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byzantine_tessera.jpg
32 viewsBYZANTINE. Simaias and Xenon. Circa 6th century AD
PB Tessera (20mm, 7.24 g, 12 h)
Block monogram: CIMAIAC
Block monogram: XENΩNOC
BLS -; DOCBS -

Found in Israel
Ardatirion
Antonius_Felix_procurator,_AE-16,_Prutah__Jerusalems_Israel_Palm_Hedin-652,_54_AD_Q-001_0h,_2,28_g_,_16_mm-s~0.jpg
012p Claudius-I (41-54 A.D.), Judaea, Antonius Felix Procurator, under Claudius, (52-60 A.D.), AE-16(Prutah), Hedin 652, BRIT, Six branched palm tree,94 views012p Claudius-I (41-54 A.D.), Judaea, Antonius Felix Procurator, under Claudius, (52-60 A.D.), AE-16(Prutah), Hedin 652, BRIT, Six branched palm tree,
avers:- NEPΩ KΛAV KAICP, Two crossed shields and spears.
revers:- BRIT, Six branched palm tree bearing two bunches of dates, L-IΔ, K-AI across field.
exerg: L/IΔ//K/AI, diameter: 16,0mm, weight: 2,28g, axes: 0h,
mint: Judaea, date: Dated Year of Claudius (Year 14 = 54 A.D.) ref: Hedin 652,
Q-001
quadrans
002~6.JPG
03 Constantius II60 viewsConstantius II, 22 May 337 - 3 November 361 A.D.
Bronze AE 3
obverse D N CONSTAN-TIVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse FEL TEMP-REPARATIO, soldier spearing Horseman,hair in braids, bearded, clutching, ANB
Antioch 188

Found in Israel
1 commentsRandygeki(h2)
Bar-Kochba-Hendin-734.jpg
053. 2'nd Jewish (bar Kokhba) Revolt.16 viewsZuz (denarius), attributed to Year 3 (134-35 AD).
Obverse: (Shim'on) / Bunch of Grapes.
Reverse: (For the Freedom of Jerusalem) / Lyre with three strings.
3.19 gm., 18.5 mm.
Mildenberg #205.19 (this coin); Hendin #734.

This coin likely started out as a denarius of one of the Roman emperors between Vespasian and Hadrian. Many coins of the Second Jewish Revolt show traces of the earlier Roman coin. This coin is no exception, and traces of the previous coin can be seen on the obverse in and around the bunch of grapes.

The bunch of grapes on the obverse is an ancient symbol of blessing and fertility. As such it occasionally appears on ancient coins of other areas besides this series. Given the messianic nature of the Bar Kokhba revolt, the bunch of grapes takes on added significance because in Jewish prophetic literature, grapes (and the vine or vineyard) are often symbolic of the restoration of Israel, or even symbolic of Israel itself.

The lyre on the reverse is associated with temple worship, as are trumpets, which are also found on coins of the Bar Kokhba Revolt. King David is mentioned as playing a lyre, and there are numerous Biblical references to praising the Lord with the lyre and trumpets. (The word "kinnor," sometimes translated as "harp," is really a type of lyre.) Even today the lyre is an important Jewish symbol and the state of Israel has chosen to portray it on the half New Israeli Sheqel coin.
Callimachus
Antíoco IV, Epiphanes.jpg
08-02 - Anti­oco IV, Epiphanes (175 - 164 A.C.)68 viewsAntíoco IV Epífanes (Αντίοχος Επιφανής en griego, 215 adC-163 adC) fue rey de Siria de la dinastía Seléucida desde c. 175 adC-164 adC.
Era hijo de Antíoco III Megas y hermano de Seleuco IV Filopator. Originalmente fue llamado Mitríades, pero adoptó el nombre de Antíoco tras su ascensión al trono (o quizás tras la muerte de su hermano mayor, también Antíoco).
Subió al trono tras la muerte de su hermano Seleuco IV Filopátor que gobernó durante poco tiempo antes que él, hasta que Heliodoro, tesorero suyo, lo mató por ambición. Había vivido en Roma según los términos de la paz de Apamea (188 adC), pero acababa de ser intercambiado por el hijo y legítimo heredero de Seleuco IV, el futuro (Demetrio I Sóter). Antíoco se aprovechó de la situación, y junto con su otro hermano Antíoco, se proclamó rey con el apoyo de Eumenes II de Pérgamo y el hermano de éste, Atalo I. Su hermano Antíoco sería asesinado pocos años después.
Por su enfrentamiento con Ptolomeo VI, que reclamaba Coele-Syria, atacó e invadió Egipto, conquistando casi todo el país, con la salvedad de la capital, Alejandría. Llegó a capturar al rey, pero para no alarmar a Roma, decicidió reponerlo en el trono, aunque como su marioneta. Sin embargo, los alejandrinos habían elegido al hermano de éste, Ptolomeo VII Euergetes como rey, y tras su marcha decidieron reinar conjuntamente. Esto le obligó a reinvadir el país, y así el 168 adC, repitiendo la invasión, con su flota conquistaba Chipre. Cerca de Alejandría se encontró con el cónsul romano Cayo Popilio Laenas, instó a abandonar Egipto y Chipre. Cuando Antíoco replicó que debía consultarlo con su consejo, Popilio trazó un círculo en la arena rodeándole y le dijo: "píensalo aquí". Viendo que abandonar el círculo sin haber ordenado la retirada era un desafío a Roma decidió ceder con el fin de evitar una guerra.
A su regreso, organizó una expedición contra Jerusalén, qué saqueo cruelmente. Según él Libro de los Macabeos, promulgó varias ordenanzas de tipo religioso: trató de suprimir el culto a Yahveh, prohibió el judaísmo suspendiendo toda clase de manifestación religiosa y trató de establecer el culto a los dioses griegos. Pero el sacerdote judío Matatías y sus dos hijos llamados Macabeos consiguieron levantar a la población en su contra y lo expulsaron. La fiesta judía de Jánuca conmemora este hecho.
Antíoco, en campaña contra el Imperio Parto, envió varios ejércitos sin éxito. Mientras organizaba una expedición punitiva para retomar Israel personalmente le sobrevino la muerte. Le sucedió su hijo Antíoco V Eupátor.
Su reinado fue la última época de fuerza y esplendor para el Imperio Seleúcida, que tras su muerte se vio envuelto en devastadoras guerras dinásticas. (Wikipedia)

AE (Canto aserrado) 15 mm 3.5 gr.

Anv: Busto velado de Laodicea IV (Esposa de Seleuco IV y Hermana de Antíoco IV) viendo a der. Grafila de puntos.
Rev: "BAΣIΛEΩΣ ANTIOXOY" - Cabeza de elefante a izquierda, proa de galera a izquierda (El elefante simboliza las aspiraciones orientales de los reyes de Seleucia además de ser una de las grandes armas de su arsenal y la proa su importancia como ciudad puerto).

Ceca: Seleucia de Pieria (Costa N. de Siria - Puerto de Antioquía) o Akke Ptolomais

Referencias : B.M.C. Vol.4 (Seleucid Kings of Syria) #3 Pag.43 - SC#1477.2 - Houghton #113 - HGS #684-6 Pag.9 - SNG Spaer #1017-40 - SNG Cop #184 - Hoover #685
1 commentsmdelvalle
Demetrio II, Nicator.jpg
12-02 - Demetrio II, Nicator (1er.Reino 145 - 139 A.C.)56 viewsDemetrio II Nicátor de la dinastía Seléucida, fue rey de Siria en dos períodos: 146 - 139 A.C. y 129 - 126 A.C. Huyó a Creta tras la derrota y muerte de su padre, Demetrio I Sóter, pero regresó después, proclamándose rey. Fue puesto en fuga casi inmediatamente por el general Diodoto, que primero proclamó rey a un hijo de Alejandro Balas, Antíoco VI Dioniso, y luego a sí mismo con el nombre de Trifón. Demetrio marchó en guerra contra el rey de Partia, Mitrídates I, siendo derrotado y capturado en 139 A.C.
En 129 fue puesto en libertad, con la esperanza de provocar una guerra entre él y su hermano Antíoco VII Evergetes. Sin embargo, Antíoco murió antes de que estallara el conflicto, con lo que Demetrio II se proclamó rey de nuevo. Poco después fue derrotado y muerto por el rey de Egipto Ptolomeo VIII, que sostenía al usupador Alejandro Zabinas. Le sucedió su hijo Seleuco V Filométor, bajo la regencia de su viuda Cleopatra Tea. (Wikipedia)

AE 18 x 19 mm 4.9 gr.

Anv: Busto con diadema de Demetrio II viendo a derecha. Grafila de puntos.
Rev: "BAΣIΛEΩΣ ΔHMHTPIOY – TYPIΩN (por Tiro)" - Popa de Galera (Simboliza el poderío naval de Tiro Fenicia bajo los Seléucidas).

Acuñación: 145/4 A.C.
Ceca: Seleucia en Tiro - Fenicia

Referencias: Houghton #753 – SNG Spaer #1722 - B.M.C. Vol.4 (Seleucid Kings of Syria) #20-22 Pag.60 - Sear GCTV Vol.2 #7070 Pag.661 - SNG Israel #1708.
mdelvalle
nails.jpg
2 Copper Boat Nails112 viewsThese are nails found in a sunken ship from Caesarea, Israel. aarmale
Antíoco XII, Dionysos - Nike.jpg
23-06 - Antíoco XII, Dionysos Epiphanes Philopator Kaliniko (87/6 - 84 A.C.)27 viewsAntíoco XII Dioniso fue un rey de Siria de la dinastía seleúcida, hermano de Demetrio III, al que sucedió tras ser éste capturado por los partos. Fue el ultimo rey seleúcida en el sur de Siria, debido a la decadencia irremediable de los reinos helenísticos, debido a que había problemas en todas partes, sus hermanos estaban enzarzados en guerras fraticidas o habían sido derrotados por Tigranes el Grande y se habían convertido en poco más que una dinastía de reyezuelos macedonios sin ningún poder efectivo. Debido a todo ello y al afán de controlar las rutas comerciales, los árabes nabateos se atrevieron a atacar uno a uno a los debilitados reinos seleúcidas, por lo que Antíoco XII se vio obligado a reclutar un ejército de grecomacedonios y mercenarios sirios que marcharon con la esperanza de expulsar a los árabes y ampliar los acosados dominios seleúcidas. En consecuencia, se dirigió al combate contra los nabateos con un ejército mal pertrechado, como si se dirigiera a una escaramuza insignificante contra una tribu sin poder en la época de los grandes seleúcidas. Al tercer día de marcha los ejercitos se encontraron: los grecosirios agotados de Antíoco XII y los bien pertrechados y descansados árabes. Como era de esperar, los seleúcidas fueron contundentemente derrotados en la batalla subsiguiente. Antíoco XII cayó en la batalla y poco después los nabateos tomaron igualmente Damasco con lo cual el territorio quedó en poder árabe, del que ya no llegaría a salir jamás. La poblacion griega se diluyó totalmente entre los invasores, aunque hubo intentos de reconquistar Damasco por parte del sobrino de Antíoco, Filipo II Filorromano, hijo del hermano de Antíoco Filipo I Filadelfo; pero poco después Filipo II fue asesinado por orden de los romanos, lo que significó el fin definitivo de los seleúcidas y el inicio de la provincia romana de Siria.(Wikipedia)

AE 16 mm 4.6 gr.

Anv: Busto barbado y diademado de Antíoco viendo a derecha. Grafila de puntos.
Rev: "BAΣIΛEΩΣ ANTIOXOY EΠIΦANOYΣ ΦIΛOΠATOPOΣ KAΛΛINIKOY” ( de Rey / Antíoco / Dios Hacedor de manifiestos / Padre amante / Vencedor de finas batallas) - Nike (Victoria) avanzando a derecha, sosteniendo corona en mano derecha extendida y rama de palma en la izquierda.

Acuñación: 86 - 84 A.C.
Ceca: Damasco en Siria

Referencias: SNG Spaer (Israel) 2890 var – 2894 - Babelon E. Vol.1, pl.XXVIII, 14 - Sear GCTV Vol.2 #7201 Pag.675
mdelvalle
J29-25 Mil.jpg
25 mils Israel's first coin, 1949124 views25 mil coin of aluminum, 3.5grams, 30 mm, Mintage: 650,000 (total: open link & closed link mintage).

Obverse: Grapes as in Bar-Kochba revolt coinage.
Reverse: Wreath as in Hasmonean dynasty coinage.

Reference: Israel KM8

Added to collection: June 20, 2005
Daniel Friedman
233_P_Hadrian__Spijkerman_3.JPG
4100 ARABIA, Petra. Hadrian Tyche26 viewsReference.
RPC III, 4100; Spijkerman 3; SNG ANS 1360-3 var. (bust type)

Issue Petra metropolis

Obv. ΑΥΤΟΚΡΑΤΩΡ ΚΑΙСΑΡ ΤΡΑΙΑΝΟС ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟϹ СƐΒΑϹΤΟС
Laureate and draped bust of Hadrian (seen from rear), r.

Rev. ΠƐΤΡΑ ΜΗΤΡΟΠΟΛΙС
Turreted and veiled Tyche seated l. on rock, l., her r. hand extended, holding trophy in l.

13.35 gr
26 mm
6h

Note.
The Decapolis ("Ten Cities"; Greek: deka, ten; polis, city) was a group of ten cities on the eastern frontier of the Roman Empire in Jordan, Israel and Syria. The ten cities were not an official league or political unit, but they were grouped together because of their language, culture, location, and political status, with each possessing a certain degree of autonomy and self-rule. The Decapolis cities were centers of Greek and Roman culture in a region that was otherwise Semitic (Nabatean, Aramean, and Jewish). With the exception of Damascus, Hippos and Scythopolis, the "Region of the Decapolis" was located in modern-day Jordan.

Petra (GreekΠέτρα, Petra, meaning "stone";
okidoki
J31-Palestine.jpg
50 mils Palestine, 193947 views72% silver and 28% copper, 23.5 mm, 5.83 grams (90 grains), reeded (milled) edge, dated 1939, 3,000,000 minted.

Obverse: “50 Mils” in English, Hebrew and Arabic.
Reverse: “Palestine” in English, Hebrew and Arabic and “Israel” in Hebrew around, palm branch with date – 1939 – in English and Arabic numerals.

Reference: Israel KM 6

Added to collection: July 15, 2005
Daniel Friedman
Dagger_1.jpg
AE Dagger #0129 viewsCanaanite
early to mid 2nd Millennium BC
17cm (6.7”)

Ex- Shlomo Zeitsov Collection

Description:
This dagger blade is from the Shlomo Zeitsov collection. It was sold by the collector’s nephew, who reports that it was found in Israel. It is tang-less and has three rivet holes, of which only one remains fully encircled by bronze.
Robert L3
Seleucid_Alexander_I_SNG_1489~0.JPG
Alexander I, Balas, 152 - 145 BC29 viewsObv: No legend, diademed head of Alexander I facing right.

Rev: AΠAMEΩN on right, Zeus standing left holding Corinthian helmet (detail missing) and a scepter, ΓΞP in field before him, ΩA in monogram. Branch counterstamp.

Æ 21, Apameia mint, 150 - 145 BC

6.2 grams, 21.5 mm, 0°

SNG Israel 1489
SPQR Matt
hendin478.jpg
Alexander Jannaeus (Yehonatan), 103 - 76 B.C. Bronze prutah, Hendin 4788 viewsJudean Kingdom, Alexander Jannaeus (Yehonatan), 103 - 76 B.C. Bronze prutah, Hendin 478, overstruck on an earlier prutot, aF, Jerusalem mint, 1.92g, 14.6mm, 180o, obverse Hebrew inscription, Yonatan the High Priest and the Council of the Jews, within wreath; reverse, double cornucopia with pomegranate between horns. This type has been reattributed from Hyrcanus II to Alexander Jannaeus by Hendin and Shachar in 'The Identity of YNTN on Hasmonean Overstruck Coins and the Chronology of the Alexander Jannaeus Types,' Israel Numismatic Research 3, 2008: 87-94. It appears this type was overstruck on earlier coins of Alexander Jannaeus that had never been released from the mint. Ex FORVMPodiceps
Alexandre 4dr Akè.jpg
Alexander the Great - tetradrachm of Ake (St John of Acre, Israel) of 323-322 BC18 viewsHead of young Heracles right
AΛEΞANΔPOY , Zeus seated left holding eagle , in field -Io (phoenician letters) above IIII'' (date = 323-322 BC)

I did not clean it, it is as found.
Ginolerhino
Ant_IV_Zeus_k.jpg
Antiochos IV, 175-164 BC 13 viewsÆ16, 4.1g, 12h; Antioch mint.
Obv.: King's radiate head right.
Rev.: BAΣIΛEΩΣ ANTIOXOY; Zeus standing left, scepter in right hand; monogram in left field.
Reference: SNG Israel 1192 / 16-394-55
John Anthony
Seleucid_Antiochos_VI_GCV_7081.JPG
Antiochos VI, Dionysos, 145 - 142 BC 21 viewsObv: No legend, radiate head of Antiochos VI, wreathed in ivy, facing right.

Rev: BAΣIAEΩΣ / ANTIOXOY / (ΣEB) / EΠIΦANOYΣ / (ΔIONYΣOY), an elephant advancing left holding a torch in its trunk.

Serrated Æ 23, Antioch mint, c. 145 - 142 BC

7.6 grams, 23 mm, 0°

GCV II 7081, SNG Israel 1777
SPQR Matt
AntiochosVII H451.jpg
Antiochos VII AE15 Hendin 45157 viewsAe15, 15mm, 2.70g.

Obverse: BASILEWS ANTIOXOS EUERGETOI, Upside-down anchot.

Reverse: Lily in dotted circle.

BPR (131-130 BC)

Hendin 451.

Despite being struck in Antiochos' name, this is dated to the time when Hyrcanus I had actually gained control of Jerusalem, where they seem to have been struck. There is thus a good case for the claim that they were minted by Hyrcanus, and in a very real sense, constitute the first clearly 'Jewish' coins, since they inaugurate the tradition of coins without images. The earlier Yehud coins are probably better seen as 'Israelite' rather than 'Jewish'; they use images, and it's uncertain how far the term 'Judaioi' was in use at the time, or to whom it applied.
Robert_Brenchley
Antiochus_XII.jpg
Antiochos XII 87-84 BC21 viewsAntiochus XII 87–86/5 BC, Damascus mint Ae 22mm, Weight 7.1g. Obv: Beardless diademed bust of Antiochus XII right. Rev: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΥ ΕΠΙΦΑΝΟΥΣ ΦΙΛΟΠΑΤΟΡΟΣ ΚΑΛΛΙΝΙΚΟΥ – Tyche standing left with palm branch in right hand and cornucopia in left, dotted border. Reference: SC 2, 2476; SNG Israel I, Nos. 2900–2902. SPAER 2897

Antiochus XII Dionysus (Epiphanes/Philopator/Callinicus), a ruler of the Greek Seleucid kingdom who reigned 87–84 BC, was the fifth son of Antiochus VIII Grypus and Tryphaena to take up the diadem. He succeeded his brother Demetrius III Eucaerus as separatist ruler of the southern parts of the last remaining Seleucid realms, basically Damascus and its surroundings.

Antiochus initially gained support from Ptolemaic forces and was the last Seleucid ruler of any military reputation, even if it was on a local scale. He made several raids into the territories of the Jewish Hasmonean kings, and tried to check the rise of the Nabataean Arabs. A battle against the latter turned out to be initially successful, until the young king was caught in a melee and killed by an Arab soldier. Upon his death the Syrian army fled and mostly perished in the desert. Soon after, the Nabateans conquered Damascus.

Antiochus' titles - apart from Dionysos - mean respectively (God) Manifest, Father-loving and Beautiful Victor. The last Seleucid kings often used several epithets on their coins.
ddwau
Antiochus_II~0.jpg
Antiochus II, Theos 261 - 246 B.C.21 viewsAntiochus II, Theos 261 - 246 B.C. Ae16.0~16.7mm. 4.28g. Sardes mint. Obv: Laureate head of Apollo r. with curly hair falling down back of neck. Rev: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ANTIOXOY, tripod-lebes; ΙΔΙ monogram to left, HXP monogram to right, in ex., anchor r. Ref: SNG Israel 351ff, Newell WSM 1410. SC 525•1c ddwau
coinC_(1).JPG
Antiochus III13 viewsAntiochus III, AE 6, Sardeis. Obv: Antiochus III facing right; Rev: BAΣIΛEΩΣ above elephant advancing left, anchor before.
SNG Israel 615 var.; Hoover HGC 9, 560 (R1).
Molinari
Selukid.jpg
Antiochus IV24 viewsFrom my uncleaned batch I got back in November. I love this little guy, though I am mildly embarrassed at how far into the cleaning process I got before I realized that was a head!

