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LPisoFrugiDenarius_S235.jpg
(502a) Roman Republic, L. Calpurnius Piso Frugi, 90 B.C.157 viewsSilver denarius, S 235, Calpurnia 11, Crawford 340/1, Syd 663a, VF, rainbow toning, Rome mint, 3.772g, 18.5mm, 180o, 90 B.C. obverse: laureate head of Apollo right, scorpion behind; Reverse naked horseman galloping right holding palm, L PISO FRVGI and control number CXI below; ex-CNA XV 6/5/91, #443. Ex FORVM.


A portion of the following text is a passage taken from the excellent article “The Calpurnii and Roman Family History: An Analysis of the Piso Frugi Coin in the Joel Handshu Collection at the College of Charleston,” by Chance W. Cook:

In the Roman world, particularly prior to the inception of the principate, moneyers were allotted a high degree of latitude to mint their coins as they saw fit. The tres viri monetales, the three men in charge of minting coins, who served one-year terms, often emblazoned their coins with an incredible variety of images and inscriptions reflecting the grandeur, history, and religion of Rome. Yet also prominent are references to personal or familial accomplishments; in this manner coins were also a means by which the tres viri monetales could honor their forbearers. Most obvious from an analysis of the Piso Frugi denarius is the respect and admiration that Lucius Calpurnius Piso Frugi, who minted the coin, had for his ancestors. For the images he selected for his dies relate directly to the lofty deeds performed by his Calpurnii forbearers in the century prior to his term as moneyer. The Calpurnii were present at many of the watershed events in the late Republic and had long distinguished themselves in serving the state, becoming an influential and well-respected family whose defense of traditional Roman values cannot be doubted.

Lucius Calpurnius Piso Frugi, who was moneyer in 90 B.C., depicted Apollo on the obverse and the galloping horseman on the reverse, as does his son Gaius. However, all of L. Piso Frugi’s coins have lettering similar to “L-PISO-FRVGI” on the reverse, quite disparate from his son Gaius’ derivations of “C-PISO-L-F-FRV.”

Moreover, C. Piso Frugi coins are noted as possessing “superior workmanship” to those produced by L. Piso Frugi.

The Frugi cognomen, which became hereditary, was first given to L. Calpurnius Piso, consul in 133 B.C., for his integrity and overall moral virtue. Cicero is noted as saying that frugal men possessed the three cardinal Stoic virtues of bravery, justice, and wisdom; indeed in the Thesaurus Linguae Latinae, a synonym of frugalitas is bonus, generically meaning “good” but also implying virtuous behavior. Gary Forsythe notes that Cicero would sometimes invoke L. Calpurnius Piso’s name at the beginning of speeches as “a paragon of moral rectitude” for his audience.

L. Calpurnius Piso Frugi’s inclusion of the laureled head of Apollo, essentially the same obverse die used by his son Gaius (c. 67 B.C.), was due to his family’s important role in the establishment of the Ludi Apollinares, the Games of Apollo, which were first instituted in 212 B.C. at the height of Hannibal’s invasion of Italy during the Second Punic War. By that time, Hannibal had crushed Roman armies at Cannae, seized Tarentum and was invading Campania.

Games had been used throughout Roman history as a means of allaying the fears
of the populace and distracting them from issues at hand; the Ludi Apollinares were no different. Forsythe follows the traditional interpretation that in 211 B.C., when C. Calpurnius Piso was praetor, he became the chief magistrate in Rome while both consuls were absent and the three other praetors were sent on military expeditions against Hannibal.

At this juncture, he put forth a motion in the Senate to make the Ludi Apollinares a yearly event, which was passed; the Ludi Apollinares did indeed become an important festival, eventually spanning eight days in the later Republic. However, this interpretation is debatable; H.H. Scullard suggests that the games were not made permanent until 208 B.C. after a severe plague prompted the Senate to make them a fixture on the calendar. The Senators believed Apollo would serve as a “healing god” for the people of Rome.

Nonetheless, the Calpurnii obviously believed their ancestor had played an integral role in the establishment of the Ludi Apollinares and thus prominently displayed
the head or bust of Apollo on the obverse of the coins they minted.

The meaning of the galloping horseman found on the reverse of the L. Calpurnius Piso Frugi coin is more complicated. It is possible that this is yet another reference to the Ludi Apollinares. Chariot races in the Circus Maximus were a major component of the games, along with animal hunts and theatrical performances.

A more intriguing possibility is that the horseman is a reference to C. Calpurnius Piso, son of the Calpurnius Piso who is said to have founded the Ludi Apollinares. This C. Calpurnius Piso was given a military command in 186 B.C. to quell a revolt in Spain. He was victorious, restoring order to the province and also gaining significant wealth in the process.

Upon his return to Rome in 184, he was granted a triumph by the Senate and eventually erected an arch on the Capitoline Hill celebrating his victory. Of course
the arch prominently displayed the Calpurnius name. Piso, however, was not an infantry commander; he led the cavalry.

The difficulty in accepting C. Calpurnius Piso’s victory in Spain as the impetus for the galloping horseman image is that not all of C. Piso Frugi’s coins depict the horseman or cavalryman carrying the palm, which is a symbol of victory. One is inclined to believe that the victory palm would be prominent in all of the coins minted by C. Piso Frugi (the son of L. Calpurnius Piso Frugi) if it indeed signified the great triumph of C. Calpurnius Piso in 186 B.C. Yet the palm’s appearance is clearly not a direct reference to military feats of C. Piso Frugi’s day. As noted, it is accepted that his coins were minted in 67 B.C.; in that year, the major victory by Roman forces was Pompey’s swift defeat of the pirates throughout the Mediterranean.

Chrestomathy: Annual Review of Undergraduate Research at the College of Charleston. Volume 1, 2002: pp. 1-10© 2002 by the College of Charleston, Charleston SC 29424, USA.All rights to be retained by the author.
http://www.cofc.edu/chrestomathy/vol1/cook.pdf


There are six (debatably seven) prominent Romans who have been known to posterity as Lucius Calpurnius Piso:

Lucius Calpurnius Piso Frugi: (d. 261 A.D.) a Roman usurper, whose existence is
questionable, based on the unreliable Historia Augusta.

Lucius Calpurnius Piso Licinianus: deputy Roman Emperor, 10 January 69 to15 January
69, appointed by Galba.

Lucius Calpurnius Piso: Consul in 27 A.D.

Lucius Calpurnius Piso: Consul in 1 B.C., augur

Lucius Calpurnius Piso: Consul in 15 B.C., pontifex

Lucius Calpurnius Piso Caesoninus: Consul in 58 B.C. (the uncle of Julius Caesar)

Lucius Calpurnius Piso Frugi: Moneyer in 90 B.C. (our man)


All but one (or two--if you believe in the existence of "Frugi the usurper" ca. 261 A.D.) of these gentlemen lack the Frugi cognomen, indicating they are not from the same direct lineage as our moneyer, though all are Calpurnii.

Calpurnius Piso Frugi's massive issue was intended to support the war against the Marsic Confederation. The type has numerous variations and control marks.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lucius_Calpurnius_Piso
http://www.forumancientcoins.com/catalog/indexfrm.asp?vpar=55&pos=0

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.


2 commentsCleisthenes
0024.jpg
0024 - Denarius Volteia 78 BC32 viewsObv/Laureate head of Jupiter r.
Rev/Capitoline temple, tetrastyle; M VOLTEI M F in ex.

Ag, 18.9mm, 3.94g
Moneyer: M. Volteius M.f.
Mint: Rome.
RRC 385/1 [dies o/r: 70/78] - Syd. 774 - RCV 312 - RSC Volteia 1 - Cohen Volteia 1
ex-Sayles & Lavender
dafnis
A-11_Rep_AR-Den_M_Volteius-M_f_-Laur-Head-Jupiter-r__Capitolin-Temple-M_VOLTEI_M_F_-below_Crawford-385-1_Syd-774_Rome_78-BC_Q-001_axis-10h_16,5-17,5mm_3,69g-s.jpg
078 B.C., M.Volteius M.f., Republic AR-Denarius, Crawford 385/1, Rome, Capitoline temple, M•VOLTEI•M•F, 115 views078 B.C., M.Volteius M.f., Republic AR-Denarius, Crawford 385/1, Rome, Capitoline temple, M•VOLTEI•M•F,
avers: Laureate head of Jupiter right, border of dots.
reverse: M•VOLTEI•M•F, Temple of Jupiter Capitolinus with closed doors, thunderbolt on the pediment.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 17mm, weight: 3,69g, axis: 4h,
mint: Rome, date: 78 B.C., ref: Crawford 385/1, Sydenham 774,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
987_P_Hadrian_RPC986.jpg
0986 BITHYNIA Koinon of Bithynia Hadrian Ae 33 Distyle temple13 viewsReference
RPC III, 986var (bust);

Issue Bronze; I. 1

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙС ΤΡΑΙ ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС СΕΒ
Laureate head of Hadrian, right.

Rev. ΚΟΙ-ΝΟΝ ΒΕΙΘΥΝΙΑС
Distyle temple on podium of two steps; within, Capitoline triad: in the centre, Zeus stands facing, resting with r. hand on long sceptre, between Hera, l. standing r. and Athena, r., standing l. Hera rests with l. hand on long sceptre. Athena crowns Zeus and holds an aphlaston in her l. hand; sacrificing Genius over altar with patera in hand, in pediment; Victories on raking cornices and on apex (?)

23.26 gr
33 mm
6h

Note.
New bust
Temple like RPC III, 986
Figures like RPC III, 985
okidoki
MaxHercRIC5iiRome.jpg
1302a, Maximian, 285 - 305, 306 - 308, and 310 A.D.47 viewsMaximianus AE Antoninianus. RIC V Part II 506 Bust Type C. Cohen 355; VF; Minted in Rome A.D. 285-286. Obverse: IMP MAXIMIANVS P F AVG, radiate, draped & cuirassed bust right; Rverse: IOVI CONSERVAT AVGG, Jupiter standing left holding thunderbolt & scepter, XXIZ in exergue. Ex maridvnvm.

De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Maximian, 285-305, 306-308, and 310 A.D.

Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Salve Regina University

Perhaps born ca. 249/250 A.D. in Sirmium in the area of the Balkans, Marcus Aurelius Valerius Maximianus, more commonly known as Maximianus Herculius (Maximian), had been a soldier before he put on the purple. A fellow soldier with the Emperor Diocletian, he had served in the military during the reigns of Aurelian and Probus.

When the Emperor Diocletian determined that the empire was too large for one man to govern on his own, he made Maximian his Caesar in 285/6 and elevated him to the rank of Augustus in perhaps the spring of 286. While Diocletian ruled in the East, Maximian ruled in the West. In 293, in order to maintain and to strengthen the stability of the empire, Diocletian appointed Constantius I Chlorus to serve Maximian as a Caesar in the West, while Galerius did the same job in the East. This arrangement, called the "Tetrarchy", was meant not only to provide a stronger foundation for the two emperors' rule, but also to end any possible fighting over the succession to the throne once the two senior Augusti had left the throne--a problem which had bedeviled the principate since the time of the Emperor Augustus. To cement the relationship between Maximian and his Caesar, Constantius married Maximian's elder daughter Theodora. A decade later, Constantius' son Constantine would marry Maximia's younger daughter Fausta.

On 1 May 305 Diocletian, at Nicomedeia, and Maximian, at Mediolanum, divested themselves of the purple. Their resignations seem largely due to the almost fatal illness that Diocletian contracted toward the end of 304. Diocletian seems to have forced his colleague to abdicate. In any case, Herculius had sworn an oath at the temple of Capitoline Jupiter to carry out the terms of the abdication. Constantius and Galerius were appointed as Augusti, with Maximinus Daia and Severus as the new Caesars. The retired emperors then returned to private life. Diocletian's retirement was at Salonae in Dalmatia, while Herculius' retreat was either in Lucania or Campania.

Maximian's retirement, however, was of short duration because, a little more than a year later on 28 October 306, his son Maxentius was proclaimed emperor at Rome. To give his regime an aura of legitimacy, Maximian was forced to affirm his son's acclamation. When Galerius learned of Maxentius' rebellion, he sent Severus against him with an army that had formerly been under his father's command. Maxentius invested his father with the purple again to win over his enemy's troops, a ruse which succeeded. Perhaps to strengthen his own position, in 307 Maximian went to Gaul and married his daughter Fausta to Constantine. When Constantine refused to become embroiled in the civil war between Galerius and Maxentius, Maximian returned to Rome in 308 and attempted to depose his son; however, he did not succeed. When Maximian was unable to convince Diocletian to take up the purple again at a meeting in Carnuntum in late 308, he returned to his son-in-law's side in Gaul.

Although Maximian was treated with all of the respect due a former emperor, he still desired to be more than a figurehead. He decided to seize the purple from Constantine when his son-in-law least expected it. His opportunity came in the summer of 310 when the Franks revolted. When Constantine had taken a small part of his army into enemy territory, Maximian proclaimed himself again emperor and paid the soldiers under his command a donative to secure their loyalty. As soon as Constantine received news about Maximian's revolt in July 310, he went south and reached Arelate before his father-in-law could mount a defense of the city. Although Maximian fled to Massilia, his son-in-law seized the city and took Maximian prisoner. Although he was deprived of the purple, he was granted pardon for his crimes. Unable to endure the humiliation of his defeat, he attempted to have Constantine murdered in his bed. The plot failed because he tried to get his daughter Fausta's help in the matter; she chose to reveal the matter to her husband. Because of this attempt on his son-in-law's life Maximian was dead by the end of July either by his own hand or on the orders of his intended victim.

Eutropia was of Syrian extraction and her marriage to Maximian seems to have been her second. She bore him two children: Maxentius and Fausta. An older daughter, Theodora, may have been a product of her first marriage. Fausta became the wife of Constantine I , while her sister Theodora was the second spouse of his father Constantius I Chlorus . Eutropia apparently survived all her children, with the possible exception of her daughter Fausta who seems to have died in 326. Eutropia is also said to have become a Christian.

By Michael DiMaio, Jr., Salve Regina University
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
Max.jpg
1302b, Maximian, 285-305, 306-308, and 310 A.D., commemorative issued by Constantine the Great (Siscia)55 viewsMaximian, 285-305, 306-308, and 310 A.D., commemorative issued by Constantine the Great. Bronze AE3, RIC 41, VF, Siscia, 1.30g, 16.1mm, 0o, 317-318 A.D. Obverse: DIVO MAXIMIANO SEN FORT IMP, laureate and veiled head right; Reverse: REQVIES OPTIMO-RVM MERITORVM, Emperor seated left on curule chair, raising hand and holding scepter, SIS in exergue; scarce (R3).


De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Maximian, 285-305, 306-308, and 310 A.D.

Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Salve Regina University

Perhaps born ca. 249/250 A.D. in Sirmium in the area of the Balkans, Marcus Aurelius Valerius Maximianus, more commonly known as Maximianus Herculius (Maximian), had been a soldier before he put on the purple. A fellow soldier with the Emperor Diocletian, he had served in the military during the reigns of Aurelian and Probus.

When the Emperor Diocletian determined that the empire was too large for one man to govern on his own, he made Maximian his Caesar in 285/6 and elevated him to the rank of Augustus in perhaps the spring of 286. While Diocletian ruled in the East, Maximian ruled in the West. In 293, in order to maintain and to strengthen the stability of the empire, Diocletian appointed Constantius I Chlorus to serve Maximian as a Caesar in the West, while Galerius did the same job in the East. This arrangement, called the "Tetrarchy", was meant not only to provide a stronger foundation for the two emperors' rule, but also to end any possible fighting over the succession to the throne once the two senior Augusti had left the throne--a problem which had bedeviled the principate since the time of the Emperor Augustus. To cement the relationship between Maximian and his Caesar, Constantius married Maximian's elder daughter Theodora. A decade later, Constantius' son Constantine would marry Maximia's younger daughter Fausta.

On 1 May 305 Diocletian, at Nicomedeia, and Maximian, at Mediolanum, divested themselves of the purple. Their resignations seem largely due to the almost fatal illness that Diocletian contracted toward the end of 304. Diocletian seems to have forced his colleague to abdicate. In any case, Herculius had sworn an oath at the temple of Capitoline Jupiter to carry out the terms of the abdication. Constantius and Galerius were appointed as Augusti, with Maximinus Daia and Severus as the new Caesars. The retired emperors then returned to private life. Diocletian's retirement was at Salonae in Dalmatia, while Herculius' retreat was either in Lucania or Campania.

Maximian's retirement, however, was of short duration because, a little more than a year later on 28 October 306, his son Maxentius was proclaimed emperor at Rome. To give his regime an aura of legitimacy, Maximian was forced to affirm his son's acclamation. When Galerius learned of Maxentius' rebellion, he sent Severus against him with an army that had formerly been under his father's command. Maxentius invested his father with the purple again to win over his enemy's troops, a ruse which succeeded. Perhaps to strengthen his own position, in 307 Maximian went to Gaul and married his daughter Fausta to Constantine. When Constantine refused to become embroiled in the civil war between Galerius and Maxentius, Maximian returned to Rome in 308 and attempted to depose his son; however, he did not succeed. When Maximian was unable to convince Diocletian to take up the purple again at a meeting in Carnuntum in late 308, he returned to his son-in-law's side in Gaul.

Although Maximian was treated with all of the respect due a former emperor, he still desired to be more than a figurehead. He decided to seize the purple from Constantine when his son-in-law least expected it. His opportunity came in the summer of 310 when the Franks revolted. When Constantine had taken a small part of his army into enemy territory, Maximian proclaimed himself again emperor and paid the soldiers under his command a donative to secure their loyalty. As soon as Constantine received news about Maximian's revolt in July 310, he went south and reached Arelate before his father-in-law could mount a defense of the city. Although Maximian fled to Massilia, his son-in-law seized the city and took Maximian prisoner. Although he was deprived of the purple, he was granted pardon for his crimes. Unable to endure the humiliation of his defeat, he attempted to have Constantine murdered in his bed. The plot failed because he tried to get his daughter Fausta's help in the matter; she chose to reveal the matter to her husband. Because of this attempt on his son-in-law's life Maximian was dead by the end of July either by his own hand or on the orders of his intended victim.

Eutropia was of Syrian extraction and her marriage to Maximian seems to have been her second. She bore him two children: Maxentius and Fausta. An older daughter, Theodora, may have been a product of her first marriage. Fausta became the wife of Constantine I , while her sister Theodora was the second spouse of his father Constantius I Chlorus . Eutropia apparently survived all her children, with the possible exception of her daughter Fausta who seems to have died in 326. Eutropia is also said to have become a Christian.

