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Search results - "drusus"
NeroDrususCaesars1.jpg
164 viewsStruck under Caligula. Nero and Drusus Caesars riding right, cloaks flying, NERO ET DRVSVS CAESARES / C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT around S-C. Rome mint, c. AD 37-38. RIC I 34 (pg. 110).2 commentssocalcoins
Drusus_As.jpg
3.5 Drusus21 viewsDRUSUS CAESAR
Æ As. Struck under Tiberius, 21-22 AD.

DRVSVS CAESAR TI AVG F DIVI AVG N, bare head left / PONTIF TRIBVN POTEST ITER around large S•C.

Cohen 2, RIC 45 (Tiberius), Cohen 2, BMC 99 VG/aF
RI0034
Sosius
Drusus_As_2.jpg
2.5 Drusus13 viewsAE AsSosius
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Drusus. Caesar, AD 19-23. Æ As (28mm, 10.63 g, 12h). Rome mint. Struck under Tiberius, AD 22-23. Bare head left / Legend around large S · C. RIC I 4525 viewsJoe Geranio Collection (anyone may use as long as credit is given) Drusus. Caesar, AD 19-23. Æ As (28mm, 10.63 g, 12h). Rome mint. Struck under Tiberius, AD 22-23. Bare head left / Legend around large S · C. RIC I 45 (Tiberius).1 commentsJoe Geranio
FC20.jpg
Nero & Drusus Caesar. Died AD 31 and 33, respectively. Æ Dupondius (28mm, 16.30 g, 6h). Rome mint. Struck under Gaius (Caligula), AD 37-38. Nero and Drusus on horseback21 viewsJoe Geranio Collection- (Anyone may use as long as credit is given-(Joe Geranio JCIA) Nero & Drusus Caesar. Died AD 31 and 33, respectively. Æ Dupondius (28mm, 16.30 g, 6h). Rome mint. Struck under Gaius (Caligula), AD 37-38. Nero and Drusus on horsebackJoe Geranio
tiberius_nero_drusus_resb.jpg
(03) TIBERIUS20 views14 - 37 AD
AE 28.5 mm; 11.46 g
O: His bare head left
R: Confronted heads of Caesars Nero and Drusus
Spain (Hispania Tarraconensis), Carthago Nova mint
cf RPC 179, SNG Cop 500 Scarce
laney
Denarius91BC.jpg
(501i) Roman Republic, D. Junius L.f. Silanus, 91 B.C.58 viewsSilver denarius, Syd 646a, RSC Junia 16, S 225 var, Cr 337/3 var, VF, 3.718g, 18.6mm, 0o, Rome mint, 91 B.C.; obverse head of Roma right in winged helmet, X (control letter) behind; reverse Victory in a biga right holding reins in both hands, V (control numeral) above, D•SILANVS / ROMA in ex; mint luster in recesses. Ex FORVM.

Although the coin itself does not commemorate the event, the date this coin was struck is historically significant.

MARCUS Livius DRUSUS (his father was the colleague of Gaius Gracchus in the tribuneship, 122 B.C.), became tribune of the people in 91 B.C. He was a thoroughgoing conservative, wealthy and generous, and a man of high integrity. With some of the more intelligent members of his party (such as Marcus Scaurus and L. Licinius Crassus the orator) he recognized the need of reform. At that time an agitation was going on for the transfer of the judicial functions from the equites to the senate; Drusus proposed as a compromise a measure which restored to the senate the office of judices, while its numbers were doubled by the admission of 300 equites. Further, a special commission was to be appointed to try and sentence all judices guilty of taking bribes.

The senate was hesitant; and the equites, whose occupation was threatened, offered the most violent opposition. In order, therefore, to catch the popular votes, Drusus proposed the establishment of colonies in Italy and Sicily, and an increased distribution of corn at a reduced rate. By help of these riders the bill was carried.

Drusus now sought a closer alliance with the Italians, promising them the long coveted boon of the Roman franchise. The senate broke out into open opposition. His laws were abrogated as informal, and each party armed its adherents for the civil struggle which was now inevitable. Drusus was stabbed one evening as he was returning home. His assassin was never discovered (http://62.1911encyclopedia.org/D/DR/DRUSUS_MARCUS_LIVIUS.htm).

The ensuing "Social War" (91-88 B.C.) would set the stage for the "Civil Wars" (88-87 & 82-81 B.C.) featuring, notably, Marius & Sulla; two men who would make significant impressions on the mind of a young Julius Caesar. Caesar would cross the Rubicon not thirty years later.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
3363LG.jpg
003a. Drusus136 viewsDrusus

Tiberius' son, Drusus Caesar, d. 23, called Drusus Junior, served in the provinces Pannonia ( 15) and in Illyricum ( 17? 20). In 22 he was made tribune. Meanwhile, Sejanus, Tiberius' minister, had become jealous of Drusus' power and tried to turn Tiberius against him. Drusus may have been poisoned by Sejanus or by his wife under Sejanus' influence.

As. Sear 2594, restitution issue by Titus. 10.0 g, 26x27 mm. Glossy dark green patina with slight roughness. OBV.: Drusus left, DRVSVS CAESAR TI AVG F DIVI AVG N. REV.: IMP T CAES DIVI VESP F AVG REST around SC.
1 commentsecoli73
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003b. Nero & Drusus Caesars33 viewsNero & Drusus Caesars, brothers of Caligula.

There father Germanicus was Heir Apparent to his own adoptive father Emperor Tiberius, but Germanicus predeceased the Emperor in 19. He was replaced as heir by Julius Caesar Drusus, son of Tiberius and his first wife Vipsania Agrippina. But he too predeceased the Emperor on July 1, 23.

Nero and his younger brother Drusus were the oldest adoptive grandsons of Tiberius. They jointly became Heirs Apparent. However, both were accused of treason along with their mother in AD 32. Nero was exiled to an island and Drusus in a prison where they either starved to death or was murdered by order of the emperor in AD 33.

Dupondius. Rome mint, struck under Caligula, 37-38 AD. NERO ET DRVSVS CAESARES, Nero & Drusus on horseback riding right / C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT around large S C.
Cohen 1. RIC 34

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ecoli
2090325.jpg
005d. Nero Claudius Drusus31 viewsNero Claudius Drusus. Died 9 BC. Æ Sestertius (35mm, 27.77 g, 6h). Rome mint. Struck under Claudius, circa AD 50-54. Bare head of Nero Claudius left / Claudius seated left on curule chair, holding branch and roll; around chair, weapons and armor to either side of globe. RIC I 109 (Claudius). Fine, rough reddish-brown surfaces.

Ex-CNG sale 209, lot 325 128/100

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ecoli
8.jpg
008 Drusus. AE as 11.4gm34 viewsobv: DRVSVS CAESAR TI AVG F DIVI AVG N bare head l.
rev: PONTIF TRIBVN POTESTITER/SC in center
"son of tiberus and Vispania"
1 commentshill132
9.jpg
009 Nero Claudius Drusus. AE sest. 39 viewsobv: NERO CLAVDIVS DRVSVS GERMANICUS IMP bare head l.
rev: TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG PM TR P IMP Claudius seated l. on curule chair,
weapons and armer lying around
"brother of Tiberius"
1 commentshill132
Personajes_Imperiales_1.jpg
01 - Personalities of the Empire82 viewsPompey, Brutus, Julius Caesar, Marc Antony, Augustus, Livia, Caius & Lucius, Agrippa, Nero Claudius Drusus, Germanicus, Agrippina Sr., Tiberius, Drusus and Antonia1 commentsmdelvalle
10a.jpg
010a Antonia. AE dupondus 14.4gm30 viewsrev: ANTONIA AVGVSTA drp. bust r.
rev: TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG PM TR P Imp. Claudius veiled and togate std. l.,
r. holding simpulem/ SC
"doughter of M. Antony, wife of N.C Drusus"
hill132
11a.jpg
011a Germanicus. AE As 10.96gm38 viewsobv: GERMANICVS CAESAR TI AVG F DIVI AVG N bare head l.
rev: C CAESAR DIVI AVG PRON AVG PM TR P IIII PP/SC
"son of N.C.Drusus and Antonia"
1 commentshill132
IMG_8168~0.JPG
016. Germanicus, son of Drusus, adopted by Tiberius (15 B.C.–19 A.D.) 19 viewsAv.: GERMANICVS CAESAR TI AVG F DIVI AVG N
Rv.: C CAESAR DIVI AVG PRON AVG PM TR P III PP / S-C

AE As Ø27 / 11.6g
RIC 43 Rome, BMC 60, BN 106
Juancho
IMG_7130.JPG
018. Drusus, son of Tiberius (Died 23 A.D.)25 viewsAv.: DRVSVS CAESAR TI AVG F DIVI AVG N
Rv.: PONTIF TRIBVN POTEST ITER / S-C

AE As Ø29 / 10.8g
RIC 45 Rome, Cohen 2
Juancho
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021 Drusus15 viewsDrusus Caesar Æ As. Struck under Tiberius, 21-22 AD. DRVSVS CAESAR TI AVG F DIVI AVG N, bare head left / PONTIF TRIBVN POTEST ITER around large S•C.
RIC 45 (Tiberius), Cohen 2, BMC 99
Randygeki(h2)
c3947.JPG
040 Claudius39 viewsClaudius Æ As. TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP, bare head left / LIBERTAS AVGVSTA S-C, Libertas standing facing, with pileus and extending left hand. Cohen 47.




"Claudius was born at Lugdunum, in the consulship of Iullus Antonius and Fabius Africanus, on August 1st, 10 B.C., the very day when the first altar was dedicated there to Augustus the God; and he was given the name Tiberius Claudius Drusus. Subsequently he assumed the surname Germanicus after his brother had been admitted into the Julian House as Tiberius's adopted son."
Randygeki(h2)
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041 Germanicus 18 viewsGermanicus Æ As struck under Claudius. GERMANICVS CAESAR TI AVG F DIVI AVG N, bare head right / TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG GERM P M TR P IMP P P around S-C



"Germanicus, Father of Gaius Caesar(Caligula), son of Drusus and Antonia the Younger, was adopted by Tiberius, his paternal uncle."
Randygeki(h2)
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042 Nero Claudius Drusus26 viewsNero Claudius Drusus AE Sestertius. NERO CLAVDIVS DRVSVS GERMANICVS IMP, bare head left / TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP, Claudius, togate, seated left on curule chair, holding branch; arms lying around; SC in ex.




"When, three months after her marriage to Augustus, Livia gave birth to Decimus (later Nero) Drusus - the father of the future Emperor Claudius - people naturally suspected that he was the product of adultry with his stepfather."
Randygeki(h2)
Druso_AS.jpg
05 - 10 - DRUSO (20 - 23 D.C.)132 viewsAE AS 28.65 mm 10.05 gr.
Emisión póstuma restituida por su padre Tiberio

Anv: "DRVSVS CAESAR TI AVG F DIVI AVG N" - Busto a cabeza desnuda viendo a izquierda.
Rev: "PONTIF TRIBVN POTEST ITER" - Leyenda alrededor de gran "S C ".

Acuñada 23 D.C.
Ceca: Roma

Referencias: RIC Vol.1 (Tiberio) #45 - Sear RCTV Vol.1 #1794 - BMCRE #99 - Cohen Vol.1 #2
1 commentsmdelvalle
RIC_45_AS_Druso_Cesar.jpg
05 - 10 - DRUSO (20 - 23 D.C.)15 viewsAE AS 28.65 mm 10.05 gr.
Emisión póstuma restituida por su padre Tiberio

Anv: "DRVSVS CAESAR TI AVG F DIVI AVG N" - Busto a cabeza desnuda viendo a izquierda.
Rev: "PONTIF TRIBVN POTEST ITER" - Leyenda alrededor de gran "S C ".

Acuñada 23 D.C.
Ceca: Roma

Referencias: RIC Vol.I (Tiberio) #45 Pag.97 - Sear RCTV Vol.1 #1794 Pag.354 - BMCRE (Tiberius) #99 - Cohen Vol.1 #2 Pag.217 - CBN (Tiberius) #78
mdelvalle
RPC_71_Semis_Druso_ITALICA.jpg
05 - 40 - Cnia. Itálica - DRUSO (20 - 23 D.C.)28 viewsAE Semis 23 mm 4.95 gr.

Anv: "DRVSVS CAESAR TI AVG F" (Leyenda anti-horaria), Cabeza desnuda viendo a derecha.
Rev: Aquila (Águila Legionaria) y Vexillum (Estandarte) entre dos Signa (Insignias militares), "MUNIC ITALIC" (Leyenda anti-horaria), "PE-R / AV-G" en campo centro.

Acuñada 20 - 23 D.C.
Ceca: Cnia. Municipium Itálica, Hispania (Hoy Saltiponce, Sevilla, España)

Referencias: RPC #71, SNG Cop #419, ACIP #3340, Vives Pl.CLXVIII #12, ABH #1596, FAB #1685 P.205, Sear GICV #338 P.31, RAH #2012-20 Pag. 259/60 - DC y P #3 Pag.215, Cohen I #9 Pag.218, Heiss #10 Pag.380
mdelvalle
RIC_92_Dupondio_Antonia.jpg
12-01 - ANTONIA (36 A.C. - 37 D.C.)22 viewsAE Dupondio 27 mm 10.2 gr. (IMITACIÓN PROVINCIAL)
Hija de Marco Antonio y Octavia, nieta de Augusto, esposa de Nero Claudius Drusus y madre de Germánico y Claudio. Emisión póstuma acuñada por su hijo Claudio

Anv: "ANTONIA [AVG]VSTA" - Busto vestido viendo a derecha.
Rev: "TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG PM [TR P] IMP - S C" - Claudio de pié a izquierda, vistiendo toga y velo, portando Simpulum en mano derecha extendida y pergamino enrollado en izquierda.

Acuñada 41 - 42 D.C.
Ceca: Inicialmente acreditada por mí a Roma, pero finalmente corregida esta acreditación por el Sr. Curtis Clay como una imitación Provincial.

Referencias: RIC Vol.1 #92 Pag.127 - Sear RCTV Vol.1 (Claudius) #1902 Pag.375 - BMCRE #166 - Cohen Vol.1 #6 Pag.223 - DVM #3 Pag.77 - CBN (Claudius) #143 - Von Kaenel Tipo 15 #292 (V216/R262)
mdelvalle
Dupondio ANTONIA RIC 92.jpg
12-1 - ANTONIA (36 A.C. - 37 D.C.)70 viewsAE Dupondio 27 mm 10.2 gr. (IMITACIÓN PROVINCIAL)
Hija de Marco Antonio y Octavia, nieta de Augusto, esposa de Nero Claudius Drusus y madre de Germánico y Claudio. Emisión póstuma acuñada por su hijo Claudio

Anv: "ANTONIA [AVG]VSTA" - Busto vestido viendo a derecha.
Rev: "TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG PM [TR P] IMP - S C" - Claudio de pié a izquierda, vistiendo toga y velo, portando Simpulum en mano derecha extendida y pergamino enrollado en izquierda.

Acuñada 41 - 42 D.C.
Ceca: Inicialmente acreditada por mí a Roma, pero finalmente corregida esta acreditación por el Sr. Curtis Clay como una imitación Provincial.

Referencias: RIC Vol.1 #92 Pag.127 - Sear RCTV Vol.1 (Claudius) #1902 Pag.375 - BMCRE #166 - Cohen Vol.1 #6 Pag.223 - DVM #3 Pag.77 - CBN (Claudius) #143 - Von Kaenel Tipo 15 #292 (V216/R262)
mdelvalle
drusus as.jpg
14-37 AD - DRUSUS memorial AE As - struck under Tiberius (23 AD)50 viewsobv: DRVSVS CAESAR TI AVG F DIVI AVG N (bare head left)
rev: PONTIF TRIBVN POTEST ITER around large S-C
ref: RIC I 45 (Tiberius), C.2 (2frcs)
10.14gms, 29mm

Drusus (also called Drusus Junior or Drusus the Younger), the only son of Tiberius, became heir to the throne after the death of Germanicus. One of his famous act connected to the mutiny in Pannonia, what broke out when the death of Augustus (19 August 14) was made known. Drusus left Rome to deal with the mutiny before the session of the Senate on the 17 September, when Tiberius was formally adopted him as princeps. He have reached the military camp in Pannonia in the time for the eclipse of the moon in the early hours of the 27 September wich so daunted the mutineers. He was also governor of Illyricum from 17 to 20 AD. Ancient sources concur that Livilla, his wife poisoned him.
berserker
DrususAsSC.jpg
1am Drusus22 viewsHeir to throne until assassination by Sejanus in 23

As

Bare head, left, DRVSVS CAESAR TI AVG F DIVI AVG N
PONTIF TRIBVN POTEST ITER SC

RIC 45

Nero Claudius Drusus, later adopted as Drusus Julius Caesar (13BC - 23AD), called Drusus the Younger, was the only child of Tiberius and his first wife, Vipsania Agrippina. Tiberius and Drusus delivered the only two eulogies for Augustus in front of the temple to the god Julius. In 14, after the death of Augustus, Drusus suppressed a mutiny in Pannonia. In 15 he became consul. He governed Illyricum from 17 to 20. In 21 he was again consul, while in 22 he received tribunicia potestas (tribunician power), a distinction reserved solely for the emperor or his immediate successor. Drusus married his paternal cousin Livilla in 4. Their daughter Julia was born shortly after. Their son Tiberius Gemellus (his twin brother Germanicus Gemellus died in infancy) was born in 19. By 23 Drusus, who made no secret of his antipathy towards Sejanus, looked likely to succeed Tiberius as emperor. Sources concur that with Livilla as his accomplice Sejanous poisoned her husband Drusus.

Suetonius says, "He lacked affection not only for his adopted son Germanicus, but even for his own son Drusus the Younger, whose vices were inimical to him, Drusus indeed pursing loose and immoral ways. So inimical, that Tiberius seemed unaffected by his death (in 23AD), and quickly took up his usual routine after the funeral, cutting short the period of mourning. When a deputation from Troy offered him belated condolences, he smiled as if at a distant memory, and offered them like sympathy for the loss of their famous fellow-citizen Hector!"
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GermanicusAsSC.jpg
1an Germanicus36 viewsAdopted by Tiberius in 4 AD, died mysteriously in 19

As, struck by Caligula

Bare head, left, GERMANICVS CAESAR TI AVGVST F DIVI AVG N
C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT SC

RIC 57

Germanicus Julius Caesar (c16 BC-AD 19) was was born in Lugdunum, Gaul (modern Lyon). At birth he was named either Nero Claudius Drusus after his father or Tiberius Claudius Nero after his uncle. He received the agnomen Germanicus, in 9 BC, when it was posthumously awarded to his father in honour of his victories in Germania. Germanicus was the grandson-in-law and great-nephew of the Emperor Augustus, nephew and adoptive son of the Emperor Tiberius, father of the Emperor Caligula, brother of the Emperor Claudius, and the maternal grandfather of the Emperor Nero. He married his maternal second cousin Agrippina the Elder, a granddaughter of Augustus, between 5 and 1 BC. The couple had nine children. Two died very young; another, Gaius Julius Caesar, died in early childhood. The remaining six were: Nero Caesar, Drusus Caesar, the Emperor Caligula, the Empress Agrippina the Younger, Julia Drusilla, and Julia Livilla.

According to Suetonius: Germanicus, who was the son of Drusus the Elder and Antonia the Younger, was adopted (in 4AD) by Germanicus’s paternal uncle, Tiberius. He served as quaestor (in7AD) five years before the legal age and became consul (in12AD) without holding the intermediate offices. On the death of Augustus (in AD14) he was appointed to command the army in Germany, where, his filial piety and determination vying for prominence, he held the legions to their oath, though they stubbornly opposed Tiberius’s succession, and wished him to take power for himself.

He followed this with victory in Germany, for which he celebrated a triumph (in 17 AD), and was chosen as consul for a second time (18 AD) though unable to take office as he was despatched to the East to restore order there. He defeated the forces of the King of Armenia, and reduced Cappadocia to provincial status, but then died at Antioch, at the age of only thirty-three (in AD 19), after a lingering illness, though there was also suspicion that he had been poisoned. For as well as the livid stains which covered his body, and the foam on his lips, the heart was found entire among the ashes after his cremation, its total resistance to flame being a characteristic of that organ, they say, when it is filled with poison.

All considered Germanicus exceptional in body and mind, to a quite outstanding degree. Remarkably brave and handsome; a master of Greek and Latin oratory and learning; singularly benevolent; he was possessed of a powerful desire and vast capacity for winning respect and inspiring affection.

His scrawny legs were less in keeping with the rest of his figure, but he gradually fleshed them out by assiduous exercise on horseback after meals. He often killed enemy warriors in hand-to-hand combat; still pleaded cases in the courts even after receiving his triumph; and left various Greek comedies behind amongst other fruits of his studies.

At home and abroad his manners were unassuming, such that he always entered free or allied towns without his lictors.

Whenever he passed the tombs of famous men, he always offered a sacrifice to their shades. And he was the first to initiate a personal search for the scattered remains of Varus’s fallen legionaries, and have them gathered together, so as to inter them in a single burial mound.

As for Germanicus, Tiberius appreciated him so little, that he dismissed his famous deeds as trivial, and his brilliant victories as ruinous to the Empire. He complained to the Senate when Germanicus left for Alexandria (AD19) without consulting him, on the occasion there of a terrible and swift-spreading famine. It was even believed that Tiberius arranged for his poisoning at the hands of Gnaeus Calpurnius Piso, the Governor of Syria, and that Piso would have revealed the written instructions at his trial, had Tiberius not retrieved them during a private interview, before having Piso put to death. As a result, the words: ‘Give us back Germanicus!’ were posted on the walls, and shouted at night, all throughout Rome. The suspicion surrounding Germanicus’ death (19 AD) was deepened by Tiberius’s cruel treatment of Germanicus’s wife, Agrippina the Elder, and their children.
1 commentsBlindado
Caligula_Drusilla_AE20.jpg
1ao3 Julia Drusilla33 viewsAE 20 of Smyrna (Izmir, Turkey)
Laureate head of Caligula, right, ΓAION KAICAPA EΠI AOYIOΛA
Drusilla as Persephone seated left, poppies between two stalks of grain in right hand, long scepter vertical behind in left hand, ∆POYCIΛΛAN ZMYPNAIΩN MHNOΦANHC

Caligula’s sister

Klose XXVIII, 27 (Vs4/Rs10); RPC I 2472; SNG Cop 1343; SNGvA 2202; BMC Ionia p. 269, 272

According to Suetonius’ salacious account: Germanicus had married Agrippina the Elder, daughter of Marcus Agrippa and Julia the Elder, and she had borne him nine children. Two died in infancy, another in early childhood. . . .

The other children survived their father: three girls, Agrippina the Younger, Drusilla and Livilla, born in successive years; and three boys, Nero, Drusus, and Gaius Caesar (Caligula). . . . [Caligula] habitually committed incest with each of his three sisters, seating them in turn below him at large banquets while his wife reclined above. It is believed that he violated Drusilla’s virginity while a minor, and been caught in bed with her by his grandmother Antonia, in whose household they were jointly raised. Later, when Drusilla was married to Lucius Cassius Longinus, an ex-consul, he took her from him and openly treated her as his lawful married wife. When he fell ill he made her heir to his estate and the throne.

When Drusilla died (in 38AD) he declared a period of public mourning during which it was a capital offense to laugh, or bathe, or to dine with parents, spouse or children. Caligula himself was so overcome with grief that he fled the City in the middle of the night, and travelled through Campania, and on to Syracuse, returning again with the same degree of haste, and without cutting his hair or shaving. From that time forwards whenever he took an important oath, even in public or in front of the army, he always swore by Drusilla’s divinity.
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ClaudiusAsLibertas.jpg
1ap Claudius29 views41-54

As
Bare head, left, TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP
Libertas, LIBERTAS AVGVSTA SC

RIC 97

According to Suetonius: Claudius was born at Lugdunum (Lyon) on the 1st of August 10BC in the consulship of Iullus Antonius and Fabius Africanus, on the day when the very first altar to Augustus was dedicated there, the child being given the name Tiberius Claudius Drusus. When his elder brother Germanicus was adopted into the Julian family (in 4 AD), he added the name Germanicus also. He lost his father when still an infant (in 9 BC), and throughout his childhood and youth was severely afflicted by various stubborn ailments so that his mind and body lacked vigour, and even when he attained his majority he was not considered capable of a public or private career.

Nevertheless, he applied himself to liberal studies from his earliest youth, and often published examples of his proficiency in each area, though even so he was excluded from public office and failed to inspire any brighter hopes for his future. His mother Antonia the Younger often condemned him as an unfinished freak of Nature, and when accusing someone of stupidity would say: ‘He’s a bigger fool than my son Claudius.’ His grandmother Augusta (Livia) always treated him with utter contempt, and rarely even spoke to him, admonishing him, when she chose to do so, in brief harsh missives, or via her messengers. When his sister Livilla heard the prophecy that he would be Emperor some day, she prayed openly and loudly that Rome might be spared so cruel and unmerited a fate.

Having spent the larger part of his life in such circumstances, he became emperor at the age of fifty (in AD41) by a remarkable stroke of fate. Caligula’s assassins had dispersed the crowd on the pretext that the Emperor wished for solitude, and Claudius, shut out with the rest, retired to a room called the Hermaeum, but shortly afterwards, terrified by news of the murder, crept off to a nearby balcony and hid behind the door-curtains. A Guard, who was wandering about the Palace at random, spotting a pair of feet beneath the curtain where Claudius was cowering, dragged the man out to identify him, and as Claudius fell to the ground in fear, recognised him, and acclaimed him Emperor.

