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DenCassioLongino.jpg
35 viewsDenarius - 63 B.C. - L. Cassius Longinus. Gens Cassia
Obv.: Draped and veiled bust of Vesta left; kylix behind, S before
Rev.: Togate male standing facing, dropping tablet into a cista; LONGIN. III. V behind.
g. 3,85 mm. 18
Crawford 413/1; Sear RCV 364, Syd 935.

Maxentius
CONTINE1-6.jpg
45 viewsConstantinus I - AE3 - 326/328 - Mint of Thessalonica
Ob.: CONSTANTINVS AVG; laureate head right
Rev.: PROVIDENTIAE AVGG; campgate
gs. 3 mm. 18,8
Cohen 454
Maxentius
DenMnCordioRufobis.jpg
26 viewsDenarius - 46 BC.
MN. CORDIVS RVFVS - Gens Cordia
Obv.: Jugate heads of the Dioscuri right; stars above; RVFVS III VIR behind
Rev.: Venus stg. left, holding scales and sceptre; on her shoulder, Cupid. MN CORDIVS right.
Gs. 3,9 mm. 16x17,2
Craw. 463/1a; Sear RCV 440

Maxentius
Hera_1_.jpg
11 viewsAE 3, 16mm/2.95gm, fully silvered, struck c. 318 AD

Obv/ DN VAL LICIN LICINIVS NOB C; laur. and dr. bust r., holding in globe and sceptre in l. hand and mappa in r. hand.
Rev/ PROVIDENTIAE CAESS; Campgate, three towers, lamda in r. field.; SMH gamma in exergue.
Ref/ RIC VOL VII, 49
Mayadigger
2.jpg
22 viewsGordian II Tranquillina
AUT K MANT GORDIANOS AUG SAB
TRANKUL LINA
OULPIANON AEXIALEON

Upper coin is Anchialos of Gordian III and Tranquillina. I'll go look it up, if someone else hasn't done so already. P.L.
It is AMNG II, 1, p. 289, no. 676. Obv. Gordian facing Tranquillina, AVT K M ANT GORDIANOS AVG SAB and below TRANKVL / LINA. In her name the NK are ligate. Rev. Tyche to l. with kalathos, rudder, and cornucopiae. OVLPIANÔN | AGXIALEÔN (I used Roman letters for Greek). There Strack cites 17 specimens
+Alexios
Roma_front_ionic_column_back_B_.jpg
51 viewsC. Augurinus, ca 135 B.C., Denarius.
Obverse: Roam right, X beneath chin.
Reverse: Ionic column surmounted by statue flanked by togate and grain ears.
EX: Laurion Numismatics Winter 1992 fixed price list - the first coin I purchased from a fixed price list.
3 commentspaul1888
constantius_ii_campgate_smts1.jpg
39 viewsThe patina on this one is a beautiful dark green and glossy
Constantine II CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C LDC left
PROVIDEN-TIAE CAESS 2 6 to 8, three seen with a base, two of them with dots in top layer SMTS Delta Thessalonica RIC VII Thessalonica 157 C3 326-328
James b4
Constantine_campgate54657.jpg
35 viewsareich
Constantine_campgate.jpg
17 viewsareich
Constantinus_AE_campgate.JPG
15 viewsAntonivs Protti
Constantinus_Campgate~0.JPG
10 viewsAntonivs Protti
Licinius_I,_AE18,_campgate,_Lamdba_right,_Heraclea,_318-320_AD~0.JPG
11 viewsAntonivs Protti
Philip_Curule_chair.jpg
33 viewsPhilip I. A.D. 244-249. AR antoninianus (21 mm, 4.78 g, 6 h). Rome, A.D. 245. IMP M IVL PHILIPPVS AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust of Philip I right / P M TR P II COS P P, emperor, togate, seated left on curule chair, holding globe and short scepter. RIC 2b; RSC 120.
From the Maple Leaf Collection.
1 commentspaul1888
Zy4o5EnCf2EqKSe3w9Ft77mQBN8sG6.jpg
6 viewsC. 328-329 AD

Reverse: PROVIDENTIAE AVGG, camp gate, SMNΓ in ex.

Toned with a super portrait and good metal.

Ref: RIC 153

3.13g

20mm
paul1888
Screen_Shot_2017-05-09_at_12_17_39_PM.png
2 Augustus37 viewsAugustus. 27 B.C.-A.D. 14 AR denarius. Lugdunum (Lyon) mint, 2 B.C.-A.D. 12. From the Joseph Donzanti Collection.
Augustus. 27 B.C.-A.D. 14 AR denarius (18.40 mm, 3.91 g, 11 h). Lugdunum (Lyon) mint, 2 B.C.-A.D. 12. CAESAR AVGVSTVS DIVI F PATER PATRIAE, laureate head right / AVGVSTI F COS DESIG PRINC IVVENT C L CAESARES, Caius and lucius caesars togate stand facing, each resting hand on a round shield with spear behind, above center on left a simpulum right and on right a lituus left. RIC 207; RSC 43; Lyon 82. aEF, area of minor flat strike.

From the Joseph Donzanti Collection. Ex Agora Auctions, 5/9/17
2 commentsSosius
rjb_cg1_02_05.jpg
38 Trier64 viewsConstantine I
LRBC I 38
RIC VII 504
mauseus
rjb_cg2_02_05.jpg
38 Trier48 viewsConstantine I
LRBC I 38
RIC VII 504
mauseus
antoniad.jpg
(0010) ANTONIA17 views(daughter of Mark Antony; mother of Claudius; grandmother of Caligula)
b. ca. 36 BC, d. 37 AD
AE ORICHALCUM DUPONDIUS 28.5 11.98 g
STRUCK BY CLAUDIUS, ca. 50 - 54 AD
O: ANTONIA AVGVSTA, bare-headed bust right, hair in long plait
R: TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP (P P) S C, Claudius veiled and togate, standing left, holding simpulum
RIC 1 104
laney
RI_064iy_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 26532 viewsObv:– SEVERVS PIVS AVG, Laureate head right
Rev:– FVNDATOR PACIS, Emperor, togate and veiled, standing left holding olive branch
Minted in Rome.
Ref:– RIC 265. RSC 205. BMCRE W330.
maridvnvm
Gordian_III_RSC_216.jpg
1 Gordian III12 viewsAR Antoninianus
Rome Mint
240 AD

O: IMP GORDIANVS PIVS FEL AVG

R: PM TR P II COS PP, Emperor standing front, head left by altar, togate and veiled, holding patera over altar and transverse sceptre

RIC IV-3 68; Cohen 216; Sear 8637
Sosius
Gordian_III_RIC_37.jpg
1 Gordian III15 viewsGORDIAN III
AR Antonianus, Rome Mint
240 AD

O: IMP CAES M ANT GORDIANVS AVG

R: PM TR P II COS PP, Emperor, standing front, head left by altar, togate and veiled, holding patera over altar and wand

RIC IV-3 37: Cohen 210; Sear 5 8637
Sosius
Screen_Shot_2017-05-11_at_10_45_56_AM.png
15 Hadrian29 viewsHadrian. A.D. 117-138. AE sestertius. Rome mint, struck A.D. 119.
Hadrian. A.D. 117-138. AE sestertius (35.51 mm, 26.94 g, 7 h). Rome mint, struck A.D. 119. IMP CAESAR TRAIANVS HADRIA-NVS AVG P M TR P COS III, laureate, bare-chested "heroic" bust right, drapery on left shoulder / PROVIDENTIAE DEORVM S - C, Hadrian, togate, standing facing, head left, right hand receiving scepter borne by eagle descending from sky on left and scroll (?) in left hand. RIC 589; BMC 1203. good VF/VF, fantastic sensitive portrait on heroic bust, green patina with spots of red, particularly on reverse. Ex Agora Auctions 5/9/2017
1 commentsSosius
rjb_2010_01_64.jpg
182bis100 viewsCarausius 287-93AD
AE Antoninianus
Obv: "IMPP CAES PII FF FR AVGGG"
Radiate, cuirassed, jugate busts right
Rev: "VIRTVS AVGGG"
Three emperors standing left holding batons and globes
London mint
-/-//MLXXI
RIC -; Bourne (2009) - (cf 24 obverse & 6 reverse)
1 commentsmauseus
rjb_car_188cf_05_05.jpg
18858 viewsCarausius 287-93
Antoninianus
Obv"IMP CARAVSIVS PF AVG"
Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev "[PM T]RP II COS PP"
Emperor togate seated left in curule chair
Camulodunum mint
-/-//C
RIC 188?
This is the only known coin with "TRP II COS", all other extant specimens except the coin below are "TRP IIII COS". A discussion of this coin in relation to the other dated coins of Carausius can be found here.
mauseus
rjb_2012_06_07.jpg
18824 viewsCarausius 287-93
Antoninianus
Obv"IMP CARAVSIVS PF AVG"
Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev "PM TRP [II? CO]S PP"
Emperor togate seated left in curule chair
Camulodunum mint
-/-//C
RIC 188
mauseus
Commodus_Den_RIC_212.jpg
20 Commodus12 viewsCommodus
AR Denarius. 190 AD
M COMM ANT P FEL AVG BRIT P P, laureate head right / P M TR P XV IMP VIII COS VI, Commodus, togate, seated on a curule chair, holding branch & transverse sceptre.
RSC 555bis, RIC 212, Sear5 #5683
RI0082
Sosius
rjb_car_fratrescf198.jpg
202cf190 viewsCarausius 287-93AD
Antoninianus
Obv "CARAVSIVS ET FRATRES SVI"
Jugate busts of Diocletian, Maximianus and Carausius left, Carausius holding spear over shoulder
Rev "COMES AVGGG"
Victory walking left holding wreath and branch
Camulodunum mint
S/P//C
RIC - (cf 202-3)
An interesting variant of the bust type with the spear, compare with the jugate Carausius in the “Best of Type” gallery.
2 commentsmauseus
Macrinus_Moushmov_1292.jpg
27 Macrinus AE27 N&I20 viewsMACRINUS
AE27 of Nikopolis ad Istrum, legate Statius Longinus.

AVT K M OPEL CEV - MAKPEINOC AV, laureate bust right / YP CTA LONGINOY NIKOPOLITWN PR-OC I, Hermes, naked except drapery over left shoulder, standing left, holding caduceus and purse.

Pick 1748, Moushmov 1292
Sosius
Elagabalus_Moushmov_644.jpg
29 Elagabalus24 viewsELAGABALUS
AE 30 Pentassarion. Markianopolis, Moesia Inferior.
Legate: Julius Antonius Seleucus,

AVT K M AVRHLIOC ANTWNEINOC, laureate, draped, cuirassed bust right. / VP IOVL ANT CELEUKOU MARKIANOPOLITWN, Nemesis-Aequitas st. l., holding scales and parazonium, wheel at foot.

Moushmov 644; Varbanov 1578
Sosius
rjb_2010_01_06~0.jpg
293cf21 viewsCrispus, Caesar 317-326 AD
AE Follis
Obv: CRISPVS NOB CAES
Laureate, cuirassed bust right
Rev: VIRTVS CAESS
Camp gate with open doors
TA crescent RL
Arelate Mint
LRBC I - (cf293-4)
RIC (VII) Arles -
mauseus
001590_l.jpg
32 Gordian I Africanus33 viewsGORDIAN I AFRICANUS
AE Sestertius, Rome Mint
27-29 mm, 17.75 g
March 19 to April 9, 238 A.D.
IMP CAES M ANT GORDIANVS AFR AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from behind / VICTORIA AVGG, S-C, Victory advancing left, holding wreath and palm.
RIC IV, 2, p. 161, 12. Very rare. Good portrait and fully readable name. Very fine.
Ex-Auctiones

Gordian I, an 80-year-old senator, was proclaimed as emperor during a revolt in Africa but commited suicide after his son and co-ruler Gordianus II was defeated by Maximinus' legate. Their rule only lasted for 20 days, hence the rarity of their coins.
Sosius
rjb_car_04_08.jpg
341cf89 viewsCarausius 287-93AD
Antoninianus
Obv “IMP CARAVSIVS PF AVG”
Radiate bust in imperial mantle left jugate with Sol
Rev “PAX AVGVSTI”
Pax walking left holding branch and sceptre
Camulodunum mint
-/-//CXXI
RIC - (cf 341)
1 commentsmauseus
T1118LG.jpg
C POBLICIUS Q F. 80 BC91 viewsHelmeted bust of Roma right / Hercules strangling the Nemean lion; bow and quiver at left; club below. Cr. 380/1.

POBLICIA, a plebian family, but of consular rank. Its cognomen on coins is Malleolus. There are fifteen varieties, all of silver, on some of which a small hammer or mallett is engraved, evidently alluding to the surname Malleolus.

The first of Heracles' twelve labours, set by King Eurystheus (his cousin) was to slay the Nemean lion.

According to one version of the myth, the Nemean lion took women as hostages to its lair in a cave near Nemea, luring warriors from nearby towns to save the damsel in distress. After entering the cave, the warrior would see the woman (usually feigning injury) and rush to her side. Once he was close, the woman would turn into a lion and kill the warrior, devouring his remains and giving the bones to Hades.

Heracles wandered the area until he came to the town of Cleonae. There he met a boy who said that if Heracles slew the Nemean lion and returned alive within 30 days, the town would sacrifice a lion to Zeus; but if he did not return within 30 days or he died, the boy would sacrifice himself to Zeus.[3] Another version claims that he met Molorchos, a shepherd who had lost his son to the lion, saying that if he came back within 30 days, a ram would be sacrificed to Zeus. If he did not return within 30 days, it would be sacrificed to the dead Heracles as a mourning offering.

While searching for the lion, Heracles fetched some arrows to use against it, not knowing that its golden fur was impenetrable; when he found and shot the lion and firing at it with his bow, he discovered the fur's protective property when the arrow bounced harmlessly off the creature's thigh. After some time, Heracles made the lion return to his cave. The cave had two entrances, one of which Heracles blocked; he then entered the other. In those dark and close quarters, Heracles stunned the beast with his club and, using his immense strength, strangled it to death. During the fight the lion bit off one of his fingers. Others say that he shot arrows at it, eventually shooting it in the unarmoured mouth.

After slaying the lion, he tried to skin it with a knife from his belt, but failed. He then tried sharpening the knife with a stone and even tried with the stone itself. Finally, Athena, noticing the hero's plight, told Heracles to use one of the lion's own claws to skin the pelt.

When he returned on the thirtieth day carrying the carcass of the lion on his shoulders, King Eurystheus was amazed and terrified. Eurystheus forbade him ever again to enter the city; in future he was to display the fruits of his labours outside the city gates. Eurystheus warned him that the tasks set for him would become increasingly difficult. He then sent Heracles off to complete his next quest, which was to destroy the Lernaean hydra.

The Nemean lion's coat was impervious to the elements and all but the most powerful weapons. Others say that Heracles' armour was, in fact, the hide of the lion of Cithaeron.
ecoli
conicmg.jpg
Constantine I, RIC 24 Cyzicus20 viewsConstantine I Follis
Obverse: CONSTAN-TINVS AVG, laureate head right.
Reverse: PROVIDEN-TIAE AVGG, camp-gate sith one door, six rows of blocks and two turrits on top. One star above.
SMKB in ex. Cyzicus mint. 20.2 mm., 2.52 g.
NORMAN K
conscamp~0.jpg
Constantine II, AE3, Thessalonica, RIC VII, 157, 326-328 CE27 views

Constantine II, AE3, 326-328, Thessalonica, Officina 4
Obverse: CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C, Laureate, draped, cuirassed bust left
Reverse: PROVIDEN_TIAE CAESS, Campgate with six rows, two turrets, no doors, star above, top and bottom rows empty blocks
SMTSD in exergue
19.5mm, 2.7g
RIC VII, 157 nearly full silvering
NORMAN K
101.jpg
County of Tripoli, Raymond III (1152-87), Æ Pougeoise, (c.1173-1187)157 views County of Tripoli, Raymond III (1152-87), Æ Pougeoise, (c.1173-1187), Tripoli mint +CIVITAS, towered gateway, rev., +TRIPOLIS, St. Andrew's cross pommettée, circle in centre, crescent in each quarter, (CCS 13)Vladislavs D
32264q00~0.jpg
County of Tripoli, Raymond III, 1152 - 1187 Bronze pougeoise48 views County of Tripoli, Raymond III, 1152 - 1187 Bronze pougeoise
O : + CIVITAS fortified gateway, five rows of masonry, five crenellations, large divided door
R : + TRIPOLIS, St. Andrew's cross pommetée, circle in center, crescent and pellet in each quarter
CCS 13
Ex FORUM ; Ex Malloy
Vladislavs D
mon4s.jpg
Elagabalus, Varbanov 1394 AE17, 218-222 CE.25 views
056p Elagabalus, 16 May 218 - 11 March 222 A.D., Markianopolis, Moesia Inferior
Bronze AE
Varbanov 1384, VF, Markianopolis mint, 2.1g, 16.5 mm,
Obverse: AΥT K M AΥΡ ANTΩNINOC,( ΩN ligate) laureate head right; reverse Reverse:MAΡKIANOΠOΛITΩN, (AP and ΩN ligate) four stars in creasent moon.
NORMAN K
coins54.JPG
Laodicea ad Mare; Antonius Pius20 viewsAntoninus Pius Æ 25mm of Laodicea ad Mare. Dated year 188=140-141 AD. AVTO KAI TI AILI ADPI ANTWNEINOC CEB, laureate & draped bust left / IOVLIEWN TWN KAI LAODIKEWN, bust of Tyche as city goddess left, wearing headdress of gateway, turret, lighthouse and walls; KO to left, HP P to right (date).ecoli
FC2.jpg
LYDIA, Philadelphia. Gaius (Caligula). AD 37-41. Æ (17mm, 3.83 g, 12h). Epikrates, magistrate. Bare head of Caligula right / Jugate laureate busts of the Dioscuri right.20 viewsJoe Geranio Collection- LYDIA, Philadelphia. Gaius (Caligula). AD 37-41. Æ (17mm, 3.83 g, 12h). Epikrates, magistrate. Bare head of Caligula right / Jugate laureate busts of the Dioscuri right. RPC I 3022. Anyone May Use as Long as Credit is Given.Joe Geranio
Dolphindidrachm.jpg
Punic occupation half shekel78 viewsNude youth on horseback to left, crowning horse with wreath; IΩ to right, ΣΩΓENHΣ below

Taras astride dolphin to left, holding cornucopiae and Nike who crowns him with wreath; TAPAΣ below.

Calabria, Tarentum ; Punic occupation, circa 212-209 BC

AR Reduced didrachm or Half-Shekel.

2.69g chipped otherwise VF+

Vlasto 975-7; HN Italy 1079.

Ex-ANE

Rare!

The climax of the Carthaginian invasion of Italy was reached when Tarentum changed sides in 212 BC. The takeover of the city was a carefully planned coup by Hannibal and members of the city's democratic faction who opened the gates to Hannibal's army. The Carthaginians failed to take the citadel, but subsequent fortifications around this enemy stronghold enabled the city to remain under Punic control. Hannibal installed his own magistrates and struck coinage based on the Punic half shekel standard.
8 commentsJay GT4
00005x00.jpg
24 viewsROME
PB Tessera (19mm, 3.15 g, 12 h)
Togate priest standing left, holding patera
Modius with three grain ears, A C flanking
Rostowzew 1571 var. (size, no modius)

AC may stand for “Antoninus Caesar”, thereby making the togate figure the emperor in the guise of Pontifex Maximus. The presence of a modius also suggests a relation to the annona, implying a reading of “Annona Caesaris.”
Ardatirion
Lanz21.JPG
40 viewsIONIA, Ephesos
PB Tessera (19mm, 4.90 g)
Togate figure standing left, sacrificing at altar before tholos containing cult statue
Blank
Gülbay & Kireç -; Hirsch 279, lot 4922

The engraver of this die betrays no small skill in his execution of the obverse type; the circular shrine is shown in perspective, with the columns arranged so as to suggest distance while still leaving room for the statue to be visible. I was surprised to find that another specimen of this type from different, though equally elegant dies had recently sold in a Hirsch auction, there misidentified as a “bleiplombe,” or lead seal.
1 commentsArdatirion
constantin1-provavgg-plc.JPG
RIC.225 Constantine I (AE3, Providentiae Avgg)16 viewsConstantine I, caesar (306-307), emperor (307-337)
AE3: Providentiae Avgg (324-325, Lyon mint)

bronze, 20mm diameter, 3.13 g, die axis: 12h

A/ CONSTAN-TINVS AVG; pearl-diademed head right
R/ PROVIDEN-TIAE AVGG / PLC in exergue; open camp gate, two turrets, no door and a star above

Ferrando II 479 (C2)
Droger
hugues-france-denier-orelans~0.JPG
Hugh Magnus: denier (Orléans)12 viewsHugh Magnus (Hugues de France in french) (1007-1025)
Denier (Orléans)

Billon, 1.28 g, diameter 17.5 mm, die axis 12h
O/ +D-I DEXTRA BE; city gate with an H on the left, a V below, a G on the right and a O on the top
R/ +AVRELIANIS CIVITAS; cross pattée

Hugh was the elder son of Robert II (the Pious), second capetian king of the Franks (996-1031). Hugues was crowned as an associate king in 1017. However, he died before his father and consequently he never ruled. No other son of a king of France had been called Hugh.

The obverse legend is a Christian one: dei dextra benedictus (blessed on God's right). As usual for Orléans mint, the I after the L in Avrelianis is in the angle.
Droger
constantin1-provavgg-arls.JPG
RIC.309 Constantine I (AE3, Providentiae Avgg)19 viewsConstantine I, caesar (306-307), emperor (307-337)
AE3: Providentiae Avgg (327-328, Arles mint)

bronze, 18mm diameter, 2.66 g, die axis: 7h

A/ CONSTAN-TINVS AVG; pearl-diademed head right
R/ PROVIDEN-TIAE AVGG / ARLS in exergue/S|F in field; open camp gate, two turrets, no door and a star above

Ferrando II 479 (C2)
Droger
constantin2-prov-ROT.JPG
RIC.289 Constantine II (AE3, Providentiae Caess)19 viewsConstantine II, caesar (317-337), western emperor (337-340)
AE3 : Providentiae Caess (326, Rome mint)

bronze, 18mm diameter, 2.80 g, die axis: 6h

A/ CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C; pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right
R/ PROVIDEN-TIAE CAESS / R(wreath)T in exergue; open camp gate, two turrets, no door and a star above
Droger
constantin2-virtvs-arles-tconst-sf.JPG
RIC.322 Constantine II (AE3, Virtvs Caess)11 viewsConstantine II, caesar (317-337), western emperor (337-340)
AE3 : Providentiae Caess (328-329, Arles mint, 3rd officine)

bronze, 19mm diameter, 3.14 g, die axis: 12h

A/ CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C; pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right
R/ VIRTVS - CAESS / TCONST in exergue, S | F in the field; gateway wide wide open doors, four turrets and a star above
Droger
charles2-denier-melle3.JPG
D.621 Charles II the Bald (denier, class 1a, Melle)25 viewsCharles the Bald, king of the Franks (840-877)
Denier (Melle, class 1a, 840-864)

Silver, 1.70 g, 21 mm diameter, die axis 9h

O/ +CΛRLVS REX FR; cross pattée
R/ META / • / LLVM

Class 1 of Charles the Bald's coinage is made of totally different types of coins, which may reflect the state of the kingdom after 3 years of civil war and the division of the Empire.

Class 1a: mint in the field, with a linear legend
Class 1b: bust
Class 1c: city gate
Class 1d: KRLS monogram
Class 1e: temple

Coupland suggests that this particular scarce type (with META/LLVM on the reverse) had been minted from June 848, just after Charles the Bald finally defeated his nephew Pippin II for Aquitaine's control. The aim of minting a special type like this was to show a clear difference with the previsous coinage of Pippin II. A little later, Charles the Blad went on with the typical coinage of Melle (monogram ; circular mint name).
1 commentsDroger
charles2-denier_orleans-porte.JPG
D.725 Charles II the Bald (denier, class 1c, Orléans)16 viewsCharles the Bald, king of the Franks (840-877)
Denier with a gate (Orléans, class 1c, 840-864)

Silver, 1.26 g, 19 mm diameter, die axis 5h

O/ +CΛRLVS REX FR; cross pattée with four pellets
R/ +ΛVRE-LI-ΛINS; city gate with two pellets on sides

The gate motif goes back to Roman times and was used by early Carolingians (and Capetians later).
There is a small misprint on the reverse : +ΛVRE-LI-ΛINS instead +ΛVRE-LI-ΛNIS
Droger
charles2-gdr-curtisasonien.JPG
D.375 Charles II the Bald (denier, class 2, Courcessin?)35 viewsCharles the Bald, king of the Franks (840-877)
GDR denier (Courcessin?, class 2, 864-875)

Silver, 1.43 g, 19 mm diameter, die axis 12h

O/ +GRΛTIΛ D-I REX; carolingian monogram
R/ +I.CVRTISΛSONIEH; cross pattée

In 864, Charles the Bald promulgated the edict of Pîtres, huge reform whose aim was to protect the kingdom from Viking raids. It also reinforced royal authority on minting, and created a new type of deniers . The new coins could be only struck at 10 mints (Palace, Chalon sur Saône, Melle, Narbonne, Orléans, Paris, Quentovic, Reims, Rouen and Sens). This limitation had never been applied, more than 110 mints struck the new coinage. This can be understood as a lack of control of the central autority. However it seems that several mints shared dies... Grierson and Blackburn proposed that only 10 main mints produced dies and partially outsourced coinage production ?
On the obverse is written GRATIA D-I REX (GDR) around a carolingian monogram. The alliance with Roman Church goes on... The reverse already existed for Class 1, with the mint name around a cross pattée.
Class 2 of Charles' coinage is made of these GDR deniers.

The precise localization of the mint in Normandie (north of France) is still not clear. According to Grierson and Blackburn, Courti(s) Sasonien(sis) may come from some groups of Saxons settled in northern part of Gaul.
Droger
philippe1-denier-orleans.JPG
Dy.050 Philip I: denier (Orléans)17 viewsPhilip I, king of the Franks (1060-1108)
Denier (Orléans, 1st type)

Billon, 1.28 g, diameter 20 mm, die axis 10h
O: +PHILIPVS X REX D-I; city gate, NI and IC besides, ΛT inside and et I above
R: +ΛVRELIΛNIS CIVITΛ; croix pattée with 2 S
Droger
louis6-denier-orleans.JPG
Dy.120 Louis VI (the Fat): denier (Orléans)28 viewsLouis VI the Fat, king of the Franks (1108-1137)
Denier (Orléans)

Billon, 0.83 g, diameter 19 mm, die axis 4h
O/ +LVDOVICVS REX I; city gate with an O on the top, an Ω on the left, and 3 dashes on the right (maybe a Ξ). 4 pellets are in the gate.
R/ +AVRELIANIS CIVITAS; cross pattée with an O and an A.
Droger
magnus-maximus-spes-romanorvm.JPG
RIC.29a Magnus Maximus (AE4, Spes Romanorvm)24 viewsMagnus Maximus, usurpor (383-384), western roman emperor (384-388)
Nummus AE4 : Spes Romanorvm (383-388, Arles mint)

bronze, 12 mm diameter, 1.40 g, die axis: 5 h,

A/ D N MAG MAXI-MVS P F AVG; pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right
R/ SPES RO-MA-NORVM / PCON; open camp-gate with star between its two turrets

RIC.29a
NBD.55515
Ferrando II 1677 (C2)
Droger
edilred2-denier-crux.JPG
S.1148 Aethelred II (crux penny, Winchester)17 viewsAethelred II, king of the English (978-1013 and 1014-1016)
Crux penny (moneyer: Brithmaer, mint: Winchester)

A/ +ΛEDELRED REX ΛNGLR X (AE and NG ligated) around central circle enclosing diademed & draped bust left holding a scepter
R/ BYRTHMΛER M-O PIN (AR ligated) around central circle containing voided cross with pellet center, C R V X in angles

silver, 1.65 g, diameter 19 mm, die axis 1h
1 commentsDroger
fl-victor-spes-romanorvm-smaqs.JPG
RIC.55b2 Flavius Victor (AE4, Spes Romanorvm)4 viewsFlavius Victor, usurpor, Cesar (384-387), western roman emperor (387-388)
Nummus AE4: Spes Romanorvm (387-388, Aquilea mint, 2ond officine)

Bronze, 12-13 mm diameter, 1.40 g, die axis: 1 h

A/ D N FL VIC-TOR P F AVG; pearl diademed, draped & cuirassed bust right
R/ SPES RO-MA-NORVM / AQPS in exergue; open camp-gate with star between its two turrets
Droger
aethelred2-long-cross.JPG
S.1151 Aethelred II (long cross penny, Winchester)8 viewsAethelred II, king of the English (978-1013 and 1014-1016)
Long cross penny (moneyer: Godwine, mint: Canterbury, 997-1003)

A/ +ΛEDELRED REX ΛNGLO (AE and NG ligated) around central circle enclosing draped bust left
R/ +GODE-PINE-MΩO-CΛENT (NE and ΛE ligated) ; long voided cross with terminal lunettes

silver, 1.65 g, diameter 19 mm, die axis 1h
Droger
zeus_ram_beth.jpg
"STAR OF BETHLEHEM", ANTIOCH56 viewsSTRUCK 12-14 AD
AE 21 mm 7.36 g
O: LAUREATE HEAD OF ZEUS RIGHT
R: EPI SILANOU ANTIOCEWN
RAM LEAPING RIGHT, HEAD TURNED BEHIND, STAR ABOVE, DM BELOW (YEAR 44)
ANTIOCH, SYRIA (under the Romans, Legate Silanus)
RPC 4269, BMC Galatia 65 Scarce.
1 commentslaney
antioch_ram_star_2_res.jpg
"STAR OF BETHLEHEM", ANTIOCH34 viewsSTRUCK 12-14 AD
AE 19.5 mm 6.58 g
O: LAUREATE HEAD OF ZEUS RIGHT
R: EPI SILANOU ANTIOCEWN
RAM LEAPING RIGHT, HEAD TURNED BEHIND, STAR ABOVE, DM BELOW (YEAR 44)
ANTIOCH, SYRIA (under the Romans, Legate Silanus)
RPC 4269, BMC Galatia 65 Scarce.
laney
antonia.jpg
(0010) ANTONIA55 views(daughter of Mark Antony; mother of Claudius; grandmother of Caligula)
b. ca. 36 BC, d. 37 AD
AE ORICHALCUM DUPONDIUS 28.5 11.98 g
STRUCK BY CLAUDIUS, ca. 50 - 54 AD
O: ANTONIA AVGVSTA, bare-headed bust right, hair in long plait
R: TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP (P P) S C, Claudius veiled and togate, standing left, holding simpulum
RIC 1 104
laney
antoniadx.jpg
(0010) ANTONIA7 viewsANTONIA
(daughter of Mark Antony; mother of Claudius; grandmother of Caligula)
b. ca. 36 BC, d. 37 AD
AE ORICHALCUM DUPONDIUS 28.5 11.98 g
STRUCK BY CLAUDIUS, ca. 50 - 54 AD
O: ANTONIA AVGVSTA, bare-headed bust right, hair in long plait
R: TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP (P P) S C, Claudius veiled and togate, standing left, holding simpulum
RIC 1 104
laney
A_PIUS_RES_03_08.jpg
(0138) ANTONINUS PIUS28 views138 - 161 AD
AE SESTERTIUS 32 mm 24.44 g
O: LAUR HEAD R
R: HONOS, TOGATE, STANDING L HOLDING BRANCH AND CORUNCOPIA
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fourree.jpg
(0138) ANTONINUS PIUS31 views138 - 161 AD
SILVER-PLATED DENARIUS (FOUREE) 2.70 g 17 mm
O: COS ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P III
BARE HEAD RIGHT
(P P = 139 AD, COS III = 140 AD)
R: HO-N-OS
HONOS, TOGATE, STANDING L HOLDING BRANCH AND CORNUCIPIAE
Reverse cf. BMC 41, 264; RIC 79, 422; Cohen 235, 236.
Minted under Antoninus Pius for Marcus Aurelius as Caesar in Rome, 140 - 144 AD
(mismatching dies in silverplated denarii is not uncommon)
laney
a_pius_laodic_ad_mare_res.jpg
(0138) ANTONINUS PIUS22 views138 - 161 AD
AE 23 mm; 8.11 g
O:Laureate head right
R: Bust of Tyche as city goddess left, wearing headdress of gateway, turret, lighthouse and walls
Syria, Laodicea ad Mare
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a_pius_tyche_laodic.jpg
(0138) ANTONINUS PIUS13 views138-161 AD
Struck 140 – 141 AD
AE 24.5 mm, 9.54 g
O: Laureate and draped bust left.
R:Bust of Tyche as city goddess left, wearing headdress of gateway, turret, lighthouse and walls; KO to left, HP P to right (date).
SYRIA, Seleucis and Pieria, Laodikea ad Mare mint; cf BMC 64
laney
commodus_aug_tria_b.jpg
(0177) COMMODUS--AUGUSTA TRAIANA37 views177 - 192 AD
struck 191-192 AD
AE 29.5 mm; 15.36 g
Magistrate: L. Aemilius Iustus (Legatus Augusti pro praetore provinciae Thraciae)
O: AV KAI [M] AV KOMOΔOC (or similar) Laureate bust right
R: ΗΓΕ Λ ΑΙΜ ΙΟVСΤ ΑVΓΟVСΤΗС ΤΡΑΙΑΝΗС City gate with 3 towers
Thrace, Augusta Traiana
cf RPC online 10823, citing a Freeman & Sear sale of 2005, without picture.
Note: (from C. Clay, 3.21.2015) "Governor Aem. Justus is rare at this mint, yours may be just the second specimen recorded. Not known to Varbanov, or to Stein in his 1926 monograph on Thracian officials. Apparently not in Schoenert-Geiss's Augusta Traiana corpus, or Varbanov would have known it from there."
d.s.
laney
septimius_homonia.jpg
(0193) SEPTIMIUS SEVERUS12 views193-211 AD
Struck 207-210 --Julius Faustinius as Consular Legate
AE 25.5 mm, 9.54 g
O: [AV K] Λ CEΠTI CEVH[POC], Laureate draped cuirassed bust right
R: ΦAVCTINIANOY M[APKIANOΠOΛITANΩN, Homonia (Concordia) standing left, holding patera and cornucopia
Moesia, Markianopolis; SNG Copenhagen 211; Pick 580; Moushmov 385. No.1319
laney
caracalla_domna_conf_serapis.jpg
(0198) CARACALLA & JULIA DOMNA22 views198-217 AD
Æ 28 mm; 10.74 g
Struck 215 AD
(Quintilianus, consular legate)
O: Confronted busts of Caracalla right, laureate, and Julia Domna left, draped
R:Draped bust of Serapis right, wearing kalathos; Є (denomination mark) before.
MOESIA INFERIOR, Marcianopolis; ref. Hristova & Jekov 6.19.6.4; Moushmov 476; AMNG 658 v.
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geta_res.jpg
(0198) GETA49 views198 - 212 AD
Struck 209 AD*
AE 29.5 mm 14.99 g
O: AVT K P CEP MIOC GETA laureate head right
R: PAVTA (right) LIAC (below) OVLPIAC (left) Septimius, togate, handing globe to Geta, in military dress, laureate, holding a spear. Between them, a seated captive, hands tied behind back, wearing Phrygian cap.
Pautalia
Varbanov 5404, same dies as this specimen.
Ruzicka, Pautalia 909, recording five specimens from two reverse dies. The reverse he illustrates, pl. VII, is from the same die as this specimen.
Very Rare
*(Geta is Augustus on the obverse, so reverse type probably refers to his promotion to joint emperor late in 209)
laney
geta_pautalia_-_Copyb.jpg
(0198) GETA30 views198 - 212 AD
Struck 209 AD*
AE 29.5 mm 14.99 g
O: AVT K P CEP MIOC GETA laureate head right
R: PAVTA (right) LIAC (below) OVLPIAC (left) Septimius, togate, handing globe to Geta, in military dress, laureate, holding a spear. Between them, a seated captive, hands tied behind back, wearing Phrygian cap.
Pautalia
Varbanov 5404, same dies as this specimen.
Ruzicka, Pautalia 909, recording five specimens from two reverse dies. The reverse he illustrates, pl. VII, is from the same die as this specimen.
Very Rare
*(Geta is Augustus on the obverse, so reverse type probably refers to his promotion to joint emperor late in 209)
laney
geta_dionys.jpg
(0198) GETA (as Caesar)17 views198-209 AD.
Æ 26 mm; 10.79 g
Aurelius Gallus, consular legate.
O: Bare-headed and draped bust right
R: Dionysus standing left, holding cantharus and filleted thyrsus.
Markianopolis; cf Mouchmov 514; Varbanov 1090 var. (rev. legend).
laney
augustus_dena.jpg
(02) AUGUSTUS74 views27 BC - 14 AD
struck 2 BC - 4 AD
AR DENARIUS 3.81 g
O: CAESAR AVGVSTVS DIVI F PATER PATRIAE Laureate head of Augustus, right
R: C L CAESARES, AVGVSTI F COS DESIG PRINC IVVENT Togate figures of Gaius and Lucius standing facing, holding spear and shield between them. Lituus on left, facing right; and simpulum on right, facing left
Lugdunum, RIC (I) 210.
(this is the scarcer mirror-image version of this reverse type, and shows the lituus on the left; and Gaius, with his shield in front of Lucius’ shield and the ladle by his head on the right)

3 commentslaney
Diadumenian08_08_10.jpg
(0217) DIADUMENIAN37 views217-218 AD
struck 218 AD
AE 27 mm 11.84 g
O: [K M] OPPEL ANTWNI DIADOVM[ENIANOC], bare head right
R: VII AGRIPPA NIKOPOLITWN PROC ICTR, Zeus seated left holding patera and scepter
Legate Marcus Claudius Agrippa
Moushmov 1327
Nikopolis, Moesia Inferior
laney
radiate.jpg
(0218) ELAGABALUS32 views218 - 222 AD
AE 25 mm 9.62 g
O: AV(T?) KM AVR - ANTWNINOC, cuirassed, radiate bust r.
R: VP NOBIOV ROVFOV NIKOPOLITWN PRO (PR ligate) in l. field one below the other C ITRO / N (sic!), Athena stg. l., holding spear in raised l. hand and shield set on ground in r. hand
Nikopolis ad Istrum
AMNG I/1, 1920 (1 ex., Paris); Hristova/Jekov No. 8.26.4.5 corr.
laney
elagab_homonia_res2.jpg
(0218) ELAGABALUS30 views218 - 222 AD
AE 26.5 mm 11.32 g
O: AVT K M AV R ANTWNINOC Laureate bust right, from behind
R: [VP IOVL AN]T CELEVKOV MARKIANOPOLITWN Homonoia standing left holding patera and cornucopia
Consular Legate: Julius Antonius Seleucus
Markianopolis
laney
temple_10_res.jpg
(0218) ELAGABALUS26 views218 - 222 AD
AE 24 mm; 11.06 g
O: Laureate, draped bust of Elagabalus right.
R: Statue of Marsyas standing right, holding wine skin over shoulder and extending arm, within arched gateway
Phoenicia, Berytus
laney
elagab_marsyas_2_res.jpg
(0218) ELAGABALUS23 views218 - 222 AD
AE 24 mm; 10.3 g
O: Laureate, draped bust of Elagabalus right.
R: Statue of Marsyas standing right, holding wine skin over shoulder and extending arm, within arched gateway
Phoenicia, Berytus
laney
elagab_maesa_hermes_mark.jpg
(0218) ELAGABALUS & JULIA MAESA43 views218 - 222 AD
AE Pentassarion 27 mm, 11.85 g
(Julius Antonius Seleucus, consular legate)
O: AVT K M AVP ANTΩNEINOC AVΓ IOVΛIA MAICA AVΓ.
Laureate and cuirassed bust of Elagabal right, facing draped bust of Julia Maesa left. (confronted busts)
d.s.
R: YΠ IOYΛ ANT CEΛEYKOY MAPKIANOΠOΛITΩN.
Hermes standing left, holding purse and caduceus, resting with elbow on column; E in right field.
MOESIA INFERIOR. Marcianopolis; cf. Varbanov 1612
d.s.
1 commentslaney
elagab_maesa_hera_2.jpg
(0218) ELAGABALUS & JULIA MAESA11 views218-222 AD (Antonius Seleucus, consular legate)
AE 29 mm, 11.25 g
O: Laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust of Elagabalus right vis à vis draped bust of Julia Maesa left
R: Hera standing left, holding patera and scepter, E in right field
Moesia Inferior, Markianopolis. cf. Mouchmov 688; Varbanov 1626
laney
elagab_maesa_salus_r.jpg
(0218) ELAGABALUS (with Julia Maesa)11 viewsAD 218-222. (Julius Antonius Seleucus, consular legate)
Æ Pentassarion 27 mm; 10.92 g
O: Laureate head of Elagabalus right vis à vis diadmed and draped bust left of Maesa
R: Hygieia (Salus) standing right, feeding serpent held in arms; E (denomination) to left.
MOESIA INFERIOR, Marcianopolis. AMNG I 959; Hristova & Jekov 6.28.21.2; Varbanov 1636
laney
sev_alex_markian.jpg
(0222) SEVERUS ALEXANDER10 views222 - 235 AD
AE 27mm max. 7.34 g
O: Laureate head right
R: [ ] MARKIANOPOLIT ; WN (ligate?) in lower left field. Homonoia standing right holding cornucopia and patera
Moesia Inferior, Markianopolis

laney
sev_alex_hestia.jpg
(0222) SEVERUS ALEXANDER18 views222 - 235 AD
AE 24.5 mm; 9.32 g
O: AVT K M AVP CEVHPOC (AΛЄΞANΔPOC), laureate head of Severus Alexander facing right.
R: VΠ TIB IOVA ΦHCTOV MAPKIANOΠOΛIT - ΩN (in field), Hestia (Vesta) standing facing, head turned left, holding patera and a short torch.
Legate: Tiberius Julius Festus
Marcianopolis, Moesia Inferior mint, cf Varbanov I 1779
laney
sev_al_nemesis.jpg
(0222) SEVERUS ALEXANDER21 views222-235 AD
AE 26 mm; 10.52 g
struck under governor Tib. Iulius Festus
O: AVT KM AVR CEVH - ALEZANDROC
Bust, draped and cuirassed, laureate, r.
R: VP TIB IOVL FHCTOV MARKIANOPOLITWN (WN ligate Aequitas standing left holding cornucopiae and scales
Markianopolis; cf AMNG I/1, 1003; Varbanov (engl.) 1769; Hristova/Jekov (2014) No. 6.32.35.16 d); Pfeiffer 532
laney
gordian_hadrianop_gate_b.jpg
(0238) GORDIAN III25 views238 - 244 AD
AE 27 mm; 11.30 g
O: AΥT K M ANT ΓOΡΔIANOC AΓ, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right, from behind;
R: AΔΡIANOΠOΛEITΩN, city gate with two towers, conical roofs, no doors
Thrace, Hadrianopolis mint; cf Varbanov 3757/3759, Moushmov 2701
d.s.
laney
gord_tranq_zeus.jpg
(0238) GORDIAN III14 viewsGORDIAN III (with Tranquillina)
238 - 244 AD
AE 27 mm, 10.47 g
O: AVT KM ANT GORDIANOC AVG CE (VG ligate); TRANKVK / LEINA in 2 liines in exe, WN legate. Confronted busts of Gordian III and Tranquillina
R:.VP TERTVLLIANOV MARKIANOPO LIT; in right field WN; E in left field. Serapis standing, in kalathos, left hand extended upward, scepter in left hand.
Moesia Inferior, Markianopolis; AMNG I/1 1174. Rare
laney
gord_serapes_aescl.jpg
(0238) GORDIAN III -- MARKIANOPOLIS77 views238 - 244 AD
AE 27 mm 13.54 g
O: M ANT GORDIANOS AVG
LAUR DR CUIR BUST OF GORDIAN R, FACING DR BUST OF SERAPIS WEARING KALATHOS L (confronted busts)
R: VII MHNOFILOV MARKIANOPOLITWN AESKLEPIOS STANDING L HOLDING SNAKE-ENTWINED STAFF. E IN LEFT FIELD
MARKIANOPOLIS (LEGATE TULLIUS MENOPHILUS)
MOUSHMOV 789; Hristova/Jekov No. 6.37.20.3
2 commentslaney
cl_goth_cos_res.jpg
(0268) CLAUDIUS II GOTHICUS13 views268 - 270 AD
AE 18X21 mm, 2.45 g
O: IMP C CLAVDIVS AVG radiate curissed bust right
R: [P M T]RP II COS P P Claudius, togate, holding olive-branch and scepter
(Scarce dated reverse legend for the period; civilian Emperor symbolism was also rather obsolete at the time, expecially with Claudius II)
cf. RIC 5 10ff

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tiberius_emerita_res.jpg
(03) TIBERIUS22 views14 - 37 AD
AE 26 mm 9.14 g
O: LAUREATE HEAD LEFT
R: CAMPGATE
EMERITA, SPAIN
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LICINIUS_I_CAMPGATE.jpg
(0308) LICINIUS I20 views308 - 324 AD
Silvered AE 18.5 mm 2.56 g
O: IMP LICINIVS AVG. laur dr cuir bust left with globe and mappa
R: PROVIDENTIAE AVGG, city gate, 3 turrets, HTD in exe
Heraclea
RIC 15
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constantine_ii_gate.jpg
(0317) CONSTANTINE II (as Caesar)16 views317 - 337 AD (as Caesar)
337 - 340 AD (as Augustus)
e 19 mm, 1.66 g
O: CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right.
R: Campgate, six layers, two turrets, star above

laney
constantine_ii_cg_res.jpg
(0317) CONSTANTINE II (as Caesar)29 views317 - 337 AD (as Caesar)
337 - 340 AD (as Augustus)
Struck 326-328 AD
O: CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C, laureate, draped & cuirassed bust left
R: PROVIDENTIAE CAESS, campgate with six rows, two turrets, no doors and star above; SMTSD in exe
Thessalonica mint; RIC VII 157
laney
csts_ii_gaye_smanth_res.jpg
(0324) CONSTANTIUS II16 views324 - 337 AD (as Caesar)
337 - 361 AD (as Augustus)
AE 18 mm 3.13 g
O: FL IVL CONSTANTIVS NOB C laureate draped cuirassed bust right
R: PROVIDENTIAE CAESS campgate with 2 turrets, star above; SMANTH in exe
Antioch mint
RIC 66 (VII); Officina H=8 (rare)
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constantius_ii_cg_5_res.jpg
(0324) CONSTANTIUS II (as Caesar)14 views324 - 337 AD as Caesar
337 - 361 AD as Augustus
AE 19 X 21 mm, 2.76 g
O: FL IVL CONSTANTIVS NOB C diademed bust left
R: PROVIDENTIAE CAESS campgate with 6 rows, no dor; 2 turrets and star above; SMKA pellet in exe.
Cyzicus mint
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constantius_ii_cg_l_1_res.jpg
(0324) CONSTANTIUS II (as Caesar)31 views324 - 337 AD as Caesar
337 - 361 AD as Augustus
AE 19.5 mm 2.62 g
O: FL IVL CONSTANTIVS NOB C laureate draped bust left
R: PROVIDENTIAE CAESS campgate with 6 rows, 2 turrets, star above, pellet over doorway.
Trier mint

laney
constantius_ii_cg_r_1_res.jpg
(0324) CONSTANTIUS II (as Caesar)13 views324 - 337 AD as Caesar
337 - 361 AD as Augustus
AE 18.5 mm 3.11 g
O: CONSTANTIVS NOB C bust right
R: PROVIDENTIAE CAE SS campgate, 7 rows with dots in top row; 2 turrets, no door, star above
laney
constantius_cg_r_6_res.jpg
(0324) CONSTANTIUS II (as Caesar)16 views324 - 337 AD as Caesar
337 - 361 AD as Augustus
AE 18 mm, 1.81 g
O: F L IVL CONSTANTIVS NOB C, Laureate, draped, cuirassed bust right
R: PROVIDENTIAE CAESS, Camp gate with two turrets, star between; 6 rows with pellets in top row; SMTSB in ex
Thessalonica mint
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crispus_campgate.jpg
(0326) CRISPUS12 views326-327 AD
AE follis 19mm, 3.15g
O: FL IVL CRISPVS NOB CAES, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust left
R: PROVIDENTIAE CAESS, Campgate, two turrets, seven layers, star above,no doors, dot in doorway, SMANTZ in exe.
Antioch mint; RIC VII 72
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Denarius91BC.jpg
(501i) Roman Republic, D. Junius L.f. Silanus, 91 B.C.58 viewsSilver denarius, Syd 646a, RSC Junia 16, S 225 var, Cr 337/3 var, VF, 3.718g, 18.6mm, 0o, Rome mint, 91 B.C.; obverse head of Roma right in winged helmet, X (control letter) behind; reverse Victory in a biga right holding reins in both hands, V (control numeral) above, D•SILANVS / ROMA in ex; mint luster in recesses. Ex FORVM.