By Michael DiMaio, Jr., Salve Regina University
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
antpius_RIC143d.jpg
138-161 AD - ANTONINUS PIUS AR denarius - struck 158-159 AD64 viewsobv: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS PP (laureate head right)
rev: TEMPLVM DIV AVG REST COS IIII (octastyle temple [8 columns] in which the statues of Augustus and Livia reside)
ref: RIC III 143D (R), Cohen 809 (8frcs)
3.01 gms, 18mm,
Rare

History: The Temple of Divus Augustus was built between the Palatine and Capitoline Hills, behind the Basilica Julia. It is known from Roman coinage that the temple was originally built to an Ionic hexastyle design (see my Caligula sestertius). During the reign of Domitian the Temple of Divus Augustus was destroyed by fire but was rebuilt and rededicated in 89/90 with a shrine to his favourite deity, Minerva. The temple was redesigned as a memorial to four deified emperors, including Vespasian and Titus.
It was restored again in the late 150s by Antoninus Pius, who was perhaps motivated by a desire to be publicly associated with the first emperor. The exact date of the restoration is not known, but the restored temple was an octostyle design with Corinthian capitals and two statues - presumably of Augustus and Livia - in the cella. The pediment displayed a relief featuring Augustus and was topped by a quadriga. Two figures stood on the eaves of the roof, that on the left representing Romulus and the one on the right depicting Aeneas leading his family out of Troy, alluding to Rome's origin-myth. The steps of the temple were flanked by two statues of Victory.
1 commentsberserker
BalbinusSestFelicit.jpg
1cj Balbinus20 views238

Sestertius

Laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust, right, seen from front, right, IMP CAES D CAEL BALBINVS AVG
Felicitas standing facing, head left, holding caduceus in right hand, PM TR P COS II PP SC

RIC 18

Herodian wrote, continuing the story of the rebellions against Maximinus: When the death of the elder Gordian was reported at Rome, . . . the senate therefore thought it best to meet and consider what should be done. Since they had already cast the die, they voted to issue a declaration of war and choose two men from their own ranks to be joint emperors. . . . Other senators received votes, but on the final count [Pupienus] Maximus and Balbinus were elected joint emperors by majority opinion. . . .

[Pupienus] had held many army commands; appointed prefect of Rome, he administered the office with diligence and enjoyed among the people a good reputation for his understanding nature, his intelligence, and his moderate way of life. Balbinus, an aristocrat who had twice served as consul and had governed provinces without complaint, had a more open and frank nature. After their election, the two men were proclaimed Augusti, and the Senate awarded them by decree all the imperial honors.

While these actions were being taken on the Capitoline Hill, the people, whether they were informed by Gordian's friends and fellow countrymen or whether they learned it by rumor, filled the entire street leading up to the Capitol. The huge mob was armed with stones and clubs, for they objected to the Senate's action and particularly disapproved of [Pupienus]. The prefect ruled the city too strictly for the popular taste, and was very harsh in his dealings with the criminal and reckless elements of the mob. In their fear and dislike of [Pupienus], they kept shouting threats to kill both emperors, determined that the emperor be chosen from the family of Gordian and that the title remain in that house and under that name.

Balbinus and [Pupienus] surrounded themselves with an escort of swordsmen from the young equestrians and the discharged soldiers living in Rome, and tried to force their way from the Capitol. The mob, armed with stones and clubs, prevented this until, at someone's suggestion, the people were deceived. There was in Rome at that time a little child, the son of Gordian's daughter, who bore his grandfather's name.

The two emperors ordered some of their men to bring the child to the Capitol. Finding the lad playing at home, they lifted him to their shoulders and brought him to the Capitol through the midst of the crowd. Showing the boy to the people and telling them that he was the son of Gordian, they called him "Gordian," while the mob cheered the boy and scattered leaves in his path. The senate appointed him caesar, since he was not old enough to be emperor. The mob, placated, allowed the imperial party to proceed to the palace.

Blindado
Caesar_DICT_ITER.jpg
46 BC Gaius Julius Caesar 50 viewsDICT ITER COS TERT
Head of Ceres right wreathed with corn

AVGVR PONT MAX
Simpulum, sprinkler, jug and lituus D or M on right

Utica? 46 BC
Sear 1403

SOLD

This extensive issue of denarii would seem to represent another measure on the part of Caesar to ease the burden on the Capitoline mint in the period prior to the distribution of vast sums of money at the quadruple triumph. The inscription on these coins omit the actual name of the dictator. However, the titles clearly refer to Caesar- his dictatorships, consulships and possession of various priestly offices.

Attention is drawn to the extraordinary nature of the issue by the appearance of either a "D" (Donativum) or "M" (munus, gift) in the reverse field. This tells of the intended use of the coins for the payment of Caesar's loyal veterans, both prior to the quadruple triumph and during the celebration itself.
Titus Pullo
Philip-II-RIC-256-bust.jpg
51. Philip II as Caesar.23 viewsA comparison of the portrait of Philip II on the previous sestertius, and the marble bust of Philip II in the Capitoline Museum, Rome.Callimachus
DomitianARDenariusHorseman.jpg
712a, Domitian, 13 September 81 - 18 September 96 A.D.157 viewsDomitian, as Caesar, AR Denarius. 77-78 AD; RIC 242, VF, 18mm, 3.18grams. Obverse: CAESAR AVG F DOMITIA[NVS], laureate head right ; Reverse: COS V below man with hand raised out behind him on horse prancing right. RSC 49a. Scarce. Ex Zuzim Judaea.

De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Titus Flavius Domitianus(A.D. 81-96)

John Donahue
College of William and Mary

Domitian was born in Rome on 24 October A.D. 51, the youngest son of Vespasian, Roman emperor (A.D. 69-79) and Domitilla I, a treasury clerk's daughter. Little is known about Domitian in the turbulent 18 months of the four (five?) emperors, but in the aftermath of the downfall of Vitellius in A.D. 69 he presented himself to the invading Flavian forces, was hailed as Caesar, and moved into the imperial residence.

As emperor, Domitian was to become one of Rome's foremost micromanagers, especially concerning the economy. Shortly after taking office, he raised the silver content of the denarius by about 12% (to the earlier level of Augustus), only to devaluate it in A.D. 85, when the imperial income must have proved insufficient to meet military and public expenses.

Domitian's reach extended well beyond the economy. Late in A.D. 85 he made himself censor perpetuus, censor for life, with a general supervision of conduct and morals. The move was without precedent and, although largely symbolic, it nevertheless revealed Domitian's obsessive interest in all aspects of Roman life. An ardent supporter of traditional Roman religion, he also closely identified himself with Minerva and Jupiter, publicly linking the latter divinity to his regime through the Ludi Capitolini, the Capitoline Games, begun in A.D.86. Held every four years in the early summer, the Games consisted of chariot races, athletics and gymnastics, and music, oratory and poetry.

Beyond Rome, Domitian taxed provincials rigorously and was not afraid to impose his will on officials of every rank. Consistent with his concern for the details of administration, he also made essential changes in the organization of several provinces and established the office of curator to investigate financial mismanagement in the cities. Other evidence points to a concern with civic improvements of all kinds, from road building in Asia Minor, Sardinia and near the Danube to building and defensive improvements in North Africa.

While the military abilities of Vespasian and Titus were genuine, those of Domitian were not. Partly as an attempt to remedy this deficiency, Domitian frequently became involved in his own military exploits outside of Rome. He claimed a triumph in A.D. 83 for subduing the Chatti in Gaul, but the conquest was illusory. Final victory did not really come until A.D. 89. In Britain, similar propaganda masked the withdrawal of Roman forces from the northern borders to positions farther south, a clear sign of Domitian's rejection of expansionist warfare in the province.

Domitian's autocratic tendencies meant that the real seat of power during his reign resided with his court. The features typically associated with later courts - a small band of favored courtiers, a keen interest in the bizarre and the unusual (e.g., wrestlers, jesters, and dwarves), and a highly mannered, if somewhat artificial atmosphere, characterized Domitian's palace too, whether at Rome or at his Alban villa, some 20 kilometers outside of the capital.

On 18 September, A.D. 96, Domitian was assassinated and was succeeded on the very same day by M. Cocceius Nerva, a senator and one of his amici. The sources are unanimous in stressing that this was a palace plot, yet it is difficult to determine the level of culpability among the various potential conspirators.
In many ways, Domitian is still a mystery - a lazy and licentious ruler by some accounts, an ambitious administrator and keeper of traditional Roman religion by others. As many of his economic, provincial, and military policies reveal, he was efficient and practical in much that he undertook, yet he also did nothing to hide the harsher despotic realities of his rule. This fact, combined with his solitary personality and frequent absences from Rome, guaranteed a harsh portrayal of his rule. The ultimate truths of his reign remain difficult to know.

Copyright (C) 1997, John Donahue.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Perhaps the reverse of this Domitian/Horseman specimen depicts Domitian as he rode a white horse behind his father, Vespasian, and his brother, Titus, during their joint triumph celebrating their victory over Judaea (see: Suetonius. The Twelve Caesars. Trans. Robert Graves. London: Penguin, 2003. 304).

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
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Alexander Severus402 viewsCapitoline museums

I'm not 100% sure that it's Alexander Severus.
Johny SYSEL
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Antoninus Pius 7 viewsAntoninus Pius Sestertius temple of Augustus and Livia
Catalog: Temple of Divus Augustus
weight 28,6gr. | bronze Ø 32mm.
obv. Laureate head right ANTONINVS AVG PIVS PP TR P XXII
rev. Octastyle temple of Divus Augustus, containing cult-statues of Augustus
and Livia TEMPLVM DIVI AVG REST COS IIII S C

The Temple of Divus Augustus was a major temple originally built to commemorate the deified first Roman emperor, Augustus. It was built between the Palatine and Capitoline Hills, behind the Basilica Julia, on the site of the house that Augustus had inhabited before he entered public life in the mid-1st century BC. The temple′s construction took place during the 1st century AD, having been vowed by the Roman Senate shortly after the death of the emperor in AD 14. It is known from Roman coinage that the temple was originally built to an Ionic hexastyle design. However, its size, physical proportions and exact site are unknown. During the reign of Domitian the Temple of Divus Augustus was destroyed by fire but was rebuilt and rededicated in 89/90 with a shrine to his favourite deity, Minerva. The temple was redesigned as a memorial to four deified emperors, including Vespasian and Titus. It was restored again in the mid 150s by Antonius Pius, and that was the reason for this coinage. The last known reference to the temple was on 27 May 218 | at some point thereafter it was completely destroyed and its stones were presumably quarried for later buildings. Its remains are not visible and the area in which it lay has never been excavated.

Cohen 805 | RIC 1004 | BMC 2063 | Sear 4235 R
vf
1 commentsAncient Aussie
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Antoninus Pius 3 views
Antoninus Pius. AD 138-161. Æ Dupondius (27mm, 10.58 g, 11h). Rome mint. Struck AD 159. Radiate head right / TEMPLVM DIV AVG REST, octastyle temple within which are the seated figures of Divus Augustus and Livia. RIC III 1017. VF, dark brown surfaces with touches of green, some pitting and minor smoothing.


The second Temple of Divus Augustus, commenced under Tiberius and dedicated by Caligula in August AD 37, suffered during the great fire of 80, which began on the Capitoline Hill and spread into the Forum and onto the Palatine. It was possibly restored or rebuilt under Domitian, although it is not mentioned in the Chronographia. It received further restoration under Antoninus Pius in 158. The temple under Antoninus was Corinthian octastyle and contained the seated figures of Divus Augustus and Livia within, generally drawn on the coinage at an elevated level to suggest perspective.
Ancient Aussie
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Antoninus Pius, RIC 1003A, Sestertius of AD 158-159 (Temple of Divus Augustus) 17 viewsÆ Sestertius (25.4g, Ø32mm, 12h). Rome mint. Struck AD 158-159.
Obv.: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P XXII, laureate head of Antoninus Pius right.
Rev.: TEMPL DIVI AVG REST (around) COS IIII (ex.) S C (field), Octastyle temple of with statues of Divus Augustus and Livia. Both statues in the centre, standing on a base, have the right arms raised. There are statues to the left near the foot of the steps and other statues of soldiers on pedestals at each side of the top step. In the roof is a quadriga in the centre, and statues at each corner; further statues in the pediment.
RIC 1003A (S); BMCRE 2063 var. (rev. legend TEMPLVM DIV); Cohen 797; Strack 1168; Banti (I Grandi Bronzi Imperiali II-3) 404 (2 specimens); Sear (Roman Coins and their Values II) 4235 var. (different rev. legend); Foss (Roman Historical Coins) 132:88a
ex D. Ruskin, Oxford, 1995 ("found in Reigate (Surrey), 1864")

Coin issued on the occasion of the restoration of the temple of Divus Ausustus and Diva Augusta (Livia) in AD 158. he temple was probably situated in the valley between the Palatine and Capitoline Hills, behind the Basilica Julia. No trace has survived.
Charles S
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Antoninus Pius, RIC 1004, Sestertius of AD 159 (Temple of Divus Augustus)25 viewsÆ Sestertius (22.23g, Ø30mm, 12h). Rome mint. Struck AD 159.
Obv.: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P XXII laureate head of Antoninus Pius facing right.
Rev.: TEMPLVM DIV AVG REST (around) COS IIII (in ex.) S C (in field), Octastyle temple of Divus Augustus with statues of Augustus and Livia. The temple stands on a podium of three steps. Both statues in the centre, standing on a base, have the right arms raised. There are statues to the left near the foot of the steps and other statues of soldiers on pedestals at each side of the top step. The statuary on the roof can be identified as Augustus in quadriga flanked by Romulus on the right and Aeneas carrying Anchises on the left. Unidentified statuary in the pediment.

RIC 1004 (S); BMCRE 2063; Cohen 805; Strack 1167; Banti (I Grandi Bronzi Imperiali II-3) 406; Sear (Roman Coins and their Values II) 4235.
ex Triton VI (2003)

The second Temple of Divus Augustus, commenced under Tiberius and dedicated by Caligula in August AD 37, suffered during the great fire of 80 which began on the Capitoline Hill and spread into the Forum and onto the Palatine. It was possibly restored or rebuilt under Domitian, although it is not mentioned in the Chronographia, and it certainly received further restoration under Antoninus Pius in 158. The temple under Antoninus was Corinthian octastyle and contained the seated figures of Divus Augustus and Livia within, generally drawn on the coinage at an elevated level to suggest perspective.
Charles S
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Asclepius181 viewsCapitoline museumsJohny SYSEL
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Capitoline Wolf189 viewsCapitoline Museums

It seems it's from 13th century - not etruscan.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/She-Wolf_of_the_Capitol
Johny SYSEL
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Capitoline Wolf11 viewsBronze
65 mm x 35 mm
1 commentsTanit
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Cnaeus Cornelius Blasio Cn.f106 viewsObv: Head of Mars (sometimes referenced as Scipio Africanus) facing right, wearing a crested Corinthian helmet, XVI in monogram above, CN BLASIO CN F before, caduceus behind.

Rev: The Capitoline Triad: Jupiter holding a scepter and a thunderbolt standing facing between Juno on the left and Minerva on the right, the latter crowns Jupiter with a laurel wreath, ROMA in exergue.

Silver Denarius, Rome mint, 112 - 111 BC

4 grams, 19 mm, 270°

RSC Cornelia 19, S173
1 commentsSPQR Coins
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Commodus as Hercules692 viewsThis magnificent statue depicts the Emperor Commodus as Hercules. Currently on display at the Musei Capitolini in Rome. Commodus also minted coins with him as Hercules.Titus Pullo
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Commodus as Hercules167 viewsCapitoline museumsJohny SYSEL
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Constantine I, AD 306-33717 viewsAE Follis, 18mm, 2.8g, 11h; unofficial, but with Ticinium mint mark, c. AD 321.
Obv.: CONSTAN-TINVS AV; Leaureate head right.
Rev.: CAEMSARVM NOSTRVM; VOT X in wreath // TT
Notes: Obverse of Constantine I, reverse of Constantine II/Crispus. Notice the botched spelling of CAESARVM NOSTRORVM. Ticinium didn't issue coins with this reverse legend, although other mints did. Ex - Rick Morton, Capitoline Collection, private sale, 9/15, wi.
1 commentsJohn Anthony
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Constantine II as Caesar, AD 317-33712 viewsAE Follis, 18mm, 2.9g, 6h; unofficial but with Trier mint mark, c. AD 324.
Obv.: CONSTANTINVS IVN NO C; Laureate head right.
Rev.: DN CONSTANTINI MAX A; VOT XX within wreath // PTR.
Notes: Obverse of RIC VII Trier 459, reverse of same, 324. Since both types were minted in AD 324, it's possible that dies were confused, but Curtis Clay suggests the coin is unofficial because of the misspellings, despite the good style. Ex-Rick Morton, Capitoline Collection, private sale, 9/15, wi.
John Anthony
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Domitian (Augustus) Coin: Brass Sestertius 3 viewsIMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM COS XIIII CENS PER P P - Laureate head right
IOVI VICTORI, S C - Jupiter seated left holding Victory and sceptre
Exergue:


Mint: Rome (88-89AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 22.10g / 33mm / 360
References:
RIC 633
Cohen 313
BMC 406
Acquisition/Sale: budgies-beak Ebay $0.00 8/17

Jupiter or Jove, Zeus to the Greeks, was the king of the gods and god of the sky and thunder, and of laws and social order. As the patron deity of ancient Rome, he was the chief god of the Capitoline Triad, with his sister and wife Juno. The father of Mars, he is, therefore, the grandfather of Romulus and Remus, the legendary founders of Rome.
Gary W2
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Domitian (Augustus) Coin: Bronze As 3 viewsIMP CAES DOMITIAN AVG GERM COS XI - Laureate bust right, wearing aegis
IOVI - CONSERVAT, S - C - Jupiter standing left, holding thunderbolt and sceptre
Exergue:


Mint: Rome (85AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 8.84g / 26.94mm / 180
Rarity: R2-Rare
References:
RIC II 302 Rome
BMCRE 313A
Paris 336
Provenances:
Marc Breitsprecher
Acquisition/Sale: Marc R. Breitsprecher Internet $0.00 01/18
Notes: Jan 5, 19 - The Gary R. Wilson Collection

Domitian, 13 September 81 - 18 September 96 A.D.
Flavius Domitianus was an effective emperor who spent much of his time in the provinces preserving order. Despite his effectiveness, he was extremely unpopular with the senatorial class at Rome. He appointed persons from the lower classes to positions of authority. Domitian's reign was marred by paranoia and cruelty in his latter years and he executed many Senators. When asked to prohibit execution of senators without a trial by peers he declined, thus dispelling the old illusions of republican government and exposing the true autocracy of his rule. In 96 A.D., he was stabbed to death in a plot, allegedly involving his own wife.

