Classical Numismatics Discussion Members' Gallery
  Welcome Guest. Please login or register.

Members' Gallery Home | Member Collections | Last Added | Last Comments | Most Viewed | Top Rated | My Favorities | Search Galleries
Search results - "Fausta"
fausta_01_t.JPG
13 viewsoa
FAUSTA.jpg
(0324) FAUSTA57 views(2nd wife of Constantine I; daughter of Maximian; mother of emperors Constantine II, Constantius II, and Constans)
324 - 326 AD
AE 20.7 mm 2.86 g
O: FLAV MAX FAVSTA AVG
DR BUST R, HAIR WAVED WITH BUN AT TACK, WEARING PEARL NECKLACE
R: SPES REIPVBLICAE
FAUSTA STANDING FACING, LOOKING L, HOLDING INFANTS CONSTANTINE II AND CONSTANTIUS II
SMK DELTA(?) IN EXE
RIC 50 SCARCE
laney
rjb_2015_12_05.jpg
(VII)30019 viewsFausta
FLAV MAX FAVSTA AG
Draped bust of Fausta right
SALVS REIPVBLICAE
Salus standing facing, head left, cradling two infants in her arms
-/-//PLON
RIC (VII) 300
mauseus
coins430.JPG
001a. Fausta Heraclea SPES REIPVBLICAE6 viewsRIC VII Heraclea 80 R1

ecoli
02-Claudius-II-The-26.jpg
02. Claudius II: Thessalonica fractional.19 viewsAE3 fractional (half follis?), 317-18, Thessalonica mint.
Obverse: DIVO CLAVDIO OPTIMO IMP / Veiled bust of Claudius II, Gothicus.
Reverse: REQVIES OPTIMORVM MERITORVM / Emperor seated on curule chair, raising right hand and holding sceptre.
Mint mark:: . TS . Γ .
1.35 gm., 16 mm.
RIC #26; PBCC #906; Sear #16399.

Around the years 317 - 318, Constantine issued commemorative coins honoring three deified emperors: Claudius II Gothicus, Constantius I, and Maximian. It is not real clear when these coins were issued, but RIC assigns them to the years 317-18 saying there is evidence they were issued near or at the end of the Sol coinage. They are small AE3 in size (16 mm), but on flans that are much thinner and weigh significantly less than other coins of the period. Therefore they are generally regarded as fractionals. They were minted at Treveri, Arelate, Rome, Aquileia, Siscia, and Thessalonica.

Why these three emperors? Constantine claimed Claudius II Gothicus was one of his ancestors (probably not true). Constantius I was Constantine's father, and Maximian was the father of Constantine's wife, Fausta.

Callimachus
03-Constantius-The-25.jpg
03. Constantius I: Thessalonica fractional.21 viewsAE3 fractional (half follis?), 317-18, Thessalonica mint.
Obverse: DIVO CONSTANTIO PIO PRINCIPI / Veiled bust of Constantius I.
Reverse: REQVIES OPTIMORVM MERITORVM / Emperor seated on curule chair, raising right hand and holding sceptre.
Mint mark: . T . SB .
1.78 gm., 16 mm.
RIC #25; PBCC #908; Sear unlisted.

Around the years 317 - 318, Constantine issued commemorative coins honoring three deified emperors: Claudius II Gothicus, Constantius I, and Maximian. It is not real clear when these coins were issued, but RIC assigns them to the years 317-18 saying there is evidence they were issued near or at the end of the Sol coinage. They are small AE3 in size (16 mm), but on flans that are much thinner and weigh significantly less than other coins of the period. Therefore they are generally regarded as fractionals. They were minted at Treveri, Arelate, Rome, Aquileia, Siscia, and Thessalonica.

Why these three emperors? Constantine claimed Claudius II Gothicus was one of his ancestors (probably not true). Constantius I was Constantine's father, and Maximian was the father of Constantine's wife, Fausta.

Callimachus
04-Maximianus-Sis-41.jpg
04. Maximian: Siscia fractional.43 viewsAE3 fractional (half follis?), 317-18, Siscia mint.
Obverse: DIVO MAXIMIANO SEN FORT IMP / Veiled bust of Maximian.
Reverse: REQVIES OPTIMORVM MERITORVM / Emperor seated on curule chair, raising right hand and holding sceptre.
Mint mark: SIS
1.61 gm., 15mm.
RIC #41; PBCC #838; Sear #16412.

Around the years 317 - 318, Constantine issued commemorative coins honoring three deified emperors: Claudius II Gothicus, Constantius I, and Maximian. It is not real clear when these coins were issued, but RIC assigns them to the years 317-18 saying there is evidence they were issued near or at the end of the Sol coinage. They are small AE3 in size (16 mm), but on flans that are much thinner and weigh significantly less than other coins of the period. Therefore they are generally regarded as fractionals. They were minted at Treveri, Arelate, Rome, Aquileia, Siscia, and Thessalonica.

Why these three emperors? Constantine claimed Claudius II Gothicus was one of his ancestors (probably not true). Constantius I was Constantine's father, and Maximian was the father of Constantine's wife, Fausta.

Callimachus
FaustaCONSSalus.JPG
043. Fausta, wife of Constantine I. AE Follis, Constantinople mint.83 viewsAE Follis. Constantinople mint, late 326AD.

Obv.Bust of Fausta right FLAV MAX FAVSTA AVG

Rev. Fausta standing holding Constantine II and Constantius II SALVS REIPVBLICAE.

RIC VII 12; LRBC 976. gVF

A very rare and interesting coin. The mint at Constantinople was only in operation for a couple of months when Fausta was executed, coins of her and Crispus from this mint are very hard to come by.
1 commentsLordBest
faustaspes~0.jpg
043. Fausta, wife of Constantine I. AE Follis, Rome mint. FDC.192 viewsAE Follis. Rome mint.

Obv.Bust of Fausta right FLAV MAX FAVSTA AVG

Rev. Fausta standing holding Constantine II and Constantius II SPES REIPVBLICAE

RIC 292, S 3903, VM 6. R4.

FDC. Finest known Fausta bronze, with full mint lustre sheathed in a thin Tiber patina. ex- Tom Cederlind.
5 commentsLordBest
Personajes_Imperiales_10.jpg
10 - Personalities of the Empire46 viewsSeverus II, Maxentius, Romulus, Constantine I, Helena, Fausta, Alexander, Licinius I, Constantia, Maximinus II, Valerius Valens, Licinius II, Crispus and Martinianusmdelvalle
Personajes_Imperiales_10~0.jpg
10 - Personalities of the Empire43 viewsRomulus, Constantine I, Helena, Fausta, Licinius I, Constantia, Maximinus II, Licinius II, Crispus, Constantine II, Delmatius, Hanibalianus, Constans and Constantius II.

mdelvalle
123.jpg
123 Fausta. AE follis. 2.9gm23 viewsobv: FLAV.MAX.-FAVSTA AVG bare-head mantled bust r.
rev: SALVS REI_PVBLICAE Salus std. facing head l. holding two infants in her arms
ex: STR
"2nd wife of Constantine I"
hill132
MaxHercRIC5iiRome.jpg
1302a, Maximian, 285 - 305, 306 - 308, and 310 A.D.50 viewsMaximianus AE Antoninianus. RIC V Part II 506 Bust Type C. Cohen 355; VF; Minted in Rome A.D. 285-286. Obverse: IMP MAXIMIANVS P F AVG, radiate, draped & cuirassed bust right; Rverse: IOVI CONSERVAT AVGG, Jupiter standing left holding thunderbolt & scepter, XXIZ in exergue. Ex maridvnvm.

De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Maximian, 285-305, 306-308, and 310 A.D.

Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Salve Regina University

Perhaps born ca. 249/250 A.D. in Sirmium in the area of the Balkans, Marcus Aurelius Valerius Maximianus, more commonly known as Maximianus Herculius (Maximian), had been a soldier before he put on the purple. A fellow soldier with the Emperor Diocletian, he had served in the military during the reigns of Aurelian and Probus.

When the Emperor Diocletian determined that the empire was too large for one man to govern on his own, he made Maximian his Caesar in 285/6 and elevated him to the rank of Augustus in perhaps the spring of 286. While Diocletian ruled in the East, Maximian ruled in the West. In 293, in order to maintain and to strengthen the stability of the empire, Diocletian appointed Constantius I Chlorus to serve Maximian as a Caesar in the West, while Galerius did the same job in the East. This arrangement, called the "Tetrarchy", was meant not only to provide a stronger foundation for the two emperors' rule, but also to end any possible fighting over the succession to the throne once the two senior Augusti had left the throne--a problem which had bedeviled the principate since the time of the Emperor Augustus. To cement the relationship between Maximian and his Caesar, Constantius married Maximian's elder daughter Theodora. A decade later, Constantius' son Constantine would marry Maximia's younger daughter Fausta.

On 1 May 305 Diocletian, at Nicomedeia, and Maximian, at Mediolanum, divested themselves of the purple. Their resignations seem largely due to the almost fatal illness that Diocletian contracted toward the end of 304. Diocletian seems to have forced his colleague to abdicate. In any case, Herculius had sworn an oath at the temple of Capitoline Jupiter to carry out the terms of the abdication. Constantius and Galerius were appointed as Augusti, with Maximinus Daia and Severus as the new Caesars. The retired emperors then returned to private life. Diocletian's retirement was at Salonae in Dalmatia, while Herculius' retreat was either in Lucania or Campania.

Maximian's retirement, however, was of short duration because, a little more than a year later on 28 October 306, his son Maxentius was proclaimed emperor at Rome. To give his regime an aura of legitimacy, Maximian was forced to affirm his son's acclamation. When Galerius learned of Maxentius' rebellion, he sent Severus against him with an army that had formerly been under his father's command. Maxentius invested his father with the purple again to win over his enemy's troops, a ruse which succeeded. Perhaps to strengthen his own position, in 307 Maximian went to Gaul and married his daughter Fausta to Constantine. When Constantine refused to become embroiled in the civil war between Galerius and Maxentius, Maximian returned to Rome in 308 and attempted to depose his son; however, he did not succeed. When Maximian was unable to convince Diocletian to take up the purple again at a meeting in Carnuntum in late 308, he returned to his son-in-law's side in Gaul.

Although Maximian was treated with all of the respect due a former emperor, he still desired to be more than a figurehead. He decided to seize the purple from Constantine when his son-in-law least expected it. His opportunity came in the summer of 310 when the Franks revolted. When Constantine had taken a small part of his army into enemy territory, Maximian proclaimed himself again emperor and paid the soldiers under his command a donative to secure their loyalty. As soon as Constantine received news about Maximian's revolt in July 310, he went south and reached Arelate before his father-in-law could mount a defense of the city. Although Maximian fled to Massilia, his son-in-law seized the city and took Maximian prisoner. Although he was deprived of the purple, he was granted pardon for his crimes. Unable to endure the humiliation of his defeat, he attempted to have Constantine murdered in his bed. The plot failed because he tried to get his daughter Fausta's help in the matter; she chose to reveal the matter to her husband. Because of this attempt on his son-in-law's life Maximian was dead by the end of July either by his own hand or on the orders of his intended victim.

Eutropia was of Syrian extraction and her marriage to Maximian seems to have been her second. She bore him two children: Maxentius and Fausta. An older daughter, Theodora, may have been a product of her first marriage. Fausta became the wife of Constantine I , while her sister Theodora was the second spouse of his father Constantius I Chlorus . Eutropia apparently survived all her children, with the possible exception of her daughter Fausta who seems to have died in 326. Eutropia is also said to have become a Christian.

By Michael DiMaio, Jr., Salve Regina University
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
Max.jpg
1302b, Maximian, 285-305, 306-308, and 310 A.D., commemorative issued by Constantine the Great (Siscia)59 viewsMaximian, 285-305, 306-308, and 310 A.D., commemorative issued by Constantine the Great. Bronze AE3, RIC 41, VF, Siscia, 1.30g, 16.1mm, 0o, 317-318 A.D. Obverse: DIVO MAXIMIANO SEN FORT IMP, laureate and veiled head right; Reverse: REQVIES OPTIMO-RVM MERITORVM, Emperor seated left on curule chair, raising hand and holding scepter, SIS in exergue; scarce (R3).


De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Maximian, 285-305, 306-308, and 310 A.D.

Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Salve Regina University

Perhaps born ca. 249/250 A.D. in Sirmium in the area of the Balkans, Marcus Aurelius Valerius Maximianus, more commonly known as Maximianus Herculius (Maximian), had been a soldier before he put on the purple. A fellow soldier with the Emperor Diocletian, he had served in the military during the reigns of Aurelian and Probus.

When the Emperor Diocletian determined that the empire was too large for one man to govern on his own, he made Maximian his Caesar in 285/6 and elevated him to the rank of Augustus in perhaps the spring of 286. While Diocletian ruled in the East, Maximian ruled in the West. In 293, in order to maintain and to strengthen the stability of the empire, Diocletian appointed Constantius I Chlorus to serve Maximian as a Caesar in the West, while Galerius did the same job in the East. This arrangement, called the "Tetrarchy", was meant not only to provide a stronger foundation for the two emperors' rule, but also to end any possible fighting over the succession to the throne once the two senior Augusti had left the throne--a problem which had bedeviled the principate since the time of the Emperor Augustus. To cement the relationship between Maximian and his Caesar, Constantius married Maximian's elder daughter Theodora. A decade later, Constantius' son Constantine would marry Maximia's younger daughter Fausta.

On 1 May 305 Diocletian, at Nicomedeia, and Maximian, at Mediolanum, divested themselves of the purple. Their resignations seem largely due to the almost fatal illness that Diocletian contracted toward the end of 304. Diocletian seems to have forced his colleague to abdicate. In any case, Herculius had sworn an oath at the temple of Capitoline Jupiter to carry out the terms of the abdication. Constantius and Galerius were appointed as Augusti, with Maximinus Daia and Severus as the new Caesars. The retired emperors then returned to private life. Diocletian's retirement was at Salonae in Dalmatia, while Herculius' retreat was either in Lucania or Campania.

Maximian's retirement, however, was of short duration because, a little more than a year later on 28 October 306, his son Maxentius was proclaimed emperor at Rome. To give his regime an aura of legitimacy, Maximian was forced to affirm his son's acclamation. When Galerius learned of Maxentius' rebellion, he sent Severus against him with an army that had formerly been under his father's command. Maxentius invested his father with the purple again to win over his enemy's troops, a ruse which succeeded. Perhaps to strengthen his own position, in 307 Maximian went to Gaul and married his daughter Fausta to Constantine. When Constantine refused to become embroiled in the civil war between Galerius and Maxentius, Maximian returned to Rome in 308 and attempted to depose his son; however, he did not succeed. When Maximian was unable to convince Diocletian to take up the purple again at a meeting in Carnuntum in late 308, he returned to his son-in-law's side in Gaul.

Although Maximian was treated with all of the respect due a former emperor, he still desired to be more than a figurehead. He decided to seize the purple from Constantine when his son-in-law least expected it. His opportunity came in the summer of 310 when the Franks revolted. When Constantine had taken a small part of his army into enemy territory, Maximian proclaimed himself again emperor and paid the soldiers under his command a donative to secure their loyalty. As soon as Constantine received news about Maximian's revolt in July 310, he went south and reached Arelate before his father-in-law could mount a defense of the city. Although Maximian fled to Massilia, his son-in-law seized the city and took Maximian prisoner. Although he was deprived of the purple, he was granted pardon for his crimes. Unable to endure the humiliation of his defeat, he attempted to have Constantine murdered in his bed. The plot failed because he tried to get his daughter Fausta's help in the matter; she chose to reveal the matter to her husband. Because of this attempt on his son-in-law's life Maximian was dead by the end of July either by his own hand or on the orders of his intended victim.

Eutropia was of Syrian extraction and her marriage to Maximian seems to have been her second. She bore him two children: Maxentius and Fausta. An older daughter, Theodora, may have been a product of her first marriage. Fausta became the wife of Constantine I , while her sister Theodora was the second spouse of his father Constantius I Chlorus . Eutropia apparently survived all her children, with the possible exception of her daughter Fausta who seems to have died in 326. Eutropia is also said to have become a Christian.

By Michael DiMaio, Jr., Salve Regina University
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
St.Helena.jpg
1401a, St. Helena, Augusta 8 November 324 - 328 to 330 A.D., mother of Constantine the Great97 viewsBronze AE 3, RIC 148, VF, Alexandria mint, 3.243g, 19.4mm, 165o, 327 - 328 A.D. Obverse: FL HELENA AVGVSTA, diademed and mantled bust right wearing double necklace; Reverse: SECVRITAS REIPVBLICE, Securitas holding branch downward in right and lifting fold of robe in left, wreath left, I right, SMAL in exergue; rare.

The mother of Constantine the Great, born about the middle of the third century, possibly in Drepanum (later known as Helenopolis) on the Nicomedian Gulf; died about 330. She was of humble parentage; St. Ambrose, in his "Oratio de obitu Theodosii", referred to her as a stabularia, or inn-keeper. Nevertheless, she became the lawful wife of Constantius Chlorus. Her first and only son, Constantine, was born in Naissus in Upper Moesia, in the year 274. The statement made by English chroniclers of the Middle Ages, according to which Helena was supposed to have been the daughter of a British prince, is entirely without historical foundation. It may arise from the misinterpretation of a term used in the fourth chapter of the panegyric on Constantine's marriage with Fausta, that Constantine, oriendo (i. e., "by his beginnings," "from the outset") had honoured Britain, which was taken as an allusion to his birth, whereas the reference was really to the beginning of his reign.

On the death of Constantius Chlorus, in 308, Constantine, who succeeded him, summoned his mother to the imperial court, conferred on her the title of Augusta, ordered that all honour should be paid her as the mother of the sovereign, and had coins struck bearing her effigy. Her son's influence caused her to embrace Christianity after his victory over Maxentius. This is directly attested by Eusebius (Vita Constantini, III, xlvii): "She (his mother) became under his (Constantine's) influence such a devout servant of God, that one might believe her to have been from her very childhood a disciple of the Redeemer of mankind". It is also clear from the declaration of the contemporary historian of the Church that Helena, from the time of her conversion had an earnestly Christian life and by her influence and liberality favoured the wider spread of Christianity. Tradition links her name with the building of Christian churches in the cities of the West, where the imperial court resided, notably at Rome and Trier, and there is no reason for rejecting this tradition, for we know positively through Eusebius that Helena erected churches on the hallowed spots of Palestine. Despite her advanced age she undertook a journey to Palestine when Constantine, through his victory over Licinius, had become sole master of the Roman Empire, subsequently, therefore, to the year 324. It was in Palestine, as we learn from Eusebius (loc. cit., xlii), that she had resolved to bring to God, the King of kings, the homage and tribute of her devotion. She lavished on that land her bounties and good deeds, she "explored it with remarkable discernment", and "visited it with the care and solicitude of the emperor himself". Then, when she "had shown due veneration to the footsteps of the Saviour", she had two churches erected for the worship of God: one was raised in Bethlehem near the Grotto of the Nativity, the other on the Mount of the Ascension, near Jerusalem. She also embellished the sacred grotto with rich ornaments. This sojourn in Jerusalem proved the starting-point of the legend first recorded by Rufinus as to the discovery of the Cross of Christ.