SC 1479. Struck circa 173/172 - 168 BC. Series 2 from the mint of Ake, known as Antioch in Ptolemais at the time, now known as Acre, Israel.
EvaJupiterSkies
Antiochus_IV~0.jpg
Antiochus IV Epiphanes 175 - 164 B.C.13 viewsAntiochus IV Epiphanes Ae 19, 5.28g. Akko, Galilee, Ake Ptolemais mint. Obv: Radiate head of Antiochos IV right. Rev: BAΣIΛEΩΣ ANTIOXOΥ, Nike in galloping biga left, monogram below horses. Ptolemais is today Acre, Israel. SNG Spaer 1141v, SC 1484.2, SNG Israel I, Nos. 1141–43. ddwau
Antiochus_IV~4.jpg
Antiochus IV Epiphanes 175 - 164 B.C.16 viewsAntiochus IV Epiphanes 175 - 164 B.C. Ae 18.0~20.0mm. 6.07g. Akko, Galilee, Ake Ptolemais mint. Obv: Radiate head of Antiochus IV right. Rev: BAΣIΛEΩΣ ANTIOXOΥ, Nike in galloping biga left. SNG Spaer 1141v, SC 1484.2, SNG Israel I, Nos. 1141–43, HGC 9, 669.1 commentsddwau
Antiochus_IV~3.jpg
Antiochus IV Epiphanes 175 - 164 B.C.12 viewsAntiochus IV Epiphanes 175 - 164 B.C. Ae 20.2~20.6mm. 5.35g. Akko, Galilee, Ake Ptolemais mint. Obv: Radiate head of Antiochus IV right. Rev: BAΣIΛEΩΣ ANTIOXOΥ, Nike in galloping biga left, monogram below horses. SNG Spaer 1141v, SC 1484.2, SNG Israel I, Nos. 1141–43, HGC 9, 669.ddwau
antiochus_IX_Nike.jpg
Antiochus IX, Nike, AE1915 viewsAntiochus IX 114-95 B.C. 19mm, 5.7g. Obverse: Winged bust of Eros right. Reverse: Nike advancing left, holding wreath. Sear GCV II 7173. SNG Israel 2743.Podiceps
coin653~0.jpg
Antiochus VII 139-128 BC16 viewsAntiochus VII 139-128 BC, bronze / ISIS Headdress
SNG Israel 1961 It is an Eros. Coin #653
cars100
Antiochos_VII.jpg
Antiochus VII Euergetes-Sidetes, 138 - 129 B.C.13 viewsSeleukid Kingdom, Antiochus VII Euergetes (Sidetes). 138-129 B.C. Ae 13.1~15.5mm. 2.94g. Antioch mint. Obv: Lion's head right. Rev: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΥ - EYEPΓETOY, club. SC 2068. SNG Israel 1938. Houghton 281-282.ddwau
Antiochus_VII~1.jpg
Antiochus VII Euergetes-Sidetes, 138 - 129 B.C.10 viewsSeleukid Kingdom, Antiochus VII Euergetes (Sidetes). 138-129 B.C. Ae 13.0~13.6mm. 2.93g. Antioch mint. Obv: Lion's head right. Rev: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΥ - EYEPΓETOY, club. SC 2068. SNG Israel 1938. Houghton 281-282.ddwau
Antiochus_VII_Sidetes.jpg
Antiochus VII Euergetes-Sidetes, 138 - 129 B.C.14 viewsAntiochus VII, 138-129 BC, Ae 11, weight 1.23g. Obv: Prow of galley ship's ram right. Rev: ΑΝΤΙΟΞΟΥ, Caps of Dioscouroi. SNG Israel 1973ff.

ddwau
Antiochus_VII~0.jpg
Antiochus VII Euergetes-Sidetes, 138 - 129 B.C.10 viewsSeleukid Kingdom, Antiochus VII Euergetes (Sidetes). 138-129 B.C. Ae 14.3~16.7mm. 3.31g. Antioch mint. Dated (177 SE = 136/135 B.C.) Obv: Lion's head right. Rev: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΥ - EYEPΓETOY, club, ∆ left, IOP below. SC 2068. SNG Israel 1938. Houghton 281-282.ddwau
Antiochus_XII~0.jpg
Antiochus XII 87/6–84/3 B.C.9 viewsAntiochus XII 87/6–84/3 B.C. Damascus mint 2nd issue Ae 20.7~21.1mm. 7.92g. Obv: Beardless diademed bust of Antiochus XII r., dotted border. Rev: ΒΑCΙΛΕΩC ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟV ΕΠΙΦΑΝΟVC ΦΙΛΟΠΑΤΟΡΟC ΚΑΛΛΙΝΙΚΟV – Tyche standing l. with palm branch in right hand and cornucopia in left, dotted border. Reference: SC 2, 2476; SNG Israel I, Nos. 2900–2902. SPAER 2897 ddwau
Scarab.jpg
Antiquity New Kingdom Scarab of Tuthmosis III53 viewsNew Kingdom. 18th Dynasty. Tuthmosis III (circa 1504-1450 BC). Steatite scarab (14x10mm). Base engraved with the cartouche of Tuthmosis III; on the left, a Maat father and the crown of Lower Egypt. Intact, once glazed, pierced for mounting. Ex David Hendin collection. CNG Auction 93.

Scarabs were used as lucky and magical charms in ancient Egypt. Scarabs, such as this one, with the names of pharos, were particularly powerful, and were produced as protective amulets for the public. Hendin’s collection of scarabs were collected by him in Israel in the 1970s and 1980s.
2 commentsLucas H
Antoninus_Pius_Mount_Argaeus.JPG
Antoninus Pius Mount Argaeus82 viewsAntoninus Pius, Caesarea, Cappadocia, 138 - 161 AD, 21mm, 7.7g, BMC p. 64, 160, Struck 150 - 151 AD
OBV: ANTWNEINOC CEBAC, laureate head right;
REV: KAICAPEΩN TΡAΓAIΩ, Mount Argaeus, with tall peak and conical top, ET KΔ in ex.
Caesarea in Cappadocia should not be confused with Caesarea Philippi or Caesarea Maritima, both in modern Israel
1 commentsRomanorvm
esbus_elagabal_Spijkerman3.jpg
Arabia, Esbus, Elagabal, Spijkerman 325 viewsElagabal, AD 218-222
AE 22, 9.49g, 22.34mm, 210°
mint of Esbus
obv. AVT M AVR ANTONINVS
Bust, draped and cuirassed, seen from behind, laureate, r.
rev. tetrastyle temple with central arch and side-wings with flat roofs; in the center Tyche as City-Goddes with short chiton and turreted, stg. half left, r. foot set on unknown object (head of bull?), holding in raised l. hand long sceptre and in extended r. hand unknown object (bust of emperor?)
l. and r. on the flat roofs A - V (Aurelia)
in ex. ECBOVC
ref. Spijkerman 3; Rosenberger IV, 3; Sofaer Collection 4; BMC Arabia p.29, 3
very rare, F+, dark green patina with sand incrustations which strengthen the contour
From Forum Ancient Coins, thanks!

Note: The obv. legend is a mix of Greek and Latin expressions: After AVT (Greek for Imperator) follows the name of the emperor in Latin.

Aurelia Esbus was situated near today's Amman/Jordan and is mentioned several times in the Bible under the name Heshbon. Originally it was a city of the Moabites which was conquered by the Israelites. During the Roman Empire it was known for its excellent springs.

Esbus has minted only under Elagabal. There are known only 6 types with no more than 3 obv. dies (Catalog of the BM).
1 commentsJochen
Ascalon Trajan.jpg
Ascalon (Ashkelon, Israel) - Trajan56 viewsCEBAC[TOC] , laureate bust of Trajan right.
ACLAΛΩ , female deity standing left holding standard and aphlaston (WTF ?) ; to the left, an altar ; to the right, a dove, and ΔIC : year 214 = 110-111 AD.
23 mm.

The dove is the sacred bird of the godess Derketo. The deity standing on this reverse may be a tyche, but may be Derketo too.
Ginolerhino
dagon.jpg
Ashdod; Lion/ Dagon27 viewsPhilistia; Gaza, Ashdod (in modern Israel), late 5th - early 4th century BC, Stater, 10,0 g, 21 mm, Lion walking right on ground / Fish god Dagon left with trident and wreath (Traité 1028, pl.CXXIII, 7, Phoenicia; BMC Phoenicia (uncertain), pl.XLV, 1; SNG Paris 421, Myriandros).2 commentsPodiceps
Athlit_Ram_Haifa.jpg
Athlit Bronze War Galley Ram70 viewsThe Athlit ram, found in 1980 off the coast of Israel near at Athlit Bay (just south of Haifa), is the one of a few surviving ancient war galley rams. Carbon 14 dating of timber remnants date it to between 530 BC and 270 BC. It was once fit on the prow of an ancient oared warship. This would be driven into the hull of an enemy ship in order to puncture it and thus sink, or at least disable, the ship. It is made of a single casting of bronze weighing 465kg and measures about 2.10m long. The ram is thus one of the largest bronze objects to survive from the ancient world and is currently on display in the National Maritime Museum, Haifa, Israel. Captured rams were once used to ornament Octavian's battle monument at Actium, Greece. Only the sockets that held them remain. The valuable bronze was melted long ago.

Sources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Naval_ram
http://www.learningsites.com/Athlit/AthlitRam_home.php

For other recovered galley rams see:
https://archaeologynewsnetwork.blogspot.com/2013/04/rare-bronze-rams-found-at-site-of-final.html
https://www.historytoday.com/ann-natanson/roman-naval-power-raising-ram
1 commentsJoe Sermarini
Bar_Kokhba_Revolt_(AD_132-135)__Æ_middle_bronze_(24mm,_12_52_gm,_11h).jpg
Bar Kokhba Revolt AE Middle Bronze21 viewsBar Kokhba Revolt (AD 132-135). AE middle bronze (24mm, 12.52 g, 11h). year 1 (AD 132/3). 'Simon, Prince of Israel', palm branch within wreath / 'Year One of the Redemption of Israel', wide lyre of five strings. EFOctopus Grabus
Lyre_snake_BCC_Lt42.jpg
BCC LT4232 viewsLead Tessera BCC LT42
Roman, 1st-4th cent CE?
Obv: Lyre or other stringed instrument.
Rev: Serpent to right. To left: "A"
Pb 14 x 13 x 2mm. Wt: 1.68gm.
cf. Anit Hamburger #66-71.
Hamburger suggests that this type, found 6
times in her corpus, was used in relation
to private marriage festivities. The stringed
instrument, perhaps a lyre, was used in the
procession to the house of the newlyweds.
"The single serpent might then be understood
as the house snake, Agathodaimon, bringer of
fortune to the house of the newlyweds".
Ref: Anit Hamburger, Surface-Finds From
Caesarea Maritima - Tesserae, In : Excavations
at Caesarea Maritima 1975, 1976, 1979 - Final
Report Lee Levine / Ehud Netzer. Israel -
Jerusalem : The Institute of Archaeology,
The Hebrew University of Jerusalem,
1986. - p.187-204
v-drome
sealID2.jpg
Byzantine Seal of John 7th Century18 viewsObverse: Cruciform monogram IWANNOV [Seal of] John four dots below
Reverse: Block monogram IWANNOV [Seal of] John between palms with cross above
Found in Israel
pogh_poor
Césarée.jpg
Caesarea (Caesarea, Israel) - ?19 views(description later)Ginolerhino
Césarée SévAlex.jpg
Caesarea (Caesarea, Israel) - Severus Alexander22 views(description later)Ginolerhino
Césarée Trébonien Galle.jpg
Caesarea (Caesarea, Israel) - Trebonianus Gallus24 views(description later)Ginolerhino
Caesarea Paneas Marc Aurèle.jpg
Caesarea Paneas (Baniyas, Israel) - Marcus Aurelius20 views[...] AN TωNE[INOC] , laureate bust right
[...] / KAICAP / ΠANIA / ΔOC in wreath
15 mm
Ginolerhino
1Costantino_II.jpg
Campgate: Costantino II, zecca di Heraclea II officina19 viewsConstantine II, AE4, Heraclea mint II officina
AE, 16 mm, 2.02 gr
D/ CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C; Bust type: LDC laureate, draped, cuirassed, bust right;
R/ PROVIDEN-TIAE CAESS; 2 Turrets, 8 Layers, Star above. SMHB; Left field: dot
RIC VII Heraclea 96, C3
Provenienza: collezione Berardengo, Roma Italia (17 dicembre 2012, numero catalogo 171); ex David Malloy collection (Goancient, Owen Sound Ontario Canada, 2012); ex collezione privata, Israele (prima del 2012, approvazione all'esportazione dell'Autorità per le antichità n° 8244).
paolo
Demetrius_I.jpg
Demetrios I Soter - AR drachm2 viewsAntioch
152-151 BC
diademed head right
cornucopia
BAΣIΛEΩΣ / ΔHMHTPIOY / ΣΩTHPOΣ
A / (ΠA) Π / AΞP
Houghton 159, Newell, SMA 120, SNG Israel (Spaer) 1279
3,96g
Johny SYSEL
DomitianLXF.jpg
Domitian Sebaste, Samaria Countermark LXF85 viewsDomitian Ae 25mm, 14.02 g. Sebaste, Samaria. O: Laureate head of Domitian IMP DOMITIANVS CAESAR; Countermark: LXF, of the Tenth Legion Fretensis in rectangular punch. R: Tyche standing to left resting foot on rock(?) holding spear and globe, [CEBAC]THNWN (of the people of Sebaste); in l. field, date: LΘΡ (year 109 = 81/2 AD). Host coin - RPC II 2226, with LXF - Hendin 1613a.

The Tenth Legion probably acquired its name, Fretensis, from the Fretum Siculum, the straits where the legion fought successfully against Sextus Pompey.

It is undoubtedly most famous for its part in the destruction of Jerusalem under General Titus. Starting in 66 CE, Roman armies began fighting their way from the northern parts of Israel, down to Jerusalem.

Titus advanced on Jerusalem near Passover 70 C.E., trapping the residents and pilgrims inside the city. His forces stripped the Judean countryside of trees to build a 4.5-mile-long wall of pointed stakes around the capital.

In that year X Fretensis, in conjunction with V Macedonica, XII Fulminata, and XV Apollinaris, began the five month siege of Jerusalem that would result in what Jewish Bible scholar Alfred Edersheim described as a, “tribulation to Israel unparalleled in the terrible past of its history, and unequalled even in its bloody future.”

What was the Tenth Legion doing in Sebaste, Samaria? According to some scholars it was perhaps to defend against the appearance of a pseudo-Nero, who had garnered the support of the Parthians.
1 commentsNemonater
EB0089b_scaled.JPG
EB0089 Herakles / Zeus14 viewsKingdom of Macedon, Alexander III, AR tetradrachm. Posthumous issue, year 26 = 187-188 BC.
Obverse: Head of Herakles right in lionskin headdress.
Reverse: AΛEΞANΔΡOY, Zeus seated left, holding eagle and sceptre, right leg drawn back. AΣ over date K :Csquare: in left field, rectangular Seleukid countermark of anchor to right.
References: SNG Israel 1235, Price 2901.
Diameter: 32mm, Weight: 16.55g.
1 commentsEB
EB0103b_scaled.JPG
EB0103 Demetrios I / Cornucopiae1 viewsDemetrios I Soter, 162-150 BC, Antioch mint, SELEUKID KINGDOM, AR drachm,
Obverse: Diademed head right; fillet border.
Reverse: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ – ΔΗΜΗΤΡΙΟΥ ΣΩΤΗΡΟΣ, Cornucopiae; in exergue, control mark [] and ΑΞΡ.
References: BMC 36; Newell, SMA 120; SNG Israel (Spaer) 1279.
Diameter: 17mm, Weight: 4.107g.
EB
EB0224_1b_scaled.JPG
EB0224.1 Horse / Elephant3 viewsDemetrios I, SELEUKID KINGDOM, AE 17 serrate, 162-150 BC.
Obverse: Head of Horse left.
Reverse: [BAΣIΛEΩΣ ΔHMHTΡEY], Head of Elephant.
References: SNG Israel 1302; Sear 7028.
Diameter: 17mm, Weight: 4.165g.
EB
Z2207LG.jpg
Elagabalus from Panias61 viewsElagabalus --AE25, Caesaria Panias. R: Pan standing with three goats, all sharing a common head. cf. Meshorer, Ya'akov, Coins of Caesarea Panias, in Israel Numismatic Journal 8, 1984-85, page 57 no. 59 (Julia Soaemias). Thanks to David Hendin and Pat Lawrence for assistance on attribution!featherz
cnmag.jpg
Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus 107 viewsCN MAG

Lead sling shot reportedly from the battle of Munda.

Found in Estepa, Spain
74.19g

49x28mm


The Battle of Munda took place on March 17, 45 BC in the plains of Munda, which is in modern southern Spain. This was the last great battle of Julius Caesar's civil war against the republican armies. After this victory, and the deaths of Titus Labienus and Gnaeus Pompeius (Pompey's oldest son), Caesar was free to return to Rome and govern as dictator. Tens of thousands of Romans died at Munda. About one month after defeat, Gnaeus was captured and executed. His brother Sextus survived to initiate another rebellion, on Sicily, where he was finally defeated by Marcus Agrippa and executed in Asia in 35 BC by Mark Antony, ten years after Munda.

Eitan Hirsch, a ballistics expert with the Israeli Defense Forces calculated that an expert slinger could hit a target from 35 meters away. According to his calculations a projectile could be hurled at a velocity of 34 meters per second. Equivalent to a modern day handgun.
4 commentsJay GT4
hacksilber.jpg
Hacksilber13 viewsHacksilber cut fragment, cf. Gitler Hacksilber 18 (Samaria, late 4th c. B.C.); Meshorer-Qedar 1991 pl. 41, 235 (same); Ingot Hoard pl. 3, 22 (Egypt), F, chisel cut on two sides from a small disk (dump), weight 2.523 grams, maximum diameter 17.5 mm, c. 6th - 4th Century (or earlier) B.C.

Similar cut fragments from disc ingots are found across the Levant, Holy Land, and the entire Mediterranean. Reputedly this piece was found in Israel. An old typed dealer or collector tag, hand marked "1998" in pen, notes:

"Israelite, AR cut fragment of an ingot, 9th to 6th century BCE, irregular form, showing two chisel cuts at edge. Porous. Cf. Meshorer, Samaria for a similar hoard. 100. Found in a recent hoard of similar pieces.“

ex. FORVM Ancient Coins (description & photo)
cmcdon0923
Hacksilber.jpg
Hacksilber Fragment, Earliest Coinage Period, Holy Land94 viewsHacksilber Ingot, c. 8-6 centuries BC, Israel. 21 x 14 x 5 mm, 8.4 grams. Cut in antiquity from a larger piece. Possibly an overweight Pym or underweight Nezef?

Similar ingots were found at Ein Gedi, Israel in a terra cotta cooking pot, hidden in a building destroyed near the end of Iron Age II, early 6th century BC (Avi-Yonah Encylcopedia of the Holy Land, volume 2, p. 374.)

The basic weight in use was the shekel, weighing 11.4 g on average. Other weight groups include, but are not limited to, the following:

(1) Beqa, a half shekel (Ex. 38:26), 5.7 g. (2) Nezef, averaging 9.12 g. The Judaean equivalent to an Egyptian qedet. (3) Pym, 7.6 g. (1 Samuel 13:21) The Judaean equivalent to the Phoenician shekel.

The weight of this ingot is identical to the Mesopotamian shekel. During the 9th to 6th centuries BCE in the Assyrian and Babylonian empires, the common form of expressing prices was in quantities equivalent to one shekel (8.4 g) of silver.

In ancient times, livestock were often used in barter. Indicative of this is the fact that the Latin word for money (pecunia) is drawn from pecus, meaning “cattle.” However, livestock (Ge 47:17) and foodstuffs (1Ki 5:10, 11) were obviously not a convenient medium of exchange.

Instead, pieces of precious metals began to be used, the weight being checked at the time the transaction was made.