Jupiter or Jove, Zeus to the Greeks, was the king of the gods and god of the sky and thunder, and of laws and social order. As the patron deity of ancient Rome, he was the chief god of the Capitoline Triad, with his sister and wife Juno. The father of Mars, he is, therefore, the grandfather of Romulus and Remus, the legendary founders of Rome.
Gary W2
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Domitian Denarius - Rev: Temple81 viewsDOMITIAN, 81-96 Silver Denarius.
Obv: DOMITIANVS AVG GERM, Bare head of Domitian right.
Rev: Frontal view of hexastyle temple on base with four steps; within is a statue of Jupiter, seated, flanked by statues of Juno and Minerva (= the Capitoline triad); on the central part of the pediment is a seated figure holding spear, with two additional figures on either side; on the apex of the roof is a facing quadriga with figures on either side; an eagle stands at each of the upper corners; IMP CAESAR is inscribed on the architrave.
RIC II².1 815; RIC II 207; BMC 242.
4 commentsOldMoney
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Domitian RIC-81672 viewsAR Denarius, 2.73g
Rome mint, 95-96 AD
Obv: DOMITIANVS AVG GERM; Head of Domitian, bare, bearded, r.
Rev: Temple, eight columns, seated figure in centre; IMP CAESAR on architrave
RIC 816 (R2). BMC 243. RSC 175. BNC -.
Ex Private Collection.

Domitian struck a rare undated issue of denarii depicting five different temples. Based on portrait style and the fact that Domitian's moneyers were experimenting with new reverse designs after 94, the issue has been dated to either 95 or 96. Four of the five temples have been identified - Serapis, Cybele, Minerva, and Capitoline Jupiter. The fifth type is an octastyle temple, as seen on the coin above, and its identification remains a mystery. Mattingly conjectured it could be the Temple of Divus Vespasian, P.V. Hill and D. Vagi thought it possibly the Temple of Jupiter Victor, R.H. Darwell-Smith speculated it is the Temple of Jupiter Custos, and M. Tameanko believed it to be the Temple of Divus Augustus. Tameanko makes the strongest case. Earlier renditions of the temple on the coinage under Caligula show it with a hexastyle facade. Domitian restored or rebuilt the temple after the fire of 80. His architect Rabirius may have completely overhauled the building in a more contemporary style producing an octastyle temple. Almost a hundred years later Antoninus Pius restored the temple again and struck a series of coins commemorating the event. His coins indeed depict an octastyle temple very much like the one seen on this denarius and may be proof that under Domitian the temple was rebuilt as an octastyle structure. However, until more evidence comes to light, the identification remains uncertain. Like Domitian's earlier Saecular Games series, the temple denarii were likely struck as a special issue, perhaps reflecting Domitian's new interest as builder. The remarkable bare headed portrait further enhances the issue as something special.

Needless to say it is a fantastically rare piece! Additionally, the eight column type may be the scarcest of the temple group, considering I have located only two other examples in trade over the last 15 years. The other two coins (OldRomanCoins 2002, HJB 145, lot 265) are obverse die matches with mine. Oddly, some specimens (BM 234 for example) lack IMP CAESAR on the architrave.

Worn, with some bumps and scrapes, but well-centred and in good style with plenty of eye appeal.
4 commentsDavid Atherton
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Domitian RIC-841152 viewsAR Cistophorus, 9.81g
Rome mint (for Asia), 82 AD
Obv: IMP CAES DOMITIAN AVG P M COS VIII; Head of Domitian, laureate, bearded, r.
Rev: CAPIT across field, RESTIT in exergue; Temple of Capitoline Jupiter with 4 columns enclosing figures of Juno, seated Jupiter and Minverva
RIC 841 (C). BMC 251. RSC 23. RPC 864 (8 spec.). BNC 221.
Acquired from Tom Cederlind, February 2013.

In 80 AD while Titus was away in Campania surveying the damage Vesuvius had caused in the region the previous Fall, a devastating fire broke out in Rome, damaging much of the city center. One of the most important buildings affected by the fire was the Temple of Capitoline Jupiter, rebuilt recently by Vespasian. It being the most sacred and important building in Rome, Titus began rebuilding it immediately. Construction was still ongoing when Titus died of natural causes in September of 81. Domitian completed the structure the following year and it was said no expense was spared. The building Domitian dedicated was a lavish structure, magnificent in appearance featuring Pentelic marble, gold plated doors, and a roof of gilded bronze.

This cistophorus minted in Rome for export to Asia Minor commemorates the new Temple of Jupiter Domitian bestowed on Rome. Curiously, although the building featured six columns, only four are seen here. Statues of the deities Juno, Jupiter (seated) and Minverva can be seen between the columns.

A most wonderful coin in hand.
8 commentsDavid Atherton
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Elagabalus139 viewsCapitoline museumsJohny SYSEL
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empress141 viewsCapitoline museums

I can't remember who it is - maybe Herennia Etruscilla
Johny SYSEL
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Gaius ("Caligula"), RIC 44, Sestertius of AD 3920 viewsÆ Sestertius (28.5g, Ø 35.5mm, 6h) Rome mint, struck AD 39.
Obv.: C CAESAR DIVI AVG PRON P M TR P III P P around, PIETAS in ex., Pietas, veiled and draped, seated left, holding patera and resting left arm on small statue on pedestal.
Rev.: DIVO AVG / S C (in two lines in field left & right of the temple), Hexastyle guirlanded temple, surmounted with quadriga and statues, before which Gaius, veiled and togate, standing left, sacrifices with patera over garlanded altar; at left, an attendant leading bull to altar; at right, another attendant holding patera.
RIC 44 (R); Sear (Roman Coins & their Values I) 1802; Foss (Roman Historical Coins) 60:2a
ex G.Henzen (1999).

Explanation of the legend: obverse: CAIVS CAESAR DIVI AVGVSTI PRONEPOS AVGVSTVS PONTIFEX MAXIMVS TRIBVNICIA POTESTATE III PATER PATRIAE : Gaius Caesar, great-grandson of Divine Augustus, emperor, High Priest, with tribunician power for the third time, father of the fatherland. reverse: DIVO AVGVSTO SENATVS CONSVLTO: to Divine Augustus by decree of the Senate.
This architectural type commemorates the dedication of the temple to Divus Augustus in August, 37 AD. There were two temples in Rome honoring Augustus, one on the Palatine, the other of uncertain location, possibly behind the Basilica Julia in the depression between the Palatine and the Capitoline Hills. The latter, built under Tiberius, was the one dedicated by Caligula in 37 AD.
Charles S
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Gaius ("Caligula"), RIC 51, Sestertius of AD 40-4132 viewsÆ Sestertius (25.9g, Ø35mm, 6h) Rome mint, struck AD 40-41.
Obv.: C CAESAR DIVI AVG PRON P M TR P IIII P P around edge PIETAS in ex., Pietas, veiled and draped, seated left.
Rev.: DIVO / AVG / S / C. Gaius sacrificing in front of hexastyle temple; attendants with bull and patera.
RIC 51 (R); Cohen 11; Sear (RCV 2K) 1802; Foss (RHC) 60:2a

This architectural type commemorates the dedication of the temple to Divus Augustus in August, 37 AD. There were two temples in Rome honouring Augustus, one on the Palatine, the other of uncertain location, possibly behind the Basilica Julia in the depression between the Palatine and the Capitoline Hills. The latter, built under Tiberius, was the one dedicated by Caligula in 37 AD.
Charles S
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Gaius/Caligula (Augustus) Coin: Brass Sestertius7 viewsC CAESAR DIVI AVG PRON AVG P M TR POT IIII P P - Pietas, seated left, holding patera and resting arm on small statue of Spes
DIVO AVG S C - Caligula, veiled and togate, sacrifices with patera over garlanded altar
Exergue:




Mint: Rome (40-41AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 23.40g / 34.5mm / 180
Rarity: Rare
References:
RIC 51
Provenances:
Incitatus Coins
Acquisition/Sale: Incitatus Coins Vcoins

The Gary R. Wilson Collection

This coin commemorates the dedication of the temple of Divus Augustus, completed in 37 AD, with a remarkable scene of Gaius Caligula in his role of pontifex maximus leading the sacrificial ceremonies, dedicating the Temple on August 30th and 31st in AD 37.


The Temple of Divus Augustus stood between the Palatine and Capitoline Hills, behind the Basilica Julia, on the site of the house that Augustus had inhabited before he entered public life. The temple’s construction began during the reign of Tiberius, having been vowed by the Roman Senate shortly after Augustus’ death in AD 14. However it was not until after the death of Tiberius in 37 that the temple was finally completed and dedicated by his successor Caligula, which scene is presented here.

Gary W2
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Gaius/Caligula (Augustus) Coin: Brass Sestertius16 viewsC CAESAR DIVI AVG PRON AVG P M TR POT IIII P P - Pietas, seated left, holding patera and resting arm on small statue of Spes
DIVO AVG S C - Caligula, veiled and togate, sacrifices with patera over garlanded altar
Exergue:




Mint: Rome (40-41AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 23.40g / 34.5mm / 180
Rarity: Rare
References:
RIC 51
Provenances:
Incitatus Coins
Acquisition/Sale: Incitatus Coins Vcoins

his coin commemorates the dedication of the temple of Divus Augustus, completed in 37 AD, with a remarkable scene of Gaius Caligula in his role of pontifex maximus leading the sacrificial ceremonies, dedicating the Temple on August 30th and 31st in AD 37.


The Temple of Divus Augustus stood between the Palatine and Capitoline Hills, behind the Basilica Julia, on the site of the house that Augustus had inhabited before he entered public life. The temple’s construction began during the reign of Tiberius, having been vowed by the Roman Senate shortly after Augustus’ death in AD 14. However it was not until after the death of Tiberius in 37 that the temple was finally completed and dedicated by his successor Caligula, which scene is presented here.

Per RIC-Rare
Gary W2
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Gordian III142 viewsCapitoline museumsJohny SYSEL
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Head of Constantinus127 viewsCapitoline museumsJohny SYSEL
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Hercules201 viewsCapitoline museums1 commentsJohny SYSEL
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Isis from the Villa Hadriana94 viewsIsis, marble statue from the Hadrian period, found in the 17th century at the Villa Hadriana near Tivoli. Isis, crowned with small throne (= aset, Egyptian name for Isis), in long garment with Isis knot over her breast, holding situla in lowered l. hand and sistrum in raised r. hand.

The original statue was acquired 1753 for the Capitoline Museums/Rome, 1798 displaced by Napoleon to Paris, 1815 donated by Pope Pius VII to King Louis XVIII, and still in the Louvre/Paris.
Jochen
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Italy, Rome, Capitoline Museums, Capitoline Venus188 viewsCapitoline museumsJohny SYSEL
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Italy, Rome, Capitoline Museums, Diana177 viewsCapitoline museumsJohny SYSEL
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Italy, Rome, Capitoline Museums, Esquiline Venus210 viewsCapitoline museumsJohny SYSEL
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Italy- Rome- Largo (di Torre) Argentina47 viewsLargo di Torre Argentina is a square in Rome that hosts four Republican Roman temples, and the reminings of Pompey's Theater. It is located in the ancient Campus Martius.

Common knowledge refers the name of the square to a Torre Argentina, which is not related to the South American country, but to the city of Strasbourg, whose original name was Argentoratum. In 1503, in fact, John Burckhardt from Strasbourg built in via del Sudario a palace (now at number 44), Casa del Bucardo, annexing a tower, called Torre Argentoratina from the name of his hometown.

After Italian unification, it was decided to reconstruct part of Rome (1909), demolishing the zone of Torre Argentina, where the remainings of a medieval tower, Torre Papito or Torre Boccamazzi, and of one temple were to be included in the new buildings. During the works (1927), however, the colossal head and arms of a marble statue were discovered. The archeological investigation brought to light the presence of a holy area, dating to the Republican era, with four temples and part of Pompey's Theater.

The buildings
The four temples, designated today by the letters A, B, C, and D, front onto a paved street, which was reconstructed in the imperial era, after 80 AD fire.

Temple A was built in the 3rd century BC, and is probably the Temple of Juturna built by Gaius Lutatius Catulus after his victory against Carthaginians in 241 BC. It was later rebuilt into a church, whoes aprses are still present.

Temple B, a circular temple with six columns remaining, was built by Quintus Lutatius Catulus in 101 BC to celebrate his victory over Cimbri; it was Aedes Fortunae Huiusce Diei, a temple devoted to the Luck of the Current Day. The colossal statue found during excavations and now kept in the Capitoline Museums was the statue of the goddess herself. Only the head, the arms, and the legs were of marble: the other parts, covered by the dress, were of bronze.

Temple C is the most ancient of the three, dating back to 4th or 3rd century BC, and was probably devoted to Feronia the ancient Italic goddess of fertility. After the fire of 80 AD, this temple was restored, and the white and black mosaic of the inner temple cell dates back to this restoration.

Temple D is the largest of the four, dates back to 2nd century BC with Late Republican restorations, and was devoted to Lares Permarini, but only a small part of it has been excavated (a street covers the most of it).

Teatro Argentina is a 18th century theater, where Gioachino Rossini's The Barber of Seville debuted in 1816, as well as Giuseppe Verdi's I due Foscari (1844) and La battaglia di Legnano (1849).

Located in the Largo Argentina is the Torre Argentina Cat Sanctuary, a no-kill shelter for homeless cats (of which Rome has many). The presence of the shelter proves to be a point of interest for both tourists and locals, as the historical area abounds with various breeds of cat, cavorting and lounging about on the ancient (and semi-ancient) ruins.
John Schou
Italy- Rome- The Arch of Constantine The Great.jpg
Italy- Rome- The Arch of Constantine The Great71 viewsArch of Constantine
The Arch of Constantine is a triumphal arch in Rome, situated between the Colosseum and the Palatine Hill. It was erected to commemorate Constantine's victory over Maxentius at the Battle of Milvian Bridge on October 28, 312 AD. Dedicated in 315 AD, it is the latest of the extant triumphal arches in Rome, from which it differs by the extensive re-use of parts of earlier buildings.

General Description
The arch is 21 m high, 25.7 m wide and 7.4 m deep. It has three archways, the central one being 11.5 m high and 6.5 m wide, the lateral archways 7.4 m by 3.4 m each. The lower part of the monument is built of marble blocks, the top (called attic) is brickwork revetted with marble. A staircase formed in the thickness of the arch is entered from a door at some height from the ground, in the end towards the Palatine Hill. The general design with a main part structured by detached columns and an attic with the main inscription above is modelled after the example of the Arch of Septimius Severus on the Forum Romanum. It has been suggested that the lower part of the arch is re-used from an older monument, probably from the times of the emperor Hadrian (Conforto et al., 2001; for a defence of the view that the whole arch was constructed in the 4th century, see Pensabene & Panella). The arch spans the Via Triumphalis, the way taken by the emperors when they entered the city in triumph. This route started at the Campus Martius, led through the Circus Maximus and around the Palatine Hill; immediately after the Arch of Constantine, the procession would turn left and march along the Via Sacra to the Forum Romanum and on to the Capitoline Hill, passing both the Arches of Titus and Septimius Severus. During the Middle Ages, the Arch of Constantine was incorporated into one of the family strongholds of ancient Rome. Works of restoration were first carried out in the 18th century; the last excavations have taken place in the late 1990s, just before the Great Jubilee of 2000.

Decoration
The decoration of the arch heavily uses parts of older monuments, which are given a new meaning in the context of the Constantinian building. As it celebrates the victory of Constantine, the new "historic" friezes illustrating his campaign in Italy convey the central meaning: the praise of the emperor, both in battle and in his civilian duties. The other imagery supports this purpose: decoration taken from the "golden times" of the Empire under Trajan, Hadrian and Marcus Aurelius places Constantine next to these "good emperors", and the content of the pieces evokes images of the victorious and pious ruler. Another explanation given for the re-use is the short time between the start of construction (late 312 at the earliest) and the dedication (summer 315), so the architects used existing artwork to make up for the lack of time to create new one. As yet another possible reason, it has often been suggested that the Romans of the 4th century lacked the artistic skill to produce acceptable artwork and therefore plundered the ancient buildings to adorn their contemporary monuments. This interpretation has become less prominent in more recent times, as the art of Late Antiquity has been appreciated in its own right. It is, of course, possible that a combination of two or all three of those explanations are correct, as they are not mutually exclusive.

Attic
Above the middle archway, the main inscription (see below) takes the most prominent place of the attic. It is identical on both sides of the arch. Flanking the inscription on both sides, there are pairs of relief panels above the minor archways, 8 in total. They were taken from an unknown monument erected in honour of Marcus Aurelius, and show (north side, left to right) the emperor's return to Rome after the campaign (adventus), the emperor leaving the city and saluted by a personification of the Via Flaminia, the emperor distributing money among the people (largitio), the emperor interrogating a German prisoner, (south side, left to right) a captured enemy chieftain led before the emperor, a similar scene with other prisoners, the emperor speaking to the troops (adlocutio), and the emperor sacrificing pig, sheep and bull. Together with three panels now in the Capitoline Museum, the reliefs were probably taken from a triumphal monument commemorating Marcus Aurelius' war against the Sarmatians from 169 - 175, which ended with his triumphant return in 176. On the largitio panel, the figure of Marcus Aurelius' son Commodus has been eradicated after the latter's damnatio memoriae. On top of each of the columns stand marble statues of Dacian prisoners from the times of Trajan, probably taken from the Forum of Trajan. From the same time date the two large (3 m high) panels decorating the attic on the small sides of the arch, showing scenes from the emperor's Dacian Wars. Together with the two reliefs on the inside of the central archway, they came from a large frieze celebrating the Dacian victory. The original place of this frieze was either the Forum of Trajan, as well, or the barracks of the emperor's horse guard on the Caelius.

