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Search results - "Ascalon"
trajan_askalon.jpg
(0098)TRAJAN25 views98 - 117 AD
(111/12 AD)
AE 24 mm, 11.99 g
O: ΣΕΒΑΣΤΟΣ laureate head of Trajan, r.
R: ΑΣΚΑΛΩ Tyche-Astarte standing, l., on prow with standard and aphlaston; in l. field, incense altar; in r. field, dove standing l.; to r., date ƐIC
Judaea, Ascalon
Ref. RPC 3 No. 3987; De Saulcy 9; BMC 145; rare
laney
domitian_phanebal_res.jpg
(12) DOMITIAN25 views81 - 96 AD
Struck year 198 = 94/5 AD
AE 19 mm; 5.47 g
O: Laureate head, r.
R: War god Phanebal standing l., holding harpa in right hand, round shield in left hand, palm branch behind at right.
Judaea, Ascalon; cf RPC II 2215 ff

laney
domitian_ascalon_resb.jpg
(12) DOMITIAN31 views81 - 96 AD
struck 85 - 86 AD
AE 23.4 mm max., 14.03 g
O: ΣΕΒΑΣΤΟΣ, laureate head right
R: ASKAΛΩ, ΘΠΡ, Tyche standing left, on prow of galley, holding standard in right, aphlaston in left, incense altar in left field, dove in right
Ascalon mint; RPC II 2212; Rosenberger 114; SNG ANS 697; BMC Palestine p. 121
(ex Forum)
laney
Saladin_A788.jpg
1701a, Saladin, 1169-11932046 viewsAYYUBID: Saladin, 1169-1193, AR dirham (2.92g), Halab, AH580, A-788, lovely struck, well-centered & bold, Extremely Fine, Scarce.

His name in Arabic, in full, is SALAH AD-DIN YUSUF IBN AYYUB ("Righteousness of the Faith, Joseph, Son of Job"), also called AL-MALIK AN-NASIR SALAH AD-DIN YUSUF I (b. 1137/38, Tikrit, Mesopotamia--d. March 4, 1193, Damascus), Muslim sultan of Egypt, Syria, Yemen, and Palestine, founder of the Ayyubid dynasty, and the most famous of Muslim heroes.

In wars against the Christian crusaders, he achieved final success with the disciplined capture of Jerusalem (Oct. 2, 1187), ending its 88-year occupation by the Franks. The great Christian counterattack of the Third Crusade was then stalemated by Saladin's military genius.

Saladin was born into a prominent Kurdish family. On the night of his birth, his father, Najm ad-Din Ayyub, gathered his family and moved to Aleppo, there entering the service of 'Imad ad-Din Zangi ibn Aq Sonqur, the powerful Turkish governor in northern Syria. Growing up in Ba'lbek and Damascus, Saladin was apparently an undistinguished youth, with a greater taste for religious studies than military training.
His formal career began when he joined the staff of his uncle Asad ad-Din Shirkuh, an important military commander under the amir Nureddin, son and successor of Zangi. During three military expeditions led by Shirkuh into Egypt to prevent its falling to the Latin-Christian (Frankish) rulers of the states established by the First Crusade, a complex, three-way struggle developed between Amalric I, the Latin king of Jerusalem, Shawar, the powerful vizier of the Egyptian Fatimid caliph, and Shirkuh. After Shirkuh's death and after ordering Shawar's assassination, Saladin, in 1169 at the age of 31, was appointed both commander of the Syrian troops and vizier of Egypt.

His relatively quick rise to power must be attributed not only to the clannish nepotism of his Kurdish family but also to his own emerging talents. As vizier of Egypt, he received the title king (malik), although he was generally known as the sultan. Saladin's position was further enhanced when, in 1171, he abolished the Shi'i Fatimid caliphate, proclaimed a return to Sunnah in Egypt, and consequently became its sole ruler.

Although he remained for a time theoretically a vassal of Nureddin, that relationship ended with the Syrian emir's death in 1174. Using his rich agricultural possessions in Egypt as a financial base, Saladin soon moved into Syria with a small but strictly disciplined army to claim the regency on behalf of the young son of his former suzerain.
Soon, however, he abandoned this claim, and from 1174 until 1186 he zealously pursued a goal of uniting, under his own standard, all the Muslim territories of Syria, northern Mesopotamia, Palestine, and Egypt.