Constantine I, in 327, improved Drepanum, his mother's native town, and decreed that it should be called Helenopolis, it is probable that the latter returned from Palestine to her son who was then residing in the Orient. Constantine was with her when she died, at the advanced age of eighty years or thereabouts (Eusebius, "Vita Const.", III, xlvi). This must have been about the year 330, for the last coins which are known to have been stamped with her name bore this date. Her body was brought to Constantinople and laid to rest in the imperial vault of the church of the Apostles. It is presumed that her remains were transferred in 849 to the Abbey of Hautvillers, in the French Archdiocese of Reims, as recorded by the monk Altmann in his "Translatio". She was revered as a saint, and the veneration spread, early in the ninth century, even to Western countries. Her feast falls on 18 August.

(See The Catholic Encyclopedia: http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/07202b.htm)

Cleisthenes
CrispusRIC17.jpg
1404a, Crispus, Caesar 317 - 326 A.D. 39 viewsBronze AE 3, RIC 17, aEF, Cyzicus mint, 3.196g, 19.9mm, 315o, 321 - 324 A.D.; Obverse: D N FL IVL CRISPVS NOB CAES, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right; Reverse: IOVI CONSERVATORI, Jupiter standing left holding Victory on globe in right and scepter in left, eagle with wreath in beak to left, X / IIG and captive right, SMKD in exergue; scarce (RIC R3). Ex FORVM.


De Imperatoribus Romanis;
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors and their Families

Crispus Caesar (317-326 A.D.)

Hans Pohlsander
SUNY Albany

Crispus was the oldest son of the emperor Constantine I and played a fairly important role in the political and military events of the early fourth century. The regular form of his full name is Flavius Iulius Crispus, although the forms Flavius Claudius Crispus and Flavius Valerius Crispus also occur. His mother was a woman named Minervina, with whom Constantine had a relationship, probably illegitimate, before he married Fausta in 307. When Minervina died or when Constantine put her aside we do not know. Nor do we know when she gave birth to Crispus; we may assume, of course, that it was before 307. Some modern authorities, on good grounds, think that it was in 305. Crispus' place of birth must have been somewhere in the East, and it is not known when he was brought to Gaul and when, where, or under what circumstances he was separated from his mother.

Constantine entrusted the education of his son to the distinguished Christian scholar Lactantius, thereby giving a clear sign of his commitment to Christianity. We are not told when Lactantius assumed his duties, but a date before 317 seems likely. Nor do we know how successful he was in instilling Christian beliefs and values in his imperial pupil. No later than January of 322 Crispus must have married a woman named Helena -- not to be confused with Constantine's mother or daughter by the same name- and this woman bore him a child in October of 322. Constantine, we learn, was pleased.

Crispus' official career began at an early age and is well documented. On March 1 of 317, at Serdica (modern Sofia), his father appointed him Caesar. The consulship was his three times, in 318, 321, and 324. While nominally in charge of Gaul, with a prefect at his side, he successfully undertook military operations against the Franks and Alamanni in 320 and 323.

In 324, during the second war between Constantine and Licinius, he excelled as commander of Constantine's fleet in the waters of the Hellespont, the Propontis, and the Bosporus, thus making a significant contribution to the outcome of that war. The high points of his career are amply reflected in the imperial coinage. In addition to coins, we have his portrait, with varying degrees of certainty, in a number of sculptures, mosaics, cameos, etc. Contemporary authors heap praises upon him. Thus the panegyrist Nazarius speaks of Crispus' "magnificent deeds," and Eusebius calls him "an emperor most dear to God and in all regards comparable to his father."

Crispus' end was as tragic as his career had been brilliant. His own father ordered him to be put to death. We know the year of this sad event, 326, from the Consularia Constantinopolitana, and the place, Pola in Istria, from Ammianus Marcellinus. The circumstances, however, are less clear. Zosimus (6th c.) and Zonaras (12th c.) both report that Crispus and his stepmother Fausta were involved in an illicit relationship. There may be as much gossip as fact in their reports, but it is certain that at some time during the same year the emperor ordered the death of his own wife as well, and the two cases must be considered together. That Crispus and Fausta plotted treason is reported by Gregory of Tours, but not very believable. We must resolutely reject the claim of Zosimus that it was Constantine's sense of guilt over these deeds which caused him to accept Christianity, as it alone promised him forgiveness for his sins. A similar claim had already been made by Julian the Apostate. We must also, I think, reject the suggestion of Guthrie that the emperor acted in the interest of "dynastic legitimacy," that is, that he removed his illegitimate first-born son in order to secure the succession for his three legitimate younger sons. But Crispus must have committed, or at least must have been suspected of having committed, some especially shocking offense to earn him a sentence of death from his own father. He also suffered damnatio memoriae, his honor was never restored, and history has not recorded the fate of his wife and his child (or children).

Copyright (C) 1997, Hans A. Pohlsander. Published on De Imperatoribus Romanis;An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors and their Families:
http://www.roman-emperors.org/crispus.htm


What If?

St. Nectarios, in his book, The Ecumenical Synods, writes "Hellenism spread by Alexander paved the way for Christianity by Emperor Constantine the Great."

Constantine's upward gaze on his "Eyes to Heaven" coins recall the coin portraits of Alexander the Great (namely coins struck by the Diodochi), which served as prototypes for the divine ruler portraiture of much of the Hellenistic age. The diadem, of which this is the most elaborate type, was adopted by Constantine and the members of his house as a new symbol of sovereignty.

In the Greek Orthodox Church, Constantine the Great is revered as a Saint.

Is it just possible? Constantine, knowing what happened (or thinking that he does) to Phillip II of Macedon—assassinated on the eve of his greatness, in a plot that most likely involved his wife—and possibly his son. . . isn’t it just possible that Constantine is growing obsessively jealous of his ever more successful and adulated son? Imagine the Constantine who has proven time and again (think: Licinius) that he is a completely self-serving liar and a murderer, decides to murder again? Why "must we resolutely reject the claim of Zosimus that it was Constantine's sense of guilt over these deeds which caused him to accept Christianity, as it alone promised him forgiveness for his sins [?] (see: above). A similar claim had already been made by Julian the [Philosopher]."

Perhaps it is time to cease being apologists for the sometime megalomaniacal Constantine. As Michael Grant notes, "It is a mocking travesty of justice to call such a murderer Constantine the Great . . ." (Grant, Michael. The Emperor Constantine. London: Phoenix Press, 1998. 226).


Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.


Cleisthenes
crispus_votV.jpg
1404b, Crispus, Caesar 317 - 326 A.D. (Thessalonica)35 viewsBronze AE 3, RIC 118, VF, Thessalonica mint, 2.740g, 18.0mm, 180o, 320 - 321 A.D. Obverse: FL IVL CRISPVS NOB CAES, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust left; Reverse: CAESARVM NOSTRORVM, VOT V in wreath, TSDVI in exergue.

Flavius Julius Crispus was the son of Constantine I by his first wife. A brilliant soldier, Crispus was well loved by all until 326 A.D., when Constantine had him executed. It is said that Fausta, Crispus stepmother, anxious to secure the succession for her own sons falsely accused Crispus of raping her. Constantine, learning of Fausta`s treachery, had her executed too.


De Imperatoribus Romanis;
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors and their Families

Crispus Caesar (317-326 A.D.)

Hans Pohlsander
SUNY Albany

Crispus was the oldest son of the emperor Constantine I and played a fairly important role in the political and military events of the early fourth century. The regular form of his full name is Flavius Iulius Crispus, although the forms Flavius Claudius Crispus and Flavius Valerius Crispus also occur. His mother was a woman named Minervina, with whom Constantine had a relationship, probably illegitimate, before he married Fausta in 307. When Minervina died or when Constantine put her aside we do not know. Nor do we know when she gave birth to Crispus; we may assume, of course, that it was before 307. Some modern authorities, on good grounds, think that it was in 305. Crispus' place of birth must have been somewhere in the East, and it is not known when he was brought to Gaul and when, where, or under what circumstances he was separated from his mother.

Constantine entrusted the education of his son to the distinguished Christian scholar Lactantius, thereby giving a clear sign of his commitment to Christianity. We are not told when Lactantius assumed his duties, but a date before 317 seems likely. Nor do we know how successful he was in instilling Christian beliefs and values in his imperial pupil. No later than January of 322 Crispus must have married a woman named Helena -- not to be confused with Constantine's mother or daughter by the same name- and this woman bore him a child in October of 322. Constantine, we learn, was pleased.

Crispus' official career began at an early age and is well documented. On March 1 of 317, at Serdica (modern Sofia), his father appointed him Caesar. The consulship was his three times, in 318, 321, and 324. While nominally in charge of Gaul, with a prefect at his side, he successfully undertook military operations against the Franks and Alamanni in 320 and 323.

In 324, during the second war between Constantine and Licinius, he excelled as commander of Constantine's fleet in the waters of the Hellespont, the Propontis, and the Bosporus, thus making a significant contribution to the outcome of that war. The high points of his career are amply reflected in the imperial coinage. In addition to coins, we have his portrait, with varying degrees of certainty, in a number of sculptures, mosaics, cameos, etc. Contemporary authors heap praises upon him. Thus the panegyrist Nazarius speaks of Crispus' "magnificent deeds," and Eusebius calls him "an emperor most dear to God and in all regards comparable to his father."

Crispus' end was as tragic as his career had been brilliant. His own father ordered him to be put to death. We know the year of this sad event, 326, from the Consularia Constantinopolitana, and the place, Pola in Istria, from Ammianus Marcellinus. The circumstances, however, are less clear. Zosimus (6th c.) and Zonaras (12th c.) both report that Crispus and his stepmother Fausta were involved in an illicit relationship. There may be as much gossip as fact in their reports, but it is certain that at some time during the same year the emperor ordered the death of his own wife as well, and the two cases must be considered together. That Crispus and Fausta plotted treason is reported by Gregory of Tours, but not very believable. We must resolutely reject the claim of Zosimus that it was Constantine's sense of guilt over these deeds which caused him to accept Christianity, as it alone promised him forgiveness for his sins. A similar claim had already been made by Julian the Apostate. We must also, I think, reject the suggestion of Guthrie that the emperor acted in the interest of "dynastic legitimacy," that is, that he removed his illegitimate first-born son in order to secure the succession for his three legitimate younger sons. But Crispus must have committed, or at least must have been suspected of having committed, some especially shocking offense to earn him a sentence of death from his own father. He also suffered damnatio memoriae, his honor was never restored, and history has not recorded the fate of his wife and his child (or children).

Copyright (C) 1997, Hans A. Pohlsander. Published on De Imperatoribus Romanis;An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors and their Families:
http://www.roman-emperors.org/crispus.htm


What If?

St. Nectarios, in his book, The Ecumenical Synods, writes "Hellenism spread by Alexander paved the way for Christianity by Emperor Constantine the Great."

Constantine's upward gaze on his "Eyes to Heaven" coins recall the coin portraits of Alexander the Great (namely coins struck by the Diodochi), which served as prototypes for the divine ruler portraiture of much of the Hellenistic age. The diadem, of which this is the most elaborate type, was adopted by Constantine and the members of his house as a new symbol of sovereignty.

In the Greek Orthodox Church, Constantine the Great is revered as a Saint.

Is it just possible? Constantine, knowing what happened (or thinking that he does) to Phillip II of Macedon—assassinated on the eve of his greatness, in a plot that most likely involved his wife—and possibly his son. . . isn’t it just possible that Constantine is growing obsessively jealous of his ever more successful and adulated son? Imagine the Constantine who has proven time and again (think: Licinius) that he is a completely self-serving liar and a murderer, decides to murder again? Why "must we resolutely reject the claim of Zosimus that it was Constantine's sense of guilt over these deeds which caused him to accept Christianity, as it alone promised him forgiveness for his sins [?] (see: above). A similar claim had already been made by Julian the [Philosopher]."

Perhaps it is time to cease being apologists for the sometime megalomaniacal Constantine. As Michael Grant notes, "It is a mocking travesty of justice to call such a murderer Constantine the Great . . ." (Grant, Michael. The Emperor Constantine. London: Phoenix Press, 1998. 226).


Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
ConstansVot.jpeg
1405a, Constans, 9 September 337 - 19 January 350 A.D. (Alexandria)39 viewsBronze AE 4, RIC 37, gVF, Egypt, Alexandria, 1.54g, 15.0mm, 180o, 345-347 A.D. Obverse: D N CONSTANS P F AVG, pearl diademed head right; Reverse: VOT XX MVLT XXX in wreath, SMALA• in exergue.

Flavius Julius Constans, third and youngest son of Constantine I and Fausta, was born between 320 and 323 A.D. Primary sources for the life and reign of Constans I are scarce. To reconstruct his life and career, one must draw on a variety of references in both fourth century and later works. Raised as a Christian, he was made a Caesar on 25 December 333 A.D. Constans I and his two brothers, after the death of their father on 22 May 337 and the subsequent "massacre of the princes" in which many other relatives were purged, met in the first part of September 337 in Pannonia to re-divide the empire among themselves. There they were acclaimed Augusti by the army. Constans' new realm included Italy, Africa, Illyricum, Macedonia, and Achaea. Shortly before his father's death, Constans' engagement to Olympias, the daughter of the Praetorian Prefect Ablabius, was announced; although the match was never solemnized because of political reasons.

It would appear that Constans was successful in the military sphere. Following his accession to the purple in 337, he seems to have won a victory over the Sarmatians. In 340 Constans was able to beat back an attempt by his brother Constantine II to seize some of his realm. The latter died in a battle fought near Aquileia and Constans absorbed his late brother's territory. In 341 and 342 he conducted a successful campaign against the Franci. He also visited Britain in 343, probably on a military campaign.

As an emperor Constans gets mixed reviews. In what may be a topos, sources suggest that the first part of his reign was moderate but in later years, however, he became overbearing. The emperor apparently attempted to obtain as much money as he could from his subjects and sold government posts to the highest bidder. His favorites were allowed to oppress his subjects. Sources also condemn his homosexuality. He did have some military success and, in addition to other military threats, he had to deal with Donatist-related bandits in North Africa.

Like his father Constantine I and his brother Constantius II, Constans had a deep interest in Christianity. Together with Constantius II he issued (or perhaps re-issued) a ban against pagan sacrifice in 341. The next year, they cautioned against the destruction of pagan temples. Unlike his brother Constantius II, who supported the Arian faction, he stood shoulder to shoulder with Athanasius and other members of the Orthodox clique. In fact, it is due to his request that the Council of Serdica was called to deal with the ecclesiastical squabble between Athanasius of Alexandria and Paul of Constantinople on one side and the Arian faction on the other.

When Magnentius was declared emperor in Gaul during January 350, Constans realized his reign was at an end. When he learned of the revolt, he fled toward Helena, a town in the Pyrenees. Constans was put to death by Gaeso and a band of Magnentius' assassins, who dragged their victim from a temple in which he had sought refuge.

By Michael DiMaio, Jr., Salve Regina University and Robert Frakes, Clarion UniversityPublished: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

Cleisthenes
Constans.jpg
1405n, Constans, 9 September 337 - 19 January 350 A.D. (Siscia)56 viewsConstans, 9 September 337 - 19 January 350 A.D. Bronze AE 3, RIC 241, S 3978, VM 69, VF, Siscia, 2.32g, 18.3mm, 180o. Obverse: D N CONSTANS P F AVG, pearl diademed draped and cuirassed bust right; Reverse: FEL TEMP REPARATIO, Phoenix radiate, standing on rocky mound, GSIS and symbol in ex; nice green patina.

Flavius Julius Constans, third and youngest son of Constantine I and Fausta, was born between 320 and 323 A.D. Primary sources for the life and reign of Constans I are scarce. To reconstruct his life and career, one must draw on a variety of references in both fourth century and later works. Raised as a Christian, he was made a Caesar on 25 December 333 A.D. Constans I and his two brothers, after the death of their father on 22 May 337 and the subsequent "massacre of the princes" in which many other relatives were purged, met in the first part of September 337 in Pannonia to re-divide the empire among themselves. There they were acclaimed Augusti by the army. Constans' new realm included Italy, Africa, Illyricum, Macedonia, and Achaea. Shortly before his father's death, Constans' engagement to Olympias, the daughter of the Praetorian Prefect Ablabius, was announced; although the match was never solemnized because of political reasons.

It would appear that Constans was successful in the military sphere. Following his accession to the purple in 337, he seems to have won a victory over the Sarmatians. In 340 Constans was able to beat back an attempt by his brother Constantine II to seize some of his realm. The latter died in a battle fought near Aquileia and Constans absorbed his late brother's territory. In 341 and 342 he conducted a successful campaign against the Franci. He also visited Britain in 343, probably on a military campaign.

As an emperor Constans gets mixed reviews. In what may be a topos, sources suggest that the first part of his reign was moderate but in later years, however, he became overbearing. The emperor apparently attempted to obtain as much money as he could from his subjects and sold government posts to the highest bidder. His favorites were allowed to oppress his subjects. Sources also condemn his homosexuality. He did have some military success and, in addition to other military threats, he had to deal with Donatist-related bandits in North Africa.

Like his father Constantine I and his brother Constantius II, Constans had a deep interest in Christianity. Together with Constantius II he issued (or perhaps re-issued) a ban against pagan sacrifice in 341. The next year, they cautioned against the destruction of pagan temples. Unlike his brother Constantius II, who supported the Arian faction, he stood shoulder to shoulder with Athanasius and other members of the Orthodox clique. In fact, it is due to his request that the Council of Serdica was called to deal with the ecclesiastical squabble between Athanasius of Alexandria and Paul of Constantinople on one side and the Arian faction on the other.

When Magnentius was declared emperor in Gaul during January 350, Constans realized his reign was at an end. When he learned of the revolt, he fled toward Helena, a town in the Pyrenees. Constans was put to death by Gaeso and a band of Magnentius' assassins, who dragged their victim from a temple in which he had sought refuge.

By Michael DiMaio, Jr., Salve Regina University and Robert Frakes, Clarion University
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
U2476F1OVDKUXTA.jpeg
1405t, Constans, 9 September 337 - 19 January 350 A.D. (Thessalonica )39 viewsConstans, 9 September 337 - 19 January 350 A.D., Bronze AE 3, unattributed; Thessalonica mint, 2.25g, 18.9mm, 0; aVF.

