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Search results - "Galeria"
DenLMemmioGaleriabis.jpg
23 viewsSerrate Denarius - 106 BC
L. MEMMIVS GALERIA - Gens Memmia
Obv.: Laureate head of Saturn left; ROMA and harpa behind
Rev,; Venus in biga right, Cupid flying above with laurel wreath, L MEMMI (ME in monogram) GAL in two lines in ex.
Gs. 3,82 mm. 17,2x17,8
Cr313/1a, Sear RCV 190.

Maxentius
GValeria-1.jpg
14 viewsGALERIA VALERIA - Æ Follis - 309-310 AD. - Heraclea mint
Obv.: GAL VALERIA AVG, diademed & draped bust right
Rev.: VENERI VICTRICI, Venus standing facing, head left, holding apple upwards and raising drapery. HTA in ex.
Gs. 6,7 mm. 25,3
Cohen 2, RIC 43
Maxentius
Galeria_Valeria.JPG
8 viewsAntonivs Protti
fauiirm.jpg
Annie Galeria Faustina II 20 viewsObverse: FAVSTINA AVGVSTA, draped bust right hair in bun.
Reverse: Juno seated left holding patera in the right hand and a traverse rod in the left.
26.5 mm., 11.1 g.
Sold 5-2018
NORMAN K
Gal_Valeria_Siscia_RIC_210_hwflip.jpg
4.5 Galeria Valeria24 viewsGALERIA VALERIA
AE Follis, Siscia, 310-311 AD

GAL VALERIA AVG, bust right, draped and diademed on crescent, wearing necklace, with facing shoulders / VENERI-VICTRICI, Venus standing facing, SIS in ex, crescent in l. field, epsilon in r. field.

RIC VI Siscia 211; Sear 14590. Fine, chipped flan.
Sosius
GAL_VAL.jpg
(0308) GALERIA VALERIA22 views(2nd wife of Galerius; daughter of Diocletian)
308 - 310 AD
AE FOLLIS 24 mm
O: BUST R
R:VENERI VICTRICI
VENUS STANDING LEFT HOLDING APPLE AND RAISING DRAPERY OVER SHOULDER
laney
GAL_VAL_VENUS_RES.jpg
(0308) GALERIA VALERIA19 views(2nd wife of Galerius; daughter of Diocletian)
Struck 308 - 309 AD
AE 25 mm, 4.87 g
O: GAL VAL-ERIA AVG, Diademed draped bust right
R: VENERI V-ICTRICI, Venus standing left holding apple in right hand, and lifting her veil with left hand, Δ in left field; MKV in exe
Cyzicus RIC 46
laney
0136.jpg
0136 - Nummus Galeria Valeria 308 AC17 viewsObv/ GAL VAL-ERIA AVG, draped bust of G.V. r., wearing diadem.
Rev/ VENERI V-ICTRICI, Venus standing facing, head l., holding apple in upraised r. hand and raising drapery over l. shoulder; mint symbol Γ in filed; in ex., ANT.

AE, 24.5 mm, 7.08 g
Mint: Antioch.
RIC VI/84 [S]
ex-J.B. González Redondo (denarios.org), jul 2011
dafnis
faustina-I_AR-denarius_peacock_2_62gr_00.jpg
06 - Faustina I - AR Denarius - Peacock, 'CONSECRATIO' 30 viewsAnnia Galeria Faustina (AD 138-141) Silver Denarius.
Rome mint, AD 147-161. Died 141 AD. Cohen 175, RIC 384.
Roman Empress and wife of Roman Emperor Antoninus Pius.

Obv: DIVA FAUSTINA - Draped bust right.
Rev: CONSECR ATIO - Peacock facing right, head left, standing on scepter with knobs on both ends.
Note the Peacock's headfeathers sticking up between the 'R' and 'A' of 'CONSECRATIO'.
2.62 grams.

rexesq
faustina-I_AR-denarius_AD147-161_consecratio_peacock_2_62gr_obv_01_rev_02.JPG
06 - Faustina I - AR Denarius - Peacock, 'CONSECRATIO' - 0122 viewsAnnia Galeria Faustina (AD 138-141) Silver Denarius.
Rome mint, AD 147-161. Died 141 AD. Cohen 175, RIC 384.
Roman Empress and wife of Roman Emperor Antoninus Pius.

Obv: DIVA FAUSTINA - Draped bust right.
Rev: CONSECR ATIO - Peacock facing right, head left, standing on scepter with knobs on both ends.
Note the Peacock's headfeathers sticking up between the 'R' and 'A' of 'CONSECRATIO'.
2.62 grams.
rexesq
faustina-I_AR-denarius_AD147-161_consecratio_peacock_2_62gr_obv_04_rev_04.JPG
06 - Faustina I - AR Denarius - Peacock, 'CONSECRATIO' - 0212 viewsAnnia Galeria Faustina (AD 138-141) Silver Denarius.
Rome mint, AD 147-161. Died 141 AD. Cohen 175, RIC 384.
Roman Empress and wife of Roman Emperor Antoninus Pius.

Obv: DIVA FAUSTINA - Draped bust right.
Rev: CONSECR ATIO - Peacock facing right, head left, standing on scepter with knobs on both ends.
Note the Peacock's headfeathers sticking up between the 'R' and 'A' of 'CONSECRATIO'.
2.62 grams.
rexesq
faustina-I_AR-denarius_AD147-161_consecratio_peacock_2_62gr_obv_14_rev_04.JPG
06 - Faustina I - AR Denarius - Peacock, 'CONSECRATIO' - 0312 viewsAnnia Galeria Faustina (AD 138-141) Silver Denarius.
Rome mint, AD 147-161. Died 141 AD. Cohen 175, RIC 384.
Roman Empress and wife of Roman Emperor Antoninus Pius.

Obv: DIVA FAUSTINA - Draped bust right.
Rev: CONSECR ATIO - Peacock facing right, head left, standing on scepter with knobs on both ends.
Note the Peacock's headfeathers sticking up between the 'R' and 'A' of 'CONSECRATIO'.
2.62 grams.
rexesq
faustina-I_AR-denarius_AD147-161_consecratio_peacock_2_62gr_obv_13_rev_04.JPG
06 - Faustina I - AR Denarius - Peacock, 'CONSECRATIO' - 0415 viewsAnnia Galeria Faustina (AD 138-141) Silver Denarius.
Rome mint, AD 147-161. Died 141 AD. Cohen 175, RIC 384.
Roman Empress and wife of Roman Emperor Antoninus Pius.

Obv: DIVA FAUSTINA - Draped bust right.
Rev: CONSECR ATIO - Peacock facing right, head left, standing on scepter with knobs on both ends.
Note the Peacock's headfeathers sticking up between the 'R' and 'A' of 'CONSECRATIO'.
2.62 grams.
rexesq
faustina-I_AR-denarius_AD147-161_consecratio_peacock_2_62gr_rev_06_off-color.jpg
06 - Faustina I - AR Denarius - Peacock, 'CONSECRATIO' - off color10 viewsAnnia Galeria Faustina (AD 138-141) Silver Denarius.
Rome mint, AD 147-161. Died 141 AD. Cohen 175, RIC 384.
Roman Empress and wife of Roman Emperor Antoninus Pius.

Obv: DIVA FAUSTINA - Draped bust right.
Rev: CONSECR ATIO - Peacock facing right, head left, standing on scepter with knobs on both ends.
Note the Peacock's headfeathers sticking up between the 'R' and 'A' of 'CONSECRATIO'.
2.62 grams.
*photo is off color due to my camera problems.
rexesq
faustina-I_AR-denarius_AD147-161_consecratio_peacock_2_62gr_rev_09.jpg
06 - Faustina I - AR Denarius - Peacock, 'CONSECRATIO' - VII11 viewsAnnia Galeria Faustina (AD 138-141) Silver Denarius.
Rome mint, AD 147-161. Died 141 AD. Cohen 175, RIC 384.
Roman Empress and wife of Roman Emperor Antoninus Pius.

Obv: DIVA FAUSTINA - Draped bust right.
Rev: CONSECR ATIO - Peacock facing right, head left, standing on scepter with knobs on both ends.

Note the Peacock's headfeathers sticking up between the 'R' and 'A' of 'CONSECRATIO'.

2.62 grams.
rexesq
Personajes_Imperiales_9.jpg
09 - Personalities of the Empire54 viewsSaturninus, Carus, Carinus, Urbica, Nigrinianus, Numerianus, Diocletian, Maximian, Carausius, Allectus, Constantius I, Theodora, Galerius and Galeria Valeriamdelvalle
Personajes_Imperiales_9~0.jpg
09 - Personalities of the Empire34 viewsCarinus, Magnia Urbica, Nigrinianus, Numerianus, Diocletian, Maximian, Carausius, Allectus, Constantius I, Theodora, Galerius, Galeria Valeria, Severus II and Maxentiusmdelvalle
coin285.JPG
104a. Faustina 32 viewsFaustina I

Annia Galeria Faustina, "the Elder", was the wife of the Roman Emperor Antoninus Pius, an aunt of Marcus Aurelius, and mother of Faustina the Younger. She was the daughter of the consul Marcus Annius Verus, and married Antoninus around 110 AD. They had two sons and two daughters. She became Augusta upon the accession of her husband. Although Augustan History impugned her character, criticizing her for "excessive frankness" and "levity", she and Antoninus seem to have been happily married until her death in 140 or 141

obv: DIVA FAVSTINA (diademed & draped bust right)
rev: AVGVSTA (Pietas standing left with raised hand, altar at foot left)
ref: RIC III 374 (Ant.Pius), RSC 124 (2frcs)

Corrected attribute...
ecoli
coin283.JPG
105c. Lucilla32 viewsAnnia Aurelia Galeria Lucilla (March 7, 150–183) was the daughter of the Roman Emperor Marcus Aurelius and Faustina the Younger.

In AD 164, she was betrothed by her father to his co-emperor and adoptive brother, Lucius Verus, gaining the title of Augusta. Following his death she married Pompeianus. Lucilla was implicated in several plots to overthrow Commodus (her brother and then emperor) and was banished to the island of Capreae in AD 182. Shortly afterwards she was put to death by Commodus.