This he accomplished by skillful diplomacy backed when necessary by the swift and resolute use of military force. Gradually, his reputation grew as a generous and virtuous but firm ruler, devoid of pretense, licentiousness, and cruelty. In contrast to the bitter dissension and intense rivalry that had up to then hampered the Muslims in their resistance to the crusaders, Saladin's singleness of purpose induced them to rearm both physically and spiritually.

Saladin's every act was inspired by an intense and unwavering devotion to the idea of jihad ("holy war")-the Muslim equivalent of the Christian crusade. It was an essential part of his policy to encourage the growth and spread of Muslim religious institutions.

He courted its scholars and preachers, founded colleges and mosques for their use, and commissioned them to write edifying works especially on the jihad itself. Through moral regeneration, which was a genuine part of his own way of life, he tried to re-create in his own realm some of the same zeal and enthusiasm that had proved so valuable to the first generations of Muslims when, five centuries before, they had conquered half the known world.

Saladin also succeeded in turning the military balance of power in his favour-more by uniting and disciplining a great number of unruly forces than by employing new or improved military techniques. When at last, in 1187, he was able to throw his full strength into the struggle with the Latin crusader kingdoms, his armies were their equals. On July 4, 1187, aided by his own military good sense and by a phenomenal lack of it on the part of his enemy, Saladin trapped and destroyed in one blow an exhausted and thirst-crazed army of crusaders at Hattin, near Tiberias in northern Palestine.

So great were the losses in the ranks of the crusaders in this one battle that the Muslims were quickly able to overrun nearly the entire Kingdom of Jerusalem. Acre, Toron, Beirut, Sidon, Nazareth, Caesarea, Nabulus, Jaffa (Yafo), and Ascalon (Ashqelon) fell within three months.

But Saladin's crowning achievement and the most disastrous blow to the whole crusading movement came on Oct. 2, 1187, when Jerusalem, holy to both Muslim and Christian alike, surrendered to the Sultan's army after 88 years in the hands of the Franks. In stark contrast to the city's conquest by the Christians, when blood flowed freely during the barbaric slaughter of its inhabitants, the Muslim reconquest was marked by the civilized and courteous behaviour of Saladin and his troops. His sudden success, which in 1189 saw the crusaders reduced to the occupation of only three cities, was, however, marred by his failure to capture Tyre, an almost impregnable coastal fortress to which the scattered Christian survivors of the recent battles flocked. It was to be the rallying point of the Latin counterattack.

Most probably, Saladin did not anticipate the European reaction to his capture of Jerusalem, an event that deeply shocked the West and to which it responded with a new call for a crusade. In addition to many great nobles and famous knights, this crusade, the third, brought the kings of three countries into the struggle.

The magnitude of the Christian effort and the lasting impression it made on contemporaries gave the name of Saladin, as their gallant and chivalrous enemy, an added lustre that his military victories alone could never confer on him.

The Crusade itself was long and exhausting, and, despite the obvious, though at times impulsive, military genius of Richard I the Lion-Heart, it achieved almost nothing. Therein lies the greatest-but often unrecognized--achievement of Saladin. With tired and unwilling feudal levies, committed to fight only a limited season each year, his indomitable will enabled him to fight the greatest champions of Christendom to a draw. The crusaders retained little more than a precarious foothold on the Levantine coast, and when King Richard set sail from the Orient in October 1192, the battle was over.

Saladin withdrew to his capital at Damascus. Soon, the long campaigning seasons and the endless hours in the saddle caught up with him, and he died. While his relatives were already scrambling for pieces of the empire, his friends found that the most powerful and most generous ruler in the Muslim world had not left enough money to pay for his own grave.

BIBLIOGRAPHY
H.A.R. Gibb, "The Arabic Sources for the Life of Saladin," Speculum, 25:58-72 (1950). C.W. Wilson's English translation of one of the most important Arabic works, The Life of Saladin (1897), was reprinted in 1971. The best biography to date is Stanley Lane-Poole, Saladin and the Fall of the Kingdom of Jerusalem, new ed. (1926, reprinted 1964), although it does not take account of all the sources.
See: http://stp.ling.uu.se/~kamalk/language/saladin.html
Ed. J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
1 commentsCleisthenes
235_P_Hadrian.jpg
3999 JUDAEA, Ascalon. Hadrian Ć 22mm 117-18 AD Tyche-Astarte19 viewsReference.
RPC III, 3999; Rosenberger 162-165; SNG ANS 713-716

Issue Year 221

Obv. ΑСΚΑΛΩ=CEBACTOC
Laureate head right.

