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Search results - "Isis"
IsisFariaAnub02mm13DaR.jpg
133 viewsRugser
Domna-1.jpg
39 viewsJVLIA DOMNA - Denarius - 196/211 AD
Obv.: IVLIA AVGVSTA, draped bust right
Rev.: SAECVLI FELICITAS, Isis, standing right, left foot on prow, holding Horus; behind, rudder resting against altar.
Gs. 3,4 mm. 17,9
Cohen 174, RIC 577
Maxentius
DenMPletorio.jpg
57 viewsDenarius - 68/67 BC - Mint of Rome
M. PLAETORIVS M.f. CESTIANVS - Gens Plaetoria
Obv.: Bust of Vacuna right, wearing a wreathed and crested helmet, bow and quiver on shoulder, cornucopiae below chin. CESTIANVS left, S C right
Rev.: Eagle standing right on thunderbolt, head left. M PLAETORIVS M.F. AED CVR around.
Gs. 3,9 mm. 18
Craw. 409/1, Sear RCV 349, BMRRC 3596.
For Crawford, the goddess on obverse is Isis



1 commentsMaxentius
coin167.jpg
28 viewsAlexandrea, Egypt;147–148 Obv. laureate-headed bust
of Antoninus Pius wearing cuirass & paludamentum, r.
Obverse inscription ΑΥΤ Κ Τ ΑΙΛ ΑΔΡ ΑΝΤΩΝΕΙΝΟΣ
ΣΕΒ ΕΥΣ Rev. Isis Pharia standing, r., holding sail &
sistrum Rev.inscription L ΕΝΔΕΚΑΤΟΥ
AE34 mm Ave. weight 24.31 g Coin #167
cars100
Ptolemy_V_Epiphanes_AE_Tetrobol.jpg
Ptolemy V Epiphanes11 viewsAlexandria mint.
Æ Tetrobol
27mm, 14.24 grams
205-180 BC., Struck circa 197-183/2 BC.
Wreathed and draped bust of Isis right
Eagle standing left on thunderbolt.
Svoronos 1234; Weiser 130; SNG Copenhagen 247
jaseifert
tessera1.JPG
52 viewsROME
PB Tessera (18mm, 3.06 g, 12 h)
Isis standing left, holding sistrum and situla
IVE/NES
Rostovtsev -


The iuvenes were Roman educational organizations roughly analagous to modern American colleges. Mohler1 argues that, while their athletic program undoubtedly focused on parade and various other activities that relate to war, the group focused equally on education and athletics, rather than as a pseudo-military training program. Inscriptions survive in some theaters and arenas that note reserved seats for iuvenes, leading some to identify these pieces as entrance tickets. I feel they were more likely distributed at the various parades and processions for which the organizations were famous.

The iuvenes tokens are related to those of the sodales, composed of individuals not a part of the organization (younger or older men and women) who still actively supported it.

1. Mohler, S. L. (1937). The Iuvenes and Roman Education. Transactions and Proceedings of the American Philological Society, 68, 442–479.
Ardatirion
00069x00.jpg
37 viewsEGYPT, Antinoöpolis
PB Tessera (21mm, 4.14 g, 4 h)
Dated year 2 of an uncertain era
Confronted busts of Antinous, draped and wearing hem-hem crown, and Isis, draped and wearing headdress; [L] B flanking
Nilus reclining left on hippopatumus, holding cornucopia and reeds
Milne -; Milne, Memphis p. 115; Dattari (Savio) -; Köln 3569-70; Rostovtsev & Prou 665-6; Roma 6 (29 September 2013), lot 923-4
Ardatirion
Memphis_5279.jpg
44 viewsEGYPT, Memphis
PB Tessera (24mm, 5.76 g, 11 h)
Nilus reclining left on hippopotamus, holding cornucopia and reeds, being crowned by Euthenia advancing right
Isis-Hekate triformis standing facing, holding uraeus and resting arm on Apis bull standing left with solar disk between horns; to left, small figure standing right; MEMΦIC to right
Milne 5279; Dattari (Savio) 6419; Köln 3501
Ardatirion
louis7-denier-parisis-2eme.JPG
Dy.145 Louis VII (the Young): denier parisis (Paris), 2nd type10 viewsLouis VII, king of the Franks (1137-1180)
Denier parisis (Paris), 2nd type

Billon, 0.81 g, diameter 19 mm, die axis 9h
O: +LVDOVICVSoREX; FRA/NCO
R: PARISII CIVIS, cross pattée


Droger
louis7-denier-parisis-3eme.JPG
Dy.146 Louis VII (the Young): denier parisis (Paris), 3rd type9 viewsLouis VII, king of the Franks (1137-1180)
Denier parisis (Paris), 3rd type

Billon, 0.83 g, diameter 19 mm, die axis 3h
O: LVDOVICVS REX; FRA/OCN
R: PA[R]ISII CIVIS, cross pattée

The second line on the field of the obverse must be read form right to left, so that one can read : Lvdovicvs rex franco(rum).
Droger
louis7-denier-parisis-4t.JPG
Dy.148 Louis VII (the Young): denier parisis (Paris), 4th type21 viewsLouis VII, king of the Franks (1137-1180)
Denier parisis (Paris), 4th type

Billon, 0.90 g, diameter 18-20 mm, die axis 3h
O: +LVDOVICVS RE; FRA/OCN
R: PA[R]ISII CIVIS, cross pattée

The second line on the field of the obverse must be read form right to left, so that one can read : Lvdovicvs rex franco(rum).
Droger
philippe2-denier-parisis.JPG
Dy.164 Philip II (Augustus): denier parisis (Paris)18 viewsPhilip II, king of France (1180-1223)
Denier parisis (Paris)

Billon, 1.04 g, diameter 19 mm, die axis 9h
O: PHILIPVS REX; FRA/OCN
R: PARISII CIVIS, cross pattée

Philip II's denier parisis is very similar to his father's.
Droger
philippe2-denier-arras.JPG
Dy.168 Philip II (Augustus): denier parisis (Arras)11 viewsPhilip II, king of France (1180-1223)
Denier parisis, 2ond emission (1191-1199, Arras)

Billon, 1.08 g, diameter 20 mm, die axis 2h
O: PHI.LIPVS REX; FRA/OCN
R: +ARRAS CIVIS, cross pattée with 2 lily flowers
Droger
philippe2-denier-saintmartin.JPG
Dy.176 Philip II (Augustus): denier tournois (Saint Martin de Tours)20 viewsPhilip II, king of France (1180-1223)
Denier tournois (Saint Martin de Tours)

Billon, 0.96 g, diameter 18.5 mm, die axis 7h
O: PHILIPVS REX; croix pattée
R: +SCS MARTINVS; châtel tournois

The livre parisis was a standard for minting coins (and for unit of accounts) inherited from the Carolingians.
In 1203, John (Lackland) lost Anjou to Philip II. The deniers minted at the Saint Martin abbey in Touraine were considered as very stable. So Philip II decided to adopt the livre tournois (tournois means "of Tours", Tours is a French city in Anjou close to Saint Martin abbey) as a new standard denier and unit of account. Livre parisis and livre tournois coexisted for some time but the livre tournois quickly outstripped the livre parisis as a unit of account. Deniers parisis ceased to be struck a little more than a century later, but livre parisis existed till 17th century.
SCS MARTINVS means Sanctus Martinus (Saint Martin). The name of the abbey was temporarily kept on the deniers tournois, but was soon replaced by the name of the city of Tours.
Droger
philippe4-denier-parisis-orond.JPG
Dy.221 Philip IV (the Fair): denier parisis with a round O 8 viewsPhilip IV, king of France (1285-1314)
Denier tournois with round O (1280-1290)

Billon (359 ‰), 0.94 g, diameter 19 mm, die axis 7h
O: PhILIPPVS REX; FRA/OCN
R: +PARISIVS CIVIS; croix pattée

This type was struck during 1280-1285 (end of Philipp III's reign) and 1285-1290 (beginning of Philip IV's reign).
Droger
philippe4-double-parisis~0.JPG
Dy.227 Philip IV (the Fair): double parisis, 1st emission15 viewsPhilip IV, king of France (1285-1314)
Double parisis, 1st emission (1295-1303)

Billon (480 ‰), 1.28 g, diameter 20 mm, die axis 11h
O: +PhILIPPVS REX; leafy cross
R: +mOnETA DVPLEX: REGA/LIS under a fleur-de-lis

Philip had to face with extensive financial liabilities. He found money expelling Jews, Lombard bankers, arresting Templars and confiscating their properties. He also debased the French coinage and minted quite a large number of successive types and emissions of coins, with varying silver proportions.
Droger
philippe4-double-parisis.JPG
Dy.229 Philip IV (the Fair): double tournois, 1st emission22 viewsPhilip IV, king of France (1285-1314)
Double tournois, 1st emission (1295-1303)

Billon (399 ‰), 1.21 g, diameter 21 mm, die axis 12h
O: +PhILIPPVS REX; cross pattée with one fleur-de-lis
R: +mOn DVPLEX REGAL: chatel tournois' pediment with 2 lis
Droger
charles4-double-parisis.JPG
Dy.244C Charles IV (the Fair): double Parisis, 3rd emission42 viewsCharles IV, king of France (1322-1328)
Double parisis, 3rd emission (07/24/1326)

Billon (319 ‰), 1.10 g, diameter 20 mm, die axis 3h
O: +kAROLVS REX(clover); crown with fleur-de-lis and a small ring below
R: +mOnETA DVPLEX; cross with fleur-de-lis

2 commentsDroger
hadrian_isis_egypt.jpg
(0117) HADRIAN38 views117-138 AD
(struck 133-134 AD)
Æ Drachm 34 mm 21.58 gm
O: laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right;
R: Isis Pharia standing right, wearing chiton, peplos and headdress of horns, disk and plumes, billowing sail in both hands and under left foot, sistrum in right; I / L - H across lower fields (year 18)
Alexandria, Roman Egypt
SNG Cop. 384; BMC Alexandria p. 89, 754 var; Köln.1118
laney
101112.jpg
008. Otho 69 AD302 viewsOTHO. 69 AD.

Otho remains an enigma - part profligate Neronian wastrel and part conscientious military commander willing to give his life for the good of the state. Our sources are at a loss to explain the paradox. Neither Otho's person nor his bearing suggested such great courage. He is said to have been of moderate height, splay-footed and bandy-legged, but almost feminine in his care of his person. He had the hair of his body plucked out, and because of the thinness of his locks wore a wig so carefully fashioned and fitted to his head, that no one suspected it. Moreover, they say that he used to shave every day and smear his face with moist bread, beginning the practice with the appearance of the first down, so as never to have a beard; also that he used to celebrate the rites of Isis publicly in the linen garment prescribed by the cult.

AR Denarius (18mm, 3.20 gm). Bare head left / Securitas standing left, holding wreath and sceptre. RIC I 12; RSC 19. Fine. Ex-CNG
2 commentsecoli73
0114.jpg
0114 - Denarius Julia Domna 198-209 AC15 viewsObv/ IVLIA AVGVSTA, draped bust of J.D. r.
Rev/ SAECVLI FELICITAS, Isis standing right, polos on head, stepping on to prow of ship before her, holding wreath in right hand and naked Horus in left; behind her, ship stern and rudder.

Ag, 18.4 mm, 2.63 g
Mint: Roma.
BMCRE V/75 – RIC IV.1/577 [C]
ex-Gitbud & Naumann, eBay may 2011 - art. #1605899480471
dafnis
18.jpg
018 Poppaea. AE26 10.46gm23 viewsobv: draped and cressent bust r.
rev:headress of ISIS, TI-E to eather side, all within wreath
" 2nd wife of Nero "
hill132
020-Vespasian_Billon-Tetradrachm,_Alexandria,_AYTOK-KAIS_SEBA-OYESPASIANOY,_L-Gamma_Isis-head-right_K-G-20_29_Q-001_axis-0h_23-25mm_12,14g-s~0.jpg
020p Vespasian (69-79 A.D.), G-287, D-379, Egypt, Alexandria, AR-Tetradrachm, LΓ, Isis bust right,77 views020p Vespasian (69-79 A.D.), G-287, D-379, Egypt, Alexandria, AR-Tetradrachm, LΓ, Isis bust right,
avers:- AYTOK-KAIΣ-ΣEBA-OYEΣΠAΣIANOY, laureate head of Vespasianus right.
revers:- LΓ, Isis bust right.
exe: -/-//--, diameter: 25mm, weight: 12,14g, axis: 0h,
mint: Alexandria, date: Year (LΓ) 3 = 70-71 A.D., ref: Geissen-287, Dattari-379, Kapmann-Ganschow-20.29-p-69, RPC-2430, Milne- ,
Q-001
quadrans
032_Hadrianus_(117-138_A_D_),_Billon-Tetradrachm,_Milne-1433v_D-1851v_,_Alexandria,_L_IH_Year-18_Q-001_0h_mm_gx-s.jpg
032p Hadrianus (117-138 A.D.), AE-Drachm, G-1107-1108, D-1661-1662, Egypt, Alexandria, L I H, Osiris and Isis,62 views032p Hadrianus (117-138 A.D.), AE-Drachm, G-1107-1108, D-1661-1662, Egypt, Alexandria, L I H, Osiris and Isis,
avers:- AΥT KAIC TPAIAN AΔPIANOC CEB, Laureate draped and cuirassed bust right.
revers:- L I H, Canopic jars of Osiris and Isis within shrine, uraeus crown in pediment.
exe: -/-//--, diameter: mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Egypt, Alexandria, date: 133-134 A.D., Year (IH)18., ref: Geissen-1107-1108, Dattari-1661-1662, Kapmann-Ganschow-32.590-p-144, BMC -,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Julia-Domna_AR-Den_IVLIA-AVGVSTA_SAECVLI-FELICITAS_Roma-RIC-577_RSC-174_200-AD_Q-001_0h_19,5mm_2,50g-s.jpg
050 Julia Domna (170-217 A.D.), RIC IV-I 577, Rome, AR-Denarius, SAECVLI FELICITAS, Isis standing right, #165 views050 Julia Domna (170-217 A.D.), RIC IV-I 577, Rome, AR-Denarius, SAECVLI FELICITAS, Isis standing right, #1
avers:- IVLIA-AVGVSTA, Bust draped right.
revers:- SAECVLI-FELICITAS, Isis, wearing polos on head, standing right, left foot on prow, holding Horus; behind, rudder.
exe: -/-//--, diameter: 19,5mm, weight: 2,50g, axis: 0h,
mint: Rome, date: 200 A.D., ref: RIC-IV-I-577, p-,RSC-174, BMC 75,
Q-001
quadrans
Julia-Domna_AR-Den_IVLIA-AVGVSTA_SAECVLI-FELICITAS_Roma-RIC-645_C-177_Q-001_18-19mm_3,01g-s.jpg
050 Julia Domna (170-217 A.D.), RIC IV-I 577, Rome, AR-Denarius, SAECVLI FELICITAS, Isis standing right, #298 views050 Julia Domna (170-217 A.D.), RIC IV-I 577, Rome, AR-Denarius, SAECVLI FELICITAS, Isis standing right, #2
avers:- IVLIA-AVGVSTA, Bust draped right.
revers:- SAECVLI-FELICITAS, Isis, wearing peaked head-dress, standing right with left foot on prow, nursing infant Horus at her breast, altar at left against which rests a rudder.
exe: , diameter: 18-19mm, weight: 2,63g, axis: 11h,
mint: Rome, date: 196-211 A.D., ref: RIC-IV-I-577, p-170, C-174,
Q-002
2 commentsquadrans
RI 065g img.jpg
065 - Julia Domna denarius - RIC 57757 viewsObv:– IVLIA AVGVSTA, Draped bust right
Rev:– SAECVLI FELICITAS, Isis, wearing polos on head, standing right, left foot on prow, holding Horus; behind, rudder resting against altar.
Reverse Legend –
Minted in Rome
References:– RIC 577
maridvnvm
94.jpg
094 Claudius II Gothicus. bill. antoninianus13 viewsobv: IMP C CLADIUS AG rad. drp. bust r.
rev: SALVS AVG Isis std. l. holding sistrum and basket
ex: epsilon
hill132
coin194.JPG
106a. Crispina47 viewsCrispina married the sixteen year-old, Commodus in the summer of 178 and brought him, as a dowry, a large number of estates. These, when added to the Imperial holdings, gave him control of a substantial part of Lucanian territory. The actual ceremony was modest but was commemorated on coinage and largesse was distributed to the people. An epithalamium for the occasion was composed by the sophist Julius Pollux.

