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Search results - "Delos"
PAMPHYLIA__Aspendos__Stater_.jpg
Aspendos, Pamphylia, 370 - 333 B.C.224 viewsWith the influence of the Olympics games.

Obverse : two wrestlers, the left one holds the wrist of his opponent with his right and right forearm with his left hand, KI between their legs.

Reverse : EΣTΦE∆IIYΣ on left, slinger, wearing short chiton, discharging sling to right, triskeles on right with feet clockwise,


Extremely fine Silver Stater . Weight: 10.62 g. Max Diameter: 23 mm. Mint : Aspendos (in our days , Antalya province of Turkey)
SNG France 104. Struck from fresh , artistic and well executed dies.

Historical and Numismatic Note:

Pamphylia (/pæmˈfɪliə/) was the region in the south of Asia Minor, between Lycia and Cilicia, extending from the Mediterranean to Mount Taurus (modern-day Antalya province, Turkey).

Aspendos or Aspendus (Greek: Ἄσπενδος) was an ancient Greco-Roman city in Antalya province of Turkey. Aspendos is about 40 km east of Antalya, Turkey about 16 km inland on the Eurymedon River. In 546 B.C. it fell to Persia. After a Persian defeat in 467, the city joined the Attic-Delos Maritime League. Persia took it again in 411 B.C., Alexander in 333 B.C., and Rome in 190 B.C. Although often subject to powerful empires, the city usually retained substantial autonomy.


The Sam Mansourati Collection. NO. AGAP 3121.

2 commentsSam
CHOUETTE.jpg
Athene18 viewsLa fortune d'Athènes au Ve siècle repose en grande partie sur la récupération du trésor de la Ligue de Délos qui ne contenait pas moins de cinq mille talents d'argent et qui servit à enrichir et embellir Athènes en opprimant les Alliés. La guerre du Péloponnèse (431-404 avant J.-C.) mit fin à l'hégémonie athénienne. Périclès (449-429 avant J.-C.) ne vécut pas assez longtemps pour assister à la chute de la cité. Thucydide a immortalisé ce conflit dans son ouvrage consacré à la guerre du Péloponnèse dont il fut l'un des acteurs avant d'être lui-même ostracisé, c'est-à-dire exiléSégusiaves
EmerGTetAttica.jpg
Athens Emergency Issue Plated Tetradrachm Circa 406-404 BC949 viewsQuote from David Sear:

"Athens was the greatest power in the Greek world throughout most of the 5th century BC. Its famous 'owl' coinage, principally of silver tetradrachms, possibly commenced in 510 BC on the occasion of the downfall of the tyrant Hippias. On these celebrated coins the helmeted head of the goddess Athena was accompanied by her attendant owl and the first three letters of the ethnic 'AQE'. Later, a diadem of olive leaves was added to Athena's helmet and a cresent moon was placed in the reverse field, though the precise chronological significance of these changes remains uncertain. To the intense chagrin of the Spartans Athens became the leader of the Greek states, including those of Ionia, in the epic struggle against the expansionist policies of the Achaemenid Persian Empire. The victories at Salamis (480 BC) and the Eurymedon (circa 467) clearly established the Athenian supremacy in the Aegean world. Initially, the Delian League (founded in 477) was an alliance of independent states sharing a common cause under the leadership of Athens. It gradually developed into an Athenian maritime empire with the member cities obliged to pay an annual tribute into the League's treasury on Delos. In 454 this treasury, amounting to 5,000 talents of silver, was actually removed to Athens and the vast wealth was openly employed for the aggrandizement of the city, now under the leadership of the great statesman Pericles. Vast building projecdts, such as the monumental edifices on the Acropolis, were financed in this way. From 431, however, Athens became embroiled in the protracted Peloponnesian War and increasingly the wealth of the state was dissipated in this futile cause. This attractive tetradrachm belongs to the exceptionally large ouput of Athenian 'owls' made during the second half of the 5th century. In contrast to the artistic development taking place at mints in other parts of the Mediterranean world, the late archaic style of the earlier 5th century became 'frozen' on these issues which represent the first truly imperial coinage of the Greek world. As Athens restricted or forbade the issue of independent currency at many of the cities within her sphere of influence the 'owls' came to circulate over an increasingly wide area. But this all came to an end with the defeat of Athens by Sparta in 404 BC and during the period immediately preceding this catastrophe the Athenians were reduced to the desperate expedient of issuing bronze tetradrachms and drachms with a thin surface coating of silver. This specimen is an excellent example of this emergency coinage the production of which drew contemporary comment from Aristophanes who, in his play Frogs (717ff), compares the decline in the quality of the leading citizens with the recent debasement of the Athenian coinage."
3 commentsGunner
00221q00.jpg
Attica, Athens. (Circa 454-449 BC)28 viewsAR Tetradrachm

25 mm, 17.20 g

This is a transitional Owl tetradrachm that bridges the early classical owls (minted from 478-454) with the subsequent mass classical (standardized) coinage, which really got going in the early 440s BC to finance Pericles' building projects like the Parthenon and then later the Peloponnesian War (431-404 BC) vs. Sparta. The 454 date is critical in that it was the year that Athens moved the treasury of the Delian league (confederation of Greek states led by Athens to defend against the Persian threat) from Delos to Athens.