Rev. ΑСΚΑΛΩ
Tyche-Astarte standing left on galley, holding scepter and aphlaston; altar to left; to right, dove left above A[KC] (date)
Uncertain date.

11.1 gr
22 mm
5h
okidoki
879_P_Hadrian_RPC4013A.jpg
4014A JUDAEA, Ascalon. Hadrian Ć 23 mm 131-32 ad Tyche-Astarte22 viewsReference.
RPC III, 4014A; De Saulcy 10; Yashin, Ascalon to Raphia, 191var

Issue Year 235

Obv. СƐΒΑСΤΟС
Laureate, draped, cuirassed bust right, seen from rear

Rev. ACKAΛω/ LΔ / ЄΛC
Tyche-Astarte standing right on galley, holding scepter and aphlaston; to left, incense altar; to right, dove in r. field.

12.54 gr
23 mm
12h

Note.
From the Collection of Steve Cooper
1 commentsokidoki
1139_P_Hadrian_RPC4017.jpg
4017 JUDAEA, Ascalon. Hadrian 132-33 AD war-god Phanebal15 viewsReference.
RPC III, 4017; BMC 187

Issue Year 236

Obverse inscription СΕΒΑСΤΟС
Laureate and draped head of Hadrian seen from rear, right

Rev. ΑС ΦΑΝΗΒΑΛ
(to l., Δ); to r., ϚΛC; war-god Phanebal, standing l., holding harpa (?) in r. hand and small round shield and long palm branch in l. hand

5.70 gr
19 mm
12h
1 commentsokidoki
IMG_9264.JPG
Alexander Balas10 viewsAlexander Balas, struck SE 166, 147-6 BC. Ascalon Mint. Diademed head r. / Zeus draped from waist, standing, facing, head left, extending right hand above civic initials and holding wreath. Date outer left. SC 1847, Spaer 1556.ecoli
ASCSALON.jpg
ASCALON141 viewsASCALON - AE-14, , time of Domitian. Dated Year 198 = 94-95 AD, which is the Local Asclon city Era. ACK, turreted & veiled bust of Tyche right / war galley right, date H9P above. Rosenberger 58. SNGANS 694, Hendin 826v.
MANY THANKS to Robert Brenchley, Salem Alshdaifat, & Jochen of Ancient Coin Forum, an d Avelino Nascimen of Forum dos Numismatas for help in identification!
dpaul7
ASCALON2.jpg
ASCALON39 viewsASCALON - AE-14, , time of Domitian. Dated Year 198 = 94-95 AD, which is the Local Asclon city Era. ACK, turreted & veiled bust of Tyche right / war galley right, date H9P above. Rosenberger 58. SNGANS 694, Hendin 826v. dpaul7
Ascalon Trajan.jpg
Ascalon (Ashkelon, Israel) - Trajan56 viewsCEBAC[TOC] , laureate bust of Trajan right.
ACLAΛΩ , female deity standing left holding standard and aphlaston (WTF ?) ; to the left, an altar ; to the right, a dove, and ΔIC : year 214 = 110-111 AD.
23 mm.

The dove is the sacred bird of the godess Derketo. The deity standing on this reverse may be a tyche, but may be Derketo too.
Ginolerhino
Ascalon.jpg
Ascalon Autonomous issue KC=AD116/7. Time of Trajan16 viewsAscalon Autonomous issue KC=AD116/7. Time of Trajan

Obverse. Head of Tyche right, turreted and veiled.

Reverse. War galley with oars left, above KC (year 220).

Ref. Yasmin Pg. 53 No. 171.
Canaan
20180201_125601.jpg
Ascalon, Caligula 37-41 Bronze27 viewsObv. Caligula head left.
Rev. City goddess holding a spear slightly to the left, an altar in front.
References: RPC 4882, BMC 27.116, 81 and Sear GIC 404.
25mm, 10.72 grams, Very rare.
1 commentsCanaan
trajan_ascalon.jpg
Ascalon, Judaea. AE 24, Tyche-Astarte standing left on galley, dove4 viewsTrajan, 25 January 98 - 8 or 9 August 117 A.D., Ascalon, Judaea. Bronze AE 24, SNG ANS 706 - 712, F, Ascalon mint, 13.99g, 24.4mm, 0o, obverse CEBA ( CTOS ), laureate head right; reverse ACKA“L”O, Tyche-Astarte standing left on galley holding scepter and aphlaston, altar left, dove and uncertain date right; nice patina; scarce. Ex FORVMPodiceps
410c.jpg
ascalon191-13 viewsElagabalus
Ascalon, Judaea