Upon her marriage, Crispina received the title of Augusta, and thus, became Empress of the Roman Empire as her husband was co-emperor with her father-in-law at the time. The previous empress and her mother-in-law, Faustina the Younger, having died three years prior to her arrival.

Like most marriages of young members of the nobiles, it was arranged by paters: in Crispina's case by her father and her father-in-law, Emperor Marcus Aurelius. Crispina probably meant little to her egocentric husband though she was a beautiful woman. The other possible reason being that Commodus was known to prefer the company of men. Crispina is described as being a graceful person with a susceptible heart, but there is no medal extant of her.

As Augusta, Crispina was extensively honoured with public images, during the last two years of her father-in-law's reign and the initial years of her husband's reign. She did not seem to have any significant political influence over her husband during his bizarre reign. However, she was not exempted from court politics either as her sister-in-law, Lucilla, was an ambitious woman and was reportedly jealous of Crispina, the reigning empress, due to her position and power.

Crispina's marriage failed to produce an heir due to her husband's inability, which led to a dynastic succession crisis. In fact, both Anistius Burrus (with whom Commodus had share his first consulate as sole ruler) and Gaius Arrius Antoninus, who were probably related to the imperial family, were allegedly put to death 'on the suspicion of pretending to the throne'.

After ten years of marriage, Crispina was falsely charged with adultery by her husband and was banished to the island of Capri in 188, where she was later executed. After her banishment, Commodus did not marry again but took on a mistress, a woman named Marcia, who was later said to have conspired in his murder.

Crispina, wife of Commodus, 177-192, AE Dupondius or As (24x25mm), aVF. Sear RCV 6018. Obv. CRISPINA AVGVSTA, draped bust right. Rev. IVNO LVCINA S C, Juno standing left holding patera and scepter. The coin is brown and green, on a squarish flan.
ecoli
17457717_10155114938012232_4780613556318406928_n.jpg
13. Antiochos VII Euergetes10 viewsSELEUKID KINGS of SYRIA. Antiochos VII Euergetes (Sidetes). 138-129 BC. Æ Antioch mint. Dated SE 179 (134/3 BC). Winged bust of Eros right / Isis headdress; monogram above grain ear to outer left, ΘOP (date) below. SC 2067.14; HGC 9, 1087. VF, earthen green patina.ecoli
c36.jpg
13. Seleucid Kingdom, Antiochos VII Euergetes Sidetes, Antioch 26 viewsBronze AE 19, SNG Spaer 1902, SGCV II 7098 var, Antioch mint, Sep 138 - Aug 137 B.C.; obverse head of Eros right, wreathed with myrtle; reverse BAΣIΛEΩΣ ANTIOXOΥ EΥEΡΓETOΥ, head-dress of Isis, apluster or branch above EOP (year 175) below, ΔI monogram outer leftecoli
DiocleAnt.jpg
1301a, Diocletian, 284-305 A.D. (Antioch)89 viewsDIOCLETIAN (284 – 305 AD) AE Antoninianus, 293-95 AD, RIC V 322, Cohen 34. 20.70 mm/3.1 gm, aVF, Antioch. Obverse: IMP C C VAL DIOCLETIANVS P F AVG, Radiate bust right, draped & cuirassed; Reverse: CONCORDIA MILITVM, Jupiter presents Victory on a globe to Diocletian, I/XXI. Early Diocletian with dusty earthen green patina.


De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Diocletian ( 284-305 A.D.)

Ralph W. Mathisen
University of South Carolina


Summary and Introduction
The Emperor Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus (A.D. 284-305) put an end to the disastrous phase of Roman history known as the "Military Anarchy" or the "Imperial Crisis" (235-284). He established an obvious military despotism and was responsible for laying the groundwork for the second phase of the Roman Empire, which is known variously as the "Dominate," the "Tetrarchy," the "Later Roman Empire," or the "Byzantine Empire." His reforms ensured the continuity of the Roman Empire in the east for more than a thousand years.

Diocletian's Early Life and Reign
Diocletian was born ca. 236/237 on the Dalmatian coast, perhaps at Salona. He was of very humble birth, and was originally named Diocles. He would have received little education beyond an elementary literacy and he was apparently deeply imbued with religious piety He had a wife Prisca and a daughter Valeria, both of whom reputedly were Christians. During Diocletian's early life, the Roman empire was in the midst of turmoil. In the early years of the third century, emperors increasingly insecure on their thrones had granted inflationary pay raises to the soldiers. The only meaningful income the soldiers now received was in the form of gold donatives granted by newly acclaimed emperors. Beginning in 235, armies throughout the empire began to set up their generals as rival emperors. The resultant civil wars opened up the empire to invasion in both the north, by the Franks, Alamanni, and Goths, and the east, by the Sassanid Persians. Another reason for the unrest in the army was the great gap between the social background of the common soldiers and the officer corps.

Diocletian sought his fortune in the army. He showed himself to be a shrewd, able, and ambitious individual. He is first attested as "Duke of Moesia" (an area on the banks of the lower Danube River), with responsibility for border defense. He was a prudent and methodical officer, a seeker of victory rather than glory. In 282, the legions of the upper Danube proclaimed the praetorian prefect Carus as emperor. Diocletian found favor under the new emperor, and was promoted to Count of the Domestics, the commander of the cavalry arm of the imperial bodyguard. In 283 he was granted the honor of a consulate.

In 284, in the midst of a campaign against the Persians, Carus was killed, struck by a bolt of lightning which one writer noted might have been forged in a legionary armory. This left the empire in the hands of his two young sons, Numerian in the east and Carinus in the west. Soon thereafter, Numerian died under mysterious circumstances near Nicomedia, and Diocletian was acclaimed emperor in his place. At this time he changed his name from Diocles to Diocletian. In 285 Carinus was killed in a battle near Belgrade, and Diocletian gained control of the entire empire.

Diocletian's Administrative and Military Reforms
As emperor, Diocletian was faced with many problems. His most immediate concerns were to bring the mutinous and increasingly barbarized Roman armies back under control and to make the frontiers once again secure from invasion. His long-term goals were to restore effective government and economic prosperity to the empire. Diocletian concluded that stern measures were necessary if these problems were to be solved. He felt that it was the responsibility of the imperial government to take whatever steps were necessary, no matter how harsh or innovative, to bring the empire back under control.

Diocletian was able to bring the army back under control by making several changes. He subdivided the roughly fifty existing provinces into approximately one hundred. The provinces also were apportioned among twelve "dioceses," each under a "vicar," and later also among four "prefectures," each under a "praetorian prefect." As a result, the imperial bureaucracy became increasingly bloated. He institutionalized the policy of separating civil and military careers. He divided the army itself into so-called "border troops," actually an ineffective citizen militia, and "palace troops," the real field army, which often was led by the emperor in person.

Following the precedent of Aurelian (A.D.270-275), Diocletian transformed the emperorship into an out-and-out oriental monarchy. Access to him became restricted; he now was addressed not as First Citizen (Princeps) or the soldierly general (Imperator), but as Lord and Master (Dominus Noster) . Those in audience were required to prostrate themselves on the ground before him.

Diocletian also concluded that the empire was too large and complex to be ruled by only a single emperor. Therefore, in order to provide an imperial presence throughout the empire, he introduced the "Tetrarchy," or "Rule by Four." In 285, he named his lieutenant Maximianus "Caesar," and assigned him the western half of the empire. This practice began the process which would culminate with the de facto split of the empire in 395. Both Diocletian and Maximianus adopted divine attributes. Diocletian was identified with Jupiter and Maximianus with Hercules. In 286, Diocletian promoted Maximianus to the rank of Augustus, "Senior Emperor," and in 293 he appointed two new Caesars, Constantius (the father of Constantine I ), who was given Gaul and Britain in the west, and Galerius, who was assigned the Balkans in the east.

By instituting his Tetrarchy, Diocletian also hoped to solve another problem. In the Augustan Principate, there had been no constitutional method for choosing new emperors. According to Diocletian's plan, the successor of each Augustus would be the respective Caesar, who then would name a new Caesar. Initially, the Tetrarchy operated smoothly and effectively.

Once the army was under control, Diocletian could turn his attention to other problems. The borders were restored and strengthened. In the early years of his reign, Diocletian and his subordinates were able to defeat foreign enemies such as Alamanni, Sarmatians, Saracens, Franks, and Persians, and to put down rebellions in Britain and Egypt. The easter frontier was actually expanded.

.
Diocletian's Economic Reforms
Another problem was the economy, which was in an especially sorry state. The coinage had become so debased as to be virtually worthless. Diocletian's attempt to reissue good gold and silver coins failed because there simply was not enough gold and silver available to restore confidence in the currency. A "Maximum Price Edict" issued in 301, intended to curb inflation, served only to drive goods onto the black market. Diocletian finally accepted the ruin of the money economy and revised the tax system so that it was based on payments in kind . The soldiers too came to be paid in kind.

In order to assure the long term survival of the empire, Diocletian identified certain occupations which he felt would have to be performed. These were known as the "compulsory services." They included such occupations as soldiers, bakers, members of town councils, and tenant farmers. These functions became hereditary, and those engaging in them were inhibited from changing their careers. The repetitious nature of these laws, however, suggests that they were not widely obeyed. Diocletian also expanded the policy of third-century emperors of restricting the entry of senators into high-ranking governmental posts, especially military ones.

Diocletian attempted to use the state religion as a unifying element. Encouraged by the Caesar Galerius, Diocletian in 303 issued a series of four increasingly harsh decrees designed to compel Christians to take part in the imperial cult, the traditional means by which allegiance was pledged to the empire. This began the so-called "Great Persecution."

Diocletian's Resignation and Death
On 1 May 305, wearied by his twenty years in office, and determined to implement his method for the imperial succession, Diocletian abdicated. He compelled his co-regent Maximianus to do the same. Constantius and Galerius then became the new Augusti, and two new Caesars were selected, Maximinus (305-313) in the east and Severus (305- 307) in the west. Diocletian then retired to his palace at Split on the Croatian coast. In 308 he declined an offer to resume the purple, and the aged ex-emperor died at Split on 3 December 316.

Copyright (C) 1996, Ralph W. Mathisen, University of South Carolina
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

1 commentsCleisthenes
DicletianConcordCyz.jpg
1301b, Diocletian, 20 November 284 - 1 March 305 A.D.56 viewsDiocletian. RIC V Part II Cyzicus 256 var. Not listed with pellet in exegrue
Item ref: RI141f. VF. Minted in Cyzicus (B in centre field, XXI dot in exegrue)Obverse:- IMP CC VAL DIOCLETIANVS AVG, Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right. Reverse:- CONCORDIA MILITVM, Diocletian standing right, holding parazonium, receiving Victory from Jupiter standing left with scepter.
A post reform radiate of Diocletian. Ex Maridvnvm.

De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Diocletian ( 284-305 A.D.)

Ralph W. Mathisen
University of South Carolina


Summary and Introduction
The Emperor Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus (A.D. 284-305) put an end to the disastrous phase of Roman history known as the "Military Anarchy" or the "Imperial Crisis" (235-284). He established an obvious military despotism and was responsible for laying the groundwork for the second phase of the Roman Empire, which is known variously as the "Dominate," the "Tetrarchy," the "Later Roman Empire," or the "Byzantine Empire." His reforms ensured the continuity of the Roman Empire in the east for more than a thousand years.

Diocletian's Early Life and Reign
Diocletian was born ca. 236/237 on the Dalmatian coast, perhaps at Salona. He was of very humble birth, and was originally named Diocles. He would have received little education beyond an elementary literacy and he was apparently deeply imbued with religious piety He had a wife Prisca and a daughter Valeria, both of whom reputedly were Christians. During Diocletian's early life, the Roman empire was in the midst of turmoil. In the early years of the third century, emperors increasingly insecure on their thrones had granted inflationary pay raises to the soldiers. The only meaningful income the soldiers now received was in the form of gold donatives granted by newly acclaimed emperors. Beginning in 235, armies throughout the empire began to set up their generals as rival emperors. The resultant civil wars opened up the empire to invasion in both the north, by the Franks, Alamanni, and Goths, and the east, by the Sassanid Persians. Another reason for the unrest in the army was the great gap between the social background of the common soldiers and the officer corps.

Diocletian sought his fortune in the army. He showed himself to be a shrewd, able, and ambitious individual. He is first attested as "Duke of Moesia" (an area on the banks of the lower Danube River), with responsibility for border defense. He was a prudent and methodical officer, a seeker of victory rather than glory. In 282, the legions of the upper Danube proclaimed the praetorian prefect Carus as emperor. Diocletian found favor under the new emperor, and was promoted to Count of the Domestics, the commander of the cavalry arm of the imperial bodyguard. In 283 he was granted the honor of a consulate.

In 284, in the midst of a campaign against the Persians, Carus was killed, struck by a bolt of lightning which one writer noted might have been forged in a legionary armory. This left the empire in the hands of his two young sons, Numerian in the east and Carinus in the west. Soon thereafter, Numerian died under mysterious circumstances near Nicomedia, and Diocletian was acclaimed emperor in his place. At this time he changed his name from Diocles to Diocletian. In 285 Carinus was killed in a battle near Belgrade, and Diocletian gained control of the entire empire.

Diocletian's Administrative and Military Reforms
As emperor, Diocletian was faced with many problems. His most immediate concerns were to bring the mutinous and increasingly barbarized Roman armies back under control and to make the frontiers once again secure from invasion. His long-term goals were to restore effective government and economic prosperity to the empire. Diocletian concluded that stern measures were necessary if these problems were to be solved. He felt that it was the responsibility of the imperial government to take whatever steps were necessary, no matter how harsh or innovative, to bring the empire back under control.

Diocletian was able to bring the army back under control by making several changes. He subdivided the roughly fifty existing provinces into approximately one hundred. The provinces also were apportioned among twelve "dioceses," each under a "vicar," and later also among four "prefectures," each under a "praetorian prefect." As a result, the imperial bureaucracy became increasingly bloated. He institutionalized the policy of separating civil and military careers. He divided the army itself into so-called "border troops," actually an ineffective citizen militia, and "palace troops," the real field army, which often was led by the emperor in person.

Following the precedent of Aurelian (A.D.270-275), Diocletian transformed the emperorship into an out-and-out oriental monarchy. Access to him became restricted; he now was addressed not as First Citizen (Princeps) or the soldierly general (Imperator), but as Lord and Master (Dominus Noster) . Those in audience were required to prostrate themselves on the ground before him.

Diocletian also concluded that the empire was too large and complex to be ruled by only a single emperor. Therefore, in order to provide an imperial presence throughout the empire, he introduced the "Tetrarchy," or "Rule by Four." In 285, he named his lieutenant Maximianus "Caesar," and assigned him the western half of the empire. This practice began the process which would culminate with the de facto split of the empire in 395. Both Diocletian and Maximianus adopted divine attributes. Diocletian was identified with Jupiter and Maximianus with Hercules. In 286, Diocletian promoted Maximianus to the rank of Augustus, "Senior Emperor," and in 293 he appointed two new Caesars, Constantius (the father of Constantine I ), who was given Gaul and Britain in the west, and Galerius, who was assigned the Balkans in the east.