Main Section
The general layout of the main facade is identical on both sides of the arch. It is divided by four columns of Corinthian order made of Numidian yellow marble (giallo antico), one of which has been transferred into the Basilica di San Giovanni in Laterano and was replaced by a white marble column. The columns stand on bases showing victory figures on front, and captured barbarians and Roman soldiers on the sides. The spandrels of the main archway are decorated with reliefs depicting victory figures with trophies, those of the smaller archways show river gods. Column bases and spandrel reliefs are from the times of Constantine. Above each lateral archway are pairs of round reliefs dated to the times of emperor Hadrian. They display scenes of hunting and sacrificing: (north side, left to right) hunt of a boar, sacrifice to Apollo, hunt of a lion, sacrifice to Hercules, (south side, left to right) departure for the hunt, sacrifice to Silvanus, hunt of a bear, sacrifice to Diana. The head of the emperor (originally Hadrian) has been reworked in all medaillons: on the north side, into Constantine in the hunting scenes and into Licinius or Constantius I in the sacrifice scenes; on the south side, vice versa. The reliefs, c. 2 m in diameter, were framed in porphyry; this framing is only extant on the right side of the northern facade. Similar medaillons, this time of Constantinian origin, are placed on the small sides of the arch; on the eastern side, showing the Sun rising, and on the western side, the Moon, both on chariots. The main piece from the time of Constantine is the "historical" relief frieze running around the monument under the round panels, one strip above each lateral archway and at the small sides of the arch. These reliefs depict scenes from the Italian campaign of Constantine against Maxentius which was the reason for the construction of the monument. The frieze starts at the western side with the "Departure from Milan". It continues on the southern, "outward" looking face, with the siege of a city, probably Verona, which was of great importance to the war in Northern Italy; also on that face, the Battle of Milvian Bridge with Constantine's army victorious and the enemy drowning in the river Tiber. On the eastern side, Constantine and his army enter Rome; the artist here has avoided to use the imagery of the triumph, as Constantine probably did not want to be shown triumphant over the Eternal City. On the northern face, looking "towards" the city, two strips with the emperor's actions after taking possession of Rome: Constantine speaking to the citizens on the Forum Romanum, and distributing money to the people.

Inner Sides of the Archways
In the central archway, there is one of the large panels of Trajan's Dacian War on either wall. Inside the lateral archways, eight portraits busts (two on each wall), destroyed to such an extent that it is not possible to identify them any more.

Inscriptions
The main inscription reads:

IMP · CAES · FL · CONSTANTINO · MAXIMO · P · F · AVGUSTO · S · P · Q · R · QVOD · INSTINCTV · DIVINITATIS · MENTIS · MAGNITVDINE · CVM · EXERCITV · SVO · TAM · DE · TYRANNO · QVAM · DE · OMNI · EIVS · FACTIONE · VNO · TEMPORE · IVSTIS · REM-PUBLICAM · VLTVS · EST · ARMIS · ARCVM · TRIVMPHIS · INSIGNEM · DICAVIT

Which means in English:

To the Emperor Caesar Flavius Constantinus, the greatest, pious, and blessed Augustus: because he, inspired by the divine, and by the greatness of his mind, has delivered the state from the tyrant and all of his followers at the same time, with his army and just force of arms, the Senate and People of Rome have dedicated this arch, decorated with triumphs.

The words instinctu divinitatis ("inspired by the divine") have been much commented. They are usually read as sign of Constantine's shifting religious affiliation: The Christian tradition, most notably Lactantius and Eusebius of Caesarea, relate the story of a vision of the Christian god to Constantine during the campaign, and that he was victorious in the sign of the cross at the Milvian Bridge. The official documents (esp. coins) still prominently display the Sun God until 324 AD, while Constantine started to support the Christian church from 312 on. In this situation, the vague wording of the inscription can be seen as the attempt to please all possible readers, being deliberately ambiguous, and acceptable to both pagans and Christians. As was customary, the vanquished enemy is not mentioned by name, but only referred to as "the tyrant", drawing on the notion of the rightful killing of a tyrannical ruler; together with the image of the "just war", it serves as justification of Constantine's civil war against his co-emperor Maxentius.

Two short inscriptions on the inside of the central archway transport a similar message: Constantine came not as conqueror, but freed Rome from occupation:

LIBERATORI VRBIS (liberator of the city) - FUNDATORI QVIETIS (founder of peace)

Over each of the small archways, inscriptions read:

VOTIS X - VOTIS XX SIC X - SIC XX

They give a hint on the date of the arch: "Solemn vows for the 10th anniversary - for the 20th anniversary" and "as for the 10th, so for the 20th anniversary". Both refer to Constantine's decennalia, i.e. the 10th anniversary of his reign (counted from 306), which he celebrated in Rome in the summer of 315 AD. It can be assumed that the arch honouring his victory was inaugurated during his stay in the city.




John Schou
SALONINA-7.JPG
Juno Regina, the Queen of the Gods.242 viewsSalonina, wife of Gallienus. Augusta, 254-268 CE.
Silvered Æ antoninianus (21.1 mm), Uncertain Eastern mint, 260-268 CE.
Obv: SALONINA AVG, diademed & draped bust right on crescent.
Rev: IVNO REGINA, Juno standing left, holding patera and scepter, peacock at her feet.
RIC-92; Cohen-67.

Juno was the chief female divinity in the Roman pantheon. She was the wife of Jupiter and a member of the Capitoline Triad. She had many different aspects, such as Juno Moneta, Juno Sospita and Juno Lucina, but here she is depicted as Juno Regina, "Juno the Queen." Juno is usually shown hoding a patera, scepter or a statuette of Athena, and is often accompanied by a peacock.
EmpressCollector
Sabin.jpg
L. Titurius L.f. Sabinus147 viewsSABIN
Bare head of King Tatius right, bearded. Palm branch before

L TITVRI
Tarpeia facing, buried to her waist in shields, trying to ward off two soldiers who are about to cast their shields on her, star within crescent moon above

Rome, 89 BC

3.84g

Sear 251, RRC 344/2a

Ex-ANE from an old collection

Jet black toning.

One of the great legends of Rome commemorated on a coin. It tells the story of Rome being besieged by the Sabine king Titus Tatius after the "Rape" of the Sabine women. Tarpeia, daughter of the Roman commander Spurius Tarpeius, went out to the Sabine camp and offered them entry to the city in exchange for "what they bore on their left arms". She had meant their gold bracelets worn on their arms. Once inside the citadel the Sabines threw their shields—carried on the left arm—upon her, crushing her to death. Her body was then thrown from a steep cliff of the southern summit of the Capitoline Hill. The cliff was named the Tarpeian Rock after Tarpeia and would become the place of execution for Rome's most notorious traitors. King Tatius and Romulus soon were reconciled through the efforts of the abducted Sabine women who had come to love their Roman abductors. They jointly ruled over Rome for the next 5 years until Tatius death.
9 commentsJay GT4
lic_barb.jpg
Licinius I, AD 308-3246 viewsAE Follis, 18mm, 2.1g, 3h; unofficial but with Arles mint mark, c. AD 319.
Obv.: DN LICI-NIVS AVG;Laureate head right, cuirassed, with spear over left shoulder.
Rev.: IOVI CONSERVATORI AVG; Emperor holding thunderbolt and scepter, riding on eagle // TAR-L
Notes: Wholly barbarous in style. The engraver copied a coin with bust RIC VII G2 in the same orientation on the die as on the coin, rendering a horizontally-flipped version of G2. Notice that he also ran out of room in exergue for the mint mark and placed the L next to the end of the reverse legend. Ex-Rick Morton, Capitoline Collection, private sale, 9/15, wi.
John Anthony
Screen_Shot_2014-06-22_at_10_08_09_PM.png
Licinus Bronze Follis24 views68338. Bronze follis, RIC VII 8, aVF, 2.742g, 20.2mm, 180o, Siscia (Sisak, Croatia) mint, 313 - 315 A.D.;

obverse IMP LIC LICINIVS P F AVG, laureate head right;

reverse IOVI CON-SERVATORI, Jupiter standing left holding Victory on globe and scepter, eagle with wreath in beak left, "G" right, SIS in ex

Jupiter or Jove, Zeus to the Greeks, was the king of the gods and the god of sky and thunder, and of laws and social order. As the patron deity of ancient Rome, he was the chief god of the Capitoline Triad, with his sister and wife Juno. The father of Mars, he is therefore the grandfather of Romulus and Remus, the legendary founders of Rome.
Colby S
IMG_1215q.JPG
Marcus Aurelius159 viewsCapitoline museums

this statue survived because in Christian times Romans thought it's statue of Constantine I.
Johny SYSEL
imgonline-com-ua-twotoone-BjW4o5vFw4-Marcus_Aurelius_Caesar.jpg
Marcus Aurelius (Caesar) Coin: Brass Sestertius3 viewsAVRELIVS CAESAR AVG PII F - Head of Marcus Aurelius, bare, right
TR POT COS II S C - Minerva, helmeted, draped, standing, right, holding vertical spear in right hand and resting left hand on round shield set on ground.
Exergue:



Mint: Rome (145 AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 23.60g / 30.9mm / 360
References:
RIC III 1248 (Antoninus Pius)
Banti 299
Acquisition/Sale: erie-antiques eBay $0.00 03/18
Notes: Jun 13, 18 - The Gary R. Wilson Collection

The spot on the reverse looks like corrosion but once I received the coin, it is a hard piece of encrustation.
Minerva, equated with the Greek Athena, was the Roman virgin warrior goddess of poetry, medicine, wisdom, commerce, weaving, crafts, magic, and the inventor of music. She was worshiped on the Capitoline Hill as one of the Capitoline Triad along with Jupiter and Juno.
Gary W2
Marcus_Aurelius.jpg
Marcus Aurelius Equestrian statue162 viewsThis is the copy of the Equestrian statue of Marcus Aurelius on the Capitoline hill. The original is in the Capitoline Museum, this replica sits outside. It is said to have survived because it was mistakenly believed to be of Constantine the Great. Picture taken September 2008.2 commentsJay GT4
ANTVARVS.jpg
Mark Antony denarius100 viewsBare head of a bearded Mark Antony right

C VIBVS VARVS
Fortuna standing left holding Victory and cornucopiae

Rome 42 BC

3.25g

Rough but much better in hand!

Sear 1466, RRC 494/32

ex-Londinium

Fortuna holding Victory shows the confidence the Triumvirs had in defeating the Ruplicans, namely Brutus and Cassius. Varus also struck this type for Octavian. It is interesting to note that on the evidence of stylistic similarity it is possible that the die-engraver responsible for the triumviral portraits was later transferred from the Capitoline mint to Antony's military mint outside the city.

The fact that Antony is again shown bearded is in reference to his mourning for Caesar's death. Only after Caesar was avenged would Antony be shown as a typical clean shaven Roman.
4 commentsJay GT4
IMG_1289.JPG
Maximinus Thrax117 viewsCapitoline museumsJohny SYSEL
domitian_191.jpg
Minerva271 viewsDomitian 81 - 96
AR - Denar, 3.62g, 18mm
AD 95/96
obv. IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM PM TRP XV
laureate head r.
rev. IMP XXII COS XVII CENS P PP
Minerva standing r. on columna rostrata(!), brandishing
javelin and and holding shield; owl at her feet; below two
figures (Jupiter and worshipping figure, ref. to Curtis Clay)
RIC II, 191; C.293
EF
MINERVA, a war-goddess and also patron of wisdom and handicraft.
One of the 'Capitoline Triad', with Jupiter and Juno a grouping certainly of
Etruscian origin. Her bird is the owl, head covered with a helmet.
Jochen
nikopolis_julia_domna_AMNG1455.jpg
Moesia inferior, Nikopolis ad Istrum, 17. Julia Domna, HrHJ (2018) 8.17.15.01 (plate coin)35 viewsJulia Domna, died AD 217
AE 26, 10.90g, 26.48mm, 195°
struck under governor Aurelius Gallus
obv. IOVLIA DO - MNA CEBA
Bust, draped, r.; hair in seven horizontal waves and broad plate behind
rev. VPA AVR GALLOV - NIKOPOLITWN / PROC IC (OV ligate)
Aphrodite in attitude of the Capitoline Venus stg. facing: left beside her Eros, winged,
nude, stg. facing, head r., holding in lowered l. hand wreath and in r. hand torch
downwards
ref. a) AMNG I/1, 1455, pl. XV, 33 (1 ex., St.Petersburg)
b) Varbanov (engl.) 2900 (R7, one of the rarest Domna coins of Nikopolis! Varbanov cites AMNG 1455 but calls the attributes of Eros
bow and patera.)
c) Hristova/Hoeft/Jekov (2018) No. 8.17.15.1 (plate coin)
rare (R6), about VF, nice green patina

Pick: The A on the rev. always looks like a Lambda. So it could well read VP L AVR. Doubtlessly this depiction of Aphrodite shows the pic of a statue. Probably copies of these statue were located in Nikopolis too.
Jochen
nikopolis_plautilla_HrHJ(2015)8_21_15_1.jpg
Moesia inferior, Nikopolis ad Istrum, 21. Plautilla, HrHJ (2018) 8.21.15.018 viewsPlautilla, AD 202-205
AE 26, 13.34g, 26.16mm, 210°
struck under governor Aurelius Gallus
obv. FOVL.PLAV - TILLA CEBAC
Bust, draped, wearing stephane, r.
rev. VPA AVR GALLOV - NEIKOPOLIT PR. / OC IC
Aphrodite Pudica, nude, stg. frontal, covering her private parts with her hands
ref. a) not in AMNG
b) Varbanov (engl.) 3202
c) Hristova/Hoeft/Jekov (2018) No. 8.21.15.1 (same dies)
rare (R6), S+

The statue of Aphrodite Pudica goes back to the statue of Aphrodite of Knidos by Praxiteles, created 350-340 BC. This motive was then taken up by the Capitoline Venus.
Jochen
diocletian_ticinum_43a.jpg
Moneta219 viewsDiocletian 284 - 305
AE - AE 2, 10.5g, 25mm
Ticinum 2. officina, ca. 300- 303
obv. IMP C DIOCLETIANVS PF AVG
laureate head r.
rev. SACRA MONET AVGG - CAESS NOSTR
Moneta standing l., r. holding scales, r. cornucopiae
exergue: ST dot
RIC VI, Ticinum 43(a); C.436
VF

MONETA, appears first as a title of Juno. 344 BC a temple was dedicated to JUNO MONETA on the Capitoline hill. The origin of this name from lat. monere = warning is doubtful. Because the first Mint of Rome stands near this temple MONETA became the personification of the Mint itself. Her attributes are like those of Aequitas: Scales and a Cornucopiae.
SACRA MONETA means: Mint of the emperor(s).
1 commentsJochen
BILD1383.JPG
Morocco, Volubilis Capitol58 viewsTo the south of the basilica stands the capitol, a temple dedicated to the Roman Capitoline triad, Jupiter, Juno and Minerva. It is composed of a single cella reached by thirteen steps. Four other chapels complete the complex, of which one was dedicated to the goddess Venus. The temple was reconstructed in 218 C.E. by Macrinus, as is indicated by an inscription found in 1924. The temple’s porticos were restored in 1955. In 1962, restoration work started again; the stairs were restored (only three steps remained out of the original thirteen), and the walls of the cella as well as the architectural elements (column drums, bases and capitals) were restored. Franz-Josef M
imgonline-com-ua-twotoone-RdWwLNiFWFG8-Nero_As_Janus.jpg
Nero (Augustus) Coin: Bronze AS10 viewsNERO CAESAR AVG GERM IMP - Laureate head right
PACE P R VBIQ PARTA IANVM CLVSIT - Temple of Janus with latticed window to right and closed doors to left, S-C in exergue.
Exergue: SC


Mint: Rome (65 AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 10.93g / 28mm / 6h
Rarity: Rare (SC in exergue)
References:
RIC I 306, 309 var. (SC in exergue),
Sear 1974 var. (SC in exergue)
Cohen 164 var. (SC in exergue)
BMCRE p. 249, 232 var. (SC in exergue)
Cohen 163 var. (obv. legend)
Provenances:
ex Munzen und Medaillen Ag Basel 1981
Acquisition/Sale: tradinae Ebay

This is possibly a very rare specimen. This coin is unlisted in all of the major references. Only one other specimen has been found online. a March 3, 2008 auction from Jean Elsen & ses Fils S.A.

In RIC on p. 168, there is a footnote stating "309. A Vatican example has S C in ex."

The reverse of this type alludes to the closing of the doors of the Temple of Janus in 66, signifying that there was once again peace throughout the entire Roman world. This extremely rare state of affairs was made possible by the efforts of Nero's general, Gnaeus Domitius Corbulo. Corbulo's successful prosecution of the war in the east against the Parthians earned him the respect of the military and popularity among the people of Rome, but also the jealousy and fear of Nero who compelled him to take his own life.

Lettering: NERO CAESAR AVG GERM IMP

Translation:
Nero Caesar Aug (-ustus) Germ (-anicus) Imp (-erator):
"Nero Caesar, August, Victor of the Germans, Emperor".

PACE P R VBIQ PARTA IANVM CLVSIT
S/C

Translation:
Pace P (-opulo) R (-omano) Ubiq (-ue) Parta Janum Clusit:
"Peace of the Roman People being established everywhere, the Gates of the Temple of Janus are Closed".
S (-enatus) C (-onsulto):
"By Decree of the Senate".

From Wikipedia:
In ancient Rome, the main Temple of Janus stood in the Roman Forum near the Argiletum. It had doors on both ends, and inside was a statue of Janus, the two-faced god of boundaries. The Temple doors (the "Gates of Janus") were closed in times of peace and opened in times of war.

According to Livy 1.19 the second king of Rome, Numa Pompilius, decided to distract the early, warlike Romans from their violent ways by instilling in them awe and reverence. His projects included promoting religion, certain priesthoods, and the building of temples as a distraction with the beneficial effect of imbuing spirituality. The Temple of Janus was Numa's most famous temple project.

Coins sometimes are the only evidence that survives to illustrate lost Roman monuments, such as the Arcus Neronis, a
monument that probably did not long survive Nero’s downfall. Details of the date and the location of the arch are sketchy,
but the coinage provides an excellent understanding of its form, and, with some variety, we can appreciate the relief’s
decorative elements and statues that adorned it.
It is generally accepted that the arch celebrates the victories of the general Corbulo over the Parthians, and that it was built
on the Capitoline Hill sometime between 58 and 62. Its precise location has not been determined from ancient sources or
from archaeological investigation, though proximity to the Temple of Vejovis or the Temple of Jupiter Capitolinus have
both been suggested.
This coin was struck during one of the rare moments of peace within the Empire. Suetonius (Nero 15) describes the visit to
Rome of Tiridates, Rome’s candidate for the throne of the buffer-state Armenia after Corbulo’s victories over the
Parthians. Tiridates made a ceremonial supplication to Nero, was crowned king of his native land, after which, Suetonius
reports, “The people then hailed Nero as Imperator and, after dedicating a laurel-wreath in the Capitol, he closed the
double doors of the Temple of Janus, as a sign that all war was at an end.”