This coin shares many attributes of Starr V early classical coinage (465-454 BC). On the obverse, the olive leaves on Athena's helmet connect to her diadem with small stems (which disappear in the mass coinage). In addition, the palmette leaves on Athena's helmet are smaller, less decorative, and more realistic. Finally, Athena is smiling (she starts to frown as the war with Sparta goes badly) and is more beautifully depicted than in the more hastily produced mass coinage.

On the reverse, like with the Starr V coins, the incuse is quite noticeable and the AOE (short for AOENAION, or "Of the Athenians") is written in smaller letters (they are much bigger in the mass coinage). Also, the owl is stouter, has smaller eyes, and his head is at an angle rather than parallel to the ground like all later issues.

The only difference between the Starr V owls and this example is in the owl's tail - in Starr V it ends with three small feathers. On this coin and all subsequent coinage the owl's tail ends in a single prong. Given all the other similarities to Starr V it is likely this coin was minted soon after the Treasury's move from Delos to Athens - perhaps 454/453.
2 commentsNathan P
020O.jpg
Commodus AE36 Medallion199 viewsHierocaesarea mint
Magistrate (archon) Artemidoros
BMC Lydia -, SNG Cop -, SNGvA -, Imhoof-Blumer -
24.976 g, maximum diameter 36.4mm, die axis 180o,
Obverse AVT KAI Λ AVPH KOMMO∆O, laureate and cuirassed bust right;
Reverse ΕΠΙ[...]ΟΥ[...] ΑΡΤΕΜΙ∆ΟΡΟΥ ΑΡΧ[...] ΙΕΡΟΚΑΙCΑΡΕΩΝ, Artemis standing half-right wearing chiton; Leto standing half-left holding patera; Apollo standing half-left, naked, resting left hand on lyre; nice armored bust.

An interesting reverse depicting a mythological scene: Leto and her children Artemis and Apollo. The two were fathered by Zeus, arousing Hera's jealousy. Leto was banned from giving birth on earth or sea, but found the island of Delos, which supposedly was not connected to either.

(all notes from FORVM website)

Extremely rare with no other specimens found on Wildwinds.com, acsearch.info or coinarchives.com.

No examples in Loebbecke, Scholz or all the Imhoof additions.-Dane Kurth

One same size, same obv. die as {this coin}, same magistrate (archon) Artemidoros, but different rev. type (river god reclining), in RPC temp. (online) 8174 = Peus 365, 2000, Burstein 696, there stated to be unpublished and apparently unique.-Curtis Clay

(Many thanks to Mr. Curtis Clay and Ms. Dane Kurth "Helvetica" for further information)

EX: FORVM Ancient Coins
8 commentsMark Z
Cycladic_Islands,_Delos,_AE_10_3rd_Cent__BC.jpg
Cyclades, Delos, ca. 308-167 BC, Æ 1021 viewsLaureate head of Apollo left.
Δ-H either side of Kithara.

Kroll, Agora, 828a-d; SNG Copenhagen 670; Weber 4660.