By instituting his Tetrarchy, Diocletian also hoped to solve another problem. In the Augustan Principate, there had been no constitutional method for choosing new emperors. According to Diocletian's plan, the successor of each Augustus would be the respective Caesar, who then would name a new Caesar. Initially, the Tetrarchy operated smoothly and effectively.

Once the army was under control, Diocletian could turn his attention to other problems. The borders were restored and strengthened. In the early years of his reign, Diocletian and his subordinates were able to defeat foreign enemies such as Alamanni, Sarmatians, Saracens, Franks, and Persians, and to put down rebellions in Britain and Egypt. The easter frontier was actually expanded.

.
Diocletian's Economic Reforms
Another problem was the economy, which was in an especially sorry state. The coinage had become so debased as to be virtually worthless. Diocletian's attempt to reissue good gold and silver coins failed because there simply was not enough gold and silver available to restore confidence in the currency. A "Maximum Price Edict" issued in 301, intended to curb inflation, served only to drive goods onto the black market. Diocletian finally accepted the ruin of the money economy and revised the tax system so that it was based on payments in kind . The soldiers too came to be paid in kind.

In order to assure the long term survival of the empire, Diocletian identified certain occupations which he felt would have to be performed. These were known as the "compulsory services." They included such occupations as soldiers, bakers, members of town councils, and tenant farmers. These functions became hereditary, and those engaging in them were inhibited from changing their careers. The repetitious nature of these laws, however, suggests that they were not widely obeyed. Diocletian also expanded the policy of third-century emperors of restricting the entry of senators into high-ranking governmental posts, especially military ones.

Diocletian attempted to use the state religion as a unifying element. Encouraged by the Caesar Galerius, Diocletian in 303 issued a series of four increasingly harsh decrees designed to compel Christians to take part in the imperial cult, the traditional means by which allegiance was pledged to the empire. This began the so-called "Great Persecution."

Diocletian's Resignation and Death
On 1 May 305, wearied by his twenty years in office, and determined to implement his method for the imperial succession, Diocletian abdicated. He compelled his co-regent Maximianus to do the same. Constantius and Galerius then became the new Augusti, and two new Caesars were selected, Maximinus (305-313) in the east and Severus (305- 307) in the west. Diocletian then retired to his palace at Split on the Croatian coast. In 308 he declined an offer to resume the purple, and the aged ex-emperor died at Split on 3 December 316.

Copyright (C) 1996, Ralph W. Mathisen, University of South Carolina
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.


Cleisthenes
Val.jpg
1501s, Valentinian I, 25 February 364 - 17 November 375 A.D. (Siscia)95 viewsValentinian I, 25 February 364 - 17 November 375 A.D., Bronze AE 3, S 4103, VF, Siscia mint, 2.012g, 18.7mm, 180o, 24 Aug 367 - 17 Nov 375 A.D.obverse D N VALENTINI-ANVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse SECVRITAS - REIPVBLICAE, Victory advancing left, wreath in right and palm in left, symbols in fields, mintmark in exergue.


De Imperatoribus Romanis, An Online Encyclopedia of the Roman Emperors and their Families

Valentinian I (364-375 AD.)

Walter E. Roberts, Emory University

Valentinian was one of Rome's last great warrior emperors. Flavius Valentinianus, was born in A.D. 321 at Cibalis (modern Vinkovci) in southern Pannonia. His father Gratian was a soldier renowned for his strength and wrestling skills. Gratian had an illustrious career in the army, rising from staff officer to tribune, to comes Africae, and finally [i/comes Britanniae.

The emperor Jovian died on 17 February 364, apparently of natural causes, on the border between Bithynia and Galatia. The army marched on to Nicaea, the nearest city of any consequence, and a meeting of civil and military officials was convened to choose a new emperor. The assembly finally agreed upon Valentinian.

On 26 February 364, Valentinian accepted the office offered to him. As he prepared to make his accession speech, the soldiers threatened to riot, apparently uncertain as to where his loyalties lay. Valentinian reassured them that the army was his greatest priority. Furthermore, to prevent a crisis of succession if he should die prematurely, he agreed to pick a co-Augustus. According to Ammianus, the soldiers were astounded by Valentinian’s bold demeanor and his willingness to assume the imperial authority. His decision to elect a fellow-emperor could also be construed as a move to appease any opposition among the civilian officials in the eastern portion of the empire. By agreeing to appoint a co-ruler, he assured the eastern officials that someone with imperial authority would remain in the east to protect their interests. After promoting his brother Valens to the rank of tribune and putting him in charge of the royal stables on March 1, Valentinian selected Valens as co-Augustus at Constantinople on 28 March 364, though this was done over the objections of Dagalaifus. Ammianus makes it clear, however, that Valens was clearly subordinate to his brother.

Ammianus and Zosimus as well as modern scholars praise Valentinian for his military accomplishments. He is generally credited with keeping the Roman empire from crumbling away by “. . . reversing the generally waning confidence in the army and imperial defense . . ..” Several other aspects of Valentinian's reign also set the course of Roman history for the next century.

Valentinian deliberately polarized Roman society, subordinating the civilian population to the military. The military order took over the old prestige of the senatorial nobility. The imperial court, which was becoming more and more of a military court, became a vehicle for social mobility. There were new ideas of nobility, which was increasingly provincial in character. By this it is meant that the imperial court, not the Senate, was the seat of nobility, and most of these new nobles came from the provinces. With the erosion of the old nobility, the stage was set for the ascendancy of Christianity. Ammianus makes it clear that actions such as these were part of a systematic plan by Valentinian to erode the power and prestige of the senatorial aristocracy. Several pieces of extant legislation seem to confirm Ammianus’ allegations that Valentinian was eroding senatorial prestige.

Valentinian's reign affords valuable insights into late Roman society, civilian as well as military. First, there was a growing fracture between the eastern and western portions of the empire. Valentinian was the last emperor to really concentrate his resources on the west. Valens was clearly in an inferior position in the partnership. Second, there was a growing polarization of society, both Christian versus pagan, and civil versus military. Finally there was a growing regionalism in the west, driven by heavy taxation and the inability of Valentinian to fully exercise military authority in all areas of the west. All of these trends would continue over the next century, profoundly reshaping the Roman empire and western Europe.

By Walter E. Roberts, Emory University
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
1 commentsCleisthenes
ValentGlRom.jpg
1501s, Valentinian I, 25 February 364 - 17 November 375 A.D. (Siscia)51 viewsValentinian I, 25 February 364 - 17 November 375 A.D. Bronze AE 3, RIC 5(a) ii, VF, Siscia, 1.905g, 19.3mm, 0o, 25 Feb 364 - 24 Aug 367 A.D. Obverse: D N VALENTINI-ANVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; Reverse: GLORIA RO-MANORVM, Emperor dragging captive with right, labarum (chi-rho standard) in left, •GSISC in exergue.


De Imperatoribus Romanis, An Online Encyclopedia of the Roman Emperors and their Families

Valentinian I (364-375 AD.)

Walter E. Roberts, Emory University

Valentinian was one of Rome's last great warrior emperors. Flavius Valentinianus, was born in A.D. 321 at Cibalis (modern Vinkovci) in southern Pannonia. His father Gratian was a soldier renowned for his strength and wrestling skills. Gratian had an illustrious career in the army, rising from staff officer to tribune, to comes Africae, and finally [i/comes Britanniae.

The emperor Jovian died on 17 February 364, apparently of natural causes, on the border between Bithynia and Galatia. The army marched on to Nicaea, the nearest city of any consequence, and a meeting of civil and military officials was convened to choose a new emperor. The assembly finally agreed upon Valentinian.

On 26 February 364, Valentinian accepted the office offered to him. As he prepared to make his accession speech, the soldiers threatened to riot, apparently uncertain as to where his loyalties lay. Valentinian reassured them that the army was his greatest priority. Furthermore, to prevent a crisis of succession if he should die prematurely, he agreed to pick a co-Augustus. According to Ammianus, the soldiers were astounded by Valentinian’s bold demeanor and his willingness to assume the imperial authority. His decision to elect a fellow-emperor could also be construed as a move to appease any opposition among the civilian officials in the eastern portion of the empire. By agreeing to appoint a co-ruler, he assured the eastern officials that someone with imperial authority would remain in the east to protect their interests. After promoting his brother Valens to the rank of tribune and putting him in charge of the royal stables on March 1, Valentinian selected Valens as co-Augustus at Constantinople on 28 March 364, though this was done over the objections of Dagalaifus. Ammianus makes it clear, however, that Valens was clearly subordinate to his brother.

Ammianus and Zosimus as well as modern scholars praise Valentinian for his military accomplishments. He is generally credited with keeping the Roman empire from crumbling away by “. . . reversing the generally waning confidence in the army and imperial defense . . ..” Several other aspects of Valentinian's reign also set the course of Roman history for the next century.

Valentinian deliberately polarized Roman society, subordinating the civilian population to the military. The military order took over the old prestige of the senatorial nobility. The imperial court, which was becoming more and more of a military court, became a vehicle for social mobility. There were new ideas of nobility, which was increasingly provincial in character. By this it is meant that the imperial court, not the Senate, was the seat of nobility, and most of these new nobles came from the provinces. With the erosion of the old nobility, the stage was set for the ascendancy of Christianity. Ammianus makes it clear that actions such as these were part of a systematic plan by Valentinian to erode the power and prestige of the senatorial aristocracy. Several pieces of extant legislation seem to confirm Ammianus’ allegations that Valentinian was eroding senatorial prestige.

Valentinian's reign affords valuable insights into late Roman society, civilian as well as military. First, there was a growing fracture between the eastern and western portions of the empire. Valentinian was the last emperor to really concentrate his resources on the west. Valens was clearly in an inferior position in the partnership. Second, there was a growing polarization of society, both Christian versus pagan, and civil versus military. Finally there was a growing regionalism in the west, driven by heavy taxation and the inability of Valentinian to fully exercise military authority in all areas of the west. All of these trends would continue over the next century, profoundly reshaping the Roman empire and western Europe.

By Walter E. Roberts, Emory University
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
rjb_2010_10_10a.jpg
193c12 viewsJulia Domna
AR denarius
Obv "IVLIA AVGVSTA"
Draped bust right
Rev "SAECVLI FELICITAS"
Isis seated right on prow, infant Harpocrates in arms
Rome mint
RIC 577
mauseus
LVerusAsTrophies.jpg
1bl Lucius Verus113 views161-169

As
166-167

Laureate head, right, L VERVS AVG ARM PARTH MAX
3 trophies, TR P VII IMP III[I] COS III

RIC 1464

Son of Aelius Caesar and adopted son of Antoninus Pius, Marcus Aurelius elevated his adoptive brother to co-ruler in 161. The Parthians launched an attack against Roman Syria that it had planned before the death of Pius, and Marcus, with the agreement of the Senate, dispatched Lucius to deal with the crisis. According to the Historia Augusta, "Verus, of course, after he arrived in Syria, lived in luxury at Antioch and Daphne, although he was acclaimed imperator while waging the Parthian war through legates." This coin's reverse honors his military victory over the Parthians in 165.

The Historia Augusta describes Verus: He was physically handsome with a genial face. His beard was allowed to grow almost in Barbarian style. He was a tall man, his forehead projected somewhat above his eyebrows, so that he commanded respect. . . In speech almost halting, he was very keen on gambling, and his way of life was always extravagant.
Blindado
TrebGallusAEVim.jpg
1cu Trebonianus Gallus24 views251-253

AE Viminacium

Laureate, draped bust, right, IMP C GALLVS P FELIX AVG
Moesia standing facing, head left, hands outstretched over a bull and a lion at her sides, PMS COL VIM

Moushmov 56

For Gallus' perfidy against Decius, see the Decius entry. Zosimus reports regarding Gallus' reign: Gallus, who declared his son Volusianus his associate in the empire, published an open declaration, that Decius and his army had perished by his contrivance. The Barbarians now became more prosperous than before. For Callus not only permitted them to return home with the plunder, but promised to pay them annually a sum of money, and allowed them to carry off all the noblest captives; most of whom had been taken at Philippopolis in Thrace.

Gallus, having made these regulations, came to Rome, priding himself on the peace he had made with the Barbarians. And though he at first spoke with approbation of Decius's mode of government, and adopted one of his sons, yet, after some time was elapsed, fearing that some of them who were fond of new projects might recur to a recapitulation of the princely virtues of Decius, and therefore might at some opportunity give the empire to his son, he concerted the young man's destruction, without regard either to his own adoption of him, or to common honour and justice.

Gallus was so supine in the administration of the empire, that the Scythians in the first place terrified all the neighbouring nations, and then laid waste all the countries as far by degrees as the sea coast; not leaving one nation subject to the Romans unpillaged, and taking almost all the unfortified towns, and many that were fortified. Besides the war on every side, which was insupportably burdensome to them, the cities and villages were infested with a pestilence, which swept away the remainder of mankind in those regions; nor was so great a mortality ever known in any former period.

At this crisis, observing that the emperors were unable to defend the state, but neglected all without the walls of Rome, the Goths, the Borani, the Urugundi, and the Carpi once more plundered the cities of Europe of all that had been left in them; while in another quarter, the Persians invaded Asia, in which they acquired possession of Mesopotamia, and proceeded even as far as Antioch in Syria, took that city, which is the metropolis of all the east, destroyed many of the inhabitants, and carried the remainder into captivity, returning home with immense plunder, after they had destroyed all the buildings in the city, both public and private, without meeting with the least resistance. And indeed the Persians had a fair opportunity to have made themselves masters of all Asia, had they not been so overjoyed at their excessive spoils, as to be contented with keeping and carrying home what they had acquired.

Meantime the Scythians of Europe were in perfect security and went over into Asia, spoiling all the country as far as Cappodocia, Pesinus, and Ephesus, until Aemilianus, commander of the Pannonian legions, endeavouring as much as possible to encourage his troops, whom the prosperity of the Barbarians had so disheartened that they durst not face them, and reminding them of the renown of Roman courage, surprised the Barbarians that were in that neighbourhood. Having destroyed great numbers of them, and led his forces into their country, removing every obstruction to his progress, and at length freeing the subjects of the Roman empire from their ferocity, he was appointed emperor by his army. On this he collected all the forces of that country, who were become more bold since his successes against the Barbarians, and directed his march towards Italy, with the design of fighting Gallus, who was as yet. unprepared to contend with him. For Gallus had never heard of what had occurred in the east, and therefore made only what accidental preparations were in his reach, while Valerianus went to bring the Celtic and German legions. But Aemilianus advanced with great speed into Italy, and the armies were very near to each other, when the soldiers of Gallus, reflecting that his force was much inferior to the enemy both in number and strength, and likewise that he was a negligent indolent man, put him and his son to death, and going over to the party of Aemilianus, appeared to establish his authority.
Blindado
savaria_01-stone_of_the_Caesars.JPG
2008-Savaria - The stone of the Caesars23 viewsOn the top of the red granite stone a sun-dial shows the time, and has six emperor relief. All of them played a significant role in the development of this town:
Claudius founded in AD 43 as Colonia Claudia Savaria;
during the reign of Domitian the town became a religion centre;
Emperor Trajan settled military troops from the civilians and they fought in Dacian War;
during the reign of Septimius Severus was built an Isis shrine;
Diocletian made the centre of jury during the Great Persecution;
and finally Constantine the Great, who partitioned Pannonia four province and Savaria was the capital of Pannonia Prima.
berserker
rjb_cii_1_12_08.jpg
26828 viewsClaudius II 268-70 AD
AE antoninianus
Antioch mint
Obv "IMP C CLAVDIVS AVG"
Radiate head left
Rev "SALVS AVG"
Isis walking left holding sistrum and basket
RIC 217
1 commentsmauseus
ConClVISis169a.jpg
305-306 AD - Constantius I Chlorus - RIC VI Siscia 169a - GENIO POPVLI ROMANI38 viewsEmperor: Constantius I Chlorus (r. 305-306 AD)
Date: 305-306 AD
Condition: aVF
Denomination: Quarter-Follis

