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Search results - "Carthage"
MAXIMIN2-1.jpg
57 viewsMAXIMINVS II - Follis - Mint of Carthago - 305-306 AD.
Obv.:GAL VAL MAXIMINVS NOB CAES, laureate head right
Rev.: SALVIS AVGG ET CAESS FEL KART, Carthage standing left holding fruits in both hands, I in left field, Δ in ex.
Gs. 3,9 mm 29,4
RIC VI 40b, Cohen 150.
2 commentsMaxentius
Punic 1~0.jpg
188 viewsTanit
Punic 7~0.jpg
70 viewsTanit
01141q00.jpg
13 viewsJustinian I, 527-565. 1/2 Siliqua (Silver, 14 mm, 1.31 g, 9 h), Carthage, 534/7-552. D N IVSTINIANVS P P AG Diademed, draped and cuirassed bust of Justinian I to right. Rev. Large monogram; cross above, S below; all within wreath. DOC -. MIB 53. SB 254 ('siliqua'). Darkly toned. Struck on the usual somewhat irregular flan, otherwise, good very fine. Quant.Geek
Diocletian_Carthage_RIC_31a-sm2.jpg
1 Diocletian32 viewsDiocletian. A.D. 284-305. Æ follis (29.4 mm, 10.61 g, 6 h). Carthage, A.D. 299-303. IMP DIOCLETIANVS P F AVG, laureate head right / SALVIS AVGG ET CAESS FEL KART, Carthage standing left, holding fruit in both hands; A in exergue. RIC 31a. VF, silvered.
Ex Agora Auctions #1 - Nov 2013
Sosius
Carthage.jpg
Coinage of Carthage 24 views1 commentsChristian T
Vandals_-__Thrasamund,_496-523_AD,_N_Africa.JPG
106 viewsVANDALS, Thrasamund. 496-523.
Æ Nummus (10mm, 0.40 g)
Contemporary Vandalic imitation. Carthage mint.
Diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust right.
Victory standing left, holding wreath and palm
MEC 1, 31-2; BMC Vandals 37-41
Ardatirion
diocletian_vot_fk_res.jpg
(0284) DIOCLETIAN23 views284 - 305 AD
Struck ca. 303 AD
Post reform radiate AE fraction 20.5 mm, 3.06 g
O: IMP C DIOCLETIANANVS P F AVG; radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right.
R: VOT/XX/FK, all in wreath
Carthage mint
laney
constantius_i_africa.jpg
(0293) CONSTANTIUS I CHLORUS50 views293 - 305 AD (As Caesar)
struck 297 - 298 AD
AE 28.5 mm, 6.96 g
O: CONSTANTIVS NOB CAES, laureate head right
R: FELIX ADVENT AVGG NN, Africa standing left holding scepter and elephant tusk, lion over bull at feet on left, H in left field
PKT in exe
Carthage
laney
BYZ_HERACLIUS_20_NUMMI.jpg
(0610) HERACLIUS30 views610 - 641 AD
(struck 611 - 617)
AE 20 NUMMI 17 mm 4.72 g
O: DN ERACLIO PP AV
HELMETED CUIR BUST FACING
R: LARGE XX, CROSS ABOVE
KRTG IN EXE
CARTHAGE
laney
constans_ii_res.jpg
(0641) CONSTANS II41 views641-668 AD
AE Half Follis 18 mm; 4.10 g
O: Beardedbbust facing; wearing consular robes and crown with trefoil ornament, holding mappa and globus cruciger
R: Large cross dividing C-T and X-X; above cross, star between two pellets
CARTHAGE mint
laney
oW4EoRc8bk7N9AxnXr6Mt3yW2DKmC5~0.jpg
(582-602) Maurice Tibere [Sear 565, Carthage]24 viewsD.N. MAVRICI.(Or similar). Crowned, dr. and cuir. bust facing. Lrge I between two crosses; above, n ans m with cross between; in exergue, IND III (Ex Albert Vaughn)1 commentsSégusiaves
072~0.JPG
(610-641) Heraclius [Sear 871]8 viewsAR Half Siliqua, 0.70 gm. Carthage mint. Struck 617-641 AD. Crowned, draped, and cuirassed bust of Heraclius right / no legend, facing busts of Heraclius Constantine on left, wearing crown and chlamys, and Martina on right, wearing crown with long pendilia, and robes; cross between their heads, sometimes with four dots between their shoulders. DOC 233; MIB 149; SB 871.Ségusiaves
57636q00.jpg
*SOLD*15 viewsCarthage, Zeugitania AE15

Attribution: SNG Cop 144 ff., Sardinia
Date: 300-264 BC
Obverse: head of Tanit l. wearing wreath of grain, earring and necklace
Reverse: horse's head r.
Size: 18.8 mm
Weight: 5.57 grams
ex-Forvm
Noah
ZeugInHandSideSmaller.jpg
...and another shot of the Carthaginian crusher63 viewsLooks a lot like a Reese's Peanut Butter Cup, doesn't it?

YUM!

ZEUGITANA, Carthage. 15 shekel.
AE45, 95.4g
circa 200 BC
Obverse: head of Tanit
Reverse: horse standing right, left foreleg up; above, radiate disc flanked by uraei

I don't have a reference book and the only other picture of one I've found is on the magnagraecia.nl site. Their list indicates four specimens known to them. Don't know if this is one of the four.
TIF
0081.jpg
0081 - Denarius Septimius Severus 201-10 AC35 viewsObv/SEVERVS PIVS AVG, laureate head of Septimiusr.
Rev/INDULGENTIA AVGG, Dea Caelestis riding r. on a lion, holding thunderbolt and sceptre; below, waters gushing from rock.

Ag, 18.3mm, 3.25g
Mint: Rome.
RIC IVa/266 [C] - BMCRE V/335
ex-A.L.Romero Martín
dafnis
LarryW2407.jpg
030 Zeugitana, Carthage, 310-290 BC84 viewsElectrum shekel-didrachm, 18.5mm, 7.43g, nice VF
Head of Tanit left, wreathed with corn; she wears necklace and triple-drop earring; dot before neck / Horse standing right on exergal line; three pellets under exergual line.
Certificate of Authenticity by David R. Sear, ACCS
Ex: Apollo Numismatics
Jenkins V, 282-2; Müller p. 84, 52
3 commentsLawrence Woolslayer
RI 064t img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 26642 viewsObv:– SEVERVS PIVS AVG, Laureate head right
Rev:– INDVLGENTIA AVGG / IN CARTH, Dea Caelestis, goddess of Carthage, with elaborate headdress, looking front, riding right on springing lion, holding thunderbolt and sceptre, water gushing from rocks at left below
Minted in Rome, A.D. 203
References:– RIC 266 (Common), RCV02 6285, RSC222
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_064lb_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 26620 viewsObv:- SEVERVS PIVS AVG, laureate bust right
Rev:- INDVLGENTIA AVGG / IN CARTH, Dea Caelestis, goddess of Carthage, with elaborate headdress, looking front, riding right on springing lion, holding thunderbolt and sceptre, water gushing from rocks at left below
Minted in Rome, A.D. 203
Reference:– RIC 266. RSC 222.
maridvnvm
RI_064lj_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 26626 viewsObv:- SEVERVS PIVS AVG, laureate bust right
Rev:- INDVLGENTIA AVGG / IN CARTH, Dea Caelestis, goddess of Carthage, with elaborate headdress, looking front, riding right on springing lion, holding thunderbolt and sceptre, water gushing from rocks at left below
Minted in Rome, A.D. 203
Reference:– RIC 266. RSC 222.
1 commentsmaridvnvm
LarryW1916.jpg
0689 Focas, 602-61044 viewsÆ pentanummium, 14.5mm, 1.84g, Nice F
Struck at Carthage mint
D N FOCA PERP A, crowned bust facing / large V between two stars, left star has pellets above and below, cross above. Rare
Ex:Forvm Ancient Coins; Colosseum Coin Exchange
Sear 689var (no pellets right star)
Lawrence Woolslayer
06a-Constantine-Car-051c.jpg
06a. Constantine as Caesar: Carthage follis.54 viewsFollis, Nov. - Dec. 306, Carthage mint.
Obverse: FL VAL CONSTANTINVS NOB CAES / Laureate bust of Constantine.
Reverse: SALVIS AVGG ET CAESS FEL KART / Carthage standing, dressed in long robe, holding fruit in both hands. H in left field.
Mint mark: Γ
9.49 gm., 27 mm.
RIC #51c; PBCC #575; Sear #15551.
1 commentsCallimachus
Cornelia51QuinVict.jpg
0aa Defeat of Hannibal on Sicily, 222 BC11 viewsCn. Lentulus, moneyer
90-85 BC

Quinarius

Laureled head of Jupiter, right
Victory crowning trophy, CN LENT in ex

Seaby, Cornelia 51

Possibly a reference to this event: [Q. Fabius Maximus, afterwards called Cunctator] broke up his camp at Suessula and decided to begin by an attack on Arpi. . . . Now at last the enemy was roused; there was a lull in the storm and daylight was approaching. Hannibal's garrison in the city amounted to about 5000 men, and the citizens themselves had raised a force of 3000. These the Carthaginians put in front to meet the enemy, that there might be no attempt at treachery in their rear. The fighting began in the dark in the narrow streets, the Romans having occupied not only the streets near the gate but the houses also, that they might not be assailed from the roofs. Gradually as it grew light some of the citizen troops and some of the Romans recognised one another, and entered into conversation. The Roman soldiers asked what it was that the Arpinians wanted, what wrong had Rome done them, what good service had Carthage rendered them that they, Italians-bred and born, should fight against their old friends the Romans on behalf of foreigners and barbarians, and wish to make Italy a tributary province of Africa. The people of Arpi urged in their excuse that they knew nothing of what was going on, they had in fact been sold by their leaders to the Carthaginians, they had been victimised and enslaved by a small oligarchy. When a beginning had been once made the conversations became more and more general; at last the praetor of Arpi was conducted by his friends to the consul, and after they had given each other mutual assurances, surrounded by the troops under their standards, the citizens suddenly turned against the Carthaginians and fought for the Romans. A body of Spaniards also, numbering something less than a thousand, transferred their services to the consul upon the sole condition that the Carthaginian garrison should be allowed to depart uninjured. The gates were opened for them and they were dismissed, according to the stipulation, in perfect safety, and went to Hannibal at Salapia. Thus Arpi was restored to the Romans without the loss of a single life, except in the case of one man who had long ago been a traitor and had recently deserted. The Spaniards were ordered to receive double rations, and the republic availed itself on very many occasions of their courage and fidelity.

Livy, History of Rome, 24.46-47
Blindado
Heraclius_SB_876.jpg
12. Heraclius7 viewsHERACLIUS
Decanummium, Carthage , 610-641 AD

DN ERACLIO PP AVS, Bust facing, no beard / Large X, dot over N over dot to l., cross above, dot over M over dot to r., star below

SB 876, DOC 236
Sosius
Constantius-I_AE-Follis_CONSTANTIVS_NOB_CAES_FELIX_ADVENT_AVGG_NN__H_left,_PKT_RIC_VI_24a_Carthage__298_A_D__Q-001_0h_25-28,5mm_10,38ga-s~0.jpg
121 Constantius I. Chlorus (293-305 A.D. Caesar, 305-306 A.D. Augustus), Carthage, RIC VI 024a, AE-1 Follis, FELIX ADVENT AVG G N N, Africa standing right, #1152 views121 Constantius I. Chlorus (293-305 A.D. Caesar, 305-306 A.D. Augustus), Carthage, RIC VI 024a, AE-1 Follis, FELIX ADVENT AVG G N N, Africa standing right, #1
avers:- CONSTANTIVS NOB CAES, Laureate head right.
revers:- FELIX AD VENT AVG G N N, Africa standing right, head left, wearing elephant head headress, standard in right and tusk in left, lion and bull at feet left, H left, PKT in ex.
exerg: H|-//PKT, diameter: 25,0-28,5mm, weight: 10,38g, axes: 0h,
mint: Carthage, date: 298 A.D., ref: RIC VI 024a,
Q-001
2 commentsquadrans
Constantius-I_AE-Follis_CONSTANTIVS-NOB-CAES_SALVIS-AVGG-ET-CAESS-FEL-KART_Gamma_RIC_VI_Carthage_32a_298-299-AD_Q-001_11h_28,5-29,5mm_10,17g-s.jpg
121 Constantius I. Chlorus (293-305 A.D. Caesar, 305-306 A.D. Augustus), Carthage, RIC VI 032a, AE-1 Follis, SALVIS AVG G ET CAES S FEL KART, Carthago standing facing, #183 views121 Constantius I. Chlorus (293-305 A.D. Caesar, 305-306 A.D. Augustus), Carthage, RIC VI 032a, AE-1 Follis, SALVIS AVG G ET CAES S FEL KART, Carthago standing facing, #1
avers: CONSTANTIVS NOB CAES, Laureate head right. Larger portarit-head.
revers: SALVIS AVG G ET CAES S FEL KART, Carthago standing facing, head left, in long robe, holding fruits in both hands.
exerg: -/-//Γ, diameter: 28,5-29,5mm, weight: 10,17g, axes:11h,
mint: Carthage, date: 298-299 A.D., ref: RIC VI 032a,
Q-001
quadrans
RI 148l img.jpg
148 - Galerius - RIC VI Carthage 39a19 viewsFollis
Obv:– IMP MAXIMIANVS P F AVG, Laureate bust right
Rev:– SALVIS AVGG ET CAESS FEL KART, Carthage standing facing, head left, in long robe, holding fruits in both hands
Minted in Carthage (I | _ / B). July A.D. 1st May A.D. 305 to 25th July A.D. 306
Ref:– RIC VI Carthage 39a
maridvnvm
image~3.jpg
15. Constans II44 viewsConstans II. 641-668.
AV Solidus (10mm, 4.43 g, 6h).
Carthage mint. Dated IY 2 (AD 643/4).
Crowned and draped facing bust, holding globus cruciger / Cross potent set on three steps; ΔB (date)//CONOB.
DOC 107.2; MIB 566; SB 1029. Good VF, lightly toned.
From the Sasha Collection.
Ex-CNG
2 commentsSosius
RI_152m_img.jpg
152 - Maxentius as Caesar - RIC VI Carthage 51a37 viewsObv:- M AVR MAXENTIVS NOB CAES, Laureate head right
Rev:- SALVIS AVGG ET CAES FEL KART, Carthage standing facing, head left, holding up fruits in both hands
Struck in Carthage late 306 A.D. H in left field, Greek_Delta in exe.
References:- RIC VI Carthage 51a.

The coin is on a full flan, well centered, with a decent strike and the reverse still holds on to decent detail enhanced by a nice patina.
2 commentsmaridvnvm
DelmatiusAE3GlorEx.jpg
1eg Delmatius21 viewsCaesar 335-337

AE3, Thessalonica

Laureate, cuirassed bust, right, FL DELMATIVS NOB C two soldiers holding spears and shields with two standards between them, O on banner, GLORIA EXERCITVS. Mintmark: SMTSD.

RIC 202D

Zosimus recorded: After Constantine had oppressed and tormented the people in these various modes, he died of a disease, and was succeeded by his three sons, who were not born of Fausta the daughter of Maximianus Herculius, but of another woman, whom he had put to death for adultery. They devoted themselves more to the pleasures of youth than to the service of the state. They began by dividing the nations between them. Constantine the eldest, and Constans the youngest, having for their share all beyond the Alps, together with Italy and Illyricum, the countries bordering on the Euxine sea and all that belonged to Carthage in Africa; Constantius obtained all Asia, the east, and Egypt. There were likewise others who shared in the government; Dalmatius, whom Constantine made Caesar, Constantius his brother, and Hanniballianus, who had all worn robes of purple embroidered with gold, and were promoted to the order of Nobilissimates by Constantine, from respect to their being of his own family. . . . The empire being thus divided, Constantius who appeared to take pains not to fall short of his father in impiety, began by shedding the blood of his nearest relations. He first caused Constantius, his father's brother, to be murdered by the soldiers ; next to whom he treated Dalmatius in the same manner, as also Optatus whom Constantine had raised to the rank of a Nobilissimate.

A great-nephew of Constantine the Great.
Blindado
Treb-Gallus-RIC-032.jpg
29. Trebonianus Gallus.58 viewsAntoninianus, ca 252 AD, Rome mint.
Obverse: IMP CAES VIB TREB GALLVS AVG / Radiate bust of Gallus.
Reverse: APOLL SALVTARI / Apollo standing, holding branch and a lyre set on a rock.
3.82 gm., 20 mm.
RIC #32; Sear #9627.

In his book The Fate of Rome: Climate, Disease, & the End of an Empire, author Kyle Harper suggests the plague described by Cyprian, Bishop of Carthage, was not a localized plague of some sort, but was one and the same with the plague that ravaged the Roman Empire during the reign of Trebonianus Gallus and several of his successors.

The plague was first reported in Alexandria in 249 AD, and by 251 AD it had made its way to Rome where the boy emperor Hostilian died from it. Harper says (p, 138), “The Plague of Cyprian is in the background of imperial history from ca. AD 249 to AD 262, possibly with even later effects around AD 270.”

Harper also presents a case that the plague was either pandemic influenza (similar to that of 1918) or a viral hemorrhagic fever (similar to the Ebola virus of today).

Coins with the reverse legend APOLL SALVTARI (“Apollo the Healer”) exist on coins of Trebonianus Gallus, Volusian, Aemilian, and Valerian I. This reverse type is certainly to be interpreted as an appeal to Apollo for deliverance from the plague that was spreading through the Empire at this time.
3 commentsCallimachus
rjb_fol6_01_09.jpg
305b22 viewsConstantius I as Caesar 293-305 AD
AE Follis
Obv: CONSTANTIVS NOB CAES
Laureate bust right
Rev: FELIX ADVENT AVGG NN
Africa standing left, at feet lion
gamma/-//PKT
Carthage Mint
RIC (VI) Carthage 22a
mauseus
rjb_max_11_07.jpg
30628 viewsMaxentius 306-312 AD
AE Follis
Obv: IMP MAXENTIVS PF AVG
Laureate bust right
Rev: CONSERVATORES KART SVAE
Carthage standing left in hexastyle temple
-/-//PKΓ
Carthage Mint
RIC (VI) Carthage 60
1 commentsmauseus
Denario Septimio Severo RIC 266D.jpg
46-11 - SEPTIMIO SEVERO (193 - 211 D.C.)32 viewsAR Denario 19 mm 2.8 gr.

Anv: "SEVERVS PIUS AVG" - Busto laureado viendo a derecha.
Rev: "INDVLGENTIA AVGG // IN CARTH" en exergo (La Benevolencia del Augusto hacia Cartago) - La Diosa Celestial de Cartago sentada de frente sobre un león que corre hacia la derecha, sostiene un rayo en mano derecha y un cetro en la izquierda. Debajo se vé aguas saliendo de una roca. Esta acuñación recuerda algún favor especial de los Emperadores a Carthage, capital de la provincia nativa de los Severos. Parece estar conectada con el abastecimiento de agua de la ciudad (quizás un acueducto nuevo), pero los detalles no se saben. El diosa principal de Carthage era conocida por los romanos como "Dea Caelestis", la “Diosa celestial”, aunque no es nombrada en las monedas y de allí surge una pequeña duda si Ella realmente es quien monta el león.

Acuñada 17ava. Emisión 204 D.C.
Ceca: Roma (Off.1ra)

Referencias: RIC Vol.IV Parte I #266D Pag.125 - Sear RCTV Vol.II #6285 Pag.459 - BMCRE #335/8 Pag.218 - Cohen Vol.III #219 Pag.27 - DVM #47 Pag.183 - RSC Vol.III #222 Pag.28 - Hill CSS #655 - Foss #62
mdelvalle
RIC_266D_Denario_Septimio_Severo.jpg
46-11 - SEPTIMIO SEVERO (193 - 211 D.C.)11 viewsAR Denario 19 mm 2.8 gr.

Anv: "SEVERVS PIUS AVG" - Busto laureado viendo a derecha.
Rev: "INDVLGENTIA AVGG // IN CARTH" en exergo (La Benevolencia del Augusto hacia Cartago) - La Diosa Celestial de Cartago sentada de frente sobre un león que corre hacia la derecha, sostiene un rayo en mano derecha y un cetro en la izquierda. Debajo se vé aguas saliendo de una roca. Esta acuñación recuerda algún favor especial de los Emperadores a Carthage, capital de la provincia nativa de los Severos. Parece estar conectada con el abastecimiento de agua de la ciudad (quizás un acueducto nuevo), pero los detalles no se saben. El diosa principal de Carthage era conocida por los romanos como "Dea Caelestis", la “Diosa celestial”, aunque no es nombrada en las monedas y de allí surge una pequeña duda si Ella realmente es quien monta el león.

Acuñada 17ava. Emisión 204 D.C.
Ceca: Roma (Off.1ra)

Referencias: RIC Vol.IV Parte I #266D Pag.125 - Sear RCTV Vol.II #6285 Pag.459 - BMCRE #335/8 Pag.218 (Plate 35 #11y14) - Cohen Vol.III #219 Pag.27 - DVM #47 Pag.183 - RSC Vol.III #222 Pag.28 - Hill CSS #655 - Foss #62 - Salgado II/1 #4126.a.2 Pag.85
mdelvalle
20-Galerius-Car-32b.jpg
49 Galerius as Caesar: Carthage follis.29 viewsFollis, 299 - 303 AD, Carthage mint.
Obverse: MAXIMIANVS NOB CAES / Laureate bust of Galerius.
Reverse: SALVS AVGG ET CAES FEL KART / Carthage standing, dressed in long robe, holding fruits in both hands.
Mint mark: Δ
11.02 gm,, 29 mm.
RIC #32b; Sear #14411.
1 commentsCallimachus
49- Maximianus-1.JPG
49-Maximianus #1-S57 viewsAE Follis, 299-303 AD, Carthage mint
Obv, IMP MAXIMIANVS PF AVG, Laureate head right.
Rev: SALVIS AVGG ET CAESS FEL KART, Carthage standing left holding fruits and grain.
28mm, 10.5gm
RIC 39b
2 commentsjdholds
63-Constantius I.JPG
63-Constantius I-3-S35 viewsAE Follis, Carthage mint , 305-306 AD.
Obv: IMP CONSTANTIVS PF AVG, Laureate head right.
Rev: SALVIS AVGG ET CAESS NOSTR, Carthage standing holding fruits.
H in left field , A in exergue.
27mm, 9.9gm
RIC 39a
jdholds
VespasianPax_RICii10.jpg
710a, Vespasian, 1 July 69 - 24 June 79 A.D.135 viewsSilver denarius, RIC II, 10, aVF, 3.5 g, 18mm, Rome mint, 69-71 AD; Obverse: IMP CAESA[R] VESPASIANV[S AV]G - Laureate head right; Reverse: COS ITER [T]R POT - Pax seated left holding branch and caduceus. Ex Imperial Coins.


De Imperatoribus Romanis:
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Titus Flavius Vespasianus (A.D. 69-79)

John Donahue
College of William and Mary

Introduction

Titus Flavius Vespasianus (b. A.D. 9, d. A.D. 79, emperor A.D. 69-79) restored peace and stability to an empire in disarray following the death of Nero in A.D. 68. In the process he established the Flavian dynasty as the legitimate successor to the Imperial throne. Although we lack many details about the events and chronology of his reign, Vespasian provided practical leadership and a return to stable government - accomplishments which, when combined with his other achievements, make his emperorship particularly notable within the history of the Principate.

Early Life and Career

Vespasian was born at Falacrina near Sabine Reate on 17 November, A.D. 9, the son of T. Flavius Sabinus, a successful tax collector and banker, and Vespasia Polla. Both parents were of equestrian status. Few details of his first fifteen years survive, yet it appears that his father and mother were often away from home on business for long periods. As a result, Vespasian's early education became the responsibility of his paternal grandmother, Tertulla. [[1]] In about A.D. 25 Vespasian assumed the toga virilis and later accepted the wearing of the latus clavus, and with it the senatorial path that his older brother, T. Flavius Sabinus, had already chosen. [[2]] Although many of the particulars are lacking, the posts typically occupied by one intent upon a senatorial career soon followed: a military tribunate in Thrace, perhaps for three or four years; a quaestorship in Crete-Cyrene; and the offices of aedile and praetor, successively, under the emperor Gaius. [[3]]

It was during this period that Vespasian married Flavia Domitilla. Daughter of a treasury clerk and former mistress of an African knight, Flavia lacked the social standing and family connections that the politically ambitious usually sought through marriage. In any case, the couple produced three children, a daughter, also named Flavia Domitilla, and two sons, the future emperors Titus and Domitian . Flavia did not live to witness her husband's emperorship and after her death Vespasian returned to his former mistress Caenis, who had been secretary to Antonia (daughter of Marc Antony and mother of Claudius). Caenis apparently exerted considerable influence over Vespasian, prompting Suetonius to assert that she remained his wife in all but name, even after he became emperor. [[4]]

Following the assassination of Gaius on 24 January, A.D. 41, Vespasian advanced rapidly, thanks in large part to the new princeps Claudius, whose favor the Flavians had wisely secured with that of Antonia, the mother of Germanicus, and of Claudius' freedmen, especially Narcissus. [[5]] The emperor soon dispatched Vespasian to Argentoratum (Strasbourg) as legatus legionis II Augustae, apparently to prepare the legion for the invasion of Britain. Vespasian first appeared at the battle of Medway in A.D. 43, and soon thereafter led his legion across the south of England, where he engaged the enemy thirty times in battle, subdued two tribes, and conquered the Isle of Wight. According to Suetonius, these operations were conducted partly under Claudius and partly under Vespasian's commander, Aulus Plautius. Vespasian's contributions, however, did not go unnoticed; he received the ornamenta triumphalia and two priesthoods from Claudius for his exploits in Britain. [[6]]

By the end of A.D. 51 Vespasian had reached the consulship, the pinnacle of a political career at Rome. For reasons that remain obscure he withdrew from political life at this point, only to return when chosen proconsul of Africa about A.D. 63-64. His subsequent administration of the province was marked by severity and parsimony, earning him a reputation for being scrupulous but unpopular. [[7]] Upon completion of his term, Vespasian returned to Rome where, as a senior senator, he became a man of influence in the emperor Nero's court. [[8]] Important enough to be included on Nero's tour of Greece in A.D. 66-67, Vespasian soon found himself in the vicinity of increasing political turbulence in the East. The situation would prove pivotal in advancing his career.

Judaea and the Accession to Power

In response to rioting in Caesarea and Jerusalem that had led to the slaughter in the latter city of Jewish leaders and Roman soldiers, Nero granted to Vespasian in A.D. 66 a special command in the East with the objective of settling the revolt in Judaea. By spring A.D. 67, with 60,000 legionaries, auxiliaries, and allies under his control, Vespasian set out to subdue Galilee and then to cut off Jerusalem. Success was quick and decisive. By October all of Galilee had been pacified and plans for the strategic encirclement of Jerusalem were soon formed. [[9]] Meanwhile, at the other end of the empire, the revolts of Gaius Iulius Vindex, governor of Gallia Lugdunensis, and Servius Sulpicius Galba , governor of Hispania Tarraconensis, had brought Nero's reign to the brink of collapse. The emperor committed suicide in June, A.D. 68, thereby ensuring chaos for the next eighteen months, as first Galba and then Marcus Salvius Otho and Aulus Vitellius acceded to power. Each lacked broad-based military and senatorial support; each would be violently deposed in turn. [[10]]

Still occupied with plans against Jerusalem, Vespasian swore allegiance to each emperor. Shortly after Vitellius assumed power in spring, A.D. 69, however, Vespasian met on the border of Judaea and Syria with Gaius Licinius Mucianus, governor of Syria, and after a series of private and public consultations, the two decided to revolt. [[11]] On July 1, at the urging of Tiberius Alexander, prefect of Egypt, the legions of Alexandria declared for Vespasian, as did the legions of Judaea two days later. By August all of Syria and the Danube legions had done likewise. Vespasian next dispatched Mucianus to Italy with 20,000 troops, while he set out from Syria to Alexandria in order to control grain shipments for the purpose of starving Italy into submission. [[12]] The siege of Jerusalem he placed in the hands of his son Titus.

Meanwhile, the Danubian legions, unwilling to wait for Mucianus' arrival, began their march against Vitellius ' forces. The latter army, suffering from a lack of discipline and training, and unaccustomed to the heat of Rome, was defeated at Cremona in late October. [[13]] By mid-December the Flavian forces had reached Carsulae, 95 kilometers north of Rome on the Flaminian Road, where the Vitellians, with no further hope of reinforcements, soon surrendered. At Rome, unable to persuade his followers to accept terms for his abdication, Vitellius was in peril. On the morning of December 20 the Flavian army entered Rome. By that afternoon, the emperor was dead. [[14]]

Tacitus records that by December 22, A.D. 69, Vespasian had been given all the honors and privileges usually granted to emperors. Even so, the issue remains unclear, owing largely to a surviving fragment of an enabling law, the lex de imperio Vespasiani, which conferred powers, privileges, and exemptions, most with Julio-Claudian precedents, on the new emperor. Whether the fragment represents a typical granting of imperial powers that has uniquely survived in Vespasian's case, or is an attempt to limit or expand such powers, remains difficult to know. In any case, the lex sanctioned all that Vespasian had done up to its passing and gave him authority to act as he saw fit on behalf of the Roman people. [[15]]

What does seem clear is that Vespasian felt the need to legitimize his new reign with vigor. He zealously publicized the number of divine omens that predicted his accession and at every opportunity he accumulated multiple consulships and imperial salutations. He also actively promoted the principle of dynastic succession, insisting that the emperorship would fall to his son. The initiative was fulfilled when Titus succeeded his father in A.D. 79.[[16]]

Emperorship

Upon his arrival in Rome in late summer, A.D. 70, Vespasian faced the daunting task of restoring a city and a government ravaged by the recent civil wars. Although many particulars are missing, a portrait nevertheles emerges of a ruler conscientiously committed to the methodical renewal of both city and empire. Concerning Rome itself, the emperor encouraged rebuilding on vacated lots, restored the Capitol (burned in A.D. 69), and also began work on several new buildings: a temple to the deified Claudius on the Caelian Hill, a project designed to identify Vespasian as a legitimate heir to the Julio-Claudians, while distancing himself from Nero ; a temple of Peace near the Forum; and the magnificent Colosseum (Flavian Amphitheatre), located on the site of the lake of Nero 's Golden House. [[17]]

Claiming that he needed forty thousand million sesterces for these projects and for others aimed at putting the state on more secure footing, Vespasian is said to have revoked various imperial immunities, manipulated the supply of certain commodities to inflate their price, and increased provincial taxation. [[18]] The measures are consistent with his characterization in the sources as both obdurate and avaricious. There were occasional political problems as well: Helvidius Priscus, an advocate of senatorial independence and a critic of the Flavian regime from the start, was exiled after A.D. 75 and later executed; Marcellus Eprius and A. Alienus Caecina were condemned by Titus for conspiracy, the former committing suicide, the latter executed in A.D. 79.
As Suetonius claims, however, in financial matters Vespasian always put revenues to the best possible advantage, regardless of their source. Tacitus, too, offers a generally favorable assessment, citing Vespasian as the first man to improve after becoming emperor. [[19]] Thus do we find the princeps offering subventions to senators not possessing the property qualifications of their rank, restoring many cities throughout the empire, and granting state salaries for the first time to teachers of Latin and Greek rhetoric. To enhance Roman economic and social life even further, he encouraged theatrical productions by building a new stage for the Theatre of Marcellus, and he also put on lavish state dinners to assist the food trades. [[20]]

In other matters the emperor displayed similar concern. He restored the depleted ranks of the senatorial and equestrian orders with eligible Italian and provincial candidates and reduced the backlog of pending court cases at Rome. Vespasian also re-established discipline in the army, while punishing or dismissing large numbers of Vitellius ' men. [[21]]
Beyond Rome, the emperor increased the number of legions in the East and continued the process of imperial expansion by the annexation of northern England, the pacification of Wales, and by advances into Scotland and southwest Germany between the Rhine and the Danube. Vespasian also conferred rights on communities abroad, especially in Spain, where the granting of Latin rights to all native communities contributed to the rapid Romanization of that province during the Imperial period. [[22]]

Death and Assessment

In contrast to his immediate imperial predecessors, Vespasian died peacefully - at Aquae Cutiliae near his birthplace in Sabine country on 23 June, A.D. 79, after contracting a brief illness. The occasion is said to have inspired his deathbed quip: "Oh my, I must be turning into a god!" [[23]] In fact, public deification did follow his death, as did his internment in the Mausoleum of Augustus alongside the Julio-Claudians.

A man of strict military discipline and simple tastes, Vespasian proved to be a conscientious and generally tolerant administrator. More importantly, following the upheavals of A.D. 68-69, his reign was welcome for its general tranquility and restoration of peace. In Vespasian Rome found a leader who made no great breaks with tradition, yet his ability ro rebuild the empire and especially his willingness to expand the composition of the governing class helped to establish a positive working model for the "good emperors" of the second century.

Bibliography

Since the scholarship on Vespasian is more comprehensive than can be treated here, the works listed below are main accounts or bear directly upon issues discussed in the entry above. A comprehensive modern anglophone study of this emperor is yet to be produced.

Atti congresso internazionale di studi Flaviani, 2 vols. Rieti, 1983.

Atti congresso internazionale di studi Vespasianei, 2 vols. Rieti, 1981.

Bosworth, A.B. "Vespasian and the Provinces: Some Problems of the Early 70s A.D." Athenaeum 51 (1973): 49-78.

Brunt, P. A. "Lex de imperio Vespasiani." JRS (67) 1977: 95-116.

D'Espèrey, S. Franchet. "Vespasien, Titus et la littérature." ANRW II.32.5: 3048-3086.

Dudley, D. and Webster, G. The Roman Conquest of Britain. London, 1965.

Gonzalez, J. "The Lex Irnitana: A New Copy of the Flavian Municipal Law." JRS 76 (1986): 147-243.

Grant, M. The Roman Emperors: A Biographical Guide to the Rulers of Rome, 31 B.C. - A.D. 476. New York, 1985.

Homo, L. Vespasien, l'Empereur du bons sens (69-79 ap. J.-C.). Paris, 1949.

Levi, M.A. "I Flavi." ANRW II.2: 177-207.

McCrum, M. and Woodhead, A. G. Select Documents of the Principates of the Flavian Emperors Including the Year of the Revolution. Cambridge, 1966.

Nicols, John. Vespasian and the Partes Flavianae. Wiesbaden, 1978.

Scarre, C. Chronicle of the Roman Emperors. The Reign-by-Reign Record of the Rulers of Imperial Rome. London, 1995.

Suddington, D. B. The Development of the Roman Auxiliary Forces from Caesar to Vespasian, 49 B.C. - A.D. 79. Harare: U. of Zimbabwe, 1982.

Syme, R. Tacitus. Oxford, 1958.

Wardel, David. "Vespasian, Helvidius Priscus and the Restoration of the Capitol." Historia 45 (1996): 208-222.

Wellesley, K. The Long Year: A.D. 69. Bristol, 1989, 2nd ed.


Notes

[[1]] Suet. Vesp. 2.1. Suetonius remains the major source but see also Tac. Hist. 2-5; Cass. Dio 65; Joseph. BJ 3-4.

[[2]] Suetonius (Vesp. 2.1) claims that Vespasian did not accept the latus clavus, the broad striped toga worn by one aspiring to a senatorial career, immediately. The delay, however, was perhaps no more than three years. See J. Nicols, Vespasian and the Partes Flavianae (Wiesbaden, 1978), 2.

[[3]] Military tribunate and quaestorship: Suet. Vesp. 2.3; aedileship: ibid., 5.3, in which Gaius, furious that Vespasian had not kept the streets clean, as was his duty, ordered some soldiers to load him with filth;,they complied by stuffing his toga with as much as it could hold. See also Dio 59.12.2-3; praetorship: Suet. Vesp. 2.3, in which Vespasian is depicted as one of Gaius' leading adulators, an account consistent with Tacitus' portrayal (Hist 1.50.4; 2.5.1) of his early career. For a more complete discussion of these posts and attendant problems of dating, see Nicols, Vespasian, 2-7.

[[4]] Marriage and Caenis: Suet. Vesp. 3; Cass. Dio 65.14.

[[5]] Nicols, Vespasian, 12-39.

[[6]] Suet. Vesp. 4.1 For additional details on Vespasian's exploits in Britain, see D. Dudley and G. Webster, The Roman Conquest of Britain (London, 1965), 55 ff., 98.

[[7]] Concerning Vespasian's years between his consulship and proconsulship, see Suet. Vesp. 4.2 and Nicols, Vespasian, 9. On his unpopularity in Africa, see Suet. Vesp. 4.3, an account of a riot at Hadrumentum, where he was once pelted with turnips. In recording that Africa supported Vitellius in A.D. 69, Tacitus too suggests popular dissatisfaction with Vespasian's proconsulship. See Hist. 2.97.2.

[[8]] This despite the fact that the sources record two rebukes of Vespasian, one for extorting money from a young man seeking career advancement (Suet. Vesp. 4.3), the other for either leaving the room or dozing off during one of the emperor's recitals (Suet. Vesp. 4.4 and 14, which places the transgression in Greece; Tac. (Ann. 16.5.3), who makes Rome and the Quinquennial Games of A.D. 65 the setting; A. Braithwaite, C. Suetoni Tranquilli Divus Vespasianus, Oxford, 1927, 30, who argues for both Greece and Rome).

[[9]] Subjugation of Galilee: Joseph. BJ 3.65-4.106; siege of Jerusalem: ibid., 4.366-376, 414.

[[10]] Revolt of Vindex: Suet. Nero 40; Tac. Ann. 14.4; revolt of Galba: Suet. Galba 10; Plut. Galba, 4-5; suicide of Nero: Suet. Nero 49; Cass. Dio 63.29.2. For the most complete account of the period between Nero's death and the accession of Vespasian, see K. Wellesley, The Long Year: A.D. 69, 2nd. ed. (Bristol, 1989).

[[11]] Tac. Hist. 2.76.

[[12]] Troops in support of Vespasian: Suet. Vit. 15; Mucianus and his forces: Tac. Hist. 2.83; Vespasian and grain shipments: Joseph. BJ 4.605 ff.; see also Tac. Hist. 3.48, on Vespasian's possible plan to shut off grain shipments to Italy from Carthage as well.

[[13]] On Vitellius' army and its lack of discipline, see Tac. Hist. 2.93-94; illness of army: ibid., 2.99.1; Cremona: ibid., 3.32-33.

[[14]] On Vitellius' last days, see Tac. Hist. 3.68-81. On the complicated issue of Vitellius' death date, see L. Holzapfel, "Römische Kaiserdaten," Klio 13 (1913): 301.

[[15]] Honors, etc. Tac. Hist. 4.3. For more on the lex de imperio Vespasiani, see P. A. Brunt, "Lex de imperio Vespasiani," JRS (67) 1977: 95-116.

[[16]] Omens: Suet. Vesp. 5; consulships and honors: ibid., 8; succession of sons: ibid., 25.

[[17]] On Vespasian's restoration of Rome, see Suet. Vesp. 9; Cass. Dio 65.10; D. Wardel, "Vespasian, Helvidius Priscus and the Restoration of the Capitol," Historia 45 (1996): 208-222.

[[18]] Suet. Vesp. 16.

[[19]] Ibid.; Tac. Hist. 1.50.

[[20]] Suet. Vesp. 17-19.

[[21]] Ibid., 8-10.

[[22]] On Vespasian's exploits in Britain, see esp. Tac., Agricola, eds. R. M. Ogilvie and I. A. Richmond (1967), and W. S. Hanson, Agricola and the Conquest of the North (1987); on the granting of Latin rights in Spain, see, e.g., J. Gonzalez, "The Lex Irnitana: a New Copy of the Flavian Municipal Law." JRS 76 (1986): 147-243.

[[23]] For this witticism and other anecdotes concerning Vespasian's sense of humor, see Suet. Vesp. 23.

Copyright (C) 1998, John Donahue. Published on De Imperatoribus Romanis, an Online Encyplopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families.
http://www.roman-emperors.org/vespasia.htm
Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.