Silver Denarius Obv: LVCILLA AVG ANTONINI AVG F - Bare head right, draped. Rev: VENVS - Venus standing left, holding apple and scepter. Rome mint: AD 165-169 RIC III, 784, page 276 - Cohen 70- SEAR RCV II (2002), 5491, page 370 /3.05 g.
ecoli
114.jpg
114 Galeria Valeria. AE follis 6.0gm42 viewsobv: GAL VAL_ERIA AVG dia. drp.bust r.
re: VENERI V_ICTRICI Venus std. l. holding apple l., raising drapery over l. shoulder
ex: -(crescent)/-B//ANT
1 commentshill132
Galeria-Valeria_AE-26_-RIC-VI-63_Heraclea-3rd-off__Q-001_h_mm_gx-s.jpg
123 Galeria-Valeria (?-315 A.D.), Heracleia, RIC VI 063, -/Crescent//HTΓ, AE-Follis, VENERI VICTRICI, Venus standing left,134 views123 Galeria-Valeria (?-315 A.D.), Heracleia, RIC VI 063, -/Crescent//HTΓ, AE-Follis, VENERI VICTRICI, Venus standing left,
Galeria-Valeria, daughter of Diocletian and wife of Galerius,.
avers:- GAL-VAL-ERIA-AVG, Diademed, draped bust right.
revers:- VENERI-V-ICTRICI, Venus standing left, holding apple and raising skirt, Crescent right field.
exergo: -/Crescent//HTΓ, diameter: 26mm, weight: 6,08g, axis: h,
mint: Heracleia, date: 311 A.D., ref: RIC-VI-63, 3rd-off., C-,
Q-001
quadrans
Galeria-Valeria_AE-26_GAL-VALERIA-AVG_VENERI-V-ICTRICI_star-A__SM_SD__Serdica-315-RIC-41_Q-001_26mm_6_08g-s.jpg
123 Galeria-Valeria (?-315 A.D.), Serdica, RIC VI 041, */A//•SM•SD•, AE-Follis, VENERI VICTRICI, Venus standing left, 409 views123 Galeria-Valeria (?-315 A.D.), Serdica, RIC VI 041, */A//•SM•SD•, AE-Follis, VENERI VICTRICI, Venus standing left,
Galeria-Valeria, daughter of Diocletian and wife of Galerius,.
avers:- GAL-VALERIA-AVG, Diademed, draped bust right.
revers:- VENERI-V-ICTRICI, Venus standing left, holding apple and raising skirt, * left, A right.
exergo: */A//•SM•SD•, diameter: 26mm, weight: 6,08g, axis: h,
mint: Serdica, date: 307-308 A.D., ref: RIC-41-1st-off., C-,
Q-001
2 commentsquadrans
Galeria-Valeria_AE-26_GAL-VALERIA-AVG_VENERI-V-ICTRICI_star-A__SM_SD__Serdica-307-308-RIC-41-1st-off__Q-002_6h_26,5mm_5,37g-s.jpg
123 Galeria-Valeria (?-315 A.D.), Serdica, RIC VI 041, */A//•SM•SD•, AE-Follis, VENERI VICTRICI, Venus standing left, #2111 views123 Galeria-Valeria (?-315 A.D.), Serdica, RIC VI 041, */A//•SM•SD•, AE-Follis, VENERI VICTRICI, Venus standing left, #2
Galeria-Valeria, daughter of Diocletian and wife of Galerius,.
avers:- GAL-VALERIA-AVG, Diademed, draped bust right.
revers:- VENERI-V-ICTRICI, Venus standing left, holding apple and raising skirt, * left, A right.
exergo: */A//•SM•SD•, diameter: 26,5mm, weight: 5,37g, axis: 6h,
mint: Serdica, date: 307-308 A.D., ref: RIC-41-1st-off., C-,
Q-001
quadrans
Galeria-Valeria_AE-26_GAL-VA-LERIA-AVG_VENERI-VICTRICI_crescent-Gamma_SIS_Siscia-310-311_RIC-211-3rd-off_C-_Q-002_axis-h_mm_g-s.jpg
123 Galeria-Valeria (?-315 A.D.), Siscia, RIC VI 211, Crescent/Γ// SIS, AE-Follis, VENERI VICTRICI, Venus standing left,143 views123 Galeria-Valeria (?-315 A.D.), Siscia, RIC VI 211, Crescent/Γ// SIS, AE-Follis, VENERI VICTRICI, Venus standing left,
Galeria-Valeria, daughter of Diocletian and wife of Galerius, AE-26 Follis
avers:- GAL-VALERIA-AVG, Diademed, draped bust right.
revers:- VENERI-V-ICTRICI, Venus standing left, holding apple and raising skirt, crescent left, Γ right.
exergo: Crescent/Γ// SIS, diameter: 23-25mm, weight: 7,13g, axis: 11h,
mint: Siscia, date: 307-310 A.D., ref: RIC-211var-3rd.off, C-,
Q-002
quadrans
Galeria-Valeria_AE-26_GAL-VA-LERIA-AVG_VENERI-VICTRICI_crescent-A_SIS_Siscia-310-311_RIC-211-3rd-off_C-_Q-003_5h_24,5-25,5mm_7,09g-s.jpg
123 Galeria-Valeria (?-315 A.D.), Siscia, RIC VI 211, Crescent/A//SIS, AE-Follis, VENERI VICTRICI, Venus standing left, #384 views123 Galeria-Valeria (?-315 A.D.), Siscia, RIC VI 211, Crescent/A//SIS, AE-Follis, VENERI VICTRICI, Venus standing left, #3
Galeria-Valeria, daughter of Diocletian and wife of Galerius, AE-26 Follis
avers:- GAL-VALERIA-AVG, Diademed, draped bust right.
revers:- VENERI-V-ICTRICI, Venus standing left, holding apple and raising skirt, crescent left, E right.
exergo: Crescent/A// SIS, diameter: 24,5-25,5mm, weight: 7,09g, axis: 5h,
mint: Siscia, date: 309-310 A.D., ref: RIC-211var-.off, C-,
Q-003
quadrans
Galeria-Valeria_AE-26_GAL-VALERIA-AVG_VENER-I-VICTRICI_Crescent-Epsilon_SIS_Siscia-309-310-RIC-VI-211_p-480_5th-off__Q-001_0h_24-26mm_6,61g-s.jpg
123 Galeria-Valeria (?-315 A.D.), Siscia, RIC VI 211, Crescent/E//SIS, AE-Follis, VENERI VICTRICI, Venus standing left,152 views123 Galeria-Valeria (?-315 A.D.), Siscia, RIC VI 211, Crescent/E//SIS, AE-Follis, VENERI VICTRICI, Venus standing left,
Galeria-Valeria, daughter of Diocletian and wife of Galerius, AE-26 Follis
avers:- GAL-VALERIA-AVG, Diademed, draped bust right.
revers:- VENERI-V-ICTRICI, Venus standing left, holding apple and raising skirt, crescent left, E right.
exergo: Crescent/E// SIS, diameter: 24-26mm, weight: 6,61g, axis: 0h,
mint: Siscia, date: 309-310 A.D., ref: RIC-211var-5th.off, C-,
Q-002
quadrans
Galeria-Valeria_AE-26_GAL-VA-LERIA-AVG_VENERI-VICTRICI_crescent-Gamma_SIS_Siscia-309-310_RIC-211_C--_Q-001_26mm_4,98g-s.jpg
123 Galeria-Valeria (?-315 A.D.), Siscia, RIC VI 211var Not in RIC, Crescent/Γ// SIS, AE-Follis, VENERI VICTRICI, Venus standing left,149 views123 Galeria-Valeria (?-315 A.D.), Siscia, RIC VI 211var Not in RIC, Crescent/Γ// SIS, AE-Follis, VENERI VICTRICI, Venus standing left,
Galeria-Valeria, daughter of Diocletian and wife of Galerius, AE-26 Follis
avers: GAL VAL ERIA AVG, Diademed, decorated draped bust right. The robe around the neck of interesting shapes (some of Victoria ??) can be seen.
reverse: VENERI VICTRICI, Venus standing left, holding the apple and raising skirt, crescent left, Γ right.
exergue: Crescent/Γ// SIS, diameter: 26mm, weight: 4,98g, axis: 1h,
mint: Siscia, date: 307-310 A.D., ref: RIC-211var-3rd.off, C-, this bust Not in RIC !!!
Q-001
quadrans
Galeria-Valeria_AE-26_GAL-VA-LERIA-AVG_VENERI-VICTRICI_crescent-Gamma_SIS_Siscia-309-310_RIC-211_C--_Q-001_26mm_4,98g-figures.jpg
123 Galeria-Valeria (?-315 A.D.), Siscia, RIC VI 211var Not in RIC, Crescent/Γ// SIS, AE-Follis, VENERI VICTRICI, Venus standing left, The decoration on the dress the part of the neck.138 views123 Galeria-Valeria (?-315 A.D.), Siscia, RIC VI 211var Not in RIC, Crescent/Γ// SIS, AE-Follis, VENERI VICTRICI, Venus standing left, The decoration on the dress the part of the neck.
avers: GAL VALERIA AVG, Diademed, draped bust right. The robe around the neck of interesting shapes (some of Victoria or Erotes/Cupid ??) can be seen.
reverse: VENERI VICTRICI, Venus standing left, holding the apple and raising skirt, crescent left, Gamma right.
"I would concur that they are Erotes/Cupids. Which, of course, would fit with the reverse type, Erotes being associated with Venus." by Adrianus. Thank you Adrianus.
exergue: -/-//SIS, diameter: 26mm, weight: 4,98g, axis: 1h,
mint: Siscia, date: 307-310 A.D., ref: RIC-211, C-,
Q-001
quadrans
RI_146dr_img.jpg
146 - Maximianus Herculius - RIC VI Antioch 112c34 viewsFollis
Obv:– IMP C M AVR VAL MAXIMIANVS P F AVG, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:– GENIO IMP-ERATORIS, Genius standing left holding patera and cornucopia
Minted in Antioch (_ | Theta / E //ANT Dot). Early to Later A.D. 309
Reference:– RIC VI Antioch 112c (R) (Citing Oxford; Apparently a rare issue for Maximianus Herculius and only issued from this officina)
 
6.39 gms. 26.19 mm. 0 degrees. Better than the RIC plate coin (reverse only illustrated).
 
From RIC Notes "A very remarkable innovation, peculiar to this issue, is the reappearance of Herculius (with the long legend Imp C M Aur Val Maximianus P F Aug matching those of Galerius and Licinus, and with cuirassed bust) on rare coins with Genio Imperatoris; this is parallelled at the same time (see RIC VI page 656). Expelled from Italy c. April 308, and rejected at the Carnuntum conference in November 308, Herculius had received ample share in the coinage of Constantine's mints, and it seems that Maximinus (now antagonisitc to both Galerius and Licinius) may have been momentarily willing to demontsrate his hostility by including the name of the man who might still play and anti-Galerian part in the west."
2 commentsmaridvnvm
IMG_4391~0.jpg
160. Galeria Valeria (Wife of Galerius)17 viewsAv.: GAL VALERIA AVG
Rv.: VENERI VICTRICI
Left: star / Right: B
Ex.: dot SM dot SD dot

AE Follis Ø27 / 6.2g
RIC VI 41 Serdica
Juancho
GalValFollis.jpg
1dw Galeria Valeria15 viewsDaughter of Diocletian and wife of Galerius.

Follis, Cyzicus

Diademed & draped bust, right, GAL VALERIA AVG
Venus standing left, holding up apple in right hand & raising drapery over shoulder with left, D left, MKV in ex, VENERI VITRICI

RIC 46
Blindado
rjb_gval2_04_07.jpg
305a40 viewsGaleria Valeria
AE Follis
Obv: GAL VALERIA AVG
Diademed, draped bust facing with necklace, head right
Rev: VENERI VICTRICI
Venus standing left, holding apple and vertical sceptre
*/delta/.SM.TS.
Thessalonica Mint
RIC (VI) Thessalonica 36
2 commentsmauseus
rjb_gval1_04_07.jpg
305a18 viewsGaleria Valeria
AE Follis
Obv: GAL VALERIA AVG
Diademed, draped bust right
Rev: VENERI VICTRICI
Venus standing left, holding apple and vertical sceptre
Δ/-//MKV
Cyzicus Mint
RIC (VI) Cyzicus 46
mauseus
Denario_Lucilla_RIC_786.jpg
36-02 - LUCILA (164 - 180 D.C.)87 viewsAR Denario 19 x 17 mm 2.7 gr.

Annia Aurelia Galeria Lucila (7 de marzo de 150 - 182) fue la hija mayor del emperador romano Marco Aurelio y Faustina la Menor y hermana de Cómodo. En el año 164 d. C., el emperador Marco Aurelio casó a su hija Annia Lucilla, con su socio en el poder y hermano de adopción Lucio Aurelio Vero. Después de la muerte del emperador Lucio Vero en 169, Lucila se volvió a casar, esta vez con Claudius Pompeianus y se entregó al desenfreno y depravación, viviendo incluso una incestuosa relación con su hermano Cómodo. El emperador Cómodo sufrió numerosos complots y después de descubrir algunos de ellos, empezó un periodo de terror en el que numerosas personalidades influyentes fueron acusadas y condenadas a muerte. Incluso sus más allegados, como su esposa Crispina y su hermana Lucila fueron acusadas de traición, deportadas a Caprea (isla de Capri) y más tarde asesinadas. Lucila había realmente conspirado junto con un grupo de senadores, pero durante el año 182 fue descubierta y murió en Capri, por orden de emperador. Los senadores líderes también fueron ejecutados. [Fuente WIKIPEDIA]

Anv: "LVCILLA AVGVSTA"- Busto con rodete y vestido viendo a derecha.
Rev: "VENVS VICTRIX" - Venus estante a izquierda portando Victoriola en la mano derecha extendida y apoyando la izquierda en un escudo.

Acuñada 166 - 169 D.C.
Ceca: Roma

Referencias: RIC Vol.III (Marco Aurelio) #786 Pag.276 - Sear RCTV Vol.II #5492 – BMCRE IV #353 - Cohen Vol.III #89 Pag.222 - DVM #15 Pag.158 – RSC II #89 - MIR.18/45 -4
mdelvalle
RIC_786_Denario_Lucila.jpg
36-02 - LUCILA (164 - 180 D.C.)12 viewsAR Denario 19 x 17 mm 2.7 gr.

Annia Aurelia Galeria Lucila (7 de marzo de 150 - 182) fue la hija mayor del emperador romano Marco Aurelio y Faustina la Menor y hermana de Cómodo. En el año 164 d. C., el emperador Marco Aurelio casó a su hija Annia Lucilla, con su socio en el poder y hermano de adopción Lucio Aurelio Vero. Después de la muerte del emperador Lucio Vero en 169, Lucila se volvió a casar, esta vez con Claudius Pompeianus y se entregó al desenfreno y depravación, viviendo incluso una incestuosa relación con su hermano Cómodo. El emperador Cómodo sufrió numerosos complots y después de descubrir algunos de ellos, empezó un periodo de terror en el que numerosas personalidades influyentes fueron acusadas y condenadas a muerte. Incluso sus más allegados, como su esposa Crispina y su hermana Lucila fueron acusadas de traición, deportadas a Caprea (isla de Capri) y más tarde asesinadas. Lucila había realmente conspirado junto con un grupo de senadores, pero durante el año 182 fue descubierta y murió en Capri, por orden de emperador. Los senadores líderes también fueron ejecutados. [Fuente WIKIPEDIA]

Anv: "LVCILLA AVGVSTA"- Busto con rodete y vestido viendo a derecha.
Rev: "VENVS VICTRIX" - Venus estante a izquierda portando Victoriola en la mano derecha extendida y apoyando la izquierda en un escudo.

Acuñada 166 - 169 D.C.
Ceca: Roma

Referencias: RIC Vol.III (Marco Aurelio) #786 Pag.276 - Sear RCTV Vol.II #5492 – BMCRE IV #353 Pag.432 (Plate 59 #10) - Cohen Vol.III #89 Pag.222 - DVM #15 Pag.158 – RSC II #89 Pag.234 - MIR.18/45 -4
mdelvalle
coin223.JPG
406a. Galeria Valeria24 viewsGaleria Valeria was Diocletian's daughter and, to cement the alliance between Diocletian and Galerius, Valeria was married to Galerius. It appears that this was not a very happy marriage. Galeria Valeria was sympathetic towards Christians during this time of severe persecution and it is possible that she was actually a Christian herself. The imperial couple were not blessed with any children during their eighteen year marriage. After Galerius died in A. D. 311, Galeria Valeria and her mother went to live at the court of Maximinus Daia, the caesar who became emperor of the East upon the death of Galerius.

Maximinus proposed marriage to Valeria soon afterward. He was probably more interested in her wealth and the prestige he would gain by marrying the widow of one emperor and the daughter of another than he was in Valeria as a person. She refused his hand, and immediately Maximinus reacted with hatred and fury. Diocletian, by now an old man living in a seaside villa on the Dalmatian coast, begged Maximinus to allow the two women to come home to him. Maximinus refused and had Valeria and her mother banished to live in a village in Syria.