Obv: Laureate draped bust right.
Rev: Derketo standing on Triton, holding dove in right hand and cornucopia and scepter in left arm.
20 mm, 6.90 gms

Sofaer 191, Rosenberger 214
Charles M
402c.jpg
ascalon191-23 viewsElagabalus
Ascalon, Judaea

Obv: AVT K M A ANTWNεINOC. Laureate draped bust right.
Rev: Derketo standing on Triton, holding dove in right hand and cornucopia and scepter in left arm.
21 mm, 8.50 gms

Sofaer 191, Rosenberger 214
Charles M
1210.jpg
ascalon192-13 viewsElagabalus
Ascalon, Judaea

Obv: [AVT K M A] ANTW[NεINOC]. Laureate draped bust right.
Rev: ACKAΛW on left, BKT on right. Derketo standing on Triton, holding dove in right hand and scepter in left arm.
20 mm, 7.60 gms

Sofaer 192 Rosenberger 219
Charles M
ascalon.jpg
Ascalon; AE 14; Hendin 824; Tyche/ galley15 viewsAscalon, Judaea, c. 2nd Century A.D. Bronze AE 14, cf. Hendin 824; SGCV II 6079 var; BMC Palestine p. 112, 46 ff. var (various years), aF, Ascalon mint, 3.290g, 13.4mm, 0o, obverse turreted head of Tyche right, ACKA“L” before; reverse , war galley, uncertain date above. Askalon lies on the shore of the Mediterranean, ten miles north of Gaza and about 40 miles south of Joppa. Herod the Great ruled all of Palestine, except Askalon, which remained a free city. Ex FORVMPodiceps
BCC_m103-m107_galley.jpg
BCC M103 - M10764 viewsCaesarea Minimae
Five minute coins from Caesarea Maritima
Mint: Caesarea?
Obv:Head of Tyche, very worn.
Rev: Various styles of galley.

m103: 13.0x11.5mm 1.29gm. Axis:180 cf. Ham #61
m104: 13.5x13mm 0.97gm Axis:180 cf. Ham #65
m105: 12.5mm 1.25gm Axis:120 cf. Ham#62-64
m106: 10.5mm 0.69gm Axis:120 cf. Ham #65
m107: 10x9mm 0.47gm Axis:150 cf. Ham# 70

Hamburger suggested a date
of early through late 3rd century CE
and assigned this type to the mint
at Caesarea, based on the high number
of specimens found there. However, a
number of other cities on the coast,
including Ascalon and Tyre, also used
this type intheir official and semi-
autonomous coinage up until the early
2nd century. Any references to
recent studies would be appreciated.

H. Hamburger “Minute Coins from Caesarea
Maritima” Atiqot, Vol.1, 1954. #59-#74
v-drome
macrinus_ascalon.jpg
BCC rgp1128 viewsRoman Greek Provincial
Ascalon - Judaea
Macrinus 217-218 CE
Obv: AYT K[...MAKPEINOC?]
laureate, cuirassed, and draped bust of Macrinus right
Rev: ACKAΛ[...] AKT (year 321=217/ 218 CE)
Poseidon standing left, holding trident, dolphin at feet.
27x30mm. 19.91 gm. Axis:0
Rosenberger 206 Rare
v-drome
Askelon_rgp37.jpg
BCC rgp3731 viewsRoman Greek Provincial
Ascalon - Judaea
Autonomous 72/73CE
Under Vespasian
Obv: Bust of Tyche right
Rev: ςOP AΣ (year 176 )
Galley to right, date in field.
AE 15mm. 4.11gm. Axis:0
cf. SNG 6-681?
v-drome
ascalon_pius_BCC_rgp39.jpg
BCC rgp3928 viewsRoman Provincial
Ascalon - Judaea
Antoninus Pius 138-161CE
Obv: CEBACTOC ANTWNINOC
Laureate head right
Rev:ΑCΚΑΛWΝ
Phanebal standing facing,
with sword, shield, and palm branch.
to right date: ΒΞC (CY262=158/9CE)
15.5mm. 2.91gm. Axis:0
Possible ref: Rosenberger 187
v-drome
Claudius_AE_of_Ascalon,_Judea,_42-43_AD.JPG
Claudius AE of Ascalon, Judea, 42-43 AD30 viewsClaudius
Ascalon, Judea
AE 23 – 42-43 AD
ΣEBAΣTOΣ
Laureate head r.
AΣKAΛΩ
Tyche-Astarte standing l. on prow, holding sceptre and apulstre, altar to l., dove to r., GMP
RPC 4885, BMC 83
Ardatirion
224.jpg
Dioscuri stg. facing, hld. spears136 viewsUncertain mint. Uncertain emperor. Ć 25. 2nd century A.D. (?). Obv: Inscription illegible. Faint outline of imperial bust; countermark. Rev: Worn smooth. Weight: 8.93 g. CM: Dioscuri standing facing, holding spears, in rectangular punch 7 x 9 mm. Howgego 250 ? (1 pc!). Note: The only "Dioscuri standing" countermark noted by Howgego is applied to an Ascalon bronze from Septimius Severus, dated A.D. 197. Collection Automan.Automan
147.jpg
Domitian, AD 81-9652 viewsJUDAEA, Ascalon.