Ge 23:16 "Abraham weighed out to E′phron the amount of silver that he had spoken in the hearing of the sons of Heth, four hundred silver shekels current with the merchants."; Jer 32:10 "Then I wrote in a deed and affixed the seal and took witnesses as I went weighing the money in the scales."

The usual Hebrew term translated as “money,” keseph, literally means “silver.” (Ge 17:12) There was no coined money in Israel during the First Temple Period (1006-586 BCE). Rather, it consisted of cut pieces of silver and gold, or molded for convenience into bars, rings, bracelets, having a specific weight. - Ge 24:22

At Judges 5:19, bâtsa‛ keseph, which is commonly rendered as, “No gain of silver did they take,” literally means to break off or cut off silver.
Nemonater
JCT_Home_for_Incurable_Invalids.JPG
Home for Incurable Invalids (Jerusalem, Israel)73 viewsAE token (formerly mounted on a bail), 19 mm., undated.

Obv: • HOME FOR INCURABLE INVALIDS • and IN JERUSALEM, along rim, FOR / GOOD LUCK / AND / HAPPINESS in four rows in center, above laurel leaves.

Rev: חי [Chai = life; numerically 18, in which number charitable donations are typically made in multiples] in center, laurel leaves along rim.

Ref: None known.

Note: Nothing is known about this institution.
Stkp
JCT_Home_of_Old_Israel.JPG
Home of Old Israel (New York, New York)140 viewsAE token, 32.5 mm., undated (but probably minted in 1928).

Obv: תשליכני לצת זקנה אל [Do not cast us off in our old age. (Psalm 71:9)] and 204 HENRY ST., N.Y.C. along toothed rim, TO PITY/IS HUMAN/TO HELP/IS/GODLIKE/HOME OF/OLD ISRAEL, between busts of woman and bearded man.

Rev: HELP US BUILD OUR NEW HOME and 301-2-3 EAST BWAY., N.Y.C. along toothed rim with rosettes between, CONTRIBUTION.ONE DOLLAR, beneath building.

Ref: Meshorer, Coins Reveal 146; Randolph, Marc A. “Jewish Homes for the Aged Tokens,” The Shekel, XXXVI No. 3 (May-June 2003) 14-19, Figure 7.

Note: Founded in 1922 by real estate developer Louis Singer as a privately-endowed non-sectarian institution providing free housing, meals, activities and care of the aged, the Home moved from Henry Street to 70 Jefferson Street on March 31, 1929. It relocated to Far Rockaway, Queens in 1965. In the early 1970s the Home merged into the Jewish Association for Services for the Aged.

Note: In 1922, the Rabbi Isaac Elchanan Theological Seminary (the rabbinical seminary of Yeshiva University) was located at 301-303 East Broadway, and only moved to 186th Street and Amsterdam Avenue in 1928/1929. The Home must not have also occupied the East Broadway address, therefore, until 1928/1929. Thus, the token can be tentatively dated to 1928 (while the Home was still located at Henry Street but after it expanded into East Broadway). It was probably issued in connection with the 1928 fund drive for the Jefferson Street property.
Stkp
JCT_Home_of_the_Sons___Daughters_Rec.JPG
Home of the Sons and Daughters of Israel (New York, New York)80 viewsAE token, 19 x 44.5 mm. (rectangular), 11.429 gr., undated (but probably issued ca. 1935).

Obv: HOME OF SONS/AND DAUGHTERS/OF ISRAEL above building 232 E. 12 ST./NEW YORK, N.Y., below building.

Rev: BUY A BRICK/$1.00/HELP US AND/GOD/WILL/HELP YOU between busts of woman and bearded man.

Ref: Meshorer, Coins Reveal 140; Friedenberg, Jewish Minters [?] 476; Leonard, Jr., Robert D. “Home of the Sons and Daughters of Israel: Its History and Contribution Tokens.” The Shekel, XXXVIII No. 6 (Nov. to Dec. 2005). pp. 14-23; Randolph, Marc A. “Jewish Homes for the Aged Tokens,” The Shekel, XXXVI No. 3 (May-June 2003) 14-19, Figure 6; ANS Database 2000.1.261.

Note: Organized in 1909 and incorporated in 1912, the Home acquired 230 East Tenth Street in December 1914. The adjacent 232 East Tenth Street was acquired by April 1915, and in May 1919 plans for a new building, encompassing both addresses, were approved. On June 21, 1925 the Home expanded into yet a third adjacent building on East Tenth Street. On December 22, 1935, it relocated to a larger building at 232-38 East Twelfth Street, where it remained in operation until the mid-1960s.

Note: This token was issued after the acquisition of the East Twelfth Street building, in or about 1935.
Stkp
JCT_Home_of_the_Sons___Daughters_C.JPG
Home of the Sons and Daughters of Israel (New York, New York)146 viewsAE token, 32.7 mm., 10.639 gr., undated (but probably issued in 1923 or 1928).

Obv: THE GREAT DRIVE FOR A HOME FOR THE AGED and 232 E. 10 ST., along toothed rim, HELP US/BUILD above building and HOME OF THE/SONS AND DAUGHTERS/OF ISRAEL below building.

Rev: CONTRIBUTION and ONE DOLLAR along toothed rim, HELP US/AND/GOD/WILL/HELP YOU between busts of woman and bearded man.

Ref: Meshorer, Coins Reveal 147; Kenny, So-Called Dollars 229; Leonard, Jr., Robert D. “Home of the Sons and Daughters of Israel: Its History and Contribution Tokens.” The Shekel, XXXVIII No. 6 (Nov. to Dec. 2005). pp. 14-23 (this token is depicted as Obverse C); Randolph, Marc A. “Jewish Homes for the Aged Tokens,” The Shekel, XXXVI No. 3 (May-June 2003) 14-19, Figure 5; ANS Database 2000.1.511.

Note: Organized in 1909 and incorporated in 1912, the Home acquired 230 East Tenth Street in December 1914. The adjacent 232 East Tenth Street was acquired by April 1915, and in May 1919 plans for a new building, encompassing both addresses, were approved. On June 21, 1925 the Home expanded into yet a third adjacent building on East Tenth Street. On December 22, 1935, it relocated to a larger building at 232-38 East Twelfth Street, where it remained in operation until the mid-1960s.

Note: There was a $400,000 fund drive in 1923 and a $100,000 fund drive in 1928, and this token could have been issued in connection with either of those events.

Note: Leonard noted that these tokens were made in such large numbers that three obverse dies were required (the designation of obverse and reverse on these is arbitrary, and I refer to the side which Leonard termed the obverse as the reverse). The differences noted by Leonard pertain to the distance between the rim and the words CONTRIBUTION and ONE DOLLAR, the relief of the woman, especially at the shoulder, and the man’s bust. But there are also others. This token is Leonard Obverse C (described by Leonard as CONTRIBUTION/ONE DOLLAR far from rim, woman’s shoulder in low relief, man’s bust retouched).

ex Robert J. Leonard, Jr. collection.
Stkp
JCT_Home_of_the_Sons___Daughters_B.JPG
Home of the Sons and Daughters of Israel (New York, New York)90 viewsAE token, 32.7 mm., 10.639 gr., undated (but probably issued in 1923 or 1928).

Obv: THE GREAT DRIVE FOR A HOME FOR THE AGED and 232 E. 10 ST., along toothed rim, HELP US/BUILD above building and HOME OF THE/SONS AND DAUGHTERS/OF ISRAEL below building.

Rev: CONTRIBUTION and ONE DOLLAR along toothed rim, HELP US/AND/GOD/WILL/HELP YOU between busts of woman and bearded man.

Ref: Meshorer, Coins Reveal 147; Kenny, So-Called Dollars 229; Leonard, Jr., Robert D. “Home of the Sons and Daughters of Israel: Its History and Contribution Tokens.” The Shekel, XXXVIII No. 6 (Nov. to Dec. 2005). pp. 14-23 (this token is depicted as Obverse B); Randolph, Marc A. “Jewish Homes for the Aged Tokens,” The Shekel, XXXVI No. 3 (May-June 2003) 14-19, Figure 5; ANS Database 2000.1.511.

Note: Organized in 1909 and incorporated in 1912, the Home acquired 230 East Tenth Street in December 1914. The adjacent 232 East Tenth Street was acquired by April 1915, and in May 1919 plans for a new building, encompassing both addresses, were approved. On June 21, 1925 the Home expanded into yet a third adjacent building on East Tenth Street. On December 22, 1935, it relocated to a larger building at 232-38 East Twelfth Street, where it remained in operation until the mid-1960s.

Note: There was a $400,000 fund drive in 1923 and a $100,000 fund drive in 1928, and this token could have been issued in connection with either of those events.

Note: Leonard noted that these tokens were made in such large numbers that three obverse dies were required (the designation of obverse and reverse on these is arbitrary, and I refer to the side which Leonard termed the obverse as the reverse). The differences noted by Leonard pertain to the distance between the rim and the words CONTRIBUTION and ONE DOLLAR, the relief of the woman, especially at the shoulder, and the man’s bust. But there are also others. This token is Leonard Obverse B (described by Leonard as CONTRIBUTION/ONE DOLLAR near rim, woman’s shoulder in low relief).

ex Robert J. Leonard, Jr. collection.
Stkp
JCT_Home_of_the_Sons___Daughters_A.JPG
Home of the Sons and Daughters of Israel (New York, New York)84 viewsAE token, 32.7 mm., 10.639 gr., undated (but probably issued in 1923 or 1928).

Obv: THE GREAT DRIVE FOR A HOME FOR THE AGED and 232 E. 10 ST., along toothed rim, HELP US/BUILD above building and HOME OF THE/SONS AND DAUGHTERS/OF ISRAEL below building.

Rev: CONTRIBUTION and ONE DOLLAR along toothed rim, HELP US/AND/GOD/WILL/HELP YOU between busts of woman and bearded man.

Ref: Meshorer, Coins Reveal 147; Kenny, So-Called Dollars 229; Leonard, Jr., Robert D. “Home of the Sons and Daughters of Israel: Its History and Contribution Tokens.” The Shekel, XXXVIII No. 6 (Nov. to Dec. 2005). pp. 14-23 (this token is depicted as Obverse A); Randolph, Marc A. “Jewish Homes for the Aged Tokens,” The Shekel, XXXVI No. 3 (May-June 2003) 14-19, Figure 5; ANS Database 2000.1.511.

Note: Organized in 1909 and incorporated in 1912, the Home acquired 230 East Tenth Street in December 1914. The adjacent 232 East Tenth Street was acquired by April 1915, and in May 1919 plans for a new building, encompassing both addresses, were approved. On June 21, 1925 the Home expanded into yet a third adjacent building on East Tenth Street. On December 22, 1935, it relocated to a larger building at 232-38 East Twelfth Street, where it remained in operation until the mid-1960s.

Note: There was a $400,000 fund drive in 1923 and a $100,000 fund drive in 1928, and this token could have been issued in connection with either of those events.

Note: Leonard noted that these tokens were made in such large numbers that three obverse dies were required (the designation of obverse and reverse on these is arbitrary, and I refer to the side which Leonard termed the obverse as the reverse). The differences noted by Leonard pertain to the distance between the rim and the words CONTRIBUTION and ONE DOLLAR, the relief of the woman, especially at the shoulder, and the man’s bust. But there are also others. This token is Leonard Obverse A (described by Leonard as CONTRIBUTION/ONE DOLLAR far from rim, woman in high relief).

ex Robert J. Leonard, Jr. collection.
Stkp
Israel-b6_50_Lira.jpg
Israel31 views50 Lira (1968) Wor:P-36b
Weizmann/knesset
Daniel F
Israel-b5_50_Lira.jpg
Israel25 views50 Lira (1960) Wor:P-33e
settlers/menorah
Daniel F
Israel-b3_5_Lira.jpg
Israel27 views5 Lira (1973) Wor:P-38
Szold/Lion gate
Daniel F
Israel-b_Ten_Lira.jpg
Israel14 views10 Lira (1968) Wor:P-35bDaniel F
Israel-c_10_Shekel.jpg
Israel19 views10 Shekel (1980) Wor:P-45Daniel F
Israel-c_50_Shekel.jpg
Israel18 views50 Shekel (1978) Wor:P-46aDaniel F
Israel-c_Hundred_Shekel.jpg
Israel16 views100 Shekel (1979) Wor:P-47aDaniel F
Israel-a_Prutah.jpg
Israel27 views500 Pruta - (1955) Wor:P-24a1 commentsDaniel F
Israel-b_Half_Lira.jpg
Israel16 views1/2 Lira (1958) Wor:P-29Daniel F
Israel-b_Lira.jpg
Israel12 viewsLira (1958) Wor:P-30cDaniel F
Israel-d_Five_New_Shekel.jpg
Israel14 views5 New Shekel (1987) Wor:P-52bDaniel F
Israel-d_Ten_New_Shekel.jpg
Israel17 views10 New Shekel (1992) Wor:P-53cDaniel F
Israel-b7_100_Lira.jpg
Israel35 views100 Lira (1968) Wor:P-37d
Herzl/menorah
Daniel F
J30-Prutah.jpg
Israel - 1 pruta with “pearl” 1949104 viewsIsrael - 1 pruta with “pearl” 1949 (uncirculated), 21mm. 1.3gm.

Reference: Israel KM9

Added to collection: June 20, 2005
1 commentsDaniel Friedman
20090802_IMG_0614.JPG
Israel - Bar'am Synagogue345 viewsThis is one of the oldest synagogues in all of Israel.aarmale
Israel1.jpg
Israel - British Mandate (Palestine) (1927-1947)103 viewsKm1 - 1 mil - 1943
Km2 - 2 Mils - 1927
Km3 - 5 Mils - 1927
Km3a - 5 Mils - 1942
Km4 - 10 Mils - 1935
Km4a - 10 Mils - 1943
Km5 - 20 Mils - 1927
Km6 - 50 Mils - 1933
Km7 - 100 Mils - 1927
Daniel F
Israel2.jpg
Israel - Monetary Reform (1949)107 viewsKm8 - 25 Mils - 1949
Km9 - 1 Prutah w/ pearl (unc.) - 1949
Km11 - 10 Prutah w/ pearl - 1949
Km17 - 10 prutot - 1952
Km20 - 10 prutot - 1957
Km13.1 - 50 prutot - 1949
Km14 - 100 prutot - 1949
Daniel F
Israel3.jpg
Israel - Monetary Reform (1958 - 1980)96 viewsKm24.1 - 1 Agorah - 1960
Km25 - 5 Agorot - 1972
Km25b - 5 Agorot - 1976
Km26 - 10 Agorot - 1960
Km26b - 10 Agorot - 1978
Km27 - 25 Agorot - 1960
Km36.1 - 1/2 Lirah - 1965
Km47.1 - 1 Lirah - 1975
Daniel F
Israel4.jpg
Israel - Monetary Reform (February 24, 1980 - 1985)89 viewsKm106 - 1 New Agorah - 1980
Km107 - 5 New Agorot - 1980
Km108 - 10 New Agorot - 1980
Km109 - 1/2 Sheqel - 1980
Km111 - 1 Sheqel - 1983
Km118 - 5 Sheqalim - 1982
Km119 - 10 Sheqalim - 1982
Km143 - 100 Sheqalim (Menorah) - 1984
Daniel F
Israel5.jpg
Israel - Monetary Reform (September 4, 1985)108 viewsKm156 - 1 Agorah - 1986
Km157 - 5 Agorot - 2006
Km158 - 10 Agorot - 2006
Km174 - 1/2 New Sheqel (Hanukkah) - 1991
Km160a - 1 new Sheqel - 2003o
Km207 - 5 new Sheqalim - 1990
Km237 - 5 new Sheqalim (Chaim Weizmann) - 1993
Km270 - 10 New Sheqalim - 1995
Km273 - 10 New Sheqalim - 1995 (Golda Meir)
Daniel F
Ancient_ruins_of_Beit_She__an.JPG
Israel, Beth Shean, Ancient Ruins9 viewsBeit She'an, better known in English as Beth Shean, is a city in the Northern District of Israel. It has played an important role in history due to its geographical location at the junction of the Jordan River Valley and the Jezreel Valley. In the Biblical account of the battle of the Israelites against the Philistines on Mount Gilboa, the bodies of King Saul and three of his sons were hung on the walls of Beit She'an (1 Samuel 31:10-12). In Hellenistic and Roman times, the city was named Scythopolis and was the leading city of the Decapolis, a league of pagan cities. The ancient city ruins are now protected within the Beit She'an National Park. Joe Sermarini
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Israel, Beth Shean, The Roman Theater12 viewsBeit She'an, better known in English as Beth Shean, is a city in the Northern District of Israel. It has played an important role in history due to its geographical location at the junction of the Jordan River Valley and the Jezreel Valley. In the Biblical account of the battle of the Israelites against the Philistines on Mount Gilboa, the bodies of King Saul and three of his sons were hung on the walls of Beit She'an (1 Samuel 31:10-12). In Hellenistic and Roman times, the city was named Scythopolis and was the leading city of the Decapolis, a league of pagan cities. The ancient city ruins are now protected within the Beit She'an National Park. Joe Sermarini
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Israel, Caesarea915 viewsThe ancient Roman port of Caesarea Maritima in Judaea (now Israel). This port was built by Herod the Great in the 1st century BCE. The view is of a portion of the aquaduct that brought water from the Carmel, just south of Haifa.2 commentsDaniel Friedman
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Israel, Caesarea Maritima 240 viewsThe view north from Herod's Palace, looking over the hippodrome to the ancient port area beyond the distant headland.1 commentsLloyd
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Israel, Caesarea Maritima - Amphitheatre322 views‘Amphitheatre’ is how Josephus describes this structure (Antiquities 15.341). It was designed to be suitable for races, athletics, and probably more violent entertainments. It measures about 50 x 290 m. Nearby in the city there is a more traditional semi-circular Roman amphitheatre. And a larger (90 x 450 m) hippodrome for chariot racing was built subsequently, probably at the time of Hadrian. Abu Galyon
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Israel, Caesarea Maritima - Herod's Hippodrome230 viewsLloyd
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Israel, Caesarea Maritima - Herod's Palace Poolside170 viewsLloyd
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Israel, Caesarea Maritima - Herod's Pool192 viewsLloyd
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Israel, Caesarea Maritima - Herod's Villa324 viewsAnother of Herod the Great's many residences.
This one is by the seaside.
Abu Galyon
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Israel, Caesarea Maritima - the less desirable view south from Herod's Palace227 viewsDog's in the palace pool and now this. How the mighty have fallen!Lloyd
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Israel, Caesarea Maritima - the sweet view from Herod's Palace169 viewsLloyd
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Israel, Caesearea Maritima Hippodrome - Tsunami Deposit185 viewsThe light coloured, upward fining, middle layer is a tsumai deposit preserved in the this overburden remnant in the excavated hippodrome at Caesarea Maritima.Lloyd
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Israel, Gezer - Bronze Age city walls580 viewsThese are the Bronze Age city walls of the Canaanite city of Gezer. It is near this town that the battle took place where Joshua is said to have held the sun and the moon still. The Canaanites held off the attacks by the tribe of Dan until the reign of Solomon.
posted by Zam
Zam
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Israel, Gezer - six chambered gate built by Solomon577 viewsThe Canaanite town was supposedly conquered by an Egyptian pharaoh and given to Solomon as a dowry for his daughter. Solomon then rebuilt and fortified the city, including this six chambered gate, dating from the 10th century. The chambers were to be packed with soldiers, so if enemies forced their way through the gate, they would be surrounded by soldiers on all sides.
posted by Zam
Zam
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Israel, Hamat Gadar, inscription of the Empress Eudocia's poem about the Hamat Gader baths12 viewsIsrael, Hamat Gadar, inscription of the Empress Eudocia's poem about the Hamat Gader baths, 5th Century AD

The Hamat Gader Poem inscribed on the baths at Hamat Gader was very short, and can be included here, as evidence of her hexameter writing style. The poem was inscribed so visitors could read it as they went into the pool.

I have seen many wonders in my life, countless,
But who, noble Clibanus, however many his mouths, could proclaim
Your might, when born a worthless mortal? But rather
It is right for you to be called a new fiery ocean,
Paean and parent, provider of sweet streams.
From you the thousandfold swell is born, one here, one there,
On this side boiling-hot, on that side in turn icy-cold and tepid.
Into fountains four-fold four you pour out your beauty.
Indian and Matrona, Repentius, holy Elijah,
Antoninus the Good, Dewy Galatia, and
Hygieia herself, warm baths both large and small,
Pearl, ancient Clibanus, Indian and other
Matrona, Strong, Nun, and the Patriarch's.
For those in pain your powerful might is always everlasting.
But I will sing of a god, renowned for wisdom
For the benefit of speaking mortals.