During the civil war that erupted between Maximinus and Licinius, Valeria and Prisca disguised themselves and escaped, trying to reach the safety of Diocletian's villa. In the meantime, Diocletian had died, leaving the women without a haven of safety to which to run. For fifteen months the two royal fugitives traveled from one city to another, always living in fear of being discovered and in search of a little peace.

Finally, they were recognized by someone in the Greek city of Salonika. They were hastily taken to a square in the city and beheaded before a crowd of citizens who had once revered them as empresses. The bodies of Valeria and her mother were afterwards thrown into the sea.

Galeria Valeria Follis. AD 308-311. GAL VAL-ERIA AVG, Diademed & draped bust right / VENERI V-ICTRICI, Venus standing left, holding apple & scepter, * to left, G to right, (dot)SM(dot)TS(dot) in ex.
ecoli
25-Gaeria-Valeria-Ser-41.jpg
59 Galeria Valeria: Serdica follis.16 viewsFollis, 307 - 308 AD, Serdica mint.
Obverse: FAL VALERIA AVG / Bust of Galeria Valeria.
Reverse: VENERI VICTRICI / Venus standing, holding up apple, raising drapery over left shoulder, * in left field, Δ in right field.
Mint mark: . SM . SD .
7.07 gm., 26.5 mm.
RIC #41; PBCC #852; Sear #14591.

She was the daughter of Diocletian and Prisca. Her father married her off to his colleague Galerius.
This coin is from the last group of coins issued from the Serdica mint before it was closed in 308.
Callimachus
VitelliusARdenariusVesta.jpg
709a, Vitellius, 2 January - 20 December 69 A.D.44 viewsVITELLIUS AR silver denarius. RSC 72, RCV 2200. 19mm, 3.2 g. Obverse: A VITELLIVS GERM IMP AVG TR P, laureate head right; Reverse - PONT MAXIM, Vesta seated right, holding scepter and patera. Quite decent. Ex. Incitatus Coins. Photo courtesy of Incitatus Coins.

De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Vitellius (69 A.D.)

John F. Donahue
College of William and Mary


It is often difficult to separate fact from fiction in assessing the life and reign of Vitellius. Maligned in the ancient sources as gluttonous and cruel, he was also a victim of a hostile biographical tradition established in the regime of the Flavians who had overthrown him. Nevertheless, his decision to march against Rome in 69 was pivotal, since his subsequent defeat signalled the end of military anarchy and the beginning of an extended period of political stability under Vespasian and his successors.

Early Life and Career

Aulus Vitellius was born in September, 15 AD, the son of Lucius Vitellius and his wife Sestilia. One of the most successful public figures of the Julio-Claudian period, Lucius Vitellius was a three-time consul and a fellow censor with the emperor Claudius. Aulus seems to have moved with equal ease in aristocratic circles, successively winning the attention of the emperors Gaius, Claudius, and Nero through flattery and political skill.

Among his attested public offices, Vitellius was a curator of public works, a senatorial post concerned with the maintenance and repair of public buildings in Rome, and he was also proconsul of North Africa, where he served as a deputy to his brother, perhaps about 55 A. D. In addition, he held at least two priesthoods, the first as a member of the Arval Brethren, in whose rituals he participated from 57 A.D., and the second, as one of the quindecemviri sacris faciundis, a sacred college famous for its feasts.

With respect to marriage and family, Vitellius first wed a certain Petroniana, the daughter of a consul, sometime in the early to mid thirties A.D. The union produced a son, Petronianus, allegedly blind in one eye and emancipated from his father's control as a result of being named his mother's heir. Tradition records that Vitellius killed the boy shortly after emancipation amid charges of parricide; the marriage soon ended in divorce. A second marriage, to Galeria Fundana, daughter of an ex-praetor, was more stable than the first. It produced another son, who was eventually killed by the Flavians after the overthrow of Vitellius, as well as a daughter. Galeria is praised by Tacitus for her good qualities, and in the end it was she who saw to Vitellius' burial.

Rise to Power and Emperorship

Without doubt, the most fortuitous moment in Vitellius' political career was his appointment as governor of Lower Germany by the emperor Galba late in 68. The decision seemed to have caught everybody by surprise, including Vitellius himself, who, according to Suetonius, was in straitened circumstances at the time. The choice may have been made to reduce the possibility of rebellion by the Rhine armies, disaffected by Galba's refusal to reward them for their part in suppressing the earlier uprising of Julius Vindex. Ironically, it was Vitellius' lack of military achievement and his reputation for gambling and gluttony that may have also figured in his selection. Galba perhaps calculated that a man with little military experience who could now plunder a province to satisfy his own stomach would never become disloyal. If so, it was a critical misjudgement by the emperor.

The rebellion began on January 1, 69 ("The Year of the Four Emperors"), when the legions of Upper Germany refused to renew their oath of allegiance to Galba. On January 2, Vitellius' own men, having heard of the previous day's events, saluted him as emperor at the instigation of the legionary legate Fabius Valens and his colleagues. Soon, in addition to the seven legions that Vitellius now had at his command in both Germanies, the forces in Gaul, Britain, and Raetia also came over to his side. Perhaps aware of his military inexperience, Vitellius did not immediately march on Rome himself. Instead, the advance was led by Valens and another legionary general, Aulus Caecina Alienus, with each man commanding a separate column. Vitellius would remain behind to mobilize a reserve force and follow later.

Caecina was already one hundred fifty miles on his way when news reached him that Galba had been overthrown and Otho had taken his place as emperor. Undeterred, he passed rapidly down the eastern borders of Gaul; Valens followed a more westerly route, quelling a mutiny along the way. By March both armies had successfully crossed the Alps and joined at Cremona, just north of the Po. Here they launced their Batavian auxiliaries against Otho's troops and routed them in the First Battle of Bedriacum. Otho killed himself on April 16, and three days later the soldiers in Rome swore their allegience to Vitellius. The senate too hailed him as emperor.

When Vitellius learned of these developments, he set out to Rome from Gaul. By all accounts the journey was a drunken feast marked by the lack of discipline of both the troops and the imperial entourage. Along the way he stopped at Lugdunum to present his six-year-old son Germanicus to the legions as his eventual successor. Later, at Cremona, Vitellius witnessed the corpse-filled battlefield of Otho's recent defeat with joy, unmoved by so many citizens denied a proper burial.

The emperor entered Rome in late June-early July. Conscious of making a break with the Julio-Claudian past, Vitellius was reluctant to assume the traditional titles of the princes, even though he enthusiastically made offerings to Nero and declared himself consul for life. To his credit, Vitellius did seem to show a measure of moderation in the transition to the principate. He assumed his powers gradually and was generally lenient to Otho's supporters, even pardoning Otho's brother Salvius Titianus, who had played a key role in the earlier regime. In addition, he participated in Senate meetings and continued the practice of providing entertainments for the Roman masses. An important practical change involved the awarding of posts customarily held by freedmen to equites, an indication of the growth of the imperial bureaucracy and its attractiveness to men of ambition.

In other matters, he replaced the existing praetorian guard and urban cohorts with sixteen praetorian cohorts and four urban units, all comprised of soldiers from the German armies. According to Tacitus, the decision prompted a mad scramble, with the men, and not their officers, choosing the branch of service that they preferred. The situation was clearly unsatisfactory but not surprising, given that Vitellius was a creation of his own troops. To secure his position further, he sent back to their old postings the legions that had fought for Otho, or he reassigned them to distant provinces. Yet discontent remained: the troops who had been defeated or betrayed at Bedriacum remained bitter, and detachments of three Moesian legions called upon by Otho were returned to their bases, having agitated against Vitellius at Aquileia.

Flavian Revolt

The Vitellian era at Rome was short-lived. By mid-July news had arrived that the legions of Egypt under Tiberius Julius Alexander had sworn allegiance to a rival emperor, Titus Flavius Vespasianus, the governor of Judaea and a successful and popular general. Vespasian was to hold Egypt while his colleague Mucianus, governor of Syria, was to invade Italy. Before the plan could be enacted, however, the Danube legions, former supporters of Otho, joined Vespasian's cause. Under the leadership of Antonius Primus, commander of the Sixth legion in Pannonia, and Cornelius Fuscus, imperial procurator in Illyricum, the legions made a rapid descent on Italy.

Although his forces were only half of what Vitellius commanded in Italy, Primus struck first before the emperor could muster additional reinforcements from Germany. To make matters worse for the Vitellians, Valens was ill, and Caecina, now consul, had begun collaborating with the Flavians. His troops refused to follow his lead, however, and arrested him at Hostilia near Cremona. They then joined the rest of the Vitellian forces trying to hold the Po River. With Vitellius still in Rome and his forces virtually leaderless, the two sides met in October in the Second Battle of Bedriacum. The emperor's troops were soundly defeated and Cremona was brutally sacked by the victors. In addition, Valens, whose health had recovered, was captured while raising an army for Vitellius in Gaul and Germany; he was eventually executed.

Meanwhile, Primus continued towards Rome. Vitellius made a weak attempt to thwart the advance at the Apennine passes, but his forces switched to the Flavian side without a fight at Narnia in mid-December. At Rome, matters were no better. Vespasian's elder brother, Titus Flavius Sabinus, the city prefect, was successful in an effort to convince Vitellius to abdicate but was frustrated by the mob in Rome and the emperor's soldiers. Forced to flee to the Capitol, Sabinus was set upon by Vitellius' German troops and soon killed, with the venerable Temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus set ablaze in the process. Within two days, the Flavian army fought its way into Rome. In a pathetic final move, Vitellius disguised himself in dirty clothing and hid in the imperial doorkeeper's quarters, leaning a couch and a mattress against the door for protection. Dragged from his hiding place by the Flavian forces, he was hauled off half-naked to the Forum, where he was tortured, killed, and tossed into the Tiber. The principate could now pass to Vespasian.

Assessment

Vitellius has not escaped the hostility of his biographers. While he may well have been gluttonous, his depiction as indolent, cruel, and extravagant is based almost entirely on the propaganda of his enemies. On the other hand, whatever moderating tendencies he did show were overshadowed by his clear lack of military expertise, a deficiency that forced him to rely in critical situations on largely inneffective lieutenants. As a result he was no match for his Flavian successors, and his humiliating demise was perfectly in keeping with the overall failure of his reign.

Copyright (C) 1999, John Donahue.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
Follis Galeria Valeria RIC Nicomedia 57.jpg
A114-10 - GALERIA VALERIA (308 - 311 D.C.)36 viewsAE Follis 24 x 25 mm 6.6 gr.
Hija de Diocleciano y esposa de Galerio.

Anv: "GAL VALERIA AVG" - Busto con diadema, túnica y collar, viendo a derecha.
Rev: "VENERI VICTRICI CMH(Ligadas)" - Venus de pié de frente viendo a izquierda, portando una manzana en la mano de su brazo derecho extendido y levantando su velo con mano izquierda. "SMNA" en exergo.

Acuñada 308 - 310 D.C.
Ceca: Nicomedia (Off.1ra.)
Rareza: C

Referencias: RIC Vol.VI (Nicomedia) #57 Pag.562 - Cohen Vol.VII #13 Pag.130 - DVM #3 var Pag.282 - Salgado MRBI Vol.III #7303.c. var. Pag.77
mdelvalle
Faustina_I_R674_portrait.jpg
AD 138-141 - FAVSTINA I6 viewsAnnia Galeria Faustina was a Roman empress and wife of the Roman emperor Antoninus Pius.

for obverse, reverse and coin details click here

shanxi
Faustina_II_15_portrait.jpg
AD 147-176 - FAVSTINA II10 viewsFaustina II

Annia Galeria Faustina Minor (130 - winter 175 or spring of 176]) was a daughter of Roman Emperor Antoninus Pius and Roman Empress Faustina the Elder. She was a Roman Empress and wife to her Roman Emperor Marcus Aurelius.

for obverse, reverse and coin details click here
shanxi
Lucilla_02_portrait.jpg
AD 166-169 - LVCILLA9 viewsLucilla

Annia Aurelia Galeria Lucilla (148 or 150 – 182) was the second daughter and third child of Roman Emperor Marcus Aurelius and Roman Empress Faustina II. She was the wife of her father's co-ruler Lucius Verus.

for obverse, reverse and coin details click here
shanxi
Faustina_the_Younger_V_4484.JPG
Annia Galeria Faustina the Younger, daughter of Antoninus Pius, wife of Marcus Aurelius, mother of Commodus.39 viewsObv: (Φ)AVCTEINA C(EBBACTH), draped bust of Faustina facing right.

Rev: OVΛΠIAC ΠAVTA(ΛIAC), Hygeia standing right feeding a serpent from a patera.

Æ 21, Pautalia, Thrace

6.6 grams, 21 mm, 180°

Varbanov II 4484
1 commentsSPQR Coins
galeria_valeria.jpg
BCC Lr1317 viewsLate Roman BCC Lr13
Galeria Valeria 305-311CE
AE Follis - Thessalonica
OBV:GAL VALE-[RIA] AVG
Diademed and draped bust right, wearing necklace.
REV:VENERI V-ITRICI
Venus standing left, holding apple and raising drapery
from shoulder, star to left, A to right, dot SM dot TS in ex.
23x25mm. 5.81gm. Axis:0
RIC 36, A
The coins of Galeria all have very interesting variations in hairstyle, jewelry, and
dress. According to Stevenson, this empress met an unfortunate end, as did
so many of the rulers from this period.
v-drome
Inscription.jpg
Britain, Caerleon, Isca Silurum, Inscription to Gaius Valerius Victor - Standard Bearer67 viewsA plaque with inscription found at Caerleon. Caerleon, (known as Isca Sulla to the Romans) was founded by Vespasian and was the headquarters for Legio II Augusta from about A.D. 75 to A.D. 300.

