It was to be the rallying point of the Latin counterattack.

Most probably, Saladin did not anticipate the European reaction to his capture of Jerusalem, an event that deeply shocked the West and to which it responded with a new call for a crusade. In addition to many great nobles and famous knights, this crusade, the third, brought the kings of three countries into the struggle.

The magnitude of the Christian effort and the lasting impression it made on contemporaries gave the name of Saladin, as their gallant and chivalrous enemy, an added lustre that his military victories alone could never confer on him.

The Crusade itself was long and exhausting, and, despite the obvious, though at times impulsive, military genius of Richard I the Lion-Heart, it achieved almost nothing. Therein lies the greatest-but often unrecognized--achievement of Saladin. With tired and unwilling feudal levies, committed to fight only a limited season each year, his indomitable will enabled him to fight the greatest champions of Christendom to a draw. The crusaders retained little more than a precarious foothold on the Levantine coast, and when King Richard set sail from the Orient in October 1192, the battle was over.

Saladin withdrew to his capital at Damascus. Soon, the long campaigning seasons and the endless hours in the saddle caught up with him, and he died. While his relatives were already scrambling for pieces of the empire, his friends found that the most powerful and most generous ruler in the Muslim world had not left enough money to pay for his own grave.

BIBLIOGRAPHY
H.A.R. Gibb, "The Arabic Sources for the Life of Saladin," Speculum, 25:58-72 (1950). C.W. Wilson's English translation of one of the most important Arabic works, The Life of Saladin (1897), was reprinted in 1971. The best biography to date is Stanley Lane-Poole, Saladin and the Fall of the Kingdom of Jerusalem, new ed. (1926, reprinted 1964), although it does not take account of all the sources.
See: http://stp.ling.uu.se/~kamalk/language/saladin.html
Ed. J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
1 commentsCleisthenes
Saladin_A787.jpg
1701b, Saladin, 1169-1193157 viewsAYYUBID: Saladin, 1169-1193, AR dirham (2.93), al-Qahira, AH586, A-787.2, clear mint & date, double struck, some horn-silvering;VF-EF.

His name in Arabic is SALAH AD-DIN YUSUF IBN AYYUB ("Righteousness of the Faith, Joseph, Son of Job"). He was born in 1137/8 A.D. in Tikrit, Mesopotamia (modern day Iraq). In wars against the Christian crusaders, he achieved a significant success with the disciplined capture of Jerusalem (Oct. 2, 1187), ending its 88-year occupation by the Franks. Unlike the notorious conquest by the Christians, who slaughtered the inhabitants of the “Holy City,” Saladin’s reconquest of Jerusalem was marked by civilized and courteous behaviour. Saladin was generous to his vanquished foes—by any measure. When he died in 1193, this man who is arguably Islam’s greatest hero was virtually penniless. After a lifetime of giving alms to the poor, his friends found that the most powerful and most generous ruler in the Muslim world had not left enough money to pay for his own grave.
Cleisthenes
Elizabeth_2_50_Pence_1989.JPG
1989 ELIZABETH II DECIMAL CuNi LARGE FIFTY PENCE6 viewsObverse: ELIZABETH II D.G.REG.F.D.1989. Diademed bust of Elizabeth II facing right.
Reverse: FIFTY PENCE. Britannia seated facing right, left hand holding laurel branch, right holding trident and resting on shield; recumbent lion behind at her feet; 50 in exergue.
Proof issue struck from polished dies with frosted highlights.
Diameter 30mm | Weight 13.5gms
SPINK: 4351 PROOF (Large module)

This "Third Portrait" of Elizabeth II was Raphael Maklouf's first coin design and it was used on the coinage from 1985 to 1997 inclusive. Raphael Maklouf was born in Jerusalem in 1937 and came to the United Kingdom after the Second World War. The Royal diadem which the Queen is shown wearing on this coin is the one she wears on her way to and from the State Opening of Parliament.
*Alex
Elizabeth_2_50_Pence_1997.JPG
1997 ELIZABETH II DECIMAL CuNi SMALL FIFTY PENCE6 viewsObverse: ELIZABETH II D.G.REG.F.D.1997. Diademed bust of Elizabeth II facing right.
Reverse: FIFTY PENCE. Britannia seated facing right, left hand holding laurel branch, right holding trident and resting on shield; recumbent lion behind at her feet; 50 in exergue.
Proof issue struck from polished dies with frosted highlights.
Diameter 27.3mm | Weight 8.0gms
SPINK: 4351 PROOF (Small module)

This "Third Portrait" of Elizabeth II was Raphael Maklouf's first coin design and it was used on the coinage from 1985 to 1997 inclusive. Raphael Maklouf was born in Jerusalem in 1937 and came to the United Kingdom after the Second World War. The Royal diadem which the Queen is shown wearing on this coin is the one she wears on her way to and from the State Opening of Parliament.
*Alex
APlautiusDenJudea.jpg
1ab Conquest of Judea11 viewsA. Plautius, moneyer
c. 54 BC

Denarius

Turreted head of Cybele, A PLAVTIVS before, AED CVR SC behind
Bacchius kneels right with camel at his side, extending olive branch, BACCHIVS in ex., IVDAEVS in right

Seaby, Plautia 13

The reverse appears to Pompey's conquest of Judaea in 63 BC.

Josephus recorded of Pompey's conquest of Jerusalem: And when he was come to the city, he looked about where he might make his attack; for he saw the walls were so firm, that it would be hard to overcome them; and that the valley before the walls was terrible; and that the temple, which was within that valley, was itself encompassed with a very strong wall, insomuch that if the city were taken, that temple would be a second place of refuge for the enemy to retire to. . . . Aristobulus's party was worsted, and retired into the temple, and cut off the communication between the temple and the city, by breaking down the bridge that joined them together, and prepared to make an opposition to the utmost; but as the others had received the Romans into the city, and had delivered up the palace to him, Pompey sent Piso, one of his great officers, into that palace with an army, who distributed a garrison about the city, because he could not persuade any one of those that had fled to the temple to come to terms of accommodation; he then disposed all things that were round about them so as might favor their attacks, as having Hyrcanus's party very ready to afford them both counsel and assistance. . . . But Pompey himself filled up the ditch that was oil the north side of the temple, and the entire valley also, the army itself being obliged to carry the materials for that purpose. And indeed it was a hard thing to fill up that valley, by reason of its immense depth, especially as the Jews used all the means possible to repel them from their superior situation; nor had the Romans succeeded in their endeavors, had not Pompey taken notice of the seventh days, on which the Jews abstain from all sorts of work on a religious account, and raised his bank, but restrained his soldiers from fighting on those days; for the Jews only acted defensively on sabbath days.
Blindado
TitusProv.jpg
1ax Titus96 views79-81

AE, Ankyra, Galatia
Laureate head, right AY KAICAP TITOC CEBASTO. . .
Man standing, left, SEBASTHNWN TEKTOSAGWN

RPC 1620

By Suetonius' account: Titus, surnamed Vespasianus like his father, possessed such an aptitude, by nature, nurture, or good fortune, for winning affection that he was loved and adored by all the world as Emperor. . . . He was born on the 30th of December AD41, the very year of Caligula’s assassination, in a little dingy room of a humble dwelling, near the Septizonium. . . .

He was handsome, graceful, and dignified, and of exceptional strength, though of no great height and rather full-bellied. He had an extraordinary memory, and an aptitude for virtually all the arts of war and peace, being a fine horseman, skilled in the use of weapons, yet penning impromptu verses in Greek and Latin with equal readiness and facility. He had a grasp of music too, singing well and playing the harp pleasantly and with ability. . . .

As military tribune in Germany (c57-59AD) and Britain (c60-62), he won an excellent reputation for energy and integrity, as is shown by the large number of inscribed statues and busts of him found in both countries. . . . When his quaestorship ended, he commanded one of his father’s legions in Judaea, capturing the strongholds of Tarichaeae and Gamala (67AD). His horse was killed under him in battle, but he mounted that of a comrade who fell fighting at his side. . . . [Upon] Vespasian’s accession, his father left him to complete the conquest of Judaea, and in the final assault on Jerusalem (70AD) Titus killed twelve of the defenders with as many arrows. . . .

From then on, he acted as his father’s colleague and even protector. He shared in his Judaean triumph (of AD 71), the censorship (AD 73), the exercise of tribunicial power, and in seven of his consulships (AD 70, 72, 74-77, 79). . . .

He died at the same villa as his father, Vespasian, on the 13th of September AD81, at the age of forty-one, after a reign of two years, two months, and twenty days. The people mourned his loss as if he were a member of their own family.
2 commentsBlindado
J15M-Eighth shekel.jpg
1st Jewish War, Æ Eighth Shekel, 66-70 CE298 viewsBronze Eighth Shekel of 20 mm, 2.5 gr, of the 1st Jewish war against Rome, Year 4 (69/70 CE).

During the fourth year of the Jewish War, the Romans had besieged the Jews in Jerusalem. There was a shortage of materials, and hence for the first time, fractions of the shekel were minted in bronze. These are among the earliest examples of "siege money."

Obverse: Omer Chalice with pearled rim and Hebrew inscription around לגאלת ציון 'To the Redemption of Zion'.
Reverse: Lulav flanked by an Etrog on either side surrounded by Hebrew inscription שנת ארבע ‘year four'

Reference: Hendin 670 TJC 214, AJC II, 30.

Added to collection: January 8, 2006
1 commentsDaniel Friedman
Jewish War, year II.jpg
2. Jewish War, year II79 views67 CE, Hendin 661a, irregular issue
"Shnat Shtayim" – year two
"harot tsion" – the freedom of Zion

Even though it is engraved with "Year Two" on the obverse, this coin may have been minted in Year Three under rebel detatchments outside of Jerusalem. The poor quality of the coin shows that it was probably not minted in the Jerusalem mint. One hypothesis is that it was minted by Simon Bar Giora in year three, while he reconquered Southern Judaea.
1 commentsZam
jbk107.jpg
3.0 Bar Kokhba small bronze, year 3 (134-135 CE)172 viewsBar Kokhba rebellion (second Jewish Revolt against Rome)
Year 3 (134-135 CE)
small bronze (19.5 mm)
VF+/VF
Hendin 739

obv. seven branched palm tree, symbolizing Judaea (like Menorah?)
SHIMON (Simon [Bar Kokhba]) in field below tree
rev. Bunch of grapes L'CHAROT YERUSHALAYIM (For the Freedom of Jerusalem) around
5 commentsZam
127_P_Hadrian__Rouvier_532.jpg
3855 PHOENICIA Berytus Hadrian 128-138 AD two legionary Aquilae 26 viewsReference.
RPC III, 3855; Rouvier 532; SNG Cop 101; BMC Phoenicia 99 (p. 66)

Obv. IMP CAES TRAI HADRIANVS AVG P P
Laureate and draped bust right.

Rev. COL / BER
Two legionary aquilae (eagles) flanking inscription in two lines, all within laurel wreath, pellet between eagles.

4.99 gr
20 mm
die axis 0o

Note.
Named for the daughter of Augustus, Colonia Iulia Augusta Felix Berytus was founded in 14 B.C. with veterans of the 5th and 8th legions. Herod the Great, Herod Agrippa I, and Herod Agrippa II built sumptuous monuments and sponsored gladiatorial combats at Berytos. After the siege of Jerusalem, Titus gave gladiatorial games at Berytos, in which the combatants were Jews.

ex.
FORVM
okidoki
0001SOS.jpg
4) Antony: Sosius49 viewsGAIUS SOSIUS
General to Antony
Æ 26mm (14.5 g). ~ 38 BC.
Cilicia, Uncertain Mint.

Bare head right / Fiscus, sella, quaestoria and hasta; Q below.

Coin has been attributed to multiple rulers, including Julius Caesar, Augustus and Brutus. Now believed to be Sosius, General to Antony and Governor of Syria.

RPC I 5409; Laffaille 324; Grant, FITA, pg. 13. aFine, brown patina, scratches. Rare.
0001SOS


Sosius was wily and accomplished man. A talented general, he received a triumph. However, he consistently picked the wrong side in Rome's Civil Wars (Senate vs. Caesar, then Antony vs. Octavian) yet somehow managed to keep his head.

According to Wikipedia:

Gaius Sosius was a Roman general and politician.

Gaius Sosius was elected quaestor in 66 BC and praetor in 49 BC. Upon the start of the civil war, he joined the party of the Senate and Pompey. Upon the flight of Pompey to Greece, Sosius returned to Rome and submitted to Julius Caesar.

After the assassination of Caesar, Sosius joined the party of Mark Antony, by whom in 38 BC he was appointed governor of Syria and Cilicia in the place of Publius Ventidius. As governor, Sosius was commanded by Antony to support Herod against Antigonus the Hasmonean, when the latter was in possession of Jerusalem. In 37 BC, he advanced against Jerusalem and after he became master of the city, Sosius placed Herod upon the throne. In return for this services, he was awarded a triumph in 34 BC, and he became consul along with Gnaeus Domitius Ahenobarbus as his colleague in 32 BC.

When civil war broke out between Antony and Octavian, Sosius espoused the cause of Antony and violently attacked Octavian in the senate, for which he was forced to flee to the east. In 31 BC, Sosius commanded a squadron in Mark Antony's fleet with which he managed to defeat the squadron of Taurius Rufus – according to Dio 50.14 – and put it to flight, but when the latter was reinforced by Marcus Agrippa, Sosius's ally Tarcondimotus – the king of Cilicia – was killed and Sosius himself was forced to flee. At Actium, Sosius commanded the left wing of Antony's fleet. After the battle, from which he managed to escape, his hiding place was detected and Sosius was captured and brought before Octavian but, at the intercession of Lucius Arruntius, Octavian pardoned him. He returned to Rome and completed his building project on the temple of Apollo Medicus (begun in 34 BC), dedicating it in Octavian's name.

Unknown sons, but two daughters : Sosia and Sosia Galla, possibly by an Asinia,[1] a Nonia or an Aelia. However the name reappears with Q. Sosius Senecio, (consul in 99 and 107).[2] and Saint Sosius (275-305 AD).

Sosius attended the Ludi Saeculares in 17 according to an inscription CIL 6.32323 = ILS 5050 as a quindecimvir.
RM0002
4 commentsSosius
07_1.jpg
4.1 Aelia Capitolina (Roman Jerusalem)49 viewsAntoninus Pius
Aelia Capitolina (Jerusalem) city coin
Sear 1526, Meshorer 12

obv. IMP CAE ANTONINVS AVG P PP
laureate Antoninus Pius
Zam
ag_1.jpg
4.2 Aelia Capitolina (Roman Jerusalem)68 viewsAntoninus Pius
Aelia Capitolina (Jerusalem) city coin

rev. M AVRELIVS CAESAR C A C
young Marcus Aurelius, bare head, Caesar
Zam
s49.JPG
516. Honorius45 viewsFlavius Honorius (September 9, 384–August 15, 423) was Emperor of the Western Roman Empire from 395 until his death. He was the younger son of Theodosius I and his first wife Aelia Flaccilla, and brother of the Eastern emperor Arcadius.

Honorius was declared Augustus in 393 by his father and became western emperor at the age of 10, following his father's death in January 395. For the first part of his reign he depended on the military leadership of the Vandal general Stilicho. To strengthen his bonds to the young emperor, Stilicho married his daughter Maria to him.

At first Honorius based his capital in Milan, but when the Visigoths entered Italy in 402 he moved his capital to the coastal city of Ravenna, which was protected by a ring of marshes and strong fortifications. While the new capital was easier to defend, it was poorly situated to allow Roman forces to protect central Italy from the barbarian incursions.

The most notable event of his reign was the assault and sack of Rome on August 24, 410 by the Visigoths under Alaric.

The city had been under Visigothic siege since shortly after Stilicho's deposition and execution in the summer of 408. Lacking a strong general to control the by-now mostly barbarian Roman Army, Honorius could do little to attack Alaric's forces directly, and apparently adopted the only strategy he could do in the situation: wait passively to Visigoths to grow weary and spend the time marshalling what forces he could. Unfortunately, this course of action appeared to be the product of Honorius' indecisive character and he suffered much criticism for it both from contemporaries and later historians.

Whether this plan could have worked is perhaps debatable, especially since he deprived himself of several skillful officers by only promoting Catholics to the top military positions. In any case it was overtaken by events. Stricken by starvation, somebody opened Rome's defenses to Alaric and the Goths poured in. The city had not been under the control of a foreign force since an invasion of Gallic Celts some seven centuries before. The victorious Visigoths did untold damage to the city and the shock of this event reverberated from Britain to Jerusalem, and inspired Augustine to write his magnum opus, The City of God.

The year 410 also saw Honorius reply to a British plea for assistance against local barbarian incursions. Preoccupied with the Visigoths and lacking any real capabilities to assist the distant province, Honorius told the Britons to defend themselves as best they could.

There is a story (which Gibbon disbelieved) that when he heard the news that Rome had "perished", Honorius was initially shocked; thinking the news was in reference to a favorite chicken he had named "Roma", he recalled in disbelief that the bird was just recently feeding out of his hand. It was then explained to him that the Rome in question was the city.

His reign of twenty-eight years was one of the most disastrous in the Roman annals. Honorius' supposed weakness and timidity in the face of internal dissension and the attacks of the Visigoths and Vandals is often said to have contributed to the rapid disintegration of the western half of the empire.



RIC X Antioch 153
ecoli
titus den-.jpg
69-79 AD - TITUS (Caesar) AR denarius - struck 72 AD40 viewsobv: T CAES IMP VESP PON TR POT (laureate head right)
rev: NEP RED (Neptune standing right, foot on globe, holding acrostolium & scepter)
ref: RIC II 155 (Vespasian), C.121 (3frcs)
mint: Rome
3.00gms, 17mm

The reverse of this coin celebrates the return of Titus from Jerusalem with a depiction of Neptune, god of the sea, characterized in the coin's legend as the Returner. He holds his usual attributes, a trident (here scepter) and an acrostolium or bow ornament of a ship.
berserker
vespa judea capta.jpg
69-79 AD - VESPASIAN - AE dupondius - struck 71 AD44 viewsobv: IMP CAES VESPASIAN AVG C[OS ?] (radiate head right)
rev: [IVDEA.CAPTA] / S.C. (mourning Jew captive seated right under palm tree)
ref: RIC - , C.-
12.22gms, 25mm
Rare, not in RIC
The Judea Capta coin testifies to the great importance the Romans attached to quelling the revolt in Judea and capturing Jerusalem. This image was designed and circulated to send a message of Judea's defeated revolt to all the provinces of the Roman Empire and served as constant reminder of the fate of rebellious provinces.
berserker
VespasianPax_RICii10.jpg
710a, Vespasian, 1 July 69 - 24 June 79 A.D.134 viewsSilver denarius, RIC II, 10, aVF, 3.5 g, 18mm, Rome mint, 69-71 AD; Obverse: IMP CAESA[R] VESPASIANV[S AV]G - Laureate head right; Reverse: COS ITER [T]R POT - Pax seated left holding branch and caduceus. Ex Imperial Coins.


De Imperatoribus Romanis:
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Titus Flavius Vespasianus (A.D. 69-79)

John Donahue
College of William and Mary

Introduction

Titus Flavius Vespasianus (b. A.D. 9, d. A.D. 79, emperor A.D. 69-79) restored peace and stability to an empire in disarray following the death of Nero in A.D. 68. In the process he established the Flavian dynasty as the legitimate successor to the Imperial throne. Although we lack many details about the events and chronology of his reign, Vespasian provided practical leadership and a return to stable government - accomplishments which, when combined with his other achievements, make his emperorship particularly notable within the history of the Principate.

Early Life and Career

Vespasian was born at Falacrina near Sabine Reate on 17 November, A.D. 9, the son of T. Flavius Sabinus, a successful tax collector and banker, and Vespasia Polla. Both parents were of equestrian status. Few details of his first fifteen years survive, yet it appears that his father and mother were often away from home on business for long periods. As a result, Vespasian's early education became the responsibility of his paternal grandmother, Tertulla. [[1]] In about A.D. 25 Vespasian assumed the toga virilis and later accepted the wearing of the latus clavus, and with it the senatorial path that his older brother, T. Flavius Sabinus, had already chosen. [[2]] Although many of the particulars are lacking, the posts typically occupied by one intent upon a senatorial career soon followed: a military tribunate in Thrace, perhaps for three or four years; a quaestorship in Crete-Cyrene; and the offices of aedile and praetor, successively, under the emperor Gaius. [[3]]

It was during this period that Vespasian married Flavia Domitilla. Daughter of a treasury clerk and former mistress of an African knight, Flavia lacked the social standing and family connections that the politically ambitious usually sought through marriage. In any case, the couple produced three children, a daughter, also named Flavia Domitilla, and two sons, the future emperors Titus and Domitian . Flavia did not live to witness her husband's emperorship and after her death Vespasian returned to his former mistress Caenis, who had been secretary to Antonia (daughter of Marc Antony and mother of Claudius). Caenis apparently exerted considerable influence over Vespasian, prompting Suetonius to assert that she remained his wife in all but name, even after he became emperor. [[4]]

Following the assassination of Gaius on 24 January, A.D. 41, Vespasian advanced rapidly, thanks in large part to the new princeps Claudius, whose favor the Flavians had wisely secured with that of Antonia, the mother of Germanicus, and of Claudius' freedmen, especially Narcissus. [[5]] The emperor soon dispatched Vespasian to Argentoratum (Strasbourg) as legatus legionis II Augustae, apparently to prepare the legion for the invasion of Britain. Vespasian first appeared at the battle of Medway in A.D. 43, and soon thereafter led his legion across the south of England, where he engaged the enemy thirty times in battle, subdued two tribes, and conquered the Isle of Wight. According to Suetonius, these operations were conducted partly under Claudius and partly under Vespasian's commander, Aulus Plautius. Vespasian's contributions, however, did not go unnoticed; he received the ornamenta triumphalia and two priesthoods from Claudius for his exploits in Britain. [[6]]

By the end of A.D. 51 Vespasian had reached the consulship, the pinnacle of a political career at Rome. For reasons that remain obscure he withdrew from political life at this point, only to return when chosen proconsul of Africa about A.D. 63-64. His subsequent administration of the province was marked by severity and parsimony, earning him a reputation for being scrupulous but unpopular. [[7]] Upon completion of his term, Vespasian returned to Rome where, as a senior senator, he became a man of influence in the emperor Nero's court. [[8]] Important enough to be included on Nero's tour of Greece in A.D. 66-67, Vespasian soon found himself in the vicinity of increasing political turbulence in the East. The situation would prove pivotal in advancing his career.

Judaea and the Accession to Power

In response to rioting in Caesarea and Jerusalem that had led to the slaughter in the latter city of Jewish leaders and Roman soldiers, Nero granted to Vespasian in A.D. 66 a special command in the East with the objective of settling the revolt in Judaea. By spring A.D. 67, with 60,000 legionaries, auxiliaries, and allies under his control, Vespasian set out to subdue Galilee and then to cut off Jerusalem. Success was quick and decisive. By October all of Galilee had been pacified and plans for the strategic encirclement of Jerusalem were soon formed. [[9]] Meanwhile, at the other end of the empire, the revolts of Gaius Iulius Vindex, governor of Gallia Lugdunensis, and Servius Sulpicius Galba , governor of Hispania Tarraconensis, had brought Nero's reign to the brink of collapse. The emperor committed suicide in June, A.D. 68, thereby ensuring chaos for the next eighteen months, as first Galba and then Marcus Salvius Otho and Aulus Vitellius acceded to power. Each lacked broad-based military and senatorial support; each would be violently deposed in turn. [[10]]

Still occupied with plans against Jerusalem, Vespasian swore allegiance to each emperor. Shortly after Vitellius assumed power in spring, A.D. 69, however, Vespasian met on the border of Judaea and Syria with Gaius Licinius Mucianus, governor of Syria, and after a series of private and public consultations, the two decided to revolt. [[11]] On July 1, at the urging of Tiberius Alexander, prefect of Egypt, the legions of Alexandria declared for Vespasian, as did the legions of Judaea two days later. By August all of Syria and the Danube legions had done likewise. Vespasian next dispatched Mucianus to Italy with 20,000 troops, while he set out from Syria to Alexandria in order to control grain shipments for the purpose of starving Italy into submission. [[12]] The siege of Jerusalem he placed in the hands of his son Titus.

Meanwhile, the Danubian legions, unwilling to wait for Mucianus' arrival, began their march against Vitellius ' forces. The latter army, suffering from a lack of discipline and training, and unaccustomed to the heat of Rome, was defeated at Cremona in late October. [[13]] By mid-December the Flavian forces had reached Carsulae, 95 kilometers north of Rome on the Flaminian Road, where the Vitellians, with no further hope of reinforcements, soon surrendered. At Rome, unable to persuade his followers to accept terms for his abdication, Vitellius was in peril. On the morning of December 20 the Flavian army entered Rome. By that afternoon, the emperor was dead. [[14]]

Tacitus records that by December 22, A.D. 69, Vespasian had been given all the honors and privileges usually granted to emperors. Even so, the issue remains unclear, owing largely to a surviving fragment of an enabling law, the lex de imperio Vespasiani, which conferred powers, privileges, and exemptions, most with Julio-Claudian precedents, on the new emperor. Whether the fragment represents a typical granting of imperial powers that has uniquely survived in Vespasian's case, or is an attempt to limit or expand such powers, remains difficult to know. In any case, the lex sanctioned all that Vespasian had done up to its passing and gave him authority to act as he saw fit on behalf of the Roman people. [[15]]

What does seem clear is that Vespasian felt the need to legitimize his new reign with vigor. He zealously publicized the number of divine omens that predicted his accession and at every opportunity he accumulated multiple consulships and imperial salutations. He also actively promoted the principle of dynastic succession, insisting that the emperorship would fall to his son. The initiative was fulfilled when Titus succeeded his father in A.D. 79.[[16]]

Emperorship

Upon his arrival in Rome in late summer, A.D. 70, Vespasian faced the daunting task of restoring a city and a government ravaged by the recent civil wars. Although many particulars are missing, a portrait nevertheles emerges of a ruler conscientiously committed to the methodical renewal of both city and empire. Concerning Rome itself, the emperor encouraged rebuilding on vacated lots, restored the Capitol (burned in A.D. 69), and also began work on several new buildings: a temple to the deified Claudius on the Caelian Hill, a project designed to identify Vespasian as a legitimate heir to the Julio-Claudians, while distancing himself from Nero ; a temple of Peace near the Forum; and the magnificent Colosseum (Flavian Amphitheatre), located on the site of the lake of Nero 's Golden House. [[17]]

Claiming that he needed forty thousand million sesterces for these projects and for others aimed at putting the state on more secure footing, Vespasian is said to have revoked various imperial immunities, manipulated the supply of certain commodities to inflate their price, and increased provincial taxation. [[18]] The measures are consistent with his characterization in the sources as both obdurate and avaricious. There were occasional political problems as well: Helvidius Priscus, an advocate of senatorial independence and a critic of the Flavian regime from the start, was exiled after A.D. 75 and later executed; Marcellus Eprius and A. Alienus Caecina were condemned by Titus for conspiracy, the former committing suicide, the latter executed in A.D. 79.
As Suetonius claims, however, in financial matters Vespasian always put revenues to the best possible advantage, regardless of their source. Tacitus, too, offers a generally favorable assessment, citing Vespasian as the first man to improve after becoming emperor. [[19]] Thus do we find the princeps offering subventions to senators not possessing the property qualifications of their rank, restoring many cities throughout the empire, and granting state salaries for the first time to teachers of Latin and Greek rhetoric. To enhance Roman economic and social life even further, he encouraged theatrical productions by building a new stage for the Theatre of Marcellus, and he also put on lavish state dinners to assist the food trades. [[20]]

In other matters the emperor displayed similar concern. He restored the depleted ranks of the senatorial and equestrian orders with eligible Italian and provincial candidates and reduced the backlog of pending court cases at Rome. Vespasian also re-established discipline in the army, while punishing or dismissing large numbers of Vitellius ' men. [[21]]
Beyond Rome, the emperor increased the number of legions in the East and continued the process of imperial expansion by the annexation of northern England, the pacification of Wales, and by advances into Scotland and southwest Germany between the Rhine and the Danube. Vespasian also conferred rights on communities abroad, especially in Spain, where the granting of Latin rights to all native communities contributed to the rapid Romanization of that province during the Imperial period. [[22]]

Death and Assessment

In contrast to his immediate imperial predecessors, Vespasian died peacefully - at Aquae Cutiliae near his birthplace in Sabine country on 23 June, A.D. 79, after contracting a brief illness. The occasion is said to have inspired his deathbed quip: "Oh my, I must be turning into a god!" [[23]] In fact, public deification did follow his death, as did his internment in the Mausoleum of Augustus alongside the Julio-Claudians.

A man of strict military discipline and simple tastes, Vespasian proved to be a conscientious and generally tolerant administrator. More importantly, following the upheavals of A.D. 68-69, his reign was welcome for its general tranquility and restoration of peace. In Vespasian Rome found a leader who made no great breaks with tradition, yet his ability ro rebuild the empire and especially his willingness to expand the composition of the governing class helped to establish a positive working model for the "good emperors" of the second century.

Bibliography

Since the scholarship on Vespasian is more comprehensive than can be treated here, the works listed below are main accounts or bear directly upon issues discussed in the entry above. A comprehensive modern anglophone study of this emperor is yet to be produced.

Atti congresso internazionale di studi Flaviani, 2 vols. Rieti, 1983.

Atti congresso internazionale di studi Vespasianei, 2 vols. Rieti, 1981.

Bosworth, A.B. "Vespasian and the Provinces: Some Problems of the Early 70s A.D." Athenaeum 51 (1973): 49-78.

Brunt, P. A. "Lex de imperio Vespasiani." JRS (67) 1977: 95-116.

D'Espèrey, S. Franchet. "Vespasien, Titus et la littérature." ANRW II.32.5: 3048-3086.

Dudley, D. and Webster, G. The Roman Conquest of Britain. London, 1965.

Gonzalez, J. "The Lex Irnitana: A New Copy of the Flavian Municipal Law." JRS 76 (1986): 147-243.

Grant, M. The Roman Emperors: A Biographical Guide to the Rulers of Rome, 31 B.C. - A.D. 476. New York, 1985.

Homo, L. Vespasien, l'Empereur du bons sens (69-79 ap. J.-C.). Paris, 1949.

Levi, M.A. "I Flavi." ANRW II.2: 177-207.

McCrum, M. and Woodhead, A. G. Select Documents of the Principates of the Flavian Emperors Including the Year of the Revolution. Cambridge, 1966.

Nicols, John. Vespasian and the Partes Flavianae. Wiesbaden, 1978.

Scarre, C. Chronicle of the Roman Emperors. The Reign-by-Reign Record of the Rulers of Imperial Rome. London, 1995.

Suddington, D. B. The Development of the Roman Auxiliary Forces from Caesar to Vespasian, 49 B.C. - A.D. 79. Harare: U. of Zimbabwe, 1982.

Syme, R. Tacitus. Oxford, 1958.

Wardel, David. "Vespasian, Helvidius Priscus and the Restoration of the Capitol." Historia 45 (1996): 208-222.

Wellesley, K. The Long Year: A.D. 69. Bristol, 1989, 2nd ed.


Notes

[[1]] Suet. Vesp. 2.1. Suetonius remains the major source but see also Tac. Hist. 2-5; Cass. Dio 65; Joseph. BJ 3-4.

[[2]] Suetonius (Vesp. 2.1) claims that Vespasian did not accept the latus clavus, the broad striped toga worn by one aspiring to a senatorial career, immediately. The delay, however, was perhaps no more than three years. See J. Nicols, Vespasian and the Partes Flavianae (Wiesbaden, 1978), 2.

[[3]] Military tribunate and quaestorship: Suet. Vesp. 2.3; aedileship: ibid., 5.3, in which Gaius, furious that Vespasian had not kept the streets clean, as was his duty, ordered some soldiers to load him with filth;,they complied by stuffing his toga with as much as it could hold. See also Dio 59.12.2-3; praetorship: Suet. Vesp. 2.3, in which Vespasian is depicted as one of Gaius' leading adulators, an account consistent with Tacitus' portrayal (Hist 1.50.4; 2.5.1) of his early career. For a more complete discussion of these posts and attendant problems of dating, see Nicols, Vespasian, 2-7.

[[4]] Marriage and Caenis: Suet. Vesp. 3; Cass. Dio 65.14.

[[5]] Nicols, Vespasian, 12-39.

[[6]] Suet. Vesp. 4.1 For additional details on Vespasian's exploits in Britain, see D. Dudley and G. Webster, The Roman Conquest of Britain (London, 1965), 55 ff., 98.

[[7]] Concerning Vespasian's years between his consulship and proconsulship, see Suet. Vesp. 4.2 and Nicols, Vespasian, 9. On his unpopularity in Africa, see Suet. Vesp. 4.3, an account of a riot at Hadrumentum, where he was once pelted with turnips. In recording that Africa supported Vitellius in A.D. 69, Tacitus too suggests popular dissatisfaction with Vespasian's proconsulship. See Hist. 2.97.2.

[[8]] This despite the fact that the sources record two rebukes of Vespasian, one for extorting money from a young man seeking career advancement (Suet. Vesp. 4.3), the other for either leaving the room or dozing off during one of the emperor's recitals (Suet. Vesp. 4.4 and 14, which places the transgression in Greece; Tac. (Ann. 16.5.3), who makes Rome and the Quinquennial Games of A.D. 65 the setting; A. Braithwaite, C. Suetoni Tranquilli Divus Vespasianus, Oxford, 1927, 30, who argues for both Greece and Rome).

[[9]] Subjugation of Galilee: Joseph. BJ 3.65-4.106; siege of Jerusalem: ibid., 4.366-376, 414.

[[10]] Revolt of Vindex: Suet. Nero 40; Tac. Ann. 14.4; revolt of Galba: Suet. Galba 10; Plut. Galba, 4-5; suicide of Nero: Suet. Nero 49; Cass. Dio 63.29.2. For the most complete account of the period between Nero's death and the accession of Vespasian, see K. Wellesley, The Long Year: A.D. 69, 2nd. ed. (Bristol, 1989).

[[11]] Tac. Hist. 2.76.

[[12]] Troops in support of Vespasian: Suet. Vit. 15; Mucianus and his forces: Tac. Hist. 2.83; Vespasian and grain shipments: Joseph. BJ 4.605 ff.; see also Tac. Hist. 3.48, on Vespasian's possible plan to shut off grain shipments to Italy from Carthage as well.

[[13]] On Vitellius' army and its lack of discipline, see Tac. Hist. 2.93-94; illness of army: ibid., 2.99.1; Cremona: ibid., 3.32-33.

[[14]] On Vitellius' last days, see Tac. Hist. 3.68-81. On the complicated issue of Vitellius' death date, see L. Holzapfel, "Römische Kaiserdaten," Klio 13 (1913): 301.

[[15]] Honors, etc. Tac. Hist. 4.3. For more on the lex de imperio Vespasiani, see P. A. Brunt, "Lex de imperio Vespasiani," JRS (67) 1977: 95-116.

[[16]] Omens: Suet. Vesp. 5; consulships and honors: ibid., 8; succession of sons: ibid., 25.

[[17]] On Vespasian's restoration of Rome, see Suet. Vesp. 9; Cass. Dio 65.10; D. Wardel, "Vespasian, Helvidius Priscus and the Restoration of the Capitol," Historia 45 (1996): 208-222.

[[18]] Suet. Vesp. 16.

[[19]] Ibid.; Tac. Hist. 1.50.

[[20]] Suet. Vesp. 17-19.

[[21]] Ibid., 8-10.

[[22]] On Vespasian's exploits in Britain, see esp. Tac., Agricola, eds. R. M. Ogilvie and I. A. Richmond (1967), and W. S. Hanson, Agricola and the Conquest of the North (1987); on the granting of Latin rights in Spain, see, e.g., J. Gonzalez, "The Lex Irnitana: a New Copy of the Flavian Municipal Law." JRS 76 (1986): 147-243.

[[23]] For this witticism and other anecdotes concerning Vespasian's sense of humor, see Suet. Vesp. 23.

Copyright (C) 1998, John Donahue. Published on De Imperatoribus Romanis, an Online Encyplopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families.
http://www.roman-emperors.org/vespasia.htm
Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.





Cleisthenes
TitusCommColosseum.jpg
711a, Titus, 24 June 79 - 13 September 81 A.D. 110 viewsTITUS AUGUSTUS AR silver denarius. Struck at Rome, 80 AD. IMP TITVS CAESAR VESPASIAN AVG PM, laureate head right. Reverse - TRP IX IMP XV COS VIII PP, elephant walking left. Fully legible legends, about Very Fine, nice golden toning. Commemmorates the completion and dedication of the Colosseum and the opening of games. SCARCE. RCV 2512, valued at $544 in EF. 17mm, 3.1g. Ex Incitatus.

De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Titus Flavius Vespasianus (A.D. 79-81)

John Donahue
College of William and Mary

Titus Flavius Vespasianus was born on December 30, 39 A.D. He was the oldest of the three children of the founder of the Flavian Dynasty, Vespasian. Beginning in the year 70 Titus was named Cæsar and coregent; he was highly educated and a brilliant poet and orator in both Latin and Greek. He won military fame during the Jewish Revolt of 69-70. In April, 70, he appeared before the walls of Jerusalem, and conquered and destroyed the city after a siege of five months. He wished to preserve the Temple, but in the struggle with the Jews who rushed out of it a soldier threw a brand into the building. The siege and taking of the city were accompanied by barbarous cruelties. The next year Titus celebrated his victory by a triumph; to increase the fame of the Flavian dynasty the inscription on the triumphal arch represented the overthrow of the helpless people as a heroic achievement. Titus succeeded his father as Emperor in 79.

Before becoming emperor, tradition records that Titus was feared as the next Nero, a perception that may have developed from his association with Berenice, his alleged heavy-handedness as praetorian prefect, and tales of sexual debauchery. Once in office, however, both emperor and his reign were portrayed in universally positive terms. The suddenness of this transformation raises immediate suspicions, yet it is difficult to know whether the historical tradition is suspect or if Titus was in fact adept at taking off one mask for another. What is clear, however, is that Titus sought to present the Flavians as the legitimate successors of the Julio-Claudian dynasty. Proof came through the issuing of a series of restoration coins of previous emperors, the most popular being Augustus and Claudius. In A.D. 80 Titus also set out to establish an imperial cult in honor of Vespasian. The temple, in which cult (the first that was not connected with the Julio-Claudians) was housed, was completed by Domitian and was known as the Temple of Vespasian and Domitian.
Legitimacy was also sought through various economic measures, which Titus enthusiastically funded. Vast amounts of capital poured into extensive building schemes in Rome, especially the Flavian Amphitheater, popularly known as the Colosseum. In celebration of additions made to the structure, Titus provided a grand 100-day festival, with sea fights staged on an artificial lake, infantry battles, wild beast hunts, and similar activities. He also constructed new imperial baths to the south-east of the Amphitheater and began work on the celebrated Arch of Titus, a memorial to his Jewish victories. Large sums were directed to Italy and the provinces as well, especially for road building. In response to the eruption of Vesuvius in A.D. 79, Titus spent large sums to relieve distress in that area; likewise, the imperial purse contributed heavily to rebuilding Rome after a devastating fire destroyed large sections of the city in A.D. 80. As a result of these actions, Titus earned a reputation for generosity and geniality. For these reasons he gained the honourable title of "amor et deliciæ generis humani" (the darling and admiration of the human race). Even so, his financial acumen must not be under-estimated. He left the treasury with a surplus, as he had found it, and dealt promptly and efficiently with costly natural disasters. The Greek historian of the third-century A.D., Cassius Dio, perhaps offered the most accurate and succinct assessment of Titus' economic policy: "In money matters, Titus was frugal and made no unnecessary expenditure." In other areas, the brevity of Titus' reign limits our ability to detect major emphases or trends in policy. As far as can be discerned from the limited evidence, senior officials and amici were well chosen, and his legislative activity tended to focus on popular social measures, with the army as a particular beneficiary in the areas of land ownership, marriage, and testamentary freedom. In the provinces, Titus continued his father's policies by strengthening roads and forts in the East and along the Danube.

Titus died in September, A.D. 81 after only 26 months in office. Suetonius recorded that Titus died on his way to the Sabine country of his ancestors in the same villa as his father. A competing tradition persistently implicated his brother and successor, Domitian, as having had a hand in the emperor's demise, but the evidence is highly contradictory and any wrongdoing is difficult to prove. Domitian himself delivered the funeral eulogy and had Titus deified. He also built several monuments in honor of Titus and completed the Temple of Vespasian and Titus, changing the name of the structure to include his brother's and setting up his cult statue in the Temple itself.

Titus was the beneficiary of considerable intelligence and talent, endowments that were carefully cultivated at every step of his career, from his early education to his role under his father's principate. Cassius Dio suggested that Titus' reputation was enhanced by his early death. It is true that the ancient sources tend to heroicize Titus, yet based upon the evidence, his reign must be considered a positive one. He capably continued the work of his father in establishing the Flavian Dynasty and he maintained a high degree of economic and administrative competence in Italy and beyond. In so doing, he solidified the role of the emperor as paternalistic autocrat, a model that would serve Trajan and his successors well. Titus was used as a model by later emperors, especially those known as the Five Good Emperors (Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian, Antoninus Pius and Marcus Aurelius).

Copyright (C) 1997, John Donahue.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Catholic Encyclopedia, http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/14746b.htm

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
Titus_Colosseum_Commem_AR_denarius.jpg
711a, Titus, 24 June 79 - 13 September 81 A.D.136 viewsTitus, 24 June 79 - 13 September 81 A.D. AR denarius, RCV 2512, aVF, struck at Rome, 80 A.D., 17.5mm, 3.4g. Obverse: IMP TITVS CAESAR VESPASIAN AVG PM, laureate head right; Reverse: TRP IX IMP XV COS VIII PP, elephant walking left. Fully legible legends; nice golden toning. This coin was struck in order to commemorate the completion and dedication of the Flavian Amphitheatre (the Colosseum) and its opening games. Very scarce. Ex Incitatus; photo courtesy Incitatus.

De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Titus Flavius Vespasianus (A.D. 79-81)

John Donahue
College of William and Mary

Titus Flavius Vespasianus was born on December 30, 39 A.D. He was the oldest of the three children of the founder of the Flavian Dynasty, Vespasian. Beginning in the year 70 Titus was named Cæsar and coregent; he was highly educated and a brilliant poet and orator in both Latin and Greek. He won military fame during the Jewish Revolt of 69-70. In April, 70, he appeared before the walls of Jerusalem, and conquered and destroyed the city after a siege of five months. He wished to preserve the Temple, but in the struggle with the Jews who rushed out of it a soldier threw a brand into the building. The siege and taking of the city were accompanied by barbarous cruelties. The next year Titus celebrated his victory by a triumph; to increase the fame of the Flavian dynasty the inscription on the triumphal arch represented the overthrow of the helpless people as a heroic achievement. Titus succeeded his father as Emperor in 79.

Before becoming emperor, tradition records that Titus was feared as the next Nero, a perception that may have developed from his association with Berenice, his alleged heavy-handedness as praetorian prefect, and tales of sexual debauchery. Once in office, however, both emperor and his reign were portrayed in universally positive terms. The suddenness of this transformation raises immediate suspicions, yet it is difficult to know whether the historical tradition is suspect or if Titus was in fact adept at taking off one mask for another. What is clear, however, is that Titus sought to present the Flavians as the legitimate successors of the Julio-Claudian dynasty. Proof came through the issuing of a series of restoration coins of previous emperors, the most popular being Augustus and Claudius. In A.D. 80 Titus also set out to establish an imperial cult in honor of Vespasian. The temple, in which cult (the first that was not connected with the Julio-Claudians) was housed, was completed by Domitian and was known as the Temple of Vespasian and Domitian.
Legitimacy was also sought through various economic measures, which Titus enthusiastically funded. Vast amounts of capital poured into extensive building schemes in Rome, especially the Flavian Amphitheater, popularly known as the Colosseum. In celebration of additions made to the structure, Titus provided a grand 100-day festival, with sea fights staged on an artificial lake, infantry battles, wild beast hunts, and similar activities. He also constructed new imperial baths to the south-east of the Amphitheater and began work on the celebrated Arch of Titus, a memorial to his Jewish victories. Large sums were directed to Italy and the provinces as well, especially for road building. In response to the eruption of Vesuvius in A.D. 79, Titus spent large sums to relieve distress in that area; likewise, the imperial purse contributed heavily to rebuilding Rome after a devastating fire destroyed large sections of the city in A.D. 80. As a result of these actions, Titus earned a reputation for generosity and geniality. For these reasons he gained the honourable title of "amor et deliciæ generis humani" (the darling and admiration of the human race). Even so, his financial acumen must not be under-estimated. He left the treasury with a surplus, as he had found it, and dealt promptly and efficiently with costly natural disasters. The Greek historian of the third-century A.D., Cassius Dio, perhaps offered the most accurate and succinct assessment of Titus' economic policy: "In money matters, Titus was frugal and made no unnecessary expenditure." In other areas, the brevity of Titus' reign limits our ability to detect major emphases or trends in policy. As far as can be discerned from the limited evidence, senior officials and amici were well chosen, and his legislative activity tended to focus on popular social measures, with the army as a particular beneficiary in the areas of land ownership, marriage, and testamentary freedom. In the provinces, Titus continued his father's policies by strengthening roads and forts in the East and along the Danube.

Titus died in September, A.D. 81 after only 26 months in office. Suetonius recorded that Titus died on his way to the Sabine country of his ancestors in the same villa as his father. A competing tradition persistently implicated his brother and successor, Domitian, as having had a hand in the emperor's demise, but the evidence is highly contradictory and any wrongdoing is difficult to prove. Domitian himself delivered the funeral eulogy and had Titus deified. He also built several monuments in honor of Titus and completed the Temple of Vespasian and Titus, changing the name of the structure to include his brother's and setting up his cult statue in the Temple itself.

Titus was the beneficiary of considerable intelligence and talent, endowments that were carefully cultivated at every step of his career, from his early education to his role under his father's principate. Cassius Dio suggested that Titus' reputation was enhanced by his early death. It is true that the ancient sources tend to heroicize Titus, yet based upon the evidence, his reign must be considered a positive one. He capably continued the work of his father in establishing the Flavian Dynasty and he maintained a high degree of economic and administrative competence in Italy and beyond. In so doing, he solidified the role of the emperor as paternalistic autocrat, a model that would serve Trajan and his successors well. Titus was used as a model by later emperors, especially those known as the Five Good Emperors (Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian, Antoninus Pius and Marcus Aurelius).

Copyright (C) 1997, John Donahue.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Catholic Encyclopedia, http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/14746b.htm

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
3 commentsCleisthenes
Bacchivs.jpg
A. Plautius70 viewsA. Plautius 54 BCE, denarius, 21mm., Rome mint. O: Turreted head of Cybele right, A PLAVTIVS before, AED CVR SC behind. R: Bacchius (Aristobulus II) kneeling right, extending olive branch, camel at side, BACCHIVS in exergue, IVDAEVS on right. Hendin 1443

The 'Bacchius the Jew' kneeling on the reverse is most likely Judah Aristobulus II, who usurped the throne of Judea from his brother John Hyrcanus II between 67 and 63 BC. In 63 BCE, Pompey the Great sided with Hyrcanus and subjected Jerusalem to a brutal siege and sacking, deposing Aristobulus II. Pompey went so far as to enter the Holy of Holies, defiling the sanctuary and marking the end of the great Hasmonean dynasty.

The Romans now had a foot in the door and were not about to remove it. Hyrcanus became a Roman ethnarch, one who ruled by the grace of the Romans, dependent on their goodwill and support to retain his throne.

Aristobulus was permitted to live as a hostage in Rome, but later escaped and tried to resume the throne, only to be defeated again by M. Aemilius Scaurus. This issue celebrates this unsuccessful attempt to regain control of Judaea.

Behind the scenes, a rich Idumaean chieftain named Antipater continued to manipulate Hyrcanus and to pander to Rome, building influence and power. This set the stage for the eventual rise to power of his infamous son, Herod the Great.