Cleisthenes
zeugitania.jpg
AE 1717 viewsCarthage, Zeugitania, North Africa, c. 310 - 290 B.C. Bronze AE 17, SNG Cop 109 ff., F, Sicilian (?) mint, 2.372g, 15.0mm, 225o, c. 310 - 290 B.C.; obverse head of Tanit left wearing wreath of grain and pendant necklace; reverse, horse standing right, date palm tree behind. Tanit was a Phoenician lunar goddess, worshiped as the patron goddess at Carthage. Ex FORVMPodiceps
sb1059_18mm480g.jpg
AE follis Constans II8 viewsObv:CONSTANTN, crowned and mantled bust facing with short beard, (cross or trefoil on crown), holding mappa and cross on globe
Rev: C-T-X-X clockwise from top left around cross, star above, with pellets to right and left.
Mint: Carthage
Date: 641-668 CE
18mm, 4.80g
SB 1059
wileyc
sb264,25mm573g.jpg
AE half Follis Justinian I sb 26416 viewsObverse: DN IVSTINIANVS PP AVG helmeted and cuir, bust facing, holding gl. cr. and shield; to r., cross.
Reverse: Large K; to l., ANNO; to r., numerals representing the regnal yr; cross above, SO beneath, KAR in exergue.
Date: 527-538 CE
Mint: Carthage
Sear 264, DO 294
wileyc
Punic_AR.JPG
Akragas, Sicily122 views213-211 BC (Punic Occupation)
AR 1/4 Shekel (14mm, 2.11g)
O: Head of Triptolemus right, wreathed in corn.
R: Horse galloping right; Punic letters 'ht' below.
SNG Cop 379; HGC 2, 174; Burnett, Enna 151; de Luynes 3965; Weber 8540; Walker Group II, 1st Series
ex Tom Cederlind

One of the leading centers of Greek influence in the west during the 6th and 5th centuries BC, Akragas was sacked by Carthage in 406. Conquered by Rome in 262 and retaken by Carthgage 8 years later, the city never again regained its' former status. Akragas suffered greatly during the Second Punic War (218-201), with this coin being struck just before the city fell to Rome once again in 210.
Although renamed Agrigentum, its' culture remained essentially Greek for another few hundred years until Rome granted the inhabitants citizenship after Julius Caesar's death in 44 BC.

This coin was struck on the Carthaginian standard and of debased silver.
3 commentsEnodia
079M.jpg
Alexander (Tyrannus) of Carthage32 viewsAlexander of Carthage. Usurper, AD 308-310.
Æ Follis (21.5mm, 5.26 g, 6h). Carthago (Carthage) mint.
IMP ALEXANDER P F AVG, laureate head right
[S P Q R OPT]IMO PRINCIPI, aquila between two signa, one on left surmounted by hand, one on right surmounted by wreath; PK.
RIC VI 72 (R3); Salama type X, portrait style G. VF, green patina, earthen encrustation. Very rare reverse type.

CNG Coins Triton XXII Auction, Lot 1170.
3 commentsMark Z
2010-09-25.jpg
AR half Siliqua Heraclius, SB 87128 viewsObverse: DN :Greek_epsilon:RAC :Greek_Lambda:IO PP AV or similar, Crowned, dr, and cuir bust facing beardless
Reverse: No legend, facing busts of Heraclius Constantine on L., and Martina on r., the former wearing crown and Chlamys, the other latter , crown with long pendilla and robes, between thier heads, cross and with four dots between down lower.
Mint: Carthage
Date: 610-641 CE
Sear 871
.66gm 9mm
wileyc
BCC_B20_Justinian_I_Nummus.jpg
BCC B206 viewsByzantine Period
Justinian I 527-565CE
Obv: Diademed (draped, and
cuirassed) bust right,
traces of inscription.
Rev: Large A (one nummus)
AE 8mm 0.68gm. Axis:210
Struck 534-539CE
SB 281 DOC 309 Carthage
Surface find, Caesarea M. 1977.
v-drome
BCC_B23_Justinian_I_Stuarogram.jpg
BCC B232 viewsByzantine Period
Justinian I 527-565CE
Obv: [Helmeted, draped bust
facing, stars flanking].
Rev: Staurogram, below, left
and right: A and w
AE 8mm 0.57gm. axis:345?
SB 342, DOC 308, MIB 208a
Nummus. Carthage Mint
Surface find, Caesarea M. 1977.
v-drome
valerian_tyre.jpg
BCC rgp3x77 viewsRoman Provincial - Tyre
Valerian I 253-260C.E.
Obv:IMP C P LIC VALERIANVS AVG
Luareated bust rt.
Rev:COL TV/RO MET
Dido of Carthage, wearing tall kalathos,
standing rt .before lighted altar, raising
both arms towards two-columned temple,
seen in perspective, containing the club
of Melqart-Herakles. Murex shell in field.
AE26.5x29mm. 11.07gm. Axis:180
Possible reference Rouvier 2501v. (Gallienus)
1 commentsv-drome
CarthageBillion.jpg
Billion Tridrachm from Carthage83 viewsA Billion tridrachm from Carthage, minted during the second Punic war. 9.589g, 26.2mm, Carthage mint, c. 215 - 205 B.C.

Obverse: Head of Tanit left, wearing barley wreath, pellet on leaf, triple-pendant earing, and necklace with many pendants

Reverse: Unbridled horse standing right, palm tree in background, pellet below horse's belly forward of the palm trunk; scarce;

Attribution: Alexandropoulos 44a; Müller Afrique 104; SNG Cop 190 var (no pellet); SRCV II 6494 var (same)
3 commentschuy1530
1058.jpg
bmc4097 viewsElagabalus
Tyre, Phoenicia

Obv: Laureate cuirassed bust right.
Rev: Dido building Carthage, she stands front looking left, holding a ruler in right hand and scepter in left, before the arched gate of the city; above the gate a mason at work on one of the towers, below a man digging with a pick, murex shell and palms tree in upper fields.
27 mm, 12.07 gms

BMC 409
Charles M
carthage.jpg
Bronze Punic Carthage Coin21 viewsA bronze coin from Punic Carthage, minted between 264-241 BC. 20 mm, 4.9 g.chuy1530
00017Q00.JPG
Bruttium, The Brettii (Circa 211-208 BC)28 viewsÆ Double Unit (Didrachm)

26 mm, 16.19 g

Obverse: Head of Ares left, wearing crested Corinthian helmet decorated with griffin

Reverse: BRET-TIWN, Hera Hoplosima (or Athena) advancing right, holding spear and shield; racing torch right.

Scheu 72; SNG ANS 82; HN Italy 1987

The Brettii were an indigenous Italian people who emerged in southern Italy in the mid-fourth century BC. Ancient authors describe them as a group of revolted slaves and miscellaneous fugitives who came together after seeking refuge in the rugged mountains of the area. Nonetheless, it is more likely that most of these people were native Oenotrians or Pelasgians who had escaped from domination by the Greek cities and other native groups to the north. By the mid-third century BC, this disparate congregation of people, now known as the Brettii, had become the predominant power over most of Italy south of the river Laos, including the important mints of Consentia, Medma, Hipponium, Terina, and Thurium (Diod. XVI.15; Strabo VI). Their rising power, however, was eventually checked by the expansion of Roman authority in their region. In the 280s BC, they united with their neighbors, the Lucanians, against Rome, an adventure that proved inconclusive. Soon thereafter, they aided Pyrrhos in his war against Rome, an unsuccessful endeavor that resulted in the Romans carrying on the conflict against the Brettians after defeating the Epiran leader. The Brettians submitted to the Romans, but in the face of Hannibal's successes against Rome, they again allied themselves with Rome's enemy during the Second Punic War (Livy XXII. 61). In this conflict, the Brettians were completely invested in the alliance with Carthage, such that the entire region of Bruttium became a veritable Punic fortress, and it was during this war that the entire series of Brettian coinage was struck. Once again, though, the Brettii had supported the losing side, and this time the Romans were determined to squash any further ability of the Brettians to threaten them. In the aftermath of Hannibal's defeat, the Romans subjugated Bruttium through annual military deployments and the establishment of three colonies, at Tempsa, Kroton, and Vibo Valentia (Livy XXXIV. 45 and XXXV. 40). Unlike other Italian populations that had been conquered by the Romans, the Brettii were also not admitted as Roman allies and could not serve in the Roman military (Appian, Annib. 61). Little is known of the Brettii thereafter.
1 commentsNathan P
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Byzantine , Justinian I. 527-565.36 viewsAR Half Siliqua. Carthage mint , aVF , rare.Sam
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Byzantine Empire: Constans II (641-668 CE) AV Solidus, Carthage (Sear 1039; DOC 119; MIB 66)8 viewsQuant.Geek
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Byzantine Empire: Constans II (641-668 CE) AV Solidus, Carthage, IY 3 (Sear 1030; DOC 108; MIB 57.1)12 viewsObv: D N CON-TΛNTIN VPP Crowned and draped bust of Constans facing, holding globus cruciger
Rev: VICTORI AAVς Γ; Cross potent set on three steps; P to right; in exergue, CONOB
Quant.Geek
Sear-1043.jpg
Byzantine Empire: Constans II (641-668) AV Solidus, Carthage (Sear 1043; DOC 125; MIB 72b)14 viewsObv: Crowned and draped facing busts of Constans, holding globus cruciger, and Constantine
Rev: Cross potent set on globe; at sides, crowned and draped facing busts of Heraclius and Tiberius; P below
Quant.Geek
Sear-1037.jpg
Byzantine Empire: Constans II (641-668) AV Solidus, Carthage, IY 12 (Sear 1037; DOC 116; MIB 64)12 viewsObv: D N CO-NSTANT; Crowned bust facing, holding globus cruciger
Rev: VICTORIA AVGG; cross potent set on three steps; IA/CONOB in exergue



Quant.Geek
Sear-1057.jpg
Byzantine Empire: Constans II (641-668) Æ Half Follis, Carthage (Sear 1057; DOC II 138; MIB 196a-b)13 viewsObv: CONSTAN TINVSPP AVG; Bust facing, beardless, wearing chlamys and crown with cross on circlet; in right hand, globus cruciger
Rev: Large cross; X on either side; in exergue, CRTς
Quant.Geek
Sear-1060var.jpg
Byzantine Empire: Constans II (641-668) Æ Half Follis, Carthage (Sear-1060/1059 Mule)13 viewsObv: Crowned and draped bust facing, holding mappa and globus cruciger, crown ornamented with cross
Rev: Large cross; C-T above X-X across field; above, star between two pellets

From the Prue Morgan Fitts Collection.

This coin has the reverse type of SB 1059, with pellets to either side of the star on the reverse, but has the obverse type of SB 1060, with Constans' crown ornamented with a cross instead of a trefoil
SpongeBob
Sear-866.jpg
Byzantine Empire: Heraclius (610-641 CE) AV Solidus, Carthage, IY 14 (Sear 866; DOC 202; MIB 83) 9 viewsObv: D-N ЄR-ACLIO P P IΔ; crowned, cuirassed bust of Heraclius facing, wearing pendilia, globus cruciger in right hand
Rev: VICTORIA • AVGG A; cross potent set on three steps; in exergue, CONOB
Quant.Geek
Sear-859.jpg
Byzantine Empire: Heraclius (610-641) Decanummium, Carthage Mint (Sear-859)20 viewsObv: D N ERACLIO P P AVG.
Draped and cuirassed bust facing, wearing crown cruciger.
Rev: Large X between M and N; above, cross; below, star; pellet below M and N .
SpongeBob
Sear-867.jpg
Byzantine Empire: Heraclius with Heraclius Constantine (610-641 CE) AV Solidus, Carthage, IY 6 (Sear 867; DOC 208; MIB 84a)11 viewsObv: D N ЄRACLIO ЄT ЄRA CONST P P S; To left, bust of Heraclius with short beard; to right, smaller bust of Heraclius Constantine, beardless; each wears cuirass, paludamentum, and crown with cross; Between heads, cross
Rev: VICTOR-IA AVCC S; Cross potent on base and two steps; in exergue, CONOB
Quant.Geek
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Byzantine Empire: Heraclius with Heraclius Constantine (610-641 CE) AV Solidus, Carthage, IY 7 (Sear 867; DOC 209; MIB 84a)8 viewsObv: D N ЄRACLIO ЄT ЄRA CONST P P Z; To left, bust of Heraclius with short beard; to right, smaller bust of Heraclius Constantine, beardless; each wears cuirass, paludamentum, and crown with cross; Between heads, cross
Rev: VICTOR-IA AVCC Z; Cross potent on base and two steps; in exergue, CONOB
Quant.Geek
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Byzantine Empire: Justin II (565-578 CE) Æ Pentanummium, Carthage (Sear-401; DOC 194; MIBE 81)15 viewsObv: Diademed, draped and cuirassed bust of Justin II right
Rev: Large V; above, cross; to left, P/R; to right, A/N/N/O; CAR in exergue

Quant.Geek
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Byzantine Empire: Justin II with Sophia (565-578) Æ Decanummium , Carthage (Sear-400; DOC I-200; MIBE-80a)12 viewsObv: Draped busts facing of Justin, helmeted, and Sophia, crowned; VITA below
Rev: Large I; N - M across field

From the Prue Morgan Fitts Collection
SpongeBob
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Byzantine Empire: Justin II with Sophia (565-578) Æ Follis, Carthage (Sear-394; DOC 202; MIBE 74)14 viewsObv: Justin and Sophia seated facing on double throne; cross between; VITA in exergue
Rev: Large M; large X (date) above, with star above and below in upper central field; A/N/N/O - K/A/R across field
Quant.Geek
Sear-396.jpg
Byzantine Empire: Justin II with Sophia (565-578) Æ Half Follis, Carthage (Sear-396; DOC I-203; MIBE-77)16 viewsObv: Justin and Sophia seated facing; cross between, [VITA] in exergue
Rev: Two Victories standing facing one another, holding round shield between; cross above, K/NM below
SpongeBob
Sear-395.jpg
Byzantine Empire: Justin II, with Sophia (565-578) Æ Half Follis, Carthage, RY 8 (Sear-395; DOC 199; MIBE 76)11 viewsObv: Facing busts of Justin, helmeted and cuirassed, and Sophia, crowned and draped; cross above, VITA in exergue
Rev: Large K; A/N/N/O to left, cross above, V/III to right, retrograde ς below; KAR in exergue
Quant.Geek
Sear-277(1).jpg
Byzantine Empire: Justinian I (527-565 CE) Æ 2 Nummi, Carthage (Sear 277; DOC 102; MIBE 190)6 viewsObv: Diademed, draped and cuirassed bust of Justinian I to right between two crosses
Rev: Large B
Dim: 10 mm, 0.80 g, 7 h
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Sear-277.jpg
Byzantine Empire: Justinian I (527-565 CE) Æ 2 Nummi, Carthage (Sear 277; DOC 102; MIBE 190)12 viewsObv: Diademed, draped and cuirassed bust of Justinian I to right between two crosses
Rev: Large B
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Sear-276.jpg
Byzantine Empire: Justinian I (527-565 CE) Æ Pentanummium, Carthage (Sear 276; DOC 306; MIB 204)8 viewsObv: D N IVSTINIAVS PP AVC; Diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust of Justinian to right
Rev: VICTORIA AG; Large Є, CAR in exergue
Dim: 15 mm, 2.57 g, 7 h
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Sear-269.jpg
Byzantine Empire: Justinian I (527-565) Æ Decanummium, RY 13, Carthage (Sear-269; DOC I-297; MIBE-199)8 viewsObv: DNIVSTINI ANVSPP AVG; Diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust right
Rev: Large I; cross above, A/N/N/O X/III across field; CAR in exergue
SpongeBob
Sear-281.jpg
Byzantine Empire: Justinian I (527-565) Æ Nummus, Carthage (Sear 281; DOC 309; MIBE 193)15 viewsObv: Diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust of Justinian I to right
Rev: Large A
Dim: 10 mm, 0.53 g, 4 h

This issue was struck shortly after Belisarius defeated Gelimer, the last king of the Vandals, which reunited the African provinces with the Empire.
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Sear-551.jpg
Byzantine Empire: Maurice Tiberius (582-602 CE) AR 1/2 Siliqua, Carthage (Sear-551; DOC 239; MIBE 57)12 viewsObv: D N TIB [MA]-VRIC [PP A]; crowned, draped, and cuirassed bust of Maurice Tiberius facing
Rev: * SALVS MVNDI, cross within circular border of pellets
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Sear-553.jpg
Byzantine Empire: Maurice Tiberius (582-602) AR 1/2 Siliqua, Carthage (Sear-553; DOC 241; MIBE 61)12 viewsObv: D N MAVR Tb PP; helmeted and draped bust of Maurice Tiberius facing, wearing consular robes, holding mappa and globus cruciger
Rev: Cross potent on three steps, flanked by A-ω; all within circular pelleted border surrounded by laurel wreath
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Sear-681.jpg
Byzantine Empire: Phocas (602-610) AV Solidus, Carthage (Sear 681; DOC 108; MIB 32)9 viewsQuant.Geek
Sear-686.jpg
Byzantine Empire: Phocas (602-610) Æ Half Follis, Carthage, RY5 (Sear-686; DOC 116; MIBE-98a)13 viewsObv: Crowned bust facing, wearing consular robes and holding mappa and cruciform scepter
Rev: Large X•X; cross above, star to left, Є to right; KRTς

From the Prue Morgan Fitts Collection
SpongeBob
heraclius~1.jpg
Byzantine Heraclius quarter siliqua - UNIQUE8 viewsHaraclius, AR quarter siliqua, mint of Carthage.
10 mm ; 0.25 gr.
Obv. D.N.ERACAIO PP AV (or similar). Crowned, dr. and cuir. bust facing, beardless.
Rev. Cross potent, with star in each angle.

D.O. ..., BMC ..., T ...., R ...., BN ...(but now in BN), MIB 150 ; Sear 871a

Unique
Tanit
Justinian.jpg
Byzantine Justinian I Decanummium88 viewsJustinian I Æ Decanummium. Carthage mint, year 13 (539-40). D N IVSTINI-ANVS PP AG, diademed, draped, & cuirassed bust right / Large I, surmounted by cross; to left, A/N/N/O; to right, numerals representing the regnal year X/III ; in ex. CAR

Sear 269, DO.297-8, BMC 388-93.
4 commentsTanit
justinian1.jpg
Byzantine Justinian I Half siliqua11 viewsJustinian I. 527-565. AR Half Siliqua (0.54 g). Carthage mint. Struck 533-534.

Diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust right / O-V/T-M in the angles of a cross; all within wreath; CONOS.

Cf. DOC 282; cf. MIBE 52; SB 256.

Extremely rare.
Tanit
theodosius~0.jpg
Byzantine Theodosius 1/3 Siliqua15 viewsTheodosius, son of Maurice Tiberius (590-602).
1/3 Siliqua (200 Nummi). Carthage, 592-597.
AR 0.3 gr.
DNTHEODO SIVSPPA. Bust facing, wearing cuirass and crown with trefoil ornament above circle.
Rv. Large N • M; above, +; beneath, CC, all within circle of dots surrounded by wreath.

BNC Maurice Tiberius 6; MIB Maurice Tiberius 62; Sear 615A.


Extremely rare.
1 commentsTanit
Teodosius.jpg
Byzantine Theodosius Half Siliqua52 viewsHalf Siliqua (Silver, Carthage, 592-602. )
D N TEODOSIVS PP A Helmeted and cuirassed bust of Theodosius facing. Rev. Facing busts of Maurice and Constantina with long cross between; in exergue,

ACTI. DOC 307. MIB 59. S. 615.

Rare
Tanit
heraclius~2.jpg
Byzantine, Heraclius, quarter siliqua - UNIQUE19 viewsHaraclius, AR quarter siliqua, mint of Carthage.
10 mm ; 0.25 gr.
Obv. D.N.ERACAIO PP AV (or similar). Crowned, dr. and cuir. bust facing, beardless.
Rev. Cross potent, with star in each angle.

D.O. ..., BMC ..., T ...., R ...., BN ...(but now in BN), MIB 150 ; Sear 871a

Unique
Tanit
JustinianS279.JPG
BYZANTINE, Justinian I 527-565 Carthage65 viewsObv: ...INA... (blundered legend)
Rev: VOT XIIII
Sear 279
8-9 mm and very hard to photograph!
Laetvs
Justinian~2.jpg
Byzantine, Justinian I, Æ Decanummium.23 viewsJustinian I Æ Decanummium. Carthage mint, year 13 (539-40). D N IVSTINI-ANVS PP AG, diademed, draped, & cuirassed bust right / Large I, surmounted by cross; to left, A/N/N/O; to right, numerals representing the regnal year X/III ; in ex. CAR

Sear 269, DO.297-8, BMC 388-93.
Tanit
803_Annius_Luscus_and_Fabius_Hispaniensis.jpg
C. Annius T.f. T.n. Luscus and L. Fabius L.f. Hispaniensis - AR denarius8 views²Transalpine Gaul
¹north Italy
¹²82-81 BC
diademed draped bust of Anna Parenna right; caduceus left, scales right, dagger below
C·ANNI·T·F·T·N_·_PRO·COS·EX·S·C·
Victory in quadriga right, holding palm branch and reins
Q .
L·FABI·L·F·HISP
¹Crawford 366/1a, SRCV I 289, Sydenham 748, RSC I Annia 2
²Mark Passehl - Roman moneyer & coin type chronology, 150 – 50 BC
3,7g
ex Gitbud and Naumann

Moneyer apparently used Anna Parenna as a pun to his name Annius. It is the only known depiction of Anna Parenna whose identity is very complicated.

"An older myth tells that Anna Perenna was an old woman from the city of Bollivae in Latium. The myth tells that Anna Perenna brought bread and cakes to the Plebeians who wanted to separate from Rome because of their unequal status as Plebeians in 494 BC and so she saved them from starving. This is why she was popular on the common people and considered as goddes after her death.

A later tradition from the time of the myth of Aeneas made Anna the sister of Dido. After Dido has committed suicide and Carthage was conquered she had to fly. A heavy storm throw her to the coast of Latium at Laurentum where Aeneas was the ruler. Aeneas and his companion went to the beach and he recognized her and took her to his palace. In a dream Anna was warned to be alarmed at the traps that Lavinia, Aeneas' wife, would set for her so she fled from the palace. While she was wandering she met Numicius, the god of a nearby stream who carried her off to his bed. The servants of Aeneas searched for Anna and followed her tracks to the river bank a shape rose from the water and revealed to them that Anna had become a water nymph, whose new name, Perenna, signified eternity. Aeneas' servants in their joy scattered among the fields and passed the day in feasting and festivities, which became established as an annual celebration of the festival of Anna Perenna. There is another opinion too that she committed suicide by drowning in the river Numicius because of her desperation.

In another myth she was an old woman again. Mars was fallen in love to Minerva, sworn virgin. Mars asked Anna Perenna for interceding on his behalf. But instead of this - knowing about the impossibility of his wishes - she dressed herself like Minerva and came to Mars veiled. When he tried to kiss her she lifted her veil, break out in laughter and mocked Mars. Minerva's main festival, the Quinquatrus, was celebrated 4 days after the festival of Anna Perenna so this could be reason of this story." from Jochen's coins of mythological interest.
Johny SYSEL
103002.jpg
CALABRIA, Tarentum184 viewsTaranto was founded in 706 BC by Dorian immigrants as the only Spartan colony, and its origin is peculiar: the founders were Partheniae, sons of unmarried Spartan women and perioeci (free men, but not citizens of Sparta); these unions were decreed by the Spartans to increase the number of soldiers (only the citizens of Sparta could become soldiers) during the bloody Messenian Wars, but later they were nullified, and the sons were forced to leave. According to the legend Phalanthus, the Parthenian leader, went to Delphi to consult the oracle and received the puzzling answer that he should found a city where rain fell from a clear sky. After all attempts to capture a suitable place to found a colony failed, he became despondent, convinced that the oracle had told him something that was impossible, and was consoled by his wife. She laid his head in her lap and herself became disconsolate. When Phalanthus felt her tears splash onto his forehead he at last grasped the meaning of the oracle, for his wife's name meant clear sky. The harbour of Taranto in Apulia was nearby and he decided this must be the new home for the exiles. The Partheniae arrived and founded the city, naming it Taras after the son of the Greek sea god, Poseidon, and the local nymph Satyrion. A variation says Taras was founded in 707 BC by some Spartans, who, the sons of free women and enslaved fathers, were born during the Messenian War. According to other sources, Heracles founded the city. Another tradition indicates Taras himself as the founder of the city; the symbol of the Greek city (as well as of the modern city) is Taras riding a dolphin. Taranto increased its power, becoming a commercial power and a sovereign city of Magna Graecia, ruling over the Greek colonies in southern Italy.

In its beginning, Taranto was a monarchy, probably modelled on the one ruling over Sparta; according to Herodotus (iii 136), around 492 BC king Aristophilides ruled over the city. The expansion of Taranto was limited to the coast because of the resistance of the populations of inner Apulia. In 472 BC, Taranto signed an alliance with Rhegion, to counter the Messapii, Peuceti, and Lucanians (see Iapygian-Tarentine Wars), but the joint armies of the Tarentines and Rhegines were defeated near Kailìa (modern Ceglie), in what Herodotus claims to be the greatest slaughter of Greeks in his knowledge, with 3,000 Reggians and uncountable Tarentines killed. In 466 BC, Taranto was again defeated by the Iapyges; according to Aristotle, who praises its government, there were so many aristocrats killed that the democratic party was able to get the power, to remove the monarchy, inaugurate a democracy, and expel the Pythagoreans. Like Sparta, Tarentum was an aristocratic republic, but became democratic when the ancient nobility dwindled.

However, the rise of the democratic party did not weaken the bonds of Taranto and her mother-city Sparta. In fact, Taranto supported the Peloponnesian side against Athens in the Peloponnesian War, refused anchorage and water to Athens in 415 BC, and even sent ships to help the Peloponnesians, after the Athenian disaster in Sicily. On the other side, Athens supported the Messapians, in order to counter Taranto's power.

In 432 BC, after several years of war, Taranto signed a peace treaty with the Greek colony of Thurii; both cities contributed to the foundation of the colony of Heraclea, which rapidly fell under Taranto's control. In 367 BC Carthage and the Etruscans signed a pact to counter Taranto's power in southern Italy.

Under the rule of its greatest statesman, strategist and army commander-in-chief, the philosopher and mathematician Archytas, Taranto reached its peak power and wealth; it was the most important city of the Magna Graecia, the main commercial port of southern Italy, it produced and exported goods to and from motherland Greece and it had the biggest army and the largest fleet in southern Italy. However, with the death of Archytas in 347 BC, the city started a slow, but ineluctable decline; the first sign of the city's decreased power was its inability to field an army, since the Tarentines preferred to use their large wealth to hire mercenaries, rather than leave their lucrative trades.

In 343 BC Taranto appealed for aid against the barbarians to its mother city Sparta, in the face of aggression by the Brutian League. In 342 BC, Archidamus III, king of Sparta, arrived in Italy with an army and a fleet to fight the Lucanians and their allies. In 338 BC, during the Battle of Manduria, the Spartan and Tarentine armies were defeated in front of the walls of Manduria (nowadays in province of Taranto), and Archidamus was killed.

In 333 BC, still troubled by their Italic neighbours, the Tarentines called the Epirotic king Alexander Molossus to fight the Bruttii, Samnites, and Lucanians, but he was later (331 BC) defeated and killed in the battle of Pandosia (near Cosenza). In 320 BC, a peace treaty was signed between Taranto and the Samnites. In 304 BC, Taranto was attacked by the Lucanians and asked for the help of Agathocles tyrant of Syracuse, king of Sicily. Agathocles arrived in southern Italy and took control of Bruttium (present-day Calabria), but was later called back to Syracuse. In 303 BC-302 BC Cleonymus of Sparta established an alliance with Taranto against the Lucanians, and fought against them.

Arnold J. Toynbee, a classical scholar who taught at Oxford and other prestigious English universities and who did original and definitive work on Sparta (e.g. The Journal of Hellenic Studies, vol. xxxiii 1913 p. 246-275) seemed to have some doubts about Tarentum (Taranto) being of Spartan origin.

In his book The Study of History vol. iii p. 52 he wrote: "...Tarentum, which claimed a Spartan origin; but, even if this claim was in accordance with historical fact..." The tentative phrasing seems to imply that the evidence is neither conclusive or even establishes a high degree of probability of the truth that Tarentum (Taranto) was a Spartan colony.

CALABRIA, Tarentum. Circa 302-281 BC. AR Drachm (17mm, 2.91 gm). Helmeted head of Athena right, helmet decorated with Skylla hurling a stone / Owl standing right head facing, on olive branch; Vlasto 1058; SNG ANS 1312; HN Italy 1015. VF.

Ex-Cng eAuction 103 Lot 2 190/150
2 commentsecoli
Caracalla.jpg
Caracalla - Dea Caelestis98 viewsCaracalla (198-217) Silver Denarius - 3.02 grams, 18.9mm.
Minted at Rome, circa: 201-206 Reference: RIC-IV-I-130a-C
Obv: Laureate and draped youthful bust of Caracalla facing right - ANTONINVS PIVS AVG
Rev: The Dea Caelestis, holding thunderbolt and sceptre, riding on lion running right over waters gushing from a rock - INDVLGENTIA AVGG IN CARTH
Well centered and struck with light toning and even wear on both surfaces. A historically interesting coin that celebrates the completion of Carthage aquaduct
1 commentsBolayi
RI105.jpg
Caracalla Denarius57 views201 - 206 AD

Carthage

ANTONINVS PIVS AVG
Laureate and draped bust right

INDVLGENTIA AVGG, INCARTH
Dea Caelestis riding lion springing right, holding thunderbolt & scepter

3.09g, 19mm

RSC 97
2 commentsZaph0dd
diad111.jpg
Caracalla Denarius. 196-19841 viewsOb. ANTONINVS PIVS AVG, laureate and draped bust right
Rev. INDVLGENTIA AVGG, IN CARTH below, Dea Caelestis (Cybele) riding lion springing right, holding thunderbolt & scepter

Ref. RIC 130a, RSC 97, BMC 280

Cybele, the mother of the Gods was the favourite deity of the Carthagenians; here the lion, which Virgil tells us (Æneid lib. 3) was tamed by Cybele, may be taken as an emblem of Africa (Septimus Severus, Caracallas father, originated there).

-:Bacchus:-
1 commentsBacchus
SGCV_6444_Medio_Calco_CARTAGO.jpg
CARTAGO - Nor-África 12 viewsAE 1/2 Calco 15 mm 2.9 gr.

Anv: Cabeza coronada de Tanit a izquierda, vistiendo triple pendiente.
Rev: Caballo estante a derecha, palmera en segundo plano, 3 puntos en formación triangular, en campo derecho.

Tanit fue la diosa más importante de la mitología cartaginesa, la consorte de Baal y patrona de Cartago. Era equivalente a la diosa fenicia Astarté; también fue una deidad bereber. Fue la diosa de Ibiza (Islas Baleares, España). Wikipedia

Acuñada: 325-300 A.C.
Ceca: Cartago - Nor-África

Referencias: Visona #16 - MAA #18f - Sear GCV II #6444 Pag.596 - Jenkins & Lewis #12 Plate.26 - Müller II #163 Pag.95 - SNG Cop #109 - Calciati III #20 - Henzen #384-9
mdelvalle
ABH_315_Calco_CARTAGO_NOVA.jpg
CARTAGO NOVA - Hispania 22 viewsHispano-Cartaginés, acuñada durante la II Guerra Púnica en Cartago Nova (Hoy Cartagena).

AE Calco 18 mm 9.7 gr.

Anv: Cabeza de Tanit a izquierda.
Rev: Cabeza de caballo a derecha, delante letra fenicia aleph.

Tanit fue la diosa más importante de la mitología cartaginesa, la consorte de Baal y patrona de Cartago. Era equivalente a la diosa fenicia Astarté; también fue una deidad bereber. Fue la diosa de Ibiza (Islas Baleares, España). Wikipedia

Acuñada: 220 - 215 A.C.
Ceca: Hispano-Cartaginesa, muy probablemente Cartago Nova (Hoy Cartagena - España)

Referencias: ABH #515 - Villaronga CNH #45 Pag.69
1 commentsmdelvalle
103093.jpg
CARTHAGE143 viewsCARTHAGE. Circa 400-350 BC. Æ 16mm (2.59 gm). Wreathed head of Tanit left, wearing pendant necklace / Horse standing right, palm behind; pellet above, trefoil of pellets before. Alexandropoulos 18f; SNG Copenhagen 119; Müller 167. Nice VF, green patina. Ex-CNG(77) B54V64ecoli
106085.jpg
CARTHAGE79 viewsCARTHAGE. Circa 370-340 BC. Æ 13mm (1.37 gm). Sicilian mint. Wreathed male head left / Horse prancing right. Calciati III pg. 377, 4; SNG Copenhagen 98. VF, dark brown, green and red patina, some roughness. Scarce. EX-CNG B33V4B
ecoli
carthage_bronze.jpg
Carthage23 viewsCarthage, Zeugitana; AE 16, uncertain Sicilian mint, circa 300 BC.
Obverse: Head of Tanit left.
Reverse: Horse standing right, palm-tree behind.
SNGCop 113, Müller 163; 2.66 gm.
b70
carthage_bronze2.jpg
Carthage17 viewsCarthage, Zeugitana; AE 16, uncertain Sicilian mint, circa 300 BC.
Obverse: Head of Tanit left.
Reverse: Horse standing right, palm-tree behind.
SNGCop 113, Müller 163; 16mm, 2.44 gm.
b70
coins64.JPG
Carthage32 viewsCarthage (3rd century BC). AE (18 mm / 4.90 g). Head of Tanit left / Horse head right, punic letter before. cf S 6525. Possibly overstruck on another coin, traces barely visible on obverse and reverse. Ex-Barry and Darling G15

Check

ecoli
Capture_00084.JPG
Carthage50 viewsSiculo-Punic Series
400-340 B.C.
Bronze Unit
4.72 gm, 15.5 mm
Obv.: Wreathed head of Tanit left
Rev.: Horse rearing right
Sicilian mint, c. 400-340 B.C.
SNG Cop 96,
SNG Cop 1021
2 commentsJaimelai
carthage.jpg
Carthage 99 viewsCarthage,. AE 19. Sardinia c. 300-264 B.C. (very few other coins were ever struck there). (5.48 grams. 6:30h). Obv: head of Tanit left, wreathed with grain. Rev: horse head and neck right.
Sear Greek 6523. Morcom 913. Ex Warren Esty.

Carthage, Rome’s first enemy off the Italian peninsula, minted coins in Sardinia, which it controlled during the First Punic War, possibly due to the close proximity of the troops.
1 commentsLucas H
O_001_carthage.jpg
Carthage39 viewsjimmynmu
carthage_k.jpg
CARTHAGE16 viewsÆ Unit, 16mm, 2.8g, 5h; Carthage mint, c. 400-350 BC.
Obv.: Wreathed head of Tanit left.
Rev.: Horse standing right; palm tree in background.
Reference: SNG Copenhagen (Africa) 109 / 17-120-128
1 commentsJohn Anthony
Carthage_SNG-Cop390.jpg
Carthage36 viewsCarthage. c. 203-201 BC, Second Punic War. BI Tridrachm, or 1½ Sheckel (9.28 gm) of Zeugitania. Wreathed head of Tanit l. wearing single-pendant earrings. / Collared stallion stdg r., head l., r. foreleg raised. gVF. SNG Copenhagen 8 #390; CNP 103; MAA 81; Müller Afrique 230.1 commentsChristian T
Carthage_SNG-Cop132.jpg
Carthage33 viewsCarthage. 4th c. BC. EL ⅒ stater or AR Litre (0.66 gm) of Zeugitania Palm tree. / Head and neck of horse r. gVF. SNG Cop. 8 (Carthage) #132., 1 (Sicily) #961; Falbe 1829-1832; L Müller Afrique 79. cf. Sear Greek 6461 var.
1 commentsChristian T
Sicily,_Punic_2.jpg
Carthage19 viewsCARTHAGE/SICILY-PUNIC Æ15 SNG Cop 1024
OBVERSE: Head of Tanit left
REVERSE: Galloping horse right
4.59g, 15.6mm
Struck at Carthage, 3d-4th Century BC
Adam P2
SICILY_PUNIC_1.jpg
Carthage28 viewsCARTHAGE/SICILY-PUNIC AE20
OBVERSE: Date palm tree with fruit
Rev: Horse head
Struck at Zeugitana, Carthage or Siculo-Punic, 3d-4th Century BC
8.2g, 20mm
SNG Cop-10
Adam P2
1281_Carthage.jpg
Carthage - AE8 viewsc. 400-350 BC
head of Tanit left wearing wreath
horse galloping right
MAA 15; SNG Copenhagen (Africa) 96
ex Savoca
Johny SYSEL
Cartago_Sicily.jpg
Carthage - AE 148 viewsSicilian mint
310-290 BC
head of Tanit decorated by grain ears left
horse right, palm behind
Alexandropoulos 18, SNG Cop 109 ff., Müller Afrique 163, SGCV II 6444
2,37g
Johny SYSEL
345_Carthage_horse_head.jpg
Carthage - AE 1410 viewsSardinian mint
300-264 BC
head of Tanit left
head of horse right
SNG Cop 149, Alexandropoulos 57, Müller Afrique 268
2,33g
Johny SYSEL
c~0.jpg
Carthage AR Quarter Shekel 38 viewsCARTHAGE, Second Punic War. Circa 220-205 BC. AR Quarter Shekel (14mm, 1.80 g). Wreathed head of Tanit left / Horse standing right. MAA 78; SNG Copenhagen 335. Good VF, find patina.1 commentsTLP
carthage_01_t.jpg
Carthage Electrum Stater 161 viewsObv: Head of Tanit to l. with grain ears in hair, triple-pendant earring and necklace. Dot in front.
Rev: Horse standing to r., dot underneath l. hind leg.
Year: 310-290 BC
Weight: 7.45g
Cat #: Jenkins 298
2 commentsoa
Carthage_Tanit~0.JPG
Carthage Tanit43 viewsCarthage Tanit, Greek AE, 19mm, 5g, 3rd century B.C.
OBV: Phoenician lunar goddess and consort of Baal Hammon Tanit
REV: neck up profile of horse right
Similar 6527
Zeugitana, Carthage????
1 commentsRomanorvm
Carthage,_3rd_century_BC.JPG
Carthage, 3rd century BC26 viewsZeugitania, Carthage
AE19
3rd century BC
head and neck of horse r.
date palm
Sear 6531
Ardatirion
Carthage, c300-200 BC.JPG
Carthage, c300-200 BC38 viewsCarthage
AE3 – c. 300-200 BC
Head of Tanit l., wreathed with corn
Horse facing left, palm tree behind
S 6444
Ardatirion
CarthagoNova_Hannibal_SNG-Cop296(Zeugitania).jpg
Carthage, Hispano-Carthaginian 17 viewsCarthage, Hispano-Carthaginian. 218-209 BC. AR 1/2 Sheckel (3.63 gm) of Carthagoa Nova, Iberia. Beardless head of Hannibal (or Eshman-Apollo) l. / Horse stdg r. aVF. SNG Cop. 8 #296 (Zeugitania); ACIP 604; CNH 17; De Navasques 75; Robinson Essays Mattingly 7(j); MHC 166-78; SNG BM Spain 104; Villaronga Benages 615. cf CNG 366 #2.Christian T
punicOR~0.jpg
Carthage, Punic Spain, SNG BM Spain 6738 viewsMobile military mint, Punic Spain, C. 237-209 B.C. AE, 13mm 1.46g, MHC 114; CNH 42; SNG BM Spain 67
O: Wreathed head of Tanit l.
R: Helmet l.


