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Search results - "Colonia"
Augustus,_Colonia_Patricia,_Hispania.JPG
15 viewsAntonivs Protti
Augustus,_Colonia_Particia.JPG
10 viewsAntonivs Protti
Colonial_Severo.JPG
17 viewsJose C
Colonial_Gordiano_Tranquilina.JPG
19 viewsJose C
Colonial_caracalla.JPG
17 viewsJose C
110563LG.jpg
10 viewsDivus Victorinus. Died A.D. 271. Æ antoninianus (21 mm, 2.99 g, 12 h). Colonia Agrippinensis, under Tetricus I, late A.D. 271. [DI]VO VICTORINO PIO, radiate and cuirassed bust of Victorinus right / CONSA[C]RATIO, eagle standing right on globe, head left, holding wreath in beak. Cf. RIC 85 (bust); cf. Mairat 416 (bust); AGK 1b. Brown patina with a few hard green depositsQuant.Geek
Augustus_Colonia_Patricia.jpg
1 Augustus Colonia Patricia6 viewsSosius
AUGUDU03-2.jpg
28 BC Colony established at Nemausus by Augustus' army425 viewsmedium bronze (dupondius or as?) (12.6g, 25mm, 2h) Nemausus mint. Struck 10 BC - 10 AD.
IMP DIVI F Agrippa laureate head left and Augustus laureate head right, back to back
COL NEM crocodile chained to palm tree top bent to right, wreath at top.
RIC (Augustus) 158

Denomination uncertain. COL NEM stands for COLONIA AVGVSTA NEMAVSVS (present Nîmes, France), built by Augustus' army after their conquest and return from Egypt. The crocodile chained to the palm tree symbolizes the defeat of the Cleopatra and Marc Antony at Actium.
2 commentsCharles S
Saloninus_RIC_9.jpg
7.5 Saloninus28 viewsSALONINUS
AR Antoninianus. Colonia Agrippenensium mint.
SALON VALERIANVS CAES, radiate draped bust right / PIETAS AVG, sacrificial implements.
RIC 9, RSC 4, Sear'88 #3080
Sosius
45448q00.jpg
Gallic 3 Marius, May - August or September 269 A.D.27 viewsBronze antoninianus, Schulzki AGK 8a, Mairat 238, SRCV III 11123, RIC V 17, aEF, rev a bit weak, 2.822g, 19.5mm, 180o, Colonia Agrippinensis (Cologne) mint, 2nd emission; obverse IMP C M AVR MARIVS AVG, radiate and cuirassed bust right; reverse VICT-O-R-IA AVG, Victory standing left, wreath in right, palm frond in left; nice portrait, nice dark sea-green patina, slightly irregular flan; scarce

Purchased from FORVM
1 commentsSosius
Dyrrhachion_Dracma.jpg
ILIRIA - DIRRAQUIO/EPIDAMNOS23 viewsAR dracma 18X16 mm 2.4 gr.

Anv: "MENIΣ [KOΣ ]" (Nombre de la Autoridad Monetaria que la acuña), sobre una Vaca a der. mirando a su ternero que se amanta a izq.
Rev: "AYP / ΔIO / [NY] / [ΣIOY]" – Doble Forma estrellada, dividida por dos líneas y rodeada por una doble línea formando un contorno cuadrado.
Los diseños del reverso de Korkyra así como de sus colonias, Apollonia (Apolonia) y Dyrrhachion (Dirraquio), han sido objeto de mucha especulación numismática. Eckhel (Doctrina numorum veterum [Vienna, 1792/3], II:155) aceptó la opinión de Laurentius Beger (Observationes Et Conjecturae In Numismata Quaedam Antiqua [Brandenburg, 1691]), que argumentó que el diseño del reverso representa el jardín de Alkinoos, el mítico rey de Phaiakia, descrito en detalle por el poeta Homero (Od. 7.112-133). Basado en el supuesto de que mítica Phaiakia era la isla de la antigua Korkyra (mod. Corfú), y sabiendo que Korkyrans colonizaron tanto Apollonia y Dyrrhachion, Beger (ya través de él, Eckhel) concluyeron que los elementos centrales eran flores y que el diseño general debe representar tanto el diseño del jardín, o las puertas que conducen a ella. Más tarde, la mayoría de los numismáticos, como Böckh, Müller, Friedlander, y von Sallet, argumentaron que los elementos centrales del diseño eran más como la estrella, mientras que Gardner favoreciendo una interpretación floral, aunque sea como una referencia a Apolo Aristaios o Nomios, no el jardín de ALKINOOS. Más recientemente, Nicolet-Pierre volvió a examinar la cuestión del diseño del reverso en su artículo sobre la moneda arcaica de Korkyra ("À props du monnayage archaïque de Corcyre," SNR 88 [2009], pp. 2-3) y ofreció una nueva interpretación. Tomando nota de un pasaje de Tucídides (3.70.4) en la que ese autor citó la existencia en la isla de un recinto sagrado (temenos) dedicado a Zeus y ALKINOOS, sugirió que el diseño del reverso podría haber sido inspirada por esto, y no en el jardín de ALKINOOS que detalla Homero.

Acuñación: 200 - 30 A.C.
Ceca: Dyrrhachion - Illyria (Hoy Durré en Albania)

Referencias: Sear GCTV Vol.I #1900 var Pag.187 – BMC Vol.7 #62-64 Pag.69 – SNG Copenhagen #467 - Maier #201 - Ceka #320
mdelvalle
tetricusII.jpg
Tetricus II, RIC 272 Colonia Agrippina, 273-274 CE.23 viewsAE Antonia Of Tetricus II as Caesar
Obverse: C PIV ESV TETRICVS CAES, draped and radiated bust right.
Reverse: SPES P VBLICA, Speas walking left, holding flower.
Mint (Koln) Colonia Agrippina RIC 272
Colonia20.8 mm., 3.1 g.
NORMAN K
lg004_quad_sm.jpg
"As de Nîmes" or "crocodile" Ӕ dupondius of Nemausus (9 - 3 BC), honoring Augustus and Agrippa35 viewsIMP DIVI F , Heads of Agrippa (left) and Augustus (right) back to back, Agrippa wearing rostral crown and Augustus the oak-wreath / COL NEM, crocodile right chained to palm-shoot with short dense fronds and tip right; two short palm offshoots left and right below, above on left a wreath with two long ties streaming right.

Ӕ, 24.5 x 3+ mm, 13.23g, die axis 3h; on both sides there are remains of what appears to be gold plating, perhaps it was a votive offering? Rough edges and slight scrapes on flan typical for this kind of coin, due to primitive technology (filing) of flan preparation.

IMPerator DIVI Filius. Mint of COLonia NEMausus (currently Nîmes, France). Known as "As de Nîmes", it is actually a dupontius (lit. "two-pounder") = 2 ases (sometimes cut in halves to get change). Dupondii were often made out of a golden-colored copper alloy (type of brass) "orichalcum" and this appears to be such case.

Key ID points: oak-wreath (microphotography shows that at least one leaf has a complicated shape, although distinguishing oak from laurel is very difficult) – earlier versions have Augustus bareheaded, no PP on obverse as in later versions, no NE ligature, palm with short fronds with tip right (later versions have tip left and sometimes long fronds). Not typical: no clear laurel wreath together with the rostral crown, gold (?) plating (!), both features really baffling.

But still clearly a "middle" kind of the croc dupondius, known as "type III": RIC I 158, RPC I 524, Sear 1730. It is often conservatively dated to 10 BC - 10 AD, but these days it is usually narrowed to 9/8 - 3 BC.

It is a commemorative issue, honoring the victory over Mark Antony and conquest of Egypt in 30 BC. The heads of Augustus and Agrippa were probably positioned to remind familiar obverses of Roman republican coins with two-faced Janus. Palm branch was a common symbol of victory, in this case grown into a tree, like the victories of Augustus and Agrippa grown into the empire. The two offshoots at the bottom may mean two sons of Agrippa, Gaius and Lucius, who were supposed to be Augustus' heirs and were patrons of the colony. Palm may also be a symbol of the local Nemausian deity, which was probably worshiped in a sacred grove. When these coins were minted, the colony was mostly populated by the settled veterans of Augustus' campaigns, hence the reminiscence of the most famous victory, but some of the original Celtic culture probably survived and was assimilated by Romans. The crocodile is not only the symbol of Egypt, like in the famous Octavian's coins AEGYPTO CAPTA. It is also a representation of Mark Antony, powerful and scary both in water and on land, but a bit slow and stupid. The shape of the crocodile with tail up was specifically chosen to remind of the shape of ship on very common "legionary" denarius series, which Mark Antony minted to pay his armies just before Actium. It is probably also related to the popular contemporary caricature of Cleopatra, riding on and simultaneously copulating with a crocodile, holding a palm branch in her hand as if in triumph. There the crocodile also symbolized Mark Antony.

Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa was born c. 64-62 BC somewhere in rural Italy. His family was of humble and plebeian origins, but rich, of equestrian rank. Agrippa was about the same age as Octavian, and the two were educated together and became close friends. He probably first served in Caesar's Spanish campaign of 46–45 BC. Caesar regarded him highly enough to send him with Octavius in 45 BC to train in Illyria. When Octavian returned to Rome after Caesar's assassination, Agrippa became his close lieutenant, performing many tasks. He probably started his political career in 43 BC as a tribune of the people and then a member of the Senate. Then he was one of the leading Octavian's generals, finally becoming THE leading general and admiral in the civil wars of the subsequent years.

In 38 as a governor of Transalpine Gaul Agrippa undertook an expedition to Germania, thus becoming the first Roman general since Julius Caesar to cross the Rhine. During this foray he helped the Germanic tribe of Ubii (who previously allied themselves with Caesar in 55 BC) to resettle on the west bank of the Rhine. A shrine was dedicated there, possibly to Divus Caesar whom Ubii fondly remembered, and the village became known as Ara Ubiorum, "Altar of Ubians". This quickly would become an important Roman settlement. Agrippina the Younger, Agrippa's granddaughter, wife of Emperor Claudius and mother of Emperor Nero, would be born there in 15 AD. In 50 AD she would sponsor this village to be upgraded to a colonia, and it would be renamed Colonia Claudia Ara Agrippinensium (colony of Claudius [at] the Altar of Agrippinians – Ubii renamed themselves as Agrippinians to honor the augusta!), abbreviated as CCAA, later to become the capital of new Roman province, Germania Inferior.

In 37 BC Octavian recalled Agrippa back to Rome and arranged for him to win the consular elections, he desperately needed help in naval warfare with Sextus Pompey, the youngest son of Pompey the Great, who styled himself as the last supporter of the republican cause, but in reality became a pirate king, an irony since his father was the one who virtually exterminated piracy in all the Roman waters. He forced humiliating armistice on the triumvirs in 39 BC and when Octavian renewed the hostilities a year later, defeated him in a decisive naval battle of Messina. New fleet had to be built and trained, and Agrippa was the man for the job. Agrippa's solution was creating a huge secret naval base he called Portus Iulius by connecting together lakes Avernus, Avernus and the natural inner and outer harbors behind Cape Misenum at the northern end of the Gulf of Naples. He also created a larger type of ship and developed a new naval weapon: harpax – a ballista-launched grapnel shot with mechanisms that allowed pulling enemy ships close for easy boarding. It replaced the previous boarding device that Romans used since the First Punic War, corvus – effective, but extremely cumbersome. A later defence against it were scythe blades on long poles for cutting ropes, but since this invention was developed in secret, the enemy had no chance to prepare anything like it. It all has proved extremely effective: in a series of naval engagements Agrippa annihilated the fleet of Sextus, forced him to abandon his bases and run away. For this Agrippa was awarded an unprecedented honour that no Roman before or after him received: a rostral crown, "corona rostrata", a wreath decorated in front by a prow and beak of a ship.

That's why Virgil (Aeneid VIII, 683-684), describing Agrippa at Actium, says: "…belli insigne superbum, tempora navali fulgent rostrata corona." "…the proud military decoration, gleams on his brow the naval rostral crown". Actium, the decisive battle between forces of Octavian and Mark Antony, may appear boring compared to the war with Sextus, but it probably turned out this way due to Agrippa's victories in preliminary naval engagements and taking over all the strategy from Octavian.

In between the wars Agrippa has shown an unusual talent in city planning, not only constructing many new public buildings etc., but also greatly improving Rome's sanitation by doing a complete overhaul of all the aqueducts and sewers. Typically, it was Augustus who later would boast that "he had found the city of brick but left it of marble", forgetting that, just like in his naval successes, it was Agrippa who did most of the work. Agrippa had building programs in other Roman cities as well, a magnificent temple (currently known as Maison Carrée) survives in Nîmes itself, which was probably built by Agrippa.

Later relationship between Augustus and Agrippa seemed colder for a while, Agrippa seemed to even go into "exile", but modern historians agree that it was just a ploy: Augustus wanted others to think that Agrippa was his "rival" while in truth he was keeping a significant army far away from Rome, ready to come to the rescue in case Augustus' political machinations fail. It is confirmed by the fact that later Agrippa was recalled and given authority almost equal to Augustus himself, not to mention that he married Augustus' only biological child. The last years of Agrippa's life were spent governing the eastern provinces, were he won respect even of the Jews. He also restored Crimea to Roman Empire. His last service was starting the conquest of the upper Danube, were later the province of Pannonia would be. He suddenly died of illness in 12 BC, aged ~51.

Agrippa had several children through his three marriages. Through some of his children, Agrippa would become ancestor to many subsequent members of the Julio-Claudian dynasty. He has numerous other legacies.
Yurii P
aug_col1.jpg
(02) AUGUSTUS44 viewsAUGUSTUS
27 BC 0 14 AD
AE As 25mm 9.86g
O: PERM [CAES]AVG
R: COLONIA PATRICIA WITHIN WREATH
laney
AUGUSTUS_COLONIA_PAT.jpg
(02) AUGUSTUS26 views27 BC - 14 AD
AE As 26mm 10.24g
O: AVG PERM CAES
BUST L
R: COLONIA PATRICIA WITHIN WREATH
SPAIN
laney
AUGUSTUS_COL_PAT2.jpg
(02) AUGUSTUS32 views27 BC - 14 AD
AE As 24X26mm 11.0g
O: AVG PERM CAES
HEAD L
R: COLONIA PATRICIA WITHIN WREATH
SPAIN
laney
AUGUSTUS_COL_PAT-AQUILA.jpg
(02) AUGUSTUS28 views27 BC - 14 AD
AE 32mm 20.64g
O: BARE HEAD L
R: AQUILA BETWEEN LEGIONARY STANDARDS
SPAIN, COLONIA PATRICIA (CORDUBA)
laney
victorinus_sallus.jpg
(0268) VICTORINUS12 views268 - 270 AD
struck 269/270 AD at mint II.
AE 20 mm; 2.45 g
O: IMP C VICTORINVS P F AVG, radiate and cuirassed bust right.
R: SALVS AVG, Salus standing right, feeding snake in right hand from patera held in left hand.
Colonia Agrippina mint; RIC 67, 122; Elmer 732; AGK (corr.) 21c;
laney
001.jpg
001 AUGUSTUS SIGNIS RECEPTIS 41 viewsEMPEROR: Augustus
DENOMINATION: Denarius
OBVERSE: CAESAR AVGVSTVS, Bare head of Augustus right
REVERSE: SIGNIS RECEPTIS, round shield inscribed CL V between aquila and standard; SPQR around shield
DATE: c19-18 BC
MINT: Colonia Patricia (Spain)
WEIGHT: 4.00 g
RIC: I.86a (C)
2 commentsBarnaba6
augustusdenarius~0.JPG
001. Augustus, 27BC-14AD. AR Denarius. Ob Civis Servatos.71 viewsAR Denarius. Tarraco mint. 19 B.C.
Obv. Bare head right CAESAR AVGVSTVS

Rev. OB CIVIS SERVATOS below and above wreath.

RIC I 75a, RSC 210, BMCRE 376-7 = BMCRR Rome 4389-90, BN 1164-9. gVF.

Incredibly high relief, almost 2mm from the fields. Wear only on the highest curls. Assigned to Tarraco by style based on work by Richard Prideauxin Triton XI.
LordBest
Augustus_AR-Den_CAESAR-AVGVSTVS_OBCIVIS-SERVATOS_SPQR-CLV_RIC-79a_Colonia-Patricia_19-BC_Q-001_axis-6h_17,5-18,5mm_3,38g-s.jpg
002 Augustus (63 B.C.-14 A.D.), RIC I 079a, Colonia-Patricia, AR-Denarius, Shield within wreath inscribed with SPQR/CLV,331 views002 Augustus (63 B.C.-14 A.D.), RIC I 079a, Colonia-Patricia, AR-Denarius, Shield within wreath inscribed with SPQR/CLV,
avers:-CAESAR-AVGVSTVS, Bare head right.
revers:-OB-CIVIS-SERVATOS, Shield within wreath inscribed with SPQR/CLV.
exe:-/-//--, diameter: 17,5-18,5mm, weight: 3,38g, axis: 6h,
mint: Colonia-Patricia, date: 19 B.C., ref: RIC I 79a, C-,
Q-001
quadrans
0044.jpg
0044 - Denarius Augustus 18 BC31 viewsObv/CAESARI AVGVSTO, Augustus head laureate r.
Rev/SP QR, to l. and r. of domed tetrastyle temple, in which triumphal currus stands r., shaft up, containing eagle and four miniature galloping horses.

Ag, 20.0mm, 3.55g
Mint: Colonia patricia (?)
RIC I/119 [S] - BMCRE 385
1 commentsdafnis
0058~0.jpg
0058 - Denarius Augustus 19-8 BC34 viewsObv/Oak-wreathed head of Augustus r.
Rev/CAESAR AVGVSTVS, two laurel branches.

Ag, 17.8mm, 3.60g
Mint: Colonia CaesarAugusta (?)
RIC I/33a [R2] - Calicó 709
ex-Gerhard Hirsch, auction 254/5, lot 1711
1 commentsdafnis
5514.jpg
005d. Agrippina II89 viewsLYDIA, Hypaepa. Agrippina Jr., mother of Nero. Augusta, 50-59 AD. Æ 14mm (2.33 gm). Draped bust of Agrippina right / Cult statue of Artemis. RPC I 2541; SNG Copenhagen -.

Julia Vipsania Agrippina Minor or Agrippina Minor (Latin for "the younger") (November 7, AD 15 – March 59), often called "Agrippinilla" to distinguish her from her mother, was the daughter of Germanicus and Agrippina Major. She was sister of Caligula, granddaughter and great-niece to Tiberius, niece and wife of Claudius, and the mother of Nero. She was born at Oppidum Ubiorum on the Rhine, afterwards named in her honour Colonia Agrippinae (modern Cologne, Germany).

Agrippina was first married to (1st century AD) Gnaeus Domitius Ahenobarbus. From this marriage she gave birth to Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus, who would become Roman Emperor Nero. Her husband died in January, 40. While still married, Agrippina participated openly in her brother Caligula's decadent court, where, according to some sources, at his instigation she prostituted herself in a palace. While it was generally agreed that Agrippinilla, as well as her sisters, had ongoing sexual relationships with their brother Caligula, incest was an oft-used criminal accusation against the aristocracy, because it was impossible to refute successfully. As Agrippina and her sister became more problematic for their brother, Caligula sent them into exile for a time, where it is said she was forced to dive for sponges to make a living. In January, 41, Agrippina had a second marriage to the affluent Gaius Sallustius Crispus Passienus. He died between 44 and 47, leaving his estate to Agrippina.

As a widow, Agrippina was courted by the freedman Pallas as a possible marriage match to her own uncle, Emperor Claudius, and became his favourite councillor, even granted the honor of being called Augusta (a title which no other queen had ever received). They were married on New Year's Day of 49, after the death of Claudius's first wife Messalina. Agrippina then proceeded to persuade Claudius to adopt her son, thereby placing Nero in the line of succession to the Imperial throne over Claudius's own son, Brittanicus. A true Imperial politician, Agrippina did not reject murder as a way to win her battles. Many ancient sources credited her with poisoning Claudius in 54 with a plate of poisened mushrooms, hence enabling Nero to quickly take the throne as emperor.

For some time, Agrippina influenced Nero as he was relatively ill-equipped to rule on his own. But Nero eventually felt that she was taking on too much power relative to her position as a woman of Rome. He deprived her of her honours and exiled her from the palace, but that was not enough. Three times Nero tried to poison Agrippina, but she had been raised in the Imperial family and was accustomed to taking antidotes. Nero had a machine built and attached to the roof of her bedroom. The machine was designed to make the ceiling collapse — the plot failed with the machine. According to the historians Tacitus and Suetonius, Nero then plotted her death by sending for her in a boat constructed to collapse, intending to drown Agrippina. However, only some of the crew were in on the plot; their efforts were hampered by the rest of the crew trying to save the ship. As the ship sank, one of her handmaidens thought to save herself by crying that she was Agrippina, thinking they would take special care of her. Instead the maid was instantly beaten to death with oars and chains. The real Agrippina realised what was happening and in the confusion managed to swim away where a passing fisherman picked her up. Terrified that his cover had been blown, Nero instantly sent men to charge her with treason and summarily execute her. Legend states that when the Emperor's soldiers came to kill her, Agrippina pulled back her clothes and ordered them to stab her in the belly that had housed such a monstrous son.

ecoli
0063~0.jpg
0063 - Denarius Augustus 18-16 BC15 viewsObv/SPQR IMP C(AESARI0 AVG COS XI TRI POT VI, head of Augustus r.
Rev/CIVIB ET SIGN MILIT A PART RECVP, facing quadriga on central part of triumphal arch; figures on l. and r. hold, respectively, standard and aquila and bow.

Ag, 20.0mm, 3.88g
Mint: Colonia patricia (?)
RIC I/136 [R3] - BMCRE 427
ex-Jean Elsen et Fils, auction 95, lot 344 (colln. A.Senden)
dafnis
Denarius_Augusto_RIC_126.jpg
01- 03 - AUGUSTO (27 A.C. - 14 D.C.) 115 viewsAR denario 17,75 mm 3,50 gr.

Anv: ANEPÍGRAFA - Cabeza desnuda viendo a derecha.
Rev: AVGVSTVS en exergo - Capricornio (su signo del zodíaco) a derecha, con orbe y cornucopia.

Acuñada: Entre el 18 y 16 A.C.
Ceca: Colonia Patricia
Rareza: R2

Referencias: RIC I #126; RSC #21; BMCRE #346; Sear #1592.
3 commentsmdelvalle
RIC_126_Denario_Octavio_Augusto.jpg
01- 03 - AUGUSTO (27 A.C. - 14 D.C.) 31 viewsAR denario 17,75 mm 3,50 gr.

Anv: ANEPÍGRAFA - Cabeza desnuda viendo a derecha.
Rev: AVGVSTVS en exergo - Capricornio (su signo del zodíaco) a derecha, con orbe y cornucopia.

Acuñada: Entre el 18 y 16 A.C.
Ceca: Colonia Patricia
Rareza: R2

Referencias: RIC I #126 Pag.50; BMCRE #346; BMCRR #4374; CBN #1266; Sear RCTV I #1592 Pag.316; RSC I #21 Pag.133
mdelvalle
ABH_1293_AS_BILBILIS_Augusto.jpg
01-63 - Augusta Bilbilis - Hispania - AUGUSTO (27 A.C. - 14 D.C.)29 viewsHoy en las cercanías de Calatayud (Zaragoza), España
M.Sempronius Tiberius y L.Licius Varus duumviri

AE AS 30 mm 14.8 gr.

Anv: "AVGVSTVS·DIV·F·PATER·PATRIAE" (Leyenda anti-horaria)- Busto laureado viendo a izquierda.
Rev: "MVN·AVGVSTA·BILBILIS·M·SEMP·TIBERI·L·LICI·VARO" - "II VIR" esta última leyenda dentro de guirnalda.

Acuñada 02 A.C. - 14 D.C.
Ceca: Colonia Augusta Bilbilis - Hispania

Referencias: RPC I #393a P.129, SNG München #22, Sear GICTV #7 Pag.2, Cohen Vol.1 #640 var. (Busto a der.) Pag.152, Vv Pl.CXXXIX #2, FAB #278, ACIP #3018, ABH #278, ABH (Ant) #1293 P.163/4, Ripolles #3392 P.392
mdelvalle
ABH_617_AS_CELSA_Augusto.jpg
01-64 - Celsa - Hispania - AUGUSTO (27 A.C. - 14 D.C.)30 viewsHoy Velilla del Ebro, Tarragona, España
CN.Domitius y C.Pompeius duoviri

AE AS 28 mm 8.9 gr.

Anv: "IMP CAESAR DIVI F AVGVSTVS COS XII" (Leyenda anti-horaria)- Busto laureado viendo a derecha.
Rev: Toro estante a derecha, "CN DOMIT" arriba, "C POMPEI" debajo, "II VIR" delante y "C V I CEL" detrás.

Acuñada 05 - 03 A.C.
Ceca: Colonia Lépida Victrix Iulia - Hispania

Referencias: RPC I #278, ACIP #3169e, SNG Cop #541, ABH #811/2, ABH (Ant) #1486 P.184, Vv Pl.CLXI #8, Cohen Vol.1 #700 Pag.156, Guadan #446, Ripolles #3159 P.368
mdelvalle
RPC_I_129_Augusto_COLONIA_PATRICIA.jpg
01-65 - Colonia Patricia - AUGUSTO (27 A.C. - 14 D.C.)24 viewsAE AS 26 mm 10.9 gr.

Anv: "PERM CAES AVG" (Leyenda anti-horaria)- Busto a cabeza desnuda viendo a izquierda.
Rev: "COLONIA / PATRICIA" - Leyenda dentro de guirnalda.

Acuñada 18-02 A.C.
Ceca: Colonia Patricia - Hispania

Referencias: RPC I #129 - SNG Cop #466 - Burgos #1563 - Sear GICTV #16 Pag.3 - Sear '88 #537 - Cohen Vol.1 #607 Pag.150 - Vives #165 Pag.13 - Lingren #87
mdelvalle
RPC_131_Cuadrante_Colonia_Patricia_AUGUSTO.jpg
01-67 - Colonia Patricia - AUGUSTO (27 A.C. - 14 D.C.)13 viewsAE Cuadrante 17 mm 2.7 gr.

Anv: "PER CAE AVG" (Leyenda anti-horaria)- Busto a cabeza desnuda viendo a izquierda.
Rev: "COLO PATRI", Implementos Sacerdotales, (Aspergilio, Preferículo, lituo y Pátera).

Acuñada 18-02 A.C.
Ceca: Colonia Patricia - Hispania

Referencias: RPC I #131, ABH #1993, Cohen I #608 P.150, Guadan #956, FAB #1717 P.209, Vv Pl.CXXV #7y8, Ripolles #2606 P.314, Chaves (1977) grupo I, ACIP #3359
mdelvalle
BMC_XXVI__62_Augusto_BERYTOS_FENICIA.jpg
01-80 - Beritos - Fenicia - AUGUSTO (27 A.C. - 14 D.C.)19 viewsAE22 22 mm 12.0 gr.
Acuñada a Divo Augusto durante el reinado de Trajano.
La Colonia Iulia Augusta Felix Berytus fue fundada por veteranos de las 5ta. y 8va. legione, probablemente en el 14 A.C.

Anv: " DIVOS AVGVSTVS " Cabeza desnuda de Augusto viendo a derecha.
Rev: "COL·/ IVL " (en campo centro alto), "AVG" (en campo derecho) y , "BER" (en campo izquierdo), rodeando a Fundador velado, arando a derecha con un buey y una vaca .

Acuñada probablemente 98–102 D.C.
Ceca: Beritos - Fenicia

Referencias: RPC I #1651 Pag.308 - Sawaya 2009 #565 Pag.37 - BMC Phoenicia #65-5 Pag.60
mdelvalle
0186.jpg
0186 - Denarius Augustus 19-18 AC50 viewsObv/ Oak-wreathed head of Augustus r.
Rev/ Shield (clipeus votivus) inscribed CL V; around, S P Q R; above and below CAESAR AVGVSTVS; to both sides, laurel branches.

Ag, 18.1 mm, 3.80g
Mint: Colonia CaesarAugusta (?)
RIC I/36a [R3] - BMCRE I/354
ex-AENP Numismatic Convention, Madrid, march 2014 (Herrero)
4 commentsdafnis
Augustus_RIC_I_86a.jpg
02 Augusts RIC I 86a54 viewsAugustus. 27 B.C.-14 A.D.. Colonia Patricia Mint. 19 B.C. (3.13g, 18.4mm, 2h). Obv: CAESAR AVGSTVS, bare head right. Rev: SIGNIS RECEPTIS, Aquila on l. and standard on r. flanking SPQR arranged around shield inscribed CL V. RIC I 86a, BMC 417, RSC 265.

An important historical type commemorating the return of the legionary eagles lost by Crassus to the Parthians in the battle of Carrhae in 53 B.C. This example has wonderful toning, is perfectly centered, and retains complete legends, even the CL V on the shield is preserved better than the photograph shows.
3 commentsLucas H
augustus hisp as-.jpg
027 BC-14 AD - AUGUSTUS AE27 of Colonia Julia Traducta47 viewsobv: PERM.CAES.AVG (bare head of Augustus left)
rev: IVLIA.TRAD (in oak wreath)
ref: RPC99, C.151, S.0538, Burgos215
mint: Colonia Julia Traducta (Hispania)
10.77gms, 27mm

A rare coin from a colony of Hispania Baetica, Julia Traducta (today Algesiras)
berserker
augustus_RIC82a.jpg
027 BC-14 AD - AUGUSTUS AR denarius - struck 19-18 BC54 viewsobv: CAESAR AVGVSTVS (bare head left, banker's mark on face)
rev: SIGNIS RECEPTIS (Mars standing left, head right, with aquila and standard)
ref: RIC I 82a, RSC 259 (4frcs), BMC 414.
mint: Colonia Patricia
3.41gms, 19mm
Rare

History: The Parthians had captured the standards of the legions under the command of Marcus Licinius Crassus (53 BC, at the Battle of Carrhae), Decidius Saxa (40 BC), and Marc Antony (36 BC). It was considered a grave moral defeat and evil omen for the Romans. It required a generation of diplomacy before the Parthians returned them. Their return was considered a great triumph by Augustus, and celebrated like a military victory. He took an ovation entering Rome on horseback and being honoured with a triumphal arch in the year 20 BC. This coin struck in Colonia Patricia (today Cordoba, Spain).
1 commentsberserker
RPC_71_Semis_Druso_ITALICA.jpg
05 - 40 - Cnia. Itálica - DRUSO (20 - 23 D.C.)29 viewsAE Semis 23 mm 4.95 gr.

Anv: "DRVSVS CAESAR TI AVG F" (Leyenda anti-horaria), Cabeza desnuda viendo a derecha.
Rev: Aquila (Águila Legionaria) y Vexillum (Estandarte) entre dos Signa (Insignias militares), "MUNIC ITALIC" (Leyenda anti-horaria), "PE-R / AV-G" en campo centro.

Acuñada 20 - 23 D.C.
Ceca: Cnia. Municipium Itálica, Hispania (Hoy Saltiponce, Sevilla, España)

Referencias: RPC #71, SNG Cop #419, ACIP #3340, Vives Pl.CLXVIII #12, ABH #1596, FAB #1685 P.205, Sear GICV #338 P.31, RAH #2012-20 Pag. 259/60 - DC y P #3 Pag.215, Cohen I #9 Pag.218, Heiss #10 Pag.380
mdelvalle
VIM_Valerianus-I-AE-26_IMP-VALERIANVS-PF-AVG_PMSC_OL-VIM_AN-XVI_Pick-190_PM-7-06-2_Mus-62v_Q-001_h_26mm_7,03gx-s.jpg
088p Valerian I. (253-260 A.D.), Moesia, Viminacium, PM 07-06-02, AE-Sestertius, -/-//ANXVI, P M S COL VIM, Female figure standing, facing left, Rare! #0162 views088p Valerian I. (253-260 A.D.), Moesia, Viminacium, PM 07-06-02, AE-Sestertius, -/-//ANXVI, P M S COL VIM, Female figure standing, facing left, Rare! #01
avers: IMP VALERIANVS P F AVG, laureate cuirassed bust right.
reverse: P M S C OL VIM (Provinciae Moesiae Superioris Colonia Viminacium), Female figure (Viminacium or Provincia Moesia) standing, facing left, between bull to left and lion to right, in exergue ANXVI.
exergue: -/-//ANXVI, diameter: 26mm, weight: 7,03g, axis: h,
mint: Viminacium, date: 254-255 A.D., ref: Pick-190, PM-7-06-2, Mus-62var,
Q-001
quadrans
VIM_Valerianus-I-AE-26_IMP-VALERIANVS-P-AVG_PMSC_OL-VIM_AN-XVI_Pick-190_PM-7-06-5_Mus-62v_Q-001_h_mm_g-s~0.jpg
088p Valerian I. (253-260 A.D.), Moesia, Viminacium, PM 07-06-05, AE-Sestertius, -/-//ANXVI, P M S COL VIM, Female figure standing, facing left, Rare! #0166 views088p Valerian I. (253-260 A.D.), Moesia, Viminacium, PM 07-06-05, AE-Sestertius, -/-//ANXVI, P M S COL VIM, Female figure standing, facing left, Rare! #01
avers: IMP VALERIANVS P AVG, laureate cuirassed bust right.
reverse: P M S C OL VIM (Provinciae Moesiae Superioris Colonia Viminacium), Female figure (Viminacium or Provincia Moesia) standing, facing left, between bull to left and lion to right, in exergue ANXVI.
exergue: -/-//ANXVI, diameter: mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Moesia, Viminacium, date: 254-255 A.D., ref: Pick-190, PM-7-06-5, Mus-,
Q-001
quadrans
VIM_Valerianus-I-AE-26_IMP-VALERIANVS-P-AVG_PMSC_OL-VIM_AN-XVI_Pick-190_PM-7-06-5_Mus-62v_Q-002_0h_26,5-28,5mm_8,96ga-s~0.jpg
088p Valerian I. (253-260 A.D.), Moesia, Viminacium, PM 07-06-05, AE-Sestertius, -/-//ANXVI, P M S COL VIM, Female figure standing, facing left, Rare! #0293 views088p Valerian I. (253-260 A.D.), Moesia, Viminacium, PM 07-06-05, AE-Sestertius, -/-//ANXVI, P M S COL VIM, Female figure standing, facing left, Rare! #02
avers: IMP VALERIANVS P AVG, laureate cuirassed bust right.
reverse: P M S C OL VIM (Provinciae Moesiae Superioris Colonia Viminacium), Female figure (Viminacium or Provincia Moesia) standing, facing left, between bull to left and lion to right, in exergue ANXVI.
exergue: -/-//ANXVI, diameter: 26,5-28,5mm, weight: 8,96g, axis: 0h,
mint: Moesia, Viminacium, date: 254-255 A.D., ref: Pick-190, PM-7-06-5, Mus-,
Q-002
quadrans
VIM_Mariniana_AE-27_DIVAE-MARINIANAE_PMSC_OL-VI_AN-XVI_Pick-na_PM-7-08-2_Mus-64_Q-001_h_27mm_9_76gx-s.jpg
089p Mariniana (??? A.D.), Moesia, Viminacium, PM 07-08-02, AE-Sestertius, -/-//ANXVI, P M S COL VIM, Female figure standing, facing left, Rare! #0166 views089p Mariniana (??? A.D.), Moesia, Viminacium, PM 07-08-02, AE-Sestertius, -/-//ANXVI, P M S COL VIM, Female figure standing, facing left, Rare! #01
Wife of Valerian I.
avers: DIVAE MARINIANAE, Veiled and draped bust right.
reverse: P M S C OL VIM (Provinciae Moesiae Superioris Colonia Viminacium), Female figure (Viminacium or Provincia Moesia) standing, facing left, between bull to left and lion to right, in exergue ANXVI.
exergue: -/-//ANXVI, diameter: 27mm, weight:9,76g, axis: h,
mint: Moesia, Viminacium, date: 254-255 AD., ref: Pick-not listed, PM-7-08-2, Mus-not listed,
Q-001
quadrans
Saloninus_AR-Ant_SALON-VALERIANVS-CAES_PIETAS-AVG_RIC-V-I-9_C-41_Colonia-Agrippina_258-59-AD_Q-001_axis-0h_22,5-24,5mm_2,63g-s.jpg
093 Saloninus (258-260 A.D. Caesar), AR-Antoninianus, RIC V-I 009, Colonia-Agrippina, PIETAS AVG, Sacrificial instruments,197 views093 Saloninus (258-260 A.D. Caesar), AR-Antoninianus, RIC V-I 009, Colonia-Agrippina, PIETAS AVG, Sacrificial instruments,
avers: SALON VALERIANVS CAES, Radiate, draped bust right.
reverse: PIETAS AVG, Sacrificial implements: Lituus, knife, patera, vase, simpulum and sprinkler.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 22,5-24,5mm, weight: 2,63g, axis: 0h,
mint: Colonia-Agrippina, date: 258-259 A.D., ref: RIC-V-I-9, p-, C-41,
Q-001
quadrans
Augusto_COLONIA_PATRICIA.jpg
1-2-4 - AUGUSTUS (27 A.C. - 14 D.C.)51 viewsColonia Patricia
Hispania Ulterior Bética

AE AS 26 mm 10.9 gr

Anv: ”PERM CAES AVG” – Cabeza desnuda, viendo a izquierda.
Rev: ”COLONIA PATRICIA” – Leyenda en dos lineas, dentro de una corona de hojas de roble.