Obverse: CONSTANTIVS AVG
Emperor Constantius
Head right; laureate

Reverse: GENIO POP-VLI ROMANI
To the Genius of the Roman Public.
Genius standing left, modius on head, naked but for chlamys over left shoulder, right holding patera, left cornucopiae.
Exergue: SIS (Siscia mint, no officina mark)

RIC VI Siscia 169a
2.38g; 18.7mm; 165°
Pep
MaxIIVISis170bvar.jpg
305-308 AD - Maximinus II Daia as Caesar - RIC VI Siscia 170b var - GENIO POPVLI ROMANI26 viewsCaesar: Maximinus II Daia (Caes. 305-308 AD)
Date: 305-306 AD
Condition: Fine/aEF
Denomination: Quarter-Follis

Obverse: GAL VAL MAXIMINVS NOB C
Galerius Valerius Maximinus Noble Caesar
Head right; laureate

Reverse: GENIO POPV-LI ROMANI
To the Genius of the Roman Public.
Genius standing left, modius on head, naked but for chlamys over left shoulder, holding patera in right hand, cornucopiae in left hand.
Exergue: SIS (Siscia mint, no officina mark)

RIC VI Siscia 170b var (P-V listed); VM 14
2.05g; 18.3mm; 180°
Pep
ConVIISis5.jpg
307-337 AD - Constantine I - RIC VII Siscia 005 - IOVI CONSERVATORI31 viewsEmperor: Constantine I (r. 307-337 AD)
Date: 313-315 AD
Condition: Very Fine
Denomination: Follis

Obverse: IMP CONSTANTINVS P F AVG
Imperator Constantine Emperor Wise and Dutiful Emperor
Bust right; laureate

Reverse: IOVI CON-SERVATORI
To Jupiter, the Protector.
Jupiter standing left, chlamys across left shoulder, leaning on scepter, Victory on globe in right hand; eagle with wreath to left.
Exergue: SIS; "Δ" in right field (Siscia mint, fourth officina)

RIC VII Siscia 5
2.92g; 21.2mm; 180°
Pep
ConVIISis7.jpg
307-337 AD - Constantine I - RIC VII Siscia 007 - IOVI CONSERVATORI27 viewsEmperor: Constantine I (r. 307-337 AD)
Date: 313-315 AD
Condition: Very Fine
Denomination: Follis

Obverse: IMP CONSTANTINVS AVG
Imperator Constantine Emperor
Bust right; laureate

Reverse: IOVI CON-SERVATORI
To Jupiter, the Protector.
Jupiter standing left, chlamys across left shoulder, leaning on sceptre, Victory on globe in right hand; eagle with wreath to left.
"B" in right field
Exergue: SIS (Siscia mint, second officina)

RIC VII Siscia 7
2.57g; 21.1mm; 165°
Pep
ConVIISis47.jpg
307-337 AD - Constantine I - RIC VII Siscia 047 - VICTORIAE LAETAE PRINC PERP22 viewsEmperor: Constantine I (r. 307-337 AD)
Date: 318 AD
Condition: VF
Denomination: AE3

Obverse: IMP CONSTANTINVS PF AVG
Imperator Constantine Dutiful and Wise Emperor
Bust right; laureate helmet, cuirassed

Reverse: VICTORIAE LAETAE PRINC PERP
Joyful victories of the long-lived princes.
Two standing Victories facing one another, together holding shield inscribed VOT/PR on altar.
Exergue: ΔSIS* (Siscia mint, fourth officina)

RIC VII Siscia 47; VM 90
2.79g; 19.6mm; 225°
Pep
ConVIISis59.jpg
307-337 AD - Constantine I - RIC VII Siscia 059 - VICTORIAE LAETAE PRINC PERP21 viewsEmperor: Constantine I (r. 307-337 AD)
Date: 319 AD
Condition: Fine
Size: AE3

Obverse: IMP CONSTANTINVS P F AVG
Imperator Constantine Dutiful and Wise Emperor
Bust right; laureate, helmeted, and cuirassed

Reverse: VICTORIAE LAETAE PRINC PERP
Joyful victories of the long-lived princes.
Two standing Victories facing one another, together holding shield inscribed VOT/PR on altar.
Exergue: ΓSIS● (Siscia mint, third officina)

RIC VII Siscia 59; VM 90
2.08g; 20.2mm; 195°
Pep
ConVIISis219.jpg
307-337 AD - Constantine I - RIC VII Siscia 219 - GLORIA EXERCITVS35 viewsEmperor: Constantine I (r. 307-337 AD)
Date: 330-333 AD
Condition: aVF
Size: AE3

Obverse: CONSTANTI-NVS MAX AVG
Supreme Emperor Constantine
Bust right; rosette-diademed, draped and cuirassed

Reverse: GLOR-IA EXERC-ITVS
Glory of the Army.
Two soldiers standing facing one another, spear in outer hand, inner hand on shield resting on ground; between them two standards.
Exergue: ?SIS (Siscia mint, unknown officina)

RIC VII Siscia 219; VM 93
2.18g; 19.0mm; 180°
Pep
coin245.JPG
308. Valerian I22 viewsRIC 209 Valerian I 253-260 AD AR Antoninianus of Moesia. Radiate draped bust/Aequitas standing holding balance and cornucopia.

Publius Licinius Valerianus (ca. 200-260), known in English as Valerian, was Roman emperor from 253 to 260. His full Latin title was IMPERATOR · CAESAR · PVBLIVS · LICINIVS · VALERIANVS · PIVS FELIX · INVICTVS · AVGVSTVS — in English, "Emperor Caesar Publius Licinus Valerianus Pious Lucky Undefeated Augustus."

Unlike the majority of the usurpers of the crisis of the third century, Valerian was of a noble and traditional Senatorial family. Details of his early life are elusive, but his marriage to Egnatia Mariniana who gave him two sons: Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus and Valerianus Minor is known.

In 238 he was princeps senatus, and Gordian I negotiated through him for Senatorial acknowledgement for his claim as Emperor. In 251, when Decius revived the censorship with legislative and executive powers so extensive that it practically embraced the civil authority of the Emperor, Valerian was chosen censor by the Senate. Under Decius he was nominated governor of the Rhine provinces of Noricum and Raetia and retained the confidence of his successor, Trebonianus Gallus, who asked him for reinforcements to quell the rebellion of Aemilianus in 253. Valerian headed south, but was too late: Gallus' own troops killed him and joined Aemilianus before his arrival. The Raetian soldiers then proclaimed Valerian emperor and continued their march towards Rome. At the time of his arrival in September, Aemilianus' legions defected, killing him and proclaiming Valerian emperor. In Rome, the Senate quickly acknowledged him, not only for fear of reprisals, but also because he was one of their own.

Valerian's first act as emperor was to make his son Gallienus colleague. In the beginning of his reign the affairs in Europe went from bad to worse and the whole West fell into disorder. In the East, Antioch had fallen into the hands of a Persian vassal, Armenia was occupied by Shapur I (Sapor). Valerian and Gallienus split the problems of the Empire between the two, with the son taking the West and the father heading East to face the Persian threat.

By 257, Valerian had already recovered Antioch and returned the Syrian province to Roman control but in the following year, the Goths ravaged Asia Minor. Later in 259, he moved to Edessa, but an outbreak of plague killed a critical number of legionaries, weakening the Roman position. Valerian was then forced to seek terms with Shapur I. Sometime towards the end of 259, or at the beginning of 260, Valerian was defeated and made prisoner by the Persians (making him the only Roman Emperor taken captive). It is said that he was subjected to the greatest insults by his captors, such as being used as a human stepladder by Shapur when mounting his horse. After his death in captivity, his skin was stuffed with straw and preserved as a trophy in the chief Persian temple. Only after Persian defeat in last Persia-Roman war three and a half centuries later was his skin destroyed.
ecoli
coin247.JPG
309. Gallienus33 viewsOne of the key characteristics of the Crisis of the Third Century was the inability of the Emperors to maintain their hold on the Imperium for any marked length of time. An exception to this rule was the reign of the Emperor Gallienus. The fact that Gallienus served as junior Emperor with his father, Valerian, from 253 to 260 may have had something to do with his successes. Father and son each wielded his authority over a smaller area, thus allowing for more flexible control and imperial presence. Another, more probable reason, lay in Gallienus's success in convincing Rome that he was the best man for the job. However, Gallienus had to handle many rebellions of the so-called "Gallienus usurpers".

In 260, Valerian was taken prisoner by Sapor, King of Persia while trying to negotiate a peace settlement. Although aware that his father had been taken alive (the only Emperor to have suffered this fate), Gallienus did not make public Valerian's death until a year later. His decision hinged on the fact that Romans believed that their fate rose and fell with the fate of the Emperor, which in turn depended upon his demonstrating the proper amount of piety (Latin pietas) to the gods and maintaining their favor. A defeated Emperor would surely have meant that the gods had forsaken Valerian and, by extension, Gallienus.

Gallienus's chief method of reinforcing his position is seen in the coinage produced during his reign (see Roman currency). The coinage provides clear evidence of a successful propaganda campaign. Gallienus took pains to make sure that he was regularly represented as victorious, merciful, and pious. The people who used these coins on a daily basis saw these messages and, with little evidence to the contrary, remained supportive of their Emperor.

There were, however, those who knew better. During Gallienus' reign, there was constant fighting on the western fringes of the Empire. As early as 258, Gallienus had lost control over a large part of Gaul, where another general, Postumus, had declared his own realm (typically known today as the Gallic Empire). As Gallienus' influence waned, another general came to the fore. In time-honored tradition, Claudius II Gothicus gained the loyalty of the army and succeeded Gallienus to the Imperium.

In the months leading up to his mysterious death in September of 268, Gallienus was ironically orchestrating the greatest achievements of his reign. An invasion of Goths into the province of Pannonia was leading to disaster and even threatening Rome, while at the same time, the Alamanni were raising havoc in the northern part of Italy. Gallienus halted the Allamanic progress by defeating them in battle in April of 268, then turned north and won several victories over the Goths. That fall, he turned on the Goths once again, and in September, either he or Claudius, his leading general, led the Roman army to victory (although the cavalry commander Aurelian was the real victor) at the Battle of Naissus.

At some time following this battle, Gallienus was murdered during the siege of usurper Aureolus in Mediolanum; many theories abound that Claudius and Aurelian conspired to have the emperor killed. Be that as it may, Claudius spared the lives of Gallienus' family — Gallienus' wife, Iulia Cornelia Salonina, had given him three sons: Valerianus (who died in 258), Saloninus (died in 260 after becoming co-emperor), and Egnatius Marinianus — and had the emperor deified.

Gallienus Antoninianus - Minerva
OBVERSE: GALLIENVS AVG, radiate, cuirassed bust right
REVERSE: MINERVA AVG, Minerva standing right with spear and shield.
23mm - 3.7 grams
ecoli
coin508.JPG
314. Claudius II36 viewsMarcus Aurelius Claudius Gothicus (May 10, 213/214 - January, 270), more often referred to as Claudius II, ruled the Roman Empire for less than two years (268 - 270), but during that brief time, he was so successful and beloved by the people of Rome that he attained divine status.

His origin is uncertain. Claudius was either from Syrmia (Sirmium; in Pannonia Inferior) or from Dardania (in Moesia Superior). Claudius was the commander of the Roman army that defeated decisively the Goths at the battle of Naissus, in September 268; in the same month, he attained the throne, amid charges, never proven, that he murdered his predecessor Gallienus. However, he soon proved to be less than bloodthirsty, as he asked the Roman Senate to spare the lives of Gallienus' family and supporters. He was less magnanimous toward Rome's enemies, however, and it was to this that he owed his popularity.

Claudius, like Maximinus Thrax before him, was of barbarian birth. After an interlude of failed aristocratic Roman emperors since Maximinus's death, Claudius was the first in a series of tough soldier-emperors who would eventually restore the Empire from the Crisis of the third century.

At the time of his accession, the Roman Empire was in serious danger from several incursions, both within and outside its borders. The most pressing of these was an invasion of Illyricum and Pannonia by the Goths. Not long after being named emperor (or just prior to Gallienus' death, depending on the source), he won his greatest victory, and one of the greatest in the history of Roman arms.

At the Battle of Naissus, Claudius and his legions routed a huge Gothic army. Together with his cavalry commander, the future Emperor Aurelian, the Romans took thousands of prisoners, destroyed the Gothic cavalry as a force and stormed their chariot laager (a circular alignment of battle-wagons long favored by the Goths). The victory earned Claudius his surname of "Gothicus" (conqueror of the Goths), and that is how he is known to this day. More importantly, the Goths were soon driven back across the Danube River, and a century passed before they again posed a serious threat to the empire.

While this was going on, the Germanic tribe known as the Alamanni had crossed the Alps and attacked the empire. Claudius responded quickly and swiftly, routing the Alamanni at the Battle of Lake Benacus in the late fall of 268, a few months after the battle of Naissus. He then turned on the "Gallic Empire", ruled by a pretender for the past 15 years and encompassing Britain, Gaul and Spain. He won several victories and soon regained control of Spain and the Rhone river valley of Gaul. This set the stage for the ultimate destruction of the Gallic Empire under Aurelian.

However, Claudius did not live long enough to fulfill his goal of reuniting all the lost territories of the empire. Late in 269 he was preparing to go to war against the Vandals, who were raiding in Pannonia. However, he fell victim to an epidemic of plague and died early in January of 270. Before his death, he is thought to have named Aurelian as his successor, although Claudius' brother Quintillus briefly seized power.

The Senate immediately deified Claudius as "Divus Claudius Gothicus", making him one of the few Roman emperors of the period to be so honored.

Historia Augusta reports Claudius and Quintillus having another brother named Crispus and through him a niece. Said niece Claudia reportedly married Eutropius and was mother to Constantius Chlorus. Historians however suspect this account to be a genealogical fabrication by Constantine the Great.

