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Search results - "Curia"
constans199.jpg
Constans, Siscia RIC VIII 19930 viewsConstans, AE 3, Sisica
Obverse: DN CONSTANS PF AVG, pearl diademed and curiassed bust right.
Reverse: FEL TEMP REPARATIO, Emperor standing facing, head left, holding Phoenix on globe and labarum on galley, Victory sits at the helm.
Gamma SIST(symbol 3) in ex. Siscia mint, 18.9 mm, 2.0 g.
NORMAN K
c93a.jpg
Constantius II RIC VIII 93a Cyzicus26 viewsConstantius II, AE 3 of Cyzicus, 324-361 CE
Obverse: DN CONSTAN-TIVS PF AVG, pearl diademed, draped, curiassed bust right.
Reverse: FEL TEMP-REPARATIO, soldier spearing fallen horseman who is wearing a Phrygian helmet, reaching backwards. Γ Symbol in left field
Mintmark SMK delta, 22.8 mm., 5.2 g.
NORMAN K
constantiusII369.jpg
Constantius II, Siscia RIC VIII 36919 viewsConstantius II, AE 3 of Siscia
Obverse: DN CONSTAN-TIVS PF AVG, pearl diademed, draped, curiassed bust right.
Reverse: FEL TEMP-REPARATIO, soldier spearing fallen horseman who is wearing a Phrygian helmet, reaching backwards, M in left field.
Mintmark SIS, Siscia, 16 mm,1.9 g.
NORMAN K
c93.jpg
Constantius II, Siscia RIC VIII 369g, 324-361 CE16 viewsConstantius II, AE 3 of Siscia
Obverse: DN CONSTAN-TIVS PF AVG, pearl diademed, draped, curiassed bust right.
Reverse: FEL TEMP-REPARATIO, soldier spearing fallen horseman who is wearing a Phrygian helmet, reaching backwards.
Mintmark gamma SIS reversed Z, Siscia, 19.08 mm, 2.1 g.
NORMAN K
septimius_sev.jpg
(0193) SEPTIMIUS SEVERUS54 views193 - 211 AD
Struck 196-198 AD, under governor Statilius Barbarus
AE 27 mm, 12.31 g
O: AV KAI CE CEVHPOC ΠE Laureate, draped, curiassed bust right
R: HΓE CTA BAPBAPOV ΦIΛIΠΠOΠOΛITΩN Emperor riding a galloping horse right with transverse spear and flowing mantle
Thrace,Philippopolis; cf Varbanov 1193 (same dies; said to be unpublished, in collection of O. Gavrailov)
laney
septimius_horseback.jpg
(0193) SEPTIMIUS SEVERUS21 views193 - 211 AD
Struck 196-198 AD, under governor Statilius Barbarus
AE 27 mm, 12.31 g
O: AV KAI CE CEVHPOC ΠE Laureate, draped, curiassed bust right
R: HΓE CTA BAPBAPOV ΦIΛIΠΠOΠOΛITΩN Emperor riding a galloping horse right with transverse spear and flowing mantle
Thrace,Philippopolis; cf Varbanov 1193 (same dies; said to be unpublished, in collection of O. Gavrailov)
laney
probus_pax_res.jpg
(0276) PROBUS19 views276 - 282 AD
AE 21X23 mm, 3.13 g
O: IMP C PROBVS PF AVG radiate curiassed bust right
R: PAX AVG Pax standing left holding olive branch and scepter, S to right; XXI in exe
Siscia mint
laney
carus_virt_res.jpg
(0282) CARUS13 views282 - 283 AD
AE 23 mm
O: IMP C M AVR CARVS P F AVG radiate curiasssed bust right
R: VIRTVS AVGG Virtue leaning on shield and holding spear;
Rome mint
laney
hanniba_blk.jpg
(0335) HANNIBALIANUS (Rex Regnum)23 views335 - 337 AD
AE 15.5 mm max.; 0.80 g
O: FL HANNIBALLIANVS REGI draped and curiassed bust right
R: SEC-VRITAS PVBLICA river god Euphrates sitting right, leaning with right arm on scepter, pouring water from a vase with left hand; reed in back ground; CONSS in exe
Constinopolis Mint, RIC 248, rare
laney
honorius_res.jpg
(0393) HONORIUS25 views393 - 423 AD
AE 17 mm, 2.00 g
O: DN HONORIVS P F AVG, pearl diademed, draped & curiassed bust right
R: VIRTVS EXERCITI, emperor standing front, holding spear & resting hand on shield, with head turned right while Victory crowns him with wreath
Cyzicus mint; RIC 68
laney
02_Octavian_RIC_I_266.jpg
02 Octavian RIC I 26633 viewsOctavian. AR Denarius. Italian Mint, possibly Rome. Autumn 30- summer 29 B.C. (3.45g, 19.8mm, 2h). Obv: Bare head right. Rev: IMP CAESAR on architrave of the Roman Senate House (Curia Julia), with porch supported by four short columns, statue of Victory on globe surmounting apex of roof, and statues of standing figures at the extremities of the architrave. CRI 421; RIC I 266; RSC 122.. Ex Andrew McCabe.1 commentsLucas H
10-Maximianus-Lon-RIC-6b.jpg
10. Maximianus.20 viewsFollis, ca 298-300 AD, London mint (group II).
Obverse: IMP C MAXIMIANVS P F AVG / Laureate and curiassed bust of Maximian.
Reverse: GENIO POPVLI ROMANI / Genius standing, holding patera and cornucopiae.
Mint mark: (none)
9.63 gm., 27 mm.
RIC #6b; Sear unlisted.
Callimachus
11-Galerius-Lon-RIC-15.jpg
11. Galerius.21 viewsFollis, ca 298-300 AD, London mint (group II).
Obverse: MAXIMIANVS NOB CAES / Laureate and curiassed bust of Galerius.
Reverse: GENIO POPVLI ROMANI / Genius standing, holding patera and cornucopiae.
Mint mark: (none)
10.65gm., 26mm.
RIC #15; Sear #14344.
Callimachus
113_Carus_(282-283_A_D_),_Bi-Tetradrachm,_G-3160,_D-5567-68,_Alexdr_,Eagle_left,L-A_Q-001_11h_19mm_8,55g-s.jpg
113p Carus (282-283 A.D.), Bi-Tetradrachm, G-3187, D-5604-05, Alexandria, Eagle left, beetween two standard, L A above,77 views113p Carus (282-283 A.D.), Bi-Tetradrachm, G-3187, D-5604-05, Alexandria, Eagle left, beetween two standard, L A above,
avers:-, A-K-M-A-KAROC-CEB, Laureated, draped and curiassed bust right.
revers:- Eagle left, beetween two standard, head right, his beak wreath, L A above (year 1).
exerg: -/-//--, diameter: 19mm, weight:8,55 g, axes:11 h,
mint: Alexandria, date: L A year-1, 282-283 A.D., ref: Geissen-3160, Dattari-5567-68, Emmett 3997, Kapmann-Ganschow-113.2-p-340,
Q-001
quadrans
12-Constantius-I-Lon-RIC-14a.jpg
12. Constantius I.35 viewsFollis, ca 298-300 AD, London mint (group II).
Obverse: FL VAL CONSTANTINVS NOB C / Laureate and curiassed bust of Constantius I.
Reverse: GENIO POPVLI ROMANI / Genius standing, holding patera and cornucopiae.
Mint mark: (none)
9.71gm., 27 mm.
RIC # 14a; Sear #14034 (this coin !).

Although RIC lists these last four coins (Diocletian, Maximian, Galerius, and Constantius I) with other coins minted in London, a careful reading of the introduction to the mint of London (vol. VI, p. 113-122) shows the editors of RIC had serious reservations about this attribution.

The unmarked folles -- ie without a mint mark in the exergue -- can be divided into three groups. After many years of careful study, group I has been attributed to Lugdunum (Lyon, France), and groups II and III to Britain.

Of group II, RIC says (p. 115), " It is possible that the unmarked II coins were produced in Britain either from a travelling mint, or even from the "C" (Camulodunum?) mint of Carausius and Allectus, with which there are perhaps some stylistic affinities: the period of issue would fall from c. 298 onwards, perhaps until c. 300 or later."

Of group III, RIC says (p. 115), " The unmarked III coins are in everyway more sophisticated in style, and it may well be that they were produced at London, though lack of signature would be difficult to account for: probably it is best to class them as a British series which, for reasons unknown to us, was struck elsewhere. Their date is between 300 and 305."
Callimachus
Lugdunum_RIC_VII_074,_142_Crispus_AE-3-Follis_DN-CRISPO-NOB-CAES-5b-B4_VICTORIAE-LAET-PRINC-PERP_VOT-PR_2capts_p127_R3_319-20-AD_Q-001_18mm_2_59ga-s.jpg
142 Crispus (317-326 A.D.), Lugdunum, RIC VII 074, AE-3 Follis, -/-//two captives back, VICTORIAE LAET PRINC PERP, Two victories facing one another, R4!!!,105 views142 Crispus (317-326 A.D.), Lugdunum, RIC VII 074, AE-3 Follis, -/-//two captives back, VICTORIAE LAET PRINC PERP, Two victories facing one another, R4!!!,
avers:- DN-CRISPO-NOB-CAES, 5b,B4, Laurate, draped and curiassed bust right.
revers:- VICTORIAE-LAET-PRINC-PERP, Two victories facing one another, holding shield inscribed VOT/PR over altar two captives back in exergo.
exergo: -/-//two captives back, diameter: 18mm, weight: 2,59g, axis:11h,
mint: Lugdunum, (Lyon), date: 319-320 A.D., ref: RIC-VII-74, p127, R4, altar mint: d,
Q-001
quadrans
Lugdunum_RIC_VII_075,_142_Crispus_AE-3-Follis_DN-CRISPO-NOB-CAES-5b-B5_VICTORIAE-LAET-PRINC-PERP_VOT-PR_2captives_p127_R4_319-320-AD_Q-001_0h_18mm_2_91ga-s.jpg
142 Crispus (317-326 A.D.), Lugdunum, RIC VII 075, AE-3 Follis, -/-//two captives back, VICTORIAE LAET PRINC PERP, Two victories facing one another, R4!!!,107 views142 Crispus (317-326 A.D.), Lugdunum, RIC VII 075, AE-3 Follis, -/-//two captives back, VICTORIAE LAET PRINC PERP, Two victories facing one another, R4!!!,
avers:- DN-CRISPO-NOB-CAES, 5b,B5, Laurate, curiassed bust right.
revers:- VICTORIAE-LAET-PRINC-PERP, Two victories facing one another, holding shield inscribed VOT/PR over altar two captives back in exergo.
exergo: -/-//two captives back, diameter: 18mm, weight: 2,91g, axis: 0h,
mint: Lugdunum, (Lyon), date: 319-320 AD., ref: RIC-VII-075, p-127, R4, altar mint: c,
Q-001
quadrans
Lugdunum_RIC_VII_086,_142_Crispus_AE-3-Follis_CRISPVS-NOB-CAES-_VICTORIAE-LAET-PRINC-PERP_VOT-PR_P-2captives-L_-p-128_R5_320-AD_Q-001_7h_17-19mm_2,74g-s.jpg
142 Crispus (317-326 A.D.), Lugdunum, RIC VII 086, AE-3 Follis, -/-//P-two captives back-L, VICTORIAE LAET PRINC PERP, Two victories facing one another, R5 !!!,115 views142 Crispus (317-326 A.D.), Lugdunum, RIC VII 086, AE-3 Follis, -/-//P-two captives back-L, VICTORIAE LAET PRINC PERP, Two victories facing one another, R5 !!!,
avers:- CRISPVS-NOB-CAES, 5b,B4, Laurate, draped and curiassed bust right.
revers:- VICTORIAE-LAET-PRINC-PERP, Two victories facing one another, holding shield inscribed VOT/PR over altar two captives back in exergo and P-L.
exergo: -/-//P-two captives back-L, diameter: 17-19mm, weight: 2,74g, axis:7h,
mint: Lugdunum, (Lyon), date: 320 A.D., ref: RIC-VII-86, p-128, R5 !!!, altar mint: e,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Ticinum_RIC_VII_093,_142_Crispus_AE-3-Follis_FL-IVL-CRISPVS-NOB-C-5-C3_VICTORIAE-LAETAE-PRINC-PERP_VOT-PR_C_PT_p-373_R3_319-AD_Q-001_h_mm_gx-s.jpg
142 Crispus (317-326 A.D.), Ticinum, RIC VII 093, AE-3 Follis, C//PT, VICTORIAE LAET PRINC PERP, Two victories facing one another, R3!!!, #187 views142 Crispus (317-326 A.D.), Ticinum, RIC VII 093, AE-3 Follis, C//PT, VICTORIAE LAET PRINC PERP, Two victories facing one another, R3!!!, #1
avers:- FL-IVL-CRISPVS-NOB-C,, 5,C3, Radiate, draped and curiassed bust right.
revers:- VICTORIAE-LAET-PRINC-PERP, Two victories facing one another, holding shield inscribed VOT/PR over altar, C on altar.
exergo: C//PT, diameter: mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Ticinum, date: 319 A.D., ref: RIC-VII-093, p-373, altar mint: C, R3!!!
Q-001
quadrans
Ticinum_RIC_VII_093,_142_Crispus_AE-3-Follis_FL-IVL-CRISPVS-NOB-C-5-C3_VICTORIAE-LAETAE-PRINC-PERP_VOT-PR_C_PT_p-373_R3_319-AD_Q-002_h_mm_gx-s.jpg
142 Crispus (317-326 A.D.), Ticinum, RIC VII 093, AE-3 Follis, C//PT, VICTORIAE LAET PRINC PERP, Two victories facing one another, R3!!!, #285 views142 Crispus (317-326 A.D.), Ticinum, RIC VII 093, AE-3 Follis, C//PT, VICTORIAE LAET PRINC PERP, Two victories facing one another, R3!!!, #2
avers:- FL-IVL-CRISPVS-NOB-C,, 5,C3, Radiate, draped and curiassed bust right.
revers:- VICTORIAE-LAET-PRINC-PERP, Two victories facing one another, holding shield inscribed VOT/PR over altar, C on altar.
exergo: C//PT, diameter: mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Ticinum, date: 319 A.D., ref: RIC-VII-093, p-373, altar mint: C, R3!!!
Q-002
quadrans
0030-0210.jpg
1749 - Octavian, Denarius272 viewsItalian mint, possibly Rome, 31-30 BC
Anepigraph, bare head of Octavian left
CAESAR - DIVI F, Victory standing right on globe, holding wreath
3.84 gr
Ref : HCRI # 408, RCV # 1552v, Cohen # 66, RIC # 255
The following comment is taken from CNG, sale 84 # 957 :
"Following his victory at Actium, Octavian ordered a golden statue of Victory, standing on a globe and holding a wreath and palm, to be set up on an altar in the Curia in Rome. This statue had been captured by the Romans from Pyrrhus in 272 BC, and it assumed a somewhat tutelary mystique, protecting the Roman state from dissolution. In AD 382, the emperor Gratian ordered its removal. Two years later, the senator and orator Symmachus urged Valentinian II to replace it, a request that was met with stiff opposition from the bishop of Milan, Ambrose. Though it was briefly returned to its place by the usurper Eugenius, it was again removed following his defeat. Petitions to Theodosius I for its subsequent replacement were refused, on grounds that the once-important symbol of the gods’ blessing on the Roman Empire was now nothing more than a piece of paganism"
11 commentsPotator II
11-Maximianus-Lon-6b.jpg
23 Maximian: London follis.12 viewsFollis, ca 298-300 AD, London mint (group II).
Obverse: IMP C MAXIMIANVS P F AVG / Laureate and curiassed bust of Maximian.
Reverse: GENIO POPVLI ROMANI / Genius standing, holding patera and cornucopiae.
Mint mark: (none)
9.63 gm., 27 mm.
RIC #6b; Sear unlisted.
Callimachus
diocletian RIC-V-220.jpg
284-305 AD - DIOCLETIAN silvered AE antoninianus24 viewsobv: IMP.C.C.VAL.DIOCLETIANVS.PF.AVG (radiate & curiassed bust right)
rev: IOVI.CONSERVAT / VXXIT (Jupiter standing left, holding thunderbolt and scepter; before him: small figure of Diocletian)
ref: RIC220, C.206
mint: Ticinum, struck 285 AD
4.21gms, 22mm
berserker
19-Galerius-Lon-15.jpg
43 Galerius as Caesar: London follis.12 viewsFollis, ca 298-300 AD, London mint (group II).
Obverse: MAXIMIANVS NOB CAES / Laureate and curiassed bust of Galerius.
Reverse: GENIO POPVLI ROMANI / Genius standing, holding patera and cornucopiae.
Mint mark: (none)
10.65gm., 26mm.
RIC #15; Sear #14344.
Callimachus
Augustus_RIC_86a.jpg
Augustus - [RIC 86a, BMC 41, CBN 1132, Cohen 19]86 viewsSilver denarius, 3.13g, 18.44mm, 90 degree, Colonia Patricia mint, 19 B.C.

Obv. - CAESAR AVGVSTVS, bare head right

Rev. - SIGNIS RECEPTIS, Aquila on left and standard on right flanking S P Q R arranged around shield inscribed CL V

A superb piece with a particularly beautiful portrait and an attractive tone.

This famous and historically important denarius of Augustus commemorates the reconquest of the legionary eagles from the Parthians. These signa where lost, when Crassus was defeated at the battle of Carrhae and their return back to Rome was one of the greatest diplomatic successes Augustus had.

The CL V on the reverse of this issue represents the clipeus virtutis, which was - according to the Res Gestae Divi Augusti, the funerary inscription giving the achievements of Augustus - a golden shield displayed in the Curia Iulia that was given to Augustus by the Senate and the Roman people (Senatus PopulusQue Romanus) in commemoration of his virtue, piety, justice and clemency. Even though it seems to be obvious that Augustus must have been awarded the shield right after he achieved absolute power and declared the restoration of the Republic, Sydenham suggests "that there is no decisive evidence as to the exact date at which the golden shield was conferred, but the coins on which it is represented are of later date than the year BC 27". When, in 19 BC, the Parthians returned the standards they had captured from Crassus in 53, there would have been an excellent opportunity to once again recall Augustus' pietas, one of the virtues recorded on the clipeus.
___________

Purchased from VCoins seller Ancient Artifacts & Treasures, Inc. at the 2013 BRNA Dalton, GA coin show

Sold 25Apr2015 to Lucas Harsh Collection
2 commentsrenegade3220
46.jpg
Augustus, 27 BC-AD 1430 viewsGAUL, Nemausus.

AE As, 25.54mm (10.59 gm).

Addorsed heads of Agrippa left, wearing combined rostral crown and laurel wreath, and Augustus on right, bare headed; IMP above and DIVI F below; D-D countermark / Crocodile chained to palm tip, wreath with long ties above; COL-NEM.

RIC I, 155 (pg. 51); RPC I, 523; RCV I, 1729.

This particular coin carries the D-D countermark, which is within a dotted circle and with the two D's disected by a dotted line, branch or club. This countermark stands for Decreto Decurionum, which means 'by decree of the town Decuria (or Council)'.
socalcoins
constantine1.jpg
Bronze AE2 of Constantine I15 viewsA Roman Bronze AE2 of Constantine I minted in Rome in 314 AD. 22 mm, 3.87 g.

Obverse: IMP CONSTANTINVS PF AVG, Laureate, draped curiassed bust right

Obverse: SOLI INV-I-CTO COMITI, Sol standing left, radiate, chalmys on left arm, raising right hand, globe in left, R*S in ex
chuy1530
ANASTASIUS_GD_PORT.jpg
BYZANTINE EMPIRE - ANASTASIUS I58 viewsBYZANTINE EMPIRE - ANASTASIUS I (AD 491-518). Large AE Follis. Obv.: DN ANASTASIVS PP AVG, Pearl diademed, draped, curiassed bust right. Rev.: Large M; dot over star over dot in left field; cross above; dot over star over dot right field; Epsilon below; CON in exurge. Constantinople mint. Reference: SB 21, MIB 28b.dpaul7
HERACLIUS_kz.jpg
BYZANTINE EMPIRE - Heraclius34 viewsBYZANTINE EMPIRE - Heraclius (610-641 AD) AE Follis. Obv.: DN hRACLI PERP AVG Bust of Emperor with short beard, facing, in plumed, feathered helmet, curiassed; holding cross & chield. Rev.: Large M, ANNO to left, cross above, II to right, "A" below M. KYZ in exurge. Cyzicus mint. Sear 839, MIB 184.

dpaul7
coins340.JPG
Carinus17 viewsFelicitas was the goddess or personification of good luck and success. She played an important role in Rome's state religion during the empire, and was frequently portrayed on coins. She was very closely associated with the imperial family.

Felicitas was unknown before the mid-2nd century BC, when a temple was dedicated to her in the Velabrum in the Campus Martius by Lucius Licinius Lucullus, using booty from his 151–150 BC campaign in Spain. The temple was destroyed by a fire during the reign of Claudius and was never rebuilt.

Another temple in Rome was planned by Julius Caesar and was erected after his death by Marcus Aemilius Lepidus on the site of the Curia Hostilia, which had been restored by Lucius Cornelius Sulla but demolished by Caesar in 44 BC. This temple no longer existed by the time of Hadrian, and its site probably lies under the church of Saints Luca and Martina.

The word felicitas, "luck", is also the source of the word and name felicity.