The inscription of the poem

The line "Of the Empress Eudocia" flanked by two crosses is set above the poem. This title line was added after the carving of the main inscription, making room for some doubt whether the poem was indeed authored by Eudocia. Clibanus is the name given to the source of the hot water. After praising his qualities and those of his many springs ("the thousandfold swell"), the poem enumerates "four-fold four", thus sixteen different parts of the bath complex, fourteen of which bear a name; these names include Hygieia (the pagan goddess of health), a whole range of pagan personal names, "holy Elijah" referring to the prophet, and two refer to Christians – a nun and a patriarch.

Source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Eudocia's_poem_Hamat_Gader.png
Greek Inscriptions from Ḥammat Gader: A Poem by the Empress Eudocia and Two Building Inscriptions Author(s): JUDITH GREEN and YORAM TSAFRIR
Source: Israel Exploration Journal, Vol. 32, No. 2/3 (1982), pp. 77-96
Joe Sermarini
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Israel, Hamat Gadar, Ruins of Synagogue10 viewsHamat Gader was already a well known health and recreation site in Roman times, mentioned in Strabo, Origen and Eunapius, as well as the Rabbinic literature. Construction of the bath complex began in the 2nd century by the 10th Roman Legion, which was garrisoned in nearby Gadara. The ancient Hebrew name means hot springs of (the ancient city of) Gadara. Gadar today is nearby modern Umm Qais. The Arabic name El-Hamma preserves this, and the name of the tel located near the site, Tel Bani, is a corruption of the Latin word meaning "baths." The empress Aelia Eudocia composed a poem praising the qualities of the multiple springs which was inscribed so that visitors could see it as they went into the pool. The mosaic pavement recovered from the 5th century Hamat Gader synagogue, is now installed in the entrance hall of the Supreme Court of Israel.


Source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Hamat-gader-archeol-site-synagoge.jpg
Joe Sermarini
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Israel, Hamat Gadar, Ruins of the Roman Baths17 viewsHamat Gader was already a well known health and recreation site in Roman times, mentioned in Strabo, Origen and Eunapius, as well as the Rabbinic literature. Construction of the bath complex began in the 2nd century by the 10th Roman Legion, which was garrisoned in nearby Gadara (modern Umm Qais). The ancient Hebrew name means hot springs of (the ancient city of) Gadara. The Arabic name El-Hamma preserves this, and the name of the tel located near the site, Tel Bani, is a corruption of the Latin word meaning "baths." The empress Aelia Eudocia composed a poem praising the qualities of the multiple springs which was inscribed so that visitors could see it as they went into the pool.

Source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Hamat-gader_25.jpg
Photo by Daniel Ventura
Joe Sermarini
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Israel, Herodion212 viewsThe Herodion (Har Hordos) was Herod the Great’s summer palace near Jerusalem and – according to Josephus – the place of his burial. (A possible royal sarcophagus was discovered in 2007 but the identification with Herod is not certain.) There are two distinct parts: the Upper Herodion, a fortress complex set within a mountain top, and the Lower Herodion, the palace proper with several ancillary buildings (bath house, stadium, etc.) In the photograph, the Upper Herodion hill dominates the background, while the foreground shows part of a substantial colonnaded pool (70m x 45m) with a gazebo-like structure set at its centre. The area now in use as a car park would have been a formal garden in Herod’s day. Abu Galyon
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Israel, Jericho - Herod's Palace182 viewsThe ruins at Tulul Abu el-Alaiq, site of Herod the Great’s winter retreat on the outskirts of Jericho. Jericho is over 300m below sea level and hence pleasantly warm in winter, even when it's freezing in Jerusalem. Around 35 BCE, Aristobulus, the last Hasmonaean high-priest and Herod’s brother-in-law, was murdered here on Herod’s orders, drowned in a fish pond. The palace and grounds extended across the Wadi Qilt (the seasonal river-bed in the foreground of the picture), which was spanned by a bridge. Abu Galyon
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Israel, Jerusalem - Kidron Valley (1)162 viewsThis curious structure is known in Arabic as Tantour Faroun (‘Pharaoh’s Hat’). In fact it’s a funerary monument (nefesh) marking the entrance to a substantial catacomb with eight burial chambers cut into the cliff behind. It probably dates from the reign of Herod the Great. In guidebooks it’s sometimes marked as the ‘Tomb of Absalom’, but the legend that this is the tomb of David’s rebellious son is a medieval fantasy. Abu Galyon
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Israel, Jerusalem - Kidron Valley (2)157 viewsAnother Kidron valley tomb complex (about 60m south of Tantour Faroun). Jewish pilgrims called this the ‘Tomb of Zechariah’, while the Christian pious associated it with their own early martyrs, notably St. James. In fact, an inscription shows that this was the burial place of the priestly Bene Hezir family, who get a passing mention in the Bible (1 Chronicles 24:15). The nefesh with a pyramidal top marks the entrance to a passage ascending into the cliff on the left. The actual burial chambers (four of them) lie in the area behind the Doric-columned façade. The complex dates from the later second-century BC. Abu Galyon
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Israel, Jerusalem - Western Wall and Dome of the Rock1747 viewsThe first century BCE western retaining wall of the Second Jewish Temple, directly in front of the 8th century Dome of the Rock. Friday evening at sunset (beginning of Shabbat).
posted by Zam
1 commentsZam
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Israel, Jerusalem Sep 201683 viewsSimon
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Israel, Jerusalem Sep 201678 viewsEast JerusalemSimon
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Israel, Jerusalem, Supreme Court Entrance Hall - Mosaic from Hamat Gader Synagogue 10 viewsA section of the mosaic pavement recovered from the ancient Hamat Gader synagogue, now installed in the entrance hall of the Supreme Court of Israel.

Hamat Gader was already a widely known health and recreation site in Roman times. It is mentioned in Strabo, Origen and Eunapius, as well as the Rabbinic literature. Construction of the bath complex began in the 2nd century by the 10th Roman Legion, which was garrisoned in nearby Gadara. The site includes a Roman theater, which was built in the 3rd century CE and contained 2,000 seats. A large synagogue was built in the 5th century CE. The empress Aelia Eudocia composed a poem praising the qualities of the multiple springs which was inscribed so that visitors could see it as they went into the pool.
Joe Sermarini
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Israel, Legionary Camp of X Fretensis at Masada123 viewsRemnants of one of several legionary camps of X Fretensis at Masada in Israel, just outside the circumvallation wall which can be seen at the bottom of the image.

Masada Roman Ruins by David Shankbone.

Licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0 via Wikimedia Commons - https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Masada_Roman_Ruins_by_David_Shankbone.jpg#/media/File:Masada_Roman_Ruins_by_David_Shankbone.jpg
Joe Sermarini
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Israel, Masada519 viewsThe ancient fortress in the Judaean desert built by Herod the Great in the first century BCE, it was the last stronghold of a small group of zealots against Rome in the year 73 CE. The view is from the top of the fortress, looing down on the remains of the ancient roman encampment.1 commentsDaniel Friedman
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Israel, Masada145 viewsAtop Masada, the Dead Sea and the shores of Jordan in the distant haze.Lloyd
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Israel, Masada - Looking Down the Roman Seige Ramp147 viewsIndustrious bunch those Romans!Lloyd
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Israel, Masada - pile of ancient catapult projectiles - Ouch!211 views1 commentsLloyd
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Israel, Masada - Remains of a Roman Seige Encampment203 viewsLloyd
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Israel, Masada - Roman Encampment and Seige Ramp164 viewsLooking down on the stone wall outlines of one of the Roman encampments (middle upper right) that surrounded the fortress of Masada (another of Herod's Palaces in its glory days). The Roman seige ramp is to the lower left.Lloyd
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Israel, Masada - The room in which lots were drawn198 viewsIn this space during archaeological excavations were found eleven ostroca bearing names in Aramaic script. One of eleven inscribed potsherds (ostraca) containing single names, bears in Aramaic script the name ben Ya’ir, undoubtedly Eleazar ben Ya’ir, leader of Masada’s defenders. The historian Josephus relates that when defense against the Romans seemed hopeless, the men at Masada cast lots to decide the order in which they and their families would commit suicide.

Based on the archaeological evidence it is likely that this was the space in which the lots were drawn and the fateful determinations made.
1 commentsLloyd
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Israel, Masada - Walls and Roman Seige Ramp in side view148 viewsLloyd
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Israel, Masada - Walls facing the Roman Seige Ramp123 viewsLloyd
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Israel, Megiddo / Jezreel Valley139 viewsA view of the Jezreel Valley in the distance looking out from atop Tel Megiddo. The Jezreel Valley will be the site of the final battle between the armies of God and Satan as prophesied in the Book of Revelation. This photo was taken in June 2012 during a two week trip my wife and I took to Israel and Jordan.
cmcdon0923
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Israel, Nazareth - Rolling Stone Tomb171 viewsA really well-preserved example of a Jewish rolling-stone tomb. This one is part of a small necropolis which was found underneath the Convent of the Sisters of Nazareth, only a stone’s throw away from the Basilica of the Annunciation. Abu Galyon
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Israel, Qumran - Cave 4184 viewsCave 4 was the nearest cave containing documents to the site at Qumran - it’s only about 500 metres away. Most visitors to Qumran take a picture like this one. But mostly they don’t realise that the highly visible cave entrance in their picture is modern, knocked into the side by looters. The ancient entrance to Cave 4 is on the top and well-hidden. Which is perhaps why Cave 4 was found by the local Bedouin, not by Western archaeologists, and why it wasn’t discovered until 1952, over five years after the original manuscript finds of 1946/7. Abu Galyon
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Israel, Qumran - Miqvah156 viewsThis is L48-49, a water storage feature. The low, plastered partitions on the steps make it likely that this was a miqvah (a ritual bath), rather than a cistern. The damage on the left side of the steps dates from the earthquake of 31 BCE. Abu Galyon
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Israel, Qumran - Refectory159 viewsThe ‘Refectory’ (L77) is the largest room at Qumran. A smaller connecting space (L86) nearby contained a huge cache of pottery plates, bowls, and cups. Hence, de Vaux argued that L77 was probably the community’s communal dining room. Abu Galyon
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Israel, Qumran - Scriptorium146 viewsL30. From the fill of this room (which came from a collapsed upper level) de Vaux recovered two inkwells and the remains of what appeared to be a long, narrow plastered table (about 480 cm x 40 cm). Another inkwell was found in an adjacent locus. He conjectured that L30 could have been the community’s ‘scriptorium’, a room for copying manuscripts. Abu Galyon
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Israel, Qumran - Tower191 viewsThe remains of the tower at Qumran. The tower is set in the middle of the north side and has a natural function as an observation or guard tower: north looks towards Jericho, and that would be the natural direction from which travellers would approach the settlement. There is no access to the tower at ground level; instead people would have entered higher up, after climbing a flight of stone steps fixed to the south-side exterior wall. Abu Galyon
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Israel, Scythopolis (Beit She'an)99 viewsScythopolis is the only one of the ten ‘Decapolis’ towns situated within the borders of modern Israel. The classical city was destroyed by an earthquake in 749 CE; its ruins are extensive and quite well-preserved. Prominent in the photo is the colonnaded Byzantine ‘Silvanus Street’ (the excavators named it after a local magistrate mentioned in an inscription as responsible for its renewal) which follows the route of the earlier Roman cardo maximus.

Sythopolis was built in the shadow of the earlier Canaanite city of Beit She’an, where (according to 1 Samuel 31) the Philistines, after their victory on Mount Gilboa, displayed the bodies of King Saul and his sons on the city walls. The vast mound of Tel Beit She’an is conspicuous in the background. Twenty settlement strata have been identified there, the earliest dating back to the Neolithic (5th millennium BCE). A section of the eastern Canaanite city walls has also been excavated and is visible in the photo.
Abu Galyon
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Israel, Scythopolis ampitheatre146 viewsA picture of the ampitheatre in Scythopolis, taken from the top of the even more ancient Beit She'an mound. Running in the foreground is the cardo. This was taken in June 2012 during a two week trip my wife and I took to Israel and Jordan.cmcdon0923
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Israel, Sepphoris - 'Mona Lisa' Mosaic214 viewsPart of a Roman mosaic, usually dated to the early 3rd-century CE, from the dining room floor of a mansion in the upper town at Sepphoris. When it was first excavated, the Israeli press named it 'the Mona Lisa of the Galilee'. Over-hype, maybe, but it is certainly attractive.Abu Galyon
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Israel, The Dome of the Rock on the Temple Mount in the Old City of Jerusalem171 viewsPhoto by Andrew Shiva.Joe Sermarini
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Israel, The Herodium147 viewsThe Herodium, 12 km south of Jerusalem, the site of one of Herod's residences and the location of his tomb. The buildings mid-slope to the left of centre are the site of the excavation of Herod's tomb.Lloyd
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Israel, The Herodium - Summit Interior View139 viewsLloyd
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Israel, The Herodium - Water Cistern137 viewsLloyd
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Israel, The Herodium Pool Complex140 viewsLloyd
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Israel, The Herodium Theatre155 viewsThe Herodium theatre immediately downslope of Herod's tomb. Sadly it was from this point that Ehud Netzer, the discoverer of Herod's tomb fell to his death in 2010, three years after his epic discovery.Lloyd
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Israel, Tzipporri - Tzipporri Mosaic194 viewsA mosaic found in Tzipporri, Israel.aarmale
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John Hyrcanus I / Antiochus VII. 104-76 BC. Prutah , S.E. 181= 132/131 BC. 13 viewsObv: Upside down anchor flanked by BAΣIΛEΩΣ ANTIOXOY EYEPΓETOY (of King Antiochus, benefactor), date along left side of anchor AΠP (181).
Rev: Lily.
15.4 MM AND 3.09 GRAMS.
References: Hendin 451. SNG Israel 2134.
This type probably inaugurated the Hasmonean mint in Jerusalem as the first Judean prutah, with the approval of Antiochus VII. The lily was a symbol of Jerusalem and its use in lieu of a portrait was apparently part of the Seleucid effort to appease the Jews, whose law stated: Thou shalt not make unto thee a graven image…
Canaan
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Judaea, Alexander Jannaeus, TJC N1131 viewsAlexander Jannaeus (Yehonatan), AD 103-76 BC
AE - Prutah, 15.06mm, 2.10g, 0°
Jerusalem, 95-76 BC
obv. Lily, on both sides Paleo-Hebrew legend:
ךלמה - ןתנוהי
= YHWNTN - H MLK
= Yehonatan Ha Malik
= Yehonatan the king
rev. [BASILEWS] ALEZADROV(sic!) (in Greek) around anchor
= King Alexander
ref. GBC5 1148; GBC4 467; AJC Aa3; TJC N1
VF, black-green patina, N of ALEZANDROV is missing

The lily was the symbol for the temple and the Jewish civilisation, but for a more spiritual idea referring to the redemption of Israel too: "I will be as the dew unto Israel; he shall blossom as the lily (Hosea 14:6) (Meshorer)
Jochen
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Judaea, Antonius Felix Procurator, under Claudius, (52-60 A.D.), AE-16(Prutah), Hedin 652, BRIT, Six branched palm tree,96 viewsJudaea, Antonius Felix Procurator, under Claudius, (52-60 A.D.), AE-16(Prutah), Hedin 652, BRIT, Six branched palm tree,
avers: NEPΩ KΛAV KAICP, Two crossed shields and spears.
reverse: BRIT, Six branched palm tree bearing two bunches of dates, L-IΔ, K-AI across the field.
exergue: L/IΔ//K/AI, diameter: 16,0mm, weight: 2,28g, axes: 0h,
mint: Judaea, date: Dated Year of Claudius (Year 14 = 54 A.D.) ref: Hedin 652,
Q-001
quadrans
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Judaea, Bar Kochba Revolt113 viewsBar Kochba bronze, 132-135 AD.
Obverse- Palm tree, 'Simon'.
Reverse- Vine leaf, 'year 2 of the freedom of Israel.'
Hendin-708, 24 mm, 8.4 g.
4 commentsb70
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Judaea, First Revolt Shekel, Year 2127 viewsJudaea, First Jewish War AR Shekel. Dated year 2 (AD 67/8)
O: Hebrew script read from right to left SKL ISRAL “Shekel of Israel”, the date Shin Bet, "Year Two" of the revolution, above Omer cup with beaded rim
R: Hebrew script YRUSLIM H KDOSA “Jerusalem the Holy” around sprig of three pomegranates.

This coin was minted during times of great upheaval in Judaea as well as the rest of the Roman empire.

As Jewish factions were fighting for control in Jerusalem, General Vespasian's armies invaded Galilee in 67 CE with 60,000 men as they began the effort to quell the rebellion started a year earlier. Vespasian captured the commander of Galilee, Josephus ben Matthias, in the little mountain town of Jotapata, which fell after a fierce siege of 47 days. It was the second bloodiest battle of the revolt, surpassed only by the sacking of Jerusalem, and the longest except for Jerusalem and Masada.

Driven from Galilee, Zealot rebels and thousands of refugees arrived in Judea, causing even greater political turmoil in Jerusalem.

Meanwhile, back in Rome in 68 CE, Nero commits suicide, plunging the Empire into a civil war. Galba, Otho and Vitellius would assume the purple till Vespasian, leaving the battle in Judaea to Titus, brought the matter to a conclusion in 69.
6 commentsNemonater
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Judaea, Johannes Hyrcanus II, TJC T10 var.21 viewsJohannes Hyrcanus II (Yonatan), king 67 BC, ethnarch 63-40 BC
AE - prutah, 2.27g, 14.54mm
Jerusalem
obv. Paleo-Hebrew legend in 4 lines within laurel wreath:
ינתן / הכהןה / גדלוחבר / היהמ
from r. to l.:
= YNTN / H KHN / GDL W (Ch)BR / H YHM(?)
= Yonatan Ha Kohen We Chaver Ha Yehudim
= Yonatan the Highpriest and Council of the Jews
rev. Double cornucopiae with pomegranate between horns; anchor undertype visible, at the border remains of the Greek legend: ALEXA
ref. Hendin 478; AJC Ia8 var.; TJC T10 var. (last 2 lines different)
VF
From Forum Ancient Coins, thanks!

This type is overstruck on type TJC N (legend over lily, cornucopiae over anchor)

This type has been reattributed from Hyrcanus II to Alexander Jannaeus by Hendin and Shachar in `The Identity of YNTN on Hasmonean Overstruck Coins and the Chronology of the Alexander Jannaeus Types,` Israel Numismatic Research 3, 2008: 87-94. It appears this type was overstruck on earlier coins of Alexander Jannaeus that had never been released from the mint. (FAC)
Jochen
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Judaea, Johannes Hyrcanus II, TJC T759 viewsJohn Hyrcanus II (Yonatan), king 67 BC, ethnarch 63-40 BC
AE - Prutah, 2.60g, 17mm
Jerusalem
obv. Paleo-Hebrew legend in 5 lines within laurel-wreath:
ינתן / ה כהן ה / גדל ו חב / ר הדי / מ
from r. to l.:
YNTN / H KHN H / GDL W (Ch)B / R HDY / M(?)
= Yonatan Ha Kohen Gadol We Chaver Yehudim
= Yonatan the High Priest and Council of the Jews
rev. Double cornucopiae, decorated with ribbons, pomegranate between horns, in dotted circle
ref. Hendin 478; AJC type I; TJC T7
VF

This coin clearly is an overstruck of Hendin 467. You can see ANDROV BAC around the circle on the rev.
This type has been reattributed from Hyrcanus II to Alexander Jannaeus by Hendin and Shachar in "The Identity of YNTN on Hasmonean Overstruck Coinas and the Chronology of the Alexander Jannaeus Types," Israel Numismatic Research 3, 2008: 87-94. It appears this type was overstruck on earlier coins of Alexander Jannaeus that had never been released from the mint. (FAC)
Jochen
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Juglet25 viewsEgypt, Pottery Juglet, 2nd Intermediate Period, 1786 - 1567 B.C.
Tell el-Yahudiyeh style juglet; smooth, with no stippling.
Black, wheel-made, tall neck, flare rim, wide shoulders, decreasing to small pedestal base, strap handle, 3 ½" tall, Intact.
Possibly Hyksos or Ancient Israelite in origin. This style juglet would have been a luxury item containing perfumed oil.
cf. ROM 46 2:23;
ex. FORVM
ex. Alex G. Malloy Collection
2 commentsDanny Jones
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LUCCA111 viewsLUCCA - Silver denier, Henry III-V (1039-1125), Roman Emperor, Civic issue from Lucca. H in the center, MPERATOR / LVCA arranged in the center, +ENRICVS. The deniers from Lucca were widely used during the first crusade and are often found in Israel and Lebanon. This specimen is exceptionally nice for these crude issues!dpaul7
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Masada Silver Token69 viewsThis is a silver Israeli token.