Claudius II Gothicus AE Antoninianus. Cyzicus mint. IMP CLAVDIVS P F AVG, radiate, draped bust right / FORTUNA REDUX, Fortuna standing left with rudder & cornucopiae. RIC 234, Cohen 88.
ecoli
CrisVIISis181.jpg
316-326 AD - Crispus - RIC VII Siscia 181 - CAESARVM NOSTRORVM23 viewsCaesar: Crispus (Caes. 316-326 AD)
Date: 321-324 AD
Condition: Fine/VF
Denomination: Follis

Obverse: IVL CRIS-PVS NOB C
Julius Crispus Noble Caesar
Bust right; laureate
Possible damnatio mark

Reverse: CAESARVM NOSTRORVM
VOT X in two lines inside laurel wreath.
The Prince of our people offers vows so that he may serve for a prosperous ten years.
Exergue: ASIS (Siscia mint, first officina)

RIC VII Siscia 181; VM 10
2.84g; 19.4mm; 195°
Pep
ConIIVIISis220_2.jpg
316-337 AD - Constantine II as Caesar - RIC VII Siscia 220 - GLORIA EXERCITVS - 2nd Example32 viewsCaesar: Constantine II (Caes. 316-337 AD)
Date: 330-333 AD
Condition: Fine
Size: AE3

Obverse: CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C
Constantine Junior Noble Caesar
Bust right; laureate and cuirassed

Reverse: GLOR-IA EXERC-ITVS
Glory of the Army.
Two soldiers standing and facing one another, spear in outer hand, inner hand on shield resting on ground, two standards between them.
Exergue: ESIS (Siscia mint, fifth officina)

RIC VII Siscia 220; VM 45
1.77g; 18.6mm; 195°
Pep
CtVIISis238.jpg
333-337 AD - Constans as Caesar - RIC VII Siscia 238 - GLORIA EXERCITVS31 viewsCaesar: Constans (Caes. 333-337 AD)
Date: 334-335 AD
Condition: VF
Size: AE3

Obverse: FL CONSTANTIS BEA C
Flavius Constans Caesar of a Blessed Calm Reign
Bust right; laureate, draped and cuirassed

Reverse: GLOR-IA EXERC-ITVS
Glory of the Army.
Two soldiers standing, facing one another, spear in outer hand, inner hand on shield resting on ground, between them two standards.
Exergue: ●ΔSIS● (Siscia mint, fourth officina) (Note: first ● may be worn away)

RIC VII Siscia 238
2.20g; 19.3mm; 30°
Pep
ConstplsVIISis241.jpg
334-335 AD - Constantinopolis Issue - RIC VII Siscia 241 - Victory on Prow Reverse27 viewsConstantinopolis Issue
Date: 334-335 AD
Condition: Fine/Fair
Size: AE3

Obverse: CONSTAN-TINOPOLIS
Constantinople
Bust left; laureated helmet, wearing imperial cloak, reversed spear

Reverse: no legend
Victory left on prow.
Exergue: ●BSIS● (Siscia mint, second officina)

RIC VII Siscia 241; VM 1
2.12g; 17.9mm; 150°
Pep
CtVIIISis93.jpg
337-350 AD - Constans - RIC VIII Siscia 093 - GLORIA EXERCITVS24 viewsEmperor: Constans (r. 337-350 AD)
Date: 337-340 AD
Condition: aVF
Size: AE3

Obverse: CONSTAN-S P F AVG
Constans Dutiful and Wise Emperor
Bust right; rosette-diademed, draped and cuirassed

Reverse: GLOR-IA EXERC-ITVS
Glory of the Army.
Two helmeted soldiers standing facing; heads turned towards each other; each holds an inverted spear and rests on a shield; between them, a standard with a Chi-Rho on the banner.
Exergue: ΓSIS (Siscia mint, third officina)

RIC VIII Siscia 93; VM 51
1.55g; 17.8mm; 15°
Pep
CtVIIISis183.jpg
337-350 AD - Constans - RIC VIII Siscia 183 - VICTORIAE DD AVGG Q NN27 viewsEmperor: Constans (r. 337-350 AD)
Date: 347-348 AD
Condition: aVF
Size: AE4

Obverse: CONSTAN-S P F AVG
Constans Dutiful and Wise Emperor
Bust right; rosette-diademed, draped and cuirassed

Reverse: VICTORIAE DD AVGG Q NN
The victories of our Lords and Emperors.
Two Victories standing facing one another, each holding wreath and palm.
Exergue: ASIS (Siscia mint, first officina)

RIC VIII Siscia 183; VM 57
1.49g; 15.5mm; 180°
Pep
CtVIIISis192.jpg
337-350 AD - Constans - RIC VIII Siscia 192 - VICTORIAE DD AVGGQ NN26 viewsEmperor: Constans (r. 337-350 AD)
Date: 347-348 AD
Condition: Fine
Size: AE4

Obverse: CONSTAN-S P F AVG
Constans Dutiful and Wise Emperor
Bust right; rosette-diademed, draped and cuirassed

Reverse: VICTORIAE DD AVGGQ NN
The victories of our Lords and Emperors.
Two Victories standing facing one another, each holding wreath and palm.
"" in center field.
Exergue: ΓSIS (Siscia mint, third officina)

RIC VIII Siscia 192; VM 57
1.41g; 16.5mm; 15°
Pep
CsIIVIIISis194.jpg
337-361 AD - Constantius II - RIC VIII Siscia 194 - VICTORIAE DD AVGGQ NN39 viewsEmperor: Constantius II (r. 337-361 AD)
Date: 347-348 AD
Condition: Fine
Size: AE4

Obverse: CONSTANTI-VS P F AVG
Constantius Dutiful and Wise Emperor
Bust right; rosette-diademed, draped and cuirassed

Reverse: VICTORIAE DD AVGGQ NN
Two Victories standing facing one another, each holding wreath and palm.
in center field
Exergue: ?SIS (Siscia mint, unknown officina)

RIC VIII Siscia 194; VM 81
1.56g; 16.2mm; 30°
Pep
Dscn9636.jpg
35 Coins, Uncleaned Lot - Negotin, Serbia Area - 08-28-201515 viewsThis lot consists of late Roman coins during and after the Constantian dynasty. It also has a few Roman Provincial coins, one Medieval coin, some crisis and decline era coins and a few other unknown coins. This lot is not a hoard but a random selection of coins found in random locations in Negotin, Serbia.Gil-galad
JulVIIISis370.jpg
355-360 AD - Julian II as Caesar - RIC VIII Siscia 370 - FEL TEMP REPARATIO21 viewsCaesar: Julian II (Caes. 355-360 AD)
Date: 355-358 AD
Condition: aFine
Size: AE4

Obverse: DN IVLIANVS NOB CAES
Our Lord Julian Noble Caesar
Bust right; bare-headed, draped and cuirassed

Reverse: FEL TEMP - REPARATIO
The restoration of happy times.
Helmeted soldier to left, shield on left arm, spearing falling horseman, shield on ground at right, horseman wears pointed cap, turns to face soldier and extends left arm.
"M" in left field
Exergue: ?SIS (Siscia mint, unknown officina)

RIC VIII Siscia 370
2.00g; 16.7mm; 30°
Pep
60661q00.jpg
4) Cleopatra Tetradrachm of Alexandria61 viewsThis coin was issued in the first year of Cleopatra's reign, which would place it around 50 B.C. while she was was still in a relationship with Julius Caesar. Twenty years later, she and Antony would commit suicide after their defeat at Actium, ending the reign of the Pharaohs of Egypt.

Silver tetradrachm, Svoronos 1817 (Ptolemaios XIII); SNG Cop 398; Cohen DCA 70; BMC Ptolemies p. 1817, 2 (Ptolemaios XIII); Noeske 363; Hosking 129; SNG Milan -, gVF, toned, Paphos mint, weight 9.476g, maximum diameter 25.6mm, die axis 0o, 51 - 50; obverse diademed bust right (feminized bust of Ptolemy I or Cleopatra?), wearing aegis; reverse PTOLEMAIOU BASILEWS, eagle standing left on thunderbolt, wings closed, palm behind over right wing, LB (year 2) over crown of Isis left, PA right

Purchased from FORVM
RM0010
1 commentsSosius
25385q00.jpg
4) Cleopatra VII17 viewsCleopatra VII (maybe)
Bronze dichalkon, 1.491g, 11.5mm, 0o, Paphos mint

Diademed bust of Cleopatra VII as Isis right, hair in melon-coiffure / PTOLEMAIOU - BASILEWS, double cornucopia flanked by ribbons

Kreuzer p. 44, first illustration; Svoronos 1160 (Ptolemy IV); SNG Cop 649; Weiser -, Fine.

Caption per FORVM catalog:
Kreuzer, in his book The Coinage System of Cleopatra VII and Augustus in Cyprus, assembles evidence dating this type to Cleopatra VII instead of the reign of Ptolemy IV used in older references.

Purchased from FORVM
RM0004
Sosius
Cleo_VII_Paphos_5.jpg
4) Cleopatra VII Thea Philopator, 51 - 30 B.C.30 viewsCLEOPATRA VII
Bronze dichalkon, Paphos mint

Diademed bust of Cleopatra VII as Isis r., hair in melon-coiffure / ΠΤΟΛΕΜΑΙΟΥ−ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ, double cornucopia flanked by ribbons

Kreuzer p. 44, 1st illustr; Svoronos 1160 (Ptolemy IV); Weiser -; SNG Cop 649. VF
RM0022
Sosius
coin199.JPG
401. Diocletian30 viewsThe Emperor Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus (A.D. 284-305) put an end to the disastrous phase of Roman history known as the "Military Anarchy" or the "Imperial Crisis" (235-284). He established an obvious military despotism and was responsible for laying the groundwork for the second phase of the Roman Empire, which is known variously as the "Dominate," the "Tetrarchy," the "Later Roman Empire," or the "Byzantine Empire." His reforms ensured the continuity of the Roman Empire in the east for more than a thousand years.
On 1 May 305, wearied by his twenty years in office, and determined to implement his method for the imperial succession, Diocletian abdicated. In 308 he declined an offer to resume the purple, and the aged ex-emperor died at Split on 3 December 316.

AE Follis. IMP C C VAL DIOCLETIANVS P F AVG, laureate head right / GENIO POPVLI ROMANI, Genius standing left with chlamys, patera from which liquor flows & cornucopiae
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coins432.JPG
501b. Crispus29 viewsIn 326, Crispus was suddenly executed according to the orders of his own father in Pola, Istria. Though the decision of Constantine was certainly cruel and unexpected, historians remain more interested in the motivation leading to it.

Zosimus in the 5th century and Joannes Zonaras in the 12th century both reported that Fausta, step-mother of Crispus, was extremely jealous of him. She was reportedly afraid that Constantine would put aside the sons she bore him. So, in order to get rid of Crispus, Fausta set him up. She reportedly told the young Caesar that she was in love with him and suggested an illegitimate love affair. Crispus denied the immoral wishes of Fausta and left the palace in a state of a shock. Then Fausta said to Constantine that Crispus had no respect for his father, since the Caesar was in love with his father's own wife. She reported to Constantine that she dismissed him after his attempt to rape her. Constantine believed her and, true to his strong personality and short temper, executed his beloved son. A few months later, Constantine reportedly found out the whole truth and then executed his wife Fausta at the end of 326.

This version of events has become the most widely accepted, since all other reports are even less satisfactory.

A treason against Constantine jointly plotted by Fausta and Crispus is rejected by most historians. They would have nothing to gain considering their positions as favourites of Constantine.

Another version suggests that Constantine killed Crispus because as an illegitimate son, he would cause a crisis in the order of succession to the throne. However, Constantine had kept him at his side for twenty years without any such decision. Constantine also had the authority to appoint his younger, legitimate sons as his heirs. Nevertheless, Crispus' status as a legitimate or illegitimate son remains uncertain.

Some reports claimed that Constantine was envious of the success of his son and afraid of him. This seems improbable, given that Constantine had twenty years of experience at Emperor while Crispus was still a young Caesar. Similarly, there seems to be no evidence that Crispus had any ambitions to harm or displace his father.

So while the story of Zosimus and Zonaras seems the most believable one, there are also problems relating to their version of events.

Constantine's reaction suggest that he suspected Crispus of a crime so terrible that death was not enough. Crispus also suffered damnatio memoriae, meaning his name was never mentioned again and was deleted from all official documents and monuments. Crispus, his wife Helena and their son were never to be mentioned again in historical records. The eventual fate of Helena and her son is a mystery.

Constantine may have been eventually convinced of Crispus' innocence. But he did not restore his son's innocence and name, as he probably would have on learning of his son's innocence. Perhaps Constantine's pride or shame at having executed his son prevented him from publicly admitting having made a mistake.

Beyond doubt there was a connections between the executions of Crispus and Fausta. Both happened too close in time to be coincidental. Such agreement among different sources connecting the two deaths is extremely rare in itself. A number of modern historians have suggested that Crispus and Fausta really did have an illegitimate affair. When Constantine found out, his reaction was executing both of them. What delayed the death of Fausta may have been a pregnancy. Since the years of birth for the two known daughters of Constantine and Fausta remain unknown, one of their births may have delayed their mother's execution.


Crispus, 316-326, Bronze Reduced Anepigraphic Follis, RIC-VII-53-R5, struck 324-325 at Antioch, 1.87 grams, 17.9 mm. Nice VF

Obv: Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust of Crispus facing left
Rev: CRISPVS CAESAR SMANTZ - Legend and mint signature in three lines, star above, dot below

An excessively rare coin of Crispus. Nicely centered and struck with even wear to both surfaces. Important and MUCH nicer than the image projects.

Ex-Glenn Woods
ecoli
895_P_Hadrian_Emmett866_03.jpg
5145 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Tetradrachm 118-19 AD Isis14 viewsReference.
RPC III, 5145.5; Dattari-Savio Pl. 67, 1395 (this coin); Emmett 866.3

Issue L Γ = year 3

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙС ΤΡΑΙΑΝΟС ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС СƐΒ
Laureate head of Hadrian, r., drapery on l. shoulder

Rev. L Γ
Reverse design draped bust of Isis, crowned with taenia, disc and horns, r.

12.37 gr
24 mm
12h

Note.
From the Dattari collection.
1 commentsokidoki
151_P_Hadrian__Emmett_866_r5.jpg
5206 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Tetradrachm 119-20 AD Isis18 viewsReference.
RPC III, 5206; Emmett 866.4; Dattari 1396; Kampmann & Ganschow 32.116.;Köln--; Milne 937

Issue L Δ = year 4

Obv. AΥT KAI TΡAI AΔΡIA CEB
Laureate bust r., drapery on l. shoulder

Rev. L-Δ
Draped bust of Isis right with Isiscrown, wearing her horned solar crown.

12.87 gr
23 mm
12 h.
okidoki
1237_P_Hadrian_RPC5206_3.jpg
5206 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Tetradrachm 119-20 AD Isis7 viewsReference.
RPC III, 5206.3; Emmett 866.4; Kampmann & Ganschow 32.116.;Köln--; Milne 937; Dattari-Savio Pl. 67, 1396 (this coin).

Issue L Δ = year 4

Obv. AΥT KAI TΡAI AΔΡIA CEB
Laureate bust r., drapery on l. shoulder

Rev. L-Δ
Draped bust of Isis, crowned with taenia, disc and horns, right

13.89 gr
23 mm
12h
1 commentsokidoki
417_P_Hadrian_Emmett828.jpg
5434 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Tetradrachm 123-24 AD Canopic jar of Isis18 viewsReference.
Emmett 828.8; Dattari 1310; Köln 851; Milne 1051: RPC III, 5434

Issue L H = year 8

Obv. AVT KAIC TPAINA∆PIANOC CEB
Laureate head right, aegis at shoulder.

Rev. L-H date across field
Canopic jar of Isis wearing headdress

12.79 gr

Note.
Isis
Goddess of health, marriage, and wisdom
okidoki
810_P_Hadrian_Emmett866_06.JPG
5440 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Tetradrachm 123-24 AD Isis17 viewsReference.
RPC III, 5440; Emmett 866.8; Dattari 1398 ; Köln 855

Issue L H = year 8

Obv. AΥT KAI TΡAI AΔΡIA CEB
Laureate head of Hadrian right, wearing aegis

Rev. L-H
Draped bust of Isis right with Isiscrown, wearing her horned solar crown

12.11 gr
22 mm
12h
1 commentsokidoki
802_P_Hadrian_Emmett1093.jpg
5748 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Hemidrachm 129-30 AD Isis Pharia standing 23 viewsReference.
Emmett 1093.14; Dattari-Savio Pl. 85, 7711 (this coin). RPC III, 5748.23 (this coin cited).Corr. (holding Situla)

Issue L IΔ = year 14

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙ - ΤΡΑΙ ΑΔΡΙΑ СƐΒ
Laureate draped and cuirassed bust of Hadrian, r., seen from rear

Rev. L ΙΔ
Isis Pharia advancing, r., head r., holding sistrum and sail with situla

12.64 gr
29 mm
12h

Note.
From the Dattari collection.
1 commentsokidoki
374_P_Hadrian_Emmett_1189.jpg
5764 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Dichalkon 129-30 AD Headdress of Isis16 viewsReference.
RPC III, 5764; Emmett 1189.14; Milne 1293; Köln 1019; Dattari 1918

Issue L IΔ = year 14

Obv.
Laureate head right.

Rev. L IΔ
Headdress of Isis.

1.66 gr
14 mm

Note.
Isis
Goddess of health, marriage, and wisdom
okidoki
65_P_Hadrian_Emmett_1038.jpg
5813 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Diobol 131-32 AD Isis as mother30 viewsReference.
Emmett 1138.16 Köln 1046; K&G 32.530; RPC III, 5813

Issue L IϚ = year 16

Obv. AVT KAI TPAI AΔPIA CEB
Laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right.