Although the coin itself does not commemorate the event, the date this coin was struck is historically significant.

MARCUS Livius DRUSUS (his father was the colleague of Gaius Gracchus in the tribuneship, 122 B.C.), became tribune of the people in 91 B.C. He was a thoroughgoing conservative, wealthy and generous, and a man of high integrity. With some of the more intelligent members of his party (such as Marcus Scaurus and L. Licinius Crassus the orator) he recognized the need of reform. At that time an agitation was going on for the transfer of the judicial functions from the equites to the senate; Drusus proposed as a compromise a measure which restored to the senate the office of judices, while its numbers were doubled by the admission of 300 equites. Further, a special commission was to be appointed to try and sentence all judices guilty of taking bribes.

The senate was hesitant; and the equites, whose occupation was threatened, offered the most violent opposition. In order, therefore, to catch the popular votes, Drusus proposed the establishment of colonies in Italy and Sicily, and an increased distribution of corn at a reduced rate. By help of these riders the bill was carried.

Drusus now sought a closer alliance with the Italians, promising them the long coveted boon of the Roman franchise. The senate broke out into open opposition. His laws were abrogated as informal, and each party armed its adherents for the civil struggle which was now inevitable. Drusus was stabbed one evening as he was returning home. His assassin was never discovered (http://62.1911encyclopedia.org/D/DR/DRUSUS_MARCUS_LIVIUS.htm).

The ensuing "Social War" (91-88 B.C.) would set the stage for the "Civil Wars" (88-87 & 82-81 B.C.) featuring, notably, Marius & Sulla; two men who would make significant impressions on the mind of a young Julius Caesar. Caesar would cross the Rubicon not thirty years later.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
rjb_2011_09_09.jpg
(VII)29315 viewsConstantine I
CONSTANTINVS AVG
Diademed bust right
PROVIDENTIAE AVGG
Camp gate with two turrets, star between
-/-//PLON
RIC (VII) 293
mauseus
rjb_2010_11_01.jpg
(VII)29519 viewsCrispus
FL IVL CRISPVS NOB CAES
Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right viewed from the front
PROVIDENTIAE CAESS
Camp gate with two turrets, star between
-/-//PLON
RIC (VII) 295
1 commentsmauseus
rjb_2009_09_20.jpg
(VII)29627 viewsConstantine II
CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C
Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right viewed from the rear
PROVIDENTIAE CAESS
Camp gate with two turrets, star between, pellet in doorway
-/-//PLON
RIC (VII) 296 note
mauseus
rjb_08_09_f.jpg
(VII)29626 viewsConstantine II
CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C
Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right viewed from the rear
PROVIDENTIAE CAESS
Camp gate with two turrets, star between
-/-//PLON
RIC (VII) 296
mauseus
rjb_2011_04_13.jpg
(VII)29836 viewsConstantius II
FL IVL CONSTANTIVS NOB C
Laureate and cuirassed bust left
PROVIDENTIAE CAESS
Camp gate with two turrets, star between
-/-//PLON
RIC (VII) 298
2 commentsmauseus
Constantine_I.jpg
*SOLD*32 viewsConstantine the Great AE3

Attribution: RIC VII 153, Nicomedia
Date: AD 328-329
Obverse: CONSTAN-TINVS AVG; head r. w/ pearl diadem
Reverse: RPVIDEN-TIAE AVGG; camp gate, two turrets, no doors, star above
Size: 18.54 mm
Weight: 3.1 grams
Noah
Crispus.jpg
*SOLD*45 viewsCrispus AE3

Attribution: RIC VII 201, Siscia, 4th officina
Date: AD 326-327
Obverse: IVL CRISPVS NOB C, laureate bust r.
Reverse: PROVIDEN-TIAE CAESS, campgate with two turrets, no doors & star above,
* Δ SIS * in exergue
Size: 18.4 mm
1 commentsNoah
Crispus_12.jpg
*SOLD*28 viewsCrispus AE3

Attribution: RIC 201, S.3924v, Siscia
Date: AD 317-326
Obverse: IVL CRISPVS NOB C, laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust r.
Reverse: PROVIDENTIAE CAESS, camp gate surmounted by two turrets,
* above, BSIS in exergue
Size: 18.7 mm
Noah
arcadius.jpg
*SOLD*16 viewsArcadius AE4

Attribution: RIC 62 variant, Cohen 8, Thessalonica
Date: AD 383-388
Obverse: D N ARCADIVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed & draped bust r.
Reverse: GLORIA REPVBLICE, camp gate with two turrets, Γ to l., TES in exergue
Size: 13 mm
Noah
0002.jpg
0002 - Denarius Augustus 2BC-14AC35 viewsObv/CAESAR AVGVSTVS DIVI F PATER PATRIAE, Augustus laureate head r.
Rev/AVGVSTI F COS DESIG PRINC IVVENT, C L CAESARES in exergue. Gaius and Lucius Caesar, on l. and r., standing front, each togate and resting hand on shield; behind each shield, a spear; above, on l., a simpulum r., and on r., lituus l.

Ag, 18.5mm, 3.81g
Mint: Lugdunum.
RIC I/207 [C] - RCV 1597 - BMCRE 519 - RSC 43 - Calicó 855
ex-van Alsenoy
dafnis
179Hadrian__RIC2b.jpg
0003 Hadrian Denarius Roma 117 AD Trajan and Hadrian standing vis-à-vis83 viewsReference
Strack 1; RIC III 3; C. 1009; RIC II, 2b

Bust B1

Obv. IMP CAES TRAIAN HADRIANO OPT AVG GER DAC
Laureate, draped, cuirassed bust right, balteus strap over shoulder and across chest

Rev. PARTHIC DIVI TRAIAN AVG F P M TR P COS P P
Trajan standing, delivering globe to Hadrian standing, left facing him; both are laureate and togate and hold rolls in their left hands.

2.89 gr
18 mm
6h
okidoki
1378Hadrian_RIC0003.jpg
0005 Hadrian Denarius Roma 117 AD Trajan and Hadrian standing vis-à-vis8 viewsReference
Strack 1; RIC III 5; C. 1009; RIC II, 2

Bust B1

Obv. IMP CAES TRAIAN HADRIAN OPT AVG GER DAC
Laureate, draped, cuirassed bust right, balteus strap over shoulder and across chest

Rev. PARTHIC DIVI TRAIAN AVG F P M TR P COS P P
Trajan standing, delivering globe to Hadrian standing, left facing him; both are laureate and togate.

2.97 gr
18 mm
6h
2 commentsokidoki
0006.jpg
0006 - Denarius Severus Alexander 224 AC29 viewsObv/IMP C M AVR SEV ALEXANDR, Severus Alexander laureate head, togate.
Rev/PM TR P III COS PP, Mars standing l., holding olive branch and spear upside down.

Ag, 19.9mm, 2.99g
Mint: Rome.
RIC IVb/37 [C] - Cohen 251
ex-ezio110665 (ebay)
dafnis
RI_001b_img.jpg
001 - Augustus denarius - RIC 20750 viewsObv:– CAESAR AVGVSTVS DIVI F PATER PATRIAE, Laureate head right
Rev:– C L CAESARES AVGVSTI F COS DESIG PRINC IVVENT, Caius and Lucius Caesars togate stand facing, each resting hand on a round shield with spear behind, above center on left a simpulum right and on r. a lituus left
Minted in Lugdunum. B.C. 2 to A.D. 4.
Ref:– BMC 533. RIC I Augustus 207

Ex-Forvm
2 commentsMartin Griffiths
coins176.JPG
001. Constantine I Campgate Sisicia24 viewsConstantine I Ric Vii Sisicia 214

ecoli
0011.jpg
0011 - Denarius Trajan 101-2 AC23 viewsObv/IMP CAES NERVA TRAIAN AVG GERM, Trajan laureate head r., togate l. shoulder.
Rev/(PM TR P) COS IIII PP, Victory standing to front, head turned l., half-draped, holding wreath and palm.

Ag, 18.9mm, 3.32g
Mint: Rome.
RIC II/58 [C] - BMCRE 115 - RSC 240
ex-Jean Elsen et Fils
dafnis
0012.jpg
0012 - Denarius Postumia 81 BC64 viewsObv/HISPAN, veiled head of Hispania r.
Rev/A ALBIN S N, togate figure standing l. between legionary eagle and consular fasces, POST A F in ex.

Ag, 20.0mm, 3.88g
Moneyer: Postumius Albinus.
Mint: Rome aux.
RRC 372/2 [dies o/r: 198/220] - Syd.746 - RCV 297 - RSC Postumia 8 - Calicó 1216 - Cohen Postumia 7 - BMCRR 2839
ex-Incineratio Roma (vcoins)
dafnis
Constantius.jpg
002 - Constantius II (as Caesar 324-337 AD), AE 3 - RIC 38D34 viewsObv: FL IVL CONSTANTIVS NOB C, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust left.
Rev: PROVIDENTIAE CAESS, campgate with two turrets, star above.
Minted in Cyzicus (SMKdelta in exe), officina 4, 325-326 AD.
pierre_p77
alexandria1.jpg
002 Constantine II 40 viewsobv: CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C. laur.,dr.and cuir.bust l.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE CAESS campgate two turrents star above
fld:/ex: wreath-II/SMAL(dot)
hill132
141149.jpg
002c. Gaius and Lucius Caesars65 viewsJulia, daughter of Augustus, who has had no child by Marcellus (she is only sixteen when he dies), is married to Agrippa, a soldier who has long been the emperor's most trusted supporter. They have two sons, Gaius and Lucius, born in 20 and 17 BC. The boys are adopted by the emperor. The intention now, if Augustus dies, is that Agrippa should rule until one of these grandsons is of an age to take control. But Agrippa dies in 12 BC.

Julia has had a total of five children by Agrippa (the two sons adopted by the emperor, two daughters, and another posthumous son, Agrippa Posthumus). She now has one son by Tiberius, but the child dies in infancy.

By 6 BC it is evident that Tiberius is being set aside. Julia refuses to live with him, and her eldest son Gaius (at the age of fourteen) is given a nominal high appointment as consul. Gaius and Lucius Caesar, grandsons and adopted sons of the emperor, are now clearly the family members in line for the succession. But they die young, Lucius Caesar in AD 2 and then Gaius in AD 4.

LYDIA, Magnesia ad Sipylum. Augustus. 27 BC-AD 14. Æ 19mm (4.93 g). Jugate heads of Augustus and Livia right / Confronted heads of Gaius and Lucius Caesars. RPC 2449. Fair. Rare. Ex-Cng
ecoli
alexandria2.jpg
003 Constantine II 20 viewsobv: CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C laur.,dr.and cuir. bust l.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE CAESS campgate with two turrents star above
ex: SMAL(A=alpha=1)
hill132
0034.jpg
0034 - Denarius Postumia 81 BC45 viewsObv/Bust of Diana r., draped, with bow and quiver over shoulder; above brucanium.
Rev/A POST A F S N ALBIN, rock on which stands lighted altar, bull on l., togate figure holding aspergillum over bull on r.

Ag, 19.8mm, 3.95g
Moneyer: A.Postumius A.f. S.n Albinus.
Mint: Rome.
RRC 372/1 [dies o/r: 90/100] - BMCRR Rome 2836 - RSC Postumia 7 - Syd. 745.
ex-Herbert Grün, auction 47, lot 1594
dafnis
alexandria3.jpg
004 Constantine I 26 viewsobv: CONSTAN_TINVS AVG laur. head r.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE AVGG campgate with two turrents star above
fld:/ex: wreath-A/SMAL
hill132
alexandria4.jpg
005 Constantine I 20 viewsobv: CONSTAN_TINVS AVG laur. bust r.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE AVGG campgate with two turrents star above
fld:/ex: wreath/SMALA
hill132
alexandria5.jpg
006 Constantine I 18 viewsobv: CONSTAN_TINVS AVG laur.bust r.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE AVGG campgate with two turrents star above
fld:/ex: wreath-B/SMAL
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0060.jpg
0060 - Denarius Minucia 134 BC31 viewsObv/Helmeted head of Roma r., behind crossed X.
Rev/TI MINVCI C F on l., RO MA above, AVGVRINI on r.; 2 togate figures, one holding a simpulum, the other a lituus, standing by statue on column.

Ag, 19.0mm, 3.93g
Moneyer: Ti. Minucius C.f. Augurinus.
Mint: Rome.
RRC 243/1 [dies o/r: 76/95] - RCV 120 - Syd. 494 - RSC Minucia 9 - Calicó 1026.
ex-Jean Elsen et Fils, auction 95, lot 311 (ex-colln. A.Senden)
dafnis
007_Antonia_ANTONIA_AVGVSTA_TI_CLAVDIVS_CAESAR_AVG_P_M_TR_P_IMP_RIC-I_92_(Claudius)_C-6_BMC-166_41-50-AD_Q-001_10h_26,5mm_9,54y-s.jpg
007 Antonia (?-37 A.D.), RIC I 092 (Claudius), Rome, AE-As(?), (Claudius) Claudius, togate, standing left, S C at sides,143 views007 Antonia (?-37 A.D.), RIC I 092 (Claudius), Rome, AE-As(?), (Claudius) Claudius, togate, standing left, S C at sides,
Antonia, mother of Claudius. Died 37 AD.
avers:- ANTONIA AVGVSTA, draped bust of Antonia right.
revers:- TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP, S-C across field, Claudius, togate, standing left, holding simpulum.
exerg: S/C//--, diameter: 26,5mm, weight: 9,54g, axes:10h,
mint: Rome, date: Struck circa 41-50 A.D., ref: RIC I 92 (Claudius), Cohen 6, BMCRE 166 (Claudius),
Q-001
2 commentsquadrans
0072~0.jpg
0072 - Denarius Trajan 112-14 AC24 viewsObv/IMP TRAIANO AVG GER DAC PM TR P COS VI PP, laureate bust of Trajan r., togate.
Rev/SPQR OPTIMO PRINCIPI, Trajan's column surmounted with statue of the emperor; at base, two eagles.

Ag, 20.2mm, 3.32g
Mint: Rome.
RIC II/292 [C]
ex-Pegasi Numismatics, auction XXIII, lot 477
1 commentsdafnis
0075~0.jpg
0075 - Denarius Severus Alexander 228-31 AC30 viewsObv/IMP SEV ALEXAND AVG, laureate bust of Severus Alexander r., togate.
Rev/AEQVITAS AVG, Aequitas standing l., holding scales and cornucopiae.

Ag, 18.6mm, 2.78g
Mint: Rome.
RIC IV.2/185 [C] - Cohen 13
ex-A.L.Romero Martín (denarios.org)
dafnis
antioch1a.jpg
008 Costantine I32 viewsobv: CONSTAN_TINVS AVG laur. bust r.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE AVGG campgate with two turrents star above
fld:/ex: dot in doorway / SMANT(r=gamma=3)
1 commentshill132
101112.jpg
008. Otho 69 AD318 viewsOTHO. 69 AD.

Otho remains an enigma - part profligate Neronian wastrel and part conscientious military commander willing to give his life for the good of the state. Our sources are at a loss to explain the paradox. Neither Otho's person nor his bearing suggested such great courage. He is said to have been of moderate height, splay-footed and bandy-legged, but almost feminine in his care of his person. He had the hair of his body plucked out, and because of the thinness of his locks wore a wig so carefully fashioned and fitted to his head, that no one suspected it. Moreover, they say that he used to shave every day and smear his face with moist bread, beginning the practice with the appearance of the first down, so as never to have a beard; also that he used to celebrate the rites of Isis publicly in the linen garment prescribed by the cult.

AR Denarius (18mm, 3.20 gm). Bare head left / Securitas standing left, holding wreath and sceptre. RIC I 12; RSC 19. Fine. Ex-CNG
2 commentsecoli73
antioch2a.jpg
009 Constantine II 27 viewsobv: CONSTANTINUS IVN NOB C laur.,dr. and cuir. bust l.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE CAESS campgate with to turrents star above
fld:/ex: dot in doorway / SMANT(delta=4)
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0091.jpg
0091 - Denarius Septimius Severus 194 AC11 viewsObv/ IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG II CO, laureate head of S.S. r.
Rev/ BONI EVENTUC (sic), Bonus Eventus togate, standing, head l., holding fruit plate and two inverted corn ears.

Ag, 17.8 mm, 2.82 g
Mint: Emesa (?)
RIC IV.I/-- – BMCRE V/343 var (cf. p.91)
ex-inAsta, auction 38, lot 734
dafnis
25i6ueo.jpg
01.- A. Postumius Serrate Denarius (81 BC)12 viewsA. Postumius A.f. Sp.n. Albinus. 81 BC. AR Serrate Denarius (18.7 mm, 3.85 g.). Draped bust of Diana right, with bow and quiver over shoulder; bucranium above / Togate figure standing left on rock, holding aspergillum over head of ox standing right; lighted altar between them. VF, toned.
Purchased at Aureo & Calico auction in 2015.
1 commentsOscar D
antioch3a~0.jpg
010 Constantine I18 viewsobv: CONSTAN_TINVS AVG laur. head r.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE AVGGampgate with two turrents star above
ex: SMANTB
hill132
antioch3a.jpg
010 Constantine II21 viewsobv: CONSTAN_TINVS AVGG laur.bust r.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE AVGG campgate with two turrents star above
ex: SMANT(B=beta=2)
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0105.jpg
0105 - Denarius Septimius Severus 205 AC10 viewsObv/ SEVERVS PIVS AVG, laureate head of S.S. r.
Rev/ PM TR P XIII COS III PP, Annona togate, standing l., holding grain ears and connucopia: modium with grain ears at feet.

Ag, 18.5 mm, 3.35 g
Mint: Roma.
RIC IV.I/198 [C] – BMCRE V/475
ex-Helios Numismatik – eBay, art. #270734396362
dafnis
10a.jpg
010a Antonia. AE dupondus 14.4gm30 viewsrev: ANTONIA AVGVSTA drp. bust r.
rev: TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG PM TR P Imp. Claudius veiled and togate std. l.,
r. holding simpulem/ SC
"doughter of M. Antony, wife of N.C Drusus"
hill132
10b.jpg
010b Antonia. AE dupondus 19 viewsobv: ANTONIA AVGVSTA drp. bust r.
rev: TI CLAUDIVS CAESAR AVG PM TR P IMP Claudius veiled and togate,
holding simpulum/SC
hill132
antioch4a.jpg
011 Constantine II 18 viewsobv: CONSTANTINVS IVN OB C laur.drp and cuir. bust l.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE CAESS campgate with two turrents star above
fld:/ex: dot in doorway / SMANT(B=beta=2)
hill132
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012 Constantine II 18 viewsobv: CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C laur. drp. and cuir.bust l.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE CAESS campgate with two turrents star above
fld:/ex: dot in doorway / SMANT(delta=4)
hill132
0126.jpg
0126 - Denarius Marcia 56 BC104 viewsObv/ Diademed head of Ancus Marcius r.; behind, lituus and below, ANCVS.
Rev/ Equestrian statue standing on aqueduct, behind PHILIPPVS; at horse’s feet, flower. Below, AQVA MAR ligate within the arches of the aqueduct.

Ag, 20.0 mm, 3.37 g
Moneyer: L. Marcius Philippus.
Mint: Roma.
RRC 425/1 [dies o/r: 447/497] - Syd. 919 - Bab. Marcia 28
ex-J.B. González Redondo (denarios.org), jul 2011 (ex–CNG, auction e228, lot 274)
dafnis
antioch6a.jpg
013 Constantine I15 viewsobv: CONSTAN_TINVS AVG rosetta dia.bust r.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE AVGG campgate wit two turrents star above
ex: SMANTZ
hill132
antioch7a.jpg
014 Constanine I11 viewsobv: CONSTAN_TINUS AVG laur bust r.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE AVGG campgate with two turrents star above
fld/ex: delta-dot in doorway-epsilon / SMANT
hill132
antioch8a.jpg
015 Constantine II12 viewsobv: CONSTANTIVS NO C laur. drp. and cuir.bust l.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE CAESS campgate with two turrents star above
ex: SMANTdelta
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0154.jpg
0154 - Nummus Constantius II 324-5 AC33 viewsObv/ FL IVL CONSTANTIVS NOB C, laureate and draped bust of C. l.
Rev/ PROVIDEN-TIAE CAESS, camp gate with two turrets, star above; PLON in ex.

AE, 19.0 mm, 3.13 g
Mint: Londinium.
RIC VII/298 [C1]
ex-CNG, auction e261, lot 315
dafnis
0156.jpg
0156 - Nummus Constantine II 324-5 AC30 viewsObv/ CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust of C. r.
Rev/ PROVIDEN-TIAE CAESS, camp gate with two turrets, star above, no door; PLON in ex.

AE, 19.2 mm, 3.59 g
Mint: Londinium.
RIC VII/296 [C3]
ex-Harlan J Berk, auction 176, lot 499
dafnis
0157.jpg
0157 - Antoninianus Caracalla 213-17 AC25 viewsObv/ ANTONINVS PIVS AVG GERM, radiated and togate bust of C. r.
Rev/ VENVS VICTRIX, Venus standing l., hlding helmet and scepter, leaning on shield; captives to the l. and r.

Ag, 24.9 mm, 5.04 g
Mint: Roma.
BMCRE V/86 – RIC IV.1/312a [S]
ex-Auctiones, auction e2, lot 102 (T.Kunsch Caracalla colln.)
dafnis
antioch9a.jpg
016 Constantine I12 viewsobv: CONSTAN_TINVS AVG rosetta dia. bust r.
rev: PROVEDEN_TIAE AVGG campgate with two turrents star above
ex: SMANTr
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0166.jpg
0166 - Nummus Constantine I 307-10 AC16 viewsObv/ IMP CONSTANTINVS P AVG, laureate and cuirassed bust of C. r.
Rev/ GENIO POP ROM, Genius standing l., modius on top, togate from waist down and holding patera and cornucopia; PLN in ex.

AE, 25.6 mm, 5.88 g
Mint: Londinium.
RIC VI/104 [S]
ex-Soler y Llach, auction Oct 2012, lot #2482
dafnis
antioch10a.jpg
017 Constantine II13 viewsobv: CONSTANTINVS IVN NOC C laur. drp. cuir. bust l.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE AVGG campgate with two turrents star above
fld:/ex: dot in doorway / SMANTS
hill132
0177.jpg
0177 - Denarius Julia Soaemias 218-22 AC18 viewsObv/ IVLIA SOAEMIAS AVG, togate bust of J.S. r.
Rev/ VENUS CAELESTIS, Venus togate, standing l., holding apple and long scepter; star on field r.

Ag, 20.5 mm, 3.24 g
Mint: Roma.
BMCRE V/45 - RIC IV.2/241 [C]
ex-Gitbud & Naumann, auction Pecunem 12, lot 636
dafnis
0178.jpg
0178 - Denarius Septimius Severus 210-11 AC21 viewsObv/ SEVERVS PIVS AVG BRIT, laureate head of S.S. r.
Rev/ VICTORIAE BRIT, Victory togate standing r., holding wreath and with palm leaning on shoulder.

Ag, 19.2 mm, 2.77 g
Mint: Roma.
BMCRE V/52 - RIC IV.1/332 [S]
ex-Artemide Aste Feb 2014, lot 302 (colln. English Gentleman)
dafnis
antioch11b.jpg
018 Crispus22 viewsobv: FL IVL CRISPVS NOB CAES laur. drp. cuir. bust l.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE CAESS campgate with two turrents star above
fld:/ex: dot in doorway / SMANTZ
hill132
0184.jpg
0184 - Denarius Crispina 180-2 AC17 viewsObv/ CRISPINA AVGVSTA, togate bust of Crispina r.
Rev/ VENVS, Venus standing l., holding apple with r.h. and raising toga above shoulder with l.h.

Ag, 19 mm, 2.33 g
Mint: Roma.
RIC III/286a [S]
ex-Jesús Vico, auction 137, lot 413
dafnis
antioch12a.jpg
019 Constantius II14 viewsobv: FL IVL CONSTANTIVS NOB C laur. drp. cuir. bust l.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE CAESS campgate with two turrents star above
ex: SMANTH
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0199.jpg
0199 - Denarius Licinia 55 BC50 viewsObv/ Laureate bust of Venus r., togate and with stephane; behind, SC.
Rev/ Female figure standing front, leading horse and holding spear; at feet, cuirass and shield; around, P CRASSVS M F.

Ag, 4.09 g
Moneyer: P. Licinius Crassus M.f.
Mint: Rome.
RRC 430/1 - BMCRR Rome 3901 - Syd. 929 - RSC Licinia 18
ex-Bremens-Belleville, november 2014, lot 363 (ex-St.Florian monastery, Dorotheum, june 1956, lot 2764 / ex. Apostolo Zeno colln., 18th c.)
1 commentsdafnis
Augustus denarius.jpg
02 B.C. - 4 A.D Augustus Denarius124 viewsSilver denarius, S 1597, RIC 207, BMC 533, EF, Lugdunum mint, 3.876g, 19.2mm, 180o, 2 B.C. - 4 A.D.;
obverse CAESAR AVGVSTVS DIVI F PATER PATRIAE, laureate head right;
reverse C L CAESARES AVGVSTI F COS DESIG PRINC IVVENT, Caius and Lucius Caesars togate stand facing, each resting hand on a round shield with spear behind, above center on l. a simpulum r. and on r. a lituus l.;
lustrous, nice portrait, reverse slightly off center
jimwho523
2-Gordian-I-RIC-1.jpg
02. Gordian I / RIC 1.79 viewsDenarius, March - April 238, Rome mint.
Obverse: IMP M ANT GORDIANVS AFR AVG / Laureate bust of Gordian I.
Reverse: P M TR P COS P P / Gordian I standing, togate, holding branch, and wearing parzonium.
2.88 gm., 20 mm.
RIC #1; Sear #8446.

The third century saw numerous usurpers in various parts of the Empire. However, the local revolt in Africa which brought Gordian I and his son to power was the first and only time the cause of a usurper was taken up by the Senate before a current emperor was dead. Thus the Gordiani became legitimate Roman emperors, and their coinage, all minted at the imperial mint in Rome, became legitimate coinage of the Empire.

Provenance:
ex Gillardi Collection.
Tinchant sale (1962).
3 commentsCallimachus
antioch13.jpg
020 Constantine I12 viewsobv: CONSTAN_TINVS AVG laur. bust r.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE AVGG campgate with two turrents star above, base
ex: delta-dot in doorway-epsilon / SMANT
hill132
0202_RICII_396.jpg
0202 - Denarius Sabina 134-137 AC12 viewsObv/ SABINA AVGVSTA, togate and diademed best of S. r.
Rev/ VENERI GENETRICI, Venus standing r., raising tunica with r.h. and holding apple with l.h.

Ag, 17.1 mm, 2.97 g
Mint: Roma.
RIC II/396 (C) - BMCRE III/944
ex-Gitbud & Naumann (Pecunem), auction e30, lot 475
dafnis
0208_RRC424_1.jpg
0208 - Denarius Considia 57 BC37 viewsObv/ Laureate and diademed bust of V. r., behind C CONSIDI NONIANI; before, SC.
Rev/ Tetrastyle temple on hill, surrounded by walls and gate, with ERVC above.

Ag, 18.7 mm, 3.75 g
Mint: Roma
RRC 424/1 [
3 commentsdafnis
antioch14.jpg
021 Constantine I39 viewsobv: CONSTAN_TINVS AVG rosetta dia. bust r.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE AVGG campgate with two turrents star above
ex: delta-dot in doorway-epsilon / SMANT
1 commentshill132
0213_.jpg
0213 - Denarius Faustina II 147-50 AC16 viewsObv/ FAVSTINAE AVG PII AVG FIL, togate bust of F. r., with high bun held by string of pearls.
Rev/ Venus togate standing l., holding apple on r.h. and l.h. leaning on rudder and dolphin.

Ag, 18.0 mm, 3.24 g
Mint: Roma
RIC III/517c [S] – BMCRE IV/1074
ex-Naville Numismatics, auction 23, lot 413 (ex-colln E.E: Clain-Stefanelli)
dafnis
antioch15.jpg
022 Constantine I 23 viewsobv: CONSTAN_TINVS AVGG rosetta dia. bust r.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE AVGG campgate with two turrents star above
ex: delta-dot in doorway-epsilon/SMANT
hill132
0221_RICIII_358.jpg
0221 - Denarius Faustina after 141 AC14 viewsObv/ Togate bust of F. r., with high bun; around, DIVA FAVSTINA.
Rev/ Ceres standing r., holding scepter with r.h. and corn on l.h.; around, AVGVSTA.

Ag, 19.1 mm, 3.22 g
Mint: Roma.
RIC III/358 [C] – BMCRE IV/389
ex-Artemide Aste, auction XLVII, lot 301
dafnis
0223_RICII_1_1068.jpg
0223 - Denarius Vespasian 79 AC42 viewsObv/ Laureate bust of V. r., around IMP CAESAR VESPASIANVS AVG.
Rev/ Victory standing l., togate and placing shield over trophy, with captive at its feet; around, TR POT X COS VIIII.

Ag, 18.5 mm, 3.36 g
Mint: Roma
RIC II.1/1068 [C] – BMCRE III/246
ex-NAC, auction 101, lot 195
4 commentsdafnis
antioch16.jpg
023 Constantius II26 viewsobv: FL IVL CONSTANTIVS NOB C laur.drp.cuir.bust l.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE CAESS campgate with two turrents star above
ex: SMANT(H=eta=8)
1 commentshill132
0231_FaustII_RIC_III_1408.jpg
0231 - As Faustina II 147-75 AC8 viewsObv/ FAVSTINA AVG ANTONINI AVG PII FIL, togate bust of F. r.
Rev/ Venus togate standing l., holding apple on r.h. and scepter on l.h.; around, VENVS; S C low on field.

AE, 25.9 mm, 10.26 g
Mint: Roma
RIC III/1408 [C] – BMCRE IV/2172 var.
ex-Numismatik Naumann, auction 74, lot 367
dafnis
antioch17.jpg
024 Constantius II8 viewsobv: FL IVL CONSTANTIVS NOB C laur. drp. cuir. bust l.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE CAESS campgate with two turrents star above
ex: SMANTdelta
hill132
antioch18.jpg
025 Constantine I14 viewsobv: CONSTAN_TINVS AVGG laur. bust r.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE AVGG campgate with two turrents star above
fld:ex: dot in doorway / SMANTS
hill132
IV_Laszlo_U-291_C1-330_H-384_Q-001_12mm_0,35ga-s.jpg
025. H-384 László IV., (Ladislaus IV.), King of Hungary, (1272-1290 A.D.), H-384, CNH I.-330, U-291, AR-Denarius, #0188 views025. H-384 László IV., (Ladislaus IV.), King of Hungary, (1272-1290 A.D.), H-384, CNH I.-330, U-291, AR-Denarius, #01
avers: City wall with gate, bastion between two towers, cross between two birds above, border of dots.
reverse: Eagle with spread wings, advancing left, a border of dots.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 12,0mm, weight: 0,35g, axis: -h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-384, CNH I.-330, Unger-291,
Q-001
quadrans
antioch19.jpg
026 Constantius II14 viewsobv: FL IVL CONSTANTIVS NOB C laur. drp. cuir. bust l.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE CAESS campgate with two turrets star above
ex: SMANTH
hill132
arles1.jpg
028 Constantine I48 viewsobv: CONSTAN_TINVS AVGG pearl dia. bust r.
rev: VIRTV_S AVGG campgate with four turrents star above, wide open doors
fld:/ex: SF/ARLS
4 commentshill132
arles2.jpg
029 Constantine I13 viewsobv: CONSTAN_TINVS AVG pearl dia.bust r.
rev: VIRTV_S AVGG campgate with four turrents star above,wide open doors
fld:/ex: SF/ARLP
hill132
arles3.jpg
030 Constantius II18 viewsobv: FL IVL CONSTANTIVS NOB C laur. drp. and cuir. bust l.
rev: VIRTVS CAESS campgate with four turrents star above,wide open doors
ex: SF/ARLQ
hill132
Lodovicus-I_(1342-1382AD)_U-437-c_C2-88_H-546_MONETA-LODOVICI_DEI-GRATIA-R-VGARIE_C_Q-001_h_mm_g-s.jpg
030 Lajos I. -Nagy Lajos-, (Lodovicus I. (the great) of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1342-1382 A.D.) AR-Obulus, U-437(?)(Not in this Mint mark !!!)., #0199 views030 Lajos I. -Nagy Lajos-, (Lodovicus I. (the great) of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1342-1382 A.D.) AR-Obulus, U-437(?)(Not in this Mint mark !!!)., #01
avers: ✠ MONЄTA LODOVICI, Patriarchal cross with dots each corner, border of dots.
reverse: ✠ DЄI GRACIA R VGARIЄ (AR ligate, Legend variation), Hungarian-Anjou shield, border of dots. "C" above the shield (New mintmark !!!).
exergue, mint mark: -/-//--, diameter: 11,0mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Hungary, , date: 1372 A.D.(by Pohl), ref: Unger-437(?)(Not in)., CNH-2-088, Huszár-546, Pohl-88-(?)(Not in),
Q-001
quadrans
Lodovicus-I_(1342-1382AD)_U-437-a_var_C2-88_H-546_M_VnGARIE-LODOVICI_DEI-GRACIA-VGARIE_-_Q-001_h_mm_g-s.jpg
030 Lajos I. -Nagy Lajos-, (Lodovicus I. (the great) of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1342-1382 A.D.) AR-Obulus, U-437a-var-2., #01107 views030 Lajos I. -Nagy Lajos-, (Lodovicus I. (the great) of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1342-1382 A.D.) AR-Obulus, U-437a-var-2., #01
avers: ✠ m VnGARIЄ LODOVICI (Unknown Legend variation!!!), Patriarchal cross, border of dots.
reverse: ✠ DЄI GRACIA R VGARIЄ (AR-ligate, Legend variation), Hungarian-Anjou shield, border of dots.
exergue, mint mark: -/-//--, diameter: 11,0mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Hungary, , date: 1372 A.D.(by Pohl), ref: Unger-437a-var2., CNH-2-088, Huszár-546, Pohl-88-1var,
Q-001
quadrans
Lodovicus-I_(1342-1382AD)_U-437-b_C2-88_H-546_MOnETA-LODOVICI_DEI-GRATIA-R-VGARIE_lily_Q-001_h_mm_gx-s.jpg
030 Lajos I. -Nagy Lajos-, (Lodovicus I. (the great) of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1342-1382 A.D.) AR-Obulus, U-437b., #0196 views030 Lajos I. -Nagy Lajos-, (Lodovicus I. (the great) of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1342-1382 A.D.) AR-Obulus, U-437b., #01
avers: ✠ MOnЄTA LODOVICI, Patriarchal cross with dots each corner, border of dots.
reverse: ✠ DЄI GRATIA R VGARIЄ (AR ligate, Legend variation), Hungarian-Anjou shield, border of dots. Lily above the shield.
exergue, mint mark: -/-//--, diameter: 11,0mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Hungary, , date: 1372 A.D.(by Pohl), ref: Unger-437b., CNH-2-088, Huszár-546, Pohl-88-2,
Q-001
quadrans
arles4.jpg
031 Constantius II15 viewsobv: FL IVL CONSTANTIVS laur. drp. cuir.bust l.
rev: VIRTVS CAESS campgate with four turrents star above, wide open doors
ex: QA(cressent)RL
hill132
arles5.jpg
032 Constantine I13 viewsobv: CONSTAN_TINVS AVG peal dia. bust r.
rev: VIRTV_S AVGG campgate with four turrents star above,wide open doors
ex: SF/SCONST
hill132
032_Hadrianus_(117-138_A_D_),_Billon-Tetradrachm,_Milne-1034_,_Alexandria,_L-IE-Year-15_Q-001_0h_mm_gx-s~0.jpg
032p Hadrianus (117-138 A.D.), AE-Drachm, G-1034, D-1610, Egypt, Alexandria, L IE, Hadrian and Alexandria,61 views032p Hadrianus (117-138 A.D.), AE-Drachm, G-1034, D-1610, Egypt, Alexandria, L IE, Hadrian and Alexandria,
avers:- AΥT KAI TPAIA AΔPIA CEB, Laureate draped and cuirassed bust right.
revers:- L IE, Hadrian standing togate left with sceptre, greeted by Alexandria in elephant-skin headdress.
exe: -/-//--, diameter: mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Egypt, Alexandria, date: 130-131 A.D., Year (IE)15., ref: Geissen-1034, Dattari-1610, Kapmann-Ganschow-32.509-p-138, BMC 869,
Q-001
quadrans
arles6.jpg
033 Constantine I12 viewsobv: CONSTAN_TINUS AVG pearl dia. bust r.
rev: VIRTV_S AVGG campgate with four turrents star above,wide open doors
ex: SF/SCONST
hill132
arles7.jpg
034 Constantine I 12 viewsobv: CONSTAN_TINVS AVG pearl dia. bust r.
rev: VIRTV_S AVGG campgate with four turrents star above, wide open doors
ex: SF/SCONST
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RI_035l_img.jpg
035 - Domitian Ae AS - RIC II 385a79 viewsObv:- IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM P M TR P VIII CENS PER P P, Laureate head right
Rev:- COS XIIII LVD SAEC FEC - SC, Domitian , togate,standing left, sacrificing from patera over garlanded altar, on the other side of which are two flute players facing the emperor, one of which is partly obscured by the altar, hexastyle temple of Jupiter Capitolinus in background.

This variety, not distinguished in the catalogues, where the second musician's lower body is obscured by the large altar. see BMC pl. 79.3, with obv. portrait left, is from the same rev. die. On other dies, apparently the normal variety, the altar is narrower and you see the second musician's legs descending to the ground.

Celebrates the Secular Games
4 commentsmaridvnvm
arles8.jpg
035 Constantine II17 viewsobv: CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C laur. drp. cuir. bust l.
rev: VIRTVS CAESS campgate with four turrents star above, wide open doors
ex: SF/TCONST
hill132
arles9.jpg
036 Constantinus II17 viewsobv: CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C laur. drp. and cuir. bust l.
rev: VIRTVS CAESS campgate with four turrents star above
ex: TA(cressent)RL
hill132
arles10.jpg
037 Constantine II13 viewsobv: CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C laur. drp. cuir. bust l.
rev: VIRTVS CAESS campgate with four turrents star above, wide open doors
ex: SF/TCONST
hill132
arles11.jpg
038 Constantinus II16 viewsobv: CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C laur. drp. cuir. bust l.
rev: VIRTVS CAESS campgate with four turrents star above, wide open doors
ex: SF/ TCONST
hill132
arles12.jpg
039 Constantius II9 viewsobv: FL IVL CONSTANTIVS NOB C laur. drp. cuir. bust l.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE CAESS campgate with two turrents star above
ex: SF/QCONST
hill132
arles13.jpg
040 Constantine II15 viewsobv: CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C laur. drp. cuir. bust l.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE CAESS campgate with two turrents star above
ex: SF/ARLT
hill132
arles14.jpg
041 Constantius II14 viewsobv: FL IVL CONSTANTIVS NOB C laur. drp. cuir. bust l.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE CAESS campgate with two turrents star above
ex: SF/ARLQ
hill132
Commodus_AE-Sest_M-COMMODVS-ANTON-AVG-PIVS-BRIT_VOTA-SVSCEP-DECEN-P-M-TR-P-VIII-IMP-VII_COS-IIII-P-P_S-C_R_RIC-454a_C-990_Q-001_axis-5h_27-29mm_19,35g-s.jpg
041b Commodus (166-180 A.D. as Caesar, 180-192 A.D. as Augustus), RIC III 0454a, Rome, AE-Sestertius, VOTA SVSCEP DECEN P M TR P VIII IMP VII, Commodus togate, standing left, Scarce!117 views041b Commodus (166-180 A.D. as Caesar, 180-192 A.D. as Augustus), RIC III 0454a, Rome, AE-Sestertius, VOTA SVSCEP DECEN P M TR P VIII IMP VII, Commodus togate, standing left, Scarce!
avers:- M-COMMODVS-ANTON-AVG-PIVS-BRIT, Laureate head right.
revers:- VOTA-SVSCEP-DECEN-P-M-TR-P-X-IMP-VII, Commodus, togate, standing left sacrificing over a tripod. S_C across the field.
exe:S/C//COS-IIII-P-P, diameter: 27-29 mm, weight: 19,35 g, axis: 5h,
mint: Rome, date: 184-85 A.D., ref: RIC-III-454a, p-418, , C-990, Scarce!
Q-001
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arles15.jpg
042 Constantius II10 viewsobv: FL IVL CONSTANTIVS NOB C laur. drp. cuir. bust l.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE AVGG campgate with two turrents star above
fld:/ex: SF/ARLP
hill132
cd3961.JPG
042 Nero Claudius Drusus26 viewsNero Claudius Drusus AE Sestertius. NERO CLAVDIVS DRVSVS GERMANICVS IMP, bare head left / TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP, Claudius, togate, seated left on curule chair, holding branch; arms lying around; SC in ex.