OBVERSE: MASADA SHALL NOT FALL AGAIN around שנית מצדה לא תיפול
REVERSE: Massada, above it reads בני חורן נשאר, benath the roman camp it reads WE SHALL REMAIN FREE MEN
aarmale
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Minima of Caesarea79 viewsCaesarea Maritima mint. AE 6 mm, 0.35 g. 2nd Century CE. Obverse: Bust (Hercules?) right. Reverse: Boar or wolf standing right. H. Hamburger "Minute Coins from Caesarea Maritima," (Atiqot vol. 1, 1954), #57. BCC m41.

This is one of the smallest coin types mentioned in Hamburger. Stunning black Caesarea-style patina. Coin much nicer in hand then in picture.

During the second century CE, a small unofficial mint in Caesarea, a city on the coast of the Mediterranean Sea in modern-day Israel, was established to mint large quantities of small denominations, perhaps because there was a lack of small denominations in the region. These "minimai" are usually very crude imitations of earlier official issues. H. Hamburger estimated that only 1 in 10 minimai have identifiable designs due the excessive wear that is usually found on these coins.

Ex. Coll: J. Berlin, Caesarea series.
1 commentsAarmale
IMGP3349Orod2combo.jpg
Orodes II., 57 to 38 BC16 viewsAR dr., 3,89gr, 19,8mm; Sellwood 45.19, Shore 229var., Sunrise - ;
mint: Susa; axis: 13h;
obv.: bare-headed, left, w/broad diadem, knot and 2 or 3 ribbons; medium-long hair in 4 waves, mustache, short beard in 3 rows of curls; multi-turn torque w/ single pellet finial; cuirass;
rev.: archer, right, on throne, w/bow in one hand, x above and monogram and dot below; 7-line legend: ΒΛCIΛΕΩC BΛCΙΛΕΩΝ ΛΡCΛKoV EVEPΓEToV ΔIKΛIoV EΠIΦΛNoVC ΦIΛEΛΛHN(o)C; almost uncirculated;

ex: M Cohen, Israel.
Schatz
KneelingKing.jpg
Persian Empire, Lydia, Darius I 1/6 Siglos46 viewsPERSIA, Achaemenid Empire. temp. Darios I to Xerxes I. Circa 505-480 BC. AR Sixth Siglos (7mm, 0.84 g).

O: Persian king or hero in kneeling-running stance right, drawing bow
R: Incuse punch.

Carradice type II; Winzer 1.8 (Darios I), this denomination is otherwise unpublished in refs; cf. Klein 756 (1/4 siglos); SNG Kayhan 1027 (1/3 siglos).

"Darius I the Great ruled the Persian Empire at its peak. He is mentioned in the Biblical books of Ezra, Nehemiah, Daniel, Haggai, and Zechariah. He continued to allow the Jewish people to return to Israel and provided money for the restoration of the Temple in Jerusalem, which was completed in his sixth year. Darius invaded Greece to subjugate it and to punish Athens and Eretria for aiding the Ionian Revolt. He subjugated Thrace and forced Macedon to become a client kingdom, but his campaign ended at Marathon, where he was famously defeated by a smaller Greek army." - Forvm
Nemonater
Silver_1_of_16_shekel_(Abd__astart,_Straton_I)_Phoenicia.jpg
Persian Empire, Sidon, Phoenicia, Ba'Alshillem II, c. 401 - 366 B.C.62 viewsSilver 1/16 shekel, Elayi 2004 851 ff.; Hoover 10 240; Betlyon 27 (Abd'astart, Straton I); BMC Phoenicia p 146, 36 (same); SNG Cop 197 ff. (same), gVF, well struck on a crowded flan, toned, 0.843g, 9.5mm, 0o, Phoenicia, Sidon mint, c. 371 - 370 B.C.; obverse : war galley left, Phoenician letter beth above; reverse : King of Persia (to left) standing right, slaying erect lion to right, Phoenician letter ayin between them.





Sidon, named for the "first-born" of Canaan, the grandson of Noah (Genesis 10:15, 19), is frequently referred to by the prophets (Isaiah 23:2, 4, 12; Jeremiah 25:22; 27:3; 47:4; Ezekiel 27:8; 28:21, 22; 32:30; Joel 3:4). The Sidonians long oppressed Israel (Judges 10:12) but Solomon entered into a matrimonial alliance with them, and thus their form of idolatrous worship found a place in the land of Israel (1 Kings 11:1, 33). Jesus visited the "coasts" of Tyre and Sidon (Matthew 15:21; Mark 7:24) where many came to hear him preach (Mark 3:8; Luke 6:17). After leaving Caesarea, Paul's ship put in at Sidon, before finally sailing for Rome (Acts 27:3, 4).

FORVM Ancient Coins / The Sam Mansourati Collection.
Sam
RPC1947b.jpg
RPC-1947-Vespasian74 viewsAR Tetradrachm, 12.40g
Antioch mint, 70-71 AD
Obv: AYTOKPAT KAIΣA OYEΣΠAΣIANOY; Head of Vespasian, laureate, r.
Rev: ETOYΣ Γ IEPOY; Eagle standing l., on club; in l. field, palm branch
RPC 1947 (7 spec.).

Many of the tetradrachms struck at Antioch, such as this example, have an 'Alexandrian' style about them. The dies to those coins with this peculiar style are thought to have been engraved in Alexandria and then struck at Antioch. Perhaps the demands of a region at war with thousands of legionaries to pay outstripped the capabilities of the Antioch mint, which could explain why some of the work was outsourced to another mint. These tetradrachms are found all throughout Israel in hoards and single finds, good evidence that they were indeed used to pay the troops during and after the Jewish war. This specimen dates to just after the siege of Jerusalem.

A hefty coin in hand with a crude but delightful portrait. Struck on a thick flan.
1 commentsDavid Atherton
nysa_scythopolis_gordianIII_Spijkerman59.jpg
Samaria, Nysa-Scythopolis, Gordian III, Spijkerman 5927 viewsGordian III, AD 238-244
AE 25, 1.2g
struck AD 240 (year 304)
obv. [AVT KM ANT - GORDIANOC CE]
Bust, draped, laureate, r.
rev. NYC - C - KYQ IER ACV
Dionysos, nude, chlamys waving behind, advancing r., head l., holding thyrsos transversely in raised r. hand, holding r. hand on head of a small figure, kneeling r.; panther behind him stg. l., head r.
in r. field palmbranch(?), beneath date D - T (year 304 of Pompejan era)
Spijkeman 59; SNG ANS 1054 var. (in r. field bunch of grapes); BMC 12
Very rare, about VF

Haim Gitler suggests that the depiction is referring to the celebration of the Anthesteria, which occurs in spring and where the 3 years old children got a small vine jar. This seems to have been an initiation rite by which the children were admitted by the urban community.

Nysa is todays Bet-Shean in Israel.
Jochen
Seleucia,_Seleukos_III__Keraunos,_(226-223_B_C_),_AE-16,_Head_of_Artemis_r_,_Apollo_seated_l_,_SC_922_1,_SNGIs_509,_Q-001,_1h,_15-16mm,_4,36g-s.jpg
Seleucia, Seleukid Kingdom, 05 Seleukos III. Keraunos, (226-223 B.C.), SC 922.1, AE-16, BAΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΣEΛΕYKOY, Apollo seated left, #1149 viewsSeleucia, Seleukid Kingdom, 05 Seleukos III. Keraunos, (226-223 B.C.), SC 922.1, AE-16, BAΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΣEΛΕYKOY, Apollo seated left, #1
avers: Bust of Artemis right, bow, and quiver over shoulder.
reverse: BAΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΣEΛΕYKOY, Apollo seated left on omphalos, holding the arrow and resting on a bow, CE over Λ to left.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 15,0-16,0mm, weight: 4,36g, axes: 1h,
mint: Antioch, Seleukid Kingdom, Seleukos III. Keraunos, date: 226-223 B.C., ref: Seleukid Coins 922.1, SNG Israel 509,
Q-001
"Seleukos or Seleucus III. Ceraunos or Keraunos (The Thunderer), King of the Seleukid Empire of Syria, 225-223 B.C."
quadrans
Seleucids,_Demetrios_I_,_(162-150_BC),_AE_16,_Horse_head,_Elephant_head,_BASILEOS-DHMHTPEY_SNG-Israel,_Sear-7028_Q-001_0h_16,0mm_4,04g-s.jpg
Seleucia, Seleukid Kingdom, 10 Demetrios I., (162-150 B.C.), Sear 7028, AE-16, BAΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΔHMHTPEY, Elephant's head right.175 viewsSeleucia, Seleukid Kingdom, 10 Demetrios I., (162-150 B.C.), Sear 7028, AE-16, BAΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΔHMHTPEY, Elephant's head right.
avers:- No legend, horse's head left.
revers:- BAΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΔHMHTPEY, Elephant's head right.
exerg: -/-//--, diameter: 16,0mm, weight: 4,04g, axes: 0h,
mint: Seleucia, Seleukid Kingdom, Demetrios I. , date: 162-150 B.C., ref: SNG Israel 1302; Sear 7028.,
Q-001
3 commentsquadrans
Seleucids,_Demetrios_I,_(162-150_BC),_AE-16,_Horse_head_left,_Elephant_head_right,_BASILEOS-DHMHTPIOY,_SNG-Israel,_Sear-7028,_Q-002,_0h,_16,0mm,_3,63g-s.jpg
Seleucia, Seleukid Kingdom, 10 Demetrios I., (162-150 B.C.), Sear 7028, AE-16, BAΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΔHMHTPIOY, Elephant's head right. #2126 viewsSeleucia, Seleukid Kingdom, 10 Demetrios I., (162-150 B.C.), Sear 7028, AE-16, BAΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΔHMHTPIOY, Elephant's head right. #2
avers: No legend, horse's head left.
reverse: BAΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΔHMHTPIOY, Elephant's head right.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 16,0mm, weight: 3,63g, axes: 0h,
mint: Seleucia, Seleukid Kingdom, Demetrios I. , date: 162-150 B.C., ref: SNG Israel 1302; Sear 7028.,
Q-002
1 commentsquadrans
Seleucids,_Antiochos_VI__Dionysos,_(145-142_BC),_AE_18,_Radiate_head_right,_Kantharos,__SNG-Israel-1806,_BMC-29,Q-001_h_16,5-18,5mm_g-s.jpg
Seleucia, Seleukid Kingdom, 13 Antiochus VI., Dionysus, (145-142 B.C.), SNG Israel 1806, AE-18, Kantharos.119 viewsSeleucia, Seleukid Kingdom, 13 Antiochus VI., Dionysus, (145-142 B.C.), SNG Israel 1806, AE-18, Kantharos.
avers:- No legend, Radiate head right.
revers:- BAΣIΛEΩΣ ANTIOXOY /EΠIΦANOYΣ ΔIONYΣOY, To right and left of kantharos, palm to right.
exerg: -/-//--, diameter: 16,5-18,5mm, weight: 5,98g, axes: 1h,
mint: Seleucia, Seleukid Kingdom, Antiochos VI. Dionysus, , date: 145-142 B.C., ref: SNG Israel 1806, BMC-29.,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
13_Seleucids,_Antiochos_VI__Dionysus,_(145-142_BC),_AE_22,_Radiate_head_right,__elephant_l_,_SC_2006b,_BMC_42-44,_Q-001,_0h,_21-22mm,_8,51g-s.jpg
Seleucia, Seleukid Kingdom, 13 Antiochus VI., Dionysus, (145-142 B.C.), SNG Israel 1806, AE-22 Serrate unit, Elephant walking left, #167 viewsSeleucia, Seleukid Kingdom, 13 Antiochus VI., Dionysus, (145-142 B.C.), SNG Israel 1806, AE-22 Serrate unit, Elephant walking left, #1
avers: Radiate head of Antiochus right, wreathed with ivy.
reverse: BAΣIΛEΩΣ ANTIOXOY /EΠIΦANOYΣ ΔIONYΣOY, Elephant walking left, ΣTA over upright palm branch in right field.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 21,0-22,0mm, weight: 8,51g, axes: 0h,
mint: Seleucia, Seleukid Kingdom, Antiochos VI. Dionysus, date: 145-142 B.C.,
ref: BMC 42-44, Houghton SC 2006b,
Q-001
quadrans
Seleucia,_Cleopatra_Thea___Antiochus_VIII,_125-121_BC_,_AE18__Radiate_head_r_,_Owl_on_amphora,_SNGCop_376,_SNGIs_2441ff_,_Q-001,_0h,_16,5-18,5mm,_5,53g-s.jpg
Seleucia, Seleukid Kingdom, 19 Cleopatra Thea and Antiochus VIII., (125-121 B.C.), SNG Cop 376, AE-18, Owl standing facing on amphora,142 viewsSeleucia, Seleukid Kingdom, 19 Cleopatra Thea and Antiochus VIII., (125-121 B.C.), SNG Cop 376, AE-18, Owl standing facing on amphora,
avers: Radiate head of (Sol)Antiochos right.
reverse: BAΣIΛIΣΣHΣ KΛEOΠATPAΣ KAI BAΣILEΩΣ ANTIOXOY, Owl standing facing on amphora.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 16,5-18,5mm, weight: 5,53 g, axes: 0h,
mint: Seleucia, Seleukid Kingdom, Cleopatra Thea and Antiochus VIII, date: 125-121 B.C., ref: SNG Cop 376, SNG Israel 2441ff.,
Q-001
quadrans
19a_Seleucia,_Antiochus_VIII_sole_reign,_121-97_BC_,_AE18__Radiate_head_r_,_Eagle_l_,_BMC_25-28,_SNGIs_2501,_Q-001,_1h,_17,5-18m,_5,16g-s.jpg
Seleucia, Seleukid Kingdom, 19a Antiochus VIII., Sole reign., (121-97 B.C.), SNGIs 2501, AE-18, Eagle standing left on thunderbolt, #166 viewsSeleucia, Seleukid Kingdom, 19a Antiochus VIII., Sole reign., (121-97 B.C.), SNGIs 2501, AE-18, Eagle standing left on thunderbolt, #1
avers: Radiate head of (Sol)Antiochos right.
reverse: BAΣIΛEΩΣ ANTIOXOY EΠIΦANOYΣ, to left and right of an eagle standing left on thunderbolt, scepter over shoulder. Usually with date in exergue.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 17,5-18,0mm, weight: 5,16g, axes: 1h,
mint: Seleucia, Seleukid Kingdom, Antiochus VIII., Sole reign., date: 121-97 B.C.,
ref: BMC 25-28, SNG Israel 2501.,
Q-001
quadrans
Balas.jpg
Seleucid - Alexander I Balas (152-145 BCE)10 viewsMetal/Size: AE16; Weight: 3.3 grams; Denomination: Bronze Unit; Mint: Antioch-on-the-Orontes; Date: 149-147 BCE; Obverse: Head of Dionysos wreathed with ivy, facing right. Reverse: Elephant standing left - BAΣIΛEΩΣ AΛEΞANΔΡOY (King Alexander). References: SNG Israel #1477ff; SC #1791; HGC, Vol. 9, #919.museumguy
Demetrios_I_Soter.jpg
Seleucid - Demetrios I Soter (162-150 BCE)13 viewsMetal/Size: AE21; Weight: 5 grams; Denomination: Bronze Unit; Mint: Tyre; Date: 155-154 BCE; Obverse: Diademed head of Demetrios I right. Reverse: BASILEOS DHMHTRIOY/TYRION (King Demetrios/Belonging to Tyre) - stern of galley left - Seleucid era date LHNP (155/4 BCE). References: SNG Israel #132ff; HGC, Vol. 9, #830, p. 168; SC #1671-1672.museumguy
Seleucus_III.jpg
Seleucid - Seleucus III Keraunos (225/4-222 BCE)14 viewsMetal/Size: AE11; Weight: 5.1 grams; Denomination: Bronze Unit; Mint: Antioch-on-the-Orontes; Date: 225-223 BCE; Obverse: Head of Artemis right, wearing wrapped fillet; bow case may be on shoulder. Reverse: BAΣIΛEΩΣ ΣEΛEYKOY (King Seleucos) in two vertical lines either side of Apollo seated left on omphalos, holding arrow & resting hand on grounded bow, YΞ (??) monogram to left. References: SNG Israel #522; Houghton #63; Newell #1043; HGC, #421, p. 83.museumguy
SELEUCID_ANTIOCHOS_VII_LION.jpg
SELEUCID KINGDOM - Antiochos VII Euergetes (Sidetes)26 viewsSELEUCID KINGDOM - Antiochos VII Euergetes (Sidetes) - 138-129 B.C. AE 15. 3.25 g. Antioch mint. Dated SE 179 (134-133 BC.) Lion's head right / ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΥ ΕYΕPΓΕΤΟΥ , Club, monogram left, QOP below. SC 2068, SNG Israel 1938, Hoover 1096.dpaul7
antiochus ix.jpg
SELEUCID KINGDOM - ANTIOCHUS IX26 viewsANTIOCHOS IX. 110-107 BC. Bronze - O: Head of Herakles, r.. R: Athena standing, holding Nike and spear.. cf. SNG Israel (Spaer) 2708. Ex Molinari collection.dpaul7
antiochus viii.jpg
SELEUCID KINGDOM - ANTIOCHUS VIII GRYPHOS29 viewsAntiochus VIII Gryphos, 121-96 BC, bronze of 19 mm, 6.21 grams. Obverse: Diademed bust Antiochus VIII to right. Reverse: Eagle, wings closed, stands left. Reference: cf. SNG Israel 2541.dpaul7
seleuk_königreich_AlexanderI_Balas_SNGspaer1475.jpg
Seleucid kingdom, Antioch, Alexander I. Balas, SNG Spaer 147521 viewsAlexander I. Balas, 152-145 BC
AE 19, 6.38g, 18.52mm, 0°
Antioch
obv. Kopf des Alexander Balas, behelmt, n.r.
rev. BASILEWS - ALEZANDROV in r. and l. field in 2 vertical lines
Nike, in long double chiton, winged, stg. l., holding palm branch in l. arm and wreath in raised r. hand; in outer l. field grain ear, in inner l. field monogram AB
ref. SNG Israel (Spaer) 1475
about VF, glossy brown Patina
pedigree:
ex coll. David Sellwood
1 commentsJochen
15957q00.jpg
Seleucid Kingdom, Antiochus IV Epiphanes, 175 - 164 B.C., Ake, Galilee44 viewsBronze serrated AE 14, SNG Spaer 1130, S 6994, F, obverse 1/2 off center, Ake mint, 2.650g, 14.6mm, 0o, obverse radiate head right; reverse BASILEWS ANTIOCOU, veiled and draped goddess (Hera ?) standing facing, holding long sceptre or torch;
Accho or Ake was a a maritime city of Galilee (Acts 21:7). It was renamed Ptolemais under the rule of Ptolemy Soter. Today it is Acre, Israel. It was at Ptolemais that the Jews met Petronius, sent to set up statues of the emperor in the Temple, and persuaded him to turn back. St Paul spent a day in Ptolemais (Acts 21:7).
cwonsidler
Demetrios_I_forvm.jpg
Seleukid - Demetrios I Soter 162-150 BC16 viewsMint: Antioch; Date: 162-150 BC
Serrated edge, lathing dimple.
Obv: Head of horse left. Boarder of dots.
Rev: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ above, ΔΗΜΗΤΡΙΟΥ below, Elephant head right. Boarder of dots.
Size: 16mm; 4.1gms
Ref: BMC Vol. 4, Seleucid Kings of Syria, pg.49, No.60,
Sear 7028 / SNG Spaer 1299 / SNG Israel 1302
Brian L
ANTOCH.jpg
Seleukid Kingdom, Demetrios II, First Reign 145-140 B.C, Sidon, Phoenicia96 viewsSilver tetradrachm, SNG Israel 1655, Houghton 717, S 7055, gVF, 14.08g, 26.6mm, 0o, Sidon mint, 145-144 B.C.; obverse diademed bust right, border of dots; reverse BASILEOS DHMHTRIOU, eagle standing left, HXR (= year 168 = 145/144 B.C.), monogram and palm branch in left field, SIDW and aphlastron in right field; small nick on cheek, nicely toned2 commentssalem
Seleukid_Kingdom,_Seleukos_I,_AE19_Antioch_on_Orontes_SC_25.jpg
Seleukid Kingdom, Seleukos I Nikator, 312-281 BC, Æ 19 - Antioch on the Orontes ca. 290 BC 11 viewsMale figure (Dionysos as patron god of war elephants) seated on rock holding ankh (elephant goad).
ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΣEΛEYKOY Horned elephant head right, [Ξ] in exergue.