From CNG:

The temple of Janus, the Roman god of beginnings and endings, was one of Rome’s most ancient centers of worship. It was said that Romulus had built it after he made peace with the Sabines, and that it was king Numa who decreed that its doors should be opened during times of war and shut during times of peace. In all of Roman history until the reign of Nero, the temple doors had been shut perhaps five or six times – once under king Numa (who originated the tradition), once at the end of the Second Punic War, three times under Augustus, and, according to Ovid, once under Tiberius.

In 65 AD, when peace had been generally established in the Empire, Nero understandably requested the closing of the temple’s doors. He marked the event with great celebrations and commemorated it by issuing a large and impressive series of coins. The inscription on this issue announces “the doors of Janus have been close after peace has been procured for the Roman People on the land and on the sea." Despite Nero’s contentment with affairs on the empire’s borders, the year 65 AD was rife with domestic tragedy: much of Rome was still in ashes from the great fire of the previous year, Nero narrowly escaped death in the Pisonian conspiracy, and not long afterward he had kicked to death his pregnant wife Poppaea.

From the Dictionary of Roman Coins:
PACE. P.R. TERRA. MARIQ. PARTA. IANVM. CLVSIT. - The first and second brass medals of Nero, on which this interesting legend appears, represent in their type the temple of Janus shut - a circumstance limited to the very rare epochas of an universal peace. - It is only on his coins that Nero is recorded to have closed the sacred fane of old BIFRONS, after having procured peace for the Roman people by land and sea. But possibly the infatuation of that vain tyrant prompted him to boast of a peace which seems denied as a fact by some historians - and though the coinis themselves are common, it is uncertain to what year the reverse alludes. - On others we read Pace populi Romani ubique (instead of Terra Marique) parta Janum clusit. - It will be remarked that CLVSIT is here read for CLVSIT is here read for CLAVSIT. That "this was a mode of writing the word in Nero's time is proved (observes Eckhel), not only by these coins, but by the contemporaneous authority of Seneca, who in various passages of his work employs the term cludere for claudere." - See Janus.
According to Livy, the temple of Janus, which remained always open when Rome was at war, was shut only once, from the foundation of the city to the battle of Actium. Under Augustus it was closed three times; and one of the occasions was about the perion of our Blessed Saviour's Nativity, when as the writings of the Fathers attest, the whole world enjoyed peace.

From Roma:
Janus was a god unique to the Romans, for whom the ancient Greek pantheon (whence the greater part of the Roman religion was derived) had no equivalent. Janus was the god of gateways, beginnings and endings, transitions and duality, of war and peace. The structure commonly referred to as the Temple of Janus, but more correctly the Ianus Geminus, Ianus Quirinus or Portae Belli, was not a temple at all in the traditional sense. Built by the second king of Rome, Numa Pompilius, the doors of the Ianus Geminus were opened to indicate that Rome was at war and closed during times of peace. Since the time of Numa and before the time of Nero, the doors were said to have been closed only in 235 BC, after the first Punic war; and three times during the reign of Augustus.

The structure itself was probably originally conceived and executed in wood and other perishable materials, but contained an archaic bronze statue of the god which held in the one hand a key, denoting his role as the supreme gate-keeper in both spatial and temporal senses, and in the other a staff, signifying both his authority and role as a divine guide. Said to have been situated between the Forum Julium and the Forum Romanum, close to where the Argiletum entered the forum, it consisted of twin gates opposite each other; the cult statue was between them. No roof is indicated, and it may have been an open enclosure. While there is no literary evidence that the temple was destroyed or rebuilt, it must have been moved to make way for the construction of the Basilica Aemilia in 179 BC.

The Ianus Geminus as it existed from that time until the reign of Domitian, and as depicted on this and other coins struck by Nero, evidently had walls of ashlar masonry under a grated window set beneath a decorated frieze. Double doors of bronze and iron are reported by Virgil, and are shown framed by columns, with a wreath hanging overhead. Virgil, whose literary epic the Aeneid enshrined and embellished Roman traditions for eternal posterity, relates that "When the senators have irrevocably decided for battle, the consul himself, a figure conspicuous in Quirine toga of State and Gabine cincture, unbolts these gates, and their hinge-posts groan; it is he who calls the fighting forth" (Virgil, Aeneid, VII.601-615). Yet Virgil and his contemporaries Ovid and Horace disagreed on the meaning of the ritual closing of the gates. To Virgil, it was War that was being locked behind the twin gates; for Ovid and Horace, it was Peace that was kept within. Regardless, the symbolism of opening or closing the gates of the Ianus Geminus was powerful indeed; thus following the favourable end to a war with Parthia in 63 thanks to the efforts of the general Gnaeus Domitius Corbulo, and the general establishment of peace across Rome's borders by 65, Nero famously closed the doors to great fanfare in AD 66 as a sign that all war was at an end.
Gary W2
imgonline-com-ua-twotoone-Wl8EMMOmMrVX80Z7-Nero_sestertius_Janus.jpg
Nero (Augustus) Coin: Brass Sestertius10 viewsNERO CLAVD CAESAR AVG GER P M TR P IMP P P - Laureate head right
PACE P R TERRA MARIQ PARTA IANVM CLVSIT S-C - Temple of Janus with latticed windows & garland hung across doors; closed double doors on the right.
Exergue:



Mint: Rome (65AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 20.70g / 33.75mm / 180
Rarity: Common
References:
RIC 266
cf Sear 1959
BMC 161
WCN 139
Acquisition/Sale: erie-antiques Ebay

The reverse of this type alludes to the closing of the doors of the Temple of Janus in 66, signifying that there was once again peace throughout the entire Roman world. This extremely rare state of affairs was made possible by the efforts of Nero's general, Gnaeus Domitius Corbulo. Corbulo's successful prosecution of the war in the east against the Parthians earned him the respect of the military and popularity among the people of Rome, but also the jealousy and fear of Nero who compelled him to take his own life.

The reverse inscription translates: "Peace to the People of Rome both on land and sea having come, the doors of Janus he closed."

From Wikipedia:
In ancient Rome, the main Temple of Janus stood in the Roman Forum near the Argiletum. It had doors on both ends, and inside was a statue of Janus, the two-faced god of boundaries. The Temple doors (the "Gates of Janus") were closed in times of peace and opened in times of war.

According to Livy 1.19 the second king of Rome, Numa Pompilius, decided to distract the early, warlike Romans from their violent ways by instilling in them awe and reverence. His projects included promoting religion, certain priesthoods, and the building of temples as a distraction with the beneficial effect of imbuing spirituality. The Temple of Janus was Numa's most famous temple project.

Coins sometimes are the only evidence that survives to illustrate lost Roman monuments, such as the Arcus Neronis, a
monument that probably did not long survive Nero’s downfall. Details of the date and the location of the arch are sketchy,
but the coinage provides an excellent understanding of its form, and, with some variety, we can appreciate the relief’s
decorative elements and statues that adorned it.
It is generally accepted that the arch celebrates the victories of the general Corbulo over the Parthians, and that it was built
on the Capitoline Hill sometime between 58 and 62. Its precise location has not been determined from ancient sources or
from archaeological investigation, though proximity to the Temple of Vejovis or the Temple of Jupiter Capitolinus have
both been suggested.
This coin was struck during one of the rare moments of peace within the Empire. Suetonius (Nero 15) describes the visit to
Rome of Tiridates, Rome’s candidate for the throne of the buffer-state Armenia after Corbulo’s victories over the
Parthians. Tiridates made a ceremonial supplication to Nero, was crowned king of his native land, after which, Suetonius
reports, “The people then hailed Nero as Imperator and, after dedicating a laurel-wreath in the Capitol, he closed the
double doors of the Temple of Janus, as a sign that all war was at an end.”

From CNG:

The temple of Janus, the Roman god of beginnings and endings, was one of Rome’s most ancient centers of worship. It was said that Romulus had built it after he made peace with the Sabines, and that it was king Numa who decreed that its doors should be opened during times of war and shut during times of peace. In all of Roman history until the reign of Nero, the temple doors had been shut perhaps five or six times – once under king Numa (who originated the tradition), once at the end of the Second Punic War, three times under Augustus, and, according to Ovid, once under Tiberius.

In 65 AD, when peace had been generally established in the Empire, Nero understandably requested the closing of the temple’s doors. He marked the event with great celebrations and commemorated it by issuing a large and impressive series of coins. The inscription on this issue announces “the doors of Janus have been close after peace has been procured for the Roman People on the land and on the sea." Despite Nero’s contentment with affairs on the empire’s borders, the year 65 AD was rife with domestic tragedy: much of Rome was still in ashes from the great fire of the previous year, Nero narrowly escaped death in the Pisonian conspiracy, and not long afterward he had kicked to death his pregnant wife Poppaea.

From the Dictionary of Roman Coins:
PACE. P.R. TERRA. MARIQ. PARTA. IANVM. CLVSIT. - The first and second brass medals of Nero, on which this interesting legend appears, represent in their type the temple of Janus shut - a circumstance limited to the very rare epochas of an universal peace. - It is only on his coins that Nero is recorded to have closed the sacred fane of old BIFRONS, after having procured peace for the Roman people by land and sea. But possibly the infatuation of that vain tyrant prompted him to boast of a peace which seems denied as a fact by some historians - and though the coinis themselves are common, it is uncertain to what year the reverse alludes. - On others we read Pace populi Romani ubique (instead of Terra Marique) parta Janum clusit. - It will be remarked that CLVSIT is here read for CLVSIT is here read for CLAVSIT. That "this was a mode of writing the word in Nero's time is proved (observes Eckhel), not only by these coins, but by the contemporaneous authority of Seneca, who in various passages of his work employs the term cludere for claudere." - See Janus.
According to Livy, the temple of Janus, which remained always open when Rome was at war, was shut only once, from the foundation of the city to the battle of Actium. Under Augustus it was closed three times; and one of the occasions was about the perion of our Blessed Saviour's Nativity, when as the writings of the Fathers attest, the whole world enjoyed peace.

From Roma:
Janus was a god unique to the Romans, for whom the ancient Greek pantheon (whence the greater part of the Roman religion was derived) had no equivalent. Janus was the god of gateways, beginnings and endings, transitions and duality, of war and peace. The structure commonly referred to as the Temple of Janus, but more correctly the Ianus Geminus, Ianus Quirinus or Portae Belli, was not a temple at all in the traditional sense. Built by the second king of Rome, Numa Pompilius, the doors of the Ianus Geminus were opened to indicate that Rome was at war and closed during times of peace. Since the time of Numa and before the time of Nero, the doors were said to have been closed only in 235 BC, after the first Punic war; and three times during the reign of Augustus.

The structure itself was probably originally conceived and executed in wood and other perishable materials, but contained an archaic bronze statue of the god which held in the one hand a key, denoting his role as the supreme gate-keeper in both spatial and temporal senses, and in the other a staff, signifying both his authority and role as a divine guide. Said to have been situated between the Forum Julium and the Forum Romanum, close to where the Argiletum entered the forum, it consisted of twin gates opposite each other; the cult statue was between them. No roof is indicated, and it may have been an open enclosure. While there is no literary evidence that the temple was destroyed or rebuilt, it must have been moved to make way for the construction of the Basilica Aemilia in 179 BC.

The Ianus Geminus as it existed from that time until the reign of Domitian, and as depicted on this and other coins struck by Nero, evidently had walls of ashlar masonry under a grated window set beneath a decorated frieze. Double doors of bronze and iron are reported by Virgil, and are shown framed by columns, with a wreath hanging overhead. Virgil, whose literary epic the Aeneid enshrined and embellished Roman traditions for eternal posterity, relates that "When the senators have irrevocably decided for battle, the consul himself, a figure conspicuous in Quirine toga of State and Gabine cincture, unbolts these gates, and their hinge-posts groan; it is he who calls the fighting forth" (Virgil, Aeneid, VII.601-615). Yet Virgil and his contemporaries Ovid and Horace disagreed on the meaning of the ritual closing of the gates. To Virgil, it was War that was being locked behind the twin gates; for Ovid and Horace, it was Peace that was kept within. Regardless, the symbolism of opening or closing the gates of the Ianus Geminus was powerful indeed; thus following the favourable end to a war with Parthia in 63 thanks to the efforts of the general Gnaeus Domitius Corbulo, and the general establishment of peace across Rome's borders by 65, Nero famously closed the doors to great fanfare in AD 66 as a sign that all war was at an end.
Gary W2
Nero__AD_54-68__Æ_Sestertius_(35_4mm,_25_29_g,_6h)__Rome_mint__Struck_circa_AD_64___302.jpg
Nero (Augustus) Coin: Brass Sestertius 12 viewsNERO CLAVD CAESAR AVG GER P M TR P IMP P P - Laureate head left
SC - S C: View of triumphal arch, showing front and left hand side; above, the Emperor in a quadriga escorted by Victory; arch is heavily ornamented and decorated with statues of Pax, Mars and two soldiers
Exergue:



Mint: Rome (circa 64 AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 25.29g / 35.4mm / 6h
Rarity: Common
References:
RIC I 144
WCN 134
Provenances:
From the collection of a Texas Wine Doctor.
purchased from Paul Rynearson, 30 September 1991
Classical Numismatic Group, Inc.
Acquisition/Sale: CNG Internet 427 #430

From Forvm:
The "Lost Arch of Nero" was decreed by the Senate in 58 A.D. to commemorate the eastern victory of Cn. Domitius Corduba. It was located on Capitoline Hill. It was demolished shortly after Nero's downfall. No trace remains today.

From CNG:
This monumental triumphal arch was erected by Nero to commemorate Roman military campaigns against the Parthians in Mesopotamia and Armenia. Although not particularly successful in a military sense, with Paetus losing almost his entire army at Randeia in Armenia, the war did end with a peace treaty favorable to Rome that was upheld for nearly fifty years. This coin type is vitally important for architectural historians, for the arch was dismantled after Nero's ignominious end in 68 AD, and is only known through its depiction on the coins.
Gary W2
imgonline-com-ua-twotoone-RdWwLNiFWFG8-Nero_As_Janus~0.jpg
Nero (Augustus) Coin: Bronze AS14 viewsNERO CAESAR AVG GERM IMP - Laureate head right
PACE P R VBIQ PARTA IANVM CLVSIT - Temple of Janus with latticed window to right and closed doors to left, S-C in exergue.
Exergue: SC


Mint: Rome (65 AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 10.93g / 28mm / 6h
Rarity: Rare (SC in exergue)
References:
RIC I 306, 309 var. (SC in exergue),
Sear 1974 var. (SC in exergue)
Cohen 164 var. (SC in exergue)
BMCRE p. 249, 232 var. (SC in exergue)
Cohen 163 var. (obv. legend)
Provenances:
ex Munzen und Medaillen Ag Basel 1981
Acquisition/Sale: tradinae Ebay

This is possibly a very rare specimen. This coin is unlisted in all of the major references. Only one other specimen has been found online. a March 3, 2008 auction from Jean Elsen & ses Fils S.A.

In RIC on p. 168, there is a footnote stating "309. A Vatican example has S C in ex."

The reverse of this type alludes to the closing of the doors of the Temple of Janus in 66, signifying that there was once again peace throughout the entire Roman world. This extremely rare state of affairs was made possible by the efforts of Nero's general, Gnaeus Domitius Corbulo. Corbulo's successful prosecution of the war in the east against the Parthians earned him the respect of the military and popularity among the people of Rome, but also the jealousy and fear of Nero who compelled him to take his own life.

Lettering: NERO CAESAR AVG GERM IMP

Translation:
Nero Caesar Aug (-ustus) Germ (-anicus) Imp (-erator):
"Nero Caesar, August, Victor of the Germans, Emperor".

PACE P R VBIQ PARTA IANVM CLVSIT
S/C

Translation:
Pace P (-opulo) R (-omano) Ubiq (-ue) Parta Janum Clusit:
"Peace of the Roman People being established everywhere, the Gates of the Temple of Janus are Closed".
S (-enatus) C (-onsulto):
"By Decree of the Senate".

From Wikipedia:
In ancient Rome, the main Temple of Janus stood in the Roman Forum near the Argiletum. It had doors on both ends, and inside was a statue of Janus, the two-faced god of boundaries. The Temple doors (the "Gates of Janus") were closed in times of peace and opened in times of war.

According to Livy 1.19 the second king of Rome, Numa Pompilius, decided to distract the early, warlike Romans from their violent ways by instilling in them awe and reverence. His projects included promoting religion, certain priesthoods, and the building of temples as a distraction with the beneficial effect of imbuing spirituality. The Temple of Janus was Numa's most famous temple project.

Coins sometimes are the only evidence that survives to illustrate lost Roman monuments, such as the Arcus Neronis, a
monument that probably did not long survive Nero’s downfall. Details of the date and the location of the arch are sketchy,
but the coinage provides an excellent understanding of its form, and, with some variety, we can appreciate the relief’s
decorative elements and statues that adorned it.
It is generally accepted that the arch celebrates the victories of the general Corbulo over the Parthians, and that it was built
on the Capitoline Hill sometime between 58 and 62. Its precise location has not been determined from ancient sources or
from archaeological investigation, though proximity to the Temple of Vejovis or the Temple of Jupiter Capitolinus have
both been suggested.
This coin was struck during one of the rare moments of peace within the Empire. Suetonius (Nero 15) describes the visit to
Rome of Tiridates, Rome’s candidate for the throne of the buffer-state Armenia after Corbulo’s victories over the
Parthians. Tiridates made a ceremonial supplication to Nero, was crowned king of his native land, after which, Suetonius
reports, “The people then hailed Nero as Imperator and, after dedicating a laurel-wreath in the Capitol, he closed the
double doors of the Temple of Janus, as a sign that all war was at an end.”

From CNG:

The temple of Janus, the Roman god of beginnings and endings, was one of Rome’s most ancient centers of worship. It was said that Romulus had built it after he made peace with the Sabines, and that it was king Numa who decreed that its doors should be opened during times of war and shut during times of peace. In all of Roman history until the reign of Nero, the temple doors had been shut perhaps five or six times – once under king Numa (who originated the tradition), once at the end of the Second Punic War, three times under Augustus, and, according to Ovid, once under Tiberius.