AE18, 18.47mm (5.90 gm).

ΣE, laureate head of Domitian left / AΣ ΘΠP, war-god Phanebal standing left, holding harpa in right hand and small round shield and long palm branch in left hand. Struck AD 85-86 (year 189).

RPC II, 2213; Rosenburger, 116; BMC, 129-131.
socalcoins
Askalon-Hadrian.jpg
Hadrian, (117-138 CE), Æ, city coin of Askelon33 viewsBronze of Hadrian, 117-138 CE, 10.97 grams, 23.5 mm. Struck at the mint of Ascalon in Judea, 116/117 CE.

Obverse: CEBACTOC; Laureate bust right.
Reverse: ACKAΛΩ; City Goddess standing left on prow, holding standard & aphlaston, altar in field to left, dove to right, AK in field.

Reference: Rosenberger 144, SNG ANS 716.

Added to collection: June 13, 2006.
Daniel Friedman
223.jpg
Head (male) right196 viewsJUDAEA. Ascalon. Claudius. Ć.A.D. 52/53 (?). Obv: (ΣE)BAΣ(-T)OΣ. Laureate head left; cuntermark on head. Rev: (AΣKAΛΩ, GNP BP to right). Tyche-Astarte standing left on prow, holding sceptre and aplustre; to left altar, to right dove. Ref: RPC 4887. Axis: 360°. Weight: 10.36 g. Note: It may be assumed that the coin depicts Claudius, since all four specimens noted by Howgego bearing this countermark are from that emperor. CM: Male head right, in rectangular punch, circa 8 x 10 mm. Howgego 143 (4 pcs). Collection Automan.Automan
20191012_004615.png
Judaea, Ascalon 1st Century B.C4 viewsObverse: Veiled and Turreted head of Tyche, border of dots.

Reverse: War-galley right with oars, dot (shield) and AC above, border of dots.

Canaan
askalon.jpg
Judaea, Ascalon AE14. War galley24 viewsObv: Turreted & veiled bust of Tyche right.
Rev: War galley right, date H9P above.
Dated Year 198 = 94-95 AD. Time of Domitian.
Rosenberger 58.
ancientone
askalonPius.jpg
Judaea, Ascalon. Antoninus Pius AE16. Phanebal33 viewsObv: laureate head of Antoninus Pius, r.
Rev: AC ΦΑ ΝΗΒΑΛΟC. Date in left field NC=AD 146/7. Helmeted war-deity Phanebalos standing l., brandishing harpa, holding shield and palm-branch.
Yashin 208, SNG ANS 725var (date).

Thanks to Snegovic for help with attribution.
ancientone
Judaea,_Ascalon__Domitian,_81-96_AD__AE_23mm.jpg
Judaea, Ascalon. Domitian, 81-96 AD. AE 23mm 52 viewsJudaea, Ascalon. Domitian, 81-96 AD. AE 23mm (12.22 gm). Year 189, 85/6 AD. Obv.: [CEBACTOC], laureate head r. Rev.: ACKA[ΛΟ]/ ΘΠP/ B[E], Tyche-Astarte stg. l. on galley, holding scepter and aphlaston; to l., altar; to r., dove. SNG ANS 7698; Yashin, Ascalon to Raphia, 120. Nice very fine.

ex. Tom Vossen, Vcoins, November 2009.