(10 mm, 1.15 g, 12h).
Kirk Davis; ex- James H. Joy Collection: Munzen & Medaillen Deutschland Auction 21, 24 May 2007, 511(d).
n.igma
37498_Delos,_Athenian_Cleruchy,_c__2nd_-_1st_Century_B_C_.jpg
Delos, Athenian Cleruchy, c. 2nd - 1st Century B.C. AE 9, Owl on column13 viewsDelos, Athenian Cleruchy, c. 2nd - 1st Century B.C. Bronze AE 9, Svoronos, Athens, plate 106, 39-40; BMC -; SNG Cop -, Fine, Delos mint, 1.175g, 9.7mm, 0o, obverse head right; reverse A [“Θ”] E, owl on column; rare. A cleruchy was a special type of colony developed by Athens. Unlike the colonies of other cities, the cleruchs kept Athenian citizenship. Using the cleruchy system, Athens kept population growth under control, while increasing its economic and military power. Besides Delos, other cleruchies were at Salamis, Chalkis, on Samos, and in Thracian Chersonese. Ex FORVM, photo credit FORVMPodiceps
Delos_-_an_altar.jpg
Greece, Delos - an altar224 viewsLloyd T
The_ascent_path_to_Mt_Kinthos_-_Delos.jpg
Greece, Delos - detail of the ancient pathway to Mt Kinthos291 viewsLloyd T
Delos_from_Kinthos_summit.jpg
Greece, Delos - from the summit of Mt Kinthos269 viewsAt its peak in the second century BC up to 10,000 slaves per day were trafficked through the slave market at Delos which was focused on the commercial port area to the left of center in the middle distance of this image.Lloyd T
Grotto_of_Hercules_-_Delos.jpg
Greece, Delos - Grotto of Hercules256 viewsTo be found at the foot of the approach of Mt Kinthos.Lloyd T
Well_-_Delos.jpg
Greece, Delos - household well238 viewsWater supply was a problem on the dry island of Delos. The solution was found in a mix of cisterns and wells. Cisterns retained the water from the sparse winter rains, while small wells are to be found frequently in residences as illustrated by this example.Lloyd T
Roman_era_residential_area_-_Delos.jpg
Greece, Delos - Maritime Quarter Streetscape249 viewsLloyd T
Floor_-_Delos.jpg
Greece, Delos - Mosaic Floor in the Maritime Quarter246 viewsInterestingly this mosaic floor features the symbol of Tanit a Carthaginian goddess.Lloyd T
On_the_ascent_to_Mt_Kinthos_-_Delos.jpg
Greece, Delos - On the Ascent of Mt Kinthos220 viewsLloyd T
On_Delos.jpg
Greece, Delos - On the Ascent to the Summit of Mt Kinthos217 viewsThis sort of material is to be found everywhere on the site of ancient Delos.Lloyd T
Delos_-_Temple_of_Issis.jpg
Greece, Delos - Temple of Issis249 viewsThe Cycladic island of Delos was revered in antiquity as the birthplace of Apollo and Artemis. During the early Classical era it was a sacred religious precinct dedicated to the worship of these gods. In the late fifth century BC, at the peak of its role as a religious sanctuary, neither birth nor death was permitted to occur on the island. However, commercial imperatives were soon to over ride this religious taboo. Delos occupied a central position with respect to the trade routes of the Mediterranean, so that by the late 3rd century BC commercial activity overtook its role as a religious sanctuary. The sacred character of the island dissipated, displaced by a cosmopolitan trading centre. By the 2nd century BC it had evolved to become the centre of the Mediterranean slave trade. Strabo recorded that up to 10,000 people per day were trafficked through its slave market. This role continued into the early Roman era, until in 88 BC Mithradates VI, King of Pontus, decimated the population in an attack on the island. In 69 BC the pirates of Athenodoros destroyed what remained of the commercial centre of Delos and it fell into decline, to be effectively abandoned by the 6th century AD.Lloyd T
Theatre_-_Delos.jpg
Greece, Delos - the ancient theatre219 viewsLloyd T
Roman_era_wall_-_Delos.jpg
Greece, Delos - Wall in the Maritime Quarter297 viewsRemnant plasterwork and painting illustrates how the coarse stone walls were finished in the residential area that is the Maritime Quarter.1 commentsLloyd T
Cistern_-_Delos.jpg
Greece, Delos water cistern248 viewsWater supply was a problem on the dry island of Delos. The solution was found in a mix of cisterns and wells. Cisterns retained the water from the sparse winter rains, while small wells are to be found frequently in residences.Lloyd T
ephesos~0.jpg
GREEK. Ephesos AR Tetradrachm. Hecatomnus Hoard (1977).110 viewsCirca 405-390 BC (21mm, 14.95 g, 12h). Aristainetos, magistrate. Hecatomnus 53b (O11/R48 – this coin); SNG Kayhan –; Winterthur 2904 (same obverse die). Obverse: bee with curved wings. Reverse: forepart of stag right, head left; palm tree to left (off flan), APIΣTAINETO[Σ] to right. Toned, VF. Struck on a tight flan.

Ex Hecatomnus Hoard (CH V, 17; CH VIII, 96; and CH IX, 387). Ex CNG Electronic Auction 338, lot 85.

The bee, palm tree and the stag are emblems of Ephesos. This city was an important center of worship of the Greek goddess Artemis, and the images on Ephesian coinage represent her. Ephesos also used the bee on its coins since it was a producer of honey, so the bee advertised their most famous product. The bee was also mythologically connected to Ephesos because, according to Philostratos, the colonizing Athenians were led to Ephesos in Ionia by the Muses who took the form of bees. Ephesos occupied the alluvial plain of the lower Cayster, but it owed its chief wealth and renown less to the produce of its soil than to the illustrious sanctuary of the old Anatolian nature-goddess, whom the Ionian Greeks identified with Artemis, the Goddess of Hunt. It is noteworthy that the high-priest of the temple of Artemis was called Ηεσσην, ‘the king bee,’ while the virgin priestesses bore the name of “melissai” or Honey-Bees. The stag was regarded as sacred to her and stag figures were said to have flanked the cult statue of Artemis in her temple at Ephesos. The palm tree alludes to Artemis’ birthplace, the island of Delos, where the goddess Leto gave birth to Artemis and her twin brother Apollo underneath a palm tree. Therefore, the coin might represent the city’s origin as well.