In 65 AD, when peace had been generally established in the Empire, Nero understandably requested the closing of the temple’s doors. He marked the event with great celebrations and commemorated it by issuing a large and impressive series of coins. The inscription on this issue announces “the doors of Janus have been close after peace has been procured for the Roman People on the land and on the sea." Despite Nero’s contentment with affairs on the empire’s borders, the year 65 AD was rife with domestic tragedy: much of Rome was still in ashes from the great fire of the previous year, Nero narrowly escaped death in the Pisonian conspiracy, and not long afterward he had kicked to death his pregnant wife Poppaea.

From the Dictionary of Roman Coins:
PACE. P.R. TERRA. MARIQ. PARTA. IANVM. CLVSIT. - The first and second brass medals of Nero, on which this interesting legend appears, represent in their type the temple of Janus shut - a circumstance limited to the very rare epochas of an universal peace. - It is only on his coins that Nero is recorded to have closed the sacred fane of old BIFRONS, after having procured peace for the Roman people by land and sea. But possibly the infatuation of that vain tyrant prompted him to boast of a peace which seems denied as a fact by some historians - and though the coinis themselves are common, it is uncertain to what year the reverse alludes. - On others we read Pace populi Romani ubique (instead of Terra Marique) parta Janum clusit. - It will be remarked that CLVSIT is here read for CLVSIT is here read for CLAVSIT. That "this was a mode of writing the word in Nero's time is proved (observes Eckhel), not only by these coins, but by the contemporaneous authority of Seneca, who in various passages of his work employs the term cludere for claudere." - See Janus.
According to Livy, the temple of Janus, which remained always open when Rome was at war, was shut only once, from the foundation of the city to the battle of Actium. Under Augustus it was closed three times; and one of the occasions was about the perion of our Blessed Saviour's Nativity, when as the writings of the Fathers attest, the whole world enjoyed peace.

From Roma:
Janus was a god unique to the Romans, for whom the ancient Greek pantheon (whence the greater part of the Roman religion was derived) had no equivalent. Janus was the god of gateways, beginnings and endings, transitions and duality, of war and peace. The structure commonly referred to as the Temple of Janus, but more correctly the Ianus Geminus, Ianus Quirinus or Portae Belli, was not a temple at all in the traditional sense. Built by the second king of Rome, Numa Pompilius, the doors of the Ianus Geminus were opened to indicate that Rome was at war and closed during times of peace. Since the time of Numa and before the time of Nero, the doors were said to have been closed only in 235 BC, after the first Punic war; and three times during the reign of Augustus.

The structure itself was probably originally conceived and executed in wood and other perishable materials, but contained an archaic bronze statue of the god which held in the one hand a key, denoting his role as the supreme gate-keeper in both spatial and temporal senses, and in the other a staff, signifying both his authority and role as a divine guide. Said to have been situated between the Forum Julium and the Forum Romanum, close to where the Argiletum entered the forum, it consisted of twin gates opposite each other; the cult statue was between them. No roof is indicated, and it may have been an open enclosure. While there is no literary evidence that the temple was destroyed or rebuilt, it must have been moved to make way for the construction of the Basilica Aemilia in 179 BC.

The Ianus Geminus as it existed from that time until the reign of Domitian, and as depicted on this and other coins struck by Nero, evidently had walls of ashlar masonry under a grated window set beneath a decorated frieze. Double doors of bronze and iron are reported by Virgil, and are shown framed by columns, with a wreath hanging overhead. Virgil, whose literary epic the Aeneid enshrined and embellished Roman traditions for eternal posterity, relates that "When the senators have irrevocably decided for battle, the consul himself, a figure conspicuous in Quirine toga of State and Gabine cincture, unbolts these gates, and their hinge-posts groan; it is he who calls the fighting forth" (Virgil, Aeneid, VII.601-615). Yet Virgil and his contemporaries Ovid and Horace disagreed on the meaning of the ritual closing of the gates. To Virgil, it was War that was being locked behind the twin gates; for Ovid and Horace, it was Peace that was kept within. Regardless, the symbolism of opening or closing the gates of the Ianus Geminus was powerful indeed; thus following the favourable end to a war with Parthia in 63 thanks to the efforts of the general Gnaeus Domitius Corbulo, and the general establishment of peace across Rome's borders by 65, Nero famously closed the doors to great fanfare in AD 66 as a sign that all war was at an end.
Gary W2
The_Lost_Arch_of_Nero_Ori_,_Sestertius.jpg
Nero Historical Ori., Sestertius - The Lost Arch - 172 viewsThe Lost Arch of Nero. This arch is undoubtedly the one that Tacitus says was voted to Nero for Corbulo's victory in Armenia in 58, and that he further reports was being constructed "in the middle of the Capitoline Hill" in 62, despite a successful invasion of Armenia by the Parthians in that year. No traces of the arch have ever been found. The arch was completely destroyed either shortly after Nero's death with the damnatio memoriae Nero received when the senate proclaimed him an enemy of the state, or in one of the two fires that consumed the Capitoline hill in 69 and 80

Orichalcum Sestertius, RIC I 392, BMCRE I 329, BnF II 77, Cohen I 307, Mac Dowall WCN 410, Choice gVF, superb portrait, excellent detail in arch ornamentation, 25.245g, 34.8mm, 180o, Lugdunum (Lyon, France) mint, c. 65 A.D.; obverse NERO CLAVD CAESAR AVG GER PM TR P IMP P P, laureate head right, globe at point of bust; reverse triumphal arch; surmounted by statue of Nero in a facing quadriga, led by Pax on left and Victory on right, and flanked below by two soldiers; front ornamented with statue of Mars in a niche and bas-reliefs of small figures; garland hanging in arch;



***With my sincere thank and appreciation , Photo and Description courtesy of FORVM Ancient Coins Staff.

From The Sam Mansourati Collection.
7 commentsSam
nerose04-3.jpg
Nero, RIC 143, Sestertius of AD 64-66 (Triumphal arch) 82 viewsÆ Sestertius (24.3g, Ø35mm, 6h), Rome mint, struck AD 64-66.
Obv.: NERO CLAVD CAESAR AVG GER P M TR P IMP P P, laureate head of Nero facing right with aegis.
Rev.: S C (in field), Triumphal arch is surmounted by a quadriga facing with Pax, standing on the left, and winged Victory, on the right. At the angles of the entablature are soldiers. The front piers of the arch are decorated with sculptures in three tiers of panels; in the niche on the left is a statue of Mars.
RIC 143; Sear 2000 (RCV) 1962var.; Foss (RHC) 67:14

Nero erected a triumphal arch on the Capitoline Hill while the Parthian war was in progress in Armenia, with Corbulo capturing the Armenian capital Artaxata in AD 58. The arch was rededicated or completely dismantled after Nero's death in AD 68, and this monument is only known from coins.
2 commentsCharles S
nerose02-3.jpg
Nero, RIC 144, Sestertius of AD 64-66 (Triumphal arch)64 viewsÆ Sestertius (24.9g, Ø35mm, 6h), Rome mint, struck AD 64-66.
Obv.: NERO CLAVD CAESAR AVG GER P M TR P IMP P P, laureate head of Nero facing left.
Rev.: S C (in field), Triumphal arch, surmounted by a quadriga facing with Pax, standing on the left, and winged Victory, on the right. At the angles of the entablature are soldiers. The front piers of the arch are decorated with sculptures in three tiers of panels; in the niche on the left is a statue of Mars.
RIC 144; Cohen 306; Sear 2000 (RCV) 1962var.; Foss (RHC) 67:14

Nero erected a triumphal arch on the Capitoline Hill while the Parthian war was in progress in Armenia, with Corbulo capturing the Armenian capital Artaxata in AD 58. The arch was rededicated or completely dismantled after Nero's death in AD 68, and this monument is only known from coins.
1 commentsCharles S
nerose22d.jpg
Nero, RIC 147, Sestertius of AD 64 (Triumphal arch)62 viewsÆ Sestertius (27.30g, Ø33mm, 6h), Rome mint, struck AD 64.
Obv.: NERO CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG GER P M TR P IMP P P, laureate head of Nero facing right with aegis.
Rev.: S C (in field), Triumphal arch is surmounted by a quadriga facing with, standing on the left, Pax and on the right, winged Victory. At the angles of the entablature are soldiers. The front piers of the arch are decorated with sculptures in three tiers of panels; in the niche on the left is a statue of Mars.
RIC 147; Cohen 308; BMC 185; Sear 2000 (RCV) 1962var.; Foss (RHC) 67:14

Nero erected a triumphal arch on the Capitoline Hill while the Parthian war was in progress in Mesopotamia and Armenia, with Corbulo capturing the Armenian capital Artaxata in AD 58. The arch was rededicated or completely dismantled after Nero's death in AD 68, and this monument is only known from coins.
3 commentsCharles S
1797_Agora_Sale_90,_Sept_3,_2019,_#2.jpg
parium003a1 viewsElagabalus
Parium, Mysia

Obv: ANTONINVS PIVS FEL AV, laureate draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from rear.
Rev: C G I H P , Capitoline she-wolf right, looking back at twins, Romulus and Remus suckling.
22 mm, 6.46 gms

RPC Online 3864; CNG EA 387, 30 Nov. 2016, lot 300; ); Gerhard Hirsch Nachfolger, Auction 332, lot 2574 , 20.09.2017; Agora E-Sale 90, Lot 034 (this coin)
Charles M
temp.jpg
Petillius Capitolinus (43 B.C.)75 viewsAR Denarius
O: CAPITOLINVS, Bare head of bearded Jupiter right.
R: PETILLIVS, The Capitoline Temple of Jupiter: richly decorated hexastyle façade with ornamented pediment and garlands hanging within three openings; [PE]TILLIVS in exergue.
Rome
3.5g
20mm
Crawford 487/1, Sydenham 1149
3 commentsMat
Petillius_Capitolinus_Temple_of_Jupitor.JPG
Petillius Capitolinus Temple of Jupitor29 viewsPetillius Capitolinus, Silver denarius, September-December 43 BC, 3.66 g, 3h, Crawford 487/2b, CRI 174a, Sydenham 1151, Kestner 3710, BMCRR Rome 4222-3, Petillia 3,
OBV: PETILLIVS CAPITOLINVS, Eagle with wings spread, standing facing on thunderbolt, head right
REV: Temple of Jupiter Capitolinus, richly decorated hexastyle temple with three garlands hanging between columns; S F across field

The reverse depicts the temple of Jupiter, Best and Greatest, on the Capitoline Hill
at Rome. The original temple, one of the earliest founded in Rome, was destroyed by
fire, but was rebuilt and dedicated in 69 BC. Judging from other issues which contain
the letters 'S F' (for sacris faciundis) it is likely that this moneyer or his
relatives were custodians of the temple.

SCARCE
Romanorvm
petillius_Crawford487.2b.jpg
Petillius Capitolinus, Crawford 487/2b166 viewsPetillius Capitolinus, gens Petillia
AR - denarius, 18.1mm, 3.82g
Rome, 43 BC
obv. Eagle with spread wings, stg. half-right on thunderbolt
above PETILLIVS, beneath CAPITOLINVS
rev. Hexastyle temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus with three-stepped base;
garlandes hanging down in the three middle intercolumnaries, on the
pediment frontal seated figur(?), on acroteries horse-protomes, above figures
stg. with sceptres, on top biga r. with charioteer.
S - F at sides
Crawford 487/2b; Sydenham 1151; Petillia 3
about VF
From Forum Ancient Coins, thanks!

SF stands for Sacris Faciundis and should say that Petillius Capitolinus was member of the XV viri sacris faciundis responsible for the religious ceremonies. Jupiter Optimus Maximus was the highest god in Rome, one of the Roman Triad. His temple stood on the Capitoline Hill.
For more information please look at the thread 'Mythological interesting coins'!
Jochen
vespasian.jpg
Portrait of Vespasian439 viewsDigital paint of a sculpture, Capitoline Museum, Palazzo Nuovo, Rome. Photo from a series done in the early 1900s by the Alinari brothers.
ALINARI: Photographic documentation of art and architecture in Italy compiled by Alinari in the 19th and early 20th centuries.
4 commentsScotvs Capitis
IMG_1290.JPG
Probus228 viewsCapitoline museumsJohny SYSEL
she_wolf.JPG
Remus and Romulus with the she-wolf540 viewsThe symbol of Rome this is an Etruscan bronze currently on display at the Musei Capitolini in Rome.Titus Pullo
RIC_515_Titus.jpg
RIC 0515 Titus96 viewsObv: IMP TITVS CAES VESPASIAN AVG P M, Laureate head of Titus, right
Rev : CA-PIT (across field) RESTIT (in exergue), Temple of Capitoline Jupiter with 4 columns enclosing figures of Juno, seated Jupiter and Minerva
AR/Cistophorus (26.81 mm 10.174 g 6h) Struck in Rome for circulation in Asia Minor 80-81 A.D.
RIC 515 (R), RSC-BMCRE-BNF unlisted, RPC II 860
Numismatik Naumann Auction 78 Lot 735
2 commentsFlaviusDomitianus
Domitian_RIC_661.jpg
RIC 066147 viewsAR Denarius (19mm, 2.88g, 5h). Rome mint, struck c. Sept 16, 88 - c. Sept 15, 89 (Second Issue).
IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM P M TR P VIII, head laureate right; IMP XVII COS XIIII CENS P P P, Capitoline Minerva cult statue standing left, with spear (M4).
RIC 661 (R), BMC 150, RSC 244.
Purchase from James Hazelton



All the coins in this issue are rare to very rare. Included are denarii with a very rare obverse legend variation. Though the coin is quite worn I still like it very much. One of the reasons I like this coin concerns the imperial titles. Due to increased military activity along the Danube imperial titles were being awarded very rapidly. According to RIC possible dates for coins of the issue span between November 3 and December 10 of 88 CE-just 38 days. The acclamation IMP XVII is known as of November 7th from a document. The previous imperial acclamation IMP XVI was perhaps operable for a much narrower time period, perhaps as few as 4 days. IMP XVII was perhaps only held for 9 days before the following Imperial acclamation. As one can see, the titles were changing very rapidly. This has led to a scarcity of many of the coins from this time period.

One cannot divorce the dating of these coins from the surrounding history. These are not some random dates they correspond to real world events such as the battles along the Danube in 88 CE. The history of these coins is a major motivating factor in my collecting of these coins. Though it is unlikely we will know specifically what happened during these months of 88, coins such as this one offer tantalizing clues.
1 commentsorfew
RIC_817_Vespasianus.jpg
RIC 0817 Vespasianus136 viewsObv: IMP CAES VESPASIAN AVG P M T P P P COS VI, Laureate head right
Rev: S C (in exergue), The temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus: Hexastyle temple within which, statue of Jupiter seated facing flanked by statues of Juno and Minerva standing facing; on either side of the temple, a statue. The pediment is decorated with statues of the Capitoline Triad and other figures; roof surmounted by quadriga on top, and eagles on either side.
AE/Sestertius (33.19 mm 24.39 gr 6h) Struck in Rome 75 A.D.
RIC 817 (R3, same obverse die), BMCRE-BNF unisted
ex N.A.C. Auction 100 part 2 lot 1810
8 commentsFlaviusDomitianus
DomitianCistophorus.jpg
RIC 0841 Domitian Cistophorus133 viewsIMP CAES DOMITIAN AVG P M COS VIII
laureate head of Domitian to right

CA PIT across field, RESTIT in exergue
tetrastyle temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus Capitolinus, containing statues of the Capitoline Triad, Jupiter seated left between standing figures of Juno and Minerva

Ephesus or more likely Rome for circulation in the East
A.D. 82

Rare
10.83g

RIC 841 (C), S.2715, BMC 251, RSC 23, RPC 864

From the MS collection
Ex-G&M auction 147 lot 1813 March 2006
Ex-Calgary Coin
4 commentsJay GT4
RIC_841_Domitianus.jpg
RIC 0841 Domitianus46 viewsObv : IMP CAES DOMITIAN AVG P M COS VIII, Laureate head right
Rev : CAPIT (across field) RESTIT (in exergue), Temple of Capitoline Jupiter with 4 columns enclosing figures of Juno, seated Jupiter and Minerva
AR/Cistophorus (25.02 mm 10.596 g 6h) Struck in Rome for circulation in Asia Minor 82 A.D.
RIC 841 (C), RSC 23, BMCRE 251, BNF 221, RPC II 864
ex CNG Electronic Auction 125 lot 227
4 commentsFlaviusDomitianus
RIC_842_Domitianus.jpg
RIC 0842 Domitianus91 viewsObv: IMP CAESAR DOMITIANVS AVG, Laureate head of Domitian, right
Rev : CA-PIT (across field) RESTIT (in exergue), Temple of Capitoline Jupiter with 4 columns enclosing figures of Juno, seated Jupiter and Minerva
AR/Cistophorus (27.56 mm 11.122 g 7h) Struck in Rome for circulation in Asia Minor 82 A.D.
RIC 842 (R), RSC-BMCRE-BNF unlisted, RPC II 867
ex Numismatik Naumann GmbH Auction 70 Lot 462
8 commentsFlaviusDomitianus
RIC_V_1293_Domitianus.jpg
RIC 1293 Domitianus37 viewsObv: CAESAR AVG F DOMITIANVS COS V, Laureate head right.
Rev: S C (in field), Temple of Capitoline Jupiter with six columns, enclosing statues of Jupiter, Juno and Minerva.
AE/As (27.78 mm 9.97 g 6h) Struck in Lugdunum 77-78 AD
RIC 1293 (R2, Vespasian), BMCRE 877 (Vespasian) apparently same dies
2 commentsFlaviusDomitianus
eagdom.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Domitian, Denarius122 viewsSilver denarius, 19mm, 3.5g, 82-83A.D., Carradice 82-83a, RIC 40, BMC 52, RSC 320, same obverse die as Tkalec 2002 lot 148
IMP CAES DOMITIANVS AVG P M, laur. head r.
IVPPITER CONSERVATOR, eagle standing right, head left, on thunderbolt.