Eutropius summarizes: His reign was of no striking character; he acted, in many respects, with gentleness and moderation, in some with cruelty and folly. He made war upon Britain, which no Roman since Julius Caesar had visited; and, having reduced it through the agency of Cnaeus Sentius and Aulus Plautius, illustrious and noble men, he celebrated a magnificent triumph. Certain islands also, called the Orcades, situated in the ocean, beyond Britain, he added to the Roman empire, and gave his son the name of Britannicus. . . . He lived to the age of sixty-four, and reigned fourteen years; and after his death was consecrated3 and deified.

This was the first "good" coin I ever bought and therefore marks the begiining of an addiction.
Blindado
ClaudiusMessalinaAE20.jpg
1ap_2 Messalina36 viewsThird wife of Claudius, married in 38 (?)

AE 20, Knossos mint

Bare head of Claudius left, CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS

Draped bust of Messalina right, VALERIA MESSALINA [CAPITONE CYTHERONTE IIVIR] or [CYTHERO CAPITONE] (end of legend off flan)

According to Suetonius: [Claudius] was betrothed twice at an early age: to Aemilia Lepida, great-granddaughter of Augustus, and to Livia Medullina, who also had the surname of Camilla and was descended from the ancient family of Camillus the dictator. He put away the former before their marriage, because her parents had offended Augustus; the latter was taken ill and died on the very day which had been set for the wedding. He then married Plautia Urgulanilla, whose father had been honoured with a triumph, and later Aelia Paetina, daughter of an ex-consul. He divorced both these, Paetina for trivial offences, but Urgulanilla because of scandalous lewdness and the suspicion of murder. Then he married Valeria Messalina, daughter of his cousin Messala Barbatus. But when he learned that besides other shameful and wicked deeds she had actually married Gaius Silius, and that a formal contract had been signed in the presence of witnesses, he put her to death and declared before the assembled praetorian guard that inasmuch as his marriages did not turn out well, he would remain a widower, and if he did not keep his word, he would not refuse death at their hands. . . . [He later married Agrippina Jr.]

He had children by three of his wives: by Urgulanilla, Drusus and Claudia; by Paetina, Antonia; by Messalina, Octavia and a son, at first called Germanicus and later Britannicus. . . .

But it is beyond all belief, that at the marriage which Messalina had contracted with her paramour Silius he signed the contract for the dowry with his own hand, being induced to do so on the ground that the marriage was a feigned one, designed to avert and turn upon another a danger which was inferred from certain portents to threaten the emperor himself. . . .

He was so terror-stricken by unfounded reports of conspiracies that he had tried to abdicate. When, as I have mentioned before, a man with a dagger was caught near him as he was sacrificing, he summoned the senate in haste by criers and loudly and tearfully bewailed his lot, saying that there was no safety for him anywhere; and for a long time he would not appear in public. His ardent love for Messalina too was cooled, not so much by her unseemly and insulting conduct, as through fear of danger, since he believed that her paramour Silius aspired to the throne. . . .

Appius Silanus met his downfall. When Messalina and Narcissus had put their heads together to destroy him, they agreed on their parts and the latter rushed into his patron's bed-chamber before daybreak in pretended consternation, declaring that he had dreamed that Appius had made an attack on the emperor. Then Messalina, with assumed surprise, declared that she had had the same dream for several successive nights. A little later, as had been arranged, Appius, who had received orders the day before to come at that time, was reported to be forcing his way in, and as if were proof positive of the truth of the dream, his immediate accusation and death were ordered. . . .


1 commentsBlindado
VitelliusDenVesta.jpg
1av Vitellius42 views69

Denarius
Portrait, right, A VITELLIVS GERMAN IMP TR P
Vesta std., PONT MAX

RIC 107

According to Suetonius: Lucius’s son Aulus, the future emperor, was born on the 24th of September 15AD, or according to some authorities on the 7th, during the consulship of Drusus Caesar and Norbanus Flaccus. . . . His boyhood and early youth were spent on Capreae (Capri) among Tiberius’s creatures, he himself being marked by the nickname of ‘Spintria’ (sex-token) throughout his life, and suspected of having secured his father’s first promotion to office by surrendering his own chastity. As he grew older, though contaminated by every kind of vice, Vitellius gained and kept a prominent place at court, winning Caligula’s friendship by his devotion to chariot-racing and Claudius’s by his love of dice. With Nero he was even closer. . . .

Honoured, as these emperors’ favourite, with high office in the priesthood, as well as political power, he governed Africa (under Nero, in 60/61AD) as proconsul, and was then Curator of Public Works (in 63AD), employing a contrasting approach, and with a contrasting effect on his reputation. In his province he acted with outstanding integrity over two successive years, since he served as deputy also to his brother who succeeded him (61/62AD) yet during his administration of the City he was said to have stolen various temple offerings and ornaments, and substituted brass and tin for the gold and silver in others. . . .

Contrary to all expectations, Galba appointed Vitellius to Lower Germany (in 68AD). Some think it was brought about by Titus Vinius, whose influence was powerful at that time, and whose friendship Vitellius had previously won through their mutual support for the ‘Blues’ in the Circus. But it is clear to everyone that Galba chose him as an act of contempt rather than favour, commenting that gluttons were among those least to be feared, and Vitellius’s endless appetite would now be able to sate itself on a province. . . .

He entered Rome to the sound of trumpets, surrounded by standards and banners, wearing a general’s cape, sword at his side, his officers in their military cloaks also, and the men with naked blades. With increasing disregard for the law, human or divine, he then assumed the office of High Priest on the anniversary of the Allia (18th July), arranged the elections for the next ten years, and made himself consul for life. . . .

Vitellius’s worst vices were cruelty and gluttony. . . . By the eighth month of his reign (November 69AD) the legions in Moesia and Pannonia had repudiated Vitellius, and sworn allegiance to Vespasian despite his absence, following those of Syria and Judaea who had done so in Vespasian’s presence. . . .

The vanguard of Vespasian’s army had now forced its way into the Palace, unopposed, and the soldiers were ransacking the rooms, in their usual manner. They hauled Vitellius, unrecognised, from his hiding place, asked his name and where the Emperor might be. He gave some lying answer, but was soon identified, so he begged for safe custody, even if that meant imprisonment, claiming he had important information for Vespasian regarding his security. However his arms were bound behind him and a noose flung over his head, and he was dragged along the Sacred Way to the Forum, amid a hail of mockery and abuse, half-naked, with his clothes in tatters. His head was held back by the hair, like a common criminal and, with a sword-point under his chin so that he was forced to look up and reveal his face, he was pelted with filth and dung, denounced as arsonist and glutton, and taunted with his bodily defects by the crowd. For, Vitellius was exceptionally tall, and his face was usually flushed from some drinking bout. He had a huge belly, too, and one thigh crippled by a blow from a four-horse chariot which struck him when he was in attendance on Caligula who was driving. At last, after being tormented by a host of cuts from the soldiers’ swords, he was killed on the Gemonian Stairs, and his body dragged with a hook to the Tiber.
1 commentsBlindado
antonia_AE17_RPC1582.jpg
41-54 AD - ANTONIA AE16 of Thessalonica - struck under Claudius 29 viewsobv: ANTWNIA (draped bust right, hair tied in queue down neck)
rev: TECCALO-NEIKEWN (Nike on globe left, holding wreath and palm)
ref: RPC 1582, SNG ANS 840
mint: Thessalonica, Macedonia
4.74 gms, 16 mm
Very rare - original green patina

Antonia was daughter of Marc Antony and Octavia, wife of Nero Claudius Drusus, sister-in-law of Tiberius, mother of Claudius, and grandmother of Caligula.
berserker
Nero Claudius Drusus sest - R.jpg
41-54 AD - NERO CLAUDIUS DRUSUS AE Sestertius - struck under Claudius (42-43 AD)38 viewsobv: NERO CLAVDIVS DRVSVS GERMANICVS IMP (bare head of Drusus left)
rev: TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP P P (Claudius, togate, holding laurel branch and roll, seated left on curule chair set on globe, resting both feet on cuirass on ground, several shields, spears, and a helmet are also scattered around him, a sword rests against the globe beneath the curule chair), S-C in ex.
ref: RIC I 109 [Claudius], Cohen 8 (10 frcs), BMCRE 208
26.36gms, 34mm, orichalcum
Rare

Nero Claudius Drusus Germanicus, son of Livia, brother of Tiberius and father of Claudius was the governor of Gaul in 13 BC, initiated a series of successful campaigns against the Germans. Died in a fall from his horse in 9 BC.
berserker
Scipio.jpg
47-46 BC Q. Caecilius Metellus Pius Scipio68 viewsQ METEL SCIPIO IMP
head of Africa right, laur. and clad in elephant's skin, corn-ear before, plough below

EPPIVS LEG F C

Naked Hercules standing facing right, hand on hip resting on club set on rock

North Africa
47-46 BC

Sear 1380/1

Born Publius Cornelius Scipio Nasica. He was adopted by his uncle by marriage and father's second cousin Quintus Caecilius Metellus Pius. He married Aemilia Lepida, daughter of Mamercus Aemilius Lepidus Livianus (son of the Censor Marcus Livius Drusus and wife Cornelia Scipio and adopted by Mamercus Aemilius Lepidus) and wife Claudia (sister of Appius Claudius Pulcher (Senior)), and was the father in law of Pompey the Great, married to his daughter Cornelia Metella, called Quinta Pompeia for being his fifth wife.

He was Tribune in 59 BC and became Consul with Pompey the Great in 52 BC. During Caesar's civil war, he served the party of Pompey and fought against Caesar and Marcus Antonius. In 49 BC he was sent as Proconsul to Syria and the following year he took part in the Battle of Pharsalus, where he commanded the center of the Republican battleline. After Pharsalus he fled to Africa were he commanded an army with Cato the Younger, losing in the Battle of Thapsus. After the defeat he tried to escape but was cornered by the fleet of Publius Sittius when he wrecked the ship as he tried to escape to the Iberian Peninsula, to continue to fight from there. He committed suicide by stabbing himself so he would not fall at the hands of his enemies.

SOLD to Calgary Coin June 2017
1 commentsJay GT4
coin448.JPG
501. Constantine I Lyons Sol14 viewsLyons

Originally, the important city in this area was that of Vienne, at a crossroads of Celtic trails, and port for the Greek trade. They had been largly Hellanised during the 2nd - 1st centuries BCE, then caught up in the conflicts involving Rome and Athens. Roman traders had settled there and competition started a revolt, driving the Romans to the north. At the present site of Lyons, they sought and received refuge from the Gallic tribe called Segusiavi. At that time, Lyons was just a tribe of Celts occupying the top of a hill, later to be called Fourviere. A Roman settlement was begun, and then later used by Julius Caesar to launch his campaigns against the Helvetii in 58 BCE.

The site of Lyons, being on a crossroads as well as a connection to the Mediterranean, was early recognised as being strategically important. In 43 BCE, the city of Lugdunum became an official Roman colony recognised by the Roman senate, founded by the governor of Gallia Comata (province of Comata), Lucius Munatius Plancus. Later, in 27 BCE, then Emperor Augustus divided Gallia Comata into three provinces, and Lugdunum became the capital of Gallia Lugdunensis. [The third province was Gallia Aquitania.]

Lyons became the financial center for taxation purposes of Aquitania and Lugdunum provinces, and an official mint was established there. Also, the state cult honoring Augustus [or the present Emperor] was established at Lyons, drawing many pilgrims and supplicants. Drusus, the father of Claudius, (born 10 BCE) was stationed at Lyons, being in charge of Gallia Comata. Also, a cohort of Roman policemen were stationed at lyons, to protect the mint. A bronze inscription found at Lyons records the speech given to the Roman Senate in 48 CE by Emperor Claudius, arguing for the acceptance of admission of senators from Gallia Comata.

Through Lyons [and Vienne] passed the great roads leading to the different regions of Gaul and towards Italy. Trade with Gaul, Britain and Germany passed through Lyons, mostly supplying Roman colonies on the the frontier. Later, these routes were paved by the Romans to facilitate trade and troop movement. Lyons became an important trade and military center. However, intercity rivalry with Vienne to the south never died, and indeed Vienne became jealous over time.

Lyons was burnt to the ground in 65 CE but quickly rebuilt. It prospered until 197 when it was sacked in a civil war. The city of Lyons had backed the unfortunate loser in a battle between two Roman generals. Cities to the south [Arles, Vienne, and to the north, Trier] took over the economic functions of Lyons; and the city of Lyons was again plundered 269. Lyons fought back, and the trade wars raged on, until early in the 4th century when the aqueducts of Lyons were destroyed. Without water, the hillsite of Lyons [the Fourviere Hill] became untenable. The merchants moved down to the city below, or out of the city entirely. The protection of Lyons was thus much more difficult. And the decline of the Roman Empire also spelled the decline of many of its cities.

RIC VII Lyons 34 C3

ecoli
Nero AE Sestertius.jpg
706a, Nero, 13 October 54 - 9 June 68 A.D.73 views6, Nero, 13 October 54 - 9 June 68 A.D. AE setertius, Date: 66 AD; RIC I 516, 36.71 mm; 25.5 grams; aVF. Obverse: IMP NERO CAESAR AVG PONT MAX TR POT PP, Laureate bust right; Reverse: S C, ROMA, Roma seated left, exceptional portrait and full obverse legends. Ex Ancient Imports.

NERO (54-68 A.D.)

It is difficult for the modern student of history to realize just how popular Nero actually was, at least at the beginning of his reign. Rome looked upon her new Emperor with hope. He was the student of Seneca, and he had a sensitive nature. He loved art, music, literature, and theatre. He was also devoted to horses and horse racing—a devotion shared by many of his subjects. The plebs loved their new Emperor. As Professor of Classics Judith P. Hallett (University of Maryland, College Park) says, “It is not clear to me that Nero ever changed or that Nero ever grew-up, and that was both his strength and his weakness. Nero was an extraordinarily popular Emperor: he was like Elvis” (The Roman Empire in the First Century, III. Dir. Margaret Koval and Lyn Goldfarb. 2001. DVD. PBS/Warner Bros. 2003).

De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Herbert W. Benario
Emory University

Introduction and Sources
The five Julio-Claudian emperors are very different one from the other. Augustus dominates in prestige and achievement from the enormous impact he had upon the Roman state and his long service to Rome, during which he attained unrivaled auctoritas. Tiberius was clearly the only possible successor when Augustus died in AD 14, but, upon his death twenty-three years later, the next three were a peculiar mix of viciousness, arrogance, and inexperience. Gaius, better known as Caligula, is generally styled a monster, whose brief tenure did Rome no service. His successor Claudius, his uncle, was a capable man who served Rome well, but was condemned for being subject to his wives and freedmen. The last of the dynasty, Nero, reigned more than three times as long as Gaius, and the damage for which he was responsible to the state was correspondingly greater. An emperor who is well described by statements such as these, "But above all he was carried away by a craze for popularity and he was jealous of all who in any way stirred the feeling of the mob." and "What an artist the world is losing!" and who is above all remembered for crimes against his mother and the Christians was indeed a sad falling-off from the levels of Augustus and Tiberius. Few will argue that Nero does not rank as one of the worst emperors of all.

The prime sources for Nero's life and reign are Tacitus' Annales 12-16, Suetonius' Life of Nero, and Dio Cassius' Roman History 61-63, written in the early third century. Additional valuable material comes from inscriptions, coinage, papyri, and archaeology.


Early Life
He was born on December 15, 37, at Antium, the son of Cnaeus Domitius Ahenobarbusand Agrippina. Domitius was a member of an ancient noble family, consul in 32; Agrippina was the daughter of the popular Germanicus, who had died in 19, and Agrippina, daughter of Agrippa, Augustus' closest associate, and Julia, the emperor's daughter, and thus in direct descent from the first princeps. When the child was born, his uncle Gaius had only recently become emperor. The relationship between mother and uncle was difficult, and Agrippina suffered occasional humiliation. But the family survived the short reign of the "crazy" emperor, and when he was assassinated, it chanced that Agrippina's uncle, Claudius, was the chosen of the praetorian guard, although there may have been a conspiracy to accomplish this.

Ahenobarbus had died in 40, so the son was now the responsibility of Agrippina alone. She lived as a private citizen for much of the decade, until the death of Messalina, the emperor's wife, in 48 made competition among several likely candidates to become the new empress inevitable. Although Roman law forbade marriage between uncle and niece, an eloquent speech in the senate by Lucius Vitellius, Claudius' closest advisor in the senatorial order, persuaded his audience that the public good required their union. The marriage took place in 49, and soon thereafter the philosopher Seneca [[PIR2 A617]] was recalled from exile to become the young Domitius' tutor, a relationship which endured for some dozen years.

His advance was thereafter rapid. He was adopted by Claudius the following year and took the name Tiberius Claudius Nero Caesar or Nero Claudius Caesar Drusus Germanicus, was preferred to Claudius' natural son, Britannicus, who was about three years younger, was betrothed to the emperor's daughter Octavia, and was, in the eyes of the people, the clear successor to the emperor. In 54, Claudius died, having eaten some poisoned mushrooms, responsibility for which was believed to be Agrippina's, and the young Nero, not yet seventeen years old, was hailed on October 13 as emperor by the praetorian guard.


The First Years of Rule
The first five years of Nero's rule are customarily called the quinquennium, a period of good government under the influence, not always coinciding, of three people, his mother, Seneca, and Sextus Afranius Burrus, the praetorian prefect. The latter two were allies in their "education" of the emperor. Seneca continued his philosophical and rhetorical training, Burrus was more involved in advising on the actualities of government. They often combined their influence against Agrippina, who, having made her son emperor, never let him forget the debt he owed his mother, until finally, and fatally, he moved against her.

Nero's betrothal to Octavia was a significant step in his ultimate accession to the throne, as it were, but she was too quiet, too shy, too modest for his taste. He was early attracted to Poppaea Sabina, the wife of Otho, and she continually goaded him to break from Octavia and to show himself an adult by opposing his mother. In his private life, Nero honed the musical and artistic tastes which were his chief interest, but, at this stage, they were kept private, at the instigation of Seneca and Burrus.

As the year 59 began, Nero had just celebrated his twenty-first birthday and now felt the need to employ the powers which he possessed as emperor as he wished, without the limits imposed by others. Poppaea's urgings had their effect, first of all, at the very onset of the year, with Nero's murder of his mother in the Bay of Naples.

Agrippina had tried desperately to retain her influence with her son, going so far as to have intercourse with him. But the break between them proved irrevocable, and Nero undertook various devices to eliminate his mother without the appearance of guilt on his part. The choice was a splendid vessel which would collapse while she was on board. As this happened, she swam ashore and, when her attendant, having cried out that she was Agrippina, was clubbed to death, Agrippina knew what was going on. She sent Nero a message that she was well; his response was to send a detachment of sailors to finish the job. When she was struck across the head, she bared her womb and said, "Strike here, Anicetus, strike here, for this bore Nero," and she was brutally murdered.

Nero was petrified with fear when he learned that the deed had been done, yet his popularity with the plebs of Rome was not impaired. This matricide, however, proved a turning point in his life and principate. It appeared that all shackles were now removed. The influence of Seneca and Burrus began to wane, and when Burrus died in 62, Seneca realized that his powers of persuasion were at an end and soon went into retirement. Britannicus had died as early as 55; now Octavia was to follow, and Nero became free to marry Poppaea. It may be that it had been Burrus rather than Agrippina who had continually urged that Nero's position depended in large part upon his marriage to Octavia. Burrus' successor as commander of the praetorian guard, although now with a colleague, was Ofonius Tigellinus, quite the opposite of Burrus in character and outlook. Tigellinus became Nero's "evil twin," urging and assisting in the performance of crimes and the satisfaction of lusts.


Administrative and Foreign Policy
With Seneca and Burrus in charge of administration at home, the first half-dozen years of Nero's principate ran smoothly. He himself devoted his attention to his artistic, literary, and physical bents, with music, poetry, and chariot racing to the fore. But his advisors were able to keep these performances and displays private, with small, select audiences on hand. Yet there was a gradual trend toward public performance, with the establishment of games. Further, he spent many nights roaming the city in disguise, with numerous companions, who terrorized the streets and attacked individuals. Those who dared to defend themselves often faced death afterward, because they had shown disrespect for the emperor. The die was being cast for the last phases of Nero's reign.


The Great Fire at Rome and The Punishment
of the Christians
The year 64 was the most significant of Nero's principate up to this point. His mother and wife were dead, as was Burrus, and Seneca, unable to maintain his influence over Nero without his colleague's support, had withdrawn into private life. The abysmal Tigellinus was now the foremost advisor of the still young emperor, a man whose origin was from the lowest levels of society and who can accurately be described as criminal in outlook and action. Yet Nero must have considered that he was happier than he had ever been in his life. Those who had constrained his enjoyment of his (seemingly) limitless power were gone, he was married to Poppaea, a woman with all advantages save for a bad character the empire was essentially at peace, and the people of Rome enjoyed a full measure of panem et circenses. But then occurred one of the greatest disasters that the city of Rome, in its long history, had ever endured.

The fire began in the southeastern angle of the Circus Maximus, spreading through the shops which clustered there, and raged for the better part of a week. There was brief success in controlling the blaze, but then it burst forth once more, so that many people claimed that the fires were deliberately set. After about a fortnight, the fire burned itself out, having consumed ten of the fourteen Augustan regions into which the city had been divided.

Nero was in Antium through much of the disaster, but his efforts at relief were substantial. Yet many believed that he had been responsible, so that he could perform his own work comparing the current fate of Rome to the downfall of Troy. All his efforts to assist the stricken city could not remove the suspicion that "the emperor had fiddled while Rome burned." He lost favor even among the plebs who had been enthusiastic supporters, particularly when his plans for the rebuilding of the city revealed that a very large part of the center was to become his new home.

As his popularity waned, Nero and Tigellinus realized that individuals were needed who could be charged with the disaster. It so happened that there was such a group ready at hand, Christians, who had made themselves unpopular because of their refusal to worship the emperor, their way of life, and their secret meetings. Further, at this time two of their most significant "teachers" were in Rome, Peter and Paul. They were ideal scapegoats, individuals whom most Romans loathed, and who had continually sung of the forthcoming end of the world.

Their destruction was planned with the utmost precision and cruelty, for the entertainment of the populace. The venue was Nero's circus near the Mons Vaticanus. Christians were exposed to wild animals and were set ablaze, smeared with pitch, to illuminate the night. The executions were so grisly that even the populace displayed sympathy for the victims. Separately, Peter was crucified upside down on the Vatican hill and Paul was beheaded along the Via Ostiensis. But Nero's attempt, and hope, to shift all suspicion of arson to others failed. His popularity even among the lower classes was irrevocably impaired.

[For a detailed and interesting discussion of Nero’s reign please see http://www.roman-emperors.org/nero.htm]

The End - Nero's Death and its Aftermath
Nero's and Tigellinus' response to the conspiracy was immediate and long-lasting. The senatorial order was decimated, as one leading member after another was put to death or compelled to commit suicide. The year 66 saw the suicides of perhaps the most distinguished victims of the "reign of terror," Caius Petronius and Thrasea Paetus. Petronius, long a favorite of Nero because of his aesthetic taste, had been an able public servant before he turned to a life of ease and indolence. He was recognized as the arbiter elegantiae of Nero's circle, and may be the author of the Satyricon. At his death, he left for Nero a document which itemized many of the latter's crimes. Thrasea, a staunch Stoic who had been for some years an outspoken opponent of Nero's policies, committed suicide in the Socratic manner. This scene is the last episode in the surviving books of Tacitus' Annals.

In the year 68, revolt began in the provinces. . . the end of Nero's reign became inevitable. Galba claimed the throne and began his march from Spain. Nero panicked and was rapidly abandoned by his supporters. He finally committed suicide with assistance, on June 9, 68, and his body was tended and buried by three women who had been close to him in his younger days, chief of whom was Acte. His death scene is marked above all by the statement, "Qualis artifex pereo," (What an artist dies in me.) Even at the end he was more concerned with his private life than with the affairs of state.

The aftermath of Nero's death was cataclysmic. Galba was the first of four emperors who revealed the new secret of empire, that an emperor could be made elsewhere than in Rome. Civil war ensued, which was only ended by the victory of the fourth claimant, Vespasian, who established the brief dynasty of the Flavians. The dynasty of the Julio-Claudians was at an end.

Nero's popularity among the lower classes remained even after his death.

. . . .

It is not excessive to say that he was one of the worst of Rome's emperors in the first two centuries and more of the empire. Whatever talents he had, whatever good he may have done, all is overwhelmed by three events, the murder of his mother, the fire at Rome, and his savage treatment of the Christians.

Precisely these qualities are the reasons that he has remained so well known and has been the subject of many writers and opera composers in modern times. These works of fiction particularly merit mention: Henryk Sienkiewicz's Quo Vadis, one of the finest works of the 1907 Nobel Laureate in Literature, and John Hersey's The Conspiracy. Nero unquestionably will always be with us.

Copyright (C) 2006, Herbert W. Benario.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

1 commentsCleisthenes
claudius_ae_as_minerva_spain.JPG
AE AS OF CLAUDIUS RV/MINERVA 53 viewsWEIGHT: 11.6GR, DIAMETER: 27MM
Tiberius Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus (1 August 10 BC – 13 October AD 54), born Tiberius Claudius Drusus, then Tiberius Claudius Nero Germanicus until his accession, was Roman Emperor from 41 to 54 AD.

