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Search results - "Etna"
000b. Pompey the Great54 viewsThe Pompeians. Sextus Pompey. 37/6 BC. AR Denarius (19mm, 3.49 g, 9h). Uncertain Sicilian mint, possibly Catana. Bare head of Pompey the Great right; capis to left, lituus to right / Neptune, holding aplustre and resting right foot on prow, standing left between the Catanaean brothers Anapias and Amphinomus running in opposite directions, bearing their parents on their shoulders. Crawford 511/3a; CRI 334; Sydenham 1344; RSC 17 (Pompey the Great). Fine, lightly toned, bankers’ marks on obverse.

AMPHINOMUS and ANAPIS (or Anapias), two brothers, of Silicy, respecting whom it is related that they saved their parents, at the peril of their own lives, from the flames of Etna, at the moment when an eruption of that volcano threatened their immediate destruction. This was a favourite subject with the ancients, in symbolising filial piety; and is often represented on Greek coins of Catana (Catania), where this noble action is alleged to have been performed. Of these two Sicilian brothers, types of that devoted love, which is ever cherished by good children towards the earthly anthors of their being, Cornelius Severus, alluding to Mount Edna, thus expresses himself: "Amphinomus and his brother, both equally courageous in the performance of a duty, whilst the flames murmured their threats against the neighbouring houses, rescue their decrepid father, and their aged mother."
1 commentsecoli
Annam (Vietnam) Cash, Tây Sơn Dynasty Rebellion, Quang Trung (1788-1792 AD), AE24 Cash43 viewsAnnam (Vietnam) Cash, Tây Sơn Dynasty Rebellion, Quang Trung (1788-1792 AD), AE24 Cash, 1.95g, 24mm

Obverse: QUANG TRUNG THONG BAO, 光中通寶, Thick outer rim, thin rim around square hole.

Reverse: No legend. Thick outer rim, four crescents in field surrounding square hole with thin rim.

Reference: Toda 193, Barker 93.28

Ex: Kayser-i Rum Numismatics
1 commentsGil-galad
Annam (Vietnam), Nguyen Dynasty, Minh Mang (1820-1841 AD)12 viewsAnnam (Vietnam), Nguyen Dynasty, Minh Mang (1820-1841 AD), AE Cash

Obverse: MIHN MANG THONG BAO, 明命通寶, Four characters flanking a square hole, thick rims.

Reverse: No legend, thick rims.

Reference: Toda 228

Ex: Kayser-i Rum Numismatics
Cilicia, Seleukia ad Calycadnum, Gallienus SNG Lev. 78957 viewsGallienus AD 253-268
AE 26, 10g
bust, draped and cuirassed, seen from behind,laureate, r.
rev. C[E]LEYK - E - WN K / ALYK / ADN / W
Athena stg. r., shield in l. hand, stabs with spear on Giant with snakelike feet,
kneeling before her. He grabs her spear with l. hand and has a rock in his
raised r. hand to throw it on her.
SNG Levante 789; BMC 57
rare, about VF

The reverse shows a scene of the Gigantomachia. After Zeus has locked up the Titans in the Tartaros Gaia sets her sons, the Giants, on the Olympic gods. They are human shaped with snakelike feet. The battle occured at Phlegra. The Giants throw rocks and mountains. They couldn't be killed by gods, only by humans. So Herakles came into play. He shot a poisoned arrow on Alkyoneus and dragged him over the frontier where he died. Athena throw the island of Sicily on another Giant where he was buried. His fire breathing came out of the Aetna until today.