Acuñada: aproximadamente 18 A.C. - 14 D.C.

Referencias: RPC #129 – SNG Cop #466 - Alvarez Burgos #1563 - Sear GICV I #16, Pag.3 - Sear '88 #537 - Cohen #607, Pag.150 - Lindgren #87 - Vives #165.3 - Heiss #6, Pag.298
mdelvalle
Augusto_JULIA_TRADUCTA.jpg
1-3-4 - AUGUSTUS (27 A.C. - 14 D.C.)48 viewsColonia Julia Traducta
Hispania

AE AS 25 mm 13.3 gr

Anv: ”PERM CAES AVG” – Cabeza desnuda, viendo a izquierda.
Rev: ”IVLIA TRAD” – Leyenda en dos lineas, dentro de una corona de hojas de roble.

Acuñada: aproximadamente 15 A.C. - 14 D.C.

Referencias: RPC #108 – SNG Cop #459 - Sear GICV I #18, Pag.3 - Sear '88 #538 - Cohen #623, Pag.151 - Vives #164.13 - Heiss #2, Pag.336
mdelvalle
hadrian_RIC306d.jpg
117-138 AD - HADRIAN AR denarius - struck 134-138 AD54 viewsobv: HADRIANVS AVG COS III P P (laureate head right)
rev: HISPANIA (Hispania reclining left, resting on rock, holding branch, rabbit at her feet)
ref: RIC II 306d, RSC 837 (5frcs)
mint: Rome
2.53gms, 18mm
Scarce
A scarce denarius - part of the famous 'travel series'. Hadrian visited to Hispania at the end of 122 AD, spent the winter at Tarraco (today Tarragona), and here he restored at his own expense the temple of Augustus. He was also in Gades (Cadiz) and Italica (Sevilla), where was the birthplace of emperor Trajan. Hadrian was generous to his settled town, which he made a colonia; he added temples, including a Trajaneum venerating Trajan, and rebuilt several public buildings.
berserker
U809F1JMXNTCBT.jpg
1407a, Constantius II, 337-361 A.D. (Antioch)51 viewsAE4, 337-361 A.D. Antioch, aVF/VF,Obv:– DN CONSTANTIVS P F AVG, Pearl and rosette diadem, head right/R: Wreath with VOT XX MVLT XXX, SMANB in exe.RIC VIII Antioch 113,Item ref: RI170b.

AE3, 2.80 grams, 330-333, Heraclea, aVF. Obv: FL IVL CONSTANTIVS NOB C - Laureate bust right, draped and cuirassed. R: GLOR-IA EXERC-ITVS - Two soldiers looking in at each other and both holding a spear; between them, two standards Exe: SMHB.

Constantius II was born in Illyricum in August AD 317, the son of Constantine the Great and Fausta, and was proclaimed Caesar in AD 323.

In AD 337, at the death of his father Constantine, he acceded to the throne together with his two brothers Constantine II and Constans. But this accession by the three brothers was tainted by the murder of their cousins Dalmatius and Hannibalianus, whom Constantine had also intended as joint heirs. These murders are believed to have been masterminded by Constantius II.

Eventually, Constantius II was left as the sole emperor of the Roman empire. Constantius elevated his cousin, Julian, to the rank of Caesar (junior emperor) and gave him his sister Helena in marriage. Julian was assigned the task of dealing with the Frankish leader, Silvanus, who had proclaimed himself emepror at Colonia Agrippina. Julian's success led his men to declare him Augustus. Julian, while reluctant to take the throne, accepted.

Constantius II, therefore, left the Mesopotamian frontier and marched his troops west, seeking to deal with the usurper. As he reached Cilicia in the winter of AD 361, he was overcome by a sudden fever and died at Mopsucrene. Julian, the Apostate, succeded him as Emperor.

Our chief source for Constantius' reign is the great historian Ammianus Marcellinus. He presents a mixed view of that emperor. In some ways a sound administrator and competent general, Constantius is also portrayed as easily influenced by those around him such as his wives, courtiers and the eunuchs of the court (Ammianus 21. 16. 16). Ammianus (21.16.18) also attacks Constantius' great interest in Church affairs--alleging that he bankrupted the courier service with calls for Church councils. Of course, imperial interest in Church affairs was a major policy of his father Constantine and it may be that Constantius was trying to emulate his model (if only with mixed success). Indeed, Constantius II (like his brothers Constantine II and Constans) was raised a Christian. Among his many laws is the famous CTh 16.10.2 of 341 which either prohibited or re-issued his father's prohibition of pagan sacrifices. Sympathetic to Arianism, he spent a great deal of his reign calling Church councils. One of the longest-reigned emperors in Roman history, Constantius is hard for the modern historian to fully understand both due to his own actions and due to the interests of the authors of primary sources for his reign.

By Michael DiMaio, Jr., Salve Regina University & Robert Frakes, Clarion University
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

1 commentsCleisthenes
Cnstntius2b.jpg
1407h, Constantius II, 337-361 A.D. (Heraclea)32 viewsConstantius II 337-361 A.D. AE3, 2.80 grams, 330-333, Heraclea, aVF. Obverse: FL IVL CONSTANTIVS NOB C - Laureate bust right, draped and cuirassed; Reverse: GLOR-IA EXERC-ITVS - Two soldiers looking in at each other and both holding a spear; between them, two standards; SMHB in exergue.

Constantius II was born in Illyricum in August AD 317, the son of Constantine the Great and Fausta, and was proclaimed Caesar in AD 323.

In AD 337, at the death of his father Constantine, he acceded to the throne together with his two brothers Constantine II and Constans. But this accession by the three brothers was tainted by the murder of their cousins Dalmatius and Hannibalianus, whom Constantine had also intended as joint heirs. These murders are believed to have been masterminded by Constantius II.

Eventually, Constantius II was left as the sole emperor of the Roman empire. Constantius elevated his cousin, Julian, to the rank of Caesar (junior emperor) and gave him his sister Helena in marriage. Julian was assigned the task of dealing with the Frankish leader, Silvanus, who had proclaimed himself emepror at Colonia Agrippina. Julian's success led his men to declare him Augustus. Julian, while reluctant to take the throne, accepted.

Constantius II, therefore, left the Mesopotamian frontier and marched his troops west, seeking to deal with the usurper. As he reached Cilicia in the winter of AD 361, he was overcome by a sudden fever and died at Mopsucrene. Julian, the Apostate, succeded him as Emperor.

Our chief source for Constantius' reign is the great historian Ammianus Marcellinus. He presents a mixed view of that emperor. In some ways a sound administrator and competent general, Constantius is also portrayed as easily influenced by those around him such as his wives, courtiers and the eunuchs of the court (Ammianus 21. 16. 16). Ammianus (21.16.18) also attacks Constantius' great interest in Church affairs--alleging that he bankrupted the courier service with calls for Church councils. Of course, imperial interest in Church affairs was a major policy of his father Constantine and it may be that Constantius was trying to emulate his model (if only with mixed success). Indeed, Constantius II (like his brothers Constantine II and Constans) was raised a Christian. Among his many laws is the famous CTh 16.10.2 of 341 which either prohibited or re-issued his father's prohibition of pagan sacrifices. Sympathetic to Arianism, he spent a great deal of his reign calling Church councils. One of the longest-reigned emperors in Roman history, Constantius is hard for the modern historian to fully understand both due to his own actions and due to the interests of the authors of primary sources for his reign.
By Michael DiMaio, Jr., Salve Regina University & Robert Frakes, Clarion University
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
Constantius II.jpg
1407r, Constantius II, 22 May 337 - 3 November 361 A.D.39 viewsBronze AE 3, RIC 272, aVF, 2.203g, 18.1mm, 0o, Rome mint, 352 - 355 A.D.; obverse D N CONSTAN-TIVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse FEL TEMP REPARATIO, soldier spearing fallen horseman, RT in ex.

Constantius II was born in Illyricum in August AD 317, the son of Constantine the Great and Fausta, and was proclaimed Caesar in AD 323.

In AD 337, at the death of his father Constantine, he acceded to the throne together with his two brothers Constantine II and Constans. But this accession by the three brothers was tainted by the murder of their cousins Dalmatius and Hannibalianus, whom Constantine had also intended as joint heirs. These murders are believed to have been masterminded by Constantius II.

Eventually, Constantius II was left as the sole emperor of the Roman empire. Constantius elevated Julian to the rank of Caesar (junior emperor) and gave him his sister Helena in marriage. Julian was assigned the task of dealing with the Frankish leader, Silvanus, who had proclaimed himself emepror at Colonia Agrippina. Julian's success lead his men to declare him Augustus. Julian, while reluctant to take the throne, accepted.

Constantius II, therefore left the Mesopotamian frontier and marched his troops west, seeking to deal with the usurper. As he reached Cilicia in the winter of AD 361, he was overcome by a sudden fever and died at Mopsucrene. Julian, the Apostate, succeded him as Emperor.

Our chief source for Constantius' reign is the great historian Ammianus Marcellinus. He presents a mixed view of that emperor. In some ways a sound administrator and competent general, Constantius is also portrayed as easily influenced by those around him such as his wives, courtiers and the eunuchs of the court (Ammianus 21. 16. 16). Ammianus (21.16.18) also attacks Constantius' great interest in Church affairs--alleging that he bankrupted the courier service with calls for Church councils. Of course, imperial interest in Church affairs was a major policy of his father Constantine and it may be that Constantius was trying to emulate his model (if only with mixed success). Indeed, Constantius II (like his brothers Constantine II and Constans) was raised a Christian. Among his many laws is the famous CTh 16.10.2 of 341 which either prohibited or re-issued his father's prohibition of pagan sacrifices. Sympathetic to Arianism, he spent a great deal of his reign calling Church councils. One of the longest-reigned emperors in Roman history, Constantius is hard for the modern historian to fully understand both due to his own actions and due to the interests of the authors of primary sources for his reign.

By Michael DiMaio, Jr., Salve Regina University & Robert Frakes, Clarion University
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.



Cleisthenes
Julian2VotXConstantinople.jpg
1409a, Julian II "the Philosopher," February 360 - 26 June 363 A.D.143 viewsJulian II, A.D. 360-363; RIC 167; VF; 2.7g, 20mm; Constantinople mint; Obverse: DN FL CL IVLIANVS P F AVG, helmeted & cuirassed bust right, holding spear & shield; Reverse: VOT X MVLT XX in four lines within wreath; CONSPB in exergue; Attractive green patina. Ex Nemesis.


De Imperatoribus Romanis,
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors

Julian the Apostate (360-363 A.D.)

Walter E. Roberts, Emory University
Michael DiMaio, Jr., Salve Regina University

Introduction

The emperor Flavius Claudius Julianus reigned from 360 to 26 June 363, when he was killed fighting against the Persians. Despite his short rule, his emperorship was pivotal in the development of the history of the later Roman empire. This essay is not meant to be a comprehensive look at the various issues central to the reign of Julian and the history of the later empire. Rather, this short work is meant to be a brief history and introduction for the general reader. Julian was the last direct descendent of the Constantinian line to ascend to the purple, and it is one of history's great ironies that he was the last non-Christian emperor. As such, he has been vilified by most Christian sources, beginning with John Chrysostom and Gregory Nazianzus in the later fourth century. This tradition was picked up by the fifth century Eusebian continuators Sozomen, Socrates Scholasticus, and Theodoret and passed on to scholars down through the 20th century. Most contemporary sources, however, paint a much more balanced picture of Julian and his reign. The adoption of Christianity by emperors and society, while still a vital concern, was but one of several issues that concerned Julian.

It is fortunate that extensive writings from Julian himself exist, which help interpret his reign in the light of contemporary evidence. Still extant are some letters, several panegyrics, and a few satires. Other contemporary sources include the soldier Ammianus Marcellinus' history, correspondence between Julian and Libanius of Antioch, several panegyrics, laws from the Theodosian Code, inscriptions, and coinage. These sources show Julian's emphasis on restoration. He saw himself as the restorer of the traditional values of Roman society. Of course much of this was rhetoric, meant to defend Julian against charges that he was a usurper. At the same time this theme of restoration was central to all emperors of the fourth century. Julian thought that he was the one emperor who could regain what was viewed as the lost glory of the Roman empire. To achieve this goal he courted select groups of social elites to get across his message of restoration. This was the way that emperors functioned in the fourth century. By choosing whom to include in the sharing of power, they sought to shape society.

Early Life

Julian was born at Constantinople in 331. His father was Julius Constantius, half-brother of the emperor Constantine through Constantius Chlorus, and his mother was Basilina, Julius' second wife. Julian had two half-brothers via Julius' first marriage. One of these was Gallus, who played a major role in Julian's life. Julian appeared destined for a bright future via his father's connection to the Constantinian house. After many years of tense relations with his three half-brothers, Constantine seemed to have welcomed them into the fold of the imperial family. From 333 to 335, Constantine conferred a series of honors upon his three half-siblings, including appointing Julius Constantius as one of the consuls for 335. Julian's mother was equally distinguished. Ammianus related that she was from a noble family. This is supported by Libanius, who claimed that she was the daughter of Julius Julianus, a Praetorian Prefect under Licinius, who was such a model of administrative virtue that he was pardoned and honored by Constantine.

Despite the fact that his mother died shortly after giving birth to him, Julian experienced an idyllic early childhood. This ended when Constantius II conducted a purge of many of his relatives shortly after Constantine's death in 337, particularly targeting the families of Constantine's half-brothers. ulian and Gallus were spared, probably due to their young age. Julian was put under the care of Mardonius, a Scythian eunuch who had tutored his mother, in 339, and was raised in the Greek philosophical tradition, and probably lived in Nicomedia. Ammianus also supplied the fact that while in Nicomedia, Julian was cared for by the local bishop Eusebius, of whom the future emperor was a distant relation. Julian was educated by some of the most famous names in grammar and rhetoric in the Greek world at that time, including Nicocles and Hecebolius. In 344 Constantius II sent Julian and Gallus to Macellum in Cappadocia, where they remained for six years. In 351, Gallus was made Caesar by Constantius II and Julian was allowed to return to Nicomedia, where he studied under Aedesius, Eusebius, and Chrysanthius, all famed philosophers, and was exposed to the Neo-Platonism that would become such a prominent part of his life. But Julian was most proud of the time he spent studying under Maximus of Ephesus, a noted Neo-Platonic philospher and theurgist. It was Maximus who completed Julian's full-scale conversion to Neo-Platonism. Later, when he was Caesar, Julian told of how he put letters from this philosopher under his pillows so that he would continue to absorb wisdom while he slept, and while campaigning on the Rhine, he sent his speeches to Maximus for approval before letting others hear them. When Gallus was executed in 354 for treason by Constantius II, Julian was summoned to Italy and essentially kept under house arrest at Comum, near Milan, for seven months before Constantius' wife Eusebia convinced the emperor that Julian posed no threat. This allowed Julian to return to Greece and continue his life as a scholar where he studied under the Neo-Platonist Priscus. Julian's life of scholarly pursuit, however, ended abruptly when he was summoned to the imperial court and made Caesar by Constantius II on 6 November 355.

Julian as Caesar

Constantius II realized an essential truth of the empire that had been evident since the time of the Tetrarchy--the empire was too big to be ruled effectively by one man. Julian was pressed into service as Caesar, or subordinate emperor, because an imperial presence was needed in the west, in particular in the Gallic provinces. Julian, due to the emperor's earlier purges, was the only viable candidate of the imperial family left who could act as Caesar. Constantius enjoined Julian with the task of restoring order along the Rhine frontier. A few days after he was made Caesar, Julian was married to Constantius' sister Helena in order to cement the alliance between the two men. On 1 December 355, Julian journeyed north, and in Augusta Taurinorum he learned that Alamannic raiders had destroyed Colonia Agrippina. He then proceeded to Vienne where he spent the winter. At Vienne, he learned that Augustudunum was also under siege, but was being held by a veteran garrison. He made this his first priority, and arrived there on 24 June 356. When he had assured himself that the city was in no immediate danger, he journeyed to Augusta Treverorum via Autessioduram, and from there to Durocortorum where he rendezvoused with his army. Julian had the army stage a series of punitive strikes around the Dieuse region, and then he moved them towards the Argentoratum/Mongontiacum region when word of barbarian incursions reached him.

From there, Julian moved on to Colonia Agrippina, and negotiated a peace with the local barbarian leaders who had assaulted the city. He then wintered at Senonae. He spent the early part of the campaigning season of 357 fighting off besiegers at Senonae, and then conducting operations around Lugdunum and Tres Tabernae. Later that summer, he encountered his watershed moment as a military general. Ammianus went into great detail about Julian's victory over seven rogue Alamannic chieftains near Argentoratum, and Julian himself bragged about it in his later writing. After this battle, the soldiers acclaimed Julian Augustus, but he rejected this title. After mounting a series of follow-up raids into Alamannic territory, he retired to winter quarters at Lutetia, and on the way defeated some Frankish raiders in the Mosa region. Julian considered this campaign one of the major events of his time as Caesar.

Julian began his 358 military campaigns early, hoping to catch the barbarians by surprise. His first target was the Franks in the northern Rhine region. He then proceeded to restore some forts in the Mosa region, but his soldiers threatened to mutiny because they were on short rations and had not been paid their donative since Julian had become Caesar. After he soothed his soldiers, Julian spent the rest of the summer negotiating a peace with various Alamannic leaders in the mid and lower Rhine areas, and retired to winter quarters at Lutetia. In 359, he prepared once again to carry out a series of punitive expeditions against the Alamanni in the Rhine region who were still hostile to the Roman presence. In preparation, the Caesar repopulated seven previously destroyed cities and set them up as supply bases and staging areas. This was done with the help of the people with whom Julian had negotiated a peace the year before. Julian then had a detachment of lightly armed soldiers cross the Rhine near Mogontiacum and conduct a guerilla strike against several chieftains. As a result of these campaigns, Julian was able to negotiate a peace with all but a handful of the Alamannic leaders, and he retired to winter quarters at Lutetia.

Of course, Julian did more than act as a general during his time as Caesar. According to Ammianus, Julian was an able administrator who took steps to correct the injustices of Constantius' appointees. Ammianus related the story of how Julian prevented Florentius, the Praetorian Prefect of Gaul, from raising taxes, and also how Julian actually took over as governor for the province of Belgica Secunda. Hilary, bishop of Poitiers, supported Ammianus' basic assessment of Julian in this regard when he reported that Julian was an able representative of the emperor to the Gallic provincials. There is also epigraphic evidence to support Julian's popularity amongst the provincial elites. An inscription found near Beneventum in Apulia reads:
"To Flavius Claudius Julianus, most noble and sanctified Caesar, from the caring Tocius Maximus, vir clarissimus, for the care of the res publica from Beneventum".

Tocius Maximus, as a vir clarissimus, was at the highest point in the social spectrum and was a leader in his local community. This inscription shows that Julian was successful in establishing a positive image amongst provincial elites while he was Caesar.

Julian Augustus

In early 360, Constantius, driven by jealousy of Julian's success, stripped Julian of many troops and officers, ostensibly because the emperor needed them for his upcoming campaign against the Persians. One of the legions ordered east, the Petulantes, did not want to leave Gaul because the majority of the soldiers in the unit were from this region. As a result they mutinied and hailed Julian as Augustus at Lutetia. Julian refused this acclamation as he had done at Argentoratum earlier, but the soldiers would have none of his denial. They raised him on a shield and adorned him with a neck chain, which had formerly been the possession of the standard-bearer of the Petulantes and symbolized a royal diadem. Julian appeared reluctantly to acquiesce to their wishes, and promised a generous donative. The exact date of his acclamation is unknown, but most scholars put it in February or March. Julian himself supported Ammianus' picture of a jealous Constantius. In his Letter to the Athenians, a document constructed to answer charges that he was a usurper, Julian stated that from the start he, as Caesar, had been meant as a figurehead to the soldiers and provincials. The real power he claimed lay with the generals and officials already present in Gaul. In fact, according to Julian, the generals were charged with watching him as much as the enemy. His account of the actual acclamation closely followed what Ammianus told us, but he stressed even more his reluctance to take power. Julian claimed that he did so only after praying to Zeus for guidance.

Fearing the reaction of Constantius, Julian sent a letter to his fellow emperor justifying the events at Lutetia and trying to arrange a peaceful solution. This letter berated Constantius for forcing the troops in Gaul into an untenable situation. Ammianus stated that Julian's letter blamed Constantius' decision to transfer Gallic legions east as the reason for the soldiers' rebellion. Julian once again asserted that he was an unwilling participant who was only following the desire of the soldiers. In both of these basic accounts Ammianus and Julian are playing upon the theme of restoration. Implicit in their version of Julian's acclamation is the argument that Constantius was unfit to rule. The soldiers were the vehicle of the gods' will. The Letter to the Athenians is full of references to the fact that Julian was assuming the mantle of Augustus at the instigation of the gods. Ammianus summed up this position nicely when he related the story of how, when Julian was agonizing over whether to accept the soldiers' acclamation, he had a dream in which he was visited by the Genius (guardian spirit) of the Roman state. The Genius told Julian that it had often tried to bestow high honors upon Julian but had been rebuffed. Now, the Genius went on to say, was Julian's final chance to take the power that was rightfully his. If the Caesar refused this chance, the Genius would depart forever, and both Julian and the state would rue Julian's rejection. Julian himself wrote a letter to his friend Maximus of Ephesus in November of 361 detailing his thoughts on his proclamation. In this letter, Julian stated that the soldiers proclaimed him Augustus against his will. Julian, however, defended his accession, saying that the gods willed it and that he had treated his enemies with clemency and justice. He went on to say that he led the troops in propitiating the traditional deities, because the gods commanded him to return to the traditional rites, and would reward him if he fulfilled this duty.

During 360 an uneasy peace simmered between the two emperors. Julian spent the 360 campaigning season continuing his efforts to restore order along the Rhine, while Constantius continued operations against the Persians. Julian wintered in Vienne, and celebrated his Quinquennalia. It was at this time that his wife Helena died, and he sent her remains to Rome for a proper burial at his family villa on the Via Nomentana where the body of her sister was entombed. The uneasy peace held through the summer of 361, but Julian concentrated his military operations around harassing the Alamannic chieftain Vadomarius and his allies, who had concluded a peace treaty with Constantius some years earlier. By the end of the summer, Julian decided to put an end to the waiting and gathered his army to march east against Constantius. The empire teetered on the brink of another civil war. Constantius had spent the summer negotiating with the Persians and making preparations for possible military action against his cousin. When he was assured that the Persians would not attack, he summoned his army and sallied forth to meet Julian. As the armies drew inexorably closer to one another, the empire was saved from another bloody civil war when Constantius died unexpectedly of natural causes on 3 November near the town of Mopsucrenae in Cilicia, naming Julian -- the sources say-- as his legitimate successor.

Julian was in Dacia when he learned of his cousin's death. He made his way through Thrace and came to Constantinople on 11 December 361 where Julian honored the emperor with the funeral rites appropriate for a man of his station. Julian immediately set about putting his supporters in positions of power and trimming the imperial bureaucracy, which had become extremely overstaffed during Constantius' reign. Cooks and barbers had increased during the late emperor's reign and Julian expelled them from his court. Ammianus gave a mixed assessment of how the new emperor handled the followers of Constantius. Traditionally, emperors were supposed to show clemency to the supporters of a defeated enemy. Julian, however, gave some men over to death to appease the army. Ammianus used the case of Ursulus, Constantius' comes sacrum largitionum, to illustrate his point. Ursulus had actually tried to acquire money for the Gallic troops when Julian had first been appointed Caesar, but he had also made a disparaging remark about the ineffectiveness of the army after the battle of Amida. The soldiers remembered this, and when Julian became sole Augustus, they demanded Ursulus' head. Julian obliged, much to the disapproval of Ammianus. This seems to be a case of Julian courting the favor of the military leadership, and is indicative of a pattern in which Julian courted the goodwill of various societal elites to legitimize his position as emperor.

Another case in point is the officials who made up the imperial bureaucracy. Many of them were subjected to trial and punishment. To achieve this goal, during the last weeks of December 361 Julian assembled a military tribunal at Chalcedon, empanelling six judges to try the cases. The president of the tribunal was Salutius, just promoted to the rank of Praetorian Prefect; the five other members were Mamertinus, the orator, and four general officers: Jovinus, Agilo, Nevitta, and Arbetio. Relative to the proceedings of the tribunal, Ammianus noted that the judges, " . . . oversaw the cases more vehemently than was right or fair, with the exception of a few . . .." Ammianus' account of Julian's attempt at reform of the imperial bureaucracy is supported by legal evidence from the Theodosian Code. A series of laws sent to Mamertinus, Julian's appointee as Praetorian Prefect in Italy, Illyricum, and Africa, illustrate this point nicely. On 6 June 362, Mamertinus received a law that prohibited provincial governors from bypassing the Vicars when giving their reports to the Prefect. Traditionally, Vicars were given civil authority over a group of provinces, and were in theory meant to serve as a middle step between governors and Prefects. This law suggests that the Vicars were being left out, at least in Illyricum. Julian issued another edict to Mamertinus on 22 February 362 to stop abuse of the public post by governors. According to this law, only Mamertinus could issue post warrants, but the Vicars were given twelve blank warrants to be used as they saw fit, and each governor was given two. Continuing the trend of bureaucratic reform, Julian also imposed penalties on governors who purposefully delayed appeals in court cases they had heard. The emperor also established a new official to weigh solidi used in official government transactions to combat coin clipping.

For Julian, reigning in the abuses of imperial bureaucrats was one step in restoring the prestige of the office of emperor. Because he could not affect all elements of society personally, Julian, like other Neo-Flavian emperors, decided to concentrate on select groups of societal elites as intercessors between himself and the general populace. One of these groups was the imperial bureaucracy. Julian made it very clear that imperial officials were intercessors in a very real sense in a letter to Alypius, Vicar of Britain. In this letter, sent from Gaul sometime before 361, the emperor praises Alypius for his use of "mildness and moderation with courage and force" in his rule of the provincials. Such virtues were characteristic of the emperors, and it was good that Alypius is representing Julian in this way. Julian courted the army because it put him in power. Another group he sought to include in his rule was the traditional Senatorial aristocracy. One of his first appointments as consul was Claudius Mamertinus, a Gallic Senator and rhetorician. Mamertinus' speech in praise of Julian delivered at Constantinople in January of 362 is preserved. In this speech, Claudius presented his consular selection as inaugurating a new golden age and Julian as the restorer of the empire founded by Augustus. The image Mamertinus gave of his own consulate inaugurating a new golden age is not merely formulaic. The comparison of Julian to Augustus has very real, if implicit, relevance to Claudius' situation. Claudius emphasized the imperial period as the true age of renewal. Augustus ushered in a new era with his formation of a partnership between the emperor and the Senate based upon a series of honors and offices bestowed upon the Senate in return for their role as intercessor between emperor and populace. It was this system that Julian was restoring, and the consulate was one concrete example of this bond. To be chosen as a consul by the emperor, who himself had been divinely mandated, was a divine honor. In addition to being named consul, Mamertinus went on to hold several offices under Julian, including the Prefecture of Italy, Illyricum, and Africa. Similarly, inscriptional evidence illustrates a link between municipal elites and Julian during his time as Caesar, something which continued after he became emperor. One concrete example comes from the municipal senate of Aceruntia in Apulia, which established a monument on which Julian is styled as "Repairer of the World."

Julian seems to have given up actual Christian belief before his acclamation as emperor and was a practitioner of more traditional Greco-Roman religious beliefs, in particular, a follower of certain late antique Platonist philosophers who were especially adept at theurgy as was noted earlier. In fact Julian himself spoke of his conversion to Neo-Platonism in a letter to the Alexandrians written in 363. He stated that he had abandoned Christianity when he was twenty years old and been an adherent of the traditional Greco-Roman deities for the twelve years prior to writing this letter.

(For the complete text of this article see: http://www.roman-emperors.org/julian.htm)

Julian’s Persian Campaign

The exact goals Julian had for his ill-fated Persian campaign were never clear. The Sassanid Persians, and before them the Parthians, had been a traditional enemy from the time of the Late Republic, and indeed Constantius had been conducting a war against them before Julian's accession forced the former to forge an uneasy peace. Julian, however, had no concrete reason to reopen hostilities in the east. Socrates Scholasticus attributed Julian's motives to imitation of Alexander the Great, but perhaps the real reason lay in his need to gather the support of the army. Despite his acclamation by the Gallic legions, relations between Julian and the top military officers was uneasy at best. A war against the Persians would have brought prestige and power both to Julian and the army.

Julian set out on his fateful campaign on 5 March 363. Using his trademark strategy of striking quickly and where least expected, he moved his army through Heirapolis and from there speedily across the Euphrates and into the province of Mesopotamia, where he stopped at the town of Batnae. His plan was to eventually return through Armenia and winter in Tarsus. Once in Mesopotamia, Julian was faced with the decision of whether to travel south through the province of Babylonia or cross the Tigris into Assyria, and he eventually decided to move south through Babylonia and turn west into Assyria at a later date. By 27 March, he had the bulk of his army across the Euphrates, and had also arranged a flotilla to guard his supply line along the mighty river. He then left his generals Procopius and Sebastianus to help Arsacius, the king of Armenia and a Roman client, to guard the northern Tigris line. It was also during this time that he received the surrender of many prominent local leaders who had nominally supported the Persians. These men supplied Julian with money and troops for further military action against their former masters. Julian decided to turn south into Babylonia and proceeded along the Euphrates, coming to the fortress of Cercusium at the junction of the Abora and Euphrates Rivers around the first of April, and from there he took his army west to a region called Zaitha near the abandoned town of Dura where they visited the tomb of the emperor Gordian which was in the area. On April 7 he set out from there into the heart of Babylonia and towards Assyria.

Ammianus then stated that Julian and his army crossed into Assyria, which on the face of things appears very confusing. Julian still seems to be operating within the province of Babylonia between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. The confusion is alleviated when one realizes that,for Ammianus, the region of Assyria encompassed the provinces of Babylonia and Assyria. On their march, Julian's forces took the fortress of Anatha, received the surrender and support of several more local princes, and ravaged the countryside of Assyria between the rivers. As the army continued south, they came across the fortresses Thilutha and Achaiachala, but these places were too well defended and Julian decided to leave them alone. Further south were the cities Diacira and Ozogardana, which the Roman forces sacked and burned. Soon, Julian came to Pirisabora and a brief siege ensued, but the city fell and was also looted and destroyed. It was also at this time that the Roman army met its first systematic resistance from the Persians. As the Romans penetrated further south and west, the local inhabitants began to flood their route. Nevertheless, the Roman forces pressed on and came to Maiozamalcha, a sizable city not far from Ctesiphon. After a short siege, this city too fell to Julian. Inexorably, Julian's forces zeroed in on Ctesiphon, but as they drew closer, the Persian resistance grew fiercer, with guerilla raids whittling at Julian's men and supplies. A sizable force of the army was lost and the emperor himself was almost killed taking a fort a few miles from the target city.
Finally, the army approached Ctesiphon following a canal that linked the Tigris and Euphrates. It soon became apparent after a few preliminary skirmishes that a protracted siege would be necessary to take this important city. Many of his generals, however, thought that pursuing this course of action would be foolish. Julian reluctantly agreed, but became enraged by this failure and ordered his fleet to be burned as he decided to march through the province of Assyria. Julian had planned for his army to live off the land, but the Persians employed a scorched-earth policy. When it became apparent that his army would perish (because his supplies were beginning to dwindle) from starvation and the heat if he continued his campaign, and also in the face of superior numbers of the enemy, Julian ordered a retreat on 16 June. As the Roman army retreated, they were constantly harassed by guerilla strikes. It was during one of these raids that Julian got caught up in the fighting and took a spear to his abdomen. Mortally wounded he was carried to his tent, where, after conferring with some of his officers, he died. The date was 26 June 363.

Conclusion

Thus an ignominious end for a man came about who had hoped to restore the glory of the Roman empire during his reign as emperor. Due to his intense hatred of Christianity, the opinion of posterity has not been kind to Julian. The contemporary opinion, however, was overall positive. The evidence shows that Julian was a complex ruler with a definite agenda to use traditional social institutions in order to revive what he saw as a collapsing empire. In the final assessment, he was not so different from any of the other emperors of the fourth century. He was a man grasping desperately to hang on to a Greco-Roman conception of leadership that was undergoing a subtle yet profound change.
Copyright (C) 2002, Walter E. Roberts and Michael DiMaio, Jr. Used by permission.

In reality, Julian worked to promote culture and philosophy in any manifestation. He tried to reduce taxes and the public debts of municipalities; he augmented administrative decentralisation; he promoted a campaign of austerity to reduce public expenditure (setting himself as the example). He reformed the postal service and eliminated the powerful secret police.
by Federico Morando; JULIAN II, The Apostate, http://www.forumancientcoins.com/NumisWiki/view.asp?key=Julian%20II

Flavius Claudius Iulianus was born in 331 or maybe 332 A.D. in Constantinople. He ruled the Western Empire as Caesar from 355 to 360 and was hailed Augustus by his legions in Lutetia (Paris) in 360. Julian was a gifted administrator and military strategist. Famed as the last pagan emperor, his reinstatement of the pagan religion earned him the moniker "the Apostate." As evidenced by his brilliant writing, some of which has survived to the present day, the title "the Philosopher" may have been more appropriate. He died from wounds suffered during the Persian campaign of 363 A.D. Joseph Sermarini, FORVM.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.




2 commentsCleisthenes
commodus den01-.jpg
177-192 AD - COMMODUS AR denarius - struck 191 AD39 viewsobv: M COMM ANT P FEL AVG BRIT PP
rev: CONC COM PM TRP XVI COSVI (Concordia standing left, holding patera & scepter)
ref: RIC III 219, C.45 (30frcs)
2.41gms, 17mm
Rare

History: In 190 AD Commodus named Rome after himself, Colonia Commodiana, adding the prenomina of LUCIA ANTONINIANA. This coin is belong to the group of the loyalty of the cohorts, Concordia Commodi Augusti.
berserker
1787shilling.jpg
1787 Colonial Shilling18 viewsNORMAN K
Charles_IIII_1795_Mexico_Spanish_Colonial_8_Reales.jpg
1795- MoFM Mexico Spanish Colonial 8 Reales of Charles IIII - [KM-109 -- Charles IIII]64 viewsChopmarked, 0.7797 ounce silver 8 Reales (also known as the pillar dollar), 26.65g, 39.62mm, 0 degree, Mexico City, Mexico Mint [Mo -- small 'o' set over a large 'M'], 179[5]

Obv. - • CAROLUS IIII • DEI • GR[ATIA] •, laureate bust of Charles IIII right

Rev. - • HISPAN • ET IND • REX • Mo • 8R • F • M •, coat of arms of Spain

This coin was sold as a 1794 chopmarked 8 Reale. Upon inspection in hand under high magnification and different lighting conditions, as well as inspection of large, quality pictures on the computer allowing for color/contrast/levels manipulation, and I have determined this coin to actually be from 1795. The '5', although extremely worn is visible under the correct conditions and comparisons of the worn number morphology to other 179x coins lends credence to this finding.