This reverse type commemorates the events during the civil war of 69 A.D. Upon the arrival of the flavian troops in Italy, Sabinus (the elder brother of Vespasian) was forced to seek refuge in the Capitoline fortress (the sanctuary of Jupiter). He also brought in Domitian, his nephew. Eventually the fortress was set on fire and Sabinus captured and executed. Domitian managed to escape and found shelter at one of his father's clients. Later in that place he built a temple for Jupiter Conservator (= the Protector). Source: Tacitus, Histories, the 3rd book, section LXXIV : "Domitianus.....ac potiente rerum patre, disiecto aeditui contubernio, modicum sacellum Iovi Conservatori aramque posuit casus suos in marmore expressam).
2 commentsFORVM AUCTIONS
Philip_I__A_D__244-249__AR_antoninianus__Rome_mint,_A_D__248.jpg
Ruler: Philip I (Augustus) Coin: Silver Antoninianus 26 viewsIMP PHILIPPVS AVG - Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right.
SAECVLARES AVGG - Lion walking right; I (officina 1) in exergue.
Exergue: I


Mint: Rome (248 AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 3.45g / 24.4mm / 7h
References:
RIC IV 12
RSC 173
Provenances:
From the D. Thomas Collection.
Agora Auctions
Acquisition/Sale: Agora Auctions Internet 85 #120 $0.00 05/19
Notes: May 5, 19 - The Gary R. Wilson Collection

Secular Games Issue.

From CNG: Continuing the tradition of Claudius and Antoninus Pius before him, the celebration of the Secular Games at the end of every century since the founding of Rome culminated during the reign of Philip I, as the city celebrated her 1,000th anniversary in AD 248. The legends on these issues almost exclusively read SAECVLARES AVGG, and feature a similar iconography from previous games, such as the she-wolf suckling the twins, the various wild beasts paraded through the amphitheater, and a cippus inscribed for the preservation of the memory of these events.

From Wikipedia: The Saecular Games (Latin: Ludi saeculares, originally Ludi Terentini) was a Roman religious celebration involving sacrifices and theatrical performances, held in ancient Rome for three days and nights to mark the end of a saeculum and the beginning of the next. A saeculum, supposedly the longest possible length of human life, was considered as either 100 or 110 years in length.

According to Roman mythology, the Secular Games began when a Sabine man called Valesius prayed for a cure for his children's illness and was supernaturally instructed to sacrifice on the Campus Martius to Dis Pater and Proserpina, deities of the underworld. Some ancient authors traced official celebrations of the Games as far back as 509 BC, but the only clearly attested celebrations under the Roman Republic took place in 249 and in the 140s BC. They involved sacrifices to the underworld gods over three consecutive nights.

The Games were revived in 17 BC by Rome's first emperor Augustus, with the nocturnal sacrifices on the Campus Martius now transferred to the Moerae (fates), the Ilythiae (goddesses of childbirth), and Terra Mater ("Mother Earth"). The Games of 17 BC also introduced day-time sacrifices to Roman deities on the Capitoline and Palatine hills. Certain sacrifices were unusually specified to be performed by married women. Each sacrifice was followed by theatrical performances. Later emperors held celebrations in AD 88 and 204, after intervals of roughly 110 years. However, they were also held by Claudius in AD 47 to celebrate the 800th anniversary of Rome's foundation, which led to a second cycle of Games in 148 and 248. The Games were abandoned under later Christian emperors.

2 commentsGary W2
Philip_I_antoninianus.jpg
Ruler: Philip I (Augustus) Coin: Silver Antoninianus 4 viewsIMP PHILIPPVS AVG - Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right.
SAECVLARES AVGG - Stag walking right; U in exergue.
Exergue: U


Mint: Rome (248 AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 4.08g / 23.5mm / 1h
References:
RIC IV 19
RSC 182
Cohen 182
Acquisition/Sale: ancientcoins.market eBay $0.00
Notes: May 19, 19 - (9th Issue, 5th Officina) = RIC IViii, 19,
page 70

The Gary R. Wilson Collection

Secular Games Issue.

From CNG: Continuing the tradition of Claudius and Antoninus Pius before him, the celebration of the Secular Games at the end of every century since the founding of Rome culminated during the reign of Philip I, as the city celebrated her 1,000th anniversary in AD 248. The legends on these issues almost exclusively read SAECVLARES AVGG, and feature a similar iconography from previous games, such as the she-wolf suckling the twins, the various wild beasts paraded through the amphitheater, and a cippus inscribed for the preservation of the memory of these events.

From Wikipedia: The Saecular Games (Latin: Ludi saeculares, originally Ludi Terentini) was a Roman religious celebration involving sacrifices and theatrical performances, held in ancient Rome for three days and nights to mark the end of a saeculum and the beginning of the next. A saeculum, supposedly the longest possible length of human life, was considered as either 100 or 110 years in length.

According to Roman mythology, the Secular Games began when a Sabine man called Valesius prayed for a cure for his children's illness and was supernaturally instructed to sacrifice on the Campus Martius to Dis Pater and Proserpina, deities of the underworld. Some ancient authors traced official celebrations of the Games as far back as 509 BC, but the only clearly attested celebrations under the Roman Republic took place in 249 and in the 140s BC. They involved sacrifices to the underworld gods over three consecutive nights.

The Games were revived in 17 BC by Rome's first emperor Augustus, with the nocturnal sacrifices on the Campus Martius now transferred to the Moerae (fates), the Ilythiae (goddesses of childbirth), and Terra Mater ("Mother Earth"). The Games of 17 BC also introduced day-time sacrifices to Roman deities on the Capitoline and Palatine hills. Certain sacrifices were unusually specified to be performed by married women. Each sacrifice was followed by theatrical performances. Later emperors held celebrations in AD 88 and 204, after intervals of roughly 110 years. However, they were also held by Claudius in AD 47 to celebrate the 800th anniversary of Rome's foundation, which led to a second cycle of Games in 148 and 248. The Games were abandoned under later Christian emperors.
Gary W2
Antoninus_Pius_Templum.JPG
Struck A.D.158 - 159. ANTONINUS PIUS. AR Denarius of Rome9 viewsObverse: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P XXII. Laureate head of Antoninus Pius facing right.
Reverse: TEMPLVM DIV AVG REST. Octastyle temple with standing statues of Victory before the two outer columns and seated figures of Divus Augustus and Diva Livia within; in exergue, COS IIII.
RIC III : 290a | C: 804 | BMC: 939
Rough surfaces

The Temple of Divus Augustus was originally built to commemorate the deified first emperor, Augustus. It was built between the Palatine and Capitoline Hills, behind the Basilica Julia, on the site of the house that Augustus had lived in before he entered public life.
The temple's construction took place during the 1st century AD, having been vowed by the Roman Senate shortly after the death of Augustus in A.D.14. It was not, however, finally completed until after the death of Tiberius in A.D.37 and was dedicated by Tiberius' successor, Caligula at the end of August that year.
During the reign of Domitian the temple was destroyed by fire but it was rebuilt and rededicated in A.D.89-90 as a memorial to four deified emperors, including Vespasian and Titus. It also incorporated a shrine to Domitian's favourite deity, Minerva.
The temple was restored again by Antonius Pius, who was possibly motivated by a desire to be publicly associated with the first emperor. The exact date of the restoration is not known, but the restored temple is shown on coins of A.D.158 onwards, like the one above.
The temple is depicted as an octostyle design with Corinthian capitals and two statues - presumably of Augustus and Livia - in the cella. The pediment displayed a relief featuring Augustus and was topped by a quadriga. Two figures stood on the eaves of the roof, that on the left representing Romulus and the one on the right depicting Aeneas leading his family out of Troy, alluding to Rome's mythical origins. The steps of the temple were flanked by two statues of Victory.
The last known reference to the temple was in A.D.248, at some point after that it was completely destroyed and its stones were presumably quarried for later buildings. Today it's remains are no longer visible and the area in which it sat has never been excavated.
*Alex
gordianIII_deultum.jpg
Thracia, Deultum, Gordian III Jurukova 26156 viewsGordian III AD 238-244
AE - AE 23, 6.42g
obv. IMP GORDIANVS PIVS FEL AVG
bust, draped and cuirassed(?), laureate, r.
rev. COL FL PAC / DEVLT
Cult statue of Aphrodite & vase within portico of tetrastyle temple viewed in perspective,
with two-stepped pedement, triangular pediment with pellet, acroteria decorated with
crosses.
Moushmov 3735; Jurukova 261 (attr. by Britannicus)
Rare; VF, nice blue-green patina
added to www.wildwinds.com

Aphrodite as 'pudica' standing in the pose of the Capitoline Venus (Pat Lawrence).

Deultum was founded by veterans of Vespasian's leg. VIII Augusta before AD 77 as Colonia Flavia Pacis Deultensia.

For more information look at the thread 'Coins of mythological interest'
1 commentsJochen
IMG_1254wp.jpg
Tiber or other rivergod139 viewsCapitoline MuseumsJohny SYSEL
Tiberius__AD_14-37__Æ_Sestertius_(35_5mm,_27_11_g,_7h)__Rome_mint__Struck_AD_36-37__Hexastyle_temple_with_flanking_wings;_Concordia_seated_within_216.jpg
Tiberius (Augustus) Coin: Brass Sestertius6 views(no legend) - Hexastyle temple with flanking wings; Concordia seated inside, holding patera and cornucopiae; Hercules and Mercury stand on podia; Jupiter, Juno, Minerva, Victories and other figures above pediment.
TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVST P M TR POT XXXIIX - Legend surrounding large S C
Exergue:



Mint: Rome (36-37 AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 27.11g / 35.5mm / 6
Rarity: Scarce
References:
RIC I 61
BMCRE 116
Cohen 69
Provenances:
Classical Numismatic Group, Inc.
Acquisition/Sale: CNG Internet 424 #414

The Gary R. Wilson Collection

From Wikipedia:
The Temple of Concord (Latin: Aedes Concordiae) in the ancient city of Rome refers to a series of shrines or temples dedicated to the Roman goddess Concordia, and erected at the western end of the Roman Forum. The earliest may have vowed by Marcus Furius Camillus in 367 BC, but history also records such a temple erected in the Vulcanal in 304, and another immediately west of the Vulcanal, on the spot the temple later occupied, commissioned in 217. The temple was rebuilt in 121 BC, and again by the future emperor Tiberius between 7 BC and AD 10.

Backed up against the Tabularium at the foot of the Capitoline Hill, the architecture had to accommodate the limitations of the site. The cella of the temple, for instance, is almost twice as wide (45m) as it is deep (24m), as is the pronaos. In the cella a row of Corinthian columns rose from a continuous plinth projecting from the wall, which divided the cella into bays, each containing a niche. The capitals of these columns had pairs of leaping rams in place of the corner volutes. Only the platform now remains, partially covered by a road up to the Capitol.

One tradition ascribes the first Temple of Concord to a vow made by Camillus in 367 BC, on the occasion of the Lex Licinia Sextia, the law passed by the tribunes Gaius Licinius Stolo and Lucius Sextius Lateranus, opening the consulship to the plebeians. The two had prevented the election of any magistrates for a period of several years, as part of the conflict of the orders. Nominated dictator to face an invasion of the Gauls, Camillus, encouraged by his fellow patrician Marcus Fabius Ambustus, Stolo's father-in-law, determined to resolve the crisis by declaring his support for the law, and vowing a temple to Concordia, symbolizing reconciliation between the patricians and plebeians.

Camillus' vow is not mentioned by Livy, who instead describes the dedication of the Temple of Concord in the Vulcanal, a precinct sacred to Vulcan on the western end of the forum, by the aedile Gnaeus Flavius in 304 BC. Flavius' actions were an affront to the senate, partly because he had undertaken the matter without first consulting them, and partly because of his low social standing: not only was Flavius a plebeian, but he was the son of a freedman, and had previously served as a scribe to Appius Claudius Caecus. The Pontifex Maximus, Rome's chief priest, was compelled to instruct Flavius on the proper formulae for dedicating a temple. Cicero and Pliny report that Flavius was a scribe, rather than aedile, at the time of the dedication, and a law was passed immediately afterward forbidding anyone from dedicating a temple without the authorization of the senate or a majority of the plebeian tribunes.

Yet a third Temple of Concord was begun in 217 BC, early in the Second Punic War, by the duumviri Marcus Pupius and Caeso Quinctius Flamininus, in fulfillment of a vow made by the praetor Lucius Manlius Vulso on the occasion of his deliverance from the Gauls in 218. The reason why Manlius vowed a temple to Concordia is not immediately apparent, but Livy alludes to a mutiny that had apparently occurred among the praetor's men. The temple was completed and dedicated the following year by the duumviri Marcus and Gaius Atilius.

The murder of Gaius Gracchus in 121 BC marked a low point in the relationship between the emerging Roman aristocracy and the popular party, and was immediately followed by the reconstruction of the Temple of Concord by Lucius Opimius at the senate's behest, which was regarded as an utterly insincere attempt to clothe its actions in a symbolic act of reconciliation.

From this period, the temple was frequently used as a meeting place for both the senate and the Arval Brethren, and in later times it came to house a number of works of art, many of which are described by Pliny.

A statue of Victoria placed on the roof of the temple was struck by lightning in 211 BC, and prodigies were reported in the Concordiae, the neighborhood of the temple, in 183 and 181. Little else is heard of the temple until 7 BC, when the future emperor Tiberius undertook another restoration, which lasted until AD 10, when the structure was rededicated on the 16th of January as the Aedes Concordiae Augustae, the Temple of Concordia of Augustus.

The temple is occasionally mentioned in imperial times, and may have been restored again following a fire in AD 284. By the eighth century, the temple was reportedly in poor condition, and in danger of collapsing.

The temple was razed circa 1450, and the stone turned into a lime kiln to recover the marble for building.

From CNG:
The Temple of Concordia at the northern end of the Forum in Rome was unusual in that its width was greater than its length. We do not know precisely when the temple was originally built, but its unorthodox design was likely due to space limitations. The temple was restored after the revolt of the Gracchi in 121 BC, and again under Tiberius in AD 10.
Gary W2
T515d.jpg
Titus RIC-515212 viewsAR Cistophorus, 10.64g
Rome mint (for Asia), 80-81 AD
Obv: IMP TITVS CAES VESPASIAN AVG P M•; Head of Titus, laureate, bearded, r.
Rev: CAPIT across field, RESTIT in exergue; Temple of Capitoline Jupiter with 4 columns enclosing figures of Juno, seated Jupiter and Minverva
RIC 515 (R). BMC spec. acquired 1948. RSC -. RPC 860 (3 spec.). BNC 111.
Acquired from Calgary Coin, 30 November 2015. Ex MS collection. Ex Berk 124, 3 January 2002, lot 448.

In 80 AD while Titus was away in Campania surveying the damage Vesuvius had caused in the region the previous Fall, a devastating fire broke out in Rome, damaging much of the city center. One of the most important buildings affected by the fire was the Temple of Capitoline Jupiter, rebuilt recently by Vespasian. The temple being the most sacred and important building in Rome, Titus began rebuilding it immediately. Construction was still ongoing when Titus died of natural causes in September of 81. A cistophorus commemorating the rebuilding of the structure was struck for Domitian but it was not until 1948 with the discovery of this reverse type for Titus when the BM acquired a specimen was the type known to be minted for Titus. Needless to say it is extremely rare. Since 1948 seven other examples have surfaced, four of which are in public collections. A.M. Woodward speculates the type for Domitian is actually a hybrid struck from carry-over dies intended for Titus. This cistophorus was minted in Rome for export to Asia Minor. The style and die axis are similar to the denarii from Rome during the same period, firmly placing it to that mint. This coin is an obverse die match with Gemini IX, lot 458.

A wonderful 'chunky' coin in hand in good style.
12 commentsDavid Atherton
T516.jpg
Titus RIC-516147 viewsAR Cistophorus, 10.55g
Rome mint (for Asia), 80-81 AD
Obv: IMP TITVS CAES VESPASIAN AVG P M; Head of Titus, laureate, bearded, r.
Rev: Aquila between two standards, one surmounted by a banner, the other by a hand
RIC 516 (R). BMC 149. RSC 398. RPC 861 (4 spec.). BNC -.
Ex CNG E400, 28 June 2017, lot 609.

A small issue of Asian cistophori were struck under Titus in 80 or 81 AD. Style and the six o'clock die axis point to Rome as the likely mint. Two types were coined for Titus - Temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus and Aquila between two standards. These are the only coins of Titus that are identifiable as being struck after the fire of 80 since one of the types commemorates the restoration of the Capitoline Temple. The issue continued into Domitian's reign with the same two reverse types. The fact that Titus' cistophori are much rarer than those of Domitian may indicate they were struck near the end of Titus' reign in 81 rather than 80. The aquila between two standards copies similar reverse types from Nero's denarii and the bronze of Galba. The portraits on Titus' cistophori are in the same style as his pulvinaria denarii.

Struck in fine Roman style. Golden toned with hints of a rainbow hue.
11 commentsDavid Atherton
victoria_Brescia.jpg
Victoria Brescia35 viewsStatue of Victoria Brescia (Italian: Vittoria alata = winged Victory), found behind the Capitoline Temple of Brescia in 1826, now in the Santa Giulia Museum in Brescia.

Roman copy of a statue of Aphrodite of the 3rd century BC from a Greek City State. Wings added in 1st century BC to transform her in a winged Victory holding a shield to write on it (name of Victor?). The original Aphrodite (type of the Venus of Capua) was holding the shield of Ares to look at her face reflected on the inside of the shield.

The type of the Victoria of Brescia can be found on many Roman coins and on Trajan's column.
Jochen
Urbs_Roma_37.jpg
Z22 viewsConstantine the Great
City Commemorative (VRBS ROMA)

Attribution: RIC VII 62, Constantinople
Date: AD 333-335
Obverse: VRBS ROMA; helmeted and cuirassed bust l.
Reverse: She-wolf stg. l. suckling Romulus and Remus; two stars above; CONSIA in exergue
Size: 19.1 mm
(Etruscan bronze Capitoline Wolf statue: In front of City Hall, Rome)
My very first Roman coin ever!!!