Flavius Julius Constans, third and youngest son of Constantine I and Fausta, was born between 320 and 323 A.D. Primary sources for the life and reign of Constans I are scarce. To reconstruct his life and career, one must draw on a variety of references in both fourth century and later works. Raised as a Christian, he was made a Caesar on 25 December 333 A.D. Constans I and his two brothers, after the death of their father on 22 May 337 and the subsequent "massacre of the princes" in which many other relatives were purged, met in the first part of September 337 in Pannonia to re-divide the empire among themselves. There they were acclaimed Augusti by the army. Constans' new realm included Italy, Africa, Illyricum, Macedonia, and Achaea. Shortly before his father's death, Constans' engagement to Olympias, the daughter of the Praetorian Prefect Ablabius, was announced; although the match was never solemnized because of political reasons.

It would appear that Constans was successful in the military sphere. Following his accession to the purple in 337, he seems to have won a victory over the Sarmatians. In 340 Constans was able to beat back an attempt by his brother Constantine II to seize some of his realm. The latter died in a battle fought near Aquileia and Constans absorbed his late brother's territory. In 341 and 342 he conducted a successful campaign against the Franci. He also visited Britain in 343, probably on a military campaign.

As an emperor Constans gets mixed reviews. In what may be a topos, sources suggest that the first part of his reign was moderate but in later years, however, he became overbearing. The emperor apparently attempted to obtain as much money as he could from his subjects and sold government posts to the highest bidder. His favorites were allowed to oppress his subjects. Sources also condemn his homosexuality. He did have some military success and, in addition to other military threats, he had to deal with Donatist-related bandits in North Africa.

Like his father Constantine I and his brother Constantius II, Constans had a deep interest in Christianity. Together with Constantius II he issued (or perhaps re-issued) a ban against pagan sacrifice in 341. The next year, they cautioned against the destruction of pagan temples. Unlike his brother Constantius II, who supported the Arian faction, he stood shoulder to shoulder with Athanasius and other members of the Orthodox clique. In fact, it is due to his request that the Council of Serdica was called to deal with the ecclesiastical squabble between Athanasius of Alexandria and Paul of Constantinople on one side and the Arian faction on the other.

When Magnentius was declared emperor in Gaul during January 350, Constans realized his reign was at an end. When he learned of the revolt, he fled toward Helena, a town in the Pyrenees. Constans was put to death by Gaeso and a band of Magnentius' assassins, who dragged their victim from a temple in which he had sought refuge.

By Michael DiMaio, Jr., Salve Regina University and Robert Frakes, Clarion University.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
Cnstntine2.jpg
1406a, Constantine II, 22 May 337 - March or April 340 A.D. (Antioch)28 viewsConstantine II, 22 May 337 - March or April 340 A.D. Bronze AE 3, RIC 87, gVF, Antioch, 2.17g, 17.6mm, 0o, 330-335 A.D. Obverse: CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C, laureate and cuirassed bust right; Reverse: GLOR-IA EXERC-ITVS, two soldiers, each holding spear and shield on ground, flanking two standards, SMANE in exergue.

Constantine II (February 317 - 340) was Roman Emperor (337 - 340). The eldest son of Constantine I the Great and Fausta, he was born at Arles. Following the death of his father in 337, Constantine II became Emperor jointly with his brothers Constantius II and Constans. His section of the Empire was Gaul, Britain and Spain. At first, he was the guardian of his younger brother Constans, whose portion was Italy, Africa and Illyria. As Constans came of age, Constantine would not relinquish the guardianship, and in 340 he marched against Constans in Italy, but was defeated at Aquileia and died in battle. Constans came to control Constantine II's portion of the empire.
Cleisthenes
Constantine2.jpg
1406c, Constantine II, 337-340 A.D.36 viewsConstantine II, 317-340. AE3, RIC VII, 74 ('theta' = r), page 581 2.22 grams, 333-335 AD, Constantinople mint, VF. Obverse : CONSTANTIVS IVN NOB C - Laureate bust right, draped and cuirassed. Reverse: GLOR-IA EXERC-ITVS - Two soldiers looking in at each other and both holding a spear; between them, two standards. CONS (theta) (dot) in exergue. Rare.

Constantine II (February 317 - 340) was Roman Emperor (337 - 340). The eldest son of Constantine I the Great and Fausta, he was born at Arles. Following the death of his father in 337, Constantine II became Emperor jointly with his brothers Constantius II and Constans. His section of the Empire was Gaul, Britain and Spain. At first, he was the guardian of his younger brother Constans, whose portion was Italy, Africa and Illyria. As Constans came of age, Constantine would not relinquish the guardianship, and in 340 he marched against Constans in Italy, but was defeated at Aquileia and died in battle. Constans came to control Constantine II's portion of the empire.
Cleisthenes
U809F1JMXNTCBT.jpg
1407a, Constantius II, 337-361 A.D. (Antioch)51 viewsAE4, 337-361 A.D. Antioch, aVF/VF,Obv:– DN CONSTANTIVS P F AVG, Pearl and rosette diadem, head right/R: Wreath with VOT XX MVLT XXX, SMANB in exe.RIC VIII Antioch 113,Item ref: RI170b.

AE3, 2.80 grams, 330-333, Heraclea, aVF. Obv: FL IVL CONSTANTIVS NOB C - Laureate bust right, draped and cuirassed. R: GLOR-IA EXERC-ITVS - Two soldiers looking in at each other and both holding a spear; between them, two standards Exe: SMHB.

Constantius II was born in Illyricum in August AD 317, the son of Constantine the Great and Fausta, and was proclaimed Caesar in AD 323.

In AD 337, at the death of his father Constantine, he acceded to the throne together with his two brothers Constantine II and Constans. But this accession by the three brothers was tainted by the murder of their cousins Dalmatius and Hannibalianus, whom Constantine had also intended as joint heirs. These murders are believed to have been masterminded by Constantius II.

Eventually, Constantius II was left as the sole emperor of the Roman empire. Constantius elevated his cousin, Julian, to the rank of Caesar (junior emperor) and gave him his sister Helena in marriage. Julian was assigned the task of dealing with the Frankish leader, Silvanus, who had proclaimed himself emepror at Colonia Agrippina. Julian's success led his men to declare him Augustus. Julian, while reluctant to take the throne, accepted.

Constantius II, therefore, left the Mesopotamian frontier and marched his troops west, seeking to deal with the usurper. As he reached Cilicia in the winter of AD 361, he was overcome by a sudden fever and died at Mopsucrene. Julian, the Apostate, succeded him as Emperor.

Our chief source for Constantius' reign is the great historian Ammianus Marcellinus. He presents a mixed view of that emperor. In some ways a sound administrator and competent general, Constantius is also portrayed as easily influenced by those around him such as his wives, courtiers and the eunuchs of the court (Ammianus 21. 16. 16). Ammianus (21.16.18) also attacks Constantius' great interest in Church affairs--alleging that he bankrupted the courier service with calls for Church councils. Of course, imperial interest in Church affairs was a major policy of his father Constantine and it may be that Constantius was trying to emulate his model (if only with mixed success). Indeed, Constantius II (like his brothers Constantine II and Constans) was raised a Christian. Among his many laws is the famous CTh 16.10.2 of 341 which either prohibited or re-issued his father's prohibition of pagan sacrifices. Sympathetic to Arianism, he spent a great deal of his reign calling Church councils. One of the longest-reigned emperors in Roman history, Constantius is hard for the modern historian to fully understand both due to his own actions and due to the interests of the authors of primary sources for his reign.

By Michael DiMaio, Jr., Salve Regina University & Robert Frakes, Clarion University
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

1 commentsCleisthenes
Cnstntius2b.jpg
1407h, Constantius II, 337-361 A.D. (Heraclea)32 viewsConstantius II 337-361 A.D. AE3, 2.80 grams, 330-333, Heraclea, aVF. Obverse: FL IVL CONSTANTIVS NOB C - Laureate bust right, draped and cuirassed; Reverse: GLOR-IA EXERC-ITVS - Two soldiers looking in at each other and both holding a spear; between them, two standards; SMHB in exergue.

Constantius II was born in Illyricum in August AD 317, the son of Constantine the Great and Fausta, and was proclaimed Caesar in AD 323.

In AD 337, at the death of his father Constantine, he acceded to the throne together with his two brothers Constantine II and Constans. But this accession by the three brothers was tainted by the murder of their cousins Dalmatius and Hannibalianus, whom Constantine had also intended as joint heirs. These murders are believed to have been masterminded by Constantius II.

Eventually, Constantius II was left as the sole emperor of the Roman empire. Constantius elevated his cousin, Julian, to the rank of Caesar (junior emperor) and gave him his sister Helena in marriage. Julian was assigned the task of dealing with the Frankish leader, Silvanus, who had proclaimed himself emepror at Colonia Agrippina. Julian's success led his men to declare him Augustus. Julian, while reluctant to take the throne, accepted.

Constantius II, therefore, left the Mesopotamian frontier and marched his troops west, seeking to deal with the usurper. As he reached Cilicia in the winter of AD 361, he was overcome by a sudden fever and died at Mopsucrene. Julian, the Apostate, succeded him as Emperor.

Our chief source for Constantius' reign is the great historian Ammianus Marcellinus. He presents a mixed view of that emperor. In some ways a sound administrator and competent general, Constantius is also portrayed as easily influenced by those around him such as his wives, courtiers and the eunuchs of the court (Ammianus 21. 16. 16). Ammianus (21.16.18) also attacks Constantius' great interest in Church affairs--alleging that he bankrupted the courier service with calls for Church councils. Of course, imperial interest in Church affairs was a major policy of his father Constantine and it may be that Constantius was trying to emulate his model (if only with mixed success). Indeed, Constantius II (like his brothers Constantine II and Constans) was raised a Christian. Among his many laws is the famous CTh 16.10.2 of 341 which either prohibited or re-issued his father's prohibition of pagan sacrifices. Sympathetic to Arianism, he spent a great deal of his reign calling Church councils. One of the longest-reigned emperors in Roman history, Constantius is hard for the modern historian to fully understand both due to his own actions and due to the interests of the authors of primary sources for his reign.
By Michael DiMaio, Jr., Salve Regina University & Robert Frakes, Clarion University
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
Constantius II.jpg
1407r, Constantius II, 22 May 337 - 3 November 361 A.D.39 viewsBronze AE 3, RIC 272, aVF, 2.203g, 18.1mm, 0o, Rome mint, 352 - 355 A.D.; obverse D N CONSTAN-TIVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse FEL TEMP REPARATIO, soldier spearing fallen horseman, RT in ex.

Constantius II was born in Illyricum in August AD 317, the son of Constantine the Great and Fausta, and was proclaimed Caesar in AD 323.

In AD 337, at the death of his father Constantine, he acceded to the throne together with his two brothers Constantine II and Constans. But this accession by the three brothers was tainted by the murder of their cousins Dalmatius and Hannibalianus, whom Constantine had also intended as joint heirs. These murders are believed to have been masterminded by Constantius II.

Eventually, Constantius II was left as the sole emperor of the Roman empire. Constantius elevated Julian to the rank of Caesar (junior emperor) and gave him his sister Helena in marriage. Julian was assigned the task of dealing with the Frankish leader, Silvanus, who had proclaimed himself emepror at Colonia Agrippina. Julian's success lead his men to declare him Augustus. Julian, while reluctant to take the throne, accepted.

Constantius II, therefore left the Mesopotamian frontier and marched his troops west, seeking to deal with the usurper. As he reached Cilicia in the winter of AD 361, he was overcome by a sudden fever and died at Mopsucrene. Julian, the Apostate, succeded him as Emperor.

Our chief source for Constantius' reign is the great historian Ammianus Marcellinus. He presents a mixed view of that emperor. In some ways a sound administrator and competent general, Constantius is also portrayed as easily influenced by those around him such as his wives, courtiers and the eunuchs of the court (Ammianus 21. 16. 16). Ammianus (21.16.18) also attacks Constantius' great interest in Church affairs--alleging that he bankrupted the courier service with calls for Church councils. Of course, imperial interest in Church affairs was a major policy of his father Constantine and it may be that Constantius was trying to emulate his model (if only with mixed success). Indeed, Constantius II (like his brothers Constantine II and Constans) was raised a Christian. Among his many laws is the famous CTh 16.10.2 of 341 which either prohibited or re-issued his father's prohibition of pagan sacrifices. Sympathetic to Arianism, he spent a great deal of his reign calling Church councils. One of the longest-reigned emperors in Roman history, Constantius is hard for the modern historian to fully understand both due to his own actions and due to the interests of the authors of primary sources for his reign.

By Michael DiMaio, Jr., Salve Regina University & Robert Frakes, Clarion University
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.