1 commentsAntonivs Protti
0035-510np_noir.jpg
Agrippa, As - *323 viewsPosthumous issue of Caligula, in honour of his grandfather (died 12 BC)
Rome mint, ca AD 37/41
M AGRIPPA L F COS III, head of Agrippa left with rostral crown
Neptun standing left, holding trident and dolphin. Large S C in fields
10.9 gr
Ref : RCV #1812, Cohen #3
Ex Alwin collection

The following commentary is a (quick) translation from CGB about a similar coin :

"Although Augustus associated his close friend Agrippa in his coinage, he didn't for him alone. Gaius honoured the memory of his grandfather, recalling he had been COS III in 27 BC while Augustus was COS VII at the same time.
Gaius, however, as the new emperor would like us to remember his double filiation : Through his father, Germanicus, he's descended from Nero Drusus and Antonia, thus from Tiberius ; through his mother Agrippina the elder, he tells us Agrippa and Julia are his grand parents and he's a grand grand son of Augustus. Agrippa remained prestigious all along the first century CE, although he had died 12 BC. Titus then Domitian will also strike this type, seemingly very succesfull towards population (see RCV 2589 and 2894)"
6 commentsPotator II
Antonia~0.jpg
Antonia Augusta 66 viewsANTONIA AVGVSTA

Rev. TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP SC
Cladius veiled and togate stg left holding simpulum

Sear 1902

Antonia was the younger daughter of Mark Antony and Octavia and was born on January 31st 36B.C. She was married at age 20 to Tiberius' younger brother Nero Claudius Drusus and had two sons, the great Germanicus and the future emperor Claudius. She was widowed in 9 BC and refused to marry again and devoted her life to her families interests. Her wealth and status made her very influencial during Tiberius' reign and it was she who brought about the downfall of Sejanus.

On the accession of her grandson Caligula in 37 AD she received many honours but died later that year at the age of 73. She did not receive postumous honours until the reign of her son Claudius in 41 AD and all of the coinage in Antonia's name was issued by Claudius.

SOLD
Titus Pullo
Antonia~1.jpg
Antonia Augusta72 viewsANTONIA AVGVSTA
Head of Antonia right

TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP SC
Claudius veiled and togate standing left holding simpulum

11.47g

Sear 1902

Antonia was the younger daughter of Mark Antony and Octavia and was born on January 31st 36B.C. She was married at age 20 to Tiberius' younger brother Nero Claudius Drusus and had two sons, the great Germanicus and the future emperor Claudius. She was widowed in 9 BC and refused to marry again and devoted her life to her families interests. Her wealth and status made her very influencial during Tiberius' reign and it was she who brought about the downfall of Sejanus.

On the accession of her grandson Caligula in 37 AD she received many honours but died later that year at the age of 73. She did not receive postumous honours until the reign of her son Claudius in 41 AD and all of the coinage in Antonia's name was issued by Claudius.
Jay GT4
ANTONIA-1.jpg
Antonia, daughter of Marc Antony and Octavia, wife of Nero Claudius Drusus, mother of Claudius. Augusta, 37 and 41 AD.218 viewsÆ Dupondius under son, Claudius.
Obv: ANTONIA AVGVSTA, draped bust, right.
Rev: TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP, S-C across field, Claudius, togate, standing left, holding simpulum.
RIC 92 [Claudius]; Cohen 6; BMC 166; Sear 1902.
EmpressCollector
Augustus.jpg
Augustus32 viewsRoman Empire
Augustus
(Reign as 1st Emperor of the Roman Empire 27 BC-14 AD)
(b. 63 BC, d. 14 AD)


Obverse: CAESAR PONT MAX, Laureate head of Augustus facing right

Reverse: ROM ET AVG, Altar of the Sanctuary of the Three Gauls, Victory on each pedestal





Bronze As
Minted in Lugdunum 15-10 BC


Translations:

CAESAR PONT MAX=Caesar Augustus, Greatest Priest

ROM ET AVG=To Rome and Augustus

Lugdunum=Lyons, France

The Sanctuary of the Three Gauls was founded by Drusus (stepson of Augustus) to federalize and Romanize this area as an Imperial province under Augustus following the Gallic wars of his predecessor Julius Caesar


References:
RIC I 230
ERIC II 632
1 commentsSphinx357
137c.jpg
Augustus Denarius - Butting Bull (RIC 167a)53 viewsAR Denarius
Lugdunum, 15-13 BC
3.77g

Obv: Bare head of Augustus (R)
AVGVSTVS DIVI F

Rev: Bull butting (R)
IMP X in exergue

RIC 167a BMC 451

In 15 BC Augustus was acclaimed Imperator for the tenth time on behalf of Drusus and Tiberius' victories in Raetia.

Ex. Baldwin's Auction 65, 4 May 2010, lot 1166
Ex. Alfred Franklin Collection
Ex. Baldwin's Auction 99. 6 May 2016, lot 276
5 commentsKained but Able
imgonline-com-ua-twotoone-3qs59GR6xcPDlCaligula_2.jpg
Caligula (Augustus) Coin: Brass Dupondius 13 viewsNERO ET DRVSVS CAESARES - Nero and Drusus on horseback riding right
C. CAESAR. DIVI. AVG. PRON. AVG. P. M. TR. P. III. P. P. around large S. C. - Legend surrounding large S C
Mint: Rome (39-40 AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 13.04g / 32mm / 6h
Rarity: R3
References:
RIC I 42 (Gaius)
BMCRE p. 156, n. ‡
Provenances:
Artemide Aste
Acquisition/Sale: Artemide Aste Internet 46e #266 $0.00 02/19

The Gary R. Wilson Collection

The TR P III (39-40 AD) date of Caligula's base coinage is the scarcest of all his dates. The TR P (37-38 AD) is the most common followed by his TR P IIII (40-41 AD). Caligula did not issue base coinage from Rome with the TR P II (38-39 AD) date.

From: Incitatus Coins
Nero and Drusus were the elder brothers of Caligula, and the sons of Germanicus. Both were heirs of Tiberius and both were killed by the machinations of Sejanus. Caligula survived Sejanus, and the subsequent years, to become emperor. He immediately proclaimed his informed uncle Claudius as his co-consul, an appointment made so that Caligula could, in essence, rule as sole consul. Claudius was given the modest
task of preparing a celebration of Caligula's brothers, including statues in their honor. According to 'I Claudius', Claudius encountered difficulty in completing these statues on time. The completed statues appear on this coinage.

ODERINT, DUM METUANT (LET THEM HATE, SO LONG AS THEY FEAR). — CALIGULA


From Joe Geranio:
The dupondii issues of the brothers of Caligula , Nero and Drusus Caesar was no doubt to remind the Roman populace about the Dioscuri the saviors of the Roman state. The Dioscuri won a miraculous battle in 496 B.C. and then on the same day appear in the Roman Forum to tell the populace about the victory, no doubt Caligula wanted to associate himself with the Dioscuri with this issue of the gods represented as Nero and Drusus Caesars galloping on their horses with ease as though the wind is blowing in their hair. This familial propaganda would cement that the sons of Germanicus and Agrippina would reign and were in control.

This type was issued by Caligula for his two deceased brothers, Nero Julius Caesar and Drusus Julius Caesar Germanicus. Nero Caesar was Tiberius' oldest adoptive grandson and was the emperor's most obvious successor until 29 A.D. when he was accused of treason along with his mother, Agrippina the Elder. He was exiled to the island of Ponza where he was either induced to commit suicide or starved to death before October 31. In 30, his brother Drusus Caesar was also accused of treason and exiled and imprisoned. He starved to death in prison in 33, reduced to chewing the stuffing of his bed.

From Suetonius:
But he (Claudius) was exposed also to actual dangers. First in his very consulship, when he was all but deposed, because he had been somewhat slow in contracting for and setting up the statues of Nero and Drusus, the emperor's brothers.


From COINWEEK:
THE ANNALS OF THE ROMAN HISTORIAN TACITUS (56 – 117 CE) survived in one damaged medieval manuscript at the Monte Cassino monastery. The section covering the reign of Emperor Caligula is missing, and we rely largely on fragmentary chapters of Cassius Dio’s Roman History (155-235 CE) and the Twelve Caesars of Suetonius (c.69 – 140 CE), a gossip writer who was the Perez Hilton of Imperial Rome. There are few contemporary eyewitness sources – some passages in the writings of Seneca (4 BCE – 65 CE) and Philo of Alexandria (c. 25 BCE – 50 CE ).

The story is not a happy one.

The future emperor was born on August 31 in the year 12, probably at Antium (Anzio) south of Rome. His father Germanicus, nephew of Emperor Tiberius, was a successful and popular general. His mother, Agrippina “the Elder”, was the daughter of Marcus Agrippa, the brilliant organizer who was largely responsible for Octavian’s victory in the Roman civil war (32-30 BCE).

“Caligula” is a nickname. It means “little boot” in Latin, because as a child he wore a miniature military uniform including tiny hobnailed boots, much to the delight of his father’s veteran legionaries. He grew up to dislike it. His given name, which appears on his coins, variously abbreviated, was Gaius (or Caius) Julius Caesar Germanicus. “Caesar” here is not a title, but a personal name, inherited through Germanicus Julius Caesar, grandson of Emperor Augustus, the adopted son of the famous Julius Caesar (100 – 44 BCE).

A New Hope
“TO MAKE AN INEXPERIENCED AND ALMOST UNKNOWN YOUNG MAN, BROUGHT UP UNDER A SERIES OF AGED AND REPRESSIVE GUARDIANS, MASTER OF THE WORLD, ALMOST LITERALLY OVERNIGHT, ON THE SOLE RECOMMENDATION THAT HIS FATHER HAD BEEN A THOROUGHLY DECENT FELLOW WAS TO COURT DISASTER IN A QUITE IRRESPONSIBLE FASHION.”
–BARRETT, CALIGULA: THE CORRUPTION OF POWER (1990)

When the reclusive, miserly and increasingly paranoid Emperor Tiberius died on March 16, 37 CE at the age of 78, most Romans greeted Caligula’s accession joyfully. Caligula’s early coinage celebrates his descent from his great-grandfather, the deified Augustus.

Caligula’s laurel-crowned portrait appears on the obverse of his gold aurei and silver denarii surrounded by his titles. On one reverse, which bears no inscription, the head of Augustus, wearing the sun god’s spiky radiate crown, appears between two stars. Another type omits the stars and adds the inscription, “Divine Augustus, Father of the Nation”. On some examples, the portrait seems to have the features of the unpopular Tiberius, who was never deified by the Senate. Perhaps the mint engravers, who had copied and recopied the portrait of Tiberius for 22 years, automatically reproduced a familiar face.

On his birthday in the year 37, Caligula dedicated the Temple of Augustus, which had been under construction for over two decades in the Roman forum. The event is commemorated on a magnificent brass sestertius. On the obverse a veiled seated figure is labeled PIETAS (“piety”) – an untranslatable Latin term for the Roman virtue that combined profound respect for ancestral traditions and meticulous observance of ritual obligations. The reverse shows Caligula in his role as Pontifex Maximus, high priest of the state religion, sacrificing an ox before a richly decorated temple. The finest known example of this coin sold for over $269,000 USD in a November 2013 Swiss auction.

Addressing the Guards
The orderly succession and survival of any Roman emperor depended on the Praetorian Guard, an elite force of bodyguards stationed in the capital. It was organized into nine battalions, or “cohorts”, each of 500 to 1,000 men.

On his accession, one of Caligula’s first official acts was to present each guardsman with a thousand sestertii bequeathed by Tiberius in his will, adding another thousand of his own. The reverse of a rare bronze sestertius, which may have been specially struck for this payment, shows Caligula standing on a platform with his arm raised in a formal gesture of greeting to a rank of guards. The abbreviated inscription ADLOCUT COH means “Address to the Cohorts”. Remarkably, this coin lacks the inscription SC (“by decree of the Senate”), which normally appeared on all Roman bronze coinage. An outstanding example of this type (“undoubtedly the finest specimen known”) brought over $634,000 in a 2014 European auction.

Family Ties
Caligula issued numerous types honoring the memory of his parents. Some of these continued under the reign of his uncle and successor, Claudius.

A handsome brass dupondius (worth half a sestertius or two asses) shows Germanicus riding in a chariot, celebrating his triumph (May 26, 17 CE) over German tribes. On the reverse, Germanicus stands in armor, holding an eagle-tipped scepter as a symbol of command. The inscription reads, “Standards Regained From the Defeated Germans”. This commemorates the return of sacred eagle standards captured when Roman legions of P. Quinctilius Varus were ambushed and annihilated eight years previously (September, 9 CE) in the Teutoburg Forest of north-central Germany. Examples of this type have sold for $500 to $3,000 in recent auctions.

Agrippina the Elder, mother of Caligula, was honored on a bronze sestertius. The obverse inscription surrounding her strong, dignified portrait translates: “Agrippina, daughter of Marcus, mother of emperor Gaius Caesar”. On the reverse, the legend “To the Memory of Agrippina” appears beside a carpentum, a ceremonial cart drawn by two mules that paraded an image of Agrippina on special occasions.

A superb, pedigreed example of this coin (“Very rare and among the finest specimens known. A delicate portrait of sublime style, Tiber tone”) sold for over $98,000 in a November 2013 Swiss auction. More typical examples sell for $1,000 to $3,000.

Perhaps the best-known coin of Caligula is a rare sestertius that depicts his three sisters, Agrippina the Younger, Drusilla and Julia Livilla as the personifications of Securitas, Concordia and Fortuna respectively. Caligula was close to his sisters, and lavished public honors on them in a way that shocked traditional Roman values. This inevitably led later writers to charge the emperor with incestuous relations, a rumor that is almost certainly false.

In recent auctions, exceptional examples of this type have sold for prices ranging from $15,000 to 21,000. Worn or corroded examples that have been “tooled” to improve the detail can sometimes be found for under $2,000. Cast forgeries are common, mostly modern, some dating back to the Renaissance that are collectable in their own right.

Small Change
Perhaps the most enigmatic coin of Caligula’s reign was the smallest regular Roman denomination, the quadrans. It took 64 of these little coppers to equal the value of one silver denarius – a day’s pay for a manual worker. On the obverse, the emperor’s name and titles surround a “liberty cap” – the felt hat worn by freed slaves – bracketed by the letters “SC”. The reverse inscription continues the emperor’s titles, surrounding the large letters “RCC”.

For many years, the consensus of numismatic scholars was that this abbreviation stood for remissa ducentesima, celebrating Caligula’s repeal of an unpopular one-half percent sales tax (“one part in two hundred” – “CC” being the Roman numeral for 200). A brilliant 2010 study by David Woods argues that this interpretation is unlikely, and RCC probably stands for something like res civium conservatae (“the interests of citizens have been preserved”).

The quadrans is probably the most affordable coin of Caligula, with decent examples appearing at auction for under $100.

The Making of a Monster
SO MUCH FOR CALIGULA THE EMPEROR; THE REST OF THIS HISTORY MUST NEEDS DEAL WITH CALIGULA THE MONSTER.
— SUETONIUS, THE TWELVE CAESARS, 22.1

Caligula fell seriously ill in October, 37 CE. After he recovered, his personality (always rather dark) took a decided turn for the worse. He became increasingly paranoid, ordering the execution or forcing the suicide of many who were previously close to him. He reportedly took special delight in having people tortured to death in his presence. As his increasingly bizarre expenditures emptied the treasury, he had wealthy Romans executed in order to seize their assets. Nevertheless, Suetonius reports that Caligula was devoted and faithful to his fourth and last wife, Milonia Caesonia, “who was neither beautiful nor young”.



The Death of Caligula

On January 24, 41 CE, conspirators including Cassius Chaerea, an officer of the Praetorian Guard, stabbed Caligula to death as he left a theatrical performance. Caesonia and her young daughter were also murdered. The only certainly identifiable contemporary portrait of Caesonia appears on a rare provincial bronze issued by Caligula’s childhood friend, Herod Agrippa I (11 BCE – 44 CE), the Roman client-king of Judaea.

Collecting the Monster
Gold and silver issues of Caligula are scarce, and in high demand from collectors, especially those determined to complete a set of the “Twelve Caesars” – all the Roman rulers from Julius Caesar to Domitian. Some of the bronzes are quite common, particularly the bronze as with Vesta reverse – decent examples can be found at auction for well under $200. For bronzes in the highest grades, with pristine surfaces and untouched patinas, the sky’s the limit.

For an emperor who was supposedly feared and hated by the Romans by the end of his short reign – only three years and 10 months – Caligula’s coins seem to have a good survival rate, and few that reach the numismatic market are mutilated. Some have the first ‘C’ of the emperor’s personal name filed off or scratched out, but it is rare to find deliberate ancient gouges or cuts across the portrait.

Any collector approaching the coinage of Caligula seeking evidence of madness, decadence and depravity will be disappointed. Coinage is conservative, and these coins present an idealized portrait of a rather dorky young man, along with a series of stock images reflecting the conventions of classical art that the Romans adopted from the Greeks
Gary W2
Nero_and_Drusus_Caes.jpg
Caligula (Augustus) Coin: Brass Dupondius 10 viewsNERO ET DRVSVS CAESARES - Nero and Drusus Caesar on horseback riding r., cloaks flying behind them.
C CAESAR DIVI AVG PRON AVG P M TR P IIII PP - Legend around S C
Exergue:



Mint: Rome (40-41AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 15.99g / 29mm / 180
Rarity: R2
References:
Cohen 2
RIC Gaius 49
BMC Gaius 70
CBN Gaius 120
Provenances:
Bertolami Fine Arts
Acquisition/Sale: Bertolami Finearts Vcoins

The Gary R. Wilson Collection

ODERINT, DUM METUANT (LET THEM HATE, SO LONG AS THEY FEAR). — CALIGULA

From: Incitatus Coins
Nero and Drusus were the elder brothers of Caligula, and the sons of Germanicus. Both were heirs of Tiberius and both were killed by the machinations of Sejanus. Caligula survived Sejanus, and the subsequent years, to become emperor. He immediately proclaimed his informed uncle Claudius as his co-consul, an appointment made so that Caligula could, in essence, rule as sole consul. Claudius was given the modest
task of preparing a celebration of Caligula's brothers, including statues in their honor. According to 'I Claudius', Claudius encountered difficulty in completing these statues on time. The completed statues appear on this coinage.

From Joe Geranio:
The dupondii issues of the brothers of Caligula , Nero and Drusus Caesar was no doubt to remind the Roman populace about the Dioscuri the saviors of the Roman state. The Dioscuri won a miraculous battle in 496 B.C. and then on the same day appear in the Roman Forum to tell the populace about the victory, no doubt Caligula wanted to associate himself with the Dioscuri with this issue of the gods represented as Nero and Drusus Caesars galloping on their horses with ease as though the wind is blowing in their hair. This familial propaganda would cement that the sons of Germanicus and Agrippina would reign and were in control.

Historical Context

Suetonius states in (Caligula 22.1-2) “Up until now I have been discussing Caligula in his capacity as an emperor; we must now consider him in his capacity as a monster….

Eventually Caligula began to claim for himself a Divine majesty;…..he extended a part of the Palatine palace all the way out to the Forum, transforming the Temple of Castor and Pollux into an entrance hall for the Palace. There in the Temple he would often take his seat between the twin gods, presenting himself for worship to those he approached.”

Dio, (History 59.28.5) states, “ Caligula went so far as to divide in two the Temple of the Dioscuri in the Roman Forum, making a passageway to the Palatine that went right between the two cult statues. As a result, he was fond of saying that he regarded the Dioscuri as his gate-keepers. NEW ARCHAEOLOGY: Regarding the extension from the palace - http://news.stanford.edu/news/2003/september10/caligula-910.html Stanford Report, September 10, 2003, this was thought for years until 2003 to have been impossible.
Did Caligula have a God complex?

From Suetonius:
But he (Claudius) was exposed also to actual dangers. First in his very consulship, when he was all but deposed, because he had been somewhat slow in contracting for and setting up the statues of Nero and Drusus, the emperor's brothers.

From Roma:
Nero and Drusus were the brothers of the future emperor Caligula, and the children of Germanicus and Agrippina the Elder. More significantly Tiberius adopted both sons as grandchildren, and it was thought that Nero, being the oldest, would succeed Tiberius. However, Nero and his mother were accused of treason in 29 AD, and Nero’s demise quickly followed when he was exiled to the island of Ponza. Drusus suffered a similar fate a year later in 30 AD and, having been accused of plotting against his Grandfather and Emperor, he was thrown into prison in 33 AD where he was left to starve.

Additional images:
The Circus of Caligula and Nero

Circus of Nero (or Circus of Gaius (Caligula)) was a circus in ancient Rome placed at the location of today's Basilica of St. Peter in Vatican. All that is left today of this circus is obelisk that stood at its center.

Caligula (31 August 12 AD - 22 January 41 AD), a Roman emperor, began construction of this circus in the year 40 AD on the land of his mother, Agrippina. Claudius, who succeeded him, finished construction. Grimaldi says that the circus was 90 meters wide and 161 long. It was a place where Caligula and Nero trained racing with four horse chariots. In 65 AD, the first fist public persecution of Christians happened in this circus and Christian tradition says that Saint Peter lost his life there two years later. Saint Peter's tomb is in this area, in the cemetery near where the Circus was. Obelisk that stood in the center was placed there by Caligula. It was later (in 16th century) moved to Saint Peter's Square by the architect Domenico Fontana.

The Circus was abandoned by the middle of the 2nd century AD so Constantine built the first basilica (Old St. Peter) at the site of the Circus using some of the existing structure. Most of the ruins of the Circus survived until mid-15th century. They were finally destroyed to make a space for the construction of the new St. Peter's Basilica.
Gary W2
40_AD_NERO___DRUSUS_.jpg
Caligula (Augustus) Coin: Brass Dupondius 10 viewsNERO ET DRVSVS CAESARES - Statue of Nero and Drusus Caesar riding right cloaks flying
C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT - Legend surrounding S C
Mint: Rome (37-38AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 12.50g / 29mm / 180
Rarity: Scarce
References:
RIC 1-Gaius 34
BMCRE 44 (Caligula
BN 52 (Caligula)
Provenances:
Incitatus Coins
Acquisition/Sale: Incitatus Coins Vcoins

The Gary R. Wilson Collection

From: Incitatus Coins
Nero and Drusus were the elder brothers of Caligula, and the sons of Germanicus. Both were heirs of Tiberius and both were killed by the machinations of Sejanus. Caligula survived Sejanus, and the subsequent years, to become emperor. He immediately proclaimed his informed uncle Claudius as his co-consul, an appointment made so that Caligula could, in essence, rule as sole consul. Claudius was given the modest
task of preparing a celebration of Caligula's brothers, including statues in their honor. According to 'I Claudius', Claudius encountered difficulty in completing these statues on time. The completed statues appear on this coinage.

ODERINT, DUM METUANT (LET THEM HATE, SO LONG AS THEY FEAR). — CALIGULA


From Joe Geranio:
The dupondii issues of the brothers of Caligula , Nero and Drusus Caesar was no doubt to remind the Roman populace about the Dioscuri the saviors of the Roman state. The Dioscuri won a miraculous battle in 496 B.C. and then on the same day appear in the Roman Forum to tell the populace about the victory, no doubt Caligula wanted to associate himself with the Dioscuri with this issue of the gods represented as Nero and Drusus Caesars galloping on their horses with ease as though the wind is blowing in their hair. This familial propaganda would cement that the sons of Germanicus and Agrippina would reign and were in control.

This type was issued by Caligula for his two deceased brothers, Nero Julius Caesar and Drusus Julius Caesar Germanicus. Nero Caesar was Tiberius' oldest adoptive grandson and was the emperor's most obvious successor until 29 A.D. when he was accused of treason along with his mother, Agrippina the Elder. He was exiled to the island of Ponza where he was either induced to commit suicide or starved to death before October 31. In 30, his brother Drusus Caesar was also accused of treason and exiled and imprisoned. He starved to death in prison in 33, reduced to chewing the stuffing of his bed.

From Suetonius:
But he (Claudius) was exposed also to actual dangers. First in his very consulship, when he was all but deposed, because he had been somewhat slow in contracting for and setting up the statues of Nero and Drusus, the emperor's brothers.

From Roma:
Nero and Drusus were the brothers of the future emperor Caligula, and the children of Germanicus and Agrippina the Elder. More significantly Tiberius adopted both sons as grandchildren, and it was thought that Nero, being the oldest, would succeed Tiberius. However, Nero and his mother were accused of treason in 29 AD, and Nero’s demise quickly followed when he was exiled to the island of Ponza. Drusus suffered a similar fate a year later in 30 AD and, having been accused of plotting against his Grandfather and Emperor, he was thrown into prison in 33 AD where he was left to starve.
Gary W2
imgonline-com-ua-twotoone-3qs59GR6xcPDlCaligula_2~0.jpg
Caligula (Augustus) Coin: Brass Dupondius12 viewsNERO ET DRVSVS CAESARES - Nero and Drusus on horseback riding right
C. CAESAR. DIVI. AVG. PRON. AVG. P. M. TR. P. III. P. P. around large S. C. - Legend surrounding large S C
Mint: Rome (39-40 AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 13.04g / 32mm / 6h
Rarity: R3
References:
RIC I 42 (Gaius)
BMCRE p. 156, n. ‡
Provenances:
Artemide Aste
Acquisition/Sale: Artemide Aste Internet 46e #266 $0.00 02/19

The Gary R. Wilson Collection

The TR P III (39-40 AD) date of Caligula's base coinage is the scarcest of all his dates. The TR P (37-38 AD) is the most common followed by his TR P IIII (40-41 AD). Caligula did not issue base coinage from Rome with the TR P II (38-39 AD) date.