Except for the inscription, this coin is of the same reverse type as Hendin 1441.
2 commentsNemonater
Lg007_quad_sm.jpg
AE provincial, Saitta, Lydia (Sidas Kaleh, Turkey), Senate/River-God (mid-2nd to early 3d century AD) 5 viewsIЄΡA - [CYNKΛHTOC], bare-headed youthful draped bust of Senate right / CAIT[THNΩN] + [ЄPMOC] in exergue, River-God Hermos reclining left, holding reed and cornucopiae, resting arm on urn (hydria) from which waters flow.

Ӕ (base metal yellow, orichalcum?), 22 mm, 5.68 g, die axis 6.5h (coin alignment)

It is difficult to read the name of the river. I think that ЄPMOC is more likely, but VΛΛΟС is also possible, representing the other important local river, Hyllos.

Possible catalog references are BMC Lydia 25 (or 26-27?), SNG Copenhagen 398, SNG München 439.
For the Hyllos reverse, Leypold 1153.

To emphasize the autonomy of certain Hellenistic polises, even under the Roman rule they sometimes used allegorical figures of Senate or Demos on obverses of their coins instead of imperial portraits. Saitta was issuing similar-looking coins with busts of emperors and their family as well, but in this issue the town Senate is honoured as the ruler. IЄΡA CYNKΛHTOC = Holy Senate. CAITTHNΩN = Saitta, ЄPMOC = Hermos, the name of the river and its god.

River-Gods or Potamoi (Ποταμοί) were the gods of the rivers and streams of the earth, all sons of the great earth-encirling river Okeanos (Oceanus) and his wife Tethys. Their sisters were the Okeanides (Oceanids), goddesses of small streams, clouds and rain, and their daughters were the Naiades, nymphs of springs and fountains. A River-God was depicted in one of three forms: as a man-headed bull; a bull-horned man with the tail of a serpentine-fish in place of legs; or as a reclining man with an arm resting upon a pitcher pouring water, which we see in this case. The addition of cornucopia symbolizes the blessings that a particular river bestows on those who live near it.

Saitta or Saittae (Σαίτται, Ptolemy 5.2.21: Σέτται, Σάετται) was a polis in eastern Lydia (aka Maeonia), in the rivers' triangle between the upper Hyllus (modern Demirci Çayı, c. 12 km to the west) and the Hermus or Hermos (modern Gediz Nehri, c. 20 km to the south). In Roman imperial times it belonged to the "conventus" of Sardis in the Roman province of Asia (conventus was a territorial unit of a Roman province, mostly for judicial purposes).

Now its ruins are known now as Sidas Kaleh or Sidaskale in Turkey, near the village of İçikler (İcikler Mahallesi, 45900 Demirci/Manisa). They were never excavated, so are little known or cared for. Ruins of a stadium and a theatre survive, together with remains of some temples and tombs.

Not much is known about it. It was a regional centre for the production of textiles. In 124 AD the town was probably visited by emperor Hadrianus. During the Roman period the cult of the moon god Mēn Axiottenus was very popular in the city. Because of its reference to "angels" (both literally as the Greek word and by their function as god's messengers) it was possibly close to the more general Asia Minor cult of Theos Hypsistos, Θεος ὕψιστος, "the highest god" (200 BC – 400 AD), which in turn was perhaps related to the gentile following of the Second Temple in Jerusalem.

Known Roman provincial coins issued by this city feature portraits of emperors from Hadrian to Gallienus, thus covering the period from 117 to 268 AD, with the peak around the Severan dynasty. The semi-autonomous issues are usually dated from mid-2nd to mid-3d century AD.

Later Saittae was the seat of a Byzantine bishopric. Bishop Limenius signed the Chalcedon Creed, while Bishop Amachius spoke at the Council of Chalcedon. Although an Islamic area now, Saittae remains a titular see of the Roman Catholic Church.
Yurii P
Hendin1240web.jpg
Agrippa I170 viewsAgrippa I. 37-44 AD. AE 23, 11.45g. Caesarea Paneas Mint, Year 5, 40/1 AD.
O: [ΓΑΙΩ ΚΑΙΣΑΡΙ ΣΕΒΑΣΤΩ ΓΕΡΜΑΝΙΚΩ] (For Gaius Caesar Augustus Germanicus), Laureate head of Caligula left.
R: [ΝΟΜΙΣΜΑ ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΓΡΙΠΠΑ] (coin of King Agrippa). LE (Year 5=40/41) in exergue; Germanicus stands in triumphal quadriga in honor of his recovery of the standards lost by Varus, car decorated with Nike standing right.
- Hendin 1240. TJC 230-1,116. AJC II 2. RPC 4976.

One of the rarest coin types of Agrippa I (26 listed?).

The grandson of Herod I, Agrippa I, so-named in honor of the victor of Actium, spent much of his youth in the Roman imperial court. Popular with the imperial family, including the emperor Tiberius, Agrippa passed much of his time in the home of Antonia Minor, the mother of Germanicus and the future emperor Claudius.

There, the boys became great friends, and as an older man, Agrippa became attached to the future emperor Gaius, being appointed governor of the territories of Batanaea and Trachonitis upon Gaius’ accession. Unfortunately contemporary politics placed a significant strain on the relationship between the king and Rome.

In AD 39 Agrippa’s uncle, Antipas, was accused of plotting with the Parthians and was exiled. Agrippa’s loyalty gained him his uncle’s forfeited territories. In AD 40 renewed riots between Greeks and Jews broke out in Alexandria, and Gaius, clearly unhappy with his Jewish subjects, provocatively ordered the installation of a statue of himself within the Holy of Holies in Jerusalem.

Agrippa, who had been unsuccessfully involved in trying to quell similar riots in Alexandria before, sought to emphasize his loyalty to local Roman officials by striking coinage which commemorated his long-standing friendship with Gaius and, especially, Germanicus.

Based on the dupondii struck in honor of the emperor’s father Germanicus, this coin includes the great general riding in his triumphal car in honor of his recovery of the standards lost by Varus, rather than portraying Agrippa himself, an identification emphasized by the specific inclusion of the word NOMISMA (Coin) in the legend.

By avoiding self promotion, Agrippa hoped to successfully navigate the treacherous waters which might result in his own removal from power.
4 commentsNemonater
Hendin 472.jpg
Alejandro JANNEO (103 – 76 A.C.)29 viewsAlejandro Janeo (125 adC – 76 adC), rey y sumo sacerdote de los judíos (103 adC – 76 adC), hijo menor de Juan Hircano y hermano de Aristóbulo I, a quien sucedió. Siguiendo la política de Juan Hircano, conquistó y convirtió al judaísmo los territorios vecinos, expandiendo el reino Asmoneo hasta su mayor extensión. Ejerció una tiranía despiadada y su reinado estuvo marcado por intrigas y luchas internas.
(EL ÓBOLO DE LA VIUDA - Evangelio de San Marcos 12:41)

AE Lepton (1/2 prutah?) (Crudo estilo Barbárico y cospel muy irregular) 15 x 10 mm 0.6 gr.

Anv: "BAΣIΛEΩE ALEΞANΔPOY" (Rey Alejandro), Leyenda rodeando un círculo, dentro del cual se encuentra un ancla invertida con dos barras horizontales (Como colgada en un barco dispuesto a zarpar) - "L KE" año 25 del reinado de Janeo.
Rev: Rueda o estrella de 8 rayos rodeada por una diadema de puntos. Leyenda aramea "Rey Alejandro Año 25"

Acuñada: 78 – 76 A.C.
Ceca: Jerusalem

Referencias: Hendin #472 Pag.141 - Sear GCTV Vol.2 #6092 Pag.560 – Meshorer AJC I Grupo Ce – B.M.C. Vol.27 (Palestine) #15 Pag.211
mdelvalle
Hendin 469_1.jpg
Alejandro JANNEO (103 – 76 A.C.)26 viewsAlejandro Janeo (125 adC – 76 adC), rey y sumo sacerdote de los judíos (103 adC – 76 adC), hijo menor de Juan Hircano y hermano de Aristóbulo I, a quien sucedió. Siguiendo la política de Juan Hircano, conquistó y convirtió al judaísmo los territorios vecinos, expandiendo el reino Asmoneo hasta su mayor extensión. Ejerció una tiranía despiadada y su reinado estuvo marcado por intrigas y luchas internas.
(EL ÓBOLO DE LA VIUDA - Evangelio de San Marcos 12:41)

AE Prutah 15 x 16 mm 2.0 gr.

Anv: "BAΣIΛEΩE ALEΞANΔPOY" (Rey Alejandro), Leyenda rodeando un Ancla. A su alrededor gráfila de puntos.
Rev: Rueda o estrella de 8 rayos rodeada por una diadema. Inscripción hebrea entre sus rayos "YEHONATAN el REY".

Acuñada: 95 – 76 A.C.
Ceca: Jerusalem

Referencias: Hendin #469 Pag.141 – Meshorer AJC I, Grupo Ca1 Pl.5 – Sear GCTV Vol.2 #6087 Pag.560 – B.M.C. Vol.27 (Palestine) #61-86 Pag.207-9
mdelvalle
Hendin 469~0.jpg
Alejandro JANNEO (103 – 76 A.C.)29 viewsAlejandro Janeo (125 adC – 76 adC), rey y sumo sacerdote de los judíos (103 adC – 76 adC), hijo menor de Juan Hircano y hermano de Aristóbulo I, a quien sucedió. Siguiendo la política de Juan Hircano, conquistó y convirtió al judaísmo los territorios vecinos, expandiendo el reino Asmoneo hasta su mayor extensión. Ejerció una tiranía despiadada y su reinado estuvo marcado por intrigas y luchas internas.
(EL ÓBOLO DE LA VIUDA - Evangelio de San Marcos 12:41)

AE Prutah 15 mm 2.0 gr.

Anv: "BAΣIΛEΩE ALEΞANΔPOY" (Rey Alejandro), Leyenda rodeando un Ancla. A su alrededor gráfila de puntos.
Rev: Rueda o estrella de 8 rayos rodeada por una diadema. Inscripción hebrea entre sus rayos "YEHONATAN el REY".

Acuñada: 95 – 76 A.C.
Ceca: Jerusalem

Referencias: Hendin #469 Pag.141 – Meshorer AJC I, Grupo Ca1 Pl.5 – Sear GCTV Vol.2 #6087 Pag.560 – B.M.C. Vol.27 (Palestine) #61-86 Pag.207-9
1 commentsmdelvalle
F102.jpg
alexander jannaeus30 viewsYehonatan the high priest and Concil of the Jews
mint : Jerusalem
103-76 BC
Hendin 475
frederic
Judea,_Alexander_Jannaeus_2.jpg
Alexander Jannaeus 6 viewsAE Prutah (Widow's mite)
Jerusalem mint, 95- 76 B.C.
12mm, .74g
GCV-6087

Obverse:
BAΣIΛEΩΣ AΛEXANΔROY
Anchor

Reverse:
Wheel with eight ray-like spokes between which Hebrew legend 'Yehonatan the king"
rubadub
Judea,_Alexander_Jannaeus_1.jpg
Alexander Jannaeus 11 viewsAE Prutah (Widow's mite)
Jerusalem mint, 95- 76 B.C.
13mm, .92g
GCV-6087

Obverse:
BAΣIΛEΩΣ AΛEXANΔROY
Anchor

Reverse:
Wheel with eight ray-like spokes between which Hebrew legend 'Yehonatan the king"
rubadub
Alexander_JannaeusComp.jpg
Alexander Jannaeus70 viewsAlexander Jannaeus, 103-76 BC, Bronze lepton, Jerusalem mint, 80/79 BCE. 14.6 mm, 1.12g. O: Aramaic inscription King Alexander Year 25, star of eight rays surrounded by border of dots. R: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΛΕΞΑΝ∆ΡΟΥ (of King Alexander) around anchor in circle, date at points of anchor, L KE (year 25). Hendin 1152

Help with inscription courtesy of Aarmale.
Nemonater
J09e-Jannaeus H-473.jpg
Alexander Jannaeus "Yehonatan", (Hasmonean King), Æ Prutah, 103-76 BCE99 viewsBronze prutah of Alexander Jannaeus "Yehonatan", Jerusalem mint.

Obverse: Double cornucopia adorned with ribbons, pomegranate between horns; VF, nicely centered obverse and nice green patina.
Reverse: Hebrew inscription, “Yehonatan the High Priest and the Council [of the Jews]” – יהונתן הכהן הגדול וחבר [היהודים], surrounded by wreath.

Reference: Hendin 473, Mesh. AJC I, Group Ea

Added to Collection: November 4, 2005
1 commentsDaniel Friedman
Alexander_Jannaeus_(Yehonatan).jpg
Alexander Jannaeus (Yehonatan)35 viewsAlexander Jannaeus 103-76 BCE. Prutah, Jerusalem mint. 15mm, 1.51 g. O: Paleo-Hebrew inscription: Yehonatan the King around lily; R: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΛΕΞΑΝ∆ΡΟΥ (King Alexander in Greek), anchor upside down, within inner circle. Hendin 1148

These coins are reminiscent of those issued by Hyrcanus I and Antiochus VII. Restoring the anchor design highlighted his conquest of a number of Mediterranean coastal cities.
Nemonater
hendin471.jpg
Alexander Jannaeus (Yehonatan), 103 - 76 B.C. Bronze lepton, Hendin 47125 viewsJudean Kingdom, Alexander Jannaeus (Yehonatan), 103 - 76 B.C. Bronze lepton, Hendin 471, Fair, Jerusalem mint, 1.224g, 13.1mm, 78 - 76 B.C.; obverse “ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ” (of King Alexander), anchor upside-down in circle, L KE (year 25) near anchor points; reverse Aramaic inscription, King Alexander Year 25, star of eight rays surrounded by diadem of dots. Ex FORVMPodiceps
hendin_469.jpg
Alexander Jannaeus (Yehonatan), 103 - 76 B.C. Bronze prutah, Hendin 4699 viewsJudean Kingdom, Alexander Jannaeus (Yehonatan), 103 - 76 B.C. Bronze prutah, Hendin 469, F, Jerusalem mint, 1.365g, 14.5mm, 95 - 76 B.C.; obverse “BASILEWS ALEXANDROU” (of King Alexander), around anchor; reverse , eight ray star surrounded by diadem (or wheel), Hebrew inscription 'Yehonatan the king' between rays. Jannaeus' anchor coins were probably struck after the conquest of the coastal cities (with the exception of Ashkelon) in 95 B.C. The anchor probably publicized the annexation of these areas. -- Ancient Jewish Coinage by Yaakov Meshorer. Ex FORVMPodiceps
hendin_473-4.jpg
Alexander Jannaeus (Yehonatan), 103 - 76 B.C. Bronze prutah, Hendin 473-4745 viewsJudean Kingdom, Alexander Jannaeus (Yehonatan), 103 - 76 B.C. Bronze prutah, Hendin 473 - 474, Fair, Jerusalem mint, 2.260g, 14.1mm, 0o, obverse Hebrew inscription, Yehonatan the High Priest and the Council of the Jews, within wreath; reverse, double cornucopia adorned with ribbons, pomegranate between horns. Ex FORVMPodiceps
hendin_474.jpg
Alexander Jannaeus (Yehonatan), 103 - 76 B.C. Bronze prutah, Hendin 4744 viewsJudean Kingdom, Alexander Jannaeus (Yehonatan), 103 - 76 B.C. Bronze prutah, Meshorer TJC Q17, Hendin 474, VF, Jerusalem mint, 1.628g, 14.1mm, 0o, obverse Hebrew inscription, Yehonatan the High Priest and the Council of the Jews, surrounded by wreath; reverse, double cornucopia adorned with ribbons, pomegranate between horns. Ex FORVMPodiceps
hendin478.jpg
Alexander Jannaeus (Yehonatan), 103 - 76 B.C. Bronze prutah, Hendin 4788 viewsJudean Kingdom, Alexander Jannaeus (Yehonatan), 103 - 76 B.C. Bronze prutah, Hendin 478, overstruck on an earlier prutot, aF, Jerusalem mint, 1.92g, 14.6mm, 180o, obverse Hebrew inscription, Yonatan the High Priest and the Council of the Jews, within wreath; reverse, double cornucopia with pomegranate between horns. This type has been reattributed from Hyrcanus II to Alexander Jannaeus by Hendin and Shachar in 'The Identity of YNTN on Hasmonean Overstruck Coins and the Chronology of the Alexander Jannaeus Types,' Israel Numismatic Research 3, 2008: 87-94. It appears this type was overstruck on earlier coins of Alexander Jannaeus that had never been released from the mint. Ex FORVMPodiceps
alex_j_prutah_h478.jpg
Alexander Jannaeus (Yehonatan), 103 - 76 B.C. Bronze prutah, Hendin 4784 viewsJudean Kingdom, Alexander Jannaeus (Yehonatan), 103 - 76 B.C. Bronze prutah, Meshorer TJC T6, Hendin 478, VF, Jerusalem mint, 1.824g, 16.1mm, obverse Hebrew inscription, Yonatan the High Priest and the Council of the Jews, within wreath; reverse , double cornucopia with pomegranate between horns; nice centering and strike, overstruck on an earlier prutah, partly uncleaned. Ex FORVMPodiceps
Jannaeus_1153_2-.jpg
Alexander Jannaeus - AE lepton9 viewsJerusalem
78-76 BC
star of eight rays in beaded border
'Yehonatan the King' around
anchor in circle
BAΣIΛEΩΣ / AΛEΞANΔPOY
Hendin 1153
0,60g
Johny SYSEL
Jannaeus_1153_barb-.jpg
Alexander Jannaeus - AE lepton11 viewsJerusalem
78-76 BC
star of six rays, within circle of dots (off flan),
barbaric blundered imitation of Aramaic legend around
anchor within circle
blundered barbaric imitation of Greek legend around
Hendin 1153
0,54g
Johny SYSEL
Jannaeus_1153.jpg
Alexander Jannaeus - AE lepton9 viewsJerusalem
78-76 BC
star of eight rays in beaded border
'Yehonatan the King' off flan
anchor in circle
BAΣIΛEΩΣ AΛEΞANΔPOY
Hendin 1153
0,71g
Johny SYSEL
Jannaeus_1150.jpg
Alexander Jannaeus - AE prutah11 viewsJerusalem
95-76 BC
star of eight rays surrounded by a diadem, between each ray a letter
'Yehonatan the King'
Seleucid anchor
BAΣIΛEΩΣ AΛEΞANΔPOY
Hendin 1150
0,67g
Johny SYSEL
Alexander_Jannaeus_1.jpg
Alexander Jannaeus - AE prutah9 viewsJerusalem
103-76 BC
Hebrew inscription: "Yehonatan High Priest Council Jews" within wreath
double cornucopia adorned with ribbons, pomegranate between horns.
Hendin 1145
Johny SYSEL
Jannaeus_2.jpg
Alexander Jannaeus - AE prutah4 viewsJerusalem
103-76 BC
Hebrew inscription: "Yehonatan High Priest Council Jews" within wreath
double cornucopia adorned with ribbons, pomegranate between horns.
Hendin 1145
Johny SYSEL
Jannaeus_3.jpg
Alexander Jannaeus - AE prutah4 viewsJerusalem
103-76 BC
Hebrew inscription: "Yehonatan High Priest Council Jews" within wreath
double cornucopia adorned with ribbons, pomegranate between horns.
Hendin 1145
Johny SYSEL
Jannaeus_4.jpg
Alexander Jannaeus - AE prutah5 viewsJerusalem
103-76 BC
Hebrew inscription: "Yehonatan High Priest Council Jews" within wreath
double cornucopia adorned with ribbons, pomegranate between horns.
Hendin 1145

From this failed srike it looks like several coins were struck at the same time.
Johny SYSEL
Jannaeus_Pendant_2.jpg
Alexander Jannaeus Prutah Pendant12 viewsOBV:BAΣIΛEΩΣ AΛEΞANΔΡOΥ (of King Alexander),
around anchor
REV:eight ray star surrounded by diadem (or wheel),
Hebrew inscription "Yehonatan the king" between rays
Hendin 469, Meshorer TJC K, Jerusalem mint
103 - 76 B.C.
Set in Silver Pendant
goldenancients
prutoh_2_k.jpg
Alexander Jannaeus, 103-76 BC7 viewsAE lepton - Widow’s Mite, 2.7g, 16mm; Jerusalem mint.
Obv.: Hebrew script between Star rays (YHNTN HMLK) = “Yehonatan the king," surrounded by royal diadem.
Rev.: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΛΕΞΑΝ∆ΡΟΥ (of King Alexander in Greek), anchor upside-down as if hanging on the side of a boat.
Reference: Meshorer Group K; Hendin 1150.
John Anthony
mite_1_k.jpg
Alexander Jannaeus, 103-76 BC3 viewsAE lepton, 2.7g, 16mm; Jerusalem mint.
Obv.: Hebrew script between Star rays (YHNTN HMLK) = “Yehonatan the king," surrounded by royal diadem.
Rev.: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΛΕΞΑΝ∆ΡΟΥ; anchor upside-down as if hanging on the side of a boat.
Reference: Meshorer Group K; Hendin 1150; CN
John Anthony
Jannaeus_k.jpg
Alexander Jannaeus, 103-76 BC.4 viewsÆ prutah, 2.5g, 15mm; Jerusalem.
Obv.: BAΣIΛEΩΣ AΛEΞANΔPOY; inverted anchor.
Rev.: Eight pointed star within diadem; between the rays, Paleo-Hebrew inscription 'Yehonatan the King'.
Reference: Hendin 1150 / 17-132-55
John Anthony
F103.jpg
Alexander Janneus22 viewsYontan the High Priest and the Council of the Jews
mint: Jerusalem

Hendin 478
frederic
G203.jpg
Alexander Janneus17 viewsYehonatan the high priest and Concil of the Jews
mint : Jerusalem
103-76 BC
Hendin 473
frederic
G406a.jpg
Alexander Janneus35 viewsYehonatan the high priest and Concil of the Jews
mint : Jerusalem
103-76 BC
Hendin 473
frederic
G405a.jpg
Alexander Janneus16 viewsYehonatan the high priest and Concil of the Jews
mint : Jerusalem
103-76 BC
Hendin 473
frederic
janneus.jpg
Alexander Janneus 33 viewsYehonatan the high priest and Concil of the Jews
mint : Jerusalem
103-76 BC
Hendin 474
frederic
janneusII.jpg
Alexander Janneus 17 viewsYehonatan the high priest and Concil of the Jews
mint : Jerusalem
103-76 BC
Hendin 474
frederic
hyrcanus7.jpg
Alexander Janneus17 viewsYontan the High Priest and the Council of the Jews
mint: Jerusalem

Hendin 479
frederic
hyrcanus6.jpg
Alexander Janneus24 viewsYontan the High Priest and the Council of the Jews
mint: Jerusalem

Hendin 479
frederic
H_474-1.jpg
Alexander Janneus10 viewsYehonatan the high priest and Concil of the Jews
mint : Jerusalem
103-76 BC
Hendin 474
frederic
H_474-2.jpg
Alexander Janneus35 viewsYehonatan the high priest and Concil of the Jews
mint : Jerusalem
103-76 BC
Hendin 474
frederic
a4.jpg
Alexander Janneus17 viewsYehonatan the high priest and Concil of the Jews
mint : Jerusalem
103-76 BC
Hendin 474
frederic
a2.jpg
Alexander Janneus15 viewsYonatan the High Priest and the Council of the Jews
mint: Jerusalem

Hendin 479
frederic
jannaeus3.jpg
Alexander Janneus13 viewsYonatan the High Priest and the Council of the Jews
mint: Jerusalem
103-76 BC
Hendin 478
frederic
jannaeus4.jpg
Alexander Janneus17 viewsYehonatan the high priest and Concil of the Jews
mint : Jerusalem
103-76 BC
Hendin 474
frederic
jannaeus5.jpg
Alexander Janneus53 viewsYehohanan HaMelek
mint : Jerusalem
103-76 BC
TJC K6
2 commentsfrederic
jannaeus6.jpg
Alexander Janneus14 viewsYehonatan the high priest and Concil of the Jews
mint : Jerusalem
103-76 BC
Hendin 475
frederic
hyrcanII.jpg
Alexander Janneus ?19 viewsHCH GDL
HaCohen Gadol
mint: Jerusalem

AJC: Lb3
frederic
Hendin-1148.jpg
Ancient Judaea, Hasmonean Kingdom: Alexander Jannaeus (103-76 BCE) Æ Prutah, Jerusalem (Hendin 1148)11 viewsObv: 'Yehonatan the King' (Paleo-Hebrew), lily, within circular beaded border
Rev: [B]AΣIΛEΩ AΛE[ΞANΔPOY], inverted anchor within circle

From the Dr. Patrick Tan Collection
Quant.Geek
Hendin-1148(1).jpg
Ancient Judaea, Hasmonean Kingdom: Alexander Jannaeus (103-76 BCE) Æ Prutah, Jerusalem (Hendin 1148)9 viewsObv: 'Yehonatan the King' (Paleo-Hebrew), lily, within circular beaded border
Rev: [B]AΣIΛEΩ AΛE[ΞANΔPOY], inverted anchor within circle
Quant.Geek
Hendin-1137.jpg
Ancient Judaea, Hasmonean Kingdom: John Hyrcanus I (134-104 BCE) Æ Prutah, Jerusalem (Hendin 1137)15 viewsObv: Paleo-Hebrew in five lines within wreath
Rev: Double cornucopiae adorned with ribbons, pomegranate between horns; no monogram
Quant.Geek
Hendin-1244.jpg
Ancient Judaea, Herodian Kingdom: Agrippa I (37-44 CE) Æ Prutah, Jerusalem, RY 6 (Hendin 1244; TJC 120)9 viewsObv: BACIΛEOC AΓPIΠΠA; umbrella-like canopy
Rev: Three grain ears; across field, date L ς
Quant.Geek
Hendin-1197.jpg
Ancient Judaea, Herodian Kingdom: Herod II Archelaos (4 BCE-6 CE) Æ Half Prutah, Jerusalem (Meshorer 72c; Hendin 1197; RPC I 4916)9 viewsObv: HPW; prow of galley facing left, circle of dots
Rev: EΘN within wreath, circle of dots
Quant.Geek
Hendin-1328.jpg
Ancient Judaea, Procuratorial: Coponius (6-9 CE) Æ Prutah, Jerusalem, RY 36 of Augustus (Hendin 1328; TJC 311; RPC 4954)22 viewsObv: KAICA-POC; grain ear
Rev: Palm tree; across field, date (L Λς)
1 commentsQuant.Geek
Hendin-1333a.jpg
Ancient Judaea, Procuratorial: Valerius Gratus (15-26 CE) Æ Prutah, Jerusalem, RY 2 of Tiberius (Hendin 1333a; TJC 317; RPC 4959)8 viewsObv: IOY/ΛIA in two lines within wreath
Rev: Upright palm branch; across field, date (L B)

Plate Coin from Hendin
Quant.Geek
Hendin-1333b.jpg
Ancient Judaea, Procuratorial: Valerius Gratus (15-26 CE) Æ Prutah, Jerusalem, RY 2 of Tiberius (Hendin 1333b; TJC 317; RPC 4959)4 viewsObv: [IOY/ΛIA] blundered in two lines within wreath
Rev: Upright palm branch; across field, date (L B)

Plate Coin from Hendin
Quant.Geek
lot953611.jpg
Ancient Judaea, Procuratorial: Valerius Gratus (15-26 CE) Æ Prutah, Jerusalem, RY 4 of Tiberius (Hendin 1336; TJC 326)10 viewsObv: IOY ΛIA; vine leaf and small bunch of grapes
Rev: Narrow-necked amphora with scroll handles; across field, L Δ
Quant.Geek
Hendin-1338.jpg
Ancient Judaea, Procuratorial: Valerius Gratus (15-26 CE) Æ Prutah, Jerusalem, RY 4 of Tiberius (Hendin 1338; TJC 327; RPC 4964)11 viewsObv: TIB/KAI/CAP in three lines within wreath
Rev: IOY ΛIA; Upright palm branch; across field, L Δ
Quant.Geek
Hendin-1360.jpg
Ancient Judaea, The Jewish War: Anonymous (66-70 CE) Æ Prutah, Jerusalem, RY 2 (Hendin 1360; TJC 196)13 viewsObv: amphora with broad rim and two handles
Rev: vine leaf on small branch with tendril
Quant.Geek
glass.jpg
Ancient Roman Glass51 viewsThis 2,000 Year old Roman glass was found in the old city of Jerusalem.
aarmale
AntiochosVII H451.jpg
Antiochos VII AE15 Hendin 45157 viewsAe15, 15mm, 2.70g.

Obverse: BASILEWS ANTIOXOS EUERGETOI, Upside-down anchot.

Reverse: Lily in dotted circle.

BPR (131-130 BC)

Hendin 451.

Despite being struck in Antiochos' name, this is dated to the time when Hyrcanus I had actually gained control of Jerusalem, where they seem to have been struck. There is thus a good case for the claim that they were minted by Hyrcanus, and in a very real sense, constitute the first clearly 'Jewish' coins, since they inaugurate the tradition of coins without images. The earlier Yehud coins are probably better seen as 'Israelite' rather than 'Jewish'; they use images, and it's uncertain how far the term 'Judaioi' was in use at the time, or to whom it applied.
Robert_Brenchley
J06-Antiochus VII.jpg
Antiochus VII Euergetes, "Sidetes" (Seleucid King) / Hyrcanus I, (Hasmonean King) 131-130 BCE, Jerusalem53 viewsBronze prutah of Hyrcanus I under Antiochus VII (131 – 130 BCE), 14.9 mm, 2.41 grams. This is first Jewish bronze coin struck in Jerusalem, as a transitional issue, dated 131/130 BCE.

Obverse: Jerusalem Lily
Reverse: Anchor, upside down, flanked by Greek ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΝΤΙΟΞΟΨ (on right) ΕΨΕΠΓΕΤΟΨ (on left) (of King Antiochus, Benefactor), date AΠP (Year 181) or BΠP (Year 182) below anchor.

References: Hendin 451, BMC 69, SNG. Isr. 2139, AJC-I Supplement II, #2, Sear 7101, Houghton CSE 831.

Added to collection: April 12, 2005
Daniel Friedman
John_Hyrcanus_I.jpg
ANTIOCHUS VII Prutah (John Hyrcanus)30 viewsOBV: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΥ ΕΥΕΡΓΕΤΟΥ ; Anchor, date below, ΑΠΡ (year 181)
REV: Lily


Minted at Jerusalem, 132-130 BC
1 commentsLegatus
Antiochus_VII_-_Hyrcanus.jpg
Antiochus VII/Hyrcanus I, 132-130 B.C.3 viewsAntiochus VII/Hyrcanus I, 132-130 BC, bronze prutah of 14 mm, 1.56 grams. Struck as a transitional issue at the mint of Jerusalem, 132-130 BC.
Obverse: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΥ ΕΥΕΡΓΕΤΟΥ Seleucid anchor.
Reverse: Lily of Jerusalem.
Reference: Hendin 1131.
ddwau
lg_capitolina.jpg
Antoninus Pius (Augustus) Judea, Aelia Capitolina (Jerusalem)20 viewsAntoninus Pius (Augustus)
Judea, Aelia Capitolina (Jerusalem)
AE - / 22mm / -
(IMP ANTONINVS AVG PPP) - Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right
C Α C - tetrastyle arched temple; inside Tyche-Astarte stands half left in chiton, parazonium at side, foot raised (on globe), small bust in right, scepter in left
Mint: (138-161 AD)
Ref: SNG 594; Y. Meshorer, The Coinage of Aelia Capitolina (1989), 72, 70; BMC p. 84, 12; L. Kadman, The Coins of Aelia Capitolina (Jerusalem 1956), 12
Scotvs Capitis
PIUS_BI__TETRA.png
ANTONINUS PIUS / SERAPIS , Alexandria BILLION TETRADRACHM40 viewsMINTED IN ALEXANDRIA , EGYPT FROM 138 - 161 AD
OBVERSE : ANTwNINO C CEBEUC CEB Laureate, draped, cuirassed bust right.
REVERSE : Draped bust of Serapis right,modius on head. L K
References : SNG Cop 426 ( No, L K ?)

22.2 MM AND 13.15 GRAMS.

Alexandria ( of Egypt ) issued billon tetradrachms in large numbers between the reign of Augustus and the closing of the Alexandrian mint during the reign of Diocletian. These coins were no doubt mainly intended to pay the salaries of government officials, of the permanent garrison, and of the temporary troops stationed in Alexandria for purposes of war. They were probably also the form in which taxes in money were received, and were used for trade among the people within the city of Alexandria and other Graeco-Roman cities in Egypt. They also served the purpose of providing a subsidiary coinage with Greek legends which formed the vehicle for Roman imperial propaganda throughout Egypt. On the reverse of these coins were placed the Egyptian Hellenized deities, as an indication of the goodwill of the Roman emperors towards Egypt.
The greater part of the agricultural population of Egypt had scarcely any need for coins except to pay their taxes. The real currency and measure of value in the agricultural settlements was grain, wine or oil. The chief export of Egypt was grain, and this did not bring much money to the cultivators, for most of the grain was collected as tribute, not in trade, and they got nothing in return. Consequently, there is reason to suppose that considerably fewer coins circulated in Egypt generally than the region of Alexandria.
From the reign of Nero onwards, Egypt enjoyed an era of prosperity which lasted a century. Much trouble was caused by religious conflicts between the Greeks and the Jews, particularly in Alexandria, which after the destruction of Jerusalem in 70 AD become the world centre of Jewish religion and culture. Under Trajan a Jewish revolt occurred, resulting in the suppression of the Jews of Alexandria and the loss of all their privileges, although they soon returned. Hadrian, who twice visited Egypt, founded Antinoöpolis in memory of his drowned lover Antinous. From his reign onwards buildings in the Greco-Roman style were erected throughout the country. Under Marcus Aurelius, however, oppressive taxation led to a revolt (139 AD) of the native Egyptians, which was suppressed only after several years of fighting.

From The Sam Mansourati Collection.
2 commentsSam
capitolina.jpg
Antoninus Pius Aelia Capitolina41 viewsAntoninus Pius (Augustus)
Judea, Aelia Capitolina (Jerusalem)
AE22
Ob: (IMP ANTONINVS AVG PPP) - Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rv: C Α C beneath tetrastyle arched temple; inside Tyche-Astarte stands half left in chiton, parazonium at side, foot raised (on globe), small bust in right, scepter in left
Ref: SNG 594; Y. Meshorer, The Coinage of Aelia Capitolina (1989), 72, 70; BMC p. 84, 12; L. Kadman, The Coins of Aelia Capitolina (Jerusalem 1956), 12

http://rpc.ashmus.ox.ac.uk/coins/6397/
Scotvs Capitis
Aelia Capitolina-Antonius Pius.jpg
Antoninus Pius, (138-161 CE), Æ, city coin of Aelia Capitolina69 viewsBronze of Antoninus Pius. 138-161 CE. 7.44 g, 23mm, minted in Jerusalem (Aelia Capitolina) in Judea.

Obverse: IMP ANTONINVS AVG PPP; Laureate draped bust right
Reverse: CO(olony) AE(lia) CA(pitolina);Turreted bust of Tyche right, wearing calathus.

Reference: Meshorer, Aelia 21; Rosenberger 11, SNG ANS 600.

Added to collection: July 29, 2006
Daniel Friedman
arch of Titus.jpg
arch of Titus59 viewsPart of the Arch of Titus showing the spoils from the destruction of the Temple in JerusalemTitus Pullo
Nabataean_Kingdom,_Aretas_IV,_9_B_C__-_40_A_D__eagle.jpg
Aretas IV, 9 B.C. - 40 A.D. 33056. Bronze AE 11, Meshorer Nabataean 9311 viewsNabataean Kingdom, Aretas IV, 9 B.C. - 40 A.D. Bronze AE 11, Meshorer Nabataean 93, F, Petra mint, 0.982g, 11.2mm, 0o, 5 - 6 A.D.; obverse Aretas' Aramaic monogram O / H (ayin / het) within wreath; reverse , eagle standing left, wings closed, H (Aramaic het) behind. Aretas' daughter was married to Herod Antipas, Herod the Great's son, and the Tetrarch of Galilee. This coin resembles a coin minted by King Herod and the reverse probably depicts the golden bird Herod placed above the entrance to the Jerusalem Temple. Ex FORVM, photo credit FORVMPodiceps
AUGUSTUS_-_Marcus_Ambibulus_.jpg
Augustus / Marcus Ambibulus, procurator of Judea under Augustus.22 viewsMarcus Ambibulus, procurator of Judea under Augustus, 9-12 AD, bronze prutah of 15.4 mm, 1.72 grams. Struck in the year 10 AD.
Obverse: Ear of grain, KAICA POC.
Reverse: Palm tree with 2 bunches of dates and date, LM.
Reference: Hendin-1330.

“Swear to me, young women of Jerusalem, by the gazelles or by the does of the field, that you won’t awaken or arouse love before its proper time.” Song of Solomon.
Sam
image.jpg
Baldwin Obole7 viewsBALDWIN III (1143-63)

Bi Obole

Obverse: BALdVINUS REX, Cross Patee , (+) cross type x with annulet ends, tower top tapers, fish tail serifs
Reverse: +de IERVSALEM, Tower of David
Mint: Jerusalem
Minted:  1143-63
Notes: Holed, clipped
jimbomar
IMG_4616.JPG
BAR KOCHBA REBELLION, AE25MM. YEAR 225 viewsBAR KOCHBA REBELLION, AE25MM. YEAR 2
Hebrew legend, For the Freedom of Jerusalem Grape leaves.
/ Hebrew legend, Simon Palm tree with seven branches.
Maritima
frederick_II.png
BCC 2352 viewsCrusader - Medieval BCC 23
Frederick II 1198-1250 CE
Kingdom of Sicily and Jeru-
salem 1229-1243 CE
Obv: +F.ROMANORVM
Yoke, below, I P R
Rev: IERSL.ET.SICIL.R
(Jerusalem and Sicily R.)
Cross with four crescents.
AR 16.5mm 0.8g Axis: 0
v-drome
John.png
BCC 2634 viewsCrusader - Medieval BCC 26
John of Brienne 1210-1225CE
Damietta-Jerusalem-Acre?
Obv: +IOHES(three vertical dots)REX(three vertical dots)
Cross with two annulets.
Rev: +DAMI[.]ATA
Facing portait, crown with
three pellets, hair curls out.
AR (or Billon) 17x16mm 0.65g Axis: 60
(Metcalf 203? or 204?)
Damietta, in Egypt, was captured by John of Brienne in 1219 during the
Fifth Crusade.
v-drome
jerusalem_1.JPG
BCC 561 viewsCrusader Kingdom of Jerusalem
Amalricus Rex 1162-1174 CE
Rev: [D]E IER[VSALEM+]
Octastyle temple (Dome of the Rock)
10mm approx 0.9 g.
I have seen fragments with the same reverse
issued by his brother, Baldwin III 1144-1162 CE.
(or perhaps his son Baldwin IV)
I think all of these are extremely rare.
1 commentsv-drome
amaury_I.JPG
BCC 694 viewsCrusader Kingdom of Jerusalem
Amalricus Rex 1162-1174 CE
Obv:AMA[L]RICV[S]RE[X +]
Six pointed star of David
original diameter. approx.25mm.
original weight perhaps 8 to 10 grams.
These coins were apparently never issued
whole, and may have been cut up before leaving the mint. They
may have been intended as offerings for pilgrims. Any comments or
information would be appreciated. (the coin fragments match types
but are clearly from different individual coins).
2 commentsv-drome
bcc_j11_revolt.jpg
BCC j1126 viewsJudaea AE Prutah
1st Revolt 67/68CE
Jerusalem Mint
Obv: Sha Na T Sh Ti I M (Year Two)
Amphora with broad rim and two handles.
Rev: He R U T Z I O N (Freedom of Zion)
Grape vine leaf .
17mm. 3.23gm. Axis:150
Hendin 661
v-drome
revolt_BCC_j12.jpg
BCC j1229 viewsJudaean
1st Revolt 67/68CE
AE Prutah-Jerusalem Mint
Obv: Sha Na T Sh Ti I M (Year Two)
Amphora w/ broad rim and two handles.
Rev: He R * T Z I O N (Freedom of Zion)
Grape vine leaf .
17mm. 2.49gm. Axis:150
Hendin 661
v-drome
BCC_j13_revolt.jpg
BCC j1326 viewsJudaea
1st Revolt 68/69CE
AE Prutah-Jerusalem Mint
Obv: [Sha Na T] Sha L O Sh (Year Three)
Amphora w/ broad rim, two handles and cover.
Rev: He R U T [Z I O N ](Freedom of Zion)
Grape vine leaf.
15x16mm. 1.63gm. Axis:180
Hendin 664
v-drome
revolt_BCC_j14.jpg
BCC j1431 viewsJudaean
1st Revolt 68/69CE
AE Prutah-Jerusalem Mint
Obv: Sha Na T Sha [L O Sh] (Year Three)
Amphora w/ broad rim, two handles and cover.
Rev: He R U T [Z I O N ](Freedom of Zion)
Grape vine leaf.
15x17mm. 2.60gm. Axis:150
Hendin 664
v-drome
Revolt_BCC_j15.jpg
BCC j1563 viewsJudaean
1st Revolt 69/70CE
AE 1/8 Shekel - Jerusalem Mint
Obv: Le G A La T Tz I O N (to the
redemption of Zion) Chalice with pearled rim.
Rev:Sha Na T A R Ba H (Year 4)
Lulav flanked by etrog on either side.
18x19mm. 4.11gm. Axis:330
Hendin 670
1 commentsv-drome
BCC_J35_Herod_Archelaus.jpg
BCC J3516 viewsJudaea - AE Prutah
Caesarea Maritima
Herod Archelaus 4BCE - 6CE
Ethnarch of Judaea, Samaria, and Idumaea
Mint of Jerusalem
Obv:HPω∆OY
Bunch of grapes, vine leaf to left.
Rev:[EΘNAPXOY]
Tall military helmet, facing,
with crest and cheek straps,
caduceus, below left.
17mm. 2.33gm. Axis:90
Hendin III 505
v-drome
BCC_J36_Herod_Archelaus.jpg
BCC J3613 viewsJudaea - AE Prutah
Caesarea Maritima
Herod Archelaus 4BCE - 6CE
Ethnarch of Judaea, Samaria,
and Idumaea. Mint of Jerusalem
Obv:[HPω∆OY] Bunch of grapes,
vine leaf to left.
Rev:[EΘNAPXOY] Tall military
helmet, facing, w/ crest and
cheek straps. Caduceus, below left.
Irregular, crude type, very rare
15mm. 1.15gm. Axis:0
cf. Hendin III 505, TJC: 73e, 73f
J. Berlin Caesarea Collection
v-drome
BCC_J37_Archelaus.jpg
BCC J3710 viewsJudaea - AE Prutah
Caesarea Maritima
Herod Archelaus 4BCE - 6CE
Mint of Jerusalem
Obv:HPω∆OY
Bunch of grapes, vine leaf to left.
Rev:[EΘNAPXOY]
Tall military helmet, facing,
with crest and cheek straps,
caduceus, below left.
17.5mm. 2.40gm. Axis:150
Hendin III 505
J. Berlin Caesarea Collection
v-drome
BCC_J38_Archelaus.jpg
BCC J3820 viewsJudaea - AE Prutah
Caesarea Maritima
Herod Archelaus 4BCE - 6CE
Mint of Jerusalem
Obv:HP[ω∆OY]
Bunch of grapes, vine leaf to left.
Rev:EΘNAPXOY
Tall military helmet, facing,
with crest and cheek straps,
caduceus, below left.
18mm. 2.71gm. Axis:180
Hendin III 505
J. Berlin Caesarea Collection
1 commentsv-drome
BCC_J39_Archelaus.jpg
BCC J398 viewsJudaea - AE Prutah
Caesarea Maritima
Herod Archelaus 4BCE - 6CE
Mint of Jerusalem
Obv:HPω∆[OY]
Bunch of grapes, vine leaf to left.
Rev:EΘNAPXOY
Tall military helmet, facing,
with crest and cheek straps,
caduceus, below left.
15.5mm. 1.28gm. Axis:330
Broken, worn. Hendin III 505
J. Berlin Caesarea Collection
v-drome
BCC_J40_Archelaus.jpg
BCC J4010 viewsJudaea - AE Prutah
Caesarea Maritima
Herod Archelaus 4BCE - 6CE
Mint of Jerusalem
Obv:HPω∆OY
Bunch of grapes, vine leaf to left.
Rev:EΘNAPXOY
Tall military helmet, facing,
with crest and cheek straps,
caduceus, below left.
18 x 16mm. 2.68gm. Axis:315
Hendin III 505
J. Berlin Caesarea Collection
v-drome
BCC_J41_Archelaus_Prow.jpg
BCC J419 viewsJudaea - AE Prutah
Caesarea Maritima
Herod Archelaus 4BCE - 6CE
Mint of Jerusalem
Obv:HPω
Prow of galley, to left
Rev:EΘN, with wreath around.
15 x 13mm. 1.14gm. Axis:0
Hendin III 506
J. Berlin Caesarea Collection
v-drome
BCC_J42_Archelaus_Prow.jpg
BCC J429 viewsJudaea - AE Prutah
Caesarea Maritima
Herod Archelaus 4BCE - 6CE
Ethnarch of Judaea, Samaria,
and Idumaea.
Mint of Jerusalem
Obv:[HPω]
Prow of galley, to left
Rev:EΘN, with wreath around.
13.5mm. 1.34gm. Axis:180
Hendin III 506
J. Berlin Caesarea Collection
v-drome
Lyre_snake_BCC_Lt42.jpg
BCC LT4232 viewsLead Tessera BCC LT42
Roman, 1st-4th cent CE?
Obv: Lyre or other stringed instrument.
Rev: Serpent to right. To left: "A"
Pb 14 x 13 x 2mm. Wt: 1.68gm.
cf. Anit Hamburger #66-71.
Hamburger suggests that this type, found 6
times in her corpus, was used in relation
to private marriage festivities. The stringed
instrument, perhaps a lyre, was used in the
procession to the house of the newlyweds.
"The single serpent might then be understood
as the house snake, Agathodaimon, bringer of
fortune to the house of the newlyweds".
Ref: Anit Hamburger, Surface-Finds From
Caesarea Maritima - Tesserae, In : Excavations
at Caesarea Maritima 1975, 1976, 1979 - Final
Report Lee Levine / Ehud Netzer. Israel -
Jerusalem : The Institute of Archaeology,
The Hebrew University of Jerusalem,
1986. - p.187-204
v-drome
BCC_m51.jpg
BCC m5155 viewsCaesarea Minima BCC m51
Mint: unknown. Possibly
Jerusalem or Caesarea?
Revolt Imitation or
minima Prutah
Obv: Pomegranate? or grain stalk?
Rev: Grape vine leaf
AE12mm.0.84g.Axis:270?
1 commentsv-drome
BCC_m52.jpg
BCC m5234 viewsCaesarea Minima BCC m52
Mint: unknown. Possibly
Jerusalem or Caesarea?
Revolt Imitation or
Jewish Prutah minima.
Obv: Amphora with two
handles, no lid? in wreath
Rev:Grape vine leaf. Scratched in antiquity.
AE11.5mm.0.77g.Axis:0
v-drome
BCC_m53.jpg
BCC m5349 viewsCaesarea Minima BCC m53
Mint: unknown. Possibly
Jerusalem or Caesarea?
Revolt Imitation or
Jewish Prutah minima
Obv:Uncertain object with-in border of dots.
Rev:Grape vine leaf with-in border of dots.
AE12mm.0.92g.Axis:?
1 commentsv-drome
BCC_m54.jpg
BCC m5451 viewsCaesarea Minima BCC m54
Mint: unknown. Possibly
Jerusalem or Caesarea?
Revolt Imitation or
Jewish Prutah minima.
Obv:Three ears of wheat
Rev:Grape vine leaf.
AE11.5mm.0.82g.Axis:0
1 commentsv-drome
BCC_m55.jpg
BCC m5548 viewsCaesarea Minima BCC m55
Mint: unknown. Possibly
Jerusalem or Caesarea?
Revolt Imitation or
Jewish Prutah minima
Obv: Pomegranate?
Rev:Three ears of wheat
AE12.5mm.1.22g.Axis:270
v-drome
anton_aurelius_jerusalem.png
BCC rgp30 (BCC 19)32 viewsRoman Provincial
Aelia Capitolina-Jerusalem
Antoninus Pius - Marcus Aurelius
Obv:IMP ANTONIN[VS] AVG [P]PP
Luar, draped bust rt.
Rev:AVRELIO CAES A[ ] CAC
Bareheaded, draped, bust rt.
Axis:180 AE22x20mm. approx. 9.0g.
Meshorer 38
v-drome
Hadrian_Aelia_Boar.jpg
BCC rgp5x40 viewsRoman Provincial
Aelia Capitolina-Jerusalem
Hadrian 117-138 C.E.
Obv:[IMP HADRIANO
AVG?] laur. bust rt.
Rev: COL AEL boar std. rt.
AE 12mm 2.25 gm. Axis:180
Poss. reference: Meshorer 4?
v-drome
aimeryDeLusignanm40.jpg
Billion denier Aimery de Lusignan 1197-1205 CE and later to 1220.13 viewsObverse: Cross pattee, annulet in first and fourth quarters. AMALRICVS REX o
Reverse: + DE IERVSALEM holy Sepulchre
Mint: Jerusalem
Date: 1197-1205 CE
Longuet p. 171, Malloy 40.
16mm, .34g

Most likely minted during the period of the Third Crusade (1190-92) or later up to near 1225 or so. Hoards show that these debased deniers were issued in large numbers, and often recoined. Weights ranged from .20 to .70 grams and up to around 33% silver. The allusion to the previous fortunes of the Kingdom are represented by the Holy Sepulcher which had previously been in Latin Christian hands.
wileyc
aCb6M9k3jgJ2f5iB7XbTn9K83ReXzA.jpg
Bronze prutah of Herod Archelaus, mint of Jerusalem. 7 viewsObv.: Vine branch with bunch of grapes and small leaf. Above it, a Greek inscription HPWΔOY (of Herod). Rev.: Crested helmet with two cheek pieces. Below it, a small caduceus and inscription EΘNAPXO (of the Ethnarch). The letter Y (of EΘNAPXOY) is missing.