The reverse is just as interesting and challenging. Although the mintmark is almost completely worn off, the assayer of FM ensures that the coin is of Mexico City, Mexico mintmark.

The coat of arms of Spain, a crown crown flanked by columns and a middle shield includes the national motto PLVS VLTRA spread across the two columns. PLVS VLTRA (PLUS ULTRA) translates to "further beyond." It is adopted from the personal motto of Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor (and King of Spain as Charles I) and is a Latin translation from Plus Oultre, his original motto in Old French.

A great website for helping to attribute these coins and a breakdown of the legend components can be found here: http://coinquest.com/cgi-bin/cq/coins?main_coin=2334

Reading on different chopmarks can be found here: http://www.1messydesk.com/chopmarks/chopmarks.html

Although this coin is quite worn in certain areas, it has a lovely tone and great character. The numerous different chopmarks just add to the appeal. This coins was bought as a conversation piece as I have always found them interesting, albeit with knowing next to nothing concerning them. However, after doing some research, I have come to appreciate it much more and may follow suite with further additions. In any case, I plan on further reading into the subject area.
___________

Purchased from Regal Coin Exchange in Savannah, GA
1 commentsrenegade3220
George_III_Bank_of_England_Dollar_1804.JPG
1804 GEORGE III AR BANK OF ENGLAND DOLLAR 48 viewsObverse: GEORGIUS III DEI GRATIA REX. Laureate and draped bust of George III facing right.
Reverse: BANK OF ENGLAND 1804. Britannia, seated left, holding a branch and spear, her left arm resting on a shield which in turn rests on a cornucopia, a beehive is in the background to the left; all within a garter inscribed FIVE SHILLINGS DOLLAR. The garter is surmounted by a castellated "crown" of five circular stone turrets.
On this coin there are enough traces of the host coin discernible on the reverse, near the edge between 'BANK' and 'OF', and on the obverse below the bust to make an accurate identification of the undertype possible. It was overstruck on a Spanish Colonial 8 Reales minted at Potosi in Bolivia which bore the date 1806.
Spink 3768; Obverse die A, Reverse die 2
Diameter: 41mm | Weight: 26.7gms | Die Axis: 11
SPINK: 3768

This portrait of George III was designed by Conrad Heinrich Kuchler (c.1740 - 1810), this is marked by C. H. K. in raised letters on the truncation at the king's shoulder. The reverse, which was also designed by Kuchler has the raised initial K in the triangular space between the shield, cornucopia, and Britannia's dress. Kuchler moved to Birmingham in 1795 and designed many of the coins and medals which were struck at Matthew Boulton's SOHO mint.

Note on George III Bank of England Silver Dollars
Although George III reigned for sixty years from 1760 to 1820, the only crowns issued were in the last three years of his reign, apart from these Bank of England dollars issued as an emergency measure.
There had been a persistent shortage of silver coins throughout most of George's reign, and the Bank of England attempted to alleviate this by counter-marking Spanish colonial 8-Reale pieces (the “pieces of eight” of pirate legend) with a punch bearing the head of George III. When this counter-mark was enthusiastically counterfeited, the bank resorted to counter-stamping the entire coin. Most survivors were struck on Mexican or Peruvian 8-Reale pieces, though a few have been found to be struck on issues from Spain proper. Although these Bank of England dollars are all dated 1804, they were issued every year until 1811, and occasionally the dates of Spanish 8 Reales minted after 1804 can be discerned on them. In 1811, to take account of the increase in the value of silver, the Bank of England dollar coins were revalued at 5s6d and they stayed at this value until they were withdrawn from circulation in 1817, by which time a massive silver re-coinage was being undertaken.
2 comments*Alex
AE_013_(2).JPG
20 spanish colonial cobs and bronze coins21 viewsminted between XVI to XVIII century. Most of them from Philippus II, III and IV reigns in XVII century. _11700Antonivs Protti
0030-405.jpg
2000 - Octavian & Agrippa, AE Dupondius 81 viewsArausio mint (Orange), 30-29 BC (Colonia Firma Julia Secundanorum Arausio)
IMP DIVI F (IMPerator DIVI Filii), bare heads of Augustus (right) and Agrippa (left), back to back
Prow of galley right, ram's head (?) enclosed in a medaillion above
17.61 gr - 28 mm.
Ref : RPC # 533
Ex. CNG e-auction #181/28, from the Patrick Villemur collection

Following comment taken from http://www.asdenimes.com/ :

Un très bel exemplaire du dupondius d'Orange. Têtes adossées d'Agrippa (à gauche) et Octave (à droite). Très beaux reliefs.
L’as (ou dupondius) d’Orange est très rare et nombre d'exemplaires connus (quelques dizaines) sont souvent de médiocre conservation. Le dupondius d'Orange préfigure le dupondius de Nîmes frappé à partir de 28/27 av. J.-C. et qui reprendra l’avers quasiment à l’identique (y compris les légendes), avec les profils d’Octave devenu Auguste et d’Agrippa. Le revers sera interprété de façon parodique sur l’as de Nîmes, puisque la galère sera remplacée par le crocodile qui garde à peu près la forme générale du vaisseau et dont l’oeil prophylactique (pas visible sur cet exemplaire : voir les as de Vienne page suivante) deviendra l’oeil du crocodile. On y ajoutera la palme pour former le mat et quelques autres accessoires tout aussi symboliques.
La tête de bélier représentée dans le médaillon du revers serait l’emblème des vétérans de la légio II Gallica qui a fondé la colonie d’Arausio vers 35 av. J.-C.
On distingue 2 types de dupondius d'Orange : ceux dont les portraits occupent la plus grande partie de l'avers et ceux qui montrent des têtes plutôt petites.
1 commentsPotator II
savaria_01-stone_of_the_Caesars.JPG
2008-Savaria - The stone of the Caesars23 viewsOn the top of the red granite stone a sun-dial shows the time, and has six emperor relief. All of them played a significant role in the development of this town:
Claudius founded in AD 43 as Colonia Claudia Savaria;
during the reign of Domitian the town became a religion centre;
Emperor Trajan settled military troops from the civilians and they fought in Dacian War;
during the reign of Septimius Severus was built an Isis shrine;
Diocletian made the centre of jury during the Great Persecution;
and finally Constantine the Great, who partitioned Pannonia four province and Savaria was the capital of Pannonia Prima.
berserker
w9~1.JPG
205. Severus Alexander; Bostra, Arabia17 viewsSeverus Alexander, 13 March 222 - March 235 A.D., Bostra, Arabia

Bronze AE 19, SNG ANS 1218-1220, aF, 4.27g, 19.3mm, 180o, Bostra mint, IMP CAES M AVB SEV ALEXANDER AVG, laureate draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse COLONIA BOSTRA, draped and turreted bust of Tyche left holding cornucopia; Bostra was the northern capital of the Nabataeans, until Trajan annexed the kingdom. It was then capital of Provincia Arabia, where the Third Legio Cyrenaica was garrisoned. The emperor Philip was born in Bostra and designated the city a metropolis.

Ex- CNG sale 143, Lot: 340
ecoli
GordIIIMoush33.jpg
238-244 AD - Gordian III - Moushmov 0033 - Viminacium44 viewsEmperor: Gordian III (r. 238-244 AD)
Date: 242-243 AD
Condition: Very Fine
Size: AE22

Obverse: IMP GORDIANVS PIVS FEL AVG
Imperator Gordian Dutiful and Wise Emperor
Bust right; radiate, draped and cuirassed

Reverse: P M S C-OL VIM
Moesia standing between a lion and a bull.
AN IIII in exergue (Year 4 of the Colonial Era of Viminacium = 242/3 AD).

Mint: Viminacium, Moesia Superior
Moushmov 33
7.98g; 22.9mm; 30°
Pep
10603346_732337593469821_1075071389989188733_n.jpg
250 Gallienus28 viewsGallienus, August 253 - September 268 A.D
Silver antoninianus, Göbl MIR 872m, RSC IV 310 (Lugdunum), RIC V J18 (Lugdunum), SRCV III 10225, VF, weak reverse strike, 3.077g, 23.3mm, 0o, Colonia Agrippinensis (Cologne, Germany) mint, 257 - 258 A.D.; obverse GALLIENVS P F AVG, radiate and draped bust left, spear in right over shoulder, shield on left arm in left; reverse GERMANICVS MAX V, two captives seated back-to-back at the foot of a trophy, their arms tied behind their backs; scarce;

1 commentsRandygeki(h2)
HosVim.jpg
251 AD - Hostilian - Viminacium - Moesia with Lion and Bull Reverse88 viewsEmperor: Hostilian (r. 251 AD)
Date: 251 AD
Condition: aFine
Size: AE26

Obverse: IMP C VAL HOST M QVINTVS AVG
Imperator Caesar Valens Hostilian Messius Quintus Emperor
Bust right; laureate

Reverse: P M S C-OL VIM
Moesia standing between a lion (right) and a bull (left).
Exergue: ANXII (Year 12 of the Colonial Era of Viminacium = 251 AD)

Mint: Viminacium, Moesia Superior
12.64g; 26.7mm; 345°
Pep
10513v.jpg
267-268 AD., Postumus, Colonia mint, Antoninianus, Zschucke 178.70 viewsPostumus, Colonia mint, 20th emission,
Antoninianus (20-21 mm / 2.83 g), 267-268 AD.,
Obv.: IMP POSTVMVS P F AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right.
Rev.: SAECVLI FELICITAS , Postumus standing right, holding globe and spear.
Zschucke 178 ; Cunetio 2444 ; RIC 83 ; C 331 .

my ancient coin database
1 commentsArminius
127_P_Hadrian__Rouvier_532.jpg
3855 PHOENICIA Berytus Hadrian 128-138 AD two legionary Aquilae 27 viewsReference.
RPC III, 3855; Rouvier 532; SNG Cop 101; BMC Phoenicia 99 (p. 66)

Obv. IMP CAES TRAI HADRIANVS AVG P P
Laureate and draped bust right.

Rev. COL / BER
Two legionary aquilae (eagles) flanking inscription in two lines, all within laurel wreath, pellet between eagles.

4.99 gr
20 mm
die axis 0o

Note.
Named for the daughter of Augustus, Colonia Iulia Augusta Felix Berytus was founded in 14 B.C. with veterans of the 5th and 8th legions. Herod the Great, Herod Agrippa I, and Herod Agrippa II built sumptuous monuments and sponsored gladiatorial combats at Berytos. After the siege of Jerusalem, Titus gave gladiatorial games at Berytos, in which the combatants were Jews.

ex.
FORVM
okidoki
405_P_Hadrian.jpg
3912 Phoenicia, Acco-Ptolemaïs. Hadrian. Æ 21 Hadrian, as founder plowing44 viewsReference.
RPC III, 3912; Kadman 103; cf. Rosenberger 48 (head right); cf. Rouvier 1000 (same).; Hendin 819

Obv. IMP TRA HADRIA[NO CAESAR]
Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from front.

Rev. DIVOS CLAV above, C-O-L/PT-OL in two lines across field. (COL PTOL=Colonia Ptolemais)
Claudius, as founder plowing right with yoked bull and cow; in background, four standards.

11.02 gr
21 mm
12 h

Agora Auctions.
From the Kenneth Miller Collection of Ake-Ptolemaïs and Related Biblical Coins.
2 commentsokidoki
560_P_Hadrian_RPC3962.jpg
3962 SAMARIA, Caesarea Maritima. Hadrian AE 15 Lion32 viewsReference.
RPC III, 3962; Kadman 30; BMC p. 21, 76 and pl. III.9; CNP II p. 102, 30; De Saulcy p. 123, 5corr. (Av.); Lindgren & Kovacs 2415; SNG ANS 773.

Obv. [IMP TR] [HAD]RIANO CA [A]
Laureate head right.

Rev. C I F A C (Colonia Prima Flavia Augusta Caesarea)
Lion walking right; above, serpent

2.47 gr
15 mm
12h

Note.
Ex Schulten, Auction, Cologne, 22-23 April 1985, lot 467; ex Frank Sternberg, Auction 33, Zurich, 18-19 September 1997, lot 87, A.K. Collection: Coin ID C011 from Lot no. 559
okidoki
Hispania_Bronze_As.jpg
4 Hispania AE Ases20 viewsJulia Traducta, Colonia Patricia, _4750Antonivs Protti
coin264.JPG
403. Carausius37 viewsMarcus Aurelius Mausaeus Carausius (d. 293) was a Roman usurper in Britain and northern Gaul (286–293, Carausian Revolt).

Carausius was a man of humble origin, a Menapian from Belgic Gaul who distinguished himself during Maximian's campaign against the Bagaudae rebels in Gaul in 286. As a result, he was appointed to command the Classis Britannica, a fleet based in the English Channel, with the responsibility of eliminating Frankish and Saxon pirates who had been raiding the coast. However, he was suspected of keeping captured treasure for himself, and even of allowing the pirates to carry out raids and enrich themselves before taking action against them, and Maximian ordered his execution. In late 286 or early 287 Carausius learned of this sentence and responded by declaring himself Emperor of Britain and northern Gaul.

He could count on the alliegance of the three legions based in Britain, as well as one in northern Gaul. How he was able to win support from the army when his command had been sea-based is uncertain. The emperor briefly assumed the title Britannicus Maximus in 285, and the British towns of Wroxeter and Caistor by Norwich towns show signs of destruction around this time, so it is possible Carausius won the army's support during military action in Britain shortly before his rebellion. Alternatively, if the accusations of larceny are true, he could perhaps afford to buy their loyalty. He also appears to have appealed to native British dissatisfaction with Roman rule: he issued coins with legends such as Restitutor Britanniae (Restorer of Britain) and Genius Britanniae (Spirit of Britain).

Maximian, busy with wars on the Rhine, was unable to challenge him immediately, but in the Autumn of 288 he began massing troops and ships for an invasion. In 289 an invasion of Britain intended to dislodge him failed badly due to storms, although a naval defeat is also possible. An uneasy peace continued until 293, during which Rome prepared for a second effort to retake the province, while Carausius began to entertain visions of legitimacy and official recognition. He minted his own coins and brought their value in to line with Roman issues as well as acknowledging and honouring Maximian and then Diocletian. Coinage is the main source of information about the rogue emperor; his issues were initially crude but soon became more elaborate and were issued from mints in Londinium, Rotomagnus and a third site, possibly Colonia Claudia Victricensis. A milestone from Carlisle with his name on it suggests that the whole of Roman Britain was in Carausius' grasp.

It has been speculated (namely, by the historian Sheppard Frere) that the rebellion of Carausius endangered Diocletian's vision of a strong, centralized government based on his tetrarchy. In any case, by early 293 Constantius Chlorus had gained control of northern Gaul, including the rebel's stronghold and port of Bononia, on which Carausius was heavily dependent. Constantius built a mole across the harbour mouth to ensure it did not receive maritime aid.

Constantius also regained the allegiance of the rebellious Gallic legion and defeated the Franks of the Rhine mouth who seem to have been working in league with Carausius. Weakened by these setbacks, Carausius was assassinated, possibly at York, by his treasurer, Allectus.

aVF/aVF Carausius Antoninianus / Pax / Green Patina and Nice Style

Attribution: RIC 895
Date: 287-293 AD
Obverse: IMP CARAVSIVS P F AVG, radiate and draped bust right
Reverse: PAX AVG, Pax standing left, holding branch and transverse sceptre.
Size: 20.91 mm
Weight: 3 grams
ecoli
Antoniniano Victorino RIC 67.jpg
91-02 - VICTORINO (269 - 271 D.C.)39 viewsBillon Antoniniano 20 x 19 mm 2.7 gr.

Anv: "IMP C VICTORINVS P F AVG" - Busto radiado, vestido y acorazado, viendo a derecha.
Rev: "SALVS AVG" - Salus (La Salud) de pié a derecha,alimentando una serpiente que sostiene en sus brazos.

Acuñada 2da. Emisión finales 269 - mitad 270 D.C.
Ceca: Colonia - Alemania
Rareza: C

Referencias: RIC Vol.V Parte II #67 Pag.393 - Sear RCTV Vol.III #11179 Pag.384 (Mainz ó Trier) - Sear RCTV (1988) #3169 - Cohen Vol.VI #112 Pag.81 - DVM #12-1 Pag.270 - Cunieto #2567 - Elmer #732 - AGK #21c - Hunter #21
mdelvalle
RIC_67_Antoniniano_Victorino.jpg
91-02 - VICTORINO (269 - 271 D.C.)13 viewsAE Antoniniano 20 x 19 mm 2.7 gr.

Anv: "IMP C VICTORINVS P F AVG" - Busto radiado y acorazado, viendo a derecha.
Rev: "SALVS AVG" - Salus (La Salud) de pié a derecha,alimentando una serpiente que sostiene en sus brazos.

Acuñada 2da. Emisión finales 269 - mitad 270 D.C.
Ceca: Colonia - Alemania

Referencias: RIC Vol.V Parte II #67 Pag.393 (C) - Sear RCTV Vol.III #11179 Pag.384 (Mainz ó Trier) - Sear RCTV (1988) #3169 - Cohen Vol.VI #112 Pag.81 - DVM #12/1 Pag.270 - Cunetio #2567 - Elmer #732 - AGK #21c (C5) - Hunter #21 - L.E.G.PPS #234 P.LX
mdelvalle
RIC_61_Antoniniano_Victorino.jpg
91-06 - VICTORINO (269 - 271 D.C.)9 viewsAE Antoniniano 18 mm 2.3 gr.

Anv: "IMP C VICTORINVS P F AVG" - Busto radiado y acorazado, viendo a derecha.
Rev: "[PR]OVIDENTIA AVG" - Providentia (La Providencia) estante a la izq., portando un bastón corto en mano der.apoyado sobre globo y cornucopia en izq.

Acuñada 5ta. Emisión 271 D.C.
Ceca: Colonia, Alemania

Referencias: RIC Vb #61 Pag.392 - Sear RCTV Vol.III #11178 Pag.384 (Cologne) - Cohen Vol.VI #101 Pag.79 - DVM #10 Pag.270 - Cunetio #2577 - Elmer #743 - Hunter #29 - AGK #19 (C6) - L.E.G.PPS #252 P.LXI
mdelvalle
Antoniniano Tetrico I RIC 70.jpg
92-02 - TETRICO I (271 - 274 D.C.)57 viewsBillon Antoniniano 19 x 18 mm 2.9 gr.

Anv: "IMP TETR[ICVS P F] AVG" - Busto radiado y acorazado, viendo a derecha.
Rev: "[FIDES M]ILITVM" - Fides (La Fidelidad) de pié a izquierda, portando un estandarte militar en cada mano de sus brazos extendidos.

Acuñada 4ta. Emisión finales 271 D.C.
Ceca: Colonia Alemania
Rareza: C

Referencias: RIC Vol.V Parte II #70 Pag.407 - Sear RCTV Vol.III #11234 var. Pag.391 - Sear RCTV (1988) #3176 - Cohen Vol.VI #37 Pag.96 - DVM #3 Pag.270 - Cunieto #2638 - Elmer #784 - AGK #3f
1 commentsmdelvalle
RIC_70_Antoniniano_Tetrico_I.jpg
92-02 - TETRICO I (271 - 274 D.C.)10 viewsAE Antoniniano 19 x 18 mm 2.9 gr.

Anv: "IMP TETR[ICVS P F] AVG" - Busto radiado y acorazado, viendo a derecha.
Rev: "[FIDES M]ILITVM" - Fides (La Fidelidad) de pié a izquierda, portando un estandarte militar en cada mano de sus brazos extendidos.

Acuñada 4ta. Emisión finales 271 D.C.
Ceca: Colonia Alemania

Referencias: RIC Vol.V Parte II #70 Pag.407 (C) - Sear RCTV Vol.III #11234 var. Pag.391 - Sear RCTV (1988) #3176 - Cohen Vol.VI #37 Pag.96 - DVM #3 Pag.270 - Cunetio #2638 - Elmer #784 - AGK #3f (C3) - L.E.G.PPS #298 P.LXXIV
mdelvalle
RPC_Alexander_Troas_Gallienus.jpg
Alexandria Troas (modern Eski Stambul). Gallienus (Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus) (253-268 A.D.)27 viewsBellinger A459; SNG Copenhagen 200-201; SNG München 138; SNG von Aulock 7576;
BMC Troas p. 132, 184.

AE unit, 5.29 g., 19.70 mm. max., 180°

Obv: IMP LICI GALLIENVS, laureate, draped bust right, seen from behind.

Rev: COL AVG / TROA (in exergue), she-wolf standing right, suckling Romulus and Remus.

Colonia Augusta Troas = The August Colony of Troas
2 commentsStkp
pisidia_antioch_aurelius.jpg
Antioch, Pisidia, AE 19.1mm; Eagle standing, head r., wings open18 viewsMarcus Aurelius, Antioch, Pisidia, AE 19.1mm, 3.30g. AVRELIVS CAESAR, Head of Marcus Aurelius r. / ANTIOCHEAE COLONIAE, Eagle standing, head r., wings open. BMC 177, 9. Ex Gerhard RohdePodiceps
Antoninus_Pius_denarius_Marcus.jpg
Antoninus Pius and Marcus Aurelius denarius12 viewsAR Denarius
Antoninus Pius, 138-161 CE
Diameter: 18mm, Weight: 3.18 grams, Die axis: 6h

Obverse: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS PP TRP COS III
Laureate head of Antoninus Pius to right.

Reverse: AVRELIVS CAESAR AVG PII F COS
Draped, bear-headed bust of Marcus Aurelius to right.

Mint: Rome

Notes:
- Issued early in the reign of Antoninus Pius circa 140 to 144 CE.
- The reverse with Marcus Aurelius draped is scarcer than undraped.

Ex Colonial Coins & Medals Brisbane, 2003
Pharsalos
bostra.jpg
Arabia Petraea, Bostra. AE19 Julia Mamaea 35 viewsJulia Mamaea AE19 of Syria, Decapolis, Bostra. IVLIA MAMAEA AVGVSTA, draped bust right / COLONIA BOSTRA, bust of Zeus-Ammon right.ancientone
Severus_Alexander_04.jpg
Asia Minor, Mysia, Parium, Severus Alexander, Asclepios20 viewsSeverus Alexander
Mysia, Parium
Obv.: IMP CAEƧ L ƧEP ƧE ALEXANDER, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev.: DEO AEƧ VB (Deo Aesculapius subvenienti - to Aesculapius, the god who helps), Asclepius seated right, holding raised foreleg of bull standing left, C G H I P (Colonia Gemella Iulia Hadriana Pariana) in exergue.
Æ, 19mm, 5.27g
Ref.: SNG Cop - , BMC - , SNG BN - , SNG von Aulock -, ISEGRIM-, RPC VI temp 3871
2 commentsshanxi
00908-Augustus.JPG
Augustus12 viewsAugustus
16 mm 2.98 gm
O: Bare head left
R: Patera, aspergillum, jug and lituus
Provincial of Spain, Colonia Patricia
Koffy
augustopeke~0.jpg
AUGUSTUS28 viewsAR denarius. Spanish mint (Colonia Patricia ?). 18 BC. 3,81 grs. 7 h. Laureate head right. CAESARI AVGVSTO / Temple of Mars Ultor: round-domed, hexastyle temple with acroteria ,set on podium of three steps. Within, aquila between two signa. MAR VLT across field.
RIC I 105a. RSC 190
1 commentsbenito
augustopeke.jpg
AUGUSTUS30 viewsAR denarius. Spanish mint (Colonia Patricia ?). 18 BC. 3,81 grs. 7 h. Laureate head right. CAESARI AVGVSTO / Temple of Mars Ultor: round-domed, hexastyle temple with acroteria ,set on podium of three steps. Within, aquila between two signa. MAR VLT across field.
RIC I 105a. RSC 190
2 commentsbenito
10480996_703350213035226_8998503194079486291_n.jpg
Augustus 34 viewsAugustus AE 25 As, of leaded bronze, from Colonia Patricia (Corduba), Spain. 19/18-2 BC. PERM CAES AVG, laureate head left / COLONIA PATRICIA in two lines within wreath. SGI 16, RPC 129, Lindgren 87.1 commentsRandygeki(h2)
218344.jpg
Augustus4 viewsAugustus denarius 18 BC, Spanish mint (Colonia Partica?) Denarius AR 17mm., 3,48g.
CAESAR AVGVSTO, laureate head right / S P -Q R, temple of Mars Ultor: round-domed, tetrastyle temple set on podium of three steps, within which is a chariot right, carrying an aquila and miniature galloping horses.

RIC 119.
Ancient Aussie
spaincart2.jpg
Augustus ( Octavian) Colonial Patricia, Spain 27 BCE-14 CE19 viewsObverse: PER ACE AVG, head of Octavian to the left.
Reverse: COLO PATR, Aspergilo (holy water sprinkler),
prefericulo (peripheral ring), lituo (curved stick used for worship)
and patera (shallow bowl).
14 mm., 2.0 g., AB 1566
sold 2-2018
NORMAN K
Augustus_Dupondius.jpg
Augustus (27 B.C. - 14 A.D.) bronze dupondius, minted in Colonia Patricia (actual Cordoba).6 viewsRoman Empire - Augustus (27 B.C. - 14 A.D.) bronze dupondius (19,71 g. 33 mm.) minted in Colonia Patricia, ancient Baetica provincia in Hispania (actual Cordoba). Legionary eagle between two standards. Scarce.

PERMISSV CAESARIS AVGVSTI. Bare head of Augustus to left.
COLONIA PATRICIA around legionary eagle between two military standards. FAB-1988.
Antonivs Protti
colonial_patricia[1].jpg
Augustus (Octavian) Colonial Patricia, Spain 27 B.C.E. - 14 C.E.14 viewsObverse - PER ACE AVG. Head of Octavio to the left
Reverse - COLO PATR. Aspergilo, prefericulo, lituo and patera.
14 mm., 2.0g. AB 1566
NORMAN K
00484.jpg
Augustus (RPC I 131, Coin #484)20 viewsRPC I 131, AE Quadrans, Colonia Patricia (Cordova), 15 - 14 BC.
Obv: PER CAE AVG Bare head left.
Rev: COLO PATR Patera above aspergillum, jug, and lituus.
Size: 15.0mm 2.30gm
MaynardGee
Augustus_RIC_86a.jpg
Augustus - [RIC 86a, BMC 41, CBN 1132, Cohen 19]86 viewsSilver denarius, 3.13g, 18.44mm, 90 degree, Colonia Patricia mint, 19 B.C.

Obv. - CAESAR AVGVSTVS, bare head right

Rev. - SIGNIS RECEPTIS, Aquila on left and standard on right flanking S P Q R arranged around shield inscribed CL V

A superb piece with a particularly beautiful portrait and an attractive tone.

This famous and historically important denarius of Augustus commemorates the reconquest of the legionary eagles from the Parthians. These signa where lost, when Crassus was defeated at the battle of Carrhae and their return back to Rome was one of the greatest diplomatic successes Augustus had.

The CL V on the reverse of this issue represents the clipeus virtutis, which was - according to the Res Gestae Divi Augusti, the funerary inscription giving the achievements of Augustus - a golden shield displayed in the Curia Iulia that was given to Augustus by the Senate and the Roman people (Senatus PopulusQue Romanus) in commemoration of his virtue, piety, justice and clemency. Even though it seems to be obvious that Augustus must have been awarded the shield right after he achieved absolute power and declared the restoration of the Republic, Sydenham suggests "that there is no decisive evidence as to the exact date at which the golden shield was conferred, but the coins on which it is represented are of later date than the year BC 27". When, in 19 BC, the Parthians returned the standards they had captured from Crassus in 53, there would have been an excellent opportunity to once again recall Augustus' pietas, one of the virtues recorded on the clipeus.
___________

Purchased from VCoins seller Ancient Artifacts & Treasures, Inc. at the 2013 BRNA Dalton, GA coin show

Sold 25Apr2015 to Lucas Harsh Collection
2 commentsrenegade3220
Augustus14_opt.jpg
AUGUSTUS AE20 (Semis), RPC 130, Colonia Patricia39 viewsOBV: PERM CAES AVG, bare head left
REV: COLONIA PATRICIA, Apex & Simpulum
4.08g, 20 mm

Minted at Colonia Patricia (Cordoba - Spain), 19/18-2 B.C
Legatus
RIC159.jpg
Augustus and Agrippa, RIC 15925 viewsIPM DIVI•F
Back to back heads of Augustus, bare head right, and Agrippa, wearing rostral wreath, P P to the sides in field
COL NEM
Crocodile right chained to a palm, wreath above with long trailing ribbons, two palm fronds below
AE dupondius, 27.5mm, 13.14g
Colonia Augusta Nemausus
novacystis
auli~0.jpg
Augustus and Livia , Colonial Romula (Seville), Minted by Tiberus13 viewsAugustus and Livia, minted by Tiberius, 14 Aug 19 - 16 Mar 37 A.D.
This coin associates Livia with globe and crescent symbols and refers to her as Augusta Genetrix Orbis, Sacred Mother of the World. This extraordinary title was never official and is not used on any other coin type for any empress.
5474. Orichalcum dupondius, RPC I 73, Alverez Burgos 1587, aF, Colonia Romula mint, 25.1g, 33.4mm, 180°, obverse PERM DIVI AVG COL ROM, Augustus radiate head right, star above, thunderbolt right; reverse IVLIA AVGVSTA GENETRIX ORBIS, Livia head left on globe, crescent above;
sold 4-2018
NORMAN K
Colonia Patricia AS Aug.jpg
Augustus As, provincial coin38 viewsAE 26mm, around 11 B.C.
Obv: AUG
Rev: Colonia Patricia (Cordoba, Spain)
1 commentsJean Paul D
Augustus_Colonia_Patricia.JPG
Augustus Colonia Patricia34 viewsAugustus AE15, 2.8g, Colonia Patricia, RPC 131, Burgos 1565, Villaronga 1005, 27 BC - 14 AD
OBV: PER CAE AVG, bare head left
REV: COLO PATR, patera, aspergillum, jug & lituus
Romanorvm
BrettAugustus1.jpg
Augustus Denarius84 viewsBare head right, CAESAR AVGVSTVS / SPQR - CL V in two lines on shield. Uncertain Spanish mint (Colonia Caesaraugusta?), 19 - 18 BC. RIC I 42a (pg. 44).3 commentssocalcoins
BrettAugustus2.jpg
Augustus Denarius45 viewsLaureate head right, CAESARI AVGVSTO / Domed hexastyle temple of Mars Ultor (the Avenger) containing legionary eagle between two standards, MAR VLT. Uncertain Spanish mint (Colonia Patricia?), 18 BC. RIC I 105a (pg.48); BMCRE 373; RSC 190; RCV 1623 (Millennium Edition).
socalcoins
Aug_Naville.jpg
Augustus Denarius - Mars with Vexillum and Parazonium (RIC 148)57 viewsAR Denarius
Colonia Patricia (?) 18-16 BC
3.73g

Obv: Bare head of Augustus (R)
SPQR IMP CAESARI

Rev: Mars helmeted and cloaked standing l., holding vexillum; parazonium over l. shoulder
VOT P SVSC PRO SAL ET RED I O M SACR

RIC 148(?). C 327
Same Obv die as BMC 4457
Same Rev die as BMC 4459

ex. E.E. Clain-Stefanelli Collection
3 commentsKained but Able
91.jpg
Augustus Denarius - Oak Wreath (RIC 75a) 58 viewsAR Denarius
Colonia Patricia, Spain 19 BC
3.52g

Obv: Bare head of Augustus (R)
CAESAR AUGUSTUS

Rev: OAK WREATH/CIVIC CROWN with ties in centre, OB CIVIS - SERVATOS above and below.


RIC 75a BMC 376
1 commentsKained but Able
Augustus3_opt.jpg
AUGUSTUS Denarius, RIC 77A, Oak Leaf55 viewsOBV: CAESAR AVGVSTVS, bare head right
REV: OB/CIVES/SERVATOS in three lines within wreath with ties inward
3.3g, 17mm

Minted at Colonia Patricia, 19 BC
2 commentsLegatus
Augustus_denarius.jpg
Augustus portrait denarius41 viewsAugustus. 27 BC-AD 14. AR Denarius (21mm, 3.67 g, 6h). Uncertain Spanish mint (Colonia Caesaraugusta?). Struck circa 19-18 BC. Bare head left / Oak wreath with the two ties drawn up across center. RIC I 40b; RSC 211. Near EF, banker’s mark on obverse, fine style.4 commentsTiberiusClaudius
cuadrante_Augusto.JPG
Augustus Provincial AE quadrans, Colonia Patricia15 viewsAugustus (27 BC – 14 AD)

AE Quadrans, Colonia Patricia

Obv: PERM. CAES. AVG. Bust left.
Rev.: COLO. PATR. Sacrifice implements
ABH-1993.

Weigth: 2.3g.
Diameter: 15mm.
Jose Polanco
Augusto_Semis_CP.JPG
Augustus Provincial AE semis, Colonia Patricia9 viewsAugustus (27 BC – 14 AD)

AE Semis, Colonia Patricia

Obv: PERM. CAES. AVG. Bust left.
Rev: COLONIA PATRICIA. Apex and simpulum.
RIC I 130

Weigth: 5.1g.
Diameter: 20mm.
Jose Polanco
ric_126_augustus.jpg
Augustus RIC 0126 75 viewsAugustus (27 BC-AD 14), Denarius, Uncertain Spanish mint (Colonia Patricia?), 17-16 BC, (19 mm 3.73 g).
Obv: Bare head right
Rev: Augustus, Capricorn right, holding globe attached to rudder between front hooves; cornucopia above its back.
RIC I 126; RSC 21 SRCV (2000) 1592.
Purchased October 28, 2016 from vcoins store London Coin Galleries Ltd.




Although Augustus was the second Caesar covered by Suetonius, he really was the first ruler of the new Roman empire. Originally known by the name Octavian, he became Augustus as the new ruler of the empire.

The coin below is special to me for two reasons. First, I love the
anepigraphic (no legend) obverse. I feel this gives an elegant look to the portrait and make the portrait the focus of the coin. Many emperors were very particular as to how their images appeared on their coins and Augustus was no exception. It is difficult to tell when a coin of Augustus was issued by the portrait alone because his portraits did not age very much from his beginnings as emperor until his death.

Another reason I like this coin is the reverse. It depicts a Capricorn with globe and rudder. These devices appear on other coins of Augustus, and other emperors used them as well. Augustus would be associated with the image of the Capricorn for much of his rule.

Although this is not a perfect coin because of its imperfect flan shape, the combination of a great portrait and the Capricorn meant I had to have it.
4 commentsorfew
augustus_86a.JPG
Augustus RIC I, 86a177 viewsAugustus, 27 BC - AD 14
AR - Denar, 3.74g, 19mm
Colonia Patricia(?), ca. 19 BC - 18 BC
obv. CAESAR AVGVSTVS
bare head r.
rev. SIGNIS above, RECEPTIS under round shield inscribed with CL.V between
eagle l. and standard r. S.P.Q.R. at the corners of the shield
RIC I, 86a; BMCR 417; RSC 265
good VF, toned

The eagle standards were introduced by Marius similar to the Ptolemaic eagle to each of his legions. This issue celebrates the recovery of the 3 eagle-standards 20 BC by Augustus, which were lost by Crassus 53 BC at the battle of Carrhae against the Parthians. The 3 eagles thereafter were erected in the new temple of Mars Ultor on the Forum of Augustus. The day of recovery was determined public holiday.
5 commentsJochen
augustus_86a~0.JPG
Augustus RIC I, 86a1418 viewsJochen's Augustus RIC I, 86a
Augustus, 27 BC - AD 14
AR - Denar, 3.74g, 19mm
Colonia Patricia(?), ca. 19 BC - 18 BC
obv. CAESAR AVGVSTVS
bare head r.
rev. SIGNIS above, RECEPTIS under round shield inscribed with CL.V between
eagle l. and standard r. S.P.Q.R. at the corners of the shield
RIC I, 86a; BMCR 417; RSC 265
good VF, toned

The eagle standards were introduced by Marius similar to the Ptolemaic eagle to each of his legions. This issue celebrates the recovery of the 3 eagle-standards 20 BC by Augustus (by negotiations), which were lost by Crassus 53 BC at the battle of Carrhae against the Parthians. The 3 eagles thereafter were erected in the new temple of Mars Ultor on the Forum of Augustus. The day of recovery was determined public holiday.
11 commentsJochen
Augustus15_opt.jpg
AUGUSTUS Æ 25 As, RPC 129, Colonia Patricia18 viewsOBV: PERM CAES AVG, laureate head left
REV: COLONIA PATRICIA in two lines in wreath
8.07g, 24 mm

Minted at Colonia Patricia (Cordoba - Spain), 19/18-2 BC
Legatus
Augustus19.jpg
Augustus Æ 31 Dupondius SNG Cop 464, Legionary Standards29 views OBV: PERMISSV CAESARIS AVGVSTI, bare head left
REV: COLONIA PATRICIA, aquila between legionary standards
18g, 31 mm

Struck at Colonia Patricia (Cordoba - Spain), exact year unknown
Legatus
Augustus_RIC_51.JPG
Augustus, 27 BC - 14 AD57 viewsObv: No legend, oak-wreathed head of Augustus facing right within a dotted border.