The earlier type tetradrachmae of Ephesos could be identified by the curved pair of wings of the bee on the obverse side of these coins. It is roughly estimated that a total of about less than a hundred of these tetradrachmae exist as compared to the straight wing bee variant of later emissions, which are believed to be seven to eight times more common than the former. These estimates are based on the findings and studies made after the discoveryof the Hecatomnus and Pixodarus hoards in 1977 and 1978, respectively. Prior to their discovery, there were only about 35 of these curved wing tetradrachmae recorded in existence.
1 commentsJason T
ephesos.jpg
IONIA, Ephesos AR Tetradrachm.66 viewsCirca 405-390 BC. AR Tetradrachm (21mm, 14.95 g, 12h). Aristainetos, magistrate. Hecatomnus 53b (O11/R48 – this coin); SNG Kayhan –; Winterthur 2904 (same obverse die). Obverse: bee with curved wings. Reverse: forepart of stag right, head left; palm tree to left (off flan), APIΣTAINETO[Σ] to right. Toned, VF. Struck on a tight flan.

Ex Hecatomnus Hoard (CH V, 17; CH VIII, 96; and CH IX, 387). Ex CNG Electronic Auction 338, lot 85.

The bee, palm tree and the stag are emblems of Ephesos. This city was an important center of worship of the Greek goddess Artemis, and the images on Ephesian coinage represent her. Ephesos also used the bee on its coins since it was a producer of honey, so the bee advertised their most famous product. The bee was also mythologically connected to Ephesos because, according to Philostratos, the colonizing Athenians were led to Ephesos in Ionia by the Muses who took the form of bees. Ephesos occupied the alluvial plain of the lower Cayster, but it owed its chief wealth and renown less to the produce of its soil than to the illustrious sanctuary of the old Anatolian nature-goddess, whom the Ionian Greeks identified with Artemis, the Goddess of Hunt. It is noteworthy that the high-priest of the temple of Artemis was called Ηεσσην, ‘the king bee,’ while the virgin priestesses bore the name of “melissai” or Honey-Bees. The stag was regarded as sacred to her and stag figures were said to have flanked the cult statue of Artemis in her temple at Ephesos. The palm tree alludes to Artemis’ birthplace, the island of Delos, where the goddess Leto gave birth to Artemis and her twin brother Apollo underneath a palm tree. Therefore, the coin might represent the city’s origin as well.

The earlier type tetradrachmai of Ephesos could be identified by the curved pair of wings of the bee on the obverse side of these coins. It is roughly estimated that a total of about less than a hundred of these tetradrachmai exist as compared to the straight wing bee variant of later emissions, which are believed to be seven to eight times more common than the former. These estimates are based on the findings and studies made after the (unofficial/looted) “discovery” of the Hecatomnus and Pixodarus hoards in 1977 and 1978, respectively. Prior to their discovery, there were only about 35 of these curved wing tetradrachmai recorded in existence.
4 commentsJason T
smyrna.jpg
Ionia, Smyrna AR Stephanophoric Tetradrachm99 viewsCirca 155-145 BC. AR Tetradrachm (32mm, 16.33gm, 12h). Stephanophoric type. Zopy(ros?) magistrate. Milne, Silver 4, obv. die G; SNG Copenhagen-; Weber 6617. Obverse: turreted head of Cybele or Tyche right. Reverse: ethnic and monogram within wreath. EF with purple toning. Peripheral roughness.

Ex Classical Numismatic Group Electronic Auction 326, lot 133.

With the collapse of Seleukid authority in Asia Minor in 189 BC, many communities of northwestern Asia Minor celebrated their liberation from regal authority by issuing series of large and impressive tetradrachmai. All of these coins were struck on the reduced Attic standard, and were struck on broad, thin flans that were influenced by the Athenian New Style coinage. These series also copied a feature on their reverses, a large laurel wreath that formed the border encompassing the entire reverse type. We know from the Delos inventory lists that these coins were referred to as stephanophoroi, attesting to the ubiquity of these series. The types appearing on the coins clearly indicated their civic nature, depicting the city's patron deity on the obverse and various aspects of the city's culture on the reverse. The stephanophoric coinage is regarded among the more artistic of the Hellenistic period. This is no surprise as nearly all of the issuing cities were located in western Asia Minor, an area whose numismatic artistry is well attested in the preceding Classical period. While the stephanophoroi represent a benchmark in coin design, the reason for their introduction is not certain, and there is little consensus among numismatists. On one extreme, C. Boehringer argued that their appearance and consistency represented an “Aegean Münzunion” (Boehringer, Chron., pp. 38-9), while at the other O. Mørkholm argued that the wreaths were not indicative of any political or economic significance, but merely the result of a design that gained popularity throughout the northern Aegean ("Chronology and Meaning of the Wreath Coinages of the early 2nd. Cent. B.C.," QT 9 [1980], pp. 145-54).
4 commentsJason T
LEGIIII~0.jpg
Mark Antony Legionary Denarius LEG IIII178 viewsANT AVG III VIR R P C
galley r. mast with banners at prow