4 B.C.E. – 6 C.E. 2.40 grams, 17 mm, axis 12. Cf. Ya'akov Meshorer, A Treasury of Jewish Coins (New York 2001), pl. 48, no. 73a
Antonivs Protti
Istvan_III__(1162-1172_AD)_U-086_C1-157_H-171_Q-011_3h_13,3mm_0,17g-s.jpg
CÁC II. 20.16.1.1./00.01./01., Anonymous III. (István III., (Stephen III.), King of Hungary, (1162-1172 A.D.)?), AR-Denarius, H-164, CNH I.-153, U-086, #01128 viewsCÁC II. 20.16.1.1./00.01./01., Anonymous III. (István III., (Stephen III.), King of Hungary, (1162-1172 A.D.)?), AR-Denarius, H-164, CNH I.-153, U-086, #01
avers: Four crosses and four crescents around Jerusalem cross; border of dots.
reverse: Three dots between two crosses; border of line.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 13,3 mm, weight: 0,17g, axis:3h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-164, CNH I.-153, Unger-086,
Kiss-Toth, Sigla: 20.16.1.1./00.01./01.,
Q-001
quadrans
Istvan_III__(1162-1172_AD)_U-086_C1-157_H-171_Q-013_3h_13,2mm_0,27g-s.jpg
CÁC II. 20.16.1.1./00.01./01., Anonymous III. (István III., (Stephen III.), King of Hungary, (1162-1172 A.D.)?), AR-Denarius, H-164, CNH I.-153, U-086, #02111 viewsCÁC II. 20.16.1.1./00.01./01., Anonymous III. (István III., (Stephen III.), King of Hungary, (1162-1172 A.D.)?), AR-Denarius, H-164, CNH I.-153, U-086, #02
avers: Four crosses and four crescents around Jerusalem cross; border of dots.
reverse: Three dots between two crosses; border of line.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 13,2mm, weight: 0,27g, axis:3h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-164, CNH I.-153, Unger-086,
Kiss-Toth, Sigla: 20.16.1.1./00.01./01.,
Q-002
quadrans
Istvan_III__(1162-1172_AD)_U-086_C1-157_H-171_Q-004_5h_12,95mm_0,20g-s.jpg
CÁC II. 20.16.1.1./a1.04./05., Anonymous III. (István III., (Stephen III.), King of Hungary, (1162-1172 A.D.)?), AR-Denarius, H-164, CNH I.-153, U-086, #01106 viewsCÁC II. 20.16.1.1./a1.04./05., Anonymous III. (István III., (Stephen III.), King of Hungary, (1162-1172 A.D.)?), AR-Denarius, H-164, CNH I.-153, U-086, #01
avers: Four crosses and four crescents around Jerusalem cross; border of dots.
reverse: Three dots between two crosses; border of line.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 12,95 mm, weight: 0,20g, axis:5h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-164, CNH I.-153, Unger-086,
Kiss-Toth, Sigla: 20.16.1.1./a1.04./05.,
Q-001
quadrans
Istvan_III__(1162-1172_AD)_U-086_C1-157_H-171_Q-010_11h_12,97mm_0,23g-s.jpg
CÁC II. 20.16.1.1./a1.11./12., Anonymous III. (István III., (Stephen III.), King of Hungary, (1162-1172 A.D.)?), AR-Denarius, H-164, CNH I.-153, U-086, #01105 viewsCÁC II. 20.16.1.1./a1.11./12., Anonymous III. (István III., (Stephen III.), King of Hungary, (1162-1172 A.D.)?), AR-Denarius, H-164, CNH I.-153, U-086, #01
avers: Four crosses and four crescents around Jerusalem cross; border of dots.
reverse: Three dots between two crosses; border of line.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 12,97 mm, weight: 0,23g, axis:11h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-164, CNH I.-153, Unger-086,
Kiss-Toth, Sigla: 20.16.1.1./a1.11./12.,
Q-001
quadrans
Istvan_III__(1162-1172_AD)_U-086_C1-157_H-171_Q-018_3h_13,5mm_0,30g-s.jpg
CÁC II. 20.16.1.1./a1.14./15., Anonymous III. (István III., (Stephen III.), King of Hungary, (1162-1172 A.D.)?), AR-Denarius, H-164, CNH I.-153, U-086, #01117 viewsCÁC II. 20.16.1.1./a1.14./15., Anonymous III. (István III., (Stephen III.), King of Hungary, (1162-1172 A.D.)?), AR-Denarius, H-164, CNH I.-153, U-086, #01
avers: Four crosses and four crescents around Jerusalem cross; border of dots.
reverse: Three dots between two crosses; border of line.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 13,5mm, weight: 0,30g, axis:3h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-164, CNH I.-153, Unger-086,
Kiss-Toth, Sigla: 20.16.1.1./a1.14./15.,
Q-001
quadrans
Istvan_III__(1162-1172_AD)_U-086_C1-157_H-171_Q-003_3h_13,0mm_0,18g-s.jpg
CÁC II. 20.16.1.1./a1.16./17., Anonymous III. (István III., (Stephen III.), King of Hungary, (1162-1172 A.D.)?), AR-Denarius, H-164, CNH I.-153, U-086, #0199 viewsCÁC II. 20.16.1.1./a1.16./17., Anonymous III. (István III., (Stephen III.), King of Hungary, (1162-1172 A.D.)?), AR-Denarius, H-164, CNH I.-153, U-086, #01
avers: Four crosses and four crescents around Jerusalem cross; border of dots.
reverse: Three dots between two crosses; border of line.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 13,0 mm, weight: 0,18g, axis:3h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-164, CNH I.-153, Unger-086,
Kiss-Toth, Sigla: 20.16.1.1./a1.16./17.,
Q-001
quadrans
Istvan_III__(1162-1172_AD)_U-086_C1-157_H-171_Q-016_2h_13,0mm_0,16g-s.jpg
CÁC II. 20.16.1.1./a1.19./20., Anonymous III. (István III., (Stephen III.), King of Hungary, (1162-1172 A.D.)?), AR-Denarius, H-164, CNH I.-153, U-086, #01111 viewsCÁC II. 20.16.1.1./a1.19./20., Anonymous III. (István III., (Stephen III.), King of Hungary, (1162-1172 A.D.)?), AR-Denarius, H-164, CNH I.-153, U-086, #01
avers: Four crosses and four crescents around Jerusalem cross; border of dots.
reverse: Three dots between two crosses; border of line.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 13,0mm, weight: 0,16g, axis:2h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-164, CNH I.-153, Unger-086,
Kiss-Toth:, Sigla: 20.16.1.1./a1.19./20.,
Q-001
quadrans
Istvan_III__(1162-1172_AD)_U-086_C1-157_H-171_Q-015_5h_12,8mm_0,21ga-s.jpg
CÁC II. 20.16.1.1./a1.19./20., Anonymous III. (István III., (Stephen III.), King of Hungary, (1162-1172 A.D.)?), AR-Denarius, H-164, CNH I.-153, U-086, #02112 viewsCÁC II. 20.16.1.1./a1.19./20., Anonymous III. (István III., (Stephen III.), King of Hungary, (1162-1172 A.D.)?), AR-Denarius, H-164, CNH I.-153, U-086, #02
avers: Four crosses and four crescents around Jerusalem cross; border of dots.
reverse: Three dots between two crosses; border of line.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 12,8mm, weight: 0,21g, axis:5h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-164, CNH I.-153, Unger-086,
Kiss-Toth, Sigla: 20.16.1.1./a1.19./20.,
Q-002
quadrans
Istvan_III__(1162-1172_AD)_U-086_C1-157_H-171_Q-005_3h_12,75mm_0,18g-s.jpg
CÁC II. 20.16.1.1./a1.24./25., Anonymous III. (István III., (Stephen III.), King of Hungary, (1162-1172 A.D.)?), AR-Denarius, H-164, CNH I.-153, U-086, #01120 viewsCÁC II. 20.16.1.1./a1.24./25., Anonymous III. (István III., (Stephen III.), King of Hungary, (1162-1172 A.D.)?), AR-Denarius, H-164, CNH I.-153, U-086, #01
avers: Four crosses and four crescents around Jerusalem cross; border of dots.
reverse: Three dots between two crosses; border of line.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 12,75 mm, weight: 0,18g, axis:3h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-164, CNH I.-153, Unger-086,
Kiss-Toth, Sigla: 20.16.1.1./a1.24./25.,
Q-001
quadrans
Istvan_III__(1162-1172_AD)_U-086_C1-157_H-171_Q-009_3h_12,85mm_0,16g-s.jpg
CÁC II. 20.16.1.1./a1.24./25., Anonymous III. (István III., (Stephen III.), King of Hungary, (1162-1172 A.D.)?), AR-Denarius, H-164, CNH I.-153, U-086, #02106 viewsCÁC II. 20.16.1.1./a1.24./25., Anonymous III. (István III., (Stephen III.), King of Hungary, (1162-1172 A.D.)?), AR-Denarius, H-164, CNH I.-153, U-086, #02
avers: Four crosses and four crescents around Jerusalem cross; border of dots.
reverse: Three dots between two crosses; border of line.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 12,85 mm, weight: 0,16g, axis:3h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-164, CNH I.-153, Unger-086,
Kiss-Toth, Sigla: 20.16.1.1./a1.24./25.,
Q-002
quadrans
Istvan_III__(1162-1172_AD)_U-086_C1-157_H-171_Q-017_1h_13,1mm_0,25g-s.jpg
CÁC II. 20.16.1.1./a3.01./34., Anonymous III. (István III., (Stephen III.), King of Hungary, (1162-1172 A.D.)?), AR-Denarius, H-164, CNH I.-153, U-086, #01126 viewsCÁC II. 20.16.1.1./a3.01./34., Anonymous III. (István III., (Stephen III.), King of Hungary, (1162-1172 A.D.)?), AR-Denarius, H-164, CNH I.-153, U-086, #01
avers: Four crosses and four crescents around Jerusalem cross; border of dots.
reverse: Three dots between two crosses; border of line.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 13,1mm, weight: 0,25g, axis:1h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-164, CNH I.-153, Unger-086,
Kiss-Toth, Sigla: 20.16.1.1./a3.01./34.,
Q-001
quadrans
Istvan_III__(1162-1172_AD)_U-086_C1-157_H-171_Q-006_4h_12,9mm_0,20g-s.jpg
CÁC II. 20.16.1.1./b1.02./38., Anonymous III. (István III., (Stephen III.), King of Hungary, (1162-1172 A.D.)?), AR-Denarius, H-164, CNH I.-153, U-086, #01121 viewsCÁC II. 20.16.1.1./b1.02./38., Anonymous III. (István III., (Stephen III.), King of Hungary, (1162-1172 A.D.)?), AR-Denarius, H-164, CNH I.-153, U-086, #01
avers: Four crosses and four crescents around Jerusalem cross; border of dots.
reverse: Three dots between two crosses; border of line.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 12,9 mm, weight: 0,20g, axis:4h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-164, CNH I.-153, Unger-086,
Kiss-Toth, Sigla: 20.16.1.1./b1.02./38.,
Q-001
quadrans
Istvan_III__(1162-1172_AD)_U-086_C1-157_H-171_Q-007_2h_12,85mm_0,20g-s.jpg
CÁC II. 20.16.1.1./b1.02./38., Anonymous III. (István III., (Stephen III.), King of Hungary, (1162-1172 A.D.)?), AR-Denarius, H-164, CNH I.-153, U-086, #02115 viewsCÁC II. 20.16.1.1./b1.02./38., Anonymous III. (István III., (Stephen III.), King of Hungary, (1162-1172 A.D.)?), AR-Denarius, H-164, CNH I.-153, U-086, #02
avers: Four crosses and four crescents around Jerusalem cross; border of dots.
reverse: Three dots between two crosses; border of line.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 12,85 mm, weight: 0,20g, axis:2h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-164, CNH I.-153, Unger-086,
Kiss-Toth, Sigla: 20.16.1.1./b1.02./38.,
Q-001
quadrans
Istvan_III__(1162-1172_AD)_U-086_C1-157_H-171_Q-014_3h_13,0mm_0,18g-s.jpg
CÁC II. 20.16.1.1./b1.13./49., Anonymous III. (István III., (Stephen III.), King of Hungary, (1162-1172 A.D.)?), AR-Denarius, H-164, CNH I.-153, U-086, #01107 viewsCÁC II. 20.16.1.1./b1.13./49., Anonymous III. (István III., (Stephen III.), King of Hungary, (1162-1172 A.D.)?), AR-Denarius, H-164, CNH I.-153, U-086, #01
avers: Four crosses and four crescents around Jerusalem cross; border of dots.
reverse: Three dots between two crosses; border of line.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 13,0mm, weight: 0,18g, axis:3h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-164, CNH I.-153, Unger-086,
Kiss-Toth, Sigla: 20.16.1.1./b1.13./49.,
Q-001
quadrans
Istvan_III__(1162-1172_AD)_U-086_C1-157_H-171_Q-001_0h_13,0-13,2mm_0,20g-s.jpg
CÁC II. 20.16.1.1./b1.14./50., Anonymous III. (István III., (Stephen III.), King of Hungary, (1162-1172 A.D.)?), AR-Denarius, H-164, CNH I.-153, U-086, #0198 viewsCÁC II. 20.16.1.1./b1.14./50., Anonymous III. (István III., (Stephen III.), King of Hungary, (1162-1172 A.D.)?), AR-Denarius, H-164, CNH I.-153, U-086, #01
avers: Four crosses and four crescents around Jerusalem cross; border of dots.
reverse: Three dots between two crosses; border of line.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 13,0 mm, weight: 0,20g, axis:0h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-164, CNH I.-153, Unger-086,
Kiss-Toth, Sigla: 20.16.1.1./b1.14./50.,
Q-001
quadrans
Istvan_III__(1162-1172_AD)_U-086_C1-157_H-171_Q-002_11h_13,0mm_0,17g-s.jpg
CÁC II. 20.16.1.1./b1.17./53., Anonymous III. (István III., (Stephen III.), King of Hungary, (1162-1172 A.D.)?), AR-Denarius, H-164, CNH I.-153, U-086, #0197 viewsCÁC II. 20.16.1.1./b1.17./53., Anonymous III. (István III., (Stephen III.), King of Hungary, (1162-1172 A.D.)?), AR-Denarius, H-164, CNH I.-153, U-086, #01
avers: Four crosses and four crescents around Jerusalem cross; border of dots.
reverse: Three dots between two crosses; border of line.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 13,0 mm, weight: 0,17g, axis:11h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-164, CNH I.-153, Unger-086,
Kiss-Toth, Sigla: 20.16.1.1./b1.17./53.,
Q-001
quadrans
Istvan_III__(1162-1172_AD)_U-086_C1-157_H-171_Q-012_1h_13,17mm_0,24g-s.jpg
CÁC II. 20.16.1.1./b1.17./53., Anonymous III. (István III., (Stephen III.), King of Hungary, (1162-1172 A.D.)?), AR-Denarius, H-164, CNH I.-153, U-086, #0295 viewsCÁC II. 20.16.1.1./b1.17./53., Anonymous III. (István III., (Stephen III.), King of Hungary, (1162-1172 A.D.)?), AR-Denarius, H-164, CNH I.-153, U-086, #02
avers: Four crosses and four crescents around Jerusalem cross; border of dots.
reverse: Three dots between two crosses; border of line.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 13,17mm, weight: 0,24g, axis:1h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-164, CNH I.-153, Unger-086,
Kiss-Toth, Sigla: 20.16.1.1./b1.17./53.,
Q-002
quadrans
Istvan_III__(1162-1172_AD)_U-086_C1-157_H-171_Q-020_0h_13,0mm_0,20g-s.jpg
CÁC II. 20.16.1.1./b1.21./57., Anonymous III. (István III., (Stephen III.), King of Hungary, (1162-1172 A.D.)?), AR-Denarius, H-164, CNH I.-153, U-086, #01108 viewsCÁC II. 20.16.1.1./b1.21./57., Anonymous III. (István III., (Stephen III.), King of Hungary, (1162-1172 A.D.)?), AR-Denarius, H-164, CNH I.-153, U-086, #01
avers: Four crosses and four crescents around Jerusalem cross; border of dots.
reverse: Three dots between two crosses; border of line.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 13,0mm, weight: 0,20g, axis:0h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-164, CNH I.-153, Unger-086,
Kiss-Toth, Sigla: 20.16.1.1./b1.21./57.,
Q-001
quadrans
Istvan_III__(1162-1172_AD)_U-086_C1-157_H-171_Q-019_2h_13,2mm_0,21g-s.jpg
CÁC II. 20.16.1.1./b1.21./57., Anonymous III. (István III., (Stephen III.), King of Hungary, (1162-1172 A.D.)?), AR-Denarius, H-164, CNH I.-153, U-086, #02130 viewsCÁC II. 20.16.1.1./b1.21./57., Anonymous III. (István III., (Stephen III.), King of Hungary, (1162-1172 A.D.)?), AR-Denarius, H-164, CNH I.-153, U-086, #02
avers: Four crosses and four crescents around Jerusalem cross; border of dots.
reverse: Three dots between two crosses; border of line.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 13,2mm, weight: 0,21g, axis:2h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-164, CNH I.-153, Unger-086,
Kiss-Toth, Sigla: 20.16.1.1./b1.21./57.,
Q-002
quadrans
Istvan_III__(1162-1172_AD)_U-086_C1-157_H-171_Q-022_5h_13,0mm_0,18g-s.jpg
CÁC II. 20.16.1.1./g1.03./69., Anonymous III. (István III., (Stephen III.), King of Hungary, (1162-1172 A.D.)?), AR-Denarius, H-164, CNH I.-153, U-086, #01121 viewsCÁC II. 20.16.1.1./g1.03./69., Anonymous III. (István III., (Stephen III.), King of Hungary, (1162-1172 A.D.)?), AR-Denarius, H-164, CNH I.-153, U-086, #01
avers: Four crosses and four crescents around Jerusalem cross; border of dots.
reverse: Three dots between two crosses; border of line.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 13,0mm, weight: 0,18g, axis:5h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-164, CNH I.-153, Unger-086,
Kiss-Toth, Sigla: 20.16.1.1./g1.03./69.,
Q-001
quadrans
Istvan_III__(1162-1172_AD)_U-086_C1-157_H-171_Q-008_1h_13,3mm_0,22g-s.jpg
CÁC II. 20.16.1.1./g1.07./73., Anonymous III. (István III., (Stephen III.), King of Hungary, (1162-1172 A.D.)?), AR-Denarius, H-164, CNH I.-153, U-086, #01106 viewsCÁC II. 20.16.1.1./g1.07./73., Anonymous III. (István III., (Stephen III.), King of Hungary, (1162-1172 A.D.)?), AR-Denarius, H-164, CNH I.-153, U-086, #01
avers: Four crosses and four crescents around Jerusalem cross; border of dots.
reverse: Three dots between two crosses; border of line.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 13,3 mm, weight: 0,22g, axis:1h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-164, CNH I.-153, Unger-086,
Kiss-Toth, Sigla: 20.16.1.1./g1.07./73.,
Q-001
quadrans
Istvan_III__(1162-1172_AD)_U-086_C1-157_H-171_Q-021_0h_13,0mm_0,20g-s.jpg
CÁC II. 20.16.1.1./g1.10./76., Anonymous III. (István III., (Stephen III.), King of Hungary, (1162-1172 A.D.)?), AR-Denarius, H-164, CNH I.-153, U-086, #01127 viewsCÁC II. 20.16.1.1./g1.10./76., Anonymous III. (István III., (Stephen III.), King of Hungary, (1162-1172 A.D.)?), AR-Denarius, H-164, CNH I.-153, U-086, #01
avers: Four crosses and four crescents around Jerusalem cross; border of dots.
reverse: Three dots between two crosses; border of line.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 13,0mm, weight: 0,20g, axis:0h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-164, CNH I.-153, Unger-086,
Kiss-Toth, Sigla: 20.16.1.1./g1.10./76.,
Q-001
quadrans
Caracalla.jpg
Caracalla (Caesar) Coin: Silver Denarius 17 viewsIMP CAES M AVR ANTON AVG - Laureate, draped bust right.
MINER VICTRIX - Minerva standing left, holding Victory and spear, shield at foot, trophy behind.
Mint: Rome (198-199 AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 2.70g / 19mm / 12h
References:
RIC 21
RSC 161
BMC 117
Acquisition/Sale: jerusalemhadaya2012 eBay $0.00 06/19
Notes: Jun 7, 19 - The Gary R. Wilson Collection
Gary W2
10039b.jpg
Crusader States, Normans of Sicily, William II, AD 1166-1189, AE Trifollaro, Spahr 117.75 viewsCrusader States, Sicily, William II, AD 1166-1189, AE Trifollaro (24-25 mm), 8,82 g.
Obv.: Facing head of lioness within circle of dots.
Re.: Palm tree with five branches and two bunches of dates, within circle of dots.
Biaggi 1231, Spahr 117 ; Grie 210 (Roger II); Thom 2480 .

William II of Sicily (1153-1189), called the Good, was king of Sicily and Naples from 1166 to 1189.
William was only thirteen years old at the death of his father William I, when he was placed under the regency of his mother, Margaret of Navarre.
Until the king came of age in 1171 the government was controlled first by the chancellor Stephen du Perche, cousin of Margaret (1166-1168), and then by Walter Ophamil, archbishop of Palermo, and Matthew of Ajello, the vice-chancellor.
William's character is very indistinct. Lacking in military enterprise, secluded and pleasure-loving, he seldom emerged from his palace life at Palermo. Yet his reign is marked by an ambitious foreign policy and a vigorous diplomacy. Champion of the papacy and in secret league with the Lombard cities he was able to defy the common enemy, Frederick I Barbarossa. In 1174 and 1175 he made treaties with Genoa and Venice and his marriage in February 1177 with Joan, daughter of Henry II of England and Eleanor of Aquitaine, marks his high position in European politics.
In July 1177, he sent a delegation of Archbishop Romuald of Salerno and Count Roger of Andria to sign the Treaty of Venice with the emperor. To secure the peace, he sanctioned the marriage of his aunt Constance, daughter of Roger II, with Frederick's son Henry, afterwards the emperor Henry VI, causing a general oath to be taken to her as his successor in case of his death without heirs. This step, fatal to the Norman kingdom, was possibly taken that William might devote himself to foreign conquests.
Unable to revive the African dominion, William directed his attack on Egypt, from which Saladin threatened the Latin kingdom of Jerusalem. In July 1174, 50,000 men were landed before Alexandria, but Saladin's arrival forced the Sicilians to re-embark in disorder. A better prospect opened in the confusion in Byzantine affairs which followed the death of Manuel Comnenus (1180), and William took up the old design and feud against Constantinople. Durazzo was captured (June 11, 1185). Afterwards while the army marched upon Thessalonica, the fleet sailed towards the same target capturing on their way the Ionian islands of Corfu, Cephalonia,Ithaca and Zakynthos. In August Thessalonica surrendered to the joint attack of the Sicilian fleet and army.
The troops then marched upon the capital, but the troop of the emperor Isaac Angelus overthrew the invaders on the banks of the Strymon (September 7, 1185). Thessalonica was at once abandoned and in 1189 William made peace with Isaac, abandoning all the conquests. He was now planning to induce the crusading armies of the West to pass through his territories, and seemed about to play a leading part in the Third Crusade. His admiral Margarito, a naval genius equal to George of Antioch, with 60 vessels kept the eastern Mediterranean open for the Franks, and forced the all-victorious Saladin to retire from before Tripoli in the spring of 1188.
In November 1189 William died, leaving no children. Though Orderic Vitalis records a (presumably short-lived) son in 1181: Bohemond, Duke of Apulia. His title of "the Good" is due perhaps less to his character than to the cessation of internal troubles in his reign. The "Voyage" of Ibn Jubair, a traveller in Sicily in 1183-1185, shows William surrounded by Muslim women and eunuchs, speaking and reading Arabic and living like "a Moslem king."

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

my ancient coin database
1 commentsArminius
MISC_Crusaders_Antioch_Bohemond_III_Metcalf_Class_C.JPG
Crusader States: Principality of Antioch. Bohemond III (1163-1201)87 viewsMetcalf Class C 388-391; Malloy 65-67

Billon Denier, struck circa 1163-1188, 18 mm

Obv: +BOANVNDVS [A ornamented with annulets, retrograde N’s], helmeted and mailed head left, crescent and star on either side.

Rev: +ANTIOCNIA [A’s ornamented with annulets, retrograde N’s], cross pattée, crescent in second quarter.

The Principality of Antioch was a crusader state created in 1098 during the First Crusade by Normans from Italy. In 1268, Baibars, the Mamluk Sultan of Egypt, took the city.

Bohemond (1144–1201), the “Stammerer” or the “Stutterer,” was the son of Constance of Antioch, the daughter of Bohemond II, by her first husband Raymond II of Poitiers, who was killed at the Battle of Inab in 1149 toward the end of the Second Crusade. She ruled as regent from 1149 until 1163, when Bohemond, with the assistance of King Baldwin III of Jerusalem, forced her to step down.

In 1164, Bohemond was captured by Nur ad-Din Zengi, who ruled the Syrian province of the Seljuk Empire, at the Battle of Harim. He was freed for a large ransom due to the intervention of King Amalric I of Jerusalem and Emperor Manuel I Comnenus. In 1192, after the fall of the Kingdom of Jerusalem following the battle of Hattin, Bohemond signed a truce with Saladin. Due to the truce, he remained neutral during the Third Crusade.

Bohemond clashed with Levon I of Armenia, who aspired to expand his kingdom. He was captured by Levon and forced to cede the Principality to Levon. However, the Antiochenes named Bohemond’s eldest son, Raymond IV of Tripoli, as their prince. Bohemond and Levon ultimately reconciled, and Raymond married Levon’s neice, Alice, who died shortly after giving birth to their son, Raymond-Roupen. Bohemond died in 1201 and the succession was disputed between his second son, Bohemond IV, and his grandson, Raymond-Roupen.
Stkp
Crusaders,_Achaia,_Karl_II__(1285_-_1289),_Clarentza_mint,_K_R_PRINC_ACh_,_DE_CLARENTIA,_Q-001,_7h,_17,5-18,5mm,_0,97g-s.jpg
Crusaders, Achaia, Charles II. of Anjou (1285–1289 A.D.), AR-denar, Achaia, ͓̽ ✠ ͓̽DЄ͓̽CLΛRЄNTIΛ, Châtel tournois, #1118 viewsCrusaders, Achaia, Charles II. of Anjou (1285–1289 A.D.), AR-denar, Achaia, ͓̽ ✠ ͓̽DЄ͓̽CLΛRЄNTIΛ, Châtel tournois, #1
avers: ✠•K•R•PRINC'ΛCh•, Cross pattée, the legend flanked by •, and has unbarred Λ's.
reverse: ͓̽ ✠ ͓̽DЄ͓̽CLΛRЄNTIΛ, Châtel tournois.
diameter: 17,5-18,5mm, weight: 0,97g, axis: 7h,
mint: Clarentza, mint mark: ,
date:1285-1289 A.D., ref: Metcalf, Crusades,; Malloy CCS 12,
Q-001
"Charles II, known as "the Lame" (French le Boiteux, Italian lo Zoppo; 1254 – 5 May 1309), was King of Naples and Sicily, titular
King of Jerusalem, and Prince of Salerno.
He was the son of Charles I of Anjou, who had conquered the Kingdom of Naples and Sicily in the 1260s. His mother was Beatrice of Provence."
quadrans
cp.jpg
Crusaders, Kingdom of Cyprus, Henry II, Second Reign 1310 - 1324 AR gros42 viewsCrusaders, Kingdom of Cyprus, Henry II, Second Reign 1310 - 1324 AR gros
4.6 gr
hENRI REI DE, enthroned king holding globus cruciger in left hand and scepter in right over shoulder .
+ IERUSAL'M E D ChIP cross of Jerusalem .
CCS 64 ; Metcalf "The silver coinage of Cyprus , 1285-1382" Pl. 17 , 7. die D
Very rare reverse legend variant .
1 commentsVladislav D
A511FF90-CD5C-4ED6-B970-3AFA398F0614.jpeg
Crusaders, Kingdom of Cyprus, Hugh IV 1324-1359 AR gros15 viewsCrusaders, Kingdom of Cyprus, Hugh IV 1324-1359 AR gros
4.57 gr
HVGVE - REI DE , enthroned king holding globus cruciger in left hand and scepter in right over shoulder .
+IERVSAL'M E D' CHIPR cross of Jerusalem .
Metc. 752, Schlumb. VI, 24 var., CCS 67.
Plugged.
Ex G. Toderi, Florence, Listino 1, March 1972, Nr. 406.
Ex Erich Wäckerlin collection
Ex Münzen & Medaillen GmbH
Auction 47 lot 353
Vladislav D
sezin.jpg
Crusaders, Kingdom of Cyprus, James II 1460-147331 viewsCrusaders, Kingdom of Cyprus, James II 1460-1473
AE.Sezin
Obverse : + IACOBUS.DEI GRACIA :REX , lion of Cyprus rampant left.
Reverse : + IERUSALEM:CYPRI ARMENIE, cross of Jerusalem.
Schl.VIII.24 ; CCS 163
Vladislav D
tr.jpg
Crusaders, Kingdom of Cyprus, Peter II 1369-1382 . AR . Gros Petit .36 viewsCrusaders, Kingdom of Cyprus, Peter II 1369-1382 . AR . Gros Petit .
1.5 Gr.
PIE REROI (I?) King seated on small , low throne, wears cloak fastened with cruciform brooch at neck , holds scepter in right and orb in left hand . Below right shield with lion of Cyprus rampant left .
+IERU3ALEMEDCHIPRE or similar . Cross of Jerusalem
CCS 97 -99 var .
Rare .
Vladislav D
eJf8Y6dL9wXoa4bSG6j3c5PE2HBfPw.jpg
Crusaders. Lordship Beirut. Raymond of Tripoli (1184-1186). AE-Pougeoise49 viewsCrusaders. Lordship of Beirut. Raymond de Tripoli (1184-1186). AE-Pougeoise
Obverse: T.V.R.R.I.S.; tower of David, annulet each side of the tower
Reverse: + D.A.V.I.T.; eight pointed star

weight 0.69g – diameter 15 mm

Ref.: Schlumberger Pl. III, 26 (attributed to the kingdom of Jerusalem, Guy de Lusignan); Malloy et al. 2; Metcalf 206 f. ; Sabine, NC (1978), Type 2
Ex goancient
Vladislav D
cse-051LG.jpg
Crusaders. Lordship of Beirut. Raymond of Tripoli (1184-1186). AE-Pougeoise41 viewsCrusaders. Lordship of Beirut. Raymond of Tripoli (1184-1186). AE-Pougeoise
Obverse: T.V.R.R.I.S.; tower of David, annulet each side of the tower
Reverse: + D.A.V.I.T.; eight pointed star

weight 0.99g – diameter 16.0mm

Ref.: Schlumberger Pl. III, 26 (attributed to the kingdom of Jerusalem, Guy de Lusignan); Malloy et al. 2; Metcalf 206 f.
Ex BYZANTIUM COINS (Wolfgang Leimenstoll)
Vladislavs D
berth.jpg
Crusaders. Lordship of Beirut. Raymond of Tripoli (1184-1186). AE-Pougeoise31 viewsCrusaders. Lordship of Beirut. Raymond of Tripoli (1184-1186). AE-Pougeoise
Obverse: T.V.R.R.I.S.; tower of David, annulet each side of the tower
Reverse: + D.A.V.I.T.; eight pointed star
Ref.: Schlumberger Pl. III, 26 (attributed to the kingdom of Jerusalem, Guy de Lusignan); Malloy et al. 2; Metcalf 206 f.
1 commentsVladislav D
CYPRUS_JANUS_DENIER~0.jpg
CYPRUS - Janus de Lusignan43 viewsCYPRUS - Janus de Lusignan (1375-1432), King of Cyprus, Armenia and Jerusalem, billon denier (14mm). Obv.: Lion of Cyprus left. IAnOS ROI D Rev.: Cross, * IERUSALE E Reference: LAM 68dpaul7
CYPRUS_JANUS_DENIER.jpg
CYPRUS - Crusader Kingdom64 viewsCYPRUS - Crusader Kingdom, Janus I (1398-1432) billon Denier. Obv.: Rampant Cyprus Lion; +DE CHIPRE E D ERI Rev.: Jerusalem Cross, +IANVS ROI DE CH. Reference: MALLOY-122.dpaul7
demetriusTD.jpg
Demetrius II Nikator AR Tetradrachm 129 BC71 viewsOBV: Diademed Bust Right
REV: BASILEWS [DEMETPIOY] Eagle left on prow, Club with TYP- monogram on top (Tyre mint) to left and date I Pi P (SE 187 = 126/5 BC) in right field, I Pi P below. Other monogram between eagle's legs.
Houghton 467, Newell 156, BMC 11 (ref. Wildwinds)
wt 13.4 gm
Shekels (tetradrachmae) of Tyre were minted in almost pure silver and were the only ones acceptable for the Jerusalem temple tax. This coin has some horn silver (chlorargyrite ) deposits on it.
2 commentsdaverino
djertetORweb.jpg
Diadumenian Tetradrachm, Prieur 1645 50 viewsJudaea, Aelia Capitolina (Jerusalem) mint, Diadumenian Tetradrachm, 217-218 A.D. AR 25mm 11.46g, Prieur 1645 per Michel Prieur (*second known example)
O: (…) ,bareheaded, draped and cuirassed bust right
R: DHMARX EX UPATOC (or similar),eagle standing, looking left, wreath in beak
1 commentscasata137ec
D821sm2.jpg
Domitian RIC-821103 viewsAR Denarius, 3.42g
Rome mint, 96 AD
Obv: IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM P M TR P XVI; Head of Domitian, laureate, bearded, r.
Rev: IMP XXII COS XVII CENS P P P; Minerva, winged, flying l., with spear and shield
RIC 821 (R2). BMC 237D. RSC 297b. BNC - .
Ex jerusalemhadaya2012, eBay, 4 March 2019.

Domitian achieved tribunician power for the 16th time on 14 September 96 AD. He was assassinated in a palace plot four days later on 18 September. In between those two dates the mint struck only one issue of denarii recording Domitian as TR P XVI, needless to say they are extremely rare! The Senate decreed Damnatio Memoriae within a day of Domitian's assassination which would have quickly halted production at the mint for his coinage. The months leading up to Domitian's assassination saw the mint at Rome experimenting with many new reverse designs (altar, winged Minerva, Maia, temple reverses), breaking the monotony of the four standard Minerva types that had previously dominated the denarius. These new types are exceedingly rare and were perhaps experimental in nature. This denarius shows one of these new reverse types, Minerva Victrix, a more warrior like attribute of the goddess. The fact that this new type which originally appeared on the denarius when Domitian was TR P XV carried over to the briefly struck TR P XVI issue alongside the Maia and the M1, M3, and M4 Minerva types may hint that there was indeed change in the air at the mint. Perhaps the mix of new types with the older ones hint at a transition regarding the typology on his precious metal coinage? Regardless, the experiment was cut short by an assassin's blade, so we shall never know. This denarius may very well be the last coin ever struck for Domitian.

Fine late style with good natural toning. Same dies as the BM specimen.
10 commentsDavid Atherton
DomitianLXF.jpg
Domitian Sebaste, Samaria Countermark LXF85 viewsDomitian Ae 25mm, 14.02 g. Sebaste, Samaria. O: Laureate head of Domitian IMP DOMITIANVS CAESAR; Countermark: LXF, of the Tenth Legion Fretensis in rectangular punch. R: Tyche standing to left resting foot on rock(?) holding spear and globe, [CEBAC]THNWN (of the people of Sebaste); in l. field, date: LΘΡ (year 109 = 81/2 AD). Host coin - RPC II 2226, with LXF - Hendin 1613a.

The Tenth Legion probably acquired its name, Fretensis, from the Fretum Siculum, the straits where the legion fought successfully against Sextus Pompey.

It is undoubtedly most famous for its part in the destruction of Jerusalem under General Titus. Starting in 66 CE, Roman armies began fighting their way from the northern parts of Israel, down to Jerusalem.

Titus advanced on Jerusalem near Passover 70 C.E., trapping the residents and pilgrims inside the city. His forces stripped the Judean countryside of trees to build a 4.5-mile-long wall of pointed stakes around the capital.

In that year X Fretensis, in conjunction with V Macedonica, XII Fulminata, and XV Apollinaris, began the five month siege of Jerusalem that would result in what Jewish Bible scholar Alfred Edersheim described as a, “tribulation to Israel unparalleled in the terrible past of its history, and unequalled even in its bloody future.”

What was the Tenth Legion doing in Sebaste, Samaria? According to some scholars it was perhaps to defend against the appearance of a pseudo-Nero, who had garnered the support of the Parthians.
1 commentsNemonater
EB1013_scaled.JPG
EB1013 Lead Seal5 viewsLead Seal, late Roman or Byzantine
Obverse: Jerusalem Cross (cross potent with small Greek crosses in each quadrant).
Reverse: Blank.
Diameter: 28mm, Weight: 32.2g.
EB
jugateres.jpg
ELAGABALUS--AELIA CAPITOLINA18 views218 - 222 AD
struck 222 AD
AE 22.5 mm 7.54 g
O: Jugate busts of Elagabalus and Severus Alexander (as Caesar) right, both laureate, draped, and cuirassed right
R: Tyche standing left, right foot on helmet, right hand over horned altar (to left), left hand holding scepter (to right); aquila to left, cup in exergue.
JUDAEA, Aelia Capitolina (Jerusalem)
Meshorer, Aelia 142; Rosenberger 82 Very rare.
laney
prutah_2.jpg
First Jewish War, AD 66-7013 viewsAE Prutah, 17mm, 3g, 6h; Jerusalem, AD 68/9.
Obv.: שנת שלוש (Year Three); Amphora with broad, fringed rim and two handles.
Rev.: חרות ציונ (Freedom of Zion); Grape leaf on vine.
Reference: Hendin 1363.
Notes: ex-Zuzim, electronic sale 3/16/15, 46.
John Anthony
Juive 3.jpg
First Revolt - "Eighth" of 69-70 AD26 viewsLG’LT SYWN : "For the Redemption of Zion" , chalice with pearled rim.
SNT ‘RBY : Year 4 , "lulav" between two "etrogs".

bought in Jerusalem
1 commentsGinolerhino
antiochos 4 ae14.jpg
GREEK, Antiochos IV (Epiphanes), Seleucid Kingdom AE1447 viewsSyria, Seleucid Kingdom. Antiochos IV AE 14 (1.86 g).
Laureate head of Antiochos IV.
Apollo Seated Reverse.
Struck 176-164 B.C.
Spaer 1108.
Note: "Younger son of Antiochos the Great, Antiochos IV seized the Seleukid throne in 175 B.C. after having spent the previous twelve years as a hostage in Rome. He was a vigorous ruler and attempted to extend Seleukid influence by invading Egypt, though he was obliged to withdraw because of Roman opposition. He also aroused the hatred of the Jews by despoiling the Temple in Jerusalem and later tearing down the city walls. Antiochos died on campaign in the east in 164 B.C." - David R. Sear, GREEK COINS AND THEIR VALUES VOLUME 2.
Jericho
HadrianDecapolis.jpg
Hadrian, head right187 viewsVespasian, 1 July 69 - 24 June 79 A.D., Gadara, Decapolis
9266. Bronze AE 23, Spijkerman 26; SNG ANS 6, 1300, F, Decapolis, Gadara mint, 11.04g, 22.8mm, 0o, 71/72 A.D.; obverse OYECPACIANOC KAICAP, laureate head right, countermarked with "Hadrian's head"; reverse GADARA, Tyche standing left holding wreath and cornucopia, date LELP left ( = 71/72 A.D. ); interesting coin that relates to both the first and second jewish revolts; $160.00
The `Hadrian's head` countermark was struck during the Second Jewish Revolt (`Bar Kochbah` uprising) led by Simon Bar Kochba against Rome, 133 - 135 A.D. In 135 A.D., Hadrian destroyed Jerusalem and founded `Aelia Capitolina` on the site. The Jews were dispersed throughout the Roman Empire.

whitetd49
halfshekelI.jpg
Half Shekel, Tyre LA (Year 1)138 views6.43 g Tyre Mint 126/125 BCE

O: Head of Herakles (Melqart)
R: Eagle standing left; ΤΥΡΟΥ ΙΕΡΑΣ ΚΑΙ ΑΣΥΛΟΥ "Of Tyre the Holy and City of Refuge." around; Date LA to left; Monogram FP to right.

BMC Phoenicia page 250 #213 lists one Year 1 half shekel with M monogram. DCA lists this date as R3, the highest rarity rating.
Unique with with FP monogram. Glossy, dark chocolate find patina.

Shekels and Half Shekels of Tyre began being issued as autonomous silver coins in 126/125 BCE after gaining freedom from Seleucid domination that year. Although similar in style to the Seleucid coinage, the most obvious change was the King's bust being replaced with the city's chief god Melqart.

They have become highly desired due to their being the money of choice for payments to the Jerusalem Temple. The half shekel was the required yearly tribute to the temple for every Jewish male over the age of 20.

Ed Cohen notes in Dated Coins of Antiquity, that the minting of Tyre shekels or, more specifically, half shekels, ended at the onset of the Jewish Revolt in 65/66 and the minting of the Jewish Revolt shekels then begins. This, along with other compelling evidence, has led many, including me, to believe the later "KP" shekels were struck south of Tyre.
4 commentsNemonater
John_Hyrcanus_I,_h_1131.jpg
Hendin 1131: John Hyrcanus I (Yehohanan)46 viewsJohn Hycranus I (Yehohanan) with Antiochus VII. Jerusalem Mint. 132-130 B.C.. AE 14-15mm. Hendin 1131. Obverse: (of King Antiochus, Benefactor in Greek), inverted anchor, date uncertain. Reverse: Lily.

Struck by John Hycanus I (Yehohanan), King of Judaea, in the name of Seleukid King Antiochos VII.
Lucas H
Alexander_Jannaeus,_Hendin_1144.jpg
Hendin 114461 viewsAlexander Jannaeus (Yehonatan). AE Prutah, Jerusalem Mint. Hendin 1144. Obverse: Hebrew inscription (Yehonatan the High Priest and the Council of the Jews) within wreath. Reverse: Double cornucopia adorned with ribbons, pomegranate between horns, border of dots. Ex Amphora.

Probable obverse die match to another member's coin of the same type: http://www.forumancientcoins.com/gallery/displayimage.php?album=random&cat=24403&pos=-49572
1 commentsLucas H
Alexander_Jannaeus_overstrike,_H_1149(a).jpg
Hendin 1149a overstrike82 viewsAlexander Jannaeus. AE Prutah, Jerusalem Mint. Hendin 1149(a) (cornucopias overstruck on lily and inscription overstruck on anchor). Obverse: Hebrew inscription (Yonatan the High Priest and the Council of the Jews) within wreath. Reverse: Double cornucopia adorned with ribbons, pomegranite between horns.

On the obverse, the circle which originally enclosed the anchor is visible on the top with part of the original Greek inscription from the underlying coin from 1:00 o'clock to 3:00 o'clock. On the reverse of this coin, traces of the lily are clearly visible above and perpendicular to the cornucopias. A portion of the original script from the underlying coin can be seen from 11:00 o'clock to 1:00 o'clock.
1 commentsLucas H
Herod,_h_1188.jpg
Hendin 118856 viewsHerod the Great. 40-4 B.C.. AE Prutah. Jerusalem Mint. Hendin 1188. Obverse Greek inscription, anchor. Reverse: Double cornucopia with caduceus between, dots above.

The most commonly struck coin during Herod's reign.
Lucas H
Herod,_h_1190.jpg
Hendin 1190: Herod the Great, Eagle Lepton63 viewsHerod the Great. 37-4 B.C.. AE half-prutah. Jerusalem Mint. Hendin 1190. Obverse: (Of King Herod in Greek), single cornucopia. Reverse: Eagle standing right. Ex Amphora.