Carinus Billon Antoninianus. IMP CARINVS P F AVG, radiate, draped & cuirassed bust right / FELICIT PVBLICA, Felicitas standing left with cauduceus, leaning on column, TXXI in ex. RIC 295, Cohen 24.
1 commentsecoli
coins470.JPG
Carinus VOTA PVBLICA8 viewsCarinus AE Antoninianus as Augustus. Radiate, curiassed bust right / VOTA PVBLICA, Carinus and Numerian standing facing each other sacrificing over altar. RIC 315 ecoli
Dioscurias_01.jpg
Colchis, Dioscurias19 viewsColchis, Dioscurias
Late 2nd century BC
Obv.: Caps of the Dioscuri surmounted by two stars
Rev.: ΔIOΣKOYPIΔOΣ around Thyrsos
AE, 1.45g, 13.6mm
Ref.: SNG Stancomb 638, SNG BM 1021, SNG Cop. 102
shanxi
1__Constantine_I.jpg
Constantine I 306-337 AD22 viewsMint: Heraclea, Date:327-329 AD
Obv: CONSTANTI NVSMAXAVG - Rosette diadem, draped & curiassed bust right
Rev: DN CONSTANINI MAX AVG- VOT dot XXX within wreath.
Exergue: dot SMHB
Size: 21mm; 2.8gms
REF: RIC VII 94
2 commentsbrian l
lg_campgateSMHgam.jpg
Constantine II (Caesar) AE Follis36 viewsConstantine II (Caesar)
AE Follis 3.32g / 20.75mm / -
CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C - Laureate draped and curiassed bust right
PROVIDEN-TIAE CAESS - Seven layer, two turret camp gate, star above, no doors
Exergue: SMH gamma dot
Mint: Heraclea (326 AD)
References: RIC VII Heraclea 83, R2
1 commentsScotvs Capitis
H13a.jpg
Constantine II AV Solidus131 viewsConstantine II AV Solidus. Nicomedia. 324 AD. CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C, laureate draped and curiassed bust right / PRINCIPI IVVENTVTIS, Prince standing left, looking right, in military dress, holding parazonium on l. arm, standard with eagle holding wreath in r. hand; to r., another standard with hand. RIC 74

EXTREMELY RARE - Only two other examples cited by RIC, both in museum collections.
EXTEMELY FINE
SPLENDID STYLE

Ex. Stock Münzen & Medaillen AG Basel
From a small hoard discovered around 1980 in Egypt.
Ex. Hess-Divo 2007
3 commentsTrajan
060808vot01.jpg
Constantine II, RIC VII Ticinum 17223 viewsConstantine II
Ob: CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C, Laureate, draped and curiassed bust right
Rv: DOMINOR dot NOSTROR dot CAESS around, VOT X crescent in centre within wreath
Ex: TT (Ticinum)
Ref: RIC VII Ticinum 172, r1
Scotvs Capitis
w4~0.JPG
Constantinople CONSS66 viewsConstantine had altogether more ambitious plans. Having restored the unity of the empire, now overseeing the progress of major governmental reforms and sponsoring the consolidation of the Christian church, Constantine was well aware that Rome had become an unsatisfactory capital for several reasons. Located in central Italy, Rome lay too far from the eastern imperial frontiers, and hence also from the legions and the Imperial courts. Moreover, Rome offered an undesirable playground for disaffected politicians; it also suffered regularly from flooding and from malaria.

It seemed impossible to many that the capital could be moved. Nevertheless, Constantine identified the site of Byzantium as the correct place: a city where an emperor could sit, readily defended, with easy access to the Danube or the Euphrates frontiers, his court supplied from the rich gardens and sophisticated workshops of Roman Asia, his treasuries filled by the wealthiest provinces of the empire.

Constantine laid out the expanded city, dividing it into 14 regions, and ornamenting it with great public works worthy of a great imperial city. Yet initially Constantinople did not have all the dignities of Rome, possessing a proconsul, rather than a prefect of the city. Furthermore, it had no praetors, tribunes or quaestors. Although Constantinople did have senators, they held the title clarus, not clarissimus, like those of Rome. Constantinople also lacked the panoply of other administrative offices regulating the food supply, police, statues, temples, sewers, aqueducts or other public works. The new program of building was carried out in great haste: columns, marbles, doors and tiles were taken wholesale from the temples of the empire and moved to the new city. Similarly, many of the greatest works of Greek and Roman art were soon to be seen in its squares and streets. The emperor stimulated private building by promising householders gifts of land from the imperial estates in Asiana and Pontica, and on 18 May 332 he announced that, as in Rome, free distributions of food would be made to citizens. At the time the amount is said to have been 80,000 rations a day, doled out from 117 distribution points around the city.

Constantinople was a Greek Orthodox Christian city, lying in the most Christianised part of the Empire. Justinian ordered the pagan temples of Byzantium to be deconstructed, and erected the splendid Church of the Holy Wisdom, Sancta Sophia (also known as Hagia Sophia in Greek), as the centrepiece of his Christian capital. He oversaw also the building of the Church of the Holy Apostles, and that of Hagia Irene.

Constantine laid out anew the square at the middle of old Byzantium, naming it the Augusteum. Sancta Sophia lay on the north side of the Augusteum. The new senate-house (or Curia) was housed in a basilica on the east side. On the south side of the great square was erected the Great Palace of the emperor with its imposing entrance, the Chalke, and its ceremonial suite known as the Palace of Daphne. Located immediately nearby was the vast Hippodrome for chariot-races, seating over 80,000 spectators, and the Baths of Zeuxippus (both originally built in the time of Septimius Severus). At the entrance at the western end of the Augusteum was the Milion, a vaulted monument from which distances were measured across the Eastern Empire.

From the Augusteum a great street, the Mese, led, lined with colonnades. As it descended the First Hill of the city and climbed the Second Hill, it passed on the left the Praetorium or law-court. Then it passed through the oval Forum of Constantine where there was a second senate-house, then on and through the Forum of Taurus and then the Forum of Bous, and finally up the Sixth Hill and through to the Golden Gate on the Propontis. The Mese would be seven Roman miles long to the Golden Gate of the Walls of Theodosius.

Constantine erected a high column in the middle of the Forum, on the Second Hill, with a statue of himself at the top, crowned with a halo of seven rays and looking towards the rising sun.

RIC VII Constantinople 61 C1
ecoli
Constantius_II_Fel_Temp_Thessalonica.gif
Constantius II20 viewsOBV: DN CONSTAN-TIVS PF AVG
Pearl diademed, draped, curiassed bust right.
REV:FEL TEMP REPARATIO
M in upper left field. Soldier spearing fallen horseman. SMTSA in exergue.
A.D. 364-367 RIC VIII (Thessalonica Mint) 208
2.24g 17mm
goldenancients
Constantius_II_Fel_Temp_Sirmium.jpg
Constantius II29 viewsOBV: DN CONSTAN-TIVS PF AVG
Pearl diademed, draped, curiassed bust right. D in field.
REV: FEL TEMP REPARATIO
Soldier spearing fallen horseman with Phrygian helmet.
ASIRM in exergue. •S• in upper fight field.
A.D. 351-355 RIC VIII (Sirmium Mint) 44
3.62g 20.5 mm
1 commentsgoldenancients
Constantius_II_Fel_Temp_Rome.jpg
Constantius II20 viewsOBV:DN CONSTAN-TIVS PF AVG
Pearl diademed, draped, curiassed bust right. B in field.
REV: FEL TEMP REPARATIO
Soldier spearing fallen horseman with Phrygian helmet.
R wreath T in exergue. Gamma in upper right field.
A.D. 351-355 RIC VIII (Rome) 256
3.47g 21 mm
goldenancients
Constantius_II_403.jpg
Constantius II13 viewsOBV:CONSTANTIVS PF AVG
Pearl diademed, draped, curiassed bust right
REV: VICTORIAE DD AVGG Q NN
Two Victories Facing, each holding wreath and palm.
Star over ESIS in exergue. Siscia mint, (Sisak, Croatia).
A.D. 347-348 RIC VIII (Siscia) 186 R3
1.02g 17mm
goldenancients
campgate_102.jpg
Constantius II Campgate27 viewsConstantius II
Ob: FL IVL CONSTANTIVS NOB C, Laureate Draped Curiassed bust left
Rv: PROVIDEN-TIAE CAESS, two turrets, 12 rows, dots in top layer
Ex: Delta SIS double crescent
RIC VII Siscia 217, C3
Scotvs Capitis
c408s.jpg
Constantius II,Siscia RIC VIII 40816 viewsConstantius II, AE 3 of Siscia
Obverse: DN CONSTAN-TIVS PF AVG, pearl diademed, draped, curiassed bust right.
Reverse: SPES REIPVBLIC, Constantius in military dress standing left holding spear & globe.
Mintmark BSIS dot, Siscia, 17.1 mm,1.9 g.
NORMAN K
constantiusII237.jpg
Constantius II,Siscia RIC VIII 40821 viewsConstantius II, AE 3 of Siscia
Obverse: DN CONSTAN-TIVS PF AVG, pearl diademed, draped, curiassed bust right.
Reverse: SPES REIPVBLIC, Constantius in military dress standing left holding spear & globe.
Mintmark BSIS dot, Siscia, 17.1 mm,1.9 g.
NORMAN K
constantiusII408.jpg
Constantius II,Thessalonica RIC VIII 9921 viewsConstantius II, AE 3 of Sisica 347-348 CE.
Obverse: DN CONSTANTIVS PF AVG, laurel & rosette-diademed, draped, curiassed bust right.
Reverse: VICTORIAE DD AVGGG NN, two Victories standing & facing each other, each holding wreath & palm, nothing between them.
Mintmark SMTS delta in ex., 16.9 mm, 1.4 g.
NORMAN K
fldalmativsnobc.jpg
Dalmatius44 viewsDalmatius
335-337 A.D.
AE3 Follis RIC VII Thessalonica 227
Ob: FL DALMATIVS NOB C ; Laureate, curiassed, draped bust right
Rv: GLORI-AEXER_CITVS
EX:SMTSgamma (Thessalonica)
R4
Scotvs Capitis
783_Dioscuriasx.jpg
Dioskourias - AE2 viewstimes of Mithradates VI Eupator
105-90 BC
caps of the Dioskouroi (pilei) surmounted by stars
thyrsos
ΔI_OΣ / KOV_PIA / Δ_OΣ
SNG BM 1021
ex Solidus
Johny SYSEL
1452181_647023925334522_1266992174_n.jpg
Galerius18 viewsGalerius, as Caesar, AE Post-Reform Radiate Fraction. 297-298 AD. MAXIMIANVS NOB C draped & curiassed bust right, VOT XX & officina letter [?] within laurel wreath. Cohen 247. Rome RIC VI 87b Randygeki(h2)
lg_GordIII_vim.jpg
Gordian III (Augustus), Moesia Superior, Viminacium25 viewsGordian III (Augustus)
Moesia Superior, Viminacium
AE Sestertius 15.93g / 30mm / -
IMP CAES M ANT GORDIANVS AVG - Laureate draped and curiassed bust right
PMS CO-L VIM - Moesia standing facing between bull & lion
Exergue: AN II (240/41 AD)
Ref: Pick 76; Pick-Martin 1'12'3
Scotvs Capitis
GordianIII-Hadrian.jpg
Gordian III of Thrace, Hadrianopolis22 viewsGordian III
Thrace, Hadrianopolis
AE - / 16.5mm / -
Ob: ΑVΤ Κ Μ ΑΝΤΓΟΡΔΙΑΝΟC - Laureate, draped, curiassed bust right
Rv: ΑΔΡΙΑΟΠΟΛΕΙΤΩ - Cista mystica with raised lid, from which serpent emerges
Exergue: N
References: Varbanov Vol II, 3901
Scotvs Capitis
Magnesia.jpg
Greek - Ionia, Magnesia & Maeandrum7 viewsMetal/Size: AE15; Weight: 3.41 grams; Denomination: Drachm; Mint: Magnesia, Ionia; Date: 350-300 BCE; Obverse: Armed horseman prancing right, wearing helmet, curiass, chalmys, and holding spear. Reverse: Humped bull butting left, ΜΑΓΝ (Magnesia) above, ΑΡΙΣΤΑΓΟΡΑΣ ΖΗΝΟΔΟΤΟΥ ((Aristagoras, son of Zenodotos, magistrate) in exergue within circular maeander pattern. References: SNG Cop. 814 (different magistrate); Sear #4477 (different magistrate).museumguy
impflavrvalmaximianuvsavg.jpg
IMP M AVR VAL MAXIMIANVS AVG34 viewsMaximianus 286-310 A.D.
RIC V pt II 543
AE Antoninianus
Ob: IMP M AVR VAL MAXIMIANVS AVG, Radiate, draped, curiassed bust right
Rv: HERCVLI CONSERVAT
Ex: ?
Scotvs Capitis
Curia.jpg
Italy, Rome, Curia841 viewsThe place where the Senate held its meetings.
Notice the three different kinds of marble used for the pavement. The beheaded statue should be Trajan's.
Posted by Strength And Honour.
Photo taken by my friend Hebe.
2 commentsStrength And Honour
Curia_Iulia_front.jpg
Italy, Rome, Curia Iulia, Forum Romanum129 viewsCuria Julia (Latin: Curia Iulia, Italian: Curia Iulia) is the third named Curia, or Senate House, in the ancient city of Rome. It was built in 44 BC when Julius Caesar replaced Faustus Cornelius Sulla’s reconstructed Curia Cornelia, which itself had replaced the Curia Hostilia. Caesar did this in order to redesign both spaces within the Comitium and Forum Romanum. The alterations within the Comitium reduced the prominence of the senate and cleared the original space. The work, however, was interrupted by Caesar's assassination at the Theatre of Pompey where the Senate had been meeting temporarily while the work was completed. The project was eventually finished by Caesar’s successor Augustus in 29 BC. The Curia Julia is one of only a handful of Roman structures to survive to the modern day mostly intact, due to its conversion into the basilica of Sant'Adriano al Foro in the 7th century and several later restorations. However the roof, together with the upper elevations of the side walls and rear façade, are modern. These parts date from the remodeling of the deconsecrated church in the 1930s.Joe Sermarini
IMG_0690[1].JPG
Italy, Rome, Forum, arch of Septimius Severus and Curia165 viewspitbull
IMG_2986q.JPG
Italy, Rome, Original ancient door from Curia206 viewsnow it is in Basilica of St. John Lateran ... seat of Pope until he moved to Vatican1 commentsJohny SYSEL
IMG_3146wp.jpg
Italy, Rome, Temple of Venus Genetrix145 viewschurch of Santi Luca e Martina; curia; arch of Septimius Severus
... I think so many different types of building in the one picture you can find only in Rome.
Johny SYSEL
Italy- Forum Romanum- Part of the Forum of Caesar 0.jpg
Italy- Forum Romanum- Part of the Forum of Caesar 060 viewsThe Forum of Caesar, in addition to being one of the most evident monuments of self-representation of political power, was constructed as an extension to the Roman Forum. Caesar himself behaved like a greco-oriental sovereign, escorted by a procession of elephants and, against every republican norm, once received the Senate sitting in the center of the temple. The dictator also had placed in front the temple a statue of himself riding Bucefalo, the celebrated horse of Alexander the Great and symbol of absolute power. The Temple of Venus Genetrix, intentionally placed at the end of the piazza was the unifying and conclusive element to the architectural complex. This strict centralized vision corresponded to the ideological function, following the propaganda of the Hellenistic sanctuaries.
The choice of the Forum site is also significant: the future dictator didn't want to be far from the central power, represented in the Curia, seat of the Senate. In fact, not long before Caesar's death, the Senate agreed to reconstruct the Curia on the site.
John Schou
Italy- Forum Romanum- Part of the Forum of Caesar 1.jpg
Italy- Forum Romanum- Part of the Forum of Caesar 152 viewsThe Forum of Caesar, in addition to being one of the most evident monuments of self-representation of political power, was constructed as an extension to the Roman Forum. Caesar himself behaved like a greco-oriental sovereign, escorted by a procession of elephants and, against every republican norm, once received the Senate sitting in the center of the temple. The dictator also had placed in front the temple a statue of himself riding Bucefalo, the celebrated horse of Alexander the Great and symbol of absolute power. The Temple of Venus Genetrix, intentionally placed at the end of the piazza was the unifying and conclusive element to the architectural complex. This strict centralized vision corresponded to the ideological function, following the propaganda of the Hellenistic sanctuaries.
The choice of the Forum site is also significant: the future dictator didn't want to be far from the central power, represented in the Curia, seat of the Senate. In fact, not long before Caesar's death, the Senate agreed to reconstruct the Curia on the site.
John Schou
Italy- Forum Romanum- Part of the Forum of Caesar and a statue of Ceasar.jpg
Italy- Forum Romanum- Part of the Forum of Caesar and a statue of Ceasar83 viewsThe Forum of Caesar, in addition to being one of the most evident monuments of self-representation of political power, was constructed as an extension to the Roman Forum. Caesar himself behaved like a greco-oriental sovereign, escorted by a procession of elephants and, against every republican norm, once received the Senate sitting in the center of the temple. The dictator also had placed in front the temple a statue of himself riding Bucefalo, the celebrated horse of Alexander the Great and symbol of absolute power. The Temple of Venus Genetrix, intentionally placed at the end of the piazza was the unifying and conclusive element to the architectural complex. This strict centralized vision corresponded to the ideological function, following the propaganda of the Hellenistic sanctuaries.
The choice of the Forum site is also significant: the future dictator didn't want to be far from the central power, represented in the Curia, seat of the Senate. In fact, not long before Caesar's death, the Senate agreed to reconstruct the Curia on the site.
John Schou
060808licin.jpg
Licinius I RIC VII Cyzicus 1533 viewsLicinius I
AE follis, 321-324 AD
ob: IMP C VAL LICIN LICINIVS PF AVG, Radiate draped and curiased bust right
Rv: IOVI CONS-ERVATORI, Jupiter standing, Chalmys across left shoulder, holding Victory on globe / eagle-tipped sceptre, eagle with wreath left at feet, captive right, X over II Mu in right field
SMKB
RIC VII Cyzicus 15
R2
Scotvs Capitis
lg_licinII_trophy.jpg
Licinius II Trophy w/ Capitives29 viewsLicinius II (Caesar)
AE 2.06g / 19.5mm / -
Ob: LICINIVS IVN NOB C - Radiate, draped and curiassed bust right
Rv: VIRTVS EXERCIT - Two captives seated at foot of trophy
Exergue: STR
Mint: Trier (317-324 AD)
Ref: RIC 264; Cohen 60
Very scarce reverse type for Licinius II
Scotvs Capitis
Saturninus_P.jpg
Lucius Appuleius Saturninus - AR denarius9 viewsRome
²101 BC
¹104 BC
helmeted head of Roma left
Saturn in quadriga right holding harpa and reins
.
·P
L·SATVRN
¹Crawford 317/3a, SRCV I 193, Sydenham 578, RSC I Appuleia 1
²Mark Passehl - Roman moneyer & coin type chronology, 150 – 50 BC
3,66g 19-17mm

According Richard Schaefer it's the first known example of these dies. Dies differ from ·P thus there, most probably, is dot above P although unfortunately off flan.