SC 25; HGC 9, 78; CSE 12; WSM 929.
Struck ca. 290 BC.

(19 mm, 6.47 g, 12h).

Perhaps a few dozen examples of this coin type have survived to this day. This coin may have come from the same recently uncovered hoard, which saw five examples with identical patina come to market ove a period of eighteen months. Newell in WSM recorded seven specimens of this coin type, which he interpreted to be the last issue under Seleukos at Antioch, struck in celebration of Seleukos' victory over Lysimachos at Korupedion in 281 BC. Recently, Lorber and Houghton in "An Early Seleucid Bronze Hoard" (Israel Numismatc Journal 17, 2009-10, p. 15-33) convincingly re-interpreted the obverse motif with an association to the Battle of Ipsos and a probable dating to ca. 290 BC.
n.igma
Seleukid_Kingdom,_Seleukos_I,_AE20.jpg
Seleukid Kingdom, Seleukos I Nikator, 312-281 BC, Æ 19 - Antioch on the Orontes ca. 290 BC10 viewsMale figure (Dionysos as patron god of war elephants) seated on rock holding ankh (elephant goad).
ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΣEΛEYKOY Horned elephant head right, [Ξ] in exergue.

SC 25; HGC 9, 78; CSE 12; WSM 929.
Struck ca. 290 BC.

(19 mm, 7.09 g, 12h).

Perhaps a few dozen examples of this coin type have survived to this day. This coin may have come from the same recently uncovered hoard, which saw five examples with identical patina come to market ove a period of eighteen months. Newell in WSM recorded seven specimens of this coin type, which he interpreted to be the last issue under Seleukos at Antioch, struck in celebration of Seleukos' victory over Lysimachos at Korupedion in 281 BC. Recently, Lorber and Houghton in "An Early Seleucid Bronze Hoard" (Israel Numismatc Journal 17, 2009-10, p. 15-33) convincingly re-interpreted the obverse motif with an association to the Battle of Ipsos and a probable dating to ca. 290 BC.
n.igma
antiochus_iv~0.jpg
SELEUKID KINGDOM--(04) ANTIOCHUS IV (EPIPHANES)13 views175 - 164 BC
AE Serrate 13 mm 2.38 g
O: Radiate head right
R: BAΣIΛEΩΣ ANTIOXOY ; On either side of Hera standing facing and holding sceptre
Ake-Ptolemais Mint (now known as Acre, Israel); cf Sear SG 6994
laney
Syria,_Seleukid_Kings,_Sardes,_Achaios,_Usurper,_SC_955,_220-214_BC,_Q-001_1h_17,3-18mm_4,56g-s.jpg
Syria, Seleukid Kings, Sardes (?), Achaios, Usurper, (220-214 B.C.), AE-18, SC 955.1var., BAΣIΛEΩΣ AXAIOY, Eagle standing right, Rare !106 viewsSyria, Seleukid Kings, Sardes (?), Achaios, Usurper, (220-214 B.C.), AE-18, SC 955.1var., BAΣIΛEΩΣ AXAIOY, Eagle standing right, Rare !
avers:- Laureate head of Apollo right, hair in formal curls.
revers:- BAΣIΛEΩΣ AXAIOY, Eagle standing right, palm branch over shoulder. "BAΣIΛEΩΣ is written on the left side bottom up and AΧΑΙΟΥ on the right side top down."
exerg: -/-//--, diameter: 17,3-18,0mm, weight: 4,56g, axes: 1h,
mint: Syria, Seleukid Kings, Sardes mint or probably in Pisidia, date: 220-214 B.C., ref:SC 955.1 var. (arrangement of legend); HGC 9, 435 var. (same)., SNG Israel 835var.(No symbol!), Rare!
Q-001
"Uncle of Antiochos III, Achaios was appointed commander-in-chief in Asia Minor. He restored Seleukid authority in the area but then rebelled against his young nephew and proclaimed himself king. In 216 B.C. Antiochos moved against the rebel, many of whose troops then deserted him. After a two-year siege of his capital city of Sardeis, in Lydia, Achaios was captured and beheaded."
quadrans
JCT_Temple_Israel.JPG
Temple Israel (New York, New York)107 viewsAE token, 31.5 mm., dated 1927.

Obv: MEN’S CLUB TEMPLE ISRAEL OF WASHINGTON HEIGHTS, around toothed rim, building in center, small star below.

Rev. LUCK FOR A BUCK, around toothed rim, 1927 below horseshoe.

Ref: None known.

Note: The Reform temple was organized in 1916 and was located at 181st Street and St. Nicholas Avenue, New York, New York. Construction on a neo-Georgian synagogue at 560-66 West 185th Street, 560-566 West 185th Street began in 1922, and the building was dedicated on April 3, 1927. The building was acquired by Congregation Gates of Israel in 1931, and now houses the Schottenstein Center of Yeshiva University.
Stkp
Titus,_79-81_AD,_bronze_Judaea_Capta.jpg
Titus Caesarea Maritima W/Countermark65 viewsTitus, 79-81 AD, Ae 21.6 mm, 7.09 g. Caesarea Maritima Mint
O: Laureate head of Titus right, Greek text ΑYTΟΚΡ TΙT ΟΣ ΚΑΙΣΑΡ around.
R: Nike right, left foot on helmet, writing AY T KAIC with right hand upon shield, hanging from palm tree. Greek text IΟΥΔΑΙΑΣ ΕΑΛWΚΥΙΑΣ around w/ countermark. Rare with countermark.
Hendin 1446 (prev. Hendin 743). AJC II supplement VII, 2.

Caesarea Maritima, built by Herod the Great about 25 - 13 B.C., was named to flatter Augustus, the Caesar. It became the capital of Iudaea Province and the residence of the Roman procurators and governors including Pontius Pilatus, praefectus and Antonius Felix. In 66 A.D., the desecration of the local synagogue led to the disastrous Jewish revolt. After the revolt was suppressed, 2500 Jewish captives were slaughtered at Caesarea in Gladiatorial games held by Titus to celebrate his victory. Today, Caesarea's ruins lie on Israel's Mediterranean coast about halfway between Tel Aviv and Haifa, on the site of Pyrgos Stratonos ("Straton's Tower").
Nemonater
decius-tet_Z-below-bust_01.JPG
Trajan Decius Tetradrachm 11.9gr14 viewsRoman Empire
Emperor Decius (249 - 251 AD)
Tetradrachm of Antioch Syria.

(titles in Greek)
obv: Laureate bust right, draped and cuirassed. Seen from behind. Greek numeral 'Z' below bust.
rev: Eagle, standing right, head right, tail left. Standing on Palm branch. 'S C' below.

Size: 27.5 x 28 mm
Weight: 11.9 Grams
--------------------------------------
------------------
Found in Northern Israel after a rainstorm over 20 years ago.
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*Small photo, but shows the Greek numeral, 'Z', below the Emperor's bust very well.*
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rexesq
decius_tet_11_9gr_obv_01_rev_01.JPG
Trajan Decius Tetradrachm 11.9gr36 viewsRoman Empire
Emperor Decius (249 - 251 AD)
Tetradrachm of Antioch Syria.

(titles in Greek)
obv: Laureate bust right, draped and cuirassed. Seen from behind. Greek numeral 'Z' below bust.
rev: Eagle, standing right, head right, tail left. Standing on Palm branch. 'S C' below.

Size: 27.5 x 28 mm
Weight: 11.9 Grams
--------------------------------------
------------------
Found in Northern Israel after a rainstorm over 20 years ago.
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-
Obverse / Reverse
-
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2 commentsrexesq
decius_tet_11_9gr_obv_01_US-25cent.JPG
Trajan Decius Tetradrachm 11.9gr - obv - w/ US 25 cent piece.12 viewsRoman Empire
Emperor Decius (249 - 251 AD)
Tetradrachm of Antioch Syria.

(titles in Greek)
obv: Laureate bust right, draped and cuirassed. Seen from behind. Greek numeral 'Z' below bust.
rev: Eagle, standing right, head right, tail left. Standing on Palm branch. 'S C' below.

Size: 27.5 x 28 mm
Weight: 11.9 Grams
--------------------------------------
------------------
Found in Northern Israel after a rainstorm over 20 years ago.
---
-
rexesq
decius_tet_11_9gr_obv_03_US-25cent.JPG
Trajan Decius Tetradrachm 11.9gr - obv - w/ US 25 cent piece. 23 viewsRoman Empire
Emperor Decius (249 - 251 AD)
Tetradrachm of Antioch Syria.

(titles in Greek)
obv: Laureate bust right, draped and cuirassed. Seen from behind. Greek numeral 'Z' below bust.
rev: Eagle, standing right, head right, tail left. Standing on Palm branch. 'S C' below.

Size: 27.5 x 28 mm
Weight: 11.9 Grams
--------------------------------------
------------------
Found in Northern Israel after a rainstorm over 20 years ago.
---
-
rexesq
decius_tet_11_9gr_obv_02_US-25cent.JPG
Trajan Decius Tetradrachm 11.9gr - obv - w/ US 25 cent piece. 23 viewsRoman Empire
Emperor Decius (249 - 251 AD)
Tetradrachm of Antioch Syria.

(titles in Greek)
obv: Laureate bust right, draped and cuirassed. Seen from behind. Greek numeral 'Z' below bust.
rev: Eagle, standing right, head right, tail left. Standing on Palm branch. 'S C' below.

Size: 27.5 x 28 mm
Weight: 11.9 Grams
--------------------------------------
------------------
Found in Northern Israel after a rainstorm over 20 years ago.
---
-
rexesq
gallienus_ant_MARS-VICTOR_branch_ancientart-jerusalem_00.JPG
VI - Gallienus Antoninianus - MARS VICTOR - Branch in exergue21 viewsRoman Empire
Gallienus (253 - 268 AD) AR/BI Antoninianus
Sold as being from the Antioch Mint.

obv: GALLIENUS AUG - Radiate bust right, cuirassed. Seen from the front.
rev: MARS VICTOR - Mars advancing right, in 'ready for action' position. Wearing Helmet and Military dress, carrying spear and shield.
Branch in exergue.

Size: 22 mm
Weight: 4.9 Grams (fairly heavy for the type)
------
ex Ancient Art Jerusalem. Jerusalem, Israel.
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-
* I was told that the branch in exergue signifies the Antioch mint.
2 commentsrexesq
JohnHyrcanusAntiochos7Lily.jpg
[18H451] Judaean Kingdom, John Hyrcanus I (Yehohanan), 134 - 104 B.C., for the Seleukid King Antiochos VII106 viewsJohn Hyrcanus [for Antiochos VII]; Lily, AE, Hendin 451, 15mm, 2.92 grams; VF, Jerusalem; 182-180 B.C. This interesting coin was the precursor to the "prutah" which would subsequently be minted in Israel. Struck by John Hyrcanus, King of Judaea, in the name of the Seleukid King Antiochos VII, Euergetes (Sidetes). Ex Zuzim Judaea.

Johanan [John] Hyrcanus
(d. 104 BCE)

Grandson of Mattathias of Modein and chief architect of Judean dominance of Palestine. The youngest and only surviving son of Simon Thassi succeeded his father as high priest in 134 BCE. He was the fourth Hasmonean to rule Jerusalem. But his tenure began with a year-long Syrian siege that forced him to agree to tear down the city's fortifications and renew a tribute to the Greek emperor [133 BCE].

Within a few years, however, he took advantage of political turmoil in Syria following the death of Antiochus VII [129 BCE] to rebuild his forces, reclaim independence and extend Judean control over Palestine and Jordan. On the southern front he forced Judah's neighbors in Idumea [descendents of the Edomites] to accept Judaism and on the northern front he destroyed the rival temple at Shechem in Samaria.

Such triumphs made him the probable subject of messianic tributes by his fellow Judeans. But his own preference for Greek culture made him controversial in Jerusalem. When Pharisees challenged his right to be high priest, he switched his allegiance to the aristocratic Sadducee [Zadokite] party. Still, the Dead Sea Scrolls suggest that other Zadokites probably rejected his leadership and left Jerusalem, labeling him the "wicked priest," who persecuted the priest whom they regarded as the "Teacher of Righteousness."

Copyright 2007, The American-Israeli Cooperative Enterprise. Published on The Jewish Virtual Library; http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/index.html


John Hyrcanus
John Hyrcanus (Yohanan Girhan) (reigned 134 BCE - 104 BCE, died 104 BCE) was a Hasmonean (Maccabeean) leader of the 2nd century BC. Apparently the name "Hyrcanus" was taken by him as a regnal name upon his accession to power. His taking a Greek regnal name was a significant political and cultural step away from the intransigent opposition to and rejection of Hellenistic culture which had characterised the Maccabaen revolt against Seleucid rule, and a more pragmatic recognition that Judea had to maintain its position among a millieu of small and large states which all shared the Hellenistic culture and communicated in Greek.

Life and work
He was the son of Simon Maccabaeus and hence the nephew of Judas Maccabaeus, Jonathan Maccabaeus and their siblings, whose story is told in the deuterocanonical books of 1 Maccabees and 2 Maccabees, and in the Talmud. John was not present at a banquet at which his father and his two brothers were murdered, purportedly by his brother-in-law Ptolemy. He attained to his father's former offices, that of high priest and king (although some Jews never accepted any of the Hasmoneans as being legitimate kings, as they were not lineal descendants of David).

His taking a Greek regnal name - "Hyrcanus" - was a significant political and cultural step away from the intransigent opposition to and rejection of Hellenistic culture which had characterised the Maccabaen revolt against Seleucid rule. It reflected a more pragmatic recognition that Judea, once having attained independence, had to maintain its position among a milieu of small and large states which all shared the Hellenistic culture. All subseqent Hashmonean rulers followed suit and adopted Greek names in their turn.

Achievements
John Hyrcanus apparently combined an energetic and able style of leadership with the zeal of his forebears. He was known as a brave and brilliant military leader. He is credited with the forced conversion of the Idumeans to Judaism, which was unusual for a Jewish leader; Judaism was not typically spread by the sword. He also set out to resolve forcibly the religious dispute between the Jews and the Samaritans; during his reign he destroyed the Samaritan temple on Mount Gerizim (although their descendants still worship among its ruins), which served further to deepen the already-historic hatred and rivalry between the two groups. Many historians believe that the apocryphal book of Jubilees was written during his reign; some would suggest even at his behest. Some writers, particularly Christian ones, have dated the division of Judaism into the parties of Pharisees and Sadducees to his era; most Jewish writers and some Christian ones suggest that this split actually well predates him. Some historians would go so far as to identify him, as a priest, predominantly with the Sadducee party, which was closely associated with the Temple worship and the priestly class.

Peak and decline of the kingdom
John Hyrcanus represented in some ways the highest point of the Hasmonean Dynasty. The restored Jewish "kingdom" approached its maximum limits of both territory and prestige. Upon his death, his offices were divided among his heirs; his son Aristobulus succeeded him as high priest; his wife as "Queen regnant". The son, however, soon came to desire the essentially unchecked power of his father; he shortly ordered his mother and his brothers imprisoned. This event seems to mark the beginning of the decline of the Hasmonean Dynasty; in just over four decades they were removed from power by the Roman Republic and none of them ever began to approach the level of power or prestige that had pertained to John Hyrcanus or his predecessors.

Modern Commemoration
Tel Aviv has a Yochanan Hyrcanus Street (רחוב יוחנן הורקנוס), as do several other cities in contemporary Israel. In the ealy decades of the 20th century, the Zionist historical perception of the Jewish past tended to approve of and revere strong warrior kings of both Biblical and later periods, and Hyrcanus' exploits earned him a place in that pantheon.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia; http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Hyrcanus


John Hyrcanus was the son of Simon the Maccabee and nephew of the folk hero Judah Maccabee. Not long after Hyrcanus assumed power, the Seleukid kingdom marched on Jerusalem. The Seleukid king, Antiocus VII, and Hyrcanus I negotiated a treaty that left Hyrcanus a vassal to the Syrian king. Joseph Sermarini, FORVM.
http://www.forumancientcoins.com/catalog/roman-and-greek-coins.asp?vpar=922&pos=0

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
PontiusPilate29BCHendin648.jpg
[18H648] Pontius Pilate prefect for Tiberius Prutah, 29 BC48 viewsPONTIUS PILATE PRUTAH, "SIMPULUM;" Hendin 648, AVF/VF, 15.3mm, 2.20 grams, struck 29 C.E. Nice round, good weight Pontius Pilate Prutah.

THE COINS OF PONTIUS PILATE
Jean-Philippe Fontanille

INTRODUCTION
They are not really beautiful, or truly rare, nor are they of very great monetary value. Yet these apparently modest coins carry in their weight an era and an act which would have immense consequence to the history of the world. Indeed, they are closely associated with three basic factors which saw the foundation of Christianity :
1 - The temporal proximity : Most modern experts agree in recognising that the year now designated 30 C.E. marked the trial and the death of Jesus. Given that time-frame, Pilate's coins were minted in 29, 30 and 31 C.E.
2 - The geographic proximity : The most credible hypothesis indicates that these particular coins where struck in Jerusalem, the city in which the significant events took place.
3 - The human proximity : Pontius Pilate himself designed and put the coins into circulation, and of course he was the man who conducted the trial and ordered the crucifixion of Jesus.

So it is that everyone, whether a believer or simply a lover of history or of numismatics, will find in these coins direct evidence of and witness to an episode the memory of which has survived 2000 years : A momentous event which has to a great extent fashioned the world we know.

Throughout this article we will also note the exceptional character of Pilate's coins: Exceptional in the nature of the images they bear, for the numerous variants they offer, for the presence of countermarks, and above all for the part their originator played in history. The putative appearance of these coins imprints on the Turin shroud has yet to be confirmed by more solid scientific proofs.

Pilate's coins are Roman coins, the words on them are Greek, they were circulated in Judea, and today they are to be found distributed among world-wide collectors after having spent 2000 years buried in the earth. They were minted and used during a period which produced an event destined to change the face of the world, and issued at the command of one of the principal actors in that event. An amazing and dramatic destiny for apparently such humble and unassuming little coins !

For 35 years Pilate's coins were passed from hand to hand every day. They knew the scent of spice-stalls, heard the merchants' ranting, smelled the sweat and dust of daily works. They were alive to the sounds of Hebrew, Aramaic, Greek and Latin voices ¬ now haggling over a price, now offering prayers to YHVH, Jesus or Jupiter.

Nobody prays to Jupiter any more [?], but Pilate's coins are surviving witnesses to a time when the first Christians were considered as a messianic sect among several others in the midst of Judaism in crisis. The absolute split between Judaism and Christianity took place from about 70 C.E, the year which marked the tragic ending of the first Jewish rebellion. It was from that time, too, that Pilate's money ceased to be used.

Like each one of us, who carries always a few small coins in the bottom of our pockets; there is no doubt that some of Pilate's coins resonated to the last words of the most famous of all supplicants. A very long story had its beginning...

2. MANUFACTURE AND CIRCULATION
LOCATION OF MINTS
Although the prefects had their residencies in Cesarea, the administrative capital of the province, it seems that their money was minted in Jerusalem. Indeed, a specimen dated year 31 has been found in this town in an incomplete state of manufacture.

DURATION OF USE
It would seem that Pilate's money was in current use for at least 35 years. Indeed, some of it has been discovered among other coins during the excavation of remains of dwellings destroyed by the Romans during the first Jewish revolt, which is evidence that they were still in use at that time.

AREA OF CIRCULATION
These coins circulated far beyond the frontiers of Judea. Some samples have been discovered as far away as Antioch in present-day Turkey, nearly 500 kilometres from Jerusalem where they were minted. Others have also been found in Jordan. These limits represent a circulation area of at least 100.000 square kilometres, that is five times larger than the size of the state of Israel. Taking into account that it was a time when distances were expressed in terms of days of march, one begins to see the important influence of these coins.