For more information look at the thread 'Coins of mythological interest'
1 commentsJochen
Cr 308/1a AR Denarius M. Herennius 32 views 108-107 BCE. AR Denarius M. Herennius, Rome, (19mm, 3.83g, 11h).
O: Diademed head of Pietas r.; control mark before chin;PIETAS behind.
R: M HERENNI, left; Amphinomus carrying his father aloft r., who looks back
Crawford 308/1a; RBW -; RSC Herennia 1.
[The Herennii seem to have adopted the Sicilian image of the brothers who fled Aetna with their parents, but most sources put the origin of the gens in Campania.]
2 commentsPMah
Gens Herennia, denario Pii Fratres11 viewsM. Herennius, denarius (108-107 a.C.)
AR, 3,71 gr, 18 mm, qBB
D/ PIETAS (legato); testa della Pietas.
R/ M HERENNI; Anfinomo o Anapias, con il padre in braccio, che fuggono dall’eruzione dell’Etna; di fronte, •S.
Cr. 308/1b
Provenienza: collezione Berardengo (Roma, Italia, dal 17 marzo 2016, numero catalogo 250), ex collezione Alessandro Vanni, Tinia numismatica (Follonica, Italia fino al marzo 2016)
Italy, Sicily, Taormina - theatre - Etna in the background156 viewscalled Greek theatre but was built by Romans - maybe greek foundationsJohny SYSEL
M. Herennius, Crawford 308/170 viewsM. Herennius, gens Herennia
AR - Denar, 3.91g
Rome 108-107 BC
obv. Head of Pietas, diaden´med and with necklace, r.
PIETAS behind (AT ligate)
rev. One of the Catanian brothers (Anapias or Amphinous), nude, running l.,
carrying his father on his shoulder; he, wearing himation, turns head l. and
has raised r. hand.
behind M.HERENNI (HE ligate)
Crawford 308/1; Sydenham 567; RSC Herennia 1
about EF

The brothers Anapias and Amphinomus rescued their parents at an eription of the volcanus Etna c. 500-400 BC. They became outstanding examles of the Roman pietas. The rev. depiction is similar to that of Aenaeas carrying his father Anchises out of the burning Troy.
2 commentsJochen
M. Herennius, Denarius8 viewsM. Herennius, AR Denarius

RRC 308/1b
108 - 107 bc

Av: Head of Pietas r., wearing diadem; behind PIETAS downwards;
Rv: Naked youth (one of the Catanean brothers, Amphinomus or Anapias) running right, carrying his father on his left shoulder; On l. M.HERENNI, Control mark P

Pietas in action on the reverse: The brothers from the town of Katane are said to have rescued their parents from the eruption of Aetna

Ex ArtemideAste, Antiquities 4, 19/20.03.2016 #59
Mixed lot of Roman, Byzantine, Arab-Sassanian, Vietnam cash, modern German coins16 viewsMixed lot of Roman, Byzantine, Arab-Sassanian, Vietnam cash, modern German coins

Ex: Kayser-i Rum Numismatics
Regno di Giudea, Erode Archelao, Etnarca (4 a.C.- 6 d.C.)32 viewsPrutah, bronzo,zecca di Gerusalemme 4 a.C.- 6 d.C.
AE, 1.39 gr, 14.2 mm, NC (Scarce)
D/ HRwDOU (di Erode), ancora con armi lunghe.
R/ EQN (Etnarca) circondato da ghirlanda.
TJC 59, Hendin 507
Provenienza: collezione Berardengo, Roma Italia (23 dicembre 2007, numero catalogo 84); ex FAC (Morehead City NC, Usa, fino al 2007)
Sextus Pompey - AR denarius6 viewsSicily
37-36 BC
bare head of Pompey the Great right; capis (jug) to left, lituus to right
Neptune standing left, foot on prow, holding aplustre and chlamys; the brothers Anapias and Amphinomus running in opposite directions on either side, holding their parents on their shoulders.
Crawford 511/3a, SRCV I 1392, RSC I Pompey the Great 17, Sydenham 1344, BM Sicily 93
ex Aurea Numismatika


Reverse depicts Sicilian story of Amphinomus and Anapias which also indicate probable location of the mint (Catania):
"A stream of fire burst forth from Etna. This stream, so the story goes, flowing over the countryside, drew near a certain city of the Sicilians. Most men, thinking of their own safety, took to flight; but one of the youths, seeing that his father, now advanced in years, could not escape and was being overtaken by the fire, lifted him up and carried him. Hindered no doubt by the additional weight of his burden, he too was overtaken. And now let us observe the mercy shown by the Gods towards good men. For we are told that the fire spread round that spot in a ring and only those two men were saved, so that the place is still called the Place of the Pious, while those who had fled in haste, leaving their parents to their fate, were all consumed."