LEG IIII
legionary eagle between two standards

3.04g

Patrae mint 32-31BC

Sear Imperator's 353; Crawford 544/16; Cohen 29

Ex-Calgary Coin

VERY RARE

This type with LEG IIII rather than LEG IV is quite rare. No examples were found in the Delos Hoard of 1905. Missing from RBW collection.
Only 3 examples ever offered by CNG.
1 commentsJay GT4
LEGIIII.jpg
Mark Antony Legionary denarius LEG IIII124 viewsANT AVG III VIR R P C
galley r. mast with banners at prow

LEG IIII
legionary eagle between two standards

3.22g

Patrae mint 32-31BC

Sear Imperator's 353; Crawford 544/16; Cohen 29

Ex-Gutierrez Ruesga Spain

RARE

This type with LEG IIII rather than LEG IV is quite rare. No examples were found in the Delos Hoard of 1905





In its first years, the whereabouts of IV Scythica are uncertain, although it is probable that it took part in Antony's campaign against the Parthians. The name suggests that it fought against the Scythians. After the battle of Actium and Antony's suicide, Octavian transferred IV Scythica to the Danube province of Moesia. The legion is reported to have taken part in civilian tasks, such as the building and keeping of roads. In his youth, future emperor Vespasian served in this legion.

SOLD! Forum Auction January 2017
1 commentsJay GT4
coins70.JPG
Pergamon, Mysia33 viewsPergamon or Pergamum (Greek: Πέργαμος, modern day Bergama in Turkey, 39°7′N 27°11′E) was an ancient Greek city, in Mysia, northwestern Anatolia, 16 miles from the Aegean Sea, located on a promontory on the north side of the river Caicus (modern day Bakırçay), that became an important kingdom during the Hellenistic period, under the Attalid dynasty, 282-129 BC. G34

The Attalids, the descendants of Attalus, the father of Philetaerus who came to power in 282 BC, were among the most loyal supporters of Rome among the Hellenistic successor states. Under Attalus I, they allied with Rome against Philip V of Macedon, during the first and second Macedonian Wars, and again under Eumenes II, against Perseus of Macedon, during the Third Macedonian War. For support against the Seleucids, the Attalids were rewarded with all the former Seleucid domains in Asia Minor.

The Attalids ruled with intelligence and generosity. Many documents survive showing how the Attalids would support the growth of towns through sending in skilled artisans and by remitting taxes. They allowed the Greek cities in their domains to maintain nominal independence. They sent gifts to Greek cultural sites like Delphi, Delos, and Athens. They defeated the invading Celts. They remodeled the acropolis of Pergamum after the Acropolis in Athens. The Great Altar of Pergamon is in the Pergamon Museum of Berlin.

Pergamon had the second best library in the ancient Greek civilisation, after Alexandria. When the Ptolemies stopped exporting papyrus, partly because of competitors and partly because of shortages, the Pergamenes invented a new substance to use in codices, called pergaminus or parchment after the city. This was made of fine calf skin, a predecessor of vellum.

When Attalus III died without an heir in 133 BC he bequeathed Pergamon to Rome, in order to prevent a civil war.

Close to the city was a sanctuary of Asclepius, the god of healing. In this place people with health problems could bath in the water of the sacred spring, and in the patients' dreams Asklepios would appear in a vision to tell them how to cure their illness. Archeology has found lots of gifts and dedications that people would make afterwards, such as small terracotta body parts, no doubt representing what had been healed.

In the first century AD, the Christian Church at Pergamon was one of the Seven Churches to which the Book of Revelation was addressed (Revelation 1:11, NRSV).

Pergamon, Mysia, struck by Philetairos, 282-263 BC.
Obv: head of athena wearing attic helmet right.
Rev: FILETAIROU, Asklepios seated left, feeding snake from patera.
SNG BN 1643 ff.

ecoli
020O~0.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE PROVINCIAL, Commodus AE36 Medallion107 viewsHierocaesarea mint
Magistrate (archon) Artemidoros
BMC Lydia -, SNG Cop -, SNGvA -, Imhoof-Blumer -
24.976 g, maximum diameter 36.4mm, die axis 180o,
Obverse AVT KAI Λ AVPH KOMMO∆O, laureate and cuirassed bust right;
Reverse ΕΠΙ[...]ΟΥ[...] ΑΡΤΕΜΙ∆ΟΡΟΥ ΑΡΧ[...] ΙΕΡΟΚΑΙCΑΡΕΩΝ, Artemis standing half-right wearing chiton; Leto standing half-left holding patera; Apollo standing half-left, naked, resting left hand on lyre; nice armored bust.

An interesting reverse depicting a mythological scene: Leto and her children Artemis and Apollo. The two were fathered by Zeus, arousing Hera's jealousy. Leto was banned from giving birth on earth or sea, but found the island of Delos, which supposedly was not connected to either.