After putting down the mercenary revolt, Hamilcar Barca and other Carthaginians went to Spain to “start over” in the only remaining significant Carthaginian possession outside of North Africa. They extended Carthaginian influence beyond the Punic cities of southeastern Spain and utilized the local mineral resources to help re-establish the Carthaginian empire. Hamilcar drowned in 231 BC and was succeeded by his son-in-law, Hasdrubal, who founded Carthago Nova in 229 BC. Hasbrudal was assassinated in 221 BC. Hannibal Barca succeeded his brother-in-law. In 219 BC, Hannibal took Saguntum. Rome responded by declaring war and Hannibal made preparations to invade Italy. After Hannibal was in southern Italy during the Second Punic War, Spain continued to support his efforts until P. Cornelius Scipio (later Africanus) captured Carthago Nova in 209 BC. Carthaginian forces were driven out of Spain by 206 BC and Rome maintained control after the Second Punic War.
casata137ec
pSNGBMSpain67OR.jpg
Carthage, Punic Spain, SNG BM Spain 6734 viewsMobile military mint, Punic Spain. C. 237-209 B.C. AE, 13mm 1.52g, MHC 114; CNH 42; SNG BM Spain 67
O: Wreathed head of Tanit l.
R: Helmet l.
casata137ec
carthsardiniaOR.jpg
Carthage, Sardinian mint, SNG Cop 20439 viewsSardinian mint, Zeugitania, Carthage, 264-241 B.C., 20mm 6.08g, SNG Cop 204
O: Head of Tanit, l
R: horse stg r, Punic letters between legs
Ex HJB
casata137ec
carthageOR.jpg
Carthage, Sardinian mint, SNG Cop 31126 viewsCarthage, Sardinian mint, 221-210 BC AE, 23mm 7.52g, SNG Cop 311
Obverse: Head of Tanit left
Reverse: Horse standing right, head reverted, Punic letter below
casata137ec
Carthage.jpg
Carthage, Second Punic War (220-215 BC)28 viewsAE Trishekel

29 mm, 18.21 g

Obverse: Head of Tanit left, wearing wreath of grain ears and single-pendant earring

Reverse: Horse standing right; palm tree in background to left.

MAA 84; Müller, Afrique 147; SNG Copenhagen 344.

The Second Punic War formally began when the Carthaginian general Hannibal and his army crossed the Alps in November of 218 BC and descended into Northern Italy. Battles raged on Italian soil for nearly 15 years until Hannibal and what remained of his army sailed for North Africa in the summer or fall of 203 BC. Shown above is a typical example of what would have been a lower-value coin issued by the Carthaginians in the early stages of the war.

Carthage was a Phoenician colony, and as such the Carthaginians were related to the Hebrews and the Canaanites (among others). Culturally they had much in common, including the use of the shekel as the primary unit of money. Likewise, the Carthaginians worshipped a variety of deities from the ancient Middle East. One in particular was the goddess Tanit. A Phoenician (Punic) goddess of war, Tanit was also a virgin mother goddess and a fertility symbol.
2 commentsNathan P
64035p00_copy.jpg
Carthage, Second Punic War, c. 216 - 205 B.C.21 views
64035. Silver quarter shekel, Robinson NC 1964, p. 44, group I, 3; SNG Cop 348 -349; Alexandropoulos 78; HN Italy 2015, VF, scratches, 1.733g, 13.6mm, 45o, Carthage mint, c. 216 - 205 B.C.; obverse head of Tanit left, wreathed with grain, wearing necklace and earring, dot border; reverse horse standing right, dot border; ex Ancient Eagles;
MagisterRiggs
carthage.jpg
Carthage, Second Punic War. Circa 220-205 BC.107 viewsAR 1/4 Shekel (14mm, 1.71 g, 12h)
Obverse- Head of Tanit left, wearing grain-ear wreath, single-pendant earring, and necklace with pendants.
Reverse- Horse standing right; pellet below.
MAA 78; SNG Copenhagen 337.
3 commentsb70
punicOR.jpg
Carthage, Sicilian (?) mint, SNGCop 10951 viewsSicilian (?) mint, Carthage (Punic), 4th-3rd century B.C. AE, 17mm 2.90g, SNGCop 109, Calciati 20. Sear Greek Coins and their Values (SG) #sg6444
O: Head of Tanit left, wreathed with corn
R: Horse right, palm behind

1 commentscasata137ec
siculo_punic.jpg
CARTHAGE, Siculo-Punic Mint AE16 - Tanit/Horse + Palm71 viewsCarthaginian Mint in Sicily 16mm 3.10g late 4th - early 3rd century BC.

O: Head Tanit l. wearing grain ears.

R: Horse standing r. before Palm.

Refs: Sear - , Mueller 163, SNG Cop 109-113.
3 commentsAdrian S
punicsicilyOR.jpg
Carthage, SNG Copenhagen 10819 viewsCarthage, Sicilian mint, Circa 330-300 B.C. AE, 16mm, 2.86g, MAA 23; SNG Copenhagen 108
O: Date palm
R: Pegasos flying left; Punic "B" below
casata137ec
Zeugitania_001.jpg
Carthage, Tanit, Horse43 viewsCarthage
1/2 Shekel, 3rd-2nd century BC
Obv: Head of Tanit left, crowned with ears of corn.
Rev.: Horse standing right, head turned left, foreleg raised, linear circle.
Billon, 5.37g, 23.3mm
Ref.: Sear 6497, SNG Cop. 396
Ex Pecunem 10, Lot 263
1 commentsshanxi
G_287_Carthage_fac.jpg
Carthage, Tanit, Horse12 viewsCarthage
Trishekel, circa 201-195 BC
Obv: Head of Tanit left, wearing grain wreath.
Rev.: Horse prancing right; pellet between forelegs.
AE, 19.4g, 29mm
Ref.: MAA A.105c; SNG Copenhagen 409-10 var. (pellet).
Ex Gorny&Mosch, 2017, A251, 4583
Ex Numismatik Naumann, auction 66, lot 237
shanxi
G_348_Carthage.jpg
Carthage, Tanit, Horse, O to right20 viewsCarthage
Circa 300-264 BC. Æ 18
Obv: Wreathed head of Tanit left
Rev.: Horse’s head right; O to right.
Æ, 5.25g, 18mm
Ref.: SNG Copenhagen 151
3 commentsshanxi
Carthage_2.JPG
Carthage, Zeugitana 48 viewscirca 4th-3rd century BC
AE16 (2.99g)
O: Head of Tanit left, wreathed in corn, wearing earring and necklace; pellet behind.
R: Horse standing right, palm tree in background; pellet at right.
Sear 6444v
1 commentsEnodia
128.JPG
Carthage, Zeugitana24 views310-290 B.C.
Bronze AE17
1.96 gm, 17 mm
Obv.: Head of Tanit left wearing wreath of grain ears, triple drop earrings and necklace
Rev.: Horse right, in front of palm tree
Siculo-Punic, Sicilian Mint?
Sear 6444;
[SNG Cop 109, 117]
Jaimelai
Carthage_AE.JPG
Carthage, Zeugitana44 viewscirca 3rd century BC
AE19 (19mm, 5.84g)
O: Head of Tanit left, wreathed in corn, wearing plain necklace and earring.
R: Head and neck of horse right.
Sear 6523v (pendant necklace)

Enodia
65642p00.jpg
Carthage, Zeugitania Tanit Bronze c. 310-290 B.C.12 viewsBronze AE 17, 2.875g, 16.1mm, 315o, Sicilian mint, c. 310 - 290 B.C.
Obv: Head of Tanit left wearing wreath of grain, earring, and necklace.
Rev: Horse standing right, date palm tree in background behind horse.
Ref: SNG Cop 109 ff., SGCV II 6444.
Choice VF.
mjabrial
52097p00.jpg
Carthage, Zeugitania, North Africa, 201 - 175 B.C.15 viewsBronze trishekel, SNG Cop 409 ff. (various symbols), Fair, 11.078g, 26.8mm, 0o, Carthage mint, 201 - 175 B.C.; obverse head of Tanit left, wreathed in grain; reverse horse striding right, Punic letter below; scarceMagisterRiggs
thumb_57636p00.jpg
Carthage, Zeugitania, North Africa, 300 - 264 B.C.24 viewsFrom Forum: Bronze AE 15, cf. SNG Cop 144 ff., aF, 5.571g, 18.8mm, 270o, Sardinian mint, obverse head of Tanit left wearing wreath of grain, earring and necklace; reverse horse's head right;

Wish Tanit had kept her head on this coin....but LOVE the horse!
1 commentsMagisterRiggs
thumb_58489p00~0.jpg
Carthage, Zeugitania, North Africa, c. 400 - 350 B.C.12 viewsBronze AE 17, cf. Alexandropoulos 18, SNG Cop 109 ff., Müller Afrique 163, SGCV II 6444, F, 1.606g, 13.9mm, 270o, c. 400 - 350 B.C.; obverse head of Tanit left wearing wreath of grain and pendant necklace; reverse horse standing right, date palm tree behind;MagisterRiggs
20180528_103242.png
Carthage. Carthage circa 400-350 BC. 11 viewsObv. Head of Tanit to left, wearing wreath of grain ears.
Rev. Horse standing right, palm tree in background, three pellets above pellet in right field.
References: MAA 18l; Jenkins & Lewis 13; SNG Copenhagen 118. SEAR 6508-11.
16.1mm and 2.23grams.
As found condition.
Canaan
10313981_10102484189296593_8051174908714375070_n.jpg
Carthaginian Coin15 viewsA bronze Carthaginian coin minted in Carthage between 264-241 BC. 22 mm, 8.57 g

Obverse: Head of Tanit left wearing earrings and wreathed in ears of grain

Reverse: Horse's head right

Attribution: Sear 6526, Mueller 2.102.286, SNG Copenhagen 151
chuy1530
10250110_10102484189401383_1805500442807347379_n.jpg
Carthaginian Coin19 viewsA bronze coin minted in Carthage or possibly Punic Sicily between 264-241 BC. 16 mm, 2.06 g

Obverse: Head of Tanit left wearing earrings and wreathed in ears of grain

Reverse: Horse standing right, date palm tree behind

Attribution: SNG Copenhagen 109
chuy1530
10177397_10102484189456273_1023944263046223324_n.jpg
Carthaginian Coin11 viewsA Carthaginian coin minted in Carthage or possibly Punic Sicily around 306 BC. 11 mm, 5.09 g

Obverse: Head of Tanit left wearing earrings and wreathed in ears of grain

Reverse: Horse prancing right

Attribution: SNG Copenhagen 95
chuy1530
roman 2+.jpg
Carthago - Augustus - AE As RPC 74526 viewsAE As, Augustus, Carthage, AD 10
24-25 mm, 7.25 g
Obv: IMP C D F A P M P P ; hd. l.
Rev: C I C P I SP D V SP IIVIR around P P/D D

RPC 745
Tanit
C+.jpg
Carthago - Augustus - AE As RPC 746 23 viewsAE As, Augustus, Carthage, AD 10
24-25 mm, 7.25 g
Obv: IMP C D F A P M P P; hd. r.
Rev: C I C P I SP D V SP IIVIR around P P/D D

RPC 746
Tanit
Constantinus I 3 D~0.jpg
Carthago - Constantinus I - Follis39 viewsAE Follis. Carthago.
Obv.: FL VAL CONSTANTINVS NOB CAES
Rev.: CONSERVATO - R - AFRICAE SVAE, SE in l. field, F in r. field, Delta in ex.
Africa stg. facing, head l., in long drapery with elephant-skin head-dress, r. holding standard, l. tusk; at feet to l., lion with captured bull.

RIC VI, Carthago 58; struck c. early 307; scarce
Tanit
Constantinus_3.jpg
Carthago - Constantinus I - Follis26 viewsAE Follis. Early 307 AD.
Obv: FL VAL CONSTANTINVS NOB CAES
Rev: CONSERVATOR AFRICAESVAE / SE F in field / delta in exergue ;Africa standing facing, head left, in long drapery with elephant-skin head-dress, right holding standard, left tusk; at feet to left, lion with captured bull.

RIC VI Carthage 58
Scarce
Tanit
Carthago%2BNova.jpg
Carthago Nova13 viewsA lovely coin from Carthago Nova, Iberia. 237 - 209 B. C. 1.891 grams, 13 mm. From the days of Hannibal Barka.Handini
RIC520_CarthageB.jpg
Carthago_RIC52020 views3.33 gr., max 18 mm, die-axis 7.jmuona
BIZ 25 D.jpg
Constans II38 viewsHalf follis, Carthage, Sear 1057

Obv: Bust facing, DN CONSTANTNV PP
Rev: Cross, X - X at sides, CRTG in exergue
Tanit
BIZ 33 D.jpg
Constans II24 viewsConstans II (r. 641-668 AD)
Half Follis, Carthage mint
Struck: 643-647 AD

Obverse: CONSTANTINVS (sometimes preceded by D or DN) PP A (or similar)
Bust facing, beardless, wearing crown and chlamys, and holding globus cruciger.

Reverse: XX with large cross between; in exergue, CRT [G] ; sometimes with pellets to left and right of cross, sometimes two pellets above the cross, and sometimes three pellets at the center of the exergual line.

SB 1057.
Tanit
BIZ 32 D.jpg
Constans II21 viewsHalf follis of Carthage,
Sear 1057
Tanit
BIZ 29 D.jpg
Constans II27 viewsConstans II (r. 641-668 AD)
Half Follis, Carthage mint
Struck: 647-659 AD

Obverse: DNCONSTANTN (or similar)
Bust facing, with short beard, as consul, wearing loros and crown with trefoil ornament on circlet. In right hand, mappa; in left, globus cruciger.

Reverse: Cross. To left and right, C / X and T / X. Above, [star2] with pellets to left and right.

DOC 144 (Class 4 of Carthaginian copper); SB 1059.
Tanit
BIZ 27 D.jpg
Constans II26 viewsConstans II, mint Carthage. Sear 1055.
No legend. Constans (on left), with long beard, and Constantine IV (on right), beardless, standing facing; the former wears crown and cuirass, and holds long cross; the latter wears crown and chlamys; between their head cross (which I didn't notice).
Reverse: Heraclius on left and Tiberius on right, standing facing, each wearing crown and chlamys; between them, large M, with monogram 35 above, and KT(C like symbol with a tail) beneath.

Tanit
BIZ 24 D.jpg
Constans II21 viewsConstans II, half follis of Carthage, Sear 1057, which has been overstruck on another issue, possibly as Sear says S.1056.

Obv. Beardless crowned bust facing, CONSTANTINVS round
Rev. XX with large cross between, CRTG in ex.
Tanit
BIZ 23 D.jpg
Constans II30 views20 nummia .
CE 641-668 mint of Carthage.
Similar to Sear 1059.
Tanit
100-5+.jpg
Constans II25 viewshalf follis
minted at Carthage
Sear 1057
Tanit
Byz.jpg
Constans II Half follis28 viewsHalf follis of Constans II, Carthage mint, Sear 1057
Tanit
byzant_gold_1.jpg
Constans II Solidus31 viewsConstans II AV Solidus. Carthage mint. (645/6 AD).

Obv: DN CONS TATIN P, beardless facing bust, in crown & chlamys, holding globus cruciger / VICTO RIAVGGG, cross potent on three steps; P in right field; /CONOB.

Sear 1030
Tanit
Constans2,S1062.jpg
Constans II, SBCV 106213 viewsFragmentary blundered legend
Facing busts of Constans II with long bead and Constantine IV beardless, both wearing crowns and chlamys, each holding globus cruciger
No legend
Facing busts of Heraclius and Tiberius above line, XX below
AE half follis
Carthage mint
21 mm, 4.52g
novacystis
Constans_II.jpg
Constans II, September 641 – 15 July 668 AD42 viewsObverse: DN CONSTANTINVS PP AV (AV ligatured), beardless bust of Constans II facing, wearing crown and chlamys, and holding globus cruciger in right hand
Reverse: Mark of value X X with large cross between
Exe: CRTG
Mint : Carthage
Date : 643-647AD
Reference : MIB 196a, Wroth (BMC) 312, Tolstoi 205, Ratto 1568, CBN 16, S 1057
Grade : VF
Weight : 6.19g
Denom : Half Follis
Metal : Bronze
Comments : Ex. Woolslayer collection and Forum, 21.1mm, DO 138.5, Certificate of Authenticity issued by David R. Sear.
Bolayi
098.jpg
Constans II. half follis 43 viewsByzantine coinage
Carthage mint
2 commentstibsi67
Biz1_.jpg
Constantin IV Solidus30 viewsCONSTANTINE IV. 668-685 AD. AV Solidus. Carthage mint. Struck 668 AD. Helmeted facing bust, holding spear and shield / Cross potent on three steps; flanked by Heraclius and Tiberius standing facing; pellet to left of cross.

Ref.: Sear, 1188; R., 1651; B.N. 4; D.O. 43; M.I.B.III 20.

Rare
Tanit
Constantine I D 5.jpg
Constantine I SALVIS46 viewsConstantine the Great AE27 Follis. 306 AD. FL VAL CONSTANTINVS NOB CAES, laureate head right / SALVIS AVGG ET CAESS FEL KART, Carthage standing facing, head left, holding fruits in both hands.

RIC VI 44b , Cohen 479.
1 commentsTanit
Constantine I.jpg
Constantine I SALVIS48 viewsAE Follis. Obv.: FL VAL CONSTANTINVS NOB CAES ; Rev.: SALVIS AVGG ET CAESS FEL KART ; Carthage stg. l. holding fruitsTanit
Constantine_4_S1195.jpg
Constantine IV, SBCV 119513 viewsNo legend
facing bust wearing chlamys
Large M, figures of Heraclius and Tiberius to sides, monogram 35 above
AE follis, 18mm, 6.20g
Carthage mint
novacystis
coin12_quart.jpg
CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C (the 2nd) / GLORIA EXERCITVS AE3 follis (317-337 A.D.) 23 viewsCONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C, laureate, cuirassed bust right / GLOR-IA EXERC-ITVS, two soldiers facing each other, holding spears and shields, with one standard between them, devices on banners not very clear, but probably dots or "o". Mintmark: Epsilon SIS in exergue.

AE3, 18-19mm, 1.65g, die axis 2 (turned medal alignment), material: bronze/copper-based alloy

IVN = IVNIOR = Junior, NOB C = Nobilitas Caesar, Gloria Exercitus (noun + genitive) "The Glory of the Army", officina Epsilon (workshop #5), SIScia mint (now Sisak, Croatia).

Siscia mint combined with two standards and IVN NOB C variety points to only two types, RIC VII Siscia 220 and RIC VII Siscia 236, both of Constantine II, with possible officinas A, delta, gamma and epsilon. So even though the name is not very clear and theoretically the officina letter may be B rather than E, we can be sure that it is Constantine and that officina is E. Type 236 should have dots before and after the
mintmark, and it doesn't seem the case here, so this must be RIC VII Siscia 220, officina epsilon. Minting dates according to some sources: 330-335 AD.

Flavius Claudius Constantinus Augustus, born January/February 316, was the elder son if Constantine the Great and his second wife Fausta. Constantine II was born in Arles (south of modern France) and raised a Christian. On 1 March 317, he was made Caesar. A child general: in 323, at the age of seven, he took part in his father's campaign against the Sarmatians. At age ten, he became commander of Gaul, following the death of Crispus. An inscription dating to 330 records the title of Alamannicus, so it is probable that his generals won a victory over the Alamanni. His military career continued when Constantine I made him field commander during the 332 campaign against the Goths.

Following the death of his father in 337, Constantine II initially became augustus jointly with his brothers Constantius II and Constans, with the Empire divided between them and their cousins, the Caesars Dalmatius and Hannibalianus. This arrangement barely survived Constantine I’s death, as his sons arranged the slaughter of most of the rest of the family by the army. As a result, the three brothers gathered together in Pannonia and there, on 9 September 337, divided the Roman world between themselves. Constantine, proclaimed Augustus by the troops received Gaul, Britannia and Hispania. He was soon involved in the struggle between factions rupturing the unity of the Christian Church. The Western portion of the Empire, under the influence of the Popes in Rome, favored Catholicism (Nicean Orthodoxy) over Arianism, and through their intercession they convinced Constantine to free Athanasius, allowing him to return to Alexandria. This action aggravated Constantius II, who was a committed supporter of Arianism.

Constantine was initially the guardian of his younger brother Constans, whose portion of the empire was Italia, Africa and Illyricum. Constantine soon complained that he had not received the amount of territory that was his due as the eldest son. Annoyed that Constans had received Thrace and Macedonia after the death of Dalmatius, Constantine demanded that Constans hand over the African provinces, to which he agreed in order to maintain a fragile peace. Soon, however, they began quarreling over which parts of the African provinces belonged to Carthage, and thus to Constantine, and which belonged to Italy, and therefore to Constans. Further complications arose when Constans came of age and Constantine, who had grown accustomed to dominating his younger brother, would not relinquish the guardianship. In 340 Constantine marched into Italy at the head of his troops. Constans, at that time in Dacia, detached and sent a select and disciplined body of his Illyrian troops, stating that he would follow them in person with the remainder of his forces. Constantine was engaged in military operations and was killed in an ambush outside Aquileia. Constans then took control of his deceased brother's realm.
Yurii P
constancarth.jpg
Constantius I (293 - 305 A.D.)37 viewsÆ Follis
O.: CONSTANTIVS NOB CES; Laureate head right.
R.: SALVIS AVGG ET CAESS FEL KART; Carthago standing facing, head left, holding fruits in both hands // Γ
Carthage mint, 298-299 A.D.
8.4g
31mm
RIC VI 30a, p. 427
3 commentsMat
Constantius_Chlorus_Karthago__RIC_30a.jpg
Constantius I Carthage26 viewsAE (29mm- 10.2g)
obv. CONSTANTIVS NOB CAES
laureate head right
rev. SALVIS AVGG ET CAESS FEL KART
Carthage standing facing, head left, holding fruits in both hands;
in ex. Γ
mint Carthage
RIC 30a
HG
Constantius_Carthage.png
Constantius I Carthage12 viewsConstantius I as Caesar
Reigned as Caesar 293-305

O: CONSTANTIVS NOB CAES, laureate head right

R: SALVIS AVGG ET CAESS FEL. KART, Carthago standing looking left with fruits in both hands
Gao
Constantius I -1.jpg
Constantius I Chlorus42 viewsConstantius I as Caesar, AD 293-305, AE fraction, Carthage, 303.
Obv: FL VAL CONSTANTIVS NOB C; Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust r. Rev: VOT X FK in wreath.

RIC 35a.
Scarce
Tanit
constantius.jpg
Constantius I Chlorus43 viewsConstantius I as Caesar, AD 293-305, AE fraction, Carthage, 303.
Obv: FL VAL CONSTANTIVS NOB C; Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust r. Rev: VOT X FK in wreath.

RIC 35a.
Scarce
Tanit
Const_16.jpg
Constantius I Chlorus37 viewsConstantius I as Caesar, AD 293-305, AE fraction, Carthage, 303.
Obv: FL VAL CONSTANTIVS NOB C; Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust r. Rev: VOT X FK in wreath.

RIC 35a.
Scarce
Tanit
ConstantiusI RIC 35a.jpg
Constantius I Chlorus as Caesar - radiate RIC 35a26 viewsRadiate, RIC 35a, 3.01g; minted in Carthage, 293-305 A.D.; obverse: FL VAL CONSTANTIVS NOB C, radiated & draped bust right; reverse: VOT X FK in wreath. Priscian
Constantius_I_2_opt.jpg
CONSTANTIUS I CHLORUS, AE Follis RIC VI 32a, Carthago32 viewsOBV: CONSTANTIVS NOB CAES, laureate head right (large head type)
REV: SALVIS AVGG ET CAESS FEL KART, Carthago standing facing, head left, in long robe, holding fruits in both hands. Mintmark Gamma
7.41g, 28mm

Minted at Carthage, 298-99 AD
1 commentsLegatus
Constantius_I_1_opt.jpg
CONSTANTIUS I CHLORUS, AE Fraction RIC VI 35a, Vota29 viewsOBV: FL VAL CONSTANTIVS NOB C, radiate, draped, cuirassed bust right
REV: VOT X FK within wreath
2.3g, 20mm

Minted at Carthage, 303 AD
1 commentsLegatus
Constantius_I_RIC_35.JPG
Constantius I, RIC 358 viewsFL VAL CONSTANTIVS NOB C
VOT X
AE3, 22mm, 2.35g
Radiate head right
Wreath with FK
Carthage Mint
novacystis
csriciv39aOR.jpg
Constantius I, RIC VI 39a17 viewsCarthage mint, Constantius I, 305-306 A.D. AE, 29mm 9.54g, RIC VI 39a
O: IMP CONSTANTIVS P F AVG, Laureate head right
R: SALVIS AVGG ET CAESS FEL KART, Carthage standing facing, head left, in long robe holding fruit in both hands, H in left field
Ex: A
casata137ec
RI 064t img~0.jpg
Dea Caelestis, goddess of Carthage385 viewsSeptimius Severus Denarius
Obv:– SEVERVS PIVS AVG, Laureate head right
Rev:– INDVLGENTIA AVGG / IN CARTH, Dea Caelestis, goddess of Carthage, with elaborate headdress, looking front, riding right on springing lion, holding thunderbolt and sceptre, water gushing from rocks at left below
Minted in Rome, A.D. 203 A.D.
References:– RIC 266, RCV02 6285, RSC 222
5 commentsmaridvnvm
diocletian.jpg
Diocletian Abdication Follis. AE28. Carthage81 viewsDiocletianus as Senior Augustus, minted under Severus II.
AE28. Mint of Karthago. 305 - 306 AD.
Obv. D N DIOCLETIANO FELICISSIMO SEN AVG, laurate bust right, in imperial mantle, right holding olive-branch, left mappa.
Rev. PROVIDENTIA DEORVM QVIES AVGG, Providentia standing right, extending right hand to Quies standing left, right holding branch, left leaning on sceptre.
S - F in field right and left. PKB in ex.
Cf. RIC VI Carthago 42a
2 commentsancientone
Diocletian.jpg
Diocletian Follis12 viewsAE Follis
Obv: IMP DIOCLETIANVS PF AVG
Rev: SALVIS AVGG ET CAESS FEL KART ; Carthage sg. l., holding fruits
Tanit
dio1.jpg
Diocletian Follis8 viewsBillon Follis
Obv: IMP DIOCLETIANVS PF AVG
Rev: SALVIS AVGG ET CAESS FEL KART ; Carthage sg. l., holding fruits
Tanit
roman17.jpg
Diocletian Silvered Follis32 views299-303 AD . Carthage mint.
Obv.: IMP DIOCLETIANVS PF AVG - Laureate bust right.
Rev.: SALVS AVGG ET CAESS FEL KART - Carthage standing facing, head left, A in ex.
RIC 31a
Minos
DIOCLET-1-ROMAN.jpg
Diocletian, Carthage RIC VI-031a(A)22 viewsAE Follis
Carthage mint, 299-303 A.D.
7.81g, 31mm
RIC VI-31a

Obverse:
IMP DIOCLETIANVS P F AVG
Laureate head right.

Reverse:
SALVIS AVGG ET CAESS FEL KART
A
Carhtigo standing facing, head left, in long robe, holding fruits in both hands.
rubadub
6768_6769.jpg
Diocletian, Follis, NO LEGEND, Wreath, VOT/XX/FK10 viewsAE Follis
Diocletian
Augustus: 284 - 305AD
Issued: 303AD
21.5 x 20.0mm 2.80gr 11h
O: IMP C DIOCLETIANVS PF AVG; Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust, right.
R: NO LEGEND; Wreath, badge at top; VOT/XX/FK within.
Carthage Mint
Rarity: C
RIC VI Carthage 37a
Aorta: 1471: B50, O35, R188, T191, M4.
champoldfart 222990840986
5/30/18 8/8/18
Nicholas Z
4777860l.jpg
Diocletian. Æ Large Follis. Struck circa AD 299-303.67 views Carthage mint. (28mm, 9.6 g). Laureate head right / Carthage standing facing, head left, holding fruits in both hands; A. RIC VI 31a.Ruslan K
Diocletianus- SALVIS new.jpg
Diocletianus- Salvis55 viewsDiocletian, 20 November 284 - 1 March 305 A.D.

Obverse:Laureate head right
IMP DIOCLETIANVS PF AVG

IMP: Imperator

DIOCLETIANVS, Diocletianus

PF, PIUS FELIX,

AVG: Augustus,

Reverse:
SALVIS AVGG ET CAESS FEL KART

Salvis Augustis et Caesaribus Karthago felix

Showing: Carthago standing left holding up fruits in both hands

Domination: Follis, Bronze, size 26 mm

Mint: A, Carthage
John Schou
EB0081b_scaled.JPG
EB0081 Horse / Palm6 viewsCarthage, ZEUGITANA, AR litra, 320-310 BC.
Obverse: Horse head
Reverse: Palm tree
References: SNGCop 74.
Diameter: 9mm, Weight: 0.732g.
EB
EB0234b_scaled.JPG
EB0234 Tanit / Horse5 viewsCarthage, ZEUGITANA, AE 16, 200-146 BC.
Obverse: Head of Tanit left.
Reverse: Horse standing right, palm tree in background.
References:-.
Diameter: 16mm, Weight: 1.81g.
EB
EB0235b_scaled.JPG
EB0235 Tanit / Horse7 viewsCarthage, ZEUGITANA, AE 20, 241-146 BC.
Obverse: Head of Tanit left.
Reverse: Horse standing right, looking left.
References: SG 6511, Weber 8503.
Diameter: 20mm, Weight: 5.921g.
EB
EB0236b_scaled.JPG
EB0236 Tanit / Horse5 viewsCarthage, ZEUGITANA, AE 20, 241-146 BC.
Obverse: Head of Tanit left.
Reverse: Horse standing right, looking left.
References: SG 6511, Weber 8503.
Diameter: 20.5mm, Weight: 4.912g
EB
EB0237b_scaled.JPG
EB0237 Tanit / Horse6 viewsCarthage, ZEUGITANA, AE 19, 241-146 BC.
Obverse: Head of Tanit left.
Reverse: horses head right, palm tree symbol .
References: SG 6528.
Diameter: 19.5mm, Weight: 5.922g.
EB
EB0238b_scaled.JPG
EB0238 Tanit / Horse13 viewsCarthage, ZEUGITANA, AE 30, 241-146 BC.
Obverse: Head of Tanit left.
Reverse: Horsehead right; caduceus before.
References: SG 6520; SNG Cop 197; Müller 296.
Diameter: 30mm, Weight: 15.586g.
1 commentsEB
EB0264b_scaled.JPG
EB0264 Horse / Palm3 viewsSicilo-Punic or Carthage in Zeugitana, AE 19, 300-264 BC.
Obverse: Horse's head right.
Reverse: Palm tree with two dates.
References: Acquaro 148; Lindgren 626; or ... Sear 6531; Muller II, 104,317; SNG Copenhagen 102.
Diameter: 19.5mm, Weight: 5.703g.
EB
EB0312b_scaled.JPG
EB0312 Palm / Horse8 viewsCarthage in Zeugitana, AE 17.
Obverse: Palm tree with two bunches of dates.
Reverse: Horse standing right, head reverted.
References: -.
Diameter: 17mm, Weight: 3.266g.
EB
EB0746_scaled.JPG
EB0746 Constantius I / Carthago18 viewsConstantius I 293-305, AE Follis, Carthage 298-299 AD.
Obverse: CONSTANTIVS NOB CAES, laureate head right (large head type).
Reverse: SALVIS AVGG ET CAESS FEL KART, Carthago standing facing, head left, in long robe, holding fruits in both hands. Mintmark Γ.
References: RIC VI Carthage 32a.
Diameter: 29.5mm, Weight: 9.859g.
EB
EB0748_scaled.JPG
EB0748 Galerius / Carthago11 viewsGalerius as Caesar 293-305, AE Follis, Carthage 298-299.
Obverse: MAXIMIANVS NOB CAES, laureate head right (large head type).
Reverse: SALVIS AVGG ET CAESS FEL KART, Carthage standing left with fruits in both hands. Mintmark (officina) Δ.
References: RIC VI Carthage 32b; Cohen 191; Sear 14411.
Diameter: 29mm, Weight: 7.697g.
EB
EB0753_scaled.JPG
EB0753 Severus II / Carthage15 viewsSeverus II as Caesar 305-306, AE Follis, Carthage 305-306 AD.
Obverse: FL VAL SEVERVS NOB CAES, laureate head right.
Reverse: SALVIS AVGG ET CAESS FEL KART, Carthage standing facing, holding fruits in both hands, H in left field. Mintmark Γ.
References: RIC VI 40a.
Diameter: 28mm, Weight: 10.224g.
EB
EB0874_scaled.JPG
EB0874 Galerius / Africa10 viewsGalerius 305-311, AE Follis, Carthage circa 298 AD.
Obverse: MAXIMIANVS NOB CAES, laureate head right.
Reverse: FELIX ADVENT AVGG N N, Africa standing facing, head left, in long drapery with elephant-skin headdress, holding standard and tusk, at feet to left, lion with captured bull, I to left. Mintmark PKΔ.
References: RIC VI Carthage 26b; Sear 14336.
Diameter: 27.5mm, Weight: 9.462g.
EB
EB0875_scaled.JPG
EB0875 Maximinus II / Carthage6 viewsMaximinus II, AE Follis, Carthage 305-306 AD.
Obverse: GAL VAL MAXIMINVS NOB CAES, laureate head right.
Reverse: SALVIS AVGG ET CAESS FEL KART, Carthage standing left, holding fruits and corn-ears. I in left field. Mintmark Δ.
References: RIC VI Carthage 40b; Sear 14763.
Diameter: 28mm, Weight: 9.114g.
EB
EB0984_scaled.JPG
EB0984 Constans II & Constantine IV / Heraclius & Tiberius5 viewsConstans II. 641-668 AD. AE Follis, Carthage.
Obverse: No legend, Constans, crowned and cuirassed with long beard, holding long cross, on left and Constantine IV, crowned and wearing chlamys, no beard, empty-handed, on right, both standing, cross between their heads.
Reverse: Large M, Heraclius standing to left, TKw-like monogram above, Tiberius standing to right, both sons crowned and wearing chlamys; [mintmark KTS].
References: SB 1055, DOC 147.
Diameter: 23mm, Weight: 5.622g.
EB
EB0988_scaled.JPG
EB0988 Constans II & Constantine IV / Heraclius & Tiberius6 viewsConstans II, with Constantine IV, Heraclius, and Tiberius. 641-668. Æ Decanummium. Carthage mint.
Obverse: Facing busts of Constans and Constantine IV; cross above.
Reverse: Facing busts of Heraclius and Tiberius; cross above, X between.
References: SB 1066; DOC 149; MIB 203.
Diameter: 12mm, Weight: 1.749g.
EB
Tanit -1.jpg
First Punic War72 viewsShekel - Punic - Carthage - ~ 241 BC
D. 22 mm - Wt. 4.9 gms
Obv: Head of Tanit left
Rev: Plough
Rare
1 commentsTanit
853_Galerius_Carthage.jpg
Galerius - AE post-reform radiate6 viewsCarthage
303 AD
radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right from behind
GAL VAL MAXIMIANVS NOB C
VOT / X / F K
within wreath
RIC VI Carthage 36
ex Lucernae

scarce
Johny SYSEL
roman34.jpg
Galerius AE Follis35 views298-299 AD. Carthage mint.
Obv.: MAXIMIANVS NOB CAES - Laureate head of Galerius.
Rev.: SALVIS AVGG ET CAESS FEL KART - Carthage holding fruits in each hands. Delta in ex..
RIC 32b.
Minos
29919_0.jpg
Galerius as Caesar, 293-305. circa 299-303.5 viewsFollis Carthage. Æ 28mm., 9.56g. Laureate head r. Rev. Carthago standing facing, head l., holding fruits in both hands; in exergue, Δ. RIC 32b.
Ruslan K
Maximianus D 1.jpg
Galerius Follis38 viewsGalerius Æ Follis. 299-303 AD. MAXIMIANVS NOB CAES, laureate head right / SALVIS AVGG ET CAESS FEL KART, Carthage standing left with fruits in both hands, DELTA in ex.

RIC VI 32b of Carthage, Cohen 191.

Tanit
Galerius_VOT_X_FK_Carthage.JPG
Galerius VOT X FK Carthage31 viewsGalerius, Carthage, 306 AD, 21.5mm, 2.87g, RIC VI 35b,
OBV: GAL VAL MAXIMIANVS NOB C, Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust at right
REV: VOT X FK in three lines within wreath
1 commentsRomanorvm
gelimer.jpg
gelimer180 viewsGelimer, (530-534 AD)

Obverse: KART HAGO - Soldier facing, holding spear in left hand r.
Reverse: Horse's head, with bridle, facing left, XXI in exergue
Mint : Carthage
Date : 530-534 AD
Reference : MIB I-23, MEC-45
Grade : VF
Weight : 6.74g
Denom: Nummi
Metal : Bronze

Comments: The last king of the Vandals in Africa, who lost his kingdom to General Belisarius who was sent to Africa in 533 by Justinian the Great to return Africa to the Roman empire and avenge the imprisonment and execution of Huneric, a Romanized Vandal king who had been overthrown by Gelimer. 22.9 mm. From the Garth R. Drewry Collection. Ex Stack's 3-5 May 1984, lot 183 Ex:Stack's 05/84, Lot 1832 ex CNG 67, Lot: 1830.
3 commentsBolayi
gelimer1.jpg
Gelimer122 viewsObverse: Gelimer, bare-headed and mantled bust right
Reverse: Gelimer monogram within wreath
Mint : Carthage
Date : AD 530-534
Reference : MIB 1, 25; cf. MEC 1, 28-30
Grade : VF
Weight : ?
Denom : Nummus
Metal : AE
3 commentsBolayi
LarryW2348~0.jpg
GG, Carthage, c. 310-290 BC169 viewsElectrum shekel, 18.8mm, 7.76g, choice VF
Head of Tanit left, wreathed with corn; she wears necklace and triple earring; pellet in lower left field / Horse standing right on double exergal line; pellet in lower right field. COA
Ex: Glenn Woods
Sear 6462; Jenkins V, 249
2 commentsLawrence Woolslayer
GordII.jpg
Gordian II Africanus / Victory62 viewsGordian II Africanus. Silver Denarius, AD 238. Rome.
O: IMP M ANT GORDIANVS AFR AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust of Gordian II right.
R: VICTO-RIA AVGG, Victory advancing left, holding wreath and palm.
- RIC 2; BMC 28; RSC 12.

Gordian II (Marcus Antonius Gordianus Sempronianus Romanus Africanus Augustus), was Roman Emperor for one month with his father Gordian I in 238, the Year of the Six Emperors. The double "GG" in "AVGG" (Augustus) on the reverse was to show that power was shared between the two men although Gordian II did not receive the additional title of high priest or Pontifex Maximus. He died in battle outside of Carthage.

Confronted by a local elite that had just killed Maximinus's procurator, Gordian's father (Gordian I) was forced to participate in a full-scale revolt against Maximinus in 238 and became Augustus on March 22.

Due to his advanced age, Gordian I insisted that his son, Marcus Antonius Gordianus (Gordian II), be associated with him. A few days later, Gordian entered the city of Carthage with the overwhelming support of the population and local political leaders. Meanwhile in Rome, Maximinus' praetorian prefect was assassinated and the rebellion seemed to be successful. Gordian in the meantime had sent an embassy to Rome, under the leadership of Publius Licinius Valerianus, to obtain the Senate’s support for his rebellion. The senate confirmed the new emperor on 2 April and many of the provinces gladly sided with Gordian.