The first coin by a Jewish ruler to depict a graven image. This could be a reference to the golden bird King Herod placed at the Second Temple in Jerusalem.
Lucas H
1_Hyrcanus_I_H-452.jpg
Hendin-45237 views HYRCANUS I (Yehochanan) 134-104 BCE
Mint:Jerusalem;AE Prutah
Obv-YEHOCHANAN H KOHEN GADOL V'CHEBER YEHUDYM,
in four lines,surrounded by wreath.
Yehochanan the High Priest the Council the Jews.
CH W H Y
N H K H N N
R B CH W L
Y
Rev- Circle of pellets around double cornucopia
adorned with ribbons, pomegranate between horns.
Meshorer: AJC 1-K var.; TJC-group F var.
2 commentsbrian l
1__J_Hyrcanus_I,TJC-D9.jpg
Hendin-45320 views HYRCANUS I (Yehochanan) 134-104 BCE
Mint:Jerusalem;AE Prutah
Obv- YEHOCHANAN H KOHEN GADOL V'CHEBER H YEHUDYM,
in five lines,surrounded by wreath.
Yehochanan the High Priest and Council of the Jews.
W H Y
N H K H N N CH
(CH) W L D G H
Y H R B
Y D
Rev- Circle of pellets around double cornucopia
adorned with ribbons, pomegranate between horns.
Meshorer: AJC 1-Pb7; TJC- D9
brian l
1_Hyrcanus_I_,H453.jpg
Hendin-45313 views HYRCANUS I (Yehochanan) 134-104 BCE
Mint:Jerusalem;AE Prutah
Obv- YEHOCHANAN H KOHEN GADOL V'CHEBER H YEHUDYM,
in five lines,surrounded by wreath.
Yehochanan the High Priest and Council of the Jews.
(W) H Y
(H) K H N N CH
(W) L D G H N
(Y H) R B CH
M Y (D)
Rev- Circle of pellets around double cornucopia
adorned with ribbons, pomegranate between horns.
Greek A monogram below right of cornucopia
Meshorer: AJC 1-Pb1; TJC-D5
brian l
1__Hyrcanus_I_H-454.jpg
Hendin-45423 views HYRCANUS I (Yehochanan) 134-104 BCE
Mint:Jerusalem;AE Prutah; Date:130-129 BCE
Obv- Greek A YEHOCHANAN H KOHEN H GADOL V'CHABER H YHUDYM,
in five lines,surrounded by wreath.
Yehochanan the High Priest and Council of the Jews.
A
N N CH W H Y
D G H N H K H
(Y) H R B CH W L
M Y D W H
Rev- Circle of pellets around double cornucopia
adorned with ribbons, pomegranate between horns.
Meshorer: AJC 1-Ma3; TJC-A5
brian l
1__J_Hyrcannus_I,_H-455.jpg
Hendin-45530 views HYRCANUS I (Yehochanan) 134-104 BCE
Mint:Jerusalem;AE Prutah
Obv- YEHOCHANAN H KOHEN H GADOL V'CHABER H YHUDYM,
in five lines,surrounded by wreath.
Yehochanan the High Priest and Council of the Jews.
N N CH W H Y
G H N H K H
R B CH W L D
Y D H Y H
M
Rev- Circle of pellets around double cornucopia
adorned with ribbons, pomegranate between horns.
Greek A monogram below left of cornucopia.
Meshorer: AJC 1-Na14; TJC-B8

1 commentsbrian l
Hyrcannus_I,_H-456_.jpg
Hendin-455 var.24 views HYRCANUS I (Yehochanan) 134-104 BCE
Mint:Jerusalem;AE Prutah
Obv- YEHOCHANAN H KOHEN H GADOL V'CHABER H YHUDYM,
in four lines,surrounded by wreath.
Yehochanan the High Priest and Council of the Jews.
N N CH W H Y
D G H N H K H
H R B CH W L
M Y D H Y
Rev- Circle of pellets around double cornucopia
adorned with ribbons, pomegranate between horns.
A - Monogram below left of cornucopias.
Meshorer: AJC 1-Na18; TJC-B11
brian l
1__Hyrcanus_I_H457.jpg
Hendin-45725 viewsHYRCANUS I (Yehochanan) 134-104 BCE
Mint:Jerusalem;AE Prutah
Obv- YEHOCHANAN H KOHEN H GADOL H'CHEBER H YEHUDYM
in five lines,surrounded by wreath.
Yehochanan the High Priest and Council of the Jews.
N N CH W H Y
G H N H K H
R B CH H L D
Y D H Y H
M
Rev- Circle of pellets around double cornucopia
adorned with ribbons, pomegranate between horns.
A-Monogram below left of cornucopias,off flan.
Meshorer: AJC 1-Nc9; TJC-B30
1 commentsbrian l
1__Hyrcanus_I_H-458.jpg
Hendin-45835 viewsHYRCANUS I (Yehochanan) 134-104 BCE
Mint:Jerusalem;AE Half Prutah
Obv- YEHOCHANAN H KOHEN H GADOL V'CHABER H YHUDYM,
in four lines,surrounding a palm branch.
Yehochanan the High Priest and Council of the Jews.
H N N CH W H Y
L D G H N H K
Y H R B CH W
M Y D H
Rev- Circle of pellets around flowering lily between grain ears.
A - Monogram between leaf and grain on left.
Meshorer: AJC 1-O1; TJC-C1
1 commentsBrian L
1_Hyrcanus_I_H-459.jpg
Hendin-45916 views HYRCANUS I (Yehochanan) 134-104 BCE
Mint:Jerusalem;AE Prutah
Obv-YEHOCHANAN H KOHEN H GADOL ROSH CHABER H YHUDYM,
in six lines surrounded by wreath.
Yehochanan the High Priest Head of the Council the Jews.
W H Y
(H) K H N N CH
(R L) D G H N
(B) CH SH W
H Y H R
M D
Rev- Circle of pellets around double cornucopia
adorned with ribbons, pomegranate between horns.
Tiny monogram to lower left of cornucopia.
Meshorer: AJC 1-Sb4; TJC I-7
brian l
O_6_6_copy.jpg
Hendin-46016 views HYRCANUS I (Yehochanan) 134-104 BCE
Mint:Jerusalem;AE Prutah
Obv-YEHOCHANAN H KOHEN H GADOL ROSH H CHABER H YHUDYM
in five lines surrounded by wreath.
Yehochanan the High Priest Head of the Council the Jews.
(N N CH W H Y)
D G H N H K (H)
CH H SH W R L
H Y H R B
M D
Rev- Circle of pellets around double cornucopia
adorned with ribbons, pomegranate between horns.
Tiny monogram A to lower right of cornucopia.
Meshorer: AJC 1-Sc17; TJC I-32
brian l
1__Hyrcanus_I,H-463.jpg
Hendin-46314 viewsHYRCANUS I (Yehochanan) 134-104 BCE
Mint:Jerusalem;AE Prutah
Crude Style
Obv-YEHOCHANAN H KOHEN H GADOL CHEBER,
in four lines surrounded by wreath.
Yehochanan the High Priest and Council of the Jews.
W H Y
K H N N CH
D G H N H
R B CH
Rev- Circle of pellets around double cornucopia adorned with ribbons, pomegranate between horns.
Meshorer: AJC 1-La23; TJC-E25
brian l
3_O_9_copy.jpg
Hendin-463 var.11 views HYRCANUS I (Yehochanan) 134-104 BCE
Mint:Jerusalem;AE Prutah
Obverse-YEHOCHANAN H KOHEN H GADOL CHABER,
in four lines surrounded by wreath
Yehohanan the Priest the High Council
CH W H Y
H H K H N
L D G
R B CH
Rev- Circle of pellets around double cornucopia adorned with ribbons, pomegranate between horns.
Meshorer: AJC 1-Lb4; TJC-G10
This group consists of irregular coins,
of different epigraph styles,
most of which are crude and the reading is sometimes conjectural.-TJC,Yaakov Meshorer
brian l
1__Hyrcanus_I_H464.jpg
Hendin-46427 views HYRCANUS I (Yehochanan) 134-104 BCE
Mint:Jerusalem;AE Prutah
Obv: YEHOCHANAN H KOHEN H GADOL V'CHABER H YHUDYM,
in four lines,surrounded by wreath.
Yehochanan the High Priest and Council of the Jews.
W H Y
H N N CH
G H N H
G D
Rev- Circle of pellets around double cornucopia
adorned with ribbons, pomegranate between horns.
Meshorer: AJC 1-La30; TJC-E32
brian l
1__Judah,_H465.jpg
Hendin-46521 views JUDAH ARISTOBULUS I (Yehudah) 104-103 BCE
Mint:Jerusalem;AE Prutah
Obv: YEHUDAH KOHEN GADOL V'CHEBER YEHUDYM
in five lines surrounded by wreath.
Yehudah High Priest the Council the Jews.
D W H Y
D G N H K H
R B CH W L
(D W H Y)
(M)
Rev- Circle of pellets around double cornucopia
adorned with ribbons, pomegranate between horns.
Type A reverse-wide,large style pomegranate.
Meshorer: AJC 1-Ja13; TJC-U15
1 commentsbrian l
Copy_of_1__Jannaeus_H_467.jpg
Hendin-46723 viewsALEXANDER JANNAEUS (Yehonatan) 103-76 BCE
Mint:Jerusalem;AE Prutah
Obv- ALEXANDROU BASILEWS -of Alexander the King
around upside down Seleucid anchor surrounded by a diadem.
Rev- HA MELEK YEHONATAN -Yehonatan the king
Jerusalem lily flower surrounded by border of dots
Ref: AJC I-group Aa1; TJC-group N1
2 commentsbrian l
1_Jannaeus_H-469.jpg
Hendin-46921 viewsALEXANDER JANNAEUS (Yehonatan) 103-76 BCE
Mint:Jerusalem;AE Prutah
Obv- BASILEWS ALEZANDROY-OF KING ALEXANDER
Anchor surrounded by a boarder of pellets.
Rev- CH L M H N T N W H Y- YEHONATAN the KING,
Inside eight pointed star surrounded by a diadem.
Meshorer: AJC 1-Ca; TJC-group K
2 commentsbrian l
1__A_Janneaus_star.jpg
Hendin-469 var.7 viewsALEXANDER JANNAEUS (Yehonatan) 103-76 BCE
Mint:Jerusalem;AE Prutah
Obv- BASILEWS ALEZANDROY-OF KING ALEXANDER
Anchor surrounded by a boarder of pellets.
Rev-K L M H N T N W H Y- YEHONATAN the KING,
Inside eight pointed star surrounded by a diadem.
Meshorer: AJC 1-Ca; TJC-group K
brian l
1__Jannaeus_grp_P41.jpg
Hendin-47310 views ALEXANDER JANNAEUS (Yehonatan) 103-76 BCE
Mint:Jerusalem;AE Prutah
Obv-YEHONATAN H KOHEN GADOL V'CHEBER H YEHUDYM,
in five lines,surrounded by wreath.
Yehonatan the High Priest and Council of the Jews.
W H Y
K H N T N
D G H N H
R B CH W L
Y
Rev- Circle of pellets around double cornucopia
adorned with ribbons, pomegranate between horns.
Meshorer: AJC 1-Ea44; TJC- P41
brian l
1__Jannaeus__grp_P.jpg
Hendin-473 14 views ALEXANDER JANNAEUS (Yehonatan) 103-76 BCE
Mint:Jerusalem;AE Prutah
Obv-YEHONATAN H KOHEN GADOL V'CHEBER H YEHUDIM
in four lines,surrounded by wreath.
Yehonatan the High Priest and the Council of the Jews.
W H Y
K H N T N
L D G H N H
R B CH W
Y
Rev- Circle of pellets around double cornucopia
adorned with ribbons, pomegranate between horns.
Meshorer: AJC 1-Ea33; TJC-P30
brian l
O_12_1_copy.jpg
Hendin-47314 views ALEXANDER JANNAEUS (Yehonatan) 103-76 BCE
Mint:Jerusalem;AE Prutah
Obv- YEHONATAN H KOHEN H GADOL V'CHEBER H YEHUDIM,
in five lines surrounded by wreath
Yehonatan the High Priest and the Council of the Jews.
(W H Y)
K H N T N
L D G H N H
H R B CH W
M D Y
Rev- Circle of pellets around double cornucopia
adorned with ribbons, pomegranate between horns.
Meshorer: AJC 1-Ea20; TJC-P17
brian l
1_Alexander_Jannaeus_H474.jpg
Hendin-4749 viewsALEXANDER JANNAEUS (Yehonatan) 103-76 BCE
Mint:Jerusalem;AE Prutah
Obv- YEHONATAN H KOHEN H GADOL V'CHEBER YEHUDIM,
in four lines surrounded by wreath
Yehonatan the High Priest and the Council of the Jews.
N W H Y
G K H N T
R B CH V L D
N H Y
Rev- Circle of pellets around double cornucopia
adorned with ribbons, pomegranate between horns.
Meshorer: AJC 1-group Fa ; TJC-group Q
brian l
1__Jannaeus_cursive,grp_R.jpg
Hendin-47511 views ALEXANDER JANNAEUS (Yehonatan) 103-76 BCE
Mint;Jerusalem;AE Prutah
Cursive Style Script
Obv-Yehonatan the high priest and Council of Jews,surrounded by wreath.
Yehonatan the High Priest and the Council of the Jews.
Rev- Circle of pellets around double cornucopia
adorned with ribbons, pomegranate between horns.
Meshorer: AJC 1-G ; TJC-group R
brian l
1__Hyrcanus_II,T13.jpg
Hendin-47815 views HYRCANUS II, King 67 BCE, Ethnarch 63-40 BCE
Mint:Jerusalem;AE Prutah
Overstruck on a Jannaeus lily
Obv-YONATAN H KOHEN GADOL V'CHEBER
in three lines surrounded by wreath,
few traces of anchor rim.
Yonatan the high Priest and Council of the Jews
N T N Y
G H K H
R B CH W
Rev- Circle of pellets around double cornucopia
adorned with ribbons, pomegranate between horns;
outline of lily around pomegranate from previously coin.
Meshorer: AJC 1-Ia ; TJC- T13
1 commentsbrian l
1_Hyrcanus_II.jpg
Hendin-47814 viewsHYRCANUS II, King 67 BCE, Ethnarch 63-40 BCE
Mint:Jerusalem;AE Prutah
Obv-YONATAN H KOHEN H GADOL W'CHEBER YEHUDIM
in five lines,surrounded by wreath.
Yonatan the High Priest and Council of the Jews,surrounded by wreath.
(H NTNOY)
H N H K
CH W L D G
D H Y R B
M Y
Rev- Circle of pellets around double cornucopia adorned with ribbons, pomegranate between horns.
Meshorer: AJC 1-Ia ; TJC-group T
brian l
O_6_5_copy.jpg
Hendin-4788 viewsHYRCANUS II, King 67 BCE, Ethnarch 63-40 BCE
Mint:Jerusalem;AE Prutah
Overstruck on a Jannaeus lily
Obv-Yonatan the High Priest and Council of the Jews,surrounded by wreath
Rev- Circle of pellets around double cornucopia
adorned with ribbons, pomegranate between horns;
traces of Greek letters on obverse @9:00
Meshorer: AJC 1-Ia ; TJC-group T
brian l
1_Hyrcanus_II_S13.jpg
Hendin-47915 viewsHYRCANUS II, King 67 BCE, Ethnarch 63-40 BCE
Mint:Jerusalem;AE Prutah
"wild inscription"
Obv: YONATAN H KOHEN GADOL V'CHEBER YEHUDIM,
in five lines surrounded by wreath.
Yonatan the High Priest and Council of the Jews.
(H N T N Y)
L D G N H K
Y R B CH W
Y D H
M
Rev: Double cornucopia adorned with ribbons, pomegranate between horns, border of dots.
Meshorer: AJC 1-Ha5; TJC-S5
brian l
1__Mattathias_Antigonus,_H_483,TJC_40.jpg
Hendin-48335 viewsMATTATHIAS ANTIGONUS (Mattatayah) 40-37 BCE
Mint:Jerusalem;AE Prutah
Retrograde Inscription
Obv- Mattatayah
H Y / T T M,surrounded by wreath.
Rev- Circle of pellets around double cornucopia with ear of grain between horns.
Meshorer: AJC 1-Y1; TJC-40
brian l
1_Herod_I_H500~0.jpg
Hendin-50024 viewsHEROD I (The Great) 40-4 BCE
Mint:Jerusalem;AE Prutah
Obv: HPW BACI-around Anchor
"of King Herod" in Greek.
Rev: Double cornucopia with caduceus between horns,four dots above.
Size: 15 mm; 1.67 grams.
Meshorer:AJC II-237,17; TJC- 59C
1 commentsbrian l
1__Herod_Agrippa_I~0.jpg
Hendin-553 17 viewsHEROD AGRIPPA I 37-44 AD
Mint:Jerusalem;AE prutah, Date:41-42 AD
Obv- AGRIPA BACILEWC -Surrounding umbrella canopy with fringes.
Rev-Three heads of barley growing between two leaves flanked by date,L-V:year 6.
Size: 1.88gms; 16.8 mm
Meshorer:TJC-120
brian l
1__H-661~0.jpg
Hendin-66130 viewsFirst Jewish Revolt 66-70 AD
AE Prutah,Mint: Jerusalem, Date: 67/68AD
Obv-SH'NAT SHTAYIM-Year Two-Amphora with broad rim and two handles.
Rev-CHAROT TZION - Freedom of Zion-Vine leaf with twig on tendril.
Size:18mm
Meshorer:TJC-196a
1 commentsbrian l
1__H-664~0.jpg
Hendin-66420 viewsFirst Jewish Revolt 66-70 AD
AE Prutah,Mint: Jerusalem, Date: 68/69AD
Obv-SH'NAT SH'LOSH -Year Three-Amphora with broad rim and two handles and lid decorated with tiny globes hanging around edge.
Rev-CHAROT TZION - Freedom of Zion-Vine leaf with twig on tendril.
Size: 17mm
Meshorer:TJC-205
brian l
her-rav1a.jpg
Heraclius, Follis, Ravenna mint, 630-631 AD (year 21), Sear 91425 viewsHeraclius (610-641 AD)

630-631 AD (year 21)

Follis

Obverse: DD NN HЄRACLIVS ЄT HЄRA CONST PP AVCC (or similar), Heraclius, crowned, in military attire and holding long cross, standing facing, foot on prostrate figure (a Persian?) below; to right, Heraclius Constantine, wearing crown and chlamys, holding globus cruciger, standing facing

Reverse: Large M; Above, cross; To left, ANNO; To right, XXI ; Exergus, RAV

Ravenna mint

This issue commemorates the victory of Heraclius over the Sasanid kingdom in 629 AD.

After years of war between Romans and Sasanids, in 612, Heraclius launched a major counter-offensive in Syria in 613. He was decisively defeated outside Antioch by Shahrbaraz and Shahin, and the Roman position collapsed. Over the following decade the Persians were able to conquer Palestine and Egypt and to devastate Anatolia. Meanwhile, the Avars and Slavs took advantage of the situation to overrun the Balkans, bringing the Roman Empire to the brink of destruction.
During these years, Heraclius strove to rebuild his army, slashing non-military expenditures, devaluing the currency and melting down Church plate, with the backing of Patriarch Sergius, to raise the necessary funds to continue the war. In 622, Heraclius left Constantinople, entrusting the city to Sergius and general Bonus as regents of his son. He assembled his forces in Asia Minor and, after conducting exercises to revive their morale, he launched a new counter-offensive, which took on the character of a holy war. In the Caucasus he inflicted a defeat on an army led by a Persian-allied Arab chief and then won a victory over the Persians under Shahrbaraz. Following a lull in 623, while he negotiated a truce with the Avars, Heraclius resumed his campaigns in the East in 624 and routed an army led by Khosrau at Ganzak in Atropatene. In 625 he defeated the generals Shahrbaraz, Shahin and Shahraplakan in Armenia, and in a surprise attack that winter he stormed Shahrbaraz's headquarters and attacked his troops in their winter billets. Supported by a Persian army commanded by Shahrbaraz, the Avars and Slavs unsuccessfully besieged Constantinople in 626, while a second Persian army under Shahin suffered another crushing defeat at the hands of Heraclius' brother Theodore. Meanwhile, Heraclius formed an alliance with the Turks, who took advantage of the dwindling strength of the Persians to ravage their territories in the Caucasus. Late in 627, Heraclius launched a winter offensive into Mesopotamia, where, despite the desertion of the Turkish contingent that had accompanied him, he defeated the Persians at the Battle of Nineveh. Continuing south along the Tigris, he sacked Khosrau's great palace at Dastagird and was only prevented from attacking Ctesiphon by the destruction of the bridges on the Nahrawan Canal. Discredited by this series of disasters, Khosrau was overthrown and killed in a coup led by his son Kavadh II, who at once sued for peace, agreeing to withdraw from all occupied territories. Heraclius restored the True Cross to Jerusalem with a majestic ceremony in 629.


Sear 914, D.O. 297, B.M.C. 452, T. 282, B.N. 5, M.I.B. 253a.

RRR

VF

6,98 g.
L.e.
her-rav1a~0.jpg
Heraclius, Follis, Ravenna mint, 630-631 AD (year 21), Sear 914, celebrating the defeat of the Sasanid kingdom and the restoration of the True Cross to Jerusalem. 103 viewsHeraclius (610-641 AD)

630-631 AD (year 21)

Follis

Obverse: DD NN HЄRACLIVS ЄT HЄRA CONST PP AVCC (or similar), Heraclius, crowned, in military attire and holding long cross, standing facing, foot on prostrate figure (a Persian?) below; to right, Heraclius Constantine, wearing crown and chlamys, holding globus cruciger, standing facing

Reverse: Large M; Above, cross; To left, ANNO; To right, XXI ; Exergus, RAV

Ravenna mint

This issue commemorates the victory of Heraclius over the Sasanid kingdom in 629 AD.

After years of war between Romans and Sasanids, in 612, Heraclius launched a major counter-offensive in Syria in 613. He was decisively defeated outside Antioch by Shahrbaraz and Shahin, and the Roman position collapsed. Over the following decade the Persians were able to conquer Palestine and Egypt and to devastate Anatolia. Meanwhile, the Avars and Slavs took advantage of the situation to overrun the Balkans, bringing the Roman Empire to the brink of destruction.
During these years, Heraclius strove to rebuild his army, slashing non-military expenditures, devaluing the currency and melting down Church plate, with the backing of Patriarch Sergius, to raise the necessary funds to continue the war. In 622, Heraclius left Constantinople, entrusting the city to Sergius and general Bonus as regents of his son. He assembled his forces in Asia Minor and, after conducting exercises to revive their morale, he launched a new counter-offensive, which took on the character of a holy war. In the Caucasus he inflicted a defeat on an army led by a Persian-allied Arab chief and then won a victory over the Persians under Shahrbaraz. Following a lull in 623, while he negotiated a truce with the Avars, Heraclius resumed his campaigns in the East in 624 and routed an army led by Khosrau at Ganzak in Atropatene. In 625 he defeated the generals Shahrbaraz, Shahin and Shahraplakan in Armenia, and in a surprise attack that winter he stormed Shahrbaraz's headquarters and attacked his troops in their winter billets. Supported by a Persian army commanded by Shahrbaraz, the Avars and Slavs unsuccessfully besieged Constantinople in 626, while a second Persian army under Shahin suffered another crushing defeat at the hands of Heraclius' brother Theodore. Meanwhile, Heraclius formed an alliance with the Turks, who took advantage of the dwindling strength of the Persians to ravage their territories in the Caucasus. Late in 627, Heraclius launched a winter offensive into Mesopotamia, where, despite the desertion of the Turkish contingent that had accompanied him, he defeated the Persians at the Battle of Nineveh. Continuing south along the Tigris, he sacked Khosrau's great palace at Dastagird and was only prevented from attacking Ctesiphon by the destruction of the bridges on the Nahrawan Canal. Discredited by this series of disasters, Khosrau was overthrown and killed in a coup led by his son Kavadh II, who at once sued for peace, agreeing to withdraw from all occupied territories. Heraclius restored the True Cross to Jerusalem with a majestic ceremony in 629.


Sear 914, D.O. 297, B.M.C. 452, T. 282, B.N. 5, M.I.B. 253a.

RRR

VF

6,98 g.
L.e.
Herod_Agrippa.JPG
Herod Agrippa15 viewsBronze prutah, Hendin 553, VF, maximum diameter Jerusalem mint, 41 - 42 A.D.;
OBV: AΓΡΙΠA BACIΛEWC (King Agrippa), umbrella canopy with fringes;
REV: three heads of barley growing between two leaves flanked by date L - stigma (year 6);
Romanorvm
hendin_553~0.jpg
Herod Agrippa I, 37 - 44 A.D. 37024. Bronze prutah (2), Hendin 5532 viewsHerod Agrippa I, 37 - 44 A.D. Bronze prutah, Hendin 553, aF, Jerusalem mint, 3.462g, 17.3mm, 0o, 41-42 A.D.; obverse A“ΓΡΙΠ”A BACI“Λ”EWC (King Agrippa), umbrella canopy with fringes; reverse , three heads of barley growing between two leaves flanked by date L - stigma (year 6). Ex FORVMPodiceps
hendin_553.jpg
Herod Agrippa I, 37 - 44 A.D. 37024. Bronze prutah, Hendin 5533 viewsHerod Agrippa I, 37 - 44 A.D. Bronze prutah, Hendin 553, Fair, Jerusalem mint, 3.444g, 17.2mm, 0o, 41-42 A.D.; obverse A“ΓΡΙΠ”A BACI“Λ”EWC (King Agrippa), umbrella canopy with fringes; reverse , three heads of barley growing between two leaves flanked by date L - stigma (year 6). Ex FORVMPodiceps
Herod1.JPG
Herod Agrippa I, 37-44 A.D.34 viewsBronze Prutah, 17.5mm, Jerusalem mint

Obverse: Three heads of barley between two leaves
Reverse: Inscription (King Agrippa) umbrella canopy with fringes.
1 commentsDk0311USMC
AntipasHalfUnit.jpg
Herod Antipas Half Unit84 viewsHERODIANS. Herod Antipas (4 BCE - 39 CE). Tiberias Mint, Æ half denomination, 19.4mm, 5.3 g.
O: TIBE PIAC in two lines within wreath.
R: HPΩΔOY TETPAPXOY (Herod Tetrarch), vertical palm branch, L to left, ΛZ to right, (RY 37 = 33/34 CE)
Hendin-1212 in GBC 5; ex. Hendin; ex. Teddy Kollek Collection; Menorah Coin Project ANT 15, Die 02/R12; Sear certificate.

Herod Antipas was the son of Herod the Great and Malthace, a Samaritan woman. He was brought up in Rome with his brother Archelaus.

In Herod’s will, Antipas had been named to receive the kingship, but Herod changed his will, naming Archelaus instead. Antipas contested the will before Augustus Caesar, who upheld Archelaus’ claim but divided the kingdom, giving Antipas the tetrarchy of Galilee and Perea. “Tetrarch,” meaning ‘ruler over one fourth’ of a province, was a term applied to a minor district ruler or territorial prince.

Antipas married the daughter of Aretas, king of Arabia. But on one of his trips to Rome, Antipas visited his half brother Herod Philip, the son of Herod the Great and Mariamne II (not Philip the tetrarch). While visiting, he became infatuated with Philip’s wife Herodias, who was quite the ambitious woman. He took her back to Galilee and married her, divorcing Aretas’ daughter and sending her back home. This insulting action brought war. Aretas invaded and Antipas suffered major losses before receiving orders from Rome for Aretas to stop.

According to Josephus, Herod's defeat was popularly believed to be divine punishment for his execution of John the Baptist. Tiberius ordered Vitellius, the governor of Syria, to capture or kill Aretas, but Vitellius was reluctant to support Herod and abandoned his campaign upon Tiberius' death in 37.

It was Herod Antipas’ adulterous relationship with Herodias that brought reproof from John the Baptizer. John was correct in reproving Antipas, because Antipas was nominally a Jew and professedly under the Law. This would lead to John's murder being schemed during a celebration of Antipas' birthday.

On the last day of Jesus’ earthly life, when he was brought before Pontius Pilate and Pilate heard that Jesus was a Galilean, Pilate sent him to Herod Antipas who happened to be in Jerusalem. Herod, disappointed in Jesus, discredited him and made fun of him, then sent him back to Pilate, who was the superior authority as far as Rome was concerned. Pilate and Herod had been enemies, possibly because of certain accusations that Herod had leveled against Pilate. But this move on Pilate’s part pleased Herod and they became friends.
Nemonater
hendin505.jpg
Herod Archelaus, Ethnarch 4 B.C. - 6 A.D. Bronze prutah, Hendin 5054 viewsJudean Kingdom, Herod Archelaus, Ethnarch 4 B.C. - 6 A.D. Bronze prutah, Hendin 505, SGICV 5539, Meshorer 61, Fair, Jerusalem mint, 3.364g, 14.5mm, obverse “ΗΡωΔΟΥ”(of Herod), bunch of grapes, with leaf on left; reverse “ΕΘΝΟΡΧΟΥ” (Ethnarch), tall helmet with crest and neck straps viewed from the front, small caduceus in lower left field. Ex FORVMPodiceps
Herod_Archelaus.jpg
Herod Archelaus, Ethnarch of Samaria, Judea, and Idumea, 4 B.C. - 6 A.D.31 viewsHerod Archelaus, son of Herod the Great, 4 BC-6 AD, Bronze Prutah of 16.1 mm, 2.48 grams. ( Under the first Roman emperor Augustus { Reign ; January 16, 27 BC – August 19, 14 AD } )
Obverse: HPω∆OY (of Herod) Bunch of grapes.
Reverse: EΘNOPXOY (Ethnarch), tall helmet with crest and neck straps viewed from the front, small caduceus in lower left field.
Reference: Hendin 1196.

“Swear to me, young women of Jerusalem, by the gazelles or by the does of the field, that you won’t awaken or arouse love before its proper time.” Song of Solomon.

Given as a souvenir to a very dear friend and a Bible Teacher Mr. John DelRicci . (10/13/2017)
1 commentsSam
17_Herod.jpg
Herod I (40 - 4 B.C.)8 viewsAE Prutah, 40 - 4 B.C., Jerusalem, 14.6mm, 1.80g, 180°, Hendin 500.
Obv: Anchor. HPWΔ BACI.
Rev: Double cornucopia with caduceus between; three dots above.
Marti Vltori
Herodwithscriptcopy.jpg
Herod I (the Great)111 viewsHerod I (the Great). 40-4 BCE. Æ 8 Prutot, 22mm, 5.82 g. Samaria mint. Dated RY 3 (40 BCE). O: Ceremonial bowl (lebes) on tripod; date L Γ (Year 3) to left, monogram to right. Greek Inscription: BAΣIΛEΩΣ HPΩΔOΥ (of King Herod.) R: Military helmet with cheek guards and straps, star above, palms flanking. Meshorer 44; Hendin 486; RPC I 4901.


Although there is debate over exactly what year “Year 3” refers to, the monogram TP may well indicate the third year of Herod’s tetrarchy. Josephus writes that Mark Antony appointed Herod as tetrarch (TETPAPXHΣ) in 42 B.C.E., which would bring us to 40/39 B.C.E. This is also when Herod was crowned as King of Judaea by the Roman Senate with the approval of Octavian (soon to be Augustus.)

This dating helps to explain the meaning of the obverse image of a soldier’s helmet. Although Herod was appointed as king, the Hasmonaean king, Mattathias Antigonus, was still ruling over Judea and did not recognize Roman authority. Herod would therefore have to raise an army, which he did, and, after a three month siege, conquered Jerusalem in 37 B.C.E.


Although Herod accomplished a great deal during his thirty-year + reign, including the building of massive palaces and amphitheaters and enlarging the temple, he is most remembered as a jealous, paranoid murderer, willing to do anything to maintain his political power.

Herod ordered the death of his Hasmonaean wife Mariamne and her brother Aristobulus. Later he had his two sons by Mariamne killed as well. This effectively eliminated the most serious threats to his power in Judaea. Caesar Augustus observed that it was safer to be Herod’s pig than Herod’s son. His wickedness reached its peak years later when, in fear of a rival king, he ordered the killing of all the boys two years of age and under in Bethlehem.

The Bible writer Matthew records Jesus’ birth taking place, “in the days of Herod the king.” A star led astrologers to Herod proclaiming the birth “of the one born king of the Jews.” The resulting slaughter of these children fulfilled the prophesy at Jeremiah 31:15, “This is what Jehovah has said, ‘In Ra′mah a voice is being heard, lamentation and bitter weeping; Rachel weeping over her sons. She has refused to be comforted over her sons, because they are no more.’”
4 commentsNemonater
Herodes_I.jpg
Herod the Great - AE prutah4 viewsJerusalem
37 - 4 BC
anchor
HPWΔ_BACIΛ
2 cornucopiae, caduceus between, dots above
Hendin 1188, Meshorer TJC 59
Johny SYSEL
herodes_eagle.jpg
Herod the Great, 37 - 4 B.C. Bronze lepton, Hendin 501; Golden bird8 viewsJudean Kingdom, Herod the Great, 37 - 4 B.C. Bronze lepton, Hendin 501, Meshorer 23, RPC I 4909, aVF, Jerusalem mint, 1.033g, 14.0mm, 180o, obverse “HRWD BASIL”, cornucopia; reverse , eagle standing; scarce. This is the first Jewish coin to feature a graven image, the golden bird at the gate of the temple. Ex FORVMPodiceps
hendin_500.jpg
Herod the Great, 37 - 4 B.C. Bronze prutah, Hendin 5009 viewsJudean Kingdom, Herod the Great, 37 - 4 B.C. Bronze prutah, Hendin 500, aVF, Jerusalem mint, 1.537g, 14.6mm, 180o, obverse “ΗΡΩΔ ΒΑ”C“ΙΛ”, anchor; reverse , double cornucopia with caduceus between horns, pellets above. Ex FORVMPodiceps
JCT_Home_for_Incurable_Invalids.JPG
Home for Incurable Invalids (Jerusalem, Israel)73 viewsAE token (formerly mounted on a bail), 19 mm., undated.

Obv: • HOME FOR INCURABLE INVALIDS • and IN JERUSALEM, along rim, FOR / GOOD LUCK / AND / HAPPINESS in four rows in center, above laurel leaves.

Rev: חי [Chai = life; numerically 18, in which number charitable donations are typically made in multiples] in center, laurel leaves along rim.

Ref: None known.

Note: Nothing is known about this institution.
Stkp
CrusadeHughIII.jpg
Hugh III14 viewsKing of Jerusalem (1268 - 1284 CE)
King of Cyprus (1267 - 1284 CE)

Obverse: hVGVG REI DE
Cross pattee.

Reverse: IRL M: ED ChIPR
Lion rampant, left.

*It is supposed that Thomas Aquinas' work On Kingship was written for Hugh III.
Pericles J2
bela iv hungary.jpg
HUNGARY - Bela IV185 viewsBela IV (1235-70), King of Hungary and Croatia, member of the legendary Arpad dynasty, silver denar.
King seated on his throne, "BELA REX"/Jerusalem cross, "REGIS P HVNGARI{}". Husz-320.
dpaul7
Hamadan_-_Mausoleum_of_Esther_and_Mordechai.jpg
Iran, Hamadan, the tomb of the biblical Esther and her cousin Mordechai63 viewsThe tomb in the photo, located in Hamadan, is believed by some to hold the remains of the biblical Esther and her cousin Mordechai.

Hamedan, Iran, is believed to be among the oldest cities in the world. Hamadan was established by the Medes and was the capital of the Median empire. It then became one of several capital cities of the Achaemenid Dynasty. Hamadan is mentioned in the biblical book of Ezra as the place where a scroll was found giving the Jews permission from King Darius to rebuild the temple in Jerusalem. (Ezra 6:2). Its ancient name of Ecbatana is used in the Ezra text. Because it was a mile above sea level, it was a good place to preserve leather documents.
Joe Sermarini
Baldwin III.jpg
ISLAMIC, Kingdom of Jerusalem, Baldwin III170 viewsAfter much difficulty the Crusaders managed to capture Jerusalem and the Kingdom of Jerusalem was established by Godfrey of Boullion. He called himself the Protector of the Holy Sepulchre but he died soon afterwards and was succeeded by his son, Baldwin I who had no qualms at calling himself King.
goldcoin
Herodion_from_below.JPG
Israel, Herodion211 viewsThe Herodion (Har Hordos) was Herod the Great’s summer palace near Jerusalem and – according to Josephus – the place of his burial. (A possible royal sarcophagus was discovered in 2007 but the identification with Herod is not certain.) There are two distinct parts: the Upper Herodion, a fortress complex set within a mountain top, and the Lower Herodion, the palace proper with several ancillary buildings (bath house, stadium, etc.) In the photograph, the Upper Herodion hill dominates the background, while the foreground shows part of a substantial colonnaded pool (70m x 45m) with a gazebo-like structure set at its centre. The area now in use as a car park would have been a formal garden in Herod’s day. Abu Galyon
Tulul_Abu_el-Alaiq_A(east).JPG
Israel, Jericho - Herod's Palace181 viewsThe ruins at Tulul Abu el-Alaiq, site of Herod the Great’s winter retreat on the outskirts of Jericho. Jericho is over 300m below sea level and hence pleasantly warm in winter, even when it's freezing in Jerusalem. Around 35 BCE, Aristobulus, the last Hasmonaean high-priest and Herod’s brother-in-law, was murdered here on Herod’s orders, drowned in a fish pond. The palace and grounds extended across the Wadi Qilt (the seasonal river-bed in the foreground of the picture), which was spanned by a bridge. Abu Galyon
Kidron_Valley_Tomb_of_Absalom.JPG
Israel, Jerusalem - Kidron Valley (1)161 viewsThis curious structure is known in Arabic as Tantour Faroun (‘Pharaoh’s Hat’). In fact it’s a funerary monument (nefesh) marking the entrance to a substantial catacomb with eight burial chambers cut into the cliff behind. It probably dates from the reign of Herod the Great. In guidebooks it’s sometimes marked as the ‘Tomb of Absalom’, but the legend that this is the tomb of David’s rebellious son is a medieval fantasy. Abu Galyon
Kidron_Valley_Tombs.JPG
Israel, Jerusalem - Kidron Valley (2)156 viewsAnother Kidron valley tomb complex (about 60m south of Tantour Faroun). Jewish pilgrims called this the ‘Tomb of Zechariah’, while the Christian pious associated it with their own early martyrs, notably St. James. In fact, an inscription shows that this was the burial place of the priestly Bene Hezir family, who get a passing mention in the Bible (1 Chronicles 24:15). The nefesh with a pyramidal top marks the entrance to a passage ascending into the cliff on the left. The actual burial chambers (four of them) lie in the area behind the Doric-columned façade. The complex dates from the later second-century BC. Abu Galyon
IMG_0768.jpg
Israel, Jerusalem - Western Wall and Dome of the Rock1745 viewsThe first century BCE western retaining wall of the Second Jewish Temple, directly in front of the 8th century Dome of the Rock. Friday evening at sunset (beginning of Shabbat).
posted by Zam
1 commentsZam
resizeJeru.jpg
Israel, Jerusalem Sep 201682 viewsSimon
resizejeru2.jpg
Israel, Jerusalem Sep 201676 viewsEast JerusalemSimon
1280px-Israel-2013%282%29-Jerusalem-Temple_Mount-Dome_of_the_Rock_%28SE_exposure%29.jpg
Israel, The Dome of the Rock on the Temple Mount in the Old City of Jerusalem170 viewsPhoto by Andrew Shiva.Joe Sermarini
The_Herodium.jpg
Israel, The Herodium146 viewsThe Herodium, 12 km south of Jerusalem, the site of one of Herod's residences and the location of his tomb. The buildings mid-slope to the left of centre are the site of the excavation of Herod's tomb.Lloyd
MISC_Ancona_grosso_Biaggi_34.jpg
Italian States: Ancona. Republic0 viewsBiaggi 34; CNI v. VIII, pp. 3-4, nos. 19-31, plate I/4-5

AR Grosso, struck ca. 13th-14th Century; 2.19 g., 21.77 mm. max.; 270°

Obv: + (star) DE ANCONA (star), cross pattée.

Rev: °• PP • S • QVI (star) – (trefoil) RI ACVS • (rosette) °, St. Judas Cyriacus (Quiriacus) standing facing, holding crozier and raising hand in benediction.

The reverse legend refers to Saint Judas Cyriacus (Quiriacus), patron Saint of Ancona. Local tradition claims that Cyriacus/Quiriacus was a Jew of Jerusalem who had a fateful meeting with the Roman empress Helena, mother of Constantine the Great, around 327 A.D. Helena was on a pilgrimage to Jerusalem when she encountered Cyriacus, who revealed to her the location of the True Cross upon which Christ was crucified. After guiding the empress to the holy relic, Cyriacus converted to Christianity and became Bishop of Jerusalem, only to suffer martyrdom years later under Julian the Apostate. The city of Ancona is said to have received his relics, minus his head, under empress Galla Placidia, around the middle of the fifth Century (his head is in the town of Provins, France, where it was brought from Jerusalem during the crusades). He has been the city’s patron Saint ever since.

During this period Ancona was an oligarchic republic, ruled by six elected Elders. In 1348, after the city was weakened by the black death and a fire, the Malatesta family took control.
Stkp
DSC00501.JPG
Italy, Rome, Arch of Titus665 viewsArch of Titus in Rome depicting the spoils of Jerusalem's temple.
Photo taken September 2005
Titus Pullo
IMG_1858wp.jpg
Italy, Rome, Arch of Titus328 viewsbuilt by Domitianus
commemorate victory of Titus in Jerusalem in the first Jewish–Roman War
1 commentsJohny SYSEL
05_IMG_1856q.JPG
Italy, Rome, Arch of Titus347 viewsThe Arch of Titus, on the Via Sacra, Rome, just to the south-east of the Roman Forum, was completed by Domitian in 96 A.D. to commemorate Titus' victories, including the Siege of Jerusalem in 70 A.D. The Arch of Titus has provided the general model for many of the triumphal arches erected since the 16th century—perhaps most famously it is the inspiration for the 1806 Arc de Triomphe in Paris, France, completed in 1836.1 commentsJohny SYSEL
Italy- Rome- Coliseum constructed by Flavius and seen from outside~0.jpg
Italy- Rome- Coliseum constructed by Flavius and seen from outside53 viewsColosseum
The Colosseum or Coliseum, originally known as the Flavian Amphitheatre (lat. Amphitheatrum Flavium), is an amphitheatre in Rome, capable of seating 50,000 spectators, which was once used for gladiatorial combat. It was built by Emperor Vespasian and his son, Titus, between AD 72 and AD 90. It was built at the site of Nero's enormous palace, the Domus Aurea. The Colosseum's name is derived from a colossus (a 130-foot or 40-metre statue) of Nero which once stood nearby.

Construction
The construction of the Colosseum began under the Emperor Vespasian in AD 72 and was completed by his son, Titus, in the 80s AD. It was built at the site of Nero's enormous palace, the Domus Aurea, which had been built after the great fire of Rome in AD 64. Some historians are of the opinion that the construction of the Colosseum might have been financed by the looting of King Herod the Great's Temple in Jerusalem which occurred about AD 70. Dio Cassius said that 9,000 wild animals were killed in the one hundred days of celebration which inaugurated the amphitheatre opening. The arena floor was covered with sand to sop up the blood.

The Colosseum hosted large-scale spectacular games that included fights between animals (venationes), the killing of prisoners by animals and other executions (noxii), naval battles (naumachiae, via flooding the arena), and combats between gladiators (munera). It has been estimated that between 500,000 and 1,000,000 people died in the Colosseum games.

History of the name Colosseum
The Colosseum's name is derived from a colossus (a 130-foot or 40-metre statue) of Nero nearby. This statue was later remodeled by Nero's successors into the likeness of Sol, the sun god, by adding the appropriate solar crown. The link to Nero's colossus seems to have been forgotten over time, and the name was corrupted to Coliseum in the Middle Ages. Both names are frequently used in modern English, but "Flavian Amphitheatre" is generally unknown. In Italy, it is still known as il colosseo, but other Romance languages have gone for forms such as le colisée and el coliseo.

Description
The Colosseum measured 48 metres high, 188 metres long, and 156 metres wide. The wooden arena floor was 86 metres by 54 metres, and covered by sand. Its elliptical shape kept the players from retreating to a corner, and allowed the spectators to be closer to the action than a circle would allow.

The Colosseum was ingeniously designed. It has been said that most spectacle venues (stadiums, and similar) have been influenced by features of the Colosseum's structure, even well into modern times. Seating (cavea) was divided into different sections. The podium, the first level of seating, was for the Roman senators, and the emperor's private, cushioned, marble box was also located on this level. Above the podium was the maenianum primum, for the other Roman aristocrats who were not in the senate. The third level, the maenianum secundum, was divided into three sections. The lower part (the immum) was for wealthy citizens, while the upper part (the summum) was for poor citizens. A third, wooden section (the maenianum secundum in legneis) was a wooden structure at the very top of the building, added by Domitian. It was standing room only, and was for lower class women.

Underneath the arena was the hypogeum (literally, "underground"), a network of tunnels and cages where gladiators and animals were held before contests began. There were also numerous trap doors in the arena floor for the various animals hidden underneath. The arena floor no longer exists, and the hypogeum walls and corridors are clearly visible in the ruins of the building. The entire base of the Colosseum was equivalent to 6 acres (160,000 m²).

A most ingenious part of the Colosseum was its cooling system. It was roofed using a canvas covered net-like structure made of ropes, with a hole in the center. This roof sloped down towards the center to catch the wind and provide a breeze for the audience. Sailors manipulated the ropes. The Colosseum also had vomitoria - passageways that open into a tier of seats from below or behind. The vomitoria of the Colosseum in Rome were designed so that the immense venue could fill in 15 minutes, and be evacuated in 5 minutes. Each entrance and exit was numbered, as was each staircase. There were 80 entrances at ground level, 76 for ordinary spectators, two for the imperial family, and two for the gladiators. The vomitoria quickly dispersed people into their seats and upon conclusion of the event disgorged them with abruptness into the surrounding streets - giving rise, presumably, to the name.

Later history
The Colosseum was in continuous use until 217, when it was damaged by fire after it was struck by lightning. It was restored in 238 and gladiatorial games continued until Christianity gradually put an end to those parts of them which included the death of humans. The building was used for various purposes, mostly venationes (animal hunts), until 524. Two earthquakes (in 442 and 508) caused a great damage to the structure. In the Middle Ages, it was severely damaged by further earthquakes (847 and 1349), and was then converted into a fortress. The marble that originally covered it was burned to make quicklime. During the Renaissance, but mostly in the Baroque age, the ruling Roman families (from which many popes came) used it as a source of marble for the construction of St. Peter's Basilica and the private Palazzi. A famous description is in the saying Quod non fecerunt Barbari, fecerunt Barberini; what the Barbarians weren't able to do, was done by the Barberinis (one such family).

The Venerable Bede (c. 672-735) wrote

Quandiu stabit coliseus, stabit et Roma; (As long as the Colosseum stands, so shall Rome)
Quando cadit coliseus, cadet et Roma (When the Colosseum falls, so shall Rome)
Quando cadet Roma, cadet et mundus. (When Rome falls, so shall the world)
Note that he used coliseus, i.e. he made the name a masculine noun. This form is no longer in use.

In 1749, as a very early example of historic preservation, Pope Benedict XIV forbade the use of the Colosseum as a quarry. He consecrated the building to the Passion of Christ and installed Stations of the Cross, declaring it sanctified by the blood of the Christian martyrs who were thought to have perished there. Later popes initiated various stabilization and restoration projects. Every Good Friday the pope leads a procession within the ellipse in memory of Christian martyrs. However, there is no historical evidence that Christians were tortured and killed in the Colosseum [2]. It is presumed that the majority of Christian martyrdom in Rome took place at the Circus Maximus.

In recent years, the local authorities of Rome have illuminated the Colosseum all night long whenever someone condemned to the death penalty gets commuted or released.

John Schou
Italy- Rome- Coliseum seen from outside~0.jpg
Italy- Rome- Coliseum seen from outside48 viewsColosseum
The Colosseum or Coliseum, originally known as the Flavian Amphitheatre (lat. Amphitheatrum Flavium), is an amphitheatre in Rome, capable of seating 50,000 spectators, which was once used for gladiatorial combat. It was built by Emperor Vespasian and his son, Titus, between AD 72 and AD 90. It was built at the site of Nero's enormous palace, the Domus Aurea. The Colosseum's name is derived from a colossus (a 130-foot or 40-metre statue) of Nero which once stood nearby.

Construction
The construction of the Colosseum began under the Emperor Vespasian in AD 72 and was completed by his son, Titus, in the 80s AD. It was built at the site of Nero's enormous palace, the Domus Aurea, which had been built after the great fire of Rome in AD 64. Some historians are of the opinion that the construction of the Colosseum might have been financed by the looting of King Herod the Great's Temple in Jerusalem which occurred about AD 70. Dio Cassius said that 9,000 wild animals were killed in the one hundred days of celebration which inaugurated the amphitheatre opening. The arena floor was covered with sand to sop up the blood.

The Colosseum hosted large-scale spectacular games that included fights between animals (venationes), the killing of prisoners by animals and other executions (noxii), naval battles (naumachiae, via flooding the arena), and combats between gladiators (munera). It has been estimated that between 500,000 and 1,000,000 people died in the Colosseum games.

History of the name Colosseum
The Colosseum's name is derived from a colossus (a 130-foot or 40-metre statue) of Nero nearby. This statue was later remodeled by Nero's successors into the likeness of Sol, the sun god, by adding the appropriate solar crown. The link to Nero's colossus seems to have been forgotten over time, and the name was corrupted to Coliseum in the Middle Ages. Both names are frequently used in modern English, but "Flavian Amphitheatre" is generally unknown. In Italy, it is still known as il colosseo, but other Romance languages have gone for forms such as le colisée and el coliseo.

Description
The Colosseum measured 48 metres high, 188 metres long, and 156 metres wide. The wooden arena floor was 86 metres by 54 metres, and covered by sand. Its elliptical shape kept the players from retreating to a corner, and allowed the spectators to be closer to the action than a circle would allow.

The Colosseum was ingeniously designed. It has been said that most spectacle venues (stadiums, and similar) have been influenced by features of the Colosseum's structure, even well into modern times. Seating (cavea) was divided into different sections. The podium, the first level of seating, was for the Roman senators, and the emperor's private, cushioned, marble box was also located on this level. Above the podium was the maenianum primum, for the other Roman aristocrats who were not in the senate. The third level, the maenianum secundum, was divided into three sections. The lower part (the immum) was for wealthy citizens, while the upper part (the summum) was for poor citizens. A third, wooden section (the maenianum secundum in legneis) was a wooden structure at the very top of the building, added by Domitian. It was standing room only, and was for lower class women.