Neptune symbolizes Sextus' command of the seas and obverse is a reference to his piety in upholding the Republican ideals of his late father.
Spain- Taragona- Amphitheatre.jpg
Spain- Taragona- Amphitheatre46 viewsThis conventional seating may be observed at the amphitheatre at Tarragona in northern Spain. Tarraco, its Latin name, was the capital of the province of Hispania Tarraconensis. The seating is essentially the same as that found in Rome’s Colosseum. The amphitheatre’s construction is dated to the second century AD, a time of extensive building of centres of public entertainment throughout the Mediterranean. On the right side, the seating was hewn from the bedrock, while on the left, or seaward side, the seating was built up from blocks, a phenomenon also found at Syracuse in Sicily.

However, in a recent visit to Pompeii some interesting divergence from the norm is easily to be observed, for which no reason appears to have been voiced. The town of Pompeii, destroyed in the eruption of Mt. Vesuvius in AD 79, had a population in excess of 10,000, and was clearly a place of sufficient wealth to

sport not only an amphitheatre seating 20,000, but also a traditional Greek theatre and a smaller building called the Odeon. The "large" theatre, as it is now called, can seat an audience of 5,000, the "small" theatre, which was roofed, had accommodation for 500. Seating was according to rank, it is supposed, two side boxes (rather like the royal boxes of later theatres) for honoured guests, an inner cavea for the decurions or magistrates of the town, the middle rows for the more wealthy members of the community, the upper tiers for the ordinary citizens. If one looks closely it is clearly noticeable that this inner cavea consists of the first four or five rows of benches.

It is clear that, unlike the earlier form of the Greek theatres, the front rows are considerably wider than those higher up in the auditorium. The size of the seating is far beyond the dimensions of even a large and well-endowed personage, extending inwards for a good metre or more. The reasons for the additional size are unclear, because the larger width does not make these benches any more comfortable for the sitter, if anything they provide less support than the more narrow benches above. Presumably, the spectators brought cushions with them for lengthy performances in much the same way as fans for rugby or cricket matches do today. One solution may be that the wider seating allowed the dignatory to relax by reclining as if at dinner though this can hardly have been a posture acceptable for a quasi-religious festival nor one which would have endeared these wealthy members of the community to their less well-endowed fellows higher up, even if conspicuous consumption was the order of the day, particularly during the Roman empire.

In the "large" theatre the first four rows, in the "small" theatre and in the amphitheatre the first five rows stand out from the rest and, in fact, have their special place denoted by a partition. In some of the theatres in Greece, the officials judging the competitions, which were part and parcel of the festivals, and high ranking citizens might occupy a special bench, or the first row of the auditorium, but the broad nature of the bench at Pompeii appears unique. Pompeii began as a Oscan settlement in the 8th century BC and was heavily Hellenised by the 6th century. Thereafter, Pompeii had a fairly chequered history, being conquered and lost by the Etruscans and Samnites, before becoming a Roman colony in 80 BC. The Samnites of the central hills and the more local Oscan speakers, an Italic dialect which survived down to the period of the empire, remained culturally and linguistically influential, and it is possible that the Greek practice of uniformity in seating was altered by these Italic tribes who, at times, controlled Pompeii. On the other hand, there could be direct Roman or even Etruscan influence, though this formalised partitioning of seating is not seen in any of the archeaological sites in Rome or in nearby Campania, for example at Puteoli or at Capua. Finally, as for what purpose the large widths were intended, without clear evidence, and certainly with no ancient mention, means that speculation takes over. It could be that wooden seats rather like thrones were brought in, even sedan chairs for the high and mighty of the town, though it is worth bearing in mind that high-backed chairs easily obscured the views of those scarcely less wealthy immediately behind. The Roman males, it will be remembered, tended to lounge on low couches when they ate, rather than sitting in upright seats, which became popular only in the later Byzantine period. It also seems likely that, given the amount of space, it was not just the men who were seated here but entire families - perhaps picnic baskets as well. Refreshments were provided during performances, but the wealthy possibly brought their own equivalents of the modern cool bags and six-packs. The illustrations of the three places of entertainment at Pompeii do not appear to suggest that these special seating are the product of modern reconstructions, some of which have proved disastrous to ancient sites; and, therefore, there seems to be no alternative to accepting at least the idea that preferential seating was the order of the day in this rather provincial town on the Bay of Naples. Etruscan tombs often show their owners in a reclining position as if at a meal, and other forms of entertainment also feature which, overall, might suggest an influence here from north of the River Tiber.