Cleisthenes
Fausta_AE-3-silvered_FLAV-MAX-FAVSTA-AVG_SPES-REIP-VBLICAE_SMH-A_RIC-VII-80-p-551-13-A6_R1_Heraclea_325-26-AD__Q-001_axis-6h_19mm_2,72g-s.jpg
141 Fausta (290 -326 A.D.), AE-3 Follis, Heraclea, RIC VII 080, -/-//SMHA, SPES REIPVBLICAE, Spes standing left, R1!, #179 views141 Fausta (290 -326 A.D.), AE-3 Follis, Heraclea, RIC VII 080, -/-//SMHA, SPES REIPVBLICAE, Spes standing left, R1!, #1
avers:- FLAV MAX FAVSTA AVG, 13, A6, Draped bust right, with the necklace.
revers:- SPES REIP VBLICAE, Spes standing left, holding a baby in each arm.
exergo: -/-//SMHA, diameter: 19mm, weight: 2,72g, axis: 6h,
mint: Heraclea, date: 325-26 A.D., ref: RIC-VII-080, p-551, R1!,
Q-001
quadrans
Fausta_Heraclea_RIC-VII-80,_AE-3,_FLAV_MAX_FAVSTA_AVG,_SPES_REIP_VBLICAE,_SMHA,_RIC-VII-80,_p-551-13-A6,_R1,_325-26-AD__Q-002,_5h,_17,5-19mm,_3,45g-s.jpg
141 Fausta (290 -326 A.D.), AE-3 Follis, Heraclea, RIC VII 080, -/-//SMHA, SPES REIPVBLICAE, Spes standing left, R1!, #2120 views141 Fausta (290 -326 A.D.), AE-3 Follis, Heraclea, RIC VII 080, -/-//SMHA, SPES REIPVBLICAE, Spes standing left, R1!, #2
avers:- FLAV MAX FAVSTA AVG, 13, A6, Draped bust right, with the necklace.
revers:- SPES REIP VBLICAE, Spes standing left, holding a baby in each arm.
exergo: -/-//SMHA, diameter: 17,5-19,0mm, weight: 3,45g, axis: 5h,
mint: Heraclea, date: 325-26 A.D., ref: RIC-VII-080, p-551, R1!,
Q-002
1 commentsquadrans
Fausta_AE-3-silvered_FLAV-MAX-FAVSTA-AVG_SPES-REI-PVBLICAE_R-P_RIC-VII-271-p-326-13-A6_R4_Rome_324-5-AD_Q-001_h_20mm_ga-s.jpg
141 Fausta (290 -326 A.D.), AE-3 Follis, Rome, RIC VII 271, -/-//R P, SPES REIPVBLICAE, Spes standing left, R4!!!95 views141 Fausta (290 -326 A.D.), AE-3 Follis, Rome, RIC VII 271, -/-//R P, SPES REIPVBLICAE, Spes standing left, R4!!!
avers:- FLAV-MAX-FAVSTA-AVG, 13, A6, Draped bust right, with necklace.
revers:- SPES-REI-PVBLICAE, Spes standing left, holding baby in each arm.
exergo: -/-//R P, diameter: 20mm, weight: g, axis: 0h,
mint: Rome, date: 324-325 A.D., ref: RIC-VII-271, p-326, R4!!!,
Q-001
quadrans
Fausta_AE-3-silvered_FLAV-MAX-FAVSTA-AVG_SPES-REI-PVBLICAE_R-wreath-P_RIC-VII-292-p-330-13a-A6_R4_Rome_326-AD_Q-001_0h_19-20mm_2,64g-s.jpg
141 Fausta (290 -326 A.D.), AE-3 Follis, Rome, RIC VII 292, -/-//R wreath P, SPES REIPVBLICAE, Spes standing left, R4!!!68 views141 Fausta (290 -326 A.D.), AE-3 Follis, Rome, RIC VII 292, -/-//R wreath P, SPES REIPVBLICAE, Spes standing left, R4!!!
avers:- FLAV-MAX-FAVSTA-AVG, 13, A6, Draped bust right, with necklace.
revers:- SPES-REI-PVBLICAE, Spes standing left, holding baby in each arm.
exergo: -/-//R wreath P, diameter: 19-20mm, weight: 2,64g, axis: 0h,
mint: Rome, date: 326 A.D., ref: RIC-VII-292, p-330, R4!!!,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Fausta_AE-3-silvered_FLAV-MAX-FAVSTA-AVG_SPES-REIP-VBLICAE_dot-A-SIS-dot_RIC-VII-205-p-450-13-A6_S_Siscia_326-27-AD__Q-001_axis-0h_19mm_2,65g-s.jpg
141 Fausta (290 -326 A.D.), AE-3 Follis, Siscia, RIC VII 205, -/-//•ASIS•, SPES REIPVBLICAE, Spes standing left, Scarce!73 views141 Fausta (290 -326 A.D.), AE-3 Follis, Siscia, RIC VII 205, -/-//•ASIS•, SPES REIPVBLICAE, Spes standing left, Scarce!
avers:- FLAV-MAX-FAVSTA-AVG, 13, A6, Draped bust right, with necklace.
revers:- SPES-REIP-VBLICAE, Spes standing left, holding baby in each arm.
exergo: -/-//•ASIS•, diameter: 19mm, weight: 2,65g, axis: 0h,
mint: Siscia, date: 326-27 A.D., ref: RIC-VII-205, p-450, Scarce!
Q-001
quadrans
Fausta_AE-3-silvered_FLAV-MAX-FAVSTA-AVG_SPES-REIP-VBLICAE_dot-B-SIS-dot_RIC-VII-205-p-450-13-A6_S_Siscia_326-27-AD_Q-001_axis-0h_19-20mm_3,10g-s.jpg
141 Fausta (290 -326 A.D.), AE-3 Follis, Siscia, RIC VII 205, -/-//•BSIS•, SPES REIPVBLICAE, Spes standing left, Scarce!66 views141 Fausta (290 -326 A.D.), AE-3 Follis, Siscia, RIC VII 205, -/-//•BSIS•, SPES REIPVBLICAE, Spes standing left, Scarce!
avers:- FLAV-MAX-FAVSTA-AVG, 13, A6, Draped bust right, with necklace.
revers:- SPES-REIP-VBLICAE, Spes standing left, holding baby in each arm.
exergo: -/-//•BSIS•, diameter: 19-20mm, weight: 3,10g, axis: 0h,
mint: Siscia, date: 326-27 A.D., ref: RIC-VII-205, p-450, Scarce!
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Fausta_AE-3-silvered_FAVSTA-NF_star-in-wreath_TSA_RIC-VII-49-p-504-13-A6_R4_Thessalonica_318-319-AD__Q-001_axis-5h_19mm_2,79g-s.jpg
141 Fausta (290 -326 A.D.), AE-3 Follis, Thessalonica, RIC VII 049, -/-//TSA, No legend, Eight-pointed Star within laurel wreath, R4!!!181 views141 Fausta (290 -326 A.D.), AE-3 Follis, Thessalonica, RIC VII 049, -/-//TSA, No legend, Eight-pointed Star within laurel wreath, R4!!!
avers:- FAVSTA-NF, 13, E10, Draped, bust right .
revers:- No legend,Eight-pointed Star within laurel wreath.
exergo: -/-//TSA, diameter: 19mm, weight: 2,79g, axis: 5h,
mint: Thessalonica, date: 318-19 A.D.,ref: RIC-VII-049, p-504, R4!!!,
Q-001
3 commentsquadrans
Fausta_AE-3-silvered_FLAV-MAX-FAVSTA-AVG_SPES-REIP-VBLICAE_SMTS-A_RIC-VII-161-p-519-13-A6_R3_Thessalonica_326-28-AD__Q-003_axis-0h_19mm_3,35g-s.jpg
141 Fausta (290 -326 A.D.), AE-3 Follis, Thessalonica, RIC VII 161, -/-//SMTSA, SPES REIPVBLICAE, Spes standing left, R3!!!, #189 views141 Fausta (290 -326 A.D.), AE-3 Follis, Thessalonica, RIC VII 161, -/-//SMTSA, SPES REIPVBLICAE, Spes standing left, R3!!!, #1
avers:- FLAV-MAX-FAVSTA-AVG, 13, A6, Draped bust right, with necklace.
revers:- SPES-REIP-VBLICAE, Spes standing left, holding baby in each arm.
exergo: -/-//SMTSA, diameter: 19mm, weight: 3,35g, axis: 0h,
mint: Thessalonica, date: 326-28 A.D., ref: RIC-VII-161, p-519, R3 !!!,
Q-001
quadrans
Fausta_AE-3-silvered_FLAV-MAX-FAVSTA-AVG_SPES-REIP-VBLICAE_SMTS-B_RIC-VII-161-p-519-13-A6_R3_Thessalonica_326-28-AD__Q-001_axis-5h_20mm_3,21g-s.jpg
141 Fausta (290 -326 A.D.), AE-3 Follis, Thessalonica, RIC VII 161, -/-//SMTSB, SPES REIPVBLICAE, Spes standing left, R3!!!, #178 views141 Fausta (290 -326 A.D.), AE-3 Follis, Thessalonica, RIC VII 161, -/-//SMTSB, SPES REIPVBLICAE, Spes standing left, R3!!!, #1
avers:- FLAV-MAX-FAVSTA-AVG, 13, A6, Draped bust right, with necklace.
revers:- SPES-REIP-VBLICAE, Spes standing left, holding baby in each arm.
exergo: -/-//SMTSB, diameter: 20mm, weight: 3,21g, axis: 5h,
mint: Thessalonica, date: 326-28 A.D., ref: RIC-VII-161, p-513, R3 !!!,
Q-001
quadrans
Fausta_AE-3-silvered_FLAV-MAX-FAVSTA-AVG_SPES-REIP-VBLICAE_SMTS-B_RIC-VII-161-p-519-13-A6_R3_Thessalonica_326-28-AD__Q-002_axis-5h_19mm_2,95g-s.jpg
141 Fausta (290 -326 A.D.), AE-3 Follis, Thessalonica, RIC VII 161, -/-//SMTSB, SPES REIPVBLICAE, Spes standing left, R3!!!, #2160 views141 Fausta (290 -326 A.D.), AE-3 Follis, Thessalonica, RIC VII 161, -/-//SMTSB, SPES REIPVBLICAE, Spes standing left, R3!!!, #2
avers:- FLAV-MAX-FAVSTA-AVG, 13, A6, Draped bust right, with necklace.
revers:- SPES-REIP-VBLICAE, Spes standing left, holding baby in each arm.
exergo: -/-//SMTSB, diameter: 19mm, weight: 2,95g, axis: 5h,
mint: Thessalonica, date: 326-28 A.D., ref: RIC-VII-161, p-513, R3 !!!,
Q-002
1 commentsquadrans
Fausta_AE-3-silvered_FLAV-MAX-FAVSTA-AVG_SPES-REIP-VBLICAE_SMTSA_RIC-VII-162-p-519-13-E10_R4_Thessalonica_326-28-AD_Q-001_axis-5h_19-21mm_3,05g-s.jpg
141 Fausta (290 -326 A.D.), AE-3 Follis, Thessalonica, RIC VII 162, -/-//SMTSA, SPES REIPVBLICAE, Spes standing left, R4!!!320 views141 Fausta (290 -326 A.D.), AE-3 Follis, Thessalonica, RIC VII 162, -/-//SMTSA, SPES REIPVBLICAE, Spes standing left, R4!!!
avers:- FLAV-MAX-FAVSTA-AVG, 13, E10, Diademed, Mantled, bust right with two-row necklace.
revers:- SPES-REIP-VBLICAE, Spes standing left, holding baby in each arm.
exergo: -/-//SMTSA, diameter: 19-21 mm, weight: 3,05g, axis: 5h,
mint: Thessalonica, date: 326-28 A.D.,ref: RIC-VII-162, p-519, R4!!!,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
RI_162e_img.jpg
162 - Fausta - AE3 - RIC VII Alexandria 40 17 viewsAE3
Obv:– FLAV MAX FAVSTA AVG, Draped bust right
Rev:– SPES REIPVBLICAE, Spes standing left with two children in her arms
Minted in Alexandria (//SMALA), A.D. 325 – A.D. 326
Reference(s) – RIC VII Alexandria 40 (R4)
maridvnvm
RI_162d_img.jpg
162 - Fausta - Ae3 - RIC VII Lugdunum 235 12 viewsObv:– FLAV MAX FAVSTA AVG, Draped bust right
Rev:– SPES REIPVBLICAE, Spes standing left with two children in her arms
Minted in Lugdunum (//PLC), end A.D. 324 – A.D. 325
Reference:– Bastien 193 (20 examples cited). RIC VII Lugdunum 235 (R2).
maridvnvm
RI 162a img.jpg
162 - Fausta - RIC VII Heraclea 086 var. (unlisted officina)42 viewsObv:– FLAV MAX FAVSTA AVG, Draped bust right
Rev:– SPES REIPVBLICAE, Spes standing left with two children in her arms
Minted in Heraclea. SMHΔ• in exe. A.D. 326
Reference:– RIC Heraclea 86 var (RIC records only officina A)
maridvnvm
RI_162b_img.jpg
162 - Fausta - RIC VII Lugdunum 23526 viewsObv:– FLAV • MAX • FAVSTA AVG, Draped bust right
Rev:– SPES REIPVBLICAE, Spes standing left with two children in her arms
Minted in Lugdunum. PLG in exe. end A.D. 324 – A.D. 325
Reference:– RIC VII Lugdunum 235 (R2). Bastien Vol. XIII 193 (20 examples cited)
Martin Griffiths
RI_162c_img.jpg
162 - Fausta - RIC VII Lugdunum 23511 viewsObv:– FLAV • MAX • FAVSTA AVG, Draped bust right
Rev:– SPES REIPVBLICAE, Spes standing left with two children in her arms
Minted in Lugdunum. PLG in exe. end A.D. 324 – A.D. 325
Reference:– RIC VII Lugdunum 235 (R2). Bastien Vol. XIII 193 (20 examples cited)
Martin Griffiths
IMG_4146~0.jpg
174. Fausta (2nd wife of Constantine I)16 viewsAv.: FLAV MAX FAVSTA AVG
Rv.: SPES REIPVBLICAE
Ex.: PTR

AE Follis Ø18 / 3.5g
RIC VII 460 Trier
RIC Rarity rating R2!
Juancho
MaximianusFollisGenio.jpg
1dt Maximianus22 views286-305, 306-308, 310

Quarter Follis

Laureate head, right, IMP C M A MAXIMIANVS P F AVG
Genius standing left, with modius on head, cornucopia & patera, GENIO POPVLI ROMANI, SIS in exergue

RIC 146

Eutropius records: [Diocletian] thus became master of the Roman empire; and when the peasants in Gaul made an insurrection, giving their faction the name of Bagaudae, and having for leaders Amandus and Aelianus, he despatched Maximian Herculius, with the authority of Caesar, to suppress them. Maximian, in a few battles of little importance, subdued the rustic multitude, and restored peace to Gaul. . . . While disorder thus prevailed throughout the world, while Carausius was taking arms in Britain and Achilleus in Egypt, while the Quinquegentiani were harassing Africa, and Narseus was making war upon the east, Diocletian promoted MAXIMIAN HERCULIUS from the dignity of Caesar to that "of emperor, and created Constantius and Maximian Galerius Caesars. . . .

Maximian the emperor, brought the war to an end in Africa, by subduing the Quinquegentiani, and compelling them to make peace. . . .

Herculius was undisguisedly cruel, and of a violent temper, and showed his severity of disposition in the sternness of his looks. Gratifying his own inclination, he joined with Diocletian in even the most cruel of his proceedings. But when Diocletian, as age bore heavily upon him, felt himself unable to sustain the government of the empire, he suggested to Herculius that they should both retire into private life, and commit the duty of upholding the state to more vigorous and youthful hands. With this suggestion his colleague reluctantly complied. Both of them, in the same day, exchanged the robe of empire for an ordinary dress, Diocletian at Nicomedia, Herculius at Milan, soon after a magnificent triumph which they celebrated at Rome over several nations, with a noble succession of pictures, and in which the wives, sisters, and children of Narseus were led before their chariots. The one then retired to Salonae, and the other into Lucania.

But after the death of Constantius, CONSTANTINE, his son by a wife of obscure birth, was made emperor in Britain, and succeeded his father as a most desirable ruler. In the meantime the praetorian guards at Rome, having risen in insurrection, declared MAXENTIUS, the son of Maximian Herculius, who lived in the Villa Publica not far from the city, emperor. At the news of this proceeding, Maximian, filled with hopes of regaining the imperial dignity, which he had not willingly resigned, hurried to Rome from Lucania. . . , and stimulated Diocletian by letters to resume the authority that he had laid down, letters which Diocletian utterly disregarded. Severus Caesar, being despatched to Rome by Galerius to suppress the rising of the guards and Maxentius, arrived there with his army, but, as he was laying siege to the city, was deserted through the treachery of his soldiers.

The power of Maxentius was thus increased, and his government established. Severus, taking to flight, was killed at Ravenna. Maximian Herculius, attempting afterwards, in an assembly of the army, to divest his son Maxentius of his power, met with nothing but mutiny and reproaches from the soldiery. He then set out for Gaul, on a planned stratagem, as if he had been driven away by his son, that he might join his son-in-law Constantine, designing, however, if he could find an opportunity, to cut off Constantine, who was ruling in Gaul with great approbation both of the soldiers and the people of the province, having overthrown the Franks and Alemanni with great slaughter, and captured their kings, whom, on exhibiting a magnificent show of games, he exposed to wild beasts. But the plot being made known by Maximian's daughter Fausta, who communicated the design to her husband, Maximian was cut off at Marseilles, whence he was preparing to sail to join his son, and died a well-deserved death. . . .
Blindado
ConstantinusFollisSol.jpg
1ec_2 Constantine the Great18 views307-337

Follis

Laureate, draped, cuirassed bust right, IMP CONSTANTINVS PF AVG
Sol standing left, chlamys across left shoulder, raising right hand and holding globe in left hand, captive to left. Mintmark RQ.

RIC VII 52

According to Zonaras: Constans, in the eleventh year of his reign since he had been proclaimed Caesar, having ruled gently and mildly, came to the end of his life while residing in Britain, having, because of his goodness, bequeathed grief for himself among those he ruled, first having appointed successor the elder of his own sons, namely Constantine the Great, whom he begat by his first wife. He also had by his second wife, Herculius’ daughter Theodora, other sons, Constantinus, Hannibalianus, and Constantius. Constantine the Great was preferred over them, since they were judged by their father to be unsuited for sovereignty. . . . Constantine, when he was still a lad, was actually given by his father as a hostage to Gallerius, in order that, serving as a hostage, at the same time he be trained in the exercise of the soldierly art.

Eutropius summarizes: CONSTANTINE, being a man of great energy, bent upon effecting whatever he had settled in his mind, and aspiring to the sovereignty of the whole world, proceeded to make war on Licinius, although he had formed a connexion with him by marriage,5 for his sister Constantia was married to Licinius. And first of all be overthrew him, by a sudden attack, at Cibalae in Pannonia, where he was making vast preparations for war; and after becoming master of Dardania, Maesia, and Macedonia, took possession also of several other provinces.

There were then various contests between them, and peace made and broken. At last Licinius, defeated in a battle at Nicomedia by sea and land, surrendered himself, and, in violation of an oath taken by Constantine, was put to death, after being divested of the purple, at Thessalonica.

At this time the Roman empire fell under the sway of one emperor and three Caesars, a state of things which had never existed before; the sons of Constantine ruling over Gaul, the east, and Italy. But the pride of prosperity caused Constantine greatly to depart from his former agreeable mildness of temper. Falling first upon his own relatives, he put to death his son, an excellent man; his sister's son, a youth of amiable disposition; soon afterwards his wife, and subsequently many of his friends.

He was a man, who, in the beginning of his reign, might have been compared to the best princes; in the latter part of it, only to those of a middling character. Innumerable good qualities of mind and body were apparent in him; he was exceedingly ambitious of military glory, and had great success in his wars; a success, however, not more than proportioned to his exertions. After he had terminated the Civil war, he also overthrew the Goths on various occasions, granting them at last peace, and leaving on the minds of the barbarians a strong remembrance of his kindness. He was attached to the arts of peace and to liberal studies, and was ambitious of honourable popularity, which he, indeed, sought by every kind of liberality and obligingness. Though he was slow, from suspicion, to serve some of his friends,6 yet he was exceedingly generous towards others, neglecting no opportunity to add to their riches and honours.

He enacted many laws, some good and equitable, but most of them superfluous, and some severe. He was the first that endeavoured to raise the city named after him to such a height as to make it a rival to Rome. As he was preparing for war against the Parthians, who were then disturbing Mesopotamia, he died in the Villa Publica, at Nicomedia, in the thirty-first year of his reign, and the sixty-sixth of his age.

Zosimus described Constantine's conversion to Christianity: For he put to death his son Crispus, stiled (as I mentioned) Caesar, on suspicion of debauching his mother-in-law Fausta, without any regard to the ties of nature. And when his own mother Helena expressed much sorrow for this atrocity, lamenting the young man's death with great bitterness, Constantine under pretence of comforting her, applied a remedy worse than the disease. For causing a bath to be heated to an extraordinary degree, he shut up Fausta in it, and a short time after took her out dead. Of which his conscience accusing him, as also of violating his oath, he went to the priests to be purified from his crimes. But they told him, that there was no kind of lustration that was sufficient to clear him of such enormities. A Spaniard, named Aegyptius, very familiar with the court-ladies, being at Rome, happened to fall into converse with Constantine, and assured him, that the Christian doctrine would teach him how to cleanse himself from all his offences, and that they who received it were immediately absolved from all their sins. Constantine had no sooner heard this than he easily believed what was told him, and forsaking the rites of his country, received those which Aegyptius offered him ; and for the first instance of his impiety, suspected the truth of divination.
Blindado
FaustaAE3Fausta.jpg
1ed Fausta12 viewsAE 3

Draped bust with pearl necklace, right, FLAV MAX FAVSTA AVG
Fausta Constantine II and Constantius II, FAVSTAE NOBILISSIMAE FEMINAE, mintmark: ΓSIS wreath

RIC 197

Zonaras records: When he had succeeded to his father’s realm, [Constantine] ruled Britain and the Alps, and in addition Gaul, still leaning toward the religion of the Hellenes and opposing the Christians, enticed by his wife Fausta toward ardor in the worship of the idols. Fausta was the daughter of Maximianus. . . . From Fausta, the daughter of Maximianus, the sovereign produced three sons—Constantine, Constantius, and Constans—and a daughter Helen, who later married Julian. . . . Fausta, being erotically obsessed with [her stepson Crispus], since she did not find him compliant, denounced him to his father as being in love with her and as having often attempted to use force against her. Hence, Crispus was condemned to death by his father, who had been persuaded by his spouse. When the emperor later realized the truth, he chastened his wife both because of her unchasteness and on account of the murder of his son. For after she had been led into an exceedingly hot bath, there she violently ended her life.
Blindado
CrispusAE3Victoria.jpg
1ef Crispus67 viewsCaesar 317-326

AE3, Thessalonica

Laureate, draped & cuirassed bust, right, D N FL IVL CRISPVS NOB CAES
Victory advancing left, holding wreath and palm, VICTORIA CAESS NN. Mintmark dot TS dot epsilon dot.

Zosimus recorded Crispus' elevation to Caesar: "Constantine, having taken Cibalis, and Sirmium, and all the towns that Licinius had abandoned, sent five thousand men in pursuit of him. But as these were ignorant of the course he had taken, they could not overtake him. Constantine however, having rebuilt the bridge over the Saus, which Licinius had broken down, was with his army almost at his heels. Having entered Thrace, he arrived at the plain where Licinius lay encamped. On the night of his arrival there he marshalled his army, and gave orders for his soldiers to be ready for battle by day-break. As soon as it was light, Licinius, perceiving Constantine with his army, drew up his forces also, having been joined by Valens, whom he styled Caesar, after the battle of Cibalis. When the armies engaged, they first fought with bows at a distance ; but when their arrows were spent, they began to use their javelins, and poignards. Thus the battle continued very obstinately for a considerable time, until those whom Constantine had sent in pursuit of Licinius descended from an eminence upon the armies while they were engaged. These wheeled round the hill |46 before they arrived at them, deeming it best to join their own party from the higher ground, and to encompass the enemy. The troops of Licinius, being aware of them, courageously withstood against them all, so that many thousands were slain on both sides, and the advantage was equal, till the signal was given for both to retire. Next day they agreed on a truce, and entered into an alliance with each other, on condition that Constantine should possess Illyricum and all the nations westward, and that Licinius should have Thrace and the east; but that Valens, whom Licinius had made Caesar, should be put to death, because be was said to be the author of all the mischief which had happened. Having done this, and sworn on both sides to observe the conditions, Constantine conferred the rank and title of Caesar on Crispus, his son by a concubine called Minervina, who was as yet but a youth, and on Constantine, who was born but a few days before at Arelatum. At the same time Licinianus, the son of Licinius, who was twenty months of age, was declared Caesar, Thus ended the second war."