"When, three months after her marriage to Augustus, Livia gave birth to Decimus (later Nero) Drusus - the father of the future Emperor Claudius - people naturally suspected that he was the product of adultry with his stepfather."
Randygeki(h2)
arles16.jpg
043 Constantine I12 viewsobv: CONSTAN_TINEVS AVG pearl dia. bust r.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE AVGG campgate with two turrents star above, arches at top
fld:/ex: SF/SCONST
hill132
arles17.jpg
044 Constantine I13 viewsobv: CONSTAN_TINVS AVG pearl dia.bust r.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE AVGG campgate with two turrents star above
fld:/ex: SF/PCONST
hill132
arles18.jpg
045 Constantine I8 viewsobv: CONSTAN_TINVS AVG laur bust r.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE AVGG campgate with two turrents star above
fld:/ex: SF/ARLP
hill132
arles19.jpg
046 Constantine I10 viewsobv: CONSTAN_TINVS AVG pearl dia. bust r.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE AVGG campgate with two turrents star above
fld:/ex: SF/PCONST
hill132
arles20.jpg
047 Constantius II. AE311 viewsobv:FL CONSTANTIVS NOB C laur. drp. cuir. bust r.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE CAESS campgate with two turrents star above
ex: Q*AR dot
hill132
RI 048d img.jpg
048 - Antoninus Pius denarius - RIC 293 Note 296 viewsObv:– ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P XXII, Laureate head facing right
Rev:– VOTA SVSCEPTA DEC III, COS IIII below, Pius veiled and togate, standing left sacrificing with patera over tripod
Reference RIC 293 Note 2
3 commentsmaridvnvm
arles21.jpg
048 Constantine I. AE38 viewsobv: CONSTAN_TINVS AVG laur. bust r.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE AVGG campgate with two turrents star above
ex: P*AR
hill132
049_BC-_MN_ACILIVS_III_VIR_VALETV__SALVTIS_Crawford_442-1a__Sydenham_922__RSC_Acilia_8a,_Q-001_2h_18,5-19,5mm_3,75g-s.jpg
049 B.C., Mn. Acilius Glabrio. Denarius, Crawford 442/1a, Valetudo (as Salus) standing left,165 views049 B.C., Mn. Acilius Glabrio. Denarius, Crawford 442/1a, Valetudo (as Salus) standing left,
avers: Laureate head of Salus with earrings and necklaces right, SALVTIS downward behind, border of dots.
revers: Valetudo (as Salus) standing left, leaning on column and holding snake, MN•ACILIVS III•VIR•VALETV (MN and TV ligate) behind and before, border of dots.
exergo: -/-//--, diameter: 18,5-19,5mm, weight: 3,75g, axis: 2h,
mint: Rome, date: 49 B.C., ref: Crawford 442/1a, Sydenham 922, RSC Acilia 8,
Q-001
3 commentsquadrans
049_BC-_MN_ACILIVS_III_VIR_VALETV__SALVTIS_Crawford_442-1b__Sydenham_922__RSC_Acilia_8a,_Q-001_6h_21-20mm_3,95g-s.jpg
049 B.C., Mn. Acilius Glabrio. Denarius, Crawford 442/1b, Valetudo standing left,459 views049 B.C., Mn. Acilius Glabrio. Denarius, Crawford 442/1b, Valetudo (as Salus) standing left,
avers: Laureate head of Salus right, SALVTIS downward behind, border of dots.
revers: Valetudo ( as Salus) standing left, leaning on column and holding snake, MN•ACILIVS III•VIR•VALETV ( MN and TV ligate ) behind and before. border of dots.
exergo: -/-//--, diameter: 20-21mm, weight: 3,95g, axis: 6h,
mint: Rome, date: 49 B.C., ref: Crawford 442/1b, Sydenham 922, RSC Acilia 8a,
Q-001
3 commentsquadrans
arles22.jpg
049 Constantine I. AE324 viewsobv: CONSTAN_TINVS AVG pearl dia. bust r.
rev: VIRTV_S AVGG campgate with four turrents star above wide open doors
fld:/ex: SF/ARLP
1 commentshill132
arles23.jpg
050 Constantine I. AE312 viewsobv: CONSTAN_TINUS AVG laur. bust r.
rev: VIRTVS AVGG campgate with four turrents star above wide open doors
fld:/ex: SF/ARLS
hill132
arles24.jpg
051 Constantius II. AE314 viewsobv: FL IVL CONSTANTIVS NOB C laur. drp. cuir. bust l.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE CAESS campgate with two turrents star above
fld:/ex: SF/QCONST
hill132
arles25.jpg
052 Constantius II. AE325 viewsobv: FL IVL CONSTANTIVS NOB C laur. drp. cuir. bust l.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE CAESS campgate with two turrents star above
ex: QA(crescent)RL
hill132
arles26.jpg
053 Constantine I. AE311 viewsobv: CONSTAN_TINVS AVG laur. bust r.
rev: VIRTV_S AVGG campgate with four turrents star above wide open doors
ex: PA(crescent)RL
hill132
arles27.jpg
054 Constantinus II. AE314 viewsobv: CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C laur. drp. cuir. bust l
rev: VIRTVS CAESS campgate with four turrents star above, wide open doors
fld:/ex: SF/ARLT
hill132
055_Diadumenian_(217-218_A_D__Caesar,_218_A_D__Augustus),_Makriannopoliton,_HJ-06_25_1_2_Q-001_0h_17-18mm_3,47g-s~0.jpg
055p Diadumenian (217-218 A.D. as Caesar, 218 A.D. as Augustus), Moesia, Markianopolis, Hristova/Jekov (2011) No. 06.25.01.02var., AE-18, MAPKIANO ΠOLEIΤΩN, Eagle,178 views055p Diadumenian (217-218 A.D. as Caesar, 218 A.D. as Augustus), Moesia, Markianopolis, Hristova/Jekov (2011) No. 06.25.01.02var., AE-18, MAPKIANO ΠOLEIΤΩN, Eagle,
avers: M-OΠEΛΛI-ANTΩNEINO (NE are ligate), Bare, draped bust right.
revers: MAPKIANO-ΠOLEIΤΩN, Eagle, standing front, head right, in its beak wreath.
exe: -/-//--, diameter: 17-18mm, weight: 3,47g, axis: 0h,
mint: Moesia, Markianopolis, date: 217-218 A.D., ref: Hristova/Jekov (2011) No. 06.25.01.02.var.,
Q-001
quadrans
055_Diadumenian_(217-218_A_D__Caesar,_218_A_D__Augustus),_Makriannopoliton,_HJ-06_25_52_1_Q-001_6h_16-17mm_3,05g-s~0.jpg
055p Diadumenian (217-218 A.D. as Caesar, 218 A.D. as Augustus), Moesia, Markianopolis, Hristova/Jekov (2011) No. 06.25.52.01., AE-18, MAPKIANO ΠOLEIΤΩN, Basket of fruits,73 views055p Diadumenian (217-218 A.D. as Caesar, 218 A.D. as Augustus), Moesia, Markianopolis, Hristova/Jekov (2011) No. 06.25.52.01., AE-18, MAPKIANO ΠOLEIΤΩN, Basket of fruits,
avers: M-OΠEΛΛIOC-ANTΩNEINOC (NE are ligate), Bare headed, draped and cuirassed bust right – seen from behind.
revers: MAPKIANOΠOLEIΤΩN, Basket of fruits.
exe: -/-//--, diameter: 16-17mm, weight: 3,05g, axis: 6h,
mint: Moesia, Markianopolis, date: 217-218 A.D., ref: Hristova/Jekov (2011) No. 06.25.52.01., Varbanov (Eng.) Vol.1. No. 1317, AMNG I 807, p.252,
Q-001
quadrans
055_Diadumenian_(217-218_A_D__Caesar,_218_A_D__Augustus),_Nicopolis_ad_Istrum,_4_assaria,_HHJ-08_25_01_16,_Moushmov_1348,_Moesia_Inferior-Q-001_2h_26,0-26,5mm_10,01g-s~0.jpg
055p Diadumenian (217-218 A.D. Caesar, 218 A.D. Augustus), Moesia, Nicopolis Ad Istrum, HrHJ (2012) 08.25.01.16, 4 Assaria (AE-26), Eagle with wings spread,120 views055p Diadumenian (217-218 A.D. Caesar, 218 A.D. Augustus), Moesia, Nicopolis Ad Istrum, HrHJ (2012) 08.25.01.16, 4 Assaria (AE-26), Eagle with wings spread,
avers:- M OΠEΛ ΔIAΔO MENIANOC K, Bare headed draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from behind.
revers:- VΠ CTA ΛONΓINOV NIKOΠOΛITΩN ΠPO/CI, Eagle with wings spread, holding wreath in its beak.
exe: -/-//CI, diameter: 26,0-26,5mm, weight: 10,01g, axis: 2h,
mint: Moesia, Nicopolis Ad Istrum, Governor:Statius Longinus, date: 218 A.D., ref: Hristova/Hoeft/Jekov (2012) 08.25.01.16, Moushmov 1348, Varbanov (Eng.) Vol.1, No. 3710, AMNG I, p. 473, no. 1871,
"Consular legate Statius Longinus , (Governor) of the residents of Nikopolis on the (river) Istrus – A prince (Diadumenian) crowned by the gods"
Q-001
quadrans
arles28.jpg
056 Constantine I. AE312 viewsobv: CONSTAN_TINUS AVG pearl dia. bust r.
rev: VIRTV_S AVGG campgate with four turrents star above,wide open doors
fld:/ex:SF/PCONST
hill132
056_Elagabalus_(218-222_A_D_),_AE-16,_Markianopolis-Moesia-_VP-IOVL-ANT-CELEVKOV-MARKIANO_OLIT_N_H-J-6_28_3_3__Q-001_0h_27-28mm_13,24g-s~0.jpg
056p Elagabalus (218-222 A.D.), and Julia Maesa, Moesia, Markianopolis, Hristova-Jekov 06.28.3.3., AE-28, VΠ IOVΛ ANT CEΛEVKOV MAPKIANOΠOLITΩN, Zeus left,88 views056p Elagabalus (218-222 A.D.), and Julia Maesa, Moesia, Markianopolis, Hristova-Jekov 06.28.3.3., AE-28, VΠ IOVΛ ANT CEΛEVKOV MAPKIANOΠOLITΩN, Zeus left,
avers: AVT K M AVP ANTΩNEINOC AVΓ IOVΛIA MAICA AVΓ, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust of Elagabalus facing diademed and draped bust of Julia Maesa
revers: VΠ IOVΛ ANT CEΛEVKOV MAPKIANOΠOLITΩN (AP and ΩN ligate), Zeus standing left with patera and sceptre, E to right.
exe: -/E//--, diameter: 27-28mm, weight: 13,24g, axis:0h,
mint: Moesia, Markianopolis, Magistrate:Iulius Antoninus Selevkus, date: 218-222 A.D.,
ref: Hristova/Jekov (2014) No. 06.28.3.3.,
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quadrans
056_Elagabalus_(218-222_A_D_),_AE-16,_Markianopolis-Moesia-AYT-K-M-AVP-ANT_NEINOC_MARKIANO_OLIT_-N_H-J-6_26_53_2-rev-var__Q-001_0h_15,5-16,5mm_2,87g-s~0.jpg
056p Elagabalus (218-222 A.D.), Moesia, Markianopolis, Hristova-Jekov 6.26.53.2var. (revers variation), AE-16, MARKIANOΠOLITΩ/N, Lion advancing right.119 views056p Elagabalus (218-222 A.D.), Moesia, Markianopolis, Hristova-Jekov 6.26.53.2var. (revers variation), AE-16, MARKIANOΠOLITΩ/N, Lion advancing right.
avers: AVT K M AVP ANTΩNEINOC (NE ligate) , Laureate head right.
revers: MARKIANOΠOLITΩ/N, Lion advancing right.
exe: -/-//N, diameter: 15,5-16,5mm, weight: 2,87g, axis: 0h,
mint: Moesia, Markianopolis, date: 218 A.D.,
ref. a) not in AMNG
b) not in Varbanov (engl.)
c) not in Hristova/Jekov (2014):
rev. not listed
obv. e.g. No. 6.26.53.2
d) not in Pfeiffer (2013)
Q-001
2 commentsquadrans
056_Elagabalus_(218-222_A_D_),_AE-16,_Markianopolis-Moesia-AYT-K-M-AVP-ANT_NINOC_MARKIANO_OLEIT_N_H-J-6_26_20_9_Q-001_1h_15,5-16,5mm_2,70g-s~0.jpg
056p Elagabalus (218-222 A.D.), Moesia, Markianopolis, Hristova/Jekov (2014) No. 6.26.20.9, C AE-16, MARKIANOΠOLEITΩN, Coiled snake turns left.114 views056p Elagabalus (218-222 A.D.), Moesia, Markianopolis, Hristova/Jekov (2014) No. 6.26.20.9, C AE-16, MARKIANOΠOLEITΩN, Coiled snake turns left.
avers: AVT K M AVP ANTΩNINOC (ΩN ligate), Laureate head right.
revers: MARKIANOΠOLEITΩN, Coiled snake turns left.
exe: -/-//--, diameter: 15,5-16,5mm, weight: 2,70g, axis:h,
mint: Moesia, Markianopolis, date:218 A.D.,
ref: a) AMNG I/1, ???
b) Varbanov (engl.) Not in,
c) Hristova/Jekov (2014) No. 6.26.20.9,
d) Pfeiffer (2013) ???
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
056_Elagabalus_(218-222_A_D_),_AE-17,_Markianopolis,_Moesia,_Moushmov_648,_MARKIANO_OLIT_N,_Four_stars_in_crescent_moon_Q-001_h_mm_g-s.jpg
056p Elagabalus (218-222 A.D.), Moesia, Markianopolis, Varbanov (engl.) 1394, AE-17, MARKIANOΠOLITΩN, Four stars in crescent moon,67 views056p Elagabalus (218-222 A.D.), Moesia, Markianopolis, Varbanov (engl.) 1394, AE-17, MARKIANOΠOLITΩN, Four stars in crescent moon,
avers:- AVT K M AVP ANTΩNINOC (ΩN ligate) , Laureate head right.
revers:- MARKIANOΠOLITΩN (AΡ and ΩN ligate), Four stars in crescent moon.
exe: -/-//--, diameter: 17mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Moesia, Markianopolis, date: 217-218 A.D.,
ref: a) AMNG I/1, 933 (2 ex., Gotha, St. Petersburg)
b) Varbanov (engl.) 1394
c) Hristova/Jekov (2012) No. 6.26.48.2 corr. (ligations not mentioned)
d) not in Pfeiffer (2013)
Q-001
quadrans
arles29.jpg
057 Constantius II. AE315 viewsobv: FL IVL CONSTANTIVS NOB C laur. drp. cuir. bust l.
rev: VIRTVS CAESS campgate with four turrents star above, wide open doors
ex: QR(crescent)RL
hill132
arles30.jpg
058 Constantine I. AE310 viewsobv: CONSTAN_TINVS AVG pearl dia. bust r.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE AVGG campgate with two turrents star above
fld:/ex: SF/PCONST
hill132
arles31.jpg
059 Constantine II. AE331 viewsobv: COSTANTINVS IVN NOB C laur. drp. cuir bust l.
rev: VIRTVS CAESS campgate with four turrents star above wide open doors
ex: TA(crescent)RL
1 commentshill132
arles32.jpg
060 Constantine I. AE3 9 viewsobv: CONSTAN_TINVS AVG laur. bust r
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE AVGG campgate with two turrents star above
ex: SA crescent RL
hill132
arles33.jpg
061 Constantine II10 viewsobv: COSTANTINVS IVN NOB C laur. drp. cuir bust l.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE CAESS campgate with two turrents star
fld:/ex: SF/ARLT
hill132
arles34.jpg
062 Constantine I. AE315 viewsobv: CONSTAN_TINUS AVG pearl dia. head r.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE AVGG campgate with two turrents star above
fld:/ex: SF/PCONST
hill132
066.jpg
062 CONSTANTINUS II14 viewsEMPEROR: Constantinus II
DENOMINATION: AE reduced follis
OBVERSE: CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right
REVERSE: PROVIDENTIAE CAESS, campgate, 5 layers, two turrets, no door, star above.
EXERGUE: SMHΓ.
DATE: 325-326 AD
MINT: Heraclea
WEIGHT: 2.05 g
RIC: VII Heraclea 77
Barnaba6
062_Severus_Alexander_(222-235_A_D_),_AE-21,_Nikaia_in_Bithynia,__#925;_#921;__#922;__#913;_#921;__#917;__#937;N,_Q-001,_0h,_20-21mm,_5,38g-s~0.jpg
062p Severus Alexander (222-235 A.D.), Bithynia, Nikaia, BMC ???, AE-21, NI K AI E/ΩN, #167 views062p Severus Alexander (222-235 A.D.), Bithynia, Nikaia, BMC ???, AE-21, NI K AI E/ΩN, #1
avers: M AVP CEVH AΛEΞANΔROC AVΓ (VΓ ligate), Laureate, cuirassed bust right, seen from behind.
reverse: NI K AI E/ΩN, Between and beneath three standards.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 20,0-21,0mm, weight: 5,38g, axis: 0h,
mint: Bithynia, Nikaia, date: A.D., ref: BMC ???,
Q-001
quadrans
arles35.jpg
063 Constantine I. AE313 viewsobv: CONSTAN_TINUS AVG laur. bust r.
rev: VIRTV_S AVGG campgate with four turrents star above,wide open doors
fld:/ex: SF/ARLS
hill132
RI_064rb_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 51932 viewsObv:– L S-EPT SEV AVG IMP XI PART MAX, Laureate head right
Rev:– VOTIS DECENNALIBVS, Septimius, togate and veiled, standing left sacrificing over tripod
Minted in Laodicea-ad-Mare. A.D. 202
Reference:– RIC IV 519; BMCRE 680; RSC 796. 2 exampled in RD so relatively scarce.

D of DECENNALIBVS corrected from E
2 commentsmaridvnvm
arles36.jpg
064 Constantine I. AE315 viewsobv: CONSTAN_TINVS AVG pearl dia. bust r.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE AVGG campgate with two turrents star above
fld:/ex: SF/ARLS
hill132
arles37.jpg
065 Constantine I. AE321 viewsobv: CONSTAN_TINUS AVG laur. bust r.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE AVGG campgate with two turrents star above
fld:/ex: SF/ARLP
hill132
6.jpg
065a CONSTANTIUS II RIC SISCIA 20310 views EMPEROR: Constantius II
DENOMINATION: Ae3
OBVERSE: FL IVL CONSTANTIVS NOB C, laureate, draped bust left
REVERSE: PROVIDENTIAE CAESS, Camp gate with 2 turrets & star
EXERGUE: ΔSIS doublecresent
MINT: SISCIA
RIC VII SISCIA 203
Barnaba6
GI_066n_img.jpg
066 - Caracalla, AE27, Markianopolis 18 viewsAE27
Obv:- AY K M AY ANTWNINOC AY K P CEP, GETAC in exergue, laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust of Caracalla right confronting laureate and draped bust of Geta left;
Rev:- Y FL OYLPIANOY MAPKIANOPOLITWN, Concordia standing slightly left, patera in right hand, cornucopia in left hand, E (mark of value) lower left;
Minted in Markianopolis (Devnya, Bulgaria). Consular Legate Flavius Ulpianus, 210 - 211 A.D
Reference:– Varbanov (Engl.) 1083

27.33 mm. 11.74 gms. 0 degrees.
maridvnvm
arles38.jpg
066 Constantine I. AE317 viewsobv: CONSTAN_TINUS AVG pearl dia. head r.
rev: VIRTV_S AVGG campgate with four turrents star above wide open doors
ex: SF/PCONST
hill132
arles39.jpg
067 Constantine I. AE318 viewsobv: CONSTAN_TINUS AVG pearl dia. head r.
rev: VIRTV_S AVGG campgate with four turrents star above wide open doors
ex: SF/PCONST
hill132
arles40.jpg
068 Constantine II. AE314 viewsobv: CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C laur. drp. cuir. bust l
rev: VIRTVS CAESS campgate with four turrents star above wide open doors
ex: TA(crescent)RL
hill132
arles41.jpg
069 Constantine I. AE322 viewsobv: CONSTAN_TINUS AVG pearl dia. head r.
rev: VIRTV_S AVGG campgate with four turrents star above wide open doors
ex: SF/ARLP
hill132
arles42~0.jpg
070 Constantine I12 viewsobv: CONSTAN_TINVS AVG pearl dia. head r.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE AVGG campgate with two turrents star above
ex: SF/PCONST
hill132
arles42.jpg
070 Constantine I. AE319 viewsobv: CONSTAN_TINUS AVG pearl dia. head r.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE AVGG campgate with two turrents star above
ex: SF/PCONST
hill132
arles43.jpg
071 Constantius II13 viewsobv: FL IVL CONSTANTIVS NOB C laur. drp. cuir. bust l.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE CAESS campgate with two torrents, star above
ex: SF/ARLQ
hill132
arles44.jpg
072 Constantin I18 viewsobv: CONSTAN_TINUS AVG laur. head r.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE AVGG campgate with two turrents, star above
ex: SF/ARLES
hill132
780_P_Hadrian_RPC728.jpg
0728 THRACE, Bizya, Hadrian 117-19 AD City gate 32 viewsReference.
RPC III, 728; Jurukova Bizye, pl. 1, 3; 6 (same dies) 1A; Price-Trell p. 247, 83; Varbanov 1421 var.

Magistrate Maec- Nep- (presbeutès and antistrategos)

Obv. ΑΥΤΟ ΤΡΑΙΑΝΟС ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС ΚΑΙСΑΡ СΕΒ ΓΕΡ
Laureate and cuirassed bust of Hadrian, r., with paludamentum

Rev. ΕΠΙ ΜΑΙ ΝΕΠ ΠΡΕСΒ ΚΑΙ ΑΝΤ ΒΙΖΥΗΝΩΝ
City gate, flanked by two towers, surmounted by a figure in quadriga, r.

18.00 gr
31 mm
6h

Note.
The portrait of Hadrian is based on the features of Trajan, as were the earliest coins of Hadrian in Rome.

ex Numismatik Lanz auction 160, lot 414
ex FORVM
okidoki
072_Gordianus-III__(238-244_A_D_),_AE-27_AVTK____W________C_V__V_CABMO_ECTOVNIKO_O_EIT_N_P_OCICTPON__Nic_ad_Istr__HHJ-08_36_4_-,_M_Inf_Q-001_6h_26,5-28mm_12_2g-s~0.jpg
072p Gordianus-III. (238-244 A.D.), Moesia, Nicopolis Ad Istrum, HrHJ (2012) 08.36.05.??, AE-28, Athena standing frontal,132 views072p Gordianus-III. (238-244 A.D.), Moesia, Nicopolis Ad Istrum, HrHJ (2012) 08.36.05.??, AE-28, Athena standing frontal,
avers:- AVT-K-M-ANT-W-ΓOPΔIANOC-AVΓ (AVΓ ligate), Bust, draped and cuirassed, seen from behind, laureate, right.
revers:- VΠ-CAB-MOΔECTOV-NI-KOΠOΛEITΩN-ΠP (ΠP ligate), in right field one below the other POC [I]C[T]P, in upper left field ON (Γ?), Athena in long girded double chiton, helmeted, standing frontal, head left, resting with raised left hand on inverted spear and holding with lowered right hand shield seen from inside set on ground.
exe: O/N/Γ(?)//O/C/I/C/T/P//--, diameter: 26,5-28mm, weight: 12,2g, axis: 6h,
mint: Moesia, Nicopolis Ad Istrum, Sabinius Modestus (241-244 A.D.,) date: 241-244 A.D.,
ref. a) not in AMNG:
AMNG I/1, 2051 (for the type only)
b) Varbanov (engl.) 4177 (but Varbanov doesn't differentiate between different legend
distributions!)
c) not in Hristova-Hoeft-Jekov (2015)
rev. No. 8. 36.4 (for the depiction only)
obv. e.g. No. 8.36.4.4 (same die)
Q-001
quadrans
Gordianus-III_AE-23-Dup_IMP-GORDIANVS-PIVS-FEL-AVG_COL-FL-PA-C-DEULT_Deultum-Thrace-_AD_Q-001_7h_22,5-23mm_6,19g-s~0.jpg
072p Gordianus-III. (238-244 A.D.), Thrace, Deultum, Varbanov (engl.) 2551, AE-23, COL FL PA C DEULT, Artemis walking left,73 views072p Gordianus-III. (238-244 A.D.), Thrace, Deultum, Varbanov (engl.) 2551, AE-23, COL FL PA C DEULT, Artemis walking left,
avers:- IMP-GORDIANVS-PIVS-FEL-AVG (AV ligate), Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust of Gordian-III right.
revers:- COL-FL-PA-C-DEULT, Artemis walking left with bow and arrow; dog behind her.
exe: -/-//--, diameter: 22,5-23mm, weight: 6,19g, axis:7h,
mint: Thrace, Deultum, date: A.D., ref:Varbanov-II.(engl.)-2551, p-221, (cites Jurukova 1981, 372), SNG Bulgaria, Deultum 963-964, which is Jurakova 318.
Q-001
quadrans
072-Gordian-III_AE-19_Prov_MANT-GORDIANOC____ATIANON_AD_Q-001_1h_18-19,5mm_4,39g-s~0.jpg
072p Gordianus-III. (238-244 A.D.), Thrace, Kallatis, Varbanov 358 (but smaller), AE-19, Cybele riding on lion right,62 views072p Gordianus-III. (238-244 A.D.), Thrace, Kallatis, Varbanov 358 (but smaller), AE-19, Cybele riding on lion right,
avers:- M-ANT-ΓΟΡΔΙΑΝΟC-N, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust of Gordian-III right.
revers:- KAΛΛ-ATIA_NΩΝ (ΝΩ ligate), Cybele holding sceptre, riding on back of lion walking right.
exe: -/-//NΩΝ, diameter: 18-19,5mm, weight: 4,39g, axis:1h,
mint: Thrace, Kallatis, date: 238-244 A.D., ref: Varbanov 358 (but smaller), Pick 347,
Q-001
quadrans
arles45.jpg
073 Constantius II11 viewsobv: FL IVL CONSTANTIVS NOB C laur. drp. cuir. bust l.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE CAESS campgate with two turrents, star above
ex: SF/ARLQ
hill132
aquileia1.jpg
075 Magnus Maximus. AE423 viewsobv: DN MAG MA_XIMVS PF AVG pearl dia. drp. cuir. bust r.
rev: SPES RO_MA_NORVM campgate with two turrents star above
ex: SMAQS
1 commentshill132
aquileia2.jpg
076 Magnus maximus. AE415 viewsobv: DN MAG MA_XIMVS PF AVG pearl dia. drp. cuir. bust r.
rev: SPES RO_MA NORVM campgate with two turrents star above
ex: SMAQP
hill132
Mensor_Q-001_axis-5h_17-19mm_3,76g-s.jpg
076-075 B.C., L. Farsuleius Mensor, Republic AR-Denarius, Crawford 392/1b, Rome, Warrior in quadriga,234 views076-075 B.C., L. Farsuleius Mensor, Republic AR-Denarius, Crawford 392/1b, Rome, Warrior in quadriga,
avers: MENSOR S•C Bust of Libertas right.
reverse: Warrior in quadriga assisting togate male into biga right, control number XXCVT under horses.
exergue: -/-//L•FARSVLEI, diameter: 17-19mm, weight: 3,76g, axis: 5h,
mint: Rome, date:, ref: Crawford-392-1b, Sydenham 789a, Farsuleia 2,
Q-001
quadrans
arelate1.jpg
078 Magnus maximus. AE420 viewsobv: DN MAG MAXI_NVS PF AVG pearl dia. drp. uir. bust r.
rev: SPES RO_MA NORVM campgate with two turrents star above
ex: SCON
hill132
arelate2.jpg
079 Magnus Maximus AE416 viewsobv: DN MAG MAXI_MVS PF AVG pearl dia. drp. cuir. bust r.
rev: SPES RO_MA_NORVM campgate with two turrents star above
ex: SCON
hill132
arelate3.jpg
080 Flavius Victor. AE418 viewsobv: DN FL VIC_TOR PF AVG pearl dia. drp. cuir. bust r.
rev: SPES RO_MA_NORVM campgate with two turrents star above
ex: SCON
hill132
081_B_C_,_A_Postumius_A_f_Sp_n_Albinus__AR-Den-_Serratus,_Bust_of_Diana_r_,_Bull,_Altar_Cr372-1,_Syd_745,_Postumia-7,Q-001,_2h,18,5-20mm,3,91g-s.jpg
081 B.C., A. Postumius A.f. Sp.n. Albinus., AR-Denarius-Serratus, Crawford 372/1, Rome, Togate figure, ox an altar, #1133 views081 B.C., A. Postumius A.f. Sp.n. Albinus., AR-Denarius-Serratus, Crawford 372/1, Rome, Togate figure, ox an altar, #1
avers:- Bust of Diana right, bow and quiver over shoulder, bucranium above.
revers:- A•POST•A•F-S•N•ALBIN, Togate figure standing left on a rock before a lighted altar, ox standing right about to be sacrificed.
exerg: -/-/--, diameter: 18,5-20,0mm, weight: 3,91g, axis: 2h,
mint: Rome, date: 81 B.C., ref: Crawford-372-1, Sydenham-745, Postumia-7,
Q-001
quadrans
constantinople1.jpg
082 Constantine II19 viewsobv: FL IVL CONSTANTIVS NOB C laur. drp. cuir. bust l.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE CAESS campgate with two turrents star between, base at bottom
ex: B/CONS
hill132
constantinople1~0.jpg
082 Constantius II15 viewsobv: FL IVL CONSTANTINV NOB C laur. drp. cuir. bust l.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE CAESS campgate with two turrents star between, with base
ex: B/CONS
hill132
constantinople2.jpg
083 Constantine II15 viewsobv: CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C laur. drp. cuir. bust r.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE CAESS campgate with two turrents star above
ex: r/CONS
hill132
constantinople3.jpg
084 Constantine I 17 viewsobv: CONSTAN_TINUS AVG laur. head r.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE AVGG campgate with two turrents star above
ex: A.CONS
hill132
constantinople4.jpg
085 Constantine I15 viewsobv: CONSTAN_TINUS AVG laur. head r.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE AVGG campgate with two turrents star above
ex: A/CONS
hill132
cyzicus1.jpg
087 Constantine I14 viewsobv: CONSTAN_TINUS AVG laur. head r.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE AVGG campgate with two turrents star above
ex: .SMK(DELTA).
hill132
cyzicus2.jpg
088 Constantine I12 viewsobv: CONSTAN_TINUS AVG laur. head r.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE AVGG campgate with two turrents star above
ex: ./SMK(epsilon)
hill132
cyzicus3.jpg
089 Constantine I13 viewsobv: CONSTAN_TINVS AVG dotted dia. head r.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE AVGG campgate with two turrents star above
ex: SMKB.
hill132
090-BC-C_Publicius_Mall_,_A_Postumius_Albinus,_L_Metellus_Rep_AR-Den_L_METEL,_A_ALB_S_F_,_C_MALL,_ROMA,_Syd_611a_Crwf__335-1b_Q-001_9h_18-18,5mm_3,70g-s.jpg
090 B.C. C.Publicius Mall., A.Postumius Albinus and L.Metellus, AR-Denarius, Crawford 335/1b, Rome, C•MALL, Roma seated left on pile of shields,117 views090 B.C. C.Publicius Mall., A.Postumius Albinus and L.Metellus, AR-Denarius, Crawford 335/1b, Rome, C•MALL, Roma seated left on pile of shields,
avers: - L•METEL, A•ALB•S•F•, Laureate head of Apollo right, star beneath chin, border of dots.
revers: - C•MALL (AL ligate), Roma seated left on pile of shields, holding sceptre, being crowned by Victory standing left behind her, ROMA below, border of dots.
exerg: -/-//ROMA, diameter: 18,0-18,5mm, weight: 3,70g, axis: 9h,
mint: Rome, date: 090 B.C., ref: Syd-611a, Crawford-335/1b, Caecilia 46., Postumia 3.,
Q-001
quadrans
cyzicus4.jpg
090 Constantius II15 viewsobv: FL IVL CONSTANTIVS NOB C laur. drp. cuir. bust l.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE CAESS campgate with two turrents star above
ex: .SMK(DELTA).
hill132
353Hadrian_RIC900.jpg
0900 Hadrian AS Roma 134-38 AD Mauretania28 viewsReference.
RIC 900f; C. 69

Obv. HADRIANVS AVG COS III P P
Bust of Hadrian, laureate, draped, right

Rev. ADVENTVI AVG MAVRETANIAE in Ex S C
Hadrian, togate, on left, standing right, holding roll in left hand and raising right to Mauretania, wearing elephant-skin headdress, standing left, facing him, on right, sacrificing over altar in center with right hand and holding vexillum in left; bull? next to altar.

14.26 gr
27 mm
5h
1 commentsokidoki
cyzicus5.jpg
091 Constantine I14 viewsobv: CONSTAN_TINVS AVG plain dia. head r.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE AVGG campgate with two turrents star above
ex: SMKB.
hill132
cyzicus6.jpg
092 Constantine I12 viewsobv: CONSTAN_TINUS AVG laur. head r.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE AVGG campgate with two turrents star above
ex: .SMKr.
hill132
cyzicus7.jpg
093 Constantine I9 viewsobv: CONSTAN_TINUS AVG laur. head r.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE AVGG campgate with two turrents star above
ex: SMKr.
hill132
cyzicus8.jpg
094 Constantine I11 viewsobv: CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C laur. drp. cuir. bust l.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE CAESS campgate with two turrents star above
ex: SMKA.
hill132
cyzicus9.jpg
095 Constantine II15 viewsobv: CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C laur. drp. cuir. bust l.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE CAESS campgate with two turrents star above
ex: SMKB
hill132
684Hadrian_RIC955.jpg
0953 Hadrian AS Roma 134-38 AD Hadrian and Hispania18 viewsReference.
RIC 953; Cohen 1273; Strack 777

Obv. HADRIANVS AVG COS III P P
Bare headed and draped bust right

Rev. RESTITVTORI HISPANIAE, S C in exergue
Hadrian, togate, stands on the left, facing right, holding a roll in his left hand and extending his right hand to raise up kneeling figure of Hispania, a draped woman before him. Hispania holds a branch in her left hand: in centre, a rabbit.

12.40 gr
25 mm
12h
okidoki
cyzicus10.jpg
096 Constantine II14 viewsobv: CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C laur. drp. cuir. bust l.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE CAESS campgate with two turrents star above
ex: SMKA.
hill132
cyzicus11.jpg
097 Constantine I15 viewsobv: CONSTAN_TINUS AVG laur. head r.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE AVGG campgate with two turrents star above
ex: SMKr.
hill132
1207_P_Hadrian_RPC972.jpg
0972 Hadrian, Cistophorus BITHYNIA Koinon of Bithynia mint, Male in octastyle temple34 viewsReference.
RPC III, 972; RIC II 459a; RSC 241

Issue Reverse legend includes COM BIT

Obv. IMP CAES TRA HADRIANO AVG P P
Bare head of Hadrian, right

Rev. COM - BIT (in field), ROM S P AVG (in entablature)
Tetrastyle temple on podium of three steps; within, togate male standing r. holding spear in r. and Victory in left

9.89 gr
25 mm
6h
3 commentsokidoki
1337_P_Hadrian_RPC.jpg
0972 Hadrian, Cistophorus BITHYNIA Koinon of Bithynia mint, Male in octastyle temple15 viewsReference.
cf RPC III, 974; cf Metcalf B8

Issue Reverse legend includes COM BIT

Obv. IMP CAES TRA HADRIANO AVG P P
Laureate head right

Rev. COM - BIT (in field), ROM S P AVG (in entablature)
Tetrastyle temple on podium of three steps; within, togate male standing left. holding spear in r. and Victory in left

10.46 gr
26 mm
11h
2 commentsokidoki
cyzicus12.jpg
098 Constantine I14 viewsobv: CONSTAN_TINUS AVG laur. head r.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE AVGG campgate with two turrents star above
ex: SMKA.
hill132
Cornelia51QuinVict.jpg
0aa Defeat of Hannibal on Sicily, 222 BC11 viewsCn. Lentulus, moneyer
90-85 BC

Quinarius

Laureled head of Jupiter, right
Victory crowning trophy, CN LENT in ex

Seaby, Cornelia 51

Possibly a reference to this event: [Q. Fabius Maximus, afterwards called Cunctator] broke up his camp at Suessula and decided to begin by an attack on Arpi. . . . Now at last the enemy was roused; there was a lull in the storm and daylight was approaching. Hannibal's garrison in the city amounted to about 5000 men, and the citizens themselves had raised a force of 3000. These the Carthaginians put in front to meet the enemy, that there might be no attempt at treachery in their rear. The fighting began in the dark in the narrow streets, the Romans having occupied not only the streets near the gate but the houses also, that they might not be assailed from the roofs. Gradually as it grew light some of the citizen troops and some of the Romans recognised one another, and entered into conversation. The Roman soldiers asked what it was that the Arpinians wanted, what wrong had Rome done them, what good service had Carthage rendered them that they, Italians-bred and born, should fight against their old friends the Romans on behalf of foreigners and barbarians, and wish to make Italy a tributary province of Africa. The people of Arpi urged in their excuse that they knew nothing of what was going on, they had in fact been sold by their leaders to the Carthaginians, they had been victimised and enslaved by a small oligarchy. When a beginning had been once made the conversations became more and more general; at last the praetor of Arpi was conducted by his friends to the consul, and after they had given each other mutual assurances, surrounded by the troops under their standards, the citizens suddenly turned against the Carthaginians and fought for the Romans. A body of Spaniards also, numbering something less than a thousand, transferred their services to the consul upon the sole condition that the Carthaginian garrison should be allowed to depart uninjured. The gates were opened for them and they were dismissed, according to the stipulation, in perfect safety, and went to Hannibal at Salapia. Thus Arpi was restored to the Romans without the loss of a single life, except in the case of one man who had long ago been a traitor and had recently deserted. The Spaniards were ordered to receive double rations, and the republic availed itself on very many occasions of their courage and fidelity.

Livy, History of Rome, 24.46-47
Blindado
LFarsuleiusDen.jpg
0b Italy Gets Roman Citizenship13 viewsL Farsuleius Mensor, moneyer
76-71 BC

Denarius

Diademed and draped head of Liberty, right, SC below, MENSOR before, cap of Liberty and number behind
Roma in biga helping togate figure mount, L FARSVLEI in ex.

Appears to allude to the Lex Julia of 90 BC, by which all of Italy gained Roman citizenship

Seaby, Farsuleia 1
Blindado
1-tessera-roman-Cohen-60.gif
1 tessera roman Cohen 6016 viewsAE tessera
2.46 g, 15.9 mm, 5 h.
Obv. Large ligate TR.
Rev. Large G.
Cohen 60, Dancoisne 68.
cckk
1-tessera-roman-Cohen-60v.gif
1 tessera roman Cohen 60v14 viewsAE tessera
2.93 g, 18.3 mm.
Obv. Large ligate TR.
Rev. Blank with beaded border.
Cohen -, cf Cohen 60, Dancoisne 69.
cckk
1-tessera-roman-Cohen-62n.gif
1 tessera roman Cohen 6213 viewsAE tessera
2.31 g, 15.8 mm, 6 h.
Obv. Large ligate VL.
Rev. Large N.
Cohen 62, Dancoisne 70.
cckk
1-tessera-roman-Cohen-62v.gif
1 tessera roman Cohen 62v10 viewsAE tessera
3.04 g, 17.8 mm, 11 h.
Obv. Large ligate VL.
Rev. Large M.
Cohen -, cf. Cohen 62, Dancoisne -.
cckk
1-tessera-roman-Cohen-62v2.gif
1 tessera roman Cohen 62v210 viewsAE tessera
2.96 g, 17.0 mm, 6 h.
Obv. Large ligate VL.
Rev. Large P.
Cohen -, cf. Cohen 62, Dancoisne 71.
cckk
Thrace,_Byzantion,__AR_Siglos_340-320_BC~0.jpg
1. Thrace, Byzantion, 340-320 BC, AR Siglos38 viewsHeifer standing left above dolphin, VΠΥ above.
Incuse square of mill-sail pattern.

SNG BM Black Sea 21; SNG Copenhagen 476; Sear GCV 1579.

(17 mm, 5.36 g)
Classical Numismatic Group electronic Auction 146, 23 August 2006, 34.

Standing on the European side of the Bosporos, Byzantion with its twin city Kalchedon on the Asia Minor side of the Bosporos was the ancient gateway between the two continents, a role that continues to the present.

The symbolism of the bull and the heifer on the obverse of the coins of twin cities of Kalchedon (Asia Minor) and Byzantion (Europe) respectively is striking and points to a shared identity. They stood astride the southern entrance to the Bosporus. Both were 7th century BC foundations of Megara and jointly they controlled the vital grain trade from the Black Sea into the Mediterranean.

The grain ear upon which the bull of Kalchedon stands alludes to this fact. That of the dolphin beneath the Heifer of Byzantion is a reflection of the maritime orientation of the city and the bountiful pods of dolphins that even to this day frolic in swift flowing waters of the Bosporus beneath the old city walls of Constantinople which succeded Byzantion and was in turn succeded by Istanbul.
1 commentsn.igma
37_1_b.jpg
1.22 L. Scribonius Libo46 viewsAR Denarius
Rome, 62 BC

rev. PVTEAL SCRIBON
Puteal Scribonum - a sacred spot in the Forvm struck by lightning. A monument was built on the spot, and that is where the moneyers congregated
Zam
cyzicus14a.jpg
100 Constantine II10 viewsobv: CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB CAESS laur. drp. cuir. bust l.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE CAESS campgate with two turrents star above
ex: .SMKr.
hill132
cyzicus15a.jpg
101 Constantine II18 viewsobv: CONSTANTINVS IVN OB C laur. drp. cuir. bust l.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE CAESS campgate with two turrents star above
ex: SMKr.
1 commentshill132
cyzicus16a.jpg
102 Constantine II13 viewsobv: CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C laur. drp. cuir. bust l.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE CAESS campgate with two turrents star above
ex: SMK(epsilon)
hill132
3100378.jpg
102. Trajan. AD 98-11730 viewsTrajan. AD 98-117. Æ Sestertius (34mm, 25.52 g, 6h). Rome mint. Struck circa AD 103-104. Laureate and draped bust right / Front of the Temple of Jupiter: monumental votive arch/gateway; on the sides, from top to bottom, are the following reliefs: biga driven by Victory, aegis, Gigantomachy, arms, and she-wolf suckling twins; the second tier surmounted by a trophy and giant to either side, gateway spandrels with Victories, pediment with Jupiter between two seated figures, panel above pediment inscribed IOM (= Iovi Optimo Maximo), the whole surmounted by six-horse chariot driven by Jupiter and flanked by Victories. RIC II 572-3 var. (bust type); Woytek 187f; Banti 280. Fair, brown patina, some green, areas of minor porosity and cleaning scratches. Rare. Banti cites only one example with this bust type.

