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Search results - "Britannica"
Radiato_imitativo_britannico.jpg
Radiato imitativo britannico (270-273 AD)33 viewsAE, 2.45 gr, 18.56 mm, VF
Zecca non ufficiale britannica (o gallica), sul D/ verosimilmente Vittorino o Tetrico I
D/ legenda di fantasia, testa radiata a dx
R/ legenda di fantasia, divinità sacrifica su un altare appoggiata su uno scudo (o ruota). Compatibile con una FORTVNA REDUX con ruota e timone
Provenienza: ex Marc Breitsprecher collection, Grand Marais Minnesota Usa (da lui acquistata a Embankment station coin fair, London), via vAuctions 290 lot 462, 8 novembre 2012
paolo
3290481.jpg
202. Septimius Severus53 viewsThe Caledonians are next mentioned in 209, when they are said to have surrendered to the emperor Septimius Severus after he personally led a military expedition north of Hadrian's Wall, in search of a glorious military victory. Herodian and Dio wrote only in passing of the campaign but describe the Caledonians ceding territory to Rome as being the result. Cassius Dio records that the Caledonians inflicted 50,000 Roman casualties due to attrition and unconventional tactics such as guerrilla warfare. Dr. Colin Martin has suggested that the Severan campaigns did not seek a battle but instead sought to destroy the fertile agricultural land of eastern Scotland and thereby bring about genocide of the Caledonians through starvation.

By 210 however, the Caledonians had re-formed their alliance with the Maeatae and joined their fresh offensive. A punitive expedition led by Severus' son, Caracalla, was sent out with the purpose of slaughtering everyone it encountered from any of the northern tribes. Severus meanwhile prepared for total conquest but was already ill; he died at Eboracum (modern day York) in Britannia in 211. Caracalla attempted to take over command but when his troops refused to recognise him as emperor, he made peace with the Caledonians and retreated south of Hadrian's Wall to press his claim for the throne. Sheppard Frere suggests that Caracalla briefly continued the campaign after his father's death rather than immediately leaving, citing an apparent delay in his arrival in Rome and indirect numismatic and epigraphic factors that suggest he may instead have fully concluded the war but that Dio's hostility towards his subject led him to record the campaign as ending in a truce. Malcolm Todd however considers there to be no evidence to support this. Nonetheless the Caledonians did retake their territory and pushed the Romans back to Hadrians Wall.

In any event, there is no further historical mention of the Caledonians for a century save for a c. AD 230 inscription from Colchester which records a dedication by a man calling himself the nephew (or grandson) of "Uepogenus, [a] Caledonian". This may be because Severus' campaigns were so successful that the Caledonians were wiped out, however this is highly unlikely. In 305, Constantius Chlorus re-invaded the northern lands of Britain although the sources are vague over their claims of penetration into the far north and a great victory over the "Caledones and others" (Panegyrici Latini Vetares, VI (VII) vii 2). The event is notable in that it includes the first recorded use of the term 'Pict' to describe the tribes of the area.

Septimius Severus. AD 193-211. Æ As (25mm, 11.07 g, 7h). “Victoria Britannica” issue. Rome mint. Struck AD 211. Laureate head right / Victory standing right, holding vexillum; seated captives flanking. RIC IV 812a. Near VF, brown surfaces with touches of green and red, porous. Rare.

From the Fairfield Collection.

ex-cng EAuction 329 481/100/60
1 commentsecoli
coin264.JPG
403. Carausius37 viewsMarcus Aurelius Mausaeus Carausius (d. 293) was a Roman usurper in Britain and northern Gaul (286–293, Carausian Revolt).

Carausius was a man of humble origin, a Menapian from Belgic Gaul who distinguished himself during Maximian's campaign against the Bagaudae rebels in Gaul in 286. As a result, he was appointed to command the Classis Britannica, a fleet based in the English Channel, with the responsibility of eliminating Frankish and Saxon pirates who had been raiding the coast. However, he was suspected of keeping captured treasure for himself, and even of allowing the pirates to carry out raids and enrich themselves before taking action against them, and Maximian ordered his execution. In late 286 or early 287 Carausius learned of this sentence and responded by declaring himself Emperor of Britain and northern Gaul.

He could count on the alliegance of the three legions based in Britain, as well as one in northern Gaul. How he was able to win support from the army when his command had been sea-based is uncertain. The emperor briefly assumed the title Britannicus Maximus in 285, and the British towns of Wroxeter and Caistor by Norwich towns show signs of destruction around this time, so it is possible Carausius won the army's support during military action in Britain shortly before his rebellion. Alternatively, if the accusations of larceny are true, he could perhaps afford to buy their loyalty. He also appears to have appealed to native British dissatisfaction with Roman rule: he issued coins with legends such as Restitutor Britanniae (Restorer of Britain) and Genius Britanniae (Spirit of Britain).