D M
G VALERIVS G F
GALERIA VICTOR
LVGDVNI SIG LEG II AVG
STIP XVII ANNOR XLV CV
RAI AGENT ANNIO PERPETVO H

DIS MANIBVS
GAIVS VALERIVS GAI FILLVS
GALERIA (TRIBV) VICTOR
LVGDVNI SIGNIFER LEGIONIS II AVGVSTAE
STRIPENDIORVM XVII ANNORVM XLV CV-
RAIM AGENTE ANNIO PERPETVO HEREDE

"To the spirits of the departed; Gaius Valerius Victor, son of Gaius, of the Galerian voting tribe, from Lugdunum, standard-bearer of the Second Augustan Legion, of 17 years; service, Aged 45, set up under the charge of Annius Perpetuus, his heir."
maridvnvm
618NN378.jpg
Cr 313/4 Æ Quadrans L. Memmius Galeria5 viewsc. 106 b.c.e., 18 mm, 4.16 gms.
o: Head of Hercules r., wearing lion’s skin; behind, three pelelts
r: Three pellets above /L·MEMMI above Prow r., with head of Venus decorating acrostolium; before, Cupid placing wreath on its top and below, ROMA.
Memmia 5. Sydenham 575b.
One has to squint, a bit, at the interersting reverse to see Venus and Cupid on the reverse, but Cupid is facing left and stretching very hard towards the acrostolium, wings fluttering behind. The "eye" and the "X" oar-box are clear, as are the stylized waves.
ex RBW Collection (not NAC sales)
PMah
memmius_den_2.jpg
Cr 349/1 - L. and C. Memmius L.f. Galeria (87 BC)10 viewsROMAN REPUBLIC
L. and C. Memmius L.f. Galeria (87 BC). 2 AR denarii (3.75 gm). Rome Mint

Laureate head of Saturn left; behind, harpa; to left, .P (retrograde); to right, EX. S. C / Venus driving biga r., holding scepter, Cupid flying l. above.

Crawford 349/1, Sydenham 712. Memmia 8. Toned. VF
Ex Heritage
RR0021
RR0022
Sosius
70.jpg
Diva Faustina Denarius - Aeternitas (RIC II 351)34 viewsAR Denarius
Rome 141 AD
3.15g

Obv: Draped bust of Faustina (R)
DIVA FAUSTINA

Rev: AETERNITAS standing (L) folding Globe, veil billowing around her head. AETERNITAS in exergue.
Annia Galeria Faustina, more familiarly referred to as Faustina the Elder (100 - 140 AD ), was wife of Roman Emperor Antoninus Pius.

RIC II 351 RSC 32
Kained but Able
EB0752_scaled.JPG
EB0752 Galeria Valeria / Venus12 viewsGaleria Valeria (wife of Galerius), AE Follis, Heraclea 308-311 AD.
Obverse: GAL VAL-ERIA AVG, diademed and draped bust right.
Reverse: VENERI V-ICTRICI, Venus standing left, holding apple and raising drapery, star in left field. Mintmark HTΔ(A?).
References: Cf. RIC VI Heraclea 50 (mintmark HTA).
Diameter: 27mm, Weight: 7.204g.
EB
FAUSTINA_JNR_PEACOCK~0.JPG
FAUSTINA II, JUNIOR. Commemorative denarius of Rome. Struck A.D.176-180 under Marcus Aurelius.144 viewsObverse: DIVA FAVSTINA PIA. Draped bust of Faustina Junior facing right.
Reverse: CONSECRATIO. Peacock standing facing right.
Diameter: 18mm | Weight: 3.24gms | Die Axis: 12
RIC III : 744 | RSC : 71a

Annia Galeria Faustina was the youngest daughter of Antoninus Pius and Faustina Senior. She married Marcus Aurelius in A.D.145 and was given the title of Augusta on the birth of her first child in A.D.146. She went on to have several more children, one of whom was the future emperor Commodus. In A.D.175 Faustina accompanied Marcus Aurelius on his journey to the East but she died at Halala, a village at the foot of the Taurus Mountains.
1 comments*Alex
FavjSe10-2.jpg
Faustina Junior, RIC (M. Aurelius) 1635, Sestertius of AD 161 (Emperor's growing family)40 viewsÆ Sestertius (28.3g, Ø35mm, 12h). Rome mint. Struck AD 161.
Obv.: FAVSTINA AVGVSTA, draped bust of Fautina Junior facing right.
Rev.: FECVND AVGVSTA (around) S C (in field), Fecunditas standing left, holding two infants in her arms, two more standing left and right of her raising their right hands.
RIC (Aurelius) 1635; BMC 902; Cohen 96; Foss (RHC) 143:8

This type refers to the growing family of Marcus Aurelius and Faustina Jr. The four children are four surviving girls (of a total of 8 children born) around late 160: they were at the time the dies were designed: Annia Galeria Aurelia Faustina (age 14), Lucilla (12) and Fadilla (1) and Cornifica (0).
Charles S
Favjse13-2.jpg
Faustina Junior, RIC (M. Aurelius) 1649, Sestertius of AD 161 (Emperor's growing family)53 viewsÆ Sestertius (23.38g, Ø31mm, 12h). Rome mint. Struck AD 161.
Obv.: FAVSTINA AVGVSTA, draped bust of Fautina Junior facing right.
Rev.: IVNONI LVCINAE (around) S C (in field), Faustina as Juno, standing left, holding a child in her arms, two more standing left and right of her raising their right hands.
RIC (Aurelius) 1649; Sear 2000 (RCV) 5277
ex Byzantine Coin Store (via VCoins)

This type refers to the growing family of Marcus Aurelius and Faustina Jr. The three girls represent the three surviving children (of a total of 7 born) around end of 159 to early 160: Annia Galeria Aurelia Faustina (age 14), Lucilla (12) and Fadilla (1).
Charles S
Favjse12-2.jpg
Faustina Junior, RIC unlisted, Sestertius of AD 161 (Emperor's growing family)76 viewsÆ Sestertius (25.86g, Ø33mm, 12h). Rome mint. Struck AD 161.
Obv.: FAVSTINA AVGVSTA, draped bust of Fautina Junior facing right.
Rev.: FECVND AVGVSTA (around) S C (in field), Fecunditas standing left, holding a child in her arms, two more standing left and right of her raising their right hands.
Strack 1335 (1 coll.: Naples); RIC (Aurelius) unlisted (legend corresponds to RIC 1635 and the representation to RIC 1649); Cohen: (idem with nos. 96 and 136)
ex Aeternitas Coins & Antiquities (via VCoins)

This type refers to the growing family of Marcus Aurelius and Faustina Jr. The three girls represent the three surviving children (of a total of 7 born) around end of 159 to early 160: Annia Galeria Aurelia Faustina (age 14), Lucilla (12) and Fadilla (1).

Additional information from Curtis Clay through the forum discussion group: "This type commemorating the birth of a third survivng daughter usually has the legend IVNONI LVCINAE, whereas the type FECVND AVGVSTAE commemorates the birth of the next daughter about a year or so later and shows Fecunditas/Faustina holding two children in her arms while two more stand at her feet.

Strack 1335 knew a sestertius like yours in only one specimen, in Naples, but unfortunately does not illustrate the coin.

The Naples collection was stolen in 1977. Your coin is of nice quality, and has an old-collection look, lightly cleaned on the reverse. I would not be at all surprised if it is the actual Naples coin! "
Charles S
Lg3_quart_sm.jpg
FAVSTINA AVGVSTA / AVGVSTI PII FIL / Ӕ As or Dupontius (156-161 A.D.)20 viewsFAVSTINA AVGVSTA, draped bust right, hair arranged in a chignon (bun) behind the head / AVGVSTI PII FIL, Venus standing left holding Victory and leaning on shield set on a helmet, S-C across fields in the lower half

Ӕ, 22.5-24+mm, 9.56g, die axis 11h

There may be a countermark across the front part of the face on obverse, but due to its location it is difficult to be sure and identify it.

AVGVSTI PII FIL(ia) = daughter of August Antoninus Pius, points out to the ruling of Fausta's father Antoninus Pius rather than her husband Marcus Aurelius. Reverse: Unlike Greek Aphrodite, in addition to her other aspects Roman Venus was also a goddess of victory, this embodied in her representation as Venus Victrix (Victorious) or Victris (of Victory), like in this case: she offers a little winged representation of victory, resting on defensive military attributes (as a female goddess, she represented passive, defensive aspects of war, active ones being the domain of male Mars). SC = [Ex] Senatus Consulto (Senatus is genitive, Consulto is ablative of Consultum) = by decree of the Senate, i. e. the authority of the Senate approved minting of this coin (necessary to justify issue of copper alloy coins for which the intrinsic value was not obvious).

Of two Ӕ coins with the same legends and Venus with shield, RIC 1367 and 1389a, the first is a sestertius and its typical dimensions are characteristic of the type: 30+ mm and 20+g. This one is definitely smaller. Material seems reddish, so this one is more likely an as. Minted in Rome. Some sources give issue dates as 156-161 (the end of Faustina's father's reign), others as 145-146 (her marriage).

Annia Galeria Faustina Minor (Minor is Latin for the Younger), Faustina Minor or Faustina the Younger (born probably 21 September c. 130 CE, died in winter of 175 or spring of 176 CE) was a daughter of Roman Emperor Antoninus Pius and Roman Empress Faustina the Elder. She was a Roman Empress and wife to her maternal cousin Roman Emperor Marcus Aurelius. She was held in high esteem by soldiers and her own husband and was given divine honours after her death. Faustina, named after her mother, was her parents' fourth and youngest child and their second daughter; she was also their only child to survive to adulthood. She was born and raised in Rome. Her great uncle, the emperor Hadrian, had arranged with her father for Faustina to marry Lucius Verus. On 25 February 138, she and Verus were betrothed. Verus’ father was Hadrian’s first adopted son and his intended heir; however, when Verus’ father died, Hadrian chose Faustina’s father to be his second adopted son, and eventually, successor. Faustina’s father ended the engagement between his daughter and Verus and arranged for Faustina's betrothal to her maternal cousin, Marcus Aurelius; Aurelius was also adopted by her father.

In April or May 145, Faustina and Marcus Aurelius were married, as had been planned since 138. Since Aurelius was, by adoption, Antoninus Pius' son, under Roman law he was marrying his sister; Antoninus would have had to formally release one or the other from his paternal authority (his patria potestas) for the ceremony to take place. Little is specifically known of the ceremony, but it is said to have been "noteworthy". Coins were issued with the heads of the couple, and Antoninus, as Pontifex Maximus, would have officiated. Marcus makes no apparent reference to the marriage in his surviving letters, and only sparing references to Faustina. Faustina was given the title of Augusta on 1 December 147 after the birth of her first child, Galeria Faustina (or Domitia? sources differ which of them was born in 147 and was the first child).

When Antoninus died on 7 March 161, Marcus and Lucius Verus ascended to the throne and became co-rulers. Faustina then became empress. Unfortunately, not much has survived from the Roman sources regarding Faustina's life, but what is available does not give a good report. Cassius Dio and the Augustan History accuse Faustina of ordering deaths by poison and execution; she has also been accused of instigating the revolt of Avidius Cassius against her husband. The Augustan History mentions adultery with sailors, gladiators, and men of rank; however, Faustina and Aurelius seem to have been very close and mutually devoted.

Faustina accompanied her husband on various military campaigns and enjoyed the love and reverence of Roman soldiers. Aurelius gave her the title of Mater Castrorum or ‘Mother of the Camp’. She attempted to make her home out of an army camp. Between 170–175, she was in the north, and in 175, she accompanied Aurelius to the east.

That same year, 175, Aurelius's general Avidius Cassius was proclaimed Roman emperor after the erroneous news of Marcus's death; the sources indicate Cassius was encouraged by Marcus's wife Faustina, who was concerned about her husband's failing health, believing him to be on the verge of death, and felt the need for Cassius to act as a protector in this event, since her son Commodus, aged 13, was still young. She also wanted someone who would act as a counterweight to the claims of Tiberius Claudius Pompeianus, who was in a strong position to take the office of Princeps in the event of Marcus’s death. The evidence, including Marcus's own Meditations, supports the idea that Marcus was indeed quite ill, but by the time Marcus recovered, Cassius was already fully acclaimed by the Egyptian legions of II Traiana Fortis and XXII Deiotariana. "After a dream of empire lasting three months and six days", Cassius was murdered by a centurion; his head was sent to Marcus Aurelius, who refused to see it and ordered it buried. Egypt recognized Marcus as emperor again by 28 July 175.

Faustina died in the winter of 175, after a somewhat suspicious accident, at the military camp in Halala (a city in the Taurus Mountains in Cappadocia). Aurelius grieved much for his wife and buried her in the Mausoleum of Hadrian in Rome. She was deified: her statue was placed in the Temple of Venus in Rome and a temple was dedicated to her in her honor. Halala’s name was changed to Faustinopolis and Aurelius opened charity schools for orphan girls called Puellae Faustinianae or 'Girls of Faustina'. The Baths of Faustina in Miletus are named after her.

In their thirty years of marriage, Faustina bore Marcus Aurelius thirteen children, of whom 6 reached adulthood and were significant in history. The best known are emperor Commodus and the closest to him sister Lucilla (both depicted in a very historically inaccurate movie "Gladiator" and, together with their parents, in a much more accurate 1st season "Reign of Blood" of the TV series "Roman Empire").
Yurii P
collage4~7.jpg
Galeria Valeria71 viewsVENERI V-ICTRICI
Diademed draped bust right

VENERIV-ICTRICI
stg. facing, head left, right hand holding up apple, left raising drape over lleft shoulder

MK(delta)

RIC Cyzicus 38; AE Follis
7.21g;25-27mm
arizonarobin
Galeria Valeria1.JPG
Galeria Valeria33 viewsObverse: GAL VALE - RIA AVG.