(all notes from FORVM website)

Extremely rare with no other specimens found on Wildwinds.com, acsearch.info or coinarchives.com, or in Loebbecke, Scholz or all the Imhoof additions.

[One same size, same obv. die as {this coin}, same magistrate (archon) Artemidoros, but different rev. type (river god reclining), in RPC temp. (online) 8174 = Peus 365, 2000, Burstein 696, there stated to be unpublished and apparently unique.

(Many thanks to Mr. Curtis Clay and Ms. Dane Kurth "Helvetica" for further information)
3 commentsMark Z
AntonyLeg2.jpg
ROMAN IMPERATORIAL, Antony Legion II Denarius19 viewsRome. The Imperators.
Marcus Antonius, 44-31 BCE.
AR Denarius (3.64g; 17mm).
Military Mint traveling with Antony, 32-1 BCE.

Obverse: ANT AVG III VIR R P C; galley facing right.

Reverse: LEG II; Aquilia between two standards.

References: Crawford 544/14; Sydenham 1216; HCRI 349; BMCRR East 190-92; Antonia 105.

Provenance: Ex Pat Coyle Coll. [Goldberg Auction 69 (29 May 2012) Lot 3471]; NAC 40 (16 May 2007), Lot 624.

Produced by Antony in the lead-up to his final defeat at Actium by Octavian’s navy (commanded by Agrippa), the legionary series was a huge issue that recognized 23 legions under Antony’s command. These coins would continue to circulate throughout the Empire for several centuries after Antony’s loss, partly because their notoriously debased silver discouraged hoarding. Forty examples of the LEG II variety appeared in the 1905 Delos hoard of 604 Antony Legionary denarii, making it one of the most common varieties of the series.

The Legio II was likely a legion that was disbanded after Actium.
2 commentsCarausius
AntonyLegV.jpg
ROMAN IMPERATORIAL, Antony Legion V Denarius27 viewsRome. The Imperators.
Marcus Antonius, 44-31 BCE.
AR Denarius (3.79g; 19mm).
Military Mint traveling with Antony, 32-1 BCE.

Obverse: ANT AVG III VIR R P C; galley facing right.

Reverse: LEG V; Aquilia between two standards.

References: Crawford 544/18; HCRI 354; Sydenham 1221; BMCRR (East) 196; Banti 75 (this coin); Antonia 110.

Provenance: Ex Kress 109 (24-25 Oct 1958), Lot 749.

Produced by Antony in the lead-up to his final defeat at Actium by Octavian’s navy (commanded by Agrippa), the legionary series was a huge issue that recognized 23 legions under Antony’s command. These coins would continue to circulate throughout the Empire for several centuries after Antony’s loss, partly because their notoriously debased silver discouraged hoarding. Thirty-seven examples of the LEG V variety appeared in the 1905 Delos hoard of 604 Antony Legionary denarii, making it one of the most common varieties of the series. However, an example with a verifiable old provenance, such as this coin, is quite rare.
2 commentsCarausius
AntonyXVIIClassicaeCombined.jpg
ROMAN IMPERATORIAL, Antony Legion XVII Classicae Denarius18 viewsRome. The Imperators.
Marcus Antonius, 44-31 BCE.
AR Denarius (3.41g; 20mm).
Military Mint traveling with Antony, 32-1 BCE.

Obverse: ANT AVG LLL VIR R P C; galley facing right.

Reverse: LEG XVII CLASSICAE; Aquilia between two standards.

References: Crawford 544/10; Sydenham 1238; HCRI 373; BMCRR East 223; Antonia 128

Provenance: Ex Nomisma 58 (6 Nov 2018) Lot 214.

Produced by Antony in the lead-up to his final defeat at Actium by Octavian’s navy (commanded by Agrippa), the legionary series was a huge issue that recognized 23 legions under Antony’s command. These coins would continue to circulate throughout the Empire for several centuries after Antony’s loss, partly because their notoriously debased silver discouraged hoarding. Only 8 examples of the LEG XVII Classicae type appeared in the 1905 Delos hoard of 604 Antony Legionary denarii.

The Legio XVII Classicae was likely a legion of marines formed by Antony and disbanded after Actium. They were not the Legio XVII destroyed at Tuetoburg Forest under Varus in 9 CE.
2 commentsCarausius
42BC_Clodius.jpg
ROMAN REPUBLIC, P.Clodius M.f. Turrinus. AR denarius. Rome, 42 BC.36 viewsObv. Laureate head of Apollo right, lyre behind. Bankers mark behind head.
Rev. Diana Lucifera with bow and quiver over shoulder holding lighted torch in each hand. P CLODIVS MF
Ref. Albert 1583, Crawford 494/23, Sear 492.
Coin: Diana Lucifera is the bearer of light, also called Hekate, carries the torch symbolizing spiritual resurrection and illumination. The Greeks knew her as Artemis, the twin sister of Apollo, and daughter of Zeus and Leto. She was born under Mount Cynthus in Delos and hence was also called Cynthia and Delia. She was the goddess of hunting, carried a bow and quiver like her brother, and was especially fond of music and dance. Diana was never conquered by love, and submitted to no man, hence she was the goddess of a "chaste" moon and, except for her family, tolerated only female companions. Her priestesses were all chaste and this festival was celebrated with daily music and dance until the kalends of June.
19mm.
Bohemond
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Spain, Santiponce, Italica.42 viewsSection of the floor of the house of Birds. May, 2002.jmuona
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Spain, Santiponce, Italica.41 viewsFloor map of the house of Birds. May, 2002.jmuona
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Spain, Santiponce, Italica.47 viewsDetail of the floor of house of Birds. Cannot figure out the species... May, 2002.jmuona
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Spain, Santiponce, Italica.44 viewsDetail of the floor of the house of Birds. Athene noctua - the typical Minerva owl. May, 2002.jmuona
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Valerian I14 viewsDiana