Opposition would come from the neighboring province of Numidia. Capelianus, governor of Numidia, loyal supporter of Maximinus Thrax, and who held a grudge against Gordian, renewed his alliance to the former emperor and invaded Africa province with the only legion stationed in the region, III Augusta, and other veteran units. Gordian II, at the head of a militia army of untrained soldiers, lost the Battle of Carthage and was killed, and Gordian I took his own life by hanging himself with his belt. The Gordians had reigned only twenty-two days.
3 commentsNemonater
Kartago tetradrakme.jpg
GREEK, Zeugitania, Carthage, Tetradrachm150 viewsCarthage
Tetradrachm
350-325 BC
Sear 643.
1 commentsJan Terje Rafdal
Carthage,_Zeugitania,_North_Africa,_c__300_B_C_,_Sicilian_mint.jpg
GREEK, Zeugitania. Sicilian mint. c. 300 B.C. 31 viewsCarthage, Zeugitania (North Africa). Sicilian mint. c. 300 B.C. Bronze AE 15, 2,38 g, 14.6mm, VF. Nice green patina. Obv: date-palm. Rev: Pegasos right. Ref: SNG Cop 1018 var (Pegasos left), BMC -. Rare1 commentsBard Gram Okland
LarryW8015.jpg
GS Zeugitana, Carthage, c. 216-211 BC (Time of Hannibal)68 viewsSilver quarter-shekel, 13mm, 1.84g, gVF
Head of Tanit left, wreathed with grain, wearing pendant earring and necklace / Horse stands right on exergual line
Ex: Apollo Numismatics
Jenkins pl.28, 2
2 commentsLawrence Woolslayer
sb871_.jpg
Heraclius AR half siliqua Carthage Sear 871 24 viewsTask_Force
byzant_sil.jpg
Heraclius Half siliqua24 viewsHeraclius,
Silver half siliqua. Carthage mint, 614-618 A.D. or less likely 628-629 A.D.; obverse D N ERACLIO PP AV, bust of Heraclius facing, beardless, wearing cuirass, paludamentum, and crown with pendilia and cross; reverse no inscription; to left bust of Heraclius Constantine, Heraclius' son, wearing chlamys with tablion and crown with pendilia and cross, to right bust of Martina, Heraclius' wife, wearing robes and crown with long pendilia and cross, cross between heads

DO class III, SB-871, DO-233, MIB 149, DO 233, MIB 149, BMC 343-6, Tolstoi 319-20, Ratto 1460-64, Morrison (CBN) 3-11, S 871

scarce
Tanit
Byzant silver.jpg
Heraclius Half siliqua32 viewsHeraclius
Silver half siliqua, 0.66g, 11.6mm, 100º, Carthage mint, 614-618 A.D. or less likely 628-629 A.D.; obverse D N ERACLIO PP AV, bust of Heraclius facing, beardless, wearing cuirass, paludamentum, and crown with pendilia and cross; reverse no inscription; to left bust of Heraclius Constantine, Heraclius' son, wearing chlamys with tablion and crown with pendilia and cross, to right bust of Martina, Heraclius' wife, wearing robes and crown with long pendilia and cross, cross between heads;

DO class III, SB-871, DO-233, MIB 149, DO 233, MIB 149, BMC 343-6, Tolstoi 319-20, Ratto 1460-64, Morrison (CBN) 3-11, S 871

Scarce
Tanit
heraclius~0.jpg
Heraclius Half siliqua8 viewsHeraclius,
Silver half siliqua. Carthage mint, 614-618 A.D. or less likely 628-629 A.D.; obverse D N ERACLIO PP AV, bust of Heraclius facing, beardless, wearing cuirass, paludamentum, and crown with pendilia and cross; reverse no inscription; to left bust of Heraclius Constantine, Heraclius' son, wearing chlamys with tablion and crown with pendilia and cross, to right bust of Martina, Heraclius' wife, wearing robes and crown with long pendilia and cross, cross between heads

DO class III, SB-871, DO-233, MIB 149, DO 233, MIB 149, BMC 343-6, Tolstoi 319-20, Ratto 1460-64, Morrison (CBN) 3-11, S 871

scarce
Tanit
Biz.jpg
Heraclius Solidus42 viewsAU Solidus
Obv: dNERACOMTPP (indictional year mark) - Crowned facing busts of Heraclius and Heraclius Constantine.
Rev: VICTORIAAVCC(indictional year mark) Exe: CONOB - Cross potent on steps. c.625-627 (Carthage)
Tanit
herac D.jpg
Heraclius Solidus56 viewsAU Solidus
Obv. Crowned & cuir bust facing holding gl. cr., D.N. ERAC [Greek_Lambda] IO PP [Greek_Delta] I (=yr 14 indiction, 625-6 AD)
Rev. Cross potent on two steps, VICTORIA AVGG IE (=yr 15 indiction, 626-7 AD), CONOB in ex.

S.866 from Carthage

Sear notes that some of these coins have different years on obverse and reverse.
Tanit
Biz2.jpg
Heraclius Solidus17 viewsAU Solidus
Heraclius 610 - 641 AD - Mint Carthage
Obv: DNERACLIOETERACONSTPP ; Facing busts of Heraclius and Heraclius Constantine, wearing chlamys and elaborate crown with cross on top, Heraclius has a short beard and Heraclius Constantine has no beard and is smaller and a Cross between their heads
Rev: VICTORIAAGG(Delta), CONOB in exergue ; Cross Potent on two steps

Ref: W65, S-867 var, DOC-204, Berk-132, MIB-84a, R-1371, BMC-324, BN-3
Tanit
HeracliusSBCV876.JPG
Heraclius, SBCV 87614 viewsDN ERACLIO PP AVG
Helmeted bust facing wearing crown
Large X, N M to sides, Cross above, Star below
AE decanummium, Carthage
15mm, 2.76g
novacystis
Heraclius_sbcv872.jpg
Hericlius, SBCV 8726 viewsDN ERACLIO PP AV
Helmeted and cuirassed bust, facing beardless, holding globus cruciger
Large X•X, Cross above, star left, E right
KRTS in ex.
Carthage
AE half follis, 17.5mm, 3.15mm
novacystis
croix 1.jpg
Hilderic (523-530) - AE435 views[...] P.F. [AVG.] ?
Cross in wreath

Vandalic coin minted in Carthage
Ginolerhino
Hilderic_ab.jpg
Hilderic - Carthage, Vandal kingdom84 viewsHilderic (460s-533), king of the Vandals and Alans (523-530). Æ nummus (8 mm, 0.62 g), Carthage. Obverse: diademed head right, [HILD]IRIX. Reverse: cross in wreath. Grierson/Blackburn 24-5.1 commentsjbc
Sicily_Himera_SNG-ANS4_155_gf.jpg
Himera. Tyranny of Theron & Thrasydaios13 viewsSicily, Himera. 480-470 BC. AR Didrachm (8.79 gm). Cock standing l. HIMERA to l. / Crab.  nEF.  Westermark & Jenkins Himera #4; SNG ANS 4 #155ff; SNG Cop 1 #302-303; SNG Lloyd 1011-1012; BMC 2 24; ACNAC: Dewing 613-614, Rosen 55; HGC 2 #438. cf. Nomos 1 #20 (same dies).
Theron of Akragas and Gelon of Syracuse defeated Carthage in the Battle of Himera in 480 BC. Theron deposed the local tyrant of Himera and ruled over the city. The pairing of the crowing rooster on the obverse (Himera’s name means ‘day break’) and the crab of Akragas on the reverse aptly captures this political situation. Theron's son, Thrasydaios, succeeded him as tyrant in 472 BC, but Thrasydaios was defeated in battle by Hieron of Syracuse in 470 BC. The Carthaginians had their revenge in 408 BC when Himera was utterly destroyed.
1 commentsAnaximander
2009-03-22_03-29_Sizilien_389_Solunto.jpg
Italy, Sicily, View of Solanto from the ruins of Soluntum (aka Solus, Solous, and Kefra)64 viewsView of Solanto from the ruins of Soluntum (aka Solus, Solous, and Kefra), Sicily

Solus (or Soluntum, near modern Solanto) was an ancient city on the north coast of Sicily, one of the three chief Phoenician settlements on the island, about 16 kilometers (10 miles) east of Panormus (modern Palermo). It lay 183 meters (600 ft) above sea level, on the southeast side of Monte Catalfano 373 meters (1,225 ft), in a naturally strong situation, and commanding a fine view. The date of its founding is unknown. Solus was one of the few colonies that the Phoenicians retained when they withdrew to the northwest corner of the island before the advance of the Greek colonies in Sicily. Together with Panormus and Motya, it allied with the Carthaginians. In 396 B.C. Dionysius took the city but it probably soon broke away again to Carthage and was usually part of their dominions on the island. In 307 B.C. it was given to the soldiers and mercenaries of Agathocles, who had made peace with the Carthage when abandoned by their leader in Africa. During the First Punic War it was still subject to Carthage, and it was not until after the fall of Panormus that Soluntum also opened its gates to the Romans. It continued to under Roman dominion as a municipal town, but apparently one of no great importance, as its name is only slightly and occasionally mentioned by Cicero. But it is still noticed both by Pliny and Ptolemy, as well as at a later period by the Itineraries. Its destruction probably dates from the time of the Saracens.

Excavations have brought to light considerable remains of the ancient town, belonging entirely to the Roman period, and a good deal still remains unexplored. The traces of two ancient roads, paved with large blocks of stone, which led up to the city, may still be followed, and the whole summit of Monte Catalfano is covered with fragments of ancient walls and foundations of buildings. Among these may be traced the remains of two temples, of which some capitals and portions of friezes, have been discovered. An archaic oriental Artemis sitting between a lion and a panther, found here, is in the museum at Palermo, with other antiquities from this site. An inscription, erected by the citizens in honor of Fulvia Plautilla, the wife of Caracalla, was found there in 1857. With the exception of the winding road by which the town was approached on the south, the streets, despite the unevenness of the ground, which in places is so steep that steps have to be introduced, are laid out regularly, running from east to west and from north to south, and intersecting at right angles. They are as a rule paved with slabs of stone. The houses were constructed of rough walling, which was afterwards plastered over; the natural rock is often used for the lower part of the walls. One of the largest of them, with a peristyle, was in 1911, though wrongly, called the gymnasium. Near the top of the town are some cisterns cut in the rock, and at the summit is a larger house than usual, with mosaic pavements and paintings on its walls. Several sepulchres also have been found.

Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soluntum

Photo by Allie Caulfield from Germany.
Joe Sermarini
juba_II_a.JPG
Juba II, King of Mauretania (25 BC-23 AD).130 viewsObverse: REX IVBA, diademed head right
Reverse: Elephant walking right
Mint : Carthage
Date : 25 BC-23 AD
Reference : SNG Copenhagen 577; Mazard 1350
Grade : VF
Weight : 3.79g
Denom: Denarius
Metal : Silver

Comments: The elephant is possibly taken from denarius minted by Julius Caesar or Caecilius Metellus Pius Scipio both struck during the civil war period ca. 48-46 B.C, both of which showed an elephant and would have been used extensively in Mauritania (N. Africa.)
3 commentsBolayi
Julius_Caesar_2_opt.jpg
Julius Caesar Denarius, RRC 458/1, Aeneas34 viewsOBV: Diademed head of Venus right
REV: CAESAR - Aeneas advancing left, carrying Anchises and palladium
4.0g, 17mm

Minted at Carthage, 47-46 BC
1 commentsLegatus
Bizantine.jpg
Justin II16 viewsDecanummium ; issued at Carthage during the years 572-574.

Obverse:facing busts of Justin and his wife Sophia; in ex VITA

Sear 400
Tanit
Byzantine2.jpg
Justin II25 viewsDecanummium ; issued at Carthage during the years 572-574.

Obverse:facing busts of Justin and his wife Sophia; in ex VITA

Sear 400
Tanit
Byzant.jpg
Justin II19 viewsDecanummium ; issued at Carthage during the years 572-574.

Obverse:facing busts of Justin and his wife Sophia; in ex VITA

Sear 400
Tanit
Justin II.jpg
Justin II decanummium26 viewsDecanummium of Justin II.
Justin II, AE 10 nummi (decanummim), Carthage Mint,
D N IVSTINVS P P A; Diademed and draped bust right. / Large X, PR to left, ANNO to right, * below, CAR in exergue.

SB. 397
Tanit
Byzantine~0.jpg
Justin II half Follis21 viewsJustin II half Follis

Carthage, reference SBCV 396 

Scarce
Tanit
Justin_ii.jpg
Justin II pentanummim19 viewspentanummium minted by Justin II in Carthage.
Obv: D. N. IVSTINUS PP. Diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust right.
Rev: Large V; to left P/R; to right A/N/N/O; above, cross; in ex., CAR or KAR.

Sear 401.
Tanit
Byzantine.jpg
Justinian I35 viewsAE follis. Justinian the Great , Carthage Mint, D N IVSTINI ANVS P P AVG Facing, cuirassed bust, cross to right, holding globe with cross. / Large M, ANNO XIII at sides, + above, S below, CAR in exergue.
Sear 261
Scarce
Tanit
BYZ D 1.jpg
Justinian I67 viewsAE follis. Justinian the Great , Carthage Mint, D N IVSTINI ANVS P P AVG Facing, cuirassed bust, cross to right, holding globe with cross. / Large M, ANNO XIIII at sides, + above, S below, CAR in exergue.
Sear 261

1 commentsTanit
Justinian I D.jpg
Justinian I45 viewsAE follis. Justinian the Great , Carthage Mint, D N IVSTINI ANVS P P AVG Facing, cuirassed bust, cross to right, holding globe with cross. / Large M, ANNO XIII at sides, + above, S below, CAR in exergue.
Sear 261
Scarce
Tanit
Justinian_Carthage.jpg
Justinian I - Carthage15 viewsJustinian I (527-565). Æ nummus (8 mm, 0.60 g), Carthage mint c. 534-565. Obverse: diademed bust facing, flanked by two stars. Reverse: Christogram with flanking alpha and omega. DOC 374; MIB 208.Jan
Justinian_I.JPG
Justinian I AE Decanummium35 viewsObverse: DN IVSTINI ANVS P P A Diademed, draped, cuirassed bust right
Reverse: VICTO RIA AG Victory standing facing holding wreath and globus cruciger
Exe: *X8
Mint : Carthage
Date : 548 – 549AD
Reference : SB 271
Grade : EF
Weight : 5.73g
Denom : Nummi
Metal : Bronze
Acquired: 20/04/05
Comments : ex William B. Porter collection, 19 x 21mm
Bolayi
Justinian_I.jpg
Justinian I Decanummium38 viewsJustinian I Æ Decanummium. Carthage mint. D N IVSTINI-ANVS PP AVG, diademed, draped, & cuirassed bust right / Large I, cross above, star & cross flanking; KART.
Decanummium of Carthage, Justinian I, year 14 (540-41).

Sear 269

Tanit
Byz2.jpg
Justinian I Follis24 viewsJustinian I AE Follis of Carthage second workshop. D N IVSTINIANVS P P AG, diademed, draped & cuirassed bust right / large M, star left, crosses above and right, officina letter below, KART in ex.

Sear 259
Tanit
Byz1.jpg
Justinian I Follis29 viewsJustinian I Æ Follis. Carthage mint. D N IVSTINI-ANVS PP AVG, diademed, draped, & cuirassed bust right / Large M, cross above, star & cross flanking; KART.

Sear 257. DOC I 283; MIB I 185b-c;
Tanit
BYZ 7 D.jpg
Justinian I Half follis42 viewsJustinian I Æ Half Follis. Carthage mint, dated RY 13 (539/40 AD). D N IVSTINIANVS P P AVG, diademed, helmeted, & cuirassed facing bust, holding globus cruciger & shield; cross to right / Large K; cross above, ANNO X/VI across field; S/CAR.

DOC I 295. Sear 266.
1 commentsTanit
justinian~0.jpg
Justinian I half follis24 viewsJustinian I half follis, Carthage mint

Sear 263



Tanit
ByzSilver.jpg
Justinian I half siliqua30 viewsSilver half siliqua of Justinian I from Carthage, Sear 256.
V-O/ M-T in angles of cross, CONOS beneath.

Carthage, Sear 256.
Tanit
BIZ 31 D.jpg
Justinian I pentanummium33 viewsAE pentanummium, Carthage mint.

Sear 274

Tanit
Byzantine4.jpg
Justinian I pentanummium26 viewsAE pentanummium, Carthage mint.

Sear 274

Tanit
justinian~1.jpg
Justinian I pentanummium25 viewsJustinian I pentanummium
AE pentanummium, Carthage mint.

Sear 274
Tanit
Justinian,S257.JPG
Justinian I, SBCV 25916 viewsDN IVSTINIANVS PP AVG
Diademed bust right
Large M, star left, Cross right, Cross above, Γ below
KART in ex.
AE follis, 29mm, 15.52g
Carthage mint
uneven strike
novacystis
763_425_Marcius_Philippus.JPG
L. Marcius Philippus - AR denarius6 viewsRome
²57 BC
¹56 BC
diademed head of Ancus Marcius to right, lituus behind
ANCVS
equestrian statue right on 5 archs of aquaduct (Aqua Marcia), flower below
PHILIPPVS
A-Q-V-A-(MAR)
¹Crawford 425/1, SRCV I 382, Sydenham 919, RSC I Marcia 28
²Mark Passehl - Roman moneyer & coin type chronology, 150 – 50 BC
3,7g
ex Lucernae

Coin shows moneyer's ancestors. Ancus Marcius on obverse was the fourth legendary king who rulled 642 – 617 BC from who Marcii claimed their origin. On reverse there could be statue of Preator Q. Marcius Rex on aquaduct Aqua Marcia which he repaired in 144-140 BC. It was the longest Roman aquaduct which bringed water to Rome from 91 km far source. Aquaduct was financed from money gained by looting of Carthage and Corinth.
Moneyer became consul in 38 BC. He was half-brother of Octavianus Augustus.
Johny SYSEL
Masinissa.JPG
Masinissa - Horse galloping135 viewsMasinissa ruler of the North African kingdom of Numidia, and an ally of Rome in the last years of the Second Punic War SNG Cop 510 13 Obverse: Bust of king l. Reverse: Horse galloping l., Punci letter below
Size: 27.86 mm Weight: 12.3 grams Typical crude

Comments: Masinissa grew up in Carthage as a hostage to keep his father loyal to Carthage. He fought for Carthage against the Romans in Spain from 212 to 206 and then when Hasdrubal Barca left for Italy, Masinissa took command of the Carthaginian cavalry in Spain. When the Carthaginians were forced out of Spain in 206 Africanus released Masinissa captive nephew and Masinissa defected to Rome and the rest is history.
1 commentsBolayi
BIZ 30 D.jpg
Maurice Tiberius20 viewsMaurice Tiberius, decanummium (X below cross) of Carthage, Sear 566

Obv Bust left, D.N. MAVRICI P or similar round, IND S (sixth indiction, = 587-88 or 602 AD)
Rev: Cross on steps, N - M at sides, X below

Tanit
MTiberius.jpg
Maurice Tiberius Solidus29 viewsMaurice Tiberius AV Solidus.
Struck indictional year 14 (=595/596 AD), Carthage mint.
D N mAVRI-C T P P AN I­, helmeted facing bust, holding globus cruciger / VICTORI-A AVGG, angel standing facing, holding long P-headed cross & globus cruciger; I­/CONOB.

Sear Byzantine Coins and their Values # sb0549
RARE
Tanit
Maxentius_as_Caesar_RIC_Carthage_51a.jpg
Maxentius as Caesar - RIC VI 51a (Carthage)9 viewsDenomination: Follis
Era: Late 306 AD
Metal: AE
Obverse: M AVR MAXENTIVS NOB CAES, Laureate head right

Reverse: SALVIS AVGG ET CAES FEL KART, Carthage standing facing, head left, holding up fruits in both hands; H in left field, Δ in exergue.
Mint: Carthage
Weight: 10.20 gm.
Reference: RIC VI Carthage, 51a.
Provenance: Purchased from Mike Vosper, March 28, 2019; ex Roma Numismatics E-Sale 46, lot 804 (subsequently processed, removing dirt and deposits).

RIC: “The mint of Carthage, previously administered as part of Severus’ territories, passed into new control with Maxentius’ revolt at Rome in October 306…The immediate response to Maxentius’ revolt was a coinage in gold and Aes, in which Herculius appears as the sole legitimate Augustus, styled AVG or IMP…AVG; the title ‘Caesar’ is given to Maxentius (who receives it nowhere else at all)…”

GVF. Clean smooth surfaces, with no evidence of recent surface crud removal after the sale by Roma Numismatics.
Steve B5
mricvucarthage_37bOR.jpg
Maximian, RIC VI Carthage 37b18 viewsCarthage mint, Maximian, 286 - 305, 306 - 308, and 310 A.D. AE, 23mmx19mm (odd shaped, wavy, flan) 2.17g, RIC VI Carthage 37b
O: IMP C MAXIMIANVS PF AVG, radiate, draped, cuirassed bust r.
R: VOT XX FK, surrounded by wreath

casata137ec
2780400.jpg
Maximianus22 viewsFirst reign, AD 286-305. Æ Follis (28mm, 9.26 g, 6h). Carthage mint, 2nd officina. Struck circa AD 299-303. Laureate head right / Carthago standing facing, head left, holding fruits in both hands; B. RIC VI 31b. nearly full silvering, small scuff on reverse.

1 commentsTLP
CollageMaker_20180531_122510323.jpg
Maximianus11 viewsFirst reign, 286-305 AD
AE Follis, Carthage mint, 2nd officina. Struck 297-298 AD
Obverse: IMP MAXIMIANVS P F AVG, Laureate head right.
Reverse: FELIX AD-V-ENT AVGG NN, Africa standing facing, head left, wearing elephant skin headdress and holding signum and tusk; at feet to left, lion with captured bull; H in left field; PKS in exergue.
References: RIC VI 23b, RCV 3630, Van Meter 035
Justin L
MAXIMIANUS_12.jpg
MAXIMIANUS AE Antoninianus14 viewsOBVERSE: IMP MAXIMIANVS P F AVG, laureate head right
REVERSE: FELIX ADVENT AVGG N N, Africa standing facing, looking left, wearing elephant-skin headdress, holding standard and elephant's tusk, lion with captured bull at feet, H in right field, mintmark PKB
Struck at Carthage. AD 298
RIC VI 25b
Legatus
roman32.jpg
Maximianus AE Follis25 views299-303 AD. Carthage mint.
Obv.: IMP MAXIMIANVS P F AVG - Laureate bust of Maximian right, hair and beard closely cropped.
Rev.: SALVIS AVGG ET CAESS FEL KART - Carthago standing facing, head left, in long robe, holding fruit in both hands, B in exergue.
RIC 31b.
Minos
Hotmail_010.JPG
Maximianus AE Post Reform Radiate Fraction. 303 AD. Carthage 23 views3.20 grams.
20 mm.
Carthage
RIC 37b Maximianus AE Post Reform Radiate Fraction. 303 AD. IMP C MAXIMIANVS P F AVG, radiate draped bust right / VOT XX FK, three lines in wreath.
Antonio Protti
maximianus_FK.jpg
Maximianus FEL KART RIC VI 428, 39b37 viewsCarthage, 298-299.
Obv: laureate head right, IMP MAXIMIANVS P F AVG
Rev: SALVIS AVGG ET CAESS FEL KART Carthage, draped, standing right, head left, holding fruit(?) in both hands
B in exergue
RIC 428, 39b
areich
maximianus +.jpg
Maximianus Follis23 viewsAE Follis.
Ob: IMP MAXIMIANVS SEN AVG
Rv: CONSERVATO-RES KART SVAE - Carthago stg. facing, head l., holding up fruits in both hands, in hexastyle temple with plain pediment
mint: Carthage

RIC VI #59 Pag.432
Tanit
FullSizeRender~1.jpg
Maximianus Follis Carthage13 viewsAE Follis
Maximianus, 286 - 305 CE
Diameter: 28 mm, Weight: 11.60 grams, Die Axis: 6h

Obverse: IMP MAXIMIANVS PF AVG
Laureate bust to right.

Reverse: SALVIS AVGG ET CAESS FEL KART
Personification of Carthage standing left, with fruits in both hands.

Mint: B, Carthage

Ex Incitatus Coins 2018
Pharsalos
H8b.jpg
Maximianus Herculius AR Argenteus73 viewsMaximianus Herculius AR Argenteus. Carthage mint. 300 AD. MAXIMIANVS AVG, laureate bust right / XC -VI, surrounded by laurel wreath, dot placed centrally between two lines of legend. RIC 16a
VERY RARE - R2
EXTREMELY FINE

Ex. Th. Voltz Collection
Ex. Münzen & Medaillen AG Basel 81 (1995), 326.
Ex. Hess-Divo 2007
3 commentsTrajan
Maximianus 2 D.jpg
Maximianus Post Reform Radiate Fraction41 viewsAE Post Reform Radiate Fraction. 303 AD. IMP C MAXIMIANVS P F AVG, radiate draped bust right / VOT XX FK, three lines in wreath.

RIC (VI=) Carthage 37b
Tanit
1+.jpg
Maximianus Post Reform Radiate Fraction53 viewsAE Post Reform Radiate Fraction. 303 AD.
IMP C MAXIMIANVS P F AVG, radiate draped bust right / VOT XX FK, three lines in wreath.
RIC (VI=) Carthage 37b

Tanit
Maximinus II D 1~0.jpg
Maximinus II Follis32 viewsMaximinus II AE Follis, Carthage mint, 305-306 AD.

Obverse: GAL VAL MAXIMINVS NOB CAES, laureate head right.
Reverse: SALVIS AVGG ET CAESS FEL KART, Carthage standing left holding
fruits in both hands, I in left field, Delta in exergue.

RIC VI 40b, Cohen 150..
Tanit
numidia_micipsa.jpg
Micipsa 148-118 B.C. AE 26mm; Micipsa/ Horse galopping12 viewsNumidian Kings, Micipsa 148-118 B.C. AE 26mm (13.94g) Bearded and laureate head of Micipsa l. Horse galopping l., Phoenician letters “MN” below. Mazzard 23; SNG Copenhagen 510-3; Fine. Ex Gert Boersema. Micipsa was a major (although wavering) ally of Rome during the third Punic War and Numidia benefited greatly when thousands of Carthaginians fled to Numidia following the Roman destruction of CarthagePodiceps
Lixus_in_Morocco.jpg
Morocco, Lixus64 viewsLixus is the site of an ancient Roman city located in Morocco just north of the modern seaport of Larache on the bank of the Loukkos River. The location was one of the main cities of the Roman province of Mauretania Tingitana .

Ancient Lixus is located on Tchemmich Hill on the right bank of the Loukkos River (other names: Oued Loukous; Locus River), just to the north of the modern seaport of Larache. The site lies within the urban perimeter of Larache, and about three kilometers inland from the mouth of the river and the Atlantic ocean. From its 80 meters above the plain the site dominates the marshes through which the river flows. To the north, Lixus is surrounded by hills which themselves are bordered to the north and east by a forest of cork oaks.

Among the ruins there are Roman baths, temples, 4th century walls, a mosaic floor, a Christian church and the intricate and confusing remains of the Capitol Hill.

Lixus was first settled by the Phoenicians in the 7th century BC and was later annexed by Carthage. Lixus was part of a chain of Phoenician/Carthaginian settlements along the Atlantic coast of modern Morocco; other major settlements further to the south are Chellah (called Sala Colonia by the Romans) and Mogador. When Carthage fell to Ancient Rome, Lixus, Chellah and Mogador became imperial outposts of the Roman province Mauretania Tingitana.

The ancient sources agree to make of Lixus a counter Phoenician, which is confirmed by the archaeological discovery of material dating from 8th century BC. It gradually grew in importance, later coming under Carthaginian domination. After the destruction of Carthage, Lixus fell to Roman control and was made an imperial colony, reaching its zenith during the reign of the emperor Claudius I (AD 41-54).

Some ancient Greek writers located at Lixus the mythological garden of the Hesperides, the keepers of the golden apples. The name of the city was often mentioned by writers from Hanno the Navigator to the Geographer of Ravenna, and confirmed by the legend on its coins and by an inscription. The ancients believed Lixus to be the site of the Garden of the Hesperides and of a sanctuary of Hercules, where Hercules gathered gold apples, more ancient than the one at Cadiz, Spain. However, there are no grounds for the claim that Lixus was founded at the end of the second millennium BC.

Lixus flourished during the Roman Empire, mainly when Claudius established a Roman Colonia with full rights for the citizens. Lixus was one of the few Roman cities in Berber Africa that enjoyed an amphitheater: the amphitheater at Lixus. In the third century Lixus become nearly fully Christian and there are even now the ruins of a paleochristian church overlooking the archeological area. The Arab invasions destroyed the Roman city. Some berber life was maintained there nevertheless until one century after the Islamic conquest of North Africa by the presence of a mosque and a house with patio with the covered walls of painted stuccos.

The site was excavated continuously from 1948 to 1969. In the 1960s, Lixus was restored and consolidated. In 1989, following an international conference which brought together many scientists, specialists, historians and archaeologists of the Mediterranean around the history and archaeology of Lixus, the site was partly enclosed. Work was undertaken to study the Roman mosaics of the site, which constitute a very rich unit. In addition to the vestiges interesting to discover the such mosaics whose one of sixty meters representing Poseidon. Lixus was on a surface of approximately 75 hectares (190 acres). The excavated zones constitute approximately 20% of the total surface of the site.

This site was added to the UNESCO World Heritage Tentative List on July 1, 1995 in the Cultural category.
Joe Sermarini
Vandal_4_ab.jpg
Municipal coinage of Carthage - Vandal kingdom98 viewsVandal kingdom. Æ 12 Nummi (19 mm, 5.01 g). Struck circa 480-523. Obverse: Karthago standing facing, holding three grain ears in each raised hand, all within laurel wreath. Reverse: NXII within laurel wreath. MEC 1, 42; BMC Vandals 9.
Jan (jbc)
Vandal21_ab.jpg
Municipal coinage of Carthage - Vandal kingdom80 viewsVandal kingdom. Æ 21 Nummi (24 mm, 9.69 g). Struck circa 480-523. Obverse: Karthago standing facing, holding three grain ears in each raised hand, all within laurel wreath. Reverse: NXXI within laurel wreath. MEC 1, 41; BMC Vandals 8.Jan (jbc)
Vandal_NIIII_ab.jpg
Municipal coinage of Carthage - Vandal kingdom103 viewsVandal kingdom. Æ 4 Nummi (12 mm, 1.57 g). Struck circa 480-523. Obverse: bust left holding palm branch. Reverse: dash above dot N/IIII. MIB 20; MEC 51; BMC I:17.

Ex Tintinna Auction 11, Lot 2502, 2011.
Jan (jbc)
BIZ 34 D.jpg
Phocas50 viewsPhocas, half follis, Carthage mint, year 6 (607-8 AD), Sear 686.Tanit
ptolemmée_1.JPG
Ptolémée de Maurétanie (de 23 à 40 ap. J.-C.)29 viewsSemis de ville autonome de Cartago Nova (Espagne - Hispanie):

Tête d'auguste à droite.
AVGVSTVS DIVI F
Augustus Divi Filius.

C LAETILIVS APALVS II V Q
Cnaius Laetilius Apalus Duumvir Quinquennalis.
Dans une couronne :
REX PTOL
rex Ptolemaeus.

Juba II et Ptolémée entretenaient avec le sud de l'Espagne des relations commerciales d'où ils tiraient notamment des lingots d'argent pour leurs monnayages.
Ici Ptolémée est magistrat de la ville de Carthagène avec le romain Apalus.

Carthagène a été fondée par les Phéniciens en 227 av. J-C sous le nom de Qart-Hadast (la ville nouvelle).
C'est pendant la deuxième guerre punique, en 209 av. J-C, que les Romains prennent la ville aux Carthaginois, et la renomment Cartago Nova (la nouvelle Carthage).
1 commentsPYL
P 3 D.jpg
Punic129 viewsShekel - Carthage - 215-201 BC
Diameter: 22 mm
Weight: 7 gms
Wreathed head of Tanit left / Horse standing right, head reverted;

SNG 307
2 commentsTanit
P 17+~0.jpg
Punic63 viewsCarthage ? - 350-320 BC
Diameter: 20 mm
Weight : 7 gms
Obv: Palm tree with two clusters of dates.
Rev: horse's head right

SNG 102
Tanit
punic.jpg
Punic52 viewsShekel - Carthage - 215-201 BC

Wreathed head of Tanit left / Horse standing right, head reverted;

SNG 307
Tanit
punic2~0.jpg
Punic24 viewsCarthage ? - 350-320 BC
Diameter: 21 mm
Weight : 7.3 gms
Obv: Palm tree with two clusters of dates.
Rev: horse's head right

SNG 102
Tanit
punic5.jpg
Punic - Carthage - AE 1541 viewsPunic - Carthage - 400-350 BC
AE 15 globular
15 mm, 6.6 gr.
Head of Tanit left
Horse jumping right

SNG 96
Tanit
punic4.jpg
Punic - Carthage - AE 1749 viewsCarthage, Zeugitania, North Africa, c. 310 - 290 B.C. Bronze AE 17
Obverse: head of Tanit left wearing wreath of grain and pendant necklace;
Reverse: horse standing right, date palm tree behind.
SNG 109

Tanit
P 1 D.jpg
Punic - Carthago - Shekel71 viewsShekel - Carthage - 300-264 BC
Diameter: 20 mm
Weight : 6 gms
Obv: head of Tanit left
Rev: horse's head right

SNG 149
1 commentsTanit
p20.jpg
Punic - Carthago - Shekel31 viewsPunic - Carthago - Shekel - Carthage - 300-264 BC

Obv: head of Tanit left
Rev: horse's head right

SNG 149
Tanit
P 14+.jpg
Punic - Carthago - Shekel44 viewsShekel - Carthage - 300-264 BC
Diameter: 18 mm
Weight : 5 gms
Obv: head of Tanit left
Rev: horse's head right

SNG 175
Tanit
P 13+.jpg
Punic - Carthago - Shekel38 viewsShekel - Carthage - 300-264 BC
Diameter: 18 mm
Weight : 5 gms
Obv: head of Tanit left
Rev: horse's head right

SNG 149
Tanit
P 12+.jpg
Punic - Carthago - Shekel36 viewsShekel - Carthage - 300-264 BC
Diameter: 18 mm
Weight : 5 gms
Obv: head of Tanit left
Rev: horse's head right

SNG 149
Tanit
Punic_6.jpg
Punic - Carthago - Shekel80 viewsPunic - Carthago - Shekel
Shekel - Carthage - 300-264 BC
Diameter: 18 mm
Weight : 5 gms
Obv: head of Tanit left
Rev: horse's head right

SNG 175
2 commentsTanit
punic +.jpg
Punic - SNG 40958 views3 Shekels - Carthage - 201-195 BC
Diameter: 27 mm
Weight: 17.7 gms
Obv.: Head of Tanit left ; Rev.: Horse standing right,

SNG 409
Tanit
Punique 5.jpg
Punic AE 1514 viewsHead of Tanit left, wearing necklace
Horse standing right, palm-tree behind
15 mm

Ginolerhino
Punique 4.jpg
Punic AE 1532 viewsHead of Tanit left
Horse jumping right
15 mm
1 commentsGinolerhino
Punique 3.jpg
Punic AE 1849 viewsHead of Tanit left, wearing necklace
Head of horse right
18 mm
1 commentsGinolerhino
Punique 2.jpg
Punic AE 2621 viewsHead of Tanit left
Horse pacing right
26 mm
Ginolerhino
Punique 1.jpg
Punic AE 2725 viewsHead of Tanit left
Horse pacing right, punic letter beneath
27 mm
Ginolerhino
P 9+~0.jpg
Punic Carthage40 viewsTanit
Punic_5~0.jpg
Punic Carthage33 viewsTanit
Punic_3~1.jpg
Punic Carthage73 views1 commentsTanit
Punic 13~0.jpg
Punic Carthage26 viewsTanit
Punic 10~0.jpg
Punic Carthage31 viewsTanit
Punic 12~0.jpg
Punic Carthage28 viewsTanit
Punic_7~0.jpg
Punic Carthage45 viewsTanit
Punic_8.jpg
Punic Carthage38 viewsTanit
Punic_5.jpg
Punic Carthage30 views21 mm - 5.60 g

Obv: Head of Tanit to the left.
Rev: Standing horse to the right, diverting the head. Bellow, globule.
Tanit
Punic_4.jpg
Punic Carthage31 viewsUnit - 400-350 B.C. - Carthage
15.4 mm - 2.15 g
Obv: Head of Tanit to the left
Rev: Standing horse to the right, palm tree

SNG 109
J.L. p. 132-133, n°1
Alexandropoulos, 18
Tanit
Punic_3~0.jpg
Punic Carthage64 viewsShekel - 220-215 B.C. - cARTHAGE
23 mm - 7.74 g
Obv: Head of Tanit to the left.
Rev: Standing horse to the right, diverting the head. In front of, Punic letter.

M. 205
Alexandropoulos 88b

1 commentsTanit
Punic_2~1.jpg
Punic Carthage43 viewsUnit - 400-350 B.C. - Carthage
15.8 mm - 2.5 g
Obv: Head of Tanit to the left
Rev: Standing horse to the right, palm tree

SNG 109
J.L. p. 132-133, n°1
Alexandropoulos, 18
Tanit
tanit_2.jpg
Punic Carthage AR Double Shekel with a Serrated Edge19 viewsPunic Carthage Double Shekel with a Serrated Edge
Silver

Obv.: Head of Tanit l. wreathed with corn, wearing a necklace, and a single-drop ear ring.

Rev.: Horse standing r., left foreleg raised. Pellet in front.

Müller 116 ; SNG /
1 commentsTanit
carthages.jpg
Punic Carthage Bronze Coin13 viewsA Punic Carthage bronze coin, minted in Carthage during the First Punic War, between 264-241 BC. 11 mm, 2.35 g.

Obverse: Head of Tanit left, wreathed in grain

Reverse: Horse standing right, palm tree behind

Attribution: SNG Copenhagen 113 ff
chuy1530
tanit~1.jpg
Punic Carthage Silver Shekel21 viewsPunic Carthage Silver Shekel
7.1 gr.
Wreathed head of Tanit left / Horse standing right, head reverted;

SNG 187
1 commentsTanit
auguste.jpg
Punic Carthago Augustus AE As 11 viewsCarthago Augustus AE As
8-10 BC - 25 mm
IMPCDFA PM PP ; head of Augustus right / CICPISPDVSPIIVIR - ppdd in field

RPC 746
Tanit
punic 5+.jpg
Punic Countermark28 viewsTanit
Punic_2~0.jpg
Punic First Punic War - Carthage91 viewsPUNIC. Carthage. 241 B.C. Shekel.
Obverse: Head of Tanit facing left.
Reverse: Ear.
SNG 235
1 commentsTanit
punic2~4.jpg
Punic First Punic War 2 Shekels10 viewsPUNIC. Carthage. 241 B.C.
2 Shekels.

Obverse: Head of Isis facing left.
Reverse: 3 ears.

SNG 226
Tanit
Punique D 1.jpg
Punic Tanit - SNG 351149 viewsBillon 2 Shekels - Carthage - 205-203 BC
Weight: 11.8 gms
Obv.: Wreathed head of Tanit left ; Rev.: Horse standing right, palm behind.

SNG 351
2 commentsTanit
Tanit.jpg
Punic Tanit Punic - SNG 351124 viewsZEUGITANA, Carthage. Time of the First Punic War. Circa 264-241 BC.

Billon Double Shekel (11.8 gm).
Obv.: Wreathed head of Tanit left, wearing triple-pendant earring and necklace
Rev;: Horse standing right, palm behind, pellet below.

SNG Copenhagen 190; Müller 104
2 commentsTanit
P 4 D.jpg
Punic Zeugitana47 viewsShekel - Carthage - 300-264 BC
Diameter: 18 mm
Weight : 5 gms
Obv: head of Tanit left
Rev: horse's head right

SNG 149
Tanit
P 2 D.jpg
Punic Zeugitana63 viewsShekel - Carthage - 300-264 BC
Diameter: 18 mm
Weight : 5 gms
Obv: head of Tanit left
Rev: horse's head right

SNG 149
1 commentsTanit
Punic 8.jpg
Punic Zeugitane31 viewsTanit
punique.jpg
PUNIC, Carthage, AE Shekel, c.300-275 BC37 viewsCARTHAGE. Circa 300-275 BC. Æ Shekel (18mm, 6 g, 3h).
Obv: Wreathed head of Tanit left.
Rev: Forepart of horse right; Punic "o" to right.
MAA 57x; SNG Copenhagen 151.
moneta romana
tanit_1.jpg
Punic, Carthage, Billon 2 Shekels38 viewsZEUGITANA, Carthage. Time of the First Punic War. Circa 264-241 BC.

Billon Double Shekel (11.8 gm).
Obv.: Wreathed head of Tanit left, wearing triple-pendant earring and necklace
Rev;: Horse standing right, palm behind, pellet below.