Reverser: VENERI V - ICTRICI...

Mint: ?
Marjan E
00349-GaleriaValeria.JPG
Galeria Valeria24 viewsGaleria Valeria Follis
26 mm 7.15 gm
O: GAL VALERIA AVG
Diademed bust right, wearing embroidered robes.
R: VENERI VICTRICI
Venus standing facing, head left, holding up apple in right hand and raising drapery over shoulder with left.
2 commentsKoffy
galeriavaleria3.jpg
GALERIA VALERIA16 viewsAE follis. Cyzicus 308-309 AD. 8,20 grs. Diademed and draped bust right. GAL VALERIA AVG / Venus standing facing, head left, right hand holding apple, left raising drapery over left shoulder. Delta and star in field, MKV in exergue.
RIC VI 46. Cohen 2.
benito
galeriavaleria3~0.jpg
GALERIA VALERIA20 viewsAE follis. Cyzicus 308-309 AD. 8,20 grs. Diademed and draped bust right. GAL VALERIA AVG / Venus standing facing, head left, right hand holding apple, left raising drapery over left shoulder. VENERI VICTRICI. Delta and star in field, MKV in exergue.
RIC VI 46. Cohen 2.
benito
galval.jpg
Galeria Valeria (293 - 311 A.D.)69 viewsÆ Follis
O: GAL VAL-ERIA AVG, diademed and draped bust right.
R: VENERI V-ICTRICI, Venus standing facing, head left, holding up apple and raising drapery; K-Γ/P, ALE in exergue.
Alexandria Mint
23mm
6.85g
RIC VI 110
5 commentsMat
00445b~0.jpg
Galeria Valeria (RIC 110, Coin #445)138 views
RIC 110, AE Follis, Alexandria, 308 - 310 AD.
Obv: GAL VALERIA AVG Draped & diademed bust right.
Rev: VENERI VICTRICI (ALE) Venus standing left, holding apple
and lifting robe. K - Gamma over P in fields.
Size: 24.4mm 6.82gm

1 commentsMaynardGee
00525.jpg
Galeria Valeria (RIC 56 var, Coin #525)28 views
Galeria Valeria, RIC 56 var (officina), AE Follis, Heraclea, 310 - 311 AD
Obv: GAL VALERIA AVG Diademed and draped bust right.
Rev: VENERI VICTRICI (HTЄ) Venus standing facing, head left, holding up
apple with right hand, raising drapery with left hand. Crescent in right field.
Size: 24.0mm, 5.52g

Note: RIC does not show an Є officina for any of Galeria Valeria's coins minted in Heraclea.

1 commentsMaynardGee
3.jpg
Galeria Valeria (wife of Galerius) 11 viewsSemi-Cleaned Follis. Will update after I have it cleaned.Chris C2
Galeria Valeria.jpg
Galeria Valeria - AE Follis 26 viewsGaleria Valeria, wife of Galerius. AE Follis, 26mm., mint of Anthioch.

Obv.: Her diademed and draped bust to right.

Rev.: VENERI VICTRICI. Venus standing left, holding apple.
Marjan E
GALVALTOGETHER.jpg
Galeria Valeria AD 305-311, AE follis of Thessalonica. RIC VI#3627 views
Galeria Valeria AD 305-311, AE follis of Thessalonica. 27.63mm/ 5.79 grams

Obverse > GAL VALE-RIA AVG, Diademed bust facing, head right, hair weaved in rows and curled around side of head at base of neck, wearing embroidered robes with two necklaces.

Reverse > VENERI V-ICTRICI,Venus standing facing, head left, apple in uplifted right hand, raising drapery over left shoulder with left hand. Star in left field,Gamma in right field.

Mintmark > dot SM dot TS dot. RIC VI #36 Thessalonica ; Officina 3, AD December 308- May 310.


1 commentsPaul R3
lg_galeria_valeria.jpg
Galeria Valeria AE Follis32 viewsGaleria Valeria (Augusta)
AE Follis 6.55g / 25mm / -
GAL VALERIA AVG - Diademed & draped bust right
VENERI VICTRICI - Venus standing left, holding apple & scepter, * to left, E to right
Exergue: SM dot TS
Mint: Thessalonica (308-311 AD)
Ref: RIC 36
Scotvs Capitis
roman56.jpg
Galeria Valeria AE Follis 39 views311 AD. Alexandria mint.
Obv.: GAL VALERIA AVG - Diademed and draped bust of Galeria Valeria.
Rev.: VENERI VICTRICI - Venus holding apple and raising drapery over shoulder. [crescent]/K in l. field, Γ/P in r..
RIC 128A
Minos
galval.jpg
Galeria Valeria AE Follis VENERI VICTRICI26 viewsGaleria Valeria Æ Follis. GAL VALERIA AVG, diademed & draped bust right / VENERI VICTRICI, Venus standing facing, head left, holding up apple & raising drapery over shoulderancientone
galeria-valeria-heraclea.jpg
Galeria Valeria AE Follis Heraclea Venus17 viewsRoman Imperial, Galeria Valeria AE Follis, Struck 309-310 AD.

Obverse: GAL VALERIA AVG, Diademed & draped bust right.

Reverse: VENERI VICTRICI, Venus standing facing, head left, holding apple upwards and raising drapery, HTB in ex. "Women of the Victor"

Reference: RIC Heraclea 43-B, Sear 14593.

Ex: Ancient Imports+photo
Gil-galad
Galeria_Valeria_2.jpg
GALERIA VALERIA AE Follis RIC 36B, Venus17 viewsOBV: GAL VALERIA AVG, diademed & draped bust right
REV: VENERI VICTRICI, Venus standing facing, head left, holding apple upwards and raising drapery, star left, B right; dot SM dot TS dot in ex
6.14g, 24mm

Minted at Thessalonica, 308-11 AD
Legatus
Galeria_Valeria.jpg
GALERIA VALERIA AE Follis RIC 43, Venus18 viewsOBV: GAL VALERIA AVG, diademed & draped bust right
REV: VENERI VICTRICI, Venus standing facing, head left, holding apple upwards and raising drapery, star left, HTA in ex.
4.8g, 29mm

Minted at Heraclea, 309-10 AD
Legatus
GalVal_b.jpg
Galeria Valeria follis43 viewswife of Galerius
VENERI VICTRICI
Tibsi
galeria valeria-.jpg
GALERIA VALERIA follis AD308-30910 viewsobv:GAL.VALERIA.AVG (diademed & draped bust right)
rev:VENERI.VICTRICI / Δ / MKV (Venus standing left, holding up apple in right hand & raising drapery over shoulder with left)
ref:RIC VI-Cyzicus46
mint:Cyzicus, 5.63g, 24mm
Diocletian's daughter and Galerius's wife. They married in June 293, and Valeria followed her husband to East provinces. When Galerius died (312 AD) she was banished by Maximinus II (Daza). After hidden for years she (and her mother) was captured and brutally executed at Thessalonica in 315 AD.
berserker
Galeria_Valeria_AE_Follis_-_RIC_VI_91_Antioquia(1).jpg
Galeria Valeria RIC VI 9110 viewsAntioch 308 AD.
GAL VALERIA AVG
VENERI VICTRICI
ANT in ex.
xokleng
galeria_valeria_thessalonica_36.jpg
Galeria Valeria RIC VI, Thessalonica 3634 viewsGaleria Valeria, daughter of Diocletian, 2nd wife of Galerius. killed AD 315 by Licinius I
AE - AE 3, 6.39g
Thessalonica 2nd officina, AD 308-310
obv. GAL VALE - RIA AVG
bust, draped and diademed, r.
rev. VENERI V - ICTRICI
Venus Victrix, draped, stg. l., holding up apple with r. hand, and raising hem of
her skirt over l. shoulder
star in l. field, B in r. field
in ex.: dot SM dot TS dot
RIC VI, Thessalonica 36
VF

I think this is one of the last depictions of Venus on Roman coins!
1 commentsJochen
Galeria_Valeria_Venus.JPG
Galeria Valeria Venus18 viewsBronze Galeria Valeria - West of Galarius - Follis Coin circa 305-311 A.D. Venus reverse. 25mm Sear-3730
Galeria Valeria Follis, .
RIC VI Thessalonica 33, rated common.
OBV: GAL VALE-RIA AVG, diademed & draped bust right, wearing necklace
REV: VENERI V-ICTRICI, Venus standing left, holding apple & scepter, * to left, A to rght
Mintmark: .SM.TS.
Romanorvm
GalValeria.JPG
Galeria Valeria, AE Follis62 viewsGAL VALERIA AVG
VENERI VICTRICI, HAdelta
RIC IV 43
Heraclea, 309-310 AD
This type records the last appearance of Venus on Imperial Coinage.
whitetd49
gv58.jpg
Galeria Valeria, AE follis 309-310 C.E., Second wife of Galerius 9 viewsObverse: GAL VAL ERIA AVG, diademed AND DRAPED BUST RIGHT.
Reverse: VENERI V ICTRICI, Venus standing left, holding apple in right hand and drapery over shoulder with left hand. D * in field
Mintmark MKV RIC VI 58 Cyzicus, 27.3 mm., 5.6 g.
NORMAN K
Galeria_Valeria_RIC_VI_Thessalonica_36.jpg
Galeria Valeria, AE Follis, RIC VI Thessalonica 3683 viewsGaleria Valeria
Augusta, 308-311 A.D.

Coin: AE Follis

Obverse: GAL VALE-RIA AVG, laureate, draped bust facing right, wearing a Necklace. Seen from the front.
Reverse: VENERI V-ICTRICI, Venus, standing, facing left, holding an Apple with her right hand and lifting her Stola with her left. ✳ - Γ across the fields.

Weight: 4.89 g, Diameter: 26.2 x 26.4 x 1.3 mm, Die axis: 0°, Mintmark: ●SM●TS● (Thessalonica), struck between 308-310 A.D. Reference: RIC VI Thessalonica 36
Masis
galval2.jpg
Galeria Valeria, Alexandria92 viewsGaleria Valeria. Augusta, AD 293(?)-311. Æ Follis (24mm, 7.21 g). Alexandria mint. Struck AD 308-310. Diademed and draped bust right / Venus standing facing, head left, holding up apple and raising drapery over shoulder; K-G/P//ALE. RIC VI 110. Good VF, dark brown patina, some green encrustation on the obverse.

The style of this portrait is my favorite of Galeria Valeria.
Ex-CNG
wildwinds example (this coin)
4 commentsarizonarobin
galeria_k.jpg
Galeria Valeria, Augusta, AD 293(?)-311 3 viewsÆ Follis, 25mm, 6.4g, 12h; Siscia mint, 1st officina. Struck circa AD 309-310.
Obv.: GAL VALERIA AVG; Diademed bust right, wearing embroidered robes.
Rev.: VENERI V-ICTRICI; Venus standing facing, head left, lifting dress and holding apple; (crescent) / A // SIS.
Reference: RIC VI 204, p. 479
John Anthony
ARI-Ga__Valeria-3.jpg
Galeria Valeria, BI Nummus, Alexandria6 viewsAD 293(?) - 311
6.91 grams
Obv.: GALVAL - ERIA AVG, Draped bust right, wearing stephane.
Rev.: VICTRIC - VICTRICI Pin left field Delta over R in Right field, Venus standing left, examining apple Mintmark ALE in ex
RIC VI 74
Purchased from Heritage Auctions
NGC AU: Strike 5/5: Surface 4/5
Richard M10
galeriavaleria.jpg
Galeria Valeria, daughter of Diocletian, wife of co-Emporer Galeria, Cyzicus mint, Turkey 308-309 AD134 viewsBust: Right facing, diademed, no crescent.
Obverse: GALVALERIAAVG
Reverse: VENERIVICTRICI
Type: Venus standing left, holding apple and raising skirt.

Mint = MKV = Cyzicus. Turkey.

Mark = triangle
308 -309 AD. (according to Aorta)

She doesn't come across as a great beauty in other busts, but I think she's rather beautiful in this version. She has a sad expression in her eyes, as if she can see what's coming for her...
Banjaxed
GALVALER-1.jpg
Galeria Valeria, daughter of Diocletian, wife of Galerius. Augusta, 293(?)-311 CE.176 viewsÆ Follis (26 mm, 6.64 gm). Nicomedia mint, 308-310 CE.
Obv: GAL VAL-ERIA AVG, diademed and draped bust right.
Rev: VENERI VI-CTRICI CMH, Venus standing facing, head left, holding apple and drapery; in exergue, SMNA.
RIC VI 57; Sear 3730 var.
EmpressCollector
0591-301.jpg
Galeria Valeria, Follis - 007550 viewsHeraclea mint, 1st officina
GAL VALERIA AVG, draped and diademed bust right
VENERI VICTRICI, Venus standing left, HTA at exergue
6.98 gr
Galeria Valeria, follis, Ref : Cohen # 2, TTB, R!
Potator II
Galeria_Valeria_RIC_211.JPG
Galeria Valeria, RIC 2119 viewsGAL VALERIA AVG
VENERI VICTRICI
AE2, 24mm, 4.95g
Draped bust wearing necklace, shoulders facing on crescent
Venus standing, facing, head left, holding apple and raising drapery over shoulder, A in right field

Poorly preserved example
SIS in ex
novacystis
galeria-valeria-ric_VI_41.jpg
Galeria Valeria, RIC VI 4113 viewsSerdica 307-308 AD.
25 mm, 4 g.
GAL VALERIA AVG
VENVS VICTRICI
.SM.SD. in ex.
xokleng
galeria_valeria_alex_81.jpg
Galeria Valeria, RIC VI, Alexandria 8112 viewsGaleria Valeria, AD 315 murdered by Licinius II
AE - Follis (AE 3), 5.98g, 22mm, 0°
Alexandria, 5th officina, late 308
obv. GAL VAL - ERIA AVG
Bust, draped, diademed, r.
rev. VENERI - V - ICTRICI
Venus Victric, inlonggarment and mantle, stg. frontal, head l., holding in raise l. hand garment over
shoulder and in r. hand apple
in l. and r. field E / X - K
in ex. ALE
ref. RIC VI, Alexandria 81; C. 2
F-about VF
Pedigree:
ex coll. Drexler, Würzburg, Christmas 1958
Jochen
galval867.jpg
Galeria Valeria, Venus72 viewsGAL VALE-RIA AVG

VENERI V-ICT RICI

:dot: SM :dot: TS :dot:
:star: /left field, B in right ( I think just worn down)

Thessalonica
2 commentsarizonarobin
Galera.jpg
L & C Memmius Lf Galeria AR Denarius33 viewsL & C Memmius Lf Galeria AR Denarius. 87 BC. Head of Saturn left, control letter under chin, EX S C under neck / Venus in biga right, above Cupid flying left with wreath, L C MEMIES L F/GAL in ex. Cr349/1 variant, Syd 712 variant.