According to Zonaras, "By a concubine he also had another son, called Crispus, older than his other sons, who distinguished himself often in the war against Licinius. His stepmother Fausta, being erotically obsessed with him, since she did not find him compliant, denounced him to his father as being in love with her and as having often attempted to use force against her. Hence, Crispus was condemned to death by his father, who had been persuaded by his spouse."

Constantine had his son strangled to death in Pula.

RIC 62
Blindado
DelmatiusAE3GlorEx.jpg
1eg Delmatius21 viewsCaesar 335-337

AE3, Thessalonica

Laureate, cuirassed bust, right, FL DELMATIVS NOB C two soldiers holding spears and shields with two standards between them, O on banner, GLORIA EXERCITVS. Mintmark: SMTSD.

RIC 202D

Zosimus recorded: After Constantine had oppressed and tormented the people in these various modes, he died of a disease, and was succeeded by his three sons, who were not born of Fausta the daughter of Maximianus Herculius, but of another woman, whom he had put to death for adultery. They devoted themselves more to the pleasures of youth than to the service of the state. They began by dividing the nations between them. Constantine the eldest, and Constans the youngest, having for their share all beyond the Alps, together with Italy and Illyricum, the countries bordering on the Euxine sea and all that belonged to Carthage in Africa; Constantius obtained all Asia, the east, and Egypt. There were likewise others who shared in the government; Dalmatius, whom Constantine made Caesar, Constantius his brother, and Hanniballianus, who had all worn robes of purple embroidered with gold, and were promoted to the order of Nobilissimates by Constantine, from respect to their being of his own family. . . . The empire being thus divided, Constantius who appeared to take pains not to fall short of his father in impiety, began by shedding the blood of his nearest relations. He first caused Constantius, his father's brother, to be murdered by the soldiers ; next to whom he treated Dalmatius in the same manner, as also Optatus whom Constantine had raised to the rank of a Nobilissimate.

A great-nephew of Constantine the Great.
Blindado
24u-Fausta-Rom-292.jpg
24u. Fausta: Rome.30 viewsAE3, 326, Rome mint.
Obverse: FLAV MAX FAVSTA AVG / Bust of Fausta.
Reverse: SPES REIPVBLICAE / Spes standing, holding two children.
Mint mark: R (wreath) P
2.99 gm., 18 mm.
RIC #292; LRBC #522; Sear #16567.
1 commentsCallimachus
coin200.JPG
402. Maximianus54 viewsMarcus Aurelius Valerius Maximianus Herculius (c. 250 - July, 310), known in English as Maximian, was Roman Emperor (together with Diocletian) from March 1, 286 to 305.

Born to a poor family near Sirmium (city in Pannonia), Maximian made a career in the army until 285, when the new emperor Diocletian, a friend of his, made him caesar (sub-emperor) and the ruler of the western part of the empire. The next year Maximian became augustus next to Diocletian, and in 293, when Diocletian introduced the Tetrarchy, Constantius Chlorus became Maximian's caesar and married Maximian's daughter Flavia Maximiana Theodora.

During his reign, Maximianus had several military successes, against the Alemanni and Burgundians in northern Germany, against the Carpi on the Danube frontier and against Carausius, who had rebelled in Britain and declared himself emperor there. He also strengthened the frontier defenses in Africa.

On May 1, 305, Diocletian and Maximian retired together; it is clear that this was not a voluntary act of Maximian's, but that he was forced to do so by Diocletian. Galerius and Constantius Chlorus became the new emperors; Flavius Valerius Severus and Maximinus Daia became their caesars. When Constantius died the next year, Maximian's son Maxentius took the western emperorship, and named Maximian to be his augustus. Maximian resolved the conflicts around this emperorship by defeating Severus and Galerius in battle and bringing Constantius' son Constantine on his side by having Constantine marry his daughter Fausta.

However, in 308 Maximian rebelled against his own son, and marched upon Rome, but was beaten and forced to find refuge with Constantine in Gaul. In 310 he declared himself emperor for the third time, but was unable to defend himself against Constantine, who forced him to commit suicide.

For his own and his colleagues' victories, Maximian received the titles Germanicus Maximus V, Sarmaticus Maximus III, Armeniacus Maximus, Medicus Maximus, Adiabenicus Maximus, Persicus Maximus II, Carpicus Maximus, Britannicus Maximus.

Maximianus 286-305, Reform Follis - Siscia Mint
9.16g
Obv: Bust of Maximianus right "IMP MAXIMIANVS PF AVG"
Rev: Moneta standing left holding a scale and cornucopiae "SACRA MONET AVGG E CAESS NOSTR" "SIS" in the exergue.
RIC 134b
ecoli
coin269.JPG
501a. Fausta47 viewsFausta Flavia Maxima was the daughter of the Roman Emperor Maximianus. To seal the alliance between them for control of the Tetrarchy, Maximianus married her to Constantine I in 307.

It is suspected that Fausta was fiercely anti-Christian and plotting the Roman empire's return to paganism behind her husband's back. Although the real reasons are not clear, Constantine eventually put her to death along with Crispus, his eldest son by a previous marriage to Minervina, in 326. Eusebius of Caesarea suspected step-mother and step-son to be lovers to each other.

Her sons became Roman Emperors: Constantine II reigned 337 - 340, Constantius II reigned 337 - 361, and Constans reigned 337 - 350. Variety of sources, of more or less reliability, attest that she bore daughters Constantina, Helena and Fausta. Of these, Constantina married her cousins, firstly Hannibalianus and secondly Gallus Caesar, and Helena married Emperor Julian. Apparently a genealogical claim that her daughter Fausta became mother of Emperor Valentinian I is without foundation (Valentinian I and children of Constantine I's second marriage were born in years close to each other, i.e they were of the same generation).

Fausta, wife of Constantine I. 325-326 AD. Æ Follis

OBVERSE: FLAV MAX FAVSTA AVG, mantled bust right
REVERSE: SPES REIP-VBLICAE, Spes standing facing, looking left, head veiled, holding two children in her arms
19mm - 3.1 grams

RIC VII Thessalonica 161 R3

Sear 3903
ecoli
coins432.JPG
501b. Crispus29 viewsIn 326, Crispus was suddenly executed according to the orders of his own father in Pola, Istria. Though the decision of Constantine was certainly cruel and unexpected, historians remain more interested in the motivation leading to it.

Zosimus in the 5th century and Joannes Zonaras in the 12th century both reported that Fausta, step-mother of Crispus, was extremely jealous of him. She was reportedly afraid that Constantine would put aside the sons she bore him. So, in order to get rid of Crispus, Fausta set him up. She reportedly told the young Caesar that she was in love with him and suggested an illegitimate love affair. Crispus denied the immoral wishes of Fausta and left the palace in a state of a shock. Then Fausta said to Constantine that Crispus had no respect for his father, since the Caesar was in love with his father's own wife. She reported to Constantine that she dismissed him after his attempt to rape her. Constantine believed her and, true to his strong personality and short temper, executed his beloved son. A few months later, Constantine reportedly found out the whole truth and then executed his wife Fausta at the end of 326.

This version of events has become the most widely accepted, since all other reports are even less satisfactory.

A treason against Constantine jointly plotted by Fausta and Crispus is rejected by most historians. They would have nothing to gain considering their positions as favourites of Constantine.

Another version suggests that Constantine killed Crispus because as an illegitimate son, he would cause a crisis in the order of succession to the throne. However, Constantine had kept him at his side for twenty years without any such decision. Constantine also had the authority to appoint his younger, legitimate sons as his heirs. Nevertheless, Crispus' status as a legitimate or illegitimate son remains uncertain.

Some reports claimed that Constantine was envious of the success of his son and afraid of him. This seems improbable, given that Constantine had twenty years of experience at Emperor while Crispus was still a young Caesar. Similarly, there seems to be no evidence that Crispus had any ambitions to harm or displace his father.

So while the story of Zosimus and Zonaras seems the most believable one, there are also problems relating to their version of events.

Constantine's reaction suggest that he suspected Crispus of a crime so terrible that death was not enough. Crispus also suffered damnatio memoriae, meaning his name was never mentioned again and was deleted from all official documents and monuments. Crispus, his wife Helena and their son were never to be mentioned again in historical records. The eventual fate of Helena and her son is a mystery.

Constantine may have been eventually convinced of Crispus' innocence. But he did not restore his son's innocence and name, as he probably would have on learning of his son's innocence. Perhaps Constantine's pride or shame at having executed his son prevented him from publicly admitting having made a mistake.

Beyond doubt there was a connections between the executions of Crispus and Fausta. Both happened too close in time to be coincidental. Such agreement among different sources connecting the two deaths is extremely rare in itself. A number of modern historians have suggested that Crispus and Fausta really did have an illegitimate affair. When Constantine found out, his reaction was executing both of them. What delayed the death of Fausta may have been a pregnancy. Since the years of birth for the two known daughters of Constantine and Fausta remain unknown, one of their births may have delayed their mother's execution.


Crispus, 316-326, Bronze Reduced Anepigraphic Follis, RIC-VII-53-R5, struck 324-325 at Antioch, 1.87 grams, 17.9 mm. Nice VF

Obv: Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust of Crispus facing left
Rev: CRISPVS CAESAR SMANTZ - Legend and mint signature in three lines, star above, dot below

An excessively rare coin of Crispus. Nicely centered and struck with even wear to both surfaces. Important and MUCH nicer than the image projects.

Ex-Glenn Woods
ecoli
98170.jpg
502. CONSTANTINE II156 viewsFlavius Claudius Constantinus, known in English as Constantine II, (316 - 340) was Roman Emperor (337 - 340). The eldest son of Constantine I and Fausta, he was born at Arles, and was raised as a Christian.

On March 1, 317, Constantine was made Caesar, and at the age of seven, in 323, took part in his father's campaign against the Sarmatians.

At the age of ten became commander of Gaul, after the death of his half-brother Crispus. An inscription dating to 330 records the title of Alamannicus, so it is probable that his generals won a victory over Alamanni. His military career continued when Constantine I elected his son field commander during the 332 campaign against the Goths.

Following the death of his father in 337, Constantine II became Emperor jointly with his brothers Constantius II and Constans. His section of the Empire was Gaul, Britannia and Hispania.

At first, he was the guardian of his younger brother Constans, whose portion was Italia, Africa and Illyricum. As Constans came of age, Constantine would not relinquish the guardianship and in 340 he marched against Constans in Italy, but was defeated at Aquileia and died in battle. Constans came to control his deceased brother's realm.

CONSTANTINE II, as Caesar. 317-337 AD. Æ Reduced Follis (18mm, 2.74 gm). Siscia mint. Struck 321-324 AD. Laureate head right / VOT / X in two lines across field; all within wreath; SIS sunburst. RIC VII 182. Ex-CNG
ecoli73
coin279.JPG
503. Constans25 viewsFlavius Julius Constans (320 - January 18, 350), was a Roman Emperor who ruled from 337 to 350. Constans was the third and youngest son of Constantine the Great and Fausta, Constantine's second wife.

From 337, he was a joint ruler with his brothers Constantius II and Constantine II. Constantine II attempted to take advantage of his youth and inexperience by invading Italy in 340, but Constans defeated Constantine II at Aquileia, where the older brother died.

The writer Julius Firmicus Maternus mentioned that Constans visited Britain in the early months of 343, but did not explain why. The speed of his trip, paired with the fact he crossed the English Channel during the dangerous winter months, suggests it was in response to a military emergency of some kind.

In 350, the general Magnentius declared himself emperor with the support of the troops on the Rhine frontier, and later the entire Western portion of the Roman Empire. Constans lacked any support beyond his immediate household, and was forced to flee for his life. Magnentius' supporters cornered him in a fortification in southeastern Gaul, where he was killed.

Constans, AE3. 340-348 AD. DN CONSTANS P F AVG, diademed draped bust right / VICTORIAE DD AVGG Q NN, two Victories standing facing each other, each holding wreath & palm.
ecoli
56167.jpg
504. CONSTANTIUS II148 viewsFlavius Iulius Constantius, known in English as Constantius II, (7 August 317 - 3 November 361) was a Roman Emperor (337 - 361) of the Constantinian dynasty

Constantius was the second of the three sons of Constantine I and his second wife Fausta. Constantius was born in Sirmium (in Illyricum) and named Caesar by his father. When Constantine died in 337, Constantius II led the massacre of his relatives decended from the second marriage of his grandfather Constantius Chlorus and Theodora, leaving himself, his older brother Constantine II, his younger brother Constans and two cousins (Gallus and his half-brother Julian) as the only surviving adult males related to Constantine. The three brothers divided the Roman Empire among them, according to their father's will. Constantine II received Britannia, Gaul and Hispania; Constans ruled Italia, Africa, and Illyricum; and Constantius ruled the East.

This division changed when Constantine II died in 340, trying to overthrow Constans in Italy, and Constans become sole ruler in the Western half of the empire. The division changed once more in 350 when Constans was killed in battle by forces loyal to the usurper Magnentius. Until this time, Constantius was preoccupied with fighting the Sassanid Empire, and he was forced to elevate his cousin Gallus to Caesar of the East to assist him, while he turned his attention to this usurper.

Constantius eventually met and crushed Magnentius in the Battle of Mursa Major, one of the bloodiest battles in Roman history, in 351. Magnentius committed suicide in 353, and Constantius soon after put his cousin Gallus to death. However, he still could not handle the military affairs of both the Eastern and German frontiers by himself, so in 355 he elevated his last remaining relative, Julian, to Caesar. As Julian was hailed Augustus by the army in Gaul, Constantius saw no alternative but to face the usurper with violent force. As the two armies sought engagement, Constantius died from a fever near Tarsus on November 3, 361, and Julian was hailed Augustus in the whole of the Roman empire.

Constantius took an active part in the affairs of the Christian church, frequently taking the side of the Arians, and he called the Council of Rimini in 359.

Constantius married three times, first to a daughter of Julius Constantius, then to Eusebia, and last to Faustina, who gave birth to a posthumous daughter, Faustina Constantia, who later married Emperor Gratian.

CONSTANTIUS II. 337-361 AD. Æ 18mm (2.41 gm). Siscia mint. Struck 351-355 AD. D N CONSTAN-TIVS P F AVG, diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / FEL TEMP REPARATIO, soldier spearing falling enemy horseman who wears conical hat; at right, shield on ground; ASIS. RIC VIII 350. Good VF, green patina. Ex CNG
1 commentsecoli73
Centenional Fausta RIC VII Nicomedia 131.jpg
A122-05 - Fausta (324 - 326 D.C.)41 viewsAE3 Centenional 21 x 19 mm 3.3 gr.
Hija de Maximiano y esposa de Constantino I.

Anv: "FLAV MAX FAVSTA AVG" - Busto a cabeza desnuda y pelo ondeado, vistiendo túnica, viendo a derecha.
Rev: "SPES REI-PVBLICAE" - Emperatriz de pié de frente, viendo a izquierda, velada su cabeza sostiene en brazos a sus hijos Constantino II y Constancio II. "MNΓ" en exergo.

Acuñada 325/6 D.C.
Ceca: Nicomedia (Off.3ra.)
Rareza: R3

Referencias: RIC Vol.VII (Nicomedia) #131 Pag.621 - Cohen Vol.VII #15 Pag.336 - DVM #6 Pag.293 - Salgado MRBI Vol.III #8326.r.2. Pag.175 - Sear RCTV (1988) #3903
1 commentsmdelvalle
Nummus_Fausta.png
Ae3 Fausta27 viewsAe3 Fausta A/ FLAV MAX - FAVSTA AVG, buste drapé, cheveux ondulés noués en chignon derrière la tête et portant un collier, R/ SPES REIP-VBLICAE, Fausta voilée debout de face, tête a gauche, portant Constantin II et Constance II (?),●BSIS● à l’exergue – Siscia – 326/327 – RIC.205 (C1) – NBD 8868, 10451 – 3,4 g

http://www.nummus-bible-database.com/monnaie-17167.htm
1 commentsnemesis25
Constantine_I_37.jpg
B144 viewsConstantine I “The Great” AE3

Attribution: RIC VII 117, Thessalonica
Date: AD 320-321
Obverse: CONSTANTINVS AVG, laureate head r.
Reverse: DN CONSTANTINI MAX AVG, VOT dot XX in wreath with star at top,
TSEVI in exergue
Size: 18.5 mm
Weight: 3.0 grams

"When men commend my services, which owe their origin to the inspiration of Heaven, do they not clearly establish the truth that God is the cause of the exploits I have performed? Assuredly they do, for it belongs to God to do whatever is best, and to man, to perform the commands of God." - Constantine To the Assembly of the Saints 26

Constantine fought his battles under the banner of the cross and with Christian standards. This is quite a shift from the mentality of his predecessors who were overtly pagan. After his defeat of Licinius I in AD 324, Constantine established himself as the master of the entire Roman Empire, and suddenly changed his entire demeanor as sole ruler. He seemed to have acquired a self-righteousness about him. He moved the capital of the empire to a new city in Byzantium named, aptly, Constantinople. This further diminished the importance of Rome and Italy in the entire scope of things. In fact, he even disbanded the praetorian guard which had played an undeniably central role in the appointment of numerous previous emperors. In AD 326, he had his son Crispus executed for commiting adultery. His wife, Fausta, also died when the temperature of her bath was turned up and she subsequently suffocated on the steam. Despite these instances of questionable judgement, Constantine's reputation remained unscathed. Constantine proved to be an able administrator, but was often criticized by critics and supporters alike for his heavy taxation. When it came to the military, he excelled. His restructuring of the military was also criticized at first, but Constantine proved these doubts wrong with his military successes. Although Constantine waged several victorious campaigns against the Alemanni, Goths, and Sarmatians, much of the land he won was soon lost after his death. One of his most ambitious military endeavors occurred in the latter years of his reign. Constantine planned to Christianize Persia and even went to the lengths of appointing his nephew Hannibalianus as "King of Armenia" intending to give him rule over Persia. He never saw these plans come to fruition, however, because he became terminally ill. Before his death at Ankyrona on May 22, AD 337, Constantine had himself baptized by the bishop of Nicomedia. He was buried in Constantinople in a customized mausoleum called the Church of the Holy Apostles. His sons divided the empire amongst themselves as follows: Constantine II took the west, Constantius II the east, and Constans Italy and the Upper Danube. A fourth heir, Constantine's nephew Flavius Dalmatius II was given control of Greece and the Lower Danube. So ended the legacy of one of the most influential emperors Rome had ever produced: Constantine the Great.
9 commentsNoah
0046.jpg
CAMPGATE, Constantine II, 22 May 337 - March or April 340 A.D.99 viewsType:
Ruler / Years: Constantine II 337 - 340 A.D.
Denomination: AE 3
Metal Type: Bronze
Size / Weight: 2.024g, 19.2mm

Orientation: 180 deg.