Having dwelt at length, as it were, with the bottoms and the bottom-most seats of the ancient theatres and amphitheatres I now want to move on to the general ambience of the structure. The Roman amphitheatre or hippodrome were dirty smelly places where, by the end of the day’s proceedings, the stench from the dead and dying must have made an abatoir a sweet-smelling location. It is recorded that sprinkler systems were used in the Colosseum to spray the audience and the arena floor with scented water to alleviate the foulness of the atmosphere. By way of contrast, the Greek theatre must have been a place of peace and serenity, except for sore buttocks and aching backs.

Many commentators of the ancient theatre have sadly noted that the early pristine form, as found today at Epidaurus and Segesta, generally underwent alterations during the Roman period. It is noted that the slightly more than a semi-circular design was largely filled in during later antiquity by the Roman scena; and today many examples of the traditional Greek theatres sport Roman brickwork at the front which reached the same height, in some cases, as the uppermost tier of the cavea or auditorium. This height also allowed for a velabrum or canvass cover to be used to provide shade or shelter from the elements. At Taormina, ancient Tauromenium, for example:

"The brick scenic wall was preceded by a row of nine granite columns crowned by Corinthian capitals, which had both a decorative and bearing function, in that they supported the higher parts of the stage. The niches in the wall contained marble statues. On the sides, there are remains of the ‘parascenia’, square rooms used by actors and for scenic fittings. The actors entered the stage through side openings. A further row of sixteen columns closer to the orchestra framed the decorative front of the stage."

This is quite a departure from the earlier simplicity of the Greek theatre. However, it is certainly arguable that Baroque is not necessarily less pleasing than Romanesque even if blocking out the natural view also took the theatre out of its topographical or geographical context. For the purists among us, more sacrilege occurred, for instance, again at Taormina, where the first nine rows of the seating were removed making the orchestra large enough for gladiatorial combats and beast hunts, while at the same time allowing the audience safety high above the blood sports taking place below them. Of course, the construction of a front wall can easily be accounted for by the changing tastes in the entertainment itself, while the local audience presumably knew the view pretty well, and did not come to the theatre to gaze at Mount Etna. Furthermore, Taormina, high up on a hill overlooking the sea, had no extra space on which to build a new amphitheatre, more regularly the venue for gladiatorial combats. And it is also quite possible that there were simply insufficient funds. Taormina was neither a large nor a wealthy city.

Meanwhile, at Delphi the scena was "low so that the audience could enjoy the wonderful view", says one expert. Nonetheless, while the modern tourist may find the view as gratifying if not more so than the ruined theatre, the ancient audience came too see and hear the performances in honour of the Pythian Apollo. The ancient Greeks did not come for the view, they came for theatrical, religious even mystic experience. It is the modern philistine in us who enjoys the view. That being the case, the construction of the ancient theatre had little to do with searching for a site with a nice aspect, though these obviously exist, even in abundance, but for acoustic perfection and adequate accommodation. Finally, the best seats were closest to the stage and its proceedings, while the worst seats, for looking at the productions, had the best views. Does this mean that the most wealthy, with the largest bottoms, were obliged to watch the entertainment with no chance of letting the mind wander to the natural surroundings? Or does it mean that the women, slaves and poorest citizens, who sat high above the productions, probably could not hear or see what was going on hence took in the nice view instead. Therein lies the morality tale embedded in the title of this paper. If you had the means you were forced to take in the culture. If you were female or poor you could let your mind wander to other matters, including wonderful views of nature.
John Schou
Thailand "ancient" Ayudhaya, Silver bullet coin -- 1 Baht, King Songthom, 1612 - 1628 AD101 viewsAyudhaya Kingdom; King Songthom, 1612 - 1628 AD; AR "Bullet" Coin, 14.7 gms, EF.