In Roman mythology, Diana was the virgin goddess of the hunt, the equivalent of the Greek goddess Artemis. Born with her twin brother Apollo on the island of Delos, Diana was the daughter of Jupiter and Latona.

Diana was the perpetually virginal huntress goddess, associated with wild animals and woodlands. She also later became a moon goddess, supplanting Luna, and was an emblem of chastity. Oak groves were especially sacred to her. She was praised for her strength, athletic grace, beauty and hunting skill. She made up a trinity with two other Roman deities: Egeria the water nymph, her servant and assistant midwife; and Virbius, the woodland god.

Diana was worshipped in a temple on the Aventine Hill and at the city of Ephesus, where the Temple of Artemis stood. Being placed on the Aventine, and thus outside the pomerium, meant that Diana's cult essentially remained a 'foreign' one, like that of Bacchus; she was never officially 'transferred' to Rome as Juno was after the sack of Veii. It seems that her cult originated in Aricia, where her priest, the Rex Nemorensis remained. Diana was regarded with great reverence by lower-class citizens and slaves; slaves could receive asylum in her temples. She was worshipped at a festival on August 13, when King Servius Tullius, himself born a slave, dedicated her shrine on the Aventine.

Diana is usually depicted with a deer. This is because Diana was the patroness of hunting. It is also a reference to the myth of Acteon (or Actaeon), a prince who saw her bathing naked. Diana transformed Acteon into a deer and sent his own hunting dogs to kill him.

IMP C P LIC GALLIENVS AVG Radiate draped cuirassed bust right
FELICITAS SAECVLI Diana, with crescent on head, walking right, drapery flying, carrying long traverse torch.

RIC 291 (Thanks!)
ecoli
PergaAthenaOwl.jpg
[2400a] Pergamon, Mysia: AE14, ca. 300 BC70 viewsMYSIA, PERGAMON, Æ14, ca. 300 BC. BMC 15, SGC 3965. 2.0 gm. VF/aVF; Pergamon mint. Obverse: Head of Athena right, in close fitting crested helmet; Reverse; ATHENAS - NIKHFOPOY either side of owl standing, facing, wings closed; all within olive-wreath. Obverse device a clean strike of a lovely Athena. Ex Inclinatiorama.

The city of ancient Pergamon (or Pergamum, today's Bergama) was created by the newly-founded royal dynasty in the mid-third century BCE. It became one of the classic late-Hellenistic cities, on a dramatically steep site, with imaginatiave solutions to the urban design problems created by the site, wonderfully embellished by the generous attention of its royal (and other) patrons. The site divides into two main sections, the steep upper town and the flat lower town. Though today's Bergama is entirely in the lower areas, a number of important remains have survived even there: the Asklepieion, one of the major healing centres of antiqity, the Red Hall (Serapeum), the stadium, a Roman Bridge and tunnel. But it is the upper town that captures the imagination, with its extensive remains, innovations, and drama.
http://www.chass.utoronto.ca/~prchrdsn/pergamon.htm

The Attalids, the descendants of Attalus, the father of Philetaerus who came to power in 282 BC, were among the most loyal supporters of Rome among the Hellenistic successor states. Under Attalus I, they allied with Rome against Philip V of Macedon, during the first and second Macedonian Wars, and again under Eumenes II, against Perseus of Macedon, during the Third Macedonian War. For support against the Seleucids, the Attalids were rewarded with all the former Seleucid domains in Asia Minor.

The Attalids ruled with intelligence and generosity. Many documents survive showing how the Attalids would support the growth of towns through sending in skilled artisans and by remitting taxes. They allowed the Greek cities in their domains to maintain nominal independence. They sent gifts to Greek cultural sites like Delphi, Delos, and Athens. They defeated the invading Celts. They remodeled the Acropolis of Pergamum after the Acropolis in Athens. When Attalus III died without an heir in 133 BC he bequeathed Pergamon to Rome, in order to prevent a civil war.