Condition:

Obverse Description: laureate, draped and cuirassed bust left

Obverse Legend: CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C

Reverse Description: campgate with four turrets and open gates, S - F at sides

Reverse Legend: VIRTVS CAESS

Exergue: TCONST

Attributes: RIC 322

Notes: Constantine II was the son of Constantine I, the eldest with his second wife, Fausta. He was born in Arles (which was renamed Constantia in his honor in 328, explaining the CON mintmarks for Arles) and was made Caesar before he was a year old in 316 A.D. Upon his father`s death, Constantine II inherited the Western part of the empire. After quarrelling with his brother Constans, he invaded his territory, only to be killed in an ambush near Aquileia. His coins often include "IVN" in the legend, an abbreviation for junior.

Scott M
coin_4_quart.jpg
CONSTANS PF AVG / GLORIA EXERCITVS AE4 follis (337-350 A.D.)30 viewsCONSTANS - PF AVG, (laurel and?) rosette-diademed, draped (and cuirassed?) bust right / GLORI - A EXER - CITVS, two soldiers facing each other, holding spears and shields, with one standard between them, the device on banner difficult to discern, maybe a little dot or O. Mintmark: SMTSA or SMTSΔ in exergue.

AE4, 16mm, 1.37g, die axis 12 (medal alignment), material: bronze/copper-based alloy

P F AVG = Pius Felix Augustus = the pius (dutiful) and fortunate (happy) emperor. Gloria Exercitus (noun + genitive) "The Glory of the Army", SMTSA/Δ= Sacra Moneta Thessalonica, officina A or Δ (i. e. workshop #1 or #4).

CONSTANS - PF AVG legend and Thessalonica mint for a one standard design point at just a single type: RIC VIII Thessalonica 57, with both SMTSA and SMTSΔ mintmarks possible. Minting date listed for this type is late, 346-348 A.D.

Flavius Julius Constans Augustus. Born c. 323. The third and youngest son of Constantine the Great and his second wife Fausta. Caesar since Dec 333 (to his father, who was the only Augustus before his death in 337 -- and together with his brothers Costantine II (eldest) and Constantius II (middle), who were elevated to caesars earlier).

Augustus since Sept 337, also joint with his brothers (Constantius got the East while the other brothers shared the West). At first he was under guardianship of Constantine II, but that relationship was very quarrelsome. In 340 Constantine II was killed in an ambush during military operations against Constans' troops in Italy, and Constans inherited his portion (i.e. the whole West) of the Empire.

As an emperor Constans led a few successful military campaigns and was also known for his activity regarding religions: was tolerant to Judaism, promulgated an edict banning pagan sacrifices, suppressed Donatism in Africa and championed Nicene Orthodoxy against Arianism (which was supported by Constantius, this led to open warfare between the brothers). He was openly homosexual, which ultimately led to his downfall: the army was tired of the rule of Constans' favorites and barbarian bodyguards, of whom he was very fond of. Assassinated by usurper Magnentius, who led the army revolt, in Feb 350. His only remaining brother, Constantius later defeated Magnentius and consolidated the whole empire under himself.
Yurii P
fausta_AE_spes_trier-mint_3_7grams_obv_08_rev_06.JPG
Constantine I - Fausta, Wife of Constantine I - 'SPES REIPUBLICAE' - PTR21 viewsRoman Empire
Empress Fausta, Wife of Constantine I the Great (307 - 337 AD)
Augusta, 324 - 326 AD
Struck at the Trier Mint (Treveri, Germania)

obv: FLAV MAX FAUSTA AUG - Draped bust right, hair in braided bun, seen from the front.

rev: SPES REIPUBLICAE - Empress Fausta standing facing forward, holding her two sons, Constantine II and Constantius II, in her arms close to her chest.
'PTR crescent with dot' in exergue.

3.7 Grams
--------------
Ex Old Pueblo Coin Exchange, Southern Arizona.
2 commentsrexesq
fausta_AE_spes_trier-mint_3_7grams_obv_07_rev_07.JPG
Constantine I - Fausta, Wife of Constantine I - 'SPES REIPUBLICAE' - PTR20 viewsRoman Empire
Empress Fausta, Wife of Constantine I the Great (307 - 337 AD)
Augusta, 324 - 326 AD
Struck at the Trier Mint (Treveri, Germania)

obv: FLAV MAX FAUSTA AUG - Draped bust right, hair in braided bun, seen from the front.

rev: SPES REIPUBLICAE - Empress Fausta standing facing forward, holding her two sons, Constantine II and Constantius II, in her arms close to her chest.
'PTR crescent with dot' in exergue.

3.7 Grams
-------------
Ex Old Pueblo Coin Exchange, Southern Arizona.
3 commentsrexesq
CTGSolInvAE3London.jpg
Constantine the Great, early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D.57 viewsAE 3: RIC VI 282, 312-313 AD, 3.3 g, 22 mm; London, EF; Obverse: IMP CONSTANTINVS P AVG, Laureate draped cuirassed bust right; Reverse: SOLI INV-IC-TO COMITI, Sol standing facing, right hand raised, globe in left hand, PLN in ex., star in left field; an attractive bronze with great detail. Ex Ancient Imports.

As I have noted elsewhere, I have chosen the date 395 AD, with the emperor Arcadius, to mark the beginning of the Byzantine Empire in my collection.

That said, it seems appropriate to display a couple of coins struck for the man whose decision made Byzantium possible. As historian John Julius Norwich has writen, “The Byzantine Empire, from its foundation by Constantine the Great on Monday, 11 May 330 to its conquest by the Ottoman Sultan Mehmet II on Tuesday, 29 May 1453, lasted for a total of 1,123 years and 18 days – a period of time comfortably longer than that which separates us from the Norman conquest of England in 1066. For everyone except astronomers and geologists, such a period must be considered a long time . . ." (Norwich, John Julius. A Short History of Byzantium. New York: Vintage Books, 1999. xxxvii).


Flavius Valerius Constantinus, Constantine the Great, is as controversial as he is "great."


From John Julius Norwich:
"The first thing to be said is that no ruler in all history--not Alexander nor Alfred, not Charles nor Catherine, not Fredrick nor even Gregory--has ever more fully merited his title of "the Great . . . [he has] a serious claim to be considered--excepting only Jesus Christ, the Prophet Mohammed and the Buddha--the most influential man who ever lived" (Norwich, John Julius. The Middle Sea: A History of the Mediterranean. New York: Doubleday, 2006. 50-1).

From Michael Grant:
". . . But he was also murderous, and the many whom he murdered, or executed, included not only his rival Licinius (to whom he had promised survival) but also his own eldest son and his own second wife Fausta. There is no excusing those deaths, at any time or in any society . . . There are, and remain, certain absolute standards, and by his death-dealing Constantine offended signally against them. . . It is a mocking travesty of justice to call such a murderer Constantine the Great . . . (Grant, Michael. The Emperor Constantine. London: Phoenix Press, 1998. 226).

J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
1 commentsCleisthenes
CTGeyes2GodRIC7.jpg
Constantine the Great, early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D.46 viewsSilvered AE 3, RIC VII 92, EF, 3.456g, 18.1mm, 0o, Heraclea mint, 327 - 329 A.D.; Obverse: CONSTAN-TINVS AVG, diademed head right, eyes to God; Reverse: D N CONSTANTINI MAX AVG, VOT XXX in wreath, •SMHB in exergue.

As leading numismatist Joseph Sermarini notes, "The 'looking upwards' portraits of Constantine are often described as 'gazing to Heaven (or God).' The model of these portraits is of course that of the Deified Alexander the Great
(https://www.forumancientcoins.com/ssl/myforum.asp).

The Emperor Constantine I was effectively the sole ruler of the Roman world between 324 and 337 A.D.; his reign was perhaps one of the most crucial of all the emperors in determining the future course of western civilization. By beginning the process of making Christianity the religious foundation of his realm, he set the religious course for the future of Europe which remains in place to this very day. Because he replaced Rome with Constantinople as the center of imperial power, he made it clear that the city of Rome was no longer the center of power, and he also set the stage for the Middle Ages. His philosophical view of monarchy, largely spelled out in some of the works of Eusebius of Caesarea, became the foundation for the concept of the divine right of kings which prevailed in Europe.

Constantine was not a "Christian convert" in any traditional sense. He was not baptized until close to death, and while that was not an uncommon practice, the mention of Christ in his speeches and decrees is conspicuous by its absence. Eusebius, Church historian and Constantine biographer, is responsible for much of the valorization of Constantine as the Christian Emperor. The somnambulant "sign" in which Constantine was to become victor at the Milvian Bridge is, not so surprisingly, revealed to posterity long after the "fact." Throughout his reign, Constantine continues to portray himself on coins as a sun god (Freeman, Charles. Egypt, Greece and Rome: Civilizations of the Ancient Mediterranean; Second Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004. 582). Above all, Constantine was a pragmatist. It would be cynical to egregiously disavow his commitment to Christianity, but it would be equally wrong to think that he would allow Christianity to meddle in the governance of his empire. As he reputedly told a group of bishops, "You are bishops of those within the church, but I am perhaps a bishop appointed by God of those outside." Whatever the motives for his decision to support Christianity, Christianity benefitted from the arrangement; so, too, did Constantine. It was a match made in heaven.

Which brings us to Crispus.
Whenever I am engaged in any discussion concerning Constantine I, Crispus is never far from my mind. As historian Hans Pohlsander from SUNY notes, "Crispus' end was as tragic as his career had been brilliant. His own father ordered him to be put to death. We know the year of this sad event, 326, from the Consularia Constantinopolitana, and the place, Pola in Istria, from Ammianus Marcellinus. The circumstances, however, are less clear. Zosimus (6th c.) and Zonaras (12th c.) both report that Crispus and his stepmother Fausta were involved in an illicit relationship." And Pohlsander continues with, "There may be as much gossip as fact in their reports, but Crispus must have committed, or at least must have been suspected of having committed, some especially shocking offense to earn him a sentence of death from his own father. He also suffered damnatio memoriae, his honor was never restored, and history has not recorded the fate of his wife and his child (or children)(Copyright (C) 1997, Hans A. Pohlsander. Published on De Imperatoribus Romanis;An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors and their Families:http://www.roman-emperors.org/crispus.htm).

But there is something terribly illogigical about Constantinian apologetics. In 294 BC, prior to the death of his father, Seleucus I; Antiochus married his step-mother, Stratonice, daughter of Demetrius Poliorcetes. His elderly father reportedly instigated the marriage after discovering that his son was in danger of dying of lovesickness. If this is the way a "Pagan" father is able to express love for his son, then would not a saintly Christian love his son in at least similar measure? This particular Christian father, about whom St. Nectarios writes, "Hellenism spread by Alexander, paved the way for Christianity by the Emperor Constantine the Great," is unique. It is important to our discussion to take note of the fact that in the Greek Orthodox Church, Constantine the Great is revered as a Saint.

Now would be an appropriate time to recall what Joseph Sermarini noted above, "The 'looking upwards' portraits of Constantine are often described as 'gazing to Heaven (or God).' The model of these portraits is of course that of the Deified Alexander the Great(https://www.forumancientcoins.com/ssl/myforum.asp).

Isn’t it all too possible--even probable--that Constantine had been growing obsessively jealous of his ever more successful and adulated son? It is completely out of character for Constantine to merely acquiesce to being Philip to Crispus' Alexander. Remember the Constantine who has proven time and again (recall Constantine's disingenuous promise of clemency to Licinius) that he is a completely self-serving liar and a murderer, and Constantine decides to murder again. Why "must we, "as Pohlsander adamantly suggests, "resolutely reject the claim of Zosimus that it was Constantine's sense of guilt over these deeds which caused him to accept Christianity, as it alone promised him forgiveness for his sins? A similar claim had already been made by Julian the Apostate [Philosopher]."

Perhaps it is time to cease being apologists for the sometime megalomaniacal Constantine. As Michael Grant notes, "It is a mocking travesty of justice to call such a murderer Constantine the Great . . ." (Grant, Michael. The Emperor Constantine. London: Phoenix Press, 1998. 226).

Keep in mind that the obverse device of this coin shows Constantine I "gazing toward God" and was struck within a year or possibly two of Constantine I murdering his first-born son and condemning him to damnatio memoriae.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
1 commentsCleisthenes
coin12_quart.jpg
CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C (the 2nd) / GLORIA EXERCITVS AE3 follis (317-337 A.D.) 23 viewsCONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C, laureate, cuirassed bust right / GLOR-IA EXERC-ITVS, two soldiers facing each other, holding spears and shields, with one standard between them, devices on banners not very clear, but probably dots or "o". Mintmark: Epsilon SIS in exergue.

AE3, 18-19mm, 1.65g, die axis 2 (turned medal alignment), material: bronze/copper-based alloy

IVN = IVNIOR = Junior, NOB C = Nobilitas Caesar, Gloria Exercitus (noun + genitive) "The Glory of the Army", officina Epsilon (workshop #5), SIScia mint (now Sisak, Croatia).

Siscia mint combined with two standards and IVN NOB C variety points to only two types, RIC VII Siscia 220 and RIC VII Siscia 236, both of Constantine II, with possible officinas A, delta, gamma and epsilon. So even though the name is not very clear and theoretically the officina letter may be B rather than E, we can be sure that it is Constantine and that officina is E. Type 236 should have dots before and after the
mintmark, and it doesn't seem the case here, so this must be RIC VII Siscia 220, officina epsilon. Minting dates according to some sources: 330-335 AD.

Flavius Claudius Constantinus Augustus, born January/February 316, was the elder son if Constantine the Great and his second wife Fausta. Constantine II was born in Arles (south of modern France) and raised a Christian. On 1 March 317, he was made Caesar. A child general: in 323, at the age of seven, he took part in his father's campaign against the Sarmatians. At age ten, he became commander of Gaul, following the death of Crispus. An inscription dating to 330 records the title of Alamannicus, so it is probable that his generals won a victory over the Alamanni. His military career continued when Constantine I made him field commander during the 332 campaign against the Goths.

Following the death of his father in 337, Constantine II initially became augustus jointly with his brothers Constantius II and Constans, with the Empire divided between them and their cousins, the Caesars Dalmatius and Hannibalianus. This arrangement barely survived Constantine I’s death, as his sons arranged the slaughter of most of the rest of the family by the army. As a result, the three brothers gathered together in Pannonia and there, on 9 September 337, divided the Roman world between themselves. Constantine, proclaimed Augustus by the troops received Gaul, Britannia and Hispania. He was soon involved in the struggle between factions rupturing the unity of the Christian Church. The Western portion of the Empire, under the influence of the Popes in Rome, favored Catholicism (Nicean Orthodoxy) over Arianism, and through their intercession they convinced Constantine to free Athanasius, allowing him to return to Alexandria. This action aggravated Constantius II, who was a committed supporter of Arianism.

Constantine was initially the guardian of his younger brother Constans, whose portion of the empire was Italia, Africa and Illyricum. Constantine soon complained that he had not received the amount of territory that was his due as the eldest son. Annoyed that Constans had received Thrace and Macedonia after the death of Dalmatius, Constantine demanded that Constans hand over the African provinces, to which he agreed in order to maintain a fragile peace. Soon, however, they began quarreling over which parts of the African provinces belonged to Carthage, and thus to Constantine, and which belonged to Italy, and therefore to Constans. Further complications arose when Constans came of age and Constantine, who had grown accustomed to dominating his younger brother, would not relinquish the guardianship. In 340 Constantine marched into Italy at the head of his troops. Constans, at that time in Dacia, detached and sent a select and disciplined body of his Illyrian troops, stating that he would follow them in person with the remainder of his forces. Constantine was engaged in military operations and was killed in an ambush outside Aquileia. Constans then took control of his deceased brother's realm.
Yurii P
Fausta.JPG
Fausta18 viewsComing soonMarjan E
fausta.jpg
fausta93 viewsFausta, AE3, 326 A.D.
19mm x 20mm, 3.29g
Ob: FLAV MAX-FAVSTA AVG, Mantled bust right, wearing necklace, hair waved and tucked in small bun at base of head
Rv: SPES REIP_VBLICAE, Fausta standing facing, head left, holding Constantine II and Constantius II as children
Ex: SMHA pellet (Heraclea, Officina 1)
RIC VII, 86
Partially silvered surfaces. Some light cleaning marks visible in fields
2 commentsScotvs Capitis
fausta_trier_salus.jpg
FAUSTA 57 viewsFL AV MAX - FAVSTA AVG
draped bust right
R/ SALVS REI - PVBLICAE
Fausta holding 2 children ( Constantine II and Constantius II )
PTR crescent with dot

struck in Trier
3 commentsgb29400
Fausta AE3~0.jpg
FAUSTA19 viewsSize: 19mm, 2.2grams, bronze.