Rev: CAESAR / AVGVSTVS in two lines above and below two laurel branches within a linear boarder.

Silver Denarius, Uncertain Spanish mint (Colonial Patricia), 20 - 16 BC

3.657 grams, 18.5 mm, 180°

RIC I 51, RSC 47, S1600 (var.), VM 52

Ex: FORVM
1 commentsSPQR Coins
Augustus_RPC_I_130.jpg
Augustus, AE Semis, RPC I 1305 viewsAugustus
27 B.C. – 14 A.D.

Coin: AE Semis

Obverse: PERM CAES - AVG, Bare headed bust facing to the left.
Reverse: COLO-NIA PATRICIA, Apex and Simpulum.

Weight: 5.04 g, Diameter: 20.6 x 21 x 2 mm, Die axis: 45°, Mint: Colonia Patricia (Corduba), Spain, struck between 18-2 B.C. Reference: RPC I 130
Masis
Augustus_RPC_I_129.jpg
Augustus, AE25, RPC I 1294 viewsAugustus
27 B.C. – 14 A.D.

Coin: AE25

Obverse: PERM CAES - AVG, Bare headed bust facing to the left.
Reverse: COLONIA / PATRICIA, in two lines within an Oak Wreath.

Weight: 11.65 g, Diameter: 25.4 x 25.5 x 2.5 mm, Die axis: 300°, Mint: Colonia Patricia (Corduba), Spain, struck between 18-2 B.C. Reference: RPC I 129
Masis
Augustus_RPC_I_129_Second_example.jpg
Augustus, AE25, RPC I 1292 viewsAugustus
27 B.C. – 14 A.D.

Coin: AE25

Obverse: PERM CAES - AVG, Bare headed bust facing to the left.
Reverse: COLONIA / PATRICIA, in two lines within an Oak Wreath.

Weight: 9.01 g, Diameter: 25 x 24.5 x 2.3 mm, Die axis: 100°, Mint: Colonia Patricia (Corduba), Spain, struck between 18-2 B.C. Reference: RPC I 129
Masis
1_augustus(1).jpg
Augustus, Caesaraugusta. 27 BC-AD 14. Æ Semis 20mm, 6,43g.26 viewsColonia Caesaraugusta mint; L. Cassius and C. Valerius Fene(stella?), duoviri.
Obv: AVGVSTVS DIVI • F, laureate head left.
Rev: CAESAR (AR ligate) AVGVSTA (AV ligate) / L CASSIO C VAL (VA ligate) FEN, vexillum set on low basis; II• - VIR across field.
RPC I 311; NAH -; SNG Copenhagen 546 var. (magistrate).
1 commentsxanthos
0030-205.jpg
Augustus, Denarius93 viewsColonia Patricia mint ? ca. 19-18 BC
CAESARI AVGVSTO, laureate head right
SP - QR on either side of a domed terastyle temple, in which is a chariot with aquila.
3,66 gr
Ref : RSC # 279, RIC # 119
6 commentsPotator II
augustus_120cf_replica.jpg
Augustus, RIC 120 cf., replica49 viewsAugustus, 27 BC- AD 14
AR - denarius, 4.37g, 19.46mm
Colonia Patricia(?), 18 BC
obv. CAESARI AVGVSTO
Head, laureate, l.
rev. Frontal view of tetrastyle temple of Mars, domed roof and decorated with 9 figures and acroterias; within
triumphal chariot with eagle-sceptre and 4 small horses galopping r.
in l. and r. field S.P. - Q.R.
ref. RIC I, 120 cf.; BMCR 386; RSC 282
(for the original only!)

This is a replica struck from new dies. Easily recognized by the odd portrait on the obv. It is made by CopyCoins.com
Jochen
normal_AUGUDU03-2~0.jpg
Augustus, RIC 158, medium bronze of 10 BC to AD 1068 viewsmedium bronze (dupondius ?) (12.6g, 25mm, 2h) Nemausus mint. Struck 10 BC - 10 AD.
Obv.: IMP DIVI F Agrippa laureate head left and Augustus laureate head right, back to back
Rev.: COL NEM crocodile chained to palm tree top bent to right, wreath at top.
RIC (Augustus) 158

COL NEM stands for COLONIA AVGVSTA NEMAVSVS (now the city of Nîmes, France), built by Augustus' army after their conquest and return from Egypt. The crocodile chained to the palm tree symbolizes the defeat of the Cleopatra and Marc Antony at Actium. This symbol is still used as the city's emblem in Nîmes today.
3 commentsCharles S
1-colonia_patricia.jpg
Augustus- RPC 1298 viewsAugustus AE 25 As, leaded bronze
Colonia Patricia (Corduba), Spain. 19/18-2 BC.
PERM CAES AVG, laureate head left /
COLONIA PATRICIA in two lines in wreath.
xokleng
trajan_lion_Caesarea.png
BCC CM30 (BCC 28)51 viewsRoman Provincial
Caesarea Maritima
Trajan 98-117 C.E.
OBV:[IMP C]AES..OPTIM
AVG laur. bust rt.
REV: C I F AVG (Colonia Prima
Flavia Augusta) Lion walking rt.
AE 11.5mm 1.46gm. Axis:0
Kadman 25
For a number of reasons, this coin
was first listed by Hamburger (Atiqot
Vol. 1 1954/56), as possibly coming
from the first year of Hadrian's reign.
Subsequent authors list the coin as Trajan.
Kadman suggests it is likely that these coins
were minted for Trajan's Parthian War of
115-118CE, and that the lion had a specific
military meaning. (Coins of Caesarea
Maritima, Kadman, p.70)
v-drome
hadrian_lion_2.jpg
BCC CM6aX58 viewsRoman Provincial
Caesarea Maritima
Hadrian 117-138 C.E.
OBV:[IM TRA] HAD-RIA
NO CA[E] laur. bust rt.
REV: C I F A C (Colonia Prima
Flavia Augusta Caesarea)
Lion walking rt. Snake above
AE 13mm 2.74gm. Axis:0
Kadman 30
v-drome
hadrian_lion_BCC_CM6b.jpg
BCC CM6b39 viewsRoman Provincial
Caesarea Maritima
Hadrian 117-138 C.E.
OBV:[IM TRA HAD-RI]ANO CA[E]
Laureate bust right.
REV: C I F A C (Colonia Prima Flavia Augusta
Caesarea) Lion walking right, snake above.
AE20x14mm.2.44gm.Ax:0
Kadman 30
v-drome
hadrian_lion_Caesarea.png
BCC CM6x (BCC 27)53 viewsRoman Provincial
Caesarea Maritima
Hadrian 117-138 C.E.
OBV:IM?TR[A HADRI]A
NO CA[E] laur. bust rt.
REV:Lion walking rt. Snake above.
below: C I F A C (Colonia Prima
Flavia Augusta Caesarea)
AE 12mm 2.12gm. Axis:0
Kadman #30 (poss. die match)
v-drome
BCC_m98-m102_caesarea.jpg
BCC M98-M10249 viewsCaesarea Minimae
Five minute coins from Caesarea Maritima
Mint: Caesarea?
Obv:Head of Tyche, or female head,
often crudely rendered.
Rev: Various styles of galley.

M98: 13x11mm 0.79gm. Axis:300
M99: 12 x 11.5mm 0.97gm Axis:270 cf. Ham# 65
M100: 10mm 0.53gm Axis: 150 cf. Ham# 59
(same reverse die?)
M101: 10mm 0.44gm Axis:210 cf. Ham# 66
M102: 10mm 0.55gm Axis:30 cf . Ham# 70

Hamburger assignes this type to the mint at
Caesarea because of the frequency of finds,
as well as the importance of the galley to the
harbor of Caesarea. He suggests a date of early
through late 3rd century CE based on the
popularity of the bust of Tyche on colonial
coinage from that era.

H. Hamburger “Minute Coins from Caesarea
Maritima” Atiqot, Vol.1, 1954. #59-#74
(click for higher resolution)
v-drome
BCC_rgp25_beirut.jpg
BCC rgp2533 viewsRoman Provincial
Berytus Beirut
Pseudo-Autonomous 1st -2nd cent. CE
Obv: Silenus Marsyas walking rt. carrying wineskin.
Rev:C.B. (Colonia Berytus) within wreath.
AE 16mm 3.17g. axis:0
BMC 36, scarce
v-drome
berytus_victory.jpg
BCC rgp25a39 viewsRoman Provincial
Phoenicia, Berytus, Trajan
Pseudo-Autonomous ca.114-117CE
Obv: Victory advancing right
Rev:C.B. (Colonia Berytus)
to either side of Lituus.
AE 11mm 1.08gm. axis:0
poss. ref: BMC 41, Sawaya 886
v-drome
Sev_Bostra_BCC_rgp46.jpg
BCC rgp4618 viewsRoman Provincial
Arabia-Petraea Bostra
Severus Alexander 222-235CE
OBV:[IMP CAE]S M AVR SEV [ALEXANDER AVG]
Laureate and cuirassed bust right.
Rev: COLONIA B-OSTRA
Bust of Tyche with turretted crown to left, cornucopia behind.
AE 20mm . 6.03gm. Axis:150
GBC III 833, Ros 42
v-drome
antioch_rooster.jpg
BCC rgp826 viewsRoman Provincial
Antioch, Pisidia autonomous
1st - 2nd Cent.CE
Obv:[ANTIOC] Bust of
Hermes rt. with caduceus
on rt. shoulder
Rev:COLONIA I
Rooster, standing left.
12mm. 1.55g. Axis:180
v-drome
e_indiab.jpg
BRITISH EAST INDIA COMPANY (COLONIAL INDIA, BRITISH)11 views1808
Copper, 10 (X) Cash
laney
e_india_cox.jpg
BRITISH EAST INDIA COMPANY (COLONIAL INDIA, BRITISH)8 views1808
Copper 20 (XX) Cash
laney
Augustus.jpg
Bronze Augustus Semis14 viewsA bronze Semis of Augustus, minted between 19-2 BC. 22 mm, 5.1 g.

Obverse: Augustus, bare-headed, with the inscription PERM CAES AVG = "The Eternal Caesar Augustus".

Reverse: pieces of religious attire, an apex (cap) and simpulum (ladle), with the city's name around the edge, COLONIA PATRICIA.

Attribution: RPC 130
chuy1530
Fabius~0.jpg
C. Fabius C. f. Hadrianus - AR denarius6 viewsRome
²97 BC
¹102 BC
veiled turreted bust of Cybele right
·
Λ
Victory in biga right, holding goad and reins; heron right
C·FABI·C·F
¹Crawford 322/1a, RSC I Fabia 15, Sydenham 589, SRCV I 200 var.; RR1 1585, p.222; Ghey, Leins & Crawford 2010 322.1.7
²Mark Passehl - Roman moneyer & coin type chronology, 150 – 50 BC
4,0g
ex Naumann

Heron on the reverse refers to the foundation of colonia Ardea in 442 BC when M. Fabius Vibulianus was consul. This is supported by turreted Cybele on the obverse. Moneyer was praetor in 84 BC.
Johny SYSEL
Calígula-CCA.jpg
Caligula - RPC 37111 viewsColonia Caesar Augusta- 37-41 AD.
xokleng
Caracalla_Antioch_Pisidia.jpg
Caracalla - Antioch, Pisidia9 views211-217 AD
laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right from behind
IMP CAES__M AVP ANT
Fortuna standing left, holding branch and cornucopia
FORTVNA COLONIA ANTIOCH
SNG Cop 41-42
5,0g
Johny SYSEL
9965.jpg
Carrhae in Mesopotamia, Septimius Severus, AE 24, Lindgren 2557125 viewsCarrhae in Mesopotamia, Septimius Severus, AE 24, 193-211 AD
Av.: CEΠTIMIOC [CE]OY.... , naked (laureate?) bust of Septimius Severus right
Rv.: ..Λ]OY KAPPH ΛKA... , front view of a tetrastyle temple, the temple of the moon god Sin, in the middle a sacred stone on tripod, on top of stone: crescent, standards (with crescents on top) on both sides inside the building; another crescent in the pediment.
Lindgren 2557 ; BMC p. 82, #4

The city and the region played an important role in roman history.

Carrhae / Harran, (Akkadian Harrânu, "intersecting roads"; Latin Carrhae), an ancient city of strategic importance, an important town in northern Mesopotamia, famous for its temple of the moon god Sin, is now nothing more than a village in southeastern Turkey with an archeological site.
In the Bible it is mentioned as one of the towns where Abraham stayed on his voyage from Ur to the promised land. Abraham's family settled there when they left Ur of the Chaldeans (Genesis 11:31-32).
Inscriptions indicate that Harran existed as early as 2000 B.C. In its prime, it controlled the point where the road from Damascus joins the highway between Nineveh and Carchemish. This location gave Harran strategic value from an early date. It is frequently mentioned in Assyrian inscriptions about 1100 BC, under the name Harranu, or "Road" (Akkadian harrānu, 'road, path, journey' ).
During the fall of the Assyrian Empire, Harran became the stronghold of its lasts king, Ashur-uballit II, being besiged and conquered by Nabopolassar of Babylon at 609 BC. Harran became part of Median Empire after the fall of Assyria, and subsequently passed to the Persian Achaemenid dynasty.
The city remained Persian untill in 331 BC when the soldiers of the Macedonian king Alexander the Great entered the city.
After the death of Alexander on 11 June 323 BC, the city was claimed by his successors: Perdiccas, Antigonus Monophthalmus and Eumenes. These visited the city, but eventually, it became part of the Asian kingdom of Seleucos I (Nicator), the Seleucid empire, and capital of a province called Osrhoene (the Greek term for the old name Urhai).
The Seleucids settled Macedonian veterans at Harran. For a century-and-a-half, the town flourished, and it became independent when the Parthian dynasty of Persia occupied Babylonia. The Parthian and Seleucid kings both needed the buffer state of Osrhoene which was part of the larger Parthian empire and had nearby Edessa as its capital. The dynasty of the Arabian Abgarides, technically a vassal of the Parthian "king of kings" ruled Osrhoene for centuries.

Carrhae was the scene of a disastrous defeat of the Roman general Crassus by the Parthians. In 53 BC. Crassus, leading an army of 50.000, conducted a campaign against Parthia. After he captured a few cities on the way, he hurried to cross the Euphrates River with hopes of receiving laurels and the title of “Emperor”. But as he drove his forces over Rakkan towards Harran, Parthian cavalry besieged his forces in a pincers movement. In the ensuing battle, the Roman army was defeated and decimated. The battle of Carrhae was the beginning of a series of border wars with Parthia for many centuries. Numismatic evidence for these wars or the corresponding peace are for instance the "Signis Receptis" issues of Augustus and the “Janum Clusit” issues of Nero.
Later Lucius Verus tried to conquer Osrhoene and initially was successful. But an epidemic made an annexation impossible. However, a victory monument was erected in Ephesus, and Carrhae/Harran is shown as one of the subject towns.
Septimius Severus finally added Osrhoene to his realms in 195. The typical conic domed houses of ancient Harran can be seen on the Arch of Septimius Severus on the Forum Romanum.
Harran was the chief home of the moon-god Sin, whose temple was rebuilt by several kings. Sin was one of the great gods of the Assurian-Babylonian pantheon.
Caracalla gave Harran the status of a colonia (214 AD) and visited the city and the temple of the moon god in April 217. Meanwhile the moon god (and sacred stones) had become a part of the Roman pantheon and the temple a place to deify the roman emperors (as the standards on both sides of the temple indicate).

Caracalla was murdered while he was on his way from Temple to the palace. If this had been arranged by Macrinus - the prefect of the Praetorian guard who was to be the new emperor – is not quite clear. On the eighth of April, the emperor and his courtiers made a brief trip to the world famous temple of the moon god. When Caracalla halted to perform natural functions, he was assassinated by one of his bodyguards, Julius Martialis, who had a private grudge against the ruler, because he had not been given the post of centurion.

In 296 AD Roman control was again interrupted when nearby Carrhae the emperor Galerius was defeated by the king Narses / the Sasanid dynasty of Persia. The Roman emperor Julianus Apostata sacrificed to the moon god in 363 AD, at the beginning of his ill-fated campaign against the Sassanid Persians. The region continued to be a battle zone between the Romans and Sassanids. It remained Roman (or Byzantine) until 639, when the city finally was captured by the Muslim armies.

At that time, the cult of Sin still existed. After the arrival of the Islam, the adherents of other religions probably went to live in the marshes of the lower Tigris and Euphrates, and are still known as Mandaeans.
The ancient city walls surrounding Harran, 4 kilometer long and 3 kilometer wide, have been repaired throughout the ages (a.o. by the Byzantine emperor Justinian in the sixth century), and large parts are still standing. The position of no less than 187 towers has been identified. Of the six gates (Aleppo gate, Anatolian, Arslanli, Mosul, Baghdad, and Rakka gate), only the first one has remained.

A citadel was built in the 14th century in place of the Temple of Sin. This lies in the south-west quarter of the ancient town. Its ruin can still be visited.

my ancient coin database
1 commentsArminius
s Coat of Arms.jpg
Chulalongkorn Coat of Arms19 viewsChulalongkorn (Rama V--Chakri Dynasty) Coat of Arms

Origin/Meaning:
The arms of the Kingdom of Siam were created during the reign of King Chulalongkorn the Great, Rama V, when the Kingdom was exposed to Western traditions, ideas, and also European threat of colonialism. King Chulalongkorn, who visited Europe twice, modernized Siam and adopted many of the European traditions to his court, including the use of heraldry.

On the top of the coat of arms is the Great Victory Crown of Thailand, the most important royal regalia and the symbol of kingship. Under the crown is the symbol of the Royal House of Chakri, the King's royal family, which is a disc intersected with a trident. The royal multi-tiered umbrellas of state are also present on either side of the crown. To both sides of the coat of arms are the other regalia, the royal sword and the royal baton. In the background is the draped robe - either the Royal robe of the King or the robe of the Order of Chulachomklao - an order created by the King. The supporters are two (again) mythical creatures, one is the Royal Lion, rajasiha, and the other is Elephant Lion, gaja-siha.

The shield itself is partitioned into three parts, signifying the Thai part of the Kingdom (the 3-headed elephant) on the top, the Laotian suzerainty (another elephant), and the Malay suzerainty (two "kris", or Malayan short swords).

The chain under the Arms is a necklace that is a part of the Order of Chulachomklao.
The ribbon under the Arms is inscribed with the motto (in Pali, the language of the Buddhist canon) which may be translated as "Unity brings happiness".

When the present seal (the Garuda) was made the State symbol, King Chulalongkorn's great arms were no longer used as a State symbol, however, it still adorns the hats of Thai police officers to this day.
Literature : Information provided by Apirat Sugondhabhirom
________________________________________
Sitemap © Ralf Hartemink 1996, -
Cleisthenes
valerianI_mallus_snglev1298.jpg
Cilicia, Mallos, Valerian I SNG Lev. 1298107 viewsValerian I AD 252-260
AE 31, 19.89g
obv. IMP C LIC VALERIANVS PI FE AVG (lat.)
bust, cuirassed, laureate, r.
rev. MALLO COLONIA (lat.)
Amphilochos, naked except chlamys, stg. l., holding laurel branch, boar below. Behind him tripod on podium with globe above, snake winding around.
S C in exergue
SNG Levante 1298 (same obv. die); SNG Paris 1933 (same obv. die); BMC 13; SGIC 4498
Rare (only 13 coins of Valerian's time known!), about VF, light roughness, small casting spots (from making)
added to www.wildwinds.com

MALLOS was one of the oldest cities in Cilicia. The hero AMPHILOCHOS is said to be the founder. He was fighting before in Thebes and Troy. He and his brother Mopsus were the most famous seers in Greece. They decided to rule Mallos alternately. Mopsus was first. But when he should give the rule to Amphilochos it came to a deadly duel where both were killed. After their death their souls got along peacefully and temples were built to celebrate them. The oracle of Mallos was said to be more real than that of Delphi!
Under Severus Alexander Mallos became a Roman Colonia. Therefore the Latin inscriptions.

For more information look at the thread 'Coins of mythological interest'
2 commentsJochen
claudiopolis_maximiusI_SNGfrance791.jpg
Cilicia, Ninica-Claudiopolis, Maximinus I, SNG Levante Supp. 170 (plate coin)142 viewsMaximinus I AD 235-236
AE 30 mm, 14.59 g
obv. IMP.CAES.SA.IVL.VER.MAXI / MINVS
Bust, draped and cuirassed, bare-headed, r.
behind bust c/m Howgego 338 eagle r., head l.
rev. NINIC COL CLA / VDIOPO / L
She-wolf standing right under Ruminal fig tree, head l., suckling the twins
Remus and Romulus
SNG Levante 618 (same dies); SNG Levante Supp. 170 (this coin); SNG Paris 791 (same dies); SNG von Aulock 5775 (same dies)
Choice EF, nice olive-brown patina, rare this nice.
published on www.wildwinds.com

The fig tree was sanctified to the goddess Rumina. Later the twins were found by the shepherd Faustulus. The rest is well-known!
The legend is in Latin because the city was a Roman colonia. The she-wolf looks a bit like a horse!
6 commentsJochen
claudio_nicea_(bitinia).jpg
Claudius - as colonia, Nicaea (Bitinia)8 viewsantvwala
claudio_as_Antiochia.jpg
Claudius - as colonial, Antiochia8 viewsSC in wreathantvwala
pipele.JPG
Clay Pipe- Late Colonial USA38 viewsLate 1700s. I found this on the bottom of a lake in MA. It has the initials L.E. on it and was found with another pipe with the date 1787 inscribed.2 commentsJRoME
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Colonia Nemeasus. Augustus & Agrippa AE AS. 21 views11 gr.Antonivs Protti
as_de_nimes_6.JPG
Colonia Nemeasus. Augustus & Agrippa AE AS. 21 views11 grAntonivs Protti
as_de_nimes_5.JPG
Colonia Nemeasus. Augustus & Agrippa AE AS. 22 views12.7 gr.Antonivs Protti
as_de_nimes_4.JPG
Colonia Nemeasus. Augustus & Agrippa AE AS. 23 views12.36 gr soldAntonivs Protti
FAB1563.JPG
Colonia Patricia as (1)82 viewsObserve: PER(M. CAES.) AVG. Augustus bare head to the left.
Reverse: COLONIA PATRICIA within laurel wreath.
Weight: 9,2gr. Size: 25 mm.
FAB: 1563.
Corduba
FAB1563A.JPG
Colonia Patricia as (2)77 viewsObserve: (PE)RM. CAES. AVG. Augustus bare head to the left.
Reverse: COLONIA PATRICIA within laurel wreath.
Weight: 8,5 gr. Size: 25 mm.
FAB: 1563.
Corduba
Colonia Patricia as of Augustus, 19-2 BC.JPG
Colonia Patricia as of Augustus, 19-2 BC44 viewsAugustus
leaded AE As – 25mm
Colonia Patricia, 19-2 BC
PERM CAES AVG
laureate head l.
COLONIA PATRICIA
wreath with legend
SGI 16, RPC 129, Lindgren 87
Ardatirion
FAB1562.JPG
Colonia Patricia dupondius (1)106 viewsObserve: (PER)MISSV. CAESARIS AVGVSTI. Augustus bare head to the left.
Reverse: (COLO)NIA PATRICIA. Legion eagle between two standards.
Weight: 20,9 gr. Size: 32 mm.
FAB: 1562.
3 commentsCorduba
FAB1562A.JPG
Colonia Patricia dupondius (2)46 viewsObserve: PERMISSV. CAE(SARIS AVGVSTI). Augustus bare head to the left.
Reverse: COLONIA PATRICIA. Legion eagle between two standards.
Weight: 20,9 gr. Size: 31 mm.
FAB: 1562.
Corduba
FAB1566.JPG
Colonia Patricia quadrands.59 viewsObserve: PER. CAE. AVG. Augustus bare head to the left.
Reverse: COLO. (PAT)R. Pathera, aspergilum, vase and lituus.
Weight: 2,9 gr.. Size: 16 mm.
FAB: 1566.
Corduba
FAB1566A.JPG
Colonia Patricia quadrans (2)50 viewsObserve: (PER.) CAE. AVG. Augustus bare head to the left.
Reverse: (COLO. PA)TR. Pathera, aspergilum, vase and lituus.
Weight: 2,7 gr.. Size: 17 mm.
FAB: 1566.
Corduba
FAB1565.JPG
Colonia Patricia semis54 viewsObserve: PERM. CAES. AVG. Augustus bare head to the left.
Reverse: COLONIA PATRICIA. Apex and Simpulum.
Weight: 4,8 gr. Size: 21 mm.
FAB: 1565.
Corduba
FAB1561.JPG
Colonia Patricia sestertius60 viewsObserve: (PERMISSV. CAESARIS AVGVSTI). Augustus´bare head to the left.
Reverse: COLONIA P(ATR)ICIA within laurel wreath.
Weight: 40,2 gr. Size: 41 mm.
FAB 1561.
A very big coin really hard to find in any condition.
Corduba
Fr#DE-79-Back.jpg
Colonial Currency, Delaware: 10 Shillings, January 1, 1776 (Fr#DE-79) Back6 viewsSpongeBob
Fr#DE-79-Front.jpg
Colonial Currency, Delaware: 10 Shillings, January 1, 1776 (Fr#DE-79) Front6 viewsSpongeBob
Fr#NJ-177-Back.jpg
Colonial Currency, New Jersey: Three Shillings, March 25, 1776 (Fr#NJ-177) Back12 viewsSpongeBob
Fr#NJ-177-Front.jpg
Colonial Currency, New Jersey: Three Shillings, March 25, 1776 (Fr#NJ-177) Front13 viewsSpongeBob
Fr#NY-165_Rear.jpg
Colonial Currency, New York: £3 February 16, 1771 (Fr#NY-165)5 viewsSpongeBob
Fr#NY-165_Front.jpg
Colonial Currency, New York: £3 February 16, 1771 (Fr#NY-165)12 viewsSpongeBob
Fr#PA-188_Rear.jpg
Colonial Currency, Pennsylvania: Two Shillings & Six Pence, October 25, 1775 (Fr#PA-188)8 viewsSpongeBob
Fr#PA-188_Front.jpg
Colonial Currency, Pennsylvania: Two Shillings & Six Pence, October 25, 1775 (Fr#PA-188)10 viewsSpongeBob
Fr#285-Back.jpg
Colonial Currency, Rhode Island: Four Dollars, July 2, 1780 (Fr#RI-285) Back7 viewsSpongeBob
Fr#285-Front.jpg
Colonial Currency, Rhode Island: Four Dollars, July 2, 1780 (Fr#RI-285) Front12 viewsSpongeBob
Fr#RI-293-Back.jpg
Colonial Currency, Rhode Island: Two Shillings and 6 Pence, May 1786 (Fr#RI-293) Back4 viewsSpongeBob
Fr#RI-293-Front.jpg
Colonial Currency, Rhode Island: Two Shillings and 6 Pence, May 1786 (Fr#RI-293) Front14 views1 commentsSpongeBob
Fr#301-Back.jpg
Colonial Currency, Rhode Island: £3 Pounds, May 1786 (Fr#RI-301) Back8 viewsSpongeBob
Fr#301-Front.jpg
Colonial Currency, Rhode Island: £3 Pounds, May 1786 (Fr#RI-301) Front11 viewsSpongeBob
Fr#SC-146-Back.jpg
Colonial Currency, South Carolina: Three Shillings & Nine Pence, April 10, 1778 (Fr#SC-146) Back5 viewsSpongeBob
Fr#SC-146-Front.jpg
Colonial Currency, South Carolina: Three Shillings & Nine Pence, April 10, 1778 (Fr#SC-146) Front12 viewsSpongeBob
Fr#SC-136a_Rear.jpg
Colonial Currency, South Carolina: Two Dollars, December 23, 1776 (Fr#SC-136a)4 viewsSpongeBob
Fr#SC-136a_Front.jpg
Colonial Currency, South Carolina: Two Dollars, December 23, 1776 (Fr#SC-136a)16 views1 commentsSpongeBob
Fr#SC-145-Back.jpg
Colonial Currency, South Carolina: Two Shillings & Six Pence, April 10, 1778 (Fr#SC-145) Back7 viewsSpongeBob
Fr#SC-145-Front.jpg
Colonial Currency, South Carolina: Two Shillings & Six Pence, April 10, 1778 (Fr#SC-145) Front13 viewsSpongeBob
AR8Reales1921.jpg
Colonial Mexico, Ferdinand VII, King of Spain, 1808 - 1833 A.D., 1821 D CG 8R59 viewsSilver 8 reales, KM 111.2, aVF, areas of pitting, Durango mint, weight 26.755g, maximum diameter 38.6mm, die axis 0o, 1821 A.D.; obverse •FERDIN • VII • DEI • GRATIA •, laureate and draped bust of Ferdinand right, date 1821 below; reverse • HISPAN • ET IND • REX • D • 8R • C • G •, crowned Spanish coat of arms, flanked by pillars of Hercules draped with banner reading "PLVS VLTRA;" ex FORVM.

The Spanish dollar (also known as the piece of eight, the real de a ocho or the eight-real coin) is a silver coin, of approximately 50mm Ø, worth eight reales, that was minted in the Spanish Empire after a Spanish currency reform in 1497. Its purpose was to correspond to the German thaler. It was the coin upon which the US dollar was based, and it remained legal tender in the United States until the Coinage Act of 1857 discontinued the practice. Because it was widely used in Europe, the Americas, and the Far East, it became the first world currency by the late 18th century. Many existing currencies, such as the Canadian dollar, United States dollar, and the Chinese yuan, as well as currencies in Latin America and the Philippine peso, were initially based on the Spanish dollar and other 8-reales coins.
Silver 8 real coin of Ferdinand VII of Spain, 1821

Cleisthenes
train-station_01~0.JPG
Colonial Train Station26 viewsKuala Lumpur Colonial Train Station.
Built by the British during Colonial times. In this shot the building is covered in Malaysian flags to celebrate independence day.
rexesq
Commodus,_Antioch,_Men,_AE22.JPG
Commodus, Antioch, Men, AE 228 viewsCommodus, Antioch, Men, AE22. 22mm, 4.21g. Obverse: COMMODVS ANTONINVS; laureate head left. Reverse: ANTIOCHAE COLONEIAE; Men standing, holding statue of Nike on globe; foot on Bukranion; l. rooster. Attribution: Krzyzanovska 'Monnaies coloniales d’Antioche de Pisidie' 145, IX, 12. Ex areich; photo credit areichPodiceps
commse18b.jpg
Commodus, RIC 560, Sestertius of AD 190 (Ploughing)42 viewsÆ Sestertius (16,57g, Ø 30mm, 7h). Rome mint. Struck AD 190.
Ob.: M COMMOD ANT P FE-LIX AVG BRIT P P, laureate head right
Rev.: COL LAN COM PM TR P XV IMP VIII (around) COS VI (in ex.) S C, Commodus, veiled, as priest, ploughing right with two oxen.

RIC 560; BMC 643; Cohen 39(60fr.); Sear (RCV) 5737

This is a very rare type, found occasionally as Æ-As, but extremely rare as a sestertius. It probably refers to the refounding of Lanuvium, the birthplace of Commodus and the place where he displayed his skills as Hercules by killing lions in the arena.

There has been speculation about the meaning of the first part of the reverse legend COLLANCOM. The traditional expansion of this legend is based on Eckhel (1796), reading the legend as COLonia Lucia ANtoniana COMmodiana, in order to try to relate it to the refounding of Rome. This was followed by Cohen and many other references. The British Museum and RIC expand it slightly differently: "The depiction of the ritual ploughing of the furrow marking out a new foundation refers to Commodus' refounding of Rome as COLonia Lucia ANnia COMmodiana."

Curtis Clay in Forum's discussion board, points to a powerful objection of this interpretation: "Since Commodus still calls himself Marcus on the obverse and was not to switch his praenomen back to Lucius until 191, a year later, why, on the reverse, does he name Rome Lucia and not Marcia?

Chantraine in 1971, following a suggestion of Renier in 1872, proposed what seems to be the solution to the problem: the legend is to be expanded COLonia LANuvina COMmodiana and commemorates Commodus' elevation of his birthplace Lanuvium, which had been a municipium, to the rank of colony.

Commodus did refound Rome too, and this deed is commemorated on very rare mediallions, sestertii, and dupondii struck late in 192, just before his assassination on 31 december. These coins have the same rev. type of emperor plowing, but the legend HERCuli ROMano CONDITORI P M TR P XVIII COS VII P P, 'To the Roman Hercules, the Founder'."

ex cgb.fr (2014).
1 commentsCharles S
COMMAS02-2.jpg
Commodus, RIC 570, As of AD 190 (refounding Lanuvium)25 viewsÆ As (11,21g, Ø 27mmmm, 6h). Rome, AD 190.
Obv.: M COMM ANT P FELIX AVG BRIT P P, laureate head right.
Rev.: COL LAN COM P M TR P XV IMP VIII around COS VI ex. SC field, Commodus, veiled and togate, as priest, ploughing right with yoke of two oxen..
RIC 570 [R2]; BMCRE 659; Cohen 40 (20 fr.); Sear (Roman Coins and their Values) 5856.
Expanding the reverse legend to COLonia LANuvina COMmodiana, this issue commemorates Commodus' elevation of his birthplace Lanuvium from municipium to the rank of colony.
Ex José A. Herrero, Subasta Num. Mayo 15.
Charles S
corinth_marcus_aurelius_SNGcop329.jpg
Corinthia, Corinth, Marcus Aurelius, SNG Cop. 32980 viewsMarcus Aurelius, AD 161-180
AE 25, 11.25g
obv. M AVR AN[TONI] - NVS A[VG]
bust, laureate, r.
rev. CLI - COR
The young Melikertes laying on a dolphin, swimming r., behind a pine-tree(?)
SNG Copenhagen 329; Lindgren 1619; BCD 700; Edwards 150, pl.IV
rare, good F-about VF, green-brown patina
added to www.wildwinds.com

Corinth at this time was a Roman colony, therefore the Latin inscriptions.
The revers legend CLI - COR is solved to COLONIA LAUS IULIA CORINTHUS.

For more information look at the thread 'Coins of mythological interest'
3 commentsJochen
Trajan_Deultum,_Thrakien.jpg
Deultum, Thrace8 viewsObv.: IMP CAE NER TRA AVG GER P M TR P COS III P P
Laur. r.
Rev: C F P D (Colonia Flavia Pacensis Deultum)
Head of a bull r.