EX-CNG eAuction 310 lot 378 190/150
ecoli
cyzicus17a.jpg
103 Constantius II9 viewsobv: FL IVL CONSTANTIVS NOB C laur drp. cuir. bust l.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE CAESS campgate with two turrents star above
ex: ./SMK(epsilon)
hill132
cyzicus18a.jpg
104 Constanine I14 viewsobv: CONSTAN_TINVS AVG laur. head r.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE AVGG campgate with two turrents star above
ex: SMKB.
hill132
cyzicus19a.jpg
105 Constantine II9 viewsobv: CONSTANTINVS IVN OB C laur. drp. cuir. bust l.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE CAESS campgate with two turrents star above
ex: SMK(delta).
hill132
Aurelianus_AE-Ant_IMP-AVRELIANVS-AVG_(B1)_PIETAS-AVG_(E-P-1)_S_RIC-V-I-138corr-p-T-1468-2off_3-iss_Milan_271-72-AD_Q-001_6h_21-21,5mm_4,14g-s.jpg
106 Aurelianus (270-275 A.D.), T-1468, RIC V-I 138, Mediolanum, AE-Antoninianus, PIETAS AVG, -/-//S, Emperor and Pietas,101 views106 Aurelianus (270-275 A.D.), T-1468, RIC V-I 138, Mediolanum, AE-Antoninianus, PIETAS AVG, -/-//S, Emperor and Pietas,
avers:-IMP AVRELIANVS AVG, Bust right, radiate, cuirassed. (B1)
revers:- PIETAS AVG, Emperor togate stg. r., holding short sceptre in l. hand, facing Pietas stg. l., holding short sceptre in l. hand, both sacrificing over an altar placed between them. (Emperor and Pietas 1)
exerg: -/-//S, diameter: 21-21,5mm, weight: 4,14g, axes: 6h,
mint: Mediolanum, iss-3, off-2, date: 271-272 A.D., ref: T-1468 (Estiot), RIC V-I 138corr,
Q-001
quadrans
Aurelianus_AE-Ant_IMP-AVRELIANVS-AVG_ROMAE-AETERNAE_Q_RIC-142_C-xx_Milan_271-72-AD_Q-001_20mm_2,57gx-s.jpg
106 Aurelianus (270-275 A.D.), T-1476, RIC V-I 142, Mediolanum, AE-Antoninianus, ROMAE AETERNAE, -/-//Q, Emperor and Roma,75 views106 Aurelianus (270-275 A.D.), T-1476, RIC V-I 142, Mediolanum, AE-Antoninianus, ROMAE AETERNAE, -/-//Q, Emperor and Roma,
avers:- IMP AVRELIANVS AVG, Bust right, radiate, cuirassed. (B1)
revers:- ROMAE AETERNAE, Emperor togate standing right, receiving Victory from Roma seated left on shield holding a long sceptre (or a spear) in left hand. (Emperor and Roma 1)
exerg: -/-//Q, diameter: 20mm, weight: 2,57g, axes: h,
mint: Mediolanum (Milan), iss-4, off-3, date: 271-272. A.D., ref: T-1476 (Estiot), RIC V-I 142,
Q-001
quadrans
Aurelianus_AE-Ant_IMP-AVRELIANVS-AVG_ROMAE-AETER_Q_RIC-V-I-142-p-RIC-T-1506-off-4-iss-4_272-4-AD_Q-001_axis-11h_23,5-25mm_3,21g-s.jpg
106 Aurelianus (270-275 A.D.), T-1506, RIC V-I 142, Mediolanum, AE-Antoninianus, ROMAE AETER, -/-//Q, Emperor and Roma,177 views106 Aurelianus (270-275 A.D.), T-1506, RIC V-I 142, Mediolanum, AE-Antoninianus, ROMAE AETER, -/-//Q, Emperor and Roma,
avers:- IMP AVRELIANVS AVG, Radiated and cuirassed bust right. (B1)
revers:- ROMAE AETER, Emperor togate standing right, receiving Victory from Roma seated left on shield holding a long sceptre (or a spear) in left hand. (Emperor and Roma 1)
exerg: -/-//Q, diameter: 23,5-25mm, weight: 3,21g, axes: 11h,
mint: Mediolanum, off-4, iss-4, date: 272-274 A.D., ref: RIC V-I 142, T-1506 (Estiot),
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Aurelianus_AE-Ant_IMP-AVRELIANVS-AVG(J2lDr_)_CONCORDIA-MILITVM(EC1)_S-star_RIC-V-218corr_-p-T-2190_off-2_iss-6_Siscia_272-73-74-AD_R_Q-001_0h_23,2-24,6mm_3,43g-s.jpg
106 Aurelianus (270-275 A.D.), T-2190, RIC V-I 218corr., Siscia, AE-Antoninianus, CONCORDIA MILITVM, -/-//S*, Emperor and Cocordia,210 views106 Aurelianus (270-275 A.D.), T-2190, RIC V-I 218corr., Siscia, AE-Antoninianus, CONCORDIA MILITVM, -/-//S*, Emperor and Cocordia,
avers:- IMP AVRELIANVS AVG, Bust left, radiate, cuirassed and draped with paludamentum, holding Victory on globe in right hand and eagle-handled pugio on left forearm. (J2l draped)
revers:- CONCORDIA MILITVM, Emperor togate standing right, clasping the hand of Concordia standing left. (Emperor and Cocordia 1)
exerg: -/-//S*, diameter: 23,2-24,6mm, weight: 3,43g, axes: 0h,
mint: Siscia, iss-6, off-2, date: 272-73-74 A.D., ref: RIC-V-218corr., T-2190 (Estiot),
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Aurelianus_AE-Ant_IMP-AVRELIANVS-AVG_CONCORDIA-MILITVM_star-T_RIC-V-216-p-RIC-T-2206_off-3_iss-6_Siscia_272-73-AD_Q-001_5h_22-23mm_3,39g-s~0.jpg
106 Aurelianus (270-275 A.D.), T-2206, RIC V-I 216, Siscia, AE-Antoninianus, CONCORDIA MILITVM, -/-//*T, Emperor and Cocordia,76 views106 Aurelianus (270-275 A.D.), T-2206, RIC V-I 216, Siscia, AE-Antoninianus, CONCORDIA MILITVM, -/-//*T, Emperor and Cocordia,
avers:- IMP C AVRELIANVS AVG, Radiate, cuirassed bust right. (B1)
revers:- CONCORDIA MILITVM, Emperor togate standing right, clasping the hand of Concordia standing left. (Emperor and Cocordia 1)
exerg: -/-//*T, diameter: 21mm, weight: 3,42g, axes: 0h,
mint: Siscia, iss-6, off-4, date: 272-73-A.D., ref: RIC-V-216-p-, T-2206 (Estiot),
Q-001
quadrans
Aurelianus_AE-Ant_IMP-AVRELIANVS-AVG_CONCORDIA-MILITVM_star-Q_RIC-V-216-p-RIC-T-2216_off-4_iss-6_Siscia_272-73-AD_Q-001_0h_21mm_3,42g-s.jpg
106 Aurelianus (270-275 A.D.), T-2216, RIC V-I 216, Siscia, AE-Antoninianus, CONCORDIA MILITVM, -/-//*Q, Emperor and Cocordia,66 views106 Aurelianus (270-275 A.D.), T-2216, RIC V-I 216, Siscia, AE-Antoninianus, CONCORDIA MILITVM, -/-//*Q, Emperor and Cocordia,
avers:- IMP C AVRELIANVS AVG, Radiate, cuirassed bust right. (B1)
revers:- CONCORDIA MILITVM, Emperor togate standing right, clasping the hand of Concordia standing left. (Emperor and Cocordia 1)
exerg: -/-//*Q, diameter: 21mm, weight: 3,42g, axes: 0h,
mint: Siscia, iss-6, off-4, date: 272-73-A.D., ref: RIC-V-216-p-, T-2216 (Estiot),
Q-001
quadrans
T-2258_Aurelianus_AE-Ant_IMP-C-AVRELIANVS-AVG(B1)_CONCORDIA-MILITVM(E-C1)_star-T_RIC-V-I-244_3rd-off-7th-iss-Ph-2_Siscia_274-AD_Q-001_0h_21,6-22,5mm_3,37g-s.jpg
106 Aurelianus (270-275 A.D.), T-2258, RIC V-I 244, Siscia, AE-Antoninianus, CONCORDIA MILITVM, -/-//*T, Emperor and Cocordia,102 views106 Aurelianus (270-275 A.D.), T-2258, RIC V-I 244, Siscia, AE-Antoninianus, CONCORDIA MILITVM, -/-//*T, Emperor and Cocordia,
avers:- IMP-C-AVRELIANVS-AVG, Radiate, cuirassed bust right. (B1)
revers:- CONCORDIA-MILITVM, Emperor togate standing right, clasping the hand of Concordia standing left. (Emperor and Cocordia 1)
exerg: -/-//*T, diameter: 21,6-22,5mm, weight: 3,37g, axes: 0h,
mint: Siscia, iss-7, ph-2, off-3, date: 274A.D., ref: T-2258 (Estiot), RIC V-I 244,
Q-001
quadrans
Aurelianus_AE-Ant_IMP-C-AVRELIANVS-AVG_CONCORDIA-MILITVM_T-Star_RIC-V-I-244-p-RIC-T-2259_off-3_iss-7-Ph-2_Siscia_274-AD_Q-001_6h_21-22mm_3,40g-s.jpg
106 Aurelianus (270-275 A.D.), T-2259, RIC V-I 244, Siscia, AE-Antoninianus, CONCORDIA MILITVM, -/-//T*, Emperor and Cocordia,72 views106 Aurelianus (270-275 A.D.), T-2259, RIC V-I 244, Siscia, AE-Antoninianus, CONCORDIA MILITVM, -/-//T*, Emperor and Cocordia,
avers:- IMP C AVRELIANVS AVG, Radiate, cuirassed bust right. (B1)
revers:- CONCORDIA MILITVM, Emperor togate standing right, clasping the hand of Concordia standing left. (Emperor and Cocordia 1)
exerg: -/-//T*, diameter: 21-22mm, weight: 3,40g, axes: 6h,
mint: Siscia, iss-7, ph-2, off-3, date: 274A.D., ref: T-2259 (Estiot), RIC V-I 244,
Q-001
quadrans
Aurelianus_AE-Ant_IMP-C-AVRELIANVS-AVG(B1)_CONCORDIA-MILITVM(E-C1)_V-star_RIC-V-I-244_T-2276-5th-off-7th-iss-Ph-2_Siscia_274-AD_Q-001_1h_21-21,5mm_4,12ga-s.jpg
106 Aurelianus (270-275 A.D.), T-2276, RIC V-I 244, Siscia, AE-Antoninianus, CONCORDIA MILITVM, -/-//V*, Emperor and Cocordia clasping hand,73 views106 Aurelianus (270-275 A.D.), T-2276, RIC V-I 244, Siscia, AE-Antoninianus, CONCORDIA MILITVM, -/-//V*, Emperor and Cocordia clasping hand,
avers:- IMP C AVRELIANVS AVG, Radiate, cuirassed bust right. (B1)
revers:- CONCORDIA MILITVM, Emperor togate standing right, clasping the hand of Concordia standing left. (Emperor and Cocordia 1)
exerg: -/-//V*, diameter: 21-21,5mm, weight: 4,12g, axes: 1h,
mint: Siscia, iss-7, ph-2, off-5, date: 274 A.D., ref: T-2276 (Estiot), RIC V-I 244,
Q-001
quadrans
Aurelianus_AE-Ant_IMP-C-AVRELIANVS-AVG(B1)_CONCORDIA-MILITVM(E-C1)_IV-star_RIC-V-I-244_T-2284-6th-off-7th-iss-Ph-2_Siscia_274-AD_Q-001_h_mm_ga-s.jpg
106 Aurelianus (270-275 A.D.), T-2284, RIC V-I 244, Siscia, AE-Antoninianus, CONCORDIA MILITVM, -/-//IV*, Emperor and Cocordia clasping hand,137 views106 Aurelianus (270-275 A.D.), T-2284, RIC V-I 244, Siscia, AE-Antoninianus, CONCORDIA MILITVM, -/-//IV*, Emperor and Cocordia clasping hand,
avers:- IMP C AVRELIANVS AVG, Radiate, cuirassed bust right. (B1)
revers:- CONCORDIA MILITVM, Emperor togate standing right, clasping the hand of Concordia standing left. (Emperor and Cocordia 1)
exerg: -/-//IV*, diameter: 20,5-21mm, weight: 3,59g, axes: 10h,
mint: Siscia, iss-7, ph-2, off-6, date: 274 A.D., ref: T-2284 (Estiot), RIC V-I 244,
Q-001
quadrans
Aur-xy008-s~0.jpg
106 Aurelianus (270-275 A.D.), T-2336, RIC V-I 244, Siscia, AE-Antoninianus, CONCORDIA MILITVM, S//XXIQ, Emperor and Cocordia clasping hand,111 views106 Aurelianus (270-275 A.D.), T-2336, RIC V-I 244, Siscia, AE-Antoninianus, CONCORDIA MILITVM, S//XXIQ, Emperor and Cocordia clasping hand,
avers:- IMP C AVRELIANVS AVG, Radiate, cuirassed bust right. (B1)
revers:- CONCORDIA MILITVM, Emperor togate standing right, clasping the hand of Concordia standing left. (Emperor and Cocordia 1)
exerg: S//XXIQ, diameter: mm, weight: g, axes: h,
mint: Siscia, iss-8, off-4, date: 274 A.D., ref: T-2336 (Estiot), RIC V-I 244,
Q-001
quadrans
Aurelianus_AE-Ant_IMP-C-AVRELIANVS-AVG_CONCORDIA-MILITVM_S_XXIVI_RIC-V-I-244_T-2342_6th-off_8th-iss_Siscia_274-AD_Q-001_6h_22mm_4,60gx-s~0.jpg
106 Aurelianus (270-275 A.D.), T-2342, RIC V-I 244, Siscia, AE-Antoninianus, CONCORDIA MILITVM, S//XXIVI, Emperor and Cocordia clasping hand, #173 views106 Aurelianus (270-275 A.D.), T-2342, RIC V-I 244, Siscia, AE-Antoninianus, CONCORDIA MILITVM, S//XXIVI, Emperor and Cocordia clasping hand, #1
avers:- IMP C AVRELIANVS AVG, Radiate, cuirassed bust right. (B1)
revers:- CONCORDIA MILITVM, Emperor togate standing right, clasping the hand of Concordia standing left. (Emperor and Cocordia 1)
exerg: S//XXIVI, diameter: 22mm, weight: 4,60g, axes: 6h,
mint: Siscia, iss-8, off-6, date: 274 A.D., ref: T-2342 (Estiot), RIC V-I 244,
Q-001
quadrans
Aur-xy012-s.jpg
106 Aurelianus (270-275 A.D.), T-2364, RIC V-I 244, Siscia, AE-Antoninianus, CONCORDIA MILITVM, -/-//XXIS, Emperor and Cocordia clasping hand, #1115 views106 Aurelianus (270-275 A.D.), T-2364, RIC V-I 244, Siscia, AE-Antoninianus, CONCORDIA MILITVM, -/-//XXIS, Emperor and Cocordia clasping hand, #1
avers:- IMP C AVRELIANVS AVG, Radiate, cuirassed bust right. (B1)
revers:- CONCORDIA MILITVM, Emperor togate standing right, clasping the hand of Concordia standing left. (Emperor and Cocordia 1)
exerg: -/-//XXIS, diameter: mm, weight: g, axes: h,
mint: Siscia, iss-9 Phase-1, off-2, date: 274-275A.D., ref: T-2364 (Estiot), RIC V-I 244,
Q-001
quadrans
Aur-xy010-s.jpg
106 Aurelianus (270-275 A.D.), T-2364, RIC V-I 244, Siscia, AE-Antoninianus, CONCORDIA MILITVM, -/-//XXIS, Emperor and Cocordia clasping hand, #2107 views106 Aurelianus (270-275 A.D.), T-2364, RIC V-I 244, Siscia, AE-Antoninianus, CONCORDIA MILITVM, -/-//XXIS, Emperor and Cocordia clasping hand, #2
avers:- IMP C AVRELIANVS AVG, Radiate, cuirassed bust right, (B1).
revers:- CONCORDIA MILITVM, Emperor togate standing right, clasping the hand of Concordia standing left. (Emperor and Concordia 1)
exerg: -/-//XXIS, diameter: mm, weight: g, axes: h,
mint: Siscia, iss-9 ph-1, off-2, date: 274-275A.D., ref: T-2364 (Estiot), RIC V-I 244,
Q-002
quadrans
Aurelianus_AE-Ant_IMP-AVRELIANVS-AVG_CONCORDIA-MILITVM_XX-dot-I-Q_RIC-V-216-p-RIC-T-2216_off-4_iss-6_Siscia_272-73-AD_Q-001_axis-h_mm_g-s.jpg
106 Aurelianus (270-275 A.D.), T-2376, RIC V-I 244, Siscia, AE-Antoninianus, CONCORDIA MILITVM, -/-//XX•IQ, Emperor and Cocordia clasping hand,76 views106 Aurelianus (270-275 A.D.), T-2376, RIC V-I 244, Siscia, AE-Antoninianus, CONCORDIA MILITVM, -/-//XX•IQ, Emperor and Cocordia clasping hand,
avers:- IMP C AVRELIANVS AVG, Radiate, cuirassed bust right. (B1)
revers:- CONCORDIA MILITVM, Emperor togate standing right, clasping the hand of Concordia standing left. (Emperor and Cocordia 1)
exerg: -/-//XX•IQ, diameter: mm, weight: g, axes: h,
mint: Siscia, iss-9, ph-1, off-4, date: 274-275A.D., ref: T-2376 (Estiot), RIC V-I 244,
Q-001
quadrans
Aurelianus_AE-Ant_IMP-C-AVRELIANVS-AVG_CONCORDIA-MILITVM_XXI-V_RIC-V-I-244-p-RIC-T-2383_off-5_iss-9-Ph-1_Siscia_274-75-AD_Q-001_6h_21-23,5mm_4,09g-s.jpg
106 Aurelianus (270-275 A.D.), T-2383, RIC V-I 244, Siscia, AE-Antoninianus, CONCORDIA MILITVM, -/-//XXIV, Emperor and Cocordia clasping hand,71 views106 Aurelianus (270-275 A.D.), T-2383, RIC V-I 244, Siscia, AE-Antoninianus, CONCORDIA MILITVM, -/-//XXIV, Emperor and Cocordia clasping hand,
avers:- IMP C AVRELIANVS AVG, Radiate, cuirassed bust right. (B1)
revers:- CONCORDIA MILITVM, Emperor togate standing right, clasping the hand of Concordia standing left. (Emperor and Cocordia 1)
exerg: -/-//XXIV, diameter: 21-23,5mm, weight: 4,09g, axes: 6h,
mint: Siscia, iss-9, ph-1, off-5, date: 274-275A.D., ref: T-2383 (Estiot), RIC V-I 244,
Q-001
quadrans
cyzicus20a.jpg
106 Constantine I 9 viewsobv: CONSTAN_TINVS AVG laur. head r.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE AVGG campgate with two turrents star above
ex: .SMKr.
hill132
cyzicus21.jpg
107 Constantine I11 viewsobv: CONSTAN_TINVS AVG laur. head r.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIE AVGG campgate with two turrents star above
ex: SMKA.
hill132
T-2823_107_Severina_AE-Ant-Silvered_SEVERINA-AVG_CONCORDIA-AVGG_star_KA-dot-_-dot_RIC-16_RIC-T-2823_Serdica_iss-8_ph-3_3-off_274-5-AD_Q-001_6h_24mm_4,53g-s.jpg
107 Severina (270-275 A.D.), T-2823 (Estiot), RIC V-I 016, Serdica, AE-Antoninianus, CONCORDIA AVG G, *//KA•Γ•, Emperor and Concordia, #1167 views107 Severina (270-275 A.D.), T-2823 (Estiot), RIC V-I 016, Serdica, AE-Antoninianus, CONCORDIA AVG G, *//KA•Γ•, Emperor and Concordia, #1
avers:- SEVERINA-AVG, Diademed, draped bust right on crescent. (E2)
revers:- CONCORDIA-AVGG, Emperor togate standing right, clasping the hand of Concordia standing left. (Emperor and Concordia 1)
exerg: *//KA•Γ•, diameter: 24mm, weight: 4,53g, axes: 6h,
mint: Serdica, iss-8, ph-3, off-3 , date: 274-275 A.D., ref: RIC-16, T-2823 (Estiot), C-,
Q-001
quadrans
T-2823_107_Severina_AE-Ant-Silvered_SEVERINA-AVG_CONCORDIA-AVGG_star_KA-dot-_-dot_RIC-16_RIC-T-2823_Serdica_iss-8_ph-3_3-off_274-5-AD_Q-002_6h_24mm_2,53g-s.jpg
107 Severina (270-275 A.D.), T-2823 (Estiot), RIC V-I 016, Serdica, AE-Antoninianus, CONCORDIA AVG G, *//KA•Γ•, Emperor and Concordia, #2136 views107 Severina (270-275 A.D.), T-2823 (Estiot), RIC V-I 016, Serdica, AE-Antoninianus, CONCORDIA AVG G, *//KA•Γ•, Emperor and Concordia, #2
avers:- SEVERINA-AVG, Diademed, draped bust right on crescent. (E2)
revers:- CONCORDIA-AVGG, Emperor togate standing right, clasping the hand of Concordia standing left. (Emperor and Concordia 1)
exerg: *//KA•Γ•, diameter: 24mm, weight: 2,53g, axes: 6h,
mint: Serdica, iss-8, ph-3, off-3, date: 274-275 A.D., ref: RIC-16, T-2823 (Estiot), C-,
Q-002
quadrans
T-2827_Severina_AE-Ant-Silvered_SEVERINA-AVG_CONCORDIA-AVGG_(E2),_(E-C1)_star_KA-__RIC-16_RIC-T-2827_C-x_Serdica_4-off_274-275-AD__Q-001_11h_23-25mm_3,88g-s.jpg
107 Severina (270-275 A.D.), T-2827 (Estiot), RIC V-I 016, Serdica, AE-Antoninianus, CONCORDIA AVG G, *//KA Δ, Emperor and Concordia, #1178 views107 Severina (270-275 A.D.), T-2827 (Estiot), RIC V-I 016, Serdica, AE-Antoninianus, CONCORDIA AVG G, *//KA Δ, Emperor and Concordia, #1
avers: SEVERINA-AVG, Diademed, draped bust right on crescent. (E2)
revers: CONCORDIA-AVG-G, Emperor togate standing right, clasping the hand of Concordia standing left. (Emperor and Concordia 1)
exerg: *//KA Δ, diameter: 23-25mm, weight: 3,88g, axes: 11h,
mint: Serdica, iss-8, ph-3, off-4, date: 274-275 A.D., ref: RIC-16, T-2827 (Estiot), LV 10060-1,
Q-001
quadrans
T-2827_107_Severina_AE-Ant-Silvered_SEVERINA-AVG_CONCORDIA-AVGG_(E2),_(E-C1)_star_KA-__RIC-16_RIC-T-2827_Serdica_iss-8_ph-3_4-off_274-275-AD_Q-002_5h_24mm_3,84g-s.jpg
107 Severina (270-275 A.D.), T-2827 (Estiot), RIC V-I 016, Serdica, AE-Antoninianus, CONCORDIA AVG G, *//KA Δ, Emperor and Concordia, #2150 views107 Severina (270-275 A.D.), T-2827 (Estiot), RIC V-I 016, Serdica, AE-Antoninianus, CONCORDIA AVG G, *//KA Δ, Emperor and Concordia, #2
avers:- SEVERINA-AVG, Diademed, draped bust right on crescent. (E2)
revers:- CONCORDIA-AVG-G, Emperor togate standing right, clasping the hand of Concordia standing left. (Emperor and Concordia 1)
exerg: *//KA Δ, diameter: 24mm, weight: 3,84g, axes: 5h,
mint: Serdica, iss-8, ph-3, off-4, date: 274-275 A.D., ref: RIC-16, T-2827 (Estiot),
Q-002
quadrans
T-3203_107_Severina_AE-Ant-Silvered_SEVERINA-PF-AVG_CONCORDIA-AVG_V_XXI_RIC-19v__T-3203_Antioch_iss-7_off-5_275-AD_Q-001_0h_23mm_4,61g-s.jpg
107 Severina (270-275 A.D.), T-3203 (Estiot), RIC V-I 019var, Antioch, AE-Antoninianus, CONCORDIA AVG, V//XXI, Emperor and Empress, R!203 views107 Severina (270-275 A.D.), T-3203 (Estiot), RIC V-I 019var, Antioch, AE-Antoninianus, CONCORDIA AVG, V//XXI, Emperor and Empress, R!
avers:- SEVERINA-PF-AVG, Empress right, diademed, draped, on a lunar crescent. (E2)
revers:- CONCORDIA-AVG, Emperor togate (no laurel crown) standing right, clasping the hand of Empress standing left. (Emperor and Empress 1)
"A very interesting coin from the historical point of view as it belongs to the issues dating from Severina's interregnum after the assassination of Aurelian (september-november 275).
"As far as the organisation of coin production was concerned, we see that from the end of 274, certain officinae in some of the mints struck coins exclusively for Severina: this is the case with issues 2-4 at Lyon, issues 10-11 at Rome and issue 4 at Ticinum. After the death of Aurelian, the officinae are no longer shared between Aurelian and Severina: at Lyon, there is a 5th issue attested by coins in the name of Severina only, and the same applies to the 12th issue at Rome where the empress monopolizes the six active équipes, and the 5th issue at Ticinum, where all six officinae struck coins just for Severina. It is clear that the Empress as regent was exercising alone power and right to coin.
In fact the evidence shows that all eight mints that were active in the autumn of 275 across the Empire were producing issues in the name of Severina alone. The mint at Serdica struck coins for Severina with the legend Severina Augusta.The mint at Antioch exceptionally gave the Empress the titles P(ia) F(elix), normally reserved for emperors; on the reverse, the legend is changed from the plural form Concordia Augg (Augustorum) to the singular Concordia Aug, which may be expanded as Concordia Augustae. The type no longer shows the standard reverse, Aurelian shaking the hand of Concordia, but an anonymous male figure, now without laurel-wreath and sceptre, shaking the hand of Severina, who is easily recognizable by her characteristic hairdress and is shown in a larger size. At Alexandria, coins in the name of Severina continued to be struck as the mint received the news of Aurelian’s assassination, and stopped issuing his coins: the hoards from Karanis have 5 tetradrachms of the 7th year of Aurelian (that is after 29 August 275), but 25 of Severina."
(From the website Monnaies de l'Empire Romain / Roman Imperial Coinage 268-276 AD : http://www.ric.mom.fr/en/info/hist5#severine)"
by S. Estiot. Thank you S. Estiot.
exerg: V//XXI, diameter: 23mm, weight: 4,61g, axes: 0h,
mint: Antioch, iss-7, off-5, date: 275 A.D., ref: RIC-19var., T-3203 (Estiot), C-,
Q-001
quadrans
1000-16-149.jpg
107. Pertinax35 viewsPertinax

Only a mediocre public speaker, Pertinax was first and foremost a gritty old soldier. He was heavily built, had a pot belly, although it was said, even by his critics, that he possessed the proud air of an emperor.
He possessed some charm, but was generally understood to be a rather sly character. He also acquired a reputation for being mean and greedy. He apparently even went as far as serving half portions of lettuce and artichoke before he became emperor. It was a characteristic which would not serve him well as an emperor.

When he took office, Pertinax quickly realized that the imperial treasury was in trouble. Commodus had wasted vast sums on games and luxuries. If the new emperor thought that changes would need to be made to bring the finances back in order he was no doubt right. But he sought to do too much too quickly. In the process he made himself enemies.

The gravest error, made at the very beginning of his reign, was to decide to cut some of the praetorian's privileges and that he was going to pay them only half the bonus he had promised.
Already on 3 January AD 193 the praetorians tried to set up another emperor who would pay up. But that senator, wise enough to stay out of trouble, merely reported the incident to Pertinax and then left Rome.

The ordinary citizens of Rome however also quickly had enough of their new emperor. Had Commodus spoilt them with lavish games and festivals, then now Pertinax gave them very little.
And a truly powerful enemy should be the praetorian prefect Laetus. The man who had after all put Pertinax on the throne, was to play an important role in the emperor's fate. It isn't absolutely clear if he sought to be an honest advisor of the emperor, but saw his advise ignored, or if he sought to manipulate Pertinax as his puppet emperor. In either case, he was disappointed.

And so as Pertinax grew ever more unpopular, the praetorians once more began to look for a new emperor. In early March, When Pertinax was away in Ostia overseeing the arrangements for the grain shipments to Rome, they struck again. This time they tried to set up one of the consuls, Quintus Sosius Falco.

When Pertinax returned to Rome he pardoned Falco who'd been condemned by the senate, but several praetorians were executed. A slave had given them away as being part of the conspiracy.
These executions were the final straw. On 28 March AD 193 the praetorians revolts.
300 hundred of them forced the gates to the palace. None of the guards sought to help their emperor.
Everyone, so it seemed, wanted rid of this emperor. So, too, Laetus would not listen as Pertinax ordered him to do something. The praetorian prefect simply went home, leaving the emperor to his fate.

Pertinax did not seek to flee. He stood his ground and waited, together with his chamberlain Eclectus. As the praetorians found him, they did not discover an emperor quivering with fear, but a man determined on convincing them to put down their weapons. Clearly the soldiers were over-awed by this brave man, for he spoke to them for some time. But eventually their leader found enough courage to step forwards and hurl his spear at the emperor. Pertinax fell with the spear in his chest. Eclectus fought bravely for his life, stabbing two, before he two was slain by the soldiers.
The soldiers then cut off Pertinax' head, stuck it on a spear and paraded through the streets of Rome.

Pertinax had ruled for only 87 days. He was later deified by Septimius Severus.

RI1. Pertinax. A.D. 193. AR denarius (18.0 mm, 2.74 g, 7 h). Rome mint. Rare. IMP CAES P HELV PERTIN AVG, laureate head right / OPI DIVIN TR P COS II, Ops seated left, holding two stalks of grain, resting hand on seat of throne. RIC 8a; RSC 33; BMCRE 19. aVF, flan crack.
ecoli
cyzicus22.jpg
108Constantine I 11 viewsobv: CONSTAN_TINVS AVGG laur. head r.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE AVGG campgate with two turrents star above
ex: SMKA
hill132
cyzicus23.jpg
109 Constantine I14 viewsobv: CONSTAN_TINVS AVG laur. head r.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE AVGG campgate with two turrents star above
ex: SMKB.
hill132
109-108_BC-_Man_Aquillius_X_MN_AQVIL_ROMA_Crawford_303-1__Sydenham_557__RSC_Aquilia-___Q-001_6h_19,0-20,0mm_3,79ga-s.jpg
109-108 B.C., Man.Aquillius, Republic AR-Denarius, Crawford 303/1, Rome, Luna in biga right,185 views109-108 B.C., Man.Aquillius, Republic AR-Denarius, Crawford 303/1, Rome, Luna in biga right,
avers:- Radiate head of Sol right, X below the chin. Border of dots.
revers: - Luna in biga right, crescent moon and three stars above, one star below. MN•AQVIL/ROMA below (MN ligate). Border of dots.
exerg:-/-//ROMA, diameter: 19,0-20,0mm, weight: 3,79g, axis: 6h,
mint: Rome, date: 109-108 B.C., ref: Crawford-303-1, Syd-557, Aquillia-1.,
Q-001
3 commentsquadrans
cyzicus24.jpg
110 Constantine I 9 viewsobv: CONSTAN_TINVS AVG laur. head r.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE AVGG campgate with two turrents star above
ex: .SMK(delta).
hill132
T-3682_Tacitus_AE-Antoninianus_IMP-C-M-CL-TACITVS-P-AVG-(D1)_CONCORD-MILIT-(EC1)_XXI-S_RIC-temp-3682_Siscia-276-AD_Q-001_1h_21-22,5mm_3,36g-s.jpg
110 Tacitus (275-276 A.D.), T-3682, RIC V-I ???, Siscia, AE-Antoninianus, CONCORD MILIT, -/-//XXIT, Bust-B1, Emperor and Concordia, #171 views110 Tacitus (275-276 A.D.), T-3682, RIC V-I ???, Siscia, AE-Antoninianus, CONCORD MILIT, -/-//XXIT, Bust-B1, Emperor and Concordia, #1
avers:- IMP-C-M-CL-TACITVS-P-AVG, Bust right, radiate, cuirassed and draped with paludamentum (D1).
revers:- CONCORD-MILIT, Emperor togate stg. r., clasping the hand of Concordia stg. l., (EmpCo1).
exerg: -/-//XXIS, diameter: 22mm, weight: 4,34g, axes: 7h,
mint: Siscia, issue-3., phase-2, off-2., date: 276 A.D., ref: RIC-V-I-???., T-(Estiot)-3682, C-, LV 2164
Q-001
quadrans
T-3730_Tacitus_AE-Antoninianus_IMP-C-M-CL-TACITVS-AVG-(B1)_CONCORD-MILIT-(EmpCon1)_XXI-T_RIC-temp-3730_Siscia-276-AD_Q-001_7h_22mm_4,34g-s.jpg
110 Tacitus (275-276 A.D.), T-3730, RIC V-I ???, Siscia, AE-Antoninianus, CONCORD MILIT, -/-//XXIT, Bust-B1, Emperor and Concordia, #167 views110 Tacitus (275-276 A.D.), T-3730, RIC V-I ???, Siscia, AE-Antoninianus, CONCORD MILIT, -/-//XXIT, Bust-B1, Emperor and Concordia, #1
avers:- IMP-C-M-CL-TACITVS-AVG, Bust right, radiate, cuirassed, (B1).
revers:- CONCORD-MILIT, Emperor togate stg. r., clasping the hand of Concordia stg. l., (EmpCo1).
exerg: -/-//XXIT, diameter: 22mm, weight: 4,34g, axes: 7h,
mint: Siscia, issue-4., off-3., date: 275 A.D., ref: RIC-V-I-., T-(Estiot)-3730, C-, LV 2164
Q-001
quadrans
T-3745_Tacitus_AE-Antoninianus_IMP-C-M-CL-TACITVS-AVG-(B1)_CONCORD-MILIT-()_XXI-Q_RIC-temp-3745_Siscia-276-AD_Q-001_5h_21-22mm_3,29g-s.jpg
110 Tacitus (275-276 A.D.), T-3745, RIC V-I ???, Siscia, AE-Antoninianus, CONCORD MILIT, -/-//XXIQ, Bust-B1, Emperor and Concordia, #164 views110 Tacitus (275-276 A.D.), T-3745, RIC V-I ???, Siscia, AE-Antoninianus, CONCORD MILIT, -/-//XXIQ, Bust-B1, Emperor and Concordia, #1
avers:- IMP-C-M-CL-TACITVS-AVG, Bust right, radiate, cuirassed, (B1).
revers:- CONCORD-MILIT, Emperor togate stg. r., clasping the hand of Concordia stg. l., (EmpCo1).
exerg: -/-//XXIQ, diameter: 21-22mm, weight: 3,29g, axes: 5h,
mint: Siscia, issue-4., off-4., date: 275 A.D., ref: RIC-V-I-???, T-(Estiot)-3745, C-, LV 2194-5
Q-001
quadrans
rjb_con_1108_11_05.jpg
1108 Nicomedia39 viewsLRBC I 1108
RIC VII 153
1 commentsmauseus
cyzicus25.jpg
111 Constantine I15 viewsobv: CONSTAN_TINVS AVG laur. head r.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE AVGG campgate with two turrents star above
ex: SMKB.
hill132
cyzicus26.jpg
112 Constantine II 17 viewsobv: CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C laur. drp. cuir. bust r.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE CAESS campgate with two turrents star above
ex: .SMKr.
hill132
cyzicus26~0.jpg
112 Constantine II12 viewsobv: CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C laur. drp. cuir. bust l.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE CAESS campgate with two turrents star above
ex: .SMKr.
hill132
A-08_Rep_AR-Den_L_Pomponius-Cn_f__L_POMPONI_CNF_-Helm-head-Roma-r__L_LIC_CN_DOM_-biga-r__Crawford-282-4_Syd-522_Rome_118-BC_Q-001_1h_19,5mm_3,74g-s.jpg
112-109 B.C., L. Pomponius Cn. f., L. Licinius Crassus and Cn. Domitius Ahenobarbus, Republic AR-Denarius Serratus, Crawford 282/4, Rome, Gallic warrior in biga right, -/-//L•LIC•CN•DOM•, #1209 views112-109 B.C., L. Pomponius Cn. f., L. Licinius Crassus and Cn. Domitius Ahenobarbus, Republic AR-Denarius Serratus, Crawford 282/4, Rome, Gallic warrior in biga right, -/-//L•LIC•CN•DOM•, #1
avers:- L•POMPONI•CNF (NF ligate), Helmeted head of Roma right, X behind.
revers: - Gallic warrior (Bituitus?) driving galloping biga right, hurling spear and holding shield and carnyx, in ex. L•LIC•CN•DOM•,
exerg: -/-//L•LIC•CN•DOM•, diameter: 19,5mm, weight: 3,74g, axis: 1h,
mint: Rome, date: 118 B.C., ref: Crawford 282/4, Sydneham-522a, Pomponia 7a,
Q-001
quadrans
112-109_B_C_,_L_Pomponius_Cn_f_,_L_Licinius_Crassus,_Cn_Domitius_Ahenobarbus,_AR-Den,_L_POMPONI_CNF,_X,_L_LIC_CN_DOM_ROMA_Crwf-282-4,_Syd-522,_Rome_Q-001_2h_19-19,5mm_3,73g-s.jpg
112-109 B.C., L. Pomponius Cn. f., L. Licinius Crassus and Cn. Domitius Ahenobarbus, Republic AR-Denarius Serratus, Crawford 282/4, Rome, Gallic warrior in biga right, -/-//L•LIC•CN•DOM•, #2110 views112-109 B.C., L. Pomponius Cn. f., L. Licinius Crassus and Cn. Domitius Ahenobarbus, Republic AR-Denarius Serratus, Crawford 282/4, Rome, Gallic warrior in biga right, -/-//L•LIC•CN•DOM•, #2
avers:- L•POMPONI•CNF (NF ligate), Helmeted head of Roma right, X behind.
revers: - Gallic warrior (Bituitus?) driving galloping biga right, hurling spear and holding shield and carnyx, in ex. L•LIC•CN•DOM•,
exerg: -/-//L•LIC•CN•DOM•, diameter: 19,0-19,5mm, weight: 3,73g, axis: 2h,
mint: Rome, date: 118 B.C., ref: Crawford 282/4, Sydneham-522a, Pomponia 7a,
Q-002
quadrans
112-11_B_C_,_Lucius_Caesius,_AR_den_,_Caesia_1,_Crawford_298-1,_Sydenham_564,Sear_175_,_Q-001,_11h,_18,5-20mm,_3,72g-s.jpg
112-111 B.C., Lucius Caesius, AR-Denarius, Crawford 298/1, Rome, Two Lares sitting right, 114 views112-111 B.C., Lucius Caesius, AR-Denarius, Crawford 298/1, Rome, Two Lares sitting right,
avers:- Heroic bust of Vejovis facing left, hurling a thunderbolt and seen from behind, PA (Roma) monogram behind.
revers:- Two Lares sitting right, hound between them, head of Vulcan left with pair of pincers above, ER monogram in right field.
exerg: -/-/L•CAESI (AE ligate), diameter: 18,5-20mm, weight: 3,72g, axis: 11h,
mint: Rome, date: 112-111 B.C., ref: Crawford-298-1, Sydenham-564, Caesia-1, Sear-175,
Q-001
quadrans
cyzicus27.jpg
113 Constantine I17 viewsobv: CONSTAN_TINVS AVG laur. head r.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE AVGG campgate with two turrents star above
ex: .SMK(delta).
hill132
cyzicus28.jpg
114 Constantius II12 viewsobv: FL IVL CONSTANTIVS NOB C laur. drp. cuir. bust l.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE CAESS campgate with to turrents star above
ex: SMKr.
hill132
cyzicus29.jpg
115 Constantine II12 viewsobv: CONSTANTINVS VN NOB C laur. drp. cuir. bust l.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE CAESS campgate with two turrents star above
ex: SMKB.
hill132
cyzicus30.jpg
116 Constantine I12 viewsobv: CONSTAN_TINVS AVG laur. head r.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE AVGG campgate with two turrents star above
ex: .SMK(delta).
hill132
cyzicus31.jpg
117 Constantine II16 viewsobv: CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C laur. drp. cuir. bust l.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE CAESS campgate with two turrents star above
ex: SMK(delta).
hill132
hadrian as-mauretania.jpg
117-138 AD - HADRIAN AE as - struck 134-138 AD65 viewsobv: HADRIANVS AVG COS III PP (draped bust right)
rev: ADVENTVI AVG MAVRITANIAE (Hadrian standing on left, togate, and Mauretania on right, wearing snake head-dress, in short tunic, holding patera over flaming altar between them & vexillum), SC in exergue.
ref: RIC II 900 (Adventus type), C.69(6fr)
11.93gms, 27mm
Scarce
berserker
hadrian dup-virtus.jpg
117-138 AD - HADRIAN AE dupondius - struck 119-121 AD54 viewsobv: IMP CAESAR TRAIANVS HADRIANVS AVG PMTRP COS III (radiated head right)
rev: VIRTVTI AVGVSTI (Virtus standing right, holding spear & parazonium), S-C in ex.
ref: RIC II 605, C.1470 (2fr)
12.74gms, 26mm

Hadrian first military service was as a tribune of the Legio II Adiutrix at Aquincum, Pannonia (AD 95). He later became legate of the same legio in Upper Pannonia and eventually governor of the province (AD 107).
berserker
cyzicus32.jpg
118 Constantine I14 viewsobv: CONSTAN_TINVS AVG laur. head r.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE AVGG campgate with two turrents star above
ex: SMKA.
hill132
cyzicus33.jpg
119 Constantine I11 viewsobv: CONSTAN_TINVS AVG laur. head r.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE AVGG campgate with two turrents star above
ex: SMKr.
hill132
rjb_cg3_02_05.jpg
1195 Cyzicus28 viewsConstantine I
LRBC I 1195
RIC VII 51
mauseus
119_Diocletianus,_Heraclea,_RIC_VI_10a,_AR-Argenteus,_DIOCLETI_ANVS_AVG,_VICTORIAE_SARMATICAE,_296_AD_Q-001_0h_18,5-19mm_3,5g-xs.jpg
119a Diocletianus (284-305 A.D.), Heraclea, RIC VI 010e (Not in RIC this Officina), AR-Argenteus, -/-/HЄ, VICTORIAE SARMATICAE, Four Tetrarchs, Very Rare! #1144 views119a Diocletianus (284-305 A.D.), Heraclea, RIC VI 010e (Not in RIC this Officina), AR-Argenteus, -/-/HЄ, VICTORIAE SARMATICAE, Four Tetrarchs, Very Rare! #1
avers: DIOCLETI ANVS AVG, Laureate head right.
reverse: VICTORIAE SARMATICAE, The Four Tetrarchs sacrificing in front of 6 turreted City gate.
exergue: -/-/HЄ, diameter: 18,5-19,0mm, weight: 3,50g, axis:0h ,
mint: Heraclea, date: 296 A.D., ref: RIC VI 010e (? Not in RIC this Officina), p-, Jelocnik -; RSC 491b, Not in RIC this Officina Very Rare!
Q-001
3 commentsquadrans
Diocletianus_AE-28_DIOCLETI-ANVS-AVG_VICTORIA-SARMAT_Siscia-RIC-VI-a_Q-001_axis-6h_26,5-28mm_10,18ga-s.jpg
119a Diocletianus (284-305 A.D.), Rome, RIC VI 019a, AR-Argenteus, -/-/--, VICTORIA SARMAT, Four Tetrarchs, #1120 views119a Diocletianus (284-305 A.D.), Rome, RIC VI 019a, AR-Argenteus, -/-/--, VICTORIA SARMAT, Four Tetrarchs, #1
avers: DIOCLETI ANVS AVG, Laureate head right.
reverse: VICTORIA SARMAT, The Four Tetrarchs sacrificing in front of 6 turreted City gate.
exergue: -/-/--, diameter: mm, weight: g, axis: ,
mint: Rome, date: A.D., ref: RIC VI 019a, p-, C-488e,
Q-001
quadrans
Diocletianus_AR-Arg_DIOCLETI-ANVS-AVG_VIRTVS-MILITVM_B_Rome-RIC-VI-40a_C-516g_295-97-AD_Q-001_h_mm_g-s.jpg
119a Diocletianus (284-305 A.D.), Rome, RIC VI 040a, AR-Argenteus, -/-//B, VIRTVS MILITVM, Four Tetrarchs, #1113 views119a Diocletianus (284-305 A.D.), Rome, RIC VI 040a, AR-Argenteus, -/-//B, VIRTVS MILITVM, Four Tetrarchs, #1
avers: DIOCLETI ANVS AVG, Laureate head right.
reverse: VIRTVS MILITVM, Four tetrarchs sacrificing over tripod before city gate with six turrets.
exergue: -/-//B, diameter: mm, weight: g, axis: ,
mint: Rome, date: A.D., ref: RIC VI 040a, p-, C-516g,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
cyzicus34.jpg
120 Constantine II12 viewsobv: CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C laur. drp.cuir. bust l.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE CAESS campgate with two turrents star above
ex: SMK(delta)
hill132
Maximianus-Herculeus_AR-Argenteus_MAXIMI-ANVS-AVG_VIRTVS-MILITVM_Epsilon_Q-001_0h_17-17,5mm_2,63g-s.jpg
120 Maximianus Herculeus (285-286 Caesar, 286-305, 307-308 & 310 A.D. Augustus), Rome, RIC V-II 040b, AR-Argenteus, -/-//Є, VIRTVS MILITVM, Four Tetrarchs, #198 views120 Maximianus Herculeus (285-286 Caesar, 286-305, 307-308 & 310 A.D. Augustus), Rome, RIC V-II 040b, AR-Argenteus, -/-//Є, VIRTVS MILITVM, Four Tetrarchs, #1
avers: MAXIMI ANVS AVG, Laureate head right.
reverse: VIRTVS MILITVM, The Four Tetrarchs sacrificing over altar, City gate in the background. 295-297 (Rome).
exergue: -/-//Є, diameter: 17,5mm, weight: 2,66g, axes:0h,
mint: Rome, date: 295-297 A.D., ref: RIC V-II 040b, C-622g,
Q-001
quadrans
Constantius-I__AR-Argenteus_CONSTAN-TIVS-CAES_VIRTVS-MILITVM_Z_Rome_RIC-VI-42a_P-295-7_AD_Q-001_h_mm_g-s.jpg
121 Constantius I. Chlorus (293-305 A.D. Caesar, 305-306 A.D. Augustus), Rome, RIC VI 042a, AR-Argenteus, -/-//Z, VIRTVS MILITVM, #193 views121 Constantius I. Chlorus (293-305 A.D. Caesar, 305-306 A.D. Augustus), Rome, RIC VI 042a, AR-Argenteus, -/-//Z, VIRTVS MILITVM, #1
avers: CONSTAN TIVS CAES, Laureate head right.
reverse: VIRTVS MILITVM, The Four Tetrarchs sacrificing over the tripod, City gate in the background.
exergue: -/-//Z, diameter: 17,5mm, weight: 3,16g, axis: h,
mint: Rome, 3rd.off., date: 295-97 A.D., ref: RIC VI 42a,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
cyzicus35.jpg
121 Constantius II11 viewsobv: FL IVL CONSTANTIVS NOB C laur. drp. cuir. bust l.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE CAESS campgate with two turrents star above
ex: SMKr
hill132
HENRY_III.JPG
1216 – 1272, Henry III, AR Penny, Struck 1248 - 1250 at London, England (Long cross type)45 viewsObverse: HENRICVS REX : III. Crowned bust of Henry III facing within circle of pellets. Mintmark: Six pointed star.
Reverse: NICOLE ON LVND. Voided long cross dividing legend into quarters, trefoil in each quarter of inner circle. Moneyer: Nicole, cognate with the modern English name of Nicholas. The surname Nicole originates in the Netherlands where it was notable for its various branches, and associated status or influence. The modern given name Nicole is a French feminine derivative of the masculine given name Nicolas.
Diameter: 19mm | Weight: 1.3gms | Die Axis: 6
SPINK: 1363