The kingdom of Ayutthaya (Thai: อยุธยา) was a Thai kingdom that existed from 1350 to 1767. King Ramathibodi I (Uthong) founded Ayutthaya as the capital of his kingdom in 1350 and absorbed Sukhothai, 640 km to the north, in 1376. Over the next four centuries the kingdom expanded to become the nation of Siam, whose borders were roughly those of modern Thailand, except for the north, the Kingdom of Lannathai. Ayutthaya was friendly towards foreign traders, including the Chinese, Indians, Japanese and Persians, and later the Portuguese, Spanish, Dutch, British and French, permitting them to set up villages outside the city walls. The court of King Narai (1656-1688) had strong links with that of King Louis XIV of France, whose ambassadors compared the city in size and wealth to Paris.

After a bloody period of dynastic struggle, Ayutthaya entered into what has been called its golden age, a relatively peaceful episode in the second quarter of the eighteenth century when art, literature, and learning flourished. There were foreign wars. The Ayutthaya fought with Nguyen Lords (Vietnamese rulers of South Vietnam) for control of Cambodia starting around 1715. But a greater threat came from Burma, where the new Alaungpaya dynasty had subdued the Shan states.

In 1765 Thai territory was invaded by two Burmese armies that converged on Ayutthaya. The only notable example of successful resistance to these forces was found at the village of Bang Rajan. After a lengthy siege, the city capitulated and was burned in 1767. Ayutthaya's art treasures, the libraries containing its literature, and the archives housing its historic records were almost totally destroyed, and the city was left in ruins.

The country was reduced to chaos. Provinces were proclaimed independent states under military leaders, rogue monks, and cadet members of the royal family. The Thais were saved from Burmese subjugation, however, by an opportune Chinese invasion of Burma and by the leadership of a Thai military commander, Phraya Taksin.

All that remains of the old city are some impressive ruins of the royal palace. King Taksin established a capital at Thonburi, across the Chao Phraya from the present capital, Bangkok (Kruen Thep).

The ruins of the historic city of Ayutthaya and "associated historic towns" in the Ayutthaya historical park have been listed by UNESCO as World Heritage Sites.

The city of Ayutthaya was refounded near the old city, and is now capital of the Ayutthaya province.
THE BOOK I WROTE THIS YEAR (ABOUT MYTHOLOGICAL CREATURES MAGICALLY BOUND TO THEIR OWN IMAGES ON ANCIENT GREEK COINS)1 viewsA massive eruption of Mount Etna has freed the monstrous Storm-Giant Typhon from Tartarus. Now, from his hideaway at the Southern Pole of Inaccessibility, Typhon sets in motion a plot to devastate Earth using an Annihilation Ray based on a secret technology invented long ago by Nikola Tesla. It will be up to a young woman, a magical Greek Sphinx coin and the long-deceased inventor himself to try to thwart Typhon's evil plans.

Viet Nam - South Vietnam40 viewsKM7 - 1 Dong - 1964
KM8 - 10 Dong - 1964
Daniel F
Vietnam (Annam). Later Lê Dynasty Thánh Tông (1442-1497)38 viewsBarker 35.1-35.12; Toda 57

Bronze cash; cast during first nien-hao (1460-1470); 3.98 g., 24.66 mm.

Obv: Quang-thuan-thong-bao.