Maximian, busy with wars on the Rhine, was unable to challenge him immediately, but in the Autumn of 288 he began massing troops and ships for an invasion. In 289 an invasion of Britain intended to dislodge him failed badly due to storms, although a naval defeat is also possible. An uneasy peace continued until 293, during which Rome prepared for a second effort to retake the province, while Carausius began to entertain visions of legitimacy and official recognition. He minted his own coins and brought their value in to line with Roman issues as well as acknowledging and honouring Maximian and then Diocletian. Coinage is the main source of information about the rogue emperor; his issues were initially crude but soon became more elaborate and were issued from mints in Londinium, Rotomagnus and a third site, possibly Colonia Claudia Victricensis. A milestone from Carlisle with his name on it suggests that the whole of Roman Britain was in Carausius' grasp.

It has been speculated (namely, by the historian Sheppard Frere) that the rebellion of Carausius endangered Diocletian's vision of a strong, centralized government based on his tetrarchy. In any case, by early 293 Constantius Chlorus had gained control of northern Gaul, including the rebel's stronghold and port of Bononia, on which Carausius was heavily dependent. Constantius built a mole across the harbour mouth to ensure it did not receive maritime aid.

Constantius also regained the allegiance of the rebellious Gallic legion and defeated the Franks of the Rhine mouth who seem to have been working in league with Carausius. Weakened by these setbacks, Carausius was assassinated, possibly at York, by his treasurer, Allectus.

aVF/aVF Carausius Antoninianus / Pax / Green Patina and Nice Style

Attribution: RIC 895
Date: 287-293 AD
Obverse: IMP CARAVSIVS P F AVG, radiate and draped bust right
Reverse: PAX AVG, Pax standing left, holding branch and transverse sceptre.
Size: 20.91 mm
Weight: 3 grams
ecoli
770Hadrian_RIC706~0.jpg
706 Hadrian Sestertius Roma 132-34 AD Galley left59 viewsReference
RIC 706; Strack 837; C. 657; Banti 337

Obv. HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS
Laureate head right.

Rev. FELICITATI AVG COS III P P S-C in field
Galley moving left with stearman and five rowers; vexillum on prow.

23.61 gr
31 mm
12h

Ex.
Stack's Bowers Galleries January 2013 N.Y.I.N.C. lot 5210

Note.
An acrostolium is an ornamental extension of the stem post on the prow of an ancient warship. Often used as a symbol of victory or of power at sea. (numiswiki)
1st-4th Century AD:
The Ship in Imperial Rome

Realizing its importance, Augustus established the Roman navy along lines similar to that of the legions. In addition to a number of key harbors, from which ships could be deployed, he stationed several fleets (Latin classes) in key areas throughout the empire. Among these, the classis Britannica patrolled the channel between Gaul and Britannia, protecting the shipping lanes. Its strategic regional importance is commemorated in the coinage of several of the period usurpers from the area. M. Aurelius Postumus was the first to do so (lots 676-679). His bronze ship issues carry the legend LAETITIA AVG, emphasizing the source of imperial well-being resides in a strong navy. The usurper M. Aurelius Carausius, commander of the classis Britannica under Diocletian, struck coins commemorating, in part, his control of that fleet and its abilities in keeping the sea lanes open (lot 680). His short-lived successor, Allectus, continued the type (lots 681-684).

One important function of the navy was the transportation of the imperial family on state visits. From the time of Augustus, vessels were dispatched to carry the emperor between the capital and the provinces. One such instance is commemorated in a rare bronze as, struck at Patrae in AD 66/7 (lot 609). The reverse depicts the quinquereme used to carry Nero on his infamous tour of Greece. Hadrian’s extensive travels were recorded with a wide variety of ship types struck at Rome (lots 610-622), and in the East (lot 623). An inscription from Ephesus (Syll. III 3241), records that a local captain, L. Erastus, used his ship to transport the emperor while he was in that area. A coin struck at Alexandria (lot 624) is of particular importance for, in the same year as the coin was struck Antinoüs drowned as the imperial party was sailing up the Nile. Hadrian’s successors continued to travel, now to shore up border conflicts or prepare for one of the periodic wars with Persia (lots 625-627; 631-675). By the middle of the third century AD local issues, rather than those minted at the imperial capital, recorded these events, a sign that the center of power was drifting away from Rome itself.