3. THE IMAGES AND THE TEXTS
THE SIMPULUM
A fairly frequent symbol from the Roman religion of the time, the simpulum was a utensil used by the priests during their religious ceremonies. This little ladle, provided with shaft and a handle, allowed the priests to taste the wine which they poured onto the head of an animal destined for sacrifice, after which the soothsayer was empowered to examine the animal's entrails for signs and portents sent to men by the Gods through the medium of the interpreter. As I pointed, none of this would have been obvious at first sight of the motif except perhaps to a Roman citizen. However, it throws some light on the theory put forward by F.A. Banks [Coins of the Bible Days].

This wasn't the first time that the simpulum appeared on Roman coins, but it is the first time it figured alone. This fact gives an additional specificity to Pilate's coins, not only in the context of Judea but also in comparison with all the other coins of the Empire.

THE THREE EARS OF BARLEY
The three ears or barley are featured on the opposing face of the simpulum. Unlike the simpulum, these ears of barley are not in contravention of the Jewish Law. The motif is nevertheless distinctive because it is the first time it appears on a Judean coin. The motif would reappear twelve years later on one of Herod Agrippa's coin, then on another, much rarer, of Agrippa II (ears of barley held in a hand). After that, the motif disappeared altogether from ancient Jewish coins.

THE LITUUS
The lituus was the wooden staff which the augurs held in the right hand; it symbolised their authority and their pastoral vocation. It was raised toward heavens while the priests invoked the Gods and made their predictions. Legend records that Romulus used it at the time of Rome's foundation in 753 B.C.E. It is interesting to note that the cross used in present times is the direct descendant of the lituus. As with the simpulum, Pilate's coinage is exceptional in that it alone displays the lituus as the sole object illustrated on the face.

THE WREATH
The laurel wreath is a symbol of power and victory, and figures on various ancient Greek and Roman coins. In Judea it can be found during the reign of John Hyrcanus I (134 to 104 B.C.E.). After that, Herod Antipas, speaker for Pilate, used it on all his coins. On Pilate's coins, the laurel wreath figures on the reverse side of the lituus, framing the date.

THE DATES
The notation of dates uses a code invented by the Greeks whereby each letter of the alphabet was assigned a number. This code would be used again in Judaism under the name of Guematria. The system is simple : the first ten letters of the alphabet are linked to units (1,2,3...), the following ten letters to tens (10,20,30...) and the four remaining letters to the first four hundreds. The "L" is an abbreviation meaning "year". Tiberius became emperor on September 17 of year 14 C.E, so we have :

LIS = Year 29 C.E. * LIZ = Year 30 C.E. * LIH = Year 31 C.E.

THE TEXTS
The legends on Pontius Pilate's coins are written in Greek. Judea, governed by the Ptolemy dynasty (301 to 198 B.C.E) then by the Syrians until 63 B.C.E, came under the same powerful influence of the Hellenic culture which touched the other territories of the ancient Persian Empire won by Alexander the Great. In spite of a certain amount of resistance, this Hellenistic heritage eventually crept into every aspect of daily life. Apart from the dates, the texts on Pilate's coinage consisted of only three different words : - TIBEPIOY KAICAPOC (Of Tiberius Emperor) on all three coins; - IOYLIA KAICAPOC (Empress Julia) added to the coin of year 29.
http://www.numismalink.com/fontanille1.html


Pontius Pilate
After the deposition of the eldest son of Herod, Archelaus (who had succeeded his father as ethnarch), Judea was placed under the rule of a Roman procurator. Pilate, who was the fifth, succeeding Valerius Gratus in A.D. 26, had greater authority than most procurators under the empire, for in addition to the ordinary duty of financial administration, he had supreme power judicially. His unusually long period of office (A.D. 26-36) covers the whole of the active ministry both of St. John the Baptist and of Jesus Christ.
As procurator Pilate was necessarily of equestrian rank, but beyond that we know little of his family or origin. Some have thought that he was only a freedman, deriving his name from pileus (the cap of freed slaves) but for this there seems to be no adequate evidence, and it is unlikely that a freedman would attain to a post of such importance. The Pontii were a Samnite gens. Pilate owed his appointment to the influence of Sejanus. The official residence of the procurators was the palace of Herod at Cæsarea; where there was a military force of about 3,000 soldiers. These soldiers came up to Jerusalem at the time of the feasts, when the city was full of strangers, and there was greater danger of disturbances, hence it was that Pilate had come to Jerusalem at the time of the Crucifixion. His name will be forever covered with infamy because of the part which he took in this matter, though at the time it appeared to him of small importance.
Pilate is a type of the worldly man, knowing the right and anxious to do it so far as it can be done without personal sacrifice of any kind, but yielding easily to pressure from those whose interest it is that he should act otherwise. He would gladly have acquitted Christ, and even made serious efforts in that direction, but gave way at once when his own position was threatened.
The other events of his rule are not of very great importance. Philo (Ad Gaium, 38) speaks of him as inflexible, merciless, and obstinate. The Jews hated him and his administration, for he was not only very severe, but showed little consideration for their susceptibilities. Some standards bearing the image of Tiberius, which had been set up by him in Jerusalem, caused an outbreak which would have ended in a massacre had not Pilate given way. At a later date Tiberius ordered him to remove certain gilt shields, which he had set up in Jerusalem in spite of the remonstrances of the people. The incident mentioned in St. Luke 13:1, of the Galilaeans whose blood Pilate mingled with the sacrifices, is not elsewhere referred to, but is quite in keeping with other authentic events of his rule. He was, therefore, anxious that no further hostile reports should be sent to the emperor concerning him.
The tendency, already discernible in the canonical Gospels, to lay stress on the efforts of Pilate to acquit Christ, and thus pass as lenient a judgment as possible upon his crime, goes further in the apocryphal Gospels and led in later years to the claim that he actually became a Christian. The Abyssinian Church reckons him as a saint, and assigns 25 June to him and to Claudia Procula, his wife. The belief that she became a Christian goes back to the second century, and may be found in Origen (Hom., in Mat., xxxv). The Greek Church assigns her a feast on 27 October. Tertullian and Justin Martyr both speak of a report on the Crucifixion (not extant) sent in by Pilate to Tiberius, from which idea a large amount of apocryphal literature originated. Some of these were Christian in origin (Gospel of Nicodemus), others came from the heathen, but these have all perished.
His rule was brought to an end through trouble which arose in Samaria. An imposter had given out that it was in his power to discover the sacred vessels which, as he alleged, had been hidden by Moses on Mount Gerizim, whither armed Samaritans came in large numbers. Pilate seems to have thought the whole affair was a blind, covering some other more important design, for he hurried forces to attack them, and many were slain. They appealed to Vitellius, who was at that time legate in Syria, saying that nothing political had been intended, and complaining of Pilate's whole administration. He was summoned to Rome to answer their charges, but before he could reach the city the Emperor Tiberius had died.
Catholic Encyclopedia: http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/12083c.htm

As the man who presided over the trial of Jesus, who found no fault with the defendant and washed his hands of the affair by referring it back to the Jewish mob, but who signed the final death warrant, Pontius Pilate represents almost a byword for ambivalence.
He appears in a poor light in all four Gospels and in a favourable light in the apocryphal Gospel of Peter where the Jews take all the blame for Jesus' death.
In the later Acts of Pilate, he is both cleared of responsibility for the Crucifixion and is said to have converted to Christianity.
In the drama of the Passion, Pilate is a ditherer who drifts towards pardoning Jesus, then drifts away again. He tries to pass the buck several times, makes the decision to save Jesus, then capitulates.
The former Archbishop of Canterbury, the late Robert Runcie once wrote, "It would have been better for the moral health of Christianity if the blame had stayed with Pilate."
In a poignant moment in the course of the trial, Pontius Pilate responds to an assertion by Jesus by asking "What is truth?"
The truth about Pilate is difficult to ascertain since records are few. Legends say he was a Spaniard or a German, but most likely he was a natural-born Roman citizen from central Italy.
But the fact that he was definitely the Procurator of Judea from 26 to 36 AD helps to establish Jesus as a real person and fixes him in time.
The official residence of the procurators was the palace of Herod at Caesarea, a mainly non-Jewish city where a force of some 3,000 Roman soldiers were based.
These would come to Jerusalem during the time of feasts when there was a greater danger of disturbances. This would explain Pilate's presence in the city during the time of the Crucifixion.
Pilate is recorded by several contemporary historians; his name is inscribed on Roman coins and on a stone dug up in Caesarea in the 1960s with the words, PONTIUS PILATUS PRAEFECTUS PROVINCIAE JUDAEAE.
The governorship of Judea was only a second-rate posting, though having the Jewish religious capital, Jerusalem, on its patch would have increased its importance.
Pilate ruled in conjunction with the Jewish authorities and was under orders from Emperor Tiberius, to respect their culture. He was a soldier rather than a diplomat.
The Jews relied on the Romans to keep their own rebellious factions under control. But they appeared to hate Pilate.
One contemporary Jewish historian Philo, describes him as a violent thug, fond of executions without trial. Another, Josephus, records that, at the start of his term, Pilate provoked the Jews by ordering the imperial standards to be carried into Jerusalem.
But he backed off from an all-out confrontation. On the other hand, later, he helped himself to Jewish revenues to build an aqueduct.
When, according to Josephus, bands of resistance fighters, supported by crowds of ordinary people, sabotaged the project by getting in the way of Pilate's workmen, he sent in his soldiers. Hundreds were massacred.
Anne Wroe, author of a recent book Pilate: the Biography of an Invented Man, says that for some modern scholars, given this propensity for violence when the occasion warranted, the idea of Pilate as a waverer is nonsense.
A Roman governor, they point out, would not have wasted two minutes thinking about a shabby Jewish villain, one among many. Wroe's depiction of Pilate, however, suggests he was something of a pragmatist.
His first duty was to keep the peace in Judea and to keep the revenues flowing back to Rome. "Should I have jeopardised the peace for the sake of some Jew who may have been innocent?", she has Pilate asking. "Should I have defied a furious crowd, maybe butchered them, to save one life?"
Whatever the truth about the real Pontius Pilate, such dilemmas are what he has come to symbolise.
Anne Wroe makes the modern comparisons of Neville Chamberlain in 1938. Bill McSweeney, of the Irish School of Ecumenics suggests that "without the Pilates of Anglo-Irish politics, we might never have had the Good Friday Agreement".
Tony Blair has said of Pilate: "It is possible to view Pilate as the archetypal politician, caught on the horns of a dilemma."
Even if, in reality, the Jesus affair was nothing but a small side-show in the career of Pontius Pilate, it had monumental repercussions for his image.
His inclusion in the Christian creeds, in the words of Robert Runcie, "binds the eternal realms to the stumbling, messy chronology of earthly time and place".
BBC: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/1273594.stm

The Ethiopian Church recognized Pilate as a saint in the sixth century, based on the account in the Acts of Pilate

Although historians can pinpoint the exact date of death of many distinguished historical figures, the date of the crucifixion of Jesus Christ remains a matter of scholarly debate. Christ’s birth is most often dated between 7-5 BC (some scholars have suggested, however, His birth was as early as 20 BC). Christ’s Death and Resurrection is dated between 29-36 AD.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

Cleisthenes
PontiusPilate30BCHendin649.jpg
[18H649] Pontius Pilate Prefect under Tiberius Prutah, "LIZ", 30 BC70 viewsPONTIUS PILATE PRUTAH, 'LIZ;' Hendin 649, VF, 15.5mm, 1.90 grams. Struck 30 C.E. Nice historic coin.

THE COINS OF PONTIUS PILATE
Jean-Philippe Fontanille

INTRODUCTION
They are not really beautiful, or truly rare, nor are they of very great monetary value. Yet these apparently modest coins carry in their weight an era and an act which would have immense consequence to the history of the world. Indeed, they are closely associated with three basic factors which saw the foundation of Christianity :
1 - The temporal proximity : Most modern experts agree in recognising that the year now designated 30 C.E. marked the trial and the death of Jesus. Given that time-frame, Pilate's coins were minted in 29, 30 and 31 C.E.
2 - The geographic proximity : The most credible hypothesis indicates that these particular coins where struck in Jerusalem, the city in which the significant events took place.
3 - The human proximity : Pontius Pilate himself designed and put the coins into circulation, and of course he was the man who conducted the trial and ordered the crucifixion of Jesus.

So it is that everyone, whether a believer or simply a lover of history or of numismatics, will find in these coins direct evidence of and witness to an episode the memory of which has survived 2000 years : A momentous event which has to a great extent fashioned the world we know.

Throughout this article we will also note the exceptional character of Pilate's coins: Exceptional in the nature of the images they bear, for the numerous variants they offer, for the presence of countermarks, and above all for the part their originator played in history. The putative appearance of these coins imprints on the Turin shroud has yet to be confirmed by more solid scientific proofs.

Pilate's coins are Roman coins, the words on them are Greek, they were circulated in Judea, and today they are to be found distributed among world-wide collectors after having spent 2000 years buried in the earth. They were minted and used during a period which produced an event destined to change the face of the world, and issued at the command of one of the principal actors in that event. An amazing and dramatic destiny for apparently such humble and unassuming little coins !

For 35 years Pilate's coins were passed from hand to hand every day. They knew the scent of spice-stalls, heard the merchants' ranting, smelled the sweat and dust of daily works. They were alive to the sounds of Hebrew, Aramaic, Greek and Latin voices ¬ now haggling over a price, now offering prayers to YHVH, Jesus or Jupiter.

Nobody prays to Jupiter any more [?], but Pilate's coins are surviving witnesses to a time when the first Christians were considered as a messianic sect among several others in the midst of Judaism in crisis. The absolute split between Judaism and Christianity took place from about 70 C.E, the year which marked the tragic ending of the first Jewish rebellion. It was from that time, too, that Pilate's money ceased to be used.

Like each one of us, who carries always a few small coins in the bottom of our pockets; there is no doubt that some of Pilate's coins resonated to the last words of the most famous of all supplicants. A very long story had its beginning...

2. MANUFACTURE AND CIRCULATION
LOCATION OF MINTS
Although the prefects had their residencies in Cesarea, the administrative capital of the province, it seems that their money was minted in Jerusalem. Indeed, a specimen dated year 31 has been found in this town in an incomplete state of manufacture.

DURATION OF USE
It would seem that Pilate's money was in current use for at least 35 years. Indeed, some of it has been discovered among other coins during the excavation of remains of dwellings destroyed by the Romans during the first Jewish revolt, which is evidence that they were still in use at that time.

AREA OF CIRCULATION
These coins circulated far beyond the frontiers of Judea. Some samples have been discovered as far away as Antioch in present-day Turkey, nearly 500 kilometres from Jerusalem where they were minted. Others have also been found in Jordan. These limits represent a circulation area of at least 100.000 square kilometres, that is five times larger than the size of the state of Israel. Taking into account that it was a time when distances were expressed in terms of days of march, one begins to see the important influence of these coins.

3. THE IMAGES AND THE TEXTS
THE SIMPULUM
A fairly frequent symbol from the Roman religion of the time, the simpulum was a utensil used by the priests during their religious ceremonies. This little ladle, provided with shaft and a handle, allowed the priests to taste the wine which they poured onto the head of an animal destined for sacrifice, after which the soothsayer was empowered to examine the animal's entrails for signs and portents sent to men by the Gods through the medium of the interpreter. As I pointed, none of this would have been obvious at first sight of the motif except perhaps to a Roman citizen. However, it throws some light on the theory put forward by F.A. Banks [Coins of the Bible Days].

This wasn't the first time that the simpulum appeared on Roman coins, but it is the first time it figured alone. This fact gives an additional specificity to Pilate's coins, not only in the context of Judea but also in comparison with all the other coins of the Empire.

THE THREE EARS OF BARLEY
The three ears or barley are featured on the opposing face of the simpulum. Unlike the simpulum, these ears of barley are not in contravention of the Jewish Law. The motif is nevertheless distinctive because it is the first time it appears on a Judean coin. The motif would reappear twelve years later on one of Herod Agrippa's coin, then on another, much rarer, of Agrippa II (ears of barley held in a hand). After that, the motif disappeared altogether from ancient Jewish coins.

THE LITUUS
The lituus was the wooden staff which the augurs held in the right hand; it symbolised their authority and their pastoral vocation. It was raised toward heavens while the priests invoked the Gods and made their predictions. Legend records that Romulus used it at the time of Rome's foundation in 753 B.C.E. It is interesting to note that the cross used in present times is the direct descendant of the lituus. As with the simpulum, Pilate's coinage is exceptional in that it alone displays the lituus as the sole object illustrated on the face.

THE WREATH
The laurel wreath is a symbol of power and victory, and figures on various ancient Greek and Roman coins. In Judea it can be found during the reign of John Hyrcanus I (134 to 104 B.C.E.). After that, Herod Antipas, speaker for Pilate, used it on all his coins. On Pilate's coins, the laurel wreath figures on the reverse side of the lituus, framing the date.

THE DATES
The notation of dates uses a code invented by the Greeks whereby each letter of the alphabet was assigned a number. This code would be used again in Judaism under the name of Guematria. The system is simple : the first ten letters of the alphabet are linked to units (1,2,3...), the following ten letters to tens (10,20,30...) and the four remaining letters to the first four hundreds. The "L" is an abbreviation meaning "year". Tiberius became emperor on September 17 of year 14 C.E, so we have :

LIS = Year 29 C.E. * LIZ = Year 30 C.E. * LIH = Year 31 C.E.