As quaestor Saturninus superintended the imports of grain at Ostia, but had been removed by the Roman Senate (an unusual proceeding), and replaced by Marcus Aemilius Scaurus, one of the chief members of the Optimates. Standard view is that injustice of his dismissal drove him into the arms of the Populares. In 103 BC he was elected tribune. Marius, on his return to Rome after his victory over the Cimbri, finding himself isolated in the senate, entered into a compact with Saturninus and his ally Gaius Servilius Glaucia, and the three formed a kind of triumvirate, supported by the veterans of Marius and many of the common people. By the aid of bribery and assassination Marius was elected (100 BC) consul for the sixth time, Glaucia praetor, and Saturninus tribune for the second time. Marius, finding himself overshadowed by his colleagues and compromised by their excesses, thought seriously of breaking with them, and Saturninus and Glaucia saw that their only hope of safety lay in their retention of office. Saturninus was elected tribune for the third time for the year beginning December 10, 100, and Glaucia, although at the time praetor and therefore not eligible until after the lapse of 2 years, was a candidate for the consulship. Marcus Antonius Orator was elected without opposition; the other Optimate candidate, Gaius Memmius, who seemed to have the better chance of success, was beaten to death by the hired agents of Saturninus and Glaucia, while the voting was actually going on. This produced a complete revulsion of public feeling. The Senate met on the following day, declared Saturninus and Glaucia public enemies, and called upon Marius to defend the State. Marius had no alternative but to obey. Saturninus, defeated in a pitched battle in the Roman Forum (December 10), took refuge with his followers in the Capitol, where, the water supply having been cut off, they were forced to capitulate. Marius, having assured them that their lives would be spared, removed them to the Curia Hostilia, intending to proceed against them according to law. But the more impetuous members of the aristocratic party climbed onto the roof, stripped off the tiles, and stoned Saturninus and many others to death. Glaucia, who had escaped into a house, was dragged out and killed. (wikipedia)
Johny SYSEL
Saturninus_T~0.jpg
Lucius Appuleius Saturninus - AR denarius18 viewsRome
²101 BC
¹104 BC
helmeted head of Roma left
Saturn in quadriga right holding harpa and reins
·T·
L·SATVRN
¹Crawford 317/3a, SRCV I 193, Sydenham 578, RSC I Appuleia 1
²Mark Passehl - Roman moneyer & coin type chronology, 150 – 50 BC
3,44g 19,5-18,5mm

As quaestor Saturninus superintended the imports of grain at Ostia, but had been removed by the Roman Senate (an unusual proceeding), and replaced by Marcus Aemilius Scaurus, one of the chief members of the Optimates. Standard view is that injustice of his dismissal drove him into the arms of the Populares. In 103 BC he was elected tribune. Marius, on his return to Rome after his victory over the Cimbri, finding himself isolated in the senate, entered into a compact with Saturninus and his ally Gaius Servilius Glaucia, and the three formed a kind of triumvirate, supported by the veterans of Marius and many of the common people. By the aid of bribery and assassination Marius was elected (100 BC) consul for the sixth time, Glaucia praetor, and Saturninus tribune for the second time. Marius, finding himself overshadowed by his colleagues and compromised by their excesses, thought seriously of breaking with them, and Saturninus and Glaucia saw that their only hope of safety lay in their retention of office. Saturninus was elected tribune for the third time for the year beginning December 10, 100, and Glaucia, although at the time praetor and therefore not eligible until after the lapse of 2 years, was a candidate for the consulship. Marcus Antonius Orator was elected without opposition; the other Optimate candidate, Gaius Memmius, who seemed to have the better chance of success, was beaten to death by the hired agents of Saturninus and Glaucia, while the voting was actually going on. This produced a complete revulsion of public feeling. The Senate met on the following day, declared Saturninus and Glaucia public enemies, and called upon Marius to defend the State. Marius had no alternative but to obey. Saturninus, defeated in a pitched battle in the Roman Forum (December 10), took refuge with his followers in the Capitol, where, the water supply having been cut off, they were forced to capitulate. Marius, having assured them that their lives would be spared, removed them to the Curia Hostilia, intending to proceed against them according to law. But the more impetuous members of the aristocratic party climbed onto the roof, stripped off the tiles, and stoned Saturninus and many others to death. Glaucia, who had escaped into a house, was dragged out and killed. (wikipedia)
Johny SYSEL
Crispus_AE-3-Follis_DN-CRISPO-NOB-CAES-5b-B4_VICTORIAE-LAET-PRINC-PERP_VOT-PR_2captives_RIC-74-p127_R3_Lyon_319-320-AD__Q-001_18mm_2_59ga-s.jpg
Lugdunum, RIC VII 074, 142 Crispus (317-326 A.D.), AE-3 Follis, -/-//two captives back, VICTORIAE LAET PRINC PERP, Two victories facing one another, R4!!!,64 viewsLugdunum, RIC VII 074, 142 Crispus (317-326 A.D.), AE-3 Follis, -/-//two captives back, VICTORIAE LAET PRINC PERP, Two victories facing one another, R4!!!,
avers:- DN-CRISPO-NOB-CAES, 5b,B4, Laurate, draped and curiassed bust right.
revers:- VICTORIAE-LAET-PRINC-PERP, Two victories facing one another, holding shield inscribed VOT/PR over altar two captives back in exergo.
exergo: -/-//two captives back, diameter: 18mm, weight: 2,59g, axis:11h,
mint: Lugdunum, (Lyon), date: 319-320 A.D., ref: RIC-VII-74, p127, R4, altar mint: d,
Q-001
quadrans
Crispus_AE-3-Follis_DN-CRISPO-NOB-CAES-5b-B5_VICTORIAE-LAET-PRINC-PERP_VOT-PR_2captives_RIC-75-p127_R4_Lugdunum_319-320-AD__Q-001_axis-0h_18mm_2_91ga-s.jpg
Lugdunum, RIC VII 075, 142 Crispus (317-326 A.D.), AE-3 Follis, -/-//two captives back, VICTORIAE LAET PRINC PERP, Two victories facing one another, R4!!!,64 viewsLugdunum, RIC VII 075, 142 Crispus (317-326 A.D.), AE-3 Follis, -/-//two captives back, VICTORIAE LAET PRINC PERP, Two victories facing one another, R4!!!,
avers:- DN-CRISPO-NOB-CAES, 5b,B5, Laurate, curiassed bust right.
revers:- VICTORIAE-LAET-PRINC-PERP, Two victories facing one another, holding shield inscribed VOT/PR over altar two captives back in exergo.
exergo: -/-//two captives back, diameter: 18mm, weight: 2,91g, axis: 0h,
mint: Lugdunum, (Lyon), date: 319-320 AD., ref: RIC-VII-075, p-127, R4, altar mint: c,
Q-001
quadrans
Crispus_AE-3-Follis_CRISPVS-NOB-CAES-_VICTORIAE-LAET-PRINC-PERP_VOT-PR_P-2captives-L_RIC-86-p-128_R5_Lugdunum_320-AD_Q-001_7h_17-19mm_2,74ga-s~0.jpg
Lugdunum, RIC VII 086, 142 Crispus (317-326 A.D.), AE-3 Follis, -/-//P-two captives back-L, VICTORIAE LAET PRINC PERP, Two victories facing one another, R5 !!!,65 viewsLugdunum, RIC VII 086, 142 Crispus (317-326 A.D.), AE-3 Follis, -/-//P-two captives back-L, VICTORIAE LAET PRINC PERP, Two victories facing one another, R5 !!!,
avers:- CRISPVS-NOB-CAES, 5b,B4, Laurate, draped and curiassed bust right.
revers:- VICTORIAE-LAET-PRINC-PERP, Two victories facing one another, holding shield inscribed VOT/PR over altar two captives back in exergo and P-L.
exergo: -/-//P-two captives back-L, diameter: 17-19mm, weight: 2,74g, axis:7h,
mint: Lugdunum, (Lyon), date: 320 A.D., ref: RIC-VII-86, p-128, R5 !!!, altar mint: e,
Q-001
quadrans
maximianus_ric534.jpg
Maximianus37 viewsMaximianus 286-310 A.D.
RIC V pt II 543
AE Antoninianus
Ob: IMP M AVR VAL MAXIMIANVS AVG, Radiate, draped, curiassed bust right
Rv: HERCVLI CONSERVAT
Ex: ?
Scotvs Capitis
Maximianus_Antoninianus1.jpg
Maximianus Antoninianus127 viewsOBV: IMP CM A MAXIMINIANVS PF AVG
Radiate, Curiassed Bust of Maximian, right.
REV: CONCORDIA MILITVM,
Emperor standing right, holding septre,
receiving Victory on globe from Jupiter, holding staff.
Officina H between, •XXI in exergue.
A.D. 292-295
4.10 grams 21.5 mm
RIC 5 vol.II (Heraclea) 595; Cohen 54
4 commentsgoldenancients
30~4.jpg
MPR 167 15 viewsOBVERSE: IMP C M AVR PROBVS AVG
REVERSE: VIRTVS AVG (Mars wlaking right)
BUST TYPE: A = Radiate, curiassed and draped bust right, seen from front
FIELD / EXERGUE MARKS: Rζ
WEIGHT 3.03g / AXIS: 12h / WIDTH 20-22mm
RIC: 226 VAR. (IMP C M AVR PROBVS AVG LEGEND UNLISTED)
J.Guillemain, MPR 167 (6 ex.)
S.Estiot, Ph.Gysen RN 2006 (6 ex.)
Collection no. 813

Note: much silvering remaining!

Very rare and desirable reverse type struck only during the second emmission at Rome!
Barnaba6
1451.JPG
MPR 16717 viewsOBVERSE: IMP C M AVR PROBVS AVG
REVERSE: VIRTVS AVG (Mars walking right, holding tropaion)
BUST TYPE: A = Radiate, curiassed and draped bust right, seen from front
FIELD / EXERGUE MARKS: -/-//Rζ
WEIGHT 3.72g / AXIS: 6h / WIDTH 23mm
RIC: 226 VAR. (IMP C M AVR PROBVS AVG LEGEND UNLISTED)
J.Guillemain, MPR 167 (6 ex.)
S.Estiot, Ph.Gysen RN 2006 (6 ex.)
Collection no. 1451

Very rare and desirable reverse type struck only during the second emmission at Rome!
Barnaba6
560_large_4c29983d26c06c4cbc8c12a42a771dc9.jpg
Octavian7 viewsCuria Julia senate house denarius 29 BC, Octavian. 3.5gm.Ancient Aussie
philippus_2.jpg
Philip I (the Arab), 244-249 22 viewsPhilip I AE 28 of Viminacium, Moesia Superior. Year 6 of Viminacium = 245 AD. IMP M IVL PHILIPPVS AVG, laureate, draped & curiassed bust right / P M S COL VIM, Moesia standing left between bull & lion, AN VI in ex. SNG Cop 152. mestreaudi
Philip_I_Varbanov_I,_132.jpg
Philip I, AE27, Varbanov I 132116 viewsPhilip I
Augustus, 244 – 249 A.D.

Coin: AE 27

Obverse: IMP M IVL PHILIPPVS AVG, laureate, draped and curiassed bust facing right.
Reverse: P M S C-OL VIM, personification of Moesia, standing, facing to the left, standing between a Bull, to the left and a Lion, to the right. ANV in exergue.

Weight: 19.46 g, Diameter: 27 x 26.8 x 3.5 mm, Die axis: 10°, Mint: Viminacium, Year: V (244 A.D.), Reference: Varbanov I 132

Rated Rare (R2, 1000 - 1500 examples known)

Legions VII Claudia (emblem: Bull) & IV Flavia (emblem: Lion) were garrisoned in Viminacium
Masis
Philip_I_Varbanov_I,_134_variation.jpg
Philip I, AE27, Varbanov I 134 Variation101 viewsPhilip I
Augustus, 244 – 249 A.D.

Coin: AE27

Obverse: IMP M IVL PHILIPPVS AVG, laureate, draped and curiassed bust facing right.
Reverse: P M S C-OL VIM, personification of Moesia, standing, facing to the left, standing between a Bull, to the left and a Lion, to the right. ANVI in exergue.

Weight: 15.46 g, Diameter: 27 x 27.8 x 2.6 mm, Die axis: 200°, Mint: Viminacium, Year: VI (244 A.D.), Reference: Varbanov I 134 variation

Rated Rare (R2, 1000 - 1500 examples known)

Legions VII Claudia (emblem: Bull) & IV Flavia (emblem: Lion) were garrisoned in Viminacium
Masis
silvered_probus.jpg
Probus26 viewsSilvered AE Antoninianus
RIC VII 748, Cohen 574
Ob: IMP PROBVS P F AVG Radiate, curiassed, draped bust right
Rv: SALVS AVG Salus standing right, feeding snake in her arms
Ex: XXI Siscia, struck AD 281
Scarce
Scotvs Capitis
probo.jpg
PROBUS22 viewsAntoninianus. 276 AD. Siscia. 22 mm.3.31 gr. Radiate,draped and cuirassed bust right. IMP C M AVR PROBVS AVG. / Felicitas standing right,holding mercurial staff and cornucopiae. FELICITAS AVG. In exergue XXI. RIC 682. Cohen 218.benito
00probusfelicitas.jpg
PROBUS16 viewsAntoninianus. 276 AD. Siscia. 22 mm.3.31 gr. Radiate,draped and cuirassed bust right. IMP C M AVR PROBVS AVG. / Felicitas standing right,holding mercurial staff and cornucopiae. FELICITAS AVG. In exergue XXI. RIC 682. Cohen 218.
benito
Tacitus RIC 135v.jpg
RIC 135 T variant - LV173545 viewsObverse: IMP C M CL TACITVS AVG
Radiate, curiassed - bust right

Reverse: FELICITAS AVG
Felicitas standing left with caduceus & patera, altar to left

Exergue: T

The T makes this coin very rare.
rick fox
Ric 140.jpg
Ric 14014 viewsObverse: IMP C M CL TACITVS AVG
Radiate, curiassed, - bust right

Reverse: FELICIT TEMP
Felicitas standing left holding caduceus and sceptre

Exergue: V
1 commentsrick fox
RIC 195.jpg
RIC 19532 viewsObverse: IMP CM CL TACITUS AVG
Radiate, curiassed and draped - bust right

Reverse: PROVIDEN DEOR
Providentia standing left holding standards in each hand facing Sol who is holding a globe

Exergue: KA dot gamma

Emision: 3rd
rick fox
dcb0_1.JPG
RIC 6326 viewsObv: IMPCMCLTACITVSPFAVG
Radiate, draped & curiassed bust Right

Rev: TEMPORVM FELICITAS
Felicitas standing left holding caduceus and cornucopiae

Field: A / /*

Exe:
1 commentsrick fox
coin145.jpg
RIC 68 Honorius AE3. Cyzicus mint, 395-401 AD. 11 viewsRIC 68 Honorius AE3. Cyzicus mint, 395-401 AD.
D N HONORIVS P F AVG, pearl diademed, draped
& curiassed bust right / VIRTVS EXERCITI, emperor
standing front, holding spear & resting hand on shield,
with head turned right while Victory crowns him with
wreath, SMKG in ex. Coin #145
cars100
constantine_i_bearded!.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE - CONSTANTINE I38 viewsROMAN EMPIRE - CONSTANTINE I (307-337 AD) AE Follis, 312-313 AD. Obv.: BEARDED head faces right, laureate, draped, curiassed; IMP C CONSTANTINVS PF AVG. Rev.: Jupiter stands facing with head left; chlamys hanging from left shoulder, holding victory on globe, leaning on scepter; eagle with wreath left; IOVI CONSERVATORI AVGG NN. dot TS dot B dot mintmark (Thessalonica). RIC 61b. dpaul7
CONSTANTINE_II_CAMPGATE2.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE - Constantine II22 viewsROMAN EMPIRE - Constantine II as Caesar (320-337 AD) CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C, Bust left, laureate, draped, curiassed. Rev.: Campgate, PROVIDEN-TIAE CAESS. SMTS (Delta) Mintmark, Thessalonica. RIC VII Thessalonica 157.dpaul7
DIOCLETIAN_K-GAMMA.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE - Diocletian32 viewsROMAN EMPIRE - Diocletian (284-305 AD) AE light fraction. Struck 295-299 AD. Obv.: Radiate, draped, curiassed bust right; IMP CC VAL DIOCLETIANVS PF AVG. Rev.: Emperor standing right receiveing victory on globe from Jupiter who is standing left, holding scepter. CONCORDIA MI-LITVM - K-Gamma in center. Cyzicus mint. Reference: RIC VI Cyzicus 16A.dpaul7
GALLIENUS_SOLI__INVICT.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE - Gallienus17 viewsROMAN EMPIRE - Gallienus (253-2685 AD); sole reign (260-268 AD) AE Antoninianus. Obv.: Radiate curiassed bust right; GALLIENVS AVG . Rev.: Sol standing left, holding globe, right hand raised; mintmark PXV in exurge; Antioch mint. Reference: RIC V-1 (S), Asian Mint 611.dpaul7
GRATIAN_VOT_XV.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE - Gratian23 viewsROMAN EMPIRE - Gratian (367-383 AD) AE4. Obv.: Pearl diademed, draped & curiassed bust right, DN GRATIA-NVS PF AVG Rev.: VOT/XV/MVLT/XX in wreath. In exurge: (A or B)SISC. = Siscia mint. (First character not clear). Reference: RIC-31a. dpaul7
MAX_II_DAIA_2.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE - MAXIMINUS II DAIA21 viewsROMAN EMPIRE - MAXIMINUS II DAIA (309-313) AE Follis. Obv.: Bust right, laureate, draped, curiassed. IMP MAXIMINVS PF AVG. Rev.: IOVI CONS-ERVATORI AVGG NN, Jupiter facing with head left, cloak hanging from left shoulder, holding Victory on globe / leaning on sceptre. SIS in exurge (SIscia mint). Eagle with wreath in field left, DELTA in field right. RIC VI Siscia 234b.dpaul7
PROBUS_5.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE - Probus17 viewsROMAN EMPIRE - Probus (276-282 AD). Radiate curiassed head of emperor left holding spear & shieild; IMP PROBVS AVG/Mars walking right holding spear & trophy, VIRTVS PROBI AVG - XXI in exurge. S in field to right. Siscia mint, RIC-815.dpaul7
vetranio.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE - Vetranio22 viewsROMAN EMPIRE - Vetranio (1 March - 25 December 350 A.D.) Centenionalis. Obv.: DN VETRA-NIO PF AVG - Laureate, draped, curiassed bust right. A behind, star before bust. Rev.: CONCORDIA-MILITVM Emperor diademed and in military dressstands facing, head left, holding standard with chi-rho banner in each hand, star above, A in left field, mintmark: dot epsilon SIS dot. Siscia mint, RIC #285. SCARCE!dpaul7
112_Probus_(276-282_A_D_),_Bi-Tetradrachm,_G-3127,_D-5527,_Alexandria,_Dikaiosyne,_L-B_left_at_foot_(year_2)__Q-001_axis-11h_19mm_8,50ga-s.jpg
Roman Empire Provincial, Probus (276-282 A.D.), Bi-Tetradrachm, Alexandria, Emmet 3979, Alexandria, Dikaiosyne/Aequitas, L-B left at foot (year 2),214 views112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), Bi-Tetradrachm, Emmet 3979, Alexandria, Dikaiosyne/Aequitas, L-B left at foot (year 2),
avers: A-K-M-AVP-ΠPOBOC-CEB, Laureated, curiassed bust right.,
revers: Dikaiosyne/Aequitas standing left holding scales and cornucopiae, L-B left at foot.
exerg: LB/-//--, diameter: 19mm, weight: 8,47g, axes: 11h,
mint: Alexandria, date: 276-277 A.D., LB Year 2., ref: Emmet 3979, Milne-4522, Geissen-3127, Dattari-5527, Kapmann-Ganschow-112.7-p338,
Q-001
quadrans
112_Probus_(276-282_A_D_),_Bi-Tetradrachm,_G-3155,_D-5555,_Alexandria,_Eagle_left,_L-Z,_across_the_field,_Q-001_axis-11h_19mm_7,38ga-s.jpg
Roman Empire Provincial, Probus (276-282 A.D.), Bi-Tetradrachm, Alexandria, Emmet-3984, Eagle left, L-Z across the field, (year 7),200 views112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), Bi-Tetradrachm, G-2991, D-5373, Eagle left, L-Z, across the field,
avers:- A-K-M-AVP-ΠPOBOC-CEB, Laureated, curiassed bust right.
revers:- Eagle left, head right, his beak wreath, L-Z, across the field.
exerg: -/-//--, diameter: 19mm, weight: 7,38g, axes: 11h,
mint: Alexandria, date: 281-282 A.D., L-Z Year 7., ref: Geissen-3155, Dattari-5555, Kapmann-Ganschow-112.38-p340,
Q-001
quadrans
c93~0.jpg
Roman empire, Constantius II RIC VIII 369g, Siscia47 viewsConstantius II, AE 3 of Siscia, 324-361 CE
Obverse: DN CONSTAN-TIVS PF AVG, pearl diademed, draped, curiassed bust right.
Reverse: FEL TEMP-REPARATIO, soldier spearing fallen horseman who is wearing a Phrygian helmet, reaching backwards.
Mintmark gamma SIS reversed Z, Siscia, 19.08 mm, 2.1 g.
NORMAN K
Crispus_DN-CRISPO-NOB-CAES_VICTORIAE-LAET-PRINC-PERP_VOT-PR_2captives_A-SIS_RIC-xxx_Q-001_18mm_0_00g.jpg
Roman Empire, Crispus (317-326 A.D.), Lugdunum, RIC VII 074, AE-3 Follis, -/-//two captives back, VICTORIAE LAET PRINC PERP, Two victories facing one another, R4!!!,187 views142 Crispus (317-326 A.D.), Lugdunum, RIC VII 074, AE-3 Follis, -/-//two captives back, VICTORIAE LAET PRINC PERP, Two victories facing one another, R4!!!,
avers:- DN-CRISPO-NOB-CAES, 5b,B4, Laurate, draped and curiassed bust right.
revers:- VICTORIAE-LAET-PRINC-PERP, Two victories facing one another, holding shield inscribed VOT/PR over altar two captives back in exergo.
exergo: -/-//two captives back, diameter: 18mm, weight: 2,59g, axis:11h,
mint: Lugdunum, (Lyon), date: 319-320 A.D., ref: RIC-VII-74, p127, R4, altar mint: d,
Q-001
quadrans
Crispus_AE-3-Follis_DN-CRISPO-NOB-CAES-5b-B5_VICTORIAE-LAET-PRINC-PERP_VOT-PR_2captives_RIC-75-p127_R4_Lugdunum_319-320-AD__Q-001_axis-0h_18mm_2_91g-s.jpg
Roman Empire, Crispus (317-326 A.D.), Lugdunum, RIC VII 075, AE-3 Follis, -/-//two captives back, VICTORIAE LAET PRINC PERP, Two victories facing one another, R4!!!,182 views142 Crispus (317-326 A.D.), Lugdunum, RIC VII 075, AE-3 Follis, -/-//two captives back, VICTORIAE LAET PRINC PERP, Two victories facing one another, R4!!!,
avers:- DN-CRISPO-NOB-CAES, 5b,B5, Laurate, curiassed bust right.
revers:- VICTORIAE-LAET-PRINC-PERP, Two victories facing one another, holding shield inscribed VOT/PR over altar two captives back in exergo.
exergo: -/-//two captives back, diameter: 18mm, weight: 2,91g, axis: 0h,
mint: Lugdunum, (Lyon), date: 319-320 AD., ref: RIC-VII-075, p-127, R4, altar mint: c,
Q-001
quadrans
nero-roma.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Nero, Orichalcum Dupondius, 65 A.D.153 viewsObv:
NERO CLAVD CAESAR AVG GERM P M TR P IMP P P
Radiate head R.
Rev:
ROMA S C
Roma std. l. on curiass, r. foot on helmet, holding wreath and parazonium, arms on ground behind.
RIC 296 Sear 1966
29mm 13.4g
1 commentsTRPOT
Tacitus RIC 135v~0.jpg
Roman Empire, Tacitus Antoninianus 153 viewsObverse: IMP C M CL TACITVS AVG
Radiate, curiassed and draped - bust right

Reverse: FELICITAS AVG
Felicitas standing left with caduceus & patera, altar to left

Exergue: T

This coin is an unlisted version of RIC 135. The T in the exe. makes this coin very rare. (Only 6 specimens, including this one are cataloged.) The remaining 5 are listed in the Venera Hoard.
rick fox
OctavianCuriaRaw.jpg
ROMAN IMPERATORIAL, Octavian, AR Denarius29 viewsRome. The Imperators.
Octavian, 44-27 BCE.
AR Denarius (3.92g; 20mm).
Italian Mint, Summer 30-29 BCE.