VERY FINE

The Memmia Gens claimed descent from Menestheus the Trojan, one of the companions of Aeneas to Italy.

Philoromaos
L_Memmius_Galeria.jpg
L Memmius Galeria11 viewsAR Denarius serratus
Rome mint, 106 B.C.
3.36g, 19mm
RCVI- 190var., RSCv.1- Memmia 2a

Obverse:
ROMA
Laureate head of Saturn left. Harpa behind.

Reverse:
.E
L MEMMI
GAL
(ME in monogram)
Venus in slow biga right, Cupid flying above with wreath.


Will J
1477_L_C_Memius_Lf_Gal.jpg
L. & C. Memmius L.f. Galeria - AR denarius13 viewsRome
87 BC
laureate head of Saturn left; harpa left
EX·S·C
::A
Venus in slow biga right, holding staff and reins; above Cupid flying left, holding wreath
L·C·MEMIES·L·F / GAL
Crawford 349/1, Sydenham 712, RSC I Memmia 8, SRCV I 262, RBW Collection 1328 var. (control), BMCRR I Rome 2421 ff. Var ex Roma
Johny SYSEL
0126.jpg
L. and C. Memmius L.f. Galeria, Denarius15 viewsL. and C. Memmius L.f. Galeria, Denarius

RRC 349/1
87 b.c.
4.04 gr

Av: ROMA below, laureate head of Saturn left; below chin.X.; behind, harpa.
Rv: L MEMMI/GAL in two lines in exergue, Venus, holding scepter and reins, driving slow biga right; above, Cupid flying left, holding wreath.

ex Ira & Larry Goldberg Coins & Collectibles, Inc., Auction 96, Lot 1959
1 commentsNorbert
28356.jpg
L. and C. Memmius L.f. Galeria.7 viewsL. and C. Memmius L.f. Galeria. 87 B.C. AR denarius (18.2 mm, 3.83 g, 4 h). Rome mint. [EX·SC], Laureate head of Saturn left, harpa to right, controls off flan / L·C MEMIES L·F/GAL, Venus driving biga right, holding reins and scepter; above, Cupid flying left, holding wreath. Crawford 349/1; Sydenham 712; RSC Memmia 8. toned aVF, off center.

Ex D. Thomas collection.
ecoli
rteff.jpg
L. C. Memmius L. f. Galeria (87 B.C)46 viewsAR Denarius
O:  Head of Saturn left; EX•S•C below; control letter beneath chin.
R: Venus driving biga right, cupid above; L•C•MEMIES•L•F•GAL in exergue.
Rome Mint
3.68g
18mm
Crawford 313/1b; Sydenham 574; Memmia 2
4 commentsMat
1472_L__Memmius_Gallus.jpg
L. Memmius Galeria - AR serratus denarius13 viewsTransalpine Gaul or Sardinia
Roma
¹103 BC
²106 BC
laureate head of Saturn left harpa
ROMA
Venus in slow biga right holding scepter and reins; above Cupid flying left, holding wreath
· / Q
L·(ME)MMI
GAL
¹Crawford 313/1c; BMCRR I 1353 (also pellet / Q); Sydenham 574a; RSC I Memmia 2a
²Mark Passehl - Roman moneyer & coin type chronology, 150 – 50 BC
ex Bertolami
Johny SYSEL
_MG_2170.JPG
L. Memmius Galeria.23 viewsAR denarius. 106 BC. 3,86 grs. Laureate head of Saturn left. V below chin, ROMA and harpa behind / Venus in biga right. Cupid flying above, holding laurel wreath. L MEMMI GAL in two lines in exergue ( ME ligate).
Crawford 313/1b. RSC Memmia 2.
benito
MarAurFaustinaCombo3.jpg
MAFJ5 Emperor and Empress18 viewsMarcus Aurelius
Sestertius
Dec 162-Autumn 163

Sestertius
Laureate head, right, IMP CAES M AVREL ANTONINVS AVG PM
Salus stg, SALVTI AVGVSTOR TR P XVII COS III SC

RIC 843

Faustina II
Denarius

Draped bust right, hair in a bun behind, FAVSTINA AVGVSTA
Fecundity (Faustina) standing left between two children, holding two more in arms, FECVND AVGVSTAE

RIC 676

The sestertius portrays Marcus within two years of his elevation to emperor in 161. Faustina's denarius, although undated in RIC, probably is from the same timeframe and presumably depicts the young girls Annia Aurelia Galeria Faustina and Annia Aurelia Galeria Lucilla, and the twin babies Titus Aurelius Fulvus Antoninus and Lucius Aurelius Commodus Antoninus (Commodus). Her portrait has taken on a more matronly air.
Blindado
FaustinaIIAsJuno~0.jpg
MAFJa1 Separation20 viewsFaustina II

As

Draped bust, left, FAVSTINA AVG PII AVG FIL
Juno seated left holding the three graces and scepter, peacock at feet, IVNO SC

The reverse is RIC 1400, for which only right-facing busts are listed.

Faustina was to spend years apart from her husband and probably traumatized as a mother shortly before his departure. The Historia Augusta records, "When about the set off for the German war. . . [Marcus] gave his daughter [Annia Aurelia Galeria Faustina] to [Gnaeus] Claudius [Severus, a Roman Senator from Pompeiopolis], a [man] of advanced age, son of a Roman knight and not of sufficiently noble family (subsequently [Marcus] made him Consul twice)--since his daughter was an Augusta and the daughter of an Augusta. But both Faustina and the girl who was being given in marriage regarded this wedding with reluctance. . . . Just before the day of his actual departure, [Marcus] lost his seven-year-old son, Verus Caesar by name, after an operation on a tumor under the ear. He mourned him for no more than five days, and after comforting the doctors returned to the affairs of state." How long, one wonders, did Faustina mourn?

According to the Historia Augusta, which at many points tends toward salacious gossip, "it is reasonably well known that Faustina chose both sailors and gladiators as paramours for herself at Caieta [where the couple spent several years after their marriage]. When Marcus was told about her, so that he might divorce her--if not execute her--he is reported to have said, "If we send our wife away, we must give back her dowry, too--and what dowry did he have but the empire. . . ?" During the German war, the text alleges, Faustina took pantomimists as lovers.

Whether or not the rumors had any basis in fact, Marcus thought highly of his wife and family situation. In his first meditation, he thanks the gods that "I have such a wife, so obedient, and so affectionate, and so simple; that I had abundance of good masters for my children." Perhaps the word from the horse's mouth is a better source than a history written more than a century later.

At some point, Marcus apparently saw the light, and Faustina joined him at the frontier. The Historia Augusta relates, "He had her with him even in the campaigning season, and [after her death] for this reason he gave her the title 'Mother of the Camp.'"
Blindado
MaauSe08-2.jpg
Marcus Aurelius, RIC (Antoninus Pius) 1280, Sestertius of AD 14915 viewsÆ Sestertius (25.0g, Ø 32mm, 6h). Rome mint. Struck AD 149 (under Antoninus Pius).
Obv.: AVRELIVS CAESAR AVG P II F, bare head right.
Rev.: TR [POT III COS II] around, PIETAS in ex., S C across field, Faustina (as Pietas) standing left, holding a baby and setting a hand on head of small child
RIC Antoninus Pius 1280; BMCRE 1854; Cohen 444; Strack 1030; Banti 225 (2 spec.); Sear (Roman Coins and their Values) 4807; Foss (Roman Historical Coins) 135/7
Ex G.Henzen (1994).
Issued to celebrate the birth of Lucilla, second daughter of Aurelius and Faustina, born A.D. 149. The girl standing besides Faustina is her first daughter (Annia Galeria Aurelia) Faustina.
Charles S
MaauSe03-2.jpg
Marcus Aurelius, RIC (Antoninus Pius) 1281a, Sestertius of AD 14822 viewsÆ Sestertius (26.8g, Ø 31mm, 12h). Rome mint. Struck AD 148 (under Antoninus Pius).
Obv.: AVRELIVS CAE-SAR AVG P II F, bare head right.
Rev.: TR [POT] III COS II around, [PIE]TAS in ex., S C across field, Faustina (as Pietas) draped, standing left, holding a long sceptre in left hand and placing hand on head of a small girl standing left.
RIC Antoninus Pius 1281a; BMCRE 1849; Cohen 446; Strack 1032; Banti 227 (7 spec.); Sear (Roman Coins and their Values) 4807; Foss (Roman Historical Coins) see 149/7
Ex D.Ruskin (Oxford, 1994).
This type depicts the two-year old first child of Marcus Aurelius and Faustina Jr., born in 146 AD: (Annia Galeria Aurelia) Faustina
Charles S
5164_(1)_5165_(1).jpg
Maurice II Tiberius, Decanummium, Large I9 viewsAE Decanummium
Maurice II Tiberius
Augustus: 582 - 602AD
21.0 x 18.0mm 3.50gr
O: DN MAVP TIB []; Crowned and cuirassed bust, facing, holding cross on a globe and a shield.
R: NO LEGEND; Large I, star to left, cross above; officina letter B to right.
Exergue: KYZ
Cyzicus Mint
SB 522B; DOC 148.
galeria2 142463623987
8/8/17 8/18/18
Nicholas Z
Memmia8R01D+R.jpg
MEMMIA 818 viewsL. and C. Memmius L.f. Galeria (BC 87)Rugser
Memmia_2.JPG
Memmia 230 viewsMemmia 2 (106BC) moneyer L. Memmius Galeria

Serratus Denarius
Ob: laureate head of Saturn left harpa and ROMA behind, under chin ∙ then under G
Rev: Venus in slow biga right holding scepter and reigns; cupid flies above with wreath; in exergue
L. MEMMI (ME ligature)
GAL

BMCRR I 1336

Sydenham 574

Crawford: 313/1b

Ex: Colosseum Coin Exchange 2007

Crawford: The use of Venus as a coin type is to draw attention to the Memmii as one of the familiae Troianae. Gal(eria) is a tribe name employed to distinguish this (less important) branch of the family. Cf. dedication of Lucretius De Rerum Natura to Venus and Gaius Memmius (praetor 58BC)
1 commentsPetrus Elmsley
faustina-I_AR-denarius_AD147-161_consecratio_peacock_2_62gr_obv_14_rev_04~0.JPG
Peacock - Faustina Sr.127 viewsAnnia Galeria Faustina (AD 138-141) Wife of Antoninus Pius.
Rome mint, AD 147-161. Silver Denarius.

Obv: DIVA FAUSTINA - Draped bust right.

Rev: CONSECR ATIO - Peacock facing right, head left, standing on scepter with knobs on both ends.

*Note the Peacock's headfeathers sticking up between the 'R' and 'A' of 'CONSECRATIO'.
2.62 grams.
rexesq
6058_6059.jpg
Probus, Antoninianus, AEQVITAS AVG, Γ, XXI5 viewsAE Antoninianus
Probus
Augustus: 276 - 282AD
Issued: 276AD
22.0mm 3.20gr
O: IMP CM AVR PROBVS AVG; Radiate, cuirassed bust, right.
R: AEQVITAS AVG; Aequitas standing left, holding scales and cornucopiae.
Exergue: Γ, in right field; XXI, below line.
Rome Mint
Aorta: 1404: B72, O25, R7, T3, M4.
RIC 150,C; Cohen 74.
galeriavaleria 262314705298
3/8/16 1/26/17
Nicholas Z
Galeria_Valeria_01.jpg
RIC 6, p.536, 43 - Galeria Valeria, Venus20 viewsGaleria Valeria
Æ Follis, Heraclea, circa AD 308-310
Obv.: GAL VALERIA AVG, diademed and draped bust right.
Rev.: VENERI VICTRICI, Venus standing left, holding apple and raising drapery over shoulder; in ex HTB.
Æ, 5.88g, 25.9 mm
Ref.: RIC 43
Ex Helios Numismatik
shanxi
GALERIA_VALERIA.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE - Galeria Valeria14 viewsROMAN EMPIRE - Galeria Valeria, Augusta (293-311 AD) Follis “Venus” Diocletian’s ill-fated daughter, wife of Galerius. Obv: GAL VALERIA AVG – Draped bust right Rev: VENERI VICTRICI – Venus standing left, holding apple and scepter. , 5.8 g. I believe it is Heraclia Mint, RIC 63.
dpaul7
FAUSTINA_JNR_DIVA_Denarius_PEACOCK.JPG
ROMAN EMPIRE, FAUSTINA II (JUNIOR). Commemorative denarius of Rome. Struck A.D.176-180 under Marcus Aurelius17 viewsObverse: DIVA FAVSTINA PIA. Draped bust of Faustina Junior facing right.
Reverse: CONSECRATIO. Peacock standing facing right.
Diameter: 18mm | Weight: 3.2grms | Die Axis: 12
RIC III : 744

Annia Galeria Faustina was the youngest daughter of Antoninus Pius and Faustina Senior. She married Marcus Aurelius in A.D.145 and was given the title of Augusta on the birth of her first child in A.D.146. She went on to have several more children, one of whom was the future emperor Commodus. In A.D.175 Faustina accompanied Marcus Aurelius on his journey to the East but she died at Halala, a village at the foot of the Taurus Mountains.
1 comments*Alex
Favjse12-2~0.jpg
Roman Empire, Faustina Junior, Sestertius of AD 161, RIC (M.Aurelius) unlisted 151 viewsÆ Sestertius (25.86g, Ø33mm, 12h). Rome mint. Struck AD 161.
Obv.: FAVSTINA AVGVSTA, draped bust of Fautina Junior facing right.
Rev.: FECVND AVGVSTA (around) S C (in field), Fecunditas standing left, holding a child in her arms, two more standing left and right of her raising their right hands.
RIC (Aurelius) unlisted, legend corresponds to RIC 1635 and the representation to RIC 1649
ex Aeternitas Coins & Antiquities (via VCoins)

This type refers to the growing family of Marcus Aurelius and Faustina Jr. The three girls represent the three surviving children (of a total of 7 born) around end of 159 to early 160: Annia Galeria Aurelia Faustina (age 14), Lucilla (12) and Fadilla (1).