5900
1 commentsAntonio Protti
IMG_0402.JPG
Judaea, Ascalon; Domitian 8 viewsDomitian. 81-96 AD. AE 15, 6.64g. Judaea, Ascalon, Year 198 = 94/5 AD. Obv: CEBAC Laureate head of Domitian right. Rx: Phanebal, god of war, standing left, wielding harpe above head in right hand and holding small round shield in left; on right AC, on left HYP. RPC 2216 BM 132. Rosenberger 119ecoli
bpP1I7Judaea.jpg
JUDAEA, City Coin of Ascalon, time of Hadrian49 viewsObv: CEBA
Laureate head of Hadrian, right.
Rev: AIC
War god, Phanebolos, with sword and shield.
Ae20, 4.7 gm, 19.2 mm, 117-138 AD, ANS 714.
Comment: Attribution thanks to salem.
Massanutten
coins344.JPG
Judea, Ascalon; Nero14 viewsJUDAEA, Ascalon. Nero. AD 54-68. Ć 23mm (13.56 g, 12h). Dated CY 162 (AD 58/9). Laureate head left / Tyche-Astarte standing left on galley, holding standard and aphlaston; altar to left; dove above BXR (date) to right. RPC 4888; Rosenberger 100; Hendin -ecoli
nrpc4891OR.jpg
Nero, RPC I 489119 viewsAscalon, Gaza mint, Nero, 54-68 A.D. AE, 23mm 11.59g, RPC I 4891, BMC 93
O: ΣEBAΣTOΣ, laureate head, r.
R: AΣKAΛΩ, Tyche-Astarte standing, l., on prow holding sceptre and aplustre; to l. altar; to r., dove, to r., AOP
casata137ec
879_P_Hadrian_RPC4014A.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE PROVINCIAL, HADRIAN, JUDAEA, Ascalon. Ć 23 mm 131-32 ad Tyche-Astarte60 viewsReference.
RPC III, 4014A; De Saulcy --; Yashin, Ascalon to Raphia, --

Issue Year 235

Obv. СƐΒΑСΤΟС
Laureate, draped, cuirassed bust right, seen from rear

Rev. ACKAΛω/ LΔ / ЄΛC
Tyche-Astarte standing right on galley, holding scepter and aphlaston; to left, incense altar; to right, dove in r. field.

12.54 gr
23 mm
okidoki
cascalongus.jpg
ROMAN IMPERATORIAL, Brutus with Casca Longus, AR Denarius - Crawford 507/236 viewsRome, The Imperators.
Brutus with Casca Longus. 42 BCE.
AR Denarius (3.88g; 21mm).
Military mint, 42 BCE.

Obverse: CASCA LONGVS; Neptune's head facing right; trident below.

Reverse: BRVTVS IMP; Victory advancing right on broken scepter, holding filleted diadem and palm.

References: Crawford 507/2; HCRI 212; Sydenham1298 (R6); BMCRR (East) 63; Junia 44; Servilia 35.

Provenance: Ex V.L. Nummus Auction 12 (15 Sep 2019) Lot 68; Brüder Egger Auction 45 (12 Nov 1913) Lot 871.

Publius Servilius Casca Longus was one of the leading conspirators against Julius Caesar, and he was Tribune of the Plebs at the time of the assassination. Plutarch reports that a nervous Casca was the first to stab Caesar on the Ides of March with a glancing blow: “Casca gave him the first cut, in the neck, which was not mortal nor dangerous, as coming from one who at the beginning of such a bold action was probably very much disturbed. Caesar immediately turned about and laid his hand upon the dagger and kept hold of it. And both of them at the same time cried out, he that received the blow, in Latin, ‘Vile Casca, what does this mean?’ and he that gave it, in Greek, to his brother [Gaius] ‘Brother, help!’” [Plutarch: Lives of the noble Grecians and Romans, Arthur Clough (Ed.)] After Caesar’s assassination, Casca was given command of Brutus’ fleet. Nothing is known of Casca following the Battle of Philippi in October 42 BCE, where he likely perished or committed suicide in the aftermath.