SNG Copenhagen 190; Müller 104
3 commentsTanit
21941q00.jpg
PUNIC, Carthage, Zeugitana, c. 310 - 290 B.C., Electrum shekel16 viewsSH21941. Electrum shekel, Jenkins and Lewis 247 - 250, SNG Cop 137, SGCV II 6462, Choice gVF, a gem, weight 7.575 g, maximum diameter 18.8 mm, die axis 0o, Carthage mint, obverse head of Tanit left, wreathed in grain, wearing necklace and triple-drop earring, dot border; reverse horse standing right on double exergual line, pellet lower right, border of dots; excellent strike with dies of finest style; scarceJoe Sermarini
Carthage_1~0.jpg
PUNIC, Siculo-Punic134 viewsCarthage
Siculo-Punic Mint
370-325BC
Wreathed head of Tanit left
Horse galloping right
17mm, 5.5 grams
gVF
Sassari 56-136, Holleman Munten List 106
3 commentsWindchildPunico
Carthage_BI_Tridrachm~0.jpg
PUNIC, Zeugitana, Carthage, BI Tridrachm - Second Punic War Issue, struck ca. 215-210 BC 120 viewsYouthful head of Tanit left, wreathed with corn, wearing single drop pendant earring.
Horse standing right, palm tree behind.
Lorber Group 2; MAA 79; SNG Copenhagen 351.
(26 mm, 10.48 g, 12h)

Lorber in analysing a 1995 commerce hoard (CH 9.690) of Second Punic War billon tridrachms that was closed around 205 BC, concluded that this youthful portrayal of Tanit was most probably introduced in the aftermath of Hannibal’s victory over the Romans at Cannae in 216 BC. She inferred a Barcid propaganda association with the youthful portrayal, one that was later overturned as the tide of war turned against the Barcid generals, accompanied by the reversion to the traditional portrayal of Tanit on the coinage of Carthage in the closing years of the Second Punic War.
6 commentsLloyd
Zeugitana,_Carthage,_BI_1_1_2_Shekel~0.jpg
PUNIC, Zeugitana, Carthage, Second Punic War, ca. 203-201 BC, Billon 1½ Shekel - SNG Copenhagen 396143 viewsHead of Tanit left, wearing single drop earring. / Horse standing right with a foreleg raised and head reverted, pellet between the rear legs. MAA 81c; SNG Copenhagen 396; Sear GCV 6517 (described as bronze).
(23 mm, 8.93 g, 12h)
Harlan J. Berk

Issued in the final years of the Second Punic War, when the Carthaginian treasury was nearly drained of silver, this coin is of strongly debased metal, with no more than 15% silver content. As a result, this type is frequently described as being of bronze.
2 commentsLloyd T
Heraclius,_s715.JPG
Revolt of the Heraclii, SBCV 71542 views[E]RACΛIO CONS[VΛI]
Bare head bust of Heraclius facing, wearing consular robes
Large X between N M, Cross above, Star below
AE decanummium
Carthage Mint
17mm, 5.16g

novacystis
Constantius_Chlorus_1.jpg
RIC 6, p.427, 32 - Constantius I Chlorus, Carthage 23 viewsConstantius I Chlorus as Caesar
Æ Follis, Carthage mint
Obv.: CONSTANTIVS NOB CAES, laureate head right
Rev.: SALVIS AVGG ET CAESS FEL KART / Γ, Carthage standing facing, head left, holding fruits in both hands
Æ, 11.32g, 28mm
Ref.: RIC VI 32 (a)
Ex Gitbud & Naumann
shanxi
dio3.jpg
Roman Diocletian Follis17 viewsBillon Follis
Obv: IMP DIOCLETIANVS PF AVG
Rev: SALVIS AVGG ET CAESS FEL KART ; Carthage sg. l., holding fruits
1 commentsTanit
Aurelian-moeda1.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Aurelian 207-275 AD.15 viewsAE Antoninian of Aurelian 207-275 AD.

Weight: 4.3gr
Size: 22mm

Obv: IMP C AVRELIANVS AVG - Aurelius right.

Rev: CONCORDIA MILITVM - Concordia and Aurelian clasping hands.

Exergue: PK Carthage

gVF/gVF

RIC 59 - VM 7.
Jorge C
caraCAST.JPG
ROMAN EMPIRE, Caracalla "Cast in Gaul" As397 viewsANTONINVS PIVS AVG PONT TRP VI
INDVLGENTIA AVGG/IN CARTH/S C
Dea Caelestis looks front, holds drum, riding lion
22 mm. 3.49 g, Such lightweight casts in brass, usually on thin round flans, are what Cohen calls "Cast in Gaul". Specimens in the BM coll. are BMC V pl. 49.3, 50.5-6, and 52.8. They are considerably commoner than the struck originals (courtesy of Curtis Clay).

1 commentswhitetd49
RI105~0.jpg
Roman Empire, Caracalla, Denarius88 views201 - 206 AD

Carthage

ANTONINVS PIVS AVG
Laureate and draped bust right

INDVLGENTIA AVGG, INCARTH
Dea Caelestis riding lion springing right, holding thunderbolt & scepter

3.09g, 19mm

RSC 97
1 commentsZaph0dd
Constantine_I_as_Caesar_Temple_(Carthage).JPG
ROMAN EMPIRE, CONSTANTINE I as CAESAR. Large AE Follis of Carthage. Struck A.D.30742 viewsObverse: CONSTANTINVS NOB CAES. Laureate head of Constantine facing right.
Reverse: CONSERVATO-RES KART SVAE. Hexastyle temple within which is Carthage standing facing left holding fruits in both hands. In exergue, PKΔ.
Diameter: 25.15mm | Weight: 6.4gms
RIC VI : 61
2 comments*Alex
constantius_kart.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Constantius I Chlorus -- SALVIS AVGG ET CAESS FEL KART205 viewsObv: CONSTANTIVS NOB CAES
Rev: SALVIS AVGG ET CAESS FEL KART
Exe: Gamma

RIC Carthage 32b
roscoedaisy
constantius_votive_2.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Constantius I Chlorus -- VOT X FK182 viewsObv: FL VAL CONSTANTIVS NOB C
Rev: VOT / X / FK
RIC Carthage 35a

Noted in RIC simply as a Fraction, these coins seem fairly scarce for Constantius.

And no I did not clean this coin myself, bought this one as-is.
roscoedaisy
moneta 735aa.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Constantius I, Carthage - RIC VI 39a51 viewsAE Follis
obv: IMP CONSTANTIVS P F AVG. Laureate head right.
rev: SALVIS AVGG ET CAESS FEL KART. Carthage standing, facing, head left, wearing long robe, holding fruits in both hands.
left field: H
exergue: A
Struck 305-306 A.D. at Carthage
RIC VI 39a
""With the Emperor and Caesars being safe, happy Carthage is strengthened."
Jericho
Constantius-I_AE-Follis_CONSTANTIVS_NOB_CAES_FELIX_ADVENT_AVGG_NN__H_left,_PKT_RIC_VI_24a_Carthage__298_A_D__Q-001_0h_25-28,5mm_10,38ga-s.jpg
Roman Empire, Constantius I. Chlorus (293-305 A.D. Caesar, 305-306 A.D. Augustus), Carthage, RIC VI 24a, AE-1 Follis, FELIX ADVENT AVGG NN, Africa standing right, #1377 views121 Constantius I. Chlorus (293-305 A.D. Caesar, 305-306 A.D. Augustus), Carthage, RIC VI 24a, AE-1 Follis, FELIX ADVENT AVGG NN, Africa standing right, #1
avers:- CONSTANTIVS-NOB-CAES, Laureate head right.
revers:- FELIX-AD-VENT-AVG-G-N-N, Africa standing right, head left, wearing elephant head headress, standard in right and tusk in left, lion and bull at feet left, H left, PKT in ex.
exerg: H|-//PKT, diameter: 25-28,5mm, weight: 10,38g, axes: 0h,
mint: Carthage, date: 298 A.D., ref: RIC VI 24a,
Q-001
6 commentsquadrans
roman17~0.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Diocletian Silvered Follis91 views299-303 AD . Carthage mint.
Obv.: IMP DIOCLETIANVS PF AVG - Laureate bust right.
Rev.: SALVS AVGG ET CAESS FEL KART - Carthage standing facing, head left, A in ex.
RIC 31a.
1 commentsMinos
Photo_2006_7_6_18_45_2_edited.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Maximianus SALVIS AVGG ET CAESS FEL KART47 viewsMaximianus, 298-299 A.D., large follis (29 mm, 7 gm), Carthage.
OBV: IMP MAXIMIANVS P F AVG, laureate head right.
REV: SALVIS AVGG ET CAESS FEL KART, Carthage, draped, standing right, head left, holding fruits in both hands.
*no longer in collection*
ancientcoins
CollageMaker_20180531_122510323~0.jpg
Roman Empire, Maximianus, First reign, 286-305 AD53 viewsAE Follis, Carthage mint, 2nd officina. Struck 297-298 AD
Obverse: IMP MAXIMIANVS P F AVG, Laureate head right.
Reverse: FELIX AD-V-ENT AVGG NN, Africa standing facing, head left, wearing elephant skin headdress and holding signum and tusk; at feet to left, lion with captured bull; H in left field; PKS in exergue.
References: RIC VI 23b, RCV 3630, Van Meter 035
Justin L
12__Denier_Septime_Sévère.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Septimius Severus, Denarius59 views- Denier, Septime Severe, Rome, 204 (Argent) 115 Cohen 226
Avers : Tête laurée de Septime Sévère à droite. SEVERVS - PIVS AVG.
Revers : Cælestis, la déesse céleste de Carthage assise de face sur un lion qui court à droite ; elle tient un foudre de la main droite et un sceptre de la gauche ; dessous, on voit des eaux sortant d’un rocher. INDVLGENTIA AVGG// IN CARTH.
Roger D2
Screenshot_2017-05-10_13_57_34.png
Roman Imperial, Constantius I Chlorus as Caesar, AE Follis.14 viewsCarthage 298-299 A.D. 10.64g - 27.7mm, Axis 6h.

Obv: CONSTANTIVS NOB CAES - Laureate head right.

Rev: SALVIS AVGG ET CAESS FEL KART - Carthago standing facing, head left, in long robe, holding fruits in both hands. Mintmark Γ.

RIC VI 32a.
1 commentsChristian Scarlioli
Screenshot_2017-04-21_15_55_37.png
Roman Imperial, Galerius Maximian as Caesar, AE Follis.15 viewsCarthage 299-303 A.D. 11.39g / 29.4mm, Axis 6h.

Obv: MAXIMIANVS NOB CAES - Laureate head right.

Rev: SALVIS AVGG ET CAESS FEL KART - Carthago standing front, looking left, holding fruit in both hands. Mintmark Δ.

RIC VI 32b.
1 commentsChristian Scarlioli
ConstantiusI_RIC-24a.jpg
Roman Imperial: Constantius I, as Caesar (293-305 CE) Æ Follis, Carthage (RIC 24a)24 viewsObv: CONSTANTIVS NOB CAES; Head laureate facing right
Rev: FELIX A - DV - ENT AVGG NN; Africa in elephant-skin headdress standing left holding vexillum and tusk, lion attacking bull at feet, PKT in exergue, H in left field

The H in field indicate that Constantius was a Herculian rather than Jovian Caesar.
1 commentsQuant.Geek
Maximianus_RIC-59.jpg
Roman Imperial: Maximianus, as Senior Augustus (305-307 CE) Æ Follis, Carthage (RIC 59)17 viewsObv: IMP MAXIMIANVS SEN AVG; laureate head of Maximianus right
Rev: CONSERVATORES KARTT SVAE; Carthago standing facing, head left, holding grain ears in both hands, within hexastyle temple with plain pediment; PKA in exergue
Quant.Geek
Maximianus D-1~0.jpg
Roman Maximianus Follis62 viewsAE Follis.
Ob: IMP MAXIMIANVS SEN AVG
Rv: CONSERVATO-RES KART SVAE - Carthago stg. facing, head l., holding up fruits in both hands, in hexastyle temple with plain pediment
mint: Carthage

RIC VI #59 Pag.432
1 commentsTanit
Roman_Republic_Bronze_Semis.png
Roman Republic, Anonymous AE Semis202 viewsState : Roman Republic
Denomination : Bronze Semis
Date : Circa 211-206 BC
Maximum Diameter : 28.97 Millimeters
Weight : 19.78 Grames
Moneyer : ( anonymous)
Mint : Rome
Die Axis : →
Grade : Almost EF with smooth dark patina , an exceptionally fine example of this early issue.
Obverse : Laureate head of bearded Saturn Right, mark of value S behind
Reverse : Prow of galley right, mark of value S above , ROMA below.
References : Crawford 56/3 ; BMCRR 229 ; Sydenham 143a ; Sear ( Roman Coins & Their Values I ) 766
This Coin has been personally inspected and authenticated by Dr. David R. Sear as an exceptional fine example of this early struck issue.

**Numismatic Note by Mr. Andrew McCabe :



Dear Sam,

This exceptional looking semis is an anonymous version of the Crawford 50 anchor series, published by me in The Anonymous Struck Bronze Coinage of the Roman Republic: a Provisional Arrangement, in Essays Russo, 2013 (Witschonke, van Alfen eds). It's in my group D, whose description says

McCabe group D1, Related to RRC 50 anchor. Broad squared Janus, tall thick prowstem, prominent keel and rostrum. Average 40 gram As. Asses have a broad square Janus head. Reverses have tall thick prowstems which are either line bounded or solid fill. There are often curved keel lines with downward pointing rostrums. The deck structures are small and flat-topped. Flans are thick and dumpy. There are often off-strikes, flat-strikes or flan defects.

I show below pictures of two styles of As and Semis from this series. The two styles probably relate to two different die engravers. Your coin corresponds to the second of the semisses shown below. I admit I considered buying it myself but wondered whether the field surfaces were smoothed, and then you bought it. Now I see the coin again I think there's no problem with it, it's likely been professionally cleaned and patinated. It is a very high quality coin for a Roman Republican bronze.

Below my Group D photo, I show a standard Crawford 50/3 anchor as, with the symbol. You should hopefully see that the anonymous and the coin with anchor symbol look essentially similar as regards style, design details and flans.

Andrew

For more information , please go to :

http://www.forumancientcoins.com/board/index.php?topic=100262.msg618261#msg618261


Numismatic Note: The rapid slide in the weight standard of the Roman Republican bronze coinage, occasioned by Rome's military
catastrophes at the hands of the Carthaginian Hannibal in the early stages of the Second Punic War, was finally halted by the enactment of the sweeping currency reform of circa 211 BC. For the first time asses were issued as struck coins in place of the cast Aes Grave pieces, thus completing the process which had begun about six years before with the introduction of struck fractional denominations. Following the reform, struck bronzes were produced in a range of values (principally as, semis, triens, quadrans, sextans, and uncia) on the sextantal weight standard based on an as of about 44 grams. The initial issues were anonymous but as the series progressed, various control-marks (symbols, letters and monograms) began to appear, usually on the reverse, indicating the moneyer responsible for the coin's production. This exceptionally fine example of the semis, or half as, is anonymous and belongs to the initial phase of production following the reform of circa 211 BC. Crawford dates it to the half decade 211-206 BC.
The obverse type of Saturn, father of Jupiter, became standard on the semis denomination about 225 BC and at the same time the reverse type for all bronze denominations was standardized as the prow of a galley, the principal instrument of Rome's success against Carthage in the First Punic War.

From Sam Mansourati Collection.
5 commentsSam
00315q00.jpg
ROMAN REPUBLIC, Janus/Prow Series, Aes Grave As - Crawford 35/162 viewsRome, The Republic.
Janus/Prow Series, circa 225-217 BCE.
AE Aes Grave As (256.29g; 64mm).

Obv: Head of Janus; - (value mark) below neck.

Rev: Prow right; I (value mark) above.

Reference: Crawford 35/1; Vecchi, ICC 74; Sydenham 71.

Provenance: Ex Kuenker Auction 280 (26 Sep 2016), Lot 315; ex Hannelore Scheiner Collection; acquired 1966 from Martin Nading of Fort Wayne, IN.

Aes Grave were a significant departure from the previous Roman bronze money in that Aes Grave were denominated with marks of value, and thus did not require weighing. The prow series of Libral Aes Grave was a very large issue. E.J. Haeberlin included nearly 1,200 examples of the As in the weight analysis within his monumental "Aes Grave". The Prow series Aes Grave was initially based on an As of about 270 grams. The iconography likely refers to the role of Rome's new and powerful navy in the victory over Carthage in the First Punic War and to the closing of the doors of the Temple of Janus in recognition of the peace. This same iconography subsequently became emblamatic of the As for several centuries of Roman struck bronze coinage.
5 commentsCarausius
AesGraveProwSemis.jpg
ROMAN REPUBLIC, Janus/Prow Series, Aes Grave Semis - Crawford 35/222 viewsRome, The Republic.
Janus/Prow Series, circa 225-217 BCE.
AE Aes Grave Semis (135.3g; 52mm).
Rome Mint.

Obverse: Laureate head of Saturn, facing left; S (mark of value) below neck; all on raised disk.

Reverse: Prow facing right; S (mark of value) above; all on raised disk.

References: Crawford 35/2; ICC 76; Sydenham 73; BMCRR 23-29.

Provenance: Ex Munzen und Medaillen GmbH, Auction 40 (4 Jun 2014), Lot 455; Auctiones AG Auction 13 (1983), Lot 505.

The prow series of libral Aes Grave was a very large issue. E.J. Haeberlin included over 300 examples of the Semis in the weight analysis within his monumental "Aes Grave". The Prow series Aes Grave was initially based on an As of about 270 grams. The iconography likely refers to the role of Rome's new and powerful navy in the victory over Carthage in the First Punic War. Both obverse and reverse iconography from the various denominations of this series would continue through the Republican struck bronze coinage.
1 commentsCarausius
1681997l.jpg
ROMAN REPUBLIC, Semi-incuse Early AR Denarius - Second Punic War - Crawford 44/542 viewsRome, The Republic.
Anonymous, ca. 212 BCE
Rome Mint
AR Denarius (4.48g)

Obv: Head of Roma in splayed-visor helmet, facing right; X (mark of value = 10 asses) behind.

Rev: Dioscuri galloping right with couched spears; two stars above; ROMA, semi-incused, below.

Reference: Crawford 44/5; Sydenham 167; RSC Anonymous 1a.

Provenance: ex NAC 84 Part II (21 May 2015), Lot 1622.

This example is among the earliest of the very first denarii issue by the Roman Republic, circa 212 BCE. From 218-212 BCE, the excessive cost of the war with Hannibal and Carthage had necessitated debasement of Rome's silver quadrigatus coinage and several weight standard reductions in the bronze coinage. It was possibly the sack of Syracuse in 212 BCE that provided the silver infusion that Rome needed to reform their debased currency and introduce the denarius system. The earliest denarii had a semi-incuse ROMA inscription on the reverse, as seen here, reminiscent of the fully-incuse and semi-incuse inscriptions on the earlier quadrigati coinage. This early-style inscription was soon replaced by a relief inscription within a linear frame.
2 commentsCarausius
Maximianus D-1.jpg
Roman, Maximianus253 viewsAE Follis.
Obv.: IMP MAXIMIANVS SEN AVG ; Rev.: CONSERVATORES KART SVAE ; cult image of Carthage stg. in a temple.
Tanit
RRC281-1.jpg
RRC 281/1 (Furius Philus), minting error84 viewsObv. Laureate bust of Janus, M.[FO]VRI.L.F. around, border of beads; in other striking, ...OV... of legend visible;
Rev. Roma standing left, holding spear and crowning a trophy, Gallic arms and carnices around, ROMA to left, [PHILI] in monogram in exergue.
Rome, ca. 119 B.C.
1.8 mm (2.3 with minting error), 3,83 grams,
References: RRC 281/1, CRR 529, Sear 156, RSC Furia 18

The mint workers were apparently too busy on the day this coin was struck to fully remove this one before placing and striking the next flan. The Gallic arms may represent the near-contemporary victories in Cisalpine Gaul. Furius' father was a renowned antiquarian and member of the Scipionic Circle. He may have been responsible for the revival of the evocatio for the conquest of Carthage - so perhaps the son followed by reviving the head of Janus (from Rome's first coins) for his denarius.
Syltorian
sb1053_28mm_1236g.jpg
SBVC 1053; Constans II; AE follis26 viewsObv: EN TVTO NIKA, Constans standing facing, crowned, cloaked and cuirassed, holding long cross and cross on globe
Rev: large M, cross to left, cross above, cross to right; mintmark CRTS
Mint: Carthage
Date: 641-668 AD
SBVC 1053
28mm
12.36g
2 commentswileyc
Sear_0193.jpg
Sear 019327 viewsJustinian I ( 527 – 565 CE) Pentanummium, weight 1.9g, diameter 13mm. Mint uncertain: Grierson suggested Thessalonica, Bellinger listed this type (DOC 97f) under Constantinople, while Hahn attributed it to Carthage. Abu Galyon
Sear_0266.jpg
Sear 026616 viewsJustinian I (527 – 565 CE) Half-follis, weight 12.07g, diameter 29mm. Mint of Carthage; regnal year somewhat indistinct, but probably X | I I I , i.e. 539-540 CE. The letter S (also, on some related issues, SO) appears where we would expect an officina designation, possibly abbreviating Sola [Grierson] or perhaps Secunda Officina [Wroth]. Abu Galyon
Sear_0269.jpg
Sear 026930 viewsJustinian I (527 – 565 CE) Decanummium, weight 5.33g, diameter 21mm. Mint of Carthage, struck in 539/40 [= regnal year XIII].Abu Galyon
Sear_0269_[2].jpg
Sear 026911 viewsJustinian I (527 – 565 CE) Decanummium, weight 5.55g, diameter 19mm. Mint of Carthage, struck in 540/41 [= regnal year XIIII].Abu Galyon
Sear_0274.jpg
Sear 027422 viewsJustinian I (527 – 565 CE) Pentanummium, weight 2.1g, diameter 15 mm. Mint of Carthage.Abu Galyon
Sear_0274_[2].jpg
Sear 027423 viewsJustinian I (527 – 565 CE) Pentanummium, weight 2.1g, diameter 14mm. Mint of Carthage.Abu Galyon
Sear_0275.jpg
Sear 027537 viewsJustinian I (527 – 565 CE). Pentanummium, weight 4.3g, diameter 17mm. Mint of Carthage. Abu Galyon
Sear_0278.jpg
Sear 027818 viewsJustinian I (527 – 565 CE) Nummus, weight 0.9g, diameter 8mm. Mint of Carthage, struck in 539/40 CE [regnal year XIII ]. Abu Galyon
Sear_0278_[1].jpg
Sear 027825 viewsJustinian I (527 – 565 CE) Nummus, weight 0.84g, diameter 9mm. Mint of Carthage, struck in 539/40 CE [regnal year XIII ].Abu Galyon
Sear_0279.jpg
Sear 027917 viewsJustinian I (527 – 565 CE) Nummus, weight 0.55g, diameter 9mm. Mint of Carthage, struck in 540/41 CE [regnal year XIIII ].Abu Galyon
Sear_0281.jpg
Sear 028121 viewsJustinian I (527 – 565 CE) Nummus, weight 0.65g, diameter 9mm. Wroth ( i.e. the old British Museum Vandals, Ostrogoths and Lombards catalogue) attributed this type to Hilderic, but it is most likely a Byzantine imperial issue: from the mint at Carthage (or possibly another North African mint) and struck soon after the end of the Vandalic War in 534. Abu Galyon
Sear_0286.jpg
Sear 028615 viewsJustinian I (527 – 565 CE) Decanummium, weight 5.24g, diameter 20mm. A very convincing case can be made – based on finds, style, and overstrikes on known coins from Carthage – that this type is a North African issue, either struck in Carthage (so Hahn) or at a hypothetical mint at ‘Constantine in Numidia’ (so Bellinger, explaining the CON mintmark). Abu Galyon
Sear_0342.jpg
Sear 034217 viewsJustinian I (527 – 565 CE) Nummus, weight 0.46g, diameter 8 mm. Hahn attributes this type to Carthage while Sear (following DOC) opts for ‘uncertain mint’. Tiny, isn’t it? Abu Galyon
Sear_0342_[2].jpg
Sear 034224 viewsJustinian I (527 – 565 CE) Nummus, weight 0.76g, diameter 10 mm. Mint of Carthage. 1 commentsAbu Galyon
Sear_0400.jpg
Sear 040037 viewsJustin II ((565 – 578 CE) Decanummium, weight 3.38g, diameter 17mm. Mint of Carthage. This type is undated, but folles and half-folles with identical obverse devices were struck exclusively during regnal year VIII (572/3). Abu Galyon
Sear_0400_[2].jpg
Sear 040021 viewsJustin II ((565 – 578 CE) Decanummium, weight 3.33g, diameter 19mm. Mint of Carthage. This type is undated, but folles and half-folles with identical obverse devices were struck exclusively during regnal year VIII (572/3).Abu Galyon
Sear_0568.jpg
Sear 056813 viewsMaurice Tiberius (582 – 602 CE) Pentanummium, weight 2.14g, diameter 13mm. Mint of Carthage, struck in 584/5 [= IND III].Abu Galyon
Sear_0569.jpg
Sear 056912 viewsMaurice Tiberius (582 – 602 CE) Pentanummium, weight 1.90g, diameter 13mm. Mint of Carthage. Abu Galyon
Sear_0685.jpg
Sear 068514 viewsPhocas (602 – 610 CE) Half-follis, weight 5.60g, diameter 20mm. Mint of Carthage, struck in 602/3 (6th indiction). Abu Galyon
Sear_0686.jpg
Sear 068622 viewsPhocas (602 – 610 CE) Half-follis, weight 7.3g, diameter 22mm. Mint of Carthage, struck in 606/7 [regnal year ϵ = 5]Abu Galyon
Sear_0872.jpg
Sear 087218 viewsHeraclius (610 - 641 CE) Half-follis, weight 5.4g, diameter 18mm. Mint of Carthage.Abu Galyon
CsIIDO132.jpg
Sear 1050 - Half Siliqua - 652-657 AD - Carthage mint46 viewsEmperor: Constans II (r. 641-668 AD)
Date: 652-657 AD
Condition: VF
Denomination: Half Siliqua

Obverse: Illegible legend ( ][ ? )
Bust facing, with short beard, wearing chlamys and crown with cross. In right hand, globus cruciger.

Reverse: ; Above, ; Beneath, . (Pax)

Carthage mint
DO 132; Sear 1050; MIB 157b
0.40g; 9.9mm; 0°

Ex Dr. Michael Metlich Collection
1 commentsPep
CsIIDO133.jpg
Sear 1052 - Half Siliqua - 662-668 AD - Carthage mint30 viewsEmperor: Constans II (r. 641-668 AD)
Date: 662-668 AD
Condition: VF
Denomination: Half Siliqua

Obverse: No legend
To left, bust of Constans, with long beard, wearing chlamys and crown with cross, and holding globus cruciger. To right, bust of Constantine, beardless, wearing chlamys and crown with cross. Above, cross.

Reverse: No legend
To left and right, busts of Heraclius and Tiberius, each wearing chlamys and crown with cross, and holding globus cruciger in right hand. Above, cross.

Carthage mint
DO 133; Sear 1052; MIB 158
0.50g; 10.9mm; 150°

Ex Dr. Michael Metlich Collection
Pep
Sear_1055.jpg
Sear 105511 viewsConstans II (641 – 668 CE) Follis, weight 4.96g, diameter 21mm. Mint of Carthage.Abu Galyon
CsIIDO147.jpg
Sear 1055 - Follis - 659-668 AD - Carthage mint19 viewsEmperor: Constans II (r. 641-668 AD)
Date: 659-668 AD
Condition: Fine
Denomination: Follis

Obverse: No legend
To left, Constans standing, with long beard, wearing cuirass and crown with cross. In right hand, long cross. To right, Constantine standing, beardless, wearing chlamys and crown with cross. Above, cross.

Reverse: Large ""; Above, ; Beneath, ; To left, Heraclius; To right, Tiberius, standing, each wearing chlamys and crown with cross.

Carthage mint
DO 147; Sear 1055
5.34g; 20.1mm; 180°
Pep
Sear_1057.jpg
Sear 105727 viewsConstans II (641 – 668 CE) Half-follis, weight 6.15g, diameter 21mm. Mint of Carthage. Abu Galyon
CsIIDO138.jpg
Sear 1057 - Half Follis - 643-647 AD - Carthage mint14 viewsEmperor: Constans II (r. 641-668 AD)
Date: 643-647 AD
Condition: VF/aVF
Denomination: Half Follis

Obverse: [
Bust facing, beardless, wearing chlamys and crown with cross on circlet. In right hand, globus cruciger.

Reverse: Cross. To left, ; To right, .
Exergue:

Carthage mint
DO 138; Sear 1057
3.40g; 19.0mm; 180°
Pep
Sear_1059.jpg
Sear 105928 viewsConstans II (641 – 668 CE) Half-follis, weight 1.87g, diameter 16mm. Mint of Carthage. A thin flan explains the exceedingly light weight; DOC also notes a specimen [144.17] struck on an unusually thin flan. Abu Galyon
CsIIDOC144.jpg
Sear 1059 - Half Follis - 647-659 AD - Carthage mint28 viewsEmperor: Constans II (r. 641-668 AD)
Date: 647-659 AD
Condition: VF
Denomination: Half Follis

Obverse: CONSTNTN (or similar)
Bust facing, with short beard, as consul, wearing loros and crown with trefoil ornament on circlet. In right hand, mappa; In left, globus cruciger.

Reverse: Cross. To left and right, C/X and T/X. Above,

Carthage mint
DO 144; Sear 1059
5.38g; 25.4mm; 45°

Overstruck on a DO 135; Sear 1056
(NT[ on reverse)
Pep
Sear_1060.jpg
Sear 106022 viewsConstans II (641 – 668 CE) Half-follis, weight 4.1g, diameter 17mm. Mint of Carthage.Abu Galyon
CsIIDO145.jpg
Sear 1060 - Half Follis - 647-659 AD - Carthage mint18 viewsEmperor: Constans II (r. 641-668 AD)
Date: 647-659 AD
Condition: VF
Denomination: Half Follis

Obverse: - ]
Bust facing, with short beard, as consul, wearing loros and crown with cross. In right hand, mappa; In left, globus cruciger.

Reverse: Cross. To left and right, // and //. Above, .

Carthage mint
DO 145; Sear 1060
4.98g; 17.5mm; 60°

Possible obverse die match with DO 145.6.
Pep
CsIIDO148.jpg
Sear 1062 - Half Follis - 659-668 AD - Carthage mint17 viewsEmperor: Constans II (r. 641-668 AD)
Date: 659-668 AD
Condition: Fair
Denomination: Half Follis

Obverse: [
To left, bust of Constans, facing, with long beard, wearing chlamys and crown with cross. In right hand, globus cruciger. To right, bust of Constantine, facing, beardless, wearing chlamys and crown with cross.

Reverse: To left and right, busts of Heraclius and Tiberius, each wearing chlamys and crown with cross, and holding globus cruciger in right hand. Above, cross.
Exergue:

Carthage mint
DO 148; Sear 1062
5.52g; 21.2mm; 270°

Overstruck on a Sear 1059 (/ on reverse)
Pep
CsIIDO141.jpg
Sear 1064 - Decanummium - 643-647 AD - Carthage mint16 viewsEmperor: Constans II (r. 641-668 AD)
Date: 643-647 AD
Condition: VF
Denomination: Decanummium

Obverse: - (or similar)
Bust facing, beardless, wearing chlamys and crown with cross. In right hand, globus cruciger.

Reverse: Cross. To left and right, .

Carthage mint
DO 141; Sear 1064
3.22g; 17.9mm; 210°

Overstruck on a DO 136; Sear 1063 (] on reverse)
Pep
ConIVDO53.jpg
Sear 1198 - Half Follis - 673-674 AD - Carthage mint41 viewsEmperor: Constantine IV (r. 668-685 AD)
Date: 673-674 AD
Condition: aFine
Denomination: Half Follis

Obverse: No legend
Busts of Heraclius, Constantine, and Tiberius, facing, with Constantine bearded and slightly larger than the others. Each wears chlamys and crown with cross.

Reverse: Large ""; To left, cross; To right, star.

Carthage mint
DO 53; Sear 1198; MIB 101
4.28g; 19.3mm; 135°
Pep
ConIVDO54.jpg
Sear 1199 - Half Follis - 681-685 AD - Carthage mint40 viewsEmperor: Constantine IV (r. 668-685 AD)
Date: 681-685 AD
Condition: Fine
Denomination: Half Follis

Obverse: ][ ]
Bust facing, bearded, wearing cuirass and helmet with plume and diadem, the ties of which are visible to left. In right hand, spear held behind head; on left shoulder, shield with horseman device.

Reverse: Large "".

Carthage mint
DO 54; Sear 1199; MIB 102
5.10g; 17.7mm; 180°
Pep
JnnIIDO33.jpg
Sear 1270 - Follis - 687-695 AD - Carthage mint29 viewsEmperor: Justinian II (First Reign: 685-695 AD)
Date: 687-695 AD
Condition: aFine
Denomination: Follis

Obverse: No legend
Emperor standing, bearded (?), wearing chlamys and crown with cross on circlet, holding globus cruciger in right hand; in left, akakia. To left, ; To right,

Reverse: Large ""; Above,
To left, /; To right, ; Beneath, (?)

Carthage mint
DO 33; Sear 1270
3.16g; 22.8mm; 0°

Ex CNG
Pep
RvltDO8.jpg
Sear 715 - Decanummium - 608-610 AD - Carthage mint80 viewsRevolt of the Heraclii (608-610 AD)
Date: 608-610 AD
Condition: VF
Denomination: Decanummium

Obverse: RCIO - CONSVI
Bust of Heraclius, facing, bearded, wearing consular robes. In right hand, eagle-topped scepter. Above head, cross.

Reverse: Large "X"; Above, cross; Beneath, ; To left, /N/; To right, /M/

Carthage mint
DO 8; Sear 715
2.88g; 17.6mm; 330°
Pep
RvltDO9.jpg
Sear 716 - Pentanummium - 608-610 AD - Carthage mint56 viewsRevolt of the Heraclii (608-610 AD)
Date: 608-610 AD
Condition: VF
Denomination: Pentanummium

Obverse: ] - [ ]
Bust facing, beardless, wearing consular robes.

Reverse: Large ""; Above, cross; To left, //; To right, //

Carthage mint
DO 9; Sear 716
2.30g; 14.0mm; 345°

Ex CNG
Pep
RvltSear717.jpg
Sear 717 - Binummium - 608-610 AD - Carthage mint53 viewsRevolt of the Heraclii (608-610 AD)
Date: 608-610 AD
Condition: Fine/VF
Denomination: Binummium

Obverse: No legend
Bust facing, beardless, wearing consular robes(?); To left and right, pellet.

Reverse: Large ""; To left and right, pellet.

Carthage mint
Sear 717; MIB 15; BN 8
0.86g; 9.5mm; 180°
Pep
HclsDO233_FORVM.jpg
Sear 871 - Half Siliqua - 614-618 AD - Carthage mint31 viewsEmperor: Heraclius (r. 610-641 AD)
Date: 614-618 AD
Condition: Choice gVF+
Denomination: Half Siliqua

Obverse: DNRC - IOPPV
Bust of Heraclius facing, beardless, wearing cuirass, paludamentum, and crown with pendilia and cross.

Reverse: No legend
To left, bust of Heraclius Constantine, wearing chlamys with tablion and crown with pendilia and cross. To right, bust of Martina, wearing robes and crown with long pendilia and cross. Between heads, cross.

Carthage mint
0.66g, 11.6mm, 100°
DO 233; Sear 871; MIB 149; BMC 343-6; Tolstoi 319-20; Ratto 1460-64; Morrison (CBN) 3-11

Ex Edward J. Waddell, Ex Lawrence Woolslayer, Ex FORVM ANCIENT COINS

Image: FORVM ANCIENT COINS
Pep
HclsDO234.jpg
Sear 872 - Half Follis - 610-641 AD - Carthage mint21 viewsEmperor: Heraclius (r. 610-641 AD)
Date: 610-641 AD
Condition: Fine/VF
Denomination: Half Follis

Obverse: -
Bust of Heraclius, beardless, wearing cuirass and crown with pendilia, cross, and trefoil ornament. In right hand, globus cruciger.

Reverse: Large ""; Above, cross; To left, star; To right, .
Exergue:

Carthage mint
DO 234; Sear 872
5.75g; 20.3mm; 165°
Pep
HclsSear873.jpg
Sear 873 - Half Follis - 610-641 AD - Carthage mint14 viewsEmperor: Heraclius (r. 610-641 AD)
Date: 610-641 AD (Indictional Year 15)
Condition: Fine/VF
Denomination: Half Follis

Obverse: ] -
Bust of Heraclius, beardless, wearing cuirass and crown with pendilia, cross, and trefoil ornament. In right hand, globus cruciger.

Reverse: Large ""; Above, cross; To left, star; To right, .
Exergue:

Carthage mint
Sear 873
5.73g; 19.8mm; 295°
Pep
HclsDO235.jpg
Sear 874 - Half Follis - 610-641 AD - Carthage mint14 viewsEmperor: Heraclius (r. 610-641 AD)
Date: 610-641 AD
Condition: VF
Denomination: Half Follis

Obverse: -
Bust of Heraclius, bearded, wearing cuirass and crown with pendilia and cross. In right hand, globus cruciger.

Reverse: Large ""; Above, cross; To left, star; To right, .
Exergue:

Carthage mint
DO 235; Sear 874
4.25g; 18.5mm; 150°
Pep
HclsDOC236.jpg
Sear 876 - Decanummium - 610-641 AD - Carthage mint42 viewsEmperor: Heraclius (r. 610-641 AD)
Date: 610-641 AD
Condition: VF
Denomination: Decanummium

Obverse: DNR[
Bust of Heraclius, beardless, wearing cuirass, paludamentum, and crown with pendilia, cross, and trefoil ornament.

Reverse: Large "X"; Above, cross; Beneath, ; To left, /N/ ; To right, /M/

Carthage mint
DO 236; Sear 876
2.92g; 14.4mm; 255°
Pep
HclsDO237.jpg
Sear 877 - Decanummium - 610-641 AD - Carthage mint12 viewsEmperor: Heraclius (r. 610-641 AD)
Date: 610-641 AD
Condition: VF
Denomination: Decanummium

Obverse: ] -
Bust of Heraclius, beardless, wearing cuirass, paludamentum, and crown with pendilia, cross, and trefoil ornament.

Reverse: Large ""; Above, cross; Beneath, ; To left, ; To right, .

Carthage mint
DO 237; Sear 877
2.50g; 14.4mm; 90°
Pep
HclsDO238.jpg
Sear 878 - Decanummium - 610-641 AD - Carthage mint12 viewsEmperor: Heraclius (r. 610-641 AD)
Date: 610-641 AD
Condition: Fine/VF
Denomination: Decanummium

Obverse: ][
Bust of Heraclius, beardless, wearing cuirass, paludamentum, and crown with pendilia, cross, and trefoil ornament.

Reverse: Large ""; Above, cross; Beneath, ; To left, //; To right, //

Carthage mint
DO 238; Sear 878
2.89g; 15.0mm; 30°
Pep
HclsDO239.jpg
Sear 880 - Pentanummium - 610-641 AD - Carthage mint7 viewsEmperor: Heraclius (r. 610-641 AD)
Date: 610-641 AD
Condition: Fine
Denomination: Pentanummium

Obverse: ]
Bust facing, beardless, wearing cuirass and crown with cross.

Reverse: Large ""; Above, cross; To left and right, with pellets above and below.

Carthage mint
DO 239; Sear 880
1.31g; 11.4mm; 0°
Pep
005.JPG
Septimius Severus 28 views193 – 211 A.D.
AR Denarius, laureate head right
3.14 gm, 20 mm
Obv.: SEVERVS PIVS AVG
Rev.: INDVLGENTIA AVGG
Dea Caelestis riding right on lion over water gushing from rock to the left,
holding a thunderbolt and scepter
Exe: IN CARTH
RIC IVi, p. 125, 266D; Cohen 222; D. Sear II, p. 459, 6285
Rome mint, 204 A.D.

Commemorates the building of an aquaduct (and other public works) in Carthage by Severus in 202/203 A.D.
Jaimelai
S_Severus_Carthage-Lion.jpg
Septimius Severus * Dea Caelestis Riding Lion * African 'Tour,' 206AD * AR Denarius121 views
SEVERVS, Silver Denarius

When Septimius with his Imperial family took their tour of Rome's African possessions, most notably Carthage and Lepcis, in addition to many works of beautification, he also built a new aqueduct in Carthage and improved, with perhaps another, the water supply in Lepcis. This coin commemorates Septimius the indulgent benefactor, showing Dea Caelestis riding a lion which leaps over water cascading from the aqueduct.