Additional information provided by Curtis Clay (19 july 2012): "This type commemorating the birth of a third survivng daughter usually has the legend IVNONI LVCINAE, whereas the type FECVND AVGVSTAE commemorates the birth of the next daughter about a year or so later and shows Fecunditas/Faustina holding two children in her arms while two more stand at her feet.

Strack 1335 knew a sestertius like yours in only one specimen, in Naples, but unfortunately does not illustrate the coin.

The Naples collection was stolen in 1977. Your coin is of nice quality, and has an old-collection look, lightly cleaned on the reverse. I would not be at all surprised if it is the actual Naples coin! ..."
Charles S
1~1.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Faustina Senior, AR Denarius15 viewsAnnia Galeria Faustina, AD 100-140, wife of Antoninus Pius.
Obverse: DIVA FAVSTINA, draped bust right.
Reverse: AETERNITAS, Aeternitas, Providentia, or Urania standing front holding globe, veil blowing out around head.
RIC 351
ggergo
mZE7L3q2kb6D2F5zNt4DZ5Edi69H8K_(1).jpg
Roman Empire, Galeria Valeria 308-311, Follis25 views7.74g, 24mm
Diademed bust of Galeria right "GAL VALERIA AVG"
Venus standing left, lifting dress and holding apple. "VENERI VICTRICI" "OB" to right, "ANT" in exergue
RIC VI 115
Antioch mint
1 commentsAntonivs Protti
bot18.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Galeria Valeria AE Follis 228 views311 AD. Alexandria mint.
Obv.: GAL VALERIA AVG - Diademed and draped bust of Galeria Valeria.
Rev.: VENERI VICTRICI - Venus holding apple and raising drapery over shoulder. [crescent]/K in l. field, Γ/P in r.; ALE in exergue.
RIC 128A
Minos
bpTetGalVal.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Galeria Valeria, AE Follis54 viewsFollis 7.1 gm 24.8 mm
Obv: GAL VALERIA AVG
Diademed and draped bust, right.
Rev: VENERI VICTRICI CMH
Venus standing, left, raising drapery and holding an apple.
Minted 308-10 at Nicomedia mm: SMNΓ RIC VI, 57
Massanutten
0591-310.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, GALERIA VALERIA, follis RIC 11091 viewsAlexandria mint, 3rd officina, AD 308-310
GAL VAL ERIA AVG, draped and diademed bust right
VENERI V ICTRICI, Venus standing left, holding apple and raising her dress, K | P in lower field, Γ in right field, ALE at exergue
8.46 gr
Ref : RIC # 110, Cohen # 2 var, RCV # 14607 (250)
Potator II
GalValNico.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Galeria Valeria-Nicomedia307 viewsAE Follis (24.8 mm, 7.1 gm). Nicomedia mint, 308-310 CE.
Obv: GAL VAL-ERIA AUG, diademed and draped bust right.
Rev: VENERI VI-CTRICI CMH, Venus standing facing, head left, holding apple and drapery; in exergue SMNGamma.
RIC VI 57; Sear 3730 var.
Submitted by Massanutten
1 commentsMassanutten
rrepde28-2.jpg
Roman Republic, 106 BC, Memmia9 viewsAR Denarius (3.7g, mm, 18.8mm, 3h). Rome mint. Struck 106 BC.
Obv. ROMA and harpa behind laureate head of Saturn, facing left.
Rev. L·MEMMI / GAL [in ex.] Venus in biga advancing r.; Cupid flying above; letter below horses.
Seaby (Roman Silver Coins I.): 2a; Monneyer: L.Memmius Galeria. Venus was the tutelary divinity of the Memmia gens.
Charles S
DIV-FAUSTINA2_PEACOCK.JPG
Struck A.D.176-180 under Marcus Aurelius. DIVA FAUSTINA JUNIOR. Commemorative denarius of Rome11 viewsObverse: DIVA FAVSTINA PIA. Draped bust of Faustina Junior facing right.
Reverse: CONSECRATIO. Peacock standing facing right.
Diameter: 18mm | Weight: 3.24gms | Die Axis: 12
RIC III : 744 | RSC : 71a

Annia Galeria Faustina was the youngest daughter of Antoninus Pius and Faustina Senior. She married Marcus Aurelius in A.D.145 and was given the title of Augusta on the birth of her first child in A.D.146. She went on to have several more children, one of whom was the future emperor Commodus. In A.D.175 Faustina accompanied Marcus Aurelius on his journey to the East but she died at Halala, a village at the foot of the Taurus Mountains.
1 comments*Alex
Faustina_II_Diva_Altar~0.JPG
Struck A.D.176-180 under Marcus Aurelius. DIVA FAUSTINA JUNIOR. Commemorative denarius of Rome7 viewsObverse: DIVA FAVSTINA PIA. Draped bust of Faustina Junior facing right.
Reverse: CONSECRATIO. Altar-enclosure with closed doors.
Diameter: 19mm
RIC III : 746

Annia Galeria Faustina was the youngest daughter of Antoninus Pius and Faustina Senior. She married Marcus Aurelius in A.D.145 and was given the title of Augusta on the birth of her first child in A.D.146. She went on to have several more children, one of whom was the future emperor Commodus. In A.D.175 Faustina accompanied Marcus Aurelius on his journey to the East but she died at Halala, a village at the foot of the Taurus Mountains.
*Alex
AntoninusPiusAequitasSear4053.jpg
[904a] Antoninus Pius, August 138 - 7 March 161 A.D.127 viewsAntoninus Pius, AD 138 to 161. Silver denarius. Sear-4053; gVF; Rome;16.4 x 17.9 mm, 3.61 g; issue of AD 138; Obverse : Head of Antoninus Pius right, with IMP T AEL CAES HADRI ANTONINVS around; Reverse : Aequitas standing left, holding scales and a cornucopiae, with AVG PIVS P M TR P COS DES II around. This is an interesting part of the Antoninus Pius series, struck in the first year of his reign, using his adoptive name of Hadrianus, and with the reverse inscription a continuation from the obverse.


De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Antoninus Pius (A.D. 138-161)

Richard D. Weigel
Western Kentucky University

Introduction
The long reign of the emperor Antoninus Pius is often described as a period of peace and quiet before the storm which followed and plagued his successor, Marcus Aurelius. In addition to the relative peacefulness, this emperor set the tone for a low-keyed imperial administration which differed markedly from those of his two immediate predecessors, Trajan and Hadrian. Antoninus managed to govern the empire capably and yet with such a gentle hand that he earned the respect, acclaim, and love of his subjects.

Early Life
The future emperor was born T. Aurelius Fulvus Boionius Arrius Antoninus on September 19, A.D. 86 at Lanuvium, an old Latin city southeast of Rome. His father's family had originally migrated to Rome from Nemausus (Nîmes) in Narbonese Gaul, but his paternal grandfather, T. Aurelius Fulvus, had served twice as Roman consul and also as city prefect and his father, Aurelius Fulvus, also held the consulship. The future emperor's mother was Arria Fadilla and her father, Arrius Antoninus, had also been consul twice. Young Antoninus was raised at Lorium, on the via Aurelia, where he later built a palace.

Career Under Hadrian
Very little is known about Antoninus' life before he became emperor. The brief biography in the Scriptores Historiae Augustae credited to Julius Capitolinus refers to his services as quaestor, praetor, and consul and P. von Rohden's entry in Pauly-Wissowa dates his tenure of these offices to A.D. 112, 117, and 120 respectively. At some point between A.D. 110 and 115, Antoninus married Annia Galeria Faustina, the daughter of M. Annius Verus. Hadrian later appointed Antoninus as one of his consular administrators of Italy and between A.D. 130 and 135 Antoninus served as proconsul of Asia.
Antoninus had achieved a distinguished career under Hadrian. and could have retired from imperial service with great pride, but events in A.D. 138 changed Antoninus' future quite radically. Early in the year, the death of Aelius Verus, whom Hadrian had previously adopted and named Caesar, opened a new path. Hadrian met with the Senate and announced his decision to adopt Antoninus as his son and heir and to share both proconsular and tribunician power with him. After giving this offer careful thought, Antoninus accepted and agreed in return to adopt as his heirs his wife's nephew, M. Antoninus, the future Marcus Aurelius, and L. Verus, the son of Aelius Verus.

Imperial Reign
When Hadrian died in the following summer, Antoninus oversaw the conveyance of his body from Baiae to Rome for interment in the new imperial tomb (now Castel Sant' Angelo). To honor his adoptive father, Antoninus set up a magnificent shield, established a priesthood, and, against serious opposition in the Senate, requested and bargained for senatorial confirmation of Hadrian's deification. Antoninus' devotion to Hadrian's memory is one of the reasons cited for the Senate's bestowal upon the new emperor of the name "pius". After initially refusing the Senate's recognition of Antoninus as "pater patriae", the new emperor accepted the honor with thanks. He declined, however, the Senate's decree authorizing the renaming of the months of September and October after the new emperor and empress. The Senate did honor the new empress with the title of "Augusta". On her death only a few years later in A.D. 141, the Senate deified Faustina and voted her a temple and priestesses. In memory of his wife, Antoninus also instituted an alimentary program, similar to those of his immediate predecessors, which combined loans to Italian farmers with funds, generated by interest on those loans, set aside for the care of orphaned girls. On coins these orphans are designated as puellae Faustinianae.

Antoninus returned all of Italy's share of the aurum coronarium, the money raised in honor of his accession, and one-half of that contributed from the provinces. His economic policy in general was relatively conservative and avoided luxurious waste while supporting public works of practical application. His procurators were told to keep provincial tribute reasonable and they were held accountable for exceeding fixed bounds. The provinces in general prospered under his administration and the use of informers was ended. Julius Capitolinus summarizes the excellence of Antoninus' administration when he says: "With such care did he govern all peoples under him that he looked after all things and all men as if they were his own." In spite of his caution in raising imperial revenues, however, Antoninus provided regular gifts of money to the people and to the soldiers and produced spectacular public games with a great variety of animals on display. The emperor also used his own funds to distribute oil, grain, and wine free in a time of famine and helped relieve the devastation caused in Rome by fire, flood, and a collapse of stands in the Circus Maximus and by fires and earthquakes in the provinces.

Although the reigns of his two immediate predecessors, Trajan and Hadrian, had seen prolific building activity in Rome and throughout the empire, Antoninus chose to be less lavish in his public works projects. He felt an obligation to complete work begun or promised by Hadrian. Antoninus completed the Mausoleum of Hadrian along the Tiber and built the temples of the Divine Hadrian in the Campus Martius and of Faustina in the Forum. He also restored the oldest bridge in Rome, the Pons Sublicius, the Graecostadium, and the Colosseum. He may even have put some finishing touches on the Pantheon because Julius Capitolinus mentions restoration of a templum Agrippae, but the text may be corrupt and the temple of the Divine Augustus, the restoration of which is recorded on some of Antoninus' coins, may be the intended reference here. Outside Rome, Antoninus repaired several roads and renovated ports in Alexandria, Caieta, and Terracina, a bath at Ostia, an aqueduct at Antium, and the temples in his birthplace, Lanuvium.

Although some sources suggest that Antoninus went in person to Egypt and Syria to put down a revolt of peoples along the Red Sea, Julius Capitolinus says that Antoninus made his home in Rome where he could receive messages from all parts of the empire equally quickly . He also states that to avoid burdening the provinces with the expenses of housing an emperor and his associates Antoninus took expeditions out of Rome only to his estates in Campania. If correct, these actions marked a decided break with the visibility of his two predecessors in the provinces and recreated a more Rome- and Italy-centered empire. Wilhelm Weber commented on this policy: "As if, perhaps, in criticism of Hadrian's conception of his task, he sat like a beneficent spider at the centre of his web, power radiating steadily from him to the farthest bounds of the empire and as steadily returning to him again. For the last time in Imperial history the Emperor was wholly one with Rome and its centralization."