Obverse: Octavian’s bare head, facing right.

Reverse: Roman Senate House; IMP CAESAR on architrave.

References: RIC 266; HCRI 421; BMCRR 4358; Julia 161.

Provenance: Ex Heritage Auction 3063 (16 Jan 2018) Lot 33381; Spink Num. Circ. Vol LXXVIII, No. 6 (June 1970), inv. #6871, pl. 11.

The coin celebrates the dedication of the Curia Julia, a new meeting house for the Roman Senate, construction of which was commenced under Julius Caesar and completed by Octavian circa 29 BCE. Julius Caesar was assassinated at the Theater of Pompey where the Senate was meeting while construction of this new Senate house was underway. It is both ironic and politically astute that Octavian should commemorate this new Senate house on a coin, given that his hold on power made the Senate effectively irrelevant. The structure still stands today, having been restored through the imperial period and later converted to a church.
3 commentsCarausius
060808Nik01.jpg
Severus Alexander, Nicaea31 viewsSeverus Alexander
Ob: M AVP CEVH ALEXANDPOC AVG, Laureate, Draped, Curiased bust right
Rv: 3 Standards, with NI-K-AI-E amidst, WN below
Nicaea
Similar to Receuil General 617 C
Scotvs Capitis
Spain- Taragona- The Forum and Basilica Square with statue .jpg
Spain- Taragona- The Forum and Basilica Square with statue 23 viewsThe colonial Forum

All Roman towns had a large square (forum) that was the political, social and business centre of town.
Architecturally, it was a large space surrounded by arcades and varius public buildings, separated into different areas- the religious and the civil. The sacred area was presided over by a temple dedicated to the Capatoline Triad (Jupiter, Juno and Minerva) or the deified emperor. This temple may have been accompanied by others of less importance. The civil area contained various buildings, the most important of which was probably the basilica, which served as a courthouse, a social meeting place, and the curia, or seat of the council composed of the city´s dignitaries.
Today only the basilica is preserved. This building is divided into three sections, separated by Corinthian columns, and was built in the period of Augustus (in the years before the birth of Christ). It housed the court, or aedes augusti. In front of the basilica there was a square, with various statues, on which several of the city´s streets converged. These streets delimited insulae, or “islands” of houses. The ground floors of the houses contained shops, warehouses and workshops, while the upper floors were where the people lived, crowded together in small rooms. Only the wealthiest of families could afford to live in a domus, a house with one or two storeys, several rooms distributed around an atrium, and other recreational areas.
John Schou
Spain- Taragona- The Forum- Basilica.jpg
Spain- Taragona- The Forum- Basilica25 viewsThe colonial Forum

All Roman towns had a large square (forum) that was the political, social and business centre of town.
Architecturally, it was a large space surrounded by arcades and varius public buildings, separated into different areas- the religious and the civil. The sacred area was presided over by a temple dedicated to the Capatoline Triad (Jupiter, Juno and Minerva) or the deified emperor. This temple may have been accompanied by others of less importance. The civil area contained various buildings, the most important of which was probably the basilica, which served as a courthouse, a social meeting place, and the curia, or seat of the council composed of the city´s dignitaries.
Today only the basilica is preserved. This building is divided into three sections, separated by Corinthian columns, and was built in the period of Augustus (in the years before the birth of Christ). It housed the court, or aedes augusti. In front of the basilica there was a square, with various statues, on which several of the city´s streets converged. These streets delimited insulae, or “islands” of houses. The ground floors of the houses contained shops, warehouses and workshops, while the upper floors were where the people lived, crowded together in small rooms. Only the wealthiest of families could afford to live in a domus, a house with one or two storeys, several rooms distributed around an atrium, and other recreational areas.
John Schou
Spain- Taragona- The Forum- Basilica and Cistern.jpg
Spain- Taragona- The Forum- Basilica and Cistern20 viewsThe colonial Forum

All Roman towns had a large square (forum) that was the political, social and business centre of town.
Architecturally, it was a large space surrounded by arcades and varius public buildings, separated into different areas- the religious and the civil. The sacred area was presided over by a temple dedicated to the Capatoline Triad (Jupiter, Juno and Minerva) or the deified emperor. This temple may have been accompanied by others of less importance. The civil area contained various buildings, the most important of which was probably the basilica, which served as a courthouse, a social meeting place, and the curia, or seat of the council composed of the city´s dignitaries.
Today only the basilica is preserved. This building is divided into three sections, separated by Corinthian columns, and was built in the period of Augustus (in the years before the birth of Christ). It housed the court, or aedes augusti. In front of the basilica there was a square, with various statues, on which several of the city´s streets converged. These streets delimited insulae, or “islands” of houses. The ground floors of the houses contained shops, warehouses and workshops, while the upper floors were where the people lived, crowded together in small rooms. Only the wealthiest of families could afford to live in a domus, a house with one or two storeys, several rooms distributed around an atrium, and other recreational areas.
John Schou
Spain- Taragona- The Forum- Basilica and house.jpg
Spain- Taragona- The Forum- Basilica and house20 viewsThe colonial Forum

All Roman towns had a large square (forum) that was the political, social and business centre of town.
Architecturally, it was a large space surrounded by arcades and varius public buildings, separated into different areas- the religious and the civil. The sacred area was presided over by a temple dedicated to the Capatoline Triad (Jupiter, Juno and Minerva) or the deified emperor. This temple may have been accompanied by others of less importance. The civil area contained various buildings, the most important of which was probably the basilica, which served as a courthouse, a social meeting place, and the curia, or seat of the council composed of the city´s dignitaries.
Today only the basilica is preserved. This building is divided into three sections, separated by Corinthian columns, and was built in the period of Augustus (in the years before the birth of Christ). It housed the court, or aedes augusti. In front of the basilica there was a square, with various statues, on which several of the city´s streets converged. These streets delimited insulae, or “islands” of houses. The ground floors of the houses contained shops, warehouses and workshops, while the upper floors were where the people lived, crowded together in small rooms. Only the wealthiest of families could afford to live in a domus, a house with one or two storeys, several rooms distributed around an atrium, and other recreational areas.
John Schou
Spain- Taragona- The Forum- Court.jpg
Spain- Taragona- The Forum- Court27 viewsThe colonial Forum

All Roman towns had a large square (forum) that was the political, social and business centre of town.
Architecturally, it was a large space surrounded by arcades and varius public buildings, separated into different areas- the religious and the civil. The sacred area was presided over by a temple dedicated to the Capatoline Triad (Jupiter, Juno and Minerva) or the deified emperor. This temple may have been accompanied by others of less importance. The civil area contained various buildings, the most important of which was probably the basilica, which served as a courthouse, a social meeting place, and the curia, or seat of the council composed of the city´s dignitaries.
Today only the basilica is preserved. This building is divided into three sections, separated by Corinthian columns, and was built in the period of Augustus (in the years before the birth of Christ). It housed the court, or aedes augusti. In front of the basilica there was a square, with various statues, on which several of the city´s streets converged. These streets delimited insulae, or “islands” of houses. The ground floors of the houses contained shops, warehouses and workshops, while the upper floors were where the people lived, crowded together in small rooms. Only the wealthiest of families could afford to live in a domus, a house with one or two storeys, several rooms distributed around an atrium, and other recreational areas.
John Schou
Spain- Taragona- The Forum- Court Inscriptions.jpg
Spain- Taragona- The Forum- Court Inscriptions25 viewsThe colonial Forum

All Roman towns had a large square (forum) that was the political, social and business centre of town.
Architecturally, it was a large space surrounded by arcades and varius public buildings, separated into different areas- the religious and the civil. The sacred area was presided over by a temple dedicated to the Capatoline Triad (Jupiter, Juno and Minerva) or the deified emperor. This temple may have been accompanied by others of less importance. The civil area contained various buildings, the most important of which was probably the basilica, which served as a courthouse, a social meeting place, and the curia, or seat of the council composed of the city´s dignitaries.
Today only the basilica is preserved. This building is divided into three sections, separated by Corinthian columns, and was built in the period of Augustus (in the years before the birth of Christ). It housed the court, or aedes augusti. In front of the basilica there was a square, with various statues, on which several of the city´s streets converged. These streets delimited insulae, or “islands” of houses. The ground floors of the houses contained shops, warehouses and workshops, while the upper floors were where the people lived, crowded together in small rooms. Only the wealthiest of families could afford to live in a domus, a house with one or two storeys, several rooms distributed around an atrium, and other recreational areas.
John Schou
Spain- Taragona- The Forum- Court Inscriptions 1.jpg
Spain- Taragona- The Forum- Court Inscriptions 121 viewsThe colonial Forum

All Roman towns had a large square (forum) that was the political, social and business centre of town.
Architecturally, it was a large space surrounded by arcades and varius public buildings, separated into different areas- the religious and the civil. The sacred area was presided over by a temple dedicated to the Capatoline Triad (Jupiter, Juno and Minerva) or the deified emperor. This temple may have been accompanied by others of less importance. The civil area contained various buildings, the most important of which was probably the basilica, which served as a courthouse, a social meeting place, and the curia, or seat of the council composed of the city´s dignitaries.
Today only the basilica is preserved. This building is divided into three sections, separated by Corinthian columns, and was built in the period of Augustus (in the years before the birth of Christ). It housed the court, or aedes augusti. In front of the basilica there was a square, with various statues, on which several of the city´s streets converged. These streets delimited insulae, or “islands” of houses. The ground floors of the houses contained shops, warehouses and workshops, while the upper floors were where the people lived, crowded together in small rooms. Only the wealthiest of families could afford to live in a domus, a house with one or two storeys, several rooms distributed around an atrium, and other recreational areas.
John Schou
Spain- Taragona- The Forum- Houses.jpg
Spain- Taragona- The Forum- Houses42 viewsThe colonial Forum

All Roman towns had a large square (forum) that was the political, social and business centre of town.
Architecturally, it was a large space surrounded by arcades and varius public buildings, separated into different areas- the religious and the civil. The sacred area was presided over by a temple dedicated to the Capatoline Triad (Jupiter, Juno and Minerva) or the deified emperor. This temple may have been accompanied by others of less importance. The civil area contained various buildings, the most important of which was probably the basilica, which served as a courthouse, a social meeting place, and the curia, or seat of the council composed of the city´s dignitaries.
Today only the basilica is preserved. This building is divided into three sections, separated by Corinthian columns, and was built in the period of Augustus (in the years before the birth of Christ). It housed the court, or aedes augusti. In front of the basilica there was a square, with various statues, on which several of the city´s streets converged. These streets delimited insulae, or “islands” of houses. The ground floors of the houses contained shops, warehouses and workshops, while the upper floors were where the people lived, crowded together in small rooms. Only the wealthiest of families could afford to live in a domus, a house with one or two storeys, several rooms distributed around an atrium, and other recreational areas.
John Schou
Spain- Taragona- The Forum- Industrial house and Cistern.jpg
Spain- Taragona- The Forum- Industrial house and Cistern278 viewsThe colonial Forum

All Roman towns had a large square (forum) that was the political, social and business centre of town.
Architecturally, it was a large space surrounded by arcades and varius public buildings, separated into different areas- the religious and the civil. The sacred area was presided over by a temple dedicated to the Capatoline Triad (Jupiter, Juno and Minerva) or the deified emperor. This temple may have been accompanied by others of less importance. The civil area contained various buildings, the most important of which was probably the basilica, which served as a courthouse, a social meeting place, and the curia, or seat of the council composed of the city´s dignitaries.
Today only the basilica is preserved. This building is divided into three sections, separated by Corinthian columns, and was built in the period of Augustus (in the years before the birth of Christ). It housed the court, or aedes augusti. In front of the basilica there was a square, with various statues, on which several of the city´s streets converged. These streets delimited insulae, or “islands” of houses. The ground floors of the houses contained shops, warehouses and workshops, while the upper floors were where the people lived, crowded together in small rooms. Only the wealthiest of families could afford to live in a domus, a house with one or two storeys, several rooms distributed around an atrium, and other recreational areas.
John Schou
Spain- Taragona- The Forum- Tomb.jpg
Spain- Taragona- The Forum- Tomb274 viewsThe colonial Forum

All Roman towns had a large square (forum) that was the political, social and business centre of town.
Architecturally, it was a large space surrounded by arcades and varius public buildings, separated into different areas- the religious and the civil. The sacred area was presided over by a temple dedicated to the Capatoline Triad (Jupiter, Juno and Minerva) or the deified emperor. This temple may have been accompanied by others of less importance. The civil area contained various buildings, the most important of which was probably the basilica, which served as a courthouse, a social meeting place, and the curia, or seat of the council composed of the city´s dignitaries.
Today only the basilica is preserved. This building is divided into three sections, separated by Corinthian columns, and was built in the period of Augustus (in the years before the birth of Christ). It housed the court, or aedes augusti. In front of the basilica there was a square, with various statues, on which several of the city´s streets converged. These streets delimited insulae, or “islands” of houses. The ground floors of the houses contained shops, warehouses and workshops, while the upper floors were where the people lived, crowded together in small rooms. Only the wealthiest of families could afford to live in a domus, a house with one or two storeys, several rooms distributed around an atrium, and other recreational areas.
John Schou
Spain- Taragona- The Forum- Via Roma.jpg
Spain- Taragona- The Forum- Via Roma305 viewsThe colonial Forum

All Roman towns had a large square (forum) that was the political, social and business centre of town.
Architecturally, it was a large space surrounded by arcades and varius public buildings, separated into different areas- the religious and the civil. The sacred area was presided over by a temple dedicated to the Capatoline Triad (Jupiter, Juno and Minerva) or the deified emperor. This temple may have been accompanied by others of less importance. The civil area contained various buildings, the most important of which was probably the basilica, which served as a courthouse, a social meeting place, and the curia, or seat of the council composed of the city´s dignitaries.
Today only the basilica is preserved. This building is divided into three sections, separated by Corinthian columns, and was built in the period of Augustus (in the years before the birth of Christ). It housed the court, or aedes augusti. In front of the basilica there was a square, with various statues, on which several of the city´s streets converged. These streets delimited insulae, or “islands” of houses. The ground floors of the houses contained shops, warehouses and workshops, while the upper floors were where the people lived, crowded together in small rooms. Only the wealthiest of families could afford to live in a domus, a house with one or two storeys, several rooms distributed around an atrium, and other recreational areas.
John Schou
tacitus.jpg
tacitus22 viewsTacitus
275-276 A.D.
AE Antoninianus
RIC 345, Cohen 94
Ob: IMP C M C L TACITVS AVG, Radiate draped and curiassed bust r
Rv: PROVIDEN DEOR Providentia standing right holding two ensigns, facing Sol standing l, hand raised and holding globe.
Ex: KAdelta (Serdica)

Scotvs Capitis
Crispus_AE-3-Follis_FL-IVL-CRISPVS-NOB-C-5-C3_VICTORIAE-LAETAE-PRINC-PERP_VOT-PR_C_PT_RIC-VII-93-p-373_R3_Ticinum_319-AD_Q-001_h_mm_gx-s~0.jpg
Ticinum, RIC VII 093, 142 Crispus (317-326 A.D.), AE-3 Follis, C//PT, VICTORIAE LAET PRINC PERP, Two victories facing one another, R3!!!, #164 viewsTicinum, RIC VII 093, 142 Crispus (317-326 A.D.), AE-3 Follis, C//PT, VICTORIAE LAET PRINC PERP, Two victories facing one another, R3!!!, #1
avers:- DN-CRISPO-NOB-CAES, 5,C3, Radiate, draped and curiassed bust right.
revers:- VICTORIAE-LAET-PRINC-PERP, Two victories facing one another, holding shield inscribed VOT/PR over altar, C on altar.
exergo: C//PT, diameter: mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Ticinum, date: 319 A.D., ref: RIC-VII-093, p-373, altar mint: C, R3!!!
Q-001
quadrans
Crispus_AE-3-Follis_FL-IVL-CRISPVS-NOB-C-5-C3_VICTORIAE-LAETAE-PRINC-PERP_VOT-PR_C_PT_RIC-VII-93-p-373_R3_Ticinum_319-AD_Q-002_h_mm_gx-s~0.jpg
Ticinum, RIC VII 093, 142 Crispus (317-326 A.D.), AE-3 Follis, C//PT, VICTORIAE LAET PRINC PERP, Two victories facing one another, R3!!!, #264 viewsTicinum, RIC VII 093, 142 Crispus (317-326 A.D.), AE-3 Follis, C//PT, VICTORIAE LAET PRINC PERP, Two victories facing one another, R3!!!, #2
avers:- DN-CRISPO-NOB-CAES, 5,C3, Radiate, draped and curiassed bust right.
revers:- VICTORIAE-LAET-PRINC-PERP, Two victories facing one another, holding shield inscribed VOT/PR over altar, C on altar.
exergo: C//PT, diameter: mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Ticinum, date: 319 A.D., ref: RIC-VII-093, p-373, altar mint: C, R3!!!
Q-002
quadrans
IMG_0944q.JPG
Titus142 viewsexposition in curiaJohny SYSEL
IMG_0946wp.jpg
Titus and Vespasianus156 viewsExposition inside Curia in Roman forum
built by Julius Caesar 44 BC
converted to church in 630 AD
Johny SYSEL
Trebonianus_Gallus_Varbanov_I,_Viminacium_209.jpg
Trebonianus Gallus, AE26, Varbanov I 20986 viewsTrebonianus Gallus
Augustus, 251 - 253 A.D.

Coin: AE26

Obverse: IMP C GALLVS P FELIX AVG, laureate, draped and curiassed bust facing right.
Reverse: P M S C-OL VIM, personification of Moesia, standing, facing to the left, between a Bull, to the left and a Lion, to the right. ANXIII in exergue.

Weight: 11.35 g, Diameter: 26.2 x 23.3 x 2.7 mm, Die axis: 10°, Mint: Viminacium, Year: XIII (251 - 252 A.D.) Reference: Varbanov I 209
Rated Rare (R3, 500 - 1000 examples known)

Legions VII Claudia (emblem: Bull) & IV Flavia (emblem: Lion) were garrisoned in Viminacium
Masis
cdb2.jpg
Trebonianus Gallus, Billon-Tetradrachm, Antioch Syria 19 viewsTrebonianus Gallus, 251-253 A.D. Bi Tetradrachm ,
Obverse: AYTOK K G OYIB TREB GALLOC CEB, Laureate, draped and curiassed bust right, Officina "S" below; Reverse: DHMARX EZOYCIAC YPATOC B, Eagle standing facing head left with wreath in beak, Officina "S" between legs, SC in exergue.
Antioch Mint, 251 A.D., 6th Officina. Priestley 676; Dura I, 614.
12.11 g., 26.0 mm.
sold 2-2018
NORMAN K
A_and_V_Antioch_1st_Wkshp_Large.jpg
Vabalathus and Aurelian Antioch 1st Officina16 viewsVabalathus: 270 - 272 AD; Aurelian: 270 - 275 AD
Julius Aurelius Septimius Vabalathus Athenodorus (Wahb Allat), son of Septimius Odaenathus and Septimia Zenobia. Palmyrene Empire.
Obv: VABALATHVS V C R IM D R1; Bust of Vabalathus, laureate, diademed, draped and curiassed, facing right.
Rev: IMP C AVRELIANVS AVG; Bust of Aurelian, radiate and curiassed, facing right, from the front, A in exergue.
Denomination: billon antoninianus; Mint: Antioch; Officina: 1st; Issue: 1st; Date: Nov. 270 - Mar. 272; Weight: 2.73g; Diameter: 20.5mm; Die axis: 0º; References, for example: RIC V v.1 381 correc; MER - RIC 3102; SRCV III 11718

Notes:

1VABALATHVS V[IR] C[LARISSIMUS] R[EX] IM[PERATOR] D[UX] R[OMANORUM]. See for example, Bland (2011), pp. 135, 141 and Estiot, p. 118, esp. note 462. Although Potter, page 267 and footnote 24 postulates V[IR] C[ONSULARIS] for the mint at Antioch I would certainly side with Bland and Estiot.

Which side of this coin is the obverse and which side is the reverse?
Webb in RIC V, v.1 puts great weight on the titulature of Aurelian and mentions that mint marks on the obverse of coins were not unknown at Antioch. He considers the coin to have been struck as a sign of vassalage instead of having been struck as an insult. Webb states that Aurelian’s bust is on the obverse of the coin (p. 260). Robertson, pp. cxix and 142 also considers Aurelian’s bust to be on the obverse of the coin, but does not state an explicit reason for her position. Mattingly (1936) holds that the mint mark is the determining factor, and therefore believes that Aurelian’s bust is on the reverse of the coin. In SRCV III, p. 442 Sear follows the reasoning of Mattingly and although Vagi agrees that Aurelian’s bust is on the reverse of the coin (p. 403) he does not explicitly state his reason for believing so. Estiot states that the officina mark under the bust of Aurelian clearly indicates that his portrait is on the reverse of the coin (p. 118). Bland (2011) follows suit. When discussing this issue from Antioch he states that the officina mark is always placed on the reverse of coins. He notes that the placement of the officina mark sent a signal that Aurelian was “...being accorded a lower status than Vabalathus, although he was given his correct titles of Imperator and Augustus, and he wore a radiate crown, also traditionally associated with the senior Augustus” (p. 142 - 3). Watson argues that Queen Zenobia’s assertion of Palmyrene independence from Rome took place gradually (pp. 67 - 9). Bland believes that the placement of the officina mark under the bust of Aurelian on this coin was just another step in that assertion of independence.