Per RIC-Rarity 3
Gary W2
Nero_and_Drusus_Caes~0.jpg
Caligula (Augustus) Coin: Brass Dupondius13 viewsNERO ET DRVSVS CAESARES - Nero and Drusus Caesar on horseback riding r., cloaks flying behind them.
C CAESAR DIVI AVG PRON AVG P M TR P IIII PP - Legend around S C
Exergue:



Mint: Rome (40-41AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 15.99g / 29mm / 180
Rarity: R2
References:
Cohen 2
RIC Gaius 49
BMC Gaius 70
CBN Gaius 120
Provenances:
Bertolami Fine Arts
Acquisition/Sale: Bertolami Finearts Vcoins

ODERINT, DUM METUANT (LET THEM HATE, SO LONG AS THEY FEAR). — CALIGULA

From: Incitatus Coins
Nero and Drusus were the elder brothers of Caligula, and the sons of Germanicus. Both were heirs of Tiberius and both were killed by the machinations of Sejanus. Caligula survived Sejanus, and the subsequent years, to become emperor. He immediately proclaimed his informed uncle Claudius as his co-consul, an appointment made so that Caligula could, in essence, rule as sole consul. Claudius was given the modest
task of preparing a celebration of Caligula's brothers, including statues in their honor. According to 'I Claudius', Claudius encountered difficulty in completing these statues on time. The completed statues appear on this coinage.

From Joe Geranio:
The dupondii issues of the brothers of Caligula , Nero and Drusus Caesar was no doubt to remind the Roman populace about the Dioscuri the saviors of the Roman state. The Dioscuri won a miraculous battle in 496 B.C. and then on the same day appear in the Roman Forum to tell the populace about the victory, no doubt Caligula wanted to associate himself with the Dioscuri with this issue of the gods represented as Nero and Drusus Caesars galloping on their horses with ease as though the wind is blowing in their hair. This familial propaganda would cement that the sons of Germanicus and Agrippina would reign and were in control.

Historical Context

Suetonius states in (Caligula 22.1-2) “Up until now I have been discussing Caligula in his capacity as an emperor; we must now consider him in his capacity as a monster….

Eventually Caligula began to claim for himself a Divine majesty;…..he extended a part of the Palatine palace all the way out to the Forum, transforming the Temple of Castor and Pollux into an entrance hall for the Palace. There in the Temple he would often take his seat between the twin gods, presenting himself for worship to those he approached.”

Dio, (History 59.28.5) states, “ Caligula went so far as to divide in two the Temple of the Dioscuri in the Roman Forum, making a passageway to the Palatine that went right between the two cult statues. As a result, he was fond of saying that he regarded the Dioscuri as his gate-keepers. NEW ARCHAEOLOGY: Regarding the extension from the palace - http://news.stanford.edu/news/2003/september10/caligula-910.html Stanford Report, September 10, 2003, this was thought for years until 2003 to have been impossible.
Did Caligula have a God complex?

From Suetonius:
But he (Claudius) was exposed also to actual dangers. First in his very consulship, when he was all but deposed, because he had been somewhat slow in contracting for and setting up the statues of Nero and Drusus, the emperor's brothers.

From Roma:
Nero and Drusus were the brothers of the future emperor Caligula, and the children of Germanicus and Agrippina the Elder. More significantly Tiberius adopted both sons as grandchildren, and it was thought that Nero, being the oldest, would succeed Tiberius. However, Nero and his mother were accused of treason in 29 AD, and Nero’s demise quickly followed when he was exiled to the island of Ponza. Drusus suffered a similar fate a year later in 30 AD and, having been accused of plotting against his Grandfather and Emperor, he was thrown into prison in 33 AD where he was left to starve.

Additional images:
The Circus of Caligula and Nero

Circus of Nero (or Circus of Gaius (Caligula)) was a circus in ancient Rome placed at the location of today's Basilica of St. Peter in Vatican. All that is left today of this circus is obelisk that stood at its center.

Caligula (31 August 12 AD - 22 January 41 AD), a Roman emperor, began construction of this circus in the year 40 AD on the land of his mother, Agrippina. Claudius, who succeeded him, finished construction. Grimaldi says that the circus was 90 meters wide and 161 long. It was a place where Caligula and Nero trained racing with four horse chariots. In 65 AD, the first fist public persecution of Christians happened in this circus and Christian tradition says that Saint Peter lost his life there two years later. Saint Peter's tomb is in this area, in the cemetery near where the Circus was. Obelisk that stood in the center was placed there by Caligula. It was later (in 16th century) moved to Saint Peter's Square by the architect Domenico Fontana.

The Circus was abandoned by the middle of the 2nd century AD so Constantine built the first basilica (Old St. Peter) at the site of the Circus using some of the existing structure. Most of the ruins of the Circus survived until mid-15th century. They were finally destroyed to make a space for the construction of the new St. Peter's Basilica.

Per RIC-Rarity 2
Gary W2
Caligula_Three_Siste.jpg
Caligula (Augustus) Coin: Brass Sestertius 16 viewsC CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT - Laureate head left
AGRIPPINA DRVSILLA IVLIA - AGRIPPINA DRVSILLA IVLIA, the three sisters of Caligula standing, in the guises of Securitas, Concordia, and Fortuna, S C (senatus consulto) in exergue
Exergue: SC


Mint: Rome (37-38AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 27.88g / 35.6mm / 180
Rarity: Rare
References:
RIC I 33
BMCRE p. 152, 36
BnF II 47
Cohen I 4
SRCV I 1800
Provenances:
Forvm Ancient Coins
Acquisition/Sale: Forvm Ancient Coins Internet

The Gary R. Wilson Collection

ODERINT, DUM METUANT (LET THEM HATE, SO LONG AS THEY FEAR). — CALIGULA

From Numismatica Ars Classica:
Many aspects of Caligula's reign have captured the imagination of historians, but the sexual relationships he is said to have pursued with his sisters is perhaps most shocking of all. It is on par with the exploits of Elagabalus or the alleged seduction of young Nero by his deranged mother Agrippina Jr., who, by no mere coincidence, was one of Caligula's sisters.
Caligula's incestuous relationships with his sisters are alleged by the relatively contemporary historians Suetonius and Josephus. Much later, in the fourth and fifth centuries, these original claims were echoed by various writers, including Eutropius, Aurelius Victor, St. Jerome, Orosius and the anonymous compiler of the Epitome de caesaribus. The truth of the claims, of course, is impossible to confirm, and there is a healthy dose of scepticism among modern scholars.
Whatever personal or sexual affection Caligula may have felt toward his sisters, this coinage is purely political and dynastic in flavour. His sisters are each named and are shown in the guise of personifications: the eldest, Agrippina Junior, as Securitas, the middle-sister, Drusilla, as Concordia, and the youngest, Julia Livilla, as Fortuna.
This remarkable type was produced on two occasions, his initial coinage of 37-38, and again in 39-40. The example offered here belongs to the first coinage, which was issued when all three of the imperial women were alive. Drusilla, Caligula's favourite sister (and the one with whom he is said to have had an enduring incestuous relationship), died tragically on June 10, 38, nearly three months after the last coins of the initial issue were struck.
By the time the last issue was produced (beginning March 18, 39), Drusilla had been accorded the status of a goddess, providing the curious circumstance of a goddess being portrayed in the guise of a personification. Life in the palace worsened after Drusilla's death and Caligula's affection for his remaining two sisters declined.
The circumstances reported by the ancient sources are nothing short of bizarre: Drusilla had been married to Marcus Aemilius Lepidus, who had also been Caligula's lover. After Drusilla died, Lepidus extended his sexual liaisons to include Agrippina and Julia Livilla, his former sisters-in-law. By late in 39 this web of relationships seems to have evolved into a failed plot by Lepidus against Caligula, who executed Lepidus and sent his two sisters into exile out of their suspected complicity.
All of this palace intrigue occurred in the midst of the second issue of 'three sisters' sestertii, the production of which Caligula probably halted immediately since of the three sisters shown, one was dead and two were in exile for having plotted against his life.

From Wikisource:
It is easy to understand why the peace and harmony which had been reestablished for a moment in the troubled imperial family by the advent of Caligula should have been of brief duration. His grandmother and his sisters were Romans, educated in Roman ideals, and this exotic madness of his could inspire in them only an irresistible horror. This brought confusion into the imperial family, and after having suffered the persecutions of Sejanus and his party, the unhappy daughters of Germanicus found themselves in the toils of the exacting caprices of their brother. In fact, in 38, Caligula had already broken with his grandmother, whom the year before he had had proclaimed Augusta; and between the years 38 and 39, catastrophes followed one another in the family with frightful rapidity. His sister Drusilla, whom, as Suetonius tells us, he already treated as a lawful wife, died suddenly of some unknown malady while still very young. It is not improbable that her health may have been ruined by the horror of the wild adventure, which was neither human nor Roman, into which her brother sought to drag her by marriage. Caligula suddenly declared her a goddess, to whom all the cities must pay honors. He had a temple built for her, and appointed a body of twenty priests, ten men and ten women, to celebrate her worship; he decreed that her birthday should be a holiday, and he wished the statue of Venus in the Forum to be carved in her likeness.

But in proportion as Caligula became more and more fervid in this adoration of his dead sister, the disagreement between himself and his other two sisters became more embittered. Julia Livilla was exiled in 38; Agrippina, the wife of Domitius Enobarbus°, in 39, and about this same time the venerable Antonia died. It was noised about that Caligula had forced her to commit suicide, and that Agrippina and Livilla had taken part in a conspiracy against the life of the emperor. How much truth there may be in these reports it is difficult to say, but the reason for all these catastrophes may be affirmed with certainty. Life in the imperial palace was no longer possible, especially for women, with this madman who was transforming Rome into Alexandria and who wished to marry a sister. Even Tiberius, the son of Drusus and co-heir to the empire with Caligula, was at about this time defeated in some obscure suit and disappeared.

Many aspects of Caligula’s reign have captured the imagination of historians, but the sexual relationships he is said to
have pursued with his sisters is perhaps most shocking of all. It is on par with the exploits of Elagabalus or the alleged
seduction of young Nero by his deranged mother Agrippina Jr., who, by no mere coincidence, was one of Caligula’s
sisters.
Caligula’s incestuous relationships with his sisters are alleged by the relatively contemporary historians Suetonius and
Josephus. Much later, in the fourth and fifth centuries, these original claims were echoed by various writers, including
Eutropius, Aurelius Victor, St. Jerome, Orosius and the anonymous compiler of the Epitome de caesaribus. The truth of
the claims, of course, is impossible to confirm, and there is a healthy dose of skepticism among modern scholars.
Whatever personal or sexual affection Caligula may have felt toward his sisters, this coinage is purely political and
dynastic in flavour. His sisters are each named and are shown in the guise of personifications: the eldest, Agrippina Junior,
as Securitas, the middle-sister, Drusilla, as Concordia, and the youngest, Julia Livilla, as Fortuna.
This remarkable type was produced on two occasions, his initial coinage of 37-38, and again in 39-40. The example
offered here belongs to the first coinage, which was issued when all three of the imperial women were alive. Drusilla,
Caligula’s favourite sister (and the one with whom he is said to have had an enduring incestuous relationship), died
tragically on June 10, 38, nearly three months after the last coins of the initial issue were struck.
By the time the last issue was produced (beginning March 18, 39), Drusilla had been accorded the status of a goddess,
providing the curious circumstance of a goddess being portrayed in the guise of a personification. Life in the palace
worsened after Drusilla’s death and Caligula’s affection for his remaining two sisters declined.
The circumstances reported by the ancient sources are nothing short of bizarre: Drusilla had been married to Marcus
Aemilius Lepidus, who had also been Caligula’s lover. At least after Drusilla died, Lepidus extended his sexual liaisons to
include Agrippina and Julia Livilla, his former sisters-in-law. By late in 39 this web of relationships seems to have evolved
into a failed plot by Lepidus against Caligula, who executed Lepidus and sent his two sisters into exile out of their
suspected complicity.
All of this palace intrigue occurred in the midst of the second issue of ‘three sisters’ sestertii, the production of which
Caligula probably halted immediately since of the three sisters shown, one was dead and two were in exile for having
plotted against his life.
Gary W2
Caligula_Three_Siste~0.jpg
Caligula (Augustus) Coin: Brass Sestertius62 viewsC CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT - Laureate head left
AGRIPPINA DRVSILLA IVLIA - AGRIPPINA DRVSILLA IVLIA, the three sisters of Caligula standing, in the guises of Securitas, Concordia, and Fortuna, S C (senatus consulto) in exergue
Exergue: SC


Mint: Rome (37-38AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 27.88g / 35.6mm / 180
Rarity: Rare
References:
RIC I 33
BMCRE p. 152, 36
BnF II 47
Cohen I 4
SRCV I 1800
Provenances:
Forvm Ancient Coins
Acquisition/Sale: Forvm Ancient Coins Internet

ODERINT, DUM METUANT (LET THEM HATE, SO LONG AS THEY FEAR). — CALIGULA

From Numismatica Ars Classica:
Many aspects of Caligula's reign have captured the imagination of historians, but the sexual relationships he is said to have pursued with his sisters is perhaps most shocking of all. It is on par with the exploits of Elagabalus or the alleged seduction of young Nero by his deranged mother Agrippina Jr., who, by no mere coincidence, was one of Caligula's sisters.
Caligula's incestuous relationships with his sisters are alleged by the relatively contemporary historians Suetonius and Josephus. Much later, in the fourth and fifth centuries, these original claims were echoed by various writers, including Eutropius, Aurelius Victor, St. Jerome, Orosius and the anonymous compiler of the Epitome de caesaribus. The truth of the claims, of course, is impossible to confirm, and there is a healthy dose of scepticism among modern scholars.
Whatever personal or sexual affection Caligula may have felt toward his sisters, this coinage is purely political and dynastic in flavour. His sisters are each named and are shown in the guise of personifications: the eldest, Agrippina Junior, as Securitas, the middle-sister, Drusilla, as Concordia, and the youngest, Julia Livilla, as Fortuna.
This remarkable type was produced on two occasions, his initial coinage of 37-38, and again in 39-40. The example offered here belongs to the first coinage, which was issued when all three of the imperial women were alive. Drusilla, Caligula's favourite sister (and the one with whom he is said to have had an enduring incestuous relationship), died tragically on June 10, 38, nearly three months after the last coins of the initial issue were struck.
By the time the last issue was produced (beginning March 18, 39), Drusilla had been accorded the status of a goddess, providing the curious circumstance of a goddess being portrayed in the guise of a personification. Life in the palace worsened after Drusilla's death and Caligula's affection for his remaining two sisters declined.
The circumstances reported by the ancient sources are nothing short of bizarre: Drusilla had been married to Marcus Aemilius Lepidus, who had also been Caligula's lover. After Drusilla died, Lepidus extended his sexual liaisons to include Agrippina and Julia Livilla, his former sisters-in-law. By late in 39 this web of relationships seems to have evolved into a failed plot by Lepidus against Caligula, who executed Lepidus and sent his two sisters into exile out of their suspected complicity.
All of this palace intrigue occurred in the midst of the second issue of 'three sisters' sestertii, the production of which Caligula probably halted immediately since of the three sisters shown, one was dead and two were in exile for having plotted against his life.

From Wikisource:
It is easy to understand why the peace and harmony which had been reestablished for a moment in the troubled imperial family by the advent of Caligula should have been of brief duration. His grandmother and his sisters were Romans, educated in Roman ideals, and this exotic madness of his could inspire in them only an irresistible horror. This brought confusion into the imperial family, and after having suffered the persecutions of Sejanus and his party, the unhappy daughters of Germanicus found themselves in the toils of the exacting caprices of their brother. In fact, in 38, Caligula had already broken with his grandmother, whom the year before he had had proclaimed Augusta; and between the years 38 and 39, catastrophes followed one another in the family with frightful rapidity. His sister Drusilla, whom, as Suetonius tells us, he already treated as a lawful wife, died suddenly of some unknown malady while still very young. It is not improbable that her health may have been ruined by the horror of the wild adventure, which was neither human nor Roman, into which her brother sought to drag her by marriage. Caligula suddenly declared her a goddess, to whom all the cities must pay honors. He had a temple built for her, and appointed a body of twenty priests, ten men and ten women, to celebrate her worship; he decreed that her birthday should be a holiday, and he wished the statue of Venus in the Forum to be carved in her likeness.

But in proportion as Caligula became more and more fervid in this adoration of his dead sister, the disagreement between himself and his other two sisters became more embittered. Julia Livilla was exiled in 38; Agrippina, the wife of Domitius Enobarbus°, in 39, and about this same time the venerable Antonia died. It was noised about that Caligula had forced her to commit suicide, and that Agrippina and Livilla had taken part in a conspiracy against the life of the emperor. How much truth there may be in these reports it is difficult to say, but the reason for all these catastrophes may be affirmed with certainty. Life in the imperial palace was no longer possible, especially for women, with this madman who was transforming Rome into Alexandria and who wished to marry a sister. Even Tiberius, the son of Drusus and co-heir to the empire with Caligula, was at about this time defeated in some obscure suit and disappeared.

Many aspects of Caligula’s reign have captured the imagination of historians, but the sexual relationships he is said to
have pursued with his sisters is perhaps most shocking of all. It is on par with the exploits of Elagabalus or the alleged
seduction of young Nero by his deranged mother Agrippina Jr., who, by no mere coincidence, was one of Caligula’s
sisters.
Caligula’s incestuous relationships with his sisters are alleged by the relatively contemporary historians Suetonius and
Josephus. Much later, in the fourth and fifth centuries, these original claims were echoed by various writers, including
Eutropius, Aurelius Victor, St. Jerome, Orosius and the anonymous compiler of the Epitome de caesaribus. The truth of
the claims, of course, is impossible to confirm, and there is a healthy dose of skepticism among modern scholars.
Whatever personal or sexual affection Caligula may have felt toward his sisters, this coinage is purely political and
dynastic in flavour. His sisters are each named and are shown in the guise of personifications: the eldest, Agrippina Junior,
as Securitas, the middle-sister, Drusilla, as Concordia, and the youngest, Julia Livilla, as Fortuna.
This remarkable type was produced on two occasions, his initial coinage of 37-38, and again in 39-40. The example
offered here belongs to the first coinage, which was issued when all three of the imperial women were alive. Drusilla,
Caligula’s favourite sister (and the one with whom he is said to have had an enduring incestuous relationship), died
tragically on June 10, 38, nearly three months after the last coins of the initial issue were struck.
By the time the last issue was produced (beginning March 18, 39), Drusilla had been accorded the status of a goddess,
providing the curious circumstance of a goddess being portrayed in the guise of a personification. Life in the palace
worsened after Drusilla’s death and Caligula’s affection for his remaining two sisters declined.
The circumstances reported by the ancient sources are nothing short of bizarre: Drusilla had been married to Marcus
Aemilius Lepidus, who had also been Caligula’s lover. At least after Drusilla died, Lepidus extended his sexual liaisons to
include Agrippina and Julia Livilla, his former sisters-in-law. By late in 39 this web of relationships seems to have evolved
into a failed plot by Lepidus against Caligula, who executed Lepidus and sent his two sisters into exile out of their
suspected complicity.
All of this palace intrigue occurred in the midst of the second issue of ‘three sisters’ sestertii, the production of which
Caligula probably halted immediately since of the three sisters shown, one was dead and two were in exile for having
plotted against his life.

Per RIC-Rare
3 commentsGary W2
imgonline-com-ua-twotoone-zg2aP0ewwCVrhb-Caligula_damnatio.jpg
Caligula (Augustus) Coin: Bronze AS14 viewsC CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT - Bare head left
Vesta SC - Vesta, veiled and draped, seated left, on throne with ornamented back and legs, holding patera in right hand and long transverse sceptre in left
Exergue:



Mint: Rome (37-38 AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 10.40g / 28mm / 6h
Rarity: Common
References:
RIC I 38
BMCRE 46
BN 54
Cohen 27
Acquisition/Sale: indalocolecciones eBay

The Gary R. Wilson Collection

DAMNATIO MEMORIAE: This coin seems to have suffered a 'Damnatio Memoriae'. It looks as if the portrait has had cut marks applied to the jaw and neck areas. Interestingly, the ancient writers said that on his assassination, the first strike to Caligula was to his jaw or neck/shoulder areas. Damnatio memoriae is a modern Latin phrase meaning "condemnation of memory", i.e., that a person is to be excluded from official accounts.


ODERINT, DUM METUANT (LET THEM HATE, SO LONG AS THEY FEAR). — CALIGULA

From The Dictionary of Roman Coins:
Caligula, the grand nephew and murderer of Tiberius, most worthy to succeed that emperor, because of an equally infamous, though not so able a tyrant, reigned from A.D. 37 to A.D. 41.

His real appellation was Caius Caesar, but about the time of Augustus' death, he, still a child, being with the army of the lower Rhine, the soldiers, with whom he was a great favorite, were accustomed in the joking parlance of the camp, to give him the nickname of Caligula (from Caligae) because he constantly appeared in the usual military leggings.

Hence Ausonius, in his poem, referring to this cruel wretch, says --

Post hunc castrensis caligae cognomine
Caesar Successit, saevo saevior ingenio.

As emperor, however, he was always called Caius, and he considered himself insulted by the name of Caligula.

He was the youngest son of Germanicus, the nephew of Tiberius and Agrippina; born in 12 A.D. on the day before the calends of September, at Antium, as Suetonius has proved at great length (in Caligula, ch. 8). In 17 A.D., he went into Syria with his father, at whose death, within two years, he returned to Rome with his mother. After she was banished, he was transferred to his great grand-mother Julia and when she diet to his grand-mother Antonia.

In 31 A.D., after the violent deaths of his brothers Nero and Drusus, and also of Sejanus, whose plots he alone had escaped he was he was the apparent successor to the empire and invested with the Pontificate.

In 33 A.D., on the same day he assumed the toga he laid aside his beard, he was nominated questor and Tiberius invited him to Capraea. He moved in with Tiberius, feigning ignorance or indifference, regarding the murder of his relations, as though it did not concern him. He so obsequiously obeyed Tiberius the it was a common expression, that "there never was a better servant, or a worse master." (Sueton, ch. 10)

In 37 A.D., Tiberius was attacked with a severe illness from which he was recovering when Caligula, at the instigation of Maero, the praetorian prefect, put and end to his life by smothering him.

Caligula entered Rome after Tiberius' death and compelled the Senate to join him, by a Senatus Consultum, in depriving Tiberius, son Drusus junior and the elder Tiberius' heir in his last will, of his right to the empire.

The funeral ceremonies of were performed with due pomp by Caligula.

On the eighth month of his reign he was attacked with severe sickness. On his recovery, he adopted his brother Tiberius, gave him the title of Princeps Juventutis, and afterwards put him to death.

In the calends of July he entered upon the office of Consul Suffectus, as colleague to his uncle Claudius, and after two months resigned it.

In 38 A.D. he conceded to Soaemus, the kingdom of Arabians of Ituraea; to Cotys, Armenia Minor; to Polemon, the son of Polemon, his father's dominions.

Dion wrote, "In a short time he assumed so much the air of a king, that all those honors, which Augustus had accepted only when duly arrived at the sovereignty, and even then with hesitation as they were decreed from time to time, and many of which Tiberius altogether declined, were by Caligula grasped in one day, with the exception only of Pater Patriae, which, however was not long deferred."

In 39 A.D., in the calends of January, he entered his second Consulate and resigned the office in thirty days. (Sueton ch. 17)

Having exhausted the treasury by his profuse expenditure on public spectacles and other extravagances, he endeavoured to repair the deficiency by the slaughter of wealthy citizens; and then proceeded to Gaul, their to practice the like system of murder and spoliation.

The name of Germanicus does not appear on coins of this year, nor ever subsequently.

In 40 A.D., Caligula, without a colleague, entered his third consulate, at Lugdunum (Lyon), in Gaul; and resigned it on the ides of January. (Sueton. ch. 17)

Having invited over from Africa, Ptolemy, the son of Juba, he put him to death on the pretence of the young prince's ostentatious bearing. (Dion, B. lix. 25)

Proceeding to the ocean, as if about to invade Britain, he ordered his soldiers to gather shell-fish, and returned as a conqueror, laden with the spoils of the sea. (Sueton. ch. 46)

L. Vitellius, prefect of Syria, the same year, gave such a lesson to Artabanus, the Persian, who was threatening an invasion of Armenia that the later abandoned his design, and paid his adoration to the statues of Augustus and of Caligula. (Dion, I. e.)

In 41 A.D., he began hid fourth consulate, on the 7th of the ides of January. Shortly afterwards (viz. on the 9th of the calends of February), he was assassinated by the conspirators Cassius Chaerea and Cornelius Sabinus.

Caligula's accession to the empire was hailed with joy by the Roman people; but their satisfaction was based on no solid foundations, being the result rather of their deep-rooted attachment to his father Germanicus. He seeming, indeed, responded to the fond wishes of the nation, by many acts of piety, justice, and moderation. But it too soon became apparent that these virtues were not of natural growth but owed their exhibition to the policy of Tiberius, who wished through their influences to consolidate his own power in the empire. For there was not act of cruelty, folly, meanness or infamy, which this monster and madman did not delight in perpetrating. He caused his horse, whom he called Incitatus, to be introduced at dinner time, setting before him gilded corn, and drinking his health in golden cups; and he would have created him consul, had he lived long enough. He imitated all the gods and goddesses, in the adoration which he caused to be paid to him, becoming by turns Jupiter, Bacchus, Hercules, Juno, Diana, and Venus. He constructed a bridge of vessels joined together from Puteoli to Baiae, and crossing over with his troops invaded puteoli and then recrossed it in a kind of triumph, delighting in hearing himself called Alexander the Great. By his absurd and extravagant undertakings of this kind, before the year was fully expired, he had squandered the enormous sums of money left by Tiberius. (Vicies ae septics millies IIS. -- See Sestertium).