Rev: plain.

ex Forum Ancient Coins
Vietnam (Dai Nam). Minh Mạng (1820-1841).17 viewsBarker 101.17, KM 182b, C 81.3, Toda 228 var..

3 phan (cast copper alloy), 21 mm.

Obv: Minh Mạng thong bao (closed minh, closed bei, thong head flat; smallest characters).

Rev: blank.
Vietnam (Dai Nam). Minh Mạng (1820-1841).14 viewsBarker 101.6, KM 182, C 81.1, Toda 228.

9 phan (cast copper alloy), 25.5 mm.

Obv: Minh Mạng thong bao (one dot tong).

Rev: blank.
Vietnam (French Protectorate of Annam). Thanh Thai (1888-1907).12 viewsBarker: 107.1-107.8, KM 628, Yeoman 2, Toda --, Novak 107.

10 van/phan (cast copper alloy). 4.79 g., 26.28 mm., 0◦

Obv: Thanh-Thai-Thong-Bao.

Rev: Tap-Van.

The coins were cast by Emperor Nguyen Thanh Thai under the reign title Thanh Thai. Emperor Thành Thái took a course of passive-resistance against the French, making his feelings clear via symbolic gestures and biting remarks. He feigned insanity to escape the constant scrutiny of the French spies who thoroughly infiltrated his palace. With his enemies believing he was a harmless lunatic, Thành Thái was able to work more forcefully for Vietnamese autonomy while waiting for the right time to throw off colonial rule. He was on his way to join a resistance movement in China when he was arrested by French forces who declared him insane and forced him to abdicate.
Vietnam (under Chinese occupation). CĂ n Long (Qianlong in Chinese).23 viewsBarker 98.2, KM 131, C 34.1, Toda 212 var. (not white copper).

1 phan (cast brass), 24 mm. Cast in 1789 in Yunnan for the payment of Chinese troups.

Obv: Càn Long thong bao.

Rev: An nam.

During the Later Lê Dynasty (1428-1788), the Vietnamese rulers recognized the Chinese Emperor as their feudal lord, while ruling independently. This changed during the Tây Sơn Uprising, when the feuding Trịnh and Nguyễn lords were defeated and the last Lê ruler, Emperor Lê Chiêu Thống (1765–1793), was overthrown. Chiêu Thống fled to China and appealed to the Qianlong Emperor (1736-1795) for help. In 1788 a Chinese army restored Chiêu Thống to the throne. The Tây Sơn leader, Nguyễn Huệ, launched a surprise attack against the Chinese forces while they were celebrating the Chinese New Year festival in 1789, defeating them at Battle of Đống Đa. Chiêu Thống fled back to China and Nguyễn Huệ was proclaimed Emperor Quang Trung (1788-1792). Nguyễn Huệ eventually submitted himself as vassal of China and agreed to pay annual tribute.
1 commentsStkp
Vietnam. Tự Đức (1847-1883).16 viewsBarker 103.1, KM 378a, C 201.2, Toda 232.

1 phan (cast copper alloy), 22 mm.

Obv: Tự Đức thong bao.

Rev: blank.
1 commentsStkp
Vietnam. Tự Đức (1847-1883).15 views103.5 [?], KM 380a, C 202.1, Toda 234.

6 van (cast copper alloy), 23 mm.

Obv: Tự Đức thong bao.

Rev: Luc-phan (indicating weight).
1 commentsStkp
Vietnam. Rebel Cam-Giang Vuong (1509)9 viewsBarker 54.0-54.3, Toda 166, Novak 53a.

1 phan [?] (cast red-copper alloy), 1.27 g., 21.48 mm. max.

Obv: Thai-binh-thanh-bao.

Rev.: Blank, without rim.

According to Toda and Novak, this coin was issued in 1509 by a rebel named Cam-Giang Vuong who declared his brother emperor under the Thai Binh reign title, and cast these coins to pay his rebel troops. According to Barker, these coins were issued by the Mac family at Cao Bang in 1592-1677.
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