Photo credits: Forum Ancient Coins

Sources

Bland 2011: Bland, Roger. “The Coinage of Vabalathus and Zenobia from Antioch and Alexandria" in Numismatic Chronicle, 171 (2011): 133 - 186.
Estiot, Sylviane. Monnaies de L’Empire romain XII.1: D’Aurelian à Florien (270 - 276 apres J.-C.). Paris: Bibliothèque nationale de France, 2004.
Mattingly 1936: Mattingly, Harold. “The Palmyrene Princes and the Mints of Antioch and Alexandria.” The Numismatic Chronicle and Journal of the Royal Numismatic Society, fifth Series, vol. 16, no. 62 (1936): pp. 89 - 114.
MER - RIC: Maison de l’Orient et la Méditerranée: Monnaies de l’Empire Romain / Roman Imperial Coinage AD 268-276. Accessed March 6, 2019. http://www.ric.mom.fr/en/home.
Potter, David S. The Roman Empire at Bay: AD 180 - 395. New York: Routledge, 2004
RIC V v.1: Webb, Percy. The Roman Imperial Coinage, Vol. V, Part 1: Valerian to Florian, edited by Harold Mattingly and Edward Sydenham. London: Spink & Son, 1927.
Robertson, Anne. Roman Imperial Coins in the Hunter Coin Cabinet, Vol. IV Valerian I to Allectus. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1978.
SRCV III: Sear, David. Roman Coins and Their Values, Vol. III: Maximinus I to Carinus. London: Spink, 2005.
Vagi, David. Coinage and History of the Roman Empire, Volume One: History. Sidney, Ohio: Coin World, 1999.
Watson, Alaric. Aurelian and the Third Century. New York: Routledge, 1999.
Tracy Aiello
A_and_V_Antioch_2nd_Wkshp_Large.jpg
Vabalathus and Aurelian Antioch 2nd Officina 13 viewsVabalathus: 270 - 272 AD; Aurelian: 270 - 275 AD
Julius Aurelius Septimius Vabalathus Athenodorus (Wahb Allat), son of Septimius Odaenathus and Septimia Zenobia. Palmyrene Empire.
Obv: VABALATHVS V C R IM D R1; Bust of Vabalathus, laureate, diademed, draped and curiassed, facing right, seen from behind.
Rev: IMP C AVRELIANVS AVG; Bust of Aurelian, radiate and curiassed, facing right, from the front, B in exergue.
Denomination: billon antoninianus; Mint: Antioch; Officina: 2nd; Issue: 1st; Date: Nov. 270 - Mar. 272; Weight: 3.855g; Diameter: 20.5mm; Die axis: 180º; References, for example: RIC V v.1 381 correc; MER - RIC 3103; SRCV III 11718

Notes:

1VABALATHVS V[IR] C[LARISSIMUS] R[EX] IM[PERATOR] D[UX] R[OMANORUM]. See for example, Bland (2011), pp. 135, 141 and Estiot, p. 118, esp. note 462. Although Potter, page 267 and footnote 24 postulates V[IR] C[ONSULARIS] for the mint at Antioch I would certainly side with Bland and Estiot.

Which side of this coin is the obverse and which side is the reverse?
Webb in RIC V, v.1 puts great weight on the titulature of Aurelian and mentions that mint marks on the obverse of coins were not unknown at Antioch. He considers the coin to have been struck as a sign of vassalage instead of having been struck as an insult. Webb states that Aurelian’s bust is on the obverse of the coin (p. 260). Robertson, pp. cxix and 142 also considers Aurelian’s bust to be on the obverse of the coin, but does not state an explicit reason for her position. Mattingly (1936) holds that the mint mark is the determining factor, and therefore believes that Aurelian’s bust is on the reverse of the coin. In SRCV III, p. 442 Sear follows the reasoning of Mattingly and although Vagi agrees that Aurelian’s bust is on the reverse of the coin (p. 403) he does not explicitly state his reason for believing so. Estiot states that the officina mark under the bust of Aurelian clearly indicates that his portrait is on the reverse of the coin (p. 118). Bland (2011) follows suit. When discussing this issue from Antioch he states that the officina mark is always placed on the reverse of coins. He notes that the placement of the officina mark sent a signal that Aurelian was “...being accorded a lower status than Vabalathus, although he was given his correct titles of Imperator and Augustus, and he wore a radiate crown, also traditionally associated with the senior Augustus” (p. 142 - 3). Watson argues that Queen Zenobia’s assertion of Palmyrene independence from Rome took place gradually (pp. 67 - 9). Bland believes that the placement of the officina mark under the bust of Aurelian on this coin was just another step in that assertion of independence.

Photo credits: Forum Ancient Coins

Sources

Bland 2011: Bland, Roger. “The Coinage of Vabalathus and Zenobia from Antioch and Alexandria" in Numismatic Chronicle, 171 (2011): 133 - 186.
Estiot, Sylviane. Monnaies de L’Empire romain XII.1: D’Aurelian à Florien (270 - 276 apres J.-C.). Paris: Bibliothèque nationale de France, 2004.
Mattingly 1936: Mattingly, Harold. “The Palmyrene Princes and the Mints of Antioch and Alexandria.” The Numismatic Chronicle and Journal of the Royal Numismatic Society, fifth Series, vol. 16, no. 62 (1936): pp. 89 - 114.
MER - RIC: Maison de l’Orient et la Méditerranée: Monnaies de l’Empire Romain / Roman Imperial Coinage AD 268-276. Accessed March 7, 2019. http://www.ric.mom.fr/en/home.
Potter, David S. The Roman Empire at Bay: AD 180 - 395. New York: Routledge, 2004
RIC V v.1: Webb, Percy. The Roman Imperial Coinage, Vol. V, Part 1: Valerian to Florian, edited by Harold Mattingly and Edward Sydenham. London: Spink & Son, 1927.
Robertson, Anne. Roman Imperial Coins in the Hunter Coin Cabinet, Vol. IV Valerian I to Allectus. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1978.
SRCV III: Sear, David. Roman Coins and Their Values, Vol. III: Maximinus I to Carinus. London: Spink, 2005.
Vagi, David. Coinage and History of the Roman Empire, Volume One: History. Sidney, Ohio: Coin World, 1999.
Watson, Alaric. Aurelian and the Third Century. New York: Routledge, 1999.
Tracy Aiello
A_and_V_Antioch_3rd_Wkshp_Large.jpg
Vabalathus and Aurelian Antioch 3rd Officina18 viewsVabalathus: 270 - 272 AD; Aurelian: 270 - 275 AD
Julius Aurelius Septimius Vabalathus Athenodorus (Wahb Allat), son of Septimius Odaenathus and Septimia Zenobia. Palmyrene Empire.
Obv: VABALATHVS V C R IM D R1; Bust of Vabalathus, laureate, diademed, draped and curiassed, facing right, seen from behind.
Rev: IMP C AVRELIANVS AVG; Bust of Aurelian, radiate and curiassed, facing right, from the front, Γ in exergue.
Denomination: billon antoninianus; Mint: Antioch; Officina: 3rd; Issue: 1st; Date: Nov. 270 - Mar. 272; Weight: 3.146g; Diameter: 21.2mm; Die axis: 180º; References, for example: RIC V v.1 381 correc; MER - RIC 3105; SRCV III 11718

Notes:

1VABALATHVS V[IR] C[LARISSIMUS] R[EX] IM[PERATOR] D[UX] R[OMANORUM]. See for example, Bland (2011), pp. 135, 141 and Estiot, p. 118, esp. note 462. Although Potter, page 267 and footnote 24 postulates V[IR] C[ONSULARIS] for the mint at Antioch I would certainly side with Bland and Estiot.

Which side of this coin is the obverse and which side is the reverse?
Webb in RIC V, v.1 puts great weight on the titulature of Aurelian and mentions that mint marks on the obverse of coins were not unknown at Antioch. He considers the coin to have been struck as a sign of vassalage instead of having been struck as an insult. Webb states that Aurelian’s bust is on the obverse of the coin (p. 260). Robertson, pp. cxix and 142 also considers Aurelian’s bust to be on the obverse of the coin, but does not state an explicit reason for her position. Mattingly (1936) holds that the mint mark is the determining factor, and therefore believes that Aurelian’s bust is on the reverse of the coin. In SRCV III, p. 442 Sear follows the reasoning of Mattingly and although Vagi agrees that Aurelian’s bust is on the reverse of the coin (p. 403) he does not explicitly state his reason for believing so. Estiot states that the officina mark under the bust of Aurelian clearly indicates that his portrait is on the reverse of the coin (p. 118). Bland (2011) follows suit. When discussing this issue from Antioch he states that the officina mark is always placed on the reverse of coins. He notes that the placement of the officina mark sent a signal that Aurelian was “...being accorded a lower status than Vabalathus, although he was given his correct titles of Imperator and Augustus, and he wore a radiate crown, also traditionally associated with the senior Augustus” (p. 142 - 3). Watson argues that Queen Zenobia’s assertion of Palmyrene independence from Rome took place gradually (pp. 67 - 9). Bland believes that the placement of the officina mark under the bust of Aurelian on this coin was just another step in that assertion of independence.

Photo credits: Forum Ancient Coins

Sources

Bland 2011: Bland, Roger. “The Coinage of Vabalathus and Zenobia from Antioch and Alexandria" in Numismatic Chronicle, 171 (2011): 133 - 186.
Estiot, Sylviane. Monnaies de L’Empire romain XII.1: D’Aurelian à Florien (270 - 276 apres J.-C.). Paris: Bibliothèque nationale de France, 2004.
Mattingly 1936: Mattingly, Harold. “The Palmyrene Princes and the Mints of Antioch and Alexandria.” The Numismatic Chronicle and Journal of the Royal Numismatic Society, fifth Series, vol. 16, no. 62 (1936): pp. 89 - 114.
MER - RIC: Maison de l’Orient et la Méditerranée: Monnaies de l’Empire Romain / Roman Imperial Coinage AD 268-276. Accessed March 7, 2019. http://www.ric.mom.fr/en/home.
Potter, David S. The Roman Empire at Bay: AD 180 - 395. New York: Routledge, 2004
RIC V v.1: Webb, Percy. The Roman Imperial Coinage, Vol. V, Part 1: Valerian to Florian, edited by Harold Mattingly and Edward Sydenham. London: Spink & Son, 1927.
Robertson, Anne. Roman Imperial Coins in the Hunter Coin Cabinet, Vol. IV Valerian I to Allectus. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1978.
SRCV III: Sear, David. Roman Coins and Their Values, Vol. III: Maximinus I to Carinus. London: Spink, 2005.
Vagi, David. Coinage and History of the Roman Empire, Volume One: History. Sidney, Ohio: Coin World, 1999.
Watson, Alaric. Aurelian and the Third Century. New York: Routledge, 1999.
Tracy Aiello
A_and__V_Antioch_4th_Wkshp_Large.jpg
Vabalathus and Aurelian Antioch 4th Officina11 viewsVabalathus: 270 - 272 AD; Aurelian: 270 - 275 AD
Julius Aurelius Septimius Vabalathus Athenodorus (Wahb Allat), son of Septimius Odaenathus and Septimia Zenobia. Palmyrene Empire.
Obv: VABALATHVS V C R IM D R1; Bust of Vabalathus, laureate, diademed, draped and curiassed, facing right, seen from behind.
Rev: IMP C AVRELIANVS AVG; Bust of Aurelian, radiate and curiassed, facing right, from the front, Δ in exergue.
Denomination: billon antoninianus; Mint: Antioch; Officina: 4th; Issue: 1st; Date: Nov. 270 - Mar. 272; Weight: 3.563g; Diameter: 21.8mm; Die axis: 180º; References, for example: RIC V v.1 381 correc; MER - RIC 3106; SRCV III 11718

Notes:

1VABALATHVS V[IR] C[LARISSIMUS] R[EX] IM[PERATOR] D[UX] R[OMANORUM]. See for example, Bland (2011), pp. 135, 141 and Estiot, p. 118, esp. note 462. Although Potter, page 267 and footnote 24 postulates V[IR] C[ONSULARIS] for the mint at Antioch I would certainly side with Bland and Estiot.

Which side of this coin is the obverse and which side is the reverse?
Webb in RIC V, v.1 puts great weight on the titulature of Aurelian and mentions that mint marks on the obverse of coins were not unknown at Antioch. He considers the coin to have been struck as a sign of vassalage instead of having been struck as an insult. Webb states that Aurelian’s bust is on the obverse of the coin (p. 260). Robertson, pp. cxix and 142 also considers Aurelian’s bust to be on the obverse of the coin, but does not state an explicit reason for her position. Mattingly (1936) holds that the mint mark is the determining factor, and therefore believes that Aurelian’s bust is on the reverse of the coin. In SRCV III, p. 442 Sear follows the reasoning of Mattingly and although Vagi agrees that Aurelian’s bust is on the reverse of the coin (p. 403) he does not explicitly state his reason for believing so. Estiot states that the officina mark under the bust of Aurelian clearly indicates that his portrait is on the reverse of the coin (p. 118). Bland (2011) follows suit. When discussing this issue from Antioch he states that the officina mark is always placed on the reverse of coins. He notes that the placement of the officina mark sent a signal that Aurelian was “...being accorded a lower status than Vabalathus, although he was given his correct titles of Imperator and Augustus, and he wore a radiate crown, also traditionally associated with the senior Augustus” (p. 142 - 3). Watson argues that Queen Zenobia’s assertion of Palmyrene independence from Rome took place gradually (pp. 67 - 9). Bland believes that the placement of the officina mark under the bust of Aurelian on this coin was just another step in that assertion of independence.

Photo credits: Forum Ancient Coins

Sources

Bland 2011: Bland, Roger. “The Coinage of Vabalathus and Zenobia from Antioch and Alexandria" in Numismatic Chronicle, 171 (2011): 133 - 186.
Estiot, Sylviane. Monnaies de L’Empire romain XII.1: D’Aurelian à Florien (270 - 276 apres J.-C.). Paris: Bibliothèque nationale de France, 2004.
Mattingly 1936: Mattingly, Harold. “The Palmyrene Princes and the Mints of Antioch and Alexandria.” The Numismatic Chronicle and Journal of the Royal Numismatic Society, fifth Series, vol. 16, no. 62 (1936): pp. 89 - 114.
MER - RIC: Maison de l’Orient et la Méditerranée: Monnaies de l’Empire Romain / Roman Imperial Coinage AD 268-276. Accessed March 7, 2019. http://www.ric.mom.fr/en/home.
Potter, David S. The Roman Empire at Bay: AD 180 - 395. New York: Routledge, 2004
RIC V v.1: Webb, Percy. The Roman Imperial Coinage, Vol. V, Part 1: Valerian to Florian, edited by Harold Mattingly and Edward Sydenham. London: Spink & Son, 1927.
Robertson, Anne. Roman Imperial Coins in the Hunter Coin Cabinet, Vol. IV Valerian I to Allectus. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1978.
SRCV III: Sear, David. Roman Coins and Their Values, Vol. III: Maximinus I to Carinus. London: Spink, 2005.
Vagi, David. Coinage and History of the Roman Empire, Volume One: History. Sidney, Ohio: Coin World, 1999.
Watson, Alaric. Aurelian and the Third Century. New York: Routledge, 1999.
Tracy Aiello
A_and_V_Antioch_5th_WKshp_Large.jpg
Vabalathus and Aurelian Antioch 5th Officina16 viewsVabalathus: 270 - 272 AD; Aurelian: 270 - 275 AD
Julius Aurelius Septimius Vabalathus Athenodorus (Wahb Allat), son of Septimius Odaenathus and Septimia Zenobia. Palmyrene Empire.
Obv: VABALATHVS V C R IM D R1; Bust of Vabalathus, laureate, diademed, draped and curiassed, facing right, seen from behind.
Rev: IMP C AVRELIANVS AVG; Bust of Aurelian, radiate and curiassed, facing right, from the front, ϵ in exergue.
Denomination: billon antoninianus; Mint: Antioch; Officina: 5th; Issue: 1st; Date: Nov. 270 - Mar. 272; Weight: 3.262; Diameter: 20.3mm; Die axis: 315º; References, for example: RIC V v.1 381 correc; MER - RIC 3107; SRCV III 11718

Notes:

1VABALATHVS V[IR] C[LARISSIMUS] R[EX] IM[PERATOR] D[UX] R[OMANORUM]. See for example, Bland (2011), pp. 135, 141 and Estiot, p. 118, esp. note 462. Although Potter, page 267 and footnote 24 postulates V[IR] C[ONSULARIS] for the mint at Antioch I would certainly side with Bland and Estiot.

Which side of this coin is the obverse and which side is the reverse?
Webb in RIC V, v.1 puts great weight on the titulature of Aurelian and mentions that mint marks on the obverse of coins were not unknown at Antioch. He considers the coin to have been struck as a sign of vassalage instead of having been struck as an insult. Webb states that Aurelian’s bust is on the obverse of the coin (p. 260). Robertson, pp. cxix and 142 also considers Aurelian’s bust to be on the obverse of the coin, but does not state an explicit reason for her position. Mattingly (1936) holds that the mint mark is the determining factor, and therefore believes that Aurelian’s bust is on the reverse of the coin. In SRCV III, p. 442 Sear follows the reasoning of Mattingly and although Vagi agrees that Aurelian’s bust is on the reverse of the coin (p. 403) he does not explicitly state his reason for believing so. Estiot states that the officina mark under the bust of Aurelian clearly indicates that his portrait is on the reverse of the coin (p. 118). Bland (2011) follows suit. When discussing this issue from Antioch he states that the officina mark is always placed on the reverse of coins. He notes that the placement of the officina mark sent a signal that Aurelian was “...being accorded a lower status than Vabalathus, although he was given his correct titles of Imperator and Augustus, and he wore a radiate crown, also traditionally associated with the senior Augustus” (p. 142 - 3). Watson argues that Queen Zenobia’s assertion of Palmyrene independence from Rome took place gradually (pp. 67 - 9). Bland believes that the placement of the officina mark under the bust of Aurelian on this coin was just another step in that assertion of independence.

Photo credits: Forum Ancient Coins

Sources

Bland 2011: Bland, Roger. “The Coinage of Vabalathus and Zenobia from Antioch and Alexandria" in Numismatic Chronicle, 171 (2011): 133 - 186.
Estiot, Sylviane. Monnaies de L’Empire romain XII.1: D’Aurelian à Florien (270 - 276 apres J.-C.). Paris: Bibliothèque nationale de France, 2004.
Mattingly 1936: Mattingly, Harold. “The Palmyrene Princes and the Mints of Antioch and Alexandria.” The Numismatic Chronicle and Journal of the Royal Numismatic Society, fifth Series, vol. 16, no. 62 (1936): pp. 89 - 114.
MER - RIC: Maison de l’Orient et la Méditerranée: Monnaies de l’Empire Romain / Roman Imperial Coinage AD 268-276. Accessed March 7, 2019. http://www.ric.mom.fr/en/home.
Potter, David S. The Roman Empire at Bay: AD 180 - 395. New York: Routledge, 2004
RIC V v.1: Webb, Percy. The Roman Imperial Coinage, Vol. V, Part 1: Valerian to Florian, edited by Harold Mattingly and Edward Sydenham. London: Spink & Son, 1927.
Robertson, Anne. Roman Imperial Coins in the Hunter Coin Cabinet, Vol. IV Valerian I to Allectus. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1978.
SRCV III: Sear, David. Roman Coins and Their Values, Vol. III: Maximinus I to Carinus. London: Spink, 2005.
Vagi, David. Coinage and History of the Roman Empire, Volume One: History. Sidney, Ohio: Coin World, 1999.
Watson, Alaric. Aurelian and the Third Century. New York: Routledge, 1999.
Tracy Aiello
A_and_V_Antioch_6th_Wksp_Large.jpg
Vabalathus and Aurelian Antioch 6th Officina22 viewsVabalathus: 270 - 272 AD; Aurelian: 270 - 275 AD
Julius Aurelius Septimius Vabalathus Athenodorus (Wahb Allat), son of Septimius Odaenathus and Septimia Zenobia. Palmyrene Empire.
Obv: VABALATHVS V C R IM D R1; Bust of Vabalathus, laureate, diademed, draped and curiassed, facing right, seen from behind.
Rev: IMP C AVRELIANVS AVG; Bust of Aurelian, radiate and curiassed, facing right, from the front, S in exergue.
Denomination: billon antoninianus; Mint: Antioch; Officina: 6th; Issue: 1st; Date: Nov. 270 - Mar. 272; Weight: 2.812g; Diameter: 21.3mm; Die axis: 150º; References, for example: RIC V v.1 381 correc; MER - RIC 3108; SRCV III 11718

Notes:

1VABALATHVS V[IR] C[LARISSIMUS] R[EX] IM[PERATOR] D[UX] R[OMANORUM]. See for example, Bland (2011), pp. 135, 141 and Estiot, p. 118, esp. note 462. Although Potter, page 267 and footnote 24 postulates V[IR] C[ONSULARIS] for the mint at Antioch I would certainly side with Bland and Estiot.

Which side of this coin is the obverse and which side is the reverse?
Webb in RIC V, v.1 puts great weight on the titulature of Aurelian and mentions that mint marks on the obverse of coins were not unknown at Antioch. He considers the coin to have been struck as a sign of vassalage instead of having been struck as an insult. Webb states that Aurelian’s bust is on the obverse of the coin (p. 260). Robertson, pp. cxix and 142 also considers Aurelian’s bust to be on the obverse of the coin, but does not state an explicit reason for her position. Mattingly (1936) holds that the mint mark is the determining factor, and therefore believes that Aurelian’s bust is on the reverse of the coin. In SRCV III, p. 442 Sear follows the reasoning of Mattingly and although Vagi agrees that Aurelian’s bust is on the reverse of the coin (p. 403) he does not explicitly state his reason for believing so. Estiot states that the officina mark under the bust of Aurelian clearly indicates that his portrait is on the reverse of the coin (p. 118). Bland (2011) follows suit. When discussing this issue from Antioch he states that the officina mark is always placed on the reverse of coins. He notes that the placement of the officina mark sent a signal that Aurelian was “...being accorded a lower status than Vabalathus, although he was given his correct titles of Imperator and Augustus, and he wore a radiate crown, also traditionally associated with the senior Augustus” (p. 142 - 3). Watson argues that Queen Zenobia’s assertion of Palmyrene independence from Rome took place gradually (pp. 67 - 9). Bland believes that the placement of the officina mark under the bust of Aurelian on this coin was just another step in that assertion of independence.