The First Barons' War (1215–1217) was a civil war in England in which a group of rebellious barons led by Robert Fitzwalter and supported by a French army under the future Louis VIII of France, waged war against King John of England. The war resulted from King John's refusal to accept and abide by the Magna Carta, which he had been forced to put his seal to on 15th June 1215, as well as from Louis' own ambitions regarding the English throne.
It was in the middle of this war that King John died leaving his son, the nine year old Henry III (who had been moved to safety at Corfe Castle in Dorset along with his mother, Queen Isabella) as his heir.
On his deathbed John appointed a council of thirteen executors to help Henry reclaim the kingdom, requesting that his son be placed into the guardianship of William Marshal, 1st Earl of Pembroke. The loyalists decided to crown Henry immediately to reinforce his claim to the throne. William knighted the boy, and Cardinal Guala Bicchieri, the papal legate to England, then oversaw his coronation at Gloucester Cathedral on 28th October 1216. In the absence of the archbishops of either Canterbury or York, Henry was anointed by the bishops of Worcester and Exeter, and crowned by Peter des Roches, bishop of Winchester. During the civil war the royal crown had been lost, so instead, the ceremony used a simple gold corolla belonging to Queen Isabella. In 1217, Henry's forces, led by William Marshal, finally defeated the rebels at the battles of Lincoln and Sandwich.
Henry's early rule was dominated first by Hubert de Burgh, 1st Earl of Kent and Justiciar of England and Ireland, then by Peter des Roches, and they re-established royal authority after the war. In 1225 Henry promised to abide by the final and definitative version of the Magna Carta, freely authenticated by the great seal of Henry III himself, which protected the rights of the major barons and placed a limit on royal power. It is the clauses of this, the 1225 Magna Carta signed by Henry III, not the King John Magna Carta of 1215, which are on the Statute Books of the United Kingdom today.
4 comments*Alex
cyzicus36.jpg
122 Constantine II 14 viewsobv: CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C laur. drp. cuir bust l.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE CAESS campgate with two turrents star above
ex: SMKA.
hill132
Galerius_Ar-Argenteus_MAXIMIANVS-CAES_VIRTVS-MILITVM_Gamma_Rome_RIC-42b_C-_295-297-AD__Q-001_16-17,5mm_3,16g-s.jpg
122 Galerius Maximianus (293-305 A.D. Caesar, 305-311 A.D. Augustus), Rome, RIC VI 042b, AR-Argenteus, -/-//Γ, VIRTVS MILITVM, #1111 views122 Galerius Maximianus (293-305 A.D. Caesar, 305-311 A.D. Augustus), Rome, RIC VI 042b, AR-Argenteus, -/-//Γ, VIRTVS MILITVM, #1
avers: MAXIMIANVS CAES, Laureate head right.
reverse: VIRTVS MILITVM, The Four Tetrarchs sacrificing over the tripod, City gate in the background.
exergue: -/-//Γ, diameter: 17,5mm, weight: 3,16g, axis: h,
mint: Rome, 3rd.off., date: 295-97 A.D., ref: RIC VI 042b,
Q-001
quadrans
Galerius_AR-Argenteus_MAXIMIANVS-CAESAR_VIRTVS-MILITVM_Ticinium_RIC-15b_RSC-220a_294-AD_Q-001_6h_18,5mm_2,68g-s.jpg
122 Galerius Maximianus (293-305 A.D. Caesar, 305-311 A.D. Augustus), Ticinum, RIC VI 015b, AR-Argenteus, -/-//--, VIRTVS MILITVM, The Four Tetrarchs sacrificing over the tripod,323 views122 Galerius Maximianus (293-305 A.D. Caesar, 305-311 A.D. Augustus), Ticinum, RIC VI 015b, AR-Argenteus, -/-//--, VIRTVS MILITVM, The Four Tetrarchs sacrificing over the tripod,
avers: MAXIMIANVS CAESAR, Laureate head right.
reverse: VIRTVS MILITVM, The Four Tetrarchs sacrificing over the tripod, City gate in the background, with six turrets.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 18,5mm, weight: 2,68g, axis: 6h,
mint: Ticinum, 3rd.off., date: 294 A.D., ref: RIC VI 015b, RSC-220a,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
125_BC-_Man__Acilius_Balbus_,_Roma_head_r__BALBVS_beh__ROMA,_MN·ACILI,_Jupiter_and_Victory_quadriga_r_,_Crawf_271-1__Syd_498__Acilia_1,_Q-001_h,_mm,_g-s.jpg
123 B.C., Man. Acilius Balbus., AR-Denarius, Crawford 271/1, Rome, Jupiter and Victory in quadriga right, -/-//MN•ACILI, 150 views123 B.C., Man. Acilius Balbus., AR-Denarius, Crawford 271/1, Rome, Jupiter and Victory in quadriga right, -/-//MN•ACILI,
avers:- Helmeted head of Roma right within laurel wreath, BALBVS (AL ligate) behind, ROMA below, Ӿ below chin.
revers: - Jupiter and Victory in galloping quadriga right, wheel below, MN•ACILI in exergue.
exerg: -/-//MN•ACILI, diameter:18,5 mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Rome, date: 123 B.C., ref: Crawford-271/1_Sydenham-498, Acilia 1,
Q-001
3 commentsquadrans
cyzicus37.jpg
123 Constantine I11 viewsobv: CONSTAN_TINVS AVG laur. head r.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE AVGG campgate with two turrents star above
ex: SMK(delta)
hill132
cyzicus38.jpg
124 Constantine I13 viewsobv: CONSTAN_TINVS AVG laur. head r.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE AVGG campgate with two turrents star above
ex: SMKB.
hill132
heraclea1.jpg
126 Licinius I17 viewsobv: IMP LICI_NIVS AVG laur. cuir. bust r. holding mappa
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE AVGG campgate with three turrents no star
ex: -(delta)//SMHB
hill132
heraclea2.jpg
127 Licinius I13 viewsobv: IMP LICIN_IVS AVG laur. drp. bust l. holding mappa and globe
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE AVGG campgate with three turrents no star
ex: MHT(delta)
hill132
heraclea3.jpg
128 Licinius I12 viewsobv: IMP LICI_NIVS AVG laur. drp. bust l. holding mappa and globe
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE AVGG campgate with three turrents no star
ex: HT(epsilon)
hill132
heraclea4.jpg
129 Licinius I12 viewsobv: IMP LICI_NIVS AVG laur. drp. bust l. holding mappa an scepter with globe
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE AVGG campgate with three turrents no star
ex: -.//SMHA
hill132
0010-068np_noir.jpg
1296 - C. Postumius, Denarius126 viewsRome mint, 74 BC
Bust of Diana right, bow and quiver above shoulder
Hound running right, C POSTVMI and TA (ligate) at exergue
4.0 gr
Ref : RCV # 330, RSC, Postumia # 9
The only coin here belonging to my wife, because of the greyhound she's had for almost two decades
5 commentsPotator II
heraclea5.jpg
130 Licinius I13 viewsobv: IMP LICI_NIVS AVG laur. drp. bust r. holding mappa and scepter with globe
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE AVGG campgate with three turrents no star
ex: -(delta)// SMHA
hill132
GaleriusAugCyz.jpg
1303a, Galerius, 1 March 305 - 5 May 311 A.D.35 viewsGalerius, RIC VI 59, Cyzicus S, VF, Cyzicus S, 6.4 g, 25.86 mm; 309-310 AD; Obverse: GAL MAXIMIANVS P F AVG, laureate bust right; Reverse: GENIO A-VGVS[TI], Genius stg. left, naked but for chlamys over left shoulder, holding patera and cornucopiae. A nice example with sharp detail and nice brown hoard patina. Ex Ancient Imports.


De Imperatoribus Romanis,
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors

Galerius (305-311 A.D.)

Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Salve Regina University


Caius Galerius Valerius Maximianus, more commonly known as Galerius, was from Illyricum; his father, whose name is unknown, was of peasant stock, while his mother, Romula, was from beyond the Danube. Galerius was born in Dacia Ripensis near Sardica. Although the date of his birth is unknown, he was probably born ca. 250 since he served under Aurelian. As a youth Galerius was a shepherd and acquired the nickname Armentarius. Although he seems to have started his military career under Aurelian and Probus, nothing is known about it before his accession as Caesar on 1 March 293. He served as Diocletian's Caesar in the East. Abandoning his first wife, he married Diocletian's daugher, Valeria.

As Caesar he campaigned in Egypt in 294; he seems to have taken to the field against Narses of Persia, and was defeated near Ctesiphon in 295. In 298, after he made inroads into Armenia, he obtained a treaty from the Persians favorable to the Romans. Between 299-305 he overcame the Sarmatians and the Carpi along the Danube. The Great Persecution of the Orthodox Church, which was started in 303 by the Emperor Diocletian, was probably instigated by Galerius. Because of the almost fatal illness that he contracted toward the end of 304, Diocletian, at Nicomedeia, and Maximianus Herculius, at Mediolanum, divested themselves of the purple on 1 May 305. Constantius and Galerius were appointed as Augusti, with Maximinus Daia and Severus as the new Caesars. Constantius and Severus reigned in the West, whereas Galerius' and Daia's realm was the East. Although Constantius was nominally senior Augustus, the real power was in the hands of Galerius because both Caesars were his creatures.

The balance of power shifted at the end of July 306 when Constantius, with his son Constantine at his side, passed away at York in Britain where he was preparing to face incursions by the Picts; his army proclaimed Constantine his successor immediately. As soon as he received the news of the death of Constantius I and the acclamation of Constantine to the purple, Galerius raised Severus to the rank of Augustus to replace his dead colleague in August 306. Making the best of a bad situation, Galerius accepted Constantine as the new Caesar in the West. The situation became more complicated when Maxentius, with his father Maximianus Herculius acquiesing, declared himself princes on 28 October 306. When Galerius learned about the acclamation of the usurper, he dispatched the Emperor Severus to put down the rebellion. Severus took a large field army which had formerly been that of Maximianus and proceeded toward Rome and began to besiege the city, Maxentius, however, and Maximianus, by means of a ruse, convinced Severus to surrender. Later, in 307, Severus was put to death under clouded circumstances. While Severus was fighting in the west, Galerius, during late 306 or early 307, was campaigning against the Sarmatians.

In the early summer of 307 Galerius invaded Italy to avenge Severus's death; he advanced to the south and encamped at Interamna near the Tiber. His attempt to besiege the city was abortive because his army was too small to encompass the city's fortifications. Not trusting his own troops, Galerius withdrew. During its retreat, his army ravaged the Italian countryside as it was returning to its original base. When Maximianus Herculius' attempts to regain the throne between 308 and 310 by pushing his son off his throne or by winning over Constantine to his cause failed, he tried to win Diocletian and Galerius over to his side at Carnuntum in October and November 308; the outcome of the Conference at Carnuntum was that Licinius was appointed Augustus in Severus's place, that Daia and Constantine were denoted filii Augustorum, and that Herculius was completely cut out of the picture. Later, in 310, Herculius died, having been implicated in a plot against his son-in-law. After the Conference at Carnuntum, Galerius returned to Sardica where he died in the opening days of May 311.

By Michael DiMaio, Jr., Salve Regina University; Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Galerius was Caesar and tetrarch under Maximianus. Although a talented general and administrator, Galerius is better known for his key role in the "Great Persecution" of Christians. He stopped the persecution under condition the Christians pray for his return to health from a serious illness. Galerius died horribly shortly after. Joseph Sermarini, FORVM.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.



Cleisthenes
Lcnius1.jpg
1308b, Licinius I, 308 - 324 A.D. (Siscia)59 viewsLicinius I, 11 November 308 - 18 September 324 A.D. Bronze follis, RIC 4, F, Siscia, 3.257g, 21.6mm, 0o, 313 - 315 A.D. Obverse: IMP LIC LICINIVS P F AVG, laureate head right; Reverse IOVI CONSERVATORI AVGG NN, Jupiter standing left holding Victory on globe and scepter, eagle with wreath in beak left, E right, SIS in exergue.



De Imperatoribus Romanis : An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Licinius (308-324 A.D.)

Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Salve Regina University

Licinius' Heritage

Valerius Licinianus Licinius, more commonly known as Licinius, may have been born ca. 265. Of peasant origin, his family was from Dacia. A close friend and comrade of arms of the Emperor Galerius, he accompanied him on his Persian expedition in 297. When campaigns by Severus and Galerius in late 306 or early 307 and in the summer of 307, respectively, failed to dislodge Maxentius who, with the luke warm support of his father Maximianus Herculius, was acclaimed princeps on 28 October 306, he was sent by the eastern emperor to Maxentius as an ambassador; the diplomatic mission, however, failed because the usurper refused to submit to the authority of his father-in-law Galerius. At the Conference of Carnuntum which was held in October or November of 308, Licinius was made an Augustus on 11 November 308; his realm included Thrace, Illyricum, and Pannonia.

Licinius' Early Reign

Although Licinius was initially appointed by Galerius to replace Severus to end the revolt of Maxentius , Licinius (perhaps wisely) made no effort to move against the usurper. In fact, his first attested victory was against the Sarmatians probably in the late spring, but no later than the end of June in 310. When the Emperor Galerius died in 311, Licinius met Maximinus Daia at the Bosporus during the early summer of that year; they concluded a treaty and divided Galerius' realm between them. It was little more than a year later that the Emperor Constantine defeated Maxentius at the Battle of the Milvian Bridge on 28 October 312. After the defeat of the usurper, Constantine and Licinius met at Mediolanum (Milan) where Licinius married the former's sister Constantia; one child was born of this union: Valerius Licinianus Licinius. Licinius had another son, born of a slave woman, whose name is unknown. It appears that both emperors promulgated the so-called Edict of Milan, in which Constantine and Licinius granted Christians the freedom to practice their faith without any interference from the state.

As soon as he seems to have learned about the marital alliance between Licinius and Constantine and the death of Maxentius, who had been his ally, Daia traversed Asia Minor and, in April 313, he crossed the Bosporus and went to Byzantium, which he took from Licinius after an eleven day siege. On 30 April 313 the armies of both emperors clashed on the Campus Ergenus; in the ensuing battle Daia's forces were routed. A last ditch stand by Daia at the Cilician Gates failed; the eastern emperor subsequently died in the area of Tarsus probably in July or August 313. As soon as he arrived in Nicomedeia, Licinius promulgated the Edict of Milan. As soon as he had matters in Nicomedeia straightened out, Licinius campaigned against the Persians in the remaining part of 313 and the opening months of 314.

The First Civil War Between Licinius and Constantine

Once Licinius had defeated Maximinus Daia, the sole rulers of the Roman world were he and Constantine. It is obvious that the marriage of Licinius to Constantia was simply a union of convenience. In any case, there is evidence in the sources that both emperors were looking for an excuse to attack the other. The affair involving Bassianus (the husband of Constantius I's daughter Anastasia ), mentioned in the text of Anonymus Valesianus (5.14ff), may have sparked the falling out between the two emperors. In any case, Constantine' s forces joined battle with those of Licinius at Cibalae in Pannonia on 8 October 314. When the battle was over, Constantine prevailed; his victory, however, was Pyrrhic. Both emperors had been involved in exhausting military campaigns in the previous year and the months leading up to Cibalae and each of their realms had expanded so fast that their manpower reserves must have been stretched to the limit. Both men retreated to their own territory to lick their wounds. It may well be that the two emperors made an agreement, which has left no direct trace in the historical record, which would effectively restore the status quo.

Both emperors were variously engaged in different activities between 315 and 316. In addition to campaigning against the Germans while residing in Augusta Treverorum (Trier) in 315, Constantine dealt with aspects of the Donatist controversy; he also traveled to Rome where he celebrated his Decennalia. Licinius, possibly residing at Sirmium, was probably waging war against the Goths. Although not much else is known about Licinius' activities during this period, it is probable that he spent much of his time preparing for his impending war against Constantine; the latter,who spent the spring and summer of 316 in Augusta Treverorum, was probably doing much the same thing. In any case, by December 316, the western emperor was in Sardica with his army. Sometime between 1 December and 28 February 317, both emperors' armies joined battle on the Campus Ardiensis; as was the case in the previous engagement, Constantine' s forces were victorious. On 1 March 317, both sides agreed to a cessation of hostilities; possibly because of the intervention of his wife Constantia, Licinius was able to keep his throne, although he had to agree to the execution of his colleague Valens, who the eastern emperor had appointed as his colleague before the battle, as well as to cede some of his territory to his brother-in-law.

Licinius and the Christians

Although the historical record is not completely clear, Licinius seems to have campaigned against the Sarmatians in 318. He also appears to have been in Byzantium in the summer of 318 and later in June 323. Beyond these few facts, not much else is known about his residences until mid summer of 324. Although he and Constantine had issued the Edict of Milan in early 313, Licinius turned on the Christians in his realm seemingly in 320. The first law that Licinius issued prevented bishops from communicating with each other and from holding synods to discuss matters of interest to them. The second law prohibited men and women from attending services together and young girls from receiving instruction from their bishop or schools. When this law was issued, he also gave orders that Christians could hold services only outside of city walls. Additionally, he deprived officers in the army of their commissions if they did not sacrifice to the gods. Licinius may have been trying to incite Constantine to attack him. In any case, the growing tension between the two rulers is reflected in the consular Fasti of the period.

The Second Civil War Between Licinius and Constantine and Licinius' Death

War actually broke out in 321 when Constantine pursued some Sarmatians, who had been ravaging some territory in his realm, across the Danube. When he checked a similar invasion of the Goths, who were devastating Thrace, Licinius complained that Constantine had broken the treaty between them. Having assembled a fleet and army at Thessalonica, Constantine advanced toward Adrianople. Licinius engaged the forces of his brother-in-law near the banks of the Hebrus River on 3 July 324 where he was routed; with as many men as he could gather, he headed for his fleet which was in the Hellespont. Those of his soldiers who were not killed or put to flight, surrendered to the enemy. Licinius fled to Byzantium, where he was besieged by Constantine. Licinius' fleet, under the command of the admiral Abantus, was overcome by bad weather and by Constantine' s fleet which was under the command of his son Crispus. Hard pressed in Byzantium, Licinius abandoned the city to his rival and fled to Chalcedon in Bithynia. Leaving Martinianus, his former magister officiorum and now his co-ruler, to impede Constantine' s progress, Licinius regrouped his forces and engaged his enemy at Chrysopolis where he was again routed on 18 September 324. He fled to Nicomedeia which Constantine began to besiege. On the next day Licinius abdicated and was sent to Thessalonica, where he was kept under house arrest. Both Licinius and his associate were put to death by Constantine. Martinianus may have been put to death before the end of 324, whereas Licinius was not put to death until the spring of 325. Rumors circulated that Licinius had been put to death because he attempted another rebellion against Constantine.

Copyright (C) 1996, Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

Cleisthenes
Licin1AEFolJupiAlex.jpg
1308c, Licinius I, 308-324 A.D. (Alexandria)66 viewsLicinius I, 308-324 A.D. AE Follis, 3.60g, VF, 315 A.D., Alexandria. Obverse: IMP C VAL LICIN LICINIVS P F AVG - Laureate head right; Reverse: IOVI CONS-ERVATORI AVGG - Jupiter standing left, holding Victory on a globe and scepter; exergue: ALE / (wreath) over "B" over "N." Ref: RIC VII, 10 (B = r2) Rare, page 705 - Hunterian Museum, Glasgow, Scotland.


De Imperatoribus Romanis : An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Licinius (308-324 A.D.)

Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Salve Regina University

Licinius' Heritage

Valerius Licinianus Licinius, more commonly known as Licinius, may have been born ca. 265. Of peasant origin, his family was from Dacia. A close friend and comrade of arms of the Emperor Galerius, he accompanied him on his Persian expedition in 297. When campaigns by Severus and Galerius in late 306 or early 307 and in the summer of 307, respectively, failed to dislodge Maxentius who, with the luke warm support of his father Maximianus Herculius, was acclaimed princeps on 28 October 306, he was sent by the eastern emperor to Maxentius as an ambassador; the diplomatic mission, however, failed because the usurper refused to submit to the authority of his father-in-law Galerius. At the Conference of Carnuntum which was held in October or November of 308, Licinius was made an Augustus on 11 November 308; his realm included Thrace, Illyricum, and Pannonia.

Licinius' Early Reign

Although Licinius was initially appointed by Galerius to replace Severus to end the revolt of Maxentius , Licinius (perhaps wisely) made no effort to move against the usurper. In fact, his first attested victory was against the Sarmatians probably in the late spring, but no later than the end of June in 310. When the Emperor Galerius died in 311, Licinius met Maximinus Daia at the Bosporus during the early summer of that year; they concluded a treaty and divided Galerius' realm between them. It was little more than a year later that the Emperor Constantine defeated Maxentius at the Battle of the Milvian Bridge on 28 October 312. After the defeat of the usurper, Constantine and Licinius met at Mediolanum (Milan) where Licinius married the former's sister Constantia; one child was born of this union: Valerius Licinianus Licinius. Licinius had another son, born of a slave woman, whose name is unknown. It appears that both emperors promulgated the so-called Edict of Milan, in which Constantine and Licinius granted Christians the freedom to practice their faith without any interference from the state.

As soon as he seems to have learned about the marital alliance between Licinius and Constantine and the death of Maxentius, who had been his ally, Daia traversed Asia Minor and, in April 313, he crossed the Bosporus and went to Byzantium, which he took from Licinius after an eleven day siege. On 30 April 313 the armies of both emperors clashed on the Campus Ergenus; in the ensuing battle Daia's forces were routed. A last ditch stand by Daia at the Cilician Gates failed; the eastern emperor subsequently died in the area of Tarsus probably in July or August 313. As soon as he arrived in Nicomedeia, Licinius promulgated the Edict of Milan. As soon as he had matters in Nicomedeia straightened out, Licinius campaigned against the Persians in the remaining part of 313 and the opening months of 314.

The First Civil War Between Licinius and Constantine

Once Licinius had defeated Maximinus Daia, the sole rulers of the Roman world were he and Constantine. It is obvious that the marriage of Licinius to Constantia was simply a union of convenience. In any case, there is evidence in the sources that both emperors were looking for an excuse to attack the other. The affair involving Bassianus (the husband of Constantius I's daughter Anastasia ), mentioned in the text of Anonymus Valesianus (5.14ff), may have sparked the falling out between the two emperors. In any case, Constantine' s forces joined battle with those of Licinius at Cibalae in Pannonia on 8 October 314. When the battle was over, Constantine prevailed; his victory, however, was Pyrrhic. Both emperors had been involved in exhausting military campaigns in the previous year and the months leading up to Cibalae and each of their realms had expanded so fast that their manpower reserves must have been stretched to the limit. Both men retreated to their own territory to lick their wounds. It may well be that the two emperors made an agreement, which has left no direct trace in the historical record, which would effectively restore the status quo.

Both emperors were variously engaged in different activities between 315 and 316. In addition to campaigning against the Germans while residing in Augusta Treverorum (Trier) in 315, Constantine dealt with aspects of the Donatist controversy; he also traveled to Rome where he celebrated his Decennalia. Licinius, possibly residing at Sirmium, was probably waging war against the Goths. Although not much else is known about Licinius' activities during this period, it is probable that he spent much of his time preparing for his impending war against Constantine; the latter,who spent the spring and summer of 316 in Augusta Treverorum, was probably doing much the same thing. In any case, by December 316, the western emperor was in Sardica with his army. Sometime between 1 December and 28 February 317, both emperors' armies joined battle on the Campus Ardiensis; as was the case in the previous engagement, Constantine' s forces were victorious. On 1 March 317, both sides agreed to a cessation of hostilities; possibly because of the intervention of his wife Constantia, Licinius was able to keep his throne, although he had to agree to the execution of his colleague Valens, who the eastern emperor had appointed as his colleague before the battle, as well as to cede some of his territory to his brother-in-law.

Licinius and the Christians

Although the historical record is not completely clear, Licinius seems to have campaigned against the Sarmatians in 318. He also appears to have been in Byzantium in the summer of 318 and later in June 323. Beyond these few facts, not much else is known about his residences until mid summer of 324. Although he and Constantine had issued the Edict of Milan in early 313, Licinius turned on the Christians in his realm seemingly in 320. The first law that Licinius issued prevented bishops from communicating with each other and from holding synods to discuss matters of interest to them. The second law prohibited men and women from attending services together and young girls from receiving instruction from their bishop or schools. When this law was issued, he also gave orders that Christians could hold services only outside of city walls. Additionally, he deprived officers in the army of their commissions if they did not sacrifice to the gods. Licinius may have been trying to incite Constantine to attack him. In any case, the growing tension between the two rulers is reflected in the consular Fasti of the period.

The Second Civil War Between Licinius and Constantine and Licinius' Death

War actually broke out in 321 when Constantine pursued some Sarmatians, who had been ravaging some territory in his realm, across the Danube. When he checked a similar invasion of the Goths, who were devastating Thrace, Licinius complained that Constantine had broken the treaty between them. Having assembled a fleet and army at Thessalonica, Constantine advanced toward Adrianople. Licinius engaged the forces of his brother-in-law near the banks of the Hebrus River on 3 July 324 where he was routed; with as many men as he could gather, he headed for his fleet which was in the Hellespont. Those of his soldiers who were not killed or put to flight, surrendered to the enemy. Licinius fled to Byzantium, where he was besieged by Constantine. Licinius' fleet, under the command of the admiral Abantus, was overcome by bad weather and by Constantine' s fleet which was under the command of his son Crispus. Hard pressed in Byzantium, Licinius abandoned the city to his rival and fled to Chalcedon in Bithynia. Leaving Martinianus, his former magister officiorum and now his co-ruler, to impede Constantine' s progress, Licinius regrouped his forces and engaged his enemy at Chrysopolis where he was again routed on 18 September 324. He fled to Nicomedeia which Constantine began to besiege. On the next day Licinius abdicated and was sent to Thessalonica, where he was kept under house arrest. Both Licinius and his associate were put to death by Constantine. Martinianus may have been put to death before the end of 324, whereas Licinius was not put to death until the spring of 325. Rumors circulated that Licinius had been put to death because he attempted another rebellion against Constantine.

Copyright (C) 1996, Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

Cleisthenes
heraclea6.jpg
131 Licinius I12 viewsobv: IMP LICI_NIVS AVG laur. drp. bust l. holding scepter and mappa
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE AVGG campgate with three turrents no star
ex: .SMHB
hill132
heraclea7~0.jpg
132 Licinius I11 viewsobv: IMP LICI_NIVS AVG laur. drp. bust r. holding scepter and mappa
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE AVGG campgate with three turrents no star
ex: -(delta)//SMHA
hill132
Licinius-I_AE-3-Follis_IMP-LICI-NIVS-AVG-2--_PROVIDEN-TIAE-AVGG_7-lay_HT-E_RIC-VII-15_Heraclea_316-17-AD_R2_Q-001_6h_19mm_3,59g-s~1.jpg
132 Licinius l. (308-324 A.D.), Heraclea, RIC VII 015, AE-3 Follis, -/-//HTЄ, PROVIDENTIAE AVG G, Campgate with tree turrets, R2!!107 views132 Licinius l. (308-324 A.D.), Heraclea, RIC VII 015, AE-3 Follis, -/-//HTЄ, PROVIDENTIAE AVG G, Campgate with tree turrets, R2!!
avers: IMP LICI NIVS AVG, 2, J1l., Laureate, draped bust left, holding mappa and sceptre on globe.
reverse: PROVIDEN TIAE AVG G, Campgate with three turrets, no dors, 7 layers of stones.
exergue: -/-//HTЄ, diameter: 19mm, weight: 3,59g, axis: 6h,
mint: Heraclea, 5th. off., date: 316-317 A.D., ref: RIC VII 015, p544, R2!!
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Licinius-I_AE-3-Follis_IMP-LICI-NIVS-AVG-2-J1_l_PROVIDEN-TIAE-AVGG_MHT-Epsilon_7layer_RIC-VII-17-p545-5th-off_Heraclea_316-17-AD_R4_Q-001_axis-5h_19mm_2,51ga-s.jpg
132 Licinius l. (308-324 A.D.), Heraclea, RIC VII 017, AE-3 Follis, -/-//MHTЄ, PROVIDENTIAE AVG G, Campgate with tree turrets, R4!!!280 views132 Licinius l. (308-324 A.D.), Heraclea, RIC VII 017, AE-3 Follis, -/-//MHTЄ, PROVIDENTIAE AVG G, Campgate with tree turrets, R4!!!
avers: IMP LICI NIVS AVG, 2, J1l., Laureate, draped bust left, holding mappa and sceptre on globe.
reverse: PROVIDEN TIAE AVG G, Campgate with three turrets, no dors, 7 layers of stones.
exergue: -/-//MHTЄ, diameter: 19mm, weight: 2,51g, axis: 5h,
mint: Heraclea, 5th. off., date: 316-317 A.D., ref: RIC VII 017, p545, R4!!!
Q-001
quadrans
Licinius_I__Heraclea,_RIC_VII_17A,_AE-3-Follis,_IMP_LICI_NIVS_AVG_2-J1_l,_PROVIDEN_TIAE_AVG_G,_MHTA,_5_layer,_1st_off,_317_AD,_Q-001,_6h,_18,5-19,5mm,_2,52-s.jpg
132 Licinius l. (308-324 A.D.), Heraclea, RIC VII 017, AE-3 Follis, -/-//MHTA, PROVIDENTIAE AVG G, Campgate with tree turrets, #1119 views132 Licinius l. (308-324 A.D.), Heraclea, RIC VII 017, AE-3 Follis, -/-//MHTA, PROVIDENTIAE AVG G, Campgate with tree turrets, #1
avers: IMP LICI NIVS AVG, 2, J1l., Laureate, draped bust left, holding mappa and sceptre on globe.
reverse: PROVIDEN TIAE AVG G, Campgate with three turrets, no dors, 5 layers of stones.
exergue: -/-//MHTA, diameter: 18,5-19,5mm, weight: 2,52g, axis: 6h,
mint: Heraclea, 1st. off., date: 316-317 A.D., ref: RIC VII 017, p545,
Q-001
quadrans
132_Licinius_l_,_Heraclea_RIC_VII_039,_AE-3,_IMP_LICINIVS_AVG,_PROVIDENTIAE_AVG_G,_SMHA,__318-20_AD,R4_Q-001,_0h,_18-19mm,_3,60gx-s.jpg
132 Licinius l. (308-324 A.D.), Heraclea, RIC VII 039, AE-3 Follis, -/-//SMHA, PROVIDENTIAE AVG G, Campgate with tree turrets, R4! #1102 views132 Licinius l. (308-324 A.D.), Heraclea, RIC VII 039, AE-3 Follis, -/-//SMHA, PROVIDENTIAE AVG G, Campgate with tree turrets, R4! #1
avers: IMP LICI NIVS AVG, 2, J1l., Laureate, draped bust left, holding mappa and scepter on globe.
reverse: PROVIDEN TIAE AVG G, Campgate with three turrets, no dors, 6 layers of stones.
exergue: -/-//SMHA, diameter: 18,0-19,0mm, weight: 3,60g, axis: 0h,
mint: Heraclea, date: 318-320 A.D., ref: RIC VII 039, R4!
Q-001
quadrans
Licinius-I_AE-3-Follis_IMP-LICI-NIVS-AVG-2--_PROVIDEN-TIAE-AVGG-_-_SMH-B_RIC-VII-48var-pxx-2nd-off__Heraclea_318-20-AD__Q-001_axis-0h_18-19mm_3,10g-s.jpg
132 Licinius l. (308-324 A.D.), Heraclea, RIC VII 048var., AE-3 Follis, -/Λ//SMHB, PROVIDENTIAE AVG G, Campgate, #179 views132 Licinius l. (308-324 A.D.), Heraclea, RIC VII 048var., AE-3 Follis, -/Λ//SMHB, PROVIDENTIAE AVG G, Campgate, #1
avers: IMP LICI NIVS AVG, 2, J1r., Laureate, draped bust right(left are RIC error), holding mappa and sceptre on globe.
reverse: PROVIDEN TIAE AVG G, Campgate with three turrets, no dors, 6 layers of stones and Λ in right in the field.
exergue: -/Λ//SMHB, diameter: 18-19mm, weight: 3,10g, axis: 0h,
mint: Heraclea, 2nd. off., date: 318-320 A.D., ref: RIC VII 048var., (RIC err. not left, right), p547, c1,
Q-001
quadrans
Licinius-I_AE-3-Follis_IMP-LICI-NIVS-AVG-2--_PROVIDEN-TIAE-AVGG-_-_SMH-B_RIC-VII-48var-pxx-2nd-off__Heraclea_318-20-AD__Q-001_h_mm_ga-s.jpg
132 Licinius l. (308-324 A.D.), Heraclea, RIC VII 048var., AE-3 Follis, -/Λ//SMHB, PROVIDENTIAE AVG G, Campgate, #277 views132 Licinius l. (308-324 A.D.), Heraclea, RIC VII 048var., AE-3 Follis, -/Λ//SMHB, PROVIDENTIAE AVG G, Campgate, #2
avers: IMP LICI NIVS AVG, 2, J1r., Laureate, draped bust right(left are RIC error), holding mappa and sceptre on globe.
reverse: PROVIDEN TIAE AVG G, Campgate with three turrets, no dors, 6 layers of stones and Λ in right in the field.
exergue: -/Λ//SMHB, diameter: mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Heraclea, 2nd. off., date: 318-320 A.D., ref: RIC VII 048var., (RIC err. not left, right), p547, c1,
Q-002
quadrans
heraclea8.jpg
133 Licinius I9 viewsobv: IMP LICI_NIVS AVG laur. drp. bust l. holding scepter and mappa
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE AVGG campgate with three turrents no star
ex: SMH(delta)
hill132
Licinius-II_AE-3-Follis_DN-VAL-LICIN-LICINIVS-NOB-C-6b-J1-l__PROVIDEN-TIAE-CAESS_MHT-_-_RIC-19-p545-4th_-off_-c2_Heracleia_317-AD__Q-001_axis-11h_19mm_2,81g-s.jpg
133 Licinius II. (317-324 A.D.), Heraclea, RIC VII 019, AE-3 Follis, -/-//MHTΔ, PROVIDENTIAE CAESS, Campgate with three turrets, C2! #1178 views133 Licinius II. (317-324 A.D.), Heraclea, RIC VII 019, AE-3 Follis, -/-//MHTΔ, PROVIDENTIAE CAESS, Campgate with three turrets, C2! #1
avers: D N VAL LICIN LICINIVS NOB C, 6b, J1l., Laureate, draped bust left, holding mappa and sceptre on globe.
reverse: PROVIDEN TIAE CAES S, Campgate with three turrets, 6 layers of stone.
exergue: -/-//MHTΔ, diameter: 19mm, weight: 2,81g, axis: 11h,
mint: Heraclea, 4th. off., date: 317 A.D., ref: RIC VII 019, p545, C2,
Q-001
2 commentsquadrans
0010-069.jpg
1330 - L. Cassius Longinus, Denarius103 viewsRome mint, 63 BC
Veiled bust of Vesta left. Control mark L below chin
LONGIN IIIV, togate citizen standing left, voting
3.93 gr
Ref : RCV # 364, RSC, Cassia # 10, Crawford # 413/1, Sydenham # 935