Obv: SEVERVS PIVS AVG - Laureate head right
Rev: INDVLGENTIA AVGG - Dea Caelestis riding right on lion, leaping over water gushing from rock to the left, and holding a thunderbolt and scepter.

Exergue: IN CARTH

Mint: Rome
Struck: 204 AD.

Size: 19 mm.
Weight: 3.5 grams
Die axis: 0 degs.

Condition: Beautiful, bright clear luster

Refs:*
RIC IVi, p. 125, 266D
Cohen 222
D. Sear II, p. 459, 6285

3 commentsTiathena
s_In_CARTHAGE.JPG
Septimius Severus denarius95 viewsRIC 266 (3,7 gm, 19 mm).
Mint of Rome, 204 AD.

High relief,
unusually huge & sharp script...

Just a Severus author's type -
INDVLGENTIA IN CARTHage!
5 commentsneander
septimius_severus_266.jpg
Septimius Severus RIC IV, 26686 viewsSeptimius Severus AD 193-211
AR - Denarius, 2.97g, 18.13mm
Rome, AD 204
obv. SEPTIMIVS - PIVS AVG
bust, laureate, r.
rev. INDVLGENTIA AVGG
Dea Caelestis, looking r., riding a lion leaping to the right, holding a thunderbolt and
sceptre; water gushing from a rock on the left
IN CARTH in ex.
RIC IV/1, 266; C.222; BMC 335
good VF

The exact significance of the type is not known for certain, but it obviously commemorates an important event as attested by the fact that the type was used on Aurei, Sestertii and Asses as well as denarii. The general thought is that the type commemorates the building of or repair to an aquaduct, or perhaps to a possible remission of the taxes levied on the city of Carthage for its water supply. (Barry Murphy)
3 commentsJochen
septimus_dea.jpg
Septimus Severus, Leaping Lion113 viewsObverse: SEVERVS PIVS AVG - Laureate bearded head right.
Reverse: INDVLGENTIA AVGG - Dea Celestis holding scepter and thunderbolt, seated facing rt on lion springing rt
Water gushes from spring behind her.
Exe: IN CARTH
Mint : Rome
Date : AD 202 - 210
Reference : RIC IVi, 266D, page 125 - Cohen 222 - SEAR RCV II (2002), #6285, page 459, BMC 335
Grade : gVF
Weight : 3.23g
Denom : Denarius
Metal : Silver

Comments : INDVLGENTIA AVGG literally meaning indulgence of the emperor to Carthage, Septimus and imperial family toured Carthage and North Africa. While there, they probably gave a favour to Carthage, most likely an a new aqueduct. Dea Celestis was the patron-deity of Carthage who is depicted riding the lion.

ex Forum
3 commentsBolayi
sevII.jpg
Severus II - Follis93 viewsFollis
Obv: FLVALSEVERVSNOBCAES - Laureate head right.
Rev: SALVSAVGGETCAESSFELKART Exe: H/ - Carthage standing, facing, holding fruits in each hand. May 305 - July 306 (Carthage).
RIC 40a (VI, Carthago) , C 64
Tanit
SeverusII-Kart-RIC40a-Wht.jpg
Severus II Follis/Nummus Carthage6 viewsDenomination: Follis/Numus
Era: AD 305-306
Metal: AE
Obverse: FL VAL SEVERVS NOB CAES; Laureate head R.
Reverse: SALVIS AVGG ET CAESS FEL KART, Carthage standing facing, head left, holding up fruits in both hands; H in left field, Δ in exergue.

Mint: Carthage
Weight: 14.15g.
Reference: RIC VI Carthage 40A
Provenance: Numismatik Naumann, Esale Oct 2, 2019

Comments: Outstanding green patina, exceptional surfaces

Some weakness that is apparently striking weakness, GVF.
Steve B5
Punic3§.jpg
Shekel - Carthage - 300-264 BC29 viewsShekel - Carthage - 300-264 BC

Obv: head of Tanit left
Rev: horse's head right

SNG 164
Tanit
Sicily_2.jpg
Sicily, Kamarina. (Circa 410-405 BC)17 viewsAE Tetras

14 mm, 2.7 g

Obverse: Facing gorgoneion.

Reverse: KAMA. Owl standing right, holding lizard; in exergue three pellets.

HGC 2, 546.

Kamarina was usually at odds with Syracuse but gave it some aid during Athens' disastrous Sicilian Expedition (415-413 BC) in the Peloponnesian War. The city was destroyed in 405 BC by Carthage. There is a (likely) myth told by the ancient Greek geographer/historian/philosopher, Strabo, that just before the Carthaginians razed Kamarina, the Kamarinians were plagued by a mysterious disease. The marsh of Kamarina had protected the city from its hostile neighbors to the north. It was suspected that the marsh was the source of the strange illness and the idea of draining the marsh to end the epidemic became popular. The town oracle advised the leaders not to drain the marsh, suggesting the plague would pass with time. But the discontent was widespread and the leaders opted to drain the marsh against the oracle's advice. Once it was dry, there was nothing stopping the Carthaginian army from advancing. They marched across the newly drained marsh and razed the city, killing every last inhabitant." Despite Strabo's story, the truth appears to be that the inhabits of the town had largely fled for Syracuse before the army arrived.
Nathan P
s-l500_(2).jpg
Sicily, Syracuse. Agathokles (Circa 317-289 BC)23 viewsAE 21, 8.90 g

Obverse: ΣΩΤΕΙΡΑ (Soteira - "the saving goddess); head of Artemis right, wearing triple-pendant earring and necklace, quiver over shoulder

Reverse: ΑΓΑΘΟΚΛΕΟΣ ΒΑΣΙΛΕΟΣ (By the King Agathokles); winged thunderbolt. Calciati II pg. 277, 142; SNG ANS 708.

The son of a potter who had moved to Syracuse in about 343 BC, Agathokles learned his father's trade, but afterwards entered the army. In 333 BC he married the widow of his patron Damas, a distinguished and wealthy citizen. He was twice banished for attempting to overthrow the oligarchical party in Syracuse.

In 317 BC he returned with an army of mercenaries under a solemn oath to observe the democratic constitution which was established after they took the city. Having banished or murdered some 10,000 citizens, and thus made himself master of Syracuse, he created a strong army and fleet and subdued the greater part of Sicily.

War with Carthage followed. In 311 BC Agathocles was defeated in the Battle of the Himera River and besieged in Syracuse. In 310 BC he made a desperate effort to break through the blockade and attack the enemy in Africa. After several victories he was at last completely defeated (307 BC) and fled secretly to Sicily.

After concluding peace with Carthage in 306 BC, Agathocles styled himself king of Sicily in 304 BC, and established his rule over the Greek cities of the island more firmly than ever. A peace treaty with Carthage left him in control of Sicily east of the Halycus River. Even in his old age he displayed the same restless energy, and is said to have been contemplating a fresh attack on Carthage at the time of his death.
Nathan P
Pyrrhus.jpg
Sicily, Syracuse. Pyrrhus (Circa 278-275 BC)32 viewsAE 23mm, 11.43 g

Obverse: Head of Heracles l., wearing lion's headdress; in r. field, cornucopiae.

Rev. Athena Promachos standing r., holding spear and shield; in l. field, thunderbolt.

SNG Copenhagen 811. Calciati 177.

Pyrrhus was king of the Greek tribe of Molossians (west coast of Greece) and later became king of Epirus. One of the greatest military commanders of the ancient world, Pyrrhus took a large army to southern Italy at the behest of the Greek colony of Tarentum in their war against Rome. With his superior cavalry, deadly phalanx, and 20 elephants, Pyrrhus defeated the Romans in a succession of battles but at great cost. After a victory at Apulia (279 BC) where Pyrrhus lost 3,500 men including many officers, he famously commented that, "If we are victorious in one more battle with the Romans, we shall be utterly ruined." It is from this semi-legendary event that the term Pyrrhic victory originates.

In 278 BC, the Greek cities in Sicily asked Pyrrhus to help drive out Carthage, which along with Rome was one of the two great powers of the Western Mediterranean. While successful, his request for manpower and money from the Sicilians for a fleet to blockade Carthage’s final stronghold was met with resistance, forcing Pyrrhus to proclaim a military dictatorship of Sicily and install military garrisons in Sicilian cities. These actions were deeply unpopular and with Sicily growing increasingly hostile to Pyrrhus, he abandoned Sicily and returned to Italy to fight another inconclusive battle against the Romans. Pyrrhus soon ended his campaign in Italy and returned to Epirus.

In 274 BC he captured the Macedonian throne in a battle against Antigonus Gonatus II. But two years later while storming the city of Argos, Pyrrhus was killed in a confused battle at night in the narrow city streets. While fighting an Argive soldier, the soldier's mother, who was watching from a rooftop, threw a tile which knocked Pyrrhus from his horse and broke part of his spine, paralyzing him. His death was assured after a soldier beheaded his motionless body.

Athena Promachos ("Athena who fights in the front line") was a colossal bronze statue of Athena. Erected around 456 BC in Athens, the Athena Promachos likely memorialized the Persian Wars. The very first specific archaistic Athena Promachos coin image was depicted on coins that were issued by Alexander the Great in 326 BC. Ten years later, the Athena Promachos appeared on coins issued by Ptolemy in Alexandria. Pyrrhus' alliance with Ptolemy (I and II) and admiration of Alexander the Great (they were second cousins) undoubtedly inspired the design of this coin with Heracles on obverse (like Alexander's coins) and Athena Promachos on the reverse.
2 commentsNathan P
Timoleon1.jpg
Sicily, Syracuse. Timoleon (Circa 344-338 BC)37 viewsÆ Hemidrachm (24.5mm, 15.84 g).

Timoleontic Symmachy coinage. First series.

Obverse: Laureate head of Zeus Eleutherios right; ZΕΥΣ ΕΛΕΥΘΕΡΙΟΣ (Zeus Eleutherios - deliverer of freedom)

Reverse: Upright thunderbolt; barley grain to right; ΣΥΡΑΚΟΣΙΩΝ (Syracos)

Castrizio Series I, 1β; CNS 71; HGC 2, 1440.

Timoleon was born to an aristocratic family in Corinth in 411 BC. Little is known of his early life, but in 368 BC he fought as a common soldier in the war between Corinth and Argos. Then, still in the mid-360s BC, Timoleon dramatically murdered his brother, the power-mad and unpopular Timophanes, ending his tyranny at Corinth.

Timoleon isn’t heard from again until two decades later when he was chosen to lead an expedition to Syracuse (Corinth’s former colony) in 344 BC against the dual threat of the tyrant Dionysius II and possible invasion from Carthage. With a force consisting of 700 mercenaries and ten ships, Timoleon arrived at Tauromenium in 344 BC and promptly defeated the tyrant of Leontini, Hicetas, in a battle at Adranum. Once further reinforcements arrived Timoleon then led an attack on Syracuse itself. He was supported by several Sicilian cities tired of Dionysius’ oppressive reign over the region. The campaign was a success and Dionysius II was forced to live in exile back at Corinth.

Timoleon was not allowed to enjoy his success for long, though, as an army from Carthage chose this moment of political instability to invade Sicily yet again in 341 BC. Timoleon engaged the enemy near the river Crimisus (or Krimisos) in the west of the island and, by attacking first when their force was divided by the river and for a second time during a violent thunderstorm, managed to defeat the Carthaginians despite having a much smaller army at his disposal (6,000 against 70,000 according to Plutarch). Although defeated and having lost over 12,000 men, the Carthaginians could still field a sizeable army and cause trouble. The result was a bargain between Timoleon and the Carthaginians in 338 BCE which divided the island into two spheres of influence. He would keep to the eastern half of the island if they stayed in the western part.

Timoleon then proceeded to systematically take over the government of the various tyrannies in his domain, gave cities a greater level of autonomy, and established a new constitution at Syracuse. Shortly thereafter he died peacefully of old age in the mid-330s BC after earlier retiring voluntarily from public office when his eyesight failed. He was buried in the agora of Syracuse and the following inscription was made to commemorate his deeds: ‘He overthrew the tyrants, subdued the barbarians, repopulated the largest of the devastated cities, and then restored their laws to the people of Sicily’ (Plutarch, 187).
2 commentsNathan P
302798_0_zoom.jpg
Sicily. Messana. The Mamertinoi. Ae Quadruple Unit (288-278 BC).24 views27 mm, 19.38 g

Obverse: APEOΣ Laureate head of Ares to right; behind, helmet.

Reverse: MAMEPTINΩN Eagle standing to left on thunderbolt.

Calciati I, 92, 3. SNG ANS 402.

After the tyrant of Syracuse Agathocles died in 289 BC, the majority of his mercenaries became unemployed. Some bands dispersed but the Mamertines attempted to stay in Syracuse. Hailing from Campania (a region in southern Italy), perhaps related to the Samnites, the civilized Greeks did not take kindly to a large armed mob of uncultured barbaroi loitering around the Hellenistic center of Sicily. Barred from settling in Syracuse, these mercenaries headed north until they came across the town of Messana on the north-east tip of Sicily.

The city offered its hospitality to the band of mercenaries and in return the mercenaries slaughtered many of the men and leading figures of the city and claimed it for themselves. The women and possessions were split among the mercenaries as their own. It was at this time that the mercenaries seem to officially proclaim themselves as the Mamertines as they began to mint their own coinage. The name Mamertines means the sons of Mamers, Mamers being an Italic war god with the Latin equivalent of Mars. Soon afterwards, the Italian town of Rhegium suffered a similar fate.

With Messana and its sister city of Rhegium across the strait, the Mamertines held a commanding position in Sicily and the shipping routes that passed through the Strait of Messina. With Messana as a base of operations the Mamertines were able to plunder, pirate, and raid the surrounding countryside with considerable success. Syracuse was unable to react immediately due to its internal political disorder. This left Sicily split between Carthage in the west and disunited Greeks and Mamertines elsewhere.

When Hiero II of Syracuse attempted to dislodge the Mamertines in 265, they enlisted the aid of a nearby Carthaginian fleet, whose swift intervention forced Hiero to withdraw. The Mamertines soon regretted the Carthaginian occupation and appealed to Rome for protection, citing their status as Italians. Rome was hesitant to become entangled in a conflict outside of Italy or to come to the aid of the piratical Mamertines. Yet Rome's fear of a Carthaginian stronghold so close to Italy—and greed for plunder in what they assumed would be a short war against Syracuse—outweighed their concerns. The Romans invaded Sicily and marched to the Mamertines' aid.

When the Mamertines learned that the Romans were approaching, they persuaded the Carthaginian general to withdraw his forces from the city. The general, regretting this decision to abandon the city, took the fateful steps of allying with Hiero. The combined Carthaginian and Syracusan forces then besieged Messana. After attempts to negotiate a truce failed, Carthage and Rome began hostilities. Both sides were confident of a quick and decisive victory. Neither side anticipated the horror that was to come: a ferocious, generation-long war that would transform the Roman and Carthaginian empires, upend the balance of power in the western Mediterranean, and set the stage for Hannibal's avenging assault on Italy.
Nathan P
Punic 2.jpg
Siculo-Punic38 viewsTanit
Punic 11.jpg
Siculo-Punic33 viewsTanit
X14.jpg
Siculo-Punic43 viewsTanit
Punic 15.jpg
Siculo-Punic24 viewsTanit
Punic 14.jpg
Siculo-Punic31 viewsTanit
Punic 5~0.jpg
Siculo-Punic26 viewsTanit
punic 21 D~0.jpg
Siculo-Punic - SNG 12033 viewsCarthage/ Siculo-punic, c.325-275 BC
Diameter: 17 mm
Obv: Male head l, corn ears before and behind
Rev: Horse galloping r.

SNG Cop. Sicily 1031; SNG Cop. N.Afr.120-123
Tanit
P 2+.jpg
Siculo-Punic - SNG 12028 viewsCarthage/ Siculo-punic, c.325-275 BC
Diameter: 17 mm
Obv: Male head l, corn ears before and behind
Rev: Horse galloping r.

SNG Cop. Sicily 1031; SNG Cop. N.Afr.120-123
Tanit
Punic 19 D.jpg
Siculo-Punic - SNG 96 - Globular38 viewsAE - Carthage - 400-350 BC
Globular
Diameter: 14 mm
Weight: 5.2 gms
Obv: Head, laureate, to l. Rev. Horse galloping to r.

SNG 96
J.A. 15
Tanit
Punic 4~0.jpg
Siculo-Punic - SNG 96 - Globular20 viewsAE Unit- Carthage - 400-350 BC
Globular
Diameter: 16.4 mm
Weight: 5.5 gms
Obv: Head, laureate, to l. Rev. Horse galloping to r.

SNG 96
J.A. 15
Tanit
Punic 9~0.jpg
Siculo-Punic - SNG 9820 viewsAE - Carthage - 400-350 BC
Diameter: 13 mm
Weight: 3.1 gms
Obv: Head, laureate, to l. Rev. Horse galloping to r.

SNG 98
J.A. 15
Tanit
Carthage_1.jpg
Siculo-Punic AE Horse Galloping155 viewsCarthage
AE17
370-325BC
Siculo-Punic Mint
(no legend)
Wreathed head of Tanit left
(no legend)
Horse galloping right
17mm
5.5g
gVF
Sassari 56-136, Holleman Munten List 106

Forvm Best of Type: http://www.forumancientcoins.com/gallery/displayimage.php?pos=-93939
6 commentsWindchildPunico
Punic_4~0.jpg
Siculo-Punic Carthage39 viewsCarthage, Siculo-Punic Coinage 4th-3rd Century B.C. AE 18 mm. Head of Persephone left wreathed with corn / Horse prancing right.Tanit
Punic 3.jpg
Siculo-Punic Countermark23 viewsTanit
image~12.jpg
Spain, Gadir37 viewsFounded as Gadir or Agadir by Phoenicians from Tyre, Cádiz is sometimes counted as the most ancient city still standing in Western Europe. The expeditions of Himilco around Spain and France and of Hanno around Western Africa began here. The Phoenician settlement traded with Tartessos, a city-state whose exact location remains unknown but is thought to have been somewhere near the mouth of the Guadalquivir River.

One of the city's notable features during antiquity was the temple on the south end of its island dedicated to the Phoenician god Melqart, who was conflated with Hercules by the Greeks and Romans under the names "Tyrian Hercules" and "Hercules Gaditanus". It had an oracle and was famed for its wealth. In Greek mythology, Hercules was sometimes credited with founding Gadeira after performing his tenth labor, the slaying of Geryon, a monster with three heads and torsos joined to a single pair of legs. (A tumulus near Gadeira was associated with Geryon's final resting-place.) According to the Life of Apollonius of Tyana, the "Heracleum" (i.e., the temple of Melqart) was still standing during the 1st century. Some historians, based in part on this source, believe that the columns of this temple were the origin of the myth of the "pillars of Hercules".

The city fell under the sway of Carthage during Hamilcar's Iberian campaign after the First Punic War. Cádiz became a depot for Hannibal's conquest of southern Iberia, but the city fell to Romans under Scipio Africanus in 206 BC. The people of Cádiz welcomed the victors. Under the Roman Republic and Empire, the city flourished as a port and naval base known as Gades. Its people formed an alliance with Rome and Julius Caesar bestowed Roman citizenship on all its inhabitants in 49 BC. The Roman historian Livy did not credit its founding to Hercules but instead placed its creation c. 1104 BC, by his reckoning about 80 year after the Trojan War.[citation needed] By the time of Augustus's census, Cádiz was home to more than five hundred equites (members of the wealthy upper class), a concentration rivaled only by Patavium (Padua) and Rome itself. It was the principal city of the Roman colony of Augusta Urbs Julia Gaditana. An aqueduct provided fresh water to the town (the island's supply was notoriously bad), running across open sea for its last leg. However, Roman Gades was never very large; consisted only of the northwest corner of the present island; and most of its wealthy citizens maintained estates outside of it on the nearby island or on the mainland. The lifestyle maintained on the estates led to the Gaditan dancing girls becoming infamous throughout the ancient world.

IBERIA, Gadir. Late 2nd century BC. Æ Unit (26mm, 14.02 g, 6h). Head of Melqart (Herakles) left, wearing lion skin; club behind / Two tunnies to left; pellet within crescent to left; caduceus between tails. ACIP 687; CNH 57; SNG BM Spain 306-8. VF, dark brown and red patina, light roughness.

Ex Archer M. Huntington Collection (HSA 1001.1.21477).
ecoli
DIOLCLETIAN_FOLLIS_K_Carthage.JPG
Struck A.D.299 - 303. DIOCLETIAN. Large AE Follis of Carthage8 viewsObverse: IMP DIOCLETIANVS P F AVG. Laureate head of Diocletian facing right.
Reverse: SALVIS AVGG ET CAESS FEL KART. Carthago standing facing left, holding fruits in both hands; in exergue, A.
Diameter: 28mm | Weight: 10.3gms | Die Axis: 6 | Traces of silvering
RIC VI : 31a
SCARCE
*Alex
MAXIM_2ND_REIGN_AQP.JPG
Struck A.D.307 - 308. MAXIMIANUS. Second Reign. AE Follis (Nummus) of Aquileia4 viewsObverse: IMP C MAXIMIANVS P F AVG. Laureate head of Maximianus facing right.
Reverse: CONSERV VRB SVAE. Roma seated facing, head left, holding globe in her right hand and spear or sceptre in her left, all within hexastyle temple with ornamented pediment. In exergue, AQP.
Diameter: 26mm | Weight: 7.9gms | Die Axis: 12
RIC VI : 118

This coin was struck c.A.D.307 - 308, during Maximianus' short joint reign with Maxentius, to commemorate the rebuilding of the Temple of Venus and Rome and in conjunction with celebrations for the benefactions given to Rome and Carthage, Maxentius' principal bases of power. The Temple of Venus and Rome, thought to be that shown on this coin, was commissioned by Hadrian in A.D.121 and finished under Antoninus Pius in A.D.141. In A.D.283 a fire destroyed the roof, and the temple was rebuilt by Maxentius, who retained the original plan.
The existing remains of this temple are on the right side of the picture below.
*Alex
ConstantineCaesar_PKD.JPG
Struck A.D.307. CONSTANTINE I as CAESAR. Large AE Follis of Carthage5 viewsObverse: CONSTANTINVS NOB CAES. Laureate head of Constantine facing right.
Reverse: CONSERVATO-RES KART SVAE. Hexastyle temple within which is Carthage standing facing left holding fruits in both hands. In exergue, PKΔ.
Diameter: 25.15mm | Weight: 6.4gms
RIC VI : 61

This coin is one of the issues which were struck in A.D.307 to commemorate and advertise Constantine's alliance with Maxentius, reflected in types common to both rulers. Carthage was one of Maxentius' power bases.
1 comments*Alex
MAXENT_CART_TEMPLE_PKB.JPG
Struck A.D.307. MAXENTIUS as Augustus. AE Follis (Nummus) of Carthage4 viewsObverse: IMP MAXENTIVS P F AVG. Laureate head facing right.
Reverse: CONSERVATORES KART SVAE. Temple of six columns within which stands Karthago facing left, holding fruits in both hands; in exergue, PKB.
RIC VI : 60.

This coin is one of the issues which were struck in A.D.307 to commemorate and advertise Maxentius' alliance with Constantine, reflected in types common to both rulers, and the celebrations for the benefactions given to Rome and Carthage. Carthage was one of Maxentius' power bases.
*Alex
Vandalic_Imitation_of_the_5th_century.JPG
Struck Imitation of the 5th Century24 viewsStruck Imitation of the 5th Century
Victory advancing l. type
earl-diademed, draped, cuirassed bust right
Victory advancing left, wreath upward in right hand, palm in left
Wroth 21-31, Pl. III, 10

Attributed to the Vandals in Carthage.
Ardatirion
399846_508558629181053_1849344234_n.jpg
Syracuse, Sicily, Dionysos I, 405 - 367 B.C.41 viewsBronze litra, Calciati vol. II, p. 89, 45, gF, 8.415g, 20.3mm, 0o, Syracuse mint, 405 - 367 B.C.; obverse SURA, head of Athena left wearing olive wreathed Corinthian helmet; reverse hippocamp left with bridles

"Dionysius I was tyrant of Syracuse. He conquered several cities in Sicily and southern Italy, opposed Carthage's influence in Sicily and made Syracuse the most powerful of the Western Greek colonies. He was regarded by the ancients as an example of the worst kind of despot - cruel, suspicious and vindictive."
3 commentsRandygeki(h2)
oea.jpg
Syrtica, Oea53 viewsObverse: Bust of Livia r
Reverse: Bust of Minerva l Bust of Athena left, wearing crested
Corinthian helmet and aegis; Punic legend before
Mint : Oea
Date : After 22 AD
Reference : RPC-835, SNG Copenhagen 33
Grade : VG
Weight : 9.69g
Denom: AE 25
Metal : Bronze
Acquired: 08/10/04

Comments : Oea nominally remained part of Carthage's dominions until the end of the Third Punic War in 146 BC, and then became part of the Roman Republic, although from about 200 BC onward it was for all intents and purposes an independent city. It remained as such until the reign of the Roman emperor Tiberius, when Oea, Leptis Magna and the surrounding area were formally incorporated into the empire as part of the province of Africa.
Bolayi
Tanit.jpg
Tanit157 viewsTanit was a Phoenician lunar goddess worshiped as the patron goddess of Carthage.

Background to the coin type http://www.forumancientcoins.com/gallery/displayimage.php?pos=-60562
1 commentsLloyd T
Punic D 3.jpg
Tanit Punic72 viewsBillon 2 Shekels - Cathage - 300 BC
Weight: 10.9 gms
Obv.: Wreathed head of Tanit left ; Rev.: Horse standing right, palm behind.

SNG 190
Tanit
Punic D 2.jpg
Tanit Punic - SNG 35191 viewsBillon 2 Shekels - Carthage - 205-203 BC
Weight: 11.8 gms
Obv.: Wreathed head of Tanit left ; Rev.: Horse standing right, palm behind.

SNG 351
1 commentsTanit
Punic 6 D.jpg
Tanit Punic - SNG 409162 views3 Shekels - Carthage - 201-195 BC
Diameter: 27 mm
Weight: 17.7 gms
Obv.: Head of Tanit left ; Rev.: Horse standing right,

SNG 409
Tanit
V_975.jpg
Taras, Calabria48 views212-209 BC (Period X - The Punic Occupation)
AR Half-Shekel (Reduced Nomos) (19mm, 3.28g)
Sogenis magistrate.
O: Nude youth on horseback to left, crowning horse with wreath; IΩ behind, ΣΩΓE - NHΣ (magistrate) in two lines below.
R: Taras astride dolphin to left, holding cornucopiae in right arm and Nike who crowns him with wreath in left; TAPA[Σ] below.
Vlasto 975-77; Evans X, B-1; SNG France 2064; McGill II, 119-20; HN Italy 1079
Very Scarce
ex Praefectus Coins

At half the weight of the previous ‘didrachms’ from Taras, this half-shekel coin was minted during the Punic occupation of the city from 212-209 BC.
The story of Hannibal’s capture of Tarentum is fascinating, but of far too great a scope to cover here. Courage and endurance, intrigue and treachery all played a part in the Carthaginians desperate need of a southern naval port to continue Hannibal’s dream of conquering the Italian peninsula. Yet after an occupation of three years he was forced to withdraw from the city, virtually ending the second Punic War. However with a naval command post and a way to access reinforcements and supplies from Carthage, who knows what shape the history of Rome might have taken?

1 commentsEnodia
CONSTANTINE_I_CAESAR_TEMPLE.JPG
TEMPLE, CONSTANTINE I as CAESAR63 viewsAE Follis of Carthage, struck A.D.307.
Obverse: CONSTANTINVS NOB CAES. Laureate head of Constantine facing right.
Reverse: CONSERVATO-RES KART SVAE. Hexastyle temple within which is Carthage standing facing left holding fruits in both hands. In exergue, PKΔ.
Diameter: 25.15mm | Weight: 6.4gms
RIC VI : 61

This coin is one of the issues which were struck in A.D.307 to commemorate and advertise Constantine's alliance with Maxentius, reflected in types common to both rulers. Carthage was one of Maxentius' power bases.
*Alex
MAXENTIUS_CARTHAGE_TEMPLE.JPG
TEMPLE, Maxentius, Carthage120 viewsAE Follis of Carthage, struck A.D.307.
Obverse: IMP MAXENTIVS P F AVG. Laureate head facing right.
Reverse: CONSERVATORES KART SVAE. Temple of six columns within which stands Karthago facing left, holding fruits in both hands; in exergue, PKB.
RIC VI : 60.

This coin was struck c.A.D.307 to commemorate the celebrations for the benefactions given to Rome and Carthage, Maxentius' principal bases of power.
1 comments*Alex
MAXIMIANUS_TEMPLE.JPG
TEMPLE, Maximianus, Temple of Roma96 viewsAE Follis of Aquileia, struck A.D.307 - 308 under the second reign of MAXIMIANUS.
Obverse: IMP C MAXIMIANVS P F AVG. Laureate head of Maximianus facing right.
Reverse: CONSERV VRB SVAE. Roma seated facing, head left, holding globe in her right hand and spear or sceptre in her left, all within hexastyle temple with ornamented pediment. In exergue, AQP.
Diameter: 26mm | Weight: 7.9gms | Die Axis: 12
RIC VI : 118

This coin was struck c.A.D.307 - 308 to commemorate the rebuilding of the Temple of Roma during Maximianus' joint reign with Maxentius and in conjunction with celebrations for the benefactions given to Rome and Carthage, Maxentius' principal bases of power.
*Alex
Thourioi.JPG
Thurii, Lucania57 views300-280 BC
AR Didrachm (21mm, 7.67g)
O: Head of Athena right, wearing crested Attic helmet ornamented with Skylla hurling a stone.
R: Bull butting right; ΘOYPIΩN and ΘE above, tunny fish in ex.
SNG ANS 1081; HN Italy 1870; Sear 443v (no inscription on exergual line)
From the Frederick H. Rindge collection; ex Jack H. Beymer

Rising from the ruins of New Sybaris, Thurii was originally planned by Perikles of Athens as a Greek utopia. Scientists, artists, poets and philosophers from all over the Greek mainland were encouraged to immigrate to southern Italy around 443 BC to help establish this new city tucked against the mountains between two rivers on the west coast of the Tarentine Gulf. Among those accepting the challenge was Herodotus, who finished his ‘Histories’ here before his death in 420. The sophist Protagoras of Abdera also came, and was commissioned to write the new city’s democratic constitution.
However this idea of a peaceful colony of free-thinkers was destined to be short-lived. By 413 BC the colony was at war with mother-city Athens, and in 390 Thourii suffered a significant defeat by the Lucanians. In response the Thurians called in help from Rome to deal with this threat, and then again in 282 for its’ war with Taras. The city was plundered by Hannibal of Carthage during the second Punic war, who left it in ruin.
2 commentsEnodia
Byzant_imitation.jpg
Time of Phocas, AE 12 nummi, c. 602-609 AD, Alexandria?50 viewsBYZANTINE. temp. Phocas. Circa AD 602-609.
Æ 12 Nummi (11mm, 0.45 g, 7 h)
Contemporary imitation. Unofficial mint in the Alexandria area.
Stylized pearl-diademed and cuirassed bust right
Large IB with cross between; AΛЄZ in exergue
Hahn, A Byzantine Hoard from Egypt, 87-90

The production of coinage in Egypt during the early 7th century was a spotty and inconsistent affair. During this time, the need for small change was regularly filled by a hodgepodge of issues. Leftover late Roman denominations, Vandalic issues from Carthage, and official coinages from a variety of mints could all be seen in commerce. This piece would have been locally produced to supplement the supply. Although it bears a nominal value of 12 nummi, and is based off an earlier coin of that value, both its size and hoard finds indicate that it circulated at approximately the value of a nummus.
Ardatirion
MelkartPanoramaBlack~0.jpg
Trajan Provincial47 viewsTrajan 98-117 AD. AR Tetradrachm. Tyre, Phoenicia. 103-111 AD. (14.15 g, 25.22 mm) Obv: AVTOKP KAIC NEP TPAIANOC CEB GERM DAK, laureate head right, club & eagle below. Rev: DHMAPC EX IC YPAT e, laureate bust of Melqart right, draped in lionskin knotted at neck.
BMC 14

Ex: Romadrome

Melqart, also spelled Melkart or Melkarth, Phoenician god, chief deity of Tyre and of two of its colonies, Carthage and Gadir (Cádiz, Spain).
Paddy
23293292.jpg
Tunisia, Tunis (Carthage)349 viewsCarthage was completely destroyed 146 BC so all excavations are from roman times.1 commentsJohny SYSEL
23293607.jpg
Tunisia, Tunis (Carthage) - bath of Antoninus235 viewsJohny SYSEL
23293768.jpg
Tunisia, Tunis (Carthage) - bath of Antoninus224 viewsJohny SYSEL
vandals_mun.jpg
Vandal Civic Issue72 viewsObverse: Diademed and draped bust left, holding palm
Reverse: N/IIII in two lines across fields; – above N
Mint : Carthage
Date : circa 523-533
Reference : MIB I, 20 (Gelimer); BMC Vandals 12 (Huneric); MEC 1, 55
Grade : VF
Weight : 1.05g
Denom : Nummi
Metal : AE
Acquired: 01/05/06
Comments : brown patina (11mm)
1 commentsBolayi
Vandal_kingdom.jpg
Vandal Kingdom - Carthage27 viewsVandal kingdom, probably around mid-5th century. Æ (9 mm, 0.70 g). Obverse: diademed and draped bust right, …OVSH…. Retrograde DOMINO NOSTRO? Reverse: cross within wreath. Reference: Wroth IV:34-39.Jan
Honorius_Vandal.jpg
Vandals (imitation of Honorius) - AE 49 viewsAfrica - Carthage?
c. 440-490 AD (Gaiseric)
pearl-didemed, draped and cuirassed bust of Honorius right
D N HONORI_VS P F AVG
Victory facing, head left, holding wreath in each hand
VICTORI_A AVGGG
P
RM
BMC Vandals, p. 17, 1-3
ex Savoca
Johny SYSEL
vandals_anon.jpg
Vandals anonymous67 viewsObverse: Pearl-diademed, draped, cuirassed bust right
Reverse: Victory advancing left, wreath upward in right hand, palm in left
Mint : Carthage
Date : 5th Century AD
Reference : Wroth, Coins of the Vandals, Victory type 21-31, Pl. III, 10
Grade : V
Weight : 0.99g
Metal : AE
Acquired: 16/06/06
Comments : Wroth notes that coins showing inscriptions represented by strokes or lozenges are probably indicative of barbarous imitations (possibly the Mauri tribe).
Bolayi
gelimer+.jpg
Vandals Gelimer 50 Denarii6 viewsGelimer Vandals 50 Denarii
VANDALS. Gelimer. 530-534.
AR 50 Denarii (1.20 g). Carthage mint.
Obv.: D N REX G-EILAMIR, pearl-diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust right
Obv.: D • N/L (mark of value) in two lines; cross above; all within wreath.

MEC 1, 26; BMC Vandals 2-3.
Tanit
Hilderich.jpg
VANDALS Hilderic AR 50 Denarii8 viewsVANDALS. Hilderic. 523-530. AR 50 Denarii. Carthage mint.

Obv.: D N HILDI RIX REX, pearl-diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust right
Rev.: KARTG FELIX, Karthago standing facing, holding three grain ears in each hand.

MEC 1, 21-2; BMC Vandals 3.

Rare.
Tanit
Honorius_sil.jpg
Vandals Honorus Gaiseric Siliqua32 viewsSiliqua (Silver, struck in the name of Honorius, Carthage, after 439.
DN HONORIVS P F AVG; Diademed bust right. Rev. VRBS ROMA ;Roma seated left.

BMCV 6-9. MEC 1-3. C. Morrisson and J.H. Schwartz, Vandal Silver Coinage in the Name of Honorius, ANSMN 27 (1982), 5 var.
Tanit
MEC-42.jpg
Vandals: Anonymous (ca. 480-533) Æ 12 Nummi, Carthage (MEC-42; MIB-19, under Hilderic)7 viewsObv: Carthage standing facing, each hand outstretched holding ears of corn
Rev: NXII within wreath
SpongeBob
MEC-43.jpg
Vandals: Anonymous (ca. 480-533) Æ 42 Nummi, Carthage (MEC-43-4; MIB-22, under Gelimer)9 viewsObv: KARTHAGO; Soldier facing, holding spear
Rev: Horse’s head over XLII
SpongeBob
Vandals_MEC-26.jpg
Vandals: Gelimer (530-534) AR 50 Denarii, Carthage (MEC-26; MIB-12)5 viewsObv: D•N REX GELIMIR; diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev: DN over L within wreath
SpongeBob
Vandals_MEC-8.jpg
Vandals: Gunthamund (484-496) AR 50 Denarii, Carthage (MEC 8-10; MIB-3)18 viewsObv: DN RX GVNTHA; diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev: D•N within wreath.
1 commentsSpongeBob
MEC-8(1).jpg
Vandals: Gunthamund (484-496) AR 50 Denarii, Carthage (MEC 8-10; MIB-3)10 viewsObv: DN RX GVNTHA; diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev: D•N within wreath.
SpongeBob
Vandals_MEC-16.jpg
Vandals: Thrasamund (496-523) AR 50 Denarii, Carthage (MEC-16; MIB-7)6 viewsObv: DN RG TRASAMVS; diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev: DN within wreath
SpongeBob
LarryW2348.jpg
Zeugitana, Carthage, 310-290 BC146 viewsEL shekel-didrachm, 18.8mm, 7.76g, Nice VF
Head of Tanit left, wreathed with corn and with prominent curl on top in place of the usual corn-ear; she wears neacklace and triple earring; pellet in lower left field before necklace / Horse standing right on double exergal line; pellet in lower right field before horse's fore-hooves. Scarce
Sear 6462; SNG Cop 137
1 commentsLawrence Woolslayer
LarryW2343.jpg
Zeugitana, Carthage, 3rd -2nd century BC86 viewsÆ25 (billon), 23mm, 8.89g, VF
Head of Tanit left, wreathed with corn, wearing earring / Horse standing right, looking back, right foreleg raised; pellet beneath
Sear 6517; SNG Cop 396
Lawrence Woolslayer
Carthage_AE_28_.jpg
Zeugitana, Carthage, c. 241-221 BC, AE 28 21 viewsHead of Tanit left, wearing wreath of ears of wheat, triple pendant earring and necklace.
Horse standing right, eight rayed star above, Punic letter alef in right field.

Viola, Corpus Numorum Punicorum (2010) CNP-53; Visona (AJN 10) 31 var. (billon double shekel).

(28 mm, 22.67 g, 12h).
Harlan J Berk 190, 29 May 2014, 247.

This rare type was issued between the First and Second Punic Wars. The iconography is almost identical to silver trishekel issues of SNG Copenhagen 185 usually attributed to the period 264-241 BC and associated with the First Punic War. This bronze type was produced in the aftermath of the First Punic War when the Carthaginian treasury was under pressure of war reparations to Rome. The type is unlisted in most catalogues and appears to have been unknown until recently.

This coin came via HJB auction in 2014 with four others of similar type, accompanied by the appearance of several other in commerce around the same time, all bearing the the same distinctive dusty green patina. This co-incident appearance of a rare type bearing a common patina is suggestive of a recently discovered hoard. Before this appearance, the type was not seen in commerce for the preceeding ten years and appears to have been almost unknown so that the 2010 Viola CNP attribution is the only specific reference to the type.

n.igma
_Carthage_AE_25.jpg
Zeugitana, Carthage, ca. 230-220 BC, AE 2514 viewsHead of Tanit left, wearing wreath of ears of wheat, single drop pendant earring and necklace.
Horse standing right, radiate sun-disk flanked by uraei above, Punic letter ayin in right field.

Viola, Corpus Numorum Punicorum (2010) 46d; Visona (AJN 10) 37; SNG Copenhagen 260.