Photo credits: Forum Ancient Coins

Sources

Bland 2011: Bland, Roger. “The Coinage of Vabalathus and Zenobia from Antioch and Alexandria" in Numismatic Chronicle, 171 (2011): 133 - 186.
Estiot, Sylviane. Monnaies de L’Empire romain XII.1: D’Aurelian à Florien (270 - 276 apres J.-C.). Paris: Bibliothèque nationale de France, 2004.
Mattingly 1936: Mattingly, Harold. “The Palmyrene Princes and the Mints of Antioch and Alexandria.” The Numismatic Chronicle and Journal of the Royal Numismatic Society, fifth Series, vol. 16, no. 62 (1936): pp. 89 - 114.
MER - RIC: Maison de l’Orient et la Méditerranée: Monnaies de l’Empire Romain / Roman Imperial Coinage AD 268-276. Accessed March 7, 2019. http://www.ric.mom.fr/en/home.
Potter, David S. The Roman Empire at Bay: AD 180 - 395. New York: Routledge, 2004
RIC V v.1: Webb, Percy. The Roman Imperial Coinage, Vol. V, Part 1: Valerian to Florian, edited by Harold Mattingly and Edward Sydenham. London: Spink & Son, 1927.
Robertson, Anne. Roman Imperial Coins in the Hunter Coin Cabinet, Vol. IV Valerian I to Allectus. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1978.
SRCV III: Sear, David. Roman Coins and Their Values, Vol. III: Maximinus I to Carinus. London: Spink, 2005.
Vagi, David. Coinage and History of the Roman Empire, Volume One: History. Sidney, Ohio: Coin World, 1999.
Watson, Alaric. Aurelian and the Third Century. New York: Routledge, 1999.
Tracy Aiello
A_and_V_Antioch_7th_Wksp_Large.jpg
Vabalathus and Aurelian Antioch 7th Officina27 viewsVabalathus: 270 - 272 AD; Aurelian: 270 - 275 AD
Julius Aurelius Septimius Vabalathus Athenodorus (Wahb Allat), son of Septimius Odaenathus and Septimia Zenobia. Palmyrene Empire.
Obv: VABALATHVS V C R IM D R1; Bust of Vabalathus, laureate, diademed, draped and curiassed, facing right, seen from behind.
Rev: IMP C AVRELIANVS AVG; Bust of Aurelian, radiate and curiassed, facing right, from the front, Z in exergue.
Denomination: billon antoninianus; Mint: Antioch; Officina: 7th; Issue: 1st; Date: Nov. 270 - Mar. 272; Weight: 4.137g; Diameter: 20.3mm; Die axis: 0º; References, for example: RIC V v.1 381 correc; MER - RIC 3110; SRCV III 11718

Notes:

1VABALATHVS V[IR] C[LARISSIMUS] R[EX] IM[PERATOR] D[UX] R[OMANORUM]. See for example, Bland (2011), pp. 135, 141 and Estiot, p. 118, esp. note 462. Although Potter, page 267 and footnote 24 postulates V[IR] C[ONSULARIS] for the mint at Antioch I would certainly side with Bland and Estiot.

Which side of this coin is the obverse and which side is the reverse?
Webb in RIC V, v.1 puts great weight on the titulature of Aurelian and mentions that mint marks on the obverse of coins were not unknown at Antioch. He considers the coin to have been struck as a sign of vassalage instead of having been struck as an insult. Webb states that Aurelian’s bust is on the obverse of the coin (p. 260). Robertson, pp. cxix and 142 also considers Aurelian’s bust to be on the obverse of the coin, but does not state an explicit reason for her position. Mattingly (1936) holds that the mint mark is the determining factor, and therefore believes that Aurelian’s bust is on the reverse of the coin. In SRCV III, p. 442 Sear follows the reasoning of Mattingly and although Vagi agrees that Aurelian’s bust is on the reverse of the coin (p. 403) he does not explicitly state his reason for believing so. Estiot states that the officina mark under the bust of Aurelian clearly indicates that his portrait is on the reverse of the coin (p. 118). Bland (2011) follows suit. When discussing this issue from Antioch he states that the officina mark is always placed on the reverse of coins. He notes that the placement of the officina mark sent a signal that Aurelian was “...being accorded a lower status than Vabalathus, although he was given his correct titles of Imperator and Augustus, and he wore a radiate crown, also traditionally associated with the senior Augustus” (p. 142 - 3). Watson argues that Queen Zenobia’s assertion of Palmyrene independence from Rome took place gradually (pp. 67 - 9). Bland believes that the placement of the officina mark under the bust of Aurelian on this coin was just another step in that assertion of independence.

Photo credits: Forum Ancient Coins

Sources

Bland 2011: Bland, Roger. “The Coinage of Vabalathus and Zenobia from Antioch and Alexandria" in Numismatic Chronicle, 171 (2011): 133 - 186.
Estiot, Sylviane. Monnaies de L’Empire romain XII.1: D’Aurelian à Florien (270 - 276 apres J.-C.). Paris: Bibliothèque nationale de France, 2004.
Mattingly 1936: Mattingly, Harold. “The Palmyrene Princes and the Mints of Antioch and Alexandria.” The Numismatic Chronicle and Journal of the Royal Numismatic Society, fifth Series, vol. 16, no. 62 (1936): pp. 89 - 114.
MER - RIC: Maison de l’Orient et la Méditerranée: Monnaies de l’Empire Romain / Roman Imperial Coinage AD 268-276. Accessed March 7, 2019. http://www.ric.mom.fr/en/home.
Potter, David S. The Roman Empire at Bay: AD 180 - 395. New York: Routledge, 2004
RIC V v.1: Webb, Percy. The Roman Imperial Coinage, Vol. V, Part 1: Valerian to Florian, edited by Harold Mattingly and Edward Sydenham. London: Spink & Son, 1927.
Robertson, Anne. Roman Imperial Coins in the Hunter Coin Cabinet, Vol. IV Valerian I to Allectus. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1978.
SRCV III: Sear, David. Roman Coins and Their Values, Vol. III: Maximinus I to Carinus. London: Spink, 2005.
Vagi, David. Coinage and History of the Roman Empire, Volume One: History. Sidney, Ohio: Coin World, 1999.
Watson, Alaric. Aurelian and the Third Century. New York: Routledge, 1999.
1 commentsTracy Aiello
A_and_V_Antioch_8th_Wksp.jpeg
Vabalathus and Aurelian Antioch 8th Officina25 viewsVabalathus: 270 - 272 AD; Aurelian: 270 - 275 AD
Julius Aurelius Septimius Vabalathus Athenodorus (Wahb Allat), son of Septimius Odaenathus and Septimia Zenobia. Palmyrene Empire.
Obv: VABALATHVS V C R IM D R1; Bust of Vabalathus, draped and curiassed, facing right.
Rev: IMP C AVRELIANVS AVG; Bust of Aurelian, radiate and curiassed, facing right, from the rear, H in exergue.
Denomination: billon antoninianus; Mint: Antioch; Officina: 8th; Issue: 1st; Date: Nov. 270 - Mar. 272; Weight: 3.96g; Diameter: 21mm; Die axis: 180º; References, for example: RIC V v.1 381 correc; MER - RIC 3113; SRCV III 11718

Notes:

1VABALATHVS V[IR] C[LARISSIMUS] R[EX] IM[PERATOR] D[UX] R[OMANORUM]. See for example, Bland (2011), pp. 135, 141 and Estiot, p. 118, esp. note 462. Although Potter, page 267 and footnote 24 postulates V[IR] C[ONSULARIS] for the mint at Antioch I would certainly side with Bland and Estiot.

Which side of this coin is the obverse and which side is the reverse?
Webb in RIC V, v.1 puts great weight on the titulature of Aurelian and mentions that mint marks on the obverse of coins were not unknown at Antioch. He considers the coin to have been struck as a sign of vassalage instead of having been struck as an insult. Webb states that Aurelian’s bust is on the obverse of the coin (p. 260). Robertson, pp. cxix and 142 also considers Aurelian’s bust to be on the obverse of the coin, but does not state an explicit reason for her position. Mattingly (1936) holds that the mint mark is the determining factor, and therefore believes that Aurelian’s bust is on the reverse of the coin. In SRCV III, p. 442 Sear follows the reasoning of Mattingly and although Vagi agrees that Aurelian’s bust is on the reverse of the coin (p. 403) he does not explicitly state his reason for believing so. Estiot states that the officina mark under the bust of Aurelian clearly indicates that his portrait is on the reverse of the coin (p. 118). Bland (2011) follows suit. When discussing this issue from Antioch he states that the officina mark is always placed on the reverse of coins. He notes that the placement of the officina mark sent a signal that Aurelian was “...being accorded a lower status than Vabalathus, although he was given his correct titles of Imperator and Augustus, and he wore a radiate crown, also traditionally associated with the senior Augustus” (p. 142 - 3). Watson argues that Queen Zenobia’s assertion of Palmyrene independence from Rome took place gradually (pp. 67 - 9). Bland believes that the placement of the officina mark under the bust of Aurelian on this coin was just another step in that assertion of independence.

Photo credits: Aegean Numismatics

Sources

Bland 2011: Bland, Roger. “The Coinage of Vabalathus and Zenobia from Antioch and Alexandria" in Numismatic Chronicle, 171 (2011): 133 - 186.
Estiot, Sylviane. Monnaies de L’Empire romain XII.1: D’Aurelian à Florien (270 - 276 apres J.-C.). Paris: Bibliothèque nationale de France, 2004.
Mattingly 1936: Mattingly, Harold. “The Palmyrene Princes and the Mints of Antioch and Alexandria.” The Numismatic Chronicle and Journal of the Royal Numismatic Society, fifth Series, vol. 16, no. 62 (1936): pp. 89 - 114.
MER - RIC: Maison de l’Orient et la Méditerranée: Monnaies de l’Empire Romain / Roman Imperial Coinage AD 268-276. Accessed March 7, 2019. http://www.ric.mom.fr/en/home.
Potter, David S. The Roman Empire at Bay: AD 180 - 395. New York: Routledge, 2004
RIC V v.1: Webb, Percy. The Roman Imperial Coinage, Vol. V, Part 1: Valerian to Florian, edited by Harold Mattingly and Edward Sydenham. London: Spink & Son, 1927.
Robertson, Anne. Roman Imperial Coins in the Hunter Coin Cabinet, Vol. IV Valerian I to Allectus. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1978.
SRCV III: Sear, David. Roman Coins and Their Values, Vol. III: Maximinus I to Carinus. London: Spink, 2005.
Vagi, David. Coinage and History of the Roman Empire, Volume One: History. Sidney, Ohio: Coin World, 1999.
Watson, Alaric. Aurelian and the Third Century. New York: Routledge, 1999.
Tracy Aiello
TrajanDeciusRIC11b.jpg
[1108a] Trajan Decius, July 249 - June or July 251 A.D. 144 viewsSilver antoninianus, RIC 11b, RSC 4, choice EF, Rome mint, 3.923g, 23.3mm, 0o, 249 - 251 A.D.; Obverse: IMP C M Q TRAIANVS DECIVS AVG, radiate and cuirassed bust right, from behind; Reverse: ADVENTVS AVG, Trajan Decius on horseback left, raising right hand and holding scepter. Ex FORVM.


De Imperatoribus Romanis,
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors

Trajan Decius (249-251 A.D.) and Usurpers During His Reign

Geoffrey Nathan and Robin McMahon

Geoffrey Nathan
San Diego State University



Early Life and Public Career

Any discussion of Decius (and for most third century emperors) must be prefaced by an understanding that the historical tradition is incomplete, fragmentary, and not wholly trustworthy. Any reconstruction of his life and reign will therefore be to some degree speculative. With that caveat in mind, Gaius Messius Quintus Decius was born, to a provincial yet aristocratic Senatorial family during the transitional Severan age, possibly in 201. His family may have been from Italian stock, although that is by no means certain. Attempts to describe his life previous to the consulship are problematic, although he did serve as governor in Moesia in the mid-230's. That also means that Decius probably had been a member of the Senate for some time. We know little else about his early life, other than at some point he married Herennia Cupressenia Etruscilla, apparently from the Senatorial ordo as well. His political fortunes rose in the troubled 240's. As instability grew in the mid-third century, Philip the Arab charged Decius, suffect consul for 249, with restoring order along the Danubian frontier. In addition to the border unrest, a low-level army officer, Tiberius Claudius Marinus Pacatianus, had led a rebellion of the armies in Pannonia and Moesia. For a short time, Marinus apparently claimed the imperial purple and along with movements of the Gepidae, represented a clear threat to the stability of Philip's rule.

Philip's decision to send Decius was perhaps more motivated by political expediency than by any great confidence in his military abilities. Decius had an aristocratic pedigree, and so was likely to have been a popular choice with a Senate that was increasingly doubtful of Philip's abilities. He was also a native of Sirmium in Pannonia Inferior, and so was likely familiar with the intricacies of life and politics in the region. Finally, he had, of course, served as governor of the wayward province, and thus undoubtedly had connections there among the civil and military curia--ones that Philip hoped Decius could exploit. Thus, the consul was charged with restoring order along one of the Empire's most problematic borders. Accompanied by his son, Herennius, Decius traveled to Moesia, probably to reclaim the Legio IV Flavia Felix and possibly the Legio XI, both of which were stationed in that province.

Shortly before his arrival, Marinus was killed and local troops quickly named Decius emperor, encouraging him to assert this newfound responsibility in a war against Philip. Philip's inability to deal decisively with the worsening military crises on the borders, the fear of punishment, and the opportunity for enrichment no doubt motivated the soldiers to place the purple on a local leader--a now increasingly common practice. Decius' lineage also probably appealed to traditionalists in Rome, who begrudged Philip his humble origins and his possible involvement in the death of Gordian III. Philip led out an army in June of 249 to meet his newest rival for the purple and at an unknown location (possibly Verona or Beroea) lost the battle. Whether Philip died in the fighting or was assassinated by his own troops--another increasingly common practice--is unknown. Philip's son, Philip Junior, recently made an Augustus, was quickly put to death by the Praetorian Guard in Rome. Decius was the first emperor to come from the Balkans region. How much he wanted to serve is unknown. While this account undoubtedly contains fictional elements, with several popular literary topoi, the rough outlines of the story are undoubtedly true: we have epigraphic evidence in July for support among the Pannonian Legio X, suggesting that Decius owed his accession in no small part to local troops

Publicity and Power
The victory of an established Senatorial aristocrat was one that seemed to reassert the authority and place of traditional political power, despite the means of Decius' ascension. The new emperor, no doubt aware of the perils of his position, seems to have embarked upon a highly conservative program of imperial propaganda to endear himself to the Roman aristocracy and to the troops who had thrust the purple upon him. One of his earliest acts was to take the honorific name of Trajan, whose status as the greatest of all emperors after Augustus was now becoming firmly established. The fact that Trajan had commanded legions in Upper Germany and had close links to both Pannonia and Moesia at the time of his accession invited the comparison. The name was cleverly chosen: Trajan had been an active and successful general throughout his reign, but had also established a reputation for a widely popular civil government.

Decius also served as consul in every year of his reign and took for himself traditional republican powers, another way to underscore his authority and conservatism. He even tried to revive the long defunct office of censor in 251, purportedly offering it to the future emperor, Valerian. Decius moreover portrayed himself as an activist general and soldier. In addition to leading military campaigns personally, he often directly bestowed honors upon his troops, high and low alike. He also holds the dubious distinction of being the first emperor to have died fighting a foreign army in battle. Finally, in 250, he associated his sons Herennius and Hostilianus in his rule by making them Caesars, eventually raising the former (and elder) to Augustus. Undoubtedly, Decius sought to create a dynasty in much the same way the Gordians had in the previous decade. This traditionalism may to be a large extent, however, a construction rather than a reality. When we abandon the literary tradition and look instead at other forms of evidence, his imperial aims are less clear. The legal record, extremely thin, is only vaguely supportive of a conservative policy: most of his surviving enactments deal with private law issues consistent with earlier Severan jurisprudence.

On the other hand in late 249, when Decius returned to Rome, he embarked upon an active building program in the capital. After a destructive fire, he extensively restored the Colosseum. He later commissioned the opulent Decian Baths along the Aventine. He perhaps also was responsible for the construction of the Decian Portico. Such activities contrasted to a twenty-year period of relative building inactivity. Both the kind of building projects and their stylistic qualities suggest an attempt to recall the glories of the past. The numismatic evidence also suggests some degree of traditionalism. It is there that we see the first references to Trajan Decius, as well as an association with both Pannonia and Dacia. His Liberitas and Uberitas issues, combined with his wife's Pudicitia and his sons' Princeps Iuventi coins, all seem to rearticulate traditional ideology. Legends tend to be conservative, so this is hardly surprising, but there were no great innovations to suggest a new set of ideological principles. In sum, while the literary reconstructions of Decius' life are problematic, it seems clear that traditionalism was an important factor in his administration, especially in the wake of Philip's reign.

The Persecution of Christians
Another possible aspect of this conservatism was a reported wide-scale attack on the growing Christian minority. The third century saw the slow creation of sizeable communities in the Empire's urban populations. For the first time, if we are to believe Christian sources, an Empire-wide persecution of Christians was begun under Decius. The state required all citizens to sacrifice to the state gods and be in receipt of a libellus, a certificate from a temple confirming the act. The rationale for the emperor's actions, however, is not entirely clear. Eusebius writes he did so because he hated Philip, who purportedly was a secret Christian. Probably the enmity was real, but it seems unconnected to the introduction of these policies. More likely, if Decius did indeed seek to persecute Christians, he was reacting to the growing visibility of the religion, especially in the city of Rome itself. One of the more prominent martyrs of the age was Fabian, the bishop of the imperial capital.

But the new policy of public religiosity was much more probably a program to reassert traditional public piety, consistent with some of the other conservative initiatives introduced during the emperor's short reign. The libelli themselves were largely generalized in nature and language, and there is no implication that they were directed at any one group per se. Whatever intended effect it may have had on Christianity was thus to a degree unplanned. Christians would have no doubt seen it differently. It is possible then that fourth and fifth century Christian polemicists have misinterpreted (whether purposefully or not) Decius' libelli. In the particular cases of Eusebius and Lactantius, both wrote in the wake of the great persecution of Diocletian and no doubt magnified upon the theme of the tyrant-persecutor. A hostile tradition notwithstanding, the new requirements did impact Christians most acutely, causing considerable division in the growing ranks of the new religion.

Imperial and Military Problems
Like other third century emperors, Decius was not free of threats to his authority, either from within or without. The revolt of Jotapianus, either in Syria or Cappadocia, had actually begun in Philip's reign, but was quickly quelled after Decius' accession. Probably the usurper's own soldiers murdered the would-be emperor, since the accounts state that his body was delivered to Decius while still in Rome in the summer of 249.
A potentially more serious revolt broke out while Decius was out of Rome in 250 fighting the Goths. Julius Valens Licinianus, also a member of the Senatorial aristocracy with some popular support, took the purple at the Empire's capital. It appears to have been relatively short-lived grab for power, ending in a few days with his execution. The governor of Macedon, Titus Julius Priscus, also permitted himself to be proclaimed Augustus at Philippopolis towards the end of 251, probably with Gothic collusion. The Senate declared him a public enemy almost as soon as he chose usurpation. He probably survived Decius, but is likely to have perished when Gallus became emperor.

Of greater concern than sporadic rebellions, which were relatively minor, were the vitreous northern borders. For the first time, a new and aggressive Germanic people, the Goths, crossed into and raided Roman territory in the 250's. At the time of Decius' forced accession, the Gepidae and the Carpi were both raiding deep into the Moesian provinces. They, along with the Goths, raided Pannonia and Dacia as well. Decius was forced to fight campaigns each year of his reign, doing his best to keep the borders stable.

His final campaign in 251 led to the death of his son, Herennius, and to his own. Decius led a successful attack on the Carpi, pushing them out of Dacia. But Moesia Inferior had been left largely undefended and Cniva, king of the Goths, led a sizeable portion of his army into the province. The emperor, after chasing the Germanic force around the region, engaged Cniva's forces outside of Philippopolis, which had recently been sacked by the king and held by the rebel, Priscus. It was here that his elder son was slain by an arrow and the emperor, seeking to reassure his troops, famously proclaimed that the death of one soldier was not a great loss to the Republic. Cniva then led his troops homeward, laden with the spoils of war. The loss became Decius' undoing. Trebonianus Gallus, one of the emperor's commanders, may have revolted, although it is not entirely clear. Instead of regrouping his forces and re-securing the borders, Decius unwisely sought to chase down Cniva before he left Roman territory. His decision may have been motivated by his son's death (despite his insistence otherwise) or it may have been an attempt to salvage what had been a failed campaign. In either case, it was ill-advised.