4 commentsPotator II
heraclea9~0.jpg
134 Licinius II11 viewsobv: DN VAL LICIN LICINIVS NOB C laur. drp. bust l. holding scepter and mappa
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE CAESS campgate with three turrents no star
ex: MHT(delta)
hill132
heraclea10.jpg
135 Licinius I10 viewsobv: IMP LICI_NIVS AVGG laur. drp. bust l. holding scepter and mappa
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE AVGG campgate with three turrents no star
ex: -.//SMHA
hill132
Constantinus-I__AE-Follis_CONSTAN-TINVS-AVG-1_PROVIDEN-TIAE-AVG-G-B1-6layers_dot_SMANTA_RIC-63-p-688_Antioch_326-327-AD_S_Q-001_h_mm_g-s.jpg
136 Constantinus I. (306-309 A.D. Caesar, 309-910 A.D. Filius Augustorum, 307-337 A.D. Augustus), Antioch, RIC VII 063, AE-3 Follis, -/-//SMANTA, PROVIDENTIAE AVG G, Campgate with two turrets, Scarce!65 views136 Constantinus I. (306-309 A.D. Caesar, 309-910 A.D. Filius Augustorum, 307-337 A.D. Augustus), Antioch, RIC VII 063, AE-3 Follis, -/-//SMANTA, PROVIDENTIAE AVG G, Campgate with two turrets, Scarce!
avers: CONSTAN TINVS AVG, 1, B1, Laureate, bust right.
reverse: PROVIDEN TIAE AVG G, 6 layers, Campgate, no door, with two turrets star above.
exergue: -/-//SMANTA, diameter: mm, weight: g, axis:h,
mint: Antioch, date: 325-326 A.D., ref: RIC VII 063, p-688, Scarce!
Q-001
quadrans
Constantinus-I__AE-Follis_CONSTAN-TINVS-AVG-1_PROVIDEN-TIAE-AVG-G-B1-8layers_dot_SMANTZ_RIC-71-p-690_Antioch_326-327-AD_R2_Q-001_h_mm_gx-s.jpg
136 Constantinus I. (306-309 A.D. Caesar, 309-910 A.D. Filius Augustorum, 307-337 A.D. Augustus), Antioch, RIC VII 071, AE-3 Follis, •//SMANTA, PROVIDENTIAE AVG G, Campgate with two turrets, R2!!65 views136 Constantinus I. (306-309 A.D. Caesar, 309-910 A.D. Filius Augustorum, 307-337 A.D. Augustus), Antioch, RIC VII 071, AE-3 Follis, •//SMANTA, PROVIDENTIAE AVG G, Campgate with two turrets, R2!!
avers: CONSTAN TINVS AVG, 1, B1, Laureate, bust right.
reverse: PROVIDEN TIAE AVG G, 8 layers, Campgate, no door, with two turrets star above.
exergue: •//SMANTA, diameter: mm, weight: g, axis:h,
mint: Antioch, date: 326-327 A.D., ref: RIC VII 071, p-690, R2!!
Q-001
quadrans
Constantinus-I__AE-Follis_CONSTAN-TINVS-AVG-1_PROVIDEN-TIAE-AVG-G-B1-6layers_SACrescRL_RIC-_p-_Arles_326-327-AD_Q-001_h_mm_g-s.jpg
136 Constantinus I. (306-309 A.D. Caesar, 309-910 A.D. Filius Augustorum, 307-337 A.D. Augustus), Arleate, RIC VII 286, AE-3 Follis, -/-//SAᴗRL, PROVIDENTIAE AVG G, Campgate with two turrets, Scarce!78 views136 Constantinus I. (306-309 A.D. Caesar, 309-910 A.D. Filius Augustorum, 307-337 A.D. Augustus), Arleate, RIC VII 286, AE-3 Follis, -/-//SAᴗRL, PROVIDENTIAE AVG G, Campgate with two turrets, Scarce!
avers: CONSTAN TINVS AVG, 1, B1, Laureate, bust right.
reverse: PROVIDEN TIAE AVG G, Campgate, two turrets, no doors, star above 6th levels of stone layers.
exergue: -/-//SAᴗRL, diameter: mm, weight: g, axis:h,
mint: Arleate, date: 326-327 A.D., ref: RIC VII 286, p-264, Scarce!
Q-001
quadrans
Constantinus-I__AE-Follis_CONSTAN-TINVS-AVG-1_PROVIDEN-TIAE-AVG-G-B1-6layers_SMKDelta_RIC-24-p-647_Cyzicus_324-5-AD_Q-001_h_mm_g-s.jpg
136 Constantinus I. (306-309 A.D. Caesar, 309-910 A.D. Filius Augustorum, 307-337 A.D. Augustus), Cyzicus, RIC VII 024, AE-3 Follis, -/-//SMKΔ, PROVIDENTIAE AVG G, Campgate with two turrets,62 views136 Constantinus I. (306-309 A.D. Caesar, 309-910 A.D. Filius Augustorum, 307-337 A.D. Augustus), Cyzicus, RIC VII 024, AE-3 Follis, -/-//SMKΔ, PROVIDENTIAE AVG G, Campgate with two turrets,
avers: CONSTAN TINVS AVG, 1, B1, Laureate, bust right.
reverse: PROVIDEN TIAE AVG G, 6 layers, Campgate, no door, with two turrets star above.
exergue: -/-//SMKΔ, diameter: mm, weight: g, axis:h,
mint: Cyzicus, date: 325-326 A.D., ref: RIC VII 024, p-647,
Q-001
quadrans
Constantinus-I__AE-Follis_CONSTAN-TINVS-AVG-1_PROVIDEN-TIAE-AVG-G-B1-8layers_SMKGamm-dot_RIC-34-p-648_Cyzicus_325-6-AD_Q-001_h_mm_g-s.jpg
136 Constantinus I. (306-309 A.D. Caesar, 309-910 A.D. Filius Augustorum, 307-337 A.D. Augustus), Cyzicus, RIC VII 034, AE-3 Follis, -/-//SMKΓ•, PROVIDENTIAE AVG G, Campgate with two turrets,66 views136 Constantinus I. (306-309 A.D. Caesar, 309-910 A.D. Filius Augustorum, 307-337 A.D. Augustus), Cyzicus, RIC VII 034, AE-3 Follis, -/-//SMKΓ•, PROVIDENTIAE AVG G, Campgate with two turrets,
avers: CONSTAN TINVS AVG, 1, B1, Laureate, bust right.
reverse: PROVIDEN TIAE AVG G, 8 layers, Campgate, no door, with two turrets star above.
exergue: -/-//SMKΓ•, diameter: mm, weight: g, axis:h,
mint: Cyzicus, date: 325-326 A.D., ref: RIC VII 034, p-648,
Q-001
quadrans
136_Constantinus_I_,_,_RIC_VII_34A,_Cyzicus_,_AE-Follis,_CONSTAN_TINVS_AVG,_PROVIDENTIAE_AVGG,_SMKAdot,_325-6_AD,_Q-001,_11h,_17,5-18,5mm,_3,05g-s.jpg
136 Constantinus I. (306-309 A.D. Caesar, 309-910 A.D. Filius Augustorum, 307-337 A.D. Augustus), Cyzicus, RIC VII 034A, AE-3 Follis, -/-//SMKA•, PROVIDENTIAE AVG G, Campgate with two turrets, #1126 views136 Constantinus I. (306-309 A.D. Caesar, 309-910 A.D. Filius Augustorum, 307-337 A.D. Augustus), Cyzicus, RIC VII 034A, AE-3 Follis, -/-//SMKA•, PROVIDENTIAE AVG G, Campgate with two turrets, #1
avers: CONSTAN TINVS AVG, 1, B1, Laureate, bust right.
reverse: PROVIDEN TIAE AVG G, 8 layers, Campgate, no door, with two turrets star above.
exergue: -/-//SMKA•, diameter: 17,5-18,5mm, weight: 3,05g, axis:11h,
mint: Cyzicus, date: 325-326 A.D., ref: RIC VII 034A, p-648,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Constantinus-I__AE-Follis_IMP-CONSTA-NTINVS-AVG-1_PROVIDEN-TIAE-AVG-G-J1_l_-6-layers_MHTA_RICVII-16v(or38v)-not-off-A_Heraclea_317-320-AD_Q-001_6h_19,5-20mm_3,25g-s.jpg
136 Constantinus I. (306-309 A.D. Caesar, 309-910 A.D. Filius Augustorum, 307-337 A.D. Augustus), Heraclea, RIC VII 016var.(or 038var.), AE-3 Follis, -/-//MHTA, PROVIDEN TIAE AVG G, Campgate with 3 turrets, "A" off not in RIC !!!72 views136 Constantinus I. (306-309 A.D. Caesar, 309-910 A.D. Filius Augustorum, 307-337 A.D. Augustus), Heraclea, RIC VII 016var.(or 038var.), AE-3 Follis, -/-//MHTA, PROVIDEN TIAE AVG G, Campgate with 3 turrets, "A" off not in RIC !!!
avers: IMP CONSTA NTINVS AVG, 1, J1 l., Laureate, draped bust left, holding mappa and sceptre on globe.
reverse: PROVIDEN TIAE AVG G, Campgate with 3 turrets, 6 layers, no doors, no star above.
exergue: -/-//MHTA, diameter: 19,5-20mm, weight: 3,25g, axis: 6h,
mint: Heraclea, date: 317-320 A.D., ref: RIC VII 16ver.(or38ver.???), p-544, "A" off not in RIC !!!
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Constantinus-I__AE-Follis_CONSTA-N-TINVS-AVG-1-D6_VIRTV-S-AVG-G_3-turrets-6-layers_P-R_RT_3-off_RIC-VII-166-p-315_Rome_318-319-AD_R5_Q-001_5h_17,5-18mm_2,75ga-s.jpg
136 Constantinus I. (306-309 A.D. Caesar, 309-910 A.D. Filius Augustorum, 307-337 A.D. Augustus), Rome, RIC VII 166, AE-3 Follis, P/R//R-T, VIRTVS AVG G, Campgate with three turrets, R5!!! 123 views136 Constantinus I. (306-309 A.D. Caesar, 309-910 A.D. Filius Augustorum, 307-337 A.D. Augustus), Rome, RIC VII 166, AE-3 Follis, P/R//R-T, VIRTVS AVG G, Campgate with three turrets, R5!!!
avers: CONSTA N TINVS AVG, Laureate helmeted cuirassed bust right. 1-D6,
reverse: VIRTV S AVG G, Campgate, three turrets, six layers no doors; P-R across fields, RT in ex.
exergue: P/R//R-T, diameter: 17,5-18mm, weight: 2,75g, axes: 5h,
mint: Rome, date: 318-319 A.D., ref: RIC VII 166, p-315, R5!!!,
Q-001
3 commentsquadrans
Constantinus-I__AE-Follis_CONSTAN-TINVS-AVG-1_PROVIDEN-TIAE-AVG-G-B1-6-layers_dot-G-SIS-dot-_RIC-200_Siscia_326-327-AD_Q-001_6h_18-20mm_2,71g-s.jpg
136 Constantinus I. (306-309 A.D. Caesar, 309-910 A.D. Filius Augustorum, 307-337 A.D. Augustus), Siscia, RIC VII 200, AE-3 Follis, -/-//•ΓSIS•, PROVIDENTIAE AVG G, Campgate with two turrets, #170 views136 Constantinus I. (306-309 A.D. Caesar, 309-910 A.D. Filius Augustorum, 307-337 A.D. Augustus), Siscia, RIC VII 200, AE-3 Follis, -/-//•ΓSIS•, PROVIDENTIAE AVG G, Campgate with two turrets, #1
avers: CONSTAN TINVS AVG, 1, B1, Laureate head right.
reverse: PROVIDEN TIAE AVG G, 6 layers, Campgate with two turrets star above.
exergue: -/-//•ΓSIS•, diameter: 18,0-21,0mm, weight: 2,71g, axis: 6h,
mint: Siscia, date: 326-327 A.D., ref: RIC VII 200, p-449, 2nd.-off.,
Q-001
quadrans
Constantinus-I__AE-Follis_CONSTAN-TINVS-AVG-1_PROVIDEN-TIAE-AVG-G-B1-5layers_dot-Delta-SIS-dot-2-off__RIC-200_C-x_Siscia_326-327-AD__Q-001_19mm_2_24g-s.jpg
136 Constantinus I. (306-309 A.D. Caesar, 309-910 A.D. Filius Augustorum, 307-337 A.D. Augustus), Siscia, RIC VII 200, AE-3 Follis, -/-//•ΔSIS•, PROVIDENTIAE AVG G, Campgate with two turrets, #166 views136 Constantinus I. (306-309 A.D. Caesar, 309-910 A.D. Filius Augustorum, 307-337 A.D. Augustus), Siscia, RIC VII 200, AE-3 Follis, -/-//•ΔSIS•, PROVIDENTIAE AVG G, Campgate with two turrets, #1
avers: CONSTAN TINVS AVG, 1, B1, Laureate head right.
reverse: PROVIDEN TIAE AVG G, 5 layers, Campgate with two turrets star above.
exergue: -/-//•ΔSIS•, diameter: mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Siscia, date: 326-327 A.D., ref: RIC VII 200, p-449, 2nd.-off.,
Q-001
quadrans
Constantinus-I__AE-Follis_CONSTAN-TINVS-AVG-1_PROVIDEN-TIAE-AVG-G-B1-7layers_dot-A-SIS-dot-x-off__RIC-200_C-x_Siscia_326-327-AD_Q-001_h_mm_gx-s.jpg
136 Constantinus I. (306-309 A.D. Caesar, 309-910 A.D. Filius Augustorum, 307-337 A.D. Augustus), Siscia, RIC VII 200, AE-3 Follis, -/-//•ASIS•, PROVIDENTIAE AVG G, Campgate with two turrets, #162 views136 Constantinus I. (306-309 A.D. Caesar, 309-910 A.D. Filius Augustorum, 307-337 A.D. Augustus), Siscia, RIC VII 200, AE-3 Follis, -/-//•ASIS•, PROVIDENTIAE AVG G, Campgate with two turrets, #1
avers: CONSTAN TINVS AVG, 1, B1, Laureate head right.
reverse: PROVIDEN TIAE AVG G, 6 layers, Campgate with two turrets star above.
exergue: -/-//•ASIS•, diameter: mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Siscia, date: 326-327 A.D., ref: RIC VII 200, p-449, 2nd.-off.,
Q-001
quadrans
Constantinus-I__AE-Follis_CONSTAN-TINVS-AVG-1_PROVIDEN-TIAE-AVG-G-B1-6layers_dot-B-SIS-dot-2-off__RIC-200_C-x_Siscia_326-327-AD__Q-001_19mm_2_24g-s.jpg
136 Constantinus I. (306-309 A.D. Caesar, 309-910 A.D. Filius Augustorum, 307-337 A.D. Augustus), Siscia, RIC VII 200, AE-3 Follis, -/-//•BSIS•, PROVIDENTIAE AVG G, Campgate with two turrets, #1112 views136 Constantinus I. (306-309 A.D. Caesar, 309-910 A.D. Filius Augustorum, 307-337 A.D. Augustus), Siscia, RIC VII 200, AE-3 Follis, -/-//•BSIS•, PROVIDENTIAE AVG G, Campgate with two turrets, #1
avers: CONSTAN TINVS AVG, 1, B1, Laureate head right.
reverse: PROVIDEN TIAE AVG G, 6 layers, Campgate with two turrets star above.
exergue: -/-//•BSIS•, diameter: 19mm, weight: 3,24g, axis: 7h,
mint: Siscia, date: 326-327 A.D., ref: RIC VII 200, p-449, 2nd.-off.,
Q-001
quadrans
Constantinus-I__AE-Follis_CONSTAN-TINVS-AVG-1_PROVIDEN-TIAE-AVG-G-B1-6layers_dot-B-SIS-dot-_RIC-200_Siscia_326-327-AD_Q-001_h_mm_g-s.jpg
136 Constantinus I. (306-309 A.D. Caesar, 309-910 A.D. Filius Augustorum, 307-337 A.D. Augustus), Siscia, RIC VII 200, AE-3 Follis, -/-//•BSIS•, PROVIDENTIAE AVG G, Campgate with two turrets, #264 views136 Constantinus I. (306-309 A.D. Caesar, 309-910 A.D. Filius Augustorum, 307-337 A.D. Augustus), Siscia, RIC VII 200, AE-3 Follis, -/-//•BSIS•, PROVIDENTIAE AVG G, Campgate with two turrets, #2
avers: CONSTAN TINVS AVG, 1, B1, Laureate head right.
reverse: PROVIDEN TIAE AVG G, 6 layers, Campgate with two turrets star above.
exergue: -/-//•BSIS•, diameter: mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Siscia, date: 326-327 A.D., ref: RIC VII 200, p-449, 2nd.-off.,
Q-002
quadrans
Constantinus-I__AE-Follis_CONSTAN-TINVS-AVG-1_PROVIDEN-TIAE-AVG-G-B1-6-layers_dot-B-SIS-dot-_RIC-200_Siscia_326-327-AD_Q-003_1h_18-20mm_2,81g-s.jpg
136 Constantinus I. (306-309 A.D. Caesar, 309-910 A.D. Filius Augustorum, 307-337 A.D. Augustus), Siscia, RIC VII 200, AE-3 Follis, -/-//•BSIS•, PROVIDENTIAE AVG G, Campgate with two turrets, #365 views136 Constantinus I. (306-309 A.D. Caesar, 309-910 A.D. Filius Augustorum, 307-337 A.D. Augustus), Siscia, RIC VII 200, AE-3 Follis, -/-//•BSIS•, PROVIDENTIAE AVG G, Campgate with two turrets, #3
avers: CONSTAN TINVS AVG, 1, B1, Laureate head right.
reverse: PROVIDEN TIAE AVG G, 6 layers, Campgate with two turrets star above.
exergue: -/-//•BSIS•, diameter: 18-20mm, weight: 2,81g, axis: 1h,
mint: Siscia, date: 326-327 A.D., ref: RIC VII 200, p-449, 2nd.-off.,
Q-003
1 commentsquadrans
Constantinus-I__AE-Follis_CONSTAN-TINVS-AVG-1_PROVIDEN-TIAE-AVG-G-B1-9layers_GammaSISCrecincresc_RIC-214_p-452_Siscia_326-327-AD_Q-001_h_mm_g-s.jpg
136 Constantinus I. (306-309 A.D. Caesar, 309-910 A.D. Filius Augustorum, 307-337 A.D. Augustus), Siscia, RIC VII 214, AE-3 Follis, -/-//ΓSISᴗ in ᴗ, PROVIDENTIAE AVG G, Campgate with two turrets, #162 views136 Constantinus I. (306-309 A.D. Caesar, 309-910 A.D. Filius Augustorum, 307-337 A.D. Augustus), Siscia, RIC VII 214, AE-3 Follis, -/-//ΓSISᴗ in ᴗ, PROVIDENTIAE AVG G, Campgate with two turrets, #1
avers: CONSTAN TINVS AVG, 1, B1, Laureate head right.
reverse: PROVIDEN TIAE AVG G, 9 layers, Campgate, no door, with two turrets star above.
exergue: -/-//ΓSISᴗ in ᴗ, diameter: mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Siscia, date: 328-329 A.D., ref: RIC VII 214, p-452, 2nd.-off.,
Q-001
quadrans
Constantinus-I__AE-Follis_CONSTAN-TINVS-AVG-1_PROVIDEN-TIAE-AVG-G-B1-9layers_B-SIS-crescincresc_RIC-_Siscia_326-327-AD_Q-001_h_mm_g-s.jpg
136 Constantinus I. (306-309 A.D. Caesar, 309-910 A.D. Filius Augustorum, 307-337 A.D. Augustus), Siscia, RIC VII 214, AE-3 Follis, -/-//BSISᴗ in ᴗ, PROVIDENTIAE AVG G, Campgate with two turrets, #169 views136 Constantinus I. (306-309 A.D. Caesar, 309-910 A.D. Filius Augustorum, 307-337 A.D. Augustus), Siscia, RIC VII 214, AE-3 Follis, -/-//BSISᴗ in ᴗ, PROVIDENTIAE AVG G, Campgate with two turrets, #1
avers: CONSTAN TINVS AVG, 1, B1, Laureate head right.
reverse: PROVIDEN TIAE AVG G, 9 layers, Campgate, no door, with two turrets star above.
exergue: -/-//BSISᴗ in ᴗ, diameter: mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Siscia, date: 328-329 A.D., ref: RIC VII 214, p-452, 2nd.-off.,
Q-001
quadrans
Constantinus-I__AE-Follis_CONSTAN-TINVS-AVG-1_PROVIDEN-TIAE-AVG-G-B1-9layers_BSISCrecincresc_RIC-214_p-452_Siscia_326-327-AD_Q-001_h_mm_gx-s.jpg
136 Constantinus I. (306-309 A.D. Caesar, 309-910 A.D. Filius Augustorum, 307-337 A.D. Augustus), Siscia, RIC VII 214, AE-3 Follis, -/-//BSISᴗ in ᴗ, PROVIDENTIAE AVG G, Campgate with two turrets, #267 views136 Constantinus I. (306-309 A.D. Caesar, 309-910 A.D. Filius Augustorum, 307-337 A.D. Augustus), Siscia, RIC VII 214, AE-3 Follis, -/-//BSISᴗ in ᴗ, PROVIDENTIAE AVG G, Campgate with two turrets, #2
avers: CONSTAN TINVS AVG, 1, B1, Laureate head right.
reverse: PROVIDEN TIAE AVG G, 9 layers, Campgate, no door, with two turrets star above.
exergue: -/-//BSISᴗ in ᴗ, diameter: mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Siscia, date: 328-329 A.D., ref: RIC VII 214, p-452, 2nd.-off.,
Q-002
quadrans
Constantinus-I__AE-Follis_CONSTAN-TINVS-AVG-1_PROVIDEN-TIAE-AVG-G-B1-6layers_dot-SMTSE_RIC-153_p-518_Thesalonica_326-327-AD_Q-001_h_mm_gx-s.jpg
136 Constantinus I. (306-309 A.D. Caesar, 309-910 A.D. Filius Augustorum, 307-337 A.D. Augustus), Thessalonica, RIC VII 153, AE-3 Follis, -/•//SMTSЄ, PROVIDENTIAE AVG G, Campgate with two turrets, #162 views136 Constantinus I. (306-309 A.D. Caesar, 309-910 A.D. Filius Augustorum, 307-337 A.D. Augustus), Thessalonica, RIC VII 153, AE-3 Follis, -/•//SMTSЄ, PROVIDENTIAE AVG G, Campgate with two turrets, #1
avers: CONSTAN TINVS AVG, 1, B1, Laureate, bust right.
reverse: PROVIDEN TIAE AVG G, 6 layers, Campgate, no door, with two turrets star above.
exergue: -/•//SMTSЄ, diameter: mm, weight: g, axis:h,
mint: Thessalonica, date: 326-327 A.D., ref: RIC VII 153, p-518,
Q-001
quadrans
heraclea11.jpg
136 Crispus16 viewsobv: DN FL IVL CRISPVS NOB CAES laur. drp. bust l. holding scepter and mappa
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE CAESS campgate with three turrents no star
ex: -.//SMHr
hill132
heraclea12.jpg
137 Constantine I16 viewsobv: IMP CONSTA_TINVS AVG laur. drp. bust l. holding scepter and mappa
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE AVGG campgate with three turrents no star
ex: MHTB
hill132
heraclea13.jpg
138 Constantine I14 viewsobv: IMP CONSTAN_TINVS AVG laur. drp. bust l. holding scepter and mappa
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE AVGG campgate with three turrents no star
ex: MHTB
hill132
heraclea14.jpg
139 Constantine I15 viewsobv: IMP CONSTAN_TINVS AVG laur. drp. bust l. holding scepter and mappa
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE AVGG campgate with three turrents no star
ex: MHTB
hill132
heraclea15~0.jpg
140 Constantine II18 viewsobv: CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C laur. drp. cuir. bust r.
rev: PROVIDE_TIAE CAESS campgate with three turrents star above
ex: .SMH(epsilon).
hill132
100_1635.JPG
140 Hadrian41 viewsSestertius, 134-8 A.D. Rome.
bare head,draped, bust l.; HADRIANVS AVG COS III PP. Rv. Togate emperor standing l. receiving Achaea who kneels before him, vase between them; RESTITVTORI ACHAIAE, S C in ex. RIC 938; BMC 1783(same obv. die ?); Cohen 1220

If the patina had remaind, this would be an impressive coin, I got it as is and dont know how it was cleaned, but its a good example of why patina is good.
randy h2
683_P_Hadrian_east.jpg
140 Hadrian Denarius 134-38 AD Roma and Hadrian standing vis-à-vis here a scepter eastern mint40 viewsReference.
Strack --; cf. RIC 225; (Spear usually)

Obv. HADRIANVS AVG COS III P P
Head of Hadrian, bare, right

Rev. ADVENTVS AVG
Roma, helmeted, in military dress, standing right, holding scepter (Roma has spear) in left hand and clasping hands with Hadrian on right, who stands left, togate, facing her

2.96 gr
17 mm
6h
2 commentsokidoki
CTG_SisCmpGte.jpg
1403i, Constantine I (the Great), early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D. (Siscia)42 viewsSilvered AE 3, RIC 214, VF, Siscia mint, 3.187g, 19.3mm, 0o, 328 - 329 A.D.
Obverse: CONSTAN-TINVS AVG, laureate head right; Reverse PROVIDEN-TIAE AVGG, campgate with two turrets, star above, ASIS and double crescent in exergue.

Flavius Valerius Constantinus, Constantine the Great, was the son of Helena and the First Tetrarchic ruler Constantius I. Constantine is most famous for his conversion to Christianity and the battle of the Milvian Bridge where he defeated emperor Maxentius. It is reputed that before the battle, he saw the words "In Hoc Signo Victor Eris" (By this sign you shall conquer) emblazoned on the sun around the Chi Rho, the symbol of Christianity. Other sources claim the vision came to Constantine I in a dream. The story continues that after placing this Christogram on the shields of his army, he defeated his opponent and thus ruled the empire through divine providence. Constantine I also shifted the capital of the empire to Constantinople, establishing the foundation for an Empire that would last another 1000 years. He died in 337 and his sons divided the Roman territories.

The Emperor Constantine I was effectively the sole ruler of the Roman world between 324 and 337 A.D.; his reign was perhaps one of the most crucial of all the emperors in determining the future course of western civilization. By beginning the process of making Christianity the religious foundation of his realm, he set the religious course for the future of Europe which remains in place to this very day. Because he replaced Rome with Constantinople as the center of imperial power, he made it clear that the city of Rome was no longer the center of power, and he also set the stage for the Middle Ages. His philosophical view of monarchy, largely spelled out in some of the works of Eusebius of Caesarea, became the foundation for the concept of the divine right of kings which prevailed in Europe.

Constantine was not a "Christian convert" in any traditional sense. He was not baptized until close to death, and while that was not an uncommon practice, the mention of Christ in his speeches and decrees is conspicuous by its absence. Eusebius, Church historian and Constantine biographer, is responsible for much of the valorization of Constantine as the Christian Emperor. The somnambulant "sign" in which Constantine was to become victor at the Milvian Bridge is, not so surprisingly, revealed to posterity long after the "fact." Throughout his reign, Constantine continues to portray himself on coins as a sun god (Freeman, Charles. Egypt, Greece and Rome: Civilizations of the Ancient Mediterranean; Second Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004. 582). Above all, Constantine was a pragmatist. It would be cynical to egregiously disavow his commitment to Christianity, but it would be equally wrong to think that he would allow Christianity to meddle in the governance of his empire. As he reputedly told a group of bishops, "You are bishops of those within the church, but I am perhaps a bishop appointed by God of those outside." Whatever the motives for his decision to support Christianity, Christianity benefitted from the arrangement. So, too, did Constantine. It was a match made in heaven.
J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

For perhaps the best Constantine The Great site on the web, see Victor Clark's Constantine The Great Coins: http://www.constantinethegreatcoins.com/
Cleisthenes
CTG_ThesCmpGte.jpg
1403j, Constantine I (the Great), early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D. (Thessalonica)26 viewsBronze AE 3, RIC 153, VF, Thessalonica mint, 2.955g, 19.7mm, 0o, 326 - 328 A.D. Obverse: CONSTAN-TINVS AVG, laureate head right; Reverse: PROVIDEN-TIAE AVGG, campgate with two turrets, star above, dot right, SMTSG in exergue.

Flavius Valerius Constantinus, Constantine the Great, was the son of Helena and the First Tetrarchic ruler Constantius I. Constantine is most famous for his conversion to Christianity and the battle of the Milvian Bridge where he defeated emperor Maxentius. It is reputed that before the battle, he saw the words "In Hoc Signo Victor Eris" (By this sign you shall conquer) emblazoned on the sun around the Chi Rho, the symbol of Christianity. Other sources claim the vision came to Constantine I in a dream. The story continues that after placing this Christogram on the shields of his army, he defeated his opponent and thus ruled the empire through divine providence. Constantine I also shifted the capital of the empire to Constantinople, establishing the foundation for an Empire that would last another 1000 years. He died in 337 and his sons divided the Roman territories.

The Emperor Constantine I was effectively the sole ruler of the Roman world between 324 and 337 A.D.; his reign was perhaps one of the most crucial of all the emperors in determining the future course of western civilization. By beginning the process of making Christianity the religious foundation of his realm, he set the religious course for the future of Europe which remains in place to this very day. Because he replaced Rome with Constantinople as the center of imperial power, he made it clear that the city of Rome was no longer the center of power, and he also set the stage for the Middle Ages. His philosophical view of monarchy, largely spelled out in some of the works of Eusebius of Caesarea, became the foundation for the concept of the divine right of kings which prevailed in Europe.

Constantine was not a "Christian convert" in any traditional sense. He was not baptized until close to death, and while that was not an uncommon practice, the mention of Christ in his speeches and decrees is conspicuous by its absence. Eusebius, Church historian and Constantine biographer, is responsible for much of the valorization of Constantine as the Christian Emperor. The somnambulant "sign" in which Constantine was to become victor at the Milvian Bridge is, not so surprisingly, revealed to posterity long after the "fact." Throughout his reign, Constantine continues to portray himself on coins as a sun god (Freeman, Charles. Egypt, Greece and Rome: Civilizations of the Ancient Mediterranean; Second Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004. 582). Above all, Constantine was a pragmatist. It would be cynical to egregiously disavow his commitment to Christianity, but it would be equally wrong to think that he would allow Christianity to meddle in the governance of his empire. As he reputedly told a group of bishops, "You are bishops of those within the church, but I am perhaps a bishop appointed by God of those outside." Whatever the motives for his decision to support Christianity, Christianity benefitted from the arrangement. So, too, did Constantine. It was a match made in heaven.
J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

For perhaps the best Constantine The Great site on the web, see Victor Clark's Constantine The Great Coins: http://www.constantinethegreatcoins.com/
Cleisthenes
heraclea16.jpg
141 Constantine II11 viewsobv: CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C laur. drp. cuir. bust r.
rev: PROIDEN_TIAE CAESS campgate with two turrents star above
ex: ./SMH(delta)
hill132
heraclea17.jpg
142 Constantine II15 viewsobv: CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C laur. drp. cuir. bust r.
rev: PROVIDN_TIAE CAESS campgate with two turrents star above
ex:SMHr
hill132
142_Crispus,_Cyzicus,_RIC_VII_025,_AE-3_Follis,_FL_IVL_CRISPUS_NOB_CAES,_PROVIDEN-TIAE_CAESS,_SMK__#916;,_324-5AD,_Q-001,_0h,_19mm,_3,6g-s.jpg
142 Crispus (317-326 A.D.), Cyzicus, RIC VII 025, AE-3 Follis, -/-//SMKΔ, PROVIDENTIAE CAESS, Campgate with two turrets, #1161 views142 Crispus (317-326 A.D.), Cyzicus, RIC VII 025, AE-3 Follis, -/-//SMKΔ, PROVIDENTIAE CAESS, Campgate with two turrets, #1
avers: FL IVL CRISPUS NOB CAES, Laureate bust left, draped and cuirassed.
reverse: PROVIDEN TIAE CAESS, Campgate with two turrets, 6 layers, no door and one star above.
exergue: -/-//SMKΔ, diameter: 19,0mm, weight: 3,60g, axis: 0h,
mint: Cyzicus, 4th. off., date: 324-325 AD., ref: RIC VII 25,
Q-001
quadrans
Thessalonica_RIC_VII_155,_142_Crispus_AE-3-Follis_IVL-CRISPVS-NOB-C_PROVIDEN-TIAE-CAESS_SMTSGamma_326-AD_S_Q-001_h_mm_gx-s.jpg
142 Crispus (317-326 A.D.), Thessalonica, RIC VII 155, AE-3 Follis, -/-//SMTSΓ, PROVIDENTIAE CAES S, Campgate, Scarce! #189 views142 Crispus (317-326 A.D.), Thessalonica, RIC VII 155, AE-3 Follis, -/-//SMTSΓ, PROVIDENTIAE CAES S, Campgate, Scarce! #1
avers: IVL CRISPVS NOB C, Laureate, cuirassed bust right.
reverse: PROVIDEN TIAE CAES S, Campgate with two turrets and star above. Closed doors, six rows of bricks.
exergue: -/-//SMTSΓ, diameter: 18-19mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Thessalonica, date: 326 A.D., ref: RIC VII 155, Sear 16803, Scarce!
Q-001
quadrans
Antose88.jpg
143 AD: The king of Armenia is appointed by Antoninus Pius193 viewsOrichalcum sestertius (23.57g, 31mm, 11h). Rome mint. Struck AD 143-144.
ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P COS III laureate head of Antoninus Pius facing right
REX ARMENIIS DATVS [around] S C [in ex.] Antoninus Pius, togate, standing facing, head turned left, placing a tiara on the head of the Armenian king, standing left, wearing short tunica and cloak, his right hand raised and holding a roll in his left.
RIC 619 [R]; BMC 1272; Cohen 686; Foss (Roman Historical Coins) 126:42
ex The New York Sale XX jan 2009; ex Gorny & Mosch, Auction 147 lot 2159, March 2006
In A.D. 143, Antoninus Pius appointed kings for the Armenians and the Quadi and dedicated separate issues for both events.
3 commentsCharles S
heraclea19.jpg
144 Constantine II16 viewsobv: DN FL CL CONSTANTINVS NOB C laur. drp. cuir. bust l. holding scepter and mappa
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE CAESS campgate with three turrents no star
ex: .MHT(epsilon).
hill132
1034_P_Hadrian_RPC1441.jpg
1441 Hadrian, Cistophorus Uncertain mint in Asia Minor 128 AD Hadrian standing31 viewsReference.
RPC III 1441; Metcalf Type 92, 35; RIC 532.

Obv. IMP CAESAR AVGVSTVS
Head of Augustus right

Rev. HADRIANVS AVG P P REN
Hadrian togate standing half-l. holding grain stalk in r. and wrapping l. in toga.

10.31 gr
26 mm
6h
3 commentsokidoki
954_P_Hadrian_RPC1441.jpg
1441A Hadrian, Cistophorus Uncertain mint in Asia Minor 128 AD Hadrian standing35 viewsReference.
unpublished; RPC III, 1441var. on reverse legend; RIC 532 var.; C. 576 var. (Augustus); Metcalf, Cistophori of Hadrian 92 var.

Person Augustus (under Hadrian) (Divus)

Obv. IMP CAESAR AVGVSTVS
Head of Augustus r.

Rev. HADRIANVS AVGGVSTVS REN (sic)
Hadrian togate standing half-left, holding grain stalk in right and roll in left in toga.

9.89 gr
27 mm
6h

Note.
Peus auction 420 lot 305
Sammlung Dr. Neussel Nr. 385
3 commentsokidoki
heraclea20.jpg
145 Constantine II12 viewsobv: DN FL CL CONSTANTINVS NOB C laur. drp. cuir. bust l. holding scepter and mappa
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE CAESS campgate with three turrents no star
ex:-.//SMH(epsilon)
hill132
Constantinus-II__AE-3-Follis_CONSTANTINVS-IVN-NOB-C_PROVIDEN-TIAE-CAESS_TACrescentRL_RIC-VII-289_3rd-off_-7-B4l__C-_Arles_325-6-AD_Scarce_Q-001_axis-0h_19,5mm_3,09g-s.jpg
145 Constantinus II. (316-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-340 A.D. Augustus), Arleate, RIC VII 289, AE-3 Follis, -/-//TAᴗRL, PROVIDENTIAE CAES S, Campgate with two turrets, Scarce!113 views145 Constantinus II. (316-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-340 A.D. Augustus), Arleate, RIC VII 289, AE-3 Follis, -/-//TAᴗRL, PROVIDENTIAE CAES S, Campgate with two turrets, Scarce!
avers: CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C, 7, B4l., Laureate, draped and cuirassed head left.
reverse: PROVIDEN TIAE CAES S, Campgate, two turrets, no doors, star above 6th levels of stone layers.
exergue: -/-//TAᴗRL, diameter: 19,5mm, weight: 3,09g, axis: 0h,
mint: Arleate, date: 325-326 A.D., ref: RIC VII 289, p-265, 3rd-off, Scarce,
Q-001
quadrans
Constantinus-II__AE-3-Follis_CONSTANTINVS-IVN-NOB-C_VIRTVS-CAESS_TACrescentRL_RIC-VII-294_3rd-off_-7-B4l__C-_Arles_294-p-265_325-6-AD_Q-001_h_mm_gx-s.jpg
145 Constantinus II. (316-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-340 A.D. Augustus), Arleate, RIC VII 294, AE-3 Follis, -/-//TAᴗRL, VIRTVS CAESS, Campgate with four turrets,73 views145 Constantinus II. (316-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-340 A.D. Augustus), Arleate, RIC VII 294, AE-3 Follis, -/-//TAᴗRL, VIRTVS CAESS, Campgate with four turrets,
avers: CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C, 7, B4l., Laureate, draped and cuirassed head left.
reverse: VIRTVS CAES S, Campgate, four turrets, open doors, star above 9th levels of stone layers.
exergue: -/-//TAᴗRL, diameter: mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Arleate, date: 325-326 A.D., ref: RIC VII 294, p-265,
Q-001
quadrans
Constantinus-II__AE-3-Follis_CONSTANTINVS-IVN-NOB-C_VIRTVS-CAESS_S-F_ARLT_RIC-VII-315_Arles_327-AD_Q-001_h_mm_gx-s.jpg
145 Constantinus II. (316-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-340 A.D. Augustus), Arleate, RIC VII 315, AE-3 Follis, S/F//ARLT, VIRTVS CAESS, Campgate with four turrets,119 views145 Constantinus II. (316-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-340 A.D. Augustus), Arleate, RIC VII 315, AE-3 Follis, S/F//ARLT, VIRTVS CAESS, Campgate with four turrets,
avers: CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C, Laureate, draped and cuirassed head left.
reverse: VIRTVS CAES S, Campgate, four turrets, open doors, star above 6th levels of stone layers.
exergue: S/F//ARLT, diameter: mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Arleate, date: 327 A.D., ref: RIC VII 315, p-265,
Q-001
quadrans
Constantinus-II__AE-3-Follis_CONSTANTINVS-IVN-NOB-C_PROVIDEN-TIAE-CAES___CONS_RIC-VII-27-var_3rd-off_-7-B4-not-listed-bust_Costantinoplis_327-8-AD__Q-001_axis-0h_19mm_3,55g-s.jpg
145 Constantinus II. (316-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-340 A.D. Augustus), Constantinopolis, RIC VII 020, AE-3 Follis, Γ/-//CONS, PROVIDENTIAE CAES S, Campgate with two turrets, R3!!!173 views145 Constantinus II. (316-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-340 A.D. Augustus), Constantinopolis, RIC VII 020, AE-3 Follis, Γ/-//CONS, PROVIDENTIAE CAES S, Campgate with two turrets, R3!!!
avers: CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C, 7, B4, Laureate, draped and cuirassed head right.
reverse: PROVIDEN TIAE CAES S, Campgate, two turrets, no doors, star above 6th levels of stone layers, Γ in left fields.
exergue: Γ/-//CONS, diameter: 19mm, weight: 3,03g, axis: 0h,
mint: Constantinopolis, date: 327 AD., ref: RIC VII 020, p-572, 3rd-off, R3 !!!
Q-001
quadrans
Constantinus-II__AE-3-Follis_DN-FL-CL-CONSTANTINVS-NOB-C_PROVIDEN-TIAE-CAES__SMHDelta_RIC-VII-46_p-547_Heraclea_316-17-AD_R4_Q-001_6h_18mm_2,97g-s.jpg
145 Constantinus II. (316-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-340 A.D. Augustus), Heraclea, RIC VII 046, AE-3 Follis, -/-//•SMHΔ, PROVIDENTIAE CAESS, Campgate with three turrets, R4!!! #161 views145 Constantinus II. (316-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-340 A.D. Augustus), Heraclea, RIC VII 046, AE-3 Follis, -/-//•SMHΔ, PROVIDENTIAE CAESS, Campgate with three turrets, R4!!! #1
avers: D N FL CL CONSTANTINVS NOB C, (7, J1l.), Laureate, draped bust left, globe and sceptre in left hand, mappa in right hand.
reverse: PROVIDEN TIAE CAES S, Campgate with three turrets, no doors, 6 layers of stones.
exergue: -/-//•SMHΔ, diameter: 18mm, weight: 2,97g, axis: 6h,
mint: Heraclea, date: 325-326 A.D., ref: RIC VII 046, p-547, R4!!!,
Q-001
quadrans
Constantinus-II__AE-3-Follis_CONSTANTINVS-IVN-NOB-C_PROVIDEN-TIAE-CAES_SMHGamma_RIC-VII-77_p-551_Heraclea_325-6-AD_R1_Q-001_h_mm_gx-s.jpg
145 Constantinus II. (316-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-340 A.D. Augustus), Heraclea, RIC VII 077, AE-3 Follis, -/-//SMHΓ, PROVIDENTIAE CAES S, Campgate with two turrets, #161 views145 Constantinus II. (316-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-340 A.D. Augustus), Heraclea, RIC VII 077, AE-3 Follis, -/-//SMHΓ, PROVIDENTIAE CAES S, Campgate with two turrets, #1
avers: CONSTANTIVS IVN NOB C, (7, B4), Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right.
reverse: PROVIDEN TIAE CAES S, Campgate with two turrets, no doors, 7 layers of stones.
exergue: -/-//SMHΓ, diameter: mm, weight:g, axis: h,
mint: Heraclea, date: 325-326 A.D., ref: RIC VII 077, p-551,
Q-001
quadrans
Constantinus-II__AE3-Follis_CONSTANTINVS-IVN-NOB-C_PROVIDEN-TIAE-CAES_SMHA_RIC-VII-77_p-551_Heraclea_325-6-AD_R1_Q-001_5h_19-17,5mm_2,79ga-s.jpg
145 Constantinus II. (316-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-340 A.D. Augustus), Heraclea, RIC VII 077, AE-3 Follis, -/-//SMHA, PROVIDENTIAE CAES S, Campgate with two turrets, R1! #161 views145 Constantinus II. (316-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-340 A.D. Augustus), Heraclea, RIC VII 077, AE-3 Follis, -/-//SMHA, PROVIDENTIAE CAES S, Campgate with two turrets, R1! #1
avers: CONSTANTIVS IVN NOB C, (7, B4), Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right.
reverse: PROVIDEN TIAE CAES S, Campgate with two turrets, no doors, 8 layers of stones.
exergue: -/-//SMHA, diameter: 19-17,5mm, weight: 2,79g, axis: 5h,
mint: Heraclea, date: 325-326 A.D., ref: RIC VII 077, p-551, 3rd-off, R1!
Q-001
quadrans
Constantinus-II__AE-3-Follis_CONSTANTINVS-IVN-NOB-C_PROVIDEN-TIAE-CAES_RwreathT_RIC-VII-288_p-330_Roma_326-AD_R2_Q-001_h_mm_gx-s.jpg
145 Constantinus II. (316-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-340 A.D. Augustus), Rome, RIC VII 289, AE-3 Follis, -/-//R wreath T, PROVIDENTIAE CAES S, Campgate, two turrets, #165 views145 Constantinus II. (316-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-340 A.D. Augustus), Rome, RIC VII 289, AE-3 Follis, -/-//R wreath T, PROVIDENTIAE CAES S, Campgate, two turrets, #1
avers: CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C, (7, B4l), Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust left.
reverse: PROVIDEN TIAE CAES S, Campgate, two turrets, no doors, star above 6th. levels of stone layers.
exergue: -/-//R wreath T, diameter: mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Rome, date: 326 A.D., ref: RIC VII 289, p-330,
Q-001
quadrans
Constantinus-II__AE-3-Follis_CONSTANTINVS-IVN-NOB-C_PROVIDEN-TIAE-CAES_ESIS-CrescinCresc_RIC-VII-216_p-452_Siscia_328-29-AD_Q-001_h_mm_gx-s.jpg
145 Constantinus II. (316-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-340 A.D. Augustus), Siscia, RIC VII 216, AE-3 Follis, -/-//ЄSISᴗ in ᴗ, PROVIDENTIAE CAES, Campgate, two turrets, #161 views145 Constantinus II. (316-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-340 A.D. Augustus), Siscia, RIC VII 216, AE-3 Follis, -/-//ЄSISᴗ in ᴗ, PROVIDENTIAE CAES, Campgate, two turrets, #1
avers: CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C, 7, B1, Laureate, head right.
reverse: PROVIDEN TIAE CAES, Campgate, two turrets, no doors, star above 10th levels of stone layers.
exergue: -/-//ЄSISᴗ in ᴗ, diameter: mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Siscia, date: 325-326 A.D., ref: RIC VII 216, p-551, 3rd-off, R1!
Q-001
quadrans
Constantinus-II__AE-3-Follis_CONSTANTINVS-IVN-NOB-C_PROVIDEN-TIAE-CAES_ANT___RIC-VII-_p-__-AD__Q-001_11h_19-20mm_3,28gx-s.jpg
145 Constantinus II. (316-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-340 A.D. Augustus), Thessalonica, RIC VII 157, AE-3 Follis, -/-//SMTSΔ, PROVIDENTIAE CAES S, Campgate, two turrets, #161 views145 Constantinus II. (316-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-340 A.D. Augustus), Thessalonica, RIC VII 157, AE-3 Follis, -/-//SMTSΔ, PROVIDENTIAE CAES S, Campgate, two turrets, #1
avers: CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust left.
reverse: PROVIDEN TIAE CAES S, Campgate, two turrets, no doors, star above 6th. levels of stone layers.
exergue: -/-//SMTSΔ, diameter: 19-20mm, weight: 3,28g, axis: 11h,
mint: Thessalonica, date: 326-328 A.D., ref: RIC VII 157, p-519,
Q-001
quadrans
145_Constantinus_II_,_Siscia,_RIC_VII_126,__#915;,_AE-3,_CONSTANTINVS_IVN_NOB_C,_VIRTVS_EXERCIT,_VOT_X,_S-F-HL,__#915;SISstar,_321-4-AD,_Q-001,_6h,_18,5mm,_3,05g-s.jpg
145 Constantinus-II. (316-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-340 A.D. Augustus), Siscia, RIC VII 126, AE-3 Follis, S/F/HL//ΓSIS*, VIRTVS EXERCIT, Standard inscribed VOT X with two bound captives, R2!!!185 views145 Constantinus-II. (316-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-340 A.D. Augustus), Siscia, RIC VII 126, AE-3 Follis, S/F/HL//ΓSIS*, VIRTVS EXERCIT, Standard inscribed VOT X with two bound captives, R2!!!
avers: CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C, Laureate bust left wearing the imperial mantle, holding Victory on globe and mappa.
reverse: VIRTVS EXERCIT, Standard inscribed VOT X with two bound captives seated to left and right of its base. S in left field, F over HL (ligate) in right field.
exergue: S/F/HL//ΓSIS*, diameter: 18,5mm, weight: 3,05g, axis: 6h,
mint: Siscia, date: 321-324 A.D., ref: RIC VII 126, R2!!!,
Q-001
4 commentsquadrans
heraclea21.jpg
146 Constantine II14 viewsobv: CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C laur, drp. cuir. bust r.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE CAESS campgate with two turrents star above
ex: */SMH(delta)
hill132
146.jpg
146 Flavius Victor. AE4 1.3gm25 viewsobv: DN FL VIC_TOR PF AVG pearl dia. drp. cuir. bust r.
rev: SPES RO_MA_NORVM campgate with two turrents star above
ex: SMAQP
1 commentshill132
147_B_C_,_C_Terrentius_Lucanus_AR-Denarius,_Roma_right_Victory,_X,_behind,_C_TER_LVC,_Dioscuri_ROMA_in_ex,_Cr-217-1,_Syd_425_Q-001_0h_18-19mm_3,92g-s.jpg
147 B.C. C.Terrentius Lucanus, Rebublic AR-Denarius, Crawford 217/1, Rome, C•TER•LVC (TE ligate), Dioscuri galloping right,117 views147 B.C. C.Terrentius Lucanus, Rebublic AR-Denarius, Crawford 217/1, Rome, C•TER•LVC (TE ligate), Dioscuri galloping right,
avers:- Helmeted head of Roma right, behind Victory with wreath and X, border of dots.
revers:- Dioscuri galloping right, C•TER•LVC (TE ligate) below, in ex. ROMA.
exe: -/-//ROMA, diameter: 18,0-19,0mm, weight: 3,92g, axis: 0h,
mint: Rome, date: 147 B.C., ref: Crawford 217/1, Sydenham 425, Terentia 10,
Q-001
quadrans
heraclea22.jpg
147 Constantine II10 viewsobv: CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C laur.drp. cuir. bust r.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE CAESS campgate with two turrents star above
ex: SMHr
hill132
Constantius-II_RIC-VII-316_Arleate_11h_18,3mm_2,73g-s.jpg
147 Constantius II. (324-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-361 A.D. Augustus), Arleate, RIC VII 316, AE-3 Follis, S/F//ARLQ, VIRTVS CAESS, Campgate with four turrets and wide open doors,126 views147 Constantius II. (324-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-361 A.D. Augustus), Arleate, RIC VII 316, AE-3 Follis, S/F//ARLQ, VIRTVS CAESS, Campgate with four turrets and wide open doors,
avers: FL IVL CONSTANTIVS NOB C, 8, B4-l., Laureate, draped and cuirassed head left.
reverse: VIRTVS CAES S, Campgate with four turrets, wide open doors, star above, 6 layers of stones, the open doors have dots.
exergue: S/F//ARLQ, diameter: 18,3mm, weight: 2,73g, axis: 11h,
mint: Arleate, date: 327 A.D., ref: RIC VII 316, p-268, 4th.-off.,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Constantius-II__AE-3_FL-IVL-CONSTANTIVS-NOB-C-8_B4-l__PROVIDEN-TIAE-CAES-S_6layer_SMKGamma_RIC-VII-27-p-647_3rd_off__Cyzicus_324-5-AD_R2_Q-001_5h_17-19,5mm_3,01ga-s.jpg
147 Constantius II. (324-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-361 A.D. Augustus), Cyzicus, RIC VII 027, AE-3 Follis, -/-//SMKΓ, PROVIDENTIAE CAES S, Campgate with two turrets, R2!!69 views147 Constantius II. (324-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-361 A.D. Augustus), Cyzicus, RIC VII 027, AE-3 Follis, -/-//SMKΓ, PROVIDENTIAE CAES S, Campgate with two turrets, R2!!
avers: FL IVL CONSTANTIVS NOB C, 8, B4-l., Laureate, draped and cuirassed head left.
reverse: PROVIDEN TIAE CAES S, Campgate with two turrets, no doors, star above, 6 layers of stones.
exergue: -/-//SMKΓ, diameter: 17,0-19,5mm, weight: 3,01g, axis:5h,
mint: Cyzicus, date: 324-325 A.D., ref: RIC VII 027, p-647, 3rd.-off., R2!!,
Q-001
quadrans
Constantius-II__AE-Follis-silvered_FL-IVL-CONSTANTIVS-NOB-C-8_PROVIDEN-TIAE-CAES-S-B4-l_7lay_SMKB-dot_RIC-VII-38-p649_2nd_off__Cyzicus_325-6-AD_Q-001_axis-1h_18mm_2,67g-s.jpg
147 Constantius II. (324-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-361 A.D. Augustus), Cyzicus, RIC VII 038, AE-3 Follis, -/-//SMKB•, PROVIDENTIAE CAES S, Campgate with two turrets, #1196 views147 Constantius II. (324-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-361 A.D. Augustus), Cyzicus, RIC VII 038, AE-3 Follis, -/-//SMKB•, PROVIDENTIAE CAES S, Campgate with two turrets, #1
avers: FL IVL CONSTANTIVS NOB C, 8, B4-l., Laureate, draped and cuirassed head left.
reverse: PROVIDEN TIAE CAES S, Campgate with two turrets, no doors, star above, 7 layers of stones.
exergue: -/-//SMKB•, diameter: 18mm, weight: 2,67g, axis: 1h,
mint: Cyzicus, date: 325-326 A.D., ref: RIC VII 038, p-649, 2nd.-off., c1,
Q-001
quadrans
Constantius-II__AE-Follis-silvered_FL-IVL-CONSTANTIVS-NOB-C-8_B4-l__PROVIDEN-TIAE-CAES-S_6layer_SMHDelta_RIC-VII-78-p-551_4th_off__Heracleia_325-6-AD_S_Q-001_h_mm_g-s.jpg
147 Constantius II. (324-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-361 A.D. Augustus), Heraclea, RIC VII 078, AE-3 Follis, -/-//SMHΔ, PROVIDENTIAE CAES S, Campgate with two turrets, #165 views147 Constantius II. (324-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-361 A.D. Augustus), Heraclea, RIC VII 078, AE-3 Follis, -/-//SMHΔ, PROVIDENTIAE CAES S, Campgate with two turrets, #1
avers: FL IVL CONSTANTIVS NOB C, 8, B4l., Laureate, draped and cuirassed head left.
reverse: PROVIDEN TIAE CAES S, Campgate with two turrets, no doors, star above, 6 layers of stones.
exergue: -/-//SMHΔ, diameter: mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Heraclea, date: 326 A.D., ref: RIC VII 078, p-551,
Q-001
quadrans
Constantius-II__AE-Follis_FL-IVL-CONSTANTIVS-NOB-C-8_B4-l__PROVIDEN-TIAE-CAES-S_5layer_SMHGamma-dot_RIC-VII-84-p-552_3rd_off__Heracleia_326-AD_c1_Q-001_11h_19mm_3,75g-s.jpg
147 Constantius II. (324-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-361 A.D. Augustus), Heraclea, RIC VII 084, AE-3 Follis, -/-//SMHΓ•, PROVIDENTIAE CAES S, Campgate with two turrets, #166 views147 Constantius II. (324-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-361 A.D. Augustus), Heraclea, RIC VII 084, AE-3 Follis, -/-//SMHΓ•, PROVIDENTIAE CAES S, Campgate with two turrets, #1
avers: FL IVL CONSTANTIVS NOB C, 8, B4l., Laureate, draped and cuirassed head left.
reverse: PROVIDEN TIAE CAES S, Campgate with two turrets, no doors, star above, 5 layers of stones.
exergue: -/-//SMHΓ•, diameter: 1,0mm, weight: 3,75g, axis: 11h,
mint: Heraclea, date: 326 A.D., ref: RIC VII 084, p-552, 3rd.-off., c1,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Constantius-II__AE-Follis-silvered_FL-IVL-CONSTANTIVS-NOB-C-7_PROVIDEN-TIAE-CAES-S-B4-l__dot-epsilon-SIS-dot_RIC-203_5th_-off_-R3_C-x_Siscia_326-327-AD__Q-001_18mm_2,67g-s.jpg
147 Constantius II. (324-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-361 A.D. Augustus), Siscia, RIC VII 203, AE-3 Follis, -/-//•ЄSIS•, PROVIDENTIAE CAES S, Campgate with two turrets, R3!!! 92 views147 Constantius II. (324-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-361 A.D. Augustus), Siscia, RIC VII 203, AE-3 Follis, -/-//•ЄSIS•, PROVIDENTIAE CAES S, Campgate with two turrets, R3!!!
avers: FL IVL CONSTANTIVS NOB C, 8, B4l., Laureate, draped and cuirassed head left.
reverse: PROVIDEN TIAE CAES S, Campgate with two turrets, no doors, star above, 6 layers of stones, upper and downer layer with dots.
exergue: -/-//•ЄSIS•, diameter: 18mm, weight: 2,67g, axis: h,
mint: Siscia, date: 326-327 AD., ref: RIC VII 203, p-450, 5th.-off., R3!!!
Q-001
quadrans
Constantius-II__AE-Follis_FL-IVL-CONSTANTIVS-NOB-C-8_PROVIDEN-TIAE-CAES-S-B4-l_-9lay_dor-Delta-SIS-dot_RIC-VII-203-p-450_4th_off_Siscia_326-27AD_Q-001_0h_mm_gx-s.jpg
147 Constantius II. (324-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-361 A.D. Augustus), Siscia, RIC VII 203, AE-3 Follis, -/-//•ΔSIS•, PROVIDENTIAE CAES S, Campgate with two turrets, #166 views147 Constantius II. (324-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-361 A.D. Augustus), Siscia, RIC VII 203, AE-3 Follis, -/-//•ΔSIS•, PROVIDENTIAE CAES S, Campgate with two turrets, #1
avers: FL IVL CONSTANTIVS NOB C, 8, B4l., Laureate, draped and cuirassed head left.
reverse: PROVIDEN TIAE CAES S, Campgate with two turrets, no doors, star above, 7 layers of stones, upper and downer layer with dots.
exergue: -/-//•ΔSIS•, diameter: mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Siscia, date: 326-327 A.D., ref: RIC VII 203, p-450, 4th.-off.,
Q-001
quadrans
Constantius-II__AE-Follis-silv_FL-IVL-CONSTANTIVS-NOB-C-8_PROVIDEN-TIAE-CAES-S-B4l_9lay_Delta-SIS-Cresincres_RIC-VII-217-p452_4th_off_Siscia_328-9AD_Q-001_axis-0h_19mm_3,12g-s.jpg
147 Constantius II. (324-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-361 A.D. Augustus), Siscia, RIC VII 217, AE-3 Follis, -/-//ΔSISᴗ in ᴗ, PROVIDENTIAE CAES S, Campgate with two turrets, #1210 views147 Constantius II. (324-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-361 A.D. Augustus), Siscia, RIC VII 217, AE-3 Follis, -/-//ΔSISᴗ in ᴗ, PROVIDENTIAE CAES S, Campgate with two turrets, #1
avers: FL IVL CONSTANTIVS NOB C, 8, B4l., Laureate, draped and cuirassed head left.
reverse: PROVIDEN TIAE CAES S, Campgate with two turrets, no doors, star above, 9 layers of stones, upper and downer layer with dots.
exergue: -/-//ΔSISᴗ in ᴗ, diameter: 19mm, weight: 3,12g, axis: 0h,
mint: Siscia, date: 328-329 A.D., ref: RIC VII 217, p-452, 4th.-off., c3,
Q-001
quadrans
Constantius-II__AE-Follis_FL-IVL-CONSTANTIVS-NOB-C-8_PROVIDEN-TIAE-CAES-S-B4-l_-9lay_Delta-SIS-Crescincresc_RIC-VII-217-p452_4th_off_Siscia_328-29AD_Q-002_axis-0h_19mm_2,73g-s.jpg
147 Constantius II. (324-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-361 A.D. Augustus), Siscia, RIC VII 217, AE-3 Follis, -/-//ΔSISᴗ in ᴗ, PROVIDENTIAE CAES S, Campgate with two turrets, #1110 views147 Constantius II. (324-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-361 A.D. Augustus), Siscia, RIC VII 217, AE-3 Follis, -/-//ΔSISᴗ in ᴗ, PROVIDENTIAE CAES S, Campgate with two turrets, #1
avers: FL IVL CONSTANTIVS NOB C, 8, B4l., Laureate, draped and cuirassed head left.
reverse: PROVIDEN TIAE CAES S, Campgate with two turrets, no doors, star above, 7 layers of stones, upper and downer layer with dots.
exergue: -/-//ΔSISᴗ in ᴗ, diameter: 19mm, weight: 3,12g, axis: 0h,
mint: Siscia, date: 328-329 A.D., ref: RIC VII 217, p-452, 4th.-off., c3,
Q-001
quadrans
heraclea23.jpg
148 Constantine II 13 viewsobv: CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C laur. drp. cuir. bust r.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE CAESS campgate with two turrents star above
ex: SMHr
hill132
heraclea24.jpg
149 Cnstantine II11 viewsobv: CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C laur. drp. cuir. bust r.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE CAESS campgate with two turrents star above
ex: SMHB.
hill132
11719861_992209754146408_469386558_n.jpg
150 Antoninus Pius22 viewsAE As.
ANTONINVS AVG - PIVS P P TR P XXII, Laureate head right, COS - IIII, Togate figure standing left on pedestal in arched shrine, S C in ex
1 commentsRandygeki(h2)
heraclea25.jpg
150 Constantius II8 viewsobv: FL IVL CONSTANTIVS NOB C laur. drp. cuir. bust l.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE CAESS campgate with two turrents star above
ex: ./SMHB
hill132
1526_-_1530_Henry_VIII_AR_Halfgroat.JPG
1509 - 1547, HENRY VIII, AR Half-groat, Struck 1515 - 1530 at York, England under Archbishop Thomas (Cardinal) Wolsey3 viewsObverse: HENRIC•VIII•D•G•R•AGL•Z•F•. Youthful profile crowned bust of Henry VIII facing right within circle of pellets. Mint-mark: Voided cross.
Reverse: CIVITAS EBORACI. Shield bearing coat-of-arms on cross fourchée; T - W in upper field divided by shield; galero (cardinal's hat) below.
Diameter: 19mm | Weight: 1.0gm | Die Axis: 8
Virtually uncirculated but with a dark, almost black, tone
SPINK: 2346