Rev. L Iς (date) across field.
Isis enthroned right, nursing Harpocrates, holding a lotus bud

10.47 gr
24 mm
12h
okidoki
668_P_Hadrian_Emmett1000_17.jpg
5837 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Drachm 132-33 AD Isis Pharia standing13 viewsReference. Var. on Date placement
Emmett 1000.17; RPC III, 5837; Milne 1372; Dattari 1757

Issue L IZ = year 17

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙС ΤΡΑΙΑΝ - ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС СƐΒ
laureate draped and cuirassed bust of Hadrian, r., seen from rear

Rev. LI Z
Isis Pharia advancing, r., holding sistrum and sail.

26.87 gr
34 mm
12h
`
Note.
Pars coins; Roma Numismatics Limited
E-SALE 19 449
okidoki
624_P_Hadrian_Emmett1002.jpg
5838 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Drachm 132-33 AD Isis Pharia standing22 viewsReference.
Emmett 1002.17; RPC III,5838/32; Köln 1078 var. (placement of date); Dattari (Savio) 765-6 var. (same); K&G 32.547; Milne -; SNG Hunterian 1078 var. (same); BMC 756.

http://rpc.ashmus.ox.ac.uk/coins/3/5838/32/

Issue L IZ = year 17

Obv. AVT KAIC TPAIAN • AΔPIANOC CЄB
Laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right

Rev. L IZ (date= year 17) in exergue.
Isis Pharia standing right, holding sistrum and billowing sail, before Pharos of Alexandria.

21.08 gr
34 mm
12h
1 commentsokidoki
715_P_Hadrian_Emmett828_17.jpg
5858 EGYPT, Alexandria Hadrian Diobol 132-33 AD Canopic jar of Isis13 viewsReference.
Emmett 1118.17; RPC III, 5858; Köln 1074

Issue L IZ = year 17

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙС ΤΡΑΙΑΝ - ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС СƐΒ
laureate, draped and cuirassed bust of Hadrian, r., seen from front.

Rev. L ΙΖ
Canopic jar of Isis wearing headdress and on pillow

8.20 gr
25 mm
12h
okidoki
1250_P_Hadrian_RPC5893.jpg
5893 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Drachm 133-34 AD Isis Pharia advancing15 viewsReference.
RPC III, 5893; Emmett 1000.18; Köln 1117

Issue L IH = year 18

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙС ΤΡΑΙΑΝ - ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС СƐΒ
Laureate draped and cuirassed bust of Hadrian, r., seen from rear

Rev. L ΙΗ
Isis Pharia advancing, right, holding sistrum and sail

22.41 gr
32 mm
12h
3 commentsokidoki
502_P_Hadrian_Emmett1002_18.jpg
5895 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Drachm 133-34 AD Isis Pharia standing38 viewsReference.
Emmett 1002.18; RPC III, 5895; Köln 1121-2; Dattari (Savio) 1768; K&G 32.588

Issue L IH = year 18

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙС ΤΡΑΙΑΝ - ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС СƐΒ
Laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right, seen from behind.

Rev. L IH
Isis Pharia, holding billowing sail, sailing right before the Pharos of Alexandria, which is surmounted by a statue and two Tritons.

22.63 gr
33 mm
1 commentsokidoki
174_P_Hadrian_Emmett_1090_18.jpg
5923 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Hemidrachm 133-34 AD Isis18 viewsReferene.
Emmett 1090.18; Köln 1116; Dattari 1748; RPC III, 5923

Issue L IH = year 18

Obv. AVT KAIC TPAIAN AΔPIANOC CEB
laureate and draped bust right.

Rev. L IH
Isis seated left, holding sistrum and scepter

14.50 gr
28 mm
12h
okidoki
1274_P_Hadrian_RPC6040_13.jpg
6040 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Drachm 134-35 AD Isis as mother3 viewsReference.
RPC III, 6040.13; Dattari-Savio Pl. 96, 7874 (this coin); Emmett 998.19

Issue L ƐΝΝƐΑΚ·Δ = year 19

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙС ΤΡΑΙΑΝ - ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС СƐΒ
Laureate draped and cuirassed bust of Hadrian, r., seen from rear

Rev. L ƐΝΝƐΑΚ·Δ
Temple (Greco-Egyptian) with two columns enclosing Isis, crowned with disc, horns and plumes, seated r.; on knee, Harpocrates, crowned with pschent, raising hand and holding club

20.22 gr
33 mm
12h
okidoki
1018_P_Hadrian_RPC6123_2.jpg
6123 EGYPT, Alexandria Hadrian Hemidrachm 135-36 AD Isis as mother8 viewsReference.
RPC III, 6123.2; Dattari-Savio Pl. 84, 7707 (this coin) Emmett 1092.20

Issue L K = year 20

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙС ΤΡΑΙΑΝ - ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС СƐΒ
Laureate draped and cuirassed bust of Hadrian, r., seen from rear.

Rev. L K
Isis enthroned right, crowned with horns and disk, suckling the infant Harpokrates, who is crowned with skhent and holding a lotus stalk

13.90 gr
28 mm
12h
okidoki
1202_P_Hadrian_RPC6212_3.jpg
6212 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Drachm 136-37 AD Egyptian temple19 viewsReference.
RPC III, 6212.3; Dattari-Savio Pl. 97, 1975 (this coin); Emmett 996.21; Köln 1230 same die pair

Issue L KA = year 21

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙС ΤΡΑΙΑΝ - ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС СƐΒ
Bare head of Hadrian, left

Rev. L ΚΑ
Egyptian temple with pylons with statue of Isis, holding sceptre

21.50 gr
33 mm
12h
1 commentsokidoki
597_P_Hadrian_Emmett1246.jpg
6381 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Nome Obol 126-27 AD Hathor/Aphrodite22 viewsReference.
Emmett 1244.11; RPC III, 6381

Issue Aphroditopolite

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙ ΤΡΑΙ ΑΔΡΙΑ СΕΒ
Laureate head of Hadrian, r., drapery on l. shoulder.

Rev. ΑΦΡΟΔΙ, L ΙΑ
Hathor/Aphrodite standing, facing, head l., wearing feathers between two spurs, holding in r. hand figure of Demeter veiled, standing, r., torch in r. hand, and something circular in l. hand, and in l. hand, figure of Isis standing, facing

4.18 gr
18 mm
12h
okidoki
1019_P_Hadrian_RPC6390.jpg
6390 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Nome Obol 126-27 AD Isis standing18 viewsReference.
RPC 6390.22 (this coin). Dattari-Savio Pl. 304, 6299 (this coin). Dattari 6299 and Pl XXXV (this rev. Illustrated) Emmett 1246

Issue Memphite

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙ ΤΡΑΙ ΑΔΡΙΑ СΕΒ
Laureate head of Hadrian, r., drapery on l. shoulder

Rev. ΜΕΜΦΙ, L ΙΑ
Isis standing, facing, head l., wearing basileion upon vulture headdress, holding in l. hand figure of Ptah, standing, r., wearing sun disk and was-sceptre in hands, and raised uraeus, l., wearing pschent, in r. hand

5.75 gr
19.5 mm
12h

Note.
From the Dattari collection. Illustrated in Dattari.

Figure of Ptah, God of Creation
The Pschent was the name of the Double Crown worn by rulers in ancient Egypt
1 commentsokidoki
otho diobol.jpg
69 AD - OTHO AE diobol - struck Jan.- Apr. 69 AD39 viewsobv: [AYTOK] MAPK OTH[WN] KA[IC CEB] (laureate head right)
rev: Isis head with LA mintmark (LA {regnal year} =69 AD)
ref: Milne ?
mint: Alexandria
6.92gms, 24mm
Rare

One of the earliest denominations, the diobol was introduced by Augustus and continued to be struck until the reign of Elagabalus.
berserker
17498593_10155131180512232_824835914195055469_n.jpg
8. Antiochos IV Epiphanes11 viewsSELEUKID KINGS of SYRIA. Antiochos IV Epiphanes. 175-164 BC. Æ “Egyptianizing” series. Antioch mint. Struck 169-168 BC. Head of Isis right, wearing tainia / Eagle with closed wings standing right on thunderbolt. SC 1414; HGC 9, 644.ecoli
17201161_10155082101002232_969458260036681201_n.jpg
8. Antiochos IV Epiphanes14 viewsSELEUKID KINGS of SYRIA. Antiochos IV Epiphanes. 175-164 BC. Æ . “Egyptianizing” series. Antioch mint. Struck 169-168 BC. Head of Isis right, wearing tainia / Eagle with closed wings standing right on thunderbolt. SC 1414; HGC 9, 644.1 commentsecoli
Follis Majencio RIC Ticinum 95.jpg
A117-12 - MAJENCIO (306 - 312 D.C.)44 viewsAE Follis 24 mm 6.1 gr.
Hijo de Maximiano, causó la crisis del sistema de la Tetrarquía, siendo proclamado “Principe”, luego César, y mas tarde Augusto, e invitando él mismo a su padre a reasumir el Imperio. Fue derrocado por las fuerzas conjuntas de Constantino I y Licinio.

Anv: "MAXENTIVS P F AVG" - Busto laureado, con coraza y Paludamentum (capote militar) sobre ella, viendo a derecha.
Rev: "CONSERV VRB SVAE" - Roma sentada de frente, viendo a izquierda, portando un globo en la mano de su brazo derecho extendido y largo cetro vertical en izquierda, dentro de un templo hexástilo (6 columnas). "P T" en exergo.

Acuñada Otoño 307 - primavera 308 D.C.
Ceca: Ticinum (Off.1ra.)
Rareza: C

Referencias: RIC Vol.VI (Ticinum) #95 Pag.294 - Cohen Vol.VII #28 Pag.168 - DVM #18 var Pag.284 - Salgado MRBI Vol.III #7653.a. Pag.89
1 commentsmdelvalle
RIC_95_Follis_Numus_Majencio.jpg
A117-12 - MAJENCIO (306 - 312 D.C.)29 viewsAE Follis 24 mm 6.1 gr.
Hijo de Maximiano, causó la crisis del sistema de la Tetrarquía, siendo proclamado “Principe”, luego César, y mas tarde Augusto, e invitando él mismo a su padre a reasumir el Imperio. Fue derrocado por las fuerzas conjuntas de Constantino I y Licinio.

Anv: "MAXENTIVS P F AVG" - Busto laureado, con coraza y Paludamentum (capote militar) sobre ella, viendo a derecha.
Rev: "CONSERV VRB SVAE" - Roma sentada de frente, viendo a izquierda, portando un globo en la mano de su brazo derecho extendido y largo cetro vertical en izquierda, dentro de un templo hexástilo (6 columnas). "P T" en exergo.

Acuñada Otoño 307 - primavera 308 D.C.
Ceca: Ticinum (Off.1ra.)
Rareza: C

Referencias: RIC Vol.VI (Ticinum) #95 Pag.294 - Cohen Vol.VII #28 Pag.168 - DVM #18 var Pag.284 - Salgado MRBI Vol.III #7653.a. Pag.89
mdelvalle
Follis_Majencio_RIC_35.jpg
A117-16 - MAJENCIO (306 - 312 D.C.)38 viewsAE Follis 25 mm 7.1 gr.
Hijo de Maximiano, causó la crisis del sistema de la Tetrarquía, siendo proclamado “Principe”, luego César, y mas tarde Augusto, e invitando él mismo a su padre a reasumir el Imperio. Fue derrocado por las fuerzas conjuntas de Constantino I y Licinio.

Anv: "IMP C M[A]XENTIVS PF AVG " – Cabeza laureada viendo a derecha.
Rev: "AETE-RNITAS - [AVG] N” – Los Dioscuri (Castor y Pollux) desnudos de pié uno frente al otro, portando cetros largos verticales, sobre sus hombros un manto corto (Chlamys) y reteniendo a sus caballos por los frenos. "MOSTP" en exergo.

Acuñada 309 – 312 D.C.
Ceca: Ostia – (Ostia Antica, viejo puerto de Roma) -Italia
Rareza: C2

Referencias: RIC Vol.VI (Ostia) 35 Pag.404 - DVM #14 Pag.284 - Salgado MRBI Vol.III #7656.a. Pag.89 – Cohen Vol.VII #5 Pag.166
mdelvalle
RIC_35_Follis_Numus_Majencio.jpg
A117-16 - MAJENCIO (306 - 312 D.C.)16 viewsAE Follis 25 mm 7.1 gr.
Hijo de Maximiano, causó la crisis del sistema de la Tetrarquía, siendo proclamado “Principe”, luego César, y mas tarde Augusto, e invitando él mismo a su padre a reasumir el Imperio. Fue derrocado por las fuerzas conjuntas de Constantino I y Licinio.

Anv: "IMP C M[A]XENTIVS PF AVG " – Cabeza laureada viendo a derecha.
Rev: "AETE-RNITAS - [AVG] N” – Los Dioscuri (Castor y Pollux) desnudos de pié uno frente al otro, portando cetros largos verticales, sobre sus hombros un manto corto (Chlamys) y reteniendo a sus caballos por los frenos. "MOSTP" en exergo.

Acuñada 309 – 312 D.C.
Ceca: Ostia – (Ostia Antica, viejo puerto de Roma) -Italia
Rareza: C2

Referencias: RIC Vol.VI (Ostia) 35 Pag.404 - DVM #14 Pag.284 - Salgado MRBI Vol.III #7656.a. Pag.89 – Cohen Vol.VII #5 Pag.166 - Sear '88 #3776
mdelvalle
syracuse.jpg
AE 20, Serapis/ Isis standing left holding sistrum and scepter 16 viewsSyracuse, Sicily. C. 215-214 B.C. 20mm, 8.0g. Obverse: Head of Serapis right. Reverse: Isis standing left holding sistrum and scepter. SNG Cop 904. Ex David LiebertPodiceps
HadrianAeolisAegae1.jpg
Aeolis, Aegae. Hadrian. Three specimens known.21 viewsAeolis, Aegae. Hadrian (AD 117–138). Æ 16–17mm, 3.44 g, 6h.
Obverse: [ΑV]ΤΟ ΤΡΑΙΑ - ΑΔΡ[...], laureate bust right.
Reverse: [Є]ΠΙ [...]ΛЄΟV [...] / ΑΙ - ΓΑ, Isis(?) standing and facing with sistrum(?) in extended left hand.
References: Type to be published in RPC III.
Ex Numismatik Lanz (eBay), 3-2-2013.
Mark Fox
kymeAmazonKyme~0.jpg
Aeolis, Cyme. AE18. Amazon Kyme/Isis 57 viewsObv: K VMH Amazon Kyme bust r., turreted.
Rev: KVM AIWN Isis standing l., sistrum in r., situla in l.
Time of Valerian to Gallienus.
BMC 120

ancientone
883_Alexander_Severus_Alexandria.jpg
Alexander Severus - Alexandria4 viewsBI tetradrachm
struck by Elagabalus
222 AD
draped and cuirassed bust right
MAP AVP AΛEΞΑΝΔΡΟC KAICAP
head of Zeus-Ammon right wearing Isis crown
L_E
Emmet 3086; Dattari 4249
14,6g
ex Gitbud and Naumann
Johny SYSEL
Screen_Shot_2014-06-22_at_10_07_00_PM.png
Alexander Severus Silver Denarius 37 views59850. Silver denarius, SRCV II 7923, RIC IV 252, RSC III 508a, BMCRE VI 813, VF, scratches, 3.143g, 19.8mm, 0o, Rome mint, 231 - 235 A.D.;

obverse IMP ALEXANDER PIVS AVG, laureate bust right with drapery on left shoulder;

reverse PROVIDENTIA AVG, Providentia (or Annona) standing left, stalks of grain in right over modius, anchor in left