Romulus and Remus are the twin brothers and central characters of Rome's foundation myth. Their mother is Rhea Silvia, daughter to Numitor, king of Alba Longa. Before their conception, Numitor's brother Amulius seizes power, kills Numitor's male heirs and forces Rhea Silvia to become a Vestal Virgin, sworn to chastity. Rhea Silvia conceives the twins by the god Mars, or by the demi-god Hercules; once the twins were born, Amulius has them abandoned to die in the river Tiber. They are saved by a series of miraculous interventions: the river carries them to safety, a she-wolf finds and suckles them, and a woodpecker feeds them. A shepherd and his wife find them and foster them to manhood, as simple shepherds. The twins, still ignorant of their true origins, prove to be natural leaders. Each acquires many followers. When they discover the truth of their birth, they kill Amulius and restore Numitor to his throne. Rather than wait to inherit Alba Longa they choose to found a new city. Romulus wants to found the new city on the Palatine Hill; Remus prefers the Aventine Hill. They agree to determine the site through augury but when each claims the results in his own favor, they quarrel and Remus is killed. Romulus founds the new city, names it Rome, after himself, and creates its first legions and senate.
Noah
MarcusAureliusLiberalitas_sestertius.jpg
[905a] Marcus Aurelius, 7 March 161 - 17 March 180 A.D.137 viewsMARCUS AURELIUS AE [b[Sestertius. RIC 1222. 30mm, 24.5g. Struck at Rome, 177 AD. Obverse: M ANTONINUS AVG GERM SARM TR P XXXI, laureate head right; Reverse: LIBERALITAS AVG VII IMP VIIII COS III P P, Liberalitas standing left holding coin counter & cornucopia, SC in fields. Nice portrait. Ex Incitatus. Photo courtesy of Incitatus.


De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Marcus Aurelius (A.D. 161-180)

Herbert W. Benario
Emory University


Introduction and Sources
The Vita of the emperor in the collection known as the Historia Augusta identifies him in its heading as Marcus Antoninus Philosophus, "Marcus Antoninus the Philosopher." Toward the end of the work, the following is reported about him, sententia Platonis semper in ore illius fuit, florere civitates si aut philosophi imperarent aut imperantes philosopharentur (27.7), "Plato's judgment was always on his lips, that states flourished if philosophers ruled or rulers were philosophers." It is this quality of Marcus' character which has made him a unique figure in Roman history, since he was the first emperor whose life was molded by, and devoted to, philosophy (Julian was the second and last). His reign was long and troubled, and in some ways showed the weaknesses of empire which ultimately led to the "Decline and Fall," yet his personal reputation, indeed his sanctity, have never failed of admirers. Contributing to his fame and reputation is a slender volume of Stoic philosophy which served as a kind of diary while he was involved in military campaigns, the Meditations, a book which can be described as an aureus libellus, a little golden book.

The sources for understanding Marcus and his reign are varied but generally disappointing. There is no major historian. The chief literary sources are the biography in the Historia Augusta, as well as those of Hadrian, Antoninus, Verus, and Avidius Cassius. Debate about this collection of imperial biographies has been heated and contentious for more than a century. In all likelihood, it is the work of a single author writing in the last years of the fourth-century. The information offered ranges from the precisely accurate to the wildly imaginative.

Cassius Dio, who wrote in the decade of the 230s, produced a long history of the empire which has survived, for our period, only in an abbreviated version. Fourth century historians, such as Aurelius Victor and Eutropius, occasionally furnish bits of information. Marcus' teacher, Fronto, a distinguished orator and rhetorician, is extremely useful. Papyri, inscriptions, coins, legal writings, and some of the church writers, such as Tertullian, Eusebius, and Orosius, are very important. Archaeology and art history, with their interpretation of monuments, make the history of Marcus' principate literally visible and offer important clues for understanding the context of his actions.

Early Life
He was born M. Annius Verus on April 26, 121, the scion of a distinguished family of Spanish origin (PIR2 A697). His father was Annius Verus (PIR2 A696), his mother Domitia Lucilla (PIR2 D183). His grandfather held his second consulate in that year and went on to reach a third in 126, a rare distinction in the entire history of the principate, and also served Hadrian as city prefect. The youth's education embraced both rhetoric and philosophy; his manner was serious, his intellectual pursuits deep and devoted, so that the emperor Hadrian took an interest in him and called him "Verissimus," "Most truthful," by punning on his name. He received public honors from an early age and seems to have long been in Hadrian's mind as a potential successor. When Hadrian's first choice as successor, L. Ceionius Commodus, died before his adoptive father, the second choice proved more fruitful. The distinguished senator T. Aurelius Fulvus Boionius Arrius Antoninus, from Cisalpine Gaul, did succeed Hadrian, whose arrangements for the succession planned for the next generation as well. He required Antoninus to adopt the young Verus, now to be known as M. Aelius Aurelius Verus, as well as Commodus' son, henceforth known as L. Aelius Aurelius Commodus (PIR2 C606). The former was a bit more than seventeen years old, the latter was eight.

Career under Antoninus Pius
The long tenure of Antoninus Pius proved one of the most peaceful and prosperous in Roman history. The emperor himself was disinclined to military undertakings and never left Italy during his reign. Disturbances to the pax Romana occurred on the fringes of empire. Responses were decisive and successful, with legates in charge in the provinces. As a consequence, neither Caesar gained military experience nor was shown to the armies, a failing which later could have proved decisive and disastrous. Marcus rose steadily through the cursus honorum, holding consulates in 140 and 145, combining magistracies with priesthoods. He received the tribunicia potestas in 147, and perhaps also imperium proconsulare. Yet he never neglected the artes liberals. His closest contacts were with Fronto (c.95-c.160), the distinguished rhetorician and orator. His acquaintance included many other distinguished thinkers, such as Herodes Atticus (c.95-177), the Athenian millionaire and sophist, and Aelius Aristides (117-c.181), two of whose great speeches have survived and which reveal much of the mood and beliefs of the age. Yet it was Epictetus (c.50-c.120) who had the greatest philosophical impact and made him a firm Stoic. In the year 161 Marcus celebrated his fortieth birthday, a figure of noble appearance and unblemished character. He was leading a life which gave him as much honor and glory as he could have desired, probably much more than his private nature enjoyed, yet his life, and that of the empire, was soon to change. The emperor died on March 7, but not before clearly indicating to magistrates and senate alike his desire that Marcus succeed him by having the statue of Fortuna, which had been in his bedroom, transferred to Marcus. There was no opposition, no contrary voice, to his succession. He immediately chose his brother as co-emperor, as Hadrian had planned. From the beginning of the year they were joint consuls and held office for the entire year. Their official titulature was now Imperator Caesar M. Aurelius Antoninus Augustus and Imperator Caesar L. Aurelius Verus Augustus. The military qualities adumbrated by the word Imperator were soon much in demand, for the empire was under pressure in the year 161 in Britain, in Raetia, and in the east, where Parthia once again posed a significant danger.

The Parthian War (161-166)
The incursion in northern Britain and the difficulties along the Danube were soon satisfactorily managed by legates. The danger in the East was of a different magnitude. Tensions between Rome and Parthia had intensified in the last years of Antoninus' reign over control of Armenia, the vast buffer state which had often aroused enmity between the two powers, since each wished to be able to impose a king favorable to its interests. With Antoninus' death and the uncertainty attendant upon a new emperor (in this case two, a dyarchy, for the first time in Rome's history), the Parthian monarch, Vologaeses III, struck rapidly, placed his own candidate upon the Armenian throne, and inflicted severe setbacks upon the Roman forces sent to oppose him. Marcus decided to send his colleague Lucius Verus, whose imperial prestige would underscore the seriousness of the empire's response. Verus lacked military experience and was sorely lacking in the attributes of leadership and command; further, he was notorious for being chiefly interested in amusements and luxury. But Marcus surrounded him with several of the best generals at the empire's disposal, chief among them Avidius Cassius (c.130-175) (PIR2 A1402). From 162 on, Rome's successes and conquests were extensive and decisive. Most of Parthia's significant cities and strongholds, such as Seleucia and Ctesiphon, were stormed and destroyed, and the army's movements eastward recalled the movements of Alexander the Great some five centuries earlier. By 166, Parthia had capitulated and a Roman nominee sat on the Armenian throne. The victory appeared to be the most decisive since Trajan's conquest of Dacia, but, when Verus returned to Italy with his triumphant army, there came also a devastating plague, which had enormous effect on all provinces.
As is the case with all ancient diseases, it is almost impossible to identify this one. In all likelihood, however, it was smallpox; how severe the toll was is debated. Clearly, it cast a pall over the triumph celebrated by the two emperors, who were honored with the titles Armeniacus and Parthicus. The last years of this decade were dominated by efforts to overcome the plague and provide succour to its victims. But already in 166, the German tribes smashed the Danubian limes, threatening the empire's stability and even existence, more than Parthia had ever done. The first campaigns were punctuated by the death of Verus in 169, leaving Marcus as sole emperor. And so began the most difficult period of his life.

The German Wars
Early in 169, the Marcomanni and Quadi crossed the Danube, penetrated the intervening provinces, and entered Italy. The culmination of their onslaught was a siege of Aquileia. The effect upon the inhabitants of the peninsula was frightful. This was the first invasion of Italy since the late second century B.C., when the Cimbri and Teutones had been separately crushed by Marius. Perhaps more vivid in the collective imagination was the sack of Rome by the Gauls in 387, when the city was saved only by the payment of ransom.
The two emperors hastened north, after a rapid mobilization of forces, which included the drafting of slaves, since the manpower potential of the empire had been so impaired by the consequences of the plague and the losses and troop commitments in the East. Verus died while in the north; Marcus returned to Rome with the body and gave his brother full honors. He then turned north again and began his counterattacks against the barbarians. He did not know it at the time, but he was destined to spend most of his remaining years on the northern frontier. The only interlude was caused by revolt in the east.

We have no record of Marcus' ultimate intentions in these campaigns, yet the various stages were clear. First and foremost, the enemy had to be driven out of Italy and then into their own territory beyond the Danube. He strove to isolate the tribes and then defeat them individually, so that the ultimate manpower superiority of the empire and its greater skill in warfare and logistics could more easily be brought to bear. It was a successful strategy, as one tribe after another suffered defeat and reestablished ties with Rome. But it was a time-consuming and expensive operation, requiring the recruitment of two new legions, II Italica and III Italica, the construction of many new camps, such as the legionary fortress at Regensburg, with success accruing year by year. He intended to create two new provinces, Marcomannia and Sarmatia, thereby eliminating the Hungarian Plain and the headwaters of the Elbe as staging areas for invasion.

This steady, slow progress was interrupted in 175 by the action of the distinguished general Avidius Cassius, governor of Syria, who claimed the empire for himself. Whether he responded to a rumor of Marcus' death or, as gossip had it, conspired with Marcus' wife, the emperor's response was quick and decisive. Leaving the northern wars, he traveled to the East, but Avidius was killed before Marcus arrived in the region. After spending time settling affairs and showing himself to some of the provinces, with particular attention shown to Athens, where he was initiated into the Eleusinian mysteries, as Hadrian and Verus had been. He returned to Italy and soon answered the call to duty once more on the northern frontier. He took with him as colleague his son Commodus, now merely sixteen years old but already long since marked out as his father's intended successor. The military campaigns proved successful, but in the spring of 180, when Marcus died, at least one more year of warfare was necessary for the attainment of the grand enterprise. Marcus recommended to Commodus continuation of the war, but the new emperor was eager to return to Rome and the ease and luxury of the imperial court and entered into a peace agreement. Never again was Rome to hold the upper hand in its dealings with the Germanic tribes beyond the now reestablished borders of the empire.

Administrative and Religious Policy
Marcus was a conscientious and careful administrator who devoted much attention to judicial matters. His appointments to major administrative positions were for the most part admirable. Difficult tasks were put in the charge of the most capable men; he was not afraid of comparison with his subordinates. Social mobility continued as it had been under his predecessors, with men from the provinces advancing into the upper echelons of the Roman aristocracy. Those of humble birth could make a good career; such a one was Pertinax (126-193), a gifted general, who in early 193 became emperor for a space of less than three months.

The judicial administration of Italy was put in the hands of iuridici, who represented the emperor and thus spoke with his authority. This was a practice which had been established by Hadrian but had been allowed to lapse by Antoninus. The centralization of government continued apace. The imperial finances were sorely stretched by the almost continuous wars. Trajan had brought great wealth, Decebalus' treasure, into the empire after his conquest of Dacia. No such profit awaited Marcus. When preparing for the northern wars, he auctioned off much of the imperial palace's valuables. In spite of the enormous expenses of war, Commodus found ample funds upon his accession as sole emperor for his expenditures and amusements.

Although Marcus was a devoted thinker and philosopher, he was deeply religious, at least outwardly. The state cult received full honor, and he recognized the validity of other people's beliefs, so that the variety of religions in the vast extent of the empire caused no difficulties for inhabitants or government, with one significant exception. The Christians were not hampered by any official policy; indeed the impact of the church spread enormously in the second century. Yet their availability as scapegoats for local crises made them subject to abuse or worse. There was violence against them in 167, and perhaps the worst stain on Marcus' principate stemmed from the pogrom of Christians in Lugdunum in southern France in 177. He did not cause it, nor, on the other hand, did he or his officials move to stop it. Indeed, Tertullian called him a friend of Christianity. Yet the events were a precursor of what would come in the century and a quarter which followed.

Building Programs and Monuments
Many of Marcus' predecessors transformed the face of the capital with their building programs, either by the vast range of their undertaking or by the extraordinary significance of individual monuments. Others did very little to leave a tangible mark. Marcus fell into the latter group. There is record of very few monuments for which he and his brother were responsible. Very early in their reign they honored the deceased Antoninus with a column in the Campus Martius, no longer in situ but largely surviving. The shaft, which seems not to have been sculpted, was used for the restoration of Augustus' obelisk, now in Piazza Montecitorio, in the eighteenth century. The base, which was sculpted on all four sides, is now on display in the Vatican Museum. The chief feature is the apotheosis of the emperor and his long deceased wife, the elder Faustina, as they are borne to heaven. Also presented on this relief are two eagles and personifications of the goddess Roma and of the Campus Martius, represented as a young male figure.

There were three arches which commemorated the military achievements of the two emperors. No trace has been found of an early monument to Verus. Two arches later honored Marcus, both of which have disappeared but have left significant sculptural remains. The eight rectangular reliefs preserved on the Arch of Constantine came from one arch. Similarly, the three reliefs displayed in the stairwell of the Conservatori Museum on the Capitoline Hill came from another. One relief has disappeared from the latter monument.

Certainly the best known monument of Marcus' principate is the column, which rises from Piazza Colonna. It is twin to Trajan's column in height and design, although the artistic craftsmanship of the reliefs which envelop the shaft is much inferior. The subject is Marcus' campaigns against the Marcomanni and Sarmati in the years 172-75. The most interesting panel represents the famous rainstorm, when the army, overwhelmed by drought, was suddenly saved by the divine intervention of rain. Although begun in the latter part of the decade, the column was not completed until 193, when Septimius Severus had become emperor.

The famous equestrian statue of Marcus Aurelius, which survived the centuries near San Giovanni in Laterano because the rider was identified as Constantine, no longer greets the visitor to the Capitoline, where Michelangelo had placed it in the sixteenth century. It was removed in the 1980s because pollution was destroying it. After careful treatment and restoration, it is now displayed within the museum, with a replica placed in the center of the piazza.

Although outside Rome, mention should be made of the monumental frieze commemorating Lucius Verus' victory over the Parthians in 165. It was an ornament of the city of Ephesus; the extensive sculptural remains are now in the Ephesus Museum in Vienna.

Family
As part of Hadrian's plans for his succession, when Ceionius Commodus was his choice, Marcus was betrothed to the latter's daughter. But when Ceionius died and Antoninus became Hadrian's successor, that arrangement was nullified and Marcus was chosen for the Emperor's daughter, the younger Faustina (PIR2 A716). She had been born in 129, was hence eight years younger than he. They were married in 145; the marriage endured for thirty years. She bore him thirteen children, of whom several died young; the most important were a daughter, Lucilla, and a son Commodus. Lucilla was deployed for political purposes, married first to Lucius Verus in 164, when she was seventeen, and then, after his death, to Claudius Pompeianus Quintianus of Antioch, a much older man who was an important associate of her father /ii]PIR2 C973). Commodus became joint-emperor with his father in 177 and three years later ruled alone.

Faustina's reputation suffered much abuse. She was accused of employing poison and of murdering people, as well as being free with her favors with gladiators, sailors, and also men of rank, particularly Avidius Cassius. Yet Marcus trusted her implicitly and defended her vigorously. She accompanied him on several campaigns and was honored with the title mater castrorum. She was with him in camp at Halala in southern Cappadocia in the winter of 175 when she died in an accident. Marcus dedicated a temple to her honor and had the name of the city changed to Faustinopolis.

Death and Succession
In early 180, while Marcus and Commodus were fighting in the north, Marcus became ill. Which disease carried him off we do not know, but for some days Marcus took no food or drink, being now eager to die. He died on March 17, in the city of Vindobona, although one source reports that it was in Sirmium. His ashes were brought to Rome and placed in Hadrian's mausoleum. Commodus succeeded to all power without opposition, and soon withdrew from the war, thereby stymieing his father's designs and ambitions. It was a change of rulers that proved disastrous for people and empire. Dio called the succession a change from a golden kingdom to one of iron and rust.

Reputation
Gibbon called Marcus "that philosophic monarch," a combination of adjective and noun which sets Marcus apart from all other Roman emperors. His renown has, in subsequent centuries, suffered little, although he was by no means a "perfect" person. He was perhaps too tolerant of other people's failings, he himself used opium. The abundance of children whom his wife bore him included, alas, a male who was to prove one of Rome's worst rulers. How much better it would have been if Marcus had had no son and had chosen a successor by adoption, so that the line of the five good emperors, Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian, Antoninus, Marcus, could have been extended. It was not to be, and for that Marcus must accept some responsibility.

Yet he was a man of ability and a sense of duty who sacrificed his own delights and interests to the well-being of the state. He was capax imperii, he did his best, and history has been kind to him. As Hamlet said to Horatio, when awaiting the appearance of the ghost of his father,

"He was a man! Take him for all in all, I shall not look upon his like again." (I 2, 187-88)

His memory remains vivid and tactile because of the famous column, the equestrian statue, and his slender volume of thoughts, written in Greek, the Meditations, from which I choose two quotations with which to conclude:

"If mind is common to us, then also the reason, whereby we are reasoning beings, is common. If this be so, then also the reason which enjoins what is to be done or left undone is common. If this be so, law also is common; if this be so, we are citizens; if this be so, we are partakers in one constitution; if this be so, the Universe is a kind of Commonwealth." (4.4)

"At dawn of day, when you dislike being called, have this thought ready: 'I am called to man's labour; why then do I make a difficulty if I am going out to do what I was born to do and what I was brought into the world for?'" (5.1; both in Farquharson's translation)

Copyright (C) 2001, Herbert W. Benario.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
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