Underneath the arena was the hypogeum (literally, "underground"), a network of tunnels and cages where gladiators and animals were held before contests began. There were also numerous trap doors in the arena floor for the various animals hidden underneath. The arena floor no longer exists, and the hypogeum walls and corridors are clearly visible in the ruins of the building. The entire base of the Colosseum was equivalent to 6 acres (160,000 m²).

A most ingenious part of the Colosseum was its cooling system. It was roofed using a canvas covered net-like structure made of ropes, with a hole in the center. This roof sloped down towards the center to catch the wind and provide a breeze for the audience. Sailors manipulated the ropes. The Colosseum also had vomitoria - passageways that open into a tier of seats from below or behind. The vomitoria of the Colosseum in Rome were designed so that the immense venue could fill in 15 minutes, and be evacuated in 5 minutes. Each entrance and exit was numbered, as was each staircase. There were 80 entrances at ground level, 76 for ordinary spectators, two for the imperial family, and two for the gladiators. The vomitoria quickly dispersed people into their seats and upon conclusion of the event disgorged them with abruptness into the surrounding streets - giving rise, presumably, to the name.

Later history
The Colosseum was in continuous use until 217, when it was damaged by fire after it was struck by lightning. It was restored in 238 and gladiatorial games continued until Christianity gradually put an end to those parts of them which included the death of humans. The building was used for various purposes, mostly venationes (animal hunts), until 524. Two earthquakes (in 442 and 508) caused a great damage to the structure. In the Middle Ages, it was severely damaged by further earthquakes (847 and 1349), and was then converted into a fortress. The marble that originally covered it was burned to make quicklime. During the Renaissance, but mostly in the Baroque age, the ruling Roman families (from which many popes came) used it as a source of marble for the construction of St. Peter's Basilica and the private Palazzi. A famous description is in the saying Quod non fecerunt Barbari, fecerunt Barberini; what the Barbarians weren't able to do, was done by the Barberinis (one such family).

The Venerable Bede (c. 672-735) wrote

Quandiu stabit coliseus, stabit et Roma; (As long as the Colosseum stands, so shall Rome)
Quando cadit coliseus, cadet et Roma (When the Colosseum falls, so shall Rome)
Quando cadet Roma, cadet et mundus. (When Rome falls, so shall the world)
Note that he used coliseus, i.e. he made the name a masculine noun. This form is no longer in use.

In 1749, as a very early example of historic preservation, Pope Benedict XIV forbade the use of the Colosseum as a quarry. He consecrated the building to the Passion of Christ and installed Stations of the Cross, declaring it sanctified by the blood of the Christian martyrs who were thought to have perished there. Later popes initiated various stabilization and restoration projects. Every Good Friday the pope leads a procession within the ellipse in memory of Christian martyrs. However, there is no historical evidence that Christians were tortured and killed in the Colosseum [2]. It is presumed that the majority of Christian martyrdom in Rome took place at the Circus Maximus.

In recent years, the local authorities of Rome have illuminated the Colosseum all night long whenever someone condemned to the death penalty gets commuted or released.

John Schou
Italy- Rome- Coliseum seen from outside 1~0.jpg
Italy- Rome- Coliseum seen from outside 145 viewsColosseum
The Colosseum or Coliseum, originally known as the Flavian Amphitheatre (lat. Amphitheatrum Flavium), is an amphitheatre in Rome, capable of seating 50,000 spectators, which was once used for gladiatorial combat. It was built by Emperor Vespasian and his son, Titus, between AD 72 and AD 90. It was built at the site of Nero's enormous palace, the Domus Aurea. The Colosseum's name is derived from a colossus (a 130-foot or 40-metre statue) of Nero which once stood nearby.

Construction
The construction of the Colosseum began under the Emperor Vespasian in AD 72 and was completed by his son, Titus, in the 80s AD. It was built at the site of Nero's enormous palace, the Domus Aurea, which had been built after the great fire of Rome in AD 64. Some historians are of the opinion that the construction of the Colosseum might have been financed by the looting of King Herod the Great's Temple in Jerusalem which occurred about AD 70. Dio Cassius said that 9,000 wild animals were killed in the one hundred days of celebration which inaugurated the amphitheatre opening. The arena floor was covered with sand to sop up the blood.

The Colosseum hosted large-scale spectacular games that included fights between animals (venationes), the killing of prisoners by animals and other executions (noxii), naval battles (naumachiae, via flooding the arena), and combats between gladiators (munera). It has been estimated that between 500,000 and 1,000,000 people died in the Colosseum games.

History of the name Colosseum
The Colosseum's name is derived from a colossus (a 130-foot or 40-metre statue) of Nero nearby. This statue was later remodeled by Nero's successors into the likeness of Sol, the sun god, by adding the appropriate solar crown. The link to Nero's colossus seems to have been forgotten over time, and the name was corrupted to Coliseum in the Middle Ages. Both names are frequently used in modern English, but "Flavian Amphitheatre" is generally unknown. In Italy, it is still known as il colosseo, but other Romance languages have gone for forms such as le colisée and el coliseo.

Description
The Colosseum measured 48 metres high, 188 metres long, and 156 metres wide. The wooden arena floor was 86 metres by 54 metres, and covered by sand. Its elliptical shape kept the players from retreating to a corner, and allowed the spectators to be closer to the action than a circle would allow.

The Colosseum was ingeniously designed. It has been said that most spectacle venues (stadiums, and similar) have been influenced by features of the Colosseum's structure, even well into modern times. Seating (cavea) was divided into different sections. The podium, the first level of seating, was for the Roman senators, and the emperor's private, cushioned, marble box was also located on this level. Above the podium was the maenianum primum, for the other Roman aristocrats who were not in the senate. The third level, the maenianum secundum, was divided into three sections. The lower part (the immum) was for wealthy citizens, while the upper part (the summum) was for poor citizens. A third, wooden section (the maenianum secundum in legneis) was a wooden structure at the very top of the building, added by Domitian. It was standing room only, and was for lower class women.

Underneath the arena was the hypogeum (literally, "underground"), a network of tunnels and cages where gladiators and animals were held before contests began. There were also numerous trap doors in the arena floor for the various animals hidden underneath. The arena floor no longer exists, and the hypogeum walls and corridors are clearly visible in the ruins of the building. The entire base of the Colosseum was equivalent to 6 acres (160,000 m²).

A most ingenious part of the Colosseum was its cooling system. It was roofed using a canvas covered net-like structure made of ropes, with a hole in the center. This roof sloped down towards the center to catch the wind and provide a breeze for the audience. Sailors manipulated the ropes. The Colosseum also had vomitoria - passageways that open into a tier of seats from below or behind. The vomitoria of the Colosseum in Rome were designed so that the immense venue could fill in 15 minutes, and be evacuated in 5 minutes. Each entrance and exit was numbered, as was each staircase. There were 80 entrances at ground level, 76 for ordinary spectators, two for the imperial family, and two for the gladiators. The vomitoria quickly dispersed people into their seats and upon conclusion of the event disgorged them with abruptness into the surrounding streets - giving rise, presumably, to the name.

Later history
The Colosseum was in continuous use until 217, when it was damaged by fire after it was struck by lightning. It was restored in 238 and gladiatorial games continued until Christianity gradually put an end to those parts of them which included the death of humans. The building was used for various purposes, mostly venationes (animal hunts), until 524. Two earthquakes (in 442 and 508) caused a great damage to the structure. In the Middle Ages, it was severely damaged by further earthquakes (847 and 1349), and was then converted into a fortress. The marble that originally covered it was burned to make quicklime. During the Renaissance, but mostly in the Baroque age, the ruling Roman families (from which many popes came) used it as a source of marble for the construction of St. Peter's Basilica and the private Palazzi. A famous description is in the saying Quod non fecerunt Barbari, fecerunt Barberini; what the Barbarians weren't able to do, was done by the Barberinis (one such family).

The Venerable Bede (c. 672-735) wrote

Quandiu stabit coliseus, stabit et Roma; (As long as the Colosseum stands, so shall Rome)
Quando cadit coliseus, cadet et Roma (When the Colosseum falls, so shall Rome)
Quando cadet Roma, cadet et mundus. (When Rome falls, so shall the world)
Note that he used coliseus, i.e. he made the name a masculine noun. This form is no longer in use.

In 1749, as a very early example of historic preservation, Pope Benedict XIV forbade the use of the Colosseum as a quarry. He consecrated the building to the Passion of Christ and installed Stations of the Cross, declaring it sanctified by the blood of the Christian martyrs who were thought to have perished there. Later popes initiated various stabilization and restoration projects. Every Good Friday the pope leads a procession within the ellipse in memory of Christian martyrs. However, there is no historical evidence that Christians were tortured and killed in the Colosseum [2]. It is presumed that the majority of Christian martyrdom in Rome took place at the Circus Maximus.

In recent years, the local authorities of Rome have illuminated the Colosseum all night long whenever someone condemned to the death penalty gets commuted or released.

John Schou
Italy- Rome- The Arch of Vespasian.jpg
Italy- Rome- The Arch of Tito50 viewsThe Arch of Titus (Arcus Titi) is a triumphal arch that commemorates the victory of the emperors Vespasian and Titus in Judea in 70 CE, which lead to the conquest of Jerusalem and the destruction of the Jewish temple there, and the triumphal procession the two held in Rome in 71 CE. It is situated at the E. entrance to the Forum Romanum, on the Via Sacra, south of the Temple of Amor and Roma, close to the Colosseum.

The arch was definitely erected sometimes after after the death of Titus in 81 CE, since Titus is referred to as Divus in the inscription. The deification of an emperor only happened posthumously after decision by the senate. It was most probably erected by emperor Domitian who succeeded his brother Titus in 81 CE, but it has also been suggested that it was built later, by Trajan, because of stylistic similarities with the Arch of Trajan at Benevento.

The Arch of Titus is a single arch, measuring 15.4m in height, 13.5m in width and 4.75m in depth, originally constructed entirely in Pantelic marble, with four semi-columns on each side. The external decorations include figures of Victoria with trophies on the spandrels and images of Roma and the Genius of Rome on the two keystones.

The inscription on the E. side is the original dedication of the arch by the senate. It reads:

Senatus
Populusque Romanus
divo Tito divo Vespasiani f(ilio)
Vespasiano Augusto

The senate
and people of Rome
to the divine Titus, son of the divine Vespasian,
Vespasianus Augustus

The inside the archway the monument is decorated with reliefs in marble. The S. side shows the beginning of the triumphal entry into Rome of the victorious emperor and his troops. The soldiers, walking left to right, are carrying the spoils of war, which include the seven armed candelabrum and the silver trumpets from the temple of Jerusalem. The signs carried by some soldiers displayed the names of the conquered cities and people. To the right the procession is entering the city through the Porta Triumphalis.

The N. side of the arch is decorated with a relief of the emperor in the triumphal procession. The emperor is riding a quadriga, which is lead by the goddess Roma, and he is crowned by Victoria flying above him. The lictors are walking in front of the chariot with their long ceremonial axes. After the emperor follow as a young man, who represents the Roman people, and an older man in toga, representing the senate. In the middle, under the vault a small relief shows the apotheosis of Titus, flying to the heavens on the back of an eagle.
John Schou
Italy- Rome- The arch of Tito and inside the arches.jpg
Italy- Rome- The arch of Tito and inside the arches47 viewsThe Arch of Titus (Arcus Titi) is a triumphal arch that commemorates the victory of the emperors Vespasian and Titus in Judea in 70 CE, which lead to the conquest of Jerusalem and the destruction of the Jewish temple there, and the triumphal procession the two held in Rome in 71 CE. It is situated at the E. entrance to the Forum Romanum, on the Via Sacra, south of the Temple of Amor and Roma, close to the Colosseum.

The arch was definitely erected sometimes after after the death of Titus in 81 CE, since Titus is referred to as Divus in the inscription. The deification of an emperor only happened posthumously after decision by the senate. It was most probably erected by emperor Domitian who succeeded his brother Titus in 81 CE, but it has also been suggested that it was built later, by Trajan, because of stylistic similarities with the Arch of Trajan at Benevento.

The Arch of Titus is a single arch, measuring 15.4m in height, 13.5m in width and 4.75m in depth, originally constructed entirely in Pantelic marble, with four semi-columns on each side. The external decorations include figures of Victoria with trophies on the spandrels and images of Roma and the Genius of Rome on the two keystones.

The inscription on the E. side is the original dedication of the arch by the senate. It reads:

Senatus
Populusque Romanus
divo Tito divo Vespasiani f(ilio)
Vespasiano Augusto

The senate
and people of Rome
to the divine Titus, son of the divine Vespasian,
Vespasianus Augustus

The inside the archway the monument is decorated with reliefs in marble. The S. side shows the beginning of the triumphal entry into Rome of the victorious emperor and his troops. The soldiers, walking left to right, are carrying the spoils of war, which include the seven armed candelabrum and the silver trumpets from the temple of Jerusalem. The signs carried by some soldiers displayed the names of the conquered cities and people. To the right the procession is entering the city through the Porta Triumphalis.

The N. side of the arch is decorated with a relief of the emperor in the triumphal procession. The emperor is riding a quadriga, which is lead by the goddess Roma, and he is crowned by Victoria flying above him. The lictors are walking in front of the chariot with their long ceremonial axes. After the emperor follow as a young man, who represents the Roman people, and an older man in toga, representing the senate. In the middle, under the vault a small relief shows the apotheosis of Titus, flying to the heavens on the back of an eagle.
John Schou
Italy- Rome- The entrance to Forum and the arch of Tito.jpg
Italy- Rome- The entrance to Forum and the arch of Tito40 viewsThe Arch of Titus (Arcus Titi) is a triumphal arch that commemorates the victory of the emperors Vespasian and Titus in Judea in 70 CE, which lead to the conquest of Jerusalem and the destruction of the Jewish temple there, and the triumphal procession the two held in Rome in 71 CE. It is situated at the E. entrance to the Forum Romanum, on the Via Sacra, south of the Temple of Amor and Roma, close to the Colosseum.

The arch was definitely erected sometimes after after the death of Titus in 81 CE, since Titus is referred to as Divus in the inscription. The deification of an emperor only happened posthumously after decision by the senate. It was most probably erected by emperor Domitian who succeeded his brother Titus in 81 CE, but it has also been suggested that it was built later, by Trajan, because of stylistic similarities with the Arch of Trajan at Benevento.

The Arch of Titus is a single arch, measuring 15.4m in height, 13.5m in width and 4.75m in depth, originally constructed entirely in Pantelic marble, with four semi-columns on each side. The external decorations include figures of Victoria with trophies on the spandrels and images of Roma and the Genius of Rome on the two keystones.

The inscription on the E. side is the original dedication of the arch by the senate. It reads:

Senatus
Populusque Romanus
divo Tito divo Vespasiani f(ilio)
Vespasiano Augusto

The senate
and people of Rome
to the divine Titus, son of the divine Vespasian,
Vespasianus Augustus

The inside the archway the monument is decorated with reliefs in marble. The S. side shows the beginning of the triumphal entry into Rome of the victorious emperor and his troops. The soldiers, walking left to right, are carrying the spoils of war, which include the seven armed candelabrum and the silver trumpets from the temple of Jerusalem. The signs carried by some soldiers displayed the names of the conquered cities and people. To the right the procession is entering the city through the Porta Triumphalis.

The N. side of the arch is decorated with a relief of the emperor in the triumphal procession. The emperor is riding a quadriga, which is lead by the goddess Roma, and he is crowned by Victoria flying above him. The lictors are walking in front of the chariot with their long ceremonial axes. After the emperor follow as a young man, who represents the Roman people, and an older man in toga, representing the senate. In the middle, under the vault a small relief shows the apotheosis of Titus, flying to the heavens on the back of an eagle.

John Schou
Iudaea,_Porcius_Festus_(ca__59-62)_prutah_(AE).png
Iudaea, Porcius Festus (ca 59-62) prutah (AE)6 viewsObv.: NERWNOS (Legend in wreath) Rev.: LE KAICAROC (Palm leaf surrounded by legend) Diameter: 16,41 mm Weight: 2,87 g Hendin 653v

St. Paul had his final hearing before Festus, who sought to deport him to Jerusalem. Since Paul was a Roman citizen, he managed to get himself deported to Rome instead.
Nick.vdw
Judea,_First_Jewish_Revolt.jpg
Jewish First Revolt17 viewsAE Prutah
Jerusalem mint, 67-68 A.D.
18mm, 2.95g

Obverse:
Amphora with braod rim and two handle.
"Year Two" inscribed in Hebrew

Reverse:
Vine leaf on small branch.
"The Deliverence of Zion" inscribed in Hebrew
1 commentsWill J
year_4web.jpg
Jewish War, 66-70 AD, bronze 1/8 shekel 83 viewsBronze eighth denomination, 19 mm, 5.08 g, 69 - 70 A.D.
O: "To the redemption of Zion" in Hebrew, Omer cup with a pearled rim;
R: "Year four" in Hebrew, Lulav (myrtle, palm and willow branches tied together) flanked by an etrog (citron - small lemon like fruit) on both sides - Hendin 1369

During the fourth year of the Jewish War, the Romans had besieged the Jews in Jerusalem. There was a shortage of materials, and so, for the first time fractions of the shekel were minted in bronze. These are among the earliest examples of "siege money." Intended to pass as the equivalent in silver, they would have been redeemed for their face value at the end of a successful rebellion.

These siege pieces recall a time of despair and desperation in Jerusalem. Surrounded by Roman Legions under General Titus, intense starvation ravaged the city. Inhabitants were reduced to eating pieces of leather, belts and shoes. Josephus says that mothers even roasted and ate their own children. Simply having the appearance of good health implied a person was hiding food and would be reason enough to be murdered.
3 commentsNemonater
hyrcanus8.jpg
John Hyrcanus17 viewsYehochanan the high priest and Concil of Jews
mint : Jerusalem
134-104 BC
Hendin 453
frederic
hyrcanus12.jpg
John Hyrcanus7 viewsYehochanan the high priest and Concil of Jews
mint : Jerusalem
134-104 BC
AJC I, Group Nc
frederic
hyrcanus11.jpg
John Hyrcanus43 viewsYehochanan the high priest and Concil of Jews
mint : Jerusalem
134-104 BC
Hendin 454; AJC I, Group Ma
1 commentsfrederic
hyrcanus10.jpg
John Hyrcanus10 viewsYehochanan the high priest and Concil of Jews
mint : Jerusalem
134-104 BC
AJC I, Group Na
frederic
hyrcanus13.jpg
John Hyrcanus16 viewsYehochanan the high priest and Concil of Jews
mint : Jerusalem
134-104 BC
TJC B, AJC N
same die than Na 66 in Kaufman I
frederic
hyrcanus20.jpg
John Hyrcanus47 viewsYehochanan the high priest and Concil of Jews
mint : Jerusalem
134-104 BC
AJC I, Group La
1 commentsfrederic
hyrcnIscript.jpg
John Hyrcanus (Yehohanan)33 viewsJohn Hyrcanus, 135-104 BCE. Bronze Prutah, 15mm, 1.58g Jerusalem mint. O: Paleo-Hebrew inscription: Yonatan the High Priest and the Council of the Jews, {(HH)WHY NHK H NN B(HH)W LD DY} surrounded by wreath. R: Double cornucopia adorned with ribbons, pomegranate between horns, border of dots. Hendin 1141

From right to left: YHWHNN (Yehohanan) H (The) KHN (Priest) LD (Short of GDOL, high) W (And) B (HH) (Short of Haber which means the Council) DY (Short of YHWDEM which means the Jews) - Courtesy of Salem Alshdaifat

It is generally believed that the governing council referred to on the coins of Hyrcanus became known as the Sanhedrin during his reign or shortly after it. It was also during his reign that the sects of the Pharisees, Sadducees and Essenes became well established. He died at the age of 60 years old after governing for 31 years.
Nemonater
F101.jpg
John Hyrcanus I44 viewsYehochanan the high priest and Concil of Jews
mint : Jerusalem
134-104 BC
Hendin 452
frederic
Image3.jpg
John Hyrcanus I16 viewsYehochanan the high priest and Concil of Jews
mint : Jerusalem
134-104 BC
frederic
juive 1.jpg
John Hyrcanus I23 viewsYehochanan the high priest and Concil of Jews
mint : Jerusalem
134-104 BC
Hendin 463
frederic
hyrcanus5.jpg
John Hyrcanus I28 viewsYehochanan the high priest and Concil of Jews
mint : Jerusalem
134-104 BC
Hendin 456
frederic
hyrcanus4.jpg
John Hyrcanus I 30 viewsYehochanan the high priest and Concil of Jews
mint : Jerusalem
134-104 BC
Hendin 454
1 commentsfrederic
hyrcanus3.jpg
John Hyrcanus I30 viewsYehochanan the high priest and Concil of Jews
mint : Jerusalem
134-104 BC

1 commentsfrederic
hyrcanus2.jpg
John Hyrcanus I 9 viewsYehochanan the high priest and Concil of Jews
mint : Jerusalem
134-104 BC

frederic
hyrcanus.jpg
John Hyrcanus I 20 viewsYehochanan the high priest and Head of the Concil of Jews
mint : Jerusalem
134-104 BC
frederic
hyrcanus9.jpg
John Hyrcanus I20 viewsYehochanan the high priest and Head of the Concil of Jews
mint : Jerusalem
134-104 BC


frederic
a1.jpg
John Hyrcanus I44 viewsYehochanan the high priest and Head of the Concil of Jews
mint : Jerusalem
134-104 BC
AJC I, Type Sb
frederic
jannaeus7.jpg
John Hyrcanus I48 viewsYehochanan the high priest and Concil of Jews
mint : Jerusalem
134-104 BC
Hendin 452
1 commentsfrederic
Judea,_John_Hyrcanus_I.jpg
John Hyrcanus I 7 viewsAE Prutah (Widow's mite)
Jerusalem mint, 134-103 B.C.
14mm, 1.48g

Obverse:
Greek letter A above Hebrew inscription.
"Yehonanan the High Priest and the council of the Jews"

Reverse:
Double cornucopia adorned with ribbons, pomegranate between horns, border of dots
Will J
J06j-Hyrcanus H-459.jpg
John Hyrcanus I "Yehochanan", (Hasmonean King), Æ Prutah, 134-104 BCE61 viewsBronze prutah of Hyrcanus I "Yehochanan", 2.2g, 13.5mm, Jerusalem mint.

Obverse: Double cornucopia adorned with ribbons, pomegranate between horns.
Reverse: Hebrew inscription, “Yehochanan the High Priest and Head of the Council of the Jews” –
יהוחנן הכהן הגדול ראש חבר היהדים, surrounded by wreath.

References: Hendin 459

Added to collection: November 7, 2005
Daniel Friedman
J06e-Hyrcanus H-453.jpg
John Hyrcanus I "Yehochanan", (Hasmonean King), Æ Prutah, 134-104 BCE83 viewsBronze prutah of Hyrcanus I "Yehochanan", aVF+, 2.3g, 13.8mm, 0o, Jerusalem mint.

Obverse: double cornucopia adorned with ribbons, pomegranate between horns.
Reverse: Hebrew inscription, “Yehochanan the High Priest and Head [of the Council of the Jews]” –
יהוחנן הכהן הגדול ראש ח[בר היהדי]ם, surrounded by wreath.

References: Hendin 453, TJC type D

Added to collection: November 4, 2005
1 commentsDaniel Friedman
DSC01680.JPG
John Hyrcanus I (Yehohanan) 134 - 104 B.C.51 viewsHasmonean Dynasty, 14mm Bronze Prutah, Jerusalem mint
Obverse: Hebrew inscription, Yehonanan the High Priest and Head of the Council of the Jews, surrounded by wreath
Reverse: Double cornucopia adorned with ribbons, pomegranate between horns
3 commentsDk0311USMC
1131.jpg
John Hyrcanus I (Yehohanan) AE Prutah. H 1131. 48 viewsAntiochus VII/Hyrcanus I, 132-130 BC, bronze prutah of 13.8 mm, 2.93 grams. Struck as a transitional issue at the mint of Jerusalem, 132-130 BC.

Obverse: Anchor, Greek.

Reverse: Lily.

Hendin 1131 (4th ed. 451).


1 commentsSkySoldier
Judean_Kingdom,_John_Hyrcanus_I_(Yehohanan).jpg
John Hyrcanus I (Yehohanan), 134 - 104 B.C. Bronze prutah7 viewsJudean Kingdom, John Hyrcanus I (Yehohanan), 134 - 104 B.C. Bronze prutah, Hendin 457, Fair, off center, Jerusalem mint, 1.816g, 14.7mm, 225o, obverse Hebrew inscription, Yehonanan the High Priest and Head of the Council of the Jews, surrounded by wreath; reverse, double cornucopia adorned with ribbons, pomegranate between horns, monogram A left below horns (off flan). ex FORVMPodiceps
hendin_453.jpg
John Hyrcanus I (Yehohanan), 134 - 104 B.C. Bronze prutah, Hendin 45310 viewsJudean Kingdom, John Hyrcanus I (Yehohanan), 134 - 104 B.C. Bronze prutah, Hendin 453, (fair MM) AJC I, Group P, Jerusalem mint, 1.877g, 14.1mm, obverse Hebrew inscription, Yehonanan the High Priest and the Council of the Jews, surrounded by wreath; reverse, double cornucopia adorned with ribbons, pomegranate between horns, tiny A to lower right (off flan). Ex FORVMPodiceps
20180516_215121.jpg
John Hyrcanus I / Antiochus VII. 104-76 BC. Prutah , S.E. 181= 132/131 BC. 12 viewsObv: Upside down anchor flanked by BAΣIΛEΩΣ ANTIOXOY EYEPΓETOY (of King Antiochus, benefactor), date along left side of anchor AΠP (181).
Rev: Lily.
15.4 MM AND 3.09 GRAMS.
References: Hendin 451. SNG Israel 2134.
This type probably inaugurated the Hasmonean mint in Jerusalem as the first Judean prutah, with the approval of Antiochus VII. The lily was a symbol of Jerusalem and its use in lieu of a portrait was apparently part of the Seleucid effort to appease the Jews, whose law stated: Thou shalt not make unto thee a graven image…
Canaan
John_Hyrcanus_II.jpg
John Hyrcanus II - AE prutah9 viewsJerusalem
King 67 BC, Ethnarch 63-40 BC
Hebrew inscription: "Yonatan the High Priest and the Council of the Jews" within wreath
double cornucopia with pomegranate between horns
Hendin 1159
Johny SYSEL
HyrcanusIAntiochusVII.jpg
John Hyrcanus with Antiochus VII37 viewsPrutah, Jerusalem mint, 132/131 BCE. 16mm, 2.71g. O: The Seleucid anchor. ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΥ ΕΥΕΡΓΕΤΟΥ (of King Antiochus, Benefactor), Seleucid anchor upside down, date below, ΑΠΡ (year 181). R: Lily of Jerusalem.

This coin is significant in that the anchor makes its debut as a Jewish image.
1 commentsNemonater
MarcusAureliusCapitolina.jpg
Judaea, Aelia Capitolina (Jerusalem). Marcus Aurelius AE2495 viewsObv: Laureate bust of Aurelius right,
Rev: Commodus on horseback right, raising right hand.
161-180 CE. Æ25, 10.4g.
Meshorer, Aelia Capitolina 60, BMC 57
ancientone
Clipboard4~4.jpg
Judaea, Aelia Capitolina(Jerusalem), Diadumenian AE2455 viewsObv: M OPEL DIADV-MENIANVS C. Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right – seen from behind.
Rev: COL AEL CAP COMM / PF. Tetrastyle temple with Tyche-Astarte standing left, right foot on uncertain object, holding sceptre with left hand, uncertain object in r., statues of Nike on either side.
24mm, 7.97g.
1 commentsancientone
aelia_capitolina_ant_pius_Meshorer21.jpg
Judaea, Aelia Capitolina, Antoninus Pius, Meshorer 2137 viewsAntoninus Pius, AD 138-161
AE 22
obv. ANTONI - NVS AVG P PP
bust, draped, laureate, r.
rev. .CA - P - CO.AE.
Tyche, draped, wearing mural crown, hairs in chignon behind, r.
Meshorer 21; Rosenberger 11
F/about VF, green-brown patina

Aelia Capitolina, under Hadrian for Jerusalem (gr. Hierosolyma)
Jochen
jugateres~0.jpg
JUDAEA, AELIA CAPITOLINA--ELAGABALUS20 views218 - 222 AD
struck 222 AD
AE 22.5 mm 7.54 g
O: Jugate busts of Elagabalus and Severus Alexander (as Caesar) right, both laureate, draped, and cuirassed right
R: Tyche standing left, right foot on helmet, right hand over horned altar (to left), left hand holding scepter (to right); aquila to left, cup in exergue.
JUDAEA, Aelia Capitolina (Jerusalem)
Meshorer, Aelia 142; Rosenberger 82 Very rare.
laney
agripa.JPG
JUDAEA, Agrippa, Jerusalem55 viewsJerusalem mint, 41 - 42 A.D.; obverse AGRIPA BACILEWC (King Agrippa), umbrella canopy with fringes1 commentsanthivs
judaea_alex_jannaeus_Hendin470.jpg
Judaea, Alexander Jannaeus, TJC K1840 viewsAlexander Jannaeus (Yehonatan), 103-76 BC
AE - Prutah, 14.95mm, 1.85g
Jerusalem, 78 BC
obv. BASILEWS ALEZANDROY
Anchor surrounded by points
rev. star with eight rays in diadem, between rays points (rest of letters?)
ref. GBC5 1151; GBC4 470; AJC Cc1; TJC K18
VF, brown patina
Jochen
judaea_alexander_jannaeus_Hendin469.jpg
Judaea, Alexander Jannaeus, TJC K6123 viewsAlexander Jannaeus (Yehonatan), 103-76 BC
AE - Prutah, 14.65/18.30mm, 2.61g
Jerusalem, 95-76 BC
obv. Eight pointed star with globe in center in diadem; between rays Paleo-Hebrew legend:
י-ה-נו-ןת-ה-מ-ל-ך
= Y-H-WN-TN-H-M-L-K (counterclockwise)
= Yehonatan Ha Malik
= Yehonatan the king
rev. BASILEWS ALEZANDROY (clockwise)
around anchor
ref. GBC5 1150; GBC4 469; AJC Ca8; TJC K6
VF, nice ex.

The first bilingual Judean coin!
Jochen
judaea_alexander_jannaeus_Hendin471.jpg
Judaea, Alexander Jannaeus, TJC L1133 viewsAlexander Jannaeus (Yehonatan), 103-76 BC
AE - Lepton, 12.74-16.56mm, 1.05g
Jerusalem, 78 BC
obv. BASILEWS ALEZANDROY around
Anchor in thick circle line, at the points L KE (= year 25)
rev. Eight pointed star in dotted circle, Aramaic(!) legend around (from r. to l.):
MLK' 'LKSNDRWS (Sh)NK HK
= Malik Aleksandros Shanah HK
= King Alexandros Year 25
ref. GBC5 1152; GBC4 471; AJC Cd1; TJC L1
VF+
pedigree:
ex Hendin

The motive in the style of Seleucid types after his victory over the costal cities.
This is the so-called 'widow's mite' (see Mk. 12, 41ff).
Jochen
judaea_alexander_jannaeus_Hendin472.jpg
Judaea, Alexander Jannaeus, TJC L559 viewsAlexander Jannaeus (Yehonatan), 103-76 BC
AE - Lepton, 11.1mm, 1.67g
Jerusalem, 78 BC
obv. BASILEWS ALEZANDROY around
Anchor in circle line, at the points L KE (= year 25)
rev. Eight pointed star in dotted circle, Paleo-Hebrew legend around (like Hendin 471)
ref. GBC5 1153; GBC4 472; AJC Cd6; TJC L5
about VF

The lepton Hendin 472 differs from Hendin 471 by its cruder, more 'barbarous' style, thick anchor and circle-line, legends illegible.
This is the so-called 'widow's mite' (see Mk. 12, 41ff).
Jochen
judaea_alex_jannaeus_Hendin1155.jpg
Judaea, Alexander Jannaeus, TJC M235 viewsAlexander Jannaeus (Yehonatan), 103-74 BC
AE - lead token, 4.35g, 15.89mm, 135°
Jerusalem
obv. ALEZANDROV [BASILEWS]
around anchor in circle
rev. Paleo-Hebrew legend in 3 lines:
מלכא / אלכסנ / דרס
from l. to r. MLK' / 'LKSN / DRS
= MALIK ALEKSANDROS
= King Alexander
ref. Hendin 476; GBC V, 1155; AJC Da3; TJC M2
about VF, rare in this preservation
pedigree:
ex Hendin
Jochen
judaea_alex_jannaeus_Hendin467.jpg
Judaea, Alexander Jannaeus, TJC N1131 viewsAlexander Jannaeus (Yehonatan), AD 103-76 BC
AE - Prutah, 15.06mm, 2.10g, 0°
Jerusalem, 95-76 BC
obv. Lily, on both sides Paleo-Hebrew legend:
ךלמה - ןתנוהי
= YHWNTN - H MLK
= Yehonatan Ha Malik
= Yehonatan the king
rev. [BASILEWS] ALEZADROV(sic!) (in Greek) around anchor
= King Alexander
ref. GBC5 1148; GBC4 467; AJC Aa3; TJC N1
VF, black-green patina, N of ALEZANDROV is missing

The lily was the symbol for the temple and the Jewish civilisation, but for a more spiritual idea referring to the redemption of Israel too: "I will be as the dew unto Israel; he shall blossom as the lily (Hosea 14:6) (Meshorer)
Jochen
judaea_alex_jannaeus_TJC_P10.jpg
Judaea, Alexander Jannaeus, TJC P106 viewsJudaea, Alexander Jannaeus, TJC P10
Alexander Jannaeus (Yehonatan), 103-76 BC
AE - Prutah, 2.00g, 13.97mm, 315°
Jerusalem
obv. Paleo-Hebrew legend in 5 lines within laurel wreath:
יהו / נתןהכ / הןהגדלו / חברהי / הדמ
from r. to l.:
= YHW / NTN H K / HN H GDL W / (Ch)BR H Y / HDM
= Yehonatan Ha Kohen Ha Gadol We Chaver Ha Yehudim
= Yehonatan the Highpriest and Council of the Jews
rev. Double cornucopiae, pomegranate between, in dotted circle
ref. Hendin 73; AJC Ea10.; TJC P10
F+, legend clearly readable
Jochen
judaea_alex_jannaeus_TJC_P14.jpg
Judaea, Alexander Jannaeus, TJC P11 var.28 viewsAlexander Jannaeus (Yehonatan), 103-76 BC
AE - Prutah, 1.26g, 12.64mm, 150°
Jerusalem
obv. Paleo-Hebrew legend in 5 lines within laurel wreath:
יהו / נתןהכ / הןהגדלו / חברהיה / הדימ
from r. to l.:
= YHW / NTN H K / HN H GDL W / (Ch)BR H YH / HDYM
= Yehonatan Ha Kohen Ha Gadol We Chaver Ha Yehudim
= Yehonatan the Highpriest and Council of the Jews
rev. Double cornucopiae, pomegranate between, in dotted circle
ref. Hendin 73; AJC Ea11 var.; TJC P11 var. (last line only דימ)
F+, legend clearly readable
3 commentsJochen
judaea_alex_jannaeus_TJC_P13var.jpg
Judaea, Alexander Jannaeus, TJC P13 var.18 viewsJudaea, Alexander Jannaeus (Yehonatan), 103-76 BC
AE - Prutah, 2.36g, 13.64mm, 180°
Jerusalem
obv. Paleo-Hebraic legend in 5 lines within laurel wreath:
יהו / נתןהכ / הןהגדל / וחברהי / הדי
from r. to l.:
YHW / NTN H K / HN H GDL / W (Ch)BR H Y / HDY
= Yehonatan Ha Kohen Ha Gadol We Chaber Ha Yehudi[m]
= Yehonatan the Highpriest and Council of the Jews
rev. Double cornucopiae, pomegranate between, all in dot circle
ref. Hendin 743; AJC Ea12 var.; TJC P13 var. (last מ missed)
about VF, complete legend, clearly readable
2 commentsJochen
judaea_alex_jannaeus_TJC_P15.jpg
Judaea, Alexander Jannaeus, TJC P1511 viewsJudaea, Alexander Jannaeus (Yehonatan), 103-76 BC
AE - Prutah, 2.48g, 14mm
Jerusalem
obv. Paleo-Hebraic legend in 5 lines within laurel wreath:
יהו / נתןהכ / הןהגדלו / חברהי / ודמ
from r. to l.:von re.:
YHW / NTN H K / HN H GDL W / (Ch)BR H Y / WDM
= Yehonatan Ha Kohen Ha Gadol We Chaber Ha Yehudim
= Yehonatan the Highpriest and Council of the Jews
rev. Double cornucopiae, pomegranate between, all in dot circle
ref. Hendin 743; AJC Ea17; TJC P15
about VF, complete legend, clearly readable
Jochen
judaea_alexander_jannaeus_Hendin473.jpg
Judaea, Alexander Jannaeus, TJC P17 #189 viewsAlexander Jannaeus (Yehonatan), 103-76 BC
AE - Prutah, 1.85g, 13.73mm, 330°
Jerusalem
obv. Paleo-Hebrew legend in 5 lines within laurel wreath:
יהו / נתןהכ / הןהגדל / וחברה / ידמ
from r. to l.:
YHW / NTN H K / HN H GDL / W (Ch)BR H / [YDM]
= Yehonatan Ha Kohen Ha Gadol We Chaver Ha [Yehudim]
= Yehonatan the High Priest and the Council [of the Jews]
rev. Double Cornucopiae, flled with fruits and a grain ear each, decorated with ribbons, in dotted circle, between horns a pomegranate with long stalk
ref. GBC5 1145; GBC4 473; AJC Ea19; TJC P17
VF, rev. excentric
Jochen
judaea_alex_jannaeus_TJC_P17_#2.jpg
Judaea, Alexander Jannaeus, TJC P17 #23 viewsAlexander Jannaeus (Yehonatan), 103-76 BC
AE - Prutah, 2.45g, 15.72mm, 0°
Jerusalem
obv. Paleo-Hebrew legend in 5 lines within laurel wreath:
יהו / נתןהכ / הןהגדל / וחברה / ידמ
from r. to l.:
YHW / NTN H K / HN H GDL / W (Ch)BR H / YDM
= Yehonatan Ha Kohen Ha Gadol We Chaver Ha Yehudim
= Yehonatan the High Priest and the Council of the Jews
rev. Double Cornucopiae, filled with fruits and a grain ear each, decorated with ribbons, in dotted circle, between horns a pomegranate with long stalk
ref. GBC5 1145; GBC4 473; AJC Ea19; TJC P17
VF, dark green patina
Jochen
alex_jannaeus_Hendin473_#5.jpg
Judaea, Alexander Jannaeus, TJC P19 #119 viewsAlexander Jannaeus (Yehonatan), 103-76 BC
AE - Prutah, 1.58g, 13.96mm, 0°
Jerusalem
obv. Paleo-Hebrew legend in 5 lines in laurel wreath:
יהו / נתןהכ / הןהגדל / וחברה / יהמ
from r. to l. (transcription):
YHW / NTN H K / HN H GDL / W (Ch)BR H / YHM
= Yehonatan Ha Kohen Ha Gadol We Chaver Ha Yehudim
= Yehonatan the High Priest and the Council of the Jews
rev. Double cornucopiae, pomegranate between
ref. GBC5 1145; GBC4 473; AJC Ea21; TJC P19
about VF/F, sand patina, detailed inscription
1 commentsJochen
judaea_alex_jannaeus_TJC_P19_#2.jpg
Judaea, Alexander Jannaeus, TJC P19 #27 viewsAlexander Jannaeus (Yehonatan), 103-76 BC
AE - Prutah, 13.6mm, 1.3g
Jerusalem
obv. Paleo-Hebrew legend in 5 lines within laurel wreath:
יהו / נתןהכ / הןהגדל / וחברה / יהמ
from r. to l.:
[YHW] / NTN H K / HN H GDL / W (Ch)BR H / YHM
= Yehonatin Ha Kohen Ha Gadol We Chaver Ha Yehudim
= Yehonatan the Highpriest and Council of the Jews
rev. Double cornucopiae, ribboned, between pomegranate
ref. Hendin IV 473; AJC Ea2; TJC P19
about VF, red desert patina, clear legend
Jochen
judaea_alex_janneus_Hendin473_#3.jpg
Judaea, Alexander Jannaeus, TJC P3558 viewsAlexander Jannaeus (Yehonatan), 103-76 BC
AE - Prutah, 1.14g, 13.21mm, 330°
Jerusalem
obv. Paleo-Hebrew legend in 5 lines within laurel wreath:
יהו / נתןהכ / הןהגדל / וחבהי / דמ
from r. to l.:
YHW / NTN H K / HN H GDL / W (Ch)B H Y / DM (R of ChBR missed!)
= Yehonatan Ha Kohen Ha Gadol We Chaver Ha Yehudim
= Yehonatan the High Priest and Council of the Jews
rev. Double Cornucopiae, filled with fruits and a grain-ear each, decorated with ribbons, in dotted circle, between horns a pomegranate with long stalk
ref. GBC5 1145; GBC4 473; AJC Ea38; TJC P35
about VF, detailed inscription
Pedigree:
ex coll. Daniel Friedenberg
Jochen
judaea_alex_jannaeus_Hendin473_#4.jpg
Judaea, Alexander Jannaeus, TJC P3810 viewsAlexander Jannaeus (Yehonatan), 103-76 BC
AE - Prutah, 2.36g, 14.89mm, 315°
Jerusalem
obv. Paleo-Hebrew legend in 5 lines in laurel wreath:
יהו / נתןהכ / הןהגדל / וחברהי / הידמ
from r. to l. (transcription):
YHW / NTN H K / HN H GDL / W (Ch)BR H Y / HYDM
= Yehonatan Ha Kohen Ha Gadol We Chaver Ha Yehudim
= Yehonatan the High Priest and the Council of the Jews
rev. Double Cornucopiae, filled with fruits and a grain-ear each, decorated with ribbons, in dotted circle, between horns a pomegranate with long stalk
ref. GBC5 1145; GBC4 473; AJC Ea41; TJC P38
about VF, detailed inscription
Jochen
judaea_alexander_jannaeus_Hendin473_#2.jpg
Judaea, Alexander Jannaeus, TJC P41105 viewsAlexander Jannaeus (Yehonatan), 103-76 BC
AE - Prutah, 1.99g, 13.76mm, 135°
Jerusalem
obv. Paleo-Hebrew legend in 5 lines in laurel wreath:
יהו / נתןהכ / הןהגד / לוחבר / י
from r. to l.:
YHW / NTN H K / HN H GD / L W (Ch)B[R] / W
= Yehonatan Ha Kohen Ha Gadol Ha Chaver [Ha Yehudim]
= Yehonatan the High Priest and the Council [of the Jews]
rev. Double Cornucopiae, filled with fruits and a grain-ear each, decorated with ribbons, between horns a pomegranate with long stalk, all in dotted circle
ref. GBC5 1145; GBC4 473; AJC Ea44; TJC P41
about VF, detailed inscription
2 commentsJochen
judaea_alexander_jannaeus_Hendin474.jpg
Judaea, Alexander Jannaeus, TJC Q0470 viewsAlexander Jannaeus (Yehonatan), 103-76 BC
AE - Prutah, 2.17g, 13.99mm, 330°
Jerusalem
obv. Paleo-Hebrew legend in 5 lines in laurel wreath:
יהונ / תןהכהן / הגדלוח / ברהיהו / דימ
from r. to l.:
YHWN / TN H KHN / H GDL W (Ch) / BR H YHW / DYM
= Yehonatan Ha Kohen Ha Gadol We Chaver Ha Yehudim
= Yehonatan the High Priest and Council of the Jews
rev. Double Cornucopiae with ribbons, between horns a pomegranate, in dotted circle (very schematical depiction)
Hendin 474; AJC Fa4; TJC Q4
VF, nice sandpatina
Jochen
judaea_alex_jannaeus_Hendin474_#2.jpg
Judaea, Alexander Jannaeus, TJC Q21 var.80 viewsJudaea, Alexander Jannaeus (Yehonatan), 103-76 BC
AE - Prutah, 1.51g, 13.15mm, 0°
Jerusalem
obv. Paleo-Hebrew legendin 4 lines within laurel-wreath:
יהונ / תן ה כ ג / דול ו ח / בר ה / מ
from r. to l.:
= YHWN / TN H K G / DWL W (Ch) / BR H / M(?)
= Yehonatan Ha K[ohen] Gadol We Chaver Ha [Yehud]im
= Yehonatan the High Priest and Council of the Jews
rev. Double cornucopiae, filled with fruits and a grain-ear each, decorated with ribbons hanging down, a pomegranate with long stalk between horns, in dotted circle
ref. Hendin 474; AJC Fa21; TJC Q21 var.
VF+

This type has no article before the title! And it has GDWL instead of GDL!
2 commentsJochen
judaea_alex_jannaeus_Hendin474_#3.jpg
Judaea, Alexander Jannaeus, TJC Q22 #121 viewsAlexander Jannaeus (Yehonatan), 103-76 BC
AE - Prutah, 1.87g, 14.07mm, 0°
Jerusalem
obv. Paleo-Hebrew legend in 5 lines within laurel wreath:
יהונ / תןהכג / דולוחב / ריהו / מ
from r. to left:
= [YH]WN / [T]N H K G / DWL W (Ch)B / R YHW / M
= Yehonatan Ha Kohen Gadol We Chaver Yehudim
= Yehonatan the Highpriest and Council of Jews
rev. Double cornucopiae with ribbons, pomegranate between horns, all in dotted circle
ref. Hendin IV, 474; AJC Fa22; TJC Q22
about VF
1 commentsJochen
judaea_alex_jannaeus_Hendin474_#5.jpg
Judaea, Alexander Jannaeus, TJC Q22 #29 viewsAlexander Jannaeus (Yehonatan), 103-76 BC
AE - Prutah, 2.01g, 15.55mm, 0°
Jerusalem
obv. Paleo-Hebrew legend in 5 lines within laurel wreath:
יהונ / תןהכ / דולוח / ריה / מ
from r. to l. YHWN / TN H K G / DWL W (Ch)B / R YHW / M
= Yehonatan Ha K[ohen] Gadol We Chaver Yehu[d]im
= Yehonatan the Highpriest and Council of the Jews
rev. Double cornucopiae, pomegranate between
ref. Hendin 474; AJC Fa22; TJC Q22
VF/F+, patina damage on rev.
pedigree:
ex coll. Ira Ettinger
Jochen
judaea_alex_jannaeus_TJC_Q23.jpg
Judaea, Alexander Jannaeus, TJC Q239 viewsAlexander Jannaeus (Yehonatan), 103-76 BC
Prutah, 1.64g, 14mm
Jerusalem
obv. Paleo-Hebrew legend in 5 lines within laurel wreath:
יהונ / תן ה כ ג / דול חבר / יהוד / מ
from r. to l. YHWN / TN H K G / DWL (Ch)BR / YHWD / M
= Yehonatan Ha Ko[hen] Gadol Chaver Yehudim
= Yehonatan the Highpriest Council of the Jews
rev. Double cornucopiae decorated with ribbons, pomegranate between
ref. Hendin4 474; AJC Fa23; TJC Q23
F+, sand patina
Jochen
judaea_alex_jannaeus_Hendin474_#4.jpg
Judaea, Alexander Jannaeus, TJC Q2718 viewsAlexander Jannaeus (Yehonatan), 103-76 BC
AE - Prutah, 2.23g, 14.49mm, 0°
Jerusalem
obv. Paleo-Hebrew legend in 4 lines within laurel wreath:
יהונ / תןהכג / דולוחב / יהד
from r. to l.:
YHWN / TN H K G / DWL W (Ch)B / YHD
= Yehonatan Ha K[ohen] Gadol We Chaver Yehudi[m]
= Yehonatan the High Priest and Council of the Jews
rev. Double Cornucopiae, decorated with ribbons, in dotted circle, between horns a pomegranate with long
stalk
ref. GBC4 474; AJC I Fa27; TJC Q27
about VF, nice inscription, black patina with earthen deposits
Pedigree:
ex coll. Schöttle/Stuttgart (acquired 1968)

The last R (at the wrong place!) is missed, but there is enough space for it.
1 commentsJochen
judaea_alex_jannaeus_TJC_Q45.jpg
Judaea, Alexander Jannaeus, TJC Q45 9 viewsAlexander Jannaeus (Yehonatan), 103-76 BC
AE - Prutah, 2.29g, 14.38mm, 0°
Jerusalem
obv. Paleo-Hebrew legend in 4 lines within laurel wreath:
יהונ / תןכהן / דולוח / ידמ
from r. to l.:
= YHWN / TN KHN / [G]DWL W (Ch) / YDM
= Yehonatan Kohen Gadol We Ch[aver] Yehudim
= Yehonatan Highpriest and Council of [the] Yews
rev. Double cornucopiae with pomegranate
ref. Hendin IV, 474; AJC Fb3; TJC 45
F+, black green patina, rev. extremely excentric
Jochen
judaea_alex_jannaeus_Hendin475.jpg
Judaea, Alexander Jannaeus, TJC R2046 viewsAlexander Jannaeus (Yehonatan), 103-76 BC
AE - Prutah, 1.93g, 13.93mm, 0°
Jerusalem
obv. Paleo-Hebrew legend in 4 lines within laurel wreath, in typical cursive style:
[יהונת / ןכהןג / דלוחב / [רהיהוד
from r. to l.:
= YHWNT / N KHN G / DL W (Ch)B / [R H YHWD]
= Yehonatan Kohen Gadol We Chaver Ha Yehud[im]
= Yehonatan High Priest and Council of the Jews
rev. Double Cornucopiae with ribbons, between horns a pomegranate, in dotted circle
ref. GBC5 1136; GBC4 475; AJC Gb17; TJC R20
VF, nice sandpatina
From Forum Ancient Coins, thanks!