THE TEXTS
The legends on Pontius Pilate's coins are written in Greek. Judea, governed by the Ptolemy dynasty (301 to 198 B.C.E) then by the Syrians until 63 B.C.E, came under the same powerful influence of the Hellenic culture which touched the other territories of the ancient Persian Empire won by Alexander the Great. In spite of a certain amount of resistance, this Hellenistic heritage eventually crept into every aspect of daily life. Apart from the dates, the texts on Pilate's coinage consisted of only three different words : - TIBEPIOY KAICAPOC (Of Tiberius Emperor) on all three coins; - IOYLIA KAICAPOC (Empress Julia) added to the coin of year 29.
http://www.numismalink.com/fontanille1.html


Pontius Pilate
After the deposition of the eldest son of Herod, Archelaus (who had succeeded his father as ethnarch), Judea was placed under the rule of a Roman procurator. Pilate, who was the fifth, succeeding Valerius Gratus in A.D. 26, had greater authority than most procurators under the empire, for in addition to the ordinary duty of financial administration, he had supreme power judicially. His unusually long period of office (A.D. 26-36) covers the whole of the active ministry both of St. John the Baptist and of Jesus Christ.
As procurator Pilate was necessarily of equestrian rank, but beyond that we know little of his family or origin. Some have thought that he was only a freedman, deriving his name from pileus (the cap of freed slaves) but for this there seems to be no adequate evidence, and it is unlikely that a freedman would attain to a post of such importance. The Pontii were a Samnite gens. Pilate owed his appointment to the influence of Sejanus. The official residence of the procurators was the palace of Herod at Cæsarea; where there was a military force of about 3,000 soldiers. These soldiers came up to Jerusalem at the time of the feasts, when the city was full of strangers, and there was greater danger of disturbances, hence it was that Pilate had come to Jerusalem at the time of the Crucifixion. His name will be forever covered with infamy because of the part which he took in this matter, though at the time it appeared to him of small importance.
Pilate is a type of the worldly man, knowing the right and anxious to do it so far as it can be done without personal sacrifice of any kind, but yielding easily to pressure from those whose interest it is that he should act otherwise. He would gladly have acquitted Christ, and even made serious efforts in that direction, but gave way at once when his own position was threatened.
The other events of his rule are not of very great importance. Philo (Ad Gaium, 38) speaks of him as inflexible, merciless, and obstinate. The Jews hated him and his administration, for he was not only very severe, but showed little consideration for their susceptibilities. Some standards bearing the image of Tiberius, which had been set up by him in Jerusalem, caused an outbreak which would have ended in a massacre had not Pilate given way. At a later date Tiberius ordered him to remove certain gilt shields, which he had set up in Jerusalem in spite of the remonstrances of the people. The incident mentioned in St. Luke 13:1, of the Galilaeans whose blood Pilate mingled with the sacrifices, is not elsewhere referred to, but is quite in keeping with other authentic events of his rule. He was, therefore, anxious that no further hostile reports should be sent to the emperor concerning him.
The tendency, already discernible in the canonical Gospels, to lay stress on the efforts of Pilate to acquit Christ, and thus pass as lenient a judgment as possible upon his crime, goes further in the apocryphal Gospels and led in later years to the claim that he actually became a Christian. The Abyssinian Church reckons him as a saint, and assigns 25 June to him and to Claudia Procula, his wife. The belief that she became a Christian goes back to the second century, and may be found in Origen (Hom., in Mat., xxxv). The Greek Church assigns her a feast on 27 October. Tertullian and Justin Martyr both speak of a report on the Crucifixion (not extant) sent in by Pilate to Tiberius, from which idea a large amount of apocryphal literature originated. Some of these were Christian in origin (Gospel of Nicodemus), others came from the heathen, but these have all perished.
His rule was brought to an end through trouble which arose in Samaria. An imposter had given out that it was in his power to discover the sacred vessels which, as he alleged, had been hidden by Moses on Mount Gerizim, whither armed Samaritans came in large numbers. Pilate seems to have thought the whole affair was a blind, covering some other more important design, for he hurried forces to attack them, and many were slain. They appealed to Vitellius, who was at that time legate in Syria, saying that nothing political had been intended, and complaining of Pilate's whole administration. He was summoned to Rome to answer their charges, but before he could reach the city the Emperor Tiberius had died.
Catholic Encyclopedia: http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/12083c.htm

As the man who presided over the trial of Jesus, who found no fault with the defendant and washed his hands of the affair by referring it back to the Jewish mob, but who signed the final death warrant, Pontius Pilate represents almost a byword for ambivalence.
He appears in a poor light in all four Gospels and in a favourable light in the apocryphal Gospel of Peter where the Jews take all the blame for Jesus' death.
In the later Acts of Pilate, he is both cleared of responsibility for the Crucifixion and is said to have converted to Christianity.
In the drama of the Passion, Pilate is a ditherer who drifts towards pardoning Jesus, then drifts away again. He tries to pass the buck several times, makes the decision to save Jesus, then capitulates.
The former Archbishop of Canterbury, the late Robert Runcie once wrote, "It would have been better for the moral health of Christianity if the blame had stayed with Pilate."
In a poignant moment in the course of the trial, Pontius Pilate responds to an assertion by Jesus by asking "What is truth?"
The truth about Pilate is difficult to ascertain since records are few. Legends say he was a Spaniard or a German, but most likely he was a natural-born Roman citizen from central Italy.
But the fact that he was definitely the Procurator of Judea from 26 to 36 AD helps to establish Jesus as a real person and fixes him in time.
The official residence of the procurators was the palace of Herod at Caesarea, a mainly non-Jewish city where a force of some 3,000 Roman soldiers were based.
These would come to Jerusalem during the time of feasts when there was a greater danger of disturbances. This would explain Pilate's presence in the city during the time of the Crucifixion.
Pilate is recorded by several contemporary historians; his name is inscribed on Roman coins and on a stone dug up in Caesarea in the 1960s with the words, PONTIUS PILATUS PRAEFECTUS PROVINCIAE JUDAEAE.
The governorship of Judea was only a second-rate posting, though having the Jewish religious capital, Jerusalem, on its patch would have increased its importance.
Pilate ruled in conjunction with the Jewish authorities and was under orders from Emperor Tiberius, to respect their culture. He was a soldier rather than a diplomat.
The Jews relied on the Romans to keep their own rebellious factions under control. But they appeared to hate Pilate.
One contemporary Jewish historian Philo, describes him as a violent thug, fond of executions without trial. Another, Josephus, records that, at the start of his term, Pilate provoked the Jews by ordering the imperial standards to be carried into Jerusalem.
But he backed off from an all-out confrontation. On the other hand, later, he helped himself to Jewish revenues to build an aqueduct.
When, according to Josephus, bands of resistance fighters, supported by crowds of ordinary people, sabotaged the project by getting in the way of Pilate's workmen, he sent in his soldiers. Hundreds were massacred.
Anne Wroe, author of a recent book Pilate: the Biography of an Invented Man, says that for some modern scholars, given this propensity for violence when the occasion warranted, the idea of Pilate as a waverer is nonsense.
A Roman governor, they point out, would not have wasted two minutes thinking about a shabby Jewish villain, one among many. Wroe's depiction of Pilate, however, suggests he was something of a pragmatist.
His first duty was to keep the peace in Judea and to keep the revenues flowing back to Rome. "Should I have jeopardised the peace for the sake of some Jew who may have been innocent?", she has Pilate asking. "Should I have defied a furious crowd, maybe butchered them, to save one life?"
Whatever the truth about the real Pontius Pilate, such dilemmas are what he has come to symbolise.
Anne Wroe makes the modern comparisons of Neville Chamberlain in 1938. Bill McSweeney, of the Irish School of Ecumenics suggests that "without the Pilates of Anglo-Irish politics, we might never have had the Good Friday Agreement".
Tony Blair has said of Pilate: "It is possible to view Pilate as the archetypal politician, caught on the horns of a dilemma."
Even if, in reality, the Jesus affair was nothing but a small side-show in the career of Pontius Pilate, it had monumental repercussions for his image.
His inclusion in the Christian creeds, in the words of Robert Runcie, "binds the eternal realms to the stumbling, messy chronology of earthly time and place".
BBC: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/1273594.stm

The Ethiopian Church recognized Pilate as a saint in the sixth century, based on the account in the Acts of Pilate

Although historians can pinpoint the exact date of death of many distinguished historical figures, the date of the crucifixion of Jesus Christ remains a matter of scholarly debate. Christ’s birth is most often dated between 7-5 BC (some scholars have suggested, however, His birth was as early as 20 BC). Christ’s Death and Resurrection is dated between 29-36 AD.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
1 commentsCleisthenes
PontiusPilate31BCHendin650.jpg
[18H650] Pontius Pilate prefect for Tiberius Prutah, 31 BC68 viewsPONTIUS PILATUS PRUTAH. Hendin 650, aVF, 14.3mm, 1.94 grams. Minted 31 C.E. FULL "LIH" Date, (H partially hidden behind pretty patina can be revealed.)

THE COINS OF PONTIUS PILATE
Jean-Philippe Fontanille

INTRODUCTION
They are not really beautiful, or truly rare, nor are they of very great monetary value. Yet these apparently modest coins carry in their weight an era and an act which would have immense consequence to the history of the world. Indeed, they are closely associated with three basic factors which saw the foundation of Christianity :
1 - The temporal proximity : Most modern experts agree in recognising that the year now designated 30 C.E. marked the trial and the death of Jesus. Given that time-frame, Pilate's coins were minted in 29, 30 and 31 C.E.
2 - The geographic proximity : The most credible hypothesis indicates that these particular coins where struck in Jerusalem, the city in which the significant events took place.
3 - The human proximity : Pontius Pilate himself designed and put the coins into circulation, and of course he was the man who conducted the trial and ordered the crucifixion of Jesus.

So it is that everyone, whether a believer or simply a lover of history or of numismatics, will find in these coins direct evidence of and witness to an episode the memory of which has survived 2000 years : A momentous event which has to a great extent fashioned the world we know.

Throughout this article we will also note the exceptional character of Pilate's coins: Exceptional in the nature of the images they bear, for the numerous variants they offer, for the presence of countermarks, and above all for the part their originator played in history. The putative appearance of these coins imprints on the Turin shroud has yet to be confirmed by more solid scientific proofs.

Pilate's coins are Roman coins, the words on them are Greek, they were circulated in Judea, and today they are to be found distributed among world-wide collectors after having spent 2000 years buried in the earth. They were minted and used during a period which produced an event destined to change the face of the world, and issued at the command of one of the principal actors in that event. An amazing and dramatic destiny for apparently such humble and unassuming little coins !

For 35 years Pilate's coins were passed from hand to hand every day. They knew the scent of spice-stalls, heard the merchants' ranting, smelled the sweat and dust of daily works. They were alive to the sounds of Hebrew, Aramaic, Greek and Latin voices ¬ now haggling over a price, now offering prayers to YHVH, Jesus or Jupiter.

Nobody prays to Jupiter any more [?], but Pilate's coins are surviving witnesses to a time when the first Christians were considered as a messianic sect among several others in the midst of Judaism in crisis. The absolute split between Judaism and Christianity took place from about 70 C.E, the year which marked the tragic ending of the first Jewish rebellion. It was from that time, too, that Pilate's money ceased to be used.

Like each one of us, who carries always a few small coins in the bottom of our pockets; there is no doubt that some of Pilate's coins resonated to the last words of the most famous of all supplicants. A very long story had its beginning...

2. MANUFACTURE AND CIRCULATION
LOCATION OF MINTS
Although the prefects had their residencies in Cesarea, the administrative capital of the province, it seems that their money was minted in Jerusalem. Indeed, a specimen dated year 31 has been found in this town in an incomplete state of manufacture.

DURATION OF USE
It would seem that Pilate's money was in current use for at least 35 years. Indeed, some of it has been discovered among other coins during the excavation of remains of dwellings destroyed by the Romans during the first Jewish revolt, which is evidence that they were still in use at that time.

AREA OF CIRCULATION
These coins circulated far beyond the frontiers of Judea. Some samples have been discovered as far away as Antioch in present-day Turkey, nearly 500 kilometres from Jerusalem where they were minted. Others have also been found in Jordan. These limits represent a circulation area of at least 100.000 square kilometres, that is five times larger than the size of the state of Israel. Taking into account that it was a time when distances were expressed in terms of days of march, one begins to see the important influence of these coins.

3. THE IMAGES AND THE TEXTS
THE SIMPULUM
A fairly frequent symbol from the Roman religion of the time, the simpulum was a utensil used by the priests during their religious ceremonies. This little ladle, provided with shaft and a handle, allowed the priests to taste the wine which they poured onto the head of an animal destined for sacrifice, after which the soothsayer was empowered to examine the animal's entrails for signs and portents sent to men by the Gods through the medium of the interpreter. As I pointed, none of this would have been obvious at first sight of the motif except perhaps to a Roman citizen. However, it throws some light on the theory put forward by F.A. Banks [Coins of the Bible Days].

This wasn't the first time that the simpulum appeared on Roman coins, but it is the first time it figured alone. This fact gives an additional specificity to Pilate's coins, not only in the context of Judea but also in comparison with all the other coins of the Empire.

THE THREE EARS OF BARLEY
The three ears or barley are featured on the opposing face of the simpulum. Unlike the simpulum, these ears of barley are not in contravention of the Jewish Law. The motif is nevertheless distinctive because it is the first time it appears on a Judean coin. The motif would reappear twelve years later on one of Herod Agrippa's coin, then on another, much rarer, of Agrippa II (ears of barley held in a hand). After that, the motif disappeared altogether from ancient Jewish coins.

THE LITUUS
The lituus was the wooden staff which the augurs held in the right hand; it symbolised their authority and their pastoral vocation. It was raised toward heavens while the priests invoked the Gods and made their predictions. Legend records that Romulus used it at the time of Rome's foundation in 753 B.C.E. It is interesting to note that the cross used in present times is the direct descendant of the lituus. As with the simpulum, Pilate's coinage is exceptional in that it alone displays the lituus as the sole object illustrated on the face.

THE WREATH
The laurel wreath is a symbol of power and victory, and figures on various ancient Greek and Roman coins. In Judea it can be found during the reign of John Hyrcanus I (134 to 104 B.C.E.). After that, Herod Antipas, speaker for Pilate, used it on all his coins. On Pilate's coins, the laurel wreath figures on the reverse side of the lituus, framing the date.

THE DATES
The notation of dates uses a code invented by the Greeks whereby each letter of the alphabet was assigned a number. This code would be used again in Judaism under the name of Guematria. The system is simple : the first ten letters of the alphabet are linked to units (1,2,3...), the following ten letters to tens (10,20,30...) and the four remaining letters to the first four hundreds. The "L" is an abbreviation meaning "year". Tiberius became emperor on September 17 of year 14 C.E, so we have :

LIS = Year 29 C.E. * LIZ = Year 30 C.E. * LIH = Year 31 C.E.

THE TEXTS
The legends on Pontius Pilate's coins are written in Greek. Judea, governed by the Ptolemy dynasty (301 to 198 B.C.E) then by the Syrians until 63 B.C.E, came under the same powerful influence of the Hellenic culture which touched the other territories of the ancient Persian Empire won by Alexander the Great. In spite of a certain amount of resistance, this Hellenistic heritage eventually crept into every aspect of daily life. Apart from the dates, the texts on Pilate's coinage consisted of only three different words : - TIBEPIOY KAICAPOC (Of Tiberius Emperor) on all three coins; - IOYLIA KAICAPOC (Empress Julia) added to the coin of year 29.
http://www.numismalink.com/fontanille1.html


Pontius Pilate
After the deposition of the eldest son of Herod, Archelaus (who had succeeded his father as ethnarch), Judea was placed under the rule of a Roman procurator. Pilate, who was the fifth, succeeding Valerius Gratus in A.D. 26, had greater authority than most procurators under the empire, for in addition to the ordinary duty of financial administration, he had supreme power judicially. His unusually long period of office (A.D. 26-36) covers the whole of the active ministry both of St. John the Baptist and of Jesus Christ.
As procurator Pilate was necessarily of equestrian rank, but beyond that we know little of his family or origin. Some have thought that he was only a freedman, deriving his name from pileus (the cap of freed slaves) but for this there seems to be no adequate evidence, and it is unlikely that a freedman would attain to a post of such importance. The Pontii were a Samnite gens. Pilate owed his appointment to the influence of Sejanus. The official residence of the procurators was the palace of Herod at Cæsarea; where there was a military force of about 3,000 soldiers. These soldiers came up to Jerusalem at the time of the feasts, when the city was full of strangers, and there was greater danger of disturbances, hence it was that Pilate had come to Jerusalem at the time of the Crucifixion. His name will be forever covered with infamy because of the part which he took in this matter, though at the time it appeared to him of small importance.
Pilate is a type of the worldly man, knowing the right and anxious to do it so far as it can be done without personal sacrifice of any kind, but yielding easily to pressure from those whose interest it is that he should act otherwise. He would gladly have acquitted Christ, and even made serious efforts in that direction, but gave way at once when his own position was threatened.
The other events of his rule are not of very great importance. Philo (Ad Gaium, 38) speaks of him as inflexible, merciless, and obstinate. The Jews hated him and his administration, for he was not only very severe, but showed little consideration for their susceptibilities. Some standards bearing the image of Tiberius, which had been set up by him in Jerusalem, caused an outbreak which would have ended in a massacre had not Pilate given way. At a later date Tiberius ordered him to remove certain gilt shields, which he had set up in Jerusalem in spite of the remonstrances of the people. The incident mentioned in St. Luke 13:1, of the Galilaeans whose blood Pilate mingled with the sacrifices, is not elsewhere referred to, but is quite in keeping with other authentic events of his rule. He was, therefore, anxious that no further hostile reports should be sent to the emperor concerning him.
The tendency, already discernible in the canonical Gospels, to lay stress on the efforts of Pilate to acquit Christ, and thus pass as lenient a judgment as possible upon his crime, goes further in the apocryphal Gospels and led in later years to the claim that he actually became a Christian. The Abyssinian Church reckons him as a saint, and assigns 25 June to him and to Claudia Procula, his wife. The belief that she became a Christian goes back to the second century, and may be found in Origen (Hom., in Mat., xxxv). The Greek Church assigns her a feast on 27 October. Tertullian and Justin Martyr both speak of a report on the Crucifixion (not extant) sent in by Pilate to Tiberius, from which idea a large amount of apocryphal literature originated. Some of these were Christian in origin (Gospel of Nicodemus), others came from the heathen, but these have all perished.
His rule was brought to an end through trouble which arose in Samaria. An imposter had given out that it was in his power to discover the sacred vessels which, as he alleged, had been hidden by Moses on Mount Gerizim, whither armed Samaritans came in large numbers. Pilate seems to have thought the whole affair was a blind, covering some other more important design, for he hurried forces to attack them, and many were slain. They appealed to Vitellius, who was at that time legate in Syria, saying that nothing political had been intended, and complaining of Pilate's whole administration. He was summoned to Rome to answer their charges, but before he could reach the city the Emperor Tiberius had died.
Catholic Encyclopedia: http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/12083c.htm

As the man who presided over the trial of Jesus, who found no fault with the defendant and washed his hands of the affair by referring it back to the Jewish mob, but who signed the final death warrant, Pontius Pilate represents almost a byword for ambivalence.
He appears in a poor light in all four Gospels and in a favourable light in the apocryphal Gospel of Peter where the Jews take all the blame for Jesus' death.
In the later Acts of Pilate, he is both cleared of responsibility for the Crucifixion and is said to have converted to Christianity.
In the drama of the Passion, Pilate is a ditherer who drifts towards pardoning Jesus, then drifts away again. He tries to pass the buck several times, makes the decision to save Jesus, then capitulates.
The former Archbishop of Canterbury, the late Robert Runcie once wrote, "It would have been better for the moral health of Christianity if the blame had stayed with Pilate."
In a poignant moment in the course of the trial, Pontius Pilate responds to an assertion by Jesus by asking "What is truth?"
The truth about Pilate is difficult to ascertain since records are few. Legends say he was a Spaniard or a German, but most likely he was a natural-born Roman citizen from central Italy.
But the fact that he was definitely the Procurator of Judea from 26 to 36 AD helps to establish Jesus as a real person and fixes him in time.
The official residence of the procurators was the palace of Herod at Caesarea, a mainly non-Jewish city where a force of some 3,000 Roman soldiers were based.
These would come to Jerusalem during the time of feasts when there was a greater danger of disturbances. This would explain Pilate's presence in the city during the time of the Crucifixion.
Pilate is recorded by several contemporary historians; his name is inscribed on Roman coins and on a stone dug up in Caesarea in the 1960s with the words, PONTIUS PILATUS PRAEFECTUS PROVINCIAE JUDAEAE.
The governorship of Judea was only a second-rate posting, though having the Jewish religious capital, Jerusalem, on its patch would have increased its importance.
Pilate ruled in conjunction with the Jewish authorities and was under orders from Emperor Tiberius, to respect their culture. He was a soldier rather than a diplomat.
The Jews relied on the Romans to keep their own rebellious factions under control. But they appeared to hate Pilate.
One contemporary Jewish historian Philo, describes him as a violent thug, fond of executions without trial. Another, Josephus, records that, at the start of his term, Pilate provoked the Jews by ordering the imperial standards to be carried into Jerusalem.
But he backed off from an all-out confrontation. On the other hand, later, he helped himself to Jewish revenues to build an aqueduct.
When, according to Josephus, bands of resistance fighters, supported by crowds of ordinary people, sabotaged the project by getting in the way of Pilate's workmen, he sent in his soldiers. Hundreds were massacred.
Anne Wroe, author of a recent book Pilate: the Biography of an Invented Man, says that for some modern scholars, given this propensity for violence when the occasion warranted, the idea of Pilate as a waverer is nonsense.
A Roman governor, they point out, would not have wasted two minutes thinking about a shabby Jewish villain, one among many. Wroe's depiction of Pilate, however, suggests he was something of a pragmatist.
His first duty was to keep the peace in Judea and to keep the revenues flowing back to Rome. "Should I have jeopardised the peace for the sake of some Jew who may have been innocent?", she has Pilate asking. "Should I have defied a furious crowd, maybe butchered them, to save one life?"
Whatever the truth about the real Pontius Pilate, such dilemmas are what he has come to symbolise.
Anne Wroe makes the modern comparisons of Neville Chamberlain in 1938. Bill McSweeney, of the Irish School of Ecumenics suggests that "without the Pilates of Anglo-Irish politics, we might never have had the Good Friday Agreement".
Tony Blair has said of Pilate: "It is possible to view Pilate as the archetypal politician, caught on the horns of a dilemma."
Even if, in reality, the Jesus affair was nothing but a small side-show in the career of Pontius Pilate, it had monumental repercussions for his image.
His inclusion in the Christian creeds, in the words of Robert Runcie, "binds the eternal realms to the stumbling, messy chronology of earthly time and place".
BBC: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/1273594.stm

The Ethiopian Church recognized Pilate as a saint in the sixth century, based on the account in the Acts of Pilate

Although historians can pinpoint the exact date of death of many distinguished historical figures, the date of the crucifixion of Jesus Christ remains a matter of scholarly debate. Christ’s birth is most often dated between 7-5 BC (some scholars have suggested, however, His birth was as early as 20 BC). Christ’s Death and Resurrection is dated between 29-36 AD.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

Cleisthenes
   
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