The Great Altar of Pergamon is in the Pergamon Museum, Berlin. The base of this altar remains on the upper part of the Acropolis. Other notable structures still in existence on the upper part of the Acropolis include: a Hellenistic theater with a seating capacity of 10,000; the Sanctuary of Trajan (also known as the Trajaneum); the Sancturay of Athena; the Library; royal palaces; the Heroön; the Temple of Dionysus; the Upper Agora; and the Roman baths complex. Pergamon's library on the Acropolis is the second best in the ancient Greek civilisation (the ancient Library of Pergamum), after that of Alexandria. When the Ptolemies stopped exporting papyrus, partly because of competitors and partly because of shortages, the Pergamenes invented a new substance to use in codices, called pergaminus or parchment after the city. This was made of fine calf skin, a predecessor of vellum. The lower part of the Acropolis has the following structures: the Upper Gymnasium, the Middle Gymnasium, the Lower Gymnasium, the Temple of Demeter, the Sanctuary of Hera, the House of Attalus, the Lower Agora and the Gate of Eumenes.

Three km south of the Acropolis was the Sanctuary of Asclepius (also known as the Asclepeion), the god of healing. In this place people with health problems could bath in the water of the sacred spring, and in the patients' dreams Asklepios would appear in a vision to tell them how to cure their illness. Archeology has found lots of gifts and dedications that people would make afterwards, such as small terracotta body parts, no doubt representing what had been healed. Notable extant structures in the Asclepeion include the Roman theater, the North Stoa, the South Stoa, the Temple of Asclepius, a circular treatment center (sometimes known as the Temple of Telesphorus), a healing spring, an underground passageway, a library, the Via Tecta (or the Sacred Way, which is a colonnaded street leading to the sanctuary) and a propylon.

Pergamon's other notable structure is the Serapis Temple (Serapeum) which was later transformed into the Red Basilica complex (or Kızıl Avlu in Turkish), about 1 km south of the Acropolis. It consists of a main building and two round towers. In the first century AD, the Christian Church at Pergamon inside the main building of the Red Basilica was one of the Seven Churches to which the Book of Revelation was addressed (Revelation 1:12, ESV).
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pergamon

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
PergamomAE17_SCGVII_3962var.jpg
[2420] Pergamon, Mysia,c. 200 - 133 B.C.62 viewsBronze AE 17, SGCV II 3962 var; BMC Mysia p. 133, 202, VF, weight 3.600 g, maximum diameter 16.5 mm, die axis 0o, Pergamon mint, c. 200 - 133 B.C.; Obverse: head Athena right wearing crested helmet with star, hair in curls down neck; Reverse: AQH-NAS / NIKHFOROU, owl standing facing on palm frond, wings spread, AP and MH monograms at sides. Ex FORVM.

The city of ancient Pergamon (or Pergamum, today's Bergama) was created by the newly-founded royal dynasty in the mid-third century BCE. It became one of the classic late-Hellenistic cities, on a dramatically steep site, with imaginatiave solutions to the urban design problems created by the site, wonderfully embellished by the generous attention of its royal (and other) patrons. The site divides into two main sections, the steep upper town and the flat lower town. Though today's Bergama is entirely in the lower areas, a number of important remains have survived even there: the Asklepieion, one of the major healing centres of antiqity, the Red Hall (Serapeum), the stadium, a Roman Bridge and tunnel. But it is the upper town that captures the imagination, with its extensive remains, innovations, and drama.
http://www.chass.utoronto.ca/~prchrdsn/pergamon.htm

The Attalids, the descendants of Attalus, the father of Philetaerus who came to power in 282 BC, were among the most loyal supporters of Rome among the Hellenistic successor states. Under Attalus I, they allied with Rome against Philip V of Macedon, during the first and second Macedonian Wars, and again under Eumenes II, against Perseus of Macedon, during the Third Macedonian War. For support against the Seleucids, the Attalids were rewarded with all the former Seleucid domains in Asia Minor.

The Attalids ruled with intelligence and generosity. Many documents survive showing how the Attalids would support the growth of towns through sending in skilled artisans and by remitting taxes. They allowed the Greek cities in their domains to maintain nominal independence. They sent gifts to Greek cultural sites like Delphi, Delos, and Athens. They defeated the invading Celts. They remodeled the Acropolis of Pergamum after the Acropolis in Athens. When Attalus III died without an heir in 133 BC he bequeathed Pergamon to Rome, in order to prevent a civil war.

The Temple of Athena:

Built in the 3rd century B.C.E., this is the oldest cult center of the city. The Doric order building was constructed on a peripteral plan with six columns on the facade and ten on the long sides. The krepis (the basement of the Temple) is formed by two steps and measures 41.7 x 71.4 ft. (12.72 x 21.77 m). The naos or cella (the inner sanctum) is divided in two and was dedicated to Goddess Athena but also to God Zeus.
Present state: Only some of the stepped foundations and the tunnel to the theater have survived.
http://www.goddess-athena.org/Museum/Temples/Pergamon.htm

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

James Fitzgerald
   
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