He both claimed and receive divine worship, and was the greatest blasphemer that ever lived; yet he quailed in the conviction of a deity, and crept under his bed whenever he heard thunder. With savage inhumanity he attended executions in person, and made parents behold the merciless torments inflicted on their children. He contracted and dissolved marriages with equal caprice and dishonesty. Besides his incestuous union with Drusilla, he seized and repudiated three wives, and was at last permanently attached to Caesonia a mother of children by another man, and without your or beauty, but of depravity corresponding with his own.

Other instances of his incredible cruelty and lust may be found in Suetonius, Philo, and Dion. Such infatuations are evident tokens not only of a brutal nature, but also of a distempered intellect. Nor is it possible to entertain other than supreme contempt for the base servility of the Romans, who could offer solemn adoration to a wretch openly guilty of the most detestable and unnatural crimes; and whose adage was oderint, dum metuant (Let them hate so long as they fear).

The gold and silver coins of Caligula are of considerable rarity. Sestertii are also rare. Ases are more common, yet still expensive due to popularity of collecting the infamous emperor and because they generally exhibit good workmanship. When Caligula was destroyed, the dastardly senators, who had so recently sacrificed to him, ordered all his statues to be demolished, his acts abrogated, his money melted down and his inscriptions defaced, in order that his memory might be extinguished forever. Yet this sentence has not prevented a considerable number of his coins from reaching us, though consequently, except for ases, they are of considerable rarity when in good preservation. The coins of Caligula, minted at Rome, do not exhibit Imperator as a surname. This title is used on colonial coins. The only imperial coin of Caligula bearing IMP is a denarius.

On his coins, Caligula resembles his grandfather, but is less noble and has a malignant expression. He was at great pains to cherish this horrid index of his cruel disposition.

Gary W2
Gary W2
imgonline-com-ua-twotoone-2WcIZv40JXVImci-Caligula_69.jpg
Caligula (Augustus) Coin: Bronze As11 viewsC CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT - Bare head left
VESTA SC - Vesta Seated Left, Holding Patera & Sceptre
Exergue:



Mint: Rome (37-38AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 11.61g / 29mm / 180
Rarity: Common
References:
RIC I 38
Acquisition/Sale: timeman21 Ebay

The Gary R. Wilson Collection

ODERINT, DUM METUANT (LET THEM HATE, SO LONG AS THEY FEAR). — CALIGULA

From The Dictionary of Roman Coins:
Caligula, the grand nephew and murderer of Tiberius, most worthy to succeed that emperor, because of an equally infamous, though not so able a tyrant, reigned from A.D. 37 to A.D. 41.

His real appellation was Caius Caesar, but about the time of Augustus' death, he, still a child, being with the army of the lower Rhine, the soldiers, with whom he was a great favorite, were accustomed in the joking parlance of the camp, to give him the nickname of Caligula (from Caligae) because he constantly appeared in the usual military leggings.

Hence Ausonius, in his poem, referring to this cruel wretch, says --

Post hunc castrensis caligae cognomine
Caesar Successit, saevo saevior ingenio.

As emperor, however, he was always called Caius, and he considered himself insulted by the name of Caligula.

He was the youngest son of Germanicus, the nephew of Tiberius and Agrippina; born in 12 A.D. on the day before the calends of September, at Antium, as Suetonius has proved at great length (in Caligula, ch. 8). In 17 A.D., he went into Syria with his father, at whose death, within two years, he returned to Rome with his mother. After she was banished, he was transferred to his great grand-mother Julia and when she diet to his grand-mother Antonia.

In 31 A.D., after the violent deaths of his brothers Nero and Drusus, and also of Sejanus, whose plots he alone had escaped he was he was the apparent successor to the empire and invested with the Pontificate.

In 33 A.D., on the same day he assumed the toga he laid aside his beard, he was nominated questor and Tiberius invited him to Capraea. He moved in with Tiberius, feigning ignorance or indifference, regarding the murder of his relations, as though it did not concern him. He so obsequiously obeyed Tiberius the it was a common expression, that "there never was a better servant, or a worse master." (Sueton, ch. 10)

In 37 A.D., Tiberius was attacked with a severe illness from which he was recovering when Caligula, at the instigation of Maero, the praetorian prefect, put and end to his life by smothering him.

Caligula entered Rome after Tiberius' death and compelled the Senate to join him, by a Senatus Consultum, in depriving Tiberius, son Drusus junior and the elder Tiberius' heir in his last will, of his right to the empire.

The funeral ceremonies of were performed with due pomp by Caligula.

On the eighth month of his reign he was attacked with severe sickness. On his recovery, he adopted his brother Tiberius, gave him the title of Princeps Juventutis, and afterwards put him to death.

In the calends of July he entered upon the office of Consul Suffectus, as colleague to his uncle Claudius, and after two months resigned it.

In 38 A.D. he conceded to Soaemus, the kingdom of Arabians of Ituraea; to Cotys, Armenia Minor; to Polemon, the son of Polemon, his father's dominions.

Dion wrote, "In a short time he assumed so much the air of a king, that all those honors, which Augustus had accepted only when duly arrived at the sovereignty, and even then with hesitation as they were decreed from time to time, and many of which Tiberius altogether declined, were by Caligula grasped in one day, with the exception only of Pater Patriae, which, however was not long deferred."

In 39 A.D., in the calends of January, he entered his second Consulate and resigned the office in thirty days. (Sueton ch. 17)

Having exhausted the treasury by his profuse expenditure on public spectacles and other extravagances, he endeavoured to repair the deficiency by the slaughter of wealthy citizens; and then proceeded to Gaul, their to practice the like system of murder and spoliation.

The name of Germanicus does not appear on coins of this year, nor ever subsequently.

In 40 A.D., Caligula, without a colleague, entered his third consulate, at Lugdunum (Lyon), in Gaul; and resigned it on the ides of January. (Sueton. ch. 17)

Having invited over from Africa, Ptolemy, the son of Juba, he put him to death on the pretence of the young prince's ostentatious bearing. (Dion, B. lix. 25)

Proceeding to the ocean, as if about to invade Britain, he ordered his soldiers to gather shell-fish, and returned as a conqueror, laden with the spoils of the sea. (Sueton. ch. 46)

L. Vitellius, prefect of Syria, the same year, gave such a lesson to Artabanus, the Persian, who was threatening an invasion of Armenia that the later abandoned his design, and paid his adoration to the statues of Augustus and of Caligula. (Dion, I. e.)

In 41 A.D., he began hid fourth consulate, on the 7th of the ides of January. Shortly afterwards (viz. on the 9th of the calends of February), he was assassinated by the conspirators Cassius Chaerea and Cornelius Sabinus.

Caligula's accession to the empire was hailed with joy by the Roman people; but their satisfaction was based on no solid foundations, being the result rather of their deep-rooted attachment to his father Germanicus. He seeming, indeed, responded to the fond wishes of the nation, by many acts of piety, justice, and moderation. But it too soon became apparent that these virtues were not of natural growth but owed their exhibition to the policy of Tiberius, who wished through their influences to consolidate his own power in the empire. For there was not act of cruelty, folly, meanness or infamy, which this monster and madman did not delight in perpetrating. He caused his horse, whom he called Incitatus, to be introduced at dinner time, setting before him gilded corn, and drinking his health in golden cups; and he would have created him consul, had he lived long enough. He imitated all the gods and goddesses, in the adoration which he caused to be paid to him, becoming by turns Jupiter, Bacchus, Hercules, Juno, Diana, and Venus. He constructed a bridge of vessels joined together from Puteoli to Baiae, and crossing over with his troops invaded puteoli and then recrossed it in a kind of triumph, delighting in hearing himself called Alexander the Great. By his absurd and extravagant undertakings of this kind, before the year was fully expired, he had squandered the enormous sums of money left by Tiberius. (Vicies ae septics millies IIS. -- See Sestertium).

He both claimed and receive divine worship, and was the greatest blasphemer that ever lived; yet he quailed in the conviction of a deity, and crept under his bed whenever he heard thunder. With savage inhumanity he attended executions in person, and made parents behold the merciless torments inflicted on their children. He contracted and dissolved marriages with equal caprice and dishonesty. Besides his incestuous union with Drusilla, he seized and repudiated three wives, and was at last permanently attached to Caesonia a mother of children by another man, and without your or beauty, but of depravity corresponding with his own.

Other instances of his incredible cruelty and lust may be found in Suetonius, Philo, and Dion. Such infatuations are evident tokens not only of a brutal nature, but also of a distempered intellect. Nor is it possible to entertain other than supreme contempt for the base servility of the Romans, who could offer solemn adoration to a wretch openly guilty of the most detestable and unnatural crimes; and whose adage was oderint, dum metuant (Let them hate so long as they fear).

The gold and silver coins of Caligula are of considerable rarity. Sestertii are also rare. Ases are more common, yet still expensive due to popularity of collecting the infamous emperor and because they generally exhibit good workmanship. When Caligula was destroyed, the dastardly senators, who had so recently sacrificed to him, ordered all his statues to be demolished, his acts abrogated, his money melted down and his inscriptions defaced, in order that his memory might be extinguished forever. Yet this sentence has not prevented a considerable number of his coins from reaching us, though consequently, except for ases, they are of considerable rarity when in good preservation. The coins of Caligula, minted at Rome, do not exhibit Imperator as a surname. This title is used on colonial coins. The only imperial coin of Caligula bearing IMP is a denarius.

On his coins, Caligula resembles his grandfather, but is less noble and has a malignant expression. He was at great pains to cherish this horrid index of his cruel disposition.
Gary W2
Caligula_and_Agripin.jpg
Caligula (Augustus) Coin: Bronze Fourre Denarius Fourree6 viewsC CAESAR AVG PON M TR POT III COS III - Laureate head right
AGRIPPINA MAT C CAES AVG GERM - Draped bust of Agrippina right
Mint: Rome (40AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 2.85g / 18mm / 180
Rarity: Rare
References:
RIC I 22 (official)
Lyon 179 (official)
RSC 6 (official)
Acquisition/Sale: numismaticaprados Ebay

The Gary R. Wilson Collection

The reverse legend translates: 'Agrippina mother of Gaius Caesar Augustus Germanicus'

ODERINT, DUM METUANT (LET THEM HATE, SO LONG AS THEY FEAR). — CALIGULA

The accession of Gaius (Caligula) to the imperial throne on the death of his great-uncle Tiberius signalled a kind of "golden age" in that for the first time, not only did a direct biological descendant of Augustus become emperor, but one who could also claim a direct link with several important Republican figures. Through his mother, Agrippina Sr., Gaius was descended from Augustus, and also Agrippa, the victor of Actium. Gaius' father Germanaicus was the son of Nero Claudius Drusus and nephew of Tiberius, sons of Augustus' widow, Livia. Through his mother Antonia, Germanicus was the grandson of Mark Antony and Octavia, the sister of Augustus. Accordingly, many of his coins recall his dynastic connections to both the Julians and the Claudians as well as his own family, and included in their designs his mother and his three sisters.

“TO MAKE AN INEXPERIENCED AND ALMOST UNKNOWN YOUNG MAN, BROUGHT UP UNDER A SERIES OF AGED AND REPRESSIVE GUARDIANS, MASTER OF THE WORLD, ALMOST LITERALLY OVERNIGHT, ON THE SOLE RECOMMENDATION THAT HIS FATHER HAD BEEN A THOROUGHLY DECENT FELLOW WAS TO COURT DISASTER IN A QUITE IRRESPONSIBLE FASHION.”
–BARRETT, CALIGULA: THE CORRUPTION OF POWER (1990)

THE ASSASSINATION OF CALIGULA
THE emperor Caligula came to his death in the following manner:

Of course his wanton and remorseless tyranny often awakened very deep feelings of resentment, and very earnest desires for revenge in the hearts of those who suffered by it; but yet so absolute and terrible was his power, that none dared to murmur or complain. The resentment, however, which the cruelty of the emperor awakened, burned the more fiercely for being thus restrained and suppressed, and many covert threats were made, and many secret plots were formed, from time to time, against the tyrant's life.

Among others who cherished such designs, there was a man named Cassius Chærea, an officer of the army, who, though not of high rank, was nevertheless a man of considerable distinction. He was a captain, or, as it was styled in those days, a centurion. His command, therefore, was small, but it was in the prætorian cohort, as it was called, a sort of body-guard of the commander-in-chief, and consequently a very honorable corps. Chærea was thus a man of considerable distinction on account of the post which he occupied, and his duties, as captain in the life guards, brought him very frequently into communication with the emperor. He was a man of great personal bravery, too, and was on this account held in high consideration by the army. He had performed an exploit at one time, some years before, in Germany, which, had gained him great fame. It was at the time of the death of Augustus, the first emperor. Some of the German legions, and among them one in which Chærea was serving, had seized upon the occasion to revolt. They alledged many and grievous acts of oppression as the grounds of their revolt, and demanded redress for what they had suffered, and security for the future. One of the first measures which they resorted to in the frenzy of the first outbreak of the rebellion, was to seize all the centurions in the camp, and to beat them almost to death. They gave them sixty blows each, one for each of their number, and then turned them, bruised, wounded, and dying, out of the camp. Some they threw into the Rhine. They revenged themselves thus on all the centurions but one. That one was Chærea. Chærea would not suffer himself to be taken by them, but seizing his sword he fought his way through the midst of them, slaying some and driving others before him, and thus made his escape from the camp. This feat gained him great renown.

One might imagine from this account that Chærea was a man of great personal superiority in respect to size and strength, inasmuch as extraordinary muscular power, as well as undaunted courage, would seem to be required to enable a man to make his way against so many enemies. But this was not the fact. Chærea was of small stature and of a slender and delicate form. He was modest and unassuming in his manners, too, and of a very kind and gentle spirit. He was thus not only honored and admired for his courage, but he was generally beloved for the amiable and excellent qualities of his heart.

The possession of such qualities, however, could not be expected to recommend him particularly to the favor of the emperor. In fact, in one instance it had the contrary effect. Caligula assigned to the centurions of his guard, at one period, some duties connected with the collection of taxes. Chærea, instead of practicing the extortion and cruelty common on such occasions, was merciful and considerate, and governed himself strictly by the rules of law and of justice in his collections. The consequence necessarily was that the amount of money received was somewhat diminished, and the emperor was displeased. The occasion was, however, not one of sufficient importance to awaken in the monarch's mind any very serious anger, and so, instead of inflicting any heavy punishment upon the offender, he contented himself with attempting to tease and torment him with sundry vexatious indignities and annoyances.

It is the custom sometimes, in camps, and at other military stations, for the commander to give every evening, what is called the parole or password, which consists usually of some word or phrase that is to be communicated to all the officers, and as occasion may require to all the soldiers, whom for any reason it may be necessary to send to and fro [38] about the precincts of the camp during the night. The sentinels, also, all have the password, and accordingly, whenever any man approaches the post of a sentinel, he is stopped and the parole is demanded. If the stranger gives it correctly, it is presumed that all is right, and he is allowed to pass on,—since an enemy or a spy would have no means of knowing it.

Now, whenever it came to Chærea's turn to communicate the parole, the emperor was accustomed to give him some ridiculous or indecent phrase, intended not only to be offensive to the purity of Chærea's mind, but designed, also, to exhibit him in a ridiculous light to the subordinate officers and soldiers to whom he would have to communicate it. Sometimes the password thus given was some word or phrase wholly unfit to be spoken, and sometimes it was the name of some notorious and infamous woman; but whatever it was, Chærea was compelled by his duty as a soldier to deliver it to all the corps, and patiently to submit to the laughter and derision which his communication awakened among the vile and wicked soldiery.

If there was any dreadful punishment to be inflicted, or cruel deed of any kind to be performed, Caligula took great pleasure in assigning the duty to Chærea, knowing how abhorrent to his nature it must be. At one time a senator of great distinction named Propedius, was accused of treason by one of his enemies. His treason consisted, as the accuser alledged, of having spoken injurious words against the emperor. Propedius denied that he had ever spoken such words. The accuser, whose name was Timidius, cited a certain Quintilia, an actress, as his witness. Propedius was accordingly brought to trial, and Quintilia was called upon before the judges to give her testimony. She denied that she had ever heard Propedius utter any such sentiment as Timidius attributed to him. Timidius then said that Quintilia was testifying falsely: he declared that she had heard Propedius utter such words, and demanded that she should be put to the torture to compel her to acknowledge it. The emperor acceded to this demand, and commanded Chærea to put the actress to the torture.

It is, of course, always difficult to ascertain the precise truth in respect to such transactions as those that are connected with plots and conspiracies against tyrants, since every possible precaution is, of course, taken by all concerned to conceal what is done. It is probable, however, in this case, that Propedius had cherished some hostile designs against Caligula, if he had not uttered injurious words, and that Quintilia was in some measure in his confidence. It is even possible that Chærea may have been connected with them in some secret design, for it is said that when he received the orders of Caligula to put Quintilia to the torture he was greatly agitated and alarmed. If he should apply the torture severely, he feared that the unhappy sufferer might be induced to make confessions or statements at least, which would bring destruction on the men whom he most relied upon for the overthrow of Caligula. On the other hand, if he should attempt to spare her, the effect would be only to provoke the anger of Caligula against himself, without at all shielding or saving her. As, however, he was proceeding to the place of torture, in charge of his victim, with his mind in this state of anxiety and indecision, his fears were somewhat relieved by a private signal given to him by Quintilia, by which she intimated to him that he need feel no concern,—that she would be faithful and true, and would reveal nothing, whatever might be done to her.

This assurance, while it allayed in some degree Chærea's anxieties and fears, must have greatly increased the mental distress which he endured at the idea of leading such a woman to the awful suffering which awaited her. He could not, however, do otherwise than to proceed. Having arrived at the place of execution, the wretched Quintilia was put to the rack. She bore the agony which she endured while her limbs were stretched on the torturing engine, and her bones broken, with patient submission, to the end. She was then carried, fainting, helpless, and almost dead, to Caligula, who seemed now satisfied. He ordered the unhappy victim of the torture to be taken away, and directed that Propedius should be acquitted and discharged.

Of course while passing through this scene the mind of Chærea was in a tumult of agitation and excitement,—the anguish of mind which he must have felt in his compassion for the sufferer, mingling and contending with the desperate indignation which burned in his bosom against the author of all these miseries. He was wrought up, in fact, to such a state of frenzy by this transaction, that as soon as it was over he determined immediately to take measures to put Caligula to death. This was a very bold and desperate resolution. Caligula was the greatest and most powerful potentate on earth. Chærea was only a captain of his guard, without any political influence or power, and with no means whatever of screening himself from the terrible consequences which might be expected to follow from his attempt, whether it should succeed or fail.

So thoroughly, however, was he now aroused, that he determined to brave every danger in the attainment of his end. He immediately began to seek out among the officers of the army such men as he supposed would be most likely to join him,—men of courage, resolution, and faithfulness, and those who, from their general character or from the wrongs which they had individually endured from the government, were to be supposed specially hostile to Caligula's dominion. From among these men he selected a few, and to them he cautiously unfolded his designs. All approved of them. Some, it is true, declined taking any active part in the conspiracy, but they assured Chærea of their good wishes, and promised solemnly not to betray him.

The number of the conspirators daily increased. There was, however, at their meetings for consultation, some difference of opinion in respect to the course to be pursued. Some were in favor of acting promptly and at once. The greatest danger which was to be apprehended, they thought, was in delay. As the conspiracy became extended, some one would at length come to the knowledge of it, they said, who would betray them. Others, on the other hand, were for proceeding cautiously and slowly. What they most feared was rash and inconsiderate action. It would be ruinous to the enterprise, as they maintained, for them to attempt to act before their plans were fully matured.

Chærea was of the former opinion. He was very impatient to have the deed performed. He was ready himself, he said, to perform it, at any time; his personal duties as an officer of the guard, gave him frequent occasions of access to the emperor, and he was ready to avail himself of any of them to kill the monster. The emperor went often, he said, to the capitol, to offer sacrifices, and he could easily kill him there. Or, if they thought that that was too public an occasion, he could have an opportunity in the palace, at certain religious ceremonies which the emperor was accustomed to perform there, and at which Chærea himself was usually present. Or, he was ready to throw him down from a tower where he was accustomed to go sometimes for the purpose of scattering money among the populace below. Chærea said that he could easily come up behind him on such an occasion, and hurl him suddenly over the parapet down to the pavement below. All these plans, however, seemed to the conspirators too uncertain and dangerous, and Chærea's proposals were accordingly not agreed to.

At length, the time drew near when Caligula was to leave Rome to proceed to Alexandria in Egypt, and the conspirators perceived that they must prepare to act, or else abandon their design altogether. It had been arranged that there was to he a grand celebration at Rome previous to the emperor's departure. This celebration, which was to consist of games, and sports, and dramatic performances of various kinds, was to continue for three days, and the conspirators determined, after much consultation and debate, that Caligula should be assassinated on one of those days.

After coming to this conclusion, however, in general, their hearts seemed to fail them in fixing the precise time for the perpetration of the deed, and two of the three days passed away accordingly without any attempt being made. At length, on the morning of the third day, Chærea called the chief conspirators together, and urged them very earnestly not to let the present opportunity pass away. He represented to them how greatly they increased the danger of their attempts by such delays, and he seemed himself so full of determination and courage, and addressed them with so much eloquence and power, that he inspired them with his own resolution, and they decided unanimously to proceed.

The emperor came to the theater that day at an unusually early hour, and seemed to be in excellent spirits and in an excellent humor. He was very complaisant to all around him, and very lively, affable, and gay. After performing certain ceremonies, by which it devolved upon him to open the festivities of the day, he proceeded to his place, with his friends and favorites about him, and Chærea, with the other officers that day on guard, at a little distance behind him.

The performances were commenced, and every thing went on as usual until toward noon. The conspirators kept their plans profoundly secret, except that one of them, when he had taken his seat by the side of a distinguished senator, asked him whether he had heard any thing new. The senator replied that he had not. "I can then tell you something," said he, "which perhaps you have not heard, and that is, that in the piece which is to be acted to-day, there is to be represented the death of a tyrant." "Hush!" said the senator, and he quoted a verse from Homer, which meant, "Be silent, lest some Greek should overhear."

It had been the usual custom of the emperor, at such entertainments, to take a little recess about noon, for rest and refreshments. It devolved upon Chærea to wait upon him at this time, and to conduct him from his place in the theater to an adjoining apartment in his palace which was connected with the theater, where there was provided a bath and various refreshments. When the time arrived, and Chærea perceived, as he thought, that the emperor was about to go, he himself went out, and stationed himself in a passage-way leading to the bath, intending to intercept and assassinate the emperor when he should come along. The emperor, however, delayed his departure, having fallen into conversation with his courtiers and friends, and finally he said that, on the whole, as it was the last day of the festival, he would not go out to the bath, but would remain in the theater; and then ordering refreshments to be brought to him there, he proceeded to distribute them with great urbanity to the officers around him.

In the mean time, Chærea was patiently waiting in the passage-way, with his sword by his side, all ready for striking the blow the moment that his victim should appear. Of course the conspirators who remained behind were in a state of great suspense and anxiety, and one of them, named Minucianus, determined to go out and inform Chærea of the change in Caligula's plans. He accordingly attempted to rise, but Caligula put his hand upon his robe, saying, "Sit still, my friend. You shall go with me presently." Minucianus accordingly dissembled his anxiety and agitation of mind still a little longer, but presently, watching an opportunity when the emperor's attention was otherwise engaged, he rose, and, assuming an unconcerned and careless air, he walked out of the theater.

He found Chærea in his ambuscade in the passage-way, and he immediately informed him that the emperor had concluded not to come out. Chærea and Minucianus were then greatly at a loss what to do. Some of the other conspirators, who had followed Minucianus out, now joined them, and a brief but very earnest and solemn consultation ensued. After a moment's hesitation, Chærea declared that they must now go through with their work at all hazards, and he professed himself ready, if his comrades would sustain him in it, to go back to the theater, and stab the tyrant there in his seat, in the midst of his friends. Minucianus and the others concurred in this design, and it was resolved immediately to execute it.

The execution of the plan, however, in the precise form in which it had been resolved upon was prevented by a new turn which affairs had taken in the theater. For while Minucianus and the two or three conspirators who had accompanied him were debating in the passage-way, the others who remained, knowing that Chærea was expecting Caligula to go out, conceived the idea of attempting to persuade him to go, and thus to lead him into the snare which had been set for him. They accordingly gathered around, and without any appearance of concert or of eagerness, began to recommend him to go and take his bath as usual. He seemed at length disposed to yield to these persuasions, and rose from his seat; and then, the whole company attending and following him, he proceeded toward the doors which conducted to the palace. The conspirators went before him, and under pretense of clearing the way for him they contrived to remove to a little distance all whom they thought would be most disposed to render him any assistance. The consultations of Chærea and those who were with him in the inner passage-way were interrupted by the coming of this company.

Among those who walked with the emperor at this time were his uncle Claudius and other distinguished relatives. Caligula advanced along the passage, walking in company with these friends, and wholly unconscious of the fate that awaited him, but instead of going immediately toward the bath he turned aside first into a gallery or corridor which led into another apartment, where there were assembled a company of boys and girls, that had been sent to him from Asia to act and dance upon the stage, and who had just arrived. The emperor took great interest in looking at these performers, and seemed desirous of having them go immediately into the theater and let him see them perform. While talking on this subject Chærea and the other conspirators came into the apartment, determined now to strike the blow.