The T W on the reverse of this coin refers to Thomas Wolsey, known to posterity as Cardinal Wolsey, one of the most powerful figures at the court of Henry VIII. Although this coin is undated, the issue of Henry VIII's second coinage only began in 1526 and so, since Cardinal Wolsey died in 1530, it must have been struck between those two dates.

Cardinal Wolsey
When Henry VIII became King of England in 1509 he appointed Thomas Wolsey to the post of Almoner, a position that gave him a seat on the Privy Council and an opportunity for establishing a personal rapport with the King to such an extent that by 1514 Wolsey had become the controlling figure in virtually all matters of state. In 1515, he was awarded the title Archbishop of York and this, followed by his appointment that same year as Cardinal by Pope Leo X, gave him precedence over all other English clerics. His ecclesiastical power advanced even further in 1523 when the Bishop of Durham, a post with wide political powers, was added to his titles.
After Wolsey attained the position of Lord Chancellor, the King's chief adviser, he had achieved more power than any other Crown servant in English history and during his fourteen years of chancellorship Wolsey, who was often alluded to as an alter rex (other king), used his power to neutralise the influence of anyone who might threaten his position..
In spite of having made many enemies, Cardinal Wolsey retained Henry VIII's confidence until, in 1527, the King decided to seek an annulment of his marriage to Catherine of Aragon so that he could marry Anne Boleyn. Henry asked Wolsey to negotiate the annulment with the Pope and in 1528 the Pope decided to allow two papal legates, Wolsey himself and Cardinal Campeggio, to decide the outcome in England. Wolsey was confident of the outcome, but Campeggio took a long time to arrive, and then he delayed proceedings so much, that the case had to be suspended and the Pope decided that the official decision should therefore be made in Rome and not in England.
After his failure to negotiate the annulment, Wolsey fell out of favour with Henry and in 1529 he was stripped of his government office and property, including the magnificent Palace of Hampton Court, which Henry took as his own main London residence.
Wolsey was however permitted to retain the title of Archbishop of York and so he travelled to Yorkshire, for the first time in his career, to carry out those duties.
Now that he was no longer protected by Henry, Wolsey's enemies, including it is rumoured, Ann Boleyn, conspired against him and Henry had him arrested and recalled to London to answer to charges of treason. But Wolsey, now in great distress, fell ill on the journey back to the capital and at Leicester, on 29 November 1530, aged about 57, he died from natural causes before he could be beheaded.
*Alex
heraclea26.jpg
151 LiciniusI10 viewsobv: IMP LICIN_NIVS AVG laur. drp. cuir. bust r. holding scepter and mappa
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE AVG campgate with three turrents no star
ex: -(delta)//SMHA
hill132
heraclea27.jpg
152 Constantius II12 viewsobv: FL IVL CONSTANTIVS NOB C laur. drp. cuir. bust l.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE CAESS campgate wih two turrents star above
ex: ./SMHA
hill132
heraclea28~0.jpg
153 Constantius II12 viewsobv: FL IVL CONSTANTIVS NOB C laur. drp. cuir. bust l.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE CAESS campgate with two turrents star above
ex:./SMH(epsilon)
hill132
heraclea29~0.jpg
154 Constantine II8 viewsobv: CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C laur. drp. cuir. bust r.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE CAESS campgate with two turrents star above
ex: ./SMHr
hill132
RI 155o img.jpg
155 - Licinius - RIC VII Heraclea 017 (MHTΓ)21 viewsObv:– IMP LICINIVS AVG, Laureate bust left wearing Imperial mantle and holding mappa, sceptre and globe
Rev:– PROVIDENTIAE AVGG, Campgate with 3 turrets, no door, 2 stars above, 7 rows of bricks
Minted in Heraclea (MHTΓ in exe.) in A.D. 317
References:– RIC VII Heraclea 17 (R2)
maridvnvm
RI 155b img.jpg
155 - Licinius - RIC VII Heraclea 017 (MHTΔ)71 viewsObv:– IMP LICINIVS AVG, Laureate bust left wearing Imperial mantle and holding mappa, sceptre and globe
Rev:– PROVIDENTIAE AVGG, Campgate with 3 turrets, no door, 2 stars above, 7 rows of bricks
Minted in Heraclea (MHTΔ in exe.) in A.D. 317
References:– RIC VII Heraclea 17 (R2)
maridvnvm
RI 155p img.jpg
155 - Licinius - RIC VII Heraclea 017 (MHTE)19 viewsObv:– IMP LICINIVS AVG, Laureate bust left wearing Imperial mantle and holding mappa, sceptre and globe
Rev:– PROVIDENTIAE AVGG, Campgate with 3 turrets, no door, 2 stars above, 7 rows of bricks
Minted in Heraclea (MHTE in exe.) in A.D. 317
References:– RIC VII Heraclea 17 (R4)
maridvnvm
RI 155n img.jpg
155 - Licinius - RIC VII Heraclea 029 (SMHΔ)26 viewsObv:- IMP LICINIVS AVG, Laureate bust left wearing Imperial mantle and holding mappa, sceptre and globe
Rev:– PROVIDENTIAE AVGG, Campgate with 6 rows of bricks
Minted in Heraclea (Pellet in right field, SMHΔ in exe.)
References:– RIC VII Heraclea 29 (R5)
maridvnvm
RI 155c img.jpg
155 - Licinius - RIC VII Heraclea 029 (SMHA)135 viewsObv:- IMP LICINIVS AVG, Laureate bust left wearing Imperial mantle and holding mappa, sceptre and globe
Rev:– PROVIDENTIAE AVGG, Campgate with 6 rows of bricks
Minted in Heraclea (Pellet in right field, SMHA in exe.)
References:– RIC VII Heraclea 29 (R2)

(SOLD)
maridvnvm
RI 155q img.jpg
155 - Licinius - RIC VII Heraclea 043 (•SMHB)20 viewsObv:– IMP LICINIVS AVG, Laureate, draped bust left, globe and sceptre in left hand, mappa in right hand
Rev:– PROVIDENTIAE AVGG, Campgate with 3 turrets, no door & 6 rows of stone layers
Minted in Heraclea (•SMHB in exe.)
References:– RIC VII Heraclea 43 (R4)
maridvnvm
RI 155m img.jpg
155 - Licinius - RIC VII Heraclea 048 (SMHB)19 viewsObv:– IMP LICINIVS AVG, Laureate, draped bust right, globe and sceptre in left hand, mappa in right hand
Rev:– PROVIDENTIAE AVGG, Campgate with 3 turrets, no door & 6 rows of stone layers
Minted in Heraclea (Λ in right field, SMHB in exe.)
References:– RIC VII Heraclea 48 (C1)
maridvnvm
RI 155r img.jpg
155 - Licinius - RIC VII Heraclea 048 (SMHB)21 viewsObv:– IMP LICINIVS AVG, Laureate, draped bust right, globe and sceptre in left hand, mappa in right hand
Rev:– PROVIDENTIAE AVGG, Campgate with 3 turrets, no door & 6 rows of stone layers
Minted in Heraclea (Λ in right field, SMHB in exe.)
References:– RIC VII Heraclea 48 (C1)

(SOLD)
maridvnvm
heraclea30.jpg
155 Constantius II7 viewsobv: FL IVL CONSTANTIVS NOB C laur. drp. cuir. bust l.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE CAESS campgate with two trrents star above
ex: ./SMHr
hill132
heraclea31.jpg
156 Constantius II11 viewsobv: FL IVL CONSTANTINVS NOB C laur. drp. cuir. bust l.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE CAESS campgate with two turrents star above
ex: ./SMHr
hill132
heraclea32.jpg
157 Crispus8 viewsobv: DN FL IVL CRISPUS NOB CAES laur. drp. cuir. bust l. holding scepter and mappa
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE CAESS campgate with three turrents no star
ex: SMHr
hill132
heraclea33.jpg
158 Crispus13 viewsobv: DN FL IVL CRISPUS NOB CAES laur. drp. cuir. bust l. holding scepter and mappa
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE CAESS campgate with three turrents no star
ex: MHTr
hill132
heraclea34.jpg
159 Constantine II10 viewsobv: CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C laur. drp. cuir. bust r.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE CAESS campgate with two turrents star above
ex: SMHr
hill132
Valentinianus-II__AE-4_DN-VALENTINIANVS-PF-AVG_GLORIA-REI-PVBLICAE_A_TES_RIC-IX-62a-2_p-_C-_Thessalonica-384-388_Q-001_h_mm_g-s.jpg
159 Valentinianus II. (375-392 A.D.), Thessalonica, RIC IX 062a.2, AE-4 Follis, A/-//TES, GLORIA REIPVBLICAE, Campgate with two turrets, #185 views159 Valentinianus II. (375-392 A.D.), Thessalonica, RIC IX 062a.2, AE-4 Follis, A/-//TES, GLORIA REIPVBLICAE, Campgate with two turrets, #1
avers: D N VALENTINIANVS P F AVG, Pearl-diademed, draped, cuirassed bust right.
reverse: GLORIA REI PVBLICAE, Campgate with two turrets, A in the left field.
exergue: A/-//TES, diameter: mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Thessalonica, date: 384-388 A.D., ref: RIC IX 062a.2, p-188,
Q-001
quadrans
RI_160ge_img.jpg
160 - Constantime the Great - AE3 - RIC VII Alexandria 045 15 viewsAE3
Obv:– CONSTAN-TINVS AVG; Laureate head right
Rev:– PROVIDEN-TIAE AVGG; Camp gate with two turrets, no doors, 7 stone layers, star above
Minted in Alexandria (Wreath|B// SMAL).A.D. 327-328
Reference:– RIC VII Alexandria 45 (R2).
maridvnvm
RI_160dv_img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - Follis - RIC VII Arles 28626 viewsAE3
Obv:– CONSTANTINVS AVG, Laureate head right
Rev:– PROVIDENTIAE AVGG, Campgate with five rows, two turrets, no doors, star above
Minted in Arles (//PA crescent RL).
Reference:– RIC VII Arles 286
maridvnvm
RI_160fk_img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - Follis - RIC VII Thessalonica 153 10 viewsObv:– CONSTANTINVS AVG, Laureate head right
Rev:– PROVIDENTIAE AVGG, Campgate with six rows, two turrets, no doors, star above, top and bottom rows blocks.
Minted in Thessalonica. • in right field, SMTSE in exe.
Reference:– RIC VII Thessalonica 153
maridvnvm
RI 160ah img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VII Alexandria 03419 viewsObv:– CONSTAN-TINVS AVG, Laureate bust right
Rev:–.PROVIDEN-TIAE AVGG, Campgate with five rows, two turrets, no doors, star above.
Minted in Alexandria (SMALB in exe.)
Reference:– RIC VII Alexandria 34
maridvnvm
RI_160fr_img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VII Alexandria 34 25 viewsAE3
Obv:– CONSTAN-TINVS AVG, Laureate bust right
Rev:– PROVIDEN-TIAE AVGG, Campgate with five rows, two turrets, no doors, star above.
Minted in Alexandria (SMALA).
Reference:– RIC VII Alexandria 34 (S)
maridvnvm
RI_160gp_img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VII Antioch 08115 viewsObv:- CONSTAN-TINVS AVG, Rosette, diademed head right
Rev:- PROVIDENTIAE AVGG Campgate with eight rows, two turrets, no doors, star above, Dot in archway
Minted in Antioch. SMANTA in exe. A.D. 327-328
Reference:- RIC VII Antioch 81 (R4)

Partially silvered
2.40g. 20mm.
maridvnvm
RI 160k img.JPG
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VII Cyzicus 04446 viewsObv:– CONSTANTINVS AVG, Laureate head right
Rev:– PROVIDENTIAE AVGG, Campgate with six rows, two turrets, no doors, star above, top and bottom row blocks
Minted in Cyzicus. •SMKG• in exe.
Reference:– RIC VII Cyzicus 44
maridvnvm
RI 160bn img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VII Lugdunum 22530 viewsObv:–CONSTAN-TINVS AVG, Laureate bust right
Rev:–. PROVIDEN-TIAE AVGG, Campgate with six rows, two turrets, no doors, star above
Minted in Lugdunum (PLG in exe).end A.D. 325 – A.D. 325
Reference:– RIC VII Lugdunum 225 (Scarce), Bastien XIII 184
maridvnvm
RI 160d img.JPG
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VII Rome 28733 viewsObv:– CONSTANTINVS AVG, Laureate head right
Rev:– PROVIDENTIAE AVGG, Campgate, surmounted by two turrets, 7 rows of bricks, star above
Minted in Rome. R(wreath)P in exe.
Reference:– RIC VII Rome 287
maridvnvm
RI 160a img.JPG
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VII Siscia 20035 viewsObv:– CONSTA-NTIVS AVG, Laureate head right
Rev:– PROVIDEN-TIAE AVGG, Campgate with six rows, two turrets, no doors, star above, top and bottom row blocks.
Minted in Siscia. •BSIS• in exe. A.D. 326-327
Reference:– RIC VII Siscia 200
maridvnvm
RI 160h img.JPG
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VII Siscia 21440 viewsObv:– CONSTANTINVS AVG, Laureate head right
Rev:– PROVIDENTIAE AVGG, Campgate with nine rows, two turrets, no doors, star above, top row dots in blocks, bottom row blocks.
Minted in Siscia. ASIS double crescent in exe.
Reference:– RIC VII Siscia 214
maridvnvm
RI 160m img.JPG
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VII Thessalonica 15332 viewsObv:– CONSTANTINVS AVG, Laureate head right
Rev:– PROVIDENTIAE AVGG, Campgate with six rows, two turrets, no doors, star above, top and bottom rows blocks.
Minted in Thessalonica. • in right field, SMTSB in exe.
Reference:– RIC VII Thessalonica 153
maridvnvm
RI 160w img.JPG
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VII Thessalonica 153 (Γ)36 viewsObv:– CONSTAN-TINVS AVG, Laureate head right
Rev:– PROVIDEN-TIAE AVGG, Campgate with six rows, two turrets, no doors, star above, top and bottom rows blocks, pellet in right field.
Minted in Thessalonica. • in right field, SMTSΓ in exe.
Reference:– RIC VII Thessalonica 153
maridvnvm
RI 160r img.JPG
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VII Thessalonica 153 (A)34 viewsObv:– CONSTAN-TINVS AVG, Laureate head right
Rev:– PROVIDEN-TIAE AVGG, Camp-gate, two turrets, one star, with 7 rows of bricks, top row with dots
Minted in Thessalonica. • in right field, SMTSA in exe.
Reference:– RIC VII Thessalonica 153
maridvnvm
heraclea35.jpg
160 Crispus14 viewsobv: DN FL IVL CRISPVS NOB C laur. drp. cuir. bust r. holding scepter and mappa
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE CAESS campgate with three turrents no star
ex: .SMHr
1 commentshill132
Theodosius-I_AE-12_DN-THEODOSIVS-PF-AVG_GLORIA____TES_RIC-IX-62_Q-001_axis-0h_12,5mm_1,56g-s.jpg
160 Theodosius I. (379-395 A.D.), Thessalonica, RIC IX 062b.1.3, AE-4, Δ/-//TES, GLORIA REIPVBLICE, Campgate with two turrets, #1269 views160 Theodosius I. (379-395 A.D.), Thessalonica, RIC IX 062b.1.3, AE-4, Δ/-//TES, GLORIA REIPVBLICE, Campgate with two turrets, #1
avers: D N THEODOSIVS P F AVG, Diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right.
reverse: GLORIA REIPVBLICE, Campgate, 2 turrets, 5 layers, no doors, Δ in left field, mintmark TES in ex.
exergue: Δ/-//TES, diameter: 12,5mm, weight: 1,56g, axes: 0h,
mint: Thessalonica, date: 383-388 A.D., ref: RIC IX 062b.1.3,
Q-001
quadrans
heraclea36.jpg
161 Constantius II7 viewsobv: FL IVL CONSTANTIVS NOB C laur. drp. cuir. but l.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIA CAESS campgate with two turrents star above
ex: SMH(delta)
hill132
heraclea37.jpg
162 Constantine II11 viewsobv: COSTANTINVS IVN NOB C laur. drp. cuir. bust r.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE CAESS campgate with three turrents star above
ex: .SMH(epsilon).
hill132
heraclea38.jpg
163 Constantius II10 viewsobv: FL IVL CONSTANTIVS NOB C laur. drp. cuir. bust l.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE CAESS campgate with two turrents star above
ex: SMHr.
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Flavius-Victor_DN-FL-VIC-TOR-P-F-AVG_SPES-ROMA-NORVM_P-CON_RIC-IX-47a_p-_5th-em_Arleate_387-388-AD_Q-001_11h_14mm_1,29ga-s.jpg
163 Flavius Victor (387-388 A.D.), AE-4 Follis, RIC IX 047a, Arleate, SPES ROMANORVM, Campgate, Rare! Modern Fake !!!105 views163 Flavius Victor (387-388 A.D.), AE-4 Follis, RIC IX 047a, Arleate, SPES ROMANORVM, Campgate, Rare! Modern Fake !!!
Avers:- DN-FL-VIC-TOR-P-F-AVG, Diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right.
revers:- SPES-ROMA-NORVM, Campgate, 2 turrets, 4 layers plus 1 layer on turrets, star above, no doors.
exerg:-|-//P-CON, diameter: 14mm, weight: 1,29g, axes: 11h,
mint: Arleate, date: 387-388 A.D., ref: RIC IX 47a, Rare !
Q-001
by "postvmvs":
"Identified in the Forvm thread on the eBay seller 'Romanseller' (ca. Aug. 2005) but never listed here. An example struck from the same dies (but not the same coin) appeared as Lot 788 of Auction 384-385 (Nov. 2005) by Dr. Busso Peus Nachfolger estimated at 175 EUR, where it was identified as a fake before the end of the sale."

Thank you postvmvs, maridvnvm and Pscipio !!!
quadrans
heraclea39.jpg
164 Constantius II7 viewsobv: FL IVL CONSTANTIVS NOB C laur. drp. cuir. bust l.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE CAESS campgate with two turrents star above
ex: SMH(delta)
hill132
RI 165a img.jpg
165 - Crispus - RIC VII Cyzicus 02530 viewsObv:– FL IVL CRISPVS NOB CAES, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust left
Rev:– PROVIDENTIAE CAESS, Campgate with two turrets, star above, 6 rows of bricks
Minted in Cyzicus. SMKΔ in exe. A.D. 324-325
Reference:– RIC VII Cyzicus 25 (R3)

(SOLD)
maridvnvm
RI 165e img.jpg
165 - Crispus - RIC VII Heraclea 01827 viewsObv:– DN FL IVL CRISPVS NOB CAES, Laureate and draped bust of Crispus facing left, holding globe and sceptre with left hand and mappa in right
Rev:– PROVIDENTIAE CAESS, Camp gate with three turrets, no doors, 6 rows of bricks
Minted in Heraclea. MHTΓ in exe.
Reference:– RIC VII Heraclea 18 (C2)

(SOLD)
maridvnvm
RI 165v img.jpg
165 - Crispus - RIC VII Lugdunum 22711 viewsObv:– FL IVL CRISPVS NOB CAES, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:– PROVIDENTIAE CAESS, Camp gate with two turrets, no doors, star above, 6 rows of bricks
Minted in Lugdunum (PLG in exe).
Reference:– RIC VII Lugdunum 227 (R3).
maridvnvm
165_Arcadius,_Thessalonica,_RIC_IX_59c1,_AE-3,_DN_ARCARIVS_P_F_AVG_(C),_GLORIA_REI_PVBLICE,_ChiRho,_TES,_383-388_AD_,_R,_Q-001,_0h,_16,5-17mm,_1,69g-s.jpg
165 Arcadius (384-408 A.D.), Thessalonica, RIC IX 059c1, AE-3, -/-//TES, GLORIA REI PVBLICE, Campgate with two turrets, Christogram (ChiRho) above, Scarce, #1115 views165 Arcadius (384-408 A.D.), Thessalonica, RIC IX 059c1, AE-3, -/-//TES, GLORIA REI PVBLICE, Campgate with two turrets, Christogram (ChiRho) above, Scarce, #1
avers: D N ARCADIVS P F AVG, Diademed bust left, in imperial mantle, holding mappa and sceptre. (C)
reverse: GLORIA REI PVBLICE, Campgate with two turrets, closed gate, 6 layers of stone, Christogram (ChiRho) above.
exergue: -/-//TES, diameter: 16,5-17,0 mm, weight: 1.69g, axis: 0h,
mint: Thessalonica, date: 383-388 A.D., ref: RIC IX 059c1, p-,
Q-001
quadrans
Arcadius_AE-4_DN-ARCARIVS-PF-AVG_GLORIA-REI-PVBLICE_Gamma_TES_RIC-IX-62c_C-8_Thessalonica_383-388-AD__Q-001_axis-5h_12mm_1,15g-s.jpg
165 Arcadius (384-408 A.D.), Thessalonica, RIC IX 062c, AE-4, Γ/-//TES, GLORIA REI PVBLICE, Campgate with two turrets, #1155 views165 Arcadius (384-408 A.D.), Thessalonica, RIC IX 062c, AE-4, Γ/-//TES, GLORIA REI PVBLICE, Campgate with two turrets, #1
avers: D N ARCADIVS P F AVG, Diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right.
reverse: GLORIA REI PVBLICE, Campgate with two turrets, closed gate, 6 layers of stone.
exergue: Γ/-//TES, diameter: 12 mm, weight: 1.15g, axis: 5h,
mint: Thessalonica, date: 383-388A.D., ref: RIC IX 062c, p-,
Q-001
2 commentsquadrans
heraclea40.jpg
165 Constantius II18 viewsobv: FL IVL CONSTANTIVS NOB C laur. drp. cuir. bust l.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE CAESS campgate with two turrents star above
ex: SMH(delta).
1 commentshill132
heraclea41.jpg
166 Crispus19 viewsobv: DN FL IVL CRISPVS NOB C laur. drp. cuir. bust l. holding scepter and mappa
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE CAESS campgate with three turrents no star
ex: MHTr
1 commentshill132
heraclea42.jpg
167 Crispus8 viewsobv: DN FL IVL CRISPVS NOB C laur. drp. cuir. bust l. holding scepter and mappa
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE CAESS campgate with three turrents no star
ex: .MHTr.
hill132
RI_168au_img.jpg
168 - Constantine II - Follis - RIC VII Rome 28912 viewsAE3
Obv:– CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust left
Rev:– PROVIDENTIAE CAESS, Campgate, eight rows of bricks, star above
Minted in Rome (//R Wreath T).
Reference:– RIC VII Rome 289
maridvnvm
RI 168o img~0.jpg
168 - Constantine II - RIC VII Antioch 06531 viewsObv:– CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C, Laureate, draped, cuirassed bust, left
Rev:– PROVIDENTIAE CAESS, Campgate, with two turrets, star above, 10 rows of bricks
Minted in Antioch. SMANTS in exe.
Reference:– RIC VII Antioch 65 (R1)
maridvnvm
RI 168c img~0.jpg
168 - Constantine II - RIC VII Cyzicus 03723 viewsObv:– CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C, Laureate, draped, cuirassed bust left
Rev:– PROVIDENTIAE CAESS, Camp gate with two turrets and star above
Minted in Cyzicus. SMKB• in exe.
Reference:– RIC VII Cyzicus 37 (R1)
Some silvering remaining intact
maridvnvm
RI 168l img.jpg
168 - Constantine II - RIC VII Heraclea 02315 viewsObv:– D N FL CL CONSTANTINVS NOB C, Laureate bust left, draped, with globe, scepter and mappa
Rev:– PROVIDENTIAE CAESS, Camp gate with three turrets and six rows of bricks
Minted in Heraclea (_ | • / SMHE), A.D. 318-320
Reference:– RIC VII Heraclea 23 (R2)
maridvnvm
RI 168i img.jpg
168 - Constantine II - RIC VII Heraclea 07729 viewsObv:– CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C, Laureate, draped, cuirassed bust left
Rev:– PROVIDENTIAE CAESS, Camp-gate with two turrets, star above, 6 rows of bricks
Minted in Heraclea. SMHΓ in exe.
Reference:– RIC VII Heraclea 77 (C1)
maridvnvm
RI 168j img.jpg
168 - Constantine II - RIC VII Heraclea 09625 viewsObv:– CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C, Laureate, draped, cuirassed bust left
Rev:– PROVIDENTIAE CAESS, Camp-gate with two turrets, star above, 8 rows of bricks
Minted in Heraclea. • in left field, SMHA in exe.
Reference:– RIC VII Heraclea 96 (C3)
maridvnvm
RI 168aq img.jpg
168 - Constantine II - RIC VII Lugdunum 22920 viewsObv:– CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right (from rear)
Rev:– PROVIDENTIAE CAESS, Campgate, six rows of bricks, star above
Minted in Lugdunum (//PLC).
Ref:– RIC VII Lugdunum 229 (R3)
maridvnvm
heraclea43.jpg
168 Licinius II12 viewsobv: DN VAL LICIN LICINIVS NOB C laur. drp. cuir. bust r. holding scepter and mappa
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE CAESS campgate with three turrents no star
ex: -(delta)//SMHr
hill132
RI_169an_img.jpg
169 - Constans - AE3 - RIC VIII Lyons 5812 viewsAE3
Obv:- CONSTAN-S P F AVG, Rosette diadem, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:- VICTORIAE D D AVGG Q N N, Victories standing facing each other, each holding wreath and palm branch
Minted in Lugdunum; (PHh Ligate// PLG ), A.D. ???
Reference:– RIC VIII Lyons 58
maridvnvm
heraclea44.jpg
169 Constantine II7 viewsobv: CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C laur. drp. cuir. bust r.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE CAESS campgate with two turrents star above
ex: SMH(delta)
hill132
William___Mary_Farthing_1694.JPG
1694 WILLIAM & MARY AE FARTHING8 viewsObverse: GVLIELMVS•ET•MARIA•. Laureate and cuirassed bust of William III, jugate with Queen Mary, facing right.
Reverse: BRITANNIA•. Britannia facing left, seated on shield and holding spear and olive-branch. In exergue, 1694.
Diameter: 23mm | Weight: 5.0gms | Die Axis: 6h
SPINK: 3453

This portrait of the conjoined busts of William III and Mary was originally designed by George Bower (1664 - 1689).
*Alex
1694_WILLIAM___MARY_HALFPENNY.JPG
1694 WILLIAM & MARY AE HALFPENNY16 viewsObverse: GVLIELMVS•ET•MARIA•. Laureate and cuirassed bust of William III, jugate with Queen Mary, facing right.
Reverse: BRITANNIA•. Britannia facing left, seated on shield and holding spear and olive-branch. In exergue, 1694.
Diameter: 29mm | Weight: 11.1gms | Die Axis: 6h
SPINK: 3452

This portrait of the conjoined busts of William III and Mary was originally designed by George Bower (1664 - 1689).
1 comments*Alex
RI 170j img.jpg
170 - Constantius II - RIC VII Arles 32341 viewsObv:– FL IVL CONSTANTIVS NOB C, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust left
Rev:– VIRTVS CAESS, Campgate, 6 rows of bricks, four turrets, doors open, star above
Minted in Arles. S in left field, F in right field, QCONST in exe.
Reference:– RIC VII Arles 323
maridvnvm
RI 170i img.jpg
170 - Constantius II - RIC VII Heraclea 09729 viewsObv:– FL IVL CONSTANTIVS NOB C, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust left
Rev:– PROVIDENTIAE CAESS, Campgate, eight rows of bricks, star above, dot in left field
Minted in Heraclea.• left field, SMHΓ in exe.
Reference:– RIC VII Heraclea 97 (C1)
maridvnvm
RI 170d img.jpg
170 - Constantius II - RIC VII Heraclea 15829 viewsObv:– FL IVL CONSTANTIVS NOB C, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust left
Rev:– PROVIDENTIAE CAES•, Campgate, two turrets, with 6 rows of bricks, star above, pediment below
Minted in Nicomedia. left field, SMNS in exe.
Reference:– RIC VII Nicomedia 158 (S)
maridvnvm
RI 170k img.jpg
170 - Constantius II - RIC VII Siscia 21735 viewsObv:– FL IVL CONSTANTIVS NOB C, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust left
Rev:– PROVIDENTIAE CAESS, Camp gate with two turrets and star above. 7 rows of bricks with dots in top and bottom row
Minted in Siscia. ΔSIS double crescent in exe.
Reference:– RIC VII Siscia 217 (C3)
maridvnvm
heraclea45.jpg
170 Constantinus II11 viewsobv: CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C laur. drp. cuir. bust r.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE CAESS campgate with two turrents star above
ex: ./SMHr
hill132
heraclea46.jpg
171 Licinius I8 viewsobv: IMP LICI_NIVS AVG laur. drp. cuir. bust r. holding scepter and mappa
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE AVGG campgate wth three turrents no star
ex: -(delta)/SMHB
hill132
heraclea47.jpg
172 Constantine I11 viewsobv: CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C laur. drp. cuir. bust r.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE campgate with two turrents star above
ex: ./SMHr
hill132
heraclea48.jpg
173 Constantine II12 viewsobv: CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C laur. drp. cuir. bust r.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE CAESS campgate with two turrents star above
ex: SMHB
hill132
heraclea49.jpg
174 Crispus10 viewsobv: CRISPVS NOB CAES laur. drp. cuir. bust r.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE CAESS campgate with two turrents star above
ex: SMHr
hill132
heraclea50~0.jpg
175 Licinius II17 viewsobv: DN VAL LICIN LICINVS NOB C laur. drp. cuir. bust l. holding scepter and mappa
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE CAESS campgate with three turrent no star
ex: .SMHr
hill132
heraclea51.jpg
176 Licinius I8 viewsobv: IMP LICI_NIVS AVG laur. drp. cuir. bust l. holding scepter and mappa
rev: PROVIDEN_IAE AGG campgate with three turrents no star
ex: -.//SMH(delta)
hill132
heraclea52.jpg
177 Constantine II7 viewsobv: FL IVL CONSTANTINVS NOB C laur. drp. cuir. bust l.
rev: PROVIDN_TIAE CAESS campgate with two turrents star above
ex: SMH(delta)
hill132
heraclea53.jpg
178 Constantine II9 viewsobv: CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C laur. drp. cuir. bust r.
rev: PROVIDE_TIAE CAESS campgate with two turrents star above
ex: ./SMH(epsilon)
hill132
heraclea54.jpg
179 Licinius II11 viewsobv: DN VAL LICIN LICINIVS NOB C laur. drp. cuir. bust l. holding scepter and mappa
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE CAESS campgate with three turrents no star
ex: - dot over dot//SMH(delta)
hill132
1791_HULL_HALFPENNY.JPG
1791 AE Halfpenny Token. Hull, Yorkshire.40 viewsObverse: GULIELMUS TERTIUS REX •. Equestrian statue of King William III facing right; in exergue, MDCLXXXIX.
Reverse: HULL HALFPENNY. Coat of Arms of Hull (a shield bearing three crowns vertically) between sprigs of oak, 1791 above.
Edge: PAYABLE AT THE WAREHOUSE OF IONATHAN GARTON & Co • X •.
Diameter 29mm | Die Axis 6
Dalton & Hamer: 19

This token was issued by Jonathan Garton who was a linen draper with a business in the market place in Hull.
There is slight die damage, a common feature of 18th century tokens, visible at the horse's breast on the obverse.

The “three crowns” have been used as Hull’s coat of arms since the early 1400s. A depiction of the shield in stained glass in St Mary’s Church Lowgate dates from the reign of Richard III (1483-85) and is among the earliest versions to survive.
The equestrian statue of William III depicted on this token is one of Hull's key landmarks, it has been standing in the centre of the city square since 1734.
*Alex
1791_Hull_Halfpenny_Ship.JPG
1791 AE Halfpenny Token. Hull, Yorkshire.32 viewsObverse: No legend. A ship sailing right, two laurel branches below.
Reverse: HULL HALFPENNY / 1791. Coat of Arms of Hull (a shield bearing three crowns vertically) between two sprigs of oak with eight acorns on each branch.
Edge: PAYABLE IN HULL AND IN LONDON • X X •.
Diameter 29mm | Die Axis 7
Dalton & Hamer: 22

This token was issued by Jonathan Garton who was a linen draper with a business in the market place in Hull.
The dies for this token were engraved by John Gregory Hancock who was also probably responsible for manufacturing it.

The “three crowns” have been used as Hull’s coat of arms since the early 1400s. The College of Arms, the institution which regulates heraldry in England, confirmed the right of the Borough (now City) of Hull to use the crowns in the 1600s. Since then, virtually every public building in the City has been decorated with the coat of arms.
A depiction of the shield in stained glass in St Mary’s Church Lowgate dates from the reign of Richard III (1483-85) and is among the earliest versions to survive.
*Alex
1792_NORFOLK___NORWICH_HALFPENNY.JPG
1792 AE Halfpenny Token. Norwich, Norfolk.21 viewsObverse: MAY NORWICH FLOURISH •. The arms of Norwich consisting of a three turreted gateway over a lion with raised paw; PRO BONO PUBLICO in smaller letters below.
Reverse: NORFOLK AND NORWICH HALFPENNY•. The Duke of Norfolk’s coat of arms; below shield, 1792.
Edge: PAYABLE AT N • BOLINGBROKES HABERDASHER & C • NORWICH • X •.
Diameter: 29mm | Axis: 12
Dalton & Hamer: 15

This token was issued by Nathaniel Bolingbroke, a haberdasher and silversmith with a business in the market place in Norwich, the manufacturer and diesinker are uncertain.

Norwich, a city in England, is situated on the River Wensum and is the regional administrative centre and county town of Norfolk. During the 11th century, Norwich was the largest city in England after London, and one of the most important places in the kingdom. Until the Industrial Revolution, Norwich was the capital of the most populous county in the country and vied with Bristol as England's second city.
*Alex
1794_Chichester___Portsmouth_Halfpenny.JPG
1794 AE Halfpenny Token. Chichester and Portsmouth, Sussex.29 viewsObverse: IOHN HOWARD F•R•S PHILANTHROPIST•. Bust of John Howard facing left.
Reverse: CHICHESTER AND PORTSMOUTH • / HALFPENNY; Arms of the town of Portsmouth; the sun and moon over a triple-towered castle, with the arms of Chichester above the gateway below the central tower, 1794 in exergue.
Edge: PAYABLE AT SHARPS PORTSMOUTH AND CHALDECOTTS CHICHESTER.
Diameter 29mm | Die Axis 12
Dalton & Hamer: 19

This token was probably manufactured by Peter Kempson in Birmingham and the dies were engraved by Thomas Wyon. The issuers of this token were John Chaldecott, a silversmith and cutler in Chichester and Thomas Sharp, a mercer in Portsmouth. Chaldecott was also a partner in the Chichester Old Bank and the Portsmouth, Portsea and Hampshire Bank. The two men were probably relations or close friends and they issued joint tokens in both Portsmouth and Chichester in the 18th century.

This token was struck in the name of John Howard who was born in Lower Clapton, London the son of a wealthy upholsterer. After the death of his father in 1742, he received a sizeable inheritance. Since he was wealthy and had no true vocation, in 1748 Howard left England and began to travel. However, while in Hanover he was captured by French privateers and imprisoned. It was this experience that made him consider the conditions in which prisoners were held.
In 1758 Howard returned to England and settled in Cardington, Bedfordshire. As a landowner he was philanthropic and enlightened, ensuring that his estate housing was of good standard and that the poor houses under his management were well run.
In 1773 he became High Sheriff of Bedfordshire. On his appointment he began a tour of English prisons which led to two Acts of Parliament in 1774, making gaolers salaried officers and setting standards of cleanliness.
In April 1777, Howard's sister died leaving him £15,000 and her house. He used this inheritance and the revenue from the sale of her house to further his work on prisons. In 1778 he was examined by the House of Commons, who were this time inquiring into prison ships, or “hulks”. Two days after giving evidence, he was again travelling Europe, beginning in the Dutch Republic.
His final journey took him into Eastern Europe and Russia. Whilst at Kherson, in what is now Ukraine, Howard contracted typhus on a prison visit and died. He was buried on the shores of the Black Sea in a walled field at Dophinovka (Stepanovka), Ukraine. Despite requesting a quiet funeral without pomp and ceremony, the event was elaborate and attended by the Prince of Moldovia.
Howard became the first civilian to be honoured with a statue in St Paul's Cathedral, London. A statue was also erected in Bedford, and another one in Kherson. John Howard's bust can still be seen as a feature in the architecture of a number of Victorian prisons across the UK.
*Alex
1794_COVENTRY_CROSS_HALFPENNY.JPG
1794 AE Halfpenny Token. Coventry, Warwickshire.27 viewsObverse: PRO BONO PUBLICO. Lady Godiva riding side-saddle on horse to left; in exergue, 1794.
Reverse: COVENTRY HALFPENNY. Representation of Coventry's old town cross with COV CROSS in small letters at base.
Edge: PAYABLE AT THE WAREHOUSE OF ROBERT REYNOLDS & CO.
Diameter 29.5mm | Axis 12
Dalton & Hamer: 249
RARE

This token was manufactured by William Lutwyche and the dies were engraved by William Mainwaring.
It was issued by Robert Reynolds & Co., who were ribbon weavers with a business in Coventry.