The last line is very crude.
1 commentsJochen
Antonius_Felix_procurator,_AE-16,_Prutah__Jerusalems_Israel_Palm_Hedin-652,_54_AD_Q-001_0h,_2,28_g_,_16_mm-s.jpg
Judaea, Antonius Felix Procurator, under Claudius, (52-60 A.D.), AE-16(Prutah), Hedin 652, BRIT, Six branched palm tree,96 viewsJudaea, Antonius Felix Procurator, under Claudius, (52-60 A.D.), AE-16(Prutah), Hedin 652, BRIT, Six branched palm tree,
avers: NEPΩ KΛAV KAICP, Two crossed shields and spears.
reverse: BRIT, Six branched palm tree bearing two bunches of dates, L-IΔ, K-AI across the field.
exergue: L/IΔ//K/AI, diameter: 16,0mm, weight: 2,28g, axes: 0h,
mint: Judaea, date: Dated Year of Claudius (Year 14 = 54 A.D.) ref: Hedin 652,
Q-001
quadrans
prutah_3.jpg
Judaea, Antonius Felix, Procurator under Claudius27 viewsAE Prutah, 19mm, 3.4g, 5h; Jerusalem, AD 54.
Obv.: TI KΛAYΔIOC KAICAP ΓEPM (Tiberius Claudius Caesar Germanicus); Two crossed palm branches / L IΔ (year 14)
Rev.: Inscription in wreath IOY/ ΛIA AΓ/ PIΠΠI/ NA (Julia Agrippina).
Reference: Hendin 1347.
Notes: ex-Zuzim, electronic sale 3/16/15, 46.
1 commentsJohn Anthony
Year2Shekel.jpg
Judaea, First Revolt Shekel, Year 2127 viewsJudaea, First Jewish War AR Shekel. Dated year 2 (AD 67/8)
O: Hebrew script read from right to left SKL ISRAL “Shekel of Israel”, the date Shin Bet, "Year Two" of the revolution, above Omer cup with beaded rim
R: Hebrew script YRUSLIM H KDOSA “Jerusalem the Holy” around sprig of three pomegranates.

This coin was minted during times of great upheaval in Judaea as well as the rest of the Roman empire.

As Jewish factions were fighting for control in Jerusalem, General Vespasian's armies invaded Galilee in 67 CE with 60,000 men as they began the effort to quell the rebellion started a year earlier. Vespasian captured the commander of Galilee, Josephus ben Matthias, in the little mountain town of Jotapata, which fell after a fierce siege of 47 days. It was the second bloodiest battle of the revolt, surpassed only by the sacking of Jerusalem, and the longest except for Jerusalem and Masada.

Driven from Galilee, Zealot rebels and thousands of refugees arrived in Judea, causing even greater political turmoil in Jerusalem.

Meanwhile, back in Rome in 68 CE, Nero commits suicide, plunging the Empire into a civil war. Galba, Otho and Vitellius would assume the purple till Vespasian, leaving the battle in Judaea to Titus, brought the matter to a conclusion in 69.
6 commentsNemonater
prutah_1.jpg
Judaea, Herod Agrippa14 viewsAE Prutah, 17mm, 2.7g, 5h; Jerusalem, 41/42 AD.
Obv.: BACIΛEWC AΓPIПA; fringed, umbrella-like canopy.
Rev.: Three ears of barley and two leaves; date L-ς (year 6).
Reference: Hendin 1244.
Notes: ex-Zuzim, electronic sale 3/16/15, 46.
1 commentsJohn Anthony
Comb04042017010100.jpg
Judaea, Herodian Kingdom. Agrippa I. 37-44 C.E. AE prutah 30 viewsObv. BACIΛEΩC AΓPIΠA, umbrella.
Rev. Three ears of barley, flanked by L-ς.
Hendin 1244b; Meshorer TJC 120.
Jerusalem mint, struck 41-42 C.E.
18mm, 2.8 grams.
1 commentsCanaan
Comb06042017113655.jpg
Judaea, Herodian Kingdom. Agrippa I. 37-44 C.E. AE prutah 17 viewsObv. BACIΛEΩC AΓPIΠA, umbrella.
Rev. Three ears of barley, flanked by L-ς.
Hendin 1244b; Meshorer TJC 120.
Jerusalem mint, struck 41-42 C.E.
18mm, 2.9 grams.
Canaan
20170413_113811.jpg
JUDAEA, Herodians. Herod I (the Great). 40-4 BCE. Æ Prutah 20 viewsAnchor / Caduceus between crossed cornucopias.
Meshorer 59; Hendin 1188; HGC 10, 661.
15mm, 1.62 g. Jerusalem mint.
Canaan
20170413_102030.jpg
JUDAEA, Herodians. Herod I (the Great). 40-4 BCE. Æ Prutah17 viewsAnchor / Caduceus between crossed cornucopias.
Meshorer 59; Hendin 1188; HGC 10, 661.
14mm, 1.37 g. Jerusalem mint.
Canaan
20170413_095831.jpg
JUDAEA, Herodians. Herod I (the Great). 40-4 BCE. Æ Prutah21 viewsAnchor / Caduceus between crossed cornucopias.
Meshorer 59; Hendin 1188; HGC 10, 661.
15mm, 1.25 g. Jerusalem mint.
Canaan
20170620_101339.jpg
JUDAEA, Herodians. Herod I (the Great). 40-4 BCE. Æ Prutah 28 viewsAnchor / Caduceus between crossed cornucopias.
Meshorer 59; Hendin 1188; HGC 10, 661.
14mm, 1.69 g. Jerusalem mint.
1 commentsCanaan
judaea_hyrcanusI_Hendin451.jpg
Judaea, Johannes Hyrcanus I, AJC p.160, 315 viewsJohannes Hyrcanus (Yehochanan), 135-104 BC
struck for Antiochus VII Sidetes (Euergetes)
AE - Prutah, 2.31g, 13.75mm, 0°
Jerusalem, 131/130 BC (year 182)
obv. BAΣIΛEWΣ / ANTIOXOV / EVEPΓETOV
around anchor
below BΠP (year 182)
rev. lily in dot circle
ref. Hendin V 1131; Hendin IV, 451; AJC p. 160, 3
about VF/G
Jochen
judaea_hyrcanusI_Hendin454.jpg
Judaea, Johannes Hyrcanus I, TJC A10100 viewsJohn Hyrcanus I (Yehochanan), 135-104 BC
AE - Prutah, 14.13mm, 1.73g, 0°
struck in Jerusalem
obv. Paleo-Hebrew legend in 5 lines within laurel wreath:
יהוחנן / הכהןהג / דלוחברה / יהדימ / A
from r. to l.:
YHW(Ch)NN / H KHN H G / DL W (Ch)BR H / YHDYM
= Yehochanan Ha Kohen Ha Gadol We Chaver Ha Yehudim
= Yehochanan the High Priest and Council of the Jews
rev. Double cornucopiae, coming from a floral base, filled with fruits and a grain-ear each, decorated with ribbons hanging down, a pomegranate with long stalk between horns, in dotted circle
ref. GBC5 1132; GBC4 454; AJC Ma9; TJC A10
very rare, about EF

The 'A' probably signifies that this is John's earliest mintage and thus under the authority of Antiochos VII. Hence also the fine style.
2 commentsJochen
judaea_hyrcanusI_Hendin456.jpg
Judaea, Johannes Hyrcanus I, TJC B1160 viewsJohn Hyrcanus I (Yehochanan), 135-104 BC
AE - Prutah, 13.77mm, 1.92g, 0°
struck in Jerusalem
obv. Paleo-Hebrew legend in 4 lines, 2 dots above, all within laurel wreath:
יהוחנן / הכהןהגד / להחברה / יהדימ
from r. to l.:
YHW(Ch)NN / H KHN H GD / L H (Ch)BR H / YHDYM
= Yehochanan Ha Kohen Ha Gadol Ha Chaver Ha Yehudim
= Yehochanan the High Priest the Council of the Jews
rev. Double cornucopiae, coming from a floral base, filled with fruits and a grain-ear each, decorated with ribbons hanging down, a pomegranate with long stalk between horns, in dotted circle, monogram in l. field (not visible)
ref. Hendin 5, 1133; Hendin 4, 456; AJC Na18; TJC B11
VF/F+
pedigree:
ex Hendin

This type has 2 different shapes for the Nun.
1 commentsJochen
judaea_hyrcanusI_Hendin 455cf.jpg
Judaea, Johannes Hyrcanus I, TJC B1366 viewsJohn Hyrcanus I (Yehochanan), 135-104 BC
AE - Prutah, 14.53mm, 2.17g, 0°
struck in Jerusalem
obv. Paleo-Hebrew legend in 5 lines within laurel wreath:
יהוחנן / הכהןהג / דלוחברה / יהדי / מ
from r. to l.:
YHW(Ch)NN / H KHN H G / DL W (Ch)BR H / YHDY / M
= Yehochanan Ha Kohen Ha Gadol We Chaver Ha Yehudim
= Yehochanan the High Priest and Council of the Jews
rev. Double cornucopiae, coming from a floral base, filled with fruits and a grain-ear each, decorated with ribbons hanging down, a pomegranate with long stalk between horns, in dotted circle
ref. Hendin cf. 455/7; AJC Na29; TJC B13
F+/VF
Jochen
judaea_hyrcanusI_Hendin455.jpg
Judaea, Johannes Hyrcanus I, TJC B16 var.97 viewsJohn Hyrcanus I (Yehochanan), 135-103 BC
AE - Prutah, 2.14g, 13.53mm, 0°
Jerusalem
obv. Paleo-Hebrew legend in 5 lines within laurel wreath:
יהוחנ / ןהכהןהג / דלוחבר / היהדי / מ
from r. to l.:
YHW(Ch)N / N H KHN H G / DL W (Ch)BR / H YHDY / M
= Yehochanan Ha Kohen Ha Gadol We Chaver Ha Yehudim
= Yehochanan the High Priest and Council of the Jews
rev. Double cornucopiae, filled with fruits and a grain-ear each, decorated with ribbons hanging down, a pomegranate with long stalk between horns, in dotted circle
ref. Hendin IV 455-57; Hendin V 1133; AJC Na33; TJC B16 var. (has G in 3rd line)
about EF, dark brown patina

Thanks to Frederic!
1 commentsJochen
judaea_hyrcanusI_Hendin453_#1.jpg
Judaea, Johannes Hyrcanus I, TJC D554 viewsJohn Hyrcanus I (Yehochanan), 135-104 BC
AE - Prutah, 1.85g, 14.17mm, 0°
struck in Jerusalem
obv. Paleo-Hebrew legend in 5 lines within laurel wreath:
יהו / חנןהכה / ןהגדלו / חברה / ידמ
from r. to l.:
YHW / (Ch)NN H KH / N H G DL W / (Ch)BR H / YDM
= Yehochanan Ha Kohen Ha Gadol We Chaver Ha Yehudim
= Yehochanan the High Priest and Council of the Jews
rev. Double cornucopiae, decorated with ribbons hanging down, a pomegranate with long stalk between horns, in dotted circle
ref. Hendin 4, 453; AJC Pb3; TJC D5
VF/F

Typically for group D is the line as N
Jochen
judaea_hyrcanusI_Hendin453_#2.jpg
Judaea, Johannes Hyrcanus I, TJC D621 viewsJohn Hyrcanus I (Yehochanan), 135-104 BC
AE - Prutah, 2.13g, 14.22mm, 0°
struck in Jerusalem
obv. Paleo-Hebrew legend in 5 lines within laurel wreath:
יהו / חנןהכהן / הגדלו / חברה / ידמ
from r. to l.:
YHW / (Ch)NN H KHN / H GDL W / (Ch)BR H / Y[DM]
= Yehochanan Ha Kohen Ha Gadol We Chaver Ha Yehud[im]
= Yehochanan the High Priest and Council of the Jews
rev. Double cornucopiae, decorated with ribbons hanging down, a pomegranate with long stalk between horns, in dotted circle
ref. Hendin 4, 453; Hendin 5, 1135; AJC Pb4; TJC D6
very rare, EF/VF, nice sand patina

Typically for group D is the line as N
1 commentsJochen
judaea_hyrcanusI_Hendin460.jpg
Judaea, Johannes Hyrcanus I, TJC D846 viewsJohn Hyrcanus I (Yehochanan), 135-104 BC
AE - Prutah, 2.08g, 14.37mm, 180°
struck in Jerusalem
obv. Paleo-Hebrew legend in 5 lines within laurel wreath:
יהו / חנןהכה / ןהגדלו / חברהי / די
from r. to l.:
YHW / (Ch)NN H KH / N H GDL W / (Ch)BR H Y / DY
= Yehochanan Ha Kohen Ha Gadol We Chaver Ha Yehudi[m]
= Yehochanan the High Priest and Council of the Jews
rev. Double cornucopiae, coming from a floral base, filled with fruits and a grain-ear each, decorated with ribbons hanging down, a pomegranate with long stalk between horns, in dotted circle
ref. Hendin 453; AJC Pb6; TJC D8
VF+

Letter of N designed as a simple stroke I
Jochen
judaea_hyrcanusI_TJC_E10.jpg
Judaea, Johannes Hyrcanus I, TJC E107 viewsJohannes Hyrcanus I (Yehochanan), 135-103 BC
AE - Prutah, 14mm, 2.14g
Jerusalem
obv. Paleo-Hebrew legend in 4 lines within laurel wreath:
יהוח / כהן ה נן / חר ו גדל / י ה ב
from r. to l.:
= YHW(Ch) / NN H KHN / GDL W (Ch)[B] / R H Y
= Yehochanan Ha Kohen Gadol We Chaver Ha [Yehudim]
= Yehochanan the Highpriest and Council [of the Jews]
rev. Double cornucopiae with ribbons, pomegranate between horns
ref. Hendin IV, 463; AJC La10; TJC E10
F/about VF, sand patina
Jochen
judaea_hyrcanusI_Hendin464.jpg
Judaea, Johannes Hyrcanus I, TJC E1913 viewsJohannes Hyrcanus I (Yehochanan), 135-103 BC
AE - Prutah, 14.28mm, 1.69g, 0°
Jerusalem
obv. Paleo-Hebrew legend in 4 lines within laurel wreath:
יהו / חנןהכ / הןהגדל / וחבר
from r. to l.:
= YHW / (Ch)NN H K / HN H GDL / W (Ch)BR
= Yehochanan Ha Kohen Ha Gadol We Chaver [Ha Yehudim]
= Yehochanan the Highpriest and Council [of the Jews]
rev. Double cornucopiae with ribbons, pomegranate between horns
ref. Hendin V, 1139; Hendin IV, 464; AJC La18; TJC E19
about VF/F+, brown patina, rev. excentric

Strange depiction on rev. below the dotted circle, overstruck?
Jochen
judaea_hyrcanusI_Hendin452.jpg
Judaea, Johannes Hyrcanus I, TJC F1162 viewsJohn Hyrcanus I (Yehochanan), 135-104 BC
AE - Prutah, 1.59g, 14mm
struck in Jerusalem
obv. Paleo-Hebrew legend in 4 lines within laurel wreath:
יהוח / נןהכהן / הגדלוח / ברי
from r. to l.:
= YHW(Ch) / NN H KHN / H GDL W (Ch) / BR Y
= Yehochanan Ha Kohen Ha Gadol We Chaver Ye[hudim]
= Yehochanan the High Priest and Council of the Jews
rev. Double cornucopiae, decorated with ribbons hanging down, a pomegranate with long stalk between horns, in dotted circle
ref. GBC4 452; AJC K8; TJC F11
about VF
1 commentsJochen
judaea_hyrcanusI_TJC_F22.jpg
Judaea, Johannes Hyrcanus I, TJC F225 viewsJohn Hyrcanus I (Yehochanan), 135-104 BC
AE - Prutah, 1.92g, 13mm
struck in Jerusalem
obv. Paleo-Hebrew legend in 4 lines within laurel wreath:
יהוח / ןנ ה ןהכ ג / דל רבח / י
from r. to l.:
= YHW(Ch) / NN H KHN G / DL (Ch)BR / Y
= Yehochanan Ha Kohen Gadol Chaver Ye[hudim]
= Yehochanan the High Priest Council of the Jews
rev. Double cornucopiae, decorated with ribbons hanging down, a pomegranate with long stalk between horns, in dotted circle
ref. GBC4 452; AJC K21; TJC F22
about VF
Jochen
judaea_hyrcanusI_Hendin463cf.jpg
Judaea, Johannes Hyrcanus I, TJC G834 viewsJohn Hyrcanus I (Yehochanan), 135-104 BC
AE - Prutah, 1.52g, 15.01mm, 0°
struck in Jerusalem
obv. Paleo-Hebrew legend in 5 lines within laurel wreath, typical square style:
[יהו / חנןהכ / ןהגדל / חברה / [דמ
from r. to l.:
= YHW / (Ch)NN H K / N H GDL / (Ch)BR H / [DM]
= Yehochanan Ha Kohen Ha Gadol Chaver Ha [Yehudim]
= Yehochanan the High Priest Council of the Jews
rev. Double cornucopiae, coming from a floral base, filled with fruits and a grain-ear each, decorated with ribbons hanging down, a pomegranate with long stalk between horns, in dotted circle
ref. Hendin IV, 463; Hendin V, 1140; AJC Lb2; TJC G8
about VF/F+
pedigree:
ex Hendin
Jochen
judaea_hyrcanusI_Hendin457.jpg
Judaea, Johannes Hyrcanus I, TJC I3982 viewsJohn Hyrcanus I (Yehochanan), 135-104 BC
AE - Prutah, 14.46mm, 2.22g, 90°
struck in Jerusalem
obv. Paleo-Hebrew legend in 5 lines within laurel wreath:
יהו / חנןהכה / ןהגדלר / אשהד / הימ
from r. to l.: YHW / (Ch)NN H KH / H GDL R / '(Sh) H Y / HYM
= Yehochanan Ha Kohen Ha Gadol Rosh Ha Yehudim
= Yehochanan the High Priest, Head of the Jews
rev. Double cornucopiae, coming from a floral base, filled with fruits and a grain-ear each, decorated with ribbons hanging down, a pomegranate with long stalk between horns, in dotted circle; in l. field monogram Lambda
ref. Hendin 457; AJC Sc25; TJC I39
rare, VF+, rev. excentric

The legend with rosh is rare.
1 commentsJochen
judaea_hyrcanusII_TJC_S13.jpg
Judaea, Johannes Hyrcanus II (Yonatan), TJC S136 viewsJohn Hyrcanus II (Yonatan), king 67 BC, ethnarch 63-40 BC
AE - Prutah, 2.30g, 13.97mm, 0°
Jerusalem
obv. Paleo-Hebrew legend in 5 lines in laurel wreath:
יהונת / ןכהןגד / לוחבר / יהוד
from r. to l. (transcription):
YHWNT / N KHN GD / L W (Ch)BR / YHWD[M]
= Yehonatan Kohen Gadol We Chaver Yehudim
= Yehonatan High Priest and Council of the Jews
rev. Double cornucopiae, pomegranate between
ref. GBC4 479-80; AJC Ha10; TJC S13 (last M missing)
about VF/F, rev. extremely excentric

cursive letters, crude style
Jochen
judaea_hyrcanusII_Hendin479.jpg
Judaea, Johannes Hyrcanus II, TJC S10 var.56 viewsJohn Hyrcanus II (Yonatan), king 67 BC, ethnarch 63-40 BC
AE - Prutah, 13mm, 1.40g
Jerusalem
obv. Legend in paleo-Hebraic in 4 lines in laurel-wreath:
ינתן ה / כהן גדל / ו חבר ה / יהדי
from r. to l.:
YNTN H / KHN GDL / W (Ch)BR H / YHDY
= Yonatan Ha Kohen Gadol We Chaver Ha Yehud[im]
= Yonatan the High Priest and Council of the Jews
rev. Double cornucopiae, decorated with ribbons, pomegranate between horns, in dotted circle
ref. Hendin 479; AJC type Ha31 var.; TJC S10 var. (without H after ChBR!)
VF, crude style as usual, but complete inscription!
From Forum Ancient Coins, thanks!

This type could have been struck during the reign of his mother, Salome Alexandra, as queen, 76-67 BC, or during his reign as king or ethnarch. Some scientists think that this type has been struck under Alexander Jannaeus at the end of his reign. Usually this type is crude with unreadable letters and incomplete legends.
Jochen
judaea_hyrcanusII_TJC_S24var.jpg
Judaea, Johannes Hyrcanus II, TJC S24 var.7 viewsJohn Hyrcanus II (Yonatan), king 67 BC, (ethnarch) 63-40 BC
AE - Prutah, 1.60g, 13.35mm, 0°
struck in Jerusalem
obv. Paleo-Hebrew legend in 5 lines within laurel wreath:
ינתן / כהן גדל / ו חבר י / הדי / מ
from r. to l.:
YNTN / KHN GDL / W (Ch)BR Y / HDY / M
= Yonatan Kohen Gadol We Chaver Yeduhim
= Yonatan Highpriest and Council of the Jews
rev. Double cornucopiae with pomegranate
ref. Hendin IV 479-80; AJC Ha21 var.; TJC 24 var. (without מ in 4th line)
about VF, nice sand patina


Jochen
judaea_hyrcanusII_TJC_S30var.jpg
Judaea, Johannes Hyrcanus II, TJC S30 var.4 viewsJohannes Hyrcanus II (Yonatan), king 67 BC, ethnarch 63-40 BC
AE - prutah, 2.15g, 16.14mm
Jerusalem
obv. Paleo-Hebrew legend in 5 lines within laurel wreath:
ינתן / הכהןגדל / וחברי / הדימ / ה
from r. to l.:
= YNTN / H KHN GDL / W (Ch)BR Y / H DYM / H
= Yonatan Ha Kohen Gadol We Chaver Yehudim
= Yonatan the Highpriest and Council of the Jews
rev. Double cornucopiae with pomegranate between horns
ref. Hendin 479-80; AJC Ha33; TJC S30 var. (different legend break between 1st and 2nd line)
VF
Jochen
judaea_hyrcanusII_Hendin480.jpg
Judaea, Johannes Hyrcanus II, TJC S42/44 cf.21 viewsJohannes Hyrcanus II (Yonatan), king 67 BC, ethnarch 63-40 BC
AE - Prutah, 1.43g, 13.2mm, 315°
Jerusalem
obv. Totally stylized version of Paleo-Hebrew inscription in wreath (so-called nonsense legend)
rev. Double cornucopiae decorated with ribbons, pomegranate between
ref. Hendin 480; AJC type Hd; TJC group S42/44
about VF, nice example of this usually awful type
pedigree:
ex Hendin
Jochen
judaea_alex_jannaeus_Hendin1149b.jpg
Judaea, Johannes Hyrcanus II, TJC T10 var.21 viewsJohannes Hyrcanus II (Yonatan), king 67 BC, ethnarch 63-40 BC
AE - prutah, 2.27g, 14.54mm
Jerusalem
obv. Paleo-Hebrew legend in 4 lines within laurel wreath:
ינתן / הכהןה / גדלוחבר / היהמ
from r. to l.:
= YNTN / H KHN / GDL W (Ch)BR / H YHM(?)
= Yonatan Ha Kohen We Chaver Ha Yehudim
= Yonatan the Highpriest and Council of the Jews
rev. Double cornucopiae with pomegranate between horns; anchor undertype visible, at the border remains of the Greek legend: ALEXA
ref. Hendin 478; AJC Ia8 var.; TJC T10 var. (last 2 lines different)
VF
From Forum Ancient Coins, thanks!

This type is overstruck on type TJC N (legend over lily, cornucopiae over anchor)

This type has been reattributed from Hyrcanus II to Alexander Jannaeus by Hendin and Shachar in `The Identity of YNTN on Hasmonean Overstruck Coins and the Chronology of the Alexander Jannaeus Types,` Israel Numismatic Research 3, 2008: 87-94. It appears this type was overstruck on earlier coins of Alexander Jannaeus that had never been released from the mint. (FAC)
Jochen
judaea_hyrcanusII_TJC_T11.jpg
Judaea, Johannes Hyrcanus II, TJC T1112 viewsJohn Hyrcanus II [Yonatan], king 67 BC, ethnarch 63-40 BC
AE - Prutah, 2.48g, 16.13mm, 0°
struck in Jerusalem
obv. Paleo-Hebrew legend in 5 lines within laurel wreath:
ינתן / ה כהן [ה] / כדל ו ח / בר יה / מ
from r. to l.:
YNTN / H KHN [H] / GDL W (Ch) / BR YH / M
= Yonatan Ha Kohen [Ha] Gadol We Chaver Yehu[d]im
= Yonatan the Highpriest and Council of the Jews
ref. Hendin IV 478; AJC Ia9; TJC T11
sand patina
1 commentsJochen
judaea_hyrcanusII_Hendin478.jpg
Judaea, Johannes Hyrcanus II, TJC T3 var.77 viewsJohn Hyrcanus II (Yonatan), king 67 BC, ethnarch 63-40 BC
AE - Prutah, 1.82g, 14.66mm, 45°
Jerusalem
obv. Legend in Paleo-Hebrew in 6 lines in laurel-wreath:
ינתןה / כהןגד / לוחבר / היהדי / מ
from r. to l.:
YNTN H / KHN GD / L W (Ch)BR / H YHDY / M
= Yonatan Ha Kohen Gadol We Chaver Ha Yehudim
= Yonatan the High Priest and Council of the Jews
rev. Double cornucopiae, filled with fruits and a grain-ear each, decorated with ribbons hanging down, a pomegranate with long stalk between horns, in dotted circle
ref. GBC5 1149; GBC4 478; AJC Ia1 var.; TJC T3 var. (have in 4. line only YDHY)
VF, crude style as usual, but complete inscription!
1 commentsJochen
judaea_hyrcanusII_Hendin478_#2.jpg
Judaea, Johannes Hyrcanus II, TJC T759 viewsJohn Hyrcanus II (Yonatan), king 67 BC, ethnarch 63-40 BC
AE - Prutah, 2.60g, 17mm
Jerusalem
obv. Paleo-Hebrew legend in 5 lines within laurel-wreath:
ינתן / ה כהן ה / גדל ו חב / ר הדי / מ
from r. to l.:
YNTN / H KHN H / GDL W (Ch)B / R HDY / M(?)
= Yonatan Ha Kohen Gadol We Chaver Yehudim
= Yonatan the High Priest and Council of the Jews
rev. Double cornucopiae, decorated with ribbons, pomegranate between horns, in dotted circle
ref. Hendin 478; AJC type I; TJC T7
VF

This coin clearly is an overstruck of Hendin 467. You can see ANDROV BAC around the circle on the rev.
This type has been reattributed from Hyrcanus II to Alexander Jannaeus by Hendin and Shachar in "The Identity of YNTN on Hasmonean Overstruck Coinas and the Chronology of the Alexander Jannaeus Types," Israel Numismatic Research 3, 2008: 87-94. It appears this type was overstruck on earlier coins of Alexander Jannaeus that had never been released from the mint. (FAC)
Jochen
judaea_hyrcanusII_TJC_T7var.jpg
Judaea, Johannes Hyrcanus II, TJC T7 var.9 viewsJohannes Hyrcanus II (Yonatan), king 67 BC, ethnarch 63-40 BC
AE - Prutah, 2.23g, 15.83mm, 0°
Jerusalem
obv. Paleo-Hebrew legend in 5 lines within laurel wreath:
[ינתן] / הכהןה / גדלהחב / [מ / ריהד]
from r. to l.:
= [YNTN] / H KHN H / GDL H (Ch)B / [R YHD / M]
= Yonatan Ha Kohen Ha Gadol Ha Chaver [of the Jews]
rev. Double cornucopiae with pomegranate, beneath remains of the lily and the underlying Paleo-Hebrew legend:
נתןהמל
from r. to l.:
= NTN - H ML
= [Yeho]natan Ha Mal[ik]
= Yehonatan the king
ref.: Hendin 478; AJC Ia4; TJC T7 var. (Here we have clearly "Ha Chaver", not "We Chaver" as usually!)
rare so nice, S+

This type is an overstrike of TJC group N (lily).
Jochen
hyrcanus_ii_k.jpg
JUDAEA, John Hyrcanus II, king 67 BC, ethnarch c. 47-40 BC3 viewsÆ prutah, 15mm, 2.9g, 6h; Jerusalem mint.
Obv.: YNTN (Jonantan) H (the) KHN (priest) GDL (high) W (and) BR (council) H (the) YHDYM (Jews), all within wreath.
Rev.: Double cornucopia with pomegranate between horns.
Reference: Hendin 1159.
John Anthony
judaea_judah_aristobulusI_Hendin465_#2~0.jpg
Judaea, Judah Aristobulus I, TJC U223 viewsJudah Aristobulus I (Yehudah), 104-103 BC
AE - Prutah 1.69g, 14.42mm, 45°
Jerusalem
obv. Paleo-Hebrew legend in 5 lines within laurel wreath:
יהוד / הכהןגד / ולוחברה / יהוד / ימ
from r. to l.:
= YHWD / H KHN GD / WL W (Ch)BR H / YHWD / YM
= Yehudah Kohen Gadol We Chaver Ha Yehudim
= Yehudah Highpriest and Council of Jews
rev. Double cornucopiae with ribbons, pomegranate between horns
Rev. type A: broad pomegranate
ref. Hendin IV, 465; Hendin V 1143; AJC Ja2; TJC U2
VF
Jochen
aristobulusI_TJC_U9var.jpg
Judaea, Judah Aristobulus I, TJC U9 var.16 viewsJudah Aristobulus I (Jehudah), 104-103 BC
AE - Prutah, 2.19g, 14.98mm, 0°
Jerusalem
obv. Legend in Paleo-Hebrew in 5 lines within laurel-wreath:
יהוד / הכהןגד / ולוחבר / היהד / ימ
from r. to l.:
YHWD / H KHN GD / WL W (Ch)BR / HYHD / YM
= Yehudah Kohen Gadol We Chaver Ha Yehudim
= Yehudah High Priest and Council of the Jews
rev. Double cornucopiae, filled with fruits and a grain-ear each, decorated with ribbons hanging down, a pomegranate with long stalk between horns, in dotted circle
ref. Hendin IV, 465; AJC Ja9 var; TJC U9 var. (has in 5th line only M, but here it is MY!)
VF+, nice sand patina

This type has no article before the title! and it has GDWL instead of GDL!
Jochen
judaea_judah_aristobulusI_Hendin466.jpg
Judaea, Judah Aristobulus I, TJC V1120 viewsJudah Aristobulus I (Jehudah), 104-103 BC
AE - Prutah, 1.88g, 15.21mm, 0°
Jerusalem
obv. Legend in Paleo-Hebrew in 6 lines within laurel-wreath:
יהו / דההכה / ןהגדל / וחברה / יהד / ימ
from r. to l.:
YHW / DH H KH / N H GDL / W (Ch)BR H / YHD / YM
= Yehudah Ha Kohen Ha Gadol We Chaver Ha Yehudim
= Yehudah the High Priest and Council of the Jews
rev. Double cornucopiae, filled with fruits and a grain-ear each, decorated with ribbons hanging down, a pomegranate with long stalk between horns, in dotted circle
ref. GBC5 1142; GBC4 466; AJC Jc1; TJC V1
very rare, EF, nice black patina with red earthen layers
Thanks to Salem!

This type has articles before the titles!
2 commentsJochen
20170824_135908.jpg
Judaea, Pontius Pilates, Prefect under Tiberius, 26-36 AD, Jerusalem mint20 viewsObverse: IOYLIA KAICAPOC, three bound heads of barley, the outer two heads drooping.
Reverse: TIBEPIOY KAICAPOC (of Tiberius Caesar), no date, simpulum (libation ladle);
References:Hendin 1341, Meshorer TJC 331, RPC I 4967, SGICV 5622, Jerusalem mint,
17mm, 2.63 grams
Canaan
20171106_105642.jpg
Judaea, Pontius Pilates, Prefect under Tiberius, 26-36 AD, Jerusalem mint15 viewsObverse: IOYLIA KAICAPOC, three bound heads of barley, the outer two heads drooping.
Reverse: TIBEPIOY KAICAPOC (of Tiberius Caesar), no date, simpulum (libation ladle);
References:Hendin 1341, Meshorer TJC 331, RPC I 4967, SGICV 5622, Jerusalem mint,
1.08, 16mm
Canaan
prutah_4a.jpg
Judaea, Porcius Festus, Procurator under Nero9 viewsAE Prutah, 17mm, 2.9g, 12h; Jerusalem, AD 58/59.
Obv.: Inscription within wreath, tied with an X: NEP/WNO/C.
Rev.: KAIC-APOC, LE; Palm branch.
Reference: Hendin 1351.
Notes: ex-Zuzim, electronic sale 3/16/15, 46.
John Anthony
He62m3GoSz8AtPJ29c9DgBE7Z5Mm4y.jpg
Judaea, The Herodians. Herod Archelaus, 4 BC-6 AD. AE Prutah11 viewsBronze prutah of Herod Archelaus, mint of Jerusalem. Obv.: Vine branch with bunch of grapes and small leaf. Above it, a Greek inscription HPWΔOY (of Herod). Rev.: Crested helmet with two cheek pieces. Below it, a small caduceus and inscription EΘNAPXO (of the Ethnarch). The letter Y (of EΘNAPXOY) is missing.

4 B.C.E. – 6 C.E. 2.12 grams, 17 mm, axis 12. Cf. Ya'akov Meshorer, A Treasury of Jewish Coins (New York 2001), pl. 48, no. 73a : Hendin 1196
Antonivs Protti
herod_agrippa_res.jpg
JUDAEA--AGRIPPA I (Herod Agrippa)23 views37-44 AD
AE prutah 17 mm; 2.17 g
O: ΑΓΡΙΠΑ ΒΑCΙΛΕWC (King Agrippa), umbrella-like canopy with fringes
R: Three heads of barley between two leaves, flanked by L - ς (year 6= 42AD);
Jerusalem mint; cf Hendin 1244, Meshorer TJC 120,
laney
prutah_4_res.jpg
JUDAEA--ALEXANDER JANNAEUS (Yehonatan)9 viewsKing of Judaea from 103 - 76 BC
AE Prutah 14 mm 2.17 g
O:Double cornucopiae, pomegranate between
R: Hebrew inscription within wreath, "Yehonaten the high priest and the council of the Jews"
Jerusalem mint
laney
herod_the_great_b.jpg
JUDAEA--HEROD I (The Great)22 views 40-4 BCE. Æ
AE Half Prutah or Lepton 11mm, 0.92 g
Cornucopia / Eagle standing right.
Jerusalem mint. Meshorer 66; Hendin-1190 in GBC 5; Hendin-501 in GBC 4
laney
JOHN_HYRCANUS_RES.jpg
JUDAEA--JOHN HYRCANUS (Yehohanan)13 views134 - 104 B.C.
Struck by John Hyrcanus, King of Judaea, in the name of the Seleukid King Antiochos VII, Euergetes (Sidetes)
AE 14 mm 2.63 g
O: Anchor
R: Lily
Judaea, Jerusalem mint

laney
john_hyrc.jpg
JUDAEA--JOHN HYRCANUS (Yehohanan)9 views134 - 104 B.C.
Struck by John Hyrcanus, King of Judaea, in the name of the Seleukid King Antiochos VII, Euergetes (Sidetes)
AE 14 mm 2.54 g
LILY/ANCHOR
Judaea, Jerusalem mint
laney
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Judaea. Antiochus VII Euergetes (Sidetes) (138-129 B.C.) and John Hyrcanus I (135-104 B.C.)18 viewsHendin 451 (4th ed.), Hendin 1131 (5th ed.), Meshorer TJC pp. 30-31, Meshorer AJC I, Supp. II, A2

AE Prutah, Jerusalem mint, dated Seleucid year 181 (132-131 B.C.), average weight 2.47 ± 0.03 grams, 15 mm.

Obv: Upside down anchor flanked by ΒΑ[ΣΙΛΕΩΣ] / ΑΝΤΙΟ[ΧΟΥ] (of King Antiochus) on left and ΕΥΕΡΓΕΤΟΥ (Benefactor) on right, ΑΠΡ (date) below anchor.

Rev: Lily

Note: Minted either on the initiative of Antiochus VII as a conciliatory gesture to the Jews or by John Hyrcanus I himself, in honor of the Seleucid monarch, as an act of good will and appeasement (per Meshorer TJC p. 31).
Stkp
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Judaea. Herod Agrippa I (37-44 A.D.)11 viewsHendin 553, Meshorer TJC 120, Meshorer AJC II, 249, 11

AE Prutah, Jerusalem mint, dated year 6 (41-42 A.D.), 17 mm.

Obv: Canopy with fringes, ΑΓΡΙΠΑ ΒΑСΙΛΕWС (counterclockwise).

Rev: Three ears of grain growing between two leaves, flanked by L—ζ (date).

Note: There is a body of scholarship that attributes this coin to Agrippa II (55-95 A.D.)
Stkp
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Judaea. Herod I (40-4 B.C.)15 viewsHendin 500 var., Meshorer TJC 328 var.

AE Prutah, Jerusalem mint, 13-14 mm.

Obv: Anchor surrounded by HPW--BACIA.

Rev: Double cornucopia with caduceus between horns, pellets above.

Note: The obverse inscription is a common variant of HPWΔOY—BACIΛE (of King Herod).
Stkp
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Judaea; Aelia Capitolina (Jerusalem), Hardian50 viewsAelia Capitolina (Jerusalem) in Judaea.

In 130, Hadrian visited the ruins of Jerusalem, in Judaea, left after the First Roman-Jewish War of 66–73. He rebuilt the city, renaming it Aelia Capitolina after himself and Jupiter Capitolinus, the chief Roman deity. A new temple dedicated to the worship of Jupiter was built on the ruins of the old Jewish Second Temple, which had been destroyed in 70. In addition, Hadrian abolished circumcision, which was considered by Romans and Greeks as a form of bodily mutilation and hence "barbaric". These anti-Jewish policies of Hadrian triggered in Judaea a massive Jewish uprising, led by Simon bar Kokhba and Akiba ben Joseph. Following the outbreak of the revolt, Hadrian called his general Sextus Julius Severus from Britain, and troops were brought from as far as the Danube. Roman losses were very heavy, and it is believed that an entire legion, the XXII Deiotariana was destroyed. Indeed, Roman losses were so heavy that Hadrian's report to the Roman Senate omitted the customary salutation "I and the legions are well". However, Hadrian's army eventually put down the rebellion in 135, after three years of fighting. According to Cassius Dio, during the war 580,000 Jews were killed, 50 fortified towns and 985 villages razed. The final battle took place in Beitar, a fortified city 10 km. southwest of Jerusalem. The city only fell after a lengthy siege, and Hadrian did not allow the Jews to bury their dead. According to the Babylonian Talmud, after the war Hadrian continued the persecution of Jews. He attempted to root out Judaism, which he saw as the cause of continuous rebellions, prohibited the Torah law, the Hebrew calendar and executed Judaic scholars (see Ten Martyrs). The sacred scroll was ceremonially burned on the Temple Mount. In an attempt to erase the memory of Judaea, he renamed the province Syria Palaestina (after the Philistines), and Jews were forbidden from entering its rededicated capital. When Jewish sources mention Hadrian it is always with the epitaph "may his bones be crushed" (שחיק עצמות), an expression never used even with respect to Vespasian or Titus who destroyed the Second Temple.

JUDAEA, Aelia Capitolina (Jerusalem). Hadrian. 117-138 CE. Æ 22mm (11.03 gm, 11h). Struck 136 CE. IMP CAES TRAIANO HADRIANO AVG P P, laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust / COL AEL KAPIT, COND in exergue, Hadrian, as priest-founder, plowing with team of oxen right; vexillum behind. Meshorer, Aelia 2; Hendin 810; SNG ANS -.
ecoli
Yehohanan.jpg
Judaean Kingdom, John Hyrcanus I (Yehohanan), 134 - 104 B.C., For the Seleukid King Antiochus VII22 viewsBronze AE 15, Hendin 1131, SGCV II 7101, Fair, rough, corrosion, Jerusalem mint, 2.220 grams, 15.2 mm, die axis 0o, 132 - 130 B.C.; obverse ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΥ ΕΥΕΡΓΕΤΟΥ (of King Antiochus, Benefactor), anchor, upside down, date below, ΑΠΡ (year 181) or ΒΠΡ (year 182); reverse lily.

Struck by John Hyrcanus, King of Judaea, in the name of the Seleukid King Antiochos VII, Euergetes (Sidetes). Soon after Hyrcanus assumed power, the Seleukid kingdom marched on Jerusalem. Antiochus VII and Hyrcanus I negotiated a treaty that left Hyrcanus a vassal to the Syrian king.

EX; FORVM Ancient Coins.

*With my sincere thank and appreciation , Photo and Description courtesy of FORVM Ancient Coins Staff.
Sam
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JUDAEAN, Judean Kingdom, Alexander Jannaeus (Yehonatan), 103 - 76 B.C.10 viewsBronze prutah, 1.477g, 14.5mm, Jerusalem mint, 95 - 76 B.C.; obverse BASILEWS ALEXANDROU (of King Alexander), around anchor; reverse eight ray star surrounded by diadem (or wheel), Hebrew inscription "Yehonatan the king" between raysjoshua benevento
21237q00.jpg
JUDAEAN, Judean Kingdom, Alexander Jannaeus (Yehonatan), 103 - 76 B.C.26 viewsBronze prutah, Hendin 469, TJC K, aF, 1.136g, 13.7mm, Jerusalem mint, 95 - 76 B.C.; obverse BASILEWS ALEXANDROU (of King Alexander), around anchor; reverse eight ray star surrounded by diadem (or wheel), Hebrew inscription "Yehonatan the king" between rays1 commentsjoshua benevento
bpGB1S2Judaea3.jpg
JUDAEAN, Judean Kingdom, Alexander Jannaeus, 95 - 76 B.C.44 viewsAe Prutah, 2.93 gm, 16.1 mm, 95-76 BC, Jerusalem Mint, Hendin 469, Sear (GC) 6087.
Obv: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΑΡΟΥ
Greek inscription around inverted anchor. (OF KING ALEXANDER).
Rev: YEHONATAN THE KING (in Hebrew script).
Eight pointed star with insription in the spaces beween rays. All within diadem or wheel.
Ex FORVM
Massanutten
judah1.jpg
Judah Aristobulus57 viewsYehudah the high priest and Concil of the Jews
mint : Jerusalem
104-103 BC
Hendin 465
1 commentsfrederic
J08M-Aristobulus.jpg
Judah Aristobulus I, (Hasmonean King), Æ prutah, 104-103 BCE51 viewsJudah Aristobulus I, 104-103 BCE, bronze prutah of 13.7 mm, 2.02 grams, Jerusalem.

Obverse: Hebrew inscription surrounded by wreath; “Yehudah the High Priest and the Council of the Jews”, יהוד הכהן גדול וחבר הי[הודים]
Reverse: 2-cornucopia adorned with ribbons, pomegranate between horns

Reference: Hendin 465.

Added to collection: January 16, 2006
Daniel Friedman
AGRIPPA~1.jpg
Judea Herod Agrippa I57 viewsAΓΡI ΠA BACIΛEWC
King Agrippa umbrella canopy with fringes

Three ears of barley between two leaves flanked by date L - ς
(year 6).

Jerusalem Mint 41-42 AD
Bronze Prutah

Hendin 1244

Ex-Zurgieh


Herod Agrippa I was a son of Aristobulus and grandson of Herod the Great by Mariamne I, granddaughter of High Priest Hyrcanus II. His father Aristobulus had been put to death by Herod the Great. Named after Augustus best friend and genreal Marcus Agrippa, Herod Agrippa was the last of the Herods to become king of all Palestine, as his grandfather had been. Agrippa was educated in Rome with the Emperor Tiberius’ son Drusus and his nephew Claudius and he became a familiar figure in important circles in Rome.

An injudicious statement got Agrippa into trouble with Emperor Tiberius. In an unguarded moment he expressed the wish to Gaius (Caligula) that he, Gaius, might soon be emperor. Overheard by Agrippa’s servant, his remarks came to the ears of Tiberius, who cast Agrippa into prison. His life was in the balance for several months. Fortunately for Agrippa, Tiberius died and Caligula became emperor. He released Agrippa and elevated him to the position of king over the territories that his late uncle Philip had governed.

When Caligula was assassinated Agrippa was in Rome. He was able to act as liaison between the Senate and his friend, the new Emperor Claudius. Claudius expressed his appreciation by awarding him the territory of Judea and Samaria as well as the kingdom of Lysanias. Agrippa now became ruler of about the same dominion that his grandfather Herod the Great had held.