Chærea advanced to the emperor, and asked him in the usual manner what should be the parole for that night. The emperor gave him in reply such an one as he had often chosen before, to insult and degrade him. Chærea instead of receiving the insult meekly and patiently in his usual manner, uttered words of anger and defiance in reply; and drawing his sword at the same instant he struck the emperor across the neck and felled him to the floor. Caligula filled the apartment with his cries of pain and terror; the other conspirators rushed in and attacked him on all sides; his friends,—so far as the adherents of such a man can be called friends,—fled in dismay. As for Caligula's uncle Claudius, it was not to have been expected that he would have rendered his nephew any aid, for he was a man of such extraordinary mental imbecility that he was usually considered as not possessed even of common sense; and all the others who might have been expected to defend him, either fled from the scene, or stood by in consternation and amazement, leaving the conspirators to wreak their vengeance on their wretched victim, to the full.

In fact though while a despot lives and retains his power, thousands are ready to defend him and to execute his will, however much in heart they may hate and detest him, yet when he is dead, or when it is once certain that he is about to die, an instantaneous change takes place and every one turns against him. The multitudes in and around the theater and the palace who had an hour before trembled before this mighty potentate, and seemed to live only to do his bidding, were filled with joy to see him brought to the dust. The conspirators, when the success of their plans and the death of their oppressor was once certain, abandoned themselves to the most extravagant joy. They cut and stabbed the fallen body again and again, as if they could never enough wreak their vengeance upon it. They cut off pieces of the body and bit them with their teeth in their savage exultation and triumph. At length they left the body where it lay, and went forth into the city where all was now of course tumult and confusion.

The body remained where it had fallen until late at night. Then some attendants of the palace came and conveyed it away. They were sent, it was said, by Cæsonia, the wife of the murdered man. Cæsonia had an infant daughter at this time, and she remained herself with the child, in a retired apartment of the palace while these things were transpiring. Distracted with grief and terror at the tidings that she heard, she clung to her babe, and made the arrangements for the interment of the body of her husband without leaving its cradle. She imagined perhaps that there was no reason for supposing that she or the child were in any immediate danger, and accordingly she took no measures toward effecting an escape. If so, she did not understand the terrible frenzy to which the conspirators had been aroused, and for which the long series of cruelties and indignities which they had endured from her husband had prepared them. For at midnight one of them broke into her apartment, stabbed the mother in her chair, and taking the innocent infant from its cradle, killed it by beating its head against the wall.
Atrocious as this deed may seem, it was not altogether wanton and malignant cruelty which prompted it. The conspirators intended by the assassination of Caligula not merely to wreak their vengeance on a single man, but to bring to an end a hated race of tyrants; and they justified the murder of the wife and child by the plea that stern political necessity required them to exterminate the line, in order that no successor might subsequently arise to re-establish the power and renew the tyranny which they had brought to an end. The history of monarchies is continually presenting us with instances of innocent and helpless children sacrificed to such a supposed necessity as this.
Gary W2
RT_001_carteia.jpg
Carteia, Spain, 9 B.C.32 viewsUnder Germanicus and Drusus. Head of city goddess / "CART CAESARSUS" around rudder. RPC 123jimmynmu
imgonline-com-ua-twotoone-oXfGCiAQjcBiF-Claudius_arch.jpg
Claudius (Augustus) Coin: Brass Sestertius5 viewsTI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP P P - Laureate head right with NCAPR countermark behind head.
NERO CLAVDIVS DRVSVS GERMAN IMP, S C - Arch of Nero Claudius Drusus: triumphal arch consisting of single arch & decorated piers set on raised base with four columns supporting ornate attic.
Exergue:



Mint: Rome (42AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 24.20g / 35mm / 180
Rarity: Scarce
References:
RIC 114
Cohen 48
BMC 187
Acquisition/Sale: shpadoinkle24 Ebay $0.00 8/17
Notes: Jan 9, 19 - NCAPR Countermark

The Gary R. Wilson Collection

Nero Claudius Drusus was Tiberius' younger brother. He was a successful general but died at only 29 after a fall from his horse. He married Antonia, daughter of Mark Antony and Octavia. Their sons were Germanicus and Claudius. Claudius issued his coins.

From CNG:
The Arch of Nero Claudius Drusus was erected by order of the Senate sometime after the death of Drusus in 9 BC. Located on the Via Appia, it commemorated his victories along the German frontier. Eventually, the presence of the arch may have lent its name to the surrounding region, known colloquially as the vicus Drusianus (Drusus' district). By the late fourth century AD, the arch may have survived as the arch then known as the arcus Recordationis (Arch of Remembrance).

Claudius, 25 January 41 - 13 October 54 A.D.
Claudius was one of the most capable, yet unlikely emperors. Shunned as an idiot by his family due to a limp and embarrassing stutter, Claudius spent the first decades of his life absorbed in scholarly studies until the death of his nephew Caligula. After Caligula's murder, the Praetorian Guard found him hiding behind a curtain in the Imperial Palace, expecting to be murdered. Instead, the guard proclaimed him emperor. His reign was marred by personal catastrophes, most notably promiscuity and betrayal by his first wife. He governed well and conquered the troublesome island of Britain. He was poisoned by his second wife, Agrippina Jr., mother of Nero.

The countermark NCAPR was applied to numerous orichalcum coins of the reigns of Tiberius and Claudius. NCAPR is most often explained as "Nero Caesar Augustus Populo Romano." Others believe NCAPR abbreviates "Nummus Caesare Augusto Probatus" or "Nero Caesar Augustus Probavit" (probavit means approved). Excavations of the Meta Sudans and the northeastern slope of the Palatine Hill in Rome indicate that this countermark was applied for Nero's congiarium (distribution to the people) in 57 A.D., which supports the Populo Romano interpretation. Varieties of this relatively common countermark are identified by some authors as applied in either Italy, Spain or Gaul. The countermark is not found on coins bearing the name or portrait of Caligula. Clearly any coins of Caligula that were still in circulation and collected for application of the countermark were picked out and melted down, in accordance with his damnatio, rather than being countermarked and returned to circulation. A NCAPR countermark has, however, been found on a Vespasian dupondius which, if genuine and official, seems to indicate the N may refer to Nerva, not Nero.

NCAPR counterstamp of Nero behind bust.

From The Museum of Countermarks on Roman Coins website:
There are several interpretations of what this, the most interesting of all Julio-Caludian ctmk., means. The two most likely are:
1. Nero Ceasar Augustus Populi Romani
2. Nero Caesar Augustus Probavit
In the first instance it is a congiarium or public dole given by Nero to the people of Rome. In the second, it is a revalidation of the earlier coins of ones predecessors still in circulation.
Possible is also a later use, eg. by Nerva, or that no emperors name was part of the countermark.

Previously believed to be applied during the reign of Nero, a specimen in the Pangerl collection appears on an as of Vespasian, necessitating a later date for the series. Three distinct production centers can be identified for this issue, in Spain, Gaul, and Italy. The Italian type is distinguished by the frequent joining of the letters NC at the base.

NCAPR (Nummus Caesare Augusto PRobatus?) in rectangular countermark-Translated-'Money Caesar Augustus Approved'

Just FYI-This coin has been 'Liberated' from the NGC slab and is now how it should be-free for a person to hold, as all ancients should be!
Gary W2
Nero_Claudius_Drusus_AE_sestertius_-_37mm_188.jpg
Claudius (Augustus) Coin: Brass Sestertius (for Nero Claudius Drusus)5 viewsNERO CLAVDIVS DRVSVS GERMANICVS IMP - Bare head of Nero Claudius Drusus left
TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP P P - Claudius seated left on curule chair, holding branch, arms around.
Exergue: SC


Mint: Rome (41-43 AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 24.90g / 37mm / 6h
Rarity: Scarce
References:
RIC 109 (Claudius)
BMCRE 208 (Claudius)
CBN 198
Cohen 8
von Kaenel Type 72
Provenances:
Marti Classical Numismatics
Acquisition/Sale: Marti Classical Numismatics VCoins $0.00 01/19
The Gary R. Wilson Collection

Nero Claudius Drusus, commonly called Drusus senior, brother of Tiberius, second son of Tiberius Claudius Nero and of Livia, was born in the year of Rome 716, three months after his father had yielded up Livia to Augustus.
Realizing the anticipations of that Emperor, he became the most accomplished hero of his time. Sent at the age of twenty-three into Rhaetia (the Tyrol) to quell a revolt, he conquered the insurgents at Trent in a pitched battle. Afterwards named General of the armies in Germany, his successes were so great that he extended the dominion of the Romans to the banks of the Elbe. This fine character conceived the design of re-establishing the Republic, and entrusted his secret to his brother Tiberius, who it is said betrayed him to Augustus. -- He died in the year 745 (A.D. 9), before he had repassed the Rhine, in the 30th year of his age, deeply regretted by the whole empire for the great and virtuous qualities with which his name was so gloriously associated. After his death the Senate surnamed him GERMANICVS, which was transmitted to his children. Statues and triumphal arches were also erected to his honour and figured on his medals. This Prince had married Antonia, by whom he had Germanicus and Livilla. On his coins which, in each metal, are all more or less rare, he is styled DRVSVS - NERO CLAVDIVS DRVSVS GERMANicus IMP.

Obverse translation:
NERO CLAVDIVS DRVSVS GERMANICVS IMPerator=commander

Reverse translation:
TIberius CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVGvstvs Pontifex Maximvs TRibvnitiae Potestatis IMPerator=Tiberius Claudius Caesar Augustus, Sovereign Pontiff, invested with the tribunitian power.
Gary W2
imgonline-com-ua-twotoone-AOy7GVWJFbuo-Claudius.jpg
Claudius (Augustus) Coin: Bronze AS 5 viewsTI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG PM TR P IMP P P - Bare head left
(NO LEGEND) SC - Minerva advancing right, holding shield and brandishing a javelin, S-C across fields.
Exergue:



Mint: Rome (42-54 AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 10.00g / 27mm / 6h
References:
RIC I (second edition), 116
BMC 206
Cohen 84
von Kaenel Type 60
BN 233-5
Acquisition/Sale: amarso66 eBay $0.00 04/19
Notes: Apr 12, 19 - The Gary R. Wilson Collection

Claudius, 25 January 41 - 13 October 54 A.D.
Claudius was one of the most capable, yet unlikely emperors. Shunned as an idiot by his family due to a limp and embarrassing stutter, Claudius spent the first decades of his life absorbed in scholarly studies until the death of his nephew Caligula. After Caligula's murder, the Praetorian Guard found him hiding behind a curtain in the Imperial Palace, expecting to be murdered. Instead, the guard proclaimed him emperor. His reign was marred by personal catastrophes, most notably promiscuity and betrayal by his first wife. He governed well and conquered the troublesome island of Britain. He was poisoned by his second wife, Agrippina Jr., mother of Nero.

"Nobody is familiar with his own profile, and it comes as a shock, when one sees it in a portrait, that one really looks like that to people standing beside one. For one's full face, because of the familiarity that mirrors give it, a certain toleration and even affection is felt; but I must say that when I first saw the model of the gold piece that the mint-masters were striking for me I grew angry and asked whether it was intended to be a caricature. My little head with its worried face perched on my long neck, and the Adam's apple standing out almost like a second chin, shocked me. But Messalina said: "No, my dear, that's really what you look like. In fact, it is rather flattering than otherwise." -- From the novel "Claudius the God: And His Wife Messalina" by Robert Graves

per Curtis Clay:
At ROME, bronze coins were struck for Claudius in two large issues, the first without P P and the second with P P, that is the first between his accession on 25 Jan. 41 and his acceptance of the title Pater Patriae less than a year later, between 1 and 12 Jan. 42, and the second after early January 42.

The types were the same in both issues:

sestertii of Claudius with types legend in wreath OB CIVES SERVATOS, SPES AVGVSTA, and legend of Nero Claudius Drusus around triumphal arch;

sestertius of Nero Claudius Drusus with rev. legend of Claudius around Claudius seated on curule chair set on globe among arms;

dupondius of Claudius with rev. CERES AVGVSTA;

dupondius of Antonia with rev. legend of Claudius around standing togate emperor;

asses of Claudius with rev. CONSTANTIAE AVGVSTI, LIBERTAS AVGVSTA, and Minerva fighting r.;

quadrantes of Claudius with types Modius and PNR, hand holding scales.

PROVINCIAL MINTS, official and unofficial, on the other hand, struck these same types for Claudius, usually without the quadrantes, almost exclusively without P P, so apparently during the first year of his reign. There were only two exceptions of provincial mints striking these standard types of Claudius after he became P P:

1. The Spanish mint, defined by the many sestertii and dupondii of this particular style, including dozens of die duplicates, found in the Pobla de Mafumet Hoard, struck most of its bronze coins for Claudius without P P, but, alone of the early provincial mints, continued to strike for him early in 42, now with P P, this however being a much smaller issue which probably lasted only a month or two.

I show below a "Pobla" dupondius of Claudius, this one of 41 (no P P), with the characteristic letter forms (particularly the Rs and Ms), often dots left and right of S C in rev. exergue, and the characteristic portrait with spikey hair locks. For comparison I also add a Rome-mint dupondius of the second issue, with P P. (Both images from CoinArchives)

curtislclay:
2. Thracian mint, later in reign, which had NOT struck bronzes for Claudius before he became P P. This mint copied the Roman types, but in slightly cruder style. Its dupondii often have central cavities on their flans, which never occur at Rome or at any of the other provincial mints; see the specimen that I illustrate below from CoinArchives.

Other features which suggest a Thracian or possibly Bithynian location of the mint: (a) quite a few bronze coins of this style have turned up in the flood of ancient coins that emerged from Bulgaria after the fall of the Iron Curtain. (b) Some of the sestertii in this style have Eastern countermarks, for example the SPES AVGVSTA sestertius shown below, from the website Museum of Countermarks on Roman Coins, with countermark Capricorn above rudder on globe. I think most of the Claudian bronzes known with this rare countermark are from our Thracian mint, though it can also occur on Roman and Spanish bronzes of Claudius, which had presumably found their way into circulation in Thrace or Bithynia.

What types did this mint strike? Well, sestertii of Claudius with Legend in wreath and SPES AVGVSTA, but no Arch of Drusus sestertii have yet been observed; CERES AVGVSTA dupondii of Claudius, but I haven't yet noted any dupondii of Antonia; asses of Claudius with all three normal types; no quadrantes.

curtislclay:
Unfortunately these different mints for bronze coins of Claudius are hardly recorded in the standard catalogues!

Laffranchi, in an article written in 1948, was the first to recognize and separate from Rome two of the main provincial mints striking bronzes for Claudius early in his reign, including the Spanish mint mentioned above. But Sutherland, revising RIC I in 1983, was unable to see the stylistic differences pointed out by Laffranchi, so attributed all of Claudius' bronze coins to Rome. The same RIC numbers, therefore, cover Rome and at least three major provincial mints without P P, and Rome, the Spanish mint, and the Thracian mint with P P!

Von Kaenel, in his 1986 monograph on the coinage of Claudius, recognized the two early provincial mints for bronze coins pointed out by Laffranchi, and attributed certain middle bronzes to yet a third provincial mint, though he wrongly located all of these mints in Rome, as auxiliarly mints to the main public one, rather than in the western provinces. He did not recognize the Thracian mint from later in the reign that I have treated above. His catalogue, no. 1888, pl. 43, indeed includes a Thracian CERES AVGVSTA dupondius with central indentations, but he misattributed it to the early Spanish mint, the only early provincial mint to produce bronze coins for Claudius as P P.

Giard, in his Paris catalogue of 1988, ignored both Laffranchi and von Kaenel, and, like RIC, attributed all official bronze coins of Claudius to the mint of Rome!

Individual Thracian mint coins have been recognized as such in various sale catalogues since the 1990s, but this mint has not been treated in any academic article or museum catalogue as far as I know.
Gary W2
RIC_Claudius_RIC_113.JPG
Claudius (Tiberius Claudius Drusus Germanicus) (41-54 A.D.)14 viewsRIC I (Claudius) 113

AE as (28 mm). Rome mint, struck ca. 50-54 A.D.

Obv: TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP P P, bare head, left.

Rev: LIBERTAS AVGVSTA, S-C in fields. Libertas draped, standing facing, head right, holding pileus (pointed cap) in right hand, left hand extended.

RIC rarity C

From an uncleaned coin lot.
Stkp
RIC_Claudius_RIC_I_94.JPG
Claudius (Tiberius Claudius Drusus Germanicus) (41-54 A.D.)26 viewsRIC I (Claudius) 94

AE dupondius (27-28 mm). Rome mint, struck ca. 41-50 A.D.

Obv: TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP, bare head, left.

Rev: CERES AVGVSTA, SC in exergue, Ceres veiled and draped, seated left on ornamental throne, holding two grain ears and a long torch.

Note: Issued in response to bread riots in Rome, as part of an ongoing publicity campaign to reassure Romans of the adequacy and stability of the grain supply from North Africa. Ceres (=Demeter) was the goddess of grain, and was primarily worshipped by plebeians, and in rural areas.

RIC rarity C

From an uncleaned coin lot.
Stkp
Claudius_Arch.jpg
Claudius Sestertius, Triumphal arch RIC 9839 viewsClaudius AE Sestertius. TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P, laureate head right / NERO CLAVDIVS DRVSVS GERMAN IMP SC, triumphal arch surmounted by equestrian statue of Nero Claudius Drusus galloping right. Ref RIC 98, Cohen 48, BMC 121, RCV 1851mattpat
clause08-2.jpg
Claudius, RIC 93, for Nero Claudius Drusus, Sestertius of AD 41-4240 viewsÆ sestertius (28.8g, Ø34mm, 6h), Rome mint, struck AD 41-42.
Obv.: NERO·CLAVDIVS·DRVSVS·GERMANICVS·IMP, bare head of Nero Claudius Drusus facing left.
Rev.: TI·CLAVDIVS·CAESAR·AVG·P·M·TR·P·IMP [/] S C, Claudius seated left on curule chair, holding a branch; weapons lying around.
RIC (Claudius) 93 (C); Cohen 8; BMC 157; Sear (RCV 2K) 1896
Charles S
clause08-3.jpg
Claudius, RIC 93, for Nero Claudius Drusus, Sestertius of AD 41-4251 viewsÆ Sestertius (28.8g, Ø34mm, 6h), Rome mint, struck AD 41-42.
Obv.: NERO·CLAVDIVS·DRVSVS·GERMANICVS·IMP, bare head of Nero Claudius Drusus facing left.
Rev.: TI·CLAVDIVS·CAESAR·AVG·P·M·TR·P·IMP [/] S C, Claudius seated left on curule chair, holding a branch; weapons lying around.
RIC (Claudius) 93 (C); Cohen 8; BMC 157; Sear (RCV 2K) 1896
Charles S
clause01-2.jpg
Claudius, RIC 98, Sestertius of AD 4239 viewsÆ sestertius (27.5g, Ø34mm, 6h), Rome mint, struck AD 42.
Obv.: TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP, laureate head of Claudius facing right.
Rev.: NERO CLAVDIVS DRVSVS GERMAN IMP (around) S C (in field), Triumphal arch surmounted by equestrial statue right, between two trophies.
RIC 98 (S); Cohen 48; Sear 2000 (RCV) 1851; Foss (RHC) 63:9

This issue honours Nero Claudius Drusus, the father of Claudius
Charles S
clause07-2.jpg
Claudius, RIC 109, for Nero Claudius Drusus, Sestertius of AD 50-5424 viewsÆ Sestertius (24.2g, Ø34mm, 6h), Rome mint, struck AD 50-54.
Obv.: NERO CLAVDIVS DRVSVS GERMANICVS IMP, bare head of Nero Claudius Drusus facing left.
Rev.: TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP P P / S C, Claudius seated left on curule chair, holding branch; weapons lying around.
RIC (Claudius) 109 (S); BMC 208; Sear (RCV 2000) 1897
Charles S
clause07-2~0.jpg
Claudius, RIC 109, for Nero Claudius Drusus, Sestertius of AD 50-54 50 viewsÆ Sestertius (24.2g, Ø34mm, 6h), Rome mint, struck AD 50-54.
Obv.: NERO CLAVDIVS DRVSVS GERMANICVS IMP, bare head of Nero Claudius Drusus facing left.
Rev.: TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP P P / S C, Claudius seated left on curule chair, holding branch; weapons lying around.
RIC (Claudius) 109 (S); BMC 208; Sear (RCV 2000) 1897
Charles S
agrippa.jpg
Corinth AE, Unknown Imperator.27 viewsCORINTHI, Bare headed bust right.

C MUSSIO PRISCO IIVIR C HEIO POLLIONE ITER, in a wreath of parsley.

The identity of the obverse bust remains a mystery. I submitted it for identifcation on the boards with both archivium and Curtis Clay responding. They also were unable to attribute the bust to either Augustus, Tiberius, Agrippa Postumus or Drusus!

http://www.forumancientcoins.com/board/index.php?topic=55882.0

On Curtis's advice I contacted Dr. Michael Amandry, who completed a significant work on the subject of Romano-Corinthian coinage titled "LE MONNAYAGE DES DUOVIRS CORINTHIENS."

Dr. Amandry's reply stated that the die on my coin was similar to other dies of Augustus or Drusus, but was unable to differentiate further. The identity of the bust must therefore remain partly solved until I can collect further examples of this coin for comparison.
Will Hooton
cyenaica_drusus.jpg
CYRENAICA, Cyrene. Drusus, with Tiberius and Germanicus Gemellus53 viewsObverse: Laureate head of Drusus right
Reverse: Bare heads of Tiberius and Germanicus, vis-à-vis
Mint : Cyrene
Date : Struck circa AD 23
Reference : RPC 947; Lindgren III 1589 (this coin)
Grade : VF
Weight : 9.23 g
Denom : As
Metal : AE
Dealer : CNG
Acquired: 14/05/08
Comments : Black-green patina. From the Patrick Villemur Collection. Ex Henry Clay Lindgren Collection (Classical Numismatic Group 37, 20 March 1996), lot 1223.
Bolayi
00025-drusus.jpg
Drusus21 viewsDrusus AS
25 mm 10.59 gm
O: DRVSVS CAESAR TI AVG F DIVI AVG N
Bare head left
R: IMP T CAES DIVI VESP F AVG REST
Large S C
Koffy
drusus_3.jpg
DRUSUS14 viewsd. 23 AD
POSTUMOUS, STRUCK UNDER TIBERIUS CA. 23 AD
AE 29.5 mm 9.42 g
O: DRVSVS CAESA TI AVG F DIVI AVG N
BARE HEAD L
R: LEGEND AROUND LARGE SC
ROME
laney
drusus_2.jpg
DRUSUS13 viewsd. 23 AD
POSTUMOUR
RESTORATION UNDER TITUS, STRUCK 81 - 82 AD
AE 26.5 mm 8.65 g
O: [CAE}SAR TI AVG F DIVI []
BARE HEAD L
R: [CA]ESAR AVG REST[]
LEGEND AROUND LARGE SC
laney
drusus_1.jpg
DRUSUS10 viewsd. 23 AD
POSTHUMOUS
AE 26.5 mm 7.54 g
O: BARE HEAD L
R: LARGE SC
laney
imgonline-com-ua-twotoone-reCiIurqi8PJzgw-Livia.jpg
Drusus (Caesar) Coin: Brass Dupondius5 viewsDRVSVS CAESAR TI AVGVSTI F TR POT ITER around large S C - Legend around S C
Exergue:



Mint: Rome (22-23AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 12.07g / 29mm / 180
Rarity: Scarce
References:
RIC I 43
BMCRE 98 (Tiberius)
BN 74
Cohen 1 (Livia)
Acquisition/Sale: sculptor17 Ebay

The Gary R. Wilson Collection

Livia Draped bust of Livia as Pietas. Livia was the powerful second wife of Augustus. By her first marriage, Livia is the mother of Tiberius (Emperor) and Drusus (husband of Antonia) and grandmother of Claudius (old friend of Alexander the Alabarch). SR 1731

From Marvin Tameanko:
As usual, there was much vicious gossip and slander surrounding Livia and today it is impossible to separate fact from fiction. In all fairness, one must assume she was neither as good nor as evil as ancient and modern authors say. Tacitus, the 1st century Roman historian, was her worst critic and accused her in his book The Annals, Book 1.3 and 1.6, of causing the murder of the adopted heirs of Augustus, Caius and Lucius, to clear the way for her own son, Tiberius. The historian, Cassius Dio, writing in the 2nd century AD, repeated this ugly rumor in his book, Roman History, Book 53, 33.4, 55, 32 and 57, 3.6. Both these authors are usually dependable, and not know to be falsifiers of history or slanderers, but they both despised the emperor Tiberius and could attack his reputation only by maligning his mother. Today, most historians reject their terrible and outrageous accusation that Livia murdered Augustus by poisoning his dessert of fresh figs. (Tacitus, The Annals Book 1.5 and Dio, History, 55.22.2, and 56.30). This horror story was made popular by the 20th century author, Robert Graves, in his historical novel, I Claudius, but both Tacitus and Dio had devious political agendas that overrode their duties to be honest reporters. However, Livia’s busts on the ancient coins struck by her son, the Emperor Tiberius, although considered to be merely propaganda images, offer kinder assessments of her character. One extraordinary coin portrays Livia as the deity Pietas, goddess of piety, affection and dutifulness.
Divinities were often used to personify the sterling qualities of an ideal Roman matron so, as the ‘First Lady’ of the Empire, Livia Augusta, representing these divinities, became the textbook example of Roman womanhood. To cultivate this image, Livia was shown in sculpture and on coins dressed and posed as various goddesses. Most remarkably, Tiberius struck a series of dupondii, low denominations of currency and therefore coins that would come frequently into the hands of many Romans, depicting the Augusta as various divine personifications. For example, she is portrayed as the deity Pietas, representing the piety of the people, as Justitia, for the Justice administered to the citizens, and as Salus, symbolic of the Good Health or Well Being of the nation.