During his third consulship (A.D. 140-144), Antoninus issued a series of unusual coins and medallions which featured entirely new or modified religious/mythological images. Jocelyn Toynbee correctly pointed out that these types were issued to prepare for the celebration of Rome's nine hundredth birthday in A.D. 147/148 and she also discussed two images which represent the emperor's reaction against Hadrian's "cosmopolitanism" and his attempt to restore Rome and Italy to a superior position over the provinces. This unusual series, issued especially in bronze, commemorated Rome's connection to her distant roots from Trojans, Latins, and Sabines and honored gods who had protected the city in the past. Themes associated with Aeneas, Romulus, Numa Pompilius, and Augustus by implication tied in Antoninus as successor to these four model Roman leaders. Although the death of Faustina may have motivated Antoninus' display of public piety to some degree on these coins and medallions, the series also set the tone for the games and rituals of the birthday celebration in 147/148, renewed religious values, and restored Rome's proper relationship with protective gods who had brought the city past success both in war and in peace. Another series of coins, the "anonymous quadrantes", combines a portrait of a god or goddess on the obverse with a reverse symbol of an animal associated with the same deity. The absence of an imperial portrait or any inscription aside from the S.C. authorization of the Senate makes it especially difficult to date this series. However, the similarity of the Jupiter and Venus portraits to images of Antoninus and Faustina and other links to Antoninus' coin-types make it probable that several of these types were issued in Antoninus' reign, perhaps again in connection with Rome's birthday celebration in A.D. 147/148.

Although Antoninus' reign was generally peaceful, Capitolinus says that he fought wars, through legates, against the Britons, Moors, Germans, Dacians, and the Alans and suppressed revolts in Achaea, in Egypt, and among the Jews. The war in Britain was fought around A.D. 142 against the Brigantes and led to the construction of the Antonine Wall across the island as a second line of defense north of Hadrian's Wall. In foreign relations, the emperor's authority was respected among peoples bordering on the empire. Antoninus approved the appointment of kings for the Armenians, for the Lazi, and for the Quadi and he successfully prevented a Parthian attack on Armenia by sending the Parthian king a letter of warning.

Antoninus did continue his predecessor's interest in law and his imperial legislation is cited frequently in Justinian's Digest. Several lawyers served in the emperor's consilium and presumably advised him on legal matters. Antoninus' legislation included protections for slaves, freedmen, and for illegitimate children and further defined family and inheritance law, including consideration of a daughter's wishes in marriage arrangements.

In preparation for the succession, Antoninus' daughter Faustina married Marcus Aurelius in A.D. 145 and she soon became Augusta in place of her deceased mother. Marcus Aurelius was associated in imperial powers and he and L. Verus both held the consulship multiple times in preparation for their accession. Antoninus made sure that he would leave the Empire secure and in sound financial condition and his adopted sons inherited a large surplus (reportedly 675 million denarii) in the Treasury .

Antoninus Pius died in March of A.D. 161, after giving the appropriate imperial watchword which so typified his reign, "equanimity". He was soon afterward deified by the Senate. His adopted sons and successors, Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus, erected a column of red granite in his honor in the Campus Martius. The marble base for this column, which is preserved in the Vatican, includes a sculpted image of the apotheosis of Antoninus and Faustina. In his Meditations, Marcus Aurelius expressed his enduring love and respect for his adoptive father: "Do all things as a disciple of Antoninus. Think of his constancy in every act rationally undertaken, his invariable equability, his piety, his serenity of countenance, his sweetness of disposition, his contempt for the bubble of fame, and his zeal for getting a true grasp of affairs." In many ways Antoninus Pius was a model emperor who justifiably earned comparison with his own model, Numa Pompilius, and provided the Empire with a period of fortune, religious piety, and security perhaps unmatched in imperial annals.

Copyright (C) 1998, Richard D. Weigel.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.



Cleisthenes
AntoPiusDenar.jpg
[904z] Antoninus Pius, August 138 - 7 March 161 A.D.143 viewsAntoninus Pius, August 138 - 7 March 161 A.D. Silver denarius, RIC 232, RSC 271, F, Rome, 1.699g, 17.3mm, 0o, 153 - 154 A.D. Obverse: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P XVII, laureate head right; Reverse: COS IIII, Fortuna standing right, cornucopia in left, long rudder on globe in right.


De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Antoninus Pius (A.D. 138-161)

Richard D. Weigel
Western Kentucky University

Introduction
The long reign of the emperor Antoninus Pius is often described as a period of peace and quiet before the storm which followed and plagued his successor, Marcus Aurelius. In addition to the relative peacefulness, this emperor set the tone for a low-keyed imperial administration which differed markedly from those of his two immediate predecessors, Trajan and Hadrian. Antoninus managed to govern the empire capably and yet with such a gentle hand that he earned the respect, acclaim, and love of his subjects.

Early Life
The future emperor was born T. Aurelius Fulvus Boionius Arrius Antoninus on September 19, A.D. 86 at Lanuvium, an old Latin city southeast of Rome. His father's family had originally migrated to Rome from Nemausus (Nîmes) in Narbonese Gaul, but his paternal grandfather, T. Aurelius Fulvus, had served twice as Roman consul and also as city prefect and his father, Aurelius Fulvus, also held the consulship. The future emperor's mother was Arria Fadilla and her father, Arrius Antoninus, had also been consul twice. Young Antoninus was raised at Lorium, on the via Aurelia, where he later built a palace.

Career Under Hadrian
Very little is known about Antoninus' life before he became emperor. The brief biography in the Scriptores Historiae Augustae credited to Julius Capitolinus refers to his services as quaestor, praetor, and consul and P. von Rohden's entry in Pauly-Wissowa dates his tenure of these offices to A.D. 112, 117, and 120 respectively. At some point between A.D. 110 and 115, Antoninus married Annia Galeria Faustina, the daughter of M. Annius Verus. Hadrian later appointed Antoninus as one of his consular administrators of Italy and between A.D. 130 and 135 Antoninus served as proconsul of Asia.
Antoninus had achieved a distinguished career under Hadrian. and could have retired from imperial service with great pride, but events in A.D. 138 changed Antoninus' future quite radically. Early in the year, the death of Aelius Verus, whom Hadrian had previously adopted and named Caesar, opened a new path. Hadrian met with the Senate and announced his decision to adopt Antoninus as his son and heir and to share both proconsular and tribunician power with him. After giving this offer careful thought, Antoninus accepted and agreed in return to adopt as his heirs his wife's nephew, M. Antoninus, the future Marcus Aurelius, and L. Verus, the son of Aelius Verus.

Imperial Reign
When Hadrian died in the following summer, Antoninus oversaw the conveyance of his body from Baiae to Rome for interment in the new imperial tomb (now Castel Sant' Angelo). To honor his adoptive father, Antoninus set up a magnificent shield, established a priesthood, and, against serious opposition in the Senate, requested and bargained for senatorial confirmation of Hadrian's deification. Antoninus' devotion to Hadrian's memory is one of the reasons cited for the Senate's bestowal upon the new emperor of the name "pius". After initially refusing the Senate's recognition of Antoninus as "pater patriae", the new emperor accepted the honor with thanks. He declined, however, the Senate's decree authorizing the renaming of the months of September and October after the new emperor and empress. The Senate did honor the new empress with the title of "Augusta". On her death only a few years later in A.D. 141, the Senate deified Faustina and voted her a temple and priestesses. In memory of his wife, Antoninus also instituted an alimentary program, similar to those of his immediate predecessors, which combined loans to Italian farmers with funds, generated by interest on those loans, set aside for the care of orphaned girls. On coins these orphans are designated as puellae Faustinianae.

Antoninus returned all of Italy's share of the aurum coronarium, the money raised in honor of his accession, and one-half of that contributed from the provinces. His economic policy in general was relatively conservative and avoided luxurious waste while supporting public works of practical application. His procurators were told to keep provincial tribute reasonable and they were held accountable for exceeding fixed bounds. The provinces in general prospered under his administration and the use of informers was ended. Julius Capitolinus summarizes the excellence of Antoninus' administration when he says: "With such care did he govern all peoples under him that he looked after all things and all men as if they were his own." In spite of his caution in raising imperial revenues, however, Antoninus provided regular gifts of money to the people and to the soldiers and produced spectacular public games with a great variety of animals on display. The emperor also used his own funds to distribute oil, grain, and wine free in a time of famine and helped relieve the devastation caused in Rome by fire, flood, and a collapse of stands in the Circus Maximus and by fires and earthquakes in the provinces.

Although the reigns of his two immediate predecessors, Trajan and Hadrian, had seen prolific building activity in Rome and throughout the empire, Antoninus chose to be less lavish in his public works projects. He felt an obligation to complete work begun or promised by Hadrian. Antoninus completed the Mausoleum of Hadrian along the Tiber and built the temples of the Divine Hadrian in the Campus Martius and of Faustina in the Forum. He also restored the oldest bridge in Rome, the Pons Sublicius, the Graecostadium, and the Colosseum. He may even have put some finishing touches on the Pantheon because Julius Capitolinus mentions restoration of a templum Agrippae, but the text may be corrupt and the temple of the Divine Augustus, the restoration of which is recorded on some of Antoninus' coins, may be the intended reference here. Outside Rome, Antoninus repaired several roads and renovated ports in Alexandria, Caieta, and Terracina, a bath at Ostia, an aqueduct at Antium, and the temples in his birthplace, Lanuvium.

Although some sources suggest that Antoninus went in person to Egypt and Syria to put down a revolt of peoples along the Red Sea, Julius Capitolinus says that Antoninus made his home in Rome where he could receive messages from all parts of the empire equally quickly . He also states that to avoid burdening the provinces with the expenses of housing an emperor and his associates Antoninus took expeditions out of Rome only to his estates in Campania. If correct, these actions marked a decided break with the visibility of his two predecessors in the provinces and recreated a more Rome- and Italy-centered empire. Wilhelm Weber commented on this policy: "As if, perhaps, in criticism of Hadrian's conception of his task, he sat like a beneficent spider at the centre of his web, power radiating steadily from him to the farthest bounds of the empire and as steadily returning to him again. For the last time in Imperial history the Emperor was wholly one with Rome and its centralization."

During his third consulship (A.D. 140-144), Antoninus issued a series of unusual coins and medallions which featured entirely new or modified religious/mythological images. Jocelyn Toynbee correctly pointed out that these types were issued to prepare for the celebration of Rome's nine hundredth birthday in A.D. 147/148 and she also discussed two images which represent the emperor's reaction against Hadrian's "cosmopolitanism" and his attempt to restore Rome and Italy to a superior position over the provinces. This unusual series, issued especially in bronze, commemorated Rome's connection to her distant roots from Trojans, Latins, and Sabines and honored gods who had protected the city in the past. Themes associated with Aeneas, Romulus, Numa Pompilius, and Augustus by implication tied in Antoninus as successor to these four model Roman leaders. Although the death of Faustina may have motivated Antoninus' display of public piety to some degree on these coins and medallions, the series also set the tone for the games and rituals of the birthday celebration in 147/148, renewed religious values, and restored Rome's proper relationship with protective gods who had brought the city past success both in war and in peace. Another series of coins, the "anonymous quadrantes", combines a portrait of a god or goddess on the obverse with a reverse symbol of an animal associated with the same deity. The absence of an imperial portrait or any inscription aside from the S.C. authorization of the Senate makes it especially difficult to date this series. However, the similarity of the Jupiter and Venus portraits to images of Antoninus and Faustina and other links to Antoninus' coin-types make it probable that several of these types were issued in Antoninus' reign, perhaps again in connection with Rome's birthday celebration in A.D. 147/148.

Although Antoninus' reign was generally peaceful, Capitolinus says that he fought wars, through legates, against the Britons, Moors, Germans, Dacians, and the Alans and suppressed revolts in Achaea, in Egypt, and among the Jews. The war in Britain was fought around A.D. 142 against the Brigantes and led to the construction of the Antonine Wall across the island as a second line of defense north of Hadrian's Wall. In foreign relations, the emperor's authority was respected among peoples bordering on the empire. Antoninus approved the appointment of kings for the Armenians, for the Lazi, and for the Quadi and he successfully prevented a Parthian attack on Armenia by sending the Parthian king a letter of warning.

Antoninus did continue his predecessor's interest in law and his imperial legislation is cited frequently in Justinian's Digest. Several lawyers served in the emperor's consilium and presumably advised him on legal matters. Antoninus' legislation included protections for slaves, freedmen, and for illegitimate children and further defined family and inheritance law, including consideration of a daughter's wishes in marriage arrangements.

In preparation for the succession, Antoninus' daughter Faustina married Marcus Aurelius in A.D. 145 and she soon became Augusta in place of her deceased mother. Marcus Aurelius was associated in imperial powers and he and L. Verus both held the consulship multiple times in preparation for their accession. Antoninus made sure that he would leave the Empire secure and in sound financial condition and his adopted sons inherited a large surplus (reportedly 675 million denarii) in the Treasury .

Antoninus Pius died in March of A.D. 161, after giving the appropriate imperial watchword which so typified his reign, "equanimity". He was soon afterward deified by the Senate. His adopted sons and successors, Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus, erected a column of red granite in his honor in the Campus Martius. The marble base for this column, which is preserved in the Vatican, includes a sculpted image of the apotheosis of Antoninus and Faustina. In his Meditations, Marcus Aurelius expressed his enduring love and respect for his adoptive father: "Do all things as a disciple of Antoninus. Think of his constancy in every act rationally undertaken, his invariable equability, his piety, his serenity of countenance, his sweetness of disposition, his contempt for the bubble of fame, and his zeal for getting a true grasp of affairs." In many ways Antoninus Pius was a model emperor who justifiably earned comparison with his own model, Numa Pompilius, and provided the Empire with a period of fortune, religious piety, and security perhaps unmatched in imperial annals.

Copyright (C) 1998, Richard D. Weigel.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
     
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