Notes: -FLAV MAX FAVSTA AVG. Fausta facing right / SPES REIPVBLICAE. Fausta standing, holding Constantine II and Constantius II on reverse, SMHB in exergue, nice patina

Marjan E
00360-Fausta.JPG
Fausta 40 viewsFausta AE3
19 mm 2.85 gm
O: FLAV MAX-FAVSTA AVG
Bare head, mantled bust right, wearing earring and necklace, hair waved in rows and tucked into small bun at back of head
R: SALVS REI_PVBLICA
Salus, veiled, standing facing, head left, holding two children. SMANTH in exergue.
2 commentsKoffy
fausta.jpg
Fausta11 viewsFausta FL MAX FA-VSTA AVG E10 SPES REI-PVBLICAE
SP R wreath T Rome
RIC VII Rome 294 R3 Follis 326
James b4
Fausta001.jpg
Fausta116 viewsFLAV MAX FAVSTA AVG
Draped bust right

SPES REIPVBLICAE
Fausta standing facing, head left holding two children (Constantius II and Constans) in her arms

Mint mark SMANT Officina E (5)

Antioch mint 325-6 AD
3.59g
Sear IV 16580, RIC69


1 commentsJay GT4
fausta.jpg
Fausta4 viewsGinolerhino
faustaII.jpg
FAUSTA16 views Æ Follis. Alexandria, 325-326 AD. 2,91 grs. Draped bust right. FLAV MAX FAVSTA AVG / Salus standing facing, head left, holding two children. SPES REIPUBLICAE. In exergue SMALB .
RIC VII 40
benito
Fausta.jpg
Fausta20 viewswife of Constantine the Grea
AE3.
324-325 AD
RIC 29 (Cyzicus)

Nice silvery
Samson L2
143.JPG
Fausta AD 324-326 Sirmium (SIRM)104 viewsObv: FLAVMAX-FAVSTAAVG
Rev: Fausta Holding Sons,
SALVS REIPVBLICAE
RIC VII 55

I really like the reverse detail of this coin. Note how the legs of the children intertwine. In hand, you can see the children's facial details.
1 commentsLaetvs
Fausta_(300-326)_follis_(AE3).png
Fausta (300-326) follis (AE3)15 viewsObv.: FLAV MAX FAVSTA AVG (Draped bust with necklace) Rev.: SPES REIPVBLICAE (Empress as Spes with Constantinus II and Constantius II in her arms) Exergue: ΔSIS Diameter: 19 mm Weight: 2,3 g RIC VII 205

The very first empress I ever bought.
Nick.vdw
23sww1f.jpg
Fausta (324 - 326 A.D)82 viewsÆ 3
O: FLAV MAX FAVSTA AVG, Mantled bust right. Bare headed; waved hair drawn into a bun at the back.
R: SALVS REI-PVBLICAE, Fausta standing facing, head left, holding Constantine II and Constantius II as babies.
STR dot-in-crescent
Trier
3.15g
19mm
RIC 483
3 commentsMat
00431.jpg
Fausta (RIC 483, Coin #431)7 viewsRIC 483, AE3, Trier, 326 AD.
Obv: FLAV MAX FAVSTA AVG Mantled bust right with waved hair.
Rev: SALVS REIPVBLICAE (STR dot in crescent) Fausta standing facing, looking left, holding two children in her arms.
Size: 17.7mm 3.34gm
MaynardGee
00702.jpg
Fausta (RIC 80, Coin #702)16 viewsRIC 80 (R3), AE3, Heraclea, 325-326 AD.
OBV: FLAV MAX FAVSTA AVG; Draped bust right, hair waived, bun at back, wearing pearl necklace.
REV: SPES REIPVBLICAE (SMH delta); Fausta standing facing, looking left, holding infants Constantine II and Constantius II.
SIZE: 19.1mm, 3.06g
1 commentsMaynardGee
3~0.jpg
FAUSTA AE3 - SPES REIPVBLICAE - BSIS - Siscia18 views1 commentspannonii
2~0.jpg
FAUSTA AE3 - SPES REIPVBLICAE - BSIS - Siscia10 viewspannonii
1~0.jpg
FAUSTA AE3 - SPES REIPVBLICAE - SMTSB - Thessalonica6 viewspannonii
faustaAE3-.jpg
FAUSTA AE3 AD32619 viewsobv: FL.AV.MAX.FAVSTA.AVG (draped bust right with pearl necklace)
rev: SPES.REIPVBLICAE / SMHЄ (Spes standing facing, looking left, head veiled, holding two children in her arms)
ref: RIC VIII-Heraclea80a (R4), C.15
2.98g, 19mm
Very rare
Flavia Maximilla Fausta was the wife of Constantine I and daughter of Maximianus. She was assassinated by the order of Constantine I in 326 AD.
berserker
fausta-reshoot.jpg
Fausta AE3 Follis, 325-326 AD, Cyzicus18 viewsRoman Imperial, Fausta AE3 Follis, (325-326 AD), Cyzicus, 20mm, 2.2g

Obverse: FLAV MAX FAVSTA AVG, Draped bust right.

Reverse: SPES REIP-VBLICAE, Fausta standing facing, holding two children; Mintmark • SMKΓ •. "Hope of the Republic"

Reference: LRBC 1186. RIC VII Cyzicus 50; Sear 16579.
Gil-galad
Fausta_opt.jpg
FAUSTA AE3, RIC 40, Spes11 viewsOBV: FLAV MAX FAVSTA AVG, draped bust right
REV: SPES REIP-VBLICA, Fausta as Spes standing facing, looking left, holding two children in her arms, SMALA in ex.


Minted at Alexandria, 325-6 AD
Legatus
Fausta2_opt.jpg
FAUSTA AE3, RIC 40, Spes18 viewsOBV: FLAV MAX FAVSTA AVG. Bare-headed and mantled bust right.
REV: SPES REIP-VBLICAE, Fausta standing facing, head left, holding two infants in arms; SMKA•
20mm, 2.8g

Minted at Cyzicus, 325-6 AD
Legatus
Fausta__Augusta_324_-_326_AD.jpg
Fausta Augusta, 324-326 AD. Heraclea mint.101 viewsFausta Augusta, 324-326 AD. Heraclea mint. AE 3, 2.936 g, 19.1 mm, choice gVF. Obv: draped bust right, hair waived, bun at back, wearing pearl necklace, FLAV MAX FAVSTA AVG. Rev: Fausta standing facing holding infants Constantine II and Constantius II, SPES REIP-VBLICAE. Ex: SMHA•. Ref: RIC 86, S 3905. RARE1 commentsBard Gram O
U809F1UMYLCSLR.jpg
Fausta Flavia Maxima, AE Follis.19 viewsFLAV MAX FAVSTA AVG, Draped bust right

Reverse:– SPES REIPVBLICAE, Spes standing left with two children in her arms

Minted in Heraclea (//SMHÄ•)

RIC Heraclea 86 var. Unlisted with this officina.

Ex M Griffiths, Photo M Griffiths.
GaiusCaligula
FAUSTA-1.jpg
Fausta RIC VII 16115 viewsObv: FLAV MAX FAVSTA AVG
bare-headed, draped bust right with waved hair
Rev: SPES REIPVBLICAE
Empress as Spes standing left, holding two children.
SMTSA in ex.
19mm 2.6gm
OWL365
fausta_80.jpg
Fausta RIC VII, Heraclea 80138 viewsFausta, submitted suicide AD 326, wife of Constantine I
AE - AE 3, 2.69g, 18mm
Heraclea 1. officina, AD 325/326
obv. FLAV MAX - FAVSTA AVG
draped bust with necklace, bare head r.
rev. SPES REI P - VBLICAE
Fausta veiled standing frontal, head l., holding two childen at breast
exergue: SMHA
RIC VII, Heraclea 80; C.15; LRBC. 875
Rare; VF, hole in the flan under P of REIP

The children are Constantin II and Constantius II.
2 commentsJochen
Fausta_RIC_VII_Cyzicus_40.jpg
Fausta, AE Follis, RIC VII Cyzicus 4082 viewsFausta
Augusta, 323 - 326 A.D.
AE Follis, Silvered.

Obverse: FLAV MAX - FAVSTA AVG, bare-headed and draped bust, wearing a necklace, facing right.
Reverse: SPES REIP-VBLICAE, Fausta, standing, facing left, holding her children, Constantine II and Constantius II to her breast.

Weight: 3.06 g, Diameter: 19 x 19 x 1.3 mm, Die axis: 0°, Mintmark: SMKB● (Cyzicus), struck between 325-326 A.D. References: RIC VII Cyzicus 40, Sear 16578

Rated Rare (R2)
Masis
0641-310np_noir.jpg
Fausta, AE366 viewsThessalonica mint
FLAV MAX FAVSTA AVG, draped bust right
SPES REIPVBLICAE, Fausta standing, holding Constantinus II and Constantius II in her arms, SMT[...] at exergue
3.34 gr
Fausta, petit bronze, Ref : Cohen # 15, LRBC # 828, TTB
1 commentsPotator II
0641-320.jpg
Fausta, AE3 - *113 viewsTrier mint
FLAV MAX FAVSTA AVG, draped bust right
SPES REIP VBLICAE, Fausta standing, holding Constantinus II and Constantius II in her arms,PTR crescent at exergue
3.0 gr
Ref : LRBC # 36, Cohen # 15v
6 commentsPotator II
P1019853.JPG
Fausta, Augusta 324 - 325 A.D. Nicomedia mint. 19-20mm10 viewsFausta, Augusta 324 - 326 A.D. Nicomedia mint.
Obv. FLAV MAX - FAVSTA AVG, draped bust right hair waived, bun at back, wearing pearl necklace.
Rev. SPES REIP-VBLICAE, Fausta standing facing, looking left, holding infants Constantine II and Constantius II, SMNA in ex.
Ref. RIC VII 97 var
Lee S
aQ4Pc7YqzS3X8iZZiK2c6xGwSne95n_(1).jpg
Fausta, Augusta 324 - 326 AD. AE Follis24 viewsCyzicus, RIC 40, A
Fausta AE Follis. 325-6 AD. FLAV MAX FAVSTA AVG, mantled bust right / SPES REIP-VBLICAE, Fausta as Spes standing facing, looking left, head veiled, two children in her arms. Mintmark SMKA dot. RIC VII Cyzicus 40; Sear 16578
3.2 g - 19.5 mm .
Antonivs Protti
16_1_b.jpg
Fausta, Constantinople390 viewsFLAV MAX-FAVSTA AVG
Mantled and bareheaded bust right with waved hair

SALVS REI-PVBLICAE
Empress (as Salus) standing facing, looking left, head veiled, and holding two children in her arms

CONS / A in left field

RIC 12 ; Minted Late 326 AD
AE 19-20mm; 3.10g
Ex-CNG 69 lot 151, Ex- K. Kline
11 commentsarizonarobin
collage4~1.jpg
Fausta, Cyzicus53 viewsFLAV MAX - FAVSTA AVG
Mantled and bareheaded bust right with waved hair

SPES REIP-VBLICAE
Empress (as Spes) standing facing, looking left, head veiled, and holding two children in her arms

SMKA(dot)
Cyzicus Mint

RIC VII Cyzicus 40
Ae3; 19-20 mm; 3.08g
arizonarobin
fausta030802.jpg
Fausta, Cyzicus36 viewsFausta

FLAV MAX-FAVSTA AVG
Mantled and bareheaded bust right with waved hair

SPES REIP-VBLICAE
Empress (as Spes) standing facing, looking left, head veiled, and holding two children in her arms

(dot) SMK delta (dot)
Cyzicus Mint

AE 19mm; 2.67g
RIC 50 Cyzicus
arizonarobin
collage1~11.jpg
Fausta, Heraclea75 viewsFLAV MAX - FAVSTA AVG
Mantled and bareheaded bust right with waved hair

SPES REIP-VBLICAE
Empress (as Spes) standing facing, looking left, head veiled, and holding two children in her arms.

SMH(delta)
Heraclea Mint

RIC 80
Ae 18-19mm; 2.63g

I like the long flat portrait, though I would say it is not the most flattering portrait of Fausta.
1 commentsarizonarobin
fausta030801.jpg
Fausta, Nicomedia33 viewsFLAV MAX FAVSTA AVG
Mantled and bareheaded bust right with waved hair

SPES REI-PVBLICAE
Empress (as Spes) standing facing, looking left, head veiled, and holding two children in her arms.

MN(epsilon)

RIC 131 Nicomedia; LRBC 1093
Ae 19mm; 2.50g
arizonarobin
Fausta_RIC_205_siscia.JPG
Fausta, RIC 205 siscia29 viewsFLAV MAX-FAVSTA AVG
Wavy hairdo draped bust right with pearl necklace
SPES REIP-VBLICAE
Spes standing left with two children in her arms
•BSIS• in ex.
AE follis
2 commentsnovacystis
060808fausta.jpg
Fausta, RIC VII Heraclea 8017 viewsFausta
AE Follis, 325-326AD
Ob: FLAV MAX-FAVSTA AVG, mantled, head bare, waved hair right
Rv:SPES REIP-VBLICA, Spes standing facing, looking left, head veiled, holding two children in her arms
Ex: SMHA (Heraclea)
Ref: RIC VII Heraclea 80, R1
Scotvs Capitis
fausta_trier_483.jpg
Fausta, RIC VIII, Trier 4839 viewsFausta, Augusta AD 324-326, 2nd wife of Constantine I
AE 3, 3.85g, 19.26mm
Trier, AD 326, 1st officina
obv. FLAV MAX - FAVSTA AVG
Bust, draped, with necklace, r.: hair in 5 waves and small bun in neck
rev. SALVS REI - PVBLICAE
Fausta, in long garmant and veiled, stg. l., holding two infants at her breast
in ex. STR crescent with dot in cavity
ref. RIC VII, Trier 483; C.6
about VF, slightly rough
pedigree:
ex Marc Breitsprecher (Ancient Imports)
ex coll. Victor Failmezger (plate coin)
ex Numismatic Fine Arts Auction 3/93, Lot 1919
ex old Bavarian coll. #473, acquired AD 1919(?)

For more information please look at the article 'The Bavarian Collection' in the board 'History and Archaeology'
1 commentsJochen
collage-1.jpg
Fausta, Sirmium199 viewsFLAV MAX-FAVSTA AVG
Mantled and bareheaded bust right with waved hair

SALVS REI-PVBLICAE
Empress (as Salus) standing facing, looking left, head veiled, and holding two children in her arms.

SIRM

RIC VII Sirmium 55
Ae 19-20mm; 3.01g

The reverse detail on this one is fantastic- the infants are beautifully rendered!
1 commentsarizonarobin
2-2014-10-027.JPG
Fausta, Siscia39 viewsAe 17-19mm; 2.27g

FLAV MAX- FAVSTA AVG
draped bust right

SPES REIP-VBLICAE
Empress/Spes standing, facing, holding 2 children

dot ASIS dot (Siscia Mint)

RIC VII Siscia 205; Sear 16570
I bought this one for the interesting Spes/Children. I love the arms and the depiction of the children. Not as well rendered as the one I have from Sirmium but still not the norm!
1 commentsRobin Ayers
fausta1~0.jpg
Fausta, Thessalonica64 viewsFLAV MAX - FAVSTA AVG
Mantled and bareheaded bust right with waved hair

SPES REIP-VBLICAE
Empress (as Spes) standing facing, looking left, head veiled, and holding two children in her arms.

SMTSA
Thessalonica mint RIC 161; Ae 18-19mm; 3.05g
1 commentsarizonarobin
2013-02-03_oldnikon.jpg
Fausta, Thessalonica31 viewsFLAV MAX - FAVSTA AVG
Mantled and diademed bust right

SPES REIP-VBLICAE
Empress (as Spes) standing facing, looking left, head veiled, and holding two children in her arms.

SMTSA
Thessalonica Mint

Ae 19mm; 3.35g
RIC VII Thessalonica 162; Sear 16571


A different hair style for Fausta.
Robin Ayers
2013-02-004.jpg
Fausta, Ticinum26 viewsFLAV MAX-FAVSTA AVG
Mantled and bareheaded bust right with waved hair

SPES REI-PVBLICAE
Empress (as Spes) standing facing, looking left,and holding two children in her arms

T T

RIC VII Ticinum 191; Sear 16564
Ae 18mm; 2.45g
Robin Ayers
collage1~6.jpg
Fausta, Trier73 viewsFLAV MAX-FAVSTA AVG
Mantled and bareheaded bust right with waved hair

SPES REIP-VBLICAE
Empress (as Spes) standing facing, looking left, head veiled, and holding two children in her arms.

PTR(cresent with dot)
Trier Mint

RIC VII 484 ; 326 AD
Ae 18mm; 2.39g
arizonarobin
9856.jpg
Fausta, Trier89 viewsFLAV MAX-FAVSTA AVG
Mantled and bareheaded bust right with waved hair

SALVS REI-PVBLICAE
Empress (as Salus) standing facing, looking left, head veiled, and holding two children in her arms.

STR(cresent with pellet)
Trier Mint

Ae 17-19mm; 3.12g
RIC VII483; LRBC I 37; SRCV 3903
1 commentsarizonarobin
collage4~9.jpg
Fausta, Trier88 viewsFLAV MAX FAVSTA AVG
Mantled and bareheaded bust right with waved hair

SPES REIP-VBLICAE
Empress (as Salus) standing facing, looking left, head veiled, and holding two children in her arms.

PTR(cresent with pellet)
Trier

RIC 484
Ae 19mm; 3.03g
1 commentsarizonarobin
fa76.jpg
Fausta, wife of Constantine I, AE 3 Follis. RIC 76 Antioch 16 viewsFausta, wife of Constantine I, AE 3 Follis. RIC 76 Antioch
Obverse: FLAV MAX FAVSTA AVG, mantled bust right with pearl necklace.
Reverse: SALVS REIPVBLICAE, Speas standing, two children in her arms.
SMANTA in ex. Antioch mint, 19 mm diam., 3.1 g
sold 2-2018
NORMAN K
FAUSTA-2.jpg
Fausta, wife of Constantine I, daughter of Maximian. Augusta, 324-326 CE.173 viewsReduced Follis Æ 3 (19 mm, 2.92 gm), Siscia mint, 326-7 CE.
Obv: FLAV MAX FAVSTA AVG, draped bust right, her hair tied in bun on back of head.
Rev: SPES REI-PVBLICAE, Empress standing facing, head left, holding two infants, (Constantine II and Constantius II); .BSIS. in exergue.
RIC 205; Sear 3905 var.
EmpressCollector
Fausta, Spes Reipvlice.jpg
Fausta- Cyzikus?45 viewsobv: FLAV MAX FAVSTA AVG
rev: SPES REIP-VBLICAE
Cyzikus mint?
VM 6- VB2
wolfgang336
FaustaAntiochA.jpg
Fausta- Salvs Reipvblicae- AE3. 326 AD.109 viewsAttribution-Fausta RIC VII Antioch 76 r5(although its now at least r4)

Obv. FLAV MAX FAVSTA AVG, mantled bust right
Rev. SALVS REI-PVBLICAE Salus standing facing, with two children in her arms
Ex. •SMANTA
black-prophet
faustaII~0.jpg
faustaII~024 viewsÆ Follis. Alexandria, 325-326 AD. 2,91 grs. Draped bust right. FLAV MAX FAVSTA AVG / Salus standing facing, head left, holding two children. SPES REIPUBLICAE. In exergue SMALB .
RIC VII 40
benito
Lg3_quart_sm.jpg
FAVSTINA AVGVSTA / AVGVSTI PII FIL / Ӕ As or Dupontius (156-161 A.D.)20 viewsFAVSTINA AVGVSTA, draped bust right, hair arranged in a chignon (bun) behind the head / AVGVSTI PII FIL, Venus standing left holding Victory and leaning on shield set on a helmet, S-C across fields in the lower half

Ӕ, 22.5-24+mm, 9.56g, die axis 11h

There may be a countermark across the front part of the face on obverse, but due to its location it is difficult to be sure and identify it.