It was at Abrittus, about 100 kilometers northeast of Nicopolis that Decius finally met his death. Hoping to cut off Cniva's escape route (and perhaps minimize any help from Gallus), Decius' army was itself cut off in the marshy terrain. The details are sketchy, but Cniva divided his seventy thousand man army into three groups and surrounded the emperor's force. On July 1st, the emperor and most of his troops were slain. In the aftermath, the survivors named Trebonianus Gallus emperor, a decision subsequently confirmed by the Senate. Some contemporaries called the death tragic; others heroic. An Altar of Decius was erected where the emperor fell, still apparently famous two centuries later. Decius and Herennius may have even been deified. Christian polemicists, as might be expected, took pleasure in describing Decius' body being stripped and left on the battlefield to be devoured by animals. Whatever else, his was the first death of an emperor at the hands of an enemy of Rome. But even the account of his death, along with that of his son, must be looked on suspiciously. Their deaths bring to mind the sacrificial devotions of the famous Republican Decii father and son, P. Decius Mus senior and junior. The circumstances of Decius' death, therefore, are perhaps as opaque as those of his accession.

Assessment
In spite of gaining some modicum of praise from both ancient and modern observers, Decius' reign was not well-suited to the demands of a rapidly changing empire. Conservatism may have been popular among a certain portion of the Roman elite, but the old aristocracy's power and influence all but disappeared in the third century. Decius clearly had a broader vision of what he wanted to accomplish in his reign than many of his contemporaries, and certainly he was vigorous, but he was also a man who was not sufficiently flexible when the moment called for it. His religious policy caused major disruptions in Rome and; in contrast to some of the other barracks emperors, Decius proved himself less than apt when dealing with Rome's Germanic foes. His death may have been heroic, but it was unnecessary and unsuccessful. This best sums up Decius Trajan's reign.

Ancient Sources

Relatively little remains about Decius' reign. If there were a biography of Decius in the SHA, it no longer survives, although there are scattered references to his rule in the biographies of Claudius II Gothicus and Aurelian. Zosimus, i: 21-23, Aurelius Victor, 29-30, Zonaras 12, Eutropius 9, Jordanes Get. 17-8, and Sylvius Polemius 37-40 have brief accounts of his reign. There are fragments in John of Antioch, fr. 148 and Dexippus, fr. 18. Eusebius, vi: 39-41, vii:1, 11, 22, and viii:4, discusses his persecution, and there are passing references to his persecution in Socrates and Lactantius. Inscriptions and coinage are relatively abundant.

Copyright (C) 2002, Geoffrey Nathan and Robin McMahon. Published on De Imperatoribus Romanis, An Online Encyclopedia of the Roman Emperors and their Families; http://www.roman-emperors.org/decius.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
1 commentsCleisthenes
CIIGRICV197unlistedvar.jpg
[1114a] Claudius II Gothicus, September 268 - August or September 270 A.D.59 viewsSilvered antoninianus, RIC V 197 var (pellet in exergue), aEF, 3.880g, 21.1mm, 0o, Antioch mint, 268 - 270 A.D.; Obverse: IMP C CLAVDIVS AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right; Reverse: AEQVITAS AVG, Aequitas standing left, scales in right, cornucopia in left, • in exergue; full silvering, bold strike, excellent centering and eastern style, rare this nice; rare variety. Ex FORVM.


De Imperatoribus Romanis
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors

Claudius II Gothicus (268-270)

Richard D. Weigel
Western Kentucky University

M. Aurelius Claudius, known to history as Claudius Gothicus or Claudius II, was born in either Dalmatia or Illyria on May 10, probably in A.D. 213 or 214. Although the most substantive source on Claudius is the biography in the Scriptores Historiae Augustae (SHA), this account is riddled with fabrications and slanted with fawning praise for this particular emperor, who in the fourth century was viewed as an ancestor of Constantine's father and thus of the ruling imperial family. This biography, attributed to one Trebellius Pollio, must be read with extreme caution and supplemented with information from other sources, including Aurelius Victor, the Epitome de Caesaribus, Eutropius, Orosius, Zonaras, and Zosimus, as well as coins and inscriptions.

The SHA account describes Claudius as being tall, with fiery eyes, and so strong that he could knock out the teeth of man or beast with one punch. It also says that Trajan Decius rewarded him after Claudius demonstrated his strength while wrestling another soldier in the Campus Martius. The SHA author suggests that Claudius may have been descended from the Trojan King Ilus and even from Dardanus, son of Zeus and ancestor of the Trojan royal family, but these suggestions are very likely fabricated to further ennoble Claudius and his putative descendants, the family of Constantine. The SHA biography also includes false letters attributed to the emperors Trajan Decius, Valerian, and Gallienus, all attesting to their high opinions of Claudius. Reference is made in these letters to Claudius' service as tribune in an otherwise unattested legion V Martialis and also as general in command of Illyria, but these positions may also be fictitious. One can assume that Claudius had served for some time in the army, at least under Gallienus and perhaps also under several earlier emperors.

There is some evidence that Claudius was wounded in Gallienus' campaign to put down the revolt of Ingenuus and that he later served with Aureolus under Gallienus in the war with Postumus. By 268, when Gallienus took his troops into Italy to put down Aureolus' revolt, Claudius had emerged as heir-apparent to Gallienus and may also have been involved in the plot to assassinate the emperor. Aurelius Victor says that when Gallienus was killed by his own troops besieging Aureolus in Milan, Claudius as tribune was commanding the soldiers stationed at Ticinum, some twenty miles to the south, and that prior to dying Gallienus designated Claudius as his heir. Victor goes on to claim that after succeeding to the purple Claudius forced the Senate to deify Gallienus. The SHA account states that the soldiers mutinied after Gallienus' death and had to be quieted with a donative of twenty aurei each before settling down and accepting their new emperor. Once in power, Claudius quickly dealt with Aureolus, who surrendered and was killed almost immediately. The new emperor also demanded clemency for the supporters of Gallienus.

The story of Gallienus' deathbed selection of his successor is doubtful at best and is very likely an attempt to deflect blame for the assassination plot from Claudius. The suggestion that the new emperor pressured the Senate to deify Gallienus is more difficult to assess. It is true that securing divine status for one's predecessor is generally seen as a pious act (e.g. Antoninus Pius requesting deification of Hadrian) that reflects positively on the initiator and the story, recorded only in Aurelius Victor, could just be a fabrication used to build up Claudius' moral reputation. What is difficult to penetrate is the biased condemnation of Gallienus that particularly dominates the Latin sources. They make it hard to see why anyone would want to deify Gallienus and so the story seems out of place. However, deification of a predecessor could also be interpreted as the expected thing to do and the act could have fostered legitimacy of the new emperor and gained support from those who were still loyal to Gallienus so it may well have taken place.

The first major challenge facing the new emperor was that of the Alemanni, who had invaded Raetia and Italy. After an early defeat, Claudius replaced some irresponsible officers and soldiers, designated Aurelian as cavalry commander, and led the army to a decisive victory over the Alemanni. This victory earned Claudius the title of Germanicus Maximus and several of his coin-types appear to refer to victory over the Germans.

In 269 Claudius served as consul with Paternus. This year would also feature his major campaign against the Goths. There are indications that Spain separated itself from the Gallo-Roman Empire of Postumus and Tetricus and recognized Claudius, at least nominally, as emperor. In addition, rebellion within Gaul itself demonstrated the weakening of this independent state, although Claudius avoided engagement at Augustodunum and chose only to send a small force to protect Narbonese Gaul. While Claudius concentrated on protecting Roman territory against the Alemanni and Goths, Zenobia extended her Palmyrene Empire by taking Antioch, parts of Asia Minor, and most of Egypt. Although Eusebius and Sulpicius Severus portray the period between the reign of Valerian and that of Diocletian as a peaceful pause in the persecution of Christians, the Acts of the Martyrs does list some individuals allegedly martyred during Claudius II's reign.

The coins issued by Claudius II provide some limited insight into his reign. In addition to the standard "personified virtues" coins that are common with most emperors of the second and third centuries, Claudius struck coin-types proclaiming the security of the Empire (SECVRITAS PERPETVA and PAX AETERNA), the fidelity of the army (FIDES MILITVM), and military victories over the Germans and Goths (VICTORIA GERMAN and VICTORIAE GOTHIC). In addition, Claudius Gothicus' mints struck some other interesting and unusual coin-types. For example, Claudius is one of very few emperors who issued coins portraying the god Vulcan. These must have been limited issues because they are struck only by the Antioch mint and are very rare. The type shows Vulcan standing, with his special tools, the hammer and tongs, and features the unique inscription REGI ARTIS. A variant type with a similar image has been described as carrying another unique coin inscription, DEO CABIRO, and interpreted as depicting one of Vulcan's sons, the Cabiri, with the same tools. However, the existence of this variant type is doubtful. Although the reason for honoring Vulcan (and his sons?) with these coins is unclear, there may be a connection to the fact that the Cabiri were patron gods of Thessalonica who had protected that city against an attack by the Goths. Although a connection between Claudius Gothicus and the Cabiri as defenders against Gothic attacks is relatively attractive, it is weakened somewhat by the fact that Valerian and Gallienus had also issued coins with Vulcan in a temple so there may be some other reason for his reappearance on coins in this period.

Claudius II issued an unusual and scarce series of coins that features a pair of deities, who are presumably conservatores Augusti, on each reverse. The AETER AVG type depicts Apollo and Diana, who, as gods of the sun and moon, are associated with the concept of aeternitas. A type featuring Serapis and Isis is combined with a CONSER AVG inscription and one of Hercules and Minerva with one of CONSERVATORES AVG. Apollo and Diana are depicted with a SALVS AVG inscription, Aesculapius and Salus with one of SPES PVBLIC, and Vulcan and Minerva with VIRT AVG. The general message is that these deities will protect the future of the empire and the emperor.

Other unusual coin-types include MARS VLTOR, the god Augustus had honored with a temple for securing revenge for Caesar's assassination. This deity had appeared on Roman coins in the reigns of Galba and Severus Alexander. Claudius II also minted coins with rarely-seen NEPTVN AVG [see this reverse type in my collection] and SOL AVG types. The latter coin indicates some early interest in the god who would become so dominant a few years later on the coins of Aurelian, yet Claudius also used the INVICTVS AVG inscription that Gallienus had paired with an image of Sol with one of Hercules. ROMAE AETERNAE coin-types were fairly common in the mid-third century, but Claudius II issued an unusual variant type on an aureus that showed the goddess in her temple and echoed the SAECVLVM NOVVM images associated with Philip I. In addition, Claudius introduced a IOVI VICTORI reverse combined with the image normally paired with a IOVI STATORI inscription and a IOVI FVLGERAT reverse inscription, both of which had not been used by any of his predecessors. Andreas Alföldi suggested that Claudius' GENIVS SENATVS type signified improvement of the relationship between emperor and Senate following the senatorial hostility toward Gallienus.

Claudius Gothicus also produced coin-types with reverses of goddesses customarily found paired on coins with images of the Roman empresses. The deities portrayed include Ceres, Diana, Diana Lucifera, and Diana Victrix, Minerva, Venus, and the goddess naturally associated with the image of an empress, Juno Regina. One might suggest that Claudius issued these images because he had no empress with which to pair them, but an examination of other emperors' reigns during this period reveals that those emperors who did not issue coins bearing the empress' image also did not strike these particular goddess types. Although Ceres and Venus images are sometimes paired with an emperor's portrait, Diana Lucifera is rarely found on emperors' coins and Claudius II is the only emperor paired on coins with Juno Regina. In addition, Claudius was the first emperor to issue imperial coins that featured an isolated image of the exotic Egyptian goddess, Isis Faria.

Claudius II's short reign was vulnerable to internal as well as external attack. There may have been a revolt in 269-270 led by a Censorinus, although the date and even the existence of this usurper remain in doubt. The SHA includes him as the last of the "thirty tyrants" and lists a whole series of offices for him, including two consulships, but no other record exists to confirm such service. The SHA account states that he was proclaimed emperor by his soldiers, but soon afterwards killed by them because of his enforcement of strict discipline. His tomb is listed as being in Bologna, which may provide some idea of the location for the revolt. Henry Cohen dates the revolt to the beginning of the year 270, perhaps on the basis of a reference in the Epitome de Caesaribus, but suggests that coins attributed to Censorinus in earlier works may not exist.

The Gothic challenge in 269 proved to be the greatest that Claudius II would face. The Goths assembled a large invading force, reportedly amounting to 320,000 men transported on a fleet of at least 2,000 ships, and first attacked coastal cities along the Black Sea in Moesia. After passing into the Aegean the Goths besieged Thessalonica. At this point, in 269, Claudius left Rome to stop the invasion. The Goths then sent the larger segment of their troops on land toward the Danube, while the fleet took the remaining group to continue the naval attack on Aegean coastal cities. Claudius sent Aurelian's cavalry to Macedonia to protect Illyria from attack, while he commanded the forces blocking the route to the Danube. In the area of Doberus and Pelagonia, the Goths lost 3,000 men to Aurelian's cavalry. At Naissus in Moesia, Claudius' force succeeded in killing some 50,000 Goths. There were follow-up operations on both land and sea, but the Gothic War had essentially been won. Staving off the attacks of the Goths was a major contribution to the survival of the Roman Empire. It was a significant step leading to the subsequent success of Aurelian and the resurrection of the Empire under Diocletian and Constantine. When the Goths eventually succeeded in taking parts of the western Empire in the fifth century, their disruption to the course of civilization was likely much less violent than it would have been had they succeeded in the third century.

In addition to bad weather, a lack of supplies, and hunger, plague was a major factor in the defeat of the Goths. Many of the Gothic prisoners were either impressed into Roman military service or settled on farms as coloni. Claudius received the title Gothicus in recognition of his triumph over the Goths. At some point he had also been given the title Parthicus, but the unlikelihood of any conflict with the Parthians in his short reign makes this difficult to explain. Perhaps Damerau was correct in his suggestion that a Parthian unit may have been involved in one of the battles with the Palmyrenes, although on this front there were few achievements to claim. In any case, Claudius' victory over the Goths was short-lived. The emperor himself caught the plague and died at Sirmium early in 270. He was 56 years old. Claudius' brother, Quintillus, became emperor briefly before losing out to Aurelian. Claudius also had another brother, Crispus, and the SHA traces the link to Constantius through Crispus' daughter Claudia.

The Roman Senate showed its respect for Claudius Gothicus by setting up a gold portrait-shield in the Curia and by approving his deification. He was also honored with a golden statue in front of the great temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus and a silver statue set on a column on the Rostra.

In many ways, Claudius II received more adulation and honor in his Nachleben than he had during his lifetime. In the fourth century, attempts to link Constantine's family to Claudius resulted in the phrases of adoration and outright fabrication that dominate the SHA life and most of our other sources. Constantine even issued commemorative coins honoring Claudius. These carried inscriptions such as: DIVO CLAVDIO OPT[IMO] IMP[ERATORI], MEMORIAE AETERNAE, and REQVIES OPT[IMORVM] ME[RITORVM]. A tradition grew that changed the story of Claudius' death in some sources. In this version, Claudius, instead of dying from the plague, had actually performed a devotion, in response to an oracle found in the Sibylline Books, and sacrificed his life so that Rome could win the Gothic War. One of the most surprising things about the SHA account is that it ignores this more dramatic tradition and has Claudius simply dying from the plague.

One must, of course, reject the excessive claims of the SHA to the effect that Claudius II was "destined to rule for the good of the human race" and would, had he lived longer, "…by his strength, his counsel, and his foresight have restored to us the Scipios, the Camilli, and all those men of old." However, Claudius Gothicus was clearly a good emperor who made a significant contribution to protecting and restoring the Empire. In the third century there aren't too many emperors who merit such an assessment.

Copyright (C) 2001, Richard D. Weigel. Used by permission.
http://www.roman-emperors.org/claudgot.htm


Claudius II Gothicus was born in Illyricum around 215 A.D. Under Valerian and Gallienus he was recognized as a superb general. After the murder of Gallienus, Claudius Gothicus was proclaimed emperor and preceded to crush the Alemani tribe who had invaded Roman territory. Soon after an enormous horde of Goths poured into the empire. Against all advice, Claudius confronted the barbarians at Naissus in Upper Moesia. He fought a brilliant battle and annihilated them. Unfortunately for the empire, he died of plague after a reign of only two years (Joseph Sermarini, FORVM;
http://www.forumancientcoins.com/catalog/roman-and-greek-coins.asp?vpar=741&pos=0#Recovery%20of%20the%20Empire%20Coins).

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
CIIGRICV214.jpg
[1114b] Claudius II Gothicus, September 268 - August or September 270 A.D.53 viewsBronze antoninianus, RIC V 214, VF, 2.930g, 20.3mm, 180o, Antioch mint; Obverse: IMP C CLAVDIVS AVG, radiate bust right; Reverse: NEPTVN AVG, Neptune standing left, dolphin in right, trident in left hand, • in exergue; excellent centering. Ex FORVM.


De Imperatoribus Romanis
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors

Claudius II Gothicus (268-270)

Richard D. Weigel
Western Kentucky University

M. Aurelius Claudius, known to history as Claudius Gothicus or Claudius II, was born in either Dalmatia or Illyria on May 10, probably in A.D. 213 or 214. Although the most substantive source on Claudius is the biography in the Scriptores Historiae Augustae (SHA), this account is riddled with fabrications and slanted with fawning praise for this particular emperor, who in the fourth century was viewed as an ancestor of Constantine's father and thus of the ruling imperial family. This biography, attributed to one Trebellius Pollio, must be read with extreme caution and supplemented with information from other sources, including Aurelius Victor, the Epitome de Caesaribus, Eutropius, Orosius, Zonaras, and Zosimus, as well as coins and inscriptions.

The SHA account describes Claudius as being tall, with fiery eyes, and so strong that he could knock out the teeth of man or beast with one punch. It also says that Trajan Decius rewarded him after Claudius demonstrated his strength while wrestling another soldier in the Campus Martius. The SHA author suggests that Claudius may have been descended from the Trojan King Ilus and even from Dardanus, son of Zeus and ancestor of the Trojan royal family, but these suggestions are very likely fabricated to further ennoble Claudius and his putative descendants, the family of Constantine. The SHA biography also includes false letters attributed to the emperors Trajan Decius, Valerian, and Gallienus, all attesting to their high opinions of Claudius. Reference is made in these letters to Claudius' service as tribune in an otherwise unattested legion V Martialis and also as general in command of Illyria, but these positions may also be fictitious. One can assume that Claudius had served for some time in the army, at least under Gallienus and perhaps also under several earlier emperors.

There is some evidence that Claudius was wounded in Gallienus' campaign to put down the revolt of Ingenuus and that he later served with Aureolus under Gallienus in the war with Postumus. By 268, when Gallienus took his troops into Italy to put down Aureolus' revolt, Claudius had emerged as heir-apparent to Gallienus and may also have been involved in the plot to assassinate the emperor. Aurelius Victor says that when Gallienus was killed by his own troops besieging Aureolus in Milan, Claudius as tribune was commanding the soldiers stationed at Ticinum, some twenty miles to the south, and that prior to dying Gallienus designated Claudius as his heir. Victor goes on to claim that after succeeding to the purple Claudius forced the Senate to deify Gallienus. The SHA account states that the soldiers mutinied after Gallienus' death and had to be quieted with a donative of twenty aurei each before settling down and accepting their new emperor. Once in power, Claudius quickly dealt with Aureolus, who surrendered and was killed almost immediately. The new emperor also demanded clemency for the supporters of Gallienus.

The story of Gallienus' deathbed selection of his successor is doubtful at best and is very likely an attempt to deflect blame for the assassination plot from Claudius. The suggestion that the new emperor pressured the Senate to deify Gallienus is more difficult to assess. It is true that securing divine status for one's predecessor is generally seen as a pious act (e.g. Antoninus Pius requesting deification of Hadrian) that reflects positively on the initiator and the story, recorded only in Aurelius Victor, could just be a fabrication used to build up Claudius' moral reputation. What is difficult to penetrate is the biased condemnation of Gallienus that particularly dominates the Latin sources. They make it hard to see why anyone would want to deify Gallienus and so the story seems out of place. However, deification of a predecessor could also be interpreted as the expected thing to do and the act could have fostered legitimacy of the new emperor and gained support from those who were still loyal to Gallienus so it may well have taken place.

The first major challenge facing the new emperor was that of the Alemanni, who had invaded Raetia and Italy. After an early defeat, Claudius replaced some irresponsible officers and soldiers, designated Aurelian as cavalry commander, and led the army to a decisive victory over the Alemanni. This victory earned Claudius the title of Germanicus Maximus and several of his coin-types appear to refer to victory over the Germans.

In 269 Claudius served as consul with Paternus. This year would also feature his major campaign against the Goths. There are indications that Spain separated itself from the Gallo-Roman Empire of Postumus and Tetricus and recognized Claudius, at least nominally, as emperor. In addition, rebellion within Gaul itself demonstrated the weakening of this independent state, although Claudius avoided engagement at Augustodunum and chose only to send a small force to protect Narbonese Gaul. While Claudius concentrated on protecting Roman territory against the Alemanni and Goths, Zenobia extended her Palmyrene Empire by taking Antioch, parts of Asia Minor, and most of Egypt. Although Eusebius and Sulpicius Severus portray the period between the reign of Valerian and that of Diocletian as a peaceful pause in the persecution of Christians, the Acts of the Martyrs does list some individuals allegedly martyred during Claudius II's reign.