From CNG:
Claudia Julia Livia, nicknamed Livilla (”Little Livia”), was the daughter of Nero Claudius Drusus and Antonia Minor, and sister to Germanicus and the future emperor Claudius. Though Roman historians describe her as remarkably beautiful and charming, they also condemn her as a power-hungry adulteress and murderess. Tacitus accuses her of conspiring with her lover, the Praetorian Prefect Sejanus, to poison her husband, the imperial heir Drusus Caesar, who died in AD 23. This coin, struck in the name of Drusus shortly before his death, depicts on the obverse a veiled and classically beautiful woman as Pietas, goddess of religious piety and dutifulness. David Vagi has argued convincingly that the head represents Livilla, given that the other bronze coins issued the same year depict Drusus himself and the couple’s twin sons, forming a “family set.”
Gary W2
Tiberius___Germanicus_Gemellus__AD_19_(37-8)_and_19_(23-4),_respectively__Æ_Sestertius_(34mm,_24_74_g,_6h)__Rome_mint__100.jpg
Drusus (Caesar) Coin: Brass Sestertius 10 views(no legend) - Crossed cornucopias, each surmounted by the bareheaded bust of a boy facing one another; winged caduceus between
DRVSVS CAESAR TI AVG F DIVI AVG N PONT TR POT II around large SC. - Legend surrounding large S C
Exergue:



Mint: Rome (22-23 AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 24.74g / 34mm / 6h
Rarity: Scarce
References:
RIC I 42 (Tiberius)
BMC Tiberius 95
CBN Tiberius 73
Provenances:
Richard Baker Collection
CNG
Acquisition/Sale: CNG Internet 435 #315

The Gary R. Wilson Collection

This issue, commemorating the birth of twin sons to Drusus Caesar and his wife Livia Drusilla (Livilla), was part of the series issued under the Tiberius in AD 22-23 to promote the imperial virtue and dynastic solidity of the emperor's family. Although Germanicus Gemellus died very young, his brother Tiberius lived into his adulthood, with the expectation that he would be heir to his grandfather following the premature death of his father, Drusus. In the later years of the emperor’s life, though, Gaius (Caligula) was often seen in close company with the emperor, while Tiberius Gemellus’s status was shrouded in obscurity. Thus, after the death of the emperor, Caligula, assisted by the Praetorian Prefect, Macro, quickly moved to take the purple. Upon the reading of the deceased emperor’s will, however, it was discovered that Tiberius intended for both Tiberius Gemellus and his cousin Gaius to be jointly elevated, and, moreover, that Gemellus was to be the senior partner. Under unknown authority, Caligula quickly had the will vacated, and, shortly thereafter, his cousin murdered.

This sestertius was struck in 22/23, nearly three years after the death of Germanicus, Tiberius’ nephew and first heir. In the
interim Tiberius had named no heir, but with the nine coins in his dated aes of 22/23 he announces a ‘Tiberian dynasty’
that includes his son Drusus, his daughter-in-law (and niece) Livilla, and his twin grandsons Tiberius Gemellus and
Germanicus Gemellus, whose heads decorate the crossed cornucopias on this sestertius.
Since it is the only coin in the aes of 22/23 without an obverse inscription, we must presume its design was believed
sufficient to communicate the fact that the twin boys were portrayed. Though this type usually is thought to celebrate the
birth of the twins, that event had occurred two and a half years before this coin was struck. Rather, it is best seen in light of
early Julio-Claudian dynastic rhetoric in which male heirs were celebrated as twins (even if they were not literally twins, or
even biological brothers) and were routinely likened to the Dioscuri, the heavenly twins Castor and Pollux.
The crossed-cornucopias design is familiar on ancient coinage, and here the cornucopias, grape clusters, grape leaves and
pine cones seemingly allude to Bacchus or Liber in a reference to fecundity. In terms of dynastic appeal, the design boasts
of the prosperity and fruitfulness of the Tiberian line, with the caduceus symbolizing Mercury as the messenger of the gods
and the bringer of good fortune.
Despite the hopefulness represented by this series of coins, tragedy struck on two fronts. The ‘Tiberian dynasty’ collapsed
within months of its being announced when both Drusus and his son Germanicus Gemellus (the boy whose head is shown
on the right cornucopia) died in 23.
Poor fates awaited the remaining two members: Drusus’ wife Livilla became increasingly associated with Tiberius’ prefect
Sejanus, and she died shamefully in the aftermath of his downfall in 31, and the second grandson, Tiberius Gemellus,
survived long enough to be named co-heir of Tiberius with Caligula, but after Tiberius’ death he was pushed into a
subsidiary role and soon was executed by Caligula, who would not tolerate a second heir to the throne.

The Caduceus between two cornucopia indicates Concord, and is found on medals of Augustus, M. Antony, Vespasian, Titus, Domitian, Nerva, Antoninus Pius, Marcus Aurelius, and Clodius Albinus in addition to this sestertius of Drusus.

Tiberius Julius Caesar Nero Gemellus, known Gemellus and his twin brother Tiberius Claudius Caesar Germanicus II Gemellus, were born on the 10th of October 19AD. They were the win sons of Drusus and Livilla, the grandson of the Emperor Tiberius, and the cousin of the Emperor Caligula. Gemellus is a nickname meaning “the twin”. Germanicus II Gemellus, died in early childhood in 23 AD whereas Nero Gemellus died 37 or 38AD perhaps on the orders of his cousin Caligula.

Gemellus’ father Drusus (also known as Castor) died mysteriously when Gemellus was only four. It is believed that Drusus died at the hands of the Praetorian Prefect, Lucius Aelius Sejanus. His mother Livilla was either put to death or committed suicide because she had been plotting with Sejanus to overthrow Tiberius, and also because she may have worked with Sejanus to poison her husband. Livilla had been Sejanus’ lover for a number of years before their deaths, and many including Tiberius believed that both Gemelli were really Sejanus’ sons.

We know very little about Gemellus’ life, since he was largely ignored by most of the Imperial family. When Gemellus was 12 years old, he was summoned to the island of Capri where Tiberius lived at that time, along with his cousin Caligula. Tiberius made both Caligula and Gemellus joint-heirs, but Caligula was the favorite.

After Tiberius died on March 16th, 37AD, Caligula became Emperor and adopted Gemellus as his son. Caligula soon thereafter ordered him killed in late 37 AD or early 38 AD . The allegation was plotting against Caligula while he was ill. Suetonius writes that Caligula ordered Gemellus killed.
Gary W2
Drusus-Tiberius_(10_BC-37_AD)__Asse_21-22_AD__Rome_11_14_g_63_79.JPG
Drusus (Caesar) Coin: Bronze AS 9 viewsDRVSVS CAESAR TI AVG F DIVI AVG N - Bare head left
PONTIF TRIBVN POTEST ITER - Legend surrounding large S C
Exergue:



Mint: Rome (21-22 AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 11.14g / 29mm / 6h
References:
RIC 45 (Tiberius)
Cohen 2
MIR 2, 31-6
BMCRE 99 Tiberius)
BN 79 (Tiberius)
Provenances:
V.L. Nummus
Acquisition/Sale: V.L. Nummus Internet E-Live Auction 11 #92

The Gary R. Wilson Collection

From Wikipedia:

Drusus Julius Caesar (14 BC – 14 September AD 23), was the son of Emperor Tiberius, and heir to the Roman Empire following the death of his adoptive brother Germanicus in AD 19.

He was born at Rome to a prominent branch of the gens Claudia, the son of Tiberius and his first wife, Vipsania Agrippina. His name at birth was Nero Claudius Drusus after his paternal uncle, Drusus the Elder. In AD 4, he assumed the name Julius Caesar following his father's adoption into the Julii by Augustus, and became Drusus Julius Caesar.

Drusus first entered politics with the office of quaestor in AD 10. His political career mirrored that of Germanicus, and he assumed all his offices at the same age as him. Following the model of Augustus, it was intended that the two would rule together. They were both popular, and many dedications have been found in their honor across Roman Italy. Cassius Dio calls him "Castor" in his Roman History, likening Drusus and Germanicus to the twins, Castor and Pollux, of Roman mythology.

Drusus died suddenly 14 September 23, seemingly from natural causes. Ancient historians, such as Tacitus and Suetonius, claim he died amid a feud with the powerful Sejanus, Praetorian prefect of Rome. They allege that he had been murdered. In their account, Sejanus had seduced his wife Livilla, and with the help of a doctor she had poisoned Drusus. Despite the rumors, Tiberius did not suspect Sejanus and the two remained friends until Sejanus' fall from grace in 31.

PONTIF TRIBVN POTEST ITER = priest, holder of Tribunitian power for two years
Gary W2
00680.jpg
Drusus (RIC 45, Coin #680)26 viewsRIC 45 (C), Copper AS, Rome, 23 AD.
OBV: DRVSVS CAESAR TI AVG F DIVI AVG N; Bare head left.
REV: PONTF TRIBVN POTEST ITER; Legend around SC.
SIZE: 27.2mm 10.58g
1 commentsMaynardGee
00711.jpg
Drusus (RIC 93, Coin #711)7 viewsRIC 93 (C), AE Sestertius, minted under Claudius, Rome, 50 - 54 AD.
OBV: NERO CLAVDIVS DRVSVS GERMANICVS IMP; Bare head left.
REV: TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP S C; Claudius, bare-headed and togate, seated left on curule chair, holding out branch with right, miscellaneous weapons and amour lying around.
SIZE: 31.9mm, 14.68g
MaynardGee
druso_PONTIFTRIBVNPOTESTITER_as_(Tiberio)_Ric45.jpg
Drusus - as7 viewsPONTIFTRIBVNPOTESTITER
Tiberius Ric 45
antvwala
drusus-caesar-sc.jpg
Drusus - Senatus Consultum18 viewsRoman Imperial, Drusus Caesar AE As. Struck under Tiberius, (21-22 AD), 27.5mm, 9.3g

Obverse: DRVSVS CAESAR TI AVG F DIVI AVG N, Bare head left.

Reverse: PONTIF TRIBVN POTEST ITER around large S•C.

Reference: RIC 45 (Tiberius), Sear RCV 1794, Cohen 2.

Ex: Incitiatus Coins +photo
Gil-galad
drusus.jpg
Drusus AE As32 viewsOBV: DRVSVS CAESAR TI AVG F DIVI AVG N
bare head left
REV: PONTIF TRIBVN POTEST ITER
around large S
Date: 21~22 A.D. Rome Mint
10.28g. 29mm
RIC I 45, BMC 99
1 commentsmiffy
Drusus_1_opt.jpg
DRUSUS AE As RIC 216, Senatus Consulto11 viewsOBV: DRVSVSCAESARTIAVGFDIVIAVGN - Bare head left
REV: IMPTCAESDIVIVESPFAVGREST - Legend around large S C in center
9.4g, 24mm

Minted at Rome, 80 AD
Legatus
__57Drusus.jpg
Drusus AE AS. Large SC.28 viewsDrusus AE As. Rome, 23 A.D. DRVSVS CAESAR TI AVG F DIVI AVG N, bare head left. / PONTIF TRIBVN POTEST ITER, Legend around large SC. Sear 1794 Antonivs Protti
007Drusus.jpg
Drusus As22 viewsCopper As
Obv: DRVSVS CAESAR TI AVG F DIVI AVG N bare hd. of Drusus l.
Rev:PONTIF TRIBVN POTEST ITER around large S C
RIC Tiberius 45
Tanit
Drusus.jpg
Drusus As20 viewsAE As
Obv: DRVSVS CAESAR TI AVG F DIVI AVG N ; bare hd. l.
Rev: PONTIF TRIBVN POTEST ITER; legend around large S C in field.

Cohen 2
Tanit
drusus-reshoot.jpg
Drusus Caesar AE As. Struck under Tiberius, (21-22 AD)11 viewsRoman Imperial, Drusus Caesar AE As. Struck under Tiberius, (21-22 AD), 27.5mm, 9.3g

Obverse: DRVSVS CAESAR TI AVG F DIVI AVG N, Bare head left.

Reverse: PONTIF TRIBVN POTEST ITER around large S•C.

Reference: RIC 45 (Tiberius), Sear RCV 1794, Cohen 2.

Ex: Incitiatus Coins
Gil-galad
drusus_titus_rest_k.jpg
Drusus Caesar, Restoration Issue Under Titus20 viewsÆ as, 28mm, 7.2g, 6h; Rome mint, 80-81.
Obv.: DRVSVS CAESAR T AVG F DIVI AVG N; bare head left.
Rev.: IMP T CAES DIVI VESP F AVG REST; large SC in center.
Reference: RIC II Titus 216, p. 144, Rare.
Notes: Aleg
1 commentsJohn Anthony
CollageMaker_20180531_122851719.jpg
Drusus Junior9 viewsAE As, Rome Mint, Struck 22-23 AD.
Obverse: DRVSVS CAESAR TI AVG F DIVI AVG N, bare head left.
Reverse: PONTIF TRIBVN POTEST ITER around large SC.
References: RIC I 45 (Tiberius), BMCRE 99, Cohen 2, RCV 1794
Justin L
DrususRest.jpg
Drusus Restitution by Titus108 viewsDrusus AE As, struck under Titus.

DRVSVS CAESAR TI AVG F DIVI AVG N
Bare head of Drusus left

IMP T CAES DIVI VESP F AVG P M TR P P P COS VIII RESTITVIT
in two lines around large SC.

Rome 80 AD
11.03g

Cohen 7, RIC(2) 415

Very rare

Ex-Londinium Coins

Sold to Calgary Coin February 2017
Jay GT4
Drusus_RIC_45.JPG
Drusus RIC 4532 viewsDrusus AE As, 22 - 23 AD, RIC 45 (Tiberius), Cohen 2, BMC 99, SEAR 1794,
OBV: DRVSVS CAESAR TI AVG F DIVI AVG N, bare head left
REV: PONTIF TRIBVN POTEST ITER around large S•C

SCARCE
Romanorvm
Drusus_RIC126_(Titus).JPG
Drusus RIC126 (Titus)15 viewsDRVSVS CAESAR TI AVG F DIV [I AVG N]
Bare head left
[IMP T CAES] DIVI VESP F [AVG REST] around large SC
AE as, 28mm
novacystis
gemellus.jpg
Drusus with Tiberius and Germanicus Gemellus. AE Sestertius24 viewsDrusus, with Tiberius and Germanicus Gemellus. AE Sestertius, Rome, 22-23 A.D. Struck under Tiberius. Crossed cornuacopiae, each surmounted by bare-headed bust of a boy facing one another, winged caduceus between. / DRVSVS CAESAR TI AVG F DIVI AVG N PONT TR POT II, Legend around large S C. RIC 42. Ex. GoldbergHolding_History
Drusus_(Titus_Rest)_RIC_437.JPG
Drusus, son of Tiberius, Restoration Coinage of Emperor Titus18 viewsObv: (DRVS)VS CAESAR TI AVG F DIV AVG N, bare head of Drusus facing left.

Rev: IMP T CAES DIVI VESP F AVG RES around edge, large SC in center.

Copper As, Rome mint, 80 - 81 AD

7.9 grams, 25.8 mm, 180°

RIC IIi Titus 437 (new edition), RIC II Titus 216, S2594, VM 3
SPQR Matt
Drusus.jpg
Drusus, Son of Tiberius. AE As51 viewsDrusus Æ As. Struck under Tiberius, 21-22 AD. DRVSVS CAESAR TI AVG F DIVI AVG N, bare head left / PONTIF TRIBVN POTEST ITER around large S•C. RIC 45 (Tiberius),Cohen 2, BMC 99.ancientone
DRVSVS.JPG
DRVSVS As7 viewsDrusus, † 23. As, Rome A.D. 23. Drusus Memorial AE As, RIC 45 (Tiberius), Cohen 2, BMC 99, Sear RCV 1794 - Drusus Caesar Æ As. Struck under Tiberius, 21-22 AD. DRVSVS CAESAR TI AVG F DIVI AVG N, bare head left / PONTIF TRIBVN POTEST ITER around large S•C. Podiceps
EB0378_scaled.JPG
EB0378 Drusus Caesar30 viewsDrusus Caesar AE As. Struck under Tiberius, 21-22 AD.
Obv: DRVSVS CAESAR TI AVG F DIVI AVG N, bare head left.
Rev: PONTIF TRIBVN POTEST [ITER] around large S•C.
References: Cohen 2; RIC 45[tib]; sear5 1794.
Diameter: 28mm, Weight: 10.107 grams.
Note: Sold.
EB
EB0379_scaled.JPG
EB0379 Nero and Drusus galloping right7 viewsNero and Drusus Caesars, AE Dupondius, Struck under Caligula, 37-38 AD.
Obv: NERO ET DRVSVS CAESARES, Nero & Drusus on horseback galloping right.
Rev: C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT around large S C.
References: RIC I 34.
Diameter: 29.5 mm, Weight: 15.619 grams.
Note: Sold.
EB
EB0686_scaled.JPG
EB0686 Tiberius / Nero and Drusus7 viewsTiberius, 14-37, Spain, Carthago Nova, AE 27.
Obverse: TI CAESAR DIVI AVGVSTI F AVGVSTVS P M, bare head of Tiberius left.
Reverse: NERO ET DRVSVS CAESARES QVINQ C V I N C, confronting heads of Nero & Drusus.
References: RPC 179, Sear'88 #586, SGI 335, RPC 179, SNGCop 500.
Diameter: 27mm, Weight: 19.47g.
EB
EB0903_scaled.JPG
EB0903 Nero Claudius Drusus / Claudius3 viewsNero Claudius Drusus, father of Claudius, AE Sestertius, Struck by Claudius, Rome mint 41-42 AD.
Obverse: NERO CLAVDIVS DRVSVS GERMANICVS IMP, bare head of Nero Drusus left; counterstamp NCAPR (possibly for Nero Ceasar Augustus Populi Romani).
Reverse: TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP, Claudius, togate, seated left on curule chair, holding branch; arms lying around; SC in ex.
References: RIC I 93 [Claudius], Cohen 8, BMC 157.
Diameter: 36mm, Weight: 24.03g.
EB
CALIDU03-2.jpg
Gaius ("Caligula"), RIC 34, for Nero & Drusus, Dupondius of AD 37-3812 viewsÆ Dupondius (13.2g, Ø28.5mm, 12h), Rome mint, struck AD 37-38.
Obv.: NERO ET DRVSVS CAESARES, Nero and Drusus riding right, cloaks flying.
Rev.: C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT round large S·C.
RIC 34 BMCRE 44; Cohen 1; Foss (Roman Historical Coins) 61:10b

This type celebrates the memory of Caligula's family: bringing back the ashes of his brothers Nero and Drusus.
Charles S
CaliDu02-2.jpg
Gaius ("Caligula"), RIC 49, for Nero & Drusus, Dupondius of AD 40-4196 viewsÆ Dupondius (16.0g, Ø 31mm, 6h), Rome mint, struck AD 40-41.
Obv.: NERO ET DRVSVS CAESARES, Nero and Drusus riding right, cloaks flying.
Rev.: C CAESAR DIVI AVG PRON AVG P M TR P IIII P P P EX round large S·C.
RIC 49 (R2) var. (see note below); BMCRE 70 var (idem); Cohen 2 var (idem); Foss (Roman Historical Coins) 61:10b

This type celebrates the memory of Caligula's family: bringing back the ashes of his brothers Nero and Drusus.

Note: The legend on this coin is unusual, because it ends with TR P IIII P P P EX instead of just TR P IIII P P. A coin with the same rev. die was auctioned through CNG eAuction 280 lot 131. Also note that RIC 49 gives the erratic reverse legend ending with TR POT IIII P P instead of TR P IIII P P, compare Cohen 2 where it is correct.
5 commentsCharles S
Germanicus.jpg
Germanicus54 viewsGERMANICUS, father of Caligula, Died AD 19. Æ Dupondius (29mm, 12.8g). Struck under Gaius (Caligula), AD 37-41. GERMANICVS CAESAR, Germanicus in triumphal quadriga right. / SIGNIS - RECEPT / DEVICTIS - GERM / S-C , Germanicus standing left, holding eagle-tipped scepter. (mint of Rome). RIC I, pg 112, #57 (Gaius)
Son of Drusus, adopted by Tiberius, Father of Caligula, Germanicus Caesar was (by accounts) loved by his legions and the people of Rome. Germanicus carried out punitive actions against the Germans for their part in the Varus ambush, in which the 17th, 18th, and 19th legions were almost decimated to a man. Germanicus's campaign recovered 2 of the 3 lost Eagle stantards from the lost legions. This coin depicts the triumph given to Germanicus and celebrates the recovery of the lost eagle standards.
3 commentsSoxfan
Germanicus_Drusus_Sardes~0.jpg
Germanicus and Drusus - Sardis11 viewsstruck by Tiberius
c. 14-17 AD
head of Germanicus right
ΓEPMANIKOΣ // KAIΣAPEΩN
head of Drusus right
ΔPOYΣOΣ // ΣAPΔIANΩN
RPC I 2992
2,8g 15-13mm
ex Naumann
Johny SYSEL
Drusus-Sesterz-2cornucopiae-RIC[Tib]42.jpg
II-TIBERIUS-a - 005 Sestertius RIC I/4257 viewsAv) No legend
Confronting heads of two little boys on crossed cornucopiae, with winged caduceus in between

Rv) DRVSVS CAESAR TI AVG F DIVI AVG N PONT TR POT II around large SC

Weight: 24,88g; Ø:34mm; Reference: RIC I [TIB]/42, ROME mint; struck 22 A.D. - 23A.D.
3 commentssulcipius
Germanicus-Drusus-AE28-LYDIA-SARDIS-SEAR365.jpg
III-GAIUS-b - 001 AE28 SARDIS RPC I/299551 viewsAv) ΔPOYΣOΣ KAI ГERMANIKOΣ KAIΣAPEΣ NEOI ΘEOI ΘIΛAΔEΛΦOI
Germanicus and Drusus seated left, side by side on curule chairs

Rv) Г AIΩ AΣINNIΩ ΠΩΛΛIΩNI ANΘYΠATΩ around wreath
KOINOY AΣIAΣ within wreath

Weight:11,7g; Ø: 28mm; Reference: RPC I 2995; BMC Lydia pg. 252, 106;
SNG Copenhagen 518; SEAR/ 365
Mint: LYDIA // SARDIS; struck gepr.:37--41
This coin was re/over-strucked only with a new legend by the proconsule ASINIUS POLLIO; Because of this overstruck the central image appears like a cameo.
1 commentssulcipius
Drusus Italica.jpg
Italica (Spain) - Drusus Jr.23 views[DRVSV]S CAESAR TI. [AVG. F.] , bare head of Drusus right.
[MVNIC.] ITALIC. / PER. AVG. , Legionary eagle with vexillum between 2 standards.
Ginolerhino
Italy- Pompeii- The Forum 1.jpg
Italy- Pompeii- The Forum 163 viewsThe Forum
ENTRANCE TO THE FORUM Forum of Pompeii After 80 B.C. One of the two arches originally covered with marble which flank the Temple of Jupiter and are the main entrances to the forum. The temple was built under the Samnites in the second century B.C.
FORUM OF POMPEII After 80 B.C. The Forum of Pompeii has a central rectangular space, 466 feet long by 124 feet wide, surrounded by the most important public buildings in the city. Like other forums, it is set up on an axial plan. A colonnade lines three sides. In the center of the fourth side, visible in the distance, is the Temple of Jupiter, known as the Capitolium. The forum was paved with travertine stone and only pedestrians were permitted in its precinct. Situated on an old site, it was largely rebuilt after 80 B.C. when Pompeii became a Roman colony. The forum was again in the process of rebuilding after the earthquake of 62 AD. It was buried under the eruption of Vesuvius seen in the distance in 79.

FORUM (VII,8)
The first monumental arrangement dates from the 2nd cent. BC, with a few buildings and the porticos with their double row of tufa columns, replaced with white limestone in the imperial age, when the site was repaved and buildings added on the east side where shops had previously stood. Located at the intersection between the two main streets of the original urban center, the Forum was the city's main square, where cart traffic was forbidden: it was surrounded on all sides by religious, political, and business buildings. In the 1st cent. AD the Forum highlighted the celebratory intention of the imperial house, where the monumental bases for commemorative statues were placed on the south side, in front of the city's administrative buildings, while those of illustrious citizens stood along the porticos : the sculptures have not been found, perhaps because they were removed by the people of Pompeii who returned after the eruption to take whatever they could. In the center of the western side stands an orators' tribune.
MEMORIAL ARCHES
In opus latericium, at one time covered with marble, these elegantly enclose the Forum to the north, in celebration of the imperial family. Of the two built on either side of the Temple of Jupiter, the one to the west is attributed to Augustus, the east to Nero, perhaps demolished following the death (68 AD) and sentencing of the emperor, or simply to avoid blocking the view of the other arch behind it, at the north entrance to the Forum. This has two niches on one side that once held statues of Nero and Drusus, on the other side two fountains; an equestrian statue (perhaps of the emperor Tiberius) topped this arch. The other arch, in the back at the start of Via di Mercurio, is called the Caligula Arch because an equestrian statue was found nearby, that may have depicted the emperor Caligula and probably stood on the arch.
John Schou
AGRIPPA~1.jpg
Judea Herod Agrippa I57 viewsAΓΡI ΠA BACIΛEWC
King Agrippa umbrella canopy with fringes

Three ears of barley between two leaves flanked by date L - ς
(year 6).