2.62g, 18mm
RPC3 743; Moushmov 3524; Sear 958
klausklage
Livia_and_Augustus_Megaglion.JPG
DIVINE AUGUSTUS & LIVIA (by Tiberius). AE34 medallion? of Colonia Romula (Seville), RPC 73. Obverse: PERM. DIVI AVG. COL. ROM. Radiate head of Divus Augustus right; six-rayed star 21 viewsDIVINE AUGUSTUS & LIVIA (by Tiberius). AE34 medallion? of Colonia Romula (Seville), RPC 73. Obverse: PERM. DIVI AVG. COL. ROM. Radiate head of Divus Augustus right; six-rayed star above; thunderbolt before. Reverse: IVLIA AVGVSTA GENETRIX ORBIS. Head of Livia left on globe of the world; crescent moon above. RPC I, 73. SNG Copenhagen 421. F. Scarce. Livia, the mother of the emperor Tiberius, is honored as mother of the world by him on this exceptional coin.Antonivs Protti
014BValerianII.jpg
Divo Valerian II7 viewsSilver Antoninianus
Roman Imperial - The Crisis of the Third Century

Divo Valerian II

Colonia Agrippinensis mint, posthumous, 258 - 259 A.D.
Fine, toned, centered, flan cracks.
24.5 mm / 2.348 g / 180°

Obverse: "DIVO VALERIANO CAES", radiate and draped bust right, from behind.
Reverse: "CONSECRATIO", Valerian II carried into the heavens seated on eagle flying right, waiving his right hand, scepter in his left.

Ex Forvm Ancient Coins 2015 (65658)

Göbl MIR 911e, SRCV III 10606, RIC V 9 (Lugdunum), RSC IV 5

MyID: 014B

Image Credit: Forvm Ancient Coins
TenthGen
EB0557_scaled.JPG
EB0557 Gordian III / Aphrodite and Cupid13 viewsGordian III, AE 32 of Pisidia, Antioch, 238-244 AD.
Obv: IMP CAES M ANT GORDIANOVS AVG, Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right.
Rev: ANTIOCHIA COLONIA CAESAR, SR in exergue, Aphrodite enthroned right, hand on prow, holding palm branch; Cupid running before, towards her.
References: Fitz. III 8859 p 1320; Krzyzanovska I/2; SNG Copenhagen 72.
Diameter: 32.5mm, Weight: 25.09 grams.
EB
EB0703_scaled.JPG
EB0703 Septimius Severus / Fortuna10 viewsSeptimius Severus, Antioch, Pisidia, AE 23.
Obverse: [SEP SEV?] PERT AVG IMP, radiate head right.
Reverse: ANTIOCH FORTVNA [COLONIAE], Fortuna standing left, holding branch and cornucopiae.
References: Cf. SNG Fr 1115-1120.
Diameter: 23.5mm, Weight: 5.203g.
EB
colonial-011_Q-001_axis-6h_3,24mm_9,07g-s.jpg
Elagabal, Mezopotamia, Edessa, 82 viewsavers:-
revers:-
exe: , diameter: 16,5mm, weight: 3,24g, axis: 6h,
mint: , date: , ref:
Q-001
quadrans
Elagabalus_Oxen_Plowing_Petra.JPG
Elagabalus Oxen Plowing Petra26 viewsElagabalus, Petra, Arabia, 218 - 222 AD, 22mm, 5g, SNG Cop 150, Spijkerman 56,
REV: IMP C M AVP ANTONINOC, laureate draped bust right
OBV: PETΛA COLONIA, founder, togate, right hand raised, ploughing right with pair of oxen
Romanorvm
Nîmes_-_Arena.JPG
France, Nemausus - Amphitheatre241 viewsThe Roman amphitheatre of the Colonia Nemausus still stands. On the top, holed stones for holding the velum can be seen. The "Arènes" are still in use today, mainly for bull fights as the more modern statue in front shows. Syltorian
1042c.jpg
galatia0026 viewsElagabalus
Antioch, Pisidia

Obv: ANTONINVS PIVS FEL AVG, Laureate draped and cuirassed bust right.
Rev: ANTIOCH COLONIA, Caduceus between two crossed cornucopias.
19 mm, 3.56 gms

RPC online 6569
Charles M
galimar.jpg
Gallienus (253 - 268 A.D.)57 viewsAR Antoninianus
O: GALLIENVS P F AVG, radiate and cuirassed bust right.
R: DEO MARTI, Mars in temple.
Colonia Agrippinensis (Cologne) mint, 258-259 A.D.
21mm
3.45g
RIC 10

Reverse Die Clash
2 commentsMat
schmachtaler.jpg
German Misery and Ignominy Thaler16 viewssilvered bronze coin, 38.25mm, 19.41g, 0°
struck by L. Chr. Lauer, Nürnberg, 1923
design by Wittig-Friesen
obv. DEUTSCHER / NOT UND SCHMACH / TALER
broken sword
at lower border LAUER NÜRNBERG
rev. SCHWARZE SCHMACH UND KULTURSCHANDE AM RHEIN *
French colonial soldier hassles nude German woman with bayonet
below in small letters WITTIG-FRIESEN

Translation:
obv. German / misery and ignomony / thaler
rev. Black ignomony and cultural outrage on the Rhine

A racist propaganda medal against the French occupation of the Ruhr 1923
Jochen
Cologne-Pfennig_Adolf-von-Altena-(1193-1205AD)_mint-Koln-Archbishoporic_ADOLPES-ARCHEPC_SANCTA-COLONIA_Havernick-588_Q-001_0h_19-20mm_1,42g-s.jpg
German, Cologne, Adolf von Altena, (1193-1205 A.D.), Havernick 588, Köln under Archbishopric of Köln, AR-Pfennig, +SANCTA COLONIA, 86 viewsGerman, Cologne, Adolf von Altena, (1193-1205 A.D.), Havernick 588, Köln under Archbishopric of Köln, AR-Pfennig, +SANCTA COLONIA,
avers: +ADOLPES ARC HEPC, Mitred Archbishop entrhoned, facing slightly left, with book and crozier. (Ball over the book ???)
revers: +SANCTA COLONIA, Broad church building with 6 arcades and gate; on it a tower with cupola between 2 cross-topped flags.
diameter: 19-20mm, weight: 1,42g, axis:0h,
mint:Köln, mint mark: no, date: A.D., ref: Havernick 588,,
Q-001
quadrans
Cologne-Pfennig_Heinrich-I-Molenark-(1225-1238AD)_mint-Koln-Archbishoporic_HEINRIC___SANCTA-COLONIA_Havernick-647_Q-001_11h_17,5mm_1,44g-s.jpg
German, Cologne, Heinrich I. Molenark, (1225-1238 A.D.), Havernick 647, Köln under Archbishopric of Köln, AR-Pfennig, +SANCTA COLONIA, 84 viewsGerman, Cologne, Heinrich I. Molenark, (1225-1238 A.D.), Havernick 647, Köln under Archbishopric of Köln, AR-Pfennig, +SANCTA COLONIA,
avers: +HENRIC...., Archbishop entrhoned, wearing mitre, holding crozier and book.
revers: +SANCTA COLONIA, Nimbate bust of saint (Peter?) facing, holding 2 cross-topped flags. Over him a tower with 2 pointed gables.
diameter: 17,5mm, weight: 1,44g, axis:11h,
mint:Köln, mint mark: no, date: A.D., ref: Havernick 647,
Q-001
quadrans
HCV-Germany-Nurnberg-SilverDucatKlippe-1650.jpg
Germany, Nurnberg- silver ducat klippe, 165031 viewsThis is one of my favorite non-gold holeys. I had long wanted a klippe and I still want more, but they aren't always cheap. I traded a high grade (unholed) Spanish colonial 2-reales piece for this one, and have been very happy with the swap. You've got to love the little boy with a stick horse. When I saw the design, I simply HAD to have this. lordmarcovan
gordianIII dup-.jpg
GORDIAN III AE24 of Viminacium - 242-243 AD32 viewsobv: IMP CAES M ANT GORDIANVS AVG (radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right)
rev: PMS COL VIM / AN IIII (Moesia standing between bull and lion)
ref: Moushmov 27
mint: Viminacium, Moesia Superior
5.32gms, 24mm
P.M.S. COL. VIM. = Provinciae Moesiae Superioris Colonia Viminacium.

Viminacium was a town of Moesia Superior and a Roman Colony, supposed to have been founded by Gordianus Pius in A.D. 239.
berserker
197-Gordian III Antioch Pisidia.JPG
Gordian III Antioch Pisidia43 viewsAE 34mm , 24.7gm
Obverse:IMP CAES M ANT GORDIANOVS AVG, Laureate, Draped, and cuirassed bust right.
Reverse: VICTORIA DOMINI ANTI COLONI, Nike advancing left with wreath, Inverted RS in field.
BMC 96: Krzyzanowska, Monnaies coloniales d'Antioche de Pisidie, obv. die XIV, rev. die 70, citing the BM specimen, which is therefore from the same dies: SNG France 3, 1213, Same dies:
Jerome Holderman
Gordien III Dupondius An IIII Vim.jpg
Gordian III Dupondius from Viminacium (AN IIII)37 viewsAE 22 mm, 242/243 A.D. , Viminacium
Obv: Imp Gordianus Pius Fel Aug
Rev: PMS COL VIM (Provincia Moesia Superior, Colonia Viminacium)
Exer: AN IIII
1 commentsJean Paul D
Gordien III Sest An I Vim.jpg
Gordian III Sestertius from Viminacium (AN I)31 viewsAE 32mm, 239/240 A.D. , Viminacium ( Provincia Moesia)
Obv: Imp Caes M. Ant Gordianus Aug
Rev: PMS COL VIM (Provincia Moesia Superior, Colonia Viminacium)
Exer: An .I.
Jean Paul D
Gordien III Sest An II Vim Avers OC.jpg
Gordian III Sestertius from Viminacium (AN II)24 viewsAE 29 mm, 240/241 A.D. ,Viminacium (Provincia Moesia)
Obv: Imp Caes Mant Gordianus Aug
Rev: PMS COL VIM (Provincia Moesia Superior, Colonia Viminacium)
Exer: AN II
Jean Paul D
Gordien III Sest An III VIM Pat Verte.jpg
Gordian III Sestertius from Viminacium (AN III)23 viewsAE 29 mm, 241/242 A.D. , Viminacium
Obv: Imp Gordianus Pius Fel Aug
Rev: PMS COL VIM (Provincia Moesia Superior, Colonia Viminacium)
Exer: AN III
Jean Paul D
Gordien III Sest An III VIM OFc avers.jpg
Gordian III Sestertius from Viminacium (AN III)25 viewsAE 29mm, 241/242 A.D. , Viminacium (Moesia Superior)
Obv: Imp Gordianus Pius Fel Aug
Rev: PMS Col Vim (Provincia Moesia Superior, colonia Viminacium)
Exer: AN III
Jean Paul D
Gordian III Moesia .JPG
Gordian III- Moesia 40 viewsGordian III, 29 July 238 - 25 February 244 A.D., Viminacium, Moesia

Obverse:
Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right

IMP CAES M ANT GORDIANVS AVG

IMP: Imperator, leader of the army
CAES: Caesar
M: Marcus
ANT: Antonius
GORDIANVS: Gordianus
AVG: Augustus, emperor

Reverse:
P M S COL VIM AN I

PMS: Provincia Moesia Superios
COL: Colonial, Colony
VIM: Viminacium
AN I: Anno 1, year 1 = 238 AD

Moesia standing facing, head left, extending hands to bull and lion standing at feet on either side

Domination: Copper AE3, size 17 mm

Mint: Nicaea, 238 - 244 A.D

Comment: Gordian III, Nicaea, Bithynia. This three standards reverse is the commonest Provincial coin there is, closely followed by that other coin from Viminacium
John S
Gordian III- MOESIA.jpg
Gordian III- MOESIA49 viewsGordian III, 29 July 238 - 25 February 244 A.D.

Obverse:
Laureate bust right, drapery on left shoulder;

IMP CAES M ANT GORDIANVS AVG

IMP: Imperator, army leader
CAES: Ceasar
M: Marcus
ANT: Antonius
GORDIANVS: Gordianus
AVG: Augustus, emperor

Reverse:
P M S COL VIM ANIIII

PMS: Provincia Moesia Superios
COL: COLonia
VIM: VIMinacium
ANIIII: Anno 4, year 4 (after the founding of the colonia of Viminacium).

The translation, then, would be "The Province of Upper Moesia. The Colony Viminacium."




Moesia standing facing, head left, extending hands to bull and lion standing at feet on either side

Domination: Bronze provincial sestertius, 29 mm

Mint: Viminacium, 242 - 243 A.D.

Comment Cutis Clay:
Here is what Pick says, AMNG p. 23, note 5: The inscription is usually expanded Provinciae Moesiae Superioris Colonia Viminacium (The Colony Viminacium of the Province of Upper Moesia; I think this is what Lars intended), but that is bad Latin and contrary to the language one normally finds in inscriptions and on coins. The two parts of the legend, Provincia Moesia Superior and Colonia Viminacium, probably stand side by side without any grammatical connection.

The translation, then, would be "The Province of Upper Moesia. The Colony Viminacium."

I don't know what others have said about Pick's suggestion since he published it in 1898!
John S
015~3.JPG
Guyane Française, Office Colonial Pénitentiaire.13 views1 franc, laiton, 28 mm
Double perforation, contremarque wagon de mines.
Av./ RESERVE A LA MAIN D'OEUVRE PENITENTIAIRE // O.C.P.
Rv./ 1 F
Réfs : - -
Gabalor
009~1.JPG
Hispania, Colonia Patricia. Augustus. 27 B.C.-A.D. 14 17 views(23 mm, 8.60 g, 10 h). Bare head of Augustus left / City ethnic in two lines within oak wreath. ACIP 3357; RPC I 129.Antonivs Protti
013.JPG
Hispania, Corduba. Colonia Patricia. Augustus. Semis.18 viewsReign: Emperor, 27 B.C. - A.D. 14.
Denomination: ¿ Semis.
Diameter: 23 mm.
Weight: 4.21 grams.
Obverse: Bare head l.
Reverse: Apex and simpulum.
Reference: RPC I, 130. SNG Copenhagen 468.
Antonivs Protti
011~0.JPG
Hispania, Corduba. Colonia Patricia. Augustus. Semis.19 viewsReign: Emperor, 27 B.C. - A.D. 14.
Denomination: ¿ Semis.
Diameter: 23 mm.
Weight: 4.21 grams.
Obverse: Bare head l.
Reverse: Apex and simpulum.
Reference: RPC I, 130. SNG Copenhagen 468.
Antonivs Protti
032.JPG
Hispania, Corduba. Colonia Patricia. Augustus. Semis.16 viewsReign: Emperor, 27 B.C. - A.D. 14.
Denomination: ¿ Semis.
Diameter: 21 mm.
Weight: 4.11 grams.
Obverse: Bare head l.
Reverse: Apex and simpulum.
Reference: RPC I, 130. SNG Copenhagen 468.
Antonivs Protti
015~1.JPG
Hispania, Corduba. Colonia Patricia. Augustus. Semis.14 viewsReign: Emperor, 27 B.C. - A.D. 14.
Denomination: Semis.
Diameter: 23 mm.
Weight: 4.12 grams.
Obverse: Bare head l.
Reverse: Apex and simpulum.
Reference: RPC I, 130. SNG Copenhagen 468
Antonivs Protti
Hispania.JPG
Hispania, Corduba. Colonia Patricia. Augustus. Semis.17 viewsReign: Emperor, 27 B.C. - A.D. 14.
Denomination: ¿ Semis.
Diameter: 21 mm.
Weight: 4.11 grams.
Obverse: Bare head l.
Reverse: Apex and simpulum.
Reference: RPC I, 130. SNG Copenhagen 468.
Antonivs Protti
coin27.jpg
Hostillian ViminaciumProvincial Viminacium MOESIA SUPRIOR.26 viewsHostilian . ViminaciumProvincial Viminacium MOESIA SUPRIOR.
27 mm, 11.38 g. Obv.: Laureate, draped bust right. Legend: C VAL HOST M
QVINTVS C Rev.: Moesia standing left bull and lion. Legend: P M S COL
VIM In exergue: AN XII (year 12 of the Colonial Era of Viminacium).
Ref.: D. Sear Greek Imperial coins and their values., p. 412, 4291 Coin # 27
cars100
Augustus-Denar-Komet-RIC37a.jpg
I-AUGUSTUS-a - 001 Denar RIC I/37a51 viewsAv) CAESAR AVGVSTVS Laureate head right
Rv) DIVVS IVLIVS Comet
Weight: 3,3g, Ø:20mm; Referenz: RIC I/37a; Mint: HISPANIA / COLONIA CAESAR AUGUSTA(?) struck ca.19 B.C.-18 B.C.
(Surfaces are a little bit rough)
sulcipius
Augustus-Denar-RIC40b.jpg
I-AUGUSTUS-a - 002 Denar RIC I/40b18 viewsAv) CAESAR AVGVSTVS
Bare head left

Rv) OB CIVIS / SERVATOS
Oak wreath

Weight:3,1g; Ø: 21mm; Reference: RIC I/40b Mint: HISPANIA / COLONIA CAESAR AUGUSTA; struck: 19B.C.-18 B.C
sulcipius
lg2_quart_sm.jpg
IMP CAES M ANT GORDIANVS AVG / P M S COL VIM / Ӕ30 (239-240 AD)18 viewsIMP CAES M ANT GORDIANVS AVG, laureate, draped, cuirassed bust right / P M S CO - L VIM, personification of Moesia standing facing, head left, arms outstretched over a lion (right) and a bull (left). AN • I • in exergue.

Ӕ, 29-30+mm, 16.75g, die axis 1h (slightly turned medal alignment), material: looks like red copper.

IMP CAES M ANT GORDIANVS AVG = Imperator Caesar Marcus Antonius Gordianus Augustus, P M S COL VIM = Provinciae Moesiae Superioris Colonia Viminacium = Colony of Viminacium, in the province of Upper Moesia, AN•I• = the first year. 238 AD was the infamous "year of the 6 emperors", so 239-240 was the first sole ruling year of Gordian III. The bull is the symbol of Legio VII Claudia, based in the capital of Moesia Superior, Viminacium itself, and the lion is the symbol of Legio IV Flavia Felix based in another city of Moesia Superior, Singidunum (modern Belgrade). Due to size this is most probably a sestertius, but large dupondius is another possibility, since it is clearly made of red copper and sestertii were typically made of expensive "gold-like" orichalcum, a kind of brass (but in this time of civil strife they could have used a cheaper replacement). Literature fails to clearly identify the denomination of this type.

A straightforward ID due to size and clear legends, this is AMNG 71; Martin 1.01.1 minted in Viminacium, Moesia Superior (Kostolac, Serbia).

Gordian III was Roman Emperor from 238 AD to 244 AD. At the age of 13, he became the youngest sole legal Roman emperor throughout the existence of the united Roman Empire. Gordian was the son of Antonia Gordiana and an unnamed Roman Senator who died before 238. Antonia Gordiana was the daughter of Emperor Gordian I and younger sister of Emperor Gordian II. Very little is known of his early life before his acclamation. Gordian had assumed the name of his maternal grandfather in 238 AD.

In 235, following the murder of Emperor Alexander Severus, Maximinus Thrax was acclaimed Emperor. In the following years, there was a growing opposition against Maximinus in the Roman senate and amongst the majority of the population of Rome. In 238 (to become infamous as "the year of six emperors") a rebellion broke out in the Africa Province, where Gordian's grandfather and uncle, Gordian I and II, were proclaimed joint emperors. This revolt was suppressed within a month by Cappellianus, governor of Numidia and a loyal supporter of Maximinus Thrax. The elder Gordians died, but public opinion cherished their memory as peace-loving and literate men, victims of Maximinus' oppression.

Meanwhile, Maximinus was on the verge of marching on Rome and the Senate elected Pupienus and Balbinus as joint emperors. These senators were not popular and the population of Rome was still shocked by the elder Gordians' fate, so the Senate decided to take the teenage Gordian, rename him Marcus Antonius Gordianus like his grandfather, and raise him to the rank of Caesar and imperial heir. Pupienus and Balbinus defeated Maximinus, mainly due to the defection of several legions, particularly the II Parthica, who assassinated Maximinus. However, their joint reign was doomed from the start with popular riots, military discontent and an enormous fire that consumed Rome in June 238. On July 29, Pupienus and Balbinus were killed by the Praetorian Guard and Gordian proclaimed sole emperor.

Due to Gordian's age, the imperial government was surrendered to the aristocratic families, who controlled the affairs of Rome through the Senate. In 240, Sabinianus revolted in the African province, but the situation was quickly brought under control. In 241, Gordian was married to Furia Sabinia Tranquillina, daughter of the newly appointed praetorian prefect, Timesitheus. As chief of the Praetorian Guard and father in law of the Emperor, Timesitheus quickly became the de facto ruler of the Roman Empire.

In the 3rd century, the Roman frontiers weakened against the Germanic tribes across the Rhine and Danube, and the Sassanid Empire across the Euphrates increased its own attacks. When the Persians under Shapur I invaded Mesopotamia, the young emperor opened the doors of the Temple of Janus for the last time in Roman history, and sent a large army to the East. The Sassanids were driven back over the Euphrates and defeated in the Battle of Resaena (243). The campaign was a success and Gordian, who had joined the army, was planning an invasion of the enemy's territory, when his father-in-law died in unclear circumstances. Without Timesitheus, the campaign, and the Emperor's security, were at risk.

Gaius Julius Priscus and, later on, his own brother Marcus Julius Philippus, also known as Philip the Arab, stepped in at this moment as the new Praetorian Prefects and the campaign proceeded. Around February 244, the Persians fought back fiercely to halt the Roman advance to Ctesiphon. Persian sources claim that a battle occurred (Battle of Misiche) near modern Fallujah (Iraq) and resulted in a major Roman defeat and the death of Gordian III. Roman sources do not mention this battle and suggest that Gordian died far away from Misiche, at Zaitha (Qalat es Salihiyah) in northern Mesopotamia. Modern scholarship does not unanimously accept this course of the events. One view holds that Gordian died at Zaitha, murdered by his frustrated army, while the role of Philip is unknown. Other scholars have concluded that Gordian died in battle against the Sassanids.
Philip transferred the body of the deceased emperor to Rome and arranged for his deification. Gordian's youth and good nature, along with the deaths of his grandfather and uncle and his own tragic fate at the hands of the enemy, earned him the lasting esteem of the Romans.
Yurii P
Ireland,_AE-25,_GEORGIUS_DEI_GRATIA_REX,_HIBERNIA_1723,_Q-001,_6h,_25,5mm,_7,52g-s.jpg
Ireland/Colonial America, Georg I., (1714-1727 A.D.), Bristol S:6601, Cu-1/2 Penny, HIBERNIA•1723, Hibernia seated left, #1107 viewsIreland/Colonial America, Georg I., (1714-1727 A.D.), Bristol S:6601, Cu-1/2 Penny, HIBERNIA•1723, Hibernia seated left, #1
avers: GEORGIUS•DEI•GRATIA•REX•, Laureate head right.
reverse: HIBERNIA•1723, Hibernia seated left, leaning on a harp.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 25,5mm, weight: 7,52g, axis: 6h,
mint: ,date: 1723 A.D., ref: Bristol S:6601, Cu-1/2 Penny,
Q-001
William Wood's Coinage (also used in North America).
quadrans
jdantmenORweb.jpg
Julia Domna, Monnaies coloniales d'Antioche de Pisidie, p. 156 and pl.XV, obv. die XVII, rev. die 3636 viewsPisidia, Antioch mint, Julia Domna, 193-217 A.D. AE, 24mm 5.82g, Krzyzanowska, Monnaies coloniales d'Antioche de Pisidie, p. 156 and pl.XV, obv. die XVII, rev. die 36, citing a specimen in Vienna (per C. Clay)
O: IVLIA AVGVSTA, draped bust right
R: . COE . MEN ANTIOC, Men, draped & wearing Phrygian hat, standing facing, head right, right foot on head of bull and crescent on shoulders; holding scepter in left hand, right arm holding globe surmounted by Nike walking right with trophy on shoulder; cock at foot left
casata137ec
Julia_Mamaea_Tyche_Bostra.JPG
Julia Mamaea Tyche Bostra26 viewsJulia Mamaea, AE22, Bostra Decapolis, 222 - 235 AD, Ros 46, SNG ANS 6 1231,
OBV: IVLIA MAMAEA AVGVSTA, diademed and draped bust right
REV: COLONIA BOSTRA, draped and turreted bust of Tyche left holding cornucopia
Romanorvm
jchdup865.JPG
Julius Caesar102 viewsOCTAVIAN & DIVUS JULIUS CAESAR AE heavy dupondius. Struck in GAUL, at Colonia Viennensis, circa 36 BC. IMP CAESAR (written above and below portraits) IMP DIVI F DIVI IVLI, (written counterclockwise along edge). Bare heads of Julius Caesar and Octavian back to back (Caesar on left). Reverse - Prow of galley with pyramidal superstructure right. RPC I 517. 29x17mm, 9.6g. Rare.

Halved, presumably for change as was the custom.
4 commentsRandygeki(h2)
EM003_Julius_Caesar.JPG
Julius Caesar; 46 - 44BC20 viewsAE 20
Struck ca. 45 BC; Lampsacus, Mysia
Obv: C G I L (Colonia Gemella(?) Iulia Lampsacus), laureate head of Julius Caesar right; countermark: ΛAE monogram in a rectangular punch.
Rev: priest plowing with two oxen, marking the pomerium (sacred boundary marking the foundation of a new Roman colony), Q LVCRETIO / L PONTIO in two lines above, II VIR before bull's forelegs, M TVRIO LEG in exergue;

This type was the second issue to definitively feature a lifetime portrait of Julius Caesar, the first being an issue from Bithynia minted ca. 47/6 BC (RPC I 2026). Both of these bronze issues precede the earliest appearance of his portrait on a coin minted at Rome, that being the denarii of M. Mettius issued in January 44 BC.
1 commentscmcdon0923
L__Porcius_Licinius.jpg
L. Porcius Licinus - AR serratus denarius6 viewsL. Licinius Crassus and Cn. Domitius Ahenobarbus
³issue struck partly in Sardinia and partly in Gallia in two or three different mint locations
¹Narbo
²120-119 BC
¹118 BC
helmet head of Roma right
L·PORCI__LICI (XVI)
naked Gallic warrior riding in biga right, holding spear, reins, shield and carnyx
L·LIC·CN·DOM
¹Crawford 282/5, SRCV I 158, Sydenham 520, RSC I Porcia 8
²Mark Passehl - Roman moneyer & coin type chronology, 150 – 50 BC
³Mark Passehl
3,9g
ex Gitbud and Naumann

Narbo, the first colony in Gaul, was founded 118-117 BC. L. Licinius Crassus and Cn. Domitius Ahenobarbus were officials charged with founding colony (duoviri coloniae deducendae). L. Porcius Licinus was one of 5 officials charged with production of denarii (curatorec denariorum flandorum). Reverse probably commemorates victory of Cn. Domitius Ahenobarbus (consul 122 BC) in southern Gaul. He and Q. Fabius Maximus attacked united Gallic tribes of Allobrogi and Averni led by Bituitus at the confluence of Rhone and Isere. Their triumph was celebrated in 120 BC.
Johny SYSEL
Laodicée Héliogabale.jpg
Laodicea (Lattakieh, Syria) - Elagabalus49 views[IMP.] C. M. AVR. ANTONINVS , laureate, draped and cuirassed bust of Elagabalus right
COLONIA LAODICEA [...] / Δ E , eagle facing in shrine made of canopy supported by two columns

From the nice portrait, it is Elagabalus.
1 commentsGinolerhino
RS197-Roman-AE2-Arcadius_(found_coin).jpg
Late Roman (Arcadius?) AE2, GLORIA ROMANORVM28 viewsSo why is this in my gallery, you ask? Looks like something you'd maybe see in a $1.00 pick bin, doesn't it? Well, the truth is, it cost me less than that, because I FOUND it. Here... in GEORGIA. I was walking a sand roadbed on a colonial site in Liberty County, GA, casually looking for artifacts, though I didn't even have my metal detector with me. In a washout caused by recent rains, I noticed a gunflint from an 18th century firearm and some old plantation-era pottery sherds. And this, lying right there exposed in the washout. Though it's possible it was lost the day before I found it, I doubt that. I think it had been there 150-200 years. I have two pet theories. Either it was lost by an early collector (a famous 19th century antiquarian happened to have lived nearby), or it came over a bit before that, on a boat from England during the colonial era. In the early colonial period, small change was so scarce in this area that people spent just about any kind of coin they could get their hands on. I've dug some pretty strange stuff. This might have circulated as a farthing in the 1700s, and I guess nobody would have given it much thought at the time.lordmarcovan
AugustusPatricia.jpg
Leaded bronze As of Augustus28 viewsA leaded bronze As of Augustus minted in Colonia Patricia (Cordoba) Spain between 19-2 BC. 25 mm, 9.23 g.

Obverse: PERM CAES AVG, bare head right

Reverse: COLONIA PATRICIA in two lines within oak wreath

Attribution: Sear 16, RPC 129, Lindgren 87
2 commentschuy1530
auli.jpg
Livia and Augustus, Colonial Romula (Seville), Minted by Tiberus12 viewsAugustus and Livia, minted by Tiberius, 14 Aug 19 - 16 Mar 37 A.D.
This coin associates Livia with globe and crescent symbols and refers to her as Augusta Genetrix Orbis, Sacred Mother of the World. This extraordinary title was never official and is not used on any other coin type for any empress.
5474. Orichalcum dupondius, RPC I 73, Alverez Burgos 1587, aF, Colonia Romula mint, 25.1g, 33.4mm, 180°, obverse PERM DIVI AVG COL ROM, Augustus radiate head right, star above, thunderbolt right; reverse IVLIA AVGVSTA GENETRIX ORBIS, Livia head left on globe, crescent above;
NORMAN K
AUG-1.jpg
Livia, wife of Augustus. Augusta 14-29 CE.185 viewsSpain, Hispalis. Æ (31mm, 21.48 g).
Minted in Colonia Romula (modern Seville) under Tiberius.
Obv: PERM DIVI AVG COL ROM, Radiate head of Augustus right; thunderbolt before, star above.
Rev: IVLIA AVGVSTA GENETRIX ORBIS, Head of Livia left; globe beneath, crescent above.
RPC 73; SGI 189; Heiss 393,2; Cohen 169,3; Alvarez Burgos 1587.

This coin associates Livia with globe and crescent symbols and refers to her as Augusta Genetrix Orbis, Sacred Mother of the World. This extraordinary title was never official and is not used on any other coin type for any empress.
EmpressCollector
kassandreia_macrinus_AMNG16.jpg
Macedonia, Kassandreia, Macrinus, AMNG 1626 viewsMacrinus, AD 217-218
AE 19, 3.51g
obv. [IMP] CM OPE SEV MACRINVS
bust, draped and cuirassed, laureate, r.
rev. COL IVL A - VG CSSAN[..]
Jupiter Ammon, wearing himation, nude to hips, stg. r., holding in raised r.
hand bunch of wine-grapes over his r. shoulder; [eagle r. before Jupiter on
groundline.
AMNG III.2, p.54, no.16
rare, F+

COL IVL AVG CSSAN[..] = Colonia Ivlia Avgvsta Cassandrensis. Referring to Gaebler the reverse shows the pantheistic depiction of Ammon, Jupiter (eagle) and Dionysos (wine-grapes).
Jochen
philippi_tiberius_RPC1657.jpg
Macedonia, Philippi(?), Tiberius, RPC 1657 #152 viewsCommodus(?), AD 177-192
AE 17 (Semis), 4.31g, 16.91mm, 225°
obv. [.....]
bare head, r., curly hair
rev. [CGI] - H PAR
two priests ploughing right with two oxen
ref. ?
F+, nice green-blue patina

HPAR is part of CGIH PAR = Colonia Gemelli Iulia Hadriana Pariana
Jochen
GI 064g img~0.jpg
Men227 viewsSeptimius Severus Ae23
Obv:– L SEPT SEV PERT AVG IMP, Radiate bust right
Rev:– ANTIOCH COLONIA CCA, Mên standing facing, head right, wearing phrygian head, holding sceptre and Nike, left foot on bucranium (cowhead); to left, a rooster
Minted in Pisidia, Antioch.
The temple of Mên was situated on a hill three and a half kilometres to the south-east of Antioch in Pisidia, on a small mountain, 2,000 metres high. The temple was also dedicated to Cybele. Antioch in Pisidia is mentioned in the bible as one of the locations that St. Paul visited.
maridvnvm
Middlesex_283a.jpg
Middlesex 283a25 viewsObv: G. WASHINGTON THE FIRM FRIEND OF PEACE & HUMANITY, military bust of George Washington facing right.

Rev: PAYABLE BY CLARK & HARRIS 13 WORMWOOD ST. BISHOPSGATE - LONDON - 1795, fire grate.

Edge: Milled

Half Penny Conder Token

Note: This token is also listed among American colonial pieces.

Dalton & Hamer: Middlesex 283a
SPQR Coins
portu.jpg
MODERN MILLED (up to 19th Century), INDIA, Portugese Colonial, Jose I 1750 - 1777, Copper Atia, 1768.15 viewsIndia. Portugese Colonial. Jose I 1750 - 1777. Copper Atia 1768. Crowned arms divide DO / Numerals of date in cross angles.

KM 38
oneill6217
1881dd.jpg
MODERN MILLED (up to 19th Century), INDIA, Portugese Colonial, Luiz I 1861 - 1889, Copper 1/8 tanga, 1881.15 viewsIndia. Portugese Colonial. Luiz I 1861 - 1889. Copper 1/8 tanga 1881. LUDOVIGVS.I. PORTUGAL. ALGAEB: REX. 1881, head left / INDIA PORTUGAL, crown, OITAVO DE TANGA.

KM 307
oneill6217
frenchpondicherry.jpg
MODERN MILLED (up to 19th Century), India. French colonial. Pondicherry. Copper Doudou 1720 - 1835.16 viewsIndia. French colonial. Pondicherry. Copper Doudou 1720 - 1835. Tamil mint. LIS

KM 35
oneill6217
PhilippII_viminacium_Pick104.jpg
Moesia superior, Viminacium, Philipp I, AMNG 140212 viewsPhilipp I Arabs, AD 244-249
AE 30, 18.3g
obv. IMP M IVL PHILIPPVS AVG
bust, draped and cuirassed, laureate, r.
rev. PMS C - OL VIM
Moesia, draped, standing l., holding hands above bull l. and lion r.
in ex. AN VIII
AMNG I/1, 140; SNG München 180-5
gVF, nice green patina

PMS COL VIM is the abbreviation of PROVINCIAE MOESIAE SVPERIORIS COLONIA VIMINACIVM. Viminacium, today Kostolac near Pozarevac/Serbia, was the capital of Moesia superior.
The bull and the lion are symbols of the two legions standing in Viminacium, the legio VII Claudia Pia Fidelis and the legio IIII Flavia Felix.
AN VIII stands for the 8th year of the mint of Viminacium (AD 239-255) AD 247
5 commentsJochen
VIM_Valerianus-I-AE-26_IMP-VALERIANVS-PF-AVG_PMSC_OL-VIM_AN-XVI_Pick-190_PM-7-06-2_Mus-62v_Q-001_h_26mm_7,03gx-s~0.jpg
Moesia, Viminacium, 088p Valerian I. (253-260 A.D.), PM 07-06-02, AE-Sestertius, -/-//ANXVI, P M S COL VIM, Female figure standing, facing left, Rare! #0162 viewsMoesia, Viminacium, 088p Valerian I. (253-260 A.D.), PM 07-06-02, AE-Sestertius, -/-//ANXVI, P M S COL VIM, Female figure standing, facing left, Rare! #01
avers: IMP VALERIANVS P F AVG, laureate cuirassed bust right.
reverse: P M S C OL VIM (Provinciae Moesiae Superioris Colonia Viminacium), Female figure (Viminacium or Provincia Moesia) standing, facing left, between bull to left and lion to right, in exergue ANXVI.
exergue: -/-//ANXVI, diameter: 26mm, weight: 7,03g, axis: h,
mint: Viminacium, date: 254-255 A.D., ref: Pick-190, PM-7-06-2, Mus-62var,
Q-001
quadrans
VIM_Valerianus-I-AE-26_IMP-VALERIANVS-P-AVG_PMSC_OL-VIM_AN-XVI_Pick-190_PM-7-06-5_Mus-62v_Q-001_h_mm_g-s.jpg
Moesia, Viminacium, 088p Valerian I. (253-260 A.D.), PM 07-06-05, AE-Sestertius, -/-//ANXVI, P M S COL VIM, Female figure standing, facing left, Rare! #0174 viewsMoesia, Viminacium, 088p Valerian I. (253-260 A.D.), PM 07-06-05, AE-Sestertius, -/-//ANXVI, P M S COL VIM, Female figure standing, facing left, Rare! #01
avers: IMP VALERIANVS P AVG, laureate cuirassed bust right.
reverse: P M S C OL VIM (Provinciae Moesiae Superioris Colonia Viminacium), Female figure (Viminacium or Provincia Moesia) standing, facing left, between bull to left and lion to right, in exergue ANXVI.
exergue: -/-//ANXVI, diameter: mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Moesia, Viminacium, date: 254-255 A.D., ref: Pick-190, PM-7-06-5, Mus-,
Q-001
quadrans
VIM_Valerianus-I-AE-26_IMP-VALERIANVS-P-AVG_PMSC_OL-VIM_AN-XVI_Pick-190_PM-7-06-5_Mus-62v_Q-002_0h_26,5-28,5mm_8,96ga-s.jpg
Moesia, Viminacium, 088p Valerian I. (253-260 A.D.), PM 07-06-05, AE-Sestertius, -/-//ANXVI, P M S COL VIM, Female figure standing, facing left, Rare! #0299 viewsMoesia, Viminacium, 088p Valerian I. (253-260 A.D.), PM 07-06-05, AE-Sestertius, -/-//ANXVI, P M S COL VIM, Female figure standing, facing left, Rare! #02
avers: IMP VALERIANVS P AVG, laureate cuirassed bust right.
reverse: P M S C OL VIM (Provinciae Moesiae Superioris Colonia Viminacium), Female figure (Viminacium or Provincia Moesia) standing, facing left, between bull to left and lion to right, in exergue ANXVI.
exergue: -/-//ANXVI, diameter: 26,5-28,5mm, weight: 8,96g, axis: 0h,
mint: Moesia, Viminacium, date: 254-255 A.D., ref: Pick-190, PM-7-06-5, Mus-,
Q-002
quadrans
VIM_Mariniana_AE-27_DIVAE-MARINIANAE_PMSC_OL-VI_AN-XVI_Pick-na_PM-7-08-2_Mus-64_Q-001_axis-h_27mm_9_76gx-s.jpg
Moesia, Viminacium, 089p Mariniana (??? A.D.), PM 07-08-02, AE-Sestertius, -/-//ANXVI, P M S COL VIM, Female figure standing, facing left, Rare! #01293 viewsMoesia, Viminacium, 089p Mariniana (??? A.D.), PM 07-08-02, AE-Sestertius, -/-//ANXVI, P M S COL VIM, Female figure standing, facing left, Rare! #01
Wife of Valerian I.
avers: DIVAE MARINIANAE, Veiled and draped bust right.
reverse: P M S C OL VIM (Provinciae Moesiae Superioris Colonia Viminacium), Female figure (Viminacium or Provincia Moesia) standing, facing left, between bull to left and lion to right, in exergue ANXVI.
exergue: -/-//ANXVI, diameter: 27mm, weight:9,76g, axis: h,
mint: Moesia, Viminacium, date: 254-255 AD., ref: Pick-not listed, PM-7-08-2, Mus-not listed,
Q-001
4 commentsquadrans
Lixus_in_Morocco.jpg
Morocco, Lixus65 viewsLixus is the site of an ancient Roman city located in Morocco just north of the modern seaport of Larache on the bank of the Loukkos River. The location was one of the main cities of the Roman province of Mauretania Tingitana .

Ancient Lixus is located on Tchemmich Hill on the right bank of the Loukkos River (other names: Oued Loukous; Locus River), just to the north of the modern seaport of Larache. The site lies within the urban perimeter of Larache, and about three kilometers inland from the mouth of the river and the Atlantic ocean. From its 80 meters above the plain the site dominates the marshes through which the river flows. To the north, Lixus is surrounded by hills which themselves are bordered to the north and east by a forest of cork oaks.

Among the ruins there are Roman baths, temples, 4th century walls, a mosaic floor, a Christian church and the intricate and confusing remains of the Capitol Hill.

Lixus was first settled by the Phoenicians in the 7th century BC and was later annexed by Carthage. Lixus was part of a chain of Phoenician/Carthaginian settlements along the Atlantic coast of modern Morocco; other major settlements further to the south are Chellah (called Sala Colonia by the Romans) and Mogador. When Carthage fell to Ancient Rome, Lixus, Chellah and Mogador became imperial outposts of the Roman province Mauretania Tingitana.

The ancient sources agree to make of Lixus a counter Phoenician, which is confirmed by the archaeological discovery of material dating from 8th century BC. It gradually grew in importance, later coming under Carthaginian domination. After the destruction of Carthage, Lixus fell to Roman control and was made an imperial colony, reaching its zenith during the reign of the emperor Claudius I (AD 41-54).

Some ancient Greek writers located at Lixus the mythological garden of the Hesperides, the keepers of the golden apples. The name of the city was often mentioned by writers from Hanno the Navigator to the Geographer of Ravenna, and confirmed by the legend on its coins and by an inscription. The ancients believed Lixus to be the site of the Garden of the Hesperides and of a sanctuary of Hercules, where Hercules gathered gold apples, more ancient than the one at Cadiz, Spain. However, there are no grounds for the claim that Lixus was founded at the end of the second millennium BC.

Lixus flourished during the Roman Empire, mainly when Claudius established a Roman Colonia with full rights for the citizens. Lixus was one of the few Roman cities in Berber Africa that enjoyed an amphitheater: the amphitheater at Lixus. In the third century Lixus become nearly fully Christian and there are even now the ruins of a paleochristian church overlooking the archeological area. The Arab invasions destroyed the Roman city. Some berber life was maintained there nevertheless until one century after the Islamic conquest of North Africa by the presence of a mosque and a house with patio with the covered walls of painted stuccos.

The site was excavated continuously from 1948 to 1969. In the 1960s, Lixus was restored and consolidated. In 1989, following an international conference which brought together many scientists, specialists, historians and archaeologists of the Mediterranean around the history and archaeology of Lixus, the site was partly enclosed. Work was undertaken to study the Roman mosaics of the site, which constitute a very rich unit. In addition to the vestiges interesting to discover the such mosaics whose one of sixty meters representing Poseidon. Lixus was on a surface of approximately 75 hectares (190 acres). The excavated zones constitute approximately 20% of the total surface of the site.

This site was added to the UNESCO World Heritage Tentative List on July 1, 1995 in the Cultural category.
Joe Sermarini
Colonial_AE-22_xx-KHN_N_Q-001_axis-0h_24-26mm_7,99g-s.jpg
Mysia, Kyzikos, c. 4th Century B.C.,76 viewsMysia, Kyzikos, c. 4th Century B.C.,
avers:- Wreathed head of Kore Soteira right, within dotted circle,
revers:- Tripod, ΚΥZΙ−ΚΗΝΩΝ on either side, monogram to left, long torch below.
exe: -/-//--, diameter: 24-26 mm, weight: 7,99 g, axis: 0 h,
mint: Kyzikos, Mysia, c. 4th Century B.C.,
date: c. 4th Century B.C.,
ref: ,
Q-001
2 commentsquadrans
parion_commodus_unbekannt.jpg
Mysia, Parion, Commodus, cf. BMC 101 (for the type only)9 viewsCommodus, AD 177-192
AE 17 (Semis), 4.31g, 16.91mm, 225
obv. [...]
Bare head r., curly hair
rev. [CGI] - H PAR
2 priests ploughing with oxen r.
ref. not found
rare, G/G+, nice blue Patina, double struck on rev.

HPAR is part of CGIH PAR = Colonia Gemella Iulia Hadriana Pariana. So it couldn't be Augustus nor Tiberius, but probably Commodus.
Jochen
parium_gallienus_unbekannt.jpg
Mysia, Parion, Gallienus SNG Copenhagen 19, 306(?)36 viewsGallienus AD 253-268
AE 28, 11.60g
obv. [IMP LICIN] - [GALL]EIN
Bust, draped and cuirassed, laureate, r.
rev. CG - IH - P (P reversed)
Male figure, nude to hips, wearing short hip clothes and boots, holding spear
horizontal in both hands, advancing r. against boar, leaping l.; branch above
SNG Copenhagen 19, 306(?) ; ANS #1944.100.43153 (Thanks to Dapsul!)
F/about VF, oliv-green patina

The rev. seems to show Androklos killing the Ephesian boar. CGIHP means Colonia Gemella Iulia Hadriana Pariana.
Thanks to all Forum members who have helped me with this coin!
Jochen
parium_1.jpg
MYSIA, PARIUM JULIUS CAESAR9 viewsMYSIA, PARIUM
JULIUS CAESAR

AE13

Obverse: C-G-I-P (Colonia Gemella Ivlia Pariana), female head right within border of dots

Reverse: D-D (Decreto Decurionum), praefericulum (sacrificial jug)

Mint: Parium

Minted: c. 45 BCE

Dia: 13mm

Ref: RPC I 2259

Semi-autonomous coin issued in this Julian military colony by C. Matuinus and T. Anicius, aediles.
jimbomar
DSC07559_DSC07569_zeelandia_1745_2-S_obv-rev.JPG
Netherlands 1745 Zeelandia - Silver Two Stuivers52 viewsZeelandia, Silver 2 Stuivers. Struck 1745.
Sometimes called a "New York Dime" Being one of the first currencies to be widely used in the New World.

obv: 2 S - Rampant Lion in water on coat of arms with crown atop.
rev: ZEE LAN DIA. .1745. - Castle Turret above, between two stars.

---
-
1 commentsrexesq
zeelandia_1745_2-stuivers_w-lincoln-cent_obv_03.JPG
Netherlands 1745 Zeelandia - Silver Two Stuivers w/ Lincoln cent.19 viewsZeelandia, Silver 2 Stuivers. Struck 1745.
Sometimes called a "New York Dime" Being one of the first currencies to be widely used in the New World.

obv: 2 S - Rampant Lion in water on coat of arms with crown atop.
rev: ZEE LAN DIA. .1745. - Castle Turret above, between two stars.
---

~~*Shown with USA Lincoln Cent for size comparison*~~
~---~
~-~
~
rexesq
zeelandia_1745_2-stuivers_w-lincoln-cent_obv_02.JPG
Netherlands 1745 Zeelandia - Silver Two Stuivers w/ Lincoln cent.20 viewsZeelandia, Silver 2 Stuivers. Struck 1745.
Sometimes called a "New York Dime" Being one of the first currencies to be widely used in the New World.

obv: 2 S - Rampant Lion in water on coat of arms with crown atop.
rev: ZEE LAN DIA. .1745. - Castle Turret above, between two stars.
---

~~*Shown with USA Lincoln Cent for size comparison*~~
~---~
~-~
~
rexesq
Philip Sest AnVI VIM.jpg
Philip I , Sestertius from Viminacium (AN VI)42 viewsAE 29 mm, 244/245 A.D. , Viminacium
Obv: Imp M Iul Philippus Aug
Rev: PMS COL VIM (Provincia Moesia Superior, Colonia Viminacium)
Exer: AN VI
Jean Paul D
Philip Sest ANVII Vim Pat Verte Brune.jpg
Philip I , Sestertius from Viminacium (AN VII)36 viewsAE 29mm, 245/246 A.D. , Viminacium
Obv: Imp M Iul Philippus Aug
Rev: PMS COL VIM ( Provincia Moesia Superior, Colonia Viminacium)
Exer: AN VII
Jean Paul D
Philip Sest ANVIII VIM.jpg
Philip I , Sestertius from Viminacium (AN VIII)57 viewsAE 29mm, 246/247 A.D. , Viminacium
Obv: Imp M Iul Philippus Aug
Rev: PMS COL VIM (Provincia Moesia Superior, Colonia Viminacium)
Exer: AN VIII
Jean Paul D
Phil Sest An VIIII Vim Leg Courte.jpg
Philip I , Sestertius from Viminacium (AN VIIII)34 viewsAE 28 mm, 247/248 A.D. , Viminacium
Obv: Imp Philippus Aug
Rev: PMS COL VIM (Provincia Moesia Superior, Colonia Viminacium)
Exer: AN VIIII
Jean Paul D
Phil Ses AnVIIII Vim Bris sous Port.jpg
Philip I , Sestertius from Viminacium (AN VIIII)26 viewsAE 27 mm, 247/248 A.D. ,Viminacium
Obv: Imp M Iul Philippus Aug
Rev: PMS COL VIM (Provincia Moesia Superior, Colonia Viminacium)
Exer: AN VIIII
Jean Paul D
caesarea_ad_libanum_sev_alex_BMC9.jpg
Phoenicia, Caesarea ad Libanum, Severus Alexander, BMC 948 viewsSeverus Alexander as Caesar, AD 221-222, struck under Elagabal
obv. [SEV ALEXA]NDROS CAESAR
Head, radiate, r.
rev. COL C - E - SA - RIA LIB
in ex. ITVR
Tetrastyle tripartite temple of Astarte. In the middle triptych under an arched roof Astarte stg. facing, holding standard in r. hand and l. foot set on prow, being crowned by Nike r. beside her stg. on cippus; beneath rivergod swimming r.; outside staircases leading to the side-wings; in the l. wing goddess with kalathos stg. facing between two animals, in the r. wing female figure stg. facing.
BMC 110, 9; Lindgren II, 1321, 2288
Rare, F/about VF, the sandpatina suggests an illumination from behind and thus the fascinating impression of a three-dimensional depiction!

The ancient name of Caesarea was Arka. Probably under Elagabal the City was raised to a Roman colonia under the name Colonia Caesarea Libani. Here Severus Alexander was born, cousin, adoptive son and successor of Elagabal. We know of an important Astarte cult in Caesarea. Wether the interesting triptych form of the temple was real we dont know. The two figures in the side wings can't be identified clearly; the goddess at the l. side matches iconographically the 'Mistress of Animals', Potnia theron, the r. figure possibly Aphrodite. ITVR in ex. points to the Ituraei, a nomad people in this region.

The ancient name of the river is unknown. Today his name is Nahr-el-Arqa.
Jochen
PiusAntiochPisidia.jpg
Pisidia, Antioch(Colonia Caesarea Antiochia). Antoninus Pius AE2521 viewsCity; Province; Region Antioch (Colonia Caesarea Antiochia); Galatia; Pisidia
Date 138–161
Obverse design laureate head of Antoninus Pius, r.
Obverse inscription ANTONINVS AVG PIVS PP TR P COS IIII
Reverse design Genius standing, facing, head, l., emptying cornucopia over altar, holding long sceptre
Reverse inscription GENIO COLONIAE ANTIOCH
Metal Bronze
Average diameter 25 mm
Average weight 7.21 g
Average die-axis 6
Type reference Krzyzanowksa 138, VII.13, VIII.13, VIII.15 and XI.20, Cop 22 corr.
ancientone
pseudo-autonomous_Antioch_Men_Altar_AE13_1_65g.jpg
Pisidia, Antioch, Men / altar, AE1338 viewsAE13, 1.65g
obv: ANTIOC; bust of Mên right
rev: COLONIAI; burning altar
areich
Pisidia_Antioch_Men_cock_AE14_1_41g.jpg
Pisidia, Antioch, men / cock, AE1457 views14mm, 1.41g
obv: ANTIOCHA; bust of Mên right
rev: colonia, cock right
2 commentsareich
domnapisidia.jpg
Pisidia, Antioch. Julia Domna AE22. Men26 viewsPRO: PISIDIA
PO : ANTIOCHEIA
PZ : Between 193 and 203
TIL: COLONIAE / CAIS
Obverse
VSL: IVLI DOMNA AVG
VT : PORTRAIT WOMAN R / IULIA DOMNA
VA : CLOTHES
Reverse
RSL: ANTIOCH COLONIAE CAIS
RT : MAN STANDING HR(1) / MEN(1) / BIRD LE / COCK
RA : FOOT(1) / ON / BUKRANION / STAFF(1) / PHRYGIAN CAP / CRESCENT / NIKE(1) / WITH / TROPAION
Technical details
M : AE
GEW: 5.7(1)
Bibliographical references
ZIT: KRZYZANOWSKA S148,DOM5.13(1) / COLL WARSCHAU(1)
Additional remarks
FR : VS: IVLI DOMNA AVG RS: ANTIOCH COLONIAE CAIS
ancientone
antiocheia_pisidia_gordianIII_Krzyanowska90.jpg
Pisidia, Antiochia, Gordian III, Krzyanowska 9035 viewsGordian III, AD 238-244
AE 34, 24.28g, 34.09mm
obv. IMP CAES M ANT GORDIANVS AVG
Bust, draped and cuirassed, laureate, r.
rev. ANTIOCHIA COLONIA CAESARIA
Emperor, radiate, in quadriga l., holding eagle-tipped sceptre in l. arm and raising r. hand in greeting
attitude.
in ex. SR
ref. Krzyanowska 90
F+/about VF, light blue-green patina

Emperor in the typical attitude of sun-god Helios.
1 commentsJochen
POSTUMO_sesterzio.jpg
POSTUMO (260-269 d.C.), doppio sesterzio, zecca di Colonia27 viewsPostumo (260-269 d.C.), doppio sesterzio, zecca di Colonia
AE, 28 mm., 10,39 gr, B
D/ IMP C M CASS LAT POSTVMVS PF AVG, busto radiato e paludato a dx
R/ LAETITIA AVG, galea andante sulle onde a sn., con quattro rematori e un pilota. AVG in ex
RIC 148, Cohen 183
Provenienza: ex collezione Berardengo, Roma Italia (8 febbraio 2009, numero catalogo 64), ex Danny Van De Wielle collection (Eke-Nazareth, Belgium, prima del 2009).
paolo
Postumus_Antoninian_Köln_Kaiser_Globus_Lanze_Colonia_Agrippina.jpg
Postumus Antoninian Köln Kaiser Globus Lanze Colonia Agrippina 21 viewsRömisches Kaiserreich

Postumus, 259-268 AD

Münzstätte: Colonia Agrippina (Köln) 261

Antoninian

Vs: IMP C POSTVMVS P F AVG, Büste mit Strahlenkrone, Drapierung und Kürass nach rechts.

Rs: PM TR P COS II PP, Kaiser nach links mit Globus und Lanze.

Erhaltung: sehr schön

3,197 g. 22 mm.

RIC 54 (Lyon); Elmer, 129 (Cologne). _1279
Antonivs Protti
FullSizeRender~0.jpg
Postumus Antoninianus Victoria 22 viewsAR Antoninianus
Postumus, 260 - 268 CE
Diameter: 24 mm, Weight: 3.71 grams, Die axis: 11h

Obverse: IMP C POSTVMVS . P . F . AVG
Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust to right.

Reverse: VICTORIA AVG
Victory advancing left, holding wreath in outstretched right hand, palm frond resting over left shoulder. Captive seated to left at Victory's feet.

Mint: Probably Colonia Agrippinensis (Cologne)

Notes:
- A fine and unusual portrait struck early in Postumus' usurpation, mid to late 260 CE as part of Postumus' 2nd coinage issue.
-Silver content was still decent during this period, at around 20%.

Ex Poinsignon Numismatique, 2018
Pharsalos
postumus32.jpg
Postumus Colonia Agrippinensis, 259-268 AD.13 views
Postumus Colonia Agrippinensis, 259-268 AD. AR antoninianus, 3.4 g.

Obv; IMP C POSTUMUS PF AUG radiate, draped, cuirassed bust right
Rev; VIRTUS AUG Mars standing right, with spear and shield.

22 mm
RIC 93.

Ex Steven Geer 10.07.2018
Britanikus
postumus_ric_325.jpg
Postumus RIC 32511 viewsAR Antoninianus.
(Colonia ? ) 266-7 AD.
IMP C POSTVMVS AVG, radiate draped bust right
SAECVLI FELICITAS, emperor standing right holding spear & globe.
xokleng
post_pax_k.jpg
Postumus, AD 260-2692 viewsBillon Antoninianus, 20mm, 2.8g, 12h; Colonia Agrippina Mint, 268 AD.
Obv.: IMP C POSTVMVS P F AVG Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right.
Rev.: PAX AVG Pax standing front, her head turned to left, holding an olive branch in her right hand and a transverse scepter in her left.
Reference: RIC Vb 318, p. 363. 16-191-45
From the YOC Collection, Mossy Bottom Barn Hoard
John Anthony
postumus_k.jpg
Postumus, AD 260-2694 viewsAE “Double" Sestertius, 33mm, 24.9g, 12h; Colonia Agrippinensis or Treveri
Obv.: IMP C M CASS LAT POSTVMVS P F AVG; Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right.
Rev.: LAETITIA AVG (AVG in exergue); Galley left, four rowers and steersman
Reference: RIC Vb 143 (Lugdunum)
From the YOC Collection, 16-257-200
John Anthony
Post_Military_k.jpg
Postumus, AD 260-2699 viewsBillon antoninianus, 22mm, 2.9g, 12h; Colonia Agrippinensis mint, AD 260.
Obv.: IMP C POSTVMVS P F AVG; Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right.
Rev.: P M TR P COS II P P, Postumus standing slightly left, wearing helmet and military attire, globe in right hand, spear vertical in left hand.
Reference: RIC Vb 54 (Lugdunum), p. 341 / 16-391-50
1 commentsJohn Anthony
mamaea~0.jpg
Provincia Arabia: Julia Mamaea, after 180 - 23515 viewsAE22, 4.3g, 12h; Bostra Mint, 222-235
Obv.: IVLIA MAMAEA AVGVSTA;Draped bust of Julia Mamaea right.
Rev.: COLONIA BO-STRA; Turreted bust of Tyche left, cornucopiae over left shoulder,
Reference: SNG ANS 6: 1231-1236
Notes: ex-Wayne C. Phillips, electronic sale, 4/14/13, 44.
John Anthony
7530_7531.jpg
Provincial, Antioch, Pisidia, AE22, ANTIOCH COLONIA9 viewsAE22
Roman Provincial: Antioch, Pisidia
Septimius Severus
Augustus: 193 - 211AD
Issued:
22.0mm 5.21gr 6h
O: IMP [T] S-εV; Laureate head, right.
R: ANTIOCH COLONIA; Men standing right, with foot on bucranium, holding scepter and Victory; cock standing right at feet.
Antioch, Pisidia
SNG BnF 1119 var. (Head laureate, cock to right)
St. Paul Antiques Auction 17, Lot 394.
6/30/18 8/6/18
Nicholas Z
7687_7688.jpg
Provincial, Antioch, Pisidia, AE23, ANTIOCH COLONIAE12 viewsAE23
Roman Provincial: Antioch, Pisidia
Septimius Severus
Augustus: 193 - 211AD
25.0 x 23.0mm 5.68gr 6h
O: L SEPT SEV PERT AVG; Laureate bust, right.
R: ANTIOCH COLONIAE; Men standing right, Victory in left hand, scepter in right hand, left foot resting on bucranium, cock at feet, right.
Krzyzanowska II/4; SNG Paris 1117-8; Lindgren 1205; BMC 23; SNG von Aulock 4927
Kairos Numismatic Auction 6, Lot 538
8/19/18 12/5/18
Nicholas Z
colonial-001_22mm-a_9,07g-s.jpg
R., Macedonia, Thessalonika, 011p Gaius (Caligula) and Antonia Minor, (37-41 A.D.), RPC I 1573, AE22, Head of Antonia left, Scarce! #178 viewsR., Macedonia, Thessalonika, 011p Gaius (Caligula) and Antonia Minor, (37-41 A.D.), RPC I 1573, AE22, Head of Antonia left, Scarce! #1
avers: Γ.KAIΣAP ΣEBAΣTOΣ, Laureate head of Gaius Caligula left,
reverse: ΓEPMANIKOΣ C(?)E.ΘEΣΣAΛONIKEΩN, Head of Antonia Minor left.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 22,0mm, weight: 9,07g, axis: 5h,
mint: City: Thessalonica, Region: Macedonia, Province: Macedonia, date: 37-41 A.D.,
ref: RPC I 1573, Touratsoglou, Caligula 3-11, 21-4,
19 Specimens
Q-001
quadrans
Rama_V_1907_AR_Baht_rare.jpg
Rama V, King Chulalongkorn the Great (1853- 1910 AD), Thailand40 viewsKing Rama V, AR, 1 baht, R.S. 126, 1907 AD, 31m, 14.9 g, Royal Mint: Bangkok. Obverse: head of Rama V facing L, King's "first" name (สมเด็จพระปรมินทรมหาจุฬาลงกรณ์) above, his "last" name (พระจุลจอมเกล้าเจ้าอยู่หัว) below . Reverse: The Coat of Arms of Chulalongkorn--On the top of the coat of arms is the Great Victory Crown of Thailand, the most important royal regalia and the symbol of kingship. Under the crown is the symbol of the Royal House of Chakri, the King's royal family, which is a disc intersected with a trident. The royal multi-tiered umbrellas of state are also present on either side of the crown. To both sides of the coat of arms are the other regalia, the royal sword and the royal baton. In the background is the draped robe - either the Royal robe of the King or the robe of the Order of Chulachomklao - an order created by the King. The supporters are two mythical creatures, one is the Royal Lion, rajasiha, and the other is Elephant Lion, gaja-siha. The shield itself is partitioned into three parts, signifying the Thai part of the Kingdom (the 3-headed elephant) on the top, the Laotian suzerainty (another elephant), and the Malay suzerainty (two "kris", or Malayan short swords). The chain under the Arms is a necklace that is a part of the Order of Chulachomklao. The ribbon under the Arms is inscribed with the motto (in Pali, the language of the Buddhist canon) which may be translated as "Unity brings happiness." Khrueng Thep (กรุงสยาม--Bangkok) left, Rama V (รัชกาลที่) right, one baht (บาทหนึ่ง) below. RS 126 has the regnal date 40 over the 127; EF, Rare.

Rama V, King Chulalongkorn the Great (1853- 1910 AD); during his 42-year reign, King Chulalongkorn (the fifth king of the Chakri Dynasty) succeeded in establishing a government based on the western system, which ultimately paved the way for the present democracy. He reformed the rule of law, established a proper judicial system and introduced compulsory military service, improving the country's national defense. He introduced the Baht (still in use today) as the official currency and made taxes directly payable to the government, cutting out the corrupt middlemen. King Chulalongkorn also set up Siam's first hospital based on western medical practices, the first medical school and a nationwide education system.

The Thai Nation rightly reveres King Chulalongkorn. The preservation of Thailand's sovereignty and independence, in contrast to other Asian countries that capitulated to colonialism, was a direct result of his efforts. His skills of diplomacy abroad and ability to form a central government at home endeared him to the people. His reign was one of the most successful of any monarch in any country in the world and through his vision and leadership; a small, traditional Kingdom was transformed into a modern Nation at the heart of Asian affairs.
(http://www.chiangmai-chiangrai.com/chulalongkorn_rama_5.html)

On his first enthronement, King Chulalongkorn issued a royal decree that all the people born during his reign would be born free; he had determined that slavery should eventually disappear from his realm. In order not to create a social upheaval suddenly, King Rama V took gradual measures to release slaves to freedom, and in 1905 he issued a law for the abolition of slavery. Thus the Thai people won freedom without any struggle.

The first public museum was established by King Rama V in 1880 at the Concordia Building inside the Grand Palace compound. Later, when the viceroy or Uparat position was replaced by the crown Prince position, the Palace of the Uparat or the Front Palace was vacant. In 1887 the museum was moved to the Front Palace and developed to be the National Museum.


In 1917, Siam (Thailand) opened its first university. It was named after this beloved King: Chulalongkorn University was referred to as "the Harvard of Asia" by President Bill Clinton of the United States.

Cleisthenes
Salonina_R700_FAC.jpg
RIC 5a, p.108, 5 - Salonina, Segetia 3 viewsSalonina
c. 259 - 260 A.D.
Billon antoninianus, Colonia Agrippinensis (Cologne, Germany) mint
Obv.: SALONINA AVG, draped bust right, wearing stephane, hair in ridges and in plait looped below ear up the back of head, crescent behind shoulders
Rev.: DEAE SEGETIAE, statue of goddess Segetia standing facing in tetrastyle temple, nimbate, crescent on her head, both hands raised
Billon, 3.97g, 20.8mm, 0°
Ref.: Göbl MIR 902c, RSC IV 36, RIC V-1m p.108, 5, Hunter 21, Cunetio 731, Elmer 96, SRCV III 10631
Ex Roma Numismatics
Ex Forum Ancient Coins Shop
shanxi
Augustus_-_RIC_I_86A.jpg
RIC I 86A36 viewsOctavian as Augustus, 27 BC – 14 AD Denarius Colonia Patricia (?) circa 19 BC, AR 18mm., 3.73g. CAESAR – AVGVSTVS Bare head r. Rev. SIGNIS – RECEPTIS Aquila on l. and standard on r. flanking, S – P / Q – R arranged around shield inscribed CL V. C 265. BMC 417. RIC 86a. CBN 1132.
3 commentsAldo
ROME_-_Cordoba_Quadrans_of_Augustus.JPG
ROMAN EMPIRE - Augustus28 viewsROMAN EMPIRE - Augustus (16 January 27 B.C. - 19 August 14 A.D.) Colonia Patricia, Hispania Baetica. Bronze quadrans,condition: VF, mint: Colonia Patricia (Cordova), weight: 2.225g, maximum diameter: 15.6mm, die axis: 225o, date struck: 20 - 2 B.C., probably 15 - 14 B.C.; obverse PER CAE AVG, bare head left; reverse COLO PATR, patera above aspergillum, jug, and lituus. References: Villaronga-Benages 3359, RPC I 131, SNG Lorichs 1393, SNG Cop -; Ex-FORVM
1 commentsdpaul7
domitian philppop.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE - DOMITIAN - PHILIPPOPOLIS32 viewsDomitian Philipopolis AE 25 - Ares. Philipopolis mint AE 25 mm, 6.73 g. Domitian AD 81-96 Interesting bilingual coin. The obverse legend is using Latin alphabet and the reverse legend - Greek. This is very unusual practice that exist in the early colonial coins minted in Philipopolis. Obv.: Radiate head right. Legend in Latin IMP CAES DOMIT GERM COS XIIII CENS PER P P Rev.: Ares (Mars) standing left, holding spear and leaning hand on a shield. Legend in Greek PHILIPOPOLEITON. Moushmov 5063dpaul7
Hadrian_Sestertius_with_Galley.JPG
ROMAN EMPIRE / Hadrian Sestertius with Galley 53 viewsOrichalcum sestertius, references: BMCRE III 1409, RIC II 706, SRCV II 3596; condition: aVF, nice bust and galley, artificial patina probably covering epoxy filled pits or other damage, mint: Rome, weight: 23.649g, maximum diameter: 33.0mm, die axis: 0o, date struck: 132 - 135 A.D.; obverse HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS, laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right; reverse FELICITATI AVG, galley rowed left over waves, five oarsmen, steersman under an arched shelter at the stern, vexillum on prow, S - C flanking ship, COS III P P in ex; additional comments: ex Morton & Eden auction 59 (13 - 14 Nov 2012), part of lot 957; ex Kenneth Edwin Day Collection.

In 132, a messianic, charismatic Jewish leader Simon bar Kokhba started the Bar Kokhba revolt, a war of liberation for Judea against Rome. At first the rebellion was a success. The legion X Fretensis was forced to retreat from Jerusalem to Caesarea. The legion XXII Deiotariana, which advanced from Egypt, was destroyed. The Jews re-established their sacrifices and struck coins to celebrate their independence. The rebellion would last for only 30 months. By 135, the Romans had recaptured Jerusalem, Simon bar Kokhba was dead, and the majority of the Jewish population of Judea was either killed, exiled, or sold into slavery. Jerusalem was renamed Colonia Aelia Capitolina and an altar to Jupiter was erected on the site of the Temple. The Jews remained scattered without a homeland for close to two millennia.


*With my sincere thank and appreciation , Photo and Description courtesy of FORVM Ancient Coins Staff.

EX FORVM Auction.

My additional comments : Coin in hand under sun light is a piece of Art.
2 commentsSam
Picture_5~8.png
ROMAN EMPIRE PROVINCIAL, Augustus, 26mm, as. "COLONIA PATRICIA" in oak wreath8 viewsAugustus 26mm, as.
Obv. PERM CAES AVG Bare head left
Rev. COLONIA PATRICIA Within oak wreath
Mint & Date of Striking: Spain, Colonia Patricia Mint 27 BC - 14 AD
References: RPC 129
jessvc1
ninica_claudiopolis_maximinusI_SNGlevsupp170+.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE PROVINCIAL, Cilicia, Ninica-Claudiopolis, Maximinus I, SNG Levante Supp. 170 (plate coin)102 viewsMaximinus I AD 235-236
AE 30 mm, 14.59 g
obv. IMP.CAES.SA.IVL.VER.MAXI / MINVS
Bust, draped and cuirassed, bare-headed, r.
rev. NINIC COL CLA / VDIOPO / L
She-wolf standing right under Ruminal fig tree, head l., suckling the twins
Remus and Romulus
ref. SNG Levante 618 (same dies); SNG Levante Supp. 170 (this coin); SNG Paris 791 (same dies); SNG von
Aulock 5775 (same dies)
Choice EF, nice olive-brown patina, rare this nice.
published on www.wildwinds.com

The fig tree was sanctified to the goddess Rumina. Later the twins were found by the shepherd Faustulus. The rest is well-known!
The legend is in Latin because the city was a Roman colonia. The she-wolf looks a bit like a horse!
2 commentsJochen
RPSevAlexNicaeaBest.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE PROVINCIAL, SEVERUS ALEXANDER (222-235 AD) AE19 of NICAEA, BITHYNIA228 views(4.4g). Obv: Bust right (MAVPCEVHALEXANDPOCA). Rev: 3 Standards with legend between (N/IK/AI/E). Reference for this coin is BMC 103. This city was built by Antigonus and then named Antigonia. Later enlarged by Lysimachus and renamed Nicaea in honor of his wife. It was the site of the Council of Nicaea in 325 AD.
BMC 103
kerux
SeptimiusMenAntioch.JPG
Roman Empire, Antioch, Pisidia; Septimius Severus29 viewsObv: IMP . . . SEPT. . SE
Head of Septimius Severus radiate r.
Rev: ANTIOCHIAE COLONIAE CAIS
Men standing

5.89 gram
22.7 mm
cf. France 3, 1119
Sylvianus
Augustus3_opt~0.jpg
Roman Empire, AUGUSTUS Denarius, RIC 77A, Oak Leaf58 viewsOBV: CAESAR AVGVSTVS, bare head right
REV: OB/CIVES/SERVATOS in three lines within wreath with ties inward
3.3g, 17mm

Minted at Colonia Patricia, 19 BC
Legatus
9811 n.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Postumus Double Sestertius RIC 173 - ONLY 2 KNOWN OF TYPE201 viewsDouble sestertius, Colonia AD 260 (?), about 32 gr., 32-36 mm diameter.
Av.: IMP C M CASS LAT POSTVMVS PF AVG , drap. cuir. bust with crown right
Rv.: [VICTO]R[I]A AVG , Victoria walking with palm-branch and wreath right (no captive at feet)
Cohen 392 (Vente de Marquis de Moustier, Hoffmann, Paris, 1872) ; RIC 5B, p. 351 no. 173 ; Bastien - ; Zschucke -
probably the second known coin of this type (Curtis Clay)
Arminius
Screenshot_2018-09-05_18_22_30.png
Roman Provincial, Spain, Augustus, AE As.8 viewsColonia Patricia 27 B.C - 14 A.D. 9.38g - 25.2mm, Axis 1h.

Obv: [PERM CAES AVG] - Bare head of Augustus left.

Rev: COLONIA PATRICIA - Legend within oak wreath.

RPC I 129; Burgos 1989; Lindgren 87.
Christian Scarlioli
MFA_Clouius.jpg
ROMAN REPUBLIC, T. Cloulius, AR Quinarius21 viewsRome. The Republic.
T. Cloulius, 98 BCE.
AR Quinarius (1.94g; 17mm).
Rome Mint.

Obverse: Laureate head of Jupiter, facing right; D control mark below

Reverse: Victory crowning trophy with wreath; T·CLOVLI between; captive seated below and carnyx to left of trophy; Q in exergue.

References: Crawford 332/1b; Sydenham 586a; BMCRR 1103; Cloulia 2.

The silver quinarius, a half-denarius denomination, was introduced as part of the denarius reform of the silver coinage circa 212 BCE. The early quinarius and its fraction-sibling, the sestertius, were discontinued just a few years after their initial introduction. However, the contemporaneous victoriatus, a coin produced on the drachm standard largely for trade with Greek communities, continued in production until about 170 BCE. By the close of the second century and later, many worn victoriati continued to circulate but were valued as quinarii because of wear and their debased fabric. Thus, when the Romans reissued the quinarius, they employed the victoriatus imagery of Jupiter/Victory crowning trophy. Indeed, these new quinarii were referred to as victoriati. The denomination was particularly popular in Gaul and often turns up in first century Gallic hoards.

This quinarius was struck by T. Cloulius, a partisan of Marius. The carnyx near the trophy on the reverse refers to Marius’ victories over invading Gauls in 102-101 BCE. The coins may have been issued in connection with Marius giving colonial lands to the veterans of these Gallic victories. No obverse control mark has more than one die. The reverse exergual letter Q likely refers to the moneyer's office of quaestor rather than a denominational mark.
1 commentsCarausius
Z8g54YYbCs8yjeQ97pGEKGx6D3zzRS.jpg
ROMAN REPUBLIC, T. Cloulius, AR Quinarius16 viewsRome. The Republic.
T. Cloulius, 98 BCE.
AR Quinarius (1.79g; 16mm).
Rome Mint.

Obverse: Laureate head of Jupiter, facing right; O control mark below

Reverse: Victory crowning trophy with wreath; T·CLOVLI between; captive seated below and carnyx to left of trophy; Q in exergue.

References: Crawford 332/1b; Sydenham 586a; BMCRR 1103; Cloulia 2.

Provenance: Ex Boston Museum of Fine Arts Collection [Triton I (2-3 Dec 1997), Lot 2313 (part)], acquired before 1968.

The silver quinarius, a half-denarius denomination, was introduced as part of the denarius reform of the silver coinage circa 212 BCE. The early quinarius and its fraction-sibling, the sestertius, were discontinued just a few years after their initial introduction. However, the contemporaneous victoriatus, a coin produced on the drachm standard largely for trade with Greek communities, continued in production until about 170 BCE. By the close of the second century and later, many worn victoriati continued to circulate but were valued as quinarii because of wear and their debased fabric. Thus, when the Romans reissued the quinarius, they employed the victoriatus imagery of Jupiter/Victory crowning trophy. Indeed, these new quinarii were referred to as victoriati. The denomination was particularly popular in Gaul and often turns up in first century Gallic hoards. 

This quinarius was struck by T. Cloulius, a partisan of Marius. The carnyx near the trophy on the reverse refers to Marius’ victories over invading Gauls in 102-101 BCE. The coins may have been issued in connection with Marius giving colonial lands to the veterans of these Gallic victories. No obverse control mark has more than one die. The reverse exergual letter Q likely refers to the moneyer's office of quaestor rather than a denominational mark.

The coin was formerly part of the Boston Museum of Fine Arts collection. In 1997, the MFA deaccessioned a group of 890 coins which had been acquired by the MFA between 1872 and 1968. 
1 commentsCarausius
Salonina_Segestiae.jpg
Salonina - BI antoninianus7 viewsColonia Agrippina
c. 257-258 AD
diademed and draped bust on crescent right
SALONINA AVG
nimbate Segetiae or Ceres facing in four-columned temple, both hands raised
DEAE SEGETIAE
Göbl MIR 902c, RIC V J5 (Lugdunum mint), RSC IV 36, Elmer 96, SRCV III 10631
Johny SYSEL
salonina.jpg
Salonina AR Antoninianus50 viewsSalonina AR Antoninanus. Colonia Agrippinensium (Cologne) mint. SALONINA AVG, diademed bust right on crescent / VEN-V-S FELIX, Venus seated left, holding scepter, reaching for child before her. RIC 7 [joint reign], RSC 115.
Sear'88 257-258
tiberiusjulius
111c.jpg
SALONINO Cesare (R/ PIETAS AVG), 258-260 d.C., zecca di Colonia o Lugdunum26 viewsSalonino, figlio di Gallieno e Cornelia Salonina e fratello di Valeriano II. Antoniniano d'argento. Zecca di Colonia Agrippinensis o Lugdunum (258-260 d.C.)
AR, 1.9 gr., 22 mm, B (F), S
D/ SALON VALERIANVS CAES, busto radiato e drappeggiato a dx.
R/ PIETAS AVG, accessori sacrificali
RIC 9, RSC 41
Provenienza: collezione Berardengo, Roma Italia (22 luglio 2008, numero catalogo 109); ex Steve McBride collection (Incitatus coins, St. Johns's NL Canada, fino al 2008).
paolo
caes_maritim_hadrian_SNGans768.jpg
Samaria, Caesarea maritima, Hadrian, SNG ANS 76838 viewsHadrian, AD 117-138
AE 23, 10.68g
obv. IMP TRAI - ANO CAES
bust, draped, laureate, r.
rev. C I F AV - G CAESAR
Tyche of Caesarea, draped and turreted, stg.l., r. foot on prow, holding
sceptre in l. hand and bust of emperor in outstretched r. hand; harbour god
below
SNG ANS 768; Kadman 26; Rosenberger 23
about VF

C I F AVG CAESAR = Colonia Prima Flavia Augusta Caesarea
Jochen
seleu_diosc_cornu_res.jpg
SELEUKID KINGDOM--PRE-COLONIAL17 views2nd Century BC
(Time of Cleopatra Thea and Antiochos VIII)
AE 15.5 mm; 2.81 g
O: Jugate heads of the Dioskouroi right;
R: ANTIOXEΩN TΩN / EN ΠTOΛEMAI∆I or similar, cornucopia, monogram outer left
GALILEE, AKE (ACCO) PTOLEMAIS
laney
settimio_severo_nicopolis.jpg
Septimius Severus -as colonial, Nicopolis9 viewsAnv: Sept. Severus - Rev: Heracles
scarce
antvwala
Septimius_Severus_Urbs.jpg
Septimius Severus Denarius Urbs18 viewsAR Denarius
Septimius Severus, 193-211 CE
Diameter: 18 mm, Weight: 3.23 grams, Die axis: 6h

Obverse: SEVERVS AVG PART MAX
Laureate bust to right.

Reverse: RESTITVTOR VRBIS
Severus, wearing military dress, standing left and sacrificing over tripod while holding spear.

Mint: Rome

Notes:
- Refers to the urban renewal program begun in Rome circa 201 CE
- Severus was awarded the title of Parthia Maximus in 198 CE
- Severus denarii minted after 198 had a target weight of 3.4 grams and a silver purity of 56%.

Ex Colonial Coins & Medals, Brisbane 2011
Pharsalos
Septimius_Severus_Mên~0.JPG
Septimius Severus Mên22 viewsSeptimius Severus, PISIDIA. Antioch, (AD 193–211), 21mm,
OBV: L. SEP SEV PERT AVG, laureate head of Septimius Severus left
REV: COLONIAI ANTIOCH, Mên standing right, holding Nike and scepter, foot resting on bucranium, cock to left
SNG von Aulock 4927, BMC 23v, SNG Paris 117, Lindgren 1205 (all with minor variations in legend)

Mên (MHN) was the male Anatolean Moon God.

RARE
Romanorvm
GI 064g img.jpg
Septimius Severus, AE23, Pisidia, Antioch, M̻n54 viewsObv:РL SEPT SEV PERT AVG IMP, Radiate bust right
Rev:– ANTIOCH COLONIA CCA, Mên standing facing, head right, wearing phrygian head, holding sceptre and Nike, left foot on bucranium (cowhead); to left, a rooster
maridvnvm
SEVERUS_ALEX_DEULTUM.JPG
Severus Alexander64 viewsSeverus Alexander - Provincial AE - Deultum, Thrace

O: IMP C M AVR SEV ALEXAND AVG, Laureate draped bust right

R: COL FL PAC DEVLT (Colonia Flavia Pacensis Deultum), Artemis advancing right, holding bow, reaching behind to grab an arrow from her quiver, hound between her feet

7.7g, 23.5/24.5mm, 45 degree die axis, 222-235AD

Moushmov 3583, SNG Copenhagen 539
2 commentsBiancasDad
image~6.jpeg
Sosius Syria 2 Obverse6 views
Obv: PRINCEPS FELIX ; Bare head of Sosius, rt.
Rev: COLONIA IVLIA ILVR ; Two monograms to the left, yoke of two humped oxen
38-34 BC
RPC 4083 ; SNG Levante 597
jimbomar
image~5.jpeg
Sosius Syria 2 Reverse7 viewsObv: PRINCEPS FELIX ; Bare head of Sosius, rt.
Rev: COLONIA IVLIA ILVR ; Two monograms to the left, yoke of two humped oxen
38- 34 BC
RPC 4083 ; SNG Levante 597
jimbomar
image~3.jpeg
Sosius Syria Reverse6 views
Rev: COLONIA IVLIA ILVR ; Two monograms to the left, yoke of two humped oxen

RPC 4083 ; SNG Levante 597
jimbomar
Augustus_Colonia_Patricia.jpg
Spain - AE Dupondius, Colonia Patricia, (Córdoba)17 views32 mm / 15.25 gr.

Octavian: Senator, Consul and Triumvir from 43 BC; de-facto sole ruler from 27 BC; proclaimed Augustus, emperor 12 BC - 14 AD.

Augustus AE 33mm of Colonia Patricia (Corduba), Spain. PERMISSV CAESARIS AVGVSTI, bare head left / COLONIA PATRICIA, aquila between legionary standards.

Burgos 1562. RPC 128
Antonivs Protti
Augustus_Livia_Colonia_Romula.jpg
SPAIN - AUGUSTUS, Colonia Romula - (Sevilla) Ae Dupondius 35 mm / 29.92 gr.20 viewsDivus Augustus and Livia AE33 of Romula, Spain. Struck under Tiberius, 14-37 AD. PERM DIVI AVG COL ROM, radiate head of Augustus right, thunderbolt before / IVLIA AVGVSTA GENETRIX ORBIS, head of Livia left on globe, star above. RPC 73, Villaronga 1060. Sear'88 #551 _80.00eAntonivs Protti
COLONIA_REMULA,__AUGUSTUS_E_LIVIA.jpg
Spain - Colonia Romula (Sevilla) Ae Dupondius, 4 viewsAugustus and Livia, minted by Tiberius
Obverse: PERM DIVI AVG COL ROM radiate bust of deified Augustus right, star above, thunderbolt before
Reverse: head of Liva left on globe, crescent above.
32 mm / 19.44 gr.
Antonivs Protti
Colonia_Romula,_Sevilla,_Ae_As_-_28_mm_,_13,63_grams___.jpg
Spain - Colonia Romula, Sevilla, Ae As 21 views- 28 mm / 13.63 gr. RPC 74, Burgos (1992) 1588.
Tiberius AE As, 28mm of Colonia Romula (Seville), Spain. PERM DIVI AVG COL ROM, laureate head of Tiberius left / GERMANICVS CAESAR DRVSVS CAESAR, confronted heads of Germanicus and Drusus.
Antonivs Protti
AE_025.JPG
SPAIN, Colonia Patricia (Corduba) Augustus Æ As. 19-2 B.C.; COLONIA PATRICIA. FAB-1989. 29 viewsSPAIN Colonia Patricia (Cordoba) Augustus AE as, 19 - 2 B.C.;
obverse PERM CAES AVG, Bare head of Augustus to left;
reverse COLONIA PATRICIA in wreath.
RPC I 129, S 16. FAB-1989. 13,0 gm., 23 mm.
2 commentsAntonivs Protti
q~0.jpg
Spain, Colonia Patricia. Augustus AE2119 viewsObv: PERM CAES AVG, bare head left.
Rev: COLONIA PATRICIA, apex & simpulum.
Lindgren 88.
ancientone
coin150.JPG
Spain, Colonia Patricia; Augustus16 viewsAugustus, As from Spain - Colonia Patricia

OBVERSE: Bust facing left AVG PERM CAES
REVERSE: COLONIA PATRICIA within wreath
ecoli
coin799.JPG
Spain, Colonia Patricia; Augustus24 viewsAugustus Æ 21 of Colonia Patricia, Spain. 19/18-2 B.C. PERM CAES AVG, bare head left / COLONIA PATRICIA, apex & simpulum. Lindgren 88.

From Uncleaned
ecoli
Spain- Taragona- The Forum and Basilica Square with statue .jpg
Spain- Taragona- The Forum and Basilica Square with statue 23 viewsThe colonial Forum

All Roman towns had a large square (forum) that was the political, social and business centre of town.
Architecturally, it was a large space surrounded by arcades and varius public buildings, separated into different areas- the religious and the civil. The sacred area was presided over by a temple dedicated to the Capatoline Triad (Jupiter, Juno and Minerva) or the deified emperor. This temple may have been accompanied by others of less importance. The civil area contained various buildings, the most important of which was probably the basilica, which served as a courthouse, a social meeting place, and the curia, or seat of the council composed of the city´s dignitaries.
Today only the basilica is preserved. This building is divided into three sections, separated by Corinthian columns, and was built in the period of Augustus (in the years before the birth of Christ). It housed the court, or aedes augusti. In front of the basilica there was a square, with various statues, on which several of the city´s streets converged. These streets delimited insulae, or “islands” of houses. The ground floors of the houses contained shops, warehouses and workshops, while the upper floors were where the people lived, crowded together in small rooms. Only the wealthiest of families could afford to live in a domus, a house with one or two storeys, several rooms distributed around an atrium, and other recreational areas.
John Schou
Spain- Taragona- The Forum- Basilica.jpg
Spain- Taragona- The Forum- Basilica25 viewsThe colonial Forum

All Roman towns had a large square (forum) that was the political, social and business centre of town.
Architecturally, it was a large space surrounded by arcades and varius public buildings, separated into different areas- the religious and the civil. The sacred area was presided over by a temple dedicated to the Capatoline Triad (Jupiter, Juno and Minerva) or the deified emperor. This temple may have been accompanied by others of less importance. The civil area contained various buildings, the most important of which was probably the basilica, which served as a courthouse, a social meeting place, and the curia, or seat of the council composed of the city´s dignitaries.
Today only the basilica is preserved. This building is divided into three sections, separated by Corinthian columns, and was built in the period of Augustus (in the years before the birth of Christ). It housed the court, or aedes augusti. In front of the basilica there was a square, with various statues, on which several of the city´s streets converged. These streets delimited insulae, or “islands” of houses. The ground floors of the houses contained shops, warehouses and workshops, while the upper floors were where the people lived, crowded together in small rooms. Only the wealthiest of families could afford to live in a domus, a house with one or two storeys, several rooms distributed around an atrium, and other recreational areas.
John Schou
Spain- Taragona- The Forum- Basilica and Cistern.jpg
Spain- Taragona- The Forum- Basilica and Cistern20 viewsThe colonial Forum

All Roman towns had a large square (forum) that was the political, social and business centre of town.
Architecturally, it was a large space surrounded by arcades and varius public buildings, separated into different areas- the religious and the civil. The sacred area was presided over by a temple dedicated to the Capatoline Triad (Jupiter, Juno and Minerva) or the deified emperor. This temple may have been accompanied by others of less importance. The civil area contained various buildings, the most important of which was probably the basilica, which served as a courthouse, a social meeting place, and the curia, or seat of the council composed of the city´s dignitaries.
Today only the basilica is preserved. This building is divided into three sections, separated by Corinthian columns, and was built in the period of Augustus (in the years before the birth of Christ). It housed the court, or aedes augusti. In front of the basilica there was a square, with various statues, on which several of the city´s streets converged. These streets delimited insulae, or “islands” of houses. The ground floors of the houses contained shops, warehouses and workshops, while the upper floors were where the people lived, crowded together in small rooms. Only the wealthiest of families could afford to live in a domus, a house with one or two storeys, several rooms distributed around an atrium, and other recreational areas.
John Schou
Spain- Taragona- The Forum- Basilica and house.jpg
Spain- Taragona- The Forum- Basilica and house20 viewsThe colonial Forum

All Roman towns had a large square (forum) that was the political, social and business centre of town.
Architecturally, it was a large space surrounded by arcades and varius public buildings, separated into different areas- the religious and the civil. The sacred area was presided over by a temple dedicated to the Capatoline Triad (Jupiter, Juno and Minerva) or the deified emperor. This temple may have been accompanied by others of less importance. The civil area contained various buildings, the most important of which was probably the basilica, which served as a courthouse, a social meeting place, and the curia, or seat of the council composed of the city´s dignitaries.
Today only the basilica is preserved. This building is divided into three sections, separated by Corinthian columns, and was built in the period of Augustus (in the years before the birth of Christ). It housed the court, or aedes augusti. In front of the basilica there was a square, with various statues, on which several of the city´s streets converged. These streets delimited insulae, or “islands” of houses. The ground floors of the houses contained shops, warehouses and workshops, while the upper floors were where the people lived, crowded together in small rooms. Only the wealthiest of families could afford to live in a domus, a house with one or two storeys, several rooms distributed around an atrium, and other recreational areas.
John Schou
Spain- Taragona- The Forum- Court.jpg
Spain- Taragona- The Forum- Court27 viewsThe colonial Forum

All Roman towns had a large square (forum) that was the political, social and business centre of town.
Architecturally, it was a large space surrounded by arcades and varius public buildings, separated into different areas- the religious and the civil. The sacred area was presided over by a temple dedicated to the Capatoline Triad (Jupiter, Juno and Minerva) or the deified emperor. This temple may have been accompanied by others of less importance. The civil area contained various buildings, the most important of which was probably the basilica, which served as a courthouse, a social meeting place, and the curia, or seat of the council composed of the city´s dignitaries.
Today only the basilica is preserved. This building is divided into three sections, separated by Corinthian columns, and was built in the period of Augustus (in the years before the birth of Christ). It housed the court, or aedes augusti. In front of the basilica there was a square, with various statues, on which several of the city´s streets converged. These streets delimited insulae, or “islands” of houses. The ground floors of the houses contained shops, warehouses and workshops, while the upper floors were where the people lived, crowded together in small rooms. Only the wealthiest of families could afford to live in a domus, a house with one or two storeys, several rooms distributed around an atrium, and other recreational areas.
John Schou
Spain- Taragona- The Forum- Court Inscriptions.jpg
Spain- Taragona- The Forum- Court Inscriptions25 viewsThe colonial Forum

All Roman towns had a large square (forum) that was the political, social and business centre of town.
Architecturally, it was a large space surrounded by arcades and varius public buildings, separated into different areas- the religious and the civil. The sacred area was presided over by a temple dedicated to the Capatoline Triad (Jupiter, Juno and Minerva) or the deified emperor. This temple may have been accompanied by others of less importance. The civil area contained various buildings, the most important of which was probably the basilica, which served as a courthouse, a social meeting place, and the curia, or seat of the council composed of the city´s dignitaries.
Today only the basilica is preserved. This building is divided into three sections, separated by Corinthian columns, and was built in the period of Augustus (in the years before the birth of Christ). It housed the court, or aedes augusti. In front of the basilica there was a square, with various statues, on which several of the city´s streets converged. These streets delimited insulae, or “islands” of houses. The ground floors of the houses contained shops, warehouses and workshops, while the upper floors were where the people lived, crowded together in small rooms. Only the wealthiest of families could afford to live in a domus, a house with one or two storeys, several rooms distributed around an atrium, and other recreational areas.
John Schou
Spain- Taragona- The Forum- Court Inscriptions 1.jpg
Spain- Taragona- The Forum- Court Inscriptions 121 viewsThe colonial Forum

All Roman towns had a large square (forum) that was the political, social and business centre of town.
Architecturally, it was a large space surrounded by arcades and varius public buildings, separated into different areas- the religious and the civil. The sacred area was presided over by a temple dedicated to the Capatoline Triad (Jupiter, Juno and Minerva) or the deified emperor. This temple may have been accompanied by others of less importance. The civil area contained various buildings, the most important of which was probably the basilica, which served as a courthouse, a social meeting place, and the curia, or seat of the council composed of the city´s dignitaries.
Today only the basilica is preserved. This building is divided into three sections, separated by Corinthian columns, and was built in the period of Augustus (in the years before the birth of Christ). It housed the court, or aedes augusti. In front of the basilica there was a square, with various statues, on which several of the city´s streets converged. These streets delimited insulae, or “islands” of houses. The ground floors of the houses contained shops, warehouses and workshops, while the upper floors were where the people lived, crowded together in small rooms. Only the wealthiest of families could afford to live in a domus, a house with one or two storeys, several rooms distributed around an atrium, and other recreational areas.
John Schou
Spain- Taragona- The Forum- Houses.jpg
Spain- Taragona- The Forum- Houses42 viewsThe colonial Forum

All Roman towns had a large square (forum) that was the political, social and business centre of town.
Architecturally, it was a large space surrounded by arcades and varius public buildings, separated into different areas- the religious and the civil. The sacred area was presided over by a temple dedicated to the Capatoline Triad (Jupiter, Juno and Minerva) or the deified emperor. This temple may have been accompanied by others of less importance. The civil area contained various buildings, the most important of which was probably the basilica, which served as a courthouse, a social meeting place, and the curia, or seat of the council composed of the city´s dignitaries.
Today only the basilica is preserved. This building is divided into three sections, separated by Corinthian columns, and was built in the period of Augustus (in the years before the birth of Christ). It housed the court, or aedes augusti. In front of the basilica there was a square, with various statues, on which several of the city´s streets converged. These streets delimited insulae, or “islands” of houses. The ground floors of the houses contained shops, warehouses and workshops, while the upper floors were where the people lived, crowded together in small rooms. Only the wealthiest of families could afford to live in a domus, a house with one or two storeys, several rooms distributed around an atrium, and other recreational areas.
John Schou
Spain- Taragona- The Forum- Industrial house and Cistern.jpg
Spain- Taragona- The Forum- Industrial house and Cistern278 viewsThe colonial Forum

All Roman towns had a large square (forum) that was the political, social and business centre of town.
Architecturally, it was a large space surrounded by arcades and varius public buildings, separated into different areas- the religious and the civil. The sacred area was presided over by a temple dedicated to the Capatoline Triad (Jupiter, Juno and Minerva) or the deified emperor. This temple may have been accompanied by others of less importance. The civil area contained various buildings, the most important of which was probably the basilica, which served as a courthouse, a social meeting place, and the curia, or seat of the council composed of the city´s dignitaries.
Today only the basilica is preserved. This building is divided into three sections, separated by Corinthian columns, and was built in the period of Augustus (in the years before the birth of Christ). It housed the court, or aedes augusti. In front of the basilica there was a square, with various statues, on which several of the city´s streets converged. These streets delimited insulae, or “islands” of houses. The ground floors of the houses contained shops, warehouses and workshops, while the upper floors were where the people lived, crowded together in small rooms. Only the wealthiest of families could afford to live in a domus, a house with one or two storeys, several rooms distributed around an atrium, and other recreational areas.
John Schou
Spain- Taragona- The Forum- Tomb.jpg
Spain- Taragona- The Forum- Tomb274 viewsThe colonial Forum

All Roman towns had a large square (forum) that was the political, social and business centre of town.
Architecturally, it was a large space surrounded by arcades and varius public buildings, separated into different areas- the religious and the civil. The sacred area was presided over by a temple dedicated to the Capatoline Triad (Jupiter, Juno and Minerva) or the deified emperor. This temple may have been accompanied by others of less importance. The civil area contained various buildings, the most important of which was probably the basilica, which served as a courthouse, a social meeting place, and the curia, or seat of the council composed of the city´s dignitaries.
Today only the basilica is preserved. This building is divided into three sections, separated by Corinthian columns, and was built in the period of Augustus (in the years before the birth of Christ). It housed the court, or aedes augusti. In front of the basilica there was a square, with various statues, on which several of the city´s streets converged. These streets delimited insulae, or “islands” of houses. The ground floors of the houses contained shops, warehouses and workshops, while the upper floors were where the people lived, crowded together in small rooms. Only the wealthiest of families could afford to live in a domus, a house with one or two storeys, several rooms distributed around an atrium, and other recreational areas.
John Schou
Spain- Taragona- The Forum- Via Roma.jpg
Spain- Taragona- The Forum- Via Roma305 viewsThe colonial Forum

All Roman towns had a large square (forum) that was the political, social and business centre of town.
Architecturally, it was a large space surrounded by arcades and varius public buildings, separated into different areas- the religious and the civil. The sacred area was presided over by a temple dedicated to the Capatoline Triad (Jupiter, Juno and Minerva) or the deified emperor. This temple may have been accompanied by others of less importance. The civil area contained various buildings, the most important of which was probably the basilica, which served as a courthouse, a social meeting place, and the curia, or seat of the council composed of the city´s dignitaries.
Today only the basilica is preserved. This building is divided into three sections, separated by Corinthian columns, and was built in the period of Augustus (in the years before the birth of Christ). It housed the court, or aedes augusti. In front of the basilica there was a square, with various statues, on which several of the city´s streets converged. These streets delimited insulae, or “islands” of houses. The ground floors of the houses contained shops, warehouses and workshops, while the upper floors were where the people lived, crowded together in small rooms. Only the wealthiest of families could afford to live in a domus, a house with one or two storeys, several rooms distributed around an atrium, and other recreational areas.
John Schou
Spanish_12_Maravedis_Grenada_1655_and_1636.JPG
Spanish 12 Maravedis Grenada 1655 and 163623 viewsSpanish Colonial, 12 Maravedis Grenada (XII over inverted G), 1655, and originally 8 Maravedis, mint unknown, (VIII) 1636.
Sometimes there is the monogram Philippus Rex that links to the re-valuation.
Romanorvm
Spanish_Philippvs_II_1573_-_1581.JPG
Spanish Philippvs II 1573 - 158127 viewsSpanish Colonial, Cuenca Ecuador, 2 maravedis of Philip II (Felipe II) minted between 1573-1581
OBV: Rampant LION motif
REV: Castle Motif
mint C Cuenca
assayer  X with a dot
Romanorvm
Spanish_Philippvs_IV_1659.JPG
Spanish Philippvs IV 165917 viewsSPANISH COLONIAL, 1659 counterstamp, Philippvs IV, 21mm, 5.8g,
OBV: Crowned Philippvs Monogram
REV: Crowned REX Monogram with 1659 below
The last counterstamp of the series applied in 1659 to hide
all previous features and counterstamps of the coin.
Romanorvm
laodikeia_elagabal_SNGcop272-373.jpg
Syria, Laodikeia ad Mare, Elagabal, BMC 10538 viewsElagabal, AD 218-222
AE 19, 4.60g
obv. IMP CM AVR.ANTONINUS
Head, radiate, r.
rev. LA[V]D[ICEWN]
Naked bearded Herakles, club behind, wrangling with naked youthful
Dionysos, with ivy wreath, [thyrsos behind]
in ex. DE
BMC 105; SNG Copenhagen 372-273
good F, red-brown patina

These male figures indicate certain certamina or public sports celebrated at Laodicea. On such occasions the competitors for the prize were stripped of clothing and annointed with oil and wax. They contended together with mutual grappling and liftingn whilst each endeavoured to give the other "a flooring." Hercules was, according to Pausanias, the reputed institutor of the olympic games. There are colonial medals of Caracalla which inform us that the certamina olympia were performed at Tyre; and this coin shows the probability of the same contests having been celebrated at Laodicea. (Stevenson, Dictionary of Roman Coins)
Jochen
teti.jpg
Tetricus I (271 - 274 A.D.)31 viewsÆ Antoninianus
O: IMP C TETRICVS P F AVG, radiate and cuirassed bust right.
R: VICTORIA AVG, Victory walking left, wreath in right, palm frond in left.
Colonia Agrippinensis (Cologne, Germany) mint, 271 A.D.
3g
19mm
RIC V, part II, 139

Ex. Heritage Auction, May 8, 2014, Lot 61194 (part of).
1 commentsMat
Tetrico_I_e_II_R_ibrido.jpg
Tetricus I (ibrido con R/ Tetrico II), R/ PRINC IVVENT, ex Braithwell hoard33 viewsTetricus I (ibrido con R/ di Tetricus II)
Antoniniano (273/274 d.C.), zecca di Colonia
AE, 18 mm, 2,79 gr., B
D/ IMP C TETRICVS P F AVG, busto radiato, drappeggiato e corazzato a dx
R/ PRINC IVVENT, Tetricus II stante a sx, regge ramo e scettro
RIC 115; Elmer -; AGK (corr.) 9a; Sear5 11245
Provenienza: collezione Berardengo, Roma Italia (28 maggio 2011, numero catalogo 139); ex Alfredo De La Fe collection (Imperial coins, New York, 2010), ex Antony Wilson collection (Yorkcoins, London-New York, 2007), ex CNG auction 176 (London, 2007), ex Braithwell hoard (Braithwell, South Yorkshire Uk, 2002).
paolo
Tetricus.jpg
Tetricus I AE antoninianus, 273-274 AD, Colonia Agrippinensis26 viewsTetricus I
AE Antoninianus
Colonia Agrippinensis, 7th emission, 273-274 AD
IMP TETRICVS PF AVG
Radiate, cuirassed bust r.
HILARITAS AVGG
Hilaritas standing l., holding long palm and cornucopia
RIC V 80; Mairat 458; AGK 4c
Ardatirion
1d.jpg
Tetricus I, Colonia Agrippina (?) mint, R/ COMES AVG (Braithwell hoard)39 viewsTetrico I, antoniniano (272 d.C.), zecca di Colonia (Sear Vol.III - London 2005)
AE, 2.67gr.; mm. 11,5; MB+ (good F)
D/ (IMP C TETRIC)VS P F AVG, busto radiato e corazzato a dx
R/ (COME)S AVG, Vittoria stante a sx., che tiene ghirlanda e palma
RIC 56; Braithwell Report #171 (42 esemplari nell'hoard)
Provenienza: collezione Berardengo, Roma Italia (10 aprile 2008, numero catalogo 41), ex Antony Wilson collection (Yorkcoins, London-New York, 2007), ex CNG auction 176 (London, 2007, nel lotto 338), ex Braithwell hoard (Braithwell, South Yorkshire Uk, 2002).
paolo
Tetrico_I_FIDES_MILITVM.jpg
Tetricus I, R/ FIDES MILITVM (Braithwell hoard)21 viewsTetricus I (270-273 d.C.), zecca di Colonia
AE, 2,33 gr, 19 mm, B
D/ IMP TETRICVS AVG, busto radiato e corazzato a dx
R/ FIDES MILITVM, Fides stante a sx, regge due stendardi
RIC 71; Elmer 783.
Provenienza: collezione Berardengo, Roma Italia (6 luglio 2011, numero catalogo 141); ex Alfredo De La Fe collection (Imperial coins, New York, 2010), ex Antony Wilson collection (Yorkcoins, London-New York, 2007), ex CNG auction 176 (London, 2007), ex Braithwell hoard (Braithwell, South Yorkshire Uk, 2002).
paolo
799_Tetricus_II_Pietas.jpg
Tetricus II - BI antoninianus9 viewsColonia Agrippina
273 - spring 274 AD
6th emission
radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right from behind
C P E TETRICVS CAES
sacrificial implements: sprinkler, simpulum, jug, knife, and lituus
PIETAS AVGG
RIC V 255, SRCV III 11286
ex Gitbud & Naumann
Johny SYSEL
00tetricusII.jpg
TETRICUS II31 viewsBI antoninianus. Colonia Agrippina , AD 272-273. 2.22 grs. 6h. Radiate and draped bust right, seen from behind . C PIV ESV TETRICVS CAES. / Spes advancing left, holding flower and skirt. SPES AVGG.
RIC 270. Mairat 453-7. C 88.
benito
00tetricusII~0.jpg
TETRICUS II36 viewsBI antoninianus. Colonia Agrippina , AD 272-273. 2.22 grs. 6h. Radiate and draped bust right, seen from behind . C PIV ESV TETRICVS CAES. / Spes advancing left, holding flower and skirt. SPES AVGG.
RIC 270. Mairat 453-7. C 88.
1 commentsbenito
Tetrico_II_Spes_publica.jpg
Tetricus II Caesar, Cologne mint, R/ SPES PVBLICA (Braithwell hoard)23 viewsTetrico II cesare, antoniniano. Zecca di Colonia, 273-274 d.C.
AE, 1.942 gr, 18.9 mm, 180°, F
D/ C PIV ESV TETRICVS CAES, busto a dx da dietro radiato, drappeggiato e corazzato
R/ SPES PVBLICA, Spes andante a sx, porge un fiore con la dx e solleva un drappeggio della gonna con la sx.
RIC V 272, SRCV III 11294
Provenienza: collezione Berardengo, Roma Italia (30 aprile 2011, numero catalogo 135), ex FAC (Morehead City NC Usa, 2010); ex Antony Wilson collection (Yorkcoins, Londra-New York, 2007); ex CNG (London, 2007); ex Braithwell hoard (Braithwell, South Yorkshire Uk, 2002).
paolo
tetriucs_ii_spes_k.jpg
Tetricus II, AD 273-2744 viewsBl Antoninianus, 19mm, 4.3g, 3h; Colonia Agrippinensis (Cologne) mint, AD 274
Obv.: C PIV ESV TETRICVS CAES, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right, from behind.
Rev.: SPES AVGG, Spes advancing left, extending flower in right, raising skirt drapery with left
Reference: RIC Vb 270, p. 424
From the YOC Collection
John Anthony
Braithwell_Tetrico_II_PIETAS_AVGVSTOR.jpg
Tetricus II, Cologne mint, R/ PIETAS AVGVSTOR (Braithwell hoard)24 viewsTetricus II cesare, 273-274 d.C., antoninianus, zecca di Colonia
AE, 2.663 gr, 16.1 mm, 180°, F
D/ C P E TETRICVS CAES (o simile), radiate and draped bust right, from behind
R/ PIETAS AVGVSTOR, sprinkler, simpulum, jug, and lituus (sacrificial implements)
RIC V 259 (or 258), Braithwell Report #188 (43 examples in the hoard)
Provenienza: collezione Berardengo, Roma Italia (8 aprile 2011, numero catalogo 130), ex FAC (Morehead City NC Usa, 2010); ex Antony Wilson collection (Yorkcoins, Londra-New York, 2007), ex CNG (Londra, 2007); ex Braithwell hoard (Braithwell, South Yorkshire Uk, 2002).
paolo
gordianIII_deultum.jpg
Thracia, Deultum, Gordian III Jurukova 26156 viewsGordian III AD 238-244
AE - AE 23, 6.42g
obv. IMP GORDIANVS PIVS FEL AVG
bust, draped and cuirassed(?), laureate, r.
rev. COL FL PAC / DEVLT
Cult statue of Aphrodite & vase within portico of tetrastyle temple viewed in perspective,
with two-stepped pedement, triangular pediment with pellet, acroteria decorated with
crosses.
Moushmov 3735; Jurukova 261 (attr. by Britannicus)
Rare; VF, nice blue-green patina
added to www.wildwinds.com

Aphrodite as 'pudica' standing in the pose of the Capitoline Venus (Pat Lawrence).

Deultum was founded by veterans of Vespasian's leg. VIII Augusta before AD 77 as Colonia Flavia Pacis Deultensia.

For more information look at the thread 'Coins of mythological interest'
1 commentsJochen
Tiberio_Dertosa_(Hispania).JPG
Tiberius - as colonial, Dertosa (Hispania)12 viewsGalea
very scarce
antvwala
Tiberius_Germ_Drus.jpg
Tiberius with Germanicus and Drusus76 viewsCOL ROM PERM DIVI AVG

laureate head of Tiberius left

GERMANICVS CAESAR DRVSVS CAESAR

Confronted heads of Germanicus and Drusus

Spain, Colonia Romula (Seville).

10.28g

RPC 74; Burgos 1588.
Rare

SOLD!
Jay GT4
Dracma - Apollonia Pontika.jpg
TRACIA - APOLLONIA PONTIKA40 views(Zona al oeste del Mar Negro)

AR Dracma 14 mm 3.1 gr.

Anv: Cabeza de la Gorgona Medusa, con arte arcaico y sus atributos característicos (sacando la lengua y con los cabellos en forma de serpiente). Las serpientes enroscadas bordean toda la moneda.
Rev: Ancla (Áncora) invertida "A" a la derecha y Cangrejo (Cigala) a la izquierda.

Acuñada: 450 - 400 A.C.
Ceca: Apollonia Póntica (Sozopolis), antiguo reino de Tracia. La actual ciudad de Sozopol fue una de las primeras colonias griegas a las orillas de Mar Negro (hoy Bulgaria).

Referencias: Sear GCTV Vol.1 #1655 Pag.165 – B.M.C. Vol.15 (Mysia) #5-7 Pag.8 - SNG Berry #391 - SNG BM Black Sea #153 - SNG Cop. #454 Vol.6
mdelvalle
Mesembria Tracia - Yelmo.jpg
TRACIA - MESEMBRIA42 views Mesembria (griego Μεσημβρία) fue una importante ciudad griega de la costa de Tracia en el mar Negro al pie de los montes Hemos (Haemus) cerca de Moesia. Fue colonia de Megara según Estrabón y su nombre original fue Menebria. (Μενεβρὶα) de su fundador Menas. Esteban de Bizancio dice que su nombre original fue Melsembria (Μελσημβρία) de su fundador Melsas; los dos dicen que el sufijo "bria" era el nombre tracio para ciudad. El autor anónimo del Periplo del Ponto Euxino dice que fue fundada por los calcedonios al tiempo de la expedición de Darío I a Escitia, pero Herodoto dice que fue fundada un poco después, una vez dominada la revuelta jónica (hacia 494 adC) por los calcedonios fugitivos; es posible que simplemente la antigua colonia fuera refundada.
Mesembria formó una Pentápolis griega en el Euxino con otras ciudades: Odesos, Tomis, Istriani y Apolonia del Euxino. No fue teatro de ningún hecho especialmente destacado en su historia antigua. En 71 adC pasó a Roma como ciudad libre y permaneció en poder de romanos y bizantinos hasta el 812 cuando fue ocupada por los búlgaros, que la devolvieron en el 864, pero que la recuperaron pocos años después.

AE 19 x 20 mm 4.2 gr.

Anv: Yelmo (Casco) tracio con protectores de mejilla de perfil a derecha.
Rev: ”MEΣAMB / ΡIANΩN” - Rueda de cuatro rayos ó escudo céltico ovalado.

Acuñada: 300 - 250 A.C.
Ceca: Mesembría en Tracia

Referencias: SNG Cop. Vol.6 #658 - Moushmov #3984 – B.M. Black Sea #276 var. - SNG Vol: XI #229/230 (William Stancomb Collection) - Monede autonome inedite di Dionysopolis sin cronologia relativa Vol: 1 Article Pages: 61-78 Type: Journal Article Auth/Ed: Canarache, V. Publication Year: 1957 In Publication: 1036 Pages: 276
mdelvalle
traj_dec__vim_pan.jpg
Trajan Decius, July 249 - June or July 251 A.D., Viminacium, Moesia Superior 28 viewsAE medallion?; Aleksandar 5-5-1, (Varbanov I 164), (Martin 3.04), (AMNG I/II 125), weight 14.84 g, max. diameter 29.4 mm, 3.5mm thick, die axis 180o, Viminacium mint, 249 - 250 A.D.; Obv. IMP TRAIANVS DECIVS AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right; Rev. P M S CO L VIM, Moesia standing facing, head left, extending hands over bull on left standing right and lion on right standing left, AN XI (year 11 of the Viminacium colonial era) in ex. Brown and dusty green patina.

Aleksandar shows this as a possible medallion. It is oversized and thicker than the standard sestertius, yet slightly undersized and lighter than the medallion. It does have the medallion's beaded border not shown on the sestertius.
Steve E
Trajan_denarius_pax.jpg
Trajan denarius Pax17 viewsAR Denarius
Trajan, 98-117 CE
Diameter: 19mm, Weight: 3.12 grams, Die axis: 7h

Obverse: IMP TRAIANO AVG GER DAC PM TRP
Laureate and draped bust to right.

Reverse: COS V PP SPQR OPTIMO PRINC
Pax standing left, holding branch and cornucopia.

Mint: Rome

Notes:
- Trajan was granted his fifth consulship in 103 and his sixth in 112 CE, so this coin dates within this period.

Ex Colonial Coins & Medals Brisbane, 2010
Pharsalos
TreB Galle AnXII VIM SES.jpg
Trebonian Gallus Sestertius From Viminacium (AN XII)44 viewsAE 26 mm, 250/251 A.D. , Viminacium
Obv: Imp C Gallus P Felix Aug
Rev: PMS COL VIM (Provincia Moesia Superior, Colonia Viminacium)
Exer:AN XII
Jean Paul D
trebgallus_RIC32.jpg
TREBONIANUS GALLUS antoninianus - 251-253 AD27 viewsobv: IMP CAE C VIB TREB GALLVS AVG (radiate, draped & cuirassed bust right)
rev: APOLL SALVTARI (Apollo standing left with branch & leaning on lyre set on rock)
ref: RIC IViii 32 (S), RSC 20
mint: Rome
3.86gms, 22mm
Scarce

Apollo was as a god who could bring ill-health and deadly plague as well as one who had the ability to cure. As the plague continued to ravage the city of Rome in the Summer of 251, Gallus gained popular support within the city by providing proper burials for all plague victims, even those too poor to afford it. Almost every collector identifies this coin with the plague, but according to French sources this coin made 4th issue, 6th officina, so it struck maybe in the beginning of 253. Probably this coin is connect to Colonia Vibia Augusta Perusia (Perusia was the birth-town of Gallus and got the Colonia rank in the beginning 253 AD) where was a local Apollo cult.
berserker
alexandreia_troas_caracalla_BellingerA302cf.jpg
Troas, Alexandreia, Caracalla, Bellinger A302 cf.9 viewsCaracalla, AD 198-217
AE 24, 8.48g, 23.9mm, 210°
Alexandreia, AD 214-8. April 2017
obv. M AVRE - ANTONINVS - IOV
Bust, cuirassed, laureate, r.
rev. COL - ALEXAN - D - AVG
Eagle flying r., Holding head and neck of bull in Talons
ref.: cf. Bellinger 302A (Type 47); cf. SNG Copenhagen 139 (obv. legend); cf. BMC Troas p.21, 98 (same); cf. SNG
Canakkale 323 (same); SNG von Aulock -, SNG München -, SNG Tübingen -, et al. -
rare, nice F, Portrait!
From Forum Ancient coins, thanks!

The reverse legend dates this coin to after 214, when Caracalla renamed the city from Colonia Augusta Troadensium to Colonia Alexandria Augusta.
This obverse legend ending in IOV is apparently an unpublished mint error.

Added to asiaminorcoins.com
Jochen
coin137.JPG
Troas, Alexandria; Commodus33 viewsAlexandria, Troas
Commodus
IMP CAI M AVR COMMOD AVG
Head of Commodus laureate r.
COL AVG TROAD
Horse feeding r.; behind, herdsman; tree on l.

Bellinger A202; cf. BMC 17, 68; cf. Aulock 7557.

According to Strabo, this site was first called Sigeia;around 306 BC Antigonus refounded the city as the much-expanded Antigonia Troas by settling the people of five other towns in Sigeia, including the once influential city of Neandreia. Its name was changed by Lysimachus to Alexandria Troas, in memory of Alexander III of Macedon (Pliny merely states that the name changed from Antigonia to Alexandria). As the chief port of north-west Asia Minor, the place prospered greatly in Roman times, becoming a "free and autonomous city" as early as 188 BC, and the existing remains sufficiently attest its former importance. In its heyday, the city may have had a population of about 100,000. Strabo mentions that a Roman colony was created at the location in the reign of Augustus, named Colonia Alexandria Augusta Troas (called simply Troas during this period). Augustus, Hadrian and the rich grammarian Herodes Atticus contributed greatly to its embellishment; the aqueduct still preserved is due to the latter. Constantine considered making Troas the capital of the Roman Empire.
Roman

In Roman times, it was a significant port for travelling between Anatolia and Europe. Paul of Tarsus sailed for Europe for the first time from Alexandria Troas and returned there from Europe (it was there that the episode of the raising of Eutychus later occurred). Ignatius of Antioch also paused at this city before continuing to his martyrdom at Rome.
ecoli
246.jpg
Trophy113 viewsCILICIA. Uncertain colonial mint. Octavian. Æ 19 (Semis). Ca 31-30 B.C. Obv: (P)RINCEPSFELIX. Bare head right; countermark on neck. Rev: COLONIA-(IVLIA-IIVIR). Two humpded oxen pulling plow to left; in field to left two monograms: (1) VE, (2) TER. Ref: RPC 4083. Axis: 270°. Weight: 5.59 g. Note: The mint has been the subject of some discussion. The monograms of the revers refer to the names of the duovirs. CM: Trophy in circular punch, 5 mm. Howgego - (3 pcs in RPC, though). Collection Automan.Automan
HCV-USA00-1783-NovaConstellatio.jpg
USA, Nova Constellatio copper, 1783100 viewsThe rectangular holes in some colonial-era coppers were often caused by the old "square" cut nails. This looks to have been more neatly cut than that. Some early coppers and large cents were affixed to beams or rafters in newly constructed buildings, but I guess this could have been put to other purposes as well.1 commentslordmarcovan
valerianI AE18.jpg
VALERIAN I AE18 of Alexandria Troas - 253-260 AD48 viewsobv: IMP LICIN VALERIAN (laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right)
rev: COL AVG TRO (horse grazing right, tree to left)
ref: SNG Copenhagen 191 var (LICIN instead of LIC)
mint: Alexandria Troas
3.08gms, 18mm
Rare
Alexandria Troas, modern Dalyanköy in Turkey, is an ancient Greek city situated on the Aegean coast at nearly the middle of the western side of Turkey. The term "Troas" was added to "Alexandria" in order to distinguish it from other cities named "Alexandria." It was very close to Troy, the town that was believed to have been the mother-city of Rome. Julius Caesar gave Alexandria the privileges of a colonia, and from Augustus, it kept the right to strike its own coins. Later Constantine I considered making Troas the capital of the Roman Empire.
The horse of the reverse is probably symbolise the famous Troyan stud of ancient times.
1 commentsberserker
valii.jpg
Valerian II (256 - 258 A.D.)35 viewsAR Antoninianus
O: VALERIANVS CAES, Radiate and draped bust right.
R: IOVI CRESCENNI, Infant Jupiter seated facing on goat (Amalthea) standing right,his right hand raised.
Colonia Agrippinensis (Cologne) mint
4.34g
23mm
RIC 3 RSC 26
2 commentsMat
valerianII_RIC3.jpg
VALERIAN II antoninianus - 253-255 AD28 viewsobv: VALERIANVS CAES (radiate and draped bust right)
rev: IOVI CRESCENTI (infant Jupiter seated facing, raising hand, on goat advancing)
ref: RIC Vi 3, RSC 26
mint: Colonia Agrippinensis (Cologne), Lugdunum by RIC
2.42gms, 22mm

Publius Licinius Cornelius Valerianus was the eldest son of Gallienus and Salonina. He was made caesar under his father in 253, but died only 2 years later. It isn't clear how he died, but he was on the Danube frontier at the time. From his young portraits, he was perhaps 8 when he became caesar, and only 10 at his death.
berserker
Valerian_II_antoninianus.jpg
Valerian II AR antoninianus, 258-259 AD, Colonia Agrippinensis62 viewsValerian II
AR Antoninianus
Colonia Agrippinensis, 2nd emission, 258-259 AD
DIVO VALERIANO CAES
Radiate, draped bust r.
CONSACRATIO
Eagle flying right on which rides Valerian II, holding scepter in left hand and raising right hand
RIC V 9; MIR 36, 911e
1 commentsArdatirion
v2ricv3OR.jpg
Valerian II, RIC V 382 viewsColonia Agrippinensis (Cologne) mint, Valerian II as Caesar Antoninianus, 253-255 A.D. AR, 22mm 3.83g, RIC V 3; MIR 36, 907e; RSC 26
O: VALERIANVS CAES, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust r.
R: IOVI CRESCENNI, Infant Jupiter seated facing, raising hand, on goat advancing r.
2 commentscasata137ec
Victorinus_5_opt.jpg
VICTORINUS Antoninianus RIC 67, Salus38 viewsOBV: IMP C VICTORINVS P F AVG, radiate, draped & cuirassed bust right
REV: SALV-S AVG, Salus standing right, holding snake she feeds out of patera in her right hand


Minted at Colonia Agrippinensis (Cologne), 269/70 AD
Legatus
vricvb57OR.jpg
Victorinus Antoninianus, RIC Vb 5735 viewsColonia Agrippinensis (Cologne) mint, Victorinus Antoninianus, 268-270 A.D. Silvered AE, 21mm 2.88g, RIC Vb 57; AGK 16a; Cohen 90
Obv: IMP C VICTORINVS P F AVG, radiate and cuirassed bust right
Rev: PIETAS AVG, Pietas standing left sacrificing over altar

casata137ec
1vittorino_baia.jpg
Victorinus, Cologne mint, R/ VIRTVS AVG (Braithwell hoard)26 viewsVittorino (270-271 d.C.), antoniniano. Zecca di Colonia
AE, 2.838 gr, 18.6 mm, 0°. B (corrosioni)
D/ IMP C VICTORINVS P F AVG, busto radiato, drappeggiato e corazzato a dx
R/ VIRTVS AVG, Virtus stante a dx appoggiata su uno scudo e con lancia sulla dx
RIC V 78, SRCV III 11185, Cohen 131
Provenienza: collezione Berardengo, Roma Italia (4 aprile 2011, numero catalogo 129), ex FAC (Morehead City NC Usa, 2010); ex Antony Wilson collection (Yorkcoins, Londra-New York, 2007), ex CNG (Londra, 2007); ex Braithwell hoard (Braithwell, South Yorkshire Uk, 2002).
paolo
1c.jpg
Victorinus, Colonia Agrippina (?) mint, R/ SALVS AVG (Braithwell hoard)115 viewsVittorino (268-270 d.C.), antoniniano. Zecca di Colonia Agrippensis(?), prob. 270 d.C.
AE, 1.77gr., 16,0 mm, BB (VF)
D/ IMP C VICTORINVS P F AVG, busto radiato e corazzato a dx.
R/ SALVS AVG Salus stante a sinistra con scettro nella mano sinistra, nutre un serpente che sorge da un altare a sin.
RIC V [2] 71; Cohen 118; Sear 11181; Braithwell Report #159 (41 esemplari nell' hoard)
Provenienza: collezione Berardengo, Roma Italia (15 aprile 2008, numero catalogo 43), ex Antony Wilson collection (Yorkcoins, London-New York, 2007), ex CNG auction 176 (London, 2007, nel lotto 338), ex Braithwell hoard (Braithwell, South Yorkshire Uk, 2002).
1 commentspaolo
4659_4660.jpg
Victorious, Antoninianus, INVICTVS7 viewsAE Antoninianus
Victorious
Augustus: 269 - 271AD
Issued: 269 - 271AD
12.5mm
O: IMP C VICTORINVS PF AVG; Radiate, draped bust, right.
R: INVICTVS; Sol, advancing left, raising hand and holding whip.
Exergue: (Star), left field.
Colonia Agrippinensis Mint
RIC V-2 Cologne 114; C 49; Elmer 683; Sear 11170.
Aorta: 130: B23, O8, R10, T45, M1.
lucernae 291077317723
2/17/14 3/6/17
Nicholas Z
4661_4662.jpg
Victorious, Antoninianus, INVICTVS6 viewsAE Antoninianus
Victorious
Augustus: 269 - 271AD
Issued: 269 - 271AD
20.0mm
O: IMP C VICTORINVS PF AVG; Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust, right.
R: INVICTVS; Sol advancing left, raising hand, holding whip.
Exergue: (Star), left field.
Colonia Agrippinensis Mint
RIC V-2 Cologne, 114; C, 49; Elmer 683; Sear 11170.
Aorta: 130: B23, O8, R12, T45, M1.
Josh Moran/CIVITAS Galleries
ANA Chicago 2013 3/6/17
Nicholas Z
Vietnam_Thanh_Thai_Barker_107_1-107_8.jpg
Vietnam (French Protectorate of Annam). Thanh Thai (1888-1907).12 viewsBarker: 107.1-107.8, KM 628, Yeoman 2, Toda --, Novak 107.

10 van/phan (cast copper alloy). 4.79 g., 26.28 mm., 0◦

Obv: Thanh-Thai-Thong-Bao.

Rev: Tap-Van.

The coins were cast by Emperor Nguyen Thanh Thai under the reign title Thanh Thai. Emperor Thành Thái took a course of passive-resistance against the French, making his feelings clear via symbolic gestures and biting remarks. He feigned insanity to escape the constant scrutiny of the French spies who thoroughly infiltrated his palace. With his enemies believing he was a harmless lunatic, Thành Thái was able to work more forcefully for Vietnamese autonomy while waiting for the right time to throw off colonial rule. He was on his way to join a resistance movement in China when he was arrested by French forces who declared him insane and forced him to abdicate.
Stkp
Washington_Irving_HOF_Medal.JPG
Washington Irving, 1968 NYU Hall of Fame Medal13 viewsObv: WASHINGTON IRVING, portrait of Irving, 1783 - 1859

Rev: THE HALL OF FAME FOR GREAT AMERICANS AT NEW YORK UNIVERSITY, symbolic heads of Dutch and English colonial people and two legendary characters created by Washington Irving - Rip Van Winkle and the Headless Horsemen; crossed quill and olive branch in center.

Designer: A. Block, Mint: Medallic Art Company

Bronze, 44.5 mm
Matt Inglima
CommodusRSC190.jpg
[906a]Commodus, March or April 177 - 31 Dec 192 A.D.168 viewsCOMMODUS AR silver denarius. RSC 190. RCV 5644. 16.5mm, 2.3g. F. Obverse: L AEL AVREL COMM AVG P FEL, bust of Commodus wearing lion skin in imitation of Hercules and Alexander the Great, facing right; Reverse: HER-CVL RO-MAN AV-GV either side of club of Hercules, all in wreath. RARE. Ex Incitatus.

This coin refers to Commodus' belief that he was Hercules reincarnated. According to the historian Herodian, "he issued orders that he was to be called not Commodus, son of Marcus, but Hercules, son of Jupiter. Abandoning the Roman and imperial mode of dress, he donned the lion-skin, and carried the club of Hercules..." (Joseph Sermarini).

De Imperatoribus Romanis:
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors

Commodus (A.D. 180-192)

Dennis Quinn

Marcus Aurelius Commodus Antoninus, the son of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius and his wife-cousin Faustina, was born in Lanuvium in 161 AD. Commodus was named Caesar at the age of 5, and co-Augustus at the age of 17, spending most of his early life accompanying his father on his campaigns against the Quadi and the Marcomanni along the Danubian frontier. His father died, possibly of the plague, at a military encampment at Bononia on the Danube on 17 March 180, leaving the Roman Empire to his nineteen-year-old son.[[1]] Upon hearing of his father's death, Commodus made preparations for Marcus' funeral, made concessions to the northern tribes, and made haste to return back to Rome in order to enjoy peace after nearly two decades of war. Commodus, and much of the Roman army behind him, entered the capital on 22 October, 180 in a triumphal procession, receiving a hero's welcome. Indeed, the youthful Commodus must have appeared in the parade as an icon of new, happier days to come; his arrival sparked the highest hopes in the Roman people, who believed he would rule as his father had ruled.[[2]]

The coins issued in his first year all display the triumphant general, a warrior in action who brought the spoils of victory to the citizens of Rome.[[3]] There is a great deal of evidence to support the fact that Commodus was popular among many of the people, at least for a majority of his reign. He seems to have been quite generous.[[4]]. Coin types from around 183 onward often contain the legend, Munificentia Augusta[[5]], indicating that generosity was indeed a part of his imperial program. Coins show nine occasions on which Commodus gave largesses, seven when he was sole emperor.[[6]] According to Dio, the emperor obtained some of this funding by taxing members of the senatorial class.[[7]] This policy of munificence certainly caused tensions between Commodus and the Senate. In 191 it was noted in the official Actus Urbis that the gods had given Commodus to Populus Senatusque Romanus. Normally the phrase Senatus Populusque Romanus was used. [[8]] While the Senate hated Commodus, the army and the lower classes loved him.[[9]] Because of the bad relationship between the Senate and Commodus as well as a senatorial conspiracy,[[10]] Rome "...was virtually governed by the praetorian prefects Perennis (182-185) and Cleander (186-9)."[[11]]

Commodus began to dress like the god Hercules, wearing lion skins and carrying a club.[[12]] Thus he appropriated the Antonines' traditional identification with Hercules, but even more aggressively. Commodus' complete identification with Hercules can be seen as an attempt to solidify his claim as new founder of Rome, which he now called the Colonia Lucia Annia Commodiana. This was legitimized by his direct link to Hercules, son of Father Jupiter.[[13]] He probably took the title of Hercules officially some time before mid-September 192.[[14]]

While the literary sources, especially Dio, Herodian, and the Historia Augusta, all ridicule the antics of his later career, they also give important insight into Commodus' relationship to the people.[[15]] His most important maneuver to solidify his claims as Hercules Romanus was to show himself as the god to the Roman people by taking part in spectacles in the amphitheater. Not only would Commodus fight and defeat the most skilled gladiators, he would also test his talents by encountering the most ferocious of the beasts.[[16]]

Commodus won all of his bouts against the gladiators.[[17]] The slayer of wild beasts, Hercules, was the mythical symbol of Commodus' rule, as protector of the Empire.[[18]]

During his final years he declared that his age should be called the "Golden Age."[[19]] He wanted all to revel in peace and happiness in his age of glory, praise the felicitas Commodi, the glorious libertas, his pietas, providential, his victoria and virtus aeterna.[[20]] Commodus wanted there to be no doubt that this "Golden Age" had been achieved through his munificence as Nobilissimus Princeps. He had declared a brand new day in Rome, founding it anew in 190, declaring himself the new Romulus.[[21]] Rome was now to be called Colonia Lucia Annia Commodiana, as noted above, and deemed "the Immortal," "the Fortunate," "the Universal Colony of the Earth."[[22]] Coins represent the archaic rituals of city-[re]foundation, identifying Commodus as a new founder and his age as new days.[[23]]

Also in 190 he renamed all the months to correspond exactly with his titles. From January, they run as follows: Lucius, Aelius, Aurelius, Commodus, Augustus, Herculeus, Romanus, Exsuperatorius, Amazonius, Invictus, Felix, Pius.[[24]] According to Dio Cassius, the changing of the names of the months was all part of Commodus' megalomania.[[25]] Commodus was the first and last in the Antonine dynasty to change the names of the months.


The legions were renamed Commodianae, the fleet which imported grain from Africa was called Alexandria Commodiana Togata, the Senate was deemed the Commodian Fortunate Senate, his palace and the Roman people were all given the name Commodianus.[[26]] The day that these new names were announced was also given a new title: Dies Commodianus.[[27]] Indeed, the emperor presented himself with growing vigor as the center of Roman life and the fountainhead of religion. New expressions of old religious thought and new cults previously restricted to private worship invade the highest level of imperial power.[[28]]

If Eusebius of Caesarea [[29]] is to be believed, the reign of Commodus inaugurated a period of numerous conversions to Christianity. Commodus did not pursue his father's prohibitions against the Christians, although he did not actually change their legal position. Rather, he relaxed persecutions, after minor efforts early in his reign.[[30]] Tradition credits Commodus's policy to the influence of his concubine Marcia; she was probably his favorite,[[31]] but it is not clear that she was a Christian.[[32]] More likely, Commodus preferred to neglect the sect, so that persecutions would not detract from his claims to be leading the Empire through a "Golden Age."[[33]]

During his reign several attempts were made on Commodus' life.[[34]] After a few botched efforts, an orchestrated plot was carried out early in December 192, apparently including his mistress Marcia. On 31 December an athlete named Narcissus strangled him in his bath,[[35]] and the emperor's memory was cursed. This brought an end to the Antonine Dynasty.


SELECT BIBLIOGRAPHY
Alföldy, G. "Der Friedesschluss des Kaisers Commodus mit den Germanen," Historia 20 (1971): 84-109.

Aymard, J. "Commode-Hercule foundateur de Rome," Revue des études latines 14 (1936): 340-64.

Birley, A. R. The African Emperor: Septimius Severus. -- rev. ed.-- London, 1988.
________. Marcus Aurelius: A Biography. London, 1987.

Breckenridge, J. D. "Roman Imperial Portraiture from Augustus to Gallienus," ANRW 2.17. 1 (1981): 477-512.

Chantraine, H. "Zur Religionspolitik des Commodus im Spiegel seiner Münzen," Römische Quartalschrift für christliche Altertumskunde und für Kirchengeschichte 70 (1975): 1-31.

Ferguson, J. The Religions of the Roman Empire. Ithaca, 1970.

Fishwick, D. The Imperial Cult in the Latin West. Leiden, 1987.

Gagé, J. "La mystique imperiale et l'épreuve des jeux. Commode-Hercule et l'anthropologie hercaléenne," ANRW 2.17.2 (1981), 663-83.

Garzetti, A. From Tiberius to the Antonines. A History of the Roman Empire A. D. 14-192. London, 1974.

Grosso F. La lotta politica al tempo di Commodo. Turin, 1964.

Hammond, M. The Antonine Monarchy. Rome, 1956.

Helgeland, J. "Roman Army Religion," ANRW II.16.2 (1978): 1470-1505.

Howe, L. L. The Praetorian Prefect from Commodus to Diocletian (A. D. 180-305). Chicago, 1942.

Keresztes, P. "A Favorable Aspect of Commodus' Rule," in Hommages à Marcel Renard 2. Bruxelles, 1969.

Mattingly, R. The Roman Imperial Coinage. Volume III: Antoninus Pius to Commodus. London, 1930.

Nock, A. D. "The Emperor's Divine Comes," Journal of Roman Studies 37 (1947): 102-116.

Parker, H. M. D. A History of the Roman World from A. D. 138 to 337. London, 1935.
________. and B.H. Warmington. "Commodus." OCD2, col. 276.

Raubitschek, A. E. "Commodus and Athens." Studies in Honor of Theodore Leslie Shear. Hesperia, Supp. 8, 1948.

Rostovtzeff, M. I. "Commodus-Hercules in Britain," Journal of Roman Studies 13 (1923): 91-105.

Sordi, M. "Un senatore cristano dell'éta di Commodo." Epigraphica 17 (1959): 104-112.

Speidel, M. P. "Commodus the God-Emperor and the Army," Journal of Roman Studies 83 (1993): 109-114.

Stanton, G. R. "Marcus Aurelius, Lucius Verus, and Commodus: 1962-1972." ANRW II.2 (1975): 478-549.

Notes
[[1]] For a discussion of the circumstances surrounding the death of Marcus Aurelius, see A. R. Birley, Marcus Aurelius: A Biography -- rev. ed. -- (London, 1987), 210.
Aurelius Victor, De Caes. 16.4, writing around the year 360, claimed Aurelius died at Vindobona, modern Vienna. However, Tertullian, Apol. 25, who wrote some seventeen years after Marcus' death, fixed his place of death at Sirmium, twenty miles south of Bononia. A. R. Birley (Marcus Aurelius, 209-10) cogently argues Tertullian is much more accurate in his general description of where Marcus was campaigning during his last days.
For the dating of Marcus Aurelius' death and the accession of Commodus, see M. Hammond, The Antonine Monarchy (Rome, 1956), 179-80.

[[2]] For the army's attitude toward peace, the attitude of the city toward the peace, and the reception of the emperor and his forces into Rome, see Herodian, 1.7.1-4; for Commodus' subsequent political policies concerning the northern tribes, see G. Alföldy, "Der Friedesschluss des Kaisers Commodus mit den Germanen," Historia 20 (1971): 84-109.
For a commentary on the early years of Commodus in the public perception as days of optimism, see A. Garzetti, From Tiberius to the Antonines. A History of the Roman Empire A. D. 14-192 (London, 1974), 530. For a more critical, and much more negative portrayal, see the first chapter of F. Grosso, La lotta politica al tempo di Commodo (Turin, 1964).

[[3]]The gods Minerva and Jupiter Victor are invoked on the currency as harbingers of victory; Jupiter Conservator on his coins watches over Commodus and his Empire, and thanks is given to divine Providence (H. Mattingly, The Roman Imperial Coinage. Volume III: Antoninus Pius to Commodus, [London, 1930] 356-7, 366-7). In 181, new coin types appear defining the new reign of Commodus. Victory and peace are stressed. Coins extol Securitas Publica, Felicitas, Libertas, Annona, and Aequitas (ibid., 357).
By 186 Commodus is depicted as the victorious princes, the most noble of all born to the purple. Herodian (1.5.5) describes how Commodus boasted to his soldiers that he was born to be emperor. See also H. Chantraine, "Zur Religionspolitik des Commodus im Spiegel seiner Münzen," Römische Quatralschrift für christliche Altertumskunde und für Kirchengeschichte 70 (1975), 26. He is called Triumphator and Rector Orbis, and associated with the Nobilitas of Trojan descent (Mattingly, RIC III.359; idem, Coins of the Roman Empire in the British Museum. Volume IV: Antoninus Pius to Commodus, [Oxford, 1940], clxii).

[[4]] Dio tells us that Commodus liked giving gifts and often gave members of the populace 140 denarii apiece (Cass. Dio, 73.16), whereas the Historia Augusta reports that he gave each man 725 denarii (SHA, Comm., 16.3).

[[5]]Mattingly, RIC, III.358.

[[6]] Idem., CBM, IV.clxxiv.

[[7]]Cass. Dio, 73.16.

[[8]]M. P. Speidel, "Commodus the God-Emperor and the Army," Journal of Roman Studies 83 (1993), 113.

[[9]]Mattingly, CBM, IV.xii. Commodus was also popular amongst the northern divisions of the army because he allowed them to wield axes in battle, a practice banned by all preceding emperors. See, Speidel, JRS 83 (1993), 114.

[[10]]Infra, n. 34.

[[11]] H. Parker and B.H. Warmington, OCD2, s.v. "Commodus," col. 276; after 189, he was influenced by his mistress Marcia, Eclectus his chamberlain, and Laetus (who became praetorian prefect in 191 (Idem.).

[[12]]Herodian, 1.14.8. Hadrian appears on medallions in lion skins; but as far as the sources tell us, he never appeared in public in them. See J. Toynbee, Roman Medallions,(New York, 1986), 208.
He would often appear at public festivals and shows dressed in purple robes embroidered with gold. He would wear a crown made of gold, inlaid with the finest gems of India. He often carried a herald's staff as if imitating the god Mercury. According to Dio Cassius, Commodus' lion's skin and club were carried before him in the procession, and at the theaters these vestiges of Hercules were placed on a gilded chair for all to see (Cass. Dio, 73.17). For the implications of the golden chair carried in procession in relation to the imperial cult, see D. Fishwick, The Imperial Cult in the Latin West, (Leiden, 1987-91 ), 555.

[[13]] H. M. D. Parker, A History of the Roman World from A. D. 138 to 337, (London, 1935), 34; For medallions that express the relationship between Antoninus Pius, Marcus Aurelius, and Lucius Verus extolling Hercules as a symbol of civic virtue, see Toynbee, Roman Medallions, 208. For a general statement on the symbolism of Hercules in the Antonine age, see M. Hammond, The Antonine Monarchy, 238.
For a discussion of Commodus' association with Hercules, see
Rostovtzeff, "Commodus-Hercules," 104-6.
Herodian spells out the emperor's metamorphosis in detail (1.14.8).

[[14]]See Speidel, "Commodus the God-Emperor," 114. He argues this general date because a papyrus from Egypt's Fayum records Hercules in Commodus' title on 11 October 192.

[[15]]For a preliminary example, Herodian writes (1.13.8), "people in general responded well to him."

[[16]]As Dio reports, Commodus, with his own hands, gave the finishing stroke to five hippopotami at one time. Commodus also killed two elephants, several rhinoceroses, and a giraffe with the greatest of ease. (Cass. Dio, 73.10), and with his left hand (ibid., 73.19). Herodian maintains that from his specially constructed terrace which encircled the arena (enabling Commodus to avoid risking his life by fighting these animals at close quarters), the emperor also killed deer, roebuck, various horned animals, lions, and leopards, always killing them painlessly with a single blow. He purportedly killed one hundred leopards with one hundred javelins, and he cleanly shot the heads off countless ostriches with crescent-headed arrows. The crowd cheered as these headless birds continued to run around the amphitheater (1.15-4-6; for Commodus' popularity at these brutal spectacles, see Birley, The African Emperor, 86) (and Dio tells his readers that in public Commodus was less brutal than he was in private [73.17ff]).

[[17]] According to Herodian (1.15-17), "In his gladiatorial combats, he defeated his opponents with ease, and he did no more than wound them, since they all submitted to him, but only because they knew he was the emperor, not because he was truly a gladiator."

[[18]]Webber, "The Antonines," CAH, XI.360.

[[19]]Cass. Dio, 73.15.

[[20]] Mattingly, RIC, III.361. For Commodus' propaganda of peace, see W. Webber, "The Antonines," CAH, XI.392.

[[21]] W. Webber, "The Antonines," CAH, XI.392-3. In 189 a coin type was issued with the legend Romulus Conditor, perhaps indicating he began the official renaming process during that year. For a discussion on Commodus as Romulus, see A. D. Nock, "The Emperor's Divine Comes," Journal of Roman Studies 37 (1947), 103.

[[22]] HA, Comm. 7.1; Cass. Dio, 73.15.

[[23]]Mattingly, RIC, III.361. See also, Webber, "The Antonines," CAH, XI.386.

[[24]]The title Felix is first used by the emperor Commodus, and is used in the titles of almost all successive emperors to the fifth century. See, D. Fishwick, The Imperial Cult in the Latin West (Leiden, 1987-91), 473.
HA, Comm., 12.315; Cass. Dio, 73.15; Herodian, I.14.9. These new names for the months seem to have actually been used, at least by the army, as confirmed by Tittianus' Altar. See M. P. Speidel, "Commodus the God-Emperor and the Army," Journal of Roman Studies 83 (1993), 112.

[[25]] Cass. Dio, 73.15.

[[26]]Legions:Idem.; the Grain fleet: SHA, Comm., 12.7. For a further discussion of Commodus' newly named fleet, see, A. Garzetti, From Tiberius to the Antonines, 547. For coins issued extolling the fleet, see Mattingly, CBM, IV.clxix; RIC, III.359; the Senate: Cass. Dio, 73.15; the Imperial Palace: SHA, Comm., 12.7; the Roman People: Ibid., 15.5.

[[27]]Cass. Dio, 73.15.

[[28]]Mattingly, CBM, IV.clxxxiv.

[[29]]Eusebius, Hist.Ecc., 5.21.1.

[[30]]For a discussion of the treatment of Christianity during the reigns of Marcus Aurelius and Commodus as well as persecutions during the reign of Commodus, see Keresztes, "A Favorable Aspect," 374, 376-377.

[[31]]Herodian, 1.16.4; Dio, 73.4. A Medallion from early 192 shows Commodus juxtaposed with the goddess Roma, which some scholars have argued incorporates the features of Marcia. See, Roman Medallions, "Introduction." Commodus was married, however, to a woman named Crispina. He commissioned several coins early in his rule to honor her.

[[32]]The Christian apologist Hippolytus tells that she was a Christian (Philos. 9.2.12), Dio tells that she simply favored the Christians (73.4). Herodian does not take a stand on the matter either way (1.16.4).

[[33]]Cass. Dio, 73.15. He pronounces Commodus' edict that his rule should be henceforth called the "Golden Age."

[[34]]H. Parker and B.H. Warmington note that Commodus..."resorted to government by means of favorites...which was exacerbated by an abortive conspiracy promoted by Lucilla and Ummidius Quadratus (182)." (OCD2, col. 276).

[[35]]Herodian, 1.17.2-11; Dio Cass., 73.22; SHA, Comm.,17.1-2.

Copyright (C) 1998, Dennis Quinn. This file may be copied on the condition that the entire contents, including the header and this copyright notice, remain intact. Used by Permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.


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