Warships were not the exclusive vessel of the Roman navy. Providing the empire with an uninterrupted supply of grain, as well as other necessary supplies, necessitated the construction of ship for such a purpose. Unlike the warship, which required speed and strength for ramming, the merchantman (Greek nau~ stroggulh; Latin navis oneraria) was of broader beam. Many of these vessels, like the ponto or more common actuaria resembled the shape of a trireme and could be powered by both oars and sails. Since ships of this type were used to transport vital commodities such as wine and grain, they, like the large ponto, are often those shown on coins from the Black Sea (lots 655 and 664-666). The great Roman merchantman, or corbita, often seen in part on imperial issues commemorating the annona, is more familiar (lots 607-608). Powered by two large sails, it featured a rear cabin in the shape of a swan and was the true workhorse of Roman merchant vessels; its type continued well into the Byzantine period.
3 commentsokidoki
minimissimo_barbarico.jpg
Barbarica III secolo, minimissimo15 viewsBarbarica, minimissimo. Zecca gallica o britannica
AE, 7,31 mm, 0,3 gr, MB
D/ busto a dx
R/ non decifrabile
Provenienza: ex Marc Breitsprecher (Ancient Imports, Usa) collection. Acquisita nel maggio 2012
paolo
Dover.jpg
England, County of Kent, Dover: Roman Lighthouse97 viewsA visit to Dover on 20 March 2016, the Roman Lighthouse still stands within Dover Castle, which is still an important port of Britain by the English Channel. The upper 1/3 is a mix of Medieval (when it was used as a Bell Tower) and 19th century restoration (when the Church of Saint Mary, next to it, was also restored). The Lighthouse stands on the "eastern heights". There was another on the "western heights", they both guarded the entrance into the Roman harbour of Dubris (Dover) which was also an important base for the "Classis Britannica".Masis
Geta_VictoriaBrittanica.jpg
Geta Sestertius Victoriae Brittanicae 57 viewsSpink lot 80061134 Geta , AE Sestertius, 211, laureate bust right, drapery on far shoulder, imp caes p sept geta pivs avg , rev. victoriae britannicae sc , two Victories fixing shield to palm tree, two captives at its base (RIC 167 var.- no aegis on neck), minor flan-crack, very rare, almost very fine. The Prior Collection. Dr J S Vogelaar Co; Ref RIC 167var, BMCRE p.392, C.224, RCV 72712 commentsmattpat
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Hadrian, RIC 561a, Sestertius of AD 119 (Jupiter Victor)26 viewsÆ Sestertius (23.9g, Ø 33mm, 6h). Rome mint. Struck AD 119.
Obv.: IMP CAESAR TRAIANVS HADRIANVS AVG, laureate bust of Hadrian facing right, drapery on far shoulder.
Rev.: PONT MAX TR POT COS III (around) S C (in ex.), Jupiter seated left holding Victory statuette and sceptre.
RIC 561; BMCRE 1146; Cohen 1185; Strack 533; Banti (I Grandi Bronzi Imperiali II-2) 599 (30 spec.).
ex G. Henzen (1994).

This issue is connected with the suppression of a revolt in Britain in AD 117 (see Strack p.70 : Expeditio Britannica)
Charles S
martsngans456-8.jpg
Sicily, Messana, Mamertinoi, SNG ANS 456-863 viewsMessana, Sicily, Mamertinoi Hemilitron, 289-270 B.C. AE, 23/20mm 6.84g, CNS I p. 112, 47; SNG ANS 456-8
O: Laureate head of Apollo right; lyre (?) behind
R: Nike standing left, holding wreath and palm-branch; six pellets in right field

MAMERTINI or "children of Mars," was the name taken by a band of Campanian (or Samnite) freebooters who about 289 B.C. seized the Greek colony of Messana at the north-east corner of Sicily, after having been hired by Agathocles to defend it (Polyb. 1. 7. 2). - 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica
4 commentscasata137ec
AnonAEFolSear1867.jpg
[1655a] Anonymous follis of Christ, class G, Romanus IV, 1 January 1068 - 19 August 1071 A.D.40 viewsAnonymous Bronze Follis, Sear-1867, Class-G, Attributed to Romanos IV Diogenes, struck 1068-1071 at Constantinople, 7.87 grams, 24.7 mm. VF. Obverse: Bust of Christ facing, wearing nimbus cruciger, pallium and colobium, and raising right hand in benediction and holding the book of Gospels in left hand, border of large pellets. Reverse: Facing bust of the Virgin orans, nimbate and wearing pallium and maphorium, border of large pellets. Well centered and struck on a broad flan with nice details and choice eye appeal. Deep brown patina with reddish earthen highlights adds to the eye appeal.

Romanos IV Diogenes

Romanus also spelled Romanos Byzantine emperor (January 1, 1068–1071), a member of the Cappadocian military aristocracy.

In 1068 Romanus married Eudocia Macrembolitissa, widow of the emperor Constantine X Ducas. He led military expeditions against the Seljuq Turks but was defeated and captured by them at the Battle of Manzikert (1071). On his release Romanus found that Constantine X's son had been crowned sole ruler as Michael VII Ducas. Romanus was blinded and exiled to the island of Prote in the Sea of Marmara, where he died ("Romanus IV Diogenes." Encyclopædia Britannica. 2008. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 16 Apr. 2008 ).

Romanus IV, Diogenes was the second husband of Eudocia, who it would seem, married him to supply the Byzantine Empire with an emperor. Eudocia was serving as regent, but conditions required an emperor, thus the marriage to the general, Romanus IV. He was taken prisoner during a military campaign against the Turks and Eudocia was restored to the throne, along with her son, Michael. A position, in reality, she had probably never left (Joseph Sermarini).

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

Cleisthenes
   
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