Annona with a modius and anchor suggests the arrival of grain by sea from the provinces, especially from Africa, and its distribution to the people. When Severus Alexander was away on his Persian and German campaigns (231-235) he continuously struck Annona types. With the legend PROVIDENTIA AVG, "The Foresight of the Emperor," he assured that, though he was away, he would be carefully monitoring Rome's grain supply!
1 commentsColby S
piusemmett1584.jpg
Alexandria. Antoninus Pius. 138-161 AD. Æ Drachm. Isis with infant Harpocrates17 viewsAlexandria. Antoninus Pius. 138-161 AD. Æ Drachm (35mm, 24.20 gm). Laureate head of Antoninus Pius right / Temple of two columns supporting pediment, ornamented with the crown of Uraeus, within, Isis enthroned right, holding Harpocrates.ancientone
ANNIA FAUSTINA-1.JPG
Annia Faustina, 3rd wife of Elagabalus. Augusta, 221 CE.362 viewsIsinda, Pisidia, AE 26 mm.
Obv: ANNIAN FAVCTEINAN, Dr. bust of Faustina r.
Rev: Confronted heads of Serapis and Isis, in field, E-Delta (yr. 4 ).
Ex Lindgren I, ex von Aulock, Pisidia I 833 (Plate coin, the only example known).
3 commentsEmpressCollector
festivalofisis.jpg
ANONYMOUS 38 viewsAnonymous. AE 14. Alexandria,first officina, first half IV C. AD. 1,37 grs. Draped bust of Serapis right, wearing modius DEO SANCTO SERAPIDI / Nilus reclining left on rock pile, holding reed and cornucopiae. DEO SANCTO NILO. In left field A. In exergue ALE.
Cfr. Alfoldi:Festival of Isis... Pl. IV,35 (different officina). J. Van Heesch 6(b)
benito
Antioches_VII_Euergetes_BM_52.jpg
Antioches VII Euergetes BMC 5225 viewsAntiochos VII Euergetes, Antioch on the Orontes, 138-129 BC, 17.77mm, 5.1g, BMC 52, SNG UK 1301.617-620, SC 2067.15; SGC 7098
OBV: Winged bust of Eros, right
REV: BASILEWS ANTIOXOY EUERGETOU, Headdress of Isis, Seleucid date ΠΡ = 180 SE = 133/2 BC
Son of Demetrius I. Reign 138 - 129 BC. Married Cleopatra Thea (may as well; everyone else had).
Hunted down Tryphon and made him commit suicide.
Romanorvm
Df5Lt2G8S6yPcT9Pw7eQzB4gWao3sk.jpg
Antiochos VII AE18, Bust of Eros / Head dress of Isis 19 viewsBust of Eros right wreathed in myrtle. / Head dress of Isis BASILEWS ANTIOCOU EUERGETOU.
BMC 4.73.49. 138-129 BC. _1920
Antonivs Protti
Antiochos_VII_Euergetes.jpg
Antiochos VII Euergetes64 viewsFRONT/ Bust of Eros right. BACK / BASILEWS ANTIOCOU EUERGETOU, Headdress of Isis, scepter as monogram to left; aplustre and date EOP below. Minted in the Selukid Kingdom. Struck 138-129 BC. Ref: SNG UK 1301.617-620; BMC 52 (British Museum Catalog #52).

EX ; Andreas Reich


From the Sam Mansourati Collection
2 commentsSam
IMG_9992.JPG
Antiochos VII Euergetes4 viewsSELEUKID KINGS of SYRIA. Antiochos VII Euergetes (Sidetes). 138-129 BC. Æ (18mm, 5.21 g, 12h). Antioch on the Orontes mint. Dated SE 179 (134/3 BC). Winged bust of Eros right / Isis headdress; monogram and grain ear to outer left, ΘΟΡ (date) in exergue. SC 2067.14; HGC 9, 1087; DCA 207. ecoli
eros_isis_k.jpg
Antiochos VII Euergetes, 138-129 BC7 viewsÆ19, 6.4g, 12h; Antioch mint, 138-137 BC.
Obv.: Winged bust of Eros right.
Rev.: BAΣIΛEΩΣ ANTIOXOY EYEPΓETOY; Headdress of Isis; EOP below, monogram to right.
Reference: SNG Spaer 1941,17-16-45
John Anthony
Antiochus_VII.jpg
Antiochos VII Euergetes-Sidetes, 138 - 129 BC.43 viewsAntiochos VII, Euergetes, 138 - 129 BC. Ae 18mm. Weights (6.26, 6.07, 6.06, 6.05, 6.37, 4.95, 6.19 & 5.85)g. Obv: Winged bust of Eros right, wreathed with myrtle Rev: BAΣIΛEΩΣ / ANTIOXOY on right, EYEPΓETOY on left, Headdress of Isis. SNG UK 1301.617-620, BMC 60. BMC 52. 1 commentsddwau
Antiochus_VII_Eurgetes_(Sidetes)_AE.jpg
ANTIOCHOS VII EURGETES (Sidetes)7 views19.3mm, 5.76 grams
138 - 129 B.C.E.
Bust of Eros to right, dotted border
Headress of Isis, crescent and star below, inscrptions to side, control mark on left
SNG Spaer 1980
jaseifert
SeleukL_copy.jpg
Antiochos VII, Sidetes31 viewsAE 18, Syria, Antiochos VII, ca. 138-129 B.C. Obv: Winged bust of Eros facing right. Rev: Headress of Isis, ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΝΤΙΟΞΟΥ ΕΥΕΡΓΕΤΟΥ, cartwheel (?) below. Near black patina with light earthen highlights, VF. SGII 7098 var.Molinari
SeleukN_copy.jpg
Antiochos VII, Sidetes30 viewsAE 18, 6.00g, Antiochos VII, 138-129 BC, Obv: Winged bust of Eros facing right. Rev: Head-dress of Isis, ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΝΤΙΟΞΟΥ ΕΥΕΡΓΕΤΟΥ; / MH monogram in field, Seleukid date ΔΟΠ year 174 (138 BC), VF/gVF. S 7098, B.M.C.4.74,63.Molinari
SeleukM_copy.jpg
Antiochos VII, Sidetes45 viewsAE 18, Syria, Antiochos VII, struck 138/7 B.C. Obv: Winged bust of Eros facing right. Rev: Headress of Isis, ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΝΤΙΟΞΟΥ ΕΥΕΡΓΕΤΟΥ, EOP below (Seleukid era date 138/7). Dark brown patina with earthen highlights, gVF. SGII 7098 var.Molinari
Seleucid_Antiochos_VII_GCV_7098.JPG
Antiochos VII, Euergetes, 138 - 129 BC23 viewsObv: No legend, Winged bust of Eros facing right, wreathed with myrtle

Rev: BAΣIΛEΩΣ / ANTIOXOY on right, EYEPΓETOY on left, Headdress of Isis, crescent and Seleucid date (missing detail) below.

Æ 19, Uncertain mint, c. 138 - 129 BC

5.8 grams, 18.5 mm, 0°

GCV II 7098
SPQR Coins
SeleukK_copy.jpg
Antiochos VII, Sidetes22 viewsAE 18, 5.58g, Antiochos VII, Seleukid Empire, Syria, 138-129 BC, Obv: Winged Eros facing right, dotted border. Rev: Headress of Isis, anchor in field, reverse weakly struck, black patina, aEF, reverse weakly struck. SNGSpaer 1911/27 Molinari
12151q001.jpg
Antiochus VII36 viewsAntiochus VII (139-129 BC)

Obv. Head of Eros
Rev. Headdress of Isis, BAΣIΛEΩΣ / ANTIoXoY/ right, EYEPΓ EToY left, date off flan
Sear 7098, BMC 49

ex FORVM
areich
coin653~0.jpg
Antiochus VII 139-128 BC14 viewsAntiochus VII 139-128 BC, bronze / ISIS Headdress
SNG Israel 1961 It is an Eros. Coin #653
cars100
s6.JPG
Antiochus VII AE 20mm 138-129 BC7 viewsAntiochus VII 138-129 BC
Obv. Bust of Eros right wearing myrtle wreath.
Rev. BAΣIΛEΩΣ ANTIOXOY EYEPГETOY, Head-dress of Isis.
Lee S
Antiochus_VII_1.jpg
Antiochus VII Euergetes - AE 175 viewsAntioch
138-137 BC
diademed bust of Eros right
headdress of Isis
BAΣIΛEΩΣ / ANTIOXOY / EYEPΓETOY
(Δ scepter)
branch / EOP
SNG Spaer 1900; BMC 52
6,41g

ex Dionysos numismatik
Johny SYSEL
Antiochus_VII_2.jpg
Antiochus VII Euergetes - AE 172 viewsAntioch
138-137 BC
diademed bust of Eros right
headdress of Isis
BAΣIΛEΩΣ / ANTIOXOY / EYEPΓETOY
(Δ scepter)
branch / EOP
SNG Spaer 1900; BMC 52
5,52g

ex Dionysos numismatik
Johny SYSEL
0359_0360~1.jpg
Antiochus VII, AE18, ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΝΤΙΟΞΟΥ 5 viewsAE18
Antiochus VII
138 - 129BC
18.0mm 6.30gr
O: NO LEGEND; Winged bust of Eros, wearing myrtle-wreath, right. Drapery over arm.
R: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΝΤΙΟΞΟΥ; Headdress of Isis, consisting of horns, globe, plumes and ears of corn. Legends on either side, vertically.
Exergue: Crescent, ΔΟΡ
BMC 49
bronzemat
5/29/14 1/22/17
Nicholas Z
1_bis_Statue_Osiris_Egypte.jpg
ANTIQUITIES, Egypt, Bronze statuette of Osiris with Isis on back56 viewsStatuette bronze Osiris Basse époque (700-400 avant J.C. ) avec Isis au dos.Roger D2
1000-30-106.jpg
Antoninius Pius 3 views
Egypt, Alexandria. Antoninus Pius. AD 138-161. Æ Drachm 34.7 mm. 23.80 gm. Dated RY 12 (AD 148/9). Obv: Laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right. Rev: Isis Pharia standing right, holding sistrum and billowing sail with “S.” (or serpent) on sail; Pharos (lighthouse) of Alexandria to right, L ΔωΔ KAT OV (date) around. Köln 1605; Dattari (Savio) 2677-8; K&G 35.436. Emmett 1592.
Ancient Aussie
41077_Ant_Pius_drachm_Isis___Harpokrates.jpg
Antoninus Pius, drachm; Isis & Harpokrates14 viewsAntoninus Pius, August 138 - 7 March 161 A.D., Roman Provincial Egypt. Bronze drachm, BMC Alexandria p. 142, 1195, Fair, Alexandria mint, 17.012g, 33.2mm, 0o, obverse “ΑΥΤ Κ Τ ΑΙΛ ΑΔΡ ΑΝΤΩΝΙΝΟ”C CEB EVC, laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right; reverse “ΔΩΔΕ ΚΑΤΟ”V L, Isis seated right, wearing horns, disk, plumes, chiton and mantle, suckling Harpokrates; within distyle temple with papyrus capitals and rounded pediment with disk with uraei; Ex FORVM, photo credit FORVMPodiceps
AntoSe75~0.jpg
Antoninus Pius, RIC 651(a), Sestertius of AD 141-144 (Temple of Venus and Roma)46 viewsÆ sestertius (23.78g, 12h). Rome mint struck AD 141-144.
ANTONINVS AVG PIVS PP TR P COS III laureate head of Antoninus Pius facing right
VENERI FELICI (around) S C (in ex.) decastyle temple
RIC 651(a); Cohen 1075var. (dr. bust); BMC 1322; Strack 864; Foss (Roman Historical Coins) 125:23
ex Jean Elsen et ses Fils (Bruxelles) auction 97; ex coll. A. Senden: l'architecture des monnaies Romaines
F, dark green patina, corroded

Issued on the occasion of the completion of the temple of Venus and Roma in AD 141. This was the largest temple in Rome dedicated to Venus Felix (Happy Venus) and Roma Aeterna (Eternal Rome). Actually it consists of two temples back under one roof. It was designed by Hadrian himself (who, by the way, executed his architect for critisising the project) and dedicated by him in AD 135, and completed by Antoninus Pius.
Charles S
ArcadiaThelpusaGetaIsis1_(exBassem).jpg
Arcadia, Thelpusa. Geta, as Caesar. Potentially unpublished.20 viewsArcadia, Thelpusa. Geta, as Caesar (AD 198–209). Æ 21.75mm, 3.97 g, 2h. Struck AD 202–205.
Obverse: [ΛΟ]Υ [•] CЄΠΤΙ [•] ΓЄΤΑC [KAI?], bare-headed, draped, and cuirassed bust left, seen from behind.
Reverse: ΘЄΛΠΟ – ΥCΙΩΝ, Isis standing left, wearing lotus and holding sistrum in right hand over lighted altar and situla in left.
References: Potentially unpublished. Cf. BCD Peloponnesos 1767 (Septimius Severus with capital W-shaped omega); Mi Sup. IV, 124 (same). For possibly another specimen of Geta, see Numismatic Museum of Athens 544.
Ex Bassem Doau, 5-29-2014.

My thanks to Dr. Klaus Vondrovec of the Kunsthistorisches Museum Wien for kindly showing me three of their Thelpusa bronzes of Geta (Mionnet Sup. IV, 126–128). From these it was possible to partially restore the obverse inscription on my piece, made possible by the fact that all four coins were struck with the same obverse die.
Mark Fox
Laodikeia_02.jpg
Asia Minor, Phrygia, Laodikeia, Apollo, Crown of Isis16 viewsLaodikeia
Asia Minor, Phrygia
Pseudo-autonomous issue
AE13
Time of Tiberius, AD 10-37
Obv.: ΛAOΔIKEΩN laureate bust of Apollo right with lyre
Rev.: ΠΥΘHΣ ΠΥΘOΥ ΔIΣ, altar surmounted by headdress of Isis
AE, 13.6mm, 2.55g
Ref.: BMC Phrygia 62; SNG Cop 511; RPC I 2909
1 commentsshanxi
Aspendos,_Pamphylia,.jpg
Aspendos, Pamphylia, 333 - 250 B.C.78 viewsWith the influence of the Olympics games.

Silver stater, Tekin Series 5, SNGvA 4578, SNG BnF 122, SNG Cop -, Arslan-Lightfoot -, gF, weight 9.107g, maximum diameter 24.8mm, die axis 0o, Aspendos mint, 330 - 250 B.C.; obverse two wrestlers, on left holds the right wrist of his opponent with his right hand and right forearm with his left hand, E between their legs, rounded edge; reverse EΣTΦE∆IY, slinger, wearing short chiton, discharging sling to right, O between legs, triskeles above club on right, round border of dots; scarce;

EX FORVM ANCIENT COIN SHOP

After Alexander took Perga peacefully, Aspendos sent envoys to offer surrender if he would not take the taxes and horses formerly paid as tribute to the Persian king. Agreeing, Alexander went on to Side, leaving a garrison behind. When he learned they had failed to ratify the agreement their own evnvoys had proposed, Alexander marched to the city. The Aspendians retreated to their acropolis and again sent envoys to sue for peace. This time, however, they had to agree to harsh terms - they would host a Macedonian garrison and pay 100 gold talents and 4.000 horses annually.

This type is a late example and likely among the last of the wrestler and slinger staters. Struck during economic crisis, perhaps resulting from the harsh terms set by Alexander after their treachery, the flans are underweight, crudely cast and appear to be of debased silver. The wrestlers and slinger are carelessly depicted. It is not as attractive as earlier examples but it is certainly much scarcer.

From The Sam Mansourati Collection.


*With my sincere thank , Photo and Description courtesy of FORVM Ancient Coins Staff.
2 commentsSam
Aspendos,_Pamphylia,_333_-_250_B_C_.jpg
Aspendos, Pamphylia, 333 - 250 B.C.84 viewsAspendos, Pamphylia, 333 - 250 B.C.
With the influence of the Olympics games.

Silver stater, Tekin Series 5, SNGvA 4578, SNG BnF 122, SNG Cop -, Arslan-Lightfoot -, VF, weight 8.97 gr., maximum diameter 24.8mm, die axis 0o.
Aspendos mint . Struck between 330 - 250 B.C.
Obverse ; two wrestlers, on left holds the right wrist of his opponent with his right hand and right forearm with his left hand, E between their legs, rounded edge.
Reverse ; EΣTΦE∆IY, slinger, wearing short chiton, discharging sling to right, O between legs, triskeles above club on right, round border of dots; very rare.