1 commentsJay GT4
First_Jewish_Revolt_AE_prutah,_68-69_AD.jpg
Judea - First Jewish Revolt AE prutah, 68-69 AD35 viewsFirst Jewish Revolt
AE Prutah
Jerusalem, 68/69AD
SH'NAT SH'LOSH
Year Three-Amphora with broad rim and two handles and lid decorated with tiny globes hanging around edge
CHAROT TZION
Vine leaf with twig on tendril
Hendin 664
1 commentsArdatirion
widows_mite3.jpg
Judean Kingdom, Alexander Jannaeus (Yehonatan), 103 - 76 B.C. (Widow's Mite)21 viewsBronze lepton, Hendin 472, Fair, Jerusalem, 1.065g, 14.1mm, 78 - 76 B.C.;
obverse - barbaric, blundered legend, BASILEWS ALEXANDROU, anchor upside-down, as if hanging on the side of a boat, inside circle;
reverse - barbaric blundered Aramaic inscription, King Alexander Year 25, star of eight rays surrounded by circle of dots;

Jesus sat down opposite the place where the offerings were put and watched the crowd putting their money into the temple treasury. Many rich people threw in large amounts. But a poor widow came and put in two very small copper coins, worth only a fraction of a penny. Calling his disciples to him, Jesus said, "I tell you the truth, this poor widow put more into the treasury than all the others. For all of them have contributed out of their abundance; but she out of her poverty has put in everything she had, all she had to live on."
b70
first_jewish_revolt_res.jpg
JUDEAN--FIRST JEWISH REVOLT9 views66 - 70 AD
AE Prutah 16.43 mm max., 2.26 g
O: Amphora with broad rim and two handles, "year 2" (in Hebrew) around
R: Vine leaf on small branch, "the freedom of Zion" (in Hebrew) around
Jerusalem mint; year 2, Hendin 1360
(ex Forum)
laney
JERUSALEM ARAB IMITATION.jpg
Kingdom of Jerusalem72 viewsKingdom of Jerusalem -- Imitation of Ayyubids of Damascus. Al-Salih Ismail, 1237, 1240-45 AD. AR Dirham. 1.8 gm. 20 mm.dpaul7
JERUSALEM_GOLD_FRAGMENT.jpg
KINGDOM OF JERUSALEM41 viewsKINGDOM OF JERUSALEM - XII-XIII Century A.D. Cut gold fragment, 0.20 g. Uncertain design elements. Met. 2644-333. Crusader "small change".dpaul7
bld.jpg
Kingdom of JERUSALEM . Baldwin III (1143-1163), Billon Denier .37 viewsKingdom of JERUSALEM . Baldwin III (1143-1163), Billon Denier .'Rough' Series, BALDVINVS REX, cross pattée, rev., the Tower of David +DE IERVSALEH, CCS 10 Vladislavs D
baldwin_ob.jpg
Kingdom of JERUSALEM . Baldwin III (1143-1163), Billon Obole .40 viewsKingdom of JERUSALEM . Baldwin III (1143-1163), Billon Obole . "Smooth" Series .
Reverse: Tower of David + DE IERVSALEM
Obverse: Cross pattée BALDVINVS REX
weight 0.26g – diameter 12mm
CCS 21
Vladislavs D
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Kingdom of Jerusalem . Baldwin III - Amalric 1143-1174 Cut AV Fragment19 viewsKingdom of Jerusalem, Baldwin III - Amalric (AD 1143-1174)
Cut AV Fragment. 0.35g, 9mm.
[..]L(?)•[..] in outer circle, top of cross in tressure within inner circle
(annulet)IS(?) in outer circle, pyramid with lined outer frame within inner circle.
Metcalf LE 240ff; J.D. Brady: "A Firm Attribution of Latin Gold Coinage to Twelfth Century Jerusalem" ANSMN 23 (1978), type I; CCS p.67, types 1-3.
Ex Spink Auction 342, 30 October 2018,
Ex Roma Numismatics Ltd E-Sale 56 9 May 2019
Vladislav D
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Kingdom of JERUSALEM . Imitative of Damascus Dirham of Ayyubid al-Salih Isma'il and the Abbasid Caliph al-Mustansir, 1244 - 125038 viewsKingdom of JERUSALEM . Imitative of Damascus Dirham of Ayyubid al-Salih Isma'il and the Abbasid Caliph al-Mustansir, 1244 - 1250
2.894g, 22.9mm, Acre(?) mint, 1244 - 1250
obverse : Arabic legends: in center: "al-Malik al-Salih / Imad al-Dunya wa'l-Din / Isma'il b. Abi Bakr", in margins: "In the name of God, struck in Damascus year 641 (or another year)" (or similar, blundered, margins mostly off flan)
reverse : Arabic legends: in center: "al- Imam / Al-Mustansir / billah Abu Ja'far / al-Mansur Amir al-Mu'mininin", in margins: "There is no god but God alone; none is associated with him; Muhammad is the Messenger of God" (or similar, blundered, margins mostly off flan).
Bates Crusader type I, Balog 36 - 37 ; CCS 3
Ex Alex G. Malloy ; Ex FORUM
Vladislav D
mr.jpg
Kingdom of JERUSALEM .Commune of Acre . Anonymous royal coinage. 1231-1243 . Billon Denier .35 viewsKingdom of JERUSALEM .Commune of Acre . Anonymous royal coinage. 1231-1243 . Billon Denier .
0.8 g.
MONETA REGIS Patriarchal cross , α and ω in lower angles
+ REX IERL'M, Cross pattée
Metcalf 146; CCS 52; Sch III, 27
Vladislav D
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Kingdom of JERUSALEM .John of Brienne, 1210-1225 AD. AR Denier41 viewsKingdom of JERUSALEM .John of Brienne, 1210-1225 AD. AR Denier.
reverse : + DAMIATA, head facing with curly hair, wearing crown ornamented with three pellets .
obverse : + IOhES : REX :, cross pattée, annulets in upper right and lower left quarters, triple pellet stops;

CCS 43 .
Vladislavs D
jbr.jpg
Kingdom of JERUSALEM .John of Brienne, 1210-1225 AD. AR Denier35 viewsKingdom of JERUSALEM .John of Brienne, 1210-1225 AD. AR Denier. 0.45 gr.
reverse + DAMIATA, head facing with curly hair, wearing crown ornamented with three pellets
obverse + IOhES : REX :, cross pattée, annulets in upper right and lower left quarters, triple pellet stops;
CCS 43
Ex Roberto Pesant
Vladislavs D
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Kingdom of JERUSALEM .John of Brienne, 1210-1225 AD. AR Denier.37 viewsKingdom of JERUSALEM .John of Brienne, 1210-1225 AD. AR Denier. 0.65gr.
reverse + DAMIATA, head facing with curly hair, wearing crown ornamented with three pellets .
obverse + IOhES : REX :, cross pattée, annulets in upper right and lower left quarters, triple pellet stops;
CCS 43 .
Ex LAC .
Vladislavs D
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Kingdom of Jerusalem, Aimery de Lusignan (1197-1205 and later to 1220), Billon Denier44 viewsKingdom of Jerusalem, Aimery de Lusignan (1197-1205 and later to 1220), Billon Denier, crude work, Jerusalem mint,
reverse : the Holy Sepulchre, +DE IERVSALEM .
obverse : AMALRICVS REX, cross pattée with an annulet in the 2nd and 3rd quarter,
rev., the Holy Sepulchre, +DE IERVSALEM .
CCS 37-41
Vladislavs D
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Kingdom of Jerusalem, Baldwin II -IV 7 viewsjimbomar
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Kingdom of Jerusalem, Henry of Champagne , 1192-1197 . AE Pougeoise 36 viewsKingdom of Jerusalem, Henry of Champagne , 1192-1197 .
AE Pougeoise . Acre mint . 17.6 mm, 1.06 g.
Obverse: COMES HENRICVS, cross pattée, annulet in each corner .
Reverse : PVGES D'ACCON , Fleur-de-lis .
CCS 33
Hand engraved motifs on the reverse . Found in Jerusalem . Purchased in the Jerusalem market by David Hendin ( 2011-13)
Ex. Amphora coins .
Vladislav D
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Kingdom of Jerusalem. Pilgrim Coinage. 12th century A.D. BI denier 45 viewsKingdom of Jerusalem. Pilgrim Coinage. 12th century A.D. BI denier
17.0 mm, 0.78 g
+SICVRC (retrograde) Cross pattée .
Patriarchal cross on base, said to represent the mount of Golgotha, between palm branches .
CCS 47
From the Kenneth Miller Collection of Ake-Ptolemaïs and Related Biblical Coins. Ex Agora Auctions
Vladislav D
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Kingdom of JERUSALEM. Amaury, 1163-1174 AD. AR Denier134 viewsKingdom of JERUSALEM. Amaury, 1163-1174 AD. AR Denier .
reverse : + DE IERVSALEM, Church of the Holy Sepulchre
obverse : AMALRICVS REX, cross pattée, annulets in upper right and lower left quarters;
CCS 25-31
Vladislavs D
jer.jpg
Kingdom of JERUSALEM. Amaury, 1163-1174 AD. AR Denier .52 viewsKingdom of JERUSALEM. Amaury, 1163-1174 AD. AR Denier .
obverse : AMALRICVS REX, cross pattée, annulets in upper right and lower left quarters;
reverse : + DE IERVSALEM, Church of the Holy Sepulchre
CCS 25-31
1 commentsVladislav D
4.jpg
Kingdom of JERUSALEM. Guy de Lusignan. 1186-1192. Æ Fractional Denier .154 viewsKingdom of Jerusalem. Guy de Lusignan. 1186-1192. Æ Fractional Denier . +REX GVIDO D, crowned facing bust; pellets at side / +E IERVSALEM, Church of the Holy Sepulchre. (Metcalf 628 (Cyprus); Schl III, 21 (Jerusalem)). ; CCS 32Vladislavs D
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Kingdom of JERUSALEM. Guy de Lusignan. 1186-1192. Æ Fractional Denier .187 viewsKingdom of Jerusalem. Guy de Lusignan. 1186-1192. Æ Fractional Denier .
+E IERVSALEM, Church of the Holy Sepulchre.
+REX GVIDO D, crowned facing bust; pellets at side
Metcalf 628 (Cyprus); Schl III, 21 (Jerusalem). ; CCS 32
Vladislavs D
3D2FD934-2E0A-4048-8689-49A2A4C3E2AD.jpeg
Kingdom of Jerusalem. Imitating al-Amir. 12th-13th centuries. AV Bezant7 viewsKingdom of Jerusalem. Imitating al-Amir. 12th-13th centuries. AV Bezant
Acre mint. Third phase . 3.9 g.
Corrupted Arabic legends both sides.
CCS 5
Ex Artemide aste XXVII Lot 549 ; Ex Numismatica Tintinna 81
Vladislav D
image78962.JPG
Kingdom of Jerusalem; Baldwin II - IV8 viewsBaldwin II - IV (1118-1185)

Bi Denier

Obverse: BALdVINUS REX, Cross Patee , (+) cross type x with annulet ends, tower top tapers, fish tail serifs

Reverse: +de IERVSALEM, Tower of David

Mint: Jerusalem
Minted: 1118- 1185
Notes: VF, ‘Rough Series’
Ex IS Wright Postal Auction 1993; Ex Coin Galleries (Stacks) Auction 07/11/1990 Lot 946 (Part)
Ref: Schl.III.21
jimbomar
aksumOR.jpg
Kings of Aksum, Ezanas (Struck after his conversion to Christianity in 330 A.D.), BMC Aksum 9060 viewsKings of Aksum, Ezanas (Struck after his conversion to Christianity in 330 A.D.) c 330-350 A.D. AE, 0.60g 12mm, Munro-Hay 52; BMC Aksum 90
O: BACI ΛEΨC, draped bust right wearing headcloth
R: +TOV TO APECH TH XWPA (May This [the cross] Please the Country), small cross in circle (generally the interiors of the circle and cross were gilt with gold, but none is evident on this example)

Aksum was the first civilization anywhere to use the cross of Christ on its coins (Pankhurst 27), even before the Romans. King Ezana (also known as Abreha) was the first to do so around 330 CE (Pankhurst 27). Ezana became king sometime between 320-325 CE and as a child, he and his court, were converted to Christianity by Frumentius (Prouty and Rosenfeld 65). Ezana began to use the coins as propaganda to spread his religion by replacing the crescent symbols with the cross. Later rulers from late 4th and 5th centuries incorporated on the coins phrases such as ‘By the grace of God’ and ‘Christ is with us (Munro-Ray 190-2).’

The establishment of Christianity in Aksum saw the beginning of an active pilgrimage traffic between Ethiopia and the Holy Land. Pilgrims traveled down the Nile valley and then across to Palestine and Jerusalem. The pilgrims of course brought their coins with them, and the overt Christian symbolism appealed to the local communities through which they passed. As a result, Axumite bronze coins and local imitations of them saw considerable circulation in Egypt and Palestine. They have been found at numerous 4th to 6th century sites, circulating alongside the regular Roman and Byzantine nummi. A settlement of Coptic Ethiopian monks remains in Jerusalem to this day, their main shrine being on the roof of the Holy Sepulchre church, the only location permitted them by the more numerous Christian sects.

Aksum is the purported home of the Ark of the Covenant. According to regional tradition, the Ark is housed in the Church of Mary of Zion. The Ark, according to legends, was brought to Aksum by King Solomon and the Queen of Sheba's son and placed under guard. No one but the one guard priest is allowed in, and thus no one can verify the Ark's existence. According to the Kebra Nagast, when Menelik, came to visit his father in Jerusalem, his father gave him a copy of the Ark, and commanded the first-born sons of the elders of his kingdom to go to Ethiopia and settle there. The sons of the elders did not want to live away from the presence of the Ark, so they switched the copy with the original and smuggled the Ark out of the country. Menelik only learned that the original was with his group during the journey home.
2 commentscasata137ec
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Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem. Amaury (1164 - 74 AD). Billon silver denier28 viewsObv. AMALRICVS REX; pattée.
Rev. DE IERVSALEM; Church of the Holy Sepulchre.
References: Metcalf 169.
17mm and 0.45 grams.
1 commentsCanaan
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Lorraine - Charles III, Duc de Lorraine (1545-1608), France.14 viewsTeston, argent, 9,02 g.
A/ CARO D G CAL LOTAR B GEL DVX, buste du Duc à droite.
R/ MONETA NOVA NANCEI CVSA, écu couronné écartelé, au 1 mi parti de Hongrie et de Naples, au 2 mi parti de Jérusalem et d'Aragon, au 3 mi parti d'Anjou et de Gueldre, au 4 de Flandre et de Bar, brochant sur le tout un écu de Lorraine.
Réfs : Boudeau 1527
1 commentsGabalor
190~0.JPG
Lorraine, duché de Lorraine, Charles IV (1625-1675) France.8 viewsTeston, argent, 8,50 g.
Monnaie frappée à Nancy
A/ CAROLVS D G DVX LOTH MARCH DVX C B G, buste à droite.
R/ MONETA NOVA NANCEII CVSA 1627, écu écartelé d'Hongrie, Naples, Jérusalem, Aragon, Anjou, Gueldre, Flandre, Bar et Lorraine couronné.
Réfs : Boudeau 1557
Gabalor
1000-18-090.jpg
M. Aemilius Scaurus & Pub. Plautius Hypsaeus26 viewsIn 67 BCE, Hyrcanus II ascended to the throne of Judea. Scarcely three months later, his younger brother Aristobulus II incited a rebellion, successfully leading the uprising to overthrow Hyrcanus and take the offices of both King and High Priest. Hyrcanus was confined to Jerusalem, where he would continue to receive revenues of the latter office. However, fearing for his life, he fled to Petra and allied himself with Aretas, who agreed to support Hyrcanus after receiving the promise of having the Arabian towns taken by the Hasmoneans returned to Nabataea by Hyrcanus' chief advisor, Antipater the Idumaean.

Aretas advanced towards Jerusalem at the head of 50,000 men, besieging the city for several months. Eventually, Aristobulus bribed Marcus Aemilius Scaurus, deputy of the Roman general Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus. Scaurus ordered Aretas to withdraw his army, which then suffered a crushing defeat at the hands of Aristobulus on the journey back to Nabatea.

Despite the compliance of Aretas, in 62 BCE Scaurus marched on Petra. However, a combination of the rough terrain and low supplies, obliged Scaurus to seek the aid of Hyrcanus, now High Priest (not king) of Judea, who sent Antipater to barter for peace with Aretas. The siege was lifted in exchange for several hundred talents of silver (to Scaurus himself) and recognition of Roman supremacy over Nabatea. Aretas would retain all Nabataean territory and possessions, becoming a vassal of the Roman Empire.

M. Aemilius Scaurus & Pub. Plautius Hypsaeus. 58 B.C. AR denarius (18.8 mm, 3.75 g, 3 h). Rome mint. M SCAVRV above, AED CVR in exergue, EX - SC on either side, REX ARETAS in exergue, King Aretas kneeling beside camel right, offering olive branch / P HVPSAEVS/AED CVR above, C·HVPSAE COS/PREIVER in exergue, CAPTV on right, Jupiter driving quadriga left. Crawford 422/1b; Sydenham 913; RSC Aemilia 8. Fine.
ecoli
1479_Macrinus_Aelia_Capitolina.jpg
Macrinus - Aelia Capitolina (Jerusalem)5 viewsAR tetradrachm
217-218 AD
laureate head right
AVT K M OΠEΛ CE_MAKPINOC C
eagle facing, head left, wreath in beak, jug between legs, thyrsos and ivy leaf below
ΔHMAPX EΞ YΠA TOC Π Π
Prieur 1642
ex Dionysos
ex Emporium Hamburg
Johny SYSEL
Aemilius_Scaurus.jpg
Marcus Aemilius Scaurus and Publius Plautius Hypsaeus - AR denarius31 viewsRome
¹²58 BC
Aretas, king of Nabatea, kneeling beside camel raising olive branch with fillet
M SCAVR / AED CVR
EX _ S C
REX ARETAS
Jupiter in quadriga left, holding reins and thunderbolt, scorpion right
P HYPSAE / AED CVR
CAPT
C HYPSAE COS / PREIVE
¹Crawford 422/1b, SRCV I 379, Crawford 422/1b, Sydenham 913, RSC I Aemilia 8
²Mark Passehl - Roman moneyer & coin type chronology, 150 – 50 BC
4,0g
ex Naumann

The moneyers were Curule aediles in 58 BC. Scaurus became praetor in 56 BC and Hypsaeus in 55 BC.

Scaurus lost his father when he was young. He was raised by Sulla as a step-son. He served as quaestor under Pompey and as proquaestor in the third Mithridatic war in 66-61 BC. In the same time conflict between Aristobulus II and Hyrcanus II broke out in Judea. Nabatean king Aretas III supported Hyrcanus and besieged Aristobulus in Jerusalem. Scaurus was send as intermediary. He sent Aretas back and settled the conflict in favour of Aristobulus. Later Pompey accused him of bribery and removed Aristobulus in 63 BC. Scaurus moved to Petra then he was called back after payment of 300 talent fine.

Hypsaeus also served as quaestor under Pompey. Reverse commemorates conquest of Volscian town Priverna by moneyer's ancestor Gaius Plautius Decianus Hypsaeus in 330-329 BC.

Scaurus was the first who depicted event from his own life on coins.
2 commentsJohny SYSEL
ScaurusHypsaeus.jpg
Marcus Aemilius Scaurus and Publius Plautius Hypsaeus, 58 B.C.59 viewsDenarius, Rome mint, 4.08g, 18mm, 58 B.C.; O: Aretas, King of Nabataea, kneeling beside camel raising olive branch with fillet, M SCAVR / AED CVR above, EX - S C at sides, REX ARETAS in ex; reverse Jupiter in quadriga left, reins in right, hurling thunderbolt with left, scorpion below, P HVPSAEVS / AED CVR above, CAPTVM on right, C HVPSAE COS / PREIVE in ex. Hendin 1441.

When M. Aemilius, was governor of Syria, this type was struck to commemorate the defeat of Aretas III by Pompey's general Marcus Scaurus. Pub. Plautius was curule aedile with M. Aemilius in 58 BCE.

By making territorial concessions to Aretas III, Hyrcanus II induced the Nabataean king to join with him in the battle against his brother Aristobulus II. Their combined forces besieged Aristobulus II in Jerusalem in 65 BCE. At about this same time, Pompey's armies, led by Scaurus marched into the East. The brothers appealed to Rome to settle the dispute. Initially Scaurus favored Aristobulus II, but, in 62 BCE, Pompey ruled that Hyrcanus was the rightful king.
2 commentsNemonater
ANTLEGX.jpg
Mark Antony Legionary Denarius LEG X101 viewsANT AVG III VIR R P C
Galley r. mast with banners at prow

LEG X
Legionary eagle between two standards

Patrae mint 32-31BC

LEG X (later called Gemina) was levied in 59 BC or earlier by Julius Caesar. It was the first legion levied by him personally and was raised in Spain. It played a major role in the Gallic war featuring prominently in Caesar's "Gallic Wars." Legio X was his most trusted and loyal Legion. In 45 BC the Legion was disbanded and given land grants in Southern Gaul.

During the civil war that followed Caesar's assassination, Legio X was reconstituted by Lepidus in the winter of 44/43 BC making use of many retired legionaries who re-enlisted. It was eventually turned over to Antony and fought for him until the final Battle of Philippi. The veterans obtained lands near Cremona, and an inscription reports that the name of the legion at the time was Veneria, "devoted to Venus." This alluded to Julius Caesar's claimed descent from Venus.

The newly levied Tenth was then taken by Antony to Armenia for his Parthian campaign. During Antony's civil war, the legion fought for him until his defeat at the Battle of Actium, after which the legion changed sides and moved into Octavian's army. They were then taken to Egypt to finish off Antony and Cleopatra. Octavian never fully trusted the 10th Legion as it had been fiercely loyal to both Julius Caesar and Mark Antony. After Antony's death Octavian left the legion in the East in Syria. In 29 BC the legion was due to be discharged. When the legionaries pressed for their release and land grants Octavian was slow in complying. Suetonius says that the entire legion rioted and Octavian dishonorably discharged the entire legion.

Octavian now recruited new legionaries to fill the 10th Legion in its traditional recruiting grounds of Spain. Some of the senior Centurions may have re-enlisted for a third term to serve with the 10th. These men would have been in their late 40's or early 50's. The new legionaries marched over land to Syria to take up their posting. The new 10th Legion's home base was on the Euphrates to keep an eye on the Parthians.

The next discharge date would be 14-13 BC. This time the 10th Legion was settled in Beirut and the city was given Colony status. Ten years later the 10th Legion under Publius Quintilius Varus was marched down to Jerusalem to garrison the city after Herod the Great died. The 10th Legion would remain in Jerusalem until 6 AD.
2 commentsJay GT4
ANTVESPcounter.jpg
Mark Antony Legionary denarius LEG X IMPVESP139 viewsANT AVG III VIR R P C
Galley r. mast with banners at prow
IMPVESP counter mark above galley

LEG X?
Legionary eagle between two standards IMPVESP countermark


Patrae mint 32-31BC

3.01g

Ex-Incitatus

Obverse countermarked IMPVESP during Vespasian's reign showing this denarius was in circulation for well over 100 years! In hand I can make out X for the legion number but can't be sure if any other numerals appear after it. This countermark appears mostly on late Republican and Imperatorial denarii, although denarii of Augustus and denarii of the Flavians struck at Ephesus are also recorded. The MP VES countermarks circulated specifically within the province of Asia Minor. Martini noted that the output of silver coinage in relation to the civic bronze for this region was much smaller during the Julio-Claudian period. This suggests the denarii were countermarked to validate locally circulating silver coinage at an acceptable weight while the regional mints opened by Vespasian were gearing up production, a theory which the countermarking of cistophori with the contemporary MP VES AVG countermarks seems to support. The similarly countermarked Flavian denarii struck at Ephesus can be accounted for then as examples accidentally countermarked by unobservant mint workers during the transition.



LEG X (later called Gemina) was levied in 59 BC or earlier by Julius Caesar. It was the first legion levied by him personally and was raised in Spain. It played a major role in the Gallic war featuring prominently in Caesar's "Gallic Wars." Legio X was his most trusted and loyal Legion. In 45 BC the Legion was disbanded and given land grants in Southern Gaul.

During the civil war that followed Caesar's assassination, Legio X was reconstituted by Lepidus in the winter of 44/43 BC making use of many retired legionaries who re-enlisted. It was eventually turned over to Antony and fought for him until the final Battle of Philippi. The veterans obtained lands near Cremona, and an inscription reports that the name of the legion at the time was Veneria, "devoted to Venus." This alluded to Julius Caesar's claimed descent from Venus.

The newly levied Tenth was then taken by Antony to Armenia for his Parthian campaign. During Antony's civil war, the legion fought for him until his defeat at the Battle of Actium, after which the legion changed sides and moved into Octavian's army. They were then taken to Egypt to finish off Antony and Cleopatra. Octavian never fully trusted the 10th Legion as it had been fiercely loyal to both Julius Caesar and Mark Antony. After Antony's death Octavian left the legion in the East in Syria. In 29 BC the legion was due to be discharged. When the legionaries pressed for their release and land grants Octavian was slow in complying. Suetonius says that the entire legion rioted and Octavian dishonorably discharged the entire legion.

Octavian now recruited new legionaries to fill the 10th Legion in its traditional recruiting grounds of Spain. Some of the senior Centurions may have re-enlisted for a third term to serve with the 10th. These men would have been in their late 40's or early 50's. The new legionaries marched over land to Syria to take up their posting. The new 10th Legion's home base was on the Euphrates to keep an eye on the Parthians.

The next discharge date would be 14-13 BC. This time the 10th Legion was settled in Beirut and the city was given Colony status. Ten years later the 10th Legion under Publius Quintilius Varus was marched down to Jerusalem to garrison the city after Herod the Great died. The 10th Legion would remain in Jerusalem until 6 AD.
5 commentsJay GT4
Mattatayah_Antigonus.jpg
Mattatayah Antigonus33 viewsBronze prutah, 14mm, 1.53g. Jerusalem mint. O: Retrograde Paleo-Hebrew inscription, Mattatayah, surrounded by wreath and border of dots. R: Double cornucopia adorned with ribbons, barley grain between horns, border of dots. Hendin 1164

In 40 BCE, Mattatayah Antigonus, youngest son of Aristobulus II, bribed the Parthians to assist him in his invasion of Jerusalem. Josephus reports that after their conquest, Mattatayah tore into Hyrcanus II ears with his teeth in order to permanently disqualify him from being High Priest. Later this same year, the Roman Senate and Octavian appointed Herod King of Judaea.

After years of fighting, Herod, with the help of Roman troops under Gaius Sosius, took Jerusalem and captured Antigonus in 37 BCE. His later execution at Antioch ended five generations of Hasmonean rule, now replaced by what would become the Herodian Dynasty.
1 commentsNemonater
DSCF2154.JPG
MEDIEVAL, Crusaders, Jerusalem, Baldwin18 viewsStaunto
Richard I~0.jpg
MEDIEVAL, England, Richard I (the Lion Heart).44 viewsRichard I, fought against Saladin in a struggle of epic proportions. Legend has it that when Richard's horse was killed under him, Saladin gave him one so that he would not have to fight on foot. Richard managed to recapture the coastal cities that were lost during the disastrous second crusade. But Richard failed to recapture Jerusalem, forced to return to France where his lands were under attack by the King of France, he hastily concluded a treaty with Saladin leaving Saladin in control of the city.
goldcoin
III_Istvan_U-086_C1-157_H-171_Q-001_13mm_0,20ga-s.jpg
Medieval, Hungary, 20.16.1.1./b1.14./50., Anonymous III. (István III., (Stephen III.), King of Hungary, (1162-1172 A.D.)?), AR-Denarius, H-164, CNH I.-153, U-086, #01310 viewsCÁC II. 20.16.1.1./b1.14./50., Anonymous III. (István III., (Stephen III.), King of Hungary, (1162-1172 A.D.)?), AR-Denarius, H-164, CNH I.-153, U-086, #01
avers: Four crosses and four crescents around Jerusalem cross; border of dots.
reverse: Three dots between two crosses; border of line.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 13,0 mm, weight: 0,20g, axis:0h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-164, CNH I.-153, Unger-086,
Kiss-Toth, Sigla: 20.16.1.1./b1.14./50.,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
pic007.jpg
MEDIEVAL, JERUSALEM, Guy de Lusignan31 viewsAE denier
Obv: facing bust of Guy
Rev:Holy Sepulchre

Guy of Lusignan was a French Poitevin knight, son of Hugh VIII of the Lusignan dynasty. He was king of the crusader state of Jerusalem from 1186 to 1192 by right of marriage to Sibylla of Jerusalem, and of Cyprus from 1192 to 1194. Having arrived in the Holy Land (where his brother Amalric was already prominent) at an unknown date, Guy was hastily married to Sibylla in 1180 to prevent a political incident within the kingdom. Guy was appointed regent of Jerusalem and at Sibylla's succession to the throne in 1186 she gave the crown to Guy as her king-consort. Guy's reign was marked by increased hostilities with the Ayyubids ruled by Saladin, culminating in the Battle of Hattin in July 1187, during which Guy was captured, and the fall of Jerusalem itself three months later.
seaotter
Meshorer-112.jpg
Nabataea: Aretas IV (9 BCE - 40 CE) Æ Unit24 viewsNabataean Kingdom, Aretas IV, 9 B.C. - 40 A.D., one of the three Biblical kings. Bronze AE 15, , 3.47gm, 19mm, Petra mint, obverse jugate laureate and draped bust of Aretas IV and Shaquilath right; reverse two cornucopias crossed and filleted, Aramaic legend, "Aretas, Shaquilath" in two lines above and one below; beautiful red earthen patina. SNG ANS 1438 - 43, Choice EF.


Aretas ruled around the time of Jesus' birth and was one of the three kings that most likely visited the baby Jesus while Judaea was under Herod the great rule. "After Jesus was born in Bethlehem in Judea, during the time of King Herod, Magi from the east came to Jerusalem and asked, 'Where is the one who has been born king of the Jews? We saw his star in the east and have come to worship him" Matthew 2:1-8
1 commentsSpongeBob
43_Nero_Alexandria.JPG
Nero - Alexandria6 viewsBI tetradrachm
29 Aug 67 - 9 Jun 68 AD
radiate head left
ΝΕΡΩ ΚΛΑΥ ΚΑΙΣ ΣΕΒ ΓΕΡ ΑΥ
LΙΔ ... (fourteenth year of reign)
bust of Zeus right; star right
ΔΙΟΣ ΟΛ_Υ_ΜΠΙΟΥ
Dattari 257; Milne 295; Geissen 207; BMC Alexandria p. 16, 127; SRCV I 2013; RPC I 5313; Curtis 192
9,05g 25-23mm
ex Divus Numismatik (according dealer coin was purchased in Jerusalem in 60s but I haven't received the original tag)
ex Rauch
Johny SYSEL
CGallus.jpg
Nero / Caius Cestius Gallus58 viewsSELEUCIS and PIERIA, Antioch. Nero. AD 54-68. Æ As (30.5mm, 15.36 g, 12h).
Caius Cestius Gallus, legatus Syriae. Dated year 115 of the Caesarean Era (AD 66/7).
O: Laureate head right; coiled serpent to right. IM • NER • CLAV • CAESAR
R: ЄΠI ΓAIOY KЄCTIO Y ΛNTIO ЄT • ЄIP in five lines within wreath (In the magistracy of Gaius Cestius, Antioch, year 115)
- McAlee 294 = Superior, (9 December 1989), lot 2827 (same dies); RPC I – Extremely rare, the second known.

Josephus lays much of the blame for the Jewish revolt at the feet of Florus, the Roman procurator of Judaea. Florus was notorious for his cruelty and greed. In 66 C.E. he demanded 17 talents from the temple treasury, using the pretense that it was needed by the Emperor. The Jews refused, ridiculing his request by taking up a mock collection for the “poor Florus.”

Florus responded by sending troops to loot and pillage the Upper-Marketplace in Jerusalem. Thousands of Jews were killed, including woman and children. Rather than bringing the city under control, Josephus reasons, “What more need be said? It was Florus who constrained us to take up war with the Romans, for we preferred to perish together rather than by degrees. The war in fact began in the second year of the procuratorship of Florus and in the twelfth of Nero's reign.”

The Sicarii, or “dagger-men,” took the fortress of Masada and killed the Roman garrison stationed there, establishing the first rebel stronghold. The fortress of Antonia was also captured and the Roman soldiers stationed there were slain. The remaining Roman holdouts surrendered under the agreement that their lives would be spared but they too were slaughtered. At the same time, the daily sacrifices for the Emperor were discontinued. A mixture of elation and fear gripped Jerusalem as they awaited the inevitable Roman response.

Gaius Cestius Gallus, Legate of Syria in 66 C.E., was the response. On Nero’s order, he assembled a force at Antioch comprised of legio XII Fulminata, detachments from the three other legions based in Syria, six cohorts of auxiliary infantry and four alae of cavalry. He also had military support from the Jewish ruler Herod Agrippa II and two other client kings, Antiochus IV of Commagene and Sohaemus of Emesa.

Within three months Gallus, with his force of over 30,000 troops, began working their way down from Galilee to Jerusalem, attacking key cities such as Chabulon, Joppa and Antipatris. Although enduring successful raids from the rebels, the Romans finally enter and set fire to the suburbs of Jerusalem as the rebels retreated to the safety of the temple fortress.

After setting fire to Bezetha, north of the temple, Gallus encamped in front of the royal palace, southwest of the temple. At that time, Josephus says he could have easily taken the city since pro-Roman Jews were ready to open the gates of the city for him. A six day delay, however, strengthened the insurgents. The zealots attacked and killed the pro-peace faction in the city, murdering their leaders, then assaulted the Romans from the wall. The advance units of the Romans employ the Testudo, overlapping their shields over themselves like the back of a tortoise, and began undermining the walls. After five days they are on the verge of success when, for an undetermined cause, Gallus called off the attack. In History of the Jews, Professor Heinrich Graetz suggests: “[Cestius Gallus] did not deem it advisable to continue the combat against heroic enthusiasts and embark on a lengthy campaign at that season, when the autumn rains would soon commence . . . and might prevent the army from receiving provisions. On that account probably he thought it more prudent to retrace his steps.” Whatever the reason, Gallus decided to abruptly leave Jerusalem.

Gallus, with evidently little battlefield experience, suffered one humiliating defeat after another during the retreat. By the battles end the losses amounted to 5,300 infantry, 480 cavalry, all the pack animals, artillery and the eagle standard of the legio XII Fulminata. With the rebels emboldened by their shocking victory, the stage is set for the Romans to return in greater force. This time, however, Nero would send general Vespasian.

Cestius Gallus died a broken man in 67 C.E. Tacitus described the outbreak of the revolt to Gallus death as follows: “the endurance of the Jews lasted till Gessius Florus was procurator. In his time the war broke out. Cestius Gallus, legate of Syria, who attempted to crush it, had to fight several battles, generally with ill-success. Cestius dying, either in the course of nature, or from vexation.” - The Histories V
4 commentsNemonater
KneelingKing.jpg
Persian Empire, Lydia, Darius I 1/6 Siglos44 viewsPERSIA, Achaemenid Empire. temp. Darios I to Xerxes I. Circa 505-480 BC. AR Sixth Siglos (7mm, 0.84 g).

O: Persian king or hero in kneeling-running stance right, drawing bow
R: Incuse punch.

Carradice type II; Winzer 1.8 (Darios I), this denomination is otherwise unpublished in refs; cf. Klein 756 (1/4 siglos); SNG Kayhan 1027 (1/3 siglos).

"Darius I the Great ruled the Persian Empire at its peak. He is mentioned in the Biblical books of Ezra, Nehemiah, Daniel, Haggai, and Zechariah. He continued to allow the Jewish people to return to Israel and provided money for the restoration of the Temple in Jerusalem, which was completed in his sixth year. Darius invaded Greece to subjugate it and to punish Athens and Eretria for aiding the Ionian Revolt. He subjugated Thrace and forced Macedon to become a client kingdom, but his campaign ended at Marathon, where he was famously defeated by a smaller Greek army." - Forvm
Nemonater
PhilistiaOverstruck.jpg
PHILISTIA (PALESTINE), Overstruck Drachm32 viewsPHILISTIA (PALESTINE), Uncertain mint. Mid 5th century-333 BC. AR Drachm (15mm, 3.95 g, 12h). Imitating Athens. Rotated 145 degrees and overstruck with same dies.
O: Helmeted head of Athena right, with profile eye
R: Owl standing right, head facing; olive sprig left; all within incuse square.
-Gitler & Tal IX.1D; HGC 10, –.

The Philistian coins belong to a stratum of autonomous municipal coinages that enabled daily trade without being noticed by the Persian administration. The Persian Empire did not care about the fiscal policy of its subjects, so long as the taxes were paid. Obviously, the provincials were free to choose their own coin-types. Like their Northern neighbors in Samaria and Jerusalem, the Philistians adopted the Attic coin standard, and a great many of their coins are imitations of the Attic coins circulating in the Levant.
1 commentsNemonater
Phoenicia,_Tyre.jpg
Phoenicia, Tyre31 viewsAR Didrachm/ Half Shekel (Temple Tax)
Trye/Jerusalem mint, 36-37 A.D.
19mm, 6.49g
GCV-5921var.

Obverse:
Laureate head of beardless Melgarth right, lion's skin knotted around neck.

Reverse:
TYPOY IEPAΣ KAI AΣYΛOY
PXB (year 162) in left field
KP and monogram in right field
Eagle standing left on beak of ship, carrying palm under right wing; in field to left, club.
rubadub
shekel_blk_a.jpg
PHOENICIA, TYRE19 viewsCa. 126/5 BC-65 AD
Issued 1st Century, 18 BC - 66 AD
AR Shekel 23 mm 10.70 g
O: Laureate bust of Melqart right, lionskin tied around neck
R: Eagle standing left on prow, palm over wing; date and club in left field; KP and monogram in right field; Phoenician letter between legs.
(this is considered the Herodian type, possibly minted in Jerusalem rather than Tyre)
laney
shekel.jpg
Phoenicia, Tyre Shekel90 viewsAR Tetradrachm/Shekel.

Laureate bust of Melkart right, aegis draped about neck

ΤΥΡΟΥ ΙΕΡΑΣ ΚΑΙ ΑΣΥΛΟΥ (of Tyre the holy and inviolable)
Eagle standing left on prow; club before, flanked by date PM and KP to right, above monogram.

KP Jerusalem mint
PM Year 140 (14/15 AD).

Ex Calgary Coins, Ex. Hendin 919, RPC 4655.

13.29g


At the Great Temple in Jerusalem the annual tax levied was 1/2 shekel per male. The 1/2 shekel and shekel were the only coins accepted by the temple. Some experts believe that after the coinage of Tyre was debased under Roman control, Herod the Great began to strike "Tyre" shekels in Jerusalem. These coins were of cruder fabric and style, but maintained the silver purity required to pay the temple tax. The "Jerusalem" shekels have the letters KP or KAP to the right of the eagle and dates range from PH (18/17 B.C.) to PKE (69/70 A.D.). The Greek letters KP or KAP are probably an abbreviation for KAICAP, Greek for Caesar.
2 commentsJay GT4
shekel.jpg
PHOENICIA, TYRE--SHEKEL OF TYRE27 viewsCa. 126/5 BC-65 AD
Issued 1st Century, 18 BC - 66 AD
AR Shekel 23 mm 10.70 g
O: Laureate bust of Melqart right, lionskin tied around neck
R: Eagle standing left on prow, palm over wing; date and club in left field; KP and monogram in right field; Phoenician letter between legs
(Shekel of Tyre: type of "pieces of silver" coin paid to Judas; this is considered the Herodian type, possibly minted in Jerusalem rather than Tyre))

laney
Pilate_Pontius.jpg
Pilate Pontius - Jerusalem13 viewsAE prutah
struck by Roman Prefect under Tiberius
30-31 AD
lituus
TIBEPIOY KAICAPOC
wreath
LIH
Hendin 1342, Meshorer TJC 333, RPC I 4968, SGICV 5623
1,4g 14mm
ex Savoca
Johny SYSEL
054~7.JPG
Provence, Comté de Provence, Louis Ier de Tarente et Jeanne de Naple (1343-1382).4 viewsPetit sol ou denier, billon, 0,55 g frappé à Tarascon
Av./ + L ET I IhR ET SIC REX, lis sous un lambel .
Rv./ + COMES ET COMTSA PVICE, Croix de Jérusalem cantonnée de quatre petites croix.
Réfs : PA-4037
Gabalor
Egypt_Bronze_Zeus_Eagle.jpg
Ptolemy IV Philopater AE41 64.05g 221-204 BC. Struck 212 BC76 viewsPtolemaic Kings of Egypt, Ptolemy IV Philopater AE41 64.05g 221-204 BC. Struck 212 BC.
O: Head Zeus with Horn of Ammon r, centering dimple evident.
R: Eagle with closed wings stg. l., Filleted Cornucopia in l. field, BASILEWS PTOLEMAIOU around, LI symbol between legs.
Svoronos 1126, SNG Cop 200v(DI between legs).
32500 sold

Ptolemy IV Philopater reigned 221–205 BCE, son of Ptolemy III and Berenice II of Egypt was the fourth Pharaoh of Ptolemaic Egypt. Under the reign of Ptolemy IV, the decline of the Ptolemaic kingdom began.
His reign was inaugurated by the murder of his mother, and he was always under the dominion of favourites, male and female, who indulged his vices and conducted the government as they pleased. Self-interest led his ministers to make serious preparations to meet the attacks of Antiochus III the Great on Coele-Syria including Judea, and the great Egyptian victory of Raphia (217), where Ptolemy himself was present, secured the northern borders of the kingdom for the remainder of his reign.

The arming of Egyptians in this campaign had a disturbing effect upon the native population of Egypt, leading to the secession of Upper Egypt under pharaohs Harmachis (also known as Hugronaphor) and Ankmachis (also known as Chaonnophris), thus creating a kingdom that occupied much of the country and lasted nearly twenty years.

Philopator was devoted to orgiastic forms of religion and literary dilettantism. He built a temple to Homer and composed a tragedy, to which his favourite Agathocles added a commentary. He married (about 220 BC) his sister Arsinoë III, but continued to be ruled by his mistress Agathoclea, sister of Agathocles. In late c. 210 BC, Agathoclea may have given birth to a son from her affair with Ptolemy IV, who may had died shortly after his birth.

Ptolemy is said to have built a giant ship known as the tessarakonteres ("forty"), a huge type of galley. The forty of its name may refer to its number of banks of oars. The only recorded instance of this type of vessel, in fact, is this showpiece galley built for Ptolemy IV, described by Callixenus of Rhodes, writing in the 3rd century BCE, and by Athenaeus in the 2nd century AD. Plutarch also mentions that Ptolemy Philopater owned this immense vessel in his Life of Demetrios. The current theory is that Ptolemy's ship was an oversize catamaran galley, measuring 128 m 420 ft.

Ptolemy IV is a major protagonist of the apocryphal 3 Maccabees, which describes purported events following the Battle of Raphia, in both Jerusalem and Alexandria.
3 commentsAntonivs Protti
JCT_Chaim_Berlin.JPG
Rabbi Chaim Berlin High School (Brooklyn, New York)119 viewsAE token, 31.5 mm., 10.98 gr., dated 1928

Obv: RABBI CHAIM BERLIN HIGH SCHOOL and ישובת ר״ חיים ברלין [Yeshivot Rabbeinu Chaim Berlin] along rim, EVERY/DOLLAR HELPS above building, תרפח [year 5688] and 1928 in fields to the sides, WHITEHEAD HOAG in tiny letters at 3-4 o’clock along rim.

Rev: – HELP BUILD THE FIRST JEWISH HIGH SCHOOL – and BROWNSVILLE & EAST NEW YORK along rim, $1.00 beneath building.

Ref: Kenny, So-Called Dollars 208; Friedenberg, Jewish Minters [?] 572; ANS Database 2000.1.374.

Note: Named after Rabbi Chaim Berlin (1832-1912), chief rabbi of Moscow (1865-1889), head of rabbinical court in Volozhin, Belarus (1889-1892), chief rabbi of Kobrin, Belarus (1892-1897) and Elizavetgrad, Ukraine (1897-1906), and co-chief rabbi of the Ashkenazi community in Jerusalem (1906-1912).

Note: The first yeshiva in Brooklyn, founded in 1904. The yeshivot are Lithuanian-style Haredi men’s yeshivot and now include elementary, high school, post-high school and rabbinical divisions. The high school division is now at 1571 Coney Island Avenue, Brooklyn.

Note: Minted by The Whitehead & Hoag Company, Newark, NJ (1880-1955).
Stkp
titus_ric_12.jpg
RIC 000182 viewsTitus AR Denarius 79 AD Rome,
Judaea Capta issue.
(3.12 gram, 18 mm).
Obv: IMP T CAESAR VESPASIANVS AVG, Laureate head right)
Rev: TR POT VIII COS VII Captive kneeling right before trophy.
RIC 1, RSC 334a, Sear RCV (2000) 2505



Here is another interesting coin of Titus. First it is catalogued as RIC 1. This coin was probably minted in the first few weeks of Titus' rule as Augustus.
Take a look at the reverse. You will see a Jewish captive kneeling at the foot of a trophy. Titus' father Vespasian famously put a Jewish captive on the reverse of his own coinage. Since Titus was very involved with the suppression of the Jewish people in Jerusalem and the subsequent looting of the city, I suppose it makes sense that this subject would be continued on his coins.

I like this coin mostly for the reverse. However, I also think the portrait has some charm to it as well. One can clearly see his resemblance to his father.
4 commentsorfew
TitusPontif.jpg
RIC 0554 Titus96 viewsT CAES IMP VESP CENS
Laureate bust right

PONTIF MAXIM
Vespasian seated right on curule chair, with sceptre and branch

Rome, 73 AD

RIC 554 (R) A mule with reverse type of Vespasian

3.03g

Ex-Jerusalem Haydaya
7 commentsJay GT4
Domitianhorse.jpg
RIC 0680 Domitian denarius 257 viewsCAES AVG F DOMIT COS II
Laureate head of Domitian right

No legend
Domitian on horseback prancing left, right hand raised, holding human-headed (helmet) sceptre in left

Rome 73 AD

3.25g

RIC 680 (C); Sear 2627


Ex-Forum

The reverse depicts Domitian participating in the Judaea Capta triumph of 71 A.D. He is, as Josephus described him, riding alongside in magnificent apparel and mounted on a horse that was itself a site worth seeing.
7 commentsJay GT4
VespasianRIC686.jpg
RIC 0686 Vespasian75 viewsIMP CAESAR VESP AVG
Laureate head right

PONTIF MAXIM
Winged cauduceus

Rome, 74 AD

3.21g

RIC 686 (R)

Ex-Jerusalem Haydaya
6 commentsJay GT4
Vespasian_ric_773.jpg
RIC 077383 viewsVespasian (69-79). AR Denarius (18.08 mm, 3.50 g, 6h). Rome, AD 75.
Obv: Bare head l. R IMP CEASAR VESPASIANUS AUG
Rev: Pax seated l., resting l. elbow on throne and holding branch.
PON MAX TRP COS VI
RIC II 773 (this coin); RSC –. Extremely Rare variety, near VF.
Ex Vecchi sale 13, 1998, 757.
Ex: St Paul Antiques auction 7 Lot 285 June 11, 2017




Vespasian ruled Rome for 10 years, and he was the last emperor in the year of the four emperors. His rule brought stability to the empire. He was famous for his military response to the Jewish revolt, and for the construction of the Flavian amphitheater. The looting of Jerusalem provided the funding for this building project. The colosseum was completed by his son Titus who became emperor after the death of Vespasian. The Flavian era had three emperors, Vespasian, his son Titus and his other son Domitian.

While this coin is worn, please take note of the bare head of Vespasian. There are only 2 known coin types that feature Vespasian with a bare head, all others are laureate. For one coin type there are several examples known to exist. For the coin type displayed below, this coin was, until very recently the only one to have surfaced. A second example has now been found by an expert on Flavian coinage. The reference Roman Imperial Coinage II Part 1 refers to my coin but does not have a photo of the coin. I sent a photo to the co-author of the volume, and I hope that a photo will be added when this edition is updated.
7 commentsorfew
VespasianCista~0.jpg
RIC 0776 Vespasian48 viewsIMP CAESAR VESPASIANVS AVG.
Laureate head right.

PON MAX TR P COS VI.
Victory standing left upon cista mystica, holding wreath and palm frond; coiled serpent to left and right.

Rome 75 AD

3.25g

RIC² 776 (R).
Only 5 specimens in the Reka Devnia hoard


Minted in Rome but likely intended for circulation in the East. The reverse copies the earlier quinarii of Augustus and the Cistophoric tetradrachms of Ephesus.

Ex-Jerusalem Haydaya
5 commentsJay GT4
Titus.jpg
RIC 1076 Titus denarius246 viewsT CAESAR IMP VESPASIANVS
laureate head right

TR POT VIII COS VII
bound Jewish captive kneeling right in front of trophy

Rome mint, as Caesar, first half of 79 A.D
3.325g
18.5mm, 180o

Choice aVF

SRCV I 2449; RIC II (Vespasian) 1076 (C); BMCRE II 258; RSC II 334, Paris 229

Ex-Forum!

Thought to be minted to remind the Romans of Titus' spectacular victory over Jerusalem 9 years earlier.
9 commentsJay GT4
Domitian_RIC_267.jpg
RIC 267 Domitian34 viewsCAESAR DIVI F DOMITIANVS COS VII
Laureate head right

PRINCEPS IVVENTVTIS
Goat standing left in laurel wreath

Rome, 80-81 AD after the deification of Vespasian.

3.37g

RIC 267 (C)

Ex-Jerusalem Haydaya

This is a nice example of the legend ending with a pronounced dot.
4 commentsJay GT4
Hadrian_Sestertius_with_Galley.JPG
ROMAN EMPIRE / Hadrian Sestertius with Galley 53 viewsOrichalcum sestertius, references: BMCRE III 1409, RIC II 706, SRCV II 3596; condition: aVF, nice bust and galley, artificial patina probably covering epoxy filled pits or other damage, mint: Rome, weight: 23.649g, maximum diameter: 33.0mm, die axis: 0o, date struck: 132 - 135 A.D.; obverse HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS, laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right; reverse FELICITATI AVG, galley rowed left over waves, five oarsmen, steersman under an arched shelter at the stern, vexillum on prow, S - C flanking ship, COS III P P in ex; additional comments: ex Morton & Eden auction 59 (13 - 14 Nov 2012), part of lot 957; ex Kenneth Edwin Day Collection.