AVGVSTI PII FIL(ia) = daughter of August Antoninus Pius, points out to the ruling of Fausta's father Antoninus Pius rather than her husband Marcus Aurelius. Reverse: Unlike Greek Aphrodite, in addition to her other aspects Roman Venus was also a goddess of victory, this embodied in her representation as Venus Victrix (Victorious) or Victris (of Victory), like in this case: she offers a little winged representation of victory, resting on defensive military attributes (as a female goddess, she represented passive, defensive aspects of war, active ones being the domain of male Mars). SC = [Ex] Senatus Consulto (Senatus is genitive, Consulto is ablative of Consultum) = by decree of the Senate, i. e. the authority of the Senate approved minting of this coin (necessary to justify issue of copper alloy coins for which the intrinsic value was not obvious).

Of two Ӕ coins with the same legends and Venus with shield, RIC 1367 and 1389a, the first is a sestertius and its typical dimensions are characteristic of the type: 30+ mm and 20+g. This one is definitely smaller. Material seems reddish, so this one is more likely an as. Minted in Rome. Some sources give issue dates as 156-161 (the end of Faustina's father's reign), others as 145-146 (her marriage).

Annia Galeria Faustina Minor (Minor is Latin for the Younger), Faustina Minor or Faustina the Younger (born probably 21 September c. 130 CE, died in winter of 175 or spring of 176 CE) was a daughter of Roman Emperor Antoninus Pius and Roman Empress Faustina the Elder. She was a Roman Empress and wife to her maternal cousin Roman Emperor Marcus Aurelius. She was held in high esteem by soldiers and her own husband and was given divine honours after her death. Faustina, named after her mother, was her parents' fourth and youngest child and their second daughter; she was also their only child to survive to adulthood. She was born and raised in Rome. Her great uncle, the emperor Hadrian, had arranged with her father for Faustina to marry Lucius Verus. On 25 February 138, she and Verus were betrothed. Verus’ father was Hadrian’s first adopted son and his intended heir; however, when Verus’ father died, Hadrian chose Faustina’s father to be his second adopted son, and eventually, successor. Faustina’s father ended the engagement between his daughter and Verus and arranged for Faustina's betrothal to her maternal cousin, Marcus Aurelius; Aurelius was also adopted by her father.

In April or May 145, Faustina and Marcus Aurelius were married, as had been planned since 138. Since Aurelius was, by adoption, Antoninus Pius' son, under Roman law he was marrying his sister; Antoninus would have had to formally release one or the other from his paternal authority (his patria potestas) for the ceremony to take place. Little is specifically known of the ceremony, but it is said to have been "noteworthy". Coins were issued with the heads of the couple, and Antoninus, as Pontifex Maximus, would have officiated. Marcus makes no apparent reference to the marriage in his surviving letters, and only sparing references to Faustina. Faustina was given the title of Augusta on 1 December 147 after the birth of her first child, Galeria Faustina (or Domitia? sources differ which of them was born in 147 and was the first child).

When Antoninus died on 7 March 161, Marcus and Lucius Verus ascended to the throne and became co-rulers. Faustina then became empress. Unfortunately, not much has survived from the Roman sources regarding Faustina's life, but what is available does not give a good report. Cassius Dio and the Augustan History accuse Faustina of ordering deaths by poison and execution; she has also been accused of instigating the revolt of Avidius Cassius against her husband. The Augustan History mentions adultery with sailors, gladiators, and men of rank; however, Faustina and Aurelius seem to have been very close and mutually devoted.

Faustina accompanied her husband on various military campaigns and enjoyed the love and reverence of Roman soldiers. Aurelius gave her the title of Mater Castrorum or ‘Mother of the Camp’. She attempted to make her home out of an army camp. Between 170–175, she was in the north, and in 175, she accompanied Aurelius to the east.

That same year, 175, Aurelius's general Avidius Cassius was proclaimed Roman emperor after the erroneous news of Marcus's death; the sources indicate Cassius was encouraged by Marcus's wife Faustina, who was concerned about her husband's failing health, believing him to be on the verge of death, and felt the need for Cassius to act as a protector in this event, since her son Commodus, aged 13, was still young. She also wanted someone who would act as a counterweight to the claims of Tiberius Claudius Pompeianus, who was in a strong position to take the office of Princeps in the event of Marcus’s death. The evidence, including Marcus's own Meditations, supports the idea that Marcus was indeed quite ill, but by the time Marcus recovered, Cassius was already fully acclaimed by the Egyptian legions of II Traiana Fortis and XXII Deiotariana. "After a dream of empire lasting three months and six days", Cassius was murdered by a centurion; his head was sent to Marcus Aurelius, who refused to see it and ordered it buried. Egypt recognized Marcus as emperor again by 28 July 175.

Faustina died in the winter of 175, after a somewhat suspicious accident, at the military camp in Halala (a city in the Taurus Mountains in Cappadocia). Aurelius grieved much for his wife and buried her in the Mausoleum of Hadrian in Rome. She was deified: her statue was placed in the Temple of Venus in Rome and a temple was dedicated to her in her honor. Halala’s name was changed to Faustinopolis and Aurelius opened charity schools for orphan girls called Puellae Faustinianae or 'Girls of Faustina'. The Baths of Faustina in Miletus are named after her.

In their thirty years of marriage, Faustina bore Marcus Aurelius thirteen children, of whom 6 reached adulthood and were significant in history. The best known are emperor Commodus and the closest to him sister Lucilla (both depicted in a very historically inaccurate movie "Gladiator" and, together with their parents, in a much more accurate 1st season "Reign of Blood" of the TV series "Roman Empire").
Yurii P
coin_6_quart.jpg
FL IVL CONSTANTIVS NOB C (the 2nd) / GLORIA EXERCITVS AE4 follis (324-361 A.D.) 30 viewsFL IVL CONSTANTIVS NOB C, laureate, draped, cuirassed bust right / GLOR-IA EXERC-ITVS, two soldiers facing each other, holding spears and shields, with one standard between them, large filled "dot" on banner. Mintmark: dot AQP in exergue.

AE4, 16+mm, 1.53g, die axis 6 (coin alignment), noticeable shift of the reverse die right, material: bronze/copper-based alloy

FL IVL = Flavius Iulius (the first names), NOB C = Nobilitas Caesar (title before becoming an Augustus, i. e. after he ascended as Caesar in 324, but before the death of his father in 337), Gloria Exercitus (noun + genitive) "The Glory of the Army" AQP = Aquileia mint, primary officina (workshop #1), issue mark "dot".

Mintmark dot AQP points to just one type, RIC VII Aquileia 145, and clears the possible misreading of the end of the obverse legend: it is indeed ...NOB C, not AVG. Strangely though the mint years listed are 337-361, after the ascension as Augustus. A clear example of this type can be seen at WildWinds, and features the same huge filled "dot" as in my coin: http://www.wildwinds.com/coins/ric/constantius_II/_aquileia_RIC_VII_145_P.jpg

There is also an example in this gallery with roughly the same obverse and reverse style:
http://www.forumancientcoins.com/gallery/displayimage.php?pos=-126821

Flavius Julius Constantius Augustus, born 7 August 317, was Roman Emperor from 337 to 361 (caesar to his father in 324-337). The middle and most successful son of Constantine I and Fausta, he ascended to the throne with his brothers Constantine II and Constans upon their father's death. In 340, Constantius' brothers clashed over the western provinces of the empire. The resulting conflict left Constantine II dead and Constans as ruler of the west until he was overthrown and assassinated in 350 by the usurper Magnentius. Unwilling to accept Magnentius as co-ruler, Constantius defeated him at the battles of Mursa Major and Mons Seleucus. Magnentius committed suicide after the latter battle, leaving Constantius as the sole ruler of the empire. His subsequent military campaigns against Germanic tribes were successful: he defeated the Alamanni in 354 and campaigned across the Danube against the Quadi and Sarmatians in 357. In contrast, the war in the east against the Sassanids continued with mixed results.

He was an Arian and clashed with his brother Constans (who was a devote Nicene Orthodox) over this. Subsequently he changed his position somewhat, trying to find a compromise between the two Christian denominations, and subscribed to a milder version of Arianism later known as "Semi-Arianism". In 351, due to the difficulty of managing the empire alone, Constantius elevated his cousin Constantius Gallus to the subordinate rank of Caesar, but had him executed three years later after receiving scathing reports of his violent and corrupt nature. Shortly thereafter, in 355, Constantius promoted his last surviving cousin, Gallus' younger half-brother, Julian, to the rank of Caesar. However, Julian claimed the rank of Augustus in 360, leading to war between the two. Ultimately, no battle was fought as Constantius became ill and died on 3 November 361, though not before naming Julian (of the apostasy infamy) as his successor.
Yurii P
fausta_camp.jpg
Horrible Fausta Campgate Mule64 viewsFausta (Augusta)
AE (Found harshly over cleaned in coin shop junk box)
Ob: FLAV MAX - FAVSTA AVG - Draped bust right, hair tied in bun on back of head
Rv: PROIDEN-TIAE AVGG - 6 Layer, two turrent camp gate (!) with star above, no doors
Exergue: PTR? (epsilon or dot in crescent, can't tell)
Mint: Trier (ca. 326 AD)
References: * Unique Mule w/ Obv. of Fausta RIC VII Trier 466 and rev. of Constantine I RIC VII Trier 461

Though in exceedingly poor shape, this coin was purchased from a junk bin because it didn't look plausible. It had been overcleaned and was aparently discarded by its previous owner as a badly cleaned coin. At first I thought someone had attempted to "convert" by crude tooling a standard campgate into a Fausta obverse, but the obverse legend (FLAV MAX - FAVSTA AVG) is clearly not tooled and the portrait style with the small bun at the back of the neck is a valid style of portraiture for Fausta.

Ugly as it is, it is a unique mint error. Coins of Fausta were indeed being struck alongside coins of the emperors and Caesars in this Campgate issue.

Issues with this PTR crescent reverse include:

Constantine I RIC VII Trier 461 (PROIDEN-TIAE AVGG)
Crispus RIC VII Trier 462 (PROIDEN-TIAE CAESS)
Constantine II RIC VII Trier 463 (PROIDEN-TIAE CAESS)

With a reverse legend of PROIDEN-TIAE AVGG, this coin is a combination of an R4 reverse (RIC 461) and an obverse intended for an R5 reverse - Fausta SPES REIPVBLICAE RIC 466 R5
2 commentsScotvs Capitis
maxconcord.JPG
Maximianus Post Reform Radiate, 296-297AD57 viewsOBV:IMP C M A MAXIMIANUS PF AVG, Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
REV: CONCORDIA MILITUM, Emperor standing right in military dress, short sceptre in left hand, receiving victory on globe from Jupiter standing left, holding sceptre, Greek_Delta; between, ALE in Exergue

RIC VI 46b, Alexandria mint (Ref: Wildwinds); wt 3.0 gms

I think this coin captures the blunt personality of Maximian who influenced Rome at the highest levels from the time of his appointment as Caesar in 285 AD, through numerous political reincarnations and rebellions until his death by suicide under Constantine in 310 AD, he was about 60 years of age. Through his daughters Flavia Theodora and Fausta he was grandfather or great-grandfather to every reigning Roman Emperor from 337-363
3 commentsdaverino
FAUSTA.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE - FAUSTA31 viewsROMAN EMPIRE - FAUSTA AE Follis, 325-326 AD. Obv.: Bust of Fausta right, FLAV MAX FAVSTA AVG
Rev.: SPES REIPVBLICAE, Spes with children. Heraclea mint - SMHE. Reference: RIC-80E.
dpaul7
12946q00~7.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Constantine II, 22 May 337 - March or April 340 A.D.28 viewsType:

Ruler / Years: Constantine II 22 May 337 - March or April 340 A.D.

Denomination: AE 3

Metal Type: Bronze

Size / Weight: 2.764g, 18.9mm

Orientation: 180 deg.

Condition: VF

Obverse Description: laureate, draped and cuirassed bust left

Obverse Legend: CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C

Reverse Description: VOT X in wreath laureate, draped and cuirassed bust left

Reverse Legend: CAESARVM NOSTRORVM

Exergue: TSBVI Thessalonica mint,

Attributes: RIC 128

Notes: Constantine II was the son of Constantine I, the eldest with his second wife, Fausta. He was born in Arles (which was renamed Constantia in his honor in 328, explaining the CON mintmarks for Arles) and was made Caesar before he was a year old in 316 A.D. Upon his father`s death, Constantine II inherited the Western part of the empire. After quarrelling with his brother Constans, he invaded his territory, only to be killed in an ambush near Aquileia. His coins often include "IVN" in the legend, an abbreviation for junior.

Scott M
Fausta AE3.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, FAUSTA158 viewsSize: 19mm, 2.2grams, bronze.
Notes: -FLAV MAX FAVSTA AVG. Fausta facing right / SPES REIPVBLICAE. Fausta standing, holding Constantine II and Constantius II on reverse, SMHB in exergue, nice patina

Marjan E
168.JPG
ROMAN EMPIRE, Fausta AD 324-326 Thessalonica (SMTSA)27 viewsObv: FLAVMAX-FAVSTAAVG
Rev: Fausta Holding Sons,
SPES REIPVBLICAE
RIC VII 161v

Fausta with rare Helena-type hairstyle.
Laetvs
faustaspes.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Fausta AE Follis, Rome mint. R4, FDC.1006 viewsAE Follis. Bust of Fausta right FLAV MAX FAVSTA AVG/Fausta standing holding Constantine II and Constantius II SPES REIPVBLICAE. Rome Mint. R4, the finest known Fausta bronze. Full copper mint lustre covered in a thin browny green patina. Simply superb.7 commentsLordBest
Fausta2or.JPG
ROMAN EMPIRE, Fausta AE3 ANT36 viewsAE3 18x19.1mm
Obv. FLAV MAX_FAVSTA AVG
Bust right.
Rev. SPES REIP_VBLICAE
Fausta standing facing,
nursing two babies.
Ex. dot SMANTI
Antioch mint, ca. 326 AD
gparch
Fausta1or.JPG
ROMAN EMPIRE, Fausta AE3 Nicomedia31 viewsAE3 18.6x20.1mm
Obv. FLAV MAX_FAVSTA AVG
Bust right.
Rev. SPES REIP_VBLICAE
Fausta standing facing,
nursing two babies.
Ex. N gamma
Nicomedia mint, 3rd officina
ca. 326 AD
gparch
bpC1O1Fausta.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Fausta, Thessalonica RIC VII, 161 R388 viewsAe3 3.5 gm 18.5 mm Struck: 326-328 Mark: SMTSA
Obv: FLAV MAX FAVSTA AVG Bare head, right, waved hair and mantled.
Rev: SPES REIPVBLICAE Fausta standing, facing, head left, holding Constantine II and Constantius II.
Comment: Put to death by her husband.
Massanutten
FAUSTA.jpg
Roman Fausta Follis57 viewsFausta, AE Follis
Obv: FLAV MAX – FAVSTA AVG Draped bust r., wearing pearl necklace.
Rev. SPES REIP – VBLICAE Fausta, draped and veiled, standing facing, head l., holding two children in her arms; in exergue, S crescent T

RIC VII Ticinum 203
Rare : R3
4 commentsTanit
fausta.jpg
SPES REIPVBLICAE, RIC 162 Thessalonica8 viewsFausta. Æ Follis. 3.5g, 21mm. Rev. SPES REIPVBLICAE, Spes (Fausta) standing facing holding two children, SMTSA in exergue. RIC 162 ThessalonicaPodiceps
141224.jpg
Star within wreath127 viewsHelena. Augusta, AD 324-328/30. Æ19 Follis (2.31mm, ). Thessalonica mint. Struck 318-319 AD. Draped bust right / Eight-pointed star in laurel wreath. RIC VII 50; LRBC 821. Good VF Ex-CNG

The coinage of Helena as Augusta commenced with her elevation to full imperial status in 324 and continued until her death five years later. Preceding these issues, however, was a remarkable series struck circa 318 AD at the Thessalonica mint on which both Helena and her daughter-in-law Fausta are accorded the lesser title of Nobilissima Femina (N F). Both ladies had borne this rank for some considerable time, Helena since her son's elevation to imperial status in 306, Fausta since her marriage to Constantine in March of the following year. The significance of the anepigraphic reverse with star within wreath remains unexplained, though presumably it contains some reference to divine providence and destiny.
3 commentsecoli
Constantine_II_Beata_Altar_PLON_London.JPG
Struck A.D.320 - 324. CONSTANTINE II as Caesar. AE3 of Londinium11 viewsObverse: CONSTANTINVS IVN N C. Helmeted and cuirassed bust of Constantine II facing left.
Reverse: BEAT TRANQLITAS (sic). Altar, inscribed VOT IS XX in three lines, surmounted by cosmic globe with three stars above; in exergue, PLON.
RIC VII : 287.

Flavius Claudius Constantinus was the eldest son of Constantine and Fausta, he was given the rank of Caesar in A.D.316, at the same time as Crispus.
This coin was struck in connection with the fifteenth anniversary of his father, Constantine the great.
*Alex
FAUSTA_AE3_SPES_THESSALONIKA.JPG
Struck A.D.324 - 326. FAUSTA. AE3 of Thessalonika9 viewsObverse: FLAV MAX FAVSTA AVG. Draped bust of Fausta facing right.
Reverse: SPES REIPVBLICAE. Fausta standing facing, her head turned left, holding Constantine II and Constantius II as babes in arms; in exergue, SMTSB (B = second officina).
RIC VII : 161
VERY RARE

Flavia Maxima Fausta was the daughter of Maximianus and the second wife of Constantine I. Fausta was made Augusta in A.D.324 at the same time as Helena and this coin was struck to celebrate that event. In A.D.326, however, she was involved in the death of Crispus and Constantine had her executed soon after.
1 comments*Alex
The_Ladies_opt.jpg
The Ladies of Rome54 viewsFaustina I
Faustina II
Lucilla
Julia Soaemias
Julia Domna
Julia Maesa
Helena
Herennia Etruscilla
Salonina
Severina
Fausta
Aelia Flaccilla
Legatus
Fausta_AE-3-silvered_FAVSTA-NF_star-in-wreath_TSA_RIC-VII-49-p-504-13-A6_R4_Thessalonica_318-319-AD__Q-001_5h_19mm_2,79ga-s.jpg
Thessalonica, RIC VII 049, 141 Fausta (290 -326 A.D.), AE-3 Follis, -/-//TSA, No legend, Eight-pointed Star within laurel wreath, R4!!!76 views141 Fausta (290 -326 A.D.), AE-3 Follis, Thessalonica, RIC VII 049, -/-//TSA, No legend, Eight-pointed Star within laurel wreath, R4!!!
avers:- FAVSTA-NF, 13, E10, Draped, bust right .
revers:- No legend,Eight-pointed Star within laurel wreath.
exergo: -/-//TSA, diameter: 19mm, weight: 2,79g, axis: 5h,
mint: Thessalonica, date: 318-19 A.D.,ref: RIC-VII-049, p-504, R4!!!,
Q-001
quadrans
 
135 files on 1 page(s)