The coins issued by Claudius II provide some limited insight into his reign. In addition to the standard "personified virtues" coins that are common with most emperors of the second and third centuries, Claudius struck coin-types proclaiming the security of the Empire (SECVRITAS PERPETVA and PAX AETERNA), the fidelity of the army (FIDES MILITVM), and military victories over the Germans and Goths (VICTORIA GERMAN and VICTORIAE GOTHIC). In addition, Claudius Gothicus' mints struck some other interesting and unusual coin-types. For example, Claudius is one of very few emperors who issued coins portraying the god Vulcan. These must have been limited issues because they are struck only by the Antioch mint and are very rare. The type shows Vulcan standing, with his special tools, the hammer and tongs, and features the unique inscription REGI ARTIS. A variant type with a similar image has been described as carrying another unique coin inscription, DEO CABIRO, and interpreted as depicting one of Vulcan's sons, the Cabiri, with the same tools. However, the existence of this variant type is doubtful. Although the reason for honoring Vulcan (and his sons?) with these coins is unclear, there may be a connection to the fact that the Cabiri were patron gods of Thessalonica who had protected that city against an attack by the Goths. Although a connection between Claudius Gothicus and the Cabiri as defenders against Gothic attacks is relatively attractive, it is weakened somewhat by the fact that Valerian and Gallienus had also issued coins with Vulcan in a temple so there may be some other reason for his reappearance on coins in this period.

Claudius II issued an unusual and scarce series of coins that features a pair of deities, who are presumably conservatores Augusti, on each reverse. The AETER AVG type depicts Apollo and Diana, who, as gods of the sun and moon, are associated with the concept of aeternitas. A type featuring Serapis and Isis is combined with a CONSER AVG inscription and one of Hercules and Minerva with one of CONSERVATORES AVG. Apollo and Diana are depicted with a SALVS AVG inscription, Aesculapius and Salus with one of SPES PVBLIC, and Vulcan and Minerva with VIRT AVG. The general message is that these deities will protect the future of the empire and the emperor.

Other unusual coin-types include MARS VLTOR, the god Augustus had honored with a temple for securing revenge for Caesar's assassination. This deity had appeared on Roman coins in the reigns of Galba and Severus Alexander. Claudius II also minted coins with rarely-seen NEPTVN AVG [see this reverse type in my collection] and SOL AVG types. The latter coin indicates some early interest in the god who would become so dominant a few years later on the coins of Aurelian, yet Claudius also used the INVICTVS AVG inscription that Gallienus had paired with an image of Sol with one of Hercules. ROMAE AETERNAE coin-types were fairly common in the mid-third century, but Claudius II issued an unusual variant type on an aureus that showed the goddess in her temple and echoed the SAECVLVM NOVVM images associated with Philip I. In addition, Claudius introduced a IOVI VICTORI reverse combined with the image normally paired with a IOVI STATORI inscription and a IOVI FVLGERAT reverse inscription, both of which had not been used by any of his predecessors. Andreas Alföldi suggested that Claudius' GENIVS SENATVS type signified improvement of the relationship between emperor and Senate following the senatorial hostility toward Gallienus.

Claudius Gothicus also produced coin-types with reverses of goddesses customarily found paired on coins with images of the Roman empresses. The deities portrayed include Ceres, Diana, Diana Lucifera, and Diana Victrix, Minerva, Venus, and the goddess naturally associated with the image of an empress, Juno Regina. One might suggest that Claudius issued these images because he had no empress with which to pair them, but an examination of other emperors' reigns during this period reveals that those emperors who did not issue coins bearing the empress' image also did not strike these particular goddess types. Although Ceres and Venus images are sometimes paired with an emperor's portrait, Diana Lucifera is rarely found on emperors' coins and Claudius II is the only emperor paired on coins with Juno Regina. In addition, Claudius was the first emperor to issue imperial coins that featured an isolated image of the exotic Egyptian goddess, Isis Faria.

Claudius II's short reign was vulnerable to internal as well as external attack. There may have been a revolt in 269-270 led by a Censorinus, although the date and even the existence of this usurper remain in doubt. The SHA includes him as the last of the "thirty tyrants" and lists a whole series of offices for him, including two consulships, but no other record exists to confirm such service. The SHA account states that he was proclaimed emperor by his soldiers, but soon afterwards killed by them because of his enforcement of strict discipline. His tomb is listed as being in Bologna, which may provide some idea of the location for the revolt. Henry Cohen dates the revolt to the beginning of the year 270, perhaps on the basis of a reference in the Epitome de Caesaribus, but suggests that coins attributed to Censorinus in earlier works may not exist.

The Gothic challenge in 269 proved to be the greatest that Claudius II would face. The Goths assembled a large invading force, reportedly amounting to 320,000 men transported on a fleet of at least 2,000 ships, and first attacked coastal cities along the Black Sea in Moesia. After passing into the Aegean the Goths besieged Thessalonica. At this point, in 269, Claudius left Rome to stop the invasion. The Goths then sent the larger segment of their troops on land toward the Danube, while the fleet took the remaining group to continue the naval attack on Aegean coastal cities. Claudius sent Aurelian's cavalry to Macedonia to protect Illyria from attack, while he commanded the forces blocking the route to the Danube. In the area of Doberus and Pelagonia, the Goths lost 3,000 men to Aurelian's cavalry. At Naissus in Moesia, Claudius' force succeeded in killing some 50,000 Goths. There were follow-up operations on both land and sea, but the Gothic War had essentially been won. Staving off the attacks of the Goths was a major contribution to the survival of the Roman Empire. It was a significant step leading to the subsequent success of Aurelian and the resurrection of the Empire under Diocletian and Constantine. When the Goths eventually succeeded in taking parts of the western Empire in the fifth century, their disruption to the course of civilization was likely much less violent than it would have been had they succeeded in the third century.

In addition to bad weather, a lack of supplies, and hunger, plague was a major factor in the defeat of the Goths. Many of the Gothic prisoners were either impressed into Roman military service or settled on farms as coloni. Claudius received the title Gothicus in recognition of his triumph over the Goths. At some point he had also been given the title Parthicus, but the unlikelihood of any conflict with the Parthians in his short reign makes this difficult to explain. Perhaps Damerau was correct in his suggestion that a Parthian unit may have been involved in one of the battles with the Palmyrenes, although on this front there were few achievements to claim. In any case, Claudius' victory over the Goths was short-lived. The emperor himself caught the plague and died at Sirmium early in 270. He was 56 years old. Claudius' brother, Quintillus, became emperor briefly before losing out to Aurelian. Claudius also had another brother, Crispus, and the SHA traces the link to Constantius through Crispus' daughter Claudia.

The Roman Senate showed its respect for Claudius Gothicus by setting up a gold portrait-shield in the Curia and by approving his deification. He was also honored with a golden statue in front of the great temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus and a silver statue set on a column on the Rostra.

In many ways, Claudius II received more adulation and honor in his Nachleben than he had during his lifetime. In the fourth century, attempts to link Constantine's family to Claudius resulted in the phrases of adoration and outright fabrication that dominate the SHA life and most of our other sources. Constantine even issued commemorative coins honoring Claudius. These carried inscriptions such as: DIVO CLAVDIO OPT[IMO] IMP[ERATORI], MEMORIAE AETERNAE, and REQVIES OPT[IMORVM] ME[RITORVM]. A tradition grew that changed the story of Claudius' death in some sources. In this version, Claudius, instead of dying from the plague, had actually performed a devotion, in response to an oracle found in the Sibylline Books, and sacrificed his life so that Rome could win the Gothic War. One of the most surprising things about the SHA account is that it ignores this more dramatic tradition and has Claudius simply dying from the plague.

One must, of course, reject the excessive claims of the SHA to the effect that Claudius II was "destined to rule for the good of the human race" and would, had he lived longer, "…by his strength, his counsel, and his foresight have restored to us the Scipios, the Camilli, and all those men of old." However, Claudius Gothicus was clearly a good emperor who made a significant contribution to protecting and restoring the Empire. In the third century there aren't too many emperors who merit such an assessment.

Copyright (C) 2001, Richard D. Weigel. Used by permission.
http://www.roman-emperors.org/claudgot.htm


Claudius II Gothicus was born in Illyricum around 215 A.D. Under Valerian and Gallienus he was recognized as a superb general. After the murder of Gallienus, Claudius Gothicus was proclaimed emperor and preceded to crush the Alemani tribe who had invaded Roman territory. Soon after an enormous horde of Goths poured into the empire. Against all advice, Claudius confronted the barbarians at Naissus in Upper Moesia. He fought a brilliant battle and annihilated them. Unfortunately for the empire, he died of plague after a reign of only two years (Joseph Sermarini, FORVM;
http://www.forumancientcoins.com/catalog/roman-and-greek-coins.asp?vpar=741&pos=0#Recovery%20of%20the%20Empire%20Coins).

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
ClaudiusIIGothicusRIC34.jpg
[1114c] Claudius II Gothicus, September 268 - August or September 270 A.D.51 viewsAntoninianus. RIC 34. Weight, Size. F. Rome mint. Obverse: IMP C CLAVDIVS AVG, Radiate, draped bust right; Reverse: FIDES EXERCI, Fides standing left, holding two standards. Ex Maridvnvm


De Imperatoribus Romanis
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors

Claudius II Gothicus (268-270)

Richard D. Weigel
Western Kentucky University

M. Aurelius Claudius, known to history as Claudius Gothicus or Claudius II, was born in either Dalmatia or Illyria on May 10, probably in A.D. 213 or 214. Although the most substantive source on Claudius is the biography in the Scriptores Historiae Augustae (SHA), this account is riddled with fabrications and slanted with fawning praise for this particular emperor, who in the fourth century was viewed as an ancestor of Constantine's father and thus of the ruling imperial family. This biography, attributed to one Trebellius Pollio, must be read with extreme caution and supplemented with information from other sources, including Aurelius Victor, the Epitome de Caesaribus, Eutropius, Orosius, Zonaras, and Zosimus, as well as coins and inscriptions.

The SHA account describes Claudius as being tall, with fiery eyes, and so strong that he could knock out the teeth of man or beast with one punch. It also says that Trajan Decius rewarded him after Claudius demonstrated his strength while wrestling another soldier in the Campus Martius. The SHA author suggests that Claudius may have been descended from the Trojan King Ilus and even from Dardanus, son of Zeus and ancestor of the Trojan royal family, but these suggestions are very likely fabricated to further ennoble Claudius and his putative descendants, the family of Constantine. The SHA biography also includes false letters attributed to the emperors Trajan Decius, Valerian, and Gallienus, all attesting to their high opinions of Claudius. Reference is made in these letters to Claudius' service as tribune in an otherwise unattested legion V Martialis and also as general in command of Illyria, but these positions may also be fictitious. One can assume that Claudius had served for some time in the army, at least under Gallienus and perhaps also under several earlier emperors.

There is some evidence that Claudius was wounded in Gallienus' campaign to put down the revolt of Ingenuus and that he later served with Aureolus under Gallienus in the war with Postumus. By 268, when Gallienus took his troops into Italy to put down Aureolus' revolt, Claudius had emerged as heir-apparent to Gallienus and may also have been involved in the plot to assassinate the emperor. Aurelius Victor says that when Gallienus was killed by his own troops besieging Aureolus in Milan, Claudius as tribune was commanding the soldiers stationed at Ticinum, some twenty miles to the south, and that prior to dying Gallienus designated Claudius as his heir. Victor goes on to claim that after succeeding to the purple Claudius forced the Senate to deify Gallienus. The SHA account states that the soldiers mutinied after Gallienus' death and had to be quieted with a donative of twenty aurei each before settling down and accepting their new emperor. Once in power, Claudius quickly dealt with Aureolus, who surrendered and was killed almost immediately. The new emperor also demanded clemency for the supporters of Gallienus.

The story of Gallienus' deathbed selection of his successor is doubtful at best and is very likely an attempt to deflect blame for the assassination plot from Claudius. The suggestion that the new emperor pressured the Senate to deify Gallienus is more difficult to assess. It is true that securing divine status for one's predecessor is generally seen as a pious act (e.g. Antoninus Pius requesting deification of Hadrian) that reflects positively on the initiator and the story, recorded only in Aurelius Victor, could just be a fabrication used to build up Claudius' moral reputation. What is difficult to penetrate is the biased condemnation of Gallienus that particularly dominates the Latin sources. They make it hard to see why anyone would want to deify Gallienus and so the story seems out of place. However, deification of a predecessor could also be interpreted as the expected thing to do and the act could have fostered legitimacy of the new emperor and gained support from those who were still loyal to Gallienus so it may well have taken place.

The first major challenge facing the new emperor was that of the Alemanni, who had invaded Raetia and Italy. After an early defeat, Claudius replaced some irresponsible officers and soldiers, designated Aurelian as cavalry commander, and led the army to a decisive victory over the Alemanni. This victory earned Claudius the title of Germanicus Maximus and several of his coin-types appear to refer to victory over the Germans.

In 269 Claudius served as consul with Paternus. This year would also feature his major campaign against the Goths. There are indications that Spain separated itself from the Gallo-Roman Empire of Postumus and Tetricus and recognized Claudius, at least nominally, as emperor. In addition, rebellion within Gaul itself demonstrated the weakening of this independent state, although Claudius avoided engagement at Augustodunum and chose only to send a small force to protect Narbonese Gaul. While Claudius concentrated on protecting Roman territory against the Alemanni and Goths, Zenobia extended her Palmyrene Empire by taking Antioch, parts of Asia Minor, and most of Egypt. Although Eusebius and Sulpicius Severus portray the period between the reign of Valerian and that of Diocletian as a peaceful pause in the persecution of Christians, the Acts of the Martyrs does list some individuals allegedly martyred during Claudius II's reign.

The coins issued by Claudius II provide some limited insight into his reign. In addition to the standard "personified virtues" coins that are common with most emperors of the second and third centuries, Claudius struck coin-types proclaiming the security of the Empire (SECVRITAS PERPETVA and PAX AETERNA), the fidelity of the army (FIDES MILITVM), and military victories over the Germans and Goths (VICTORIA GERMAN and VICTORIAE GOTHIC). In addition, Claudius Gothicus' mints struck some other interesting and unusual coin-types. For example, Claudius is one of very few emperors who issued coins portraying the god Vulcan. These must have been limited issues because they are struck only by the Antioch mint and are very rare. The type shows Vulcan standing, with his special tools, the hammer and tongs, and features the unique inscription REGI ARTIS. A variant type with a similar image has been described as carrying another unique coin inscription, DEO CABIRO, and interpreted as depicting one of Vulcan's sons, the Cabiri, with the same tools. However, the existence of this variant type is doubtful. Although the reason for honoring Vulcan (and his sons?) with these coins is unclear, there may be a connection to the fact that the Cabiri were patron gods of Thessalonica who had protected that city against an attack by the Goths. Although a connection between Claudius Gothicus and the Cabiri as defenders against Gothic attacks is relatively attractive, it is weakened somewhat by the fact that Valerian and Gallienus had also issued coins with Vulcan in a temple so there may be some other reason for his reappearance on coins in this period.

Claudius II issued an unusual and scarce series of coins that features a pair of deities, who are presumably conservatores Augusti, on each reverse. The AETER AVG type depicts Apollo and Diana, who, as gods of the sun and moon, are associated with the concept of aeternitas. A type featuring Serapis and Isis is combined with a CONSER AVG inscription and one of Hercules and Minerva with one of CONSERVATORES AVG. Apollo and Diana are depicted with a SALVS AVG inscription, Aesculapius and Salus with one of SPES PVBLIC, and Vulcan and Minerva with VIRT AVG. The general message is that these deities will protect the future of the empire and the emperor.

Other unusual coin-types include MARS VLTOR, the god Augustus had honored with a temple for securing revenge for Caesar's assassination. This deity had appeared on Roman coins in the reigns of Galba and Severus Alexander. Claudius II also minted coins with rarely-seen NEPTVN AVG [see this reverse type in my collection] and SOL AVG types. The latter coin indicates some early interest in the god who would become so dominant a few years later on the coins of Aurelian, yet Claudius also used the INVICTVS AVG inscription that Gallienus had paired with an image of Sol with one of Hercules. ROMAE AETERNAE coin-types were fairly common in the mid-third century, but Claudius II issued an unusual variant type on an aureus that showed the goddess in her temple and echoed the SAECVLVM NOVVM images associated with Philip I. In addition, Claudius introduced a IOVI VICTORI reverse combined with the image normally paired with a IOVI STATORI inscription and a IOVI FVLGERAT reverse inscription, both of which had not been used by any of his predecessors. Andreas Alföldi suggested that Claudius' GENIVS SENATVS type signified improvement of the relationship between emperor and Senate following the senatorial hostility toward Gallienus.

Claudius Gothicus also produced coin-types with reverses of goddesses customarily found paired on coins with images of the Roman empresses. The deities portrayed include Ceres, Diana, Diana Lucifera, and Diana Victrix, Minerva, Venus, and the goddess naturally associated with the image of an empress, Juno Regina. One might suggest that Claudius issued these images because he had no empress with which to pair them, but an examination of other emperors' reigns during this period reveals that those emperors who did not issue coins bearing the empress' image also did not strike these particular goddess types. Although Ceres and Venus images are sometimes paired with an emperor's portrait, Diana Lucifera is rarely found on emperors' coins and Claudius II is the only emperor paired on coins with Juno Regina. In addition, Claudius was the first emperor to issue imperial coins that featured an isolated image of the exotic Egyptian goddess, Isis Faria.

Claudius II's short reign was vulnerable to internal as well as external attack. There may have been a revolt in 269-270 led by a Censorinus, although the date and even the existence of this usurper remain in doubt. The SHA includes him as the last of the "thirty tyrants" and lists a whole series of offices for him, including two consulships, but no other record exists to confirm such service. The SHA account states that he was proclaimed emperor by his soldiers, but soon afterwards killed by them because of his enforcement of strict discipline. His tomb is listed as being in Bologna, which may provide some idea of the location for the revolt. Henry Cohen dates the revolt to the beginning of the year 270, perhaps on the basis of a reference in the Epitome de Caesaribus, but suggests that coins attributed to Censorinus in earlier works may not exist.

The Gothic challenge in 269 proved to be the greatest that Claudius II would face. The Goths assembled a large invading force, reportedly amounting to 320,000 men transported on a fleet of at least 2,000 ships, and first attacked coastal cities along the Black Sea in Moesia. After passing into the Aegean the Goths besieged Thessalonica. At this point, in 269, Claudius left Rome to stop the invasion. The Goths then sent the larger segment of their troops on land toward the Danube, while the fleet took the remaining group to continue the naval attack on Aegean coastal cities. Claudius sent Aurelian's cavalry to Macedonia to protect Illyria from attack, while he commanded the forces blocking the route to the Danube. In the area of Doberus and Pelagonia, the Goths lost 3,000 men to Aurelian's cavalry. At Naissus in Moesia, Claudius' force succeeded in killing some 50,000 Goths. There were follow-up operations on both land and sea, but the Gothic War had essentially been won. Staving off the attacks of the Goths was a major contribution to the survival of the Roman Empire. It was a significant step leading to the subsequent success of Aurelian and the resurrection of the Empire under Diocletian and Constantine. When the Goths eventually succeeded in taking parts of the western Empire in the fifth century, their disruption to the course of civilization was likely much less violent than it would have been had they succeeded in the third century.

In addition to bad weather, a lack of supplies, and hunger, plague was a major factor in the defeat of the Goths. Many of the Gothic prisoners were either impressed into Roman military service or settled on farms as coloni. Claudius received the title Gothicus in recognition of his triumph over the Goths. At some point he had also been given the title Parthicus, but the unlikelihood of any conflict with the Parthians in his short reign makes this difficult to explain. Perhaps Damerau was correct in his suggestion that a Parthian unit may have been involved in one of the battles with the Palmyrenes, although on this front there were few achievements to claim. In any case, Claudius' victory over the Goths was short-lived. The emperor himself caught the plague and died at Sirmium early in 270. He was 56 years old. Claudius' brother, Quintillus, became emperor briefly before losing out to Aurelian. Claudius also had another brother, Crispus, and the SHA traces the link to Constantius through Crispus' daughter Claudia.

The Roman Senate showed its respect for Claudius Gothicus by setting up a gold portrait-shield in the Curia and by approving his deification. He was also honored with a golden statue in front of the great temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus and a silver statue set on a column on the Rostra.

In many ways, Claudius II received more adulation and honor in his Nachleben than he had during his lifetime. In the fourth century, attempts to link Constantine's family to Claudius resulted in the phrases of adoration and outright fabrication that dominate the SHA life and most of our other sources. Constantine even issued commemorative coins honoring Claudius. These carried inscriptions such as: DIVO CLAVDIO OPT[IMO] IMP[ERATORI], MEMORIAE AETERNAE, and REQVIES OPT[IMORVM] ME[RITORVM]. A tradition grew that changed the story of Claudius' death in some sources. In this version, Claudius, instead of dying from the plague, had actually performed a devotion, in response to an oracle found in the Sibylline Books, and sacrificed his life so that Rome could win the Gothic War. One of the most surprising things about the SHA account is that it ignores this more dramatic tradition and has Claudius simply dying from the plague.

One must, of course, reject the excessive claims of the SHA to the effect that Claudius II was "destined to rule for the good of the human race" and would, had he lived longer, "…by his strength, his counsel, and his foresight have restored to us the Scipios, the Camilli, and all those men of old." However, Claudius Gothicus was clearly a good emperor who made a significant contribution to protecting and restoring the Empire. In the third century there aren't too many emperors who merit such an assessment.

Copyright (C) 2001, Richard D. Weigel. Used by permission.
http://www.roman-emperors.org/claudgot.htm


Claudius II Gothicus was born in Illyricum around 215 A.D. Under Valerian and Gallienus he was recognized as a superb general. After the murder of Gallienus, Claudius Gothicus was proclaimed emperor and preceded to crush the Alemani tribe who had invaded Roman territory. Soon after an enormous horde of Goths poured into the empire. Against all advice, Claudius confronted the barbarians at Naissus in Upper Moesia. He fought a brilliant battle and annihilated them. Unfortunately for the empire, he died of plague after a reign of only two years (Joseph Sermarini, FORVM;
http://www.forumancientcoins.com/catalog/roman-and-greek-coins.asp?vpar=741&pos=0#Recovery%20of%20the%20Empire%20Coins).

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
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