(25 mm, 12.87 g, 12h).
Harlan J Berk 193, 30 April 2015, 380.
n.igma
Zeugitana-Carthage-Circa_264-241-BC_-Sardinian_mint_Head-of-Tanit-left_Horses-head-right-palm-tree-and-pellet__SNG-Copenhagen-174-175_Q-001_20-22mm_6,14g-s.jpg
Zeugitana, Carthage, Sardinian mint, (c.264-241 B.C.), AE-20, SNG Cop 174-175, Horse's head right, #1,269 viewsZeugitana, Carthage, Sardinian mint, (c.264-241 B.C.), AE-20, SNG Cop 174-175, Horse's head right, #1,
avers:- Head of Tanit left.
revers:- Horse's head right, palm tree before and pellet below.
diameter: 20-22mm,
weight: 6,14g,
axis: 9h,
mint: Zeugitana, Carthage, Sardinian mint,
date: c.264-241 B.C.,
ref: SNG Copenhagen 174-175,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Zeugitana-Carthage-Circa_264-241-BC_-Sardinian_mint_Head-of-Tanit-left_Horse__s-head-right-palm-tree-and-pellet__SNG-Copenhagen-174-175_Q-001_20-22mm_6,14g-x-s.jpg
Zeugitana, Carthage, Sardinian mint, (c.264-241 B.C.), AE-20, SNG Cop 174-175, Horse's head right, #1, Re-Shot,326 viewsZeugitana, Carthage, Sardinian mint, (c.264-241 B.C.), AE-20, SNG Cop 174-175, Horse's head right, #1, Re-Shot,
avers:- Head of Tanit left.
revers:- Horse's head right, palm tree before and pellet below.
exe: -/-//--, diameter: 20-22mm, weight: 6,14g, axis: 9h,
mint: Zeugitana, Carthage, Sardinian mint, date: c.264-241 B.C.,
ref: SNG Copenhagen 174-175,
Q-001
quadrans
Zeugitana-Carthage-Circa_264-241-BC_-Sardinian_mint_Head-of-Tanit-left_Horse__s-head-right-palm-tree-and-pellet__SNG-Copenhagen-174-175_Q-002_20-22mm_6,14g-x-s.jpg
Zeugitana, Carthage, Sardinian mint, (c.264-241 B.C.), AE-20, SNG Cop 174-175, Horse's head right, #2264 viewsZeugitana, Carthage, Sardinian mint, (c.264-241 B.C.), AE-20, SNG Cop 174-175, Horse's head right, #2
avers:- Head of Tanit left.
revers:- Horse's head right and pellet.
exe: -/-//--, diameter: 19-20mm, weight: 4,92g, axis: 3h,
mint: Zeugitana, Carthage, Sardinian mint,
date: Circa 264-241-BC., ref: SNG Copenhagen 174-175,
Q-001
quadrans
Zeugitana_Carthage,_Billon_Tridrachm_213-210_BC.jpg
Zeugitana, Carthage, Second Punic War, struck ca. 210-205 BC, BI Tridrachm13 viewsHead of Tanit left, wreathed with corn, wearing single drop pendant ear-ring.
Horse standing right, palm tree behind.

Lorber Group 3, 88 (this coin); MAA 44; SNG Copenhagen 190.
Thick hoard patina intact.

(26 mm, 10.68 g, 12h).
J Jencek Ancient Coins & Antiquities, August 2006; ex- Harlan J. Berk; ex- Commerce 1995 Hoard.
n.igma
Zeugitana,_Carthage,_Second_Punic_War,_BI_1_1_2_Shekel_(Lorber_Gp_4).jpg
Zeugitana, Carthage, Second Punic War, struck ca. 210-205 BC, BI Tridrachm26 viewsHead of Tanit left, wreathed with corn, wearing necklace and triple drop pendant ear-ring.
Horse standing right, palm tree behind.

Lorber Group 4, 132 (same dies); MAA 44; SNG Copenhagen 190.

(25 mm, 9.78 g, 12h).
Harlan J Berk Limited Buy or Bid Sale 150, 127; ex- Commerce 1995 Hoard.
1 commentsn.igma
Zeugitana,_Carthage_Second_Punic_War,_BI_1_1_2_Shekel.jpg
Zeugitana, Carthage, Second Punic War,struck ca. 215-210 BC, BI Tridrachm 16 viewsYouthful head of Tanit left, wreathed with corn, wearing single drop pendant earring.
Horse standing right, palm tree behind.

Lorber Group 2, 23 (this coin); MAA 79; SNG Copenhagen 351.

(25 mm, 11.93 g, 12h).
Harlan J Berk, August 2006; ex- Commerce 1995 Hoard.
n.igma
LarryW2340.jpg
Zeugitana, Carthage, Siculo-Punic, 325-300 BC114 viewsAR tetradrachm, 23mm, 17.69g, aEF
Head of young Herakles right, clad in lion's skin / Head and neck of horse left, date palm behind; beneath, Punic legend AMHMHNT (= people of the camp)
Ex: Alexander Boggis Collection
Sear 6436; SNG Cop 983; Jenkins IV, 312 (O100/R253)
Consigned to Forvm
3 commentsLawrence Woolslayer
CarthageTanit.jpg
ZEUGITANA, Carthage. 15 shekel.62 viewsAE45, 95.4g
circa 200 BC
Obverse: head of Tanit
Reverse: horse standing right, left foreleg up; above, radiate disc flanked by uraei

I don't have a reference book and the only other picture of one I've found is on the magnagraecia.nl site. Their list indicates four specimens known to them. Don't know if this is one of the four.

1 commentsTIF
CarthageMultishot.jpg
ZEUGITANA, Carthage. 15 shekel.57 viewsAdditional views of the coin posted here http://www.forumancientcoins.com/gallery/displayimage.php?pos=-101874

AE45, 95.4g
circa 200 BC
Obverse: head of Tanit
Reverse: horse standing right, left foreleg up; above, radiate disc flanked by uraei
TIF
zeugitana.jpg
Zeugitana, Carthage. AE19, c. Late 4th Century B.C.15 viewsZeugitana, Carthage. AE19, c. Late 4th Century B.C. 19mm (7.27 grams) NGC Certified Fine Strike 3/5 Surface 4/5.
Obv: Palm tree.
Rev: Horse's head right.
Ref: SNG Copenhagen 102.
mjabrial
ZeugInHandRevSmaller.jpg
ZEUGITANA, Carthage. 15 shekel.93 viewsTaking it out for a sun bath. Can't stop fondling this fabulous coin!

AE45, 95.4g
circa 200 BC
Obverse: head of Tanit
Reverse: horse standing right, left foreleg up; above, radiate disc flanked by uraei

I don't have a reference book and the only other picture of one I've found is on the magnagraecia.nl site. Their list indicates four specimens known to them. Don't know if this is one of the four.
5 commentsTIF
ZEUGITANA_ Augustus.jpg
ZEUGITANA, Carthage. Augustus85 viewsObverse: Bare head left
Reverse: P P/D D across field
Mint : Carthage, ZEUGITANA
Date : Struck AD 10
Reference : RPC 745.14 (this coin); MAA 102; SNG Copenhagen 417
Grade : Fine
Weight : 5.57g
Denom : As
Metal : AE
Dealer : CNG
Acquired: 14/05/08
Comments : black-green patina, traces of red and green deposits, From the Patrick Villemur Collection
Bolayi
carthage-zeugatania-reshoot.jpg
Zeugitana, Carthage. Circa 300-264 BC. AE 2021 viewsAncient Greek, Zeugitana, Carthage, c. (300-264 BC), AE 20mm. 5.5g

Obverse: NO LEGEND: Wreathed head of Tanit left.

Reverse: NO LEGEND: Horse's head right.

Reference: SNGCop 169
Gil-galad
ZEUGITANIA_-_Carthage.jpg
ZEUGITANIA Carthage Circa 300-264 BC12 viewsZEUGITANIA. Carthage. Ae 19.0~20.6mm. 4.78g. (Circa 300-264 BC). Obv: Head of Tanit left, wearing wreath of grain ears and triple-pendant earring. Rev: Head of horse right; below, pellet. SNG Cop. 170-171.ddwau
Cartage,_Zeugitani.jpg
ZEUGITANIA CARTHAGE PALM TREE HEAD TANIT HORSE PUNIC BRONZE 22 views16 mm / 2,5 gr., Sicilian mint., late 4th - early 3rd century B.C
Obverse: head of Tanit left wearing wreath of grain and pendant necklace;
Reverse: horse standing right, date palm tree behind;
SNG Cop . _1575
Antonivs Protti
carthage,_horse.JPG
Zeugitania horse's head30 viewsCarthage, Zeugitania, North Africa, 300 - 264 BC
Zeugitania, Tanit / Horse, AE19
Size/Weight: 19mm, 4.05g
Obverse: head of Tanit left
Reverse: horse's head right palm tree before horse's neck, ex areich, photo credit areich. Sear GCV II: 6528.

kaitsuburi
Zeugitania.jpg
Zeugitania, Carthage66 viewsObverse: Youthful male head left between two grain-ears
Reverse: Horse galloping right
Mint : Carthage
Date : Circa 350 B.C
Reference : MAA p. 367, 19; SNG Copenhagen 121
Grade : VF
Weight : 2.96 g
Metal : AE
Dealer : Sayles
Acquired: 09/10/06
Comments : 16 mm, black patina with brown highlights. Overstruck on a Carthaginian bronze with head of Tanit / Horse; palm behind
Bolayi
sicpun.jpg
Zeugitania, Carthage95 viewsZeugitania, Carthage. Circa 264-241 BC. Æ 24mm. Sardinian mint. Head of Tanit left, wearing earring and wreath of grain ears; dotted border / Horse standing right; Punic letters BT below; linear border. SNGCop #209. Müller 199.dpaul7
Carthage,_3rd_century_BC_S6531.jpg
Zeugitania, Carthage87 viewsZeugitania, Carthage. AE19, 3rd century BC. Obv.: head and neck of horse right. Rev.: date palm. Reference: Sear 6531.
Ex-Ardatirion collection.
dpaul7
zeugitania.jpg
ZEUGITANIA, CARTHAGE39 views3rd CENTURY B.C.
AE 16 mm 3.01 g
O: TANIT, HEAD LEFT
R: HORSE STANDING R, PALM TREE BEHIND
SNG Cop 109
(ex Guy Clark)
laney
carthage_zeug.jpg
ZEUGITANIA, CARTHAGE48 views4th-3rd Century BC
AE 16.5 mm 2.74 g
O: Head of Tanit l., wreathed with corn
R: Horse standing r., palm tree in background.
Zeugitania. Carthage.


laney
carthage_zeug010415res.jpg
ZEUGITANIA, CARTHAGE30 views3rd CENTURY B.C.
AE 16 mm 3.01 g
O: TANIT, HEAD LEFT
R: HORSE STANDING R, PALM TREE BEHIND
SNG Cop 109
laney
tanit_horse_head_res.jpg
ZEUGITANIA, CARTHAGE134 viewsca. 300 - 264 BC
AE 19.5 mm 4.97 g
O: Wreathed head of Tanit left
R: Horse's head right
Sardinian mint
SNG Cop 149
laney
carthage_res.jpg
ZEUGITANIA, CARTHAGE135 views4th - 3rd Century BC
AE 16 mm 2.56 g
O: Head of Tanit facing left
R: Horse standing right, palm in the background
laney
zeug_res.jpg
ZEUGITANIA, CARTHAGE27 views400-350 BC
AE 20 mm, 4.30 g
O: Head of Tanit left, wreathed in grain
R: Horse standing right, palm tree in background
Zeugitania, Carthage
laney
zeug_carthage_uraeus_res.jpg
ZEUGITANIA, CARTHAGE25 viewsLate 3rd Century BC
AE 21 mm; 6.16 g
O: Head of Tanit left
R: Horse standing right, sun disc flanked by uraei (cobras) above, monogram below
SNG Morcom 921
laney
zeug_tanit_horse_headx.jpg
ZEUGITANIA, CARTHAGE53 viewsca. 300 - 264 BC
AE 19.5 mm 4.97 g
O: Wreathed head of Tanit, wearing necklace, left
R: Horse's head right
Sardinian mint
cf SNG Cop 149 ff
1 commentslaney
carthage_hand_k.jpg
Zeugitania, Carthage4 viewsAE15, 1.8g, 3h; c. 400-350 BC
Obv.: Head of Tanit left, wreathed in grain.
Rev.: Horse standing right, palm tree in background, three pellets before.
Reference: SNG Cop 119; Aleg.
John Anthony
Zeugitania.jpg
Zeugitania, Carthage (220 - 215 B.C.)18 viewsAE 15, 220 - 215 B.C., Zeugitana, 15mm, 2.78g, 45°, SNG Copenhagen 109.
Obv: Head of Tanit left, wreathed with corn, wearing necklace and earring.
Rev: Horse standing right, palm tree in background.
1 commentsMarti Vltori
Carthage.jpg
Zeugitania, Carthage 241-146 BC50 viewsobv: Head of Persephone/Tanit, left
rev: Horse, right, looking back; palm tree behind horse

23 mm, 7.1 g

SNGCop 317
1 commentsCGPCGP
0152_0153.jpg
Zeugitania, Carthage, AE16, Horse, Palm Tree3 viewsAE16
Zeugitania, Carthage
Issued: Circa 400 - 350BC
O: NO LEGEND; Head of Tanit, left.
R: NO LEGEND; Horse standing right, palm tree in background.
Z.26G; SNG Cop 113V
kass3694bmj 111951665874
4/24/16 1/21/17
Nicholas Z
4066_4067.jpg
Zeugitania, Carthage, AE17, Horse facing right.9 viewsAE17
Zeugitania, Carthage
300 - 260BC
17.0mm
O: NO LEGEND; Head of Tanit, facing left, wreathed in corn.
R: NO LEGEND; Bust of horse, facing right.
Exergue: Punic letter.
SNG Cop 225; Hoover 1651; Sear Greek 6523.
Harlan Berk
Chicago Coin Expo 4/6/17 4/17/17
Nicholas Z
Zeugitania,_Tanit___Horse,_AE17.JPG
Zeugitania, Tanit / Horse, AE1725 viewsZeugitania, Tanit / Horse, AE17. ZEUGITANIA, Carthage, ca. 4th-3rd century B.C. 17mm, 2.7g. Obverse: head of Tanit left. Reverse: Horse standing right; palm behind. Attribution: SNG Copenhagen 109. ex areich, photo credit areichPodiceps
Carthage_1a_img.jpg
Zeugitania/Siculo-Punic (Carthage and other mints)147 viewsAE unit
Obv:- Head of Tanit left, wearing wreath of grain.
Rev: Head of horse right, Pellet before.
Minted in Zeugitania, Carthage. Circa 300-264 BC
Reference:– SNGCop 169

21.49 mm. 5.36 g.
1 commentsmaridvnvm
GRK_Zeugitania_SNG_Cop_96-97.JPG
Zeugitania/Siculo-Punic (Carthage and other mints).40 viewsSNG Copenhagen 96-97, Calciati III 1-8, Alexandropoulos 15-15a

AE unit, 14-16 mm., struck ca. 370 – 340 B.C.

Obv: Head of Tanit left, wearing wreath of grain ears.

Rev: Horse prancing right, ground line beneath.
2 commentsStkp
GRK_Zeugitania_SNG_Cop_109.JPG
Zeugitania/Siculo-Punic (Carthage and other mints).35 viewsSear 6444, SNG Copenhagen 109, Calciati III 20, Alexandropoulos 18, Müller 163.

AE unit, 16 mm., struck ca. 400 – 350 B.C.

Obv: Head of Tanit left, wearing wreath of grain ears and a triple-pendant earing.

Rev: Horse standing right, in front of palm tree, ground line beneath.
Stkp
GRK_Zeugitania_SNG_COP__151.JPG
Zeugitania/Siculo-Punic (Carthage and other mints).51 viewsSear 6526, cf. SNG Copenhagen 151, cf. Müller 286, cf. Calciati III pg. 398, 21 lv 4, cf. Alexandropoulos 57x

AE unit, Sardinian mint, 18-20 mm., struck ca. 300 – 264 B.C.

Obv: Head of Tanit left, wearing wreath of grain.

Rev: Head of horse right, uncertain symbol or Punic letter before.

Struck between the end of the Third Sicilian War (315–307 B.C.) and the beginning of the First Punic War (264-241 B.C.), and roughly during the time of the Pyrrhic War (280–275 B.C.).
Stkp
GRK_Siculo-Punic_SNG_Cop_96-97_#2.JPG
Zeugitania/Siculo-Punic (Carthage and other mints). 11 viewsViola CNP 126, SNG Cop VIII 96-97 (=SNG Cop I 1022 ff.), SNG München 1626 ff., SNG Morcom 897, Alexandropoulos/MAA 15-15a

AE unit, 3.92 g, 16.61 mm. max, 180°, struck ca. 400 – 350 B.C.

Obv: Head of Tanit left, wearing wreath of grain ears.

Rev: Horse prancing right, ground line beneath.
Stkp
GRK_Zeugetania_Sear_6531.jpg
Zeugitania/Siculo-Punic (Carthage and other mints).9 viewsSear 6531; Alexandropoulos/MAA 20; SNG Copenhagen (Africa) 102; Calciati III p. 381

AE unit, probably Carthage mint ca. 350-320 B.C.; 8.38 g., 20.25 mm. max., 90°

Obv.: Palm tree

Rev.: Head of horse facing right
Stkp
JuliaDomnaRICIV560.jpg
[1003c] Julia Domna, Augusta 194 - 8 April 217 A.D.25 viewsAR Denarius; RIC IV 560; 16.89 mm, 3.5 grams; AD 196-202; VF, Rome mint; Obverse: IVLIA AVGVSTA, Draped bust right; Reverse: IVNO REGINA, Juno standing left holding patera and sceptre, peacock at feet. A nice denarius on a smallish flan. Ex Ancient Imports.

De Imperatoribus Romanis, An On-Line Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors

Severan Julias (A.D. 193-235)

Herbert W. Benario
Emory University

Julia Domna was born about 170 A.D., in Emesa of Syria. She was the youngest daughter of Julius Bassianus, priest of the sun god Elagabal. As such, she was part of the local aristocracy from a plebian family. Having come to the attention of Severus because of her promising horoscope, he married her, probably in 187 A.D. She gave birth to their first child, Bassianus, the future emperor M. Aurelius Antoninus, known as Caracalla, on 4 April 188. About thirteen months later, she gave birth to a second son, Geta.

When Septimius Severus claimed the empire after Didius Julianus had succeeded Pertinax in 193 A.D., two serious rivals challenged him, Pescennius Niger in the East and Clodius Albinus in the West. Julia Domna accompanied her husband in the campaign against Pescennius, having been honored with the title mater castrorum. After this successful campaign, there was another campaign in the East, against the Parthians, in 197 A.D. She was widely honored with inscriptions throughout this period, and numerous coin issues emphasized her imperial position. Julia Domna was, perhaps, more influential in the political life of the empire than any of her imperial predecessors.

She opposed Plautianus, the praetorian prefect and father-in-law of Caracalla, and was partially responsible for his downfall and his daughter Plautilla's disgrace. She was often accused of adultery; nonetheless, the emperor chose to ignore these charges, if true, and the marriage continued.

Among her passions were literature and philosophy; she gathered writers and philosophers in a kind of salon (among whom was Galen of Pergamum), and urged Philostratus to write the life of Apollonius of Tyana.

She once again accompanied her husband, with the two sons present as well, on campaign, against the Britons in 208 A.D. When Severus died at York in early 211 A.D., she returned to Rome with Caracalla and Geta, having gained the full title of mater castrorum et senatus et patriae, with the frequent addition of et Augustorum. She persuaded the two sons to share the rule, as the emperor had wished on his deathbed, but, since the brothers hated each other, this arrangement was doomed to failure. In 212 A.D., Caracalla murdered Geta while he sought succor in his mother's arms; covered with his blood, she was forbidden by Caracalla to grieve.

Her relationship with Caracalla during the six years of his reign was mixed. She had some public duties but largely devoted herself to philosophy. She accompanied Caracalla to the east on campaign against the Parthians in 217 A.D. When she learned, in Antioch, that he had been assassinated, she resolved upon death, which followed her refusal to take food. Her remains were ultimately placed in Hadrian's Mausoleum, at the insistence of Maesa, her sister. She was deified, and was known as Diva Iulia Domna or Diva Iulia Augusta. She was worshipped in various parts of the empire with local titles, such as Dea Caelestis in Carthage and Venus Caelestis in Puteoli.

By Herbert W. Benario, Emory University
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

If you are interested in Julia Domna, visit Ernie Thompson’s site: The Life, Family and Coinage of Julia Domna (http://juliadomna.ancients.info/).
1 commentsCleisthenes
HeracliusAE.jpg
[1616b] Heraclius, 5 Oct 610 - 11 Jan 641 A.D.53 viewsBYZANTINE EMPIRE. Heraclius AD 610-641. AE.Follis. Ref:Sear 833; 12.91g. VF; Nicomedia mint. Obverse: Facing bust of Heracliu, holding cross in right hand. Reverse: Incial letter M, ANNO to left, II to right ( Year 2 AD 611/612), officia letter A betweem limbs of M, above cross; mint-signature NIKO in exergue . Very fine, earthern deposit in fields-not as yellow as picture suggest. Ex Pavlos S Pavlou.


De Imperatoribus Romanis
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors

Heraclius (October 5, 610 - February 641 A.D.)

R. Scott Moore
Indiana University of Pennsylvania

Accession
The last years of Phocas' reign were troubled ones with many foreign threats, such as the Slavic incursions, and internal threats, such as violent religious conflicts and even unsuccessful rebellions. In 608, the exarch of Carthage revolted and dispatched a fleet under the command of his son, Heraclius, to Constantinople. Along the way, in Egypt, Heraclius joined forces with his cousin Nicetas who was able to capture Cyrenaica and Egypt from Phocas' general Bonosos. Heraclius' fleet continued on to Constantinople where he entered into secret negotiations with one of Phocas' top military leaders, Priscus. He was married to Phocas' daughter Domentzia. With the support of Priscus, the patriarch Sergius I, and the faction of the Greens, Heraclius was able to seize the city, have Phocas beheaded and became emperor on October 5, 610 AD.

Private Life
Heraclius, the son of the exarch of Carthage, Heraclius, and Epiphania was born around the year 575. When he was crowned as emperor in 610 AD, he married Fabia, who then took the name Eudocia. From this marriage, Heraclius had a daughter, Eudocia, and a son Heraclius Constantine, who was proclaimed as co-emperor in 613. Suffering from epilepsy, Fabia died in 612 and Heraclius married his niece Martina in 613. With Martina, Heraclius had nine children of which four died in infancy. Heraclius' marriage to Martina was never received favorably by either the people of Constantinople or the Church.

Foreign Affairs
When Heraclius first came to the throne in 610, the Byzantine Empire was being attacked from numerous sides. In the west, the Avars and Slavs were expanding into the northern Balkans. The Slavs controlled the Danube regions, Thrace, Macedonia, and were soon invading Central Greece and the Peloponnesus. In the east, meanwhile, the Persians under the rule of Chosroes had begun a series of successful attacks on the empire resulting in the loss of Damascus in 613, Jerusalem in 614 (destroying the Church of the Holy Sepulchre and capturing the Holy Cross) and Egypt in 619. Recognizing the difficulty in fighting on two opposing fronts at the same time, Heraclius signed a peace treaty with the Avars in 619, and focused on the eastern half of the empire. In the spring of 622, Heraclius left Constantinople for Asia Minor and began training his troops over the summer, focusing on a more involved role for the Byantine cavalry.

In the autumn, Heraclius' army invaded Armenia and soon won several victories over the Persians. The Avars, in the meantime, became restless and Heraclius was forced to renegotiate the peace treaty with them at a much higher tribute level. Heraclius then returned to the army and for the next several years unsuccessfully attempted to break through the Persian army and into Persia. In August of 626 while Heraclius and his army were in Lazica away from Constantinople, a Persian army attacked the city from the east while an army of Avars, Slavs, and Bulgars attacked from the west and from the sea. On August 10, the Byzantine navy was able to defeat the opposing fleet and then rout the combined Slav and Avar land force. With the defeat of their allies, the Persians retreated to Syria.

In the autumn of 627, Heraclius began to work his way into Persian territory winning an important battle in December at Nineveh during which most of the Persian army was destroyed. As Heraclius continued to move further into Persian territory, Chosroes was deposed and succeeded by his son Kavadh-Siroe whose first act was to secure a treaty with Heraclius. The treaty was very favorable to the Byzantines and returned all the former Byzantine territories to the empire. Within a few short months, Kavadh-Siroe fell ill and died after naming Heraclius as guardian of his son, Chosroes II. For all practical purposes, the Persian Empire no longer existed. In 630 Heraclius traveled to Jerusalem where he returned the Holy Cross to the city among much acclaim.

The defeat of the Persians created a larger problem for the Byzantine empire. The struggle between the Byzantines and the Persians had worn down both sides and the defeat of the Persians allowed the Arabs to quickly absorb what remained of the Persian empire. It also removed the buffer between the Arabs and the Byzantines allowing the two empires to come into contact and conflict. In 634 the Arab armies invaded Syria and defeated Theodore, the emperor's brother, in a string of battles. Heraclius raised a large army that attacked the Arabs near the Yarmuk, a tributary of the Jordan, in the fall of 636. After a successful beginning, the larger Byzantine army was defeated allowing the conquest of Syria. The Byzantine defeat also led to the Arabs quickly taking Mesopotamia, Armenia and eventually Egypt.

Internal Affairs
While Heraclius enjoyed military success, major changes occurred internally under his rule. Greek replaced Latin as the official language of the empire and Heraclius adopted the Greek title of in place of the Latin Caesar, Augustus, or Imperator. The recovery of the eastern areas of the Byzantine Empire from the Persians once again raised the problem of religious unity, centering around the understanding of the true nature of Christ. The eastern areas, particularly Armenia, Syria, and Egypt believed in monophysitism, Christ having one nature composed of both divine and human elements. The other areas of the empire followed the orthodox view expressed at the Council of Chalcedon in 451 that decreed Christ had two natures united in one person. In an effort to bridge the gap between the two views and bring them back together, the Patriarch of Constantinople, Sergius, promoted the concept of monoenergism which proposed that the two natures of Christ had one energy. While this was received favorably at first, monoenergism soon had vocal opponents, among them the monk Sophronius who became patriarch of Jerusalem in 634 AD. The opposition to monoenergism led Sergius to propose a new doctrine that of monotheletism, the belief in a single will in Christ. Heraclius supported the new doctrine of Sergius and put it forth in an edict known as the Ekthesis, and posted it in the narthex of Hagia Sophia in 638. This failed to settle the controversy as it was rejected by the Orthodox, the Monophysites, and even the Church of Rome.

Succession
During the last years of Heraclius' life, it became evident that a struggle was taking place between Heraclius' son from his first marriage, Heraclius Constantine, and his second wife Martina who was trying to position her son Heraclonas in line for the throne. On the 11th of February 641, Heraclius died and in his will left the empire to both Heraclius Constantine and Heraclonas to rule jointly with Martina as Empress and mother of both.

Copyright (C) 1997, R. Scott Moore. Published: De Imperatoribu Romanis, http://www.roman-emperors.org/heraclis.htm Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

1 commentsCleisthenes
VespasianJudaeaCaptaHendin754.jpg
[18H759a] Vespasian, 1 July 69 - 24 June 79 A.D., Judaea Capta49 viewsVespasian. 69-71 AD. AR Denarius;17mm, 3.28g; Hendin 759, RIC 15. Obverse: Laureate head right; Reverse: Jewess seated right, on ground, mourning below right of trophy, IVDAEA below. Ex Imperial Coins.

De Imperatoribus Romanis:
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Titus Flavius Vespasianus (A.D. 69-79)

John Donahue
College of William and Mary

Introduction

Titus Flavius Vespasianus (b. A.D. 9, d. A.D. 79, emperor A.D. 69-79) restored peace and stability to an empire in disarray following the death of Nero in A.D. 68. In the process he established the Flavian dynasty as the legitimate successor to the Imperial throne. Although we lack many details about the events and chronology of his reign, Vespasian provided practical leadership and a return to stable government - accomplishments which, when combined with his other achievements, make his emperorship particularly notable within the history of the Principate.

Early Life and Career

Vespasian was born at Falacrina near Sabine Reate on 17 November, A.D. 9, the son of T. Flavius Sabinus, a successful tax collector and banker, and Vespasia Polla. Both parents were of equestrian status. Few details of his first fifteen years survive, yet it appears that his father and mother were often away from home on business for long periods. As a result, Vespasian's early education became the responsibility of his paternal grandmother, Tertulla. [[1]] In about A.D. 25 Vespasian assumed the toga virilis and later accepted the wearing of the latus clavus, and with it the senatorial path that his older brother, T. Flavius Sabinus, had already chosen. [[2]] Although many of the particulars are lacking, the posts typically occupied by one intent upon a senatorial career soon followed: a military tribunate in Thrace, perhaps for three or four years; a quaestorship in Crete-Cyrene; and the offices of aedile and praetor, successively, under the emperor Gaius. [[3]]

It was during this period that Vespasian married Flavia Domitilla. Daughter of a treasury clerk and former mistress of an African knight, Flavia lacked the social standing and family connections that the politically ambitious usually sought through marriage. In any case, the couple produced three children, a daughter, also named Flavia Domitilla, and two sons, the future emperors Titus and Domitian . Flavia did not live to witness her husband's emperorship and after her death Vespasian returned to his former mistress Caenis, who had been secretary to Antonia (daughter of Marc Antony and mother of Claudius). Caenis apparently exerted considerable influence over Vespasian, prompting Suetonius to assert that she remained his wife in all but name, even after he became emperor. [[4]]

Following the assassination of Gaius on 24 January, A.D. 41, Vespasian advanced rapidly, thanks in large part to the new princeps Claudius, whose favor the Flavians had wisely secured with that of Antonia, the mother of Germanicus, and of Claudius' freedmen, especially Narcissus. [[5]] The emperor soon dispatched Vespasian to Argentoratum (Strasbourg) as legatus legionis II Augustae, apparently to prepare the legion for the invasion of Britain. Vespasian first appeared at the battle of Medway in A.D. 43, and soon thereafter led his legion across the south of England, where he engaged the enemy thirty times in battle, subdued two tribes, and conquered the Isle of Wight. According to Suetonius, these operations were conducted partly under Claudius and partly under Vespasian's commander, Aulus Plautius. Vespasian's contributions, however, did not go unnoticed; he received the ornamenta triumphalia and two priesthoods from Claudius for his exploits in Britain. [[6]]

By the end of A.D. 51 Vespasian had reached the consulship, the pinnacle of a political career at Rome. For reasons that remain obscure he withdrew from political life at this point, only to return when chosen proconsul of Africa about A.D. 63-64. His subsequent administration of the province was marked by severity and parsimony, earning him a reputation for being scrupulous but unpopular. [[7]] Upon completion of his term, Vespasian returned to Rome where, as a senior senator, he became a man of influence in the emperor Nero's court. [[8]] Important enough to be included on Nero's tour of Greece in A.D. 66-67, Vespasian soon found himself in the vicinity of increasing political turbulence in the East. The situation would prove pivotal in advancing his career.

Judaea and the Accession to Power

In response to rioting in Caesarea and Jerusalem that had led to the slaughter in the latter city of Jewish leaders and Roman soldiers, Nero granted to Vespasian in A.D. 66 a special command in the East with the objective of settling the revolt in Judaea. By spring A.D. 67, with 60,000 legionaries, auxiliaries, and allies under his control, Vespasian set out to subdue Galilee and then to cut off Jerusalem. Success was quick and decisive. By October all of Galilee had been pacified and plans for the strategic encirclement of Jerusalem were soon formed. [[9]] Meanwhile, at the other end of the empire, the revolts of Gaius Iulius Vindex, governor of Gallia Lugdunensis, and Servius Sulpicius Galba , governor of Hispania Tarraconensis, had brought Nero's reign to the brink of collapse. The emperor committed suicide in June, A.D. 68, thereby ensuring chaos for the next eighteen months, as first Galba and then Marcus Salvius Otho and Aulus Vitellius acceded to power. Each lacked broad-based military and senatorial support; each would be violently deposed in turn. [[10]]

Still occupied with plans against Jerusalem, Vespasian swore allegiance to each emperor. Shortly after Vitellius assumed power in spring, A.D. 69, however, Vespasian met on the border of Judaea and Syria with Gaius Licinius Mucianus, governor of Syria, and after a series of private and public consultations, the two decided to revolt. [[11]] On July 1, at the urging of Tiberius Alexander, prefect of Egypt, the legions of Alexandria declared for Vespasian, as did the legions of Judaea two days later. By August all of Syria and the Danube legions had done likewise. Vespasian next dispatched Mucianus to Italy with 20,000 troops, while he set out from Syria to Alexandria in order to control grain shipments for the purpose of starving Italy into submission. [[12]] The siege of Jerusalem he placed in the hands of his son Titus.

Meanwhile, the Danubian legions, unwilling to wait for Mucianus' arrival, began their march against Vitellius ' forces. The latter army, suffering from a lack of discipline and training, and unaccustomed to the heat of Rome, was defeated at Cremona in late October. [[13]] By mid-December the Flavian forces had reached Carsulae, 95 kilometers north of Rome on the Flaminian Road, where the Vitellians, with no further hope of reinforcements, soon surrendered. At Rome, unable to persuade his followers to accept terms for his abdication, Vitellius was in peril. On the morning of December 20 the Flavian army entered Rome. By that afternoon, the emperor was dead. [[14]]

Tacitus records that by December 22, A.D. 69, Vespasian had been given all the honors and privileges usually granted to emperors. Even so, the issue remains unclear, owing largely to a surviving fragment of an enabling law, the lex de imperio Vespasiani, which conferred powers, privileges, and exemptions, most with Julio-Claudian precedents, on the new emperor. Whether the fragment represents a typical granting of imperial powers that has uniquely survived in Vespasian's case, or is an attempt to limit or expand such powers, remains difficult to know. In any case, the lex sanctioned all that Vespasian had done up to its passing and gave him authority to act as he saw fit on behalf of the Roman people. [[15]]

What does seem clear is that Vespasian felt the need to legitimize his new reign with vigor. He zealously publicized the number of divine omens that predicted his accession and at every opportunity he accumulated multiple consulships and imperial salutations. He also actively promoted the principle of dynastic succession, insisting that the emperorship would fall to his son. The initiative was fulfilled when Titus succeeded his father in A.D. 79.[[16]]

Emperorship

Upon his arrival in Rome in late summer, A.D. 70, Vespasian faced the daunting task of restoring a city and a government ravaged by the recent civil wars. Although many particulars are missing, a portrait nevertheles emerges of a ruler conscientiously committed to the methodical renewal of both city and empire. Concerning Rome itself, the emperor encouraged rebuilding on vacated lots, restored the Capitol (burned in A.D. 69), and also began work on several new buildings: a temple to the deified Claudius on the Caelian Hill, a project designed to identify Vespasian as a legitimate heir to the Julio-Claudians, while distancing himself from Nero ; a temple of Peace near the Forum; and the magnificent Colosseum (Flavian Amphitheatre), located on the site of the lake of Nero 's Golden House. [[17]]

Claiming that he needed forty thousand million sesterces for these projects and for others aimed at putting the state on more secure footing, Vespasian is said to have revoked various imperial immunities, manipulated the supply of certain commodities to inflate their price, and increased provincial taxation. [[18]] The measures are consistent with his characterization in the sources as both obdurate and avaricious. There were occasional political problems as well: Helvidius Priscus, an advocate of senatorial independence and a critic of the Flavian regime from the start, was exiled after A.D. 75 and later executed; Marcellus Eprius and A. Alienus Caecina were condemned by Titus for conspiracy, the former committing suicide, the latter executed in A.D. 79.
As Suetonius claims, however, in financial matters Vespasian always put revenues to the best possible advantage, regardless of their source. Tacitus, too, offers a generally favorable assessment, citing Vespasian as the first man to improve after becoming emperor. [[19]] Thus do we find the princeps offering subventions to senators not possessing the property qualifications of their rank, restoring many cities throughout the empire, and granting state salaries for the first time to teachers of Latin and Greek rhetoric. To enhance Roman economic and social life even further, he encouraged theatrical productions by building a new stage for the Theatre of Marcellus, and he also put on lavish state dinners to assist the food trades. [[20]]

In other matters the emperor displayed similar concern. He restored the depleted ranks of the senatorial and equestrian orders with eligible Italian and provincial candidates and reduced the backlog of pending court cases at Rome. Vespasian also re-established discipline in the army, while punishing or dismissing large numbers of Vitellius ' men. [[21]]
Beyond Rome, the emperor increased the number of legions in the East and continued the process of imperial expansion by the annexation of northern England, the pacification of Wales, and by advances into Scotland and southwest Germany between the Rhine and the Danube. Vespasian also conferred rights on communities abroad, especially in Spain, where the granting of Latin rights to all native communities contributed to the rapid Romanization of that province during the Imperial period. [[22]]

Death and Assessment

In contrast to his immediate imperial predecessors, Vespasian died peacefully - at Aquae Cutiliae near his birthplace in Sabine country on 23 June, A.D. 79, after contracting a brief illness. The occasion is said to have inspired his deathbed quip: "Oh my, I must be turning into a god!" [[23]] In fact, public deification did follow his death, as did his internment in the Mausoleum of Augustus alongside the Julio-Claudians.

A man of strict military discipline and simple tastes, Vespasian proved to be a conscientious and generally tolerant administrator. More importantly, following the upheavals of A.D. 68-69, his reign was welcome for its general tranquility and restoration of peace. In Vespasian Rome found a leader who made no great breaks with tradition, yet his ability ro rebuild the empire and especially his willingness to expand the composition of the governing class helped to establish a positive working model for the "good emperors" of the second century.

Bibliography

Since the scholarship on Vespasian is more comprehensive than can be treated here, the works listed below are main accounts or bear directly upon issues discussed in the entry above. A comprehensive modern anglophone study of this emperor is yet to be produced.

Atti congresso internazionale di studi Flaviani, 2 vols. Rieti, 1983.

Atti congresso internazionale di studi Vespasianei, 2 vols. Rieti, 1981.

Bosworth, A.B. "Vespasian and the Provinces: Some Problems of the Early 70s A.D." Athenaeum 51 (1973): 49-78.

Brunt, P. A. "Lex de imperio Vespasiani." JRS (67) 1977: 95-116.

D'Espèrey, S. Franchet. "Vespasien, Titus et la littérature." ANRW II.32.5: 3048-3086.

Dudley, D. and Webster, G. The Roman Conquest of Britain. London, 1965.

Gonzalez, J. "The Lex Irnitana: A New Copy of the Flavian Municipal Law." JRS 76 (1986): 147-243.

Grant, M. The Roman Emperors: A Biographical Guide to the Rulers of Rome, 31 B.C. - A.D. 476. New York, 1985.

Homo, L. Vespasien, l'Empereur du bons sens (69-79 ap. J.-C.). Paris, 1949.

Levi, M.A. "I Flavi." ANRW II.2: 177-207.

McCrum, M. and Woodhead, A. G. Select Documents of the Principates of the Flavian Emperors Including the Year of the Revolution. Cambridge, 1966.

Nicols, John. Vespasian and the Partes Flavianae. Wiesbaden, 1978.

Scarre, C. Chronicle of the Roman Emperors. The Reign-by-Reign Record of the Rulers of Imperial Rome. London, 1995.

Suddington, D. B. The Development of the Roman Auxiliary Forces from Caesar to Vespasian, 49 B.C. - A.D. 79. Harare: U. of Zimbabwe, 1982.

Syme, R. Tacitus. Oxford, 1958.

Wardel, David. "Vespasian, Helvidius Priscus and the Restoration of the Capitol." Historia 45 (1996): 208-222.

Wellesley, K. The Long Year: A.D. 69. Bristol, 1989, 2nd ed.


Notes

[[1]] Suet. Vesp. 2.1. Suetonius remains the major source but see also Tac. Hist. 2-5; Cass. Dio 65; Joseph. BJ 3-4.

[[2]] Suetonius (Vesp. 2.1) claims that Vespasian did not accept the latus clavus, the broad striped toga worn by one aspiring to a senatorial career, immediately. The delay, however, was perhaps no more than three years. See J. Nicols, Vespasian and the Partes Flavianae (Wiesbaden, 1978), 2.