Jerusalem Mint 41-42 AD
Bronze Prutah

Hendin 1244

Ex-Zurgieh


Herod Agrippa I was a son of Aristobulus and grandson of Herod the Great by Mariamne I, granddaughter of High Priest Hyrcanus II. His father Aristobulus had been put to death by Herod the Great. Named after Augustus best friend and genreal Marcus Agrippa, Herod Agrippa was the last of the Herods to become king of all Palestine, as his grandfather had been. Agrippa was educated in Rome with the Emperor Tiberius’ son Drusus and his nephew Claudius and he became a familiar figure in important circles in Rome.

An injudicious statement got Agrippa into trouble with Emperor Tiberius. In an unguarded moment he expressed the wish to Gaius (Caligula) that he, Gaius, might soon be emperor. Overheard by Agrippa’s servant, his remarks came to the ears of Tiberius, who cast Agrippa into prison. His life was in the balance for several months. Fortunately for Agrippa, Tiberius died and Caligula became emperor. He released Agrippa and elevated him to the position of king over the territories that his late uncle Philip had governed.

When Caligula was assassinated Agrippa was in Rome. He was able to act as liaison between the Senate and his friend, the new Emperor Claudius. Claudius expressed his appreciation by awarding him the territory of Judea and Samaria as well as the kingdom of Lysanias. Agrippa now became ruler of about the same dominion that his grandfather Herod the Great had held.


1 commentsJay GT4
Livia_40.jpg
Livia Dupondius (UNIFACE PLASTER CAST)42 viewsAE dupondius issued by Drusus under Tiberius
Obv:- Diademed, draped, and veiled bust of a woman (Livia?), right, PIETAS in exe.
A.D. 23

UNIFACE PLASTER CAST
1 commentsmaridvnvm
LIVIA-1.jpg
Livilla??, Wife of Drusus, c. 13 BC-AD 31.689 viewsÆ Dupondius under Tiberius (28 mm, 14.23 gm). Struck circa 22/3 AD.
Obv: PIETAS, veiled, diademed and draped bust of Livilla as Pietas right.
Rev: DRVSVS CAESAR TI AVGVSTI F TR POT ITER around large S C.
RIC I 43 (Tiberius); BMCRE 98; BN 74; Cohen 1; Sear 1741; Vagi 477.

The identity of this female portrait remains controversial, and has been identified as Livia (RIC, Sear), Livilla (Vagi) and Vipsania (Jasper Burns).
4 commentsEmpressCollector
5~0.jpg
Lydia, Characa. Drusus AE18. Amphora countermark 26 viewsDrusus Caesar (Son of Germanicus, Brother of Caligula and Nero Caesar)
Obv. DPOVSOS KAISAP, Juvenile head of Drusus.
Rev. MENOFANTOY KAPAKI..., Caduceus.
18mm., 4.2gm.
Sylloge of Ancient Unedited Coins of Greek Cities and Kings, 1837, p. 79
Howgego 369.
1 commentsancientone
PhilidelphiaCaligula.JPG
Lydia, Philadelphia. Caligula AE18. Dioscuri39 viewsObv: ΓAIOΣ KAIΣAΡ, bare head right, star behind
Rev: ΦIΛAΔEΛΦEΩN ..., laureate and jugate busts of the Dioscuri right.

Older references identify imperial family members on the reverse but RPC identifies them as Dioscuri. RPC notes, "That the jugate busts probably do not represent Germanicus and Agrippina I, Germanicus and Agrippina as Apollo and Artemis, or Apollo and Artemis (see BMC; Imhoof-Blumer, LS, pp. 116-117; Trillmich, Familienpropaganda der Kaiser und Claudius, pp. 130-131) since the further figure can sometimes be seen to be laureate (e.g. 2023/1 = BMC 53). It must therefore be male, and the two interpreted as the Dioscuri, who had previously appeared on the coinage of Philadelphia." The Dioscuri are also found on the imperial coinage of Caligula. In addition, since the magistrate named on the reverse is a priest, religious symbolism would be appropriate. The facial features of the reverse busts do, however, resemble members of the family of Caligula. Perhaps the they are Nero and Drusus Caesars as the brothers Castor and Pollux.
-FORVM ANCIENT COINS
ancientone
IMG_9318.JPG
Lydia, Sardes; Germanicus and Drusus24 viewsLYDIA, Sardes. Germanicus and Drusus, Caesares. 28-29 AD(?), by Asinius Pollio, Proconsul. Togate figures of Drusus and Germanicus seated left on curule chairs, DROUSOS KAI GERMANIKOS KAISARES NEOI QEOI FILADELFOI around (overstruck on original legend) / KOINOU ASIAS in two lines within wreath; GAIW ASINNIW POLLIWNI ANQUPATW around (overstruck on original legend). RPC I 2995; Weber 6905.

This interesting coin appears to be an original issue, but in actuality, it is an earlier issue that is restruck with two intricate 'countermarks.' These 'countermarks' were ring-shaped punch restrikings of the legends that surround the obverse and reverse designs. While the obverse 'countermark-legend' is the same as that which appeared on the original striking, the reverse legend, originally EPI ARCIEPEWS ALEXANDROU KLEWNOS SAPDIANOU, has been totally replaced by a new 'countermark-legend.'
1 commentsecoli
fc18.jpg
LYDIA, Sardis. Germanicus, with Drusus. Caesar, 15 BC-AD 19. Æ (16mm, 3.12 g, 12h). Bare head of Germanicus right / Bare head of Drusus right20 viewsJoe Geranio Collection- (anyone may use as long as credit is given)LYDIA, Sardis. Germanicus, with Drusus. Caesar, 15 BC-AD 19. Æ (16mm, 3.12 g, 12h). Bare head of Germanicus right / Bare head of Drusus right. RPC I 2992; BMC 110-2; SNG Copenhagen -.Joe Geranio
GermanicusDrususBlackBackground.jpg
LYDIA. Sardes. Germanicus, with Drusus (Caesar, 15 BC-AD 19). Ae (Restruck circa AD 28/9)64 viewsAsinius Pollio, proconsul

This coin was originally struck with the reverse legend EPI ARXIEREWS ALEXANDROU KLEWNOS SARDIANOU but using an elaborate set of ring shaped countermark dies the obverse and reverse legends were restruck, the reverse indicating the new magistrate.

Obverse Legend : deltaΡΟΥΣΟΣ KAI gammaΕΡMANIKOΣ KAIΣΑΡΕΣ NEOI ΘEOI ΦΙΛΑdeltaΕΛΦOI
Obverse Description : Togate figures of Drusus and Germanicus seated left on curule chairs, one figure holding a lituus
Reverse Legend : gammaΑΙΩ AΣΙΝΝΙΩ ΠΟΛΛΙΩΝI ANΘΥΠΑΤΩ KOINOΥ AΣΙΑΣ
Reverse Description : KOINOY AΣΙΑΣ in two lines within wreath; legend around
Weight: 15.5 gm
Diameter: 29 mm

RPC 2995

Supposedly there is an article about this coin in the November 1994 issue of The Celator. I'm trying to locate a copy of that article-- no luck finding it online so I'll have to find and buy a copy of that issue. The piece by Thomas McKenna is titled "The case of the curious coin of Caligula: A provincial bronze restruck with legend-only dies".
3 commentsTIF
Nero_and_Druses_Caesar.jpg
NERO AND DRUSUS CAESAR Ae Dupondius RIC 34, Senatus Consulto13 viewsOBV: NERO ET DRVSVS CAESARES, Nero & Drusus on horseback riding right
REV: C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT around large S C
11.56g, 27mm
Minted at Rome under Caligula, 37-38 AD
Nero & Drusus Caesars, brothers of Caligula
Legatus
Nero_Caludius_Drusus_2.jpg
Nero Claudius Drusus AE Sestertius RIC 109 [Claudius]23 viewsOBV: NERO CLAVDIUS DRUSUS GERMANICUS IMP, bare head left
REV: TI CLAUDIUS CAESAR AUG P M TR P IMP P P S-C, Claudius seated left on curule chair amidst arms
28.6g, 35mm

Minted at Rome, 41-2 AD
Legatus
Nero Claudius Drusus Sestertius.JPG
Nero Claudius Drusus Sestertius18 viewsAE Sestertius.
Obverse: NERO CLAVDIVS DRVSVS GERMANICVS IMP, bare head left
Reverse: TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP, Claudius, togate, seated left on curule chair, holding branch; arms lying around; SC in ex.
RIC 93 [Claudius], Cohen 8, BMC 157
33mm, 20.5gm
Jerome Holderman
NCD.jpg
Nero Claudius Drusus Sestertius23 viewsOBV: NERO CLAVDIVS DRVSVS GERMANICVS IMP
bare head left
REV: TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP P P S-C
Claudius seated left on curule chair amidst arms
23.9g, 34mm
RIC 109, RCV 1897
miffy
Nero_Claudius_Drusus_Sestertius_RIC_93.JPG
Nero Claudius Drusus Sestertius RIC 9372 viewsAE Sestertius
Nero Claudius Drusus, Rome Mint, 41-42 AD
Obverse: NERO CLAVDIVS DRVSVS GERMANICVS IMP, Bare head right
Reverse: TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG PM TRP IMP-SC, Claudius seated in curule chair holding branch, surrounded by pile of arms.
RIC 93; Cohen 8; BMC 157
33mm, 22.1gms.
1 commentsJerome Holderman
nero_claudius_drusus_93.jpg
Nero Claudius Drusus, RIC I, 93148 viewsNero Claudius Drusus, died 9 BC, father of Claudius I
AE - Sestertius, 35mm, 29.17g
Rome, AD 42/43(?)
obv. NERO CLAVDIVS DRVSVS GERMANICVS IMP
Bare head, l.
rev. TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG PM TRP IMP - SC in ex.
Claudius, bare-headed, togate, std. l. on sella curulis, which stands on globus
and at which a sword is leaning; his l. foot resting on a cuirass; at his feet
and under the chair several shields, spears and a helmet are spread; he is
holding a branch in his r. hand and his l. hand rests on his knee.
RIC I, (Claudius) 93; C.8; BMC 157; CBN128; Kaenel 57
about VF, brown patina, some old scratches in the fields

This type has been struck in 3 different mints:
(1) Spanish mint, region of Tarraco/eastern Spain
(2) Spanish mint, region of Astorga/north-western Spain
(3) Gallic mint, recognizable by its fine style
This coin (without PP) is from the Pobla de Mafumet hoard, so probably struck in Tarraco (Curtis Clay)

2 commentsJochen
Antonia_03.jpg
RIC 1, p.124, 66 - Antonia, CONSTANTIAE AVGVSTI19 viewsAntonia
Daughter of Mark Antony, Wife of Nero Drusus, Mother of Claudius, Grandmother of Caligula
AR Denarius, Rome mint, AD 41-42
Obv: ANTONIA AVGVSTA, draped bust right, wearing barley wreath
Rev: CONSTANTIAE AVGVSTI (consistency of the emperor), Antonia standing facing, draped as Constantia, long torch in right, cornucopia in left
Ag, 3.717g, maximum diameter 18.9mm, die axis 225deg
Ref.: RIC 66, BMCRE I Claudius 111, Cohen 2, SRCV I 1900, CRE 1 [R2]
Ex H.D. Rauch, Auction 64, December 1999, Lot 122
Ex Jyrki Muona Collection
Ex FORVM
shanxi
drusus.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE - DRUSUS24 viewsTiberius honoring DRUSUS AE As. Tiberius AD 14-37 AE As. Obv: DRVSVS CAESAR TI AVG F DIVI AVG N - Drusus head left, bare. Rev: PONTIF TRIBVN POTEST ITER around S - C Rome mint: AD 21-22 = RIC I, p. 97, 45; BMC 99, 10.30 g. dpaul7
cal-dup.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, CALIGULA, Nero and Drusus Caesars, Dupondius 40-41 A.D.83 viewsObv:
NERO ET DRVSVS CAESAR
Nero and Drusus on horseback, galloping r.
Rev:
C CAESAR DIVI AVG PRON AVG P M TR P IIII P P S C
RIC 49 Sear 1828
30mm 15.0g
1 commentsTRPOT
DRUSUS-1-MOY.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, DRUSUS CAESAR27 viewsDenom: AE As
Obv: DRVSVS CAESAR TI AVG F DIVI AVG N
Bare head left
Rev: PONTIF TRIBVN POTEST ITER S C
PONTIF TRIBVN POTEST ITER around SC
Mint: Rome
RIC –I-45; Cohen-2; BMCRE-99
Dia. 27.7 mm
10.56 gm
Drusus
MYoung
Drusus.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Drusus, AE As, Struck under Titus20 viewsIMP_T_CAES_DIVI_VESP_F_AVG_REST1 commentsNumis-Student
bpJ1F9Drusus.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Drusus, As, 22-23 AD.71 viewsObv: DRVSVS CAESAR TI AVG F DIVI AVG N
Bare head, left.
Rev: PONTIF TRIBVN POTEST ITER
Large S C within inscription.
As 10.7 gm 27.8 mm RIC 45
Comment: Issued by Tiberius
3 commentsMassanutten
011.jpg
Roman Empire, Drusus, son of Tiberius.42 viewsDrusus, son of Tiberius.
AR Drachm, Caesarea in Cappadocia mint, AD 33-34.
Obv. TI CAES AVG P M TR P XXXV, laureate head of Tiberius right.
Rev. DRVSVS CAES TI AVG COS II TR P, bare head of Drusus left.
RIC 87 (I, 100); RSC 2 (II, 2).
3,77g, 18mm.

Provenance: Meister and Sonntag, Auction 6, lot 267.
apyatygin
N8z26Wsdko7YE3jFeD4fy9rJYwH58j_(1).jpg
Roman Empire, Nero Claudius Drusus d. 9BC, Sestertius10 views23.02g
Head of Nero Claudius Drusus left (Father of Germanicus and Claudius) "NERO CLAVDIVS DRVSVS GERMANICUS IMP"
Claudius, togate seated left on a curule chair and holding a branch. Weapons and armor below the chair "TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG PM TR P IMP PP"
RIC I 109 (Claudius)
Struck 50-54 AD under Claudius.
Antonivs Protti
014.jpg
Roman Empire, Nero Claudius Drusus, Father of Claudius.72 viewsNero Claudius Drusus, father of Claudius.
AR Denarius, Lugdunum mint, struck under Claudius, AD 41-42.
Obv. NERO CLAVDIVS DRVSVS GERMANICVS IMP, laureate head left.
Rev. DE GERMANIS on architrave of wide single-span triumphal arch, surmounted by equestrian statue left between two trophies.
RIC 72 (I, 125); RSC 4 (II, 2), Hill 77.
3,57g, 18mm.
Provenance: Classical Numismatic Group, Auction 75, lot 985.
1 commentsapyatygin
bpJ1E2NeroClaudDrus2.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Nero Claudius Drusus, Provincial Imitation117 viewsObv: NERO CLAVDIVS DRVSVS GERMANICVS IMP
Bare head, left.
Rev: TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP
Either Claudius or Drusus holding branch and seated, left, on curule chair amid an assortment of arms.
Sestertius 15 gm 32.7 mm (RIC 93)
Comment: The official issue was minted by Claudius in 41-42. Drusus was a son of Livia and the younger brother of Tiberius; husband of Antonia (daughter of Marc Antony); father of Germanicus, Claudius and Lavilla. Died of injuries sustained from a horse fall while on campaign in Germany.
Massanutten
Drusussestertius~0.jpg
Roman, Nero Claudius Drusus Sestertius292 viewsIssued by Claudius to honor his father Drusus, RIC 93. Blueish-Black Patina.1 commentsLollia
Colonia_Romula,_Sevilla,_Ae_As_-_28_mm_,_13,63_grams___.jpg
Spain - Colonia Romula, Sevilla, Ae As 4 views- 28 mm / 13.63 gr. RPC 74, Burgos (1992) 1588.
Tiberius AE As, 28mm of Colonia Romula (Seville), Spain. PERM DIVI AVG COL ROM, laureate head of Tiberius left / GERMANICVS CAESAR DRVSVS CAESAR, confronted heads of Germanicus and Drusus.
Antonivs Protti
IMG_9926.JPG
Spain, Carteia6 viewsSPAIN, Carteia. Tiberius. AD 14-37. Æ Germanicus and Drusus, Caesars, among the quattorviri. Turreted head of Fortuna right / Rudder. Chaves 1629-788; RPC I 123. dark brown patina.ecoli
IMG_9925.JPG
Spain, Carteia8 viewsSPAIN, Carteia. Tiberius. AD 14-37. Æ Germanicus and Drusus, Caesars and honorary quattorvirs. Turreted and draped bust of Fortuna right / Rudder. ACIP 3306; RPC I 123. ecoli
drus.jpg
Tiberius & Drusus ( 14 - 37 A.D.)47 viewsAR Drachm
CAPPADOCIA, Caesarea-Eusebia
O: [TI C]AES AVG PM TRP XXXV, Laureate head of Tiberius right.
R: DRVSVS CAES TI] AVG F COS II R P, Head of Drusus left.
Caesarea in Cappadocia mint 33- 34 A.D.
3.47g
19mm
RIC I 87; RPC I 3622. Syd 46
5 commentsMat
Julia_Augusta_(Livia)__Augusta,_AD_14-29__Æ_Sestertius_(34mm,_25_80_g,_3h)__Rome_mint__Struck_under_Tiberius,_AD_22-23.jpg
Tiberius (Augustus) Coin: Brass Sestertius 6 viewsS P Q R IVLIAE AVGVST - Carpentum, ornamented with Victories and other figures, drawn right by two mules
TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVST PM TR POT XXIIII - Legend surrounding large S C
Exergue:



Mint: Rome (22-23 AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 25.80g / 34mm / 3h
Rarity: Scarce
References:
RIC I (second edition) Tiberius 51
C. 6
BMC Tiberius 76
CBN Tiberius 55
Provenances:
CNG
Acquisition/Sale: CNG Internet 433 #355

The Gary R. Wilson Collection

Commemorative struck for Livia, wife of Augustus, mother of Tiberius.

Julia Augusta Livia, the daughter of Marcus Livius Drusus Claudianus, was born on 30 January 58 BC.

In 42 BC, her father married her to Tiberius Claudius Nero. Her father committed suicide in the Battle of Philippi, but her husband continued fighting against Augustus, now on behalf of Mark Antony and his brother. In 40 BC, the family was forced to flee Italy.

A general amnesty was announced, and Livia returned to Rome, where she was personally introduced to Augustus in 39 BC. At this time, Livia already had a son, the future emperor Tiberius, and was pregnant with Drusus the Elder. Octavian fell in love with her, despite the fact that he was still married to Scribonia. Octavian divorced Scribonia in 39 BC and Tiberius Claudius Nero was forced to divorce Livia. Octavian and Livia married on 17th January. Her second child was born three days later.

Livia was an extremely intelligent woman who had a great influence on how Augustus ran the Roman Empire. From their surviving letters, it is clear that Augustus listened very carefully to what she had to say. Many Roman politicians resented Livia's political power and this is probably why Roman historians tend to say unpleasant things about her.

After her marriage to Augustus, Livia did not have any more children. Augustus chose Tiberius, Livia's son by her first marriage, to become the next emperor. As part of the deal, Tiberius had to marry Augustus' daughter Julia. Tiberius, who was already happily married, objected but eventually agreed to accept the orders of Augustus.

Augustus died in AD 14, (the month that he died, Sextilis, was then changed to August). Augustus was one of the most outstanding leaders the world has ever known. In the fifty years of his rule, he completely reformed the Roman Empire, and in doing so, made it so strong that the system he installed lasted for hundreds of years. Although he had taken much of their power away, the Senate recognised his greatness and within a month of his death declared him to be a god.

Livia died in AD 29.

S P Q R
IVLIAE
AVGVST

Translation: Senatus Populus Que Romanus Iuliae Augustae (The Senate and the Roman People to Julia Augusta)

TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVST P M TR POT XXIIII
S C

Translation:
Tiberius Caesar Divi Fili Augustus Pontifex Maximus Tribunicia Potestate Vicesimum Quartum (Tiberius Caesar, Son of Divine Augustus, Greatest Pontiff invested with the Twenty-Fourth Tribunician Power)
Senatus Consulto (By Decree of the Senate)
Gary W2
drusus_(titus)216.JPG
Tiberius Drusus RIC II, (Titus) 216161 viewsTiberius Drusus, 14 BC - AD 22, son of Tiberius
AE - As, 10.78g, 27.38mm
Rome AD 80-81, struck under Titus
obv. DRVSVS CAESAR TI AVG F DIVI AVG N
bare head l.
rev. IMP CAES DIVI VESP F AVG REST
around big SC
RIC II, (Titus) 216; C.6; BMC 286
R1; good VF, nice green patina

Tiberius Drusus, sole son of Tiberius, was poisoned by his own wife Livilla, caused by her lover Sejan who wants to become emperor.
The coin belongs to Titus' restitution series.
2 commentsJochen
Tiberius_Germ_Drus.jpg
Tiberius with Germanicus and Drusus76 viewsCOL ROM PERM DIVI AVG

laureate head of Tiberius left

GERMANICVS CAESAR DRVSVS CAESAR

Confronted heads of Germanicus and Drusus

Spain, Colonia Romula (Seville).

10.28g

RPC 74; Burgos 1588.
Rare

SOLD!
Jay GT4
tiberio-nero-drusus.jpg
Tiberius, Nero and Drusus RPC 18115 viewsTiberius, Nero and Drusus,
Carthago Nova, Spain,
TI CAESAR DIVI AVGVSTI F AVGVSTVS P M, bare head of Tiberius left
NE[RO ET DRVSVS C]AESARES QVINQ C V I N C,
confronted bare-headed and draped busts of Nero and Drusus.
RPC 179; Burgos 460.
xokleng
tibese05-2.jpg
Tiberius, RIC 42, sestertius of AD 22-23 (Twins in cornucopiae)46 viewsÆ sestertius (27.1g, Ø34mm, 6h) Rome mint, struck AD 22-23.
Obv.: Children's heads on crossed cornucopiae with caduceus in the centre.
Rev.: DRVSVS CAESAR TI AVG F DIVI AVG N PONT TR POT II around large S C
RIC 42 (S); BMC 95; Sear (RCV 2K) 1793
ex CNG (2000)

This issue celebrates the birth of the twins Germanicus Gemellus and Tiberius Gemellus, sons of Drusus and Livilla. This coin bears the title of Drusus. The only other coins with Drusus' titles are the Drusus As and the Justitia Dupondius.
1 commentsCharles S
LIVIDU02-2.jpg
Tiberius, RIC 43, for Livilla, dupondius of AD 22-23 (Pietas)35 viewsÆ dupondius (12.7g, Ø31mm, 6h). Rome mint. Struck under Tiberius, AD 22-23.
PIETAS, veiled bust of Livilla as Pietas, facing right
DRVSVS CAESAR T AVGVSTI F TR POT ITER [around large] S C around large S C
RIC (Tiberius) 43 (scarce); Cohen (Livia) 1

Vagi argues that this is not Livia, wife of Caesar but Livilla, sister of Germanicus, wife of Drusus. This is supported by the fact that the title AVGVSTA is absent on the obverse and the titles of Drusus appear on the reverse. Together with the Drusus as and the twin's heads sestertius these types form the family bronzes of Drusus.
1 commentsCharles S
drusas02-2.jpg
Tiberius, RIC 45, for Drusus Junior, As of AD 22 (large S C)24 viewsÆ As (10.7g, Ø29mm, 12h). Rome mint. Struck AD 22.
TObv.: DRVSVS CAESAR TI·AVG·F·DIVI·AVG·N, bare head of Drusus facing left
Rev,: PONTIF·TRIBVN·POTEST·ITER around large S·C.
RIC (Tiberius) 45; Cohen 2; Foss (RHC) 58:22

On this type, the titles of Drusus appear on the obverse. His titles also appear on the reverse of the Pietas dupondius and on the sestertius with the twins heads on crossed cornucopiae. Drusus died in A.D. 23, poisoned by his wife, Livilla. The reverse of this coin refers to Tiberius' award of the tribunician power in A.D. 22.
Charles S
5.jpg
Uncertain city, Drusus AE18. Amphora countermark 45 viewsObv. DPOVSOS KAISAP, Juvenile head of Drusus.
Rev. MENOFANTOY KAPAKI..., Caduceus.
18mm and 4.2gm.

"This coin, evidently of Asia Minor, but particularly of that part situated about the Maeander and Hermus, is probably of a place called Characa, mentioned by Strabo as situated on the road from Tralles to Nysa, and at equall distances. Stephanus speaks also of a city of Charax in Lydia, which he identifies with Tralles." J. Millingen, Sylloge of Ancient Unedited Coins of Greek Cities and Kings ... 1837, p. 79 (pl. 4, 56 (*).
Howgego 369, amphora countermark.
1 commentsancientone
tiberius.jpg
Utica Tiberius66 viewsZEUGITANA, Utica. Tiberius.14-37 AD. Æ 29mm (10.81 gm, 9h). Vibius Marsus Proconsul, Drusus Quaestor, T.G. Rufus Praetor, 27-28 AD. Bare head left; c/m: uncertain within incuse rectangle / C VIB MARSO PR COS DR CAE Q PR T G RVFVS F C, D-D/P-P across fields, veiled figure of Livia seated right, holding sceptre and patera. RPC I 733; MAA 115b; SNG Copenhagen -. VF, slight scrape, green patina.

From the Garth R. Drewry Collection. Ex. CNG
1 commentsBolayi
     
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