The Neptune obverse refers to Casca’s naval command and the naval superiority of the conspirators before Philippi. Coins of the conspirators are replete with depictions of liberty and victory, and this coin is no exception. The reverse, with its broken scepter, clearly alludes to the assassins’ hope to eliminate monarchy in the Roman state and restore the Republic. Some authors have speculated that Victory is breaking the regal diadem on this type, although I don’t think that is abundantly clear.
8 commentsCarausius
RPC_II_2209_Titus.jpg
RPC II 2209 Titus41 viewsObv: ΣEBAΣTOΣ, Laureate head of Titus right
Rev: AΣKAΛΩ, Tyche standing left on prowwith standard and aphlaston; in left field incense altar; in right field dove standing left and ΔΠP (date)
AE26 (26.06 mm 16.899 g 12 h) Struck in Ascalon (Judaea) 80-81 A.D.
RPC II 2209
purchased on eBay from jerusalemhadaya2012
2 commentsFlaviusDomitianus
RPC_II_2212_Domitianus.jpg
RPC II 2212 Domitianus47 viewsObv: ΣEBAΣTOΣ, Laureate head of Domitian right
Rev: AΣKAΛΩ, Tyche standing left on prowwith standard and aphlaston; in left field incense altar; in right field dove standing left and ΘΠP (date)
AE23 (23.014 mm 13.018 g 12 h) Struck in Ascalon (Judaea) 85-86 A.D.
RPC II 2212
purchased on eBay from jerusalemhadaya2012
3 commentsFlaviusDomitianus
Saladin (Salah ad-Din Yusuf ibn Ayyub).jpg
Salah ad-Din Yusuf Ibn Ayyub71 viewsHis name in Arabic, in full, is SALAH AD-DIN YUSUF IBN AYYUB ("Righteousness of the Faith, Joseph, Son of Job"), also called AL-MALIK AN-NASIR SALAH AD-DIN YUSUF I (b. 1137/38, Tikrit, Mesopotamia--d. March 4, 1193, Damascus), Muslim sultan of Egypt, Syria, Yemen, and Palestine, founder of the Ayyubid dynasty, and the most famous of Muslim heroes.

In wars against the Christian crusaders, he achieved final success with the disciplined capture of Jerusalem (Oct. 2, 1187), ending its 88-year occupation by the Franks. The great Christian counterattack of the Third Crusade was then stalemated by Saladin's military genius.

Saladin was born into a prominent Kurdish family. On the night of his birth, his father, Najm ad-Din Ayyub, gathered his family and moved to Aleppo, there entering the service of 'Imad ad-Din Zangi ibn Aq Sonqur, the powerful Turkish governor in northern Syria. Growing up in Ba'lbek and Damascus, Saladin was apparently an undistinguished youth, with a greater taste for religious studies than military training.

His formal career began when he joined the staff of his uncle Asad ad-Din Shirkuh, an important military commander under the amir Nureddin, son and successor of Zangi. During three military expeditions led by Shirkuh into Egypt to prevent its falling to the Latin-Christian (Frankish) rulers of the states established by the First Crusade, a complex, three-way struggle developed between Amalric I, the Latin king of Jerusalem, Shawar, the powerful vizier of the Egyptian Fatimid caliph, and Shirkuh. After Shirkuh's death and after ordering Shawar's assassination, Saladin, in 1169 at the age of 31, was appointed both commander of the Syrian troops and vizier of Egypt.

His relatively quick rise to power must be attributed not only to the clannish nepotism of his Kurdish family but also to his own emerging talents. As vizier of Egypt, he received the title king (malik), although he was generally known as the sultan. Saladin's position was further enhanced when, in 1171, he abolished the Shi'i Fatimid caliphate, proclaimed a return to Sunnah in Egypt, and consequently became its sole ruler.

Although he remained for a time theoretically a vassal of Nureddin, that relationship ended with the Syrian emir's death in 1174. Using his rich agricultural possessions in Egypt as a financial base, Saladin soon moved into Syria with a small but strictly disciplined army to claim the regency on behalf of the young son of his former suzerain.
Soon, however, he abandoned this claim, and from 1174 until 1186 he zealously pursued a goal of uniting, under his own standard, all the Muslim territories of Syria, northern Mesopotamia, Palestine, and Egypt.

This he accomplished by skillful diplomacy backed when necessary by the swift and resolute use of military force. Gradually, his reputation grew as a generous and virtuous but firm ruler, devoid of pretense, licentiousness, and cruelty. In contrast to the bitter dissension and intense rivalry that had up to then hampered the Muslims in their resistance to the crusaders, Saladin's singleness of purpose induced them to rearm both physically and spiritually.