In 132, a messianic, charismatic Jewish leader Simon bar Kokhba started the Bar Kokhba revolt, a war of liberation for Judea against Rome. At first the rebellion was a success. The legion X Fretensis was forced to retreat from Jerusalem to Caesarea. The legion XXII Deiotariana, which advanced from Egypt, was destroyed. The Jews re-established their sacrifices and struck coins to celebrate their independence. The rebellion would last for only 30 months. By 135, the Romans had recaptured Jerusalem, Simon bar Kokhba was dead, and the majority of the Jewish population of Judea was either killed, exiled, or sold into slavery. Jerusalem was renamed Colonia Aelia Capitolina and an altar to Jupiter was erected on the site of the Temple. The Jews remained scattered without a homeland for close to two millennia.


*With my sincere thank and appreciation , Photo and Description courtesy of FORVM Ancient Coins Staff.

EX FORVM Auction.

My additional comments : Coin in hand under sun light is a piece of Art.
2 commentsSam
128.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Vespasian. AD 69-79. Æ Sestertius. “Judaea Capta” commemorative. Rome mint. Struck AD 7158 viewsVespasian. AD 69-79. Æ Sestertius (34mm, 22.5 g,). “Judaea Capta” commemorative. Rome mint. Struck AD 71. IMP CAES VESPASIAN AVG P M TR P P P COS III, laureate head right / IVDAEA CAPTA, palm tree; to left, Vespasian standing right, with left foot set on helmet, holding vertical spear in right hand and cradling parazonium in left arm; to right, Jewess seated right on cuirass, propping her head on her left hand in attitude of mourning; S C in exergue.
RIC II 427; Hendin 1543 (Lyon); BMCRE 543-4; BN 498

Judaea Capta coins (also spelled Judea Capta) were a series of commemorative coins originally issued by the Roman Emperor Vespasian to celebrate the capture of Judaea and the destruction of the Jewish Second Temple by his son Titus in 70 AD during the First Jewish Revolt. There are several variants of the coinage. The reverse of the coins shows a female (representing Jerusalem?) seated right in an attitude of mourning at the base of a palm tree, with either a captive bearded male (representing Judah?) standing left, with his hands bound behind his back, or the standing figure of the victorious emperor, or the goddess Victory, with a trophy of weapons, shields, and helmets to the left.

The female figure may reflect the prophecy of Isaiah 3:8, 25-26: "For Jerusalem is ruined, and Judah is fallen ... Thy men shall fall by the sword and thy mighty in the war. And her gates shall lament and mourn, and she being desolate shall sit upon the ground".

The Judaea Capta coins were struck for 25 years under Vespasian and his two sons who succeeded him as Emperor - Titus and Domitian. These commemorative coins were issued in bronze, silver and gold by mints in Rome, throughout the Roman Empire, and in Judaea itself. They were issued in every denomination, and at least 48 different types are known.

Only bronze 'Judaea Capta' coins were struck in Caesarea, in the defeated Roman province of Judea. These coins are much cruder than the Roman issues, and the inscriptions are in Greek rather than Latin. The designs feature the Goddess Nike writing on a shield, Minerva with a spear, shield, trophy and palm tree, etc. Most such coins were issued during the reign of the Emperor Domitian (81-96 AD).
Adrian W
RPC_II_2209_Titus.jpg
RPC II 2209 Titus41 viewsObv: ΣEBAΣTOΣ, Laureate head of Titus right
Rev: AΣKAΛΩ, Tyche standing left on prowwith standard and aphlaston; in left field incense altar; in right field dove standing left and ΔΠP (date)
AE26 (26.06 mm 16.899 g 12 h) Struck in Ascalon (Judaea) 80-81 A.D.
RPC II 2209
purchased on eBay from jerusalemhadaya2012
2 commentsFlaviusDomitianus
RPC_II_2212_Domitianus.jpg
RPC II 2212 Domitianus47 viewsObv: ΣEBAΣTOΣ, Laureate head of Domitian right
Rev: AΣKAΛΩ, Tyche standing left on prowwith standard and aphlaston; in left field incense altar; in right field dove standing left and ΘΠP (date)
AE23 (23.014 mm 13.018 g 12 h) Struck in Ascalon (Judaea) 85-86 A.D.
RPC II 2212
purchased on eBay from jerusalemhadaya2012
3 commentsFlaviusDomitianus
RPC1941_(2).jpg
RPC-1941-Vespasian67 viewsAR Tetradrachm, 14.19g
Antioch mint, 69-70 AD
Obv: AYTOKPAT KAIΣA OYEΣΠAΣIANOY; Head of Vespasian, laureate, r.
Rev: (T) ΦΛAYI OYEΣΠ KAIΣ ETOYΣ NEOY IEPOY; Laureate Head of Titus, r.; in r. field, B
RPC 1941 (2 spec.).
Acquired from Agora Numismatics, June 2017.

A RPC group 2 tetradrachm attributed to Antioch, but style wise very similar to Alexandria. RPC speculates the Alexandria style tetradrachms were either struck in Alexandria and then shipped to Antioch, or less likely Alexandrian mint workers were sent to Antioch and produced the coins there. Kevin Butcher speculates these Alexandria style tetradrachms were ordered by the southern Syrian cities from the Alexandria mint for circulation in that part of the province. Of note, Galilee, Samaria, and Judaea were a part of the province of Syria at the time. Interestingly, these tetradrachms in which Titus' portrait is featured on the reverse may have been circulating in the very region where he commanded the legions fighting the Jewish War. Most likely they were struck during the massive military build up before the siege of Jerusalem, providing strong evidence of the important role Titus Caesar held at the time.

This regnal year 2 type is more commonly seen with a star behind Titus' portrait on the reverse. This is the rarer variant lacking the star.

Struck in superb 'Alexandria' style. Normally these come much cruder.
6 commentsDavid Atherton
RPC1942x.jpg
RPC-1942-Vespasian85 viewsAR Tetradrachm, 14.44g
Antioch mint, 69-70 AD
Obv: AYTOKPAT KAIΣA OYEΣΠAΣIANOY; Head of Vespasian, laureate, l., with drapery on far shoulder
Rev: T ΦΛAYI OYEΣΠ KAIΣ•ETOYΣ NEOY IEPOY; Laureate Head of Titus, r.; in l. field, star; in r. field, B
RPC 1942 (12 spec.).
Acquired from Athena Numismatics, February 2015.

A RPC group 2 tetradrachm attributed to Antioch, but style wise very similar to Alexandria. RPC speculates these Alexandrian style tetradrachms were either struck in Alexandria and then shipped to Antioch, or less likely Alexandrian mint workers were temporarily striking coins in Antioch. At any rate, there was a massive output of silver from Antioch just prior to and after the siege of Jerusalem and apparently the Antioch mint was supplemented by the only other major mint in the region to meet demands. Titus was put in charge of the siege by Vespasian, which is most likely why he figured prominently in the region's coinage. These coins are found in hoards all over Judaea, indicating they were used for military pay.

I'm quite attracted to this coin's almost crude 'Alexandrian' style. A lovely big and chunky piece in hand.
5 commentsDavid Atherton
RPC1944.jpg
RPC-1944-Vespasian115 viewsAR Tetradrachm, 14.95g
Antioch mint, 69-70 AD
Obv: AYTOKPAT KAIΣA OYEΣΠAΣIANOY; Small bust of Vespasian, laureate, l., with drapery on far shoulder, above eagle standing l., l. wing extended
Rev: T•ΦΛAYI OYEΣΠ KAIΣ ETOYΣ NEOY IEPOY; Head of Titus, laureate, r.; in l. field, lituus; in r. field, B
RPC 1944 (4 spec.).
Ex CNG E354, 1 July 2015, lot 367.

An extremely rare RPC Group 2 (regnal year 2) Tetradrachm from Antioch. This is visually one of the more impressive obverse designs struck by the mint. Vespasian, draped, is majestically depicted above an eagle about to take flight. The symbolism is perhaps divine in nature. There are two variations of this type: one with a lituus in the reverse left field, as seen here, and the other with a star. Both have roughly the same frequency rating. The style is 'Alexandrian', indicating at the very least the die was prepared there and perhaps struck at Antioch. This was a time of massive military activity leading up to Titus' siege of Jerusalem, which explains his prominent presence on the reverse.

Beautiful style and a thick flan, a most stunning piece.

7 commentsDavid Atherton
RPC1945a_.jpg
RPC-1945-Vespasian91 viewsAR Tetradrachm, 13.90g
Antioch mint, 69-70 AD
Obv: AYTOKPAT KAIΣA OYEΣΠAΣIANOY; Head of Vespasian, laureate, r.
Rev: ETOYΣ B IEPOY; Eagle standing l., on club; in l. field, palm branch
RPC 1945 (9 spec.).

The different series of tetradrachms minted at Antioch are divided into groups based on style and die links. This coin is part of group 3. Groups 1-3 stylistically are similar to contemporary tetradrachms struck at Alexandria. RPC speculates these groups may have had their dies engraved in Alexandria but were struck at Antioch. The style between the two mints for these groups are indeed very similar.

Historically these tetradrachms from Antioch were minted at a time when Titus was left in charge of the Jewish war by Vespasian and waged the siege and destruction of Jerusalem. The Roman legions under Titus were paid with these coins, which show up in countless hoards in Judaea.

Nice and chunky, this example has a decent 'Alexandrian' styled portrait.
2 commentsDavid Atherton
RPC1947b.jpg
RPC-1947-Vespasian74 viewsAR Tetradrachm, 12.40g
Antioch mint, 70-71 AD
Obv: AYTOKPAT KAIΣA OYEΣΠAΣIANOY; Head of Vespasian, laureate, r.
Rev: ETOYΣ Γ IEPOY; Eagle standing l., on club; in l. field, palm branch
RPC 1947 (7 spec.).

Many of the tetradrachms struck at Antioch, such as this example, have an 'Alexandrian' style about them. The dies to those coins with this peculiar style are thought to have been engraved in Alexandria and then struck at Antioch. Perhaps the demands of a region at war with thousands of legionaries to pay outstripped the capabilities of the Antioch mint, which could explain why some of the work was outsourced to another mint. These tetradrachms are found all throughout Israel in hoards and single finds, good evidence that they were indeed used to pay the troops during and after the Jewish war. This specimen dates to just after the siege of Jerusalem.

A hefty coin in hand with a crude but delightful portrait. Struck on a thick flan.
1 commentsDavid Atherton
RPC1954a.jpg
RPC-1954-Vespasian120 viewsAR Tetradrachm, 14.97g
Antioch mint, 69-70 AD
Obv: AYTOKPA OYEΠACIANOC KAICAP CЄBACTOC; Head of Vespasian, laureate, r.
Rev: ЄTOYC NЄOY IЄPOY•B; Eagle with wreath in beak standing, l. on club; in l. field, palm branch
RPC 1954 (20 spec.).
Acquired from Athena Numismatics, August 2014.

"At Antioch gold and silver currencies were struck" writes Tacitus in his book The Histories concerning the early activity of Vespasian in the Summer and Fall of 69 immediately after the Eastern legions acclaimed him emperor. Large numbers of tetradrachms were struck in 69-70, which would likely have been used for legionary payment. They show up in countless hoards in the region due to the increased military activity surrounding the Jewish Revolt. During this time period Titus led three legions which he used to conduct the siege and destruction of Jerusalem.

This tetradrachm is from group 4, attributed wholly to the Antioch mint by style. Groups 1-3 are thought to have been engraved in Alexandria Egypt due to their 'Alexandrian' style (see my RPC 1945). The Antioch mint engraved dies are much finer in style, this coin being a good example of that better quality. In high relief with a stunning portrait.
7 commentsDavid Atherton
RPC1959.jpg
RPC-1959-Vespasian76 viewsAR Tetradrachm, 14.55g
Antioch mint, 69-70 AD
Obv: AYTOKPA KAIΣA OYEΣΠAΣIANOY; Head of Vespasian, laureate, r.
Rev: ЄTOYC NЄOY IЄPOY B; Eagle with wreath in beak on club to l.; in l. field, palm branch; crescent between eagle's legs
RPC 1959 (1 spec.).
Acquired from Zuzim, January 2016.

Syrian tetradrachms come in several styles and were struck at different mints for distribution in the province. This rare specimen is in very fine Antiochene style and most likely was struck at Antioch. The issue can be dated to Vespasian's second regnal year around the time of the siege and fall of Jerusalem by Titus Caesar and probably was part of payments awarded to the troops.

A nice chunky piece with a superb portrait of the old soldier.
6 commentsDavid Atherton
RPC1961c.jpg
RPC-1961-Vespasian73 viewsAR Tetradrachm, 14.08g
Antioch mint, 69-70 AD
Obv: AYTOKPA KAICA OYЄCΠACIANOY; Head of Vespasian, laureate, r.
Rev: ЄTOYC NЄOY IЄPOY B; Eagle with wreath in beak on club to l.; in l. field, palm branch; crescent between eagle's legs
RPC 1961 (5 spec.).

The 69-70 time period saw large issues of tetradrachms minted at Antioch, most likely due to the massive military operations in Judaea involved with crushing the Jewish revolt. Titus Caesar mounted the siege of Jerusalem during the spring and summer of 70 when this coin was probably struck. Both Antioch and Alexandria struck coins for circulation in Syria. This tetradrachm is in very fine 'Antiochene' style and is likely a product of that mint. The crescent between the eagle's legs is a trademark of the RPC group 5 tetradrachms from Antioch.

A lovely coin in excellent style.
7 commentsDavid Atherton
RPC1967sm.jpg
RPC-1967-Titus as Caesar112 viewsAR Tetradrachm, 14.48g
Caesarea Maritima mint, 70-71 AD
Obv: AYTOKP TITOΣ KAIΣ OYEΣΠ; Bust of Titus, laureate, r., with aegis
Rev: ETOYΣ Γ IEPOY; Eagle standing, l., with wreath in beak on palm branch; club in l. field
RPC 1967 (3 spec.).
Acquired from CGB, September 2015.

In the immediate aftermath of the fall of Jerusalem Titus Caesar and his troops celebrated their great victory. Games were held, coins were struck, and booty distributed. This rare tetradrachm was minted in Judaea during those heady days of celebrations and games in 70/71 AD.

An interestingly styled coin (just look at those curls!) with some wear and looks as if it could have fought in the Jewish War itself!
6 commentsDavid Atherton
RPC1968.jpg
RPC-1968-Titus as Caesar103 viewsAR Tetradrachm, 13.93g
Caesarea Maritima mint, 70-71 AD
Obv: AYTOKP TITOΣ KAIΣ OYEΣΠ; Bust of Titus, laureate, r., with aegis
Rev: ETOYΣ Γ IEPOY; Eagle standing, l., with wreath in beak on palm branch; club in l. field
RPC 1968 (1 spec.).
Acquired from Roy's Coins, October 2014.

After the siege and sack of Jerusalem in August 70 AD, Titus Caesar spent three days outside the ruined city with his legions handing out rewards and spoils. Josephus tells us what followed next - "Then descending with his army to Caesarea-on-sea, he there deposited the bulk of his spoils and directed that his prisoners should be kept in custody; for the winter season prevented his sailing for Italy" (BJ 7.20). Presumably it is during the sojourn at Caesaera Maritima that this tetradrachm was struck. The coin dates to just after the fall of Jerusalem and is part of the group 6 Syrian tetradrachms. However, the style is fairly crude and the silver fineness variable, all evidence of a military issue. Titus is featured prominently in the series (no doubt due to his recent successful conclusion of the Jewish War) and the style is similar to other bronze coins attributed to Caesarea Maritima. With that in mind, the mint for this issue is most likely Caesarea Maritima and dates to the days or weeks after the fall of Jerusalem as part of the rewards Titus distributed to his triumphant troops.

RPC catalogues two rare versions of this type: one with the obverse legend starting at 6 o'clock (RPC 1967) and an even rarer variant with the legend starting at 12 o'clock (RPC 1968). This specimen is the rarer 12 o'clock variant.

The coin is well worn, but with clear devices and a wonderfully crude portrait. It's so thick that it reminds one not so much of a coin but of a large hunk of stamped metal.
5 commentsDavid Atherton
RPC1971.jpg
RPC-1971-Vespasian57 viewsAR Tetradrachm, 14.66g
Antioch mint, 69-70 AD
Obv: AYTOKPATΩP KAICAP CЄBACTOC OYECΠACIANOC; Head of Vespasian, laureate, r.
Rev: ETOYΣ NЄOY•IЄPOY•B; Eagle with wreath in beak on a club to l.; in l. field, palm branch
RPC 1971 (9 spec.).
Acquired from Ancient Imports, November 2014.

The 69-70 time period saw large issues of tetradrachms minted at Antioch, most likely due to the massive military operations in nearby Judaea involved with crushing the Jewish revolt. Titus Caesar mounted the siege of Jerusalem during the spring and summer of 70 when this coin was struck.

In fine 'Antiochene' style featuring a smiling Vespasian.
2 commentsDavid Atherton
RPC2313.jpg
RPC-2313-Titus as Caesar25 viewsÆ24, 11.84g
Caesarea Maritima mint, 71-73 AD
Obv: AYTOKP TITOΣ KAIΣAP; Head of Titus, laureate, r.
Rev: IOYΔAIAΣ EAΛWKYAΣ; trophy; at foot, l., a crouching captive with arms tied behind; on r., a pelta-shaped shield
RPC 2313 (21 spec.). Hendin 1448.
Acquired from Marc Breitsprecher, October 2019.

The Roman authorities in Judaea struck a localised 'Judaea Capta' issue at the Caeserea Maritima mint early in the reign of Vespasian. The series, featuring the reverse legend 'Judaea Capta' in Greek, strongly echoes the imperial bronze types produced at Rome and Lugdunum. The Judaean issue likely dates not long after the imperial ones were struck in the spring and summer of 71. D. Barag speculates this captive and trophy type may have come a bit later, perhaps sometime in 72 or 73. It is interesting to note this coin would have circulated in the very region where the Jewish Revolt took place. The emphasis on Titus Caesar the conqueror of Jerusalem is readily evident.

Large portrait in fine style.
2 commentsDavid Atherton
RRC422-1.jpg
RRC422/1 (M. Aemilius Scaurus, P. Plautius Hypsaeus)89 viewsObv. King Aretas of Nabatea kneeling beside camel, raising olive branche with fillet; M SCAVR(VS) | AED CVR above, [E]X – SC at sides; [R]EX ARETAS in exergue
Rev. Jupiter in quadriga left, reins in right, hurling thunderbolt with left, horses trampling scorpion; P HYPSAEVS | AED CV(R) above, CAPTV[M] on right, C HYPSAE COS | PREIVER(NVM) in exergue
18 mm, 3.80 grams
Rome, 58 B.C.

Allusions: Scaurus refers to his own deed on the obverse, the first time a Roman dared to do so on a coin. In 62 B.C., he had defeated Haritha (Aretha) III of Nabatea, who was marching on Jerusalem, to help the rightful king John Hyrcanus II. Scaurus, a lieutenant of Pompey's, was bribed by Aristoboulos with 400 talents, then took another 300 from Aretas to spare the Nabetean capital of Petra (Josephus, BJ I.127, Ant. Jud. 14.2, 14.5). His colleague chose a more distant motive: C. Plautius Decianus had captured the Volscian city of Privernum (Piperno) in 329 B.C. Any direct relations between Hypsaeus and Decianus are most likely invented, however.

Moneyers: The moneyers of this coin were not the IIIViri Monetales, but the Curule Aediles of 58 B.C., M. Aemilius Scaurus and P. Plautius Hypsaeus. Both were Pompeian supporters ultimately dropped by their patron in 52 B.C. M. Scaurus, stepsone of Sulla, who had already battled in Judaea and Nabatea (where his massacred are mentioned in the Dead Sea Scrolls) would rise to be praetor in 56 B.C. and propraetor of Sardinia the following year. Accused of extortion, he was defended by Cicero and aquitted, only to be exiled on the charge of ambitus in 52. B.C. He was also the first major Roman collector of engraved gemstones, put together in a dactyliotheca exceeding even that of Mithridates of Pontus (Pliny, NH 37.5.11). Less is known about his colleague during his aedileship. P. Plautius Hypsaeus rose to the praetorship in 55 B.C. but was tried for bribery in 52 B.C. whilst standing for consul. He convicted and fled into exile.

On this issue: M. Aemilius Scaurus' aedileship is known and can be securely dated. It became famous for the unparalleled lavishness of its games. These included the construction of an artificial lake to show off crocodiles and hippopotamuses; Scaurus also brought a huge skeleton from Joppa, believed to be the monster to which Andromeda was to be sacrificed (Pliny NH 9.4.11). He also had a temporary theatre capable of holding 80,000 spectators built, standing for just one month, and adorned with all kinds of luxuries (Pliny, NH 36.2.5; 36.24.113ss). After the games, he had the huge marble columns transferred to his house, for which the sewer contractors demanded a hefty security fee, in case their weight caused the drains to cave in (ibid. 36.2.6). According to Pliny, the remains of the theatre alone were worth 30 million sesterces (or 7,500,000 denarii).
Syltorian
Mark_Antony_Leg_XV.jpg
Ruler: Mark Antony (Triumvir) Gens: Antonia Moneyer: Military Mint Coin: Silver Denarius 33 viewsANTAVG III VIR. R.P.C. - Galley right under oars
Leg XV - Eagle between standards
Mint: Patras ? (32-31 BC)
Wt./Size/Axis: 3.20g / 18mm / 12h
References:
RSC 47
Syd 1235
Crawford 544/30
CRI 371
Acquisition/Sale: jerusalemhadaya2012 eBay $0.00 05/19
Notes: May 25, 19 - The Gary R. Wilson Collection

"ANT AVG | III VIR R P C"
("Antonius Augur | Triumvir rei publicae constituendae")
trans. "Antony Augustus (military title), Triumvirate for the Restoration of the Republic"
2 commentsGary W2
b128Halab580.JPG
Saladin685 viewsSaladin (Salah al-Din)
Ayyubid
Dirham Halab (Aleppo) 580AH/1184AD

Recaptured Jerusalem from the crusaders and defeated their armies at Hittin in 1187.
1 commentsbarrage
Saladin (Salah ad-Din Yusuf ibn Ayyub).jpg
Salah ad-Din Yusuf Ibn Ayyub71 viewsHis name in Arabic, in full, is SALAH AD-DIN YUSUF IBN AYYUB ("Righteousness of the Faith, Joseph, Son of Job"), also called AL-MALIK AN-NASIR SALAH AD-DIN YUSUF I (b. 1137/38, Tikrit, Mesopotamia--d. March 4, 1193, Damascus), Muslim sultan of Egypt, Syria, Yemen, and Palestine, founder of the Ayyubid dynasty, and the most famous of Muslim heroes.

In wars against the Christian crusaders, he achieved final success with the disciplined capture of Jerusalem (Oct. 2, 1187), ending its 88-year occupation by the Franks. The great Christian counterattack of the Third Crusade was then stalemated by Saladin's military genius.

Saladin was born into a prominent Kurdish family. On the night of his birth, his father, Najm ad-Din Ayyub, gathered his family and moved to Aleppo, there entering the service of 'Imad ad-Din Zangi ibn Aq Sonqur, the powerful Turkish governor in northern Syria. Growing up in Ba'lbek and Damascus, Saladin was apparently an undistinguished youth, with a greater taste for religious studies than military training.

His formal career began when he joined the staff of his uncle Asad ad-Din Shirkuh, an important military commander under the amir Nureddin, son and successor of Zangi. During three military expeditions led by Shirkuh into Egypt to prevent its falling to the Latin-Christian (Frankish) rulers of the states established by the First Crusade, a complex, three-way struggle developed between Amalric I, the Latin king of Jerusalem, Shawar, the powerful vizier of the Egyptian Fatimid caliph, and Shirkuh. After Shirkuh's death and after ordering Shawar's assassination, Saladin, in 1169 at the age of 31, was appointed both commander of the Syrian troops and vizier of Egypt.

His relatively quick rise to power must be attributed not only to the clannish nepotism of his Kurdish family but also to his own emerging talents. As vizier of Egypt, he received the title king (malik), although he was generally known as the sultan. Saladin's position was further enhanced when, in 1171, he abolished the Shi'i Fatimid caliphate, proclaimed a return to Sunnah in Egypt, and consequently became its sole ruler.

Although he remained for a time theoretically a vassal of Nureddin, that relationship ended with the Syrian emir's death in 1174. Using his rich agricultural possessions in Egypt as a financial base, Saladin soon moved into Syria with a small but strictly disciplined army to claim the regency on behalf of the young son of his former suzerain.
Soon, however, he abandoned this claim, and from 1174 until 1186 he zealously pursued a goal of uniting, under his own standard, all the Muslim territories of Syria, northern Mesopotamia, Palestine, and Egypt.

This he accomplished by skillful diplomacy backed when necessary by the swift and resolute use of military force. Gradually, his reputation grew as a generous and virtuous but firm ruler, devoid of pretense, licentiousness, and cruelty. In contrast to the bitter dissension and intense rivalry that had up to then hampered the Muslims in their resistance to the crusaders, Saladin's singleness of purpose induced them to rearm both physically and spiritually.

Saladin's every act was inspired by an intense and unwavering devotion to the idea of jihad ("holy war")-the Muslim equivalent of the Christian crusade. It was an essential part of his policy to encourage the growth and spread of Muslim religious institutions.

He courted its scholars and preachers, founded colleges and mosques for their use, and commissioned them to write edifying works especially on the jihad itself. Through moral regeneration, which was a genuine part of his own way of life, he tried to re-create in his own realm some of the same zeal and enthusiasm that had proved so valuable to the first generations of Muslims when, five centuries before, they had conquered half the known world.

Saladin also succeeded in turning the military balance of power in his favour-more by uniting and disciplining a great number of unruly forces than by employing new or improved military techniques. When at last, in 1187, he was able to throw his full strength into the struggle with the Latin crusader kingdoms, his armies were their equals. On July 4, 1187, aided by his own military good sense and by a phenomenal lack of it on the part of his enemy, Saladin trapped and destroyed in one blow an exhausted and thirst-crazed army of crusaders at Hattin, near Tiberias in northern Palestine.

So great were the losses in the ranks of the crusaders in this one battle that the Muslims were quickly able to overrun nearly the entire Kingdom of Jerusalem. Acre, Toron, Beirut, Sidon, Nazareth, Caesarea, Nabulus, Jaffa (Yafo), and Ascalon (Ashqelon) fell within three months.

But Saladin's crowning achievement and the most disastrous blow to the whole crusading movement came on Oct. 2, 1187, when Jerusalem, holy to both Muslim and Christian alike, surrendered to the Sultan's army after 88 years in the hands of the Franks. In stark contrast to the city's conquest by the Christians, when blood flowed freely during the barbaric slaughter of its inhabitants, the Muslim reconquest was marked by the civilized and courteous behaviour of Saladin and his troops. His sudden success, which in 1189 saw the crusaders reduced to the occupation of only three cities, was, however, marred by his failure to capture Tyre, an almost impregnable coastal fortress to which the scattered Christian survivors of the recent battles flocked. It was to be the rallying point of the Latin counterattack.

Most probably, Saladin did not anticipate the European reaction to his capture of Jerusalem, an event that deeply shocked the West and to which it responded with a new call for a crusade. In addition to many great nobles and famous knights, this crusade, the third, brought the kings of three countries into the struggle.

The magnitude of the Christian effort and the lasting impression it made on contemporaries gave the name of Saladin, as their gallant and chivalrous enemy, an added lustre that his military victories alone could never confer on him.

The Crusade itself was long and exhausting, and, despite the obvious, though at times impulsive, military genius of Richard I the Lion-Heart, it achieved almost nothing. Therein lies the greatest-but often unrecognized--achievement of Saladin. With tired and unwilling feudal levies, committed to fight only a limited season each year, his indomitable will enabled him to fight the greatest champions of Christendom to a draw. The crusaders retained little more than a precarious foothold on the Levantine coast, and when King Richard set sail from the Orient in October 1192, the battle was over.

Saladin withdrew to his capital at Damascus. Soon, the long campaigning seasons and the endless hours in the saddle caught up with him, and he died. While his relatives were already scrambling for pieces of the empire, his friends found that the most powerful and most generous ruler in the Muslim world had not left enough money to pay for his own grave.

BIBLIOGRAPHY
H.A.R. Gibb, "The Arabic Sources for the Life of Saladin," Speculum, 25:58-72 (1950). C.W. Wilson's English translation of one of the most important Arabic works, The Life of Saladin (1897), was reprinted in 1971. The best biography to date is Stanley Lane-Poole, Saladin and the Fall of the Kingdom of Jerusalem, new ed. (1926, reprinted 1964), although it does not take account of all the sources.
See: http://stp.ling.uu.se/~kamalk/language/saladin.html

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
087~5.JPG
Savoie - Italie - Charles Félix, duc de Savoie, prince du Piémont, roi de Chypre et de Jérusalem, roi de Sardaigne, marquis de Monferrat et duc de Gênes9 views5 lires, argent, 24,96 g, 37 mm
Atelier de Turin.
Av./ CAR FELIX D G REX SAR CYP ET HIER, 1830, Tête à droite.
Rv./ DVX SAB GENVAE ET MONTISF PRINC PED L 5, Écu couronné entouré du collier de l'Ordre de l’Annonciade et de rameaux de chêne.
Réfs : Mont70 - P79 a - M71
Cette belle monnaie contient un petit bout de Savoie rattaché à la France en 1860, d'où sa présence dans les féodales, même si s'en ai pas une.
Gabalor
056~3.JPG
Savoie - Italie - Victor Emmanuel, duc de Savoie, prince du Piémont, roi de Chypre et de Jérusalem, roi de Sardaigne, marquis de Monferrat et duc de Gênes12 views5 lires, argent, 24,94 g, 37 mm
Atelier de Turin.
Av./ VIC EM D G REX SAR CYP ET IER, 1818, Tête à droite.
Rv./ DVX SAB IANVAE ET MONTISF PRINC PED L 5, Écu couronné entouré du collier de l'Ordre de l’Annonciade.
Réfs : P. 12
Cette belle monnaie contient un petit bout de Savoie rattaché à la France en 1860, d'où sa présence dans les féodales, même si s'en ai pas une.
Gabalor
Antiochus_VII~0.jpg
Seleucid - Antiochus VII Euergetes (138-129 BCE)19 viewsMetal/Size: AE14; Weight: 2.21 grams; Denomination: Bronze Unit; Mint: Jerusalem; Date: 132-130 BCE; Obverse: Anchor upside down flanked by inscription in three lines - BAΣIΛEΩΣ ANTIOXOY EYEΡΓETOY (of King Antiochus, Benefactor). Date below anchor is hard to see but could be AΠP (Year 181) or BΠP (Year 182). 312 (beginning of Seleucid era) minus 181 or 182 equals 130 or 131 BCE. Reverse: Lily. References: Hendin #6 (Guide to Ancient Jewish Coins); Kindler #3.1 commentsmuseumguy
1__Demetrios_II.jpg
Seleukid - Demetrios II Nicator 145-138 BC26 viewsPortrait Coin - First Reign
Mint: North Syria; Date: 145-138 BC
Obv: Diademed head of Demetrios II, facing right. Boarder of dots.
Rev: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΔΗΜΗΤΡΙΟΥ, Seleukid anchor, fluks down, NIKATOPOΣ
Size: 17mm; 3.57gms
Ref: SNG Spaer 1639
Struck by Demetrios as a precursor to that struck by Antiochos VII under Hyrcanus in Jerusalem.
1 commentsBrian L
0523175.jpg
Seleukid Kingdom, Seleukos I Nikator , 312-280 BCE12 viewsObverse: Head of Apollo right.
Reverse: BASILEWS SELEUKOU above and beneath humped bull butting
right, theta and pentalpha above. 5.8 g, 19.85 mm
BMC 71; SNG Spaer 140; Houghton 149-2
Wildwinds example
Contributed by Trionfo-Jerusalem, June 2011.
NORMAN K
Shekel_Tyre.jpg
Shekel of Tyre37 viewsPhoenicia. Tyre, AR Shekel.
OBV: Laureate head right of Melqarth.
REV: TUROU IERAS - KAI ASULOU
Eagle standing left on prow of ship, carrying palm over right shoulder;
PΞ (160) date in left field above club, palm. KP in right field above monogram.
Phoenician letter/Lituus? between legs.
Jerusalem mint, dated year 160 (struck A.D. 34/35).
14.22g 25mm
2 commentsgoldenancients
J23-Kochba.jpg
Shimon Bar Kochba Revolt, Æ, 132-135 CE88 viewsBronze of 21.9 mm, 4.35 grams. This coin was struck 134/135 CE during the third year of the second Jewish revolt against Rome.

Obverse: Palm tree with seven branches and two bunches of dates, and the Hebrew inscription – שמעון (‘Shimon’ the first name of Bar Kochba).
Reverse: Vine leaf on tendril with the Hebrew inscription around – לחרות ירושלים (‘For the Freedom of Jerusalem’).

Reference: Hendin 739, Mildenberg 160.

Added to collection: April 11, 2005
Daniel Friedman
Nero___Divus_Augustus__Struck_A_D__66_-_67.JPG
Struck A.D. 66 - 67 under Nero. DIVUS AUGUSTUS. AR Billon tetradrachm of Alexandria13 viewsObverse: NERΩ KΛAY KAIΣ ΣEB ΓER AY. Radiate bust of Nero facing left, wearing aegis; before LIΓ = regnal year 13 = A.D.66-67.
Reverse: ΘEOΣ ΣEBAΣTOΣ. Radiate head of Augustus facing right.
Diameter: 24mm | Weight: 12.5gms | Die Axis: 12
GICV : 636 | Emmett : 113
Ex Pavlos S. Pavlou (London)

EVENTS OCCURRING AT THE TIME THIS COIN WAS STRUCK
A.D.66
The Jewish Revolt began in October this year when the Zealots laid siege to Jerusalem and annihilated the Roman garrison, a cohort of Legio III Cyrenaica.
The Roman writer Petronius died in this year. Having been charged with treason he committed suicide. Pliny the Elder stated that before he died, Petronius broke his fluorspar wine-dipper, which had cost 300,000 sesterces, so that Nero could not inherit it.
A.D.67
Vespasian arrived in Ptolemais, along with Legio X Fretensis and Legio V Macedonica, to put down the Jewish Revolt.
Nero travelled to Greece to participate in the Olympic Games and other festivals.
1 comments*Alex
berytos_augustus_BMC55.jpg
Syria, Berytos, Augustus, BMC 5522 viewsPhoenicia, Berytos, Agustus BC 27 - AD 14
AE 20, 6.19g
struck under propraetor Quinctilius Varus, 6-4 BC
obv. IMP CAE[SAR AGVSTV]
Bare head, r.
rev. P.QVIN - CT L - VS - VRVS (starting upper l.)
Two eagles between two standarts
BMC 55; RPC 4543
good S, struck on a small flan, reddish sand-patina

This coin has been struck under Varus when he was legatus Augusti pro praetore in Syria 7/6 BC - 5/4 BC. The Jewish historian Josephus mentions the swift action of Varus against a messianic revolt in Judaea after the death of Rome's client king Herod the Great in 4 BC. After occupying Jerusalem, he crucified 2000 Jewish rebels, and may have thus been one of the prime objects of popular anti-Roman sentiment in Judaea, for Josephus, who made every effort to reconcile the Jewish people to Roman rule, felt it necessary to point out how lenient this judicial massacre had been.
Jochen
Antiochos_VII_Eueagetas_Silver_Tetradrachm,_circa_138_-_129_BC.jpg
Syria, Seleucid Kings. Antiochos VII Euergetes (Sidetes). 138-129 BC. AR Tetradrachm. Tyre mint. Dated SE 177 (136/5 BC).90 viewsSyria, Seleucid Kings. Antiochos VII Euergetes (Sidetes). 138-129 BC. AR Tetradrachm (30 mm, 14.20 g, 12 h). Tyre mint. Dated SE 177 (136/5 BC). Diademed and draped bust right / BAΣIΛEΩΣ ANTIOXOY, Eagle standing left on thunderbolt; palm frond in backgound; to left, A/PE above club surmounted by Tyre monogram; to right, A and monogram above HOP (date); monogram between legs. SC 2109.5a; Newell, Tyre 121; HGC 9, 1074.

Antiochos VII was called Sidetes because he was reared in the Pamphylian
seaport of side. He was the younger son of Demetrios I. his elder brother Demetrius II was captured by the Parthians. He undertook the reconquest of
Palestine, he besieged and captured Jerusalem. ( 134 BC).
Ultimately the ruling high priest John Hyrcanus accepted seleucid suzerainty,
though retaining autonomy with respect to internal affairs.
Antiochos temporarily recovered Babylonia from the Parthians, but while
wintering in Media he was caught off guard by a native revolt coordinated
with an attack by the Parthian army. He was vanquished and killed by
Phraates II. His body was returned to antioch in a silver casket, but his son Seleucus was kept as a hostage at the Parthian court.
These events marked the permanent loss of the eastern Seleucid empire.
4 commentsAntonivs Protti
46206q00.jpg
The First Jewish Revolt, 66 - 70 A.D.54 viewsBronze prutah, Hendin 1360, Fair, Jerusalem mint, 2.669g, 16.8mm, year 2, 67 - 68 A.D.; obverse amphora with broad rim and two handles, year 2 (in Hebrew) around; reverse , vine leaf on small branch, the freedom of Zion (in Hebrew) around. ex Forvm

"Discontent and inept rule led to open rebellion in 66 A.D. The Romans distracted by the Civil Wars following the death of Nero were unable to put a speedy end to the revolt. But, in 70 A.D. Titus, sone of the new Emperor Vespasian captured and sacked Jerusalem and destroyed them temple."
Randygeki(h2)
The_First_Jewish_Revolt,_66_-_70_A_D_.jpg
The First Jewish Revolt, 66 - 70 A.D. Bronze prutah24 viewsThe First Jewish Revolt, 66 - 70 A.D. Bronze prutah, Hendin 661, F, Jerusalem mint, 2.890g, 16.8mm, year 2, 67-68 A.D.; obverse amphora with broad rim and two handles, year 2 (in Hebrew) around; reverse , vine leaf on small branch, the freedom of Zion (in Hebrew) around. Ex FORVMPodiceps
Arch_Titus.jpg
The relief of the imperial triumph (Titus driving a quadriga) Arch of Titus, Rome, Italy19 viewsThe relief of the imperial triumph Arch of Titus, Rome, Italy. The Triumphal Arch of Titus, erected in c. 81 CE by Domitian to commemorate his brother Titus' campaigns in the Jewish War (70-71 CE).

On 14 April 70 A.D. Titus surrounded Jerusalem. He allowed pilgrims to enter to celebrate Passover but this was a trap to put pressure on supplies of food and water; he refused to allow them to leave. On 10 May he began his assault on the walls. The third wall fell on 25 May. The second wall fell on 30 May. On 20 July Titus stormed the Temple Mount. On 4 August 70 A.D., Titus destroyed the Temple. The Jewish fast of Tisha B'Av mourns the Fall of Jerusalem annually on this date. Upon his arrival in Rome in 71, Titus was awarded a triumph. As depicted in relief of the imperial triumph on the Arch of Titus in Rome, Titus rode into the city in a quadriga, enthusiastically saluted by the Roman populace and preceded by a lavish parade containing treasures and captives from the war. Josephus describes a procession with large amounts of gold and silver carried along the route, followed by elaborate re-enactments of the war, Jewish prisoners, and finally the treasures taken from the Temple of Jerusalem, including the Menorah and the Pentateuch. He was accompanied by Vespasian and Domitian. Simon Bar Giora was executed in the Forum, after which the procession closed with religious sacrifices at the Temple of Jupiter.

Source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Arch_Titus,_relief_triumph,_Forum_Romanum,_Rome,_Italy.jpg
Date 22 August 2013 for photograph
Author Jebulon
Joe Sermarini
Anan.jpg
The Widow's Mite - Mark 12: 41-4439 views 41Καὶ καθίσας κατέναντι τοῦ γαζοφυλακίου ἐθεώρει πῶς ὁ ὄχλος βάλλει χαλκὸν εἰς τὸ γαζοφυλάκιον: καὶ πολλοὶ πλούσιοι ἔβαλλον πολλά: 42καὶ ἐλθοῦσα μία χήρα πτωχὴ ἔβαλεν λεπτὰ δύο, ὅ ἐστιν κοδράντης. 43καὶ προσκαλεσάμενος τοὺς μαθητὰς αὐτοῦ εἶπεν αὐτοῖς, Ἀμὴν λέγω ὑμῖν ὅτι ἡ χήρα αὕτη ἡ πτωχὴ πλεῖον πάντων ἔβαλεν τῶν βαλλόντων εἰς τὸ γαζοφυλάκιον: 44πάντες γὰρ ἐκ τοῦ περισσεύοντος αὐτοῖς ἔβαλον, αὕτη δὲ ἐκ τῆς ὑστερήσεως αὐτῆς πάντα ὅσα εἶχεν ἔβαλεν, ὅλον τὸν βίον αὐτῆς.

41 Jesus sat down opposite the treasury, and saw how the multitude cast money into the treasury. Many who were rich cast in much. 42 A poor widow came, and she cast in two small brass coins,* which equal a quadrans coin.† 43 He called his disciples to himself, and said to them, “Most certainly I tell you, this poor widow gave more than all those who are giving into the treasury, 44 for they all gave out of their abundance, but she, out of her poverty, gave all that she had to live on.”
Mark 12: 41-44

41Sedl si naproti chrámové pokladnici a díval se, jak do ní lidé vhazují peníze. A mnozí bohatí dávali mnoho.
42Přišla také jedna chudá vdova a vhodila dvě drobné mince, dohromady čtyrák.
43Zavolal své učedníky a řekl jim: „Amen, pravím vám, tato chudá vdova dala víc než všichni ostatní, kteří dávali do pokladnice.
44Všichni totiž dali ze svého nadbytku, ona však ze svého nedostatku: dala, co měla, všechno, z čeho měla být živa.“
Mk 12, 41-44

Judaean Kingdom, Alexander Jannaeus (Yehonatan), 103 - 76 B.C. Bronze lepton, Hendin 1152 or 1153, Jerusalem mint, 95 - 76 B.C.; obverse star of eight rays surrounded by diadem, crude barbaric style, sometimes surrounded by a barbaric blundered Aramaic inscription, King Alexander Year 25; reverse BAΣIΛEΩΣ AΛEΞAN∆POY (barbaric and blundered), anchor upside-down in circle
Bohemian
812_Valerius_Gratus.jpg
Tiberius - Jerusalem9 viewsAE prutah
struck by Roman Prefect Valerius Gratus
17 AD
legend in wreath tied at base with an X
TIB / KAI/CAP (Tiberius Caesar)
palm branch flanked by:
IOY−ΛIA
L - ∆
RPC I, 4964; Hendin 1338, Meshorer TJC 327
2,1g 14mm
Johny SYSEL
Titus02a.jpg
Titus AR Denarius76 viewsYep, another iridescent-toned beauty!

Titus Denarius. 80 AD. IMP TITVS CAES VESPASIAN AVG P M, laureate head right / TR P IX IMP XV COS VIII P P, dolphin coiled around an anchor. RIC II 26a; BMCRE 72; RSC 309.

This piece was minted in 80 AD under Titus, who ruled from 79-81 AD. Titus remained in Judaea after Vespasian's accession to carry on the Jewish war, and captured Jerusalem in 70 AD. On his return to Rome, Titus was made Vespasian's colleauge in the government, and thus his succession on Vespasian's death went smoothly. Rome was plagued by a number of misfortunes during his reign, the most well known of which was the eruption of Vesuvius in 79 AD, which destroyed the cities of Pompeii and Herculaneum. Faced with these events, Titus proved to be a most benevolent emperor, and his death caused much sorrow.

CHOICE VERY FINE
SPECTACULAR MULTI-COLOURED IRIDESCENT PATINA
QUITE UNIQUE
Ex Künker 2006
Trajan
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Titus as Caesar RIC-126854 viewsÆ As, 9.35g
Lyon mint, 77-78 AD (Vespasian)
Obv: T CAES IMP AVG F TR P COS VI CENSOR; Head of Titus, laureate, bearded, r.; globe at point of bust
Rev: IVDAEA CAPTA; S C in exergue; Palm tree; to r., Judaea std. r.; to l. of tree, arms
RIC 1268 (C2). BMC 862. BNC 872.
Acquired from GB Collection, March 2019.

The importance of the Jewish War to the Flavian dynasty cannot be overestimated. It provided much needed legitimacy for the imperial rule of 'new men'. This common as struck for Titus Caesar nearly eight years after the 'Gotterdammerung' fall of Jerusalem is ample evidence of the dynasty's continued reliance on the propaganda value of 'Judaea Capta'. It would continue to be Titus' calling card even after he became emperor a year or so later. This coin was struck in Lugdunum (Lyon) in a fairly large issue that presumably addressed a shortage of bronze coinage in the Western provinces.

Good Lyon style with a fetching dark patina.
4 commentsDavid Atherton
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Titus RIC II 0112127 viewsTitus. 79-81 A.D. AR Denarius. Rome Mint. 80 A.D. 1 Jan- 30 June. (3.46 g, 18.87 mm, 6h). Obv: r. to l, out-IMP TITVS CAES VESPASIAN AVG P M. Rev: l. to r., in-TRP IX IMP XV COS VIII PP, dolphin coiled around anchor. RIC 112, RSC 309, BMC 72, Sear 2517. Ex David Hendin.

This type may have been issued as a part of a series to commemorate the opening of the Flavian Amphitheater, or Colosseum which was begun under Vespasian and financed, at least in part, by the treasure plundered from the Jewish Temple during the sack of Jerusalem.
8 commentsLucas H
image~18.jpg
Trajan Decius; Tarsus, Cilicia24 viewsCILICIA, Tarsus. Trajan Decius. AD 249-251. Æ (33mm, 19.74 g, 6h). Radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right / Lion attacking bull right. SNG Levante 1161 (same dies); SNG France 1764 (same dies). VF, earthen black-green patina.

From the Kelly J. Krizan, M.D. Collection.

Pompey subjected Tarsus to Rome, and it became capital of the Roman province of Cilicia, the metropolis where the governor resided. In 66 BC, the inhabitants received Roman citizenship. To flatter Julius Caesar, for a time it took the name Juliopolis. It was also here that Cleopatra and Mark Antony met and was the scene of the celebrated feasts they gave during the construction of their fleet (41 BC). In William Shakespeare's 1606 play Antony and Cleopatra (Act 5, Scene 2), after Antony's death Cleopatra says she is going to Cydnus to meet Antony, i.e., she will commit suicide to meet him in the afterlife; "Go fetch / My best attires: I am again for Cydnus, / To meet Mark Antony"

When the province of Cilicia was divided, Tarsus remained the civil and religious metropolis of Cilicia Prima, and was a grand city with palaces, marketplaces, roads and bridges, baths, fountains and waterworks, a gymnasium on the banks of the Cydnus, and a stadium. Tarsus was later eclipsed by nearby Adana, but remained important as a port and shipyard. Several Roman emperors were interred here: Marcus Claudius Tacitus, Maximinus II, and Julian the Apostate, who planned to move his capital here from Antioch if he returned from his Persian expedition.

Tarsus was the city where, according to the Acts of the Apostles, "Saul of Tarsus"[Acts 9:11] was born, but he was "brought up" ([Acts 22:3]) in Jerusalem. Saul became Paul the apostle after his encounter with Christ (Acts 9:11; 21:39; 22:3), and he briefly returned here after his conversion (Acts 9:30). From here Barnabas retrieved him to help with the work in Syrian Antioch (Acts 11:25).

Already by this time a Christian community probably existed, although the first recorded bishop, Helenus, dates only from the third century; Helenus visited Antioch several times in connection with the dispute concerning Paul of Samosata. Later bishops of Tarsus included Lupus, present at the Council of Ancyra in 314; Theodorus, at the Council of Nicaea in 325; Helladius, who was condemned at the Council of Ephesus and who appealed to the bishop of Rome in 433; above all the celebrated exegete Diodorus, teacher of Theodore of Mopsuestia and consequently one of the fathers of Nestorianism. From the sixth century the metropolitan see of Tarsus had seven suffragan bishoprics; the Greek archdiocese is again mentioned in the tenth century , and existed until the twentieth century upheavals, part of the Patriarchate of Ant