From The Sam Mansourati Collection. NO. AGAP 3324
After Alexander the great took Perga peacefully, Aspendos sent envoys to offer surrender if he would not take the taxes and horses formerly paid as tribute to the Persian king. Agreeing, Alexander went on to Side, leaving a garrison behind. When he learned they had failed to ratify the agreement their own evnvoys had proposed, Alexander marched to the city. The Aspendians retreated to their acropolis and again sent envoys to sue for peace. This time, however, they had to agree to harsh terms - they would host a Macedonian garrison and pay 100 gold talents and 4.000 horses annually.

This type is a late example and likely among the last of the wrestler and slinger staters. Struck during economic crisis, perhaps resulting from the harsh terms set by Alexander after their treachery, the flans are underweight, crudely cast and appear to be of debased silver. The wrestlers and slinger are carelessly depicted. It is not as attractive as earlier examples but it is certainly much scarcer.




1 commentsSam
erf_rp3040.jpg
Athena Panthea - Goddess of one-stop shopping470 viewsAttributes: the wings of Nike, the rudder of Tyche, the sistrum of Isis, the grain ears of Demeter, the cornucopia of nearly everybody, and her own shield.1 commentsflinn
ISIS_Post_Sulla.jpg
Athens New Style Tetradrachm 83/2 BC8 viewsObs : Athena Parthenos right in tri-form helmet
29 mm 16.82 gm Thompson issue 82 Thompson catalogue:ll69a
Rev : ΑΘΕ ethnic
Owl standing on overturned panathenaic amphora
on which month mark Θ control ΔI below
2 magistrates : ARCHITIMOS DEMETRI
RF symbol : Isis
All surrounded by an olive wreath
cicerokid
016KAurelian.jpg
Aurelian14 viewsAE Antoninianus
Roman Imperial - The Crisis

Carinus

Siscia mint, 272 - 274 A.D.
gF. Better in hand.
21.0 mm / 3.00 g / 0°

Obverse: "IMP AVRELIANVS AVG", Radiate, cuirassed right.
Reverse: "IOVI CONSER", Emperor standing to the left with sceptre, accepting globe from Jupiter who stands on the right. Mintmark: Star Q.

RIC 225. Cohen 105.

From uncleaned lot (2015)

MyID: 016K
TenthGen
Screen_Shot_2014-11-24_at_12_05_00_AM.png
Aurelian Antoninianus Coin114 viewsThis type refers to Aurelian's defeat of Zenobia's Palmyrene Empire in the east. The captives wear Parthian caps and are typically attributed as Persians. The real captives were more likely Palmyreans. Typical of Roman propaganda, Zenobia's Sasanian supporters are depicted to glorify Aurelian's victory and mask that this was an internal revolt and civil war.

RS52117. Silvered antoninianus, RIC V 151, gVF, Ticinum (Pavia, Italy) mint, weight 4.178g, maximum diameter 24.1mm, die axis 180o, 270 - 275 A.D.; obverse IMP C AVRELIANVS AVG, radiate and cuirassed bust right; reverse ORIENS AVG, Sol advancing left, raising right hand, globe in left, two bound captives at feet, TXXT in exergue; near full circles strike, extensive silvering remaining
Colby S
Aurelianus_(270-275)_antoninianus_(AE).png
Aurelianus (270-275) antoninianus (AE)24 viewsObv.: IMP C AVRELIANVS AVG (Emperor in cuirass with radiate crown) Rev.: CONCORDIA MILITVM (Emperor and Concordia reaching hands) Exergue: P* Diameter: 22 mm Weight: 3,3 g RIC 5

Concordia is not a bad typological choice for the emperor who finally managed to unite the empire and all but ended the brunt of the so-called Crisis of the Third Century.
Nick.vdw
Claudius_Salvs_Isis_LR35.jpg
BCC Lr3537 viewsLate Roman
Claudius II 268-270CE
AE Antoninianus
Obv: IMP C CLAVDIVS AVG
Radiate, draped bust right.
Rev: SALVS AVG
Isis Faria standing left, holding sistrum and carrying basket.
20mm. 3.40gm. Axis:330
RIC 217 Antioch Mint
v-drome
BCC_LT29_.jpg
BCC LT2934 viewsLead Tessera
Obv: Half-figure of Nilus to left,
holding cornucopia and uncertain
objects in right hand and below.
Rev: Serpent with female head wearing Isis crown.
Uncertain objects to left and right.
Date: L E (Year 5), in field.
17.5mm. 3.16gm. Axis:90
cf. Dattari Collection, number 11540
Surface find, Caesarea Maritima, 1973
v-drome
BCC_LT_57_Winged_Nemisis.jpg
BCC LT5712 viewsLead Tessera
Caesarea Maritima
1st - 3rd century CE
Obv: Winged Nemesis? or
Eros? with pickaxe, or torch?
Uncertain object to right.
Rev: Blank.
10 x 10 x 1.0mm. 0.68gm.
J. Berlin Caesarea Collection

At first I thought this must be
Eros, but the size of the wings
made me think it is Nemesis.
Any suggestions are welcome.
Tesserae and Gemstones with
these motifs are well known
from Caesarea, but so far
nothing exactly like this one.
v-drome
BCC_M108_dichalkon.jpg
BCC M10824 viewsCaesarea Minima
Uncertain Emperor
Alexandria Mint?
AE Dichalkon
Obv:Head right.
Rev: Crown of Monthu? or Isis?,
(horns, uraei, disk and plumes)
Date: A? above
16 x 13.5 mm. 1.37gm. Axis:150
cf Ham. #77 (BMC Alex. 559)
or #95 (BMC Alex. 901), but different.
v-drome
Isis_minima_BCC_M88.jpg
BCC M8828 viewsCaesarea Minima
Trajan 98-117CE
Alexandria Mint
AE Dichalkon
Obv: Laureate head of Trajan right.
Rev: Headress of Isis,
Date LI-S (regnal year 16)
14.0 mm. 1.11gm. Axis:0
Poss. ref: Emmett 710
Hamburger ---, not listed.
v-drome
isis_minima_BCC_M89.jpg
BCC M8922 viewsCaesarea Minima
Trajan 98-117CE
Alexandria or Caesarea Mint
AE Chalkon?
Obv: Laur. head of Trajan or Hadrian? right.
Rev: Headress of Isis, very crudely rendered.
10mm. 0.92gm. Axis:210
Hamburger 98, possible die match.
v-drome
caracallamunicistoben.jpg
Caracalla Stobe17 views Obv. AV MAUR ANTONINUS Laureate and draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev. MVNICI STOBEN Nike/Nemisis advancing left with wreath and palmSkyler
Skyler
carastobi092108e.jpg
Caracalla, Stobi27 viewsPIVS AVGV-ANTONINVS
Laureate draped bust right

MVNICS-TOB
Nike/Nemisis on globe left holding wreath and palm

Ae;23mm;6.2g
V10; unlisted reverse die
1 commentsarizonarobin
carastobi092108g.jpg
Caracalla, Stobi30 viewsM AVRE-ANTONIN
Laureate bust right

MVNI-STOB
Nike/Nemisis on globe left, holding wreath and palm

AE; 24mm ; 5.87g
Josif 429, V27, R130
1 commentsarizonarobin
FotorCreated~105.jpg
Caria Rhodes AR Drachm circa 166-188 BC 2.65g28 viewsHead of Helios to right radiate.Rev shallow incuse square within which PO rose with budding branch, on either side,magistrates name above,symbol at right headdress of Isis left.Grant H
hali_k.jpg
CARIA, Halicarnassus.5 viewsÆ20, 8.1g, 12h; 150-50 BC
Obv.: Head of Poseidon right.
Rev.: AΛIKAP; Trident head, dolphins between prongs; magistrate's name, IEPO on right; headdress of Isis in lower right field.
Reference: SNG Cop 354 var. / 17-82-45
John Anthony
Halicarnassus_k.jpg
CARIA, Halicarnassus.10 viewsÆ20, 8.1g, 12h; 150-50 BC
Obv.: Head of Poseidon right.
Rev.: AΛIKAP; Trident head, dolphins between prongs; magistrate's name, IEPO on right; headdress of Isis in lower right field.
Reference: SNG Cop 354 var. / 17-93-35
John Anthony
1_Caria,Rhodes-Helios_sml.jpg
Caria-Rhodes; 125-88 BC38 viewsAR-Hemidrachm
"Plinthophoric" Coinage
Obv: Radiate head of Helios, 3/4 facing right.
Rev: Rhodian rose - P, Isis crown at left; O, budding branch at right,
Magistrate above: TIMOKPAT(HΣ), all within incuse square.
Size: 13.34 mm;1.44 gm
Ref: BMC Caria,Rhodes, Vol.18,Pg.256,No.291-308 var.
Sear GCV ????
Jenkins, Rhodian Group D, 120; SNG Keckman 669 var.
3 commentsBrian L
003ACarinus.jpg
Carinus11 viewsAE Antoninianus
Roman Imperial - The Crisis

Carinus

Rome mint, 282 A.D.
Fine, possible corrosion on obverse.
22.0 mm / 2.51 g / 180°

Obverse: "M AVR CARINVS NOB C", Radiate, draped, cuirassed right.
Reverse: "PIETAS AVGG", Sacrificial implements. Mintmark: KAZ.

RIC 156.

From uncleaned lot (2015)

MyID: 003A
TenthGen
Catane- Apollo- ISIS (Sicilia).jpg
Catene- Apollo- ISIS69 viewsI think it's a coin of Katane (Sicily). Apollo head left on obverse, Isis on reverse.

Possibly a hexas, SNG ANS 1284 if around 3-3.5 g and 16-17 mm

I can only add that the coin is probably dated after 212 BC and depicts Isis holding a bird. Below the bird the sign II, the sign of value. Isis cult was very strong in Katane.

“Isis came to the island from the sea with the armies sent by Syracuse who conquered Katane in the year 476 BC, thus changing the city's name to Aitna.”

A well known obelisk in modern Catania bears hieroglyphs identifying the goddess Isis, but probably this was brought to Catania by Romans only on 30 BC from Egypt.

John Schou
082~4.JPG
Charles IV, roi de France (1322-1328) - Double sol11 viewsDouble Parisis, argent, 1,09 g
A/ KAROLVS REX, couronne.
R/ MONETA DUPLEX, croix fleurdelisée.
Réfs : Duplessy 244b
Gabalor
104~1.JPG
Charles IX, Roi de France (1560-1574) - Sol6 viewsSol parisis, argent, 1,28 g.
Point sous la cinquième lettre pour Toulouse, B avant la date pour B. et J. Robert
A/ CAROLVS IX DI G FRAN REX, écu de France couronné
R/ + SIT NOMEN DNI BENEDIC b 1569, croix fleurdelisée formée de 4 C.
Réfs : Sb-4460
Gabalor
077~3.JPG
Charles IX, Roi de France (1560-1574) - Sol8 viewsSol parisis, argent, 1,41 g.
N dans la croix pour Montpelliers, quatrefeuille pour Mathieu Ymbert.
A/ CAROLVS IX DEI G FRAN REX, écu de France couronné
R/ + SIT NOMEN DNI BENE 1569, croix fleurdelisée formée de 4 C.
Réfs : Sb-4460
Gabalor
clauii.jpg
Claudius II (268 - 270 A.D.)36 viewsÆ Antoninianus
O: IMP C CLAVDIVS AVG, radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right, seen from behind.
R: SALVS AVG, Isis Faria standing facing, head left, holding sistrum and basket; Є
Antioch mint
22mm
3.37g
RIC 217
1 commentsMat
015HClaudiusGothicus.jpg
Claudius II Gothicus4 viewsBillon Antoninianus
Roman Imperial - The Crisis of the Third Century

Claudius II Gothicus

11th officina, Rome mint, Issue 1, c. Sep 268 – end 269
About Fine, tight flan
18.7 mm / 3.533 g / 180°

Obverse: "IMP C CLAVDIVS AVG", radiate head right.
Reverse: "FIDES EXERCI", Fides standing left, head left, holding vertical standard in right hand, transverse standard in left hand.

Ex Forvm Ancient Coins 2015 (76518)

MER-RIC 281, Normanby Hoard 687, RIC V 36 var. (cuirassed), Cunetio 2006 var. (same), Hunter IV 26 var. (draped and cuirassed), SRCV III 11334
Scarce with this bust

MyID: 015H

Image Credit: Forvm Ancient Coins
TenthGen
Claudius_II_Gothicus_Salus_Aug.jpg
Claudius II Gothicus Salus Aug20 viewsCLAUDIUS II GOTHICUS, 268-270 AD. Antoninianus, 19mm, 3.2g, 268-269 AD, RIC V (vol. I), pg 229, #217
OBV: IMP C CLAUDIUS AVG, Radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right, seen from behind
REV: SALV-S AVG, Isis Faria standing left, holding sistrum and basket

Scarcer left facing bust
Romanorvm
Gothicus_a-horz.jpg
Claudius II Gothicus. 268-270 AD.124 viewsIMPCMAVRCLAVDIVSAVG Exe: .. - Radiate, cuirassed bust right.
VICTORIAEGOTHIC Exe: SPQR - Trophy; seated captive on either side.
RIC 251v

This coin commemorates Roman victory at the Battle of Naissus (268 or 269 AD) and the defeat of a Gothic coalition by the Roman Empire under Emperor Claudius II near Naissus (Niš in present-day Serbia). The events around the invasion and the battle are an important part of the history of the Crisis of the Third Century.
The result was a great Roman victory which, combined with the effective pursuit of the invaders in the aftermath of the battle and the energetic efforts of the Emperor Aurelian, largely removed the threat from Germanic tribes in the Balkan frontier for the following decades.
The result was a great Roman victory which, combined with the effective pursuit of the invaders in the aftermath of the battle and the energetic efforts of the Emperor Aurelian, largely removed the threat from Germanic tribes in the Balkan frontier for the following decades.
Pedja R
Claudius II SALVS AVG RIC 217.jpg
Claudius II SALVS AVG RIC V/1 217107 viewsAnt, 20mm, 3.77g.

Obverse: IMP C CLAVDIVS AVG, Radiate head L.

Reverse: SALVS AVG, Isis Faria standing L with sistrum and basket.

Antioch mint.

Ric V/1 217, Scarce.

The reverse is traditionally attributed to Isis Faria, but there's nothing on the coin to identify the figure specifically with the Pharos.
2 commentsRobert_Brenchley
CLEO I.jpg
Cleopatra I, wife of Ptolemy V (Epiphanes).296 viewsPtolemaic Egypt, Æ (28.4 mm, 18.84 g), before 176 BCE.
Obv: Diademed head of Cleopatra I as Isis, r.
Rev: PTOLEMAIOU BASILEWS, Eagle standing l. on thunderbolt, wings open.
Svoronos 1235; Sear Greek 7880; BMC 6.94,72; SNG VIII 1175; Forrer 80.
EmpressCollector
cleo_paphos.jpg
Cleopatra portrait, dichalkon; Paphos, Cyprus13 viewsPtolemaic Kingdom of Egypt, Cleopatra VII, Philopator, 51 - 30 B.C., Paphos, Cyprus. Bronze dichalkon, Kreuzer p. 44, first illustration; Svoronos 1160 (Ptolemy IV); Weiser -; SNG Cop 649, gF, Paphos mint, 1.570g, 11.8mm, 0o, obverse diademed bust of Cleopatra VII as Isis right, hair in melon-coiffure; reverse “ΠΤΟΛΕΜΑΙΟΥ − ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ”, double cornucopia flanked by ribbons; nice green patina. Ex FORVMPodiceps
cleo.jpg
Cleopatra portrait, Paphos, Cyprus20