Saladin's every act was inspired by an intense and unwavering devotion to the idea of jihad ("holy war")-the Muslim equivalent of the Christian crusade. It was an essential part of his policy to encourage the growth and spread of Muslim religious institutions.

He courted its scholars and preachers, founded colleges and mosques for their use, and commissioned them to write edifying works especially on the jihad itself. Through moral regeneration, which was a genuine part of his own way of life, he tried to re-create in his own realm some of the same zeal and enthusiasm that had proved so valuable to the first generations of Muslims when, five centuries before, they had conquered half the known world.

Saladin also succeeded in turning the military balance of power in his favour-more by uniting and disciplining a great number of unruly forces than by employing new or improved military techniques. When at last, in 1187, he was able to throw his full strength into the struggle with the Latin crusader kingdoms, his armies were their equals. On July 4, 1187, aided by his own military good sense and by a phenomenal lack of it on the part of his enemy, Saladin trapped and destroyed in one blow an exhausted and thirst-crazed army of crusaders at Hattin, near Tiberias in northern Palestine.

So great were the losses in the ranks of the crusaders in this one battle that the Muslims were quickly able to overrun nearly the entire Kingdom of Jerusalem. Acre, Toron, Beirut, Sidon, Nazareth, Caesarea, Nabulus, Jaffa (Yafo), and Ascalon (Ashqelon) fell within three months.

But Saladin's crowning achievement and the most disastrous blow to the whole crusading movement came on Oct. 2, 1187, when Jerusalem, holy to both Muslim and Christian alike, surrendered to the Sultan's army after 88 years in the hands of the Franks. In stark contrast to the city's conquest by the Christians, when blood flowed freely during the barbaric slaughter of its inhabitants, the Muslim reconquest was marked by the civilized and courteous behaviour of Saladin and his troops. His sudden success, which in 1189 saw the crusaders reduced to the occupation of only three cities, was, however, marred by his failure to capture Tyre, an almost impregnable coastal fortress to which the scattered Christian survivors of the recent battles flocked. It was to be the rallying point of the Latin counterattack.

Most probably, Saladin did not anticipate the European reaction to his capture of Jerusalem, an event that deeply shocked the West and to which it responded with a new call for a crusade. In addition to many great nobles and famous knights, this crusade, the third, brought the kings of three countries into the struggle.

The magnitude of the Christian effort and the lasting impression it made on contemporaries gave the name of Saladin, as their gallant and chivalrous enemy, an added lustre that his military victories alone could never confer on him.

The Crusade itself was long and exhausting, and, despite the obvious, though at times impulsive, military genius of Richard I the Lion-Heart, it achieved almost nothing. Therein lies the greatest-but often unrecognized--achievement of Saladin. With tired and unwilling feudal levies, committed to fight only a limited season each year, his indomitable will enabled him to fight the greatest champions of Christendom to a draw. The crusaders retained little more than a precarious foothold on the Levantine coast, and when King Richard set sail from the Orient in October 1192, the battle was over.

Saladin withdrew to his capital at Damascus. Soon, the long campaigning seasons and the endless hours in the saddle caught up with him, and he died. While his relatives were already scrambling for pieces of the empire, his friends found that the most powerful and most generous ruler in the Muslim world had not left enough money to pay for his own grave.

BIBLIOGRAPHY
H.A.R. Gibb, "The Arabic Sources for the Life of Saladin," Speculum, 25:58-72 (1950). C.W. Wilson's English translation of one of the most important Arabic works, The Life of Saladin (1897), was reprinted in 1971. The best biography to date is Stanley Lane-Poole, Saladin and the Fall of the Kingdom of Jerusalem, new ed. (1926, reprinted 1964), although it does not take account of all the sources.
See: http://stp.ling.uu.se/~kamalk/language/saladin.html

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
Ascalon-Trajan.jpg
Trajan, (98 - 117 CE), Æ, Ascalon95 viewsBronze of Trajan, 117/118 CE, Struck at the mint of Ascalon in Judea, 23mm.

Obverse: CEBACTOS; Laureate head of Trajan right.
Reverse: ACKAΛS; Tyche Astarte standing left on galley, holding sceptre & aphlaston, altar in field to left, dove to right, Date AK = 117/118 CE, in field.

Reference: SNG ANS 712.

Added to collection: November 5, 2006
Daniel Friedman
     
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