The original Coventry Cross stood at the place where Broadgate met Cross Cheaping, near Spicer Stoke, a very short row which led through from Broadgate to Butcher Row and Trinity church. Though it is likely that a cross had been standing in this place since the 13th century, the first actual record for the building of a cross was on 1st July 1423 when the Mayor, Henry Peyto, officially sanctioned that a new cross should be built. Although it was quite a substantial structure, within a century it was rather the worse for wear, and by 1506 discussions had begun about replacing it.
In 1541, the former mayor of London, Sir William Hollis, left £200 in his will toward the building of a new cross, and by 1544 the 57 foot high cross was completed. As well as being brightly painted, the cross was also covered with much gold and it was renowned for its fame and beauty. It was built in four sections, with statues in the top three storeys: the lower of these holding statues of Henry VI, King John, Edward I, Henry II, Richard I and Henry. Above these were Edward III, Henry II, Richard III, St Michael and St George. The top storey held statues of St Peter, St James, St Christopher and two monks, with representations of Liberty and Justice at the highest point. In 1608 repairs were carried out to the cross during which the figure of Christ was replaced with one of Lady Godiva. Possibly the obverse of this token is based on this statue since there is no record of there being any other Lady Godiva memorial statues before 1949.
After standing gloriously for two centuries, decay once more set into the cross and, in 1753 and 1755, the top two stages were removed to avoid the danger of collapse. By 1771 the cross was declared to be in too ruinous a state to retain, and it's demolition was authorised. The remains stood for a short while longer though, at least until after 1778 when a visitor to Coventry wrote that the decayed cross "...has no longer anything to please".
This token is dated 1794, but must depict the cross as it was in it's heyday before it was totally demolished and it's parts reused. Two of the statues from the cross now reside at St. Mary's Guildhall.
A modern replica of the cross was unveiled in 1976, it is situated about 100 metres away from the site of the original one.
*Alex
1794_(UNDATED)_BATH_HALFPENNY.JPG
1794 Undated AE Halfpenny Token. Bath, Somerset.25 viewsObverse: IOHN HOWARD F•R•S• HALFPENNY•. Bust of John Howard facing left.
Reverse: REMEMBER THE DEBTORS IN GOAL (sic) ✤. A female figure, the personification of Benevolence, seated facing left, a variety of vessels at her feet and beside her. She is holding a laurel-branch in her left arm and pointing towards a building with a barred window (Ilchester Prison) directing the small figure of a cherub or a child carrying a key to open the prison doors. "GO FORTH" in small letters emanating amid rays from the sky above the small figure.
Edge: PAYABLE AT LONDON OR DUBLIN • + • + • +.
Diameter 29mm | Die Axis 6
Dalton & Hamer: 36d

Thomas Wyon engraved the dies for this token and it was manufactured by William Lutwyche at his works in Birmingham. Lutwyche, besides being a major supplier of genuine tokens, is also known to have made large amounts of spurious coin.

This token was struck in the name of John Howard, who was an expert in prisons and published the book "The State of the Prisons in England & Wales" in 1777, but he did not issue it. The token was issued by William Gye, born in 1750, who worked in his father’s printing works at 4 Westgate Buildings, Bath, before opening an establishment at 13 Market Place. He was an active and successful printer and bookseller, and sometime publisher of the “Bath Courant”, he was highly respected for his attempts to improve the conditions of the city’s poor. His greatest philanthropic endeavours were connected with the relief of the prisoners in the county gaol at Ilchester, which he visited every week with food, clothing and money. He issued trade tokens, and when they were redeemed in his shop, it was his custom to point out the inscription on them (“Remember the debtors”) in order to elicit donations. He died of an apoplectic fit in 1802, and was remembered for his ‘strict integrity and unblemished reputation’. His wife Mary, whom he had married in 1774, inherited his printing and stationery business. Mary managed the business herself before it was passed on to the couple's third son, Henry.
*Alex
1795_Glasgow_Halfpenny_Token.JPG
1795 AE Halfpenny, Glasgow, Lanarkshire, Scotland.29 viewsObverse: LET GLASGOW FLOURISH. The arms of Glasgow; Shield containing tree with a bird and a bell in it's branches and a fish across it's trunk.
Reverse: RULE BRITANNIA. Britannia facing left, seated on globe, her right hand holding spear, her left arm holding laurel-branch and resting on shield at her side; in exergue, 1795.
Edge: Engrailed.
Striking flaw visible next to the “H” in FLOURISH
Diameter: 28mm | Weight: 7.3gms.
Dalton & Hamer: 6a

Manufactured by Matthew Boulton at his SOHO mint in Birmingham, the diesinker was probably Thomas Wyon.
Reputedly issued by Gilbert Shearer & Co. who were, according to Jones's Directory dated 1789, woollen drapers with a shop at No.19 Trongate, Glasgow.
*Alex
1797_Middlesex_buck_Halfpenny.JPG
1797 AE Halfpenny, London, Middlesex.31 viewsObverse: FREEDOM WITH INNOCENCE. Proud stag with large antlers, walking to left.
Reverse: * * RULE BRITANIA (sic) * *. Britannia seated facing left on globe, shield at her side, holding spear in her left hand and branch in her right; 1797 in exergue.
Edge: Incuse legend “PAYABLE IN LONDON” the remainder engrailed.
Diameter: 29mm
Dalton & Hamer:1042 (Middlesex)
SCARCE

Dies engraved by Thomas Willets and manufactured by William Lutwyche or Peter Kempson in Birmingham.
This token, one of the 18th century Political and Social Series of tokens, was likely struck for the use of the “Buck Society” in London.

The Buck Society was made up of eleven united lodges in London and three affiliates in Moorgate, Hatton Garden and Doctor’s Commons. It was one of the many debating societies that emerged in London during the eighteenth century, and were a prominent fixture of society until the end of that century. The origins of the debating societies are not certain, but, while there were comparable societies in other British cities, London was home to the largest number of them throughout the eighteenth century. The debating societies welcomed participants from both genders and all social backgrounds, making them one of the best examples of the enlarged public sphere of the Age of Enlightenment. However, the increasingly radical political environment, created in large part by the French Revolution in 1789, lead to the tightening of government restrictions and most of the debating societies went inactive when, following the local sedition trials of 1792 and 1793, William Pitt the Younger initiated the 1794 Treason Trials, and the 1795 Seditious Meetings Act.
*Alex
17s-Constantine-II-Her-020.jpg
17s. Constantine II: Heraclea.23 viewsAE3, 317, Heraclea mint.
Obverse: D N FL CL CONSTANTINVS NOB C / Laureate bust of Constantine II, facing left, hilding globe, sceptre, and mappa.
Reverse: PROVIDENTIAE CAESS / Campgate with three turrets.
Mint mark: MHTE
3.03 gm., 19 mm.
RIC #20; PBCC #951; Sear #17140.

This coin has many small flecks of silver across it surfaces which are apparently all that is left of the original silvering. The very small bust is characteristic of the mints at Heraclea, Cyzicus, and Nicomedia where it was used from time to time with the junior caesars.
Callimachus
18-Constantius-II-Lon-RIC-297.jpg
18. Constantius II15 viewsAE3, 324, London mint.
Obverse: FLA CONSTANTIVS NOB C / Laureate bust of Constantius II.
Reverse: PROVIDENTIAE CAESS / Camp gate with two turrets, star above.
Mint mark: PLON
3.15 gm., 19 mm.
RIC #297; LRBC #7; Sear #17515 note.
Callimachus
heraclea55.jpg
180 Constantine II8 viewsobv: CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C laur. drp. cuir. bust r.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE CAESS campgate with three turrents star above
ex: SMHB.
hill132
heraclea56.jpg
181 Constantine II9 viewsobv: CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C laur. drp. cuir. bust r.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE CAESS campgate with two turrents star above
ex: SMH(epsilon)
hill132
1813_FLINT_LEAD_WORKS_PENNY.JPG
1813 AE Penny Token. Flint, Flintshire.22 viewsObverse: FLINT LEAD WORKS. View of the lead works, smoking away in full production; 1813 below in exergue.
Reverse: ONE POUND NOTE FOR 240 TOKENS • around ONE PENNY TOKEN in centre.
Edge: Centre Grained.
Diameter 34mm | Die Axis 6
Withers: 1313 | Davis: 12
SCARCE

The dies for this token were engraved by Thomas Halliday. The manufacturer of the token is unknown but it would in all probability have been struck in Birmingham. It was issued by George Roskell at the Flint Lead Works in Flintshire.

The Flint Lead Smelting Works was the only issuer of tokens in North Wales in the 19th century. The company produced lead from ore obtained from mines on the nearby Halkyn mountain. George Roskell (1777-1847) of Garstang, Lancashire, came to Flintshire as a shareholder in the Milwr Mine, and later became the senior partner in the Flint Smelting Works. In 1805, he married Mary Ann, only child of James Potts of Stokyn, near Holywell. His eldest son, George Potts Roskell succeeded to the Stokyn estate. In 1852 the Flint Lead Works became absorbed in the more extensive Alkali Works of Muspratt Bros. and Huntley, which by 1885 was one of the largest chemical works in Britain.

The town of Flint has its origins in the turbulent times of Edward I in the13th century when he invaded Wales for the complete subjugation of the Welsh princes and the people of Wales. Edward I picked the only suitable spot on the marshy shore, where an outcrop of rock jutted out some fifty yards into the river, on which to build the castle and town of Flint. The castle was built on the rock and joined by a drawbridge to the town. The town was built in the form of a Roman encampment, with a double ditch and earthen banks crowned by timber ramparts and four regular gates.
*Alex
1813_STOCKTON_PENNY_TOKEN_.JPG
1813 AE Penny, Stockton-on-Tees, County Durham.36 viewsObverse: CHRISTOPHER & JENNETT * STOCKTON *, incuse letters on a raised rim. View of the bridge over the Tees being crossed by several small figures including a rider on horse, rowing boat containing two figures in river below; in field above, TEES; in field below, 1813.
Reverse: BRITANNIA * ONE PENNY TOKEN *, incuse letters on a raised rim. Britannia seated facing left on shield, holding olive branch and trident, small ship in left background at her feet.
Edge: Centre-grained.
Diameter 34mm | Weight 19.7gms
Davis:6 | Withers:1109

The die engraver for this token was Peter Wyon. It was issued by Robert Christopher & Thomas Jennett who were booksellers and printers in Stockton, they were also the Stockton agents for the Sun Fire Office.
Jennett was Christopher's apprentice and on the completion of his indentures, he was taken into partnership. Matching the high standards of his companion, Jennett became well known and much respected, growing to be a man of power and influence. He became a magistrate and was mayor of Stockton three times.

The bridge shown on this token was the first bridge to serve the growing town of Stockton, it was a five arch stone bridge which was completed in 1769. Before the existence of the bridge at this location, the only way of crossing the Tees was by the Bishop’s Ferry. The bridge was subject to rent to the Bishop of Durham and the costs of building it had to be repaid, so a system of tolls was charged. These were supposed to be abolished as soon as the debt was cleared, but they remained in place until, in 1819, the local people took the law into their own hands, throwing two of the bridge gates into the river and burning the third gate in the High Street. Although the bridge was good news for Stockton’s business, it had a devastating impact on Yarm. As ships were growing in size at this time, the building of the bridge prevented many ships reaching Yarm because they were unable to navigate further up the river. This only heightened shipping in Stockton and affirmed its place as the main port on the Tees before the 1800s. The bridge also halted Yarm’s shipbuilding industry and, since Stockton was unaffected, yards sprang up east of the bridge towards the sea. By 1876 the old bridge was inadequate and in 1881 work was begun on a new bridge. This new bridge, named the ‘Victoria Bridge’ in recognition of Queen Victoria, was opened in 1887 and the old stone bridge was demolished.
*Alex
heraclea57.jpg
182 Constantius II11 viewsobv: FL IV CONSTANTIVS NOB C laur. drp. cuir. bust l.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE CAESS campgate with two turrents star above
ex: SMH(delta)
hill132
heraclea58.jpg
183 Constantine II13 viewsobv: CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C laur. drp. cuir. bust r.
rev: PROVIDEN:TIAE CAESS campgate with two turrents star above
ex: ./SMH(epsilon)
hill132
heraclea59.jpg
184 Constantius II11 viewsobv: FL IVL CONSTANTIVS NOB C laur. drp. cuir. bust l.
rev: PROVIDEN:TIAE CAESS camgate with two turrents star above
ex: SMH(epsilon)
hill132
heraclea60.jpg
185 Constantine II9 viewsobv: CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C laur. dr. cuir. bust r.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE CAESS campgate with two turrents star above
ex: ./SMH(epsilon)
hill132
heraclea61.jpg
186 Constantius II8 viewsobv: FL IVL CONSTANTIVS NOB C laur. drp. cuir. bust l.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE CAESS campgate with two turrents star above
ex: ./SMH(delta)
hill132
heraclea62.jpg
187 Constantine II10 viewsobv: CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C laur. drp. cuir. bust r.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE CAES campgate with two turrents star above
ex: SMHB
hill132
heraclea63.jpg
188 Constantius II14 viewsobv: FL IVL CONSTANTIVS NOB C laur. drp. cuir. bust l.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE CAESS campgate with two turrents star above
ex: ./SMHr
hill132
heraclea64.jpg
189 Crispus17 viewsobv: DN FL IVL CRISPUS NOB CAES laur. drp. cuir. bust l. holding scepter and mappa
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE CAESS campgate with three turrents no star
ex: MHTr
hill132
heraclea65.jpg
190 Crispus 13 viewsobv: CRISPVS NOB CAES laur. drp. cuir. bust r
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE CAESS campgate with two turrents star above
ex: SMHr
hill132
constantine_II_new_2.jpg
190.1 Constantine II35 viewsobv: CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C laur. drp. cuir. bust r.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE CAESS campgate with two turrents star above
ex: */SMH(delta)
hill132
london1.jpg
192 Crispus17 viewsobv: FL IVL CRISPVS NOB CAES laur. drp. cuir. bust r.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE CAESS campgate with two turrents star above
ex: PLON
hill132
jdomna_RIC632.jpg
193-196(?) AD - JULIA DOMNA AR denarius49 viewsobv: IVLIA DOMNA AVG (draped bust right, hair coiled and waved)
rev: VENERI VICTR (Venus half naked standing to r., holding an apple and a palm and leaning on a column)
ref: RIC IVi 632, C.194 (5frcs)
mint: Emesa and Laodicea (or probably Rome)
3.5gms, 18mm
Scarce

Julia Domna was the wife of Septimius Severus and mother of Caracalla and Geta. She was a great support for Severus in serving her family and the empire. A staunch opponent to Severus' praetorian prefect Plautianus, she attempted to turn his influence from the emperor. Her attempts to mitigate in the hatred between her two sons did not succeed. However, she seems to have prevented them from splitting the empire between them, fearing an all-out civil war. Perhaps this was one of the turning points of Roman history. If the empire had been divided at this time, future history may have become wholly different. Her greatest tragedy was probably the death of Geta in her arms from the murderers instigated by Caracalla. Nevertheless she continued serving the empire and Caracalla until, he too, was murdered. After bearing Caracalla's ashes to Rome, she starved herself to death.
2 commentsberserker
lyons1.jpg
194 Crispus18 viewsobv: FL IVL CRISPVS NOB CAES laur. drp. cuir. bust l.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE CAESS campgate with two turrents star above
ex:PLG
hill132
lyons2.jpg
195 Crispus13 viewsobv: FL IVL CRISPVS NOB CAES laur. drp. cuir. bust r.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE CAESS campgate with two turrents star above
ex: dot in doorway//PLG
hill132
196_Julia_Domna_As_RIC_886_1.jpg
196_Julia_Domna_As_RIC_886_119 viewsJulia Domna (ca. 170 – 217 AD)
AE As/Dupondius, Rome, 196 – 209
IVLIA AVGVSTA;
Bust draped right, hair waved and coiled at back
PIETATI AVGVSTAE, SC in exergue;
Julia standing facing, between Geta and Caracalla, who hold a globe between them: Geta, togate, holds roll, Caracalla, laureate, in military dress, holds spear
14,09 gr, 26 mm
RIC IVa, 886; BMC V, 793; C. 159
Ex Roma, Auction IV, lot 2795
ga77
nicomedia1.jpg
197 Crispus8 viewsobv: FL IVL CRIS_PVS NOB laur. drp. cuir. bust l.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE CAESS campgate with two turrents star above
ex: MNA
hill132
nicomedia2.jpg
198 Constantine I10 viewsobv: CONSTAN_TINVS AVG three string pearl dia. head r.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE AVGG campgate with two turrents star above
ex: SMNr
hill132
nicomedia3.jpg
199 Constantine II15 viewsobv: CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C laur. dr. cuir. bust r.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE CAESS campgate with two turrents star above
ex: SMNS
hill132
OthoDenSecuritas.jpg
1au Otho36 views69

Denarius
Bewigged head, right, IMP OTHO CAESAR AVG TR P
Securitas stg., SECVRITAS P R

RIC 10

Suetonius wrote: Otho was born on the 28th of April 32 AD, in the consulship of Furius Camillus Arruntius and Domitius Ahenobarbus, Nero’s father. In early youth he was so profligate and insolent that he earned many a beating from his own father. . . . After his father died, he feigned love for an influential freedwoman at Court, though she was old and decrepit, in order to win her favour, and then used her to insinuate himself among the emperor’s friends, easily achieving the role of Nero’s chief favourite, not only because they were of a similar disposition, but also some say because of a sexual relationship. . . .

Otho had hoped to be adopted by Galba as his successor, and anticipated the announcement daily. But Piso was chosen, dashing Otho’s hopes, and causing him to resort to force, prompted not only by feelings of resentment but also by his mounting debts. He declared that frankly he would have to declare himself bankrupt, unless he became emperor. . . . When the moment was finally ripe, . . . his friends hoisted him on their shoulders and acclaimed him Emperor. Everyone they met joined the throng, as readily as if they were sworn accomplices and a part of the conspiracy, and that is how Otho arrived at his headquarters, amidst cheering and the brandishing of swords. He at once sent men to kill Galba and Piso. . . .

Meanwhile the army in Germany had sworn allegiance to Vitellius. When the news reached Otho he persuaded the Senate to send a deputation, advising the soldiers to maintain peace and order, since an emperor had already been chosen. However he also sent envoys with letters and personal messages, offering to share power with Vitellius, and marry his daughter. With civil war clearly inevitable, on the approach of Vitellius’s advance guard, who had marched on Rome led by their generals, . . . Otho began his campaign vigorously, and indeed too hastily. . . .

His army won three engagements, but of a minor nature, firstly in the Alps, then near Placentia, and finally at a place called Castor’s, and were ultimately defeated in a decisive and treacherous encounter at Betriacum (on the 14th April). . . . After this defeat, Otho resolved to commit suicide, more from feelings of shame, which many have thought justified, and a reluctance to continue the struggle with such high cost to life and property, than from any diffidence or fear of failure shown by his soldiers. . . . On waking at dawn (on the 16th of April, AD69), he promptly dealt himself a single knife-blow in the left side of his chest, and first concealing and then showing the wound to those who rushed in at the sound of his groaning, he breathed his last. . . . Otho was thirty-six years old when he died, on the ninety-second day of his reign. . . .

Neither his bodily form nor appearance suggested great courage. He is said to have been of medium height, bandy-legged and splay-footed, though as fastidious as a woman in personal matters. He had his body-hair plucked, and wore a toupee to cover his scanty locks, so well-made and so close-fitting that its presence was not apparent.
Blindado
AntonPiusAsWreath.jpg
1bh Antoninus Pius49 views138-161

As

Laureate head, right, ANTONINUS AVG PIVS PP TR P XI
Wreath, PRIMI DECENALIS COS IIII SC

RIC 171

According to the Historia Augusta: Titus Aurelius Fulvus Boionius Antoninus Pius. . . was born at an estate at Lanuvium on the thirteenth day before the Kalends of October in the twelfth consulship of Domitiaiiand first of Cornelius Dolabella. . . . In personal appearance he was strikingly hand-
some, in natural talent brilliant, in temperament kindly; he was aristocratic in countenance and calm in nature, a singularly gifted speaker and an elegant scholar, conspicuously thrifty, a conscientious land-holder, gentle, generous, and mindful of others' rights. He possessed all these qualities, moreover, in the proper mean and without ostentation, and, in fine, was praiseworthy in every way and, in the minds of all good men. . . . He was given the name of Pius by the senate, either because, when his father-in-law was old and weak, he lent him a supporting hand in his attendance at the senate. . . or because he spared those men whom Hadrian in his ill-health had condemned to death, or because after Hadrian's death he
had unbounded and extraordinary honours decreed for him in spite of opposition from all, or because, when Hadrian wished to make away with himself, by great care and watchfulness he prevented him from so doing, or because he was in fact very kindly by nature and did no harsh deed in his own time. . . .

The manner of his adoption, they say, was some what thus : After the death of Aelius Verus, whom Hadrian had adopted and named Caesar, a day was set for the meeting of the senate, and to this Arrius Antoninus came, supporting the steps of his father-in-law. For this act, it is said, Hadrian adopted him. But this could not have been the only reason for the adoption, nor ought it to have been, especially since Antoninus had always done well in his administration of public office. . . .

After his accession to the throne he removed none of the men whom Hadrian had appointed to office, and, indeed, was so steadfast and loyal that he retained good men in the government of provinces for terms of seven and even nine years. He waged a number of wars, but all of them through his legates. . . . With such care did he govern all peoples under him that he looked after all things and all men as if they were his own. As a result, the provinces all prospered in his reign, informers were abolished, and the confiscation of goods was less frequent than ever before. . . .

He died in the seventieth year of his age, but his loss was felt as though he had been but a youth. . . . On the second day, as he saw that his condition was becoming worse, in the presence of his prefects he committed the state and his daughter to Marcus Antoninus. . . .
Blindado
LVerusAsTrophies.jpg
1bl Lucius Verus113 views161-169

As
166-167

Laureate head, right, L VERVS AVG ARM PARTH MAX
3 trophies, TR P VII IMP III[I] COS III

RIC 1464

Son of Aelius Caesar and adopted son of Antoninus Pius, Marcus Aurelius elevated his adoptive brother to co-ruler in 161. The Parthians launched an attack against Roman Syria that it had planned before the death of Pius, and Marcus, with the agreement of the Senate, dispatched Lucius to deal with the crisis. According to the Historia Augusta, "Verus, of course, after he arrived in Syria, lived in luxury at Antioch and Daphne, although he was acclaimed imperator while waging the Parthian war through legates." This coin's reverse honors his military victory over the Parthians in 165.

The Historia Augusta describes Verus: He was physically handsome with a genial face. His beard was allowed to grow almost in Barbarian style. He was a tall man, his forehead projected somewhat above his eyebrows, so that he commanded respect. . . In speech almost halting, he was very keen on gambling, and his way of life was always extravagant.
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LucillaSestVenus.jpg
1bm Lucilla164 viewsWife of Lucius Verus, executed 182 AD

Sestertius
Draped bust, right, LVCILLAE AVG ANTONINI AVG F
Venus standing facing left holding apple, drawing out robe, VENUS

RIC 1767

Daughter of Marcus Aurelius and Faustina Junior, she married Lucius Verus in 164.

According to Herodian: For the present, however, the memory of his father and his respect for his advisers held Commodus in check. But then a disastrous stroke of ill fortune completely altered his previously mild, moderate disposition. It happened this way. The oldest of the emperor's sisters was Lucilla. She had formerly been married to Lucius Verus Caesar. . . . But after Lucius died, Lucilla, who retained all the privileges of her imperial position, was married by her father to Pompeianus.

Commodus, too, allowed his sister to retain the imperial honors; she continued to occupy the imperial seat at the theaters, and the sacred fire was carried before her. But when Commodus married Crispina, custom demanded that the front seat at the theater be assigned to the empress. Lucilla found this difficult to endure, and felt that any honor paid to the empress was an insult to her; but since she was well aware that her husband Pompeianus was devoted to Commodus, she told him nothing about her plans to seize control of the empire. Instead, she tested the sentiments of a wealthy young nobleman, Quadratus, with whom she was rumored to be sleeping in secret. Complaining constantly about this matter of imperial precedence, she soon persuaded the young man to set in motion a plot which brought destruction upon himself and the entire senate.

Quadratus, in selecting confederates among the prominent senators, prevailed upon Quintianus, a bold and reckless young senator, to conceal a dagger beneath his robe and, watching for a suitable time and place, to stab Commodus; as for the rest, he assured Quintianus that he would set matters straight by bribes.

But the assassin, standing in the entrance to the amphitheater (it was dark there and he hoped to escape detection), drew his dagger and shouted at Commodus that he had been sent by the Senate to kill him. Quintianus wasted time making his little speech and waving his dagger; as a result, he was seized by the emperor's bodyguards before he could strike, and died for his stupidity in revealing the plot prematurely.

This was the initial reason for the young emperor's hatred of the Senate. He took Quintianus' words to heart and, ever mindful of what his attacker had said, now considered the entire Senate his collective enemy.

This incident also gave Perennis sufficient excuse for taking action, for he was always advising the emperor to eliminate and destroy the prominent men. By confiscating their property, Perennis easily made himself the richest man of his time. After the attempt at assassination had been thoroughly investigated by the prefect, Commodus without mercy put to death his sister, all those actually involved in the plot, and any who were under the slightest suspicion as well.
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SeptSevDenFund.jpg
1bs Septimius Severus87 views193-211

Denarius

Laureate head, right, SEVERVS PIVS AVG
Septimius, togate and veiled, standing left holding olive branch, FVNDATOR PACIS

RIC 265

According to the Historia Augusta: After the murder of Didius Julianus, Severus, a native of Africa, gained the empire. His home town was Lepcis Magna, his father was Geta and his ancestors had been Roman knights before citizenship had been given to all. . . . He himself was born on the third day before the Ides of April, when Erucius Clarus, for the second time, and Severus were the consuls [11 April A.D.146]. . . .

After his departure to Germany he conducted himself in such a way in his governorship as to increase his reputation, which had already become noteworthy. Up to this point his military activity was as a private citizen. But then, after it had been learned that Commodus had been murdered and, moreover, that Julianus held the empire amid universal hatred, he was proclaimed emperor by the German legions at Carnuntum, on the Ides of August, although he did put up some resistance to the many who urged him on. He gave the soldiers . . . sesterces each. Then, after strengthening the provinces which he was leaving in his rear, he marched on Rome. All yielded to him wherever he went, while the armies of Illyricum and Gaul, under the pressure of their generals, had already sworn allegiance to him - for he was received by everyone as the avenger of Pertinax. At the same time, on the instigation of Julianus, Septimius Severus was declared a public enemy, and envoys were sent to the army who were to order the soldiers to desert him, on the instructions of the Senate. At first, when Severus heard that the envoys had been sent by authority of a senatorial decree, he was very frightened. Afterwards, by bribing the envoys, he ensured that they spoke in his favour before the army and crossed to his side. Having learned this, Julianus caused a decree ofthe Senate to be passed regarding his sharing of the empire with Severus. It is uncertain whether or not he did this as a trick, since he had already, before this, dispatched certain men, well known for their assassinations of generals, who were to kill Severus. Similarly he had sent men to assassinate Pescennius Niger, who had also assumed the position of emperor in opposition to him, on the instigation of the Syrian armies. But Severus escaped the hands of those that Julianus had sent to murder him and sent a letter to the praetorian guard, giving them the signal either to desertJulianus or to kill him. He was obeyed at once; Julianus was killed in the palace and Severus was invited to Rome. Thus Severus became the victor merely at will - something that had never happened to anyone - and hastened to Rome under arms. . . .

The same emperor, although implacable towards offences, likewise displayed singular judiciousness in encouraging all hard-working persons. He was quite interested in philosophy and the practice of rhetoric, and enthusiastic about learning in general. He took some measures against brigands everywhere. He composed a convincing autobiography dealing with both his private and his public life, making excuses only for the vice of cruelty. With regard to this, the Senate pronounced that either he ought not to have been born or that he ought not to die, since he appeared to be both excessively cruel and excessively useful to the republic. . . . . He died at Eboracum [York] in Britain, having subdued the tribes which appeared hostile to Britain, in the eighteeneh year of his reign, stricken by a very grave illness, now an old man. . . .

This emperor wore such meagre clothing that even his tunic scarcely had any purple, while he covered his shoulders with a shaggy cloak. He ate sparingly, being very addicted to his native vegetable, sometimes fond of wine, often abstaining from meat. His person was handsome, he was of huge size,(Dio Cassius, who knew Severus personally, says that he was small) with a long beard and curly white hair. His face inspired reverence, his voice was resonant but with a trace of an African accent right up to his old age. He was equally beloved after his death, when envy, or the fear of his cruelty, had disappeared.
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1bt Julia Domna14 viewsDenarius

Draped bust, right, IVLIA AVGVSTA
Venus with bare bottom, VENERI VICTR

RIC 536

According to the Historia Augusta, "Next [Septimius Severus] was appointed legate of Lugdunensis. When he wished to marry a second time, after losing his wife, he investigated the horoscopes of potential brides, being very skilled in astrology himself, and since he had heard that there was a certain woman in Syria whose horoscope forecast that she would marry a king, he sought her hand. It was of courseJulia, and he gained her as his bride through the mediation offriends. She at once made him a father! . . . [A]s concerns his family he was less careful, retaining his wife Julia who was notorious for her adulteries and was also guilty of conspiracy."
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1ck Pupienus30 views238

Sestertius

Laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust, right, IMP CAES PVPIEN MAXIMVS AVG
Pax seated left with branch & scepter PAX PVBLICA SC

RIC 22b

Herodian, continuing the story of the rebellion against Maximinus, wrote: [Pupienus] led most of these soldiers out to attack Maximinus; the rest remained behind to guard and defend the city. . . . In the meantime, having completed his march, Maximinus was poised on the borders of Italy; after offering sacrifices at all the boundary altars, he advanced into Italy. . . . When no opposition was offered, they crossed the Alps without hindrance. . . . While the army was in the plain, the scouts reported that Aquileia, the largest city in that part of Italy, had closed its gates and that the Pannonian legions which had been sent ahead had launched a vigorous attack upon the walls of this city. In spite of frequent assaults, they were completely unsuccessful. . . .

As time passed, the army of Maximinus grew depressed and, cheated in its expectations, fell into despair. . . . As Maximinus rode about, the [people of Aquileia] shouted insults and indecent blasphemies at him and his son. The emperor became increasingly angry because he was powerless to retaliate. . . . The emperor's soldiers were. . . in need of everything. There was scarcely even sufficient water for them. . . .

Without warning, the soldiers whose camp was near Rome at the foot of Mount Alba, where they had left their wives and children, decided that the best solution was to kill Maximinus and end the interminable siege. . . . [T]he conspirators went to Maximinus' tent about noon. The imperial bodyguard, which was involved in the plot, ripped Maximinus' pictures from the standards; when he came out of his tent with his son to talk to them, they refused to listen and killed them both. . . .

For the rest of the time the two emperors governed in an orderly and well-regulated manner, winning approval on every hand both privately and publicly. The people honored and respected them as patriotic and admirable rulers of the empire. . . . It so happened that the two men were not in complete accord: so great is the desire for sole rule and so contrary to the usual practice is it for the sovereignty to be shared that each undertook to secure the imperial power for himself alone. Balbinus considered himself the more worthy because of his noble birth and his two terms as consul; [Pupienus] felt that he deserved first place because he had served as prefect of Rome and had won a good reputation by his administrative efforts. Both men were led to covet the sole rule because of their distinguished birth, aristocratic lineage, and the size of their families. This rivalry was the basis of their downfall. When [Pupienus] learned that the Praetorian Guard was coming to kill them, he wished to summon a sufficient number of the German auxiliaries who were in Rome to resist the conspirators. But Balbinus, thinking that this was a ruse intended to deceive him (he knew that the Germans were devoted to [Pupienus]), refused to allow [Pupienus] to issue the order. . . . While the two men were arguing, the praetorians rushed in. . . . When the guards at the palace gates deserted the emperors, the praetorians seized the old men and ripped off the plain robes they were wearing because they were at home. Dragging the two men naked from the palace, they inflicted every insult and indignity upon them. Jeering at these emperors elected by the senate, they beat and tortured them. . . . When the Germans learned what was happening, they snatched up their arms and hastened to the rescue. As soon as the praetorians were informed of their approach, they killed the mutilated emperors.
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1ds2 Carausius19 views287-293

AE Antoninianus

Radiate, draped & cuirassed bust right, IMP CARAVSIVS P F AVG
COMES AVG, Victory standing left holding wreath & palm. ML in ex

RIC 15

Eutropius recorded: During this period, Carausius, who, though of very mean birth, had gained extraordinary reputation by a course of active service in war, having received a commission in his post at Bononia, to clear the sea, which the Franks and Saxons infested, along the coast of Belgica and Armorica, and having captured numbers of the barbarians on several occasions, but having never given back the entire booty to the people of the province or sent it to the emperors, and there being a suspicion, in consequence, that the barbarians were intentionally allowed by him to congregate there, that he might seize them and their booty as they passed, and by that means enrich himself, assumed, on being sentenced by Maximian to be put to death, the imperial purple, and took on him the government of Britain. . . .

With Carausius, however, as hostilities were found vain against a man eminently skilled in war, a peace was at last arranged. At the end of seven years, Allectus, one of his supporters, put him to death, and held Britain himself for three years subsequently, but was cut off by the efforts of Asclepiodotus, praefect of the praetorian guard.
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1du Constantius I17 views305-306

Quarter Follis

Laureate head, right, IMP CONSTANTIVS P F AVG
Genius standing left, modius on head, naked except for chlamys over left shoulder, holding patera and cornucopiae. Mintmark: SIS, GENIO POPVLI ROMANI

Also known as Constantius Chlorus.

RIC 167

After being names Caesar, according to Eutropius: A battle was fought by Constantius Caesar in Gaul, at Lingonae, where he experienced both good and had fortune in one day; for though he was driven into the city by a sudden onset of the barbarians, with such haste and precipitation that after the gates were shut he was drawn up the wall by ropes, yet, when his army came up, after the lapse of scarcely six hours, he cut to pieces about sixty thousand of the Alemanni. . . .

CONSTANTIUS and GALERIUS were made emperors; and the Roman world was divided between them in such a manner, that Constantius had Gaul, Italy, and Africa; Galerius Illyricum, Asia, and the East; two Caesars being joined with them. [Zosimus adds: Three years after Dioclesian died, and the reigning emperors, Constantius and Maximianus Gallerius declared Severus and Maximinus (who was nephew to Gallerius), the Caesars, giving all Italy to Severus, and the eastern provinces to Maximinus.] Constantius, however, content with the dignity of emperor, declined the care of governing Africa. He was an excellent man, of extreme benevolence, who studied to increase the resources of the provinces and of private persons, cared but little for the improvement of the public treasury, and used to say that "it was better for the national wealth to be in the hands of individuals than to be laid up in one place of confinement." So moderate was the furniture of his house, too, that if, on holidays, he had to entertain a greater number of friends than ordinary, his dining-rooms were set out with the plate of private persons, borrowed from their several houses. By the Gauls1 he was not only beloved but venerated, especially because, under his government, they had escaped the suspicious prudence of Diocletian, and the sanguinary rashness of Maximian. He died in Britain, at York, in the thirteenth year of his reign, and was enrolled among the gods.
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1el Nepotianus27 viewsJune 351

Centenionalis

Laurel & rosette-diademed, draped & cuirassed bust, right, FL NEP CONSTANTINVS AVG
Roma seated holding victory VRBS ROMA

RIC 202

He seized power in Rome after the death of Constans but was killed by troops of Magnentius after 28 days. Zosimus recorded, "While he was forming these resolutions, and was very intent on warlike preparations, Magnentius still remaining in Gallia Celtica, Nepotianus, nephew to Constantius, by his sister Eutropia, collected a band of persons addicted to robbery and all kinds of debauchery, with whom he came to Rome, and appeared in an imperial dress. Anicetius, whom Magnentius had made prefect of the court, armed some of the common people, and led them out of the city to engage with Nepotianus. A sharp conflict ensued between them. The Romans being undisciplined, and observing no order, were easily routed; and when the prefect saw them fly, he shut the gates, for fear the enemy should follow them into the city. The troops of Nepotianus pursued them, and as they had no way of escape, killed every man. In a few days after, Magnentius sent an army under the command of Marcellinus, and Nepotianus was put to death."
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1er Procopius18 views365-366

AE3

Diademed, draped & cuirassed bust left, D N PROCOPIVS P F AVG
Procopius standing facing, head right, holding labarum in right hand, left resting on shield set on the ground; Chi-rho in upper right field & unidentified object in left at foot; mintmark CONS Gamma.

RIC 17a

Zosimus tells us: On [Valens'] departure from Constantinople, the rebellion of Procopius commenced. This person had been intrusted by Julian, being one of his relations, with a part of his forces, and had been charged to march with Sebastianus through Adiabene, and to meet Julian, who took another route. Permission, moreover, was given him to wear a purple robe, for a reason which no other person was acquainted with. But the deity being pleased to ordain it otherwise, and Jovian having succeeded to the imperial dignity, Procopius immediately delivered up the imperial robe which he had received from Julian, confessing why it had been given to him, and entreating the emperor to absolve him from his military oath, and to allow him to live in retirement, and to attend to agriculture and his own private affairs. Having obtained this, he went with his wife and children to Caesarea in Cappadocia, intending to reside in that place, where he possessed a valuable estate. During his abode there, Valentinian and Valens being made emperors, and being suspicious of him, sent persons to take him into custody. In that they found no difficulty, for he surrendered himself voluntarily; and desired them to carry him wherever they pleased, if they would suffer him first to see his children. To this they consented, and he prepared an entertainment for them. When he perceived them to be intoxicated, he and his family fled towards the Taurica Chersonesus. Having remained there for some time, he found the inhabitants to he a faithless race, and was apprehensive lest they should deliver him to his persecutors. He, therefore, put himself and his family on board a trading vessel, and arrived in the night at Constantinople. He there resided in the house of an old acquaintance, and making observations on the state of the city after the departure of the emperor, he attempted to raise himself to the empire, and formed his design on the following incident.

A eunuch, named Eugenius, had not long before been discharged from the court, who entertained but little friendship for the emperors. Procopius therefore won this man to his interest. . . . Their first attempt was to bribe the court guards, which consisted of two legions. Then arming the slaves, and collecting with ease a considerable multitude, chiefly volunteers, they sent them in the night into the city, and occasioned a general commotion; the people issuing from their houses, and gazing on Procopiusas on a king made in a theatre. But the city being in general confusion, and no person being sufficiently collected in mind by reason of the surprise to know how to act, Procopius imagined his design to be still undiscovered, and that he might secure the empire if the enterprise were no further revealed. Having then seized on Cesarius, whom the emperors had made prefect of the city, and on Nebridius, who was appointed to succeed Sallustius in tbe prefecture of the court, he compelled them to write to the subjects of the empire whatever he wished. He also kept them separate, that they might not consult with each other. Having formed these projects, he proceeded in a splendid manner towards the palace. Ascending a tribunal before the gate, he gave the people great hopes and promises. He then entered the palace to provide for the remainder of his affairs.

The new emperors having divided the army between them, Procopius determined to send persons to the soldiers, who were as yet in confusion, and went by the command of the emperors from place to place without any order. He thus hoped to seduce some of them to his party. Nor did he fail of accomplishing his purpose with ease by distributing money amongst the soldiers and their officers; by which means he collected a considerable force, and prepared to make an open attack on the enemy. Procopius then sent Marcellus into Bithynia with an army against Serenianus and the imperial cavalry that was under his command, in hope of cutting them to pieces. This force having fled to Cyzicus, Marcellus, whose army was superior to theirs both by sea and land, took possession of that town; and having taken Serenianus, who fled into Lydia, put him to death. Procopius was so elevated by this fortunate commencement, that his forces considerably augmented, many being of opinion that he was able to contend with the emperors. Both the Roman legions and the Barbarian troops now flocked to his standard. Besides the reputation of being related to Julian, and of having accompanied him in all the wars he had ever been engaged in, attracted many partizans. He likewise sent ambassadors to the chief of Scythia beyond the Ister, who sent to his assistance ten thousand men. The other Barbarian nations likewise sent auxiliaries to share in the expedition. Procopius however considered that it would be imprudent in him to engage with both emperors together, and therefore thought it best to advance against him who was nearest, and afterwards deliberate on what course to pursue.

Thus was Procopius employed; while the emperor Valens, who heard of this insurrection at Galatia in Phrygia, was filled with consternation at the news. Arbitrio having encouraged him not to despair, he prepared the troops that were with him for war, and sent to his brother to inform him of the designs of Procopius. Valentinian however was little disposed for sending auxiliaries to one who was incapable of defending the empire committed to his charge. Valens was therefore under the necessity of. preparing for war, and appointed Arbitrio to the command of his army. When the armies were ready to engage, Arbitrio circumvented Procopius by a stratagem, and thereby seduced from him a great number of his men, from whom he received previous information of the designs of Procopius. On the advance of the emperor and Procopius towards each other, the two armies met near Thyatira. Procopius at first appeared to have the advantage, by which he would have gained the supreme authority, Hormisdas in the engagement having overpowered the enemy. But Gomarius, another of the commanders of Procopius, imparting his intention to all the soldiers of Procopius who were attached to the emperor, in the midst of the battle cried out Augustus, and gave a signal for them to imitate his example. Thus the most of the troops of Procopius went over to Valens.

After having obtained this victory, Valens marched to Sardes, and from thence into Phrygia, where he found Procopius in a town called Nacolia. Affairs having been ordered for the advantage of the emperor by Naplo, an officer of Procopius, Valens again prevailed, and took him prisoner, and soon afterwards Marcellus, both of whom he put to death.
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1eu Theodosius25 views379-395

AE4

Pearl diademed, draped & cuirassed bust right, D N THEODOSIVS P F AVG
VOT V MVLT X within wreath, ASISC in ex

RIC 29d

Zosimus recorded: [Valentinian] commanded some legions from the stations in Pannonia and Moesia, to embark for Africa [to crush a rebellion]. On this the Sarmatians and the Quadi. . . , availing themselves, of the opportunity afforded by the departure of the legions for Africa, invaded the Pannonians and Moesians. . . . The barbarians therefore revenged themselves by plundering all the country along the Ister, carrying off all that they found in the towns. The Pannonians were by these means exposed to the cruelty of the barbarians, while the soldiers were extremely negligent in the defence of their towns, and committed as much mischief as the Barbarians themselves in all places on this side of the river. But Moesia was free from harm, because Theodosius, who commanded the forces there, courageously resisted the Barbarians, and routed them when they attacked him. By that victory he not only acquired great renown, but subsequently attained the imperial dignity. . . .

When the affairs of the empire were reduced to this low condition, Victor, who commanded the Roman cavalry, escaping the danger with some of his troops, entered Macedon and Thessaly. From thence he proceeded into Moesia and Pannonia, and informed Gratian, who was then in that quarter, of what had occurred, and of the loss of the emperor [Valens] and his army. Gratian received the intelligence without uneasiness, and was little grieved at the death of his uncle, a disagreement having existed between them. Finding himself unable to manage affairs, Thrace being ravaged by the Barbarians, as were likewise Pannonia and Moesia, and the towns upon the Rhine being infested by the neighbouring Barbarians without controul, he chose for his associate in the empire, Theodosius, who was a native of a town called Cauca, in the part of Spain called Hispania Callaecia, and who possessed great knowledge and experience of military affairs. Having given him the government of Thrace and the eastern provinces, Gratian himself proceeded to the west of Gaul, in order, if possible, to compose affairs in that quarter. . . .

During the stay of the new emperor, Theodosius, at Thesslonica, a great concourse arrived there from all parts of persons soliciting him on business, both public and private; who having obtained of him whatever he could conveniently grant, returned, to their homes. As a great multitude of the Scythians beyond the Ister, the Gotthi, and the Taiphali, and other tribes that formerly dwelt among them, had crossed the river, and were driven to infest the Roman dominions, because the Huns, had expelled them from their own country, the emperor Theodosius prepared for war with all his forces. . . . The army having made this good use of the occasion afforded by fortune, the affairs of Thrace, which had been on the brink of ruin, were now, the Barbarians being crushed beyond all hope, re-established in peace. . . .

Meanwhile, the emperor Theodosius, residing in Thessalonica, was easy of access to all who wished to see him. Having commenced his reign in luxury and indolence, he threw the magistracy into disorder, and increased the number of his military officers. . . . As he squandered the public money without consideration, bestowing it on unworthy persons, he consequently impoverished himself. He therefore sold the government of provinces to any who would purchase them, without regard to the reputation or ablity of the persons, esteeming him the best qualified who brought him the most gold or silver. . . .

Maximus, who deemed his appointments inferior to his merits, being only governor of the countries formerly under Gratian, projected how to depose the young Valentinian from the empire. . . . This so much surprised Valentinian, and rendered his situation so desperate, that his courtiers were alarmed lest he should be taken by Maximus and put to death. He, therefore, immediately embarked,and sailed to Thessalonica with his mother Justina. . . . [A]rriving at Thessalonica, they sent messengers to the emperor Theodosius, intreating him now at least to revenge the injuries committed against the family of Valentinian. . . . The emperor, being delivered from this alarm, marched with great resolution with his whole army against Maximus. . . . Theodosius, having passed through Pannonia and the defiles of the Appennines, attacked unawares the forces of Maximus before they were prepared for him. A part of his army, having pursued them with the utmost speed, forced their way through the gates of Aquileia, the guards being too few to resist them. Maximus was torn from his imperial throne while in the act of distributing money to his soldiers, and being stripped of his imperial robes, was brought to Theodosius, who, having in reproach enumerated some of his crimes against the commonwealth, delivered him to the common executioner to receive due punishment. . . . The emperor Theodosius, having consigned Italy, Spain, Celtica, and Libya to his son Honorius, died of a disease on his journey towards Constantinople.
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