[[3]] Military tribunate and quaestorship: Suet. Vesp. 2.3; aedileship: ibid., 5.3, in which Gaius, furious that Vespasian had not kept the streets clean, as was his duty, ordered some soldiers to load him with filth;,they complied by stuffing his toga with as much as it could hold. See also Dio 59.12.2-3; praetorship: Suet. Vesp. 2.3, in which Vespasian is depicted as one of Gaius' leading adulators, an account consistent with Tacitus' portrayal (Hist 1.50.4; 2.5.1) of his early career. For a more complete discussion of these posts and attendant problems of dating, see Nicols, Vespasian, 2-7.

[[4]] Marriage and Caenis: Suet. Vesp. 3; Cass. Dio 65.14.

[[5]] Nicols, Vespasian, 12-39.

[[6]] Suet. Vesp. 4.1 For additional details on Vespasian's exploits in Britain, see D. Dudley and G. Webster, The Roman Conquest of Britain (London, 1965), 55 ff., 98.

[[7]] Concerning Vespasian's years between his consulship and proconsulship, see Suet. Vesp. 4.2 and Nicols, Vespasian, 9. On his unpopularity in Africa, see Suet. Vesp. 4.3, an account of a riot at Hadrumentum, where he was once pelted with turnips. In recording that Africa supported Vitellius in A.D. 69, Tacitus too suggests popular dissatisfaction with Vespasian's proconsulship. See Hist. 2.97.2.

[[8]] This despite the fact that the sources record two rebukes of Vespasian, one for extorting money from a young man seeking career advancement (Suet. Vesp. 4.3), the other for either leaving the room or dozing off during one of the emperor's recitals (Suet. Vesp. 4.4 and 14, which places the transgression in Greece; Tac. (Ann. 16.5.3), who makes Rome and the Quinquennial Games of A.D. 65 the setting; A. Braithwaite, C. Suetoni Tranquilli Divus Vespasianus, Oxford, 1927, 30, who argues for both Greece and Rome).

[[9]] Subjugation of Galilee: Joseph. BJ 3.65-4.106; siege of Jerusalem: ibid., 4.366-376, 414.

[[10]] Revolt of Vindex: Suet. Nero 40; Tac. Ann. 14.4; revolt of Galba: Suet. Galba 10; Plut. Galba, 4-5; suicide of Nero: Suet. Nero 49; Cass. Dio 63.29.2. For the most complete account of the period between Nero's death and the accession of Vespasian, see K. Wellesley, The Long Year: A.D. 69, 2nd. ed. (Bristol, 1989).

[[11]] Tac. Hist. 2.76.

[[12]] Troops in support of Vespasian: Suet. Vit. 15; Mucianus and his forces: Tac. Hist. 2.83; Vespasian and grain shipments: Joseph. BJ 4.605 ff.; see also Tac. Hist. 3.48, on Vespasian's possible plan to shut off grain shipments to Italy from Carthage as well.

[[13]] On Vitellius' army and its lack of discipline, see Tac. Hist. 2.93-94; illness of army: ibid., 2.99.1; Cremona: ibid., 3.32-33.

[[14]] On Vitellius' last days, see Tac. Hist. 3.68-81. On the complicated issue of Vitellius' death date, see L. Holzapfel, "Römische Kaiserdaten," Klio 13 (1913): 301.

[[15]] Honors, etc. Tac. Hist. 4.3. For more on the lex de imperio Vespasiani, see P. A. Brunt, "Lex de imperio Vespasiani," JRS (67) 1977: 95-116.

[[16]] Omens: Suet. Vesp. 5; consulships and honors: ibid., 8; succession of sons: ibid., 25.

[[17]] On Vespasian's restoration of Rome, see Suet. Vesp. 9; Cass. Dio 65.10; D. Wardel, "Vespasian, Helvidius Priscus and the Restoration of the Capitol," Historia 45 (1996): 208-222.

[[18]] Suet. Vesp. 16.

[[19]] Ibid.; Tac. Hist. 1.50.

[[20]] Suet. Vesp. 17-19.

[[21]] Ibid., 8-10.

[[22]] On Vespasian's exploits in Britain, see esp. Tac., Agricola, eds. R. M. Ogilvie and I. A. Richmond (1967), and W. S. Hanson, Agricola and the Conquest of the North (1987); on the granting of Latin rights in Spain, see, e.g., J. Gonzalez, "The Lex Irnitana: a New Copy of the Flavian Municipal Law." JRS 76 (1986): 147-243.

[[23]] For this witticism and other anecdotes concerning Vespasian's sense of humor, see Suet. Vesp. 23.

Copyright (C) 1998, John Donahue. Published on De Imperatoribus Romanis, an Online Encyplopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families.
http://www.roman-emperors.org/vespasia.htm
Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
VesJudCapt.jpg
[18H759] Vespasian, 1 July 69 - 24 June 79 A.D., Judaea Capta173 viewsSilver denarius, Hendin 759, RIC 15, BM 35, RSC 226, S 2296, Fair, 2.344g, 17.0mm, 180o, Rome mint, 69-70 A.D.; obverse IMP CAESAR VESPASIANVS AVG, laureate head right; reverse IVDAEA in exergue, Jewess, mourning, seated at right of trophy.

De Imperatoribus Romanis:
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Titus Flavius Vespasianus (A.D. 69-79)

John Donahue
College of William and Mary

Introduction

Titus Flavius Vespasianus (b. A.D. 9, d. A.D. 79, emperor A.D. 69-79) restored peace and stability to an empire in disarray following the death of Nero in A.D. 68. In the process he established the Flavian dynasty as the legitimate successor to the Imperial throne. Although we lack many details about the events and chronology of his reign, Vespasian provided practical leadership and a return to stable government - accomplishments which, when combined with his other achievements, make his emperorship particularly notable within the history of the Principate.

Early Life and Career

Vespasian was born at Falacrina near Sabine Reate on 17 November, A.D. 9, the son of T. Flavius Sabinus, a successful tax collector and banker, and Vespasia Polla. Both parents were of equestrian status. Few details of his first fifteen years survive, yet it appears that his father and mother were often away from home on business for long periods. As a result, Vespasian's early education became the responsibility of his paternal grandmother, Tertulla. [[1]] In about A.D. 25 Vespasian assumed the toga virilis and later accepted the wearing of the latus clavus, and with it the senatorial path that his older brother, T. Flavius Sabinus, had already chosen. [[2]] Although many of the particulars are lacking, the posts typically occupied by one intent upon a senatorial career soon followed: a military tribunate in Thrace, perhaps for three or four years; a quaestorship in Crete-Cyrene; and the offices of aedile and praetor, successively, under the emperor Gaius. [[3]]

It was during this period that Vespasian married Flavia Domitilla. Daughter of a treasury clerk and former mistress of an African knight, Flavia lacked the social standing and family connections that the politically ambitious usually sought through marriage. In any case, the couple produced three children, a daughter, also named Flavia Domitilla, and two sons, the future emperors Titus and Domitian . Flavia did not live to witness her husband's emperorship and after her death Vespasian returned to his former mistress Caenis, who had been secretary to Antonia (daughter of Marc Antony and mother of Claudius). Caenis apparently exerted considerable influence over Vespasian, prompting Suetonius to assert that she remained his wife in all but name, even after he became emperor. [[4]]

Following the assassination of Gaius on 24 January, A.D. 41, Vespasian advanced rapidly, thanks in large part to the new princeps Claudius, whose favor the Flavians had wisely secured with that of Antonia, the mother of Germanicus, and of Claudius' freedmen, especially Narcissus. [[5]] The emperor soon dispatched Vespasian to Argentoratum (Strasbourg) as legatus legionis II Augustae, apparently to prepare the legion for the invasion of Britain. Vespasian first appeared at the battle of Medway in A.D. 43, and soon thereafter led his legion across the south of England, where he engaged the enemy thirty times in battle, subdued two tribes, and conquered the Isle of Wight. According to Suetonius, these operations were conducted partly under Claudius and partly under Vespasian's commander, Aulus Plautius. Vespasian's contributions, however, did not go unnoticed; he received the ornamenta triumphalia and two priesthoods from Claudius for his exploits in Britain. [[6]]

By the end of A.D. 51 Vespasian had reached the consulship, the pinnacle of a political career at Rome. For reasons that remain obscure he withdrew from political life at this point, only to return when chosen proconsul of Africa about A.D. 63-64. His subsequent administration of the province was marked by severity and parsimony, earning him a reputation for being scrupulous but unpopular. [[7]] Upon completion of his term, Vespasian returned to Rome where, as a senior senator, he became a man of influence in the emperor Nero's court. [[8]] Important enough to be included on Nero's tour of Greece in A.D. 66-67, Vespasian soon found himself in the vicinity of increasing political turbulence in the East. The situation would prove pivotal in advancing his career.

Judaea and the Accession to Power

In response to rioting in Caesarea and Jerusalem that had led to the slaughter in the latter city of Jewish leaders and Roman soldiers, Nero granted to Vespasian in A.D. 66 a special command in the East with the objective of settling the revolt in Judaea. By spring A.D. 67, with 60,000 legionaries, auxiliaries, and allies under his control, Vespasian set out to subdue Galilee and then to cut off Jerusalem. Success was quick and decisive. By October all of Galilee had been pacified and plans for the strategic encirclement of Jerusalem were soon formed. [[9]] Meanwhile, at the other end of the empire, the revolts of Gaius Iulius Vindex, governor of Gallia Lugdunensis, and Servius Sulpicius Galba , governor of Hispania Tarraconensis, had brought Nero's reign to the brink of collapse. The emperor committed suicide in June, A.D. 68, thereby ensuring chaos for the next eighteen months, as first Galba and then Marcus Salvius Otho and Aulus Vitellius acceded to power. Each lacked broad-based military and senatorial support; each would be violently deposed in turn. [[10]]

Still occupied with plans against Jerusalem, Vespasian swore allegiance to each emperor. Shortly after Vitellius assumed power in spring, A.D. 69, however, Vespasian met on the border of Judaea and Syria with Gaius Licinius Mucianus, governor of Syria, and after a series of private and public consultations, the two decided to revolt. [[11]] On July 1, at the urging of Tiberius Alexander, prefect of Egypt, the legions of Alexandria declared for Vespasian, as did the legions of Judaea two days later. By August all of Syria and the Danube legions had done likewise. Vespasian next dispatched Mucianus to Italy with 20,000 troops, while he set out from Syria to Alexandria in order to control grain shipments for the purpose of starving Italy into submission. [[12]] The siege of Jerusalem he placed in the hands of his son Titus.

Meanwhile, the Danubian legions, unwilling to wait for Mucianus' arrival, began their march against Vitellius ' forces. The latter army, suffering from a lack of discipline and training, and unaccustomed to the heat of Rome, was defeated at Cremona in late October. [[13]] By mid-December the Flavian forces had reached Carsulae, 95 kilometers north of Rome on the Flaminian Road, where the Vitellians, with no further hope of reinforcements, soon surrendered. At Rome, unable to persuade his followers to accept terms for his abdication, Vitellius was in peril. On the morning of December 20 the Flavian army entered Rome. By that afternoon, the emperor was dead. [[14]]

Tacitus records that by December 22, A.D. 69, Vespasian had been given all the honors and privileges usually granted to emperors. Even so, the issue remains unclear, owing largely to a surviving fragment of an enabling law, the lex de imperio Vespasiani, which conferred powers, privileges, and exemptions, most with Julio-Claudian precedents, on the new emperor. Whether the fragment represents a typical granting of imperial powers that has uniquely survived in Vespasian's case, or is an attempt to limit or expand such powers, remains difficult to know. In any case, the lex sanctioned all that Vespasian had done up to its passing and gave him authority to act as he saw fit on behalf of the Roman people. [[15]]

What does seem clear is that Vespasian felt the need to legitimize his new reign with vigor. He zealously publicized the number of divine omens that predicted his accession and at every opportunity he accumulated multiple consulships and imperial salutations. He also actively promoted the principle of dynastic succession, insisting that the emperorship would fall to his son. The initiative was fulfilled when Titus succeeded his father in A.D. 79.[[16]]

Emperorship

Upon his arrival in Rome in late summer, A.D. 70, Vespasian faced the daunting task of restoring a city and a government ravaged by the recent civil wars. Although many particulars are missing, a portrait nevertheles emerges of a ruler conscientiously committed to the methodical renewal of both city and empire. Concerning Rome itself, the emperor encouraged rebuilding on vacated lots, restored the Capitol (burned in A.D. 69), and also began work on several new buildings: a temple to the deified Claudius on the Caelian Hill, a project designed to identify Vespasian as a legitimate heir to the Julio-Claudians, while distancing himself from Nero ; a temple of Peace near the Forum; and the magnificent Colosseum (Flavian Amphitheatre), located on the site of the lake of Nero 's Golden House. [[17]]

Claiming that he needed forty thousand million sesterces for these projects and for others aimed at putting the state on more secure footing, Vespasian is said to have revoked various imperial immunities, manipulated the supply of certain commodities to inflate their price, and increased provincial taxation. [[18]] The measures are consistent with his characterization in the sources as both obdurate and avaricious. There were occasional political problems as well: Helvidius Priscus, an advocate of senatorial independence and a critic of the Flavian regime from the start, was exiled after A.D. 75 and later executed; Marcellus Eprius and A. Alienus Caecina were condemned by Titus for conspiracy, the former committing suicide, the latter executed in A.D. 79.
As Suetonius claims, however, in financial matters Vespasian always put revenues to the best possible advantage, regardless of their source. Tacitus, too, offers a generally favorable assessment, citing Vespasian as the first man to improve after becoming emperor. [[19]] Thus do we find the princeps offering subventions to senators not possessing the property qualifications of their rank, restoring many cities throughout the empire, and granting state salaries for the first time to teachers of Latin and Greek rhetoric. To enhance Roman economic and social life even further, he encouraged theatrical productions by building a new stage for the Theatre of Marcellus, and he also put on lavish state dinners to assist the food trades. [[20]]

In other matters the emperor displayed similar concern. He restored the depleted ranks of the senatorial and equestrian orders with eligible Italian and provincial candidates and reduced the backlog of pending court cases at Rome. Vespasian also re-established discipline in the army, while punishing or dismissing large numbers of Vitellius ' men. [[21]]
Beyond Rome, the emperor increased the number of legions in the East and continued the process of imperial expansion by the annexation of northern England, the pacification of Wales, and by advances into Scotland and southwest Germany between the Rhine and the Danube. Vespasian also conferred rights on communities abroad, especially in Spain, where the granting of Latin rights to all native communities contributed to the rapid Romanization of that province during the Imperial period. [[22]]

Death and Assessment

In contrast to his immediate imperial predecessors, Vespasian died peacefully - at Aquae Cutiliae near his birthplace in Sabine country on 23 June, A.D. 79, after contracting a brief illness. The occasion is said to have inspired his deathbed quip: "Oh my, I must be turning into a god!" [[23]] In fact, public deification did follow his death, as did his internment in the Mausoleum of Augustus alongside the Julio-Claudians.

A man of strict military discipline and simple tastes, Vespasian proved to be a conscientious and generally tolerant administrator. More importantly, following the upheavals of A.D. 68-69, his reign was welcome for its general tranquility and restoration of peace. In Vespasian Rome found a leader who made no great breaks with tradition, yet his ability ro rebuild the empire and especially his willingness to expand the composition of the governing class helped to establish a positive working model for the "good emperors" of the second century.

Bibliography

Since the scholarship on Vespasian is more comprehensive than can be treated here, the works listed below are main accounts or bear directly upon issues discussed in the entry above. A comprehensive modern anglophone study of this emperor is yet to be produced.

Atti congresso internazionale di studi Flaviani, 2 vols. Rieti, 1983.

Atti congresso internazionale di studi Vespasianei, 2 vols. Rieti, 1981.

Bosworth, A.B. "Vespasian and the Provinces: Some Problems of the Early 70s A.D." Athenaeum 51 (1973): 49-78.

Brunt, P. A. "Lex de imperio Vespasiani." JRS (67) 1977: 95-116.

D'Espèrey, S. Franchet. "Vespasien, Titus et la littérature." ANRW II.32.5: 3048-3086.

Dudley, D. and Webster, G. The Roman Conquest of Britain. London, 1965.

Gonzalez, J. "The Lex Irnitana: A New Copy of the Flavian Municipal Law." JRS 76 (1986): 147-243.

Grant, M. The Roman Emperors: A Biographical Guide to the Rulers of Rome, 31 B.C. - A.D. 476. New York, 1985.

Homo, L. Vespasien, l'Empereur du bons sens (69-79 ap. J.-C.). Paris, 1949.

Levi, M.A. "I Flavi." ANRW II.2: 177-207.

McCrum, M. and Woodhead, A. G. Select Documents of the Principates of the Flavian Emperors Including the Year of the Revolution. Cambridge, 1966.

Nicols, John. Vespasian and the Partes Flavianae. Wiesbaden, 1978.

Scarre, C. Chronicle of the Roman Emperors. The Reign-by-Reign Record of the Rulers of Imperial Rome. London, 1995.

Suddington, D. B. The Development of the Roman Auxiliary Forces from Caesar to Vespasian, 49 B.C. - A.D. 79. Harare: U. of Zimbabwe, 1982.

Syme, R. Tacitus. Oxford, 1958.

Wardel, David. "Vespasian, Helvidius Priscus and the Restoration of the Capitol." Historia 45 (1996): 208-222.

Wellesley, K. The Long Year: A.D. 69. Bristol, 1989, 2nd ed.


Notes

[[1]] Suet. Vesp. 2.1. Suetonius remains the major source but see also Tac. Hist. 2-5; Cass. Dio 65; Joseph. BJ 3-4.

[[2]] Suetonius (Vesp. 2.1) claims that Vespasian did not accept the latus clavus, the broad striped toga worn by one aspiring to a senatorial career, immediately. The delay, however, was perhaps no more than three years. See J. Nicols, Vespasian and the Partes Flavianae (Wiesbaden, 1978), 2.

[[3]] Military tribunate and quaestorship: Suet. Vesp. 2.3; aedileship: ibid., 5.3, in which Gaius, furious that Vespasian had not kept the streets clean, as was his duty, ordered some soldiers to load him with filth;,they complied by stuffing his toga with as much as it could hold. See also Dio 59.12.2-3; praetorship: Suet. Vesp. 2.3, in which Vespasian is depicted as one of Gaius' leading adulators, an account consistent with Tacitus' portrayal (Hist 1.50.4; 2.5.1) of his early career. For a more complete discussion of these posts and attendant problems of dating, see Nicols, Vespasian, 2-7.

[[4]] Marriage and Caenis: Suet. Vesp. 3; Cass. Dio 65.14.

[[5]] Nicols, Vespasian, 12-39.

[[6]] Suet. Vesp. 4.1 For additional details on Vespasian's exploits in Britain, see D. Dudley and G. Webster, The Roman Conquest of Britain (London, 1965), 55 ff., 98.

[[7]] Concerning Vespasian's years between his consulship and proconsulship, see Suet. Vesp. 4.2 and Nicols, Vespasian, 9. On his unpopularity in Africa, see Suet. Vesp. 4.3, an account of a riot at Hadrumentum, where he was once pelted with turnips. In recording that Africa supported Vitellius in A.D. 69, Tacitus too suggests popular dissatisfaction with Vespasian's proconsulship. See Hist. 2.97.2.

[[8]] This despite the fact that the sources record two rebukes of Vespasian, one for extorting money from a young man seeking career advancement (Suet. Vesp. 4.3), the other for either leaving the room or dozing off during one of the emperor's recitals (Suet. Vesp. 4.4 and 14, which places the transgression in Greece; Tac. (Ann. 16.5.3), who makes Rome and the Quinquennial Games of A.D. 65 the setting; A. Braithwaite, C. Suetoni Tranquilli Divus Vespasianus, Oxford, 1927, 30, who argues for both Greece and Rome).

[[9]] Subjugation of Galilee: Joseph. BJ 3.65-4.106; siege of Jerusalem: ibid., 4.366-376, 414.

[[10]] Revolt of Vindex: Suet. Nero 40; Tac. Ann. 14.4; revolt of Galba: Suet. Galba 10; Plut. Galba, 4-5; suicide of Nero: Suet. Nero 49; Cass. Dio 63.29.2. For the most complete account of the period between Nero's death and the accession of Vespasian, see K. Wellesley, The Long Year: A.D. 69, 2nd. ed. (Bristol, 1989).

[[11]] Tac. Hist. 2.76.

[[12]] Troops in support of Vespasian: Suet. Vit. 15; Mucianus and his forces: Tac. Hist. 2.83; Vespasian and grain shipments: Joseph. BJ 4.605 ff.; see also Tac. Hist. 3.48, on Vespasian's possible plan to shut off grain shipments to Italy from Carthage as well.

[[13]] On Vitellius' army and its lack of discipline, see Tac. Hist. 2.93-94; illness of army: ibid., 2.99.1; Cremona: ibid., 3.32-33.

[[14]] On Vitellius' last days, see Tac. Hist. 3.68-81. On the complicated issue of Vitellius' death date, see L. Holzapfel, "Römische Kaiserdaten," Klio 13 (1913): 301.

[[15]] Honors, etc. Tac. Hist. 4.3. For more on the lex de imperio Vespasiani, see P. A. Brunt, "Lex de imperio Vespasiani," JRS (67) 1977: 95-116.

[[16]] Omens: Suet. Vesp. 5; consulships and honors: ibid., 8; succession of sons: ibid., 25.

[[17]] On Vespasian's restoration of Rome, see Suet. Vesp. 9; Cass. Dio 65.10; D. Wardel, "Vespasian, Helvidius Priscus and the Restoration of the Capitol," Historia 45 (1996): 208-222.

[[18]] Suet. Vesp. 16.

[[19]] Ibid.; Tac. Hist. 1.50.

[[20]] Suet. Vesp. 17-19.

[[21]] Ibid., 8-10.

[[22]] On Vespasian's exploits in Britain, see esp. Tac., Agricola, eds. R. M. Ogilvie and I. A. Richmond (1967), and W. S. Hanson, Agricola and the Conquest of the North (1987); on the granting of Latin rights in Spain, see, e.g., J. Gonzalez, "The Lex Irnitana: a New Copy of the Flavian Municipal Law." JRS 76 (1986): 147-243.

[[23]] For this witticism and other anecdotes concerning Vespasian's sense of humor, see Suet. Vesp. 23.

Copyright (C) 1998, John Donahue. Published on De Imperatoribus Romanis, an Online Encyplopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families.
http://www.roman-emperors.org/vespasia.htm
Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
VespasianJudaeaCaptaHendin779.jpg
[18H779] Vespasian, 1 July 69 - 24 June 79 A.D., Judaea Capta issue132 viewsOrichalcum dupondius, Hendin 779, RIC II 1160, BMCRE 809 (same dies), aVF, Lugdunum mint, 9.969g, 27.7mm, 180o, 71 A.D.; obverse IMP CAESAR VESPASIAN AVG COS III, radiate head right, globe at point of bust; reverse VICTORIA NAVALIS S C, Victory standing right on a prow, wreath in right, palm frond over should in left (Refers to a victory on the Sea of Galilee during the recapture of Judaea); rough; rare (R2). Ex FORVM.




De Imperatoribus Romanis:
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Titus Flavius Vespasianus (A.D. 69-79)

John Donahue
College of William and Mary

Introduction

Titus Flavius Vespasianus (b. A.D. 9, d. A.D. 79, emperor A.D. 69-79) restored peace and stability to an empire in disarray following the death of Nero in A.D. 68. In the process he established the Flavian dynasty as the legitimate successor to the Imperial throne. Although we lack many details about the events and chronology of his reign, Vespasian provided practical leadership and a return to stable government - accomplishments which, when combined with his other achievements, make his emperorship particularly notable within the history of the Principate.

Early Life and Career

Vespasian was born at Falacrina near Sabine Reate on 17 November, A.D. 9, the son of T. Flavius Sabinus, a successful tax collector and banker, and Vespasia Polla. Both parents were of equestrian status. Few details of his first fifteen years survive, yet it appears that his father and mother were often away from home on business for long periods. As a result, Vespasian's early education became the responsibility of his paternal grandmother, Tertulla. [[1]] In about A.D. 25 Vespasian assumed the toga virilis and later accepted the wearing of the latus clavus, and with it the senatorial path that his older brother, T. Flavius Sabinus, had already chosen. [[2]] Although many of the particulars are lacking, the posts typically occupied by one intent upon a senatorial career soon followed: a military tribunate in Thrace, perhaps for three or four years; a quaestorship in Crete-Cyrene; and the offices of aedile and praetor, successively, under the emperor Gaius. [[3]]

It was during this period that Vespasian married Flavia Domitilla. Daughter of a treasury clerk and former mistress of an African knight, Flavia lacked the social standing and family connections that the politically ambitious usually sought through marriage. In any case, the couple produced three children, a daughter, also named Flavia Domitilla, and two sons, the future emperors Titus and Domitian . Flavia did not live to witness her husband's emperorship and after her death Vespasian returned to his former mistress Caenis, who had been secretary to Antonia (daughter of Marc Antony and mother of Claudius). Caenis apparently exerted considerable influence over Vespasian, prompting Suetonius to assert that she remained his wife in all but name, even after he became emperor. [[4]]

Following the assassination of Gaius on 24 January, A.D. 41, Vespasian advanced rapidly, thanks in large part to the new princeps Claudius, whose favor the Flavians had wisely secured with that of Antonia, the mother of Germanicus, and of Claudius' freedmen, especially Narcissus. [[5]] The emperor soon dispatched Vespasian to Argentoratum (Strasbourg) as legatus legionis II Augustae, apparently to prepare the legion for the invasion of Britain. Vespasian first appeared at the battle of Medway in A.D. 43, and soon thereafter led his legion across the south of England, where he engaged the enemy thirty times in battle, subdued two tribes, and conquered the Isle of Wight. According to Suetonius, these operations were conducted partly under Claudius and partly under Vespasian's commander, Aulus Plautius. Vespasian's contributions, however, did not go unnoticed; he received the ornamenta triumphalia and two priesthoods from Claudius for his exploits in Britain. [[6]]

By the end of A.D. 51 Vespasian had reached the consulship, the pinnacle of a political career at Rome. For reasons that remain obscure he withdrew from political life at this point, only to return when chosen proconsul of Africa about A.D. 63-64. His subsequent administration of the province was marked by severity and parsimony, earning him a reputation for being scrupulous but unpopular. [[7]] Upon completion of his term, Vespasian returned to Rome where, as a senior senator, he became a man of influence in the emperor Nero's court. [[8]] Important enough to be included on Nero's tour of Greece in A.D. 66-67, Vespasian soon found himself in the vicinity of increasing political turbulence in the East. The situation would prove pivotal in advancing his career.

Judaea and the Accession to Power

In response to rioting in Caesarea and Jerusalem that had led to the slaughter in the latter city of Jewish leaders and Roman soldiers, Nero granted to Vespasian in A.D. 66 a special command in the East with the objective of settling the revolt in Judaea. By spring A.D. 67, with 60,000 legionaries, auxiliaries, and allies under his control, Vespasian set out to subdue Galilee and then to cut off Jerusalem. Success was quick and decisive. By October all of Galilee had been pacified and plans for the strategic encirclement of Jerusalem were soon formed. [[9]] Meanwhile, at the other end of the empire, the revolts of Gaius Iulius Vindex, governor of Gallia Lugdunensis, and Servius Sulpicius Galba , governor of Hispania Tarraconensis, had brought Nero's reign to the brink of collapse. The emperor committed suicide in June, A.D. 68, thereby ensuring chaos for the next eighteen months, as first Galba and then Marcus Salvius Otho and Aulus Vitellius acceded to power. Each lacked broad-based military and senatorial support; each would be violently deposed in turn. [[10]]

Still occupied with plans against Jerusalem, Vespasian swore allegiance to each emperor. Shortly after Vitellius assumed power in spring, A.D. 69, however, Vespasian met on the border of Judaea and Syria with Gaius Licinius Mucianus, governor of Syria, and after a series of private and public consultations, the two decided to revolt. [[11]] On July 1, at the urging of Tiberius Alexander, prefect of Egypt, the legions of Alexandria declared for Vespasian, as did the legions of Judaea two days later. By August all of Syria and the Danube legions had done likewise. Vespasian next dispatched Mucianus to Italy with 20,000 troops, while he set out from Syria to Alexandria in order to control grain shipments for the purpose of starving Italy into submission. [[12]] The siege of Jerusalem he placed in the hands of his son Titus.

Meanwhile, the Danubian legions, unwilling to wait for Mucianus' arrival, began their march against Vitellius ' forces. The latter army, suffering from a lack of discipline and training, and unaccustomed to the heat of Rome, was defeated at Cremona in late October. [[13]] By mid-December the Flavian forces had reached Carsulae, 95 kilometers north of Rome on the Flaminian Road, where the Vitellians, with no further hope of reinforcements, soon surrendered. At Rome, unable to persuade his followers to accept terms for his abdication, Vitellius was in peril. On the morning of December 20 the Flavian army entered Rome. By that afternoon, the emperor was dead. [[14]]

Tacitus records that by December 22, A.D. 69, Vespasian had been given all the honors and privileges usually granted to emperors. Even so, the issue remains unclear, owing largely to a surviving fragment of an enabling law, the lex de imperio Vespasiani, which conferred powers, privileges, and exemptions, most with Julio-Claudian precedents, on the new emperor. Whether the fragment represents a typical granting of imperial powers that has uniquely survived in Vespasian's case, or is an attempt to limit or expand such powers, remains difficult to know. In any case, the lex sanctioned all that Vespasian had done up to its passing and gave him authority to act as he saw fit on behalf of the Roman people. [[15]]

What does seem clear is that Vespasian felt the need to legitimize his new reign with vigor. He zealously publicized the number of divine omens that predicted his accession and at every opportunity he accumulated multiple consulships and imperial salutations. He also actively promoted the principle of dynastic succession, insisting that the emperorship would fall to his son. The initiative was fulfilled when Titus succeeded his father in A.D. 79.[[16]]

Emperorship

Upon his arrival in Rome in late summer, A.D. 70, Vespasian faced the daunting task of restoring a city and a government ravaged by the recent civil wars. Although many particulars are missing, a portrait nevertheles emerges of a ruler conscientiously committed to the methodical renewal of both city and empire. Concerning Rome itself, the emperor encouraged rebuilding on vacated lots, restored the Capitol (burned in A.D. 69), and also began work on several new buildings: a temple to the deified Claudius on the Caelian Hill, a project designed to identify Vespasian as a legitimate heir to the Julio-Claudians, while distancing himself from Nero ; a temple of Peace near the Forum; and the magnificent Colosseum (Flavian Amphitheatre), located on the site of the lake of Nero 's Golden House. [[17]]

Claiming that he needed forty thousand million sesterces for these projects and for others aimed at putting the state on more secure footing, Vespasian is said to have revoked various imperial immunities, manipulated the supply of certain commodities to inflate their price, and increased provincial taxation. [[18]] The measures are consistent with his characterization in the sources as both obdurate and avaricious. There were occasional political problems as well: Helvidius Priscus, an advocate of senatorial independence and a critic of the Flavian regime from the start, was exiled after A.D. 75 and later executed; Marcellus Eprius and A. Alienus Caecina were condemned by Titus for conspiracy, the former committing suicide, the latter executed in A.D. 79.
As Suetonius claims, however, in financial matters Vespasian always put revenues to the best possible advantage, regardless of their source. Tacitus, too, offers a generally favorable assessment, citing Vespasian as the first man to improve after becoming emperor. [[19]] Thus do we find the princeps offering subventions to senators not possessing the property qualifications of their rank, restoring many cities throughout the empire, and granting state salaries for the first time to teachers of Latin and Greek rhetoric. To enhance Roman economic and social life even further, he encouraged theatrical productions by building a new stage for the Theatre of Marcellus, and he also put on lavish state dinners to assist the food trades. [[20]]

In other matters the emperor displayed similar concern. He restored the depleted ranks of the senatorial and equestrian orders with eligible Italian and provincial candidates and reduced the backlog of pending court cases at Rome. Vespasian also re-established discipline in the army, while punishing or dismissing large numbers of Vitellius ' men. [[21]]
Beyond Rome, the emperor increased the number of legions in the East and continued the process of imperial expansion by the annexation of northern England, the pacification of Wales, and by advances into Scotland and southwest Germany between the Rhine and the Danube. Vespasian also conferred rights on communities abroad, especially in Spain, where the granting of Latin rights to all native communities contributed to the rapid Romanization of that province during the Imperial period. [[22]]

Death and Assessment

In contrast to his immediate imperial predecessors, Vespasian died peacefully - at Aquae Cutiliae near his birthplace in Sabine country on 23 June, A.D. 79, after contracting a brief illness. The occasion is said to have inspired his deathbed quip: "Oh my, I must be turning into a god!" [[23]] In fact, public deification did follow his death, as did his internment in the Mausoleum of Augustus alongside the Julio-Claudians.

A man of strict military discipline and simple tastes, Vespasian proved to be a conscientious and generally tolerant administrator. More importantly, following the upheavals of A.D. 68-69, his reign was welcome for its general tranquility and restoration of peace. In Vespasian Rome found a leader who made no great breaks with tradition, yet his ability ro rebuild the empire and especially his willingness to expand the composition of the governing class helped to establish a positive working model for the "good emperors" of the second century.

Bibliography

Since the scholarship on Vespasian is more comprehensive than can be treated here, the works listed below are main accounts or bear directly upon issues discussed in the entry above. A comprehensive modern anglophone study of this emperor is yet to be produced.

Atti congresso internazionale di studi Flaviani, 2 vols. Rieti, 1983.

Atti congresso internazionale di studi Vespasianei, 2 vols. Rieti, 1981.

Bosworth, A.B. "Vespasian and the Provinces: Some Problems of the Early 70s A.D." Athenaeum 51 (1973): 49-78.

Brunt, P. A. "Lex de imperio Vespasiani." JRS (67) 1977: 95-116.

D'Espèrey, S. Franchet. "Vespasien, Titus et la littérature." ANRW II.32.5: 3048-3086.

Dudley, D. and Webster, G. The Roman Conquest of Britain. London, 1965.

Gonzalez, J. "The Lex Irnitana: A New Copy of the Flavian Municipal Law." JRS 76 (1986): 147-243.

Grant, M. The Roman Emperors: A Biographical Guide to the Rulers of Rome, 31 B.C. - A.D. 476. New York, 1985.

Homo, L. Vespasien, l'Empereur du bons sens (69-79 ap. J.-C.). Paris, 1949.

Levi, M.A. "I Flavi." ANRW II.2: 177-207.

McCrum, M. and Woodhead, A. G. Select Documents of the Principates of the Flavian Emperors Including the Year of the Revolution. Cambridge, 1966.

Nicols, John. Vespasian and the Partes Flavianae. Wiesbaden, 1978.

Scarre, C. Chronicle of the Roman Emperors. The Reign-by-Reign Record of the Rulers of Imperial Rome. London, 1995.

Suddington, D. B. The Development of the Roman Auxiliary Forces from Caesar to Vespasian, 49 B.C. - A.D. 79. Harare: U. of Zimbabwe, 1982.

Syme, R. Tacitus. Oxford, 1958.

Wardel, David. "Vespasian, Helvidius Priscus and the Restoration of the Capitol." Historia 45 (1996): 208-222.

Wellesley, K. The Long Year: A.D. 69. Bristol, 1989, 2nd ed.


Notes

[[1]] Suet. Vesp. 2.1. Suetonius remains the major source but see also Tac. Hist. 2-5; Cass. Dio 65; Joseph. BJ 3-4.

[[2]] Suetonius (Vesp. 2.1) claims that Vespasian did not accept the latus clavus, the broad striped toga worn by one aspiring to a senatorial career, immediately. The delay, however, was perhaps no more than three years. See J. Nicols, Vespasian and the Partes Flavianae (Wiesbaden, 1978), 2.

[[3]] Military tribunate and quaestorship: Suet. Vesp. 2.3; aedileship: ibid., 5.3, in which Gaius, furious that Vespasian had not kept the streets clean, as was his duty, ordered some soldiers to load him with filth;,they complied by stuffing his toga with as much as it could hold. See also Dio 59.12.2-3; praetorship: Suet. Vesp. 2.3, in which Vespasian is depicted as one of Gaius' leading adulators, an account consistent with Tacitus' portrayal (Hist 1.50.4; 2.5.1) of his early career. For a more complete discussion of these posts and attendant problems of dating, see Nicols, Vespasian, 2-7.

[[4]] Marriage and Caenis: Suet. Vesp. 3; Cass. Dio 65.14.

[[5]] Nicols, Vespasian, 12-39.

[[6]] Suet. Vesp. 4.1 For additional details on Vespasian's exploits in Britain, see D. Dudley and G. Webster, The Roman Conquest of Britain (London, 1965), 55 ff., 98.

[[7]] Concerning Vespasian's years between his consulship and proconsulship, see Suet. Vesp. 4.2 and Nicols, Vespasian, 9. On his unpopularity in Africa, see Suet. Vesp. 4.3, an account of a riot at Hadrumentum, where he was once pelted with turnips. In recording that Africa supported Vitellius in A.D. 69, Tacitus too suggests popular dissatisfaction with Vespasian's proconsulship. See Hist. 2.97.2.

[[8]] This despite the fact that the sources record two rebukes of Vespasian, one for extorting money from a young man seeking career advancement (Suet. Vesp. 4.3), the other for either leaving the room or dozing off during one of the emperor's recitals (Suet. Vesp. 4.4 and 14, which places the transgression in Greece; Tac. (Ann. 16.5.3), who makes Rome and the Quinquennial Games of A.D. 65 the setting; A. Braithwaite, C. Suetoni Tranquilli Divus Vespasianus, Oxford, 1927, 30, who argues for both Greece and Rome).

[[9]] Subjugation of Galilee: Joseph. BJ 3.65-4.106; siege of Jerusalem: ibid., 4.366-376, 414.

[[10]] Revolt of Vindex: Suet. Nero 40; Tac. Ann. 14.4; revolt of Galba: Suet. Galba 10; Plut. Galba, 4-5; suicide of Nero: Suet. Nero 49; Cass. Dio 63.29.2. For the most complete account of the period between Nero's death and the accession of Vespasian, see K. Wellesley, The Long Year: A.D. 69, 2nd. ed. (Bristol, 1989).

[[11]] Tac. Hist. 2.76.

[[12]] Troops in support of Vespasian: Suet. Vit. 15; Mucianus and his forces: Tac. Hist. 2.83; Vespasian and grain shipments: Joseph. BJ 4.605 ff.; see also Tac. Hist. 3.48, on Vespasian's possible plan to shut off grain shipments to Italy from Carthage as well.

[[13]] On Vitellius' army and its lack of discipline, see Tac. Hist. 2.93-94; illness of army: ibid., 2.99.1; Cremona: ibid., 3.32-33.

[[14]] On Vitellius' last days, see Tac. Hist. 3.68-81. On the complicated issue of Vitellius' death date, see L. Holzapfel, "Römische Kaiserdaten," Klio 13 (1913): 301.

[[15]] Honors, etc. Tac. Hist. 4.3. For more on the lex de imperio Vespasiani, see P. A. Brunt, "Lex de imperio Vespasiani," JRS (67) 1977: 95-116.

[[16]] Omens: Suet. Vesp. 5; consulships and honors: ibid., 8; succession of sons: ibid., 25.

[[17]] On Vespasian's restoration of Rome, see Suet. Vesp. 9; Cass. Dio 65.10; D. Wardel, "Vespasian, Helvidius Priscus and the Restoration of the Capitol," Historia 45 (1996): 208-222.

[[18]] Suet. Vesp. 16.

[[19]] Ibid.; Tac. Hist. 1.50.

[[20]] Suet. Vesp. 17-19.

[[21]] Ibid., 8-10.

[[22]] On Vespasian's exploits in Britain, see esp. Tac., Agricola, eds. R. M. Ogilvie and I. A. Richmond (1967), and W. S. Hanson, Agricola and the Conquest of the North (1987); on the granting of Latin rights in Spain, see, e.g., J. Gonzalez, "The Lex Irnitana: a New Copy of the Flavian Municipal Law." JRS 76 (1986): 147-243.

[[23]] For this witticism and other anecdotes concerning Vespasian's sense of humor, see Suet. Vesp. 23.

Copyright (C) 1998, John Donahue. Published on De Imperatoribus Romanis, an Online Encyplopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families.
http://www.roman-emperors.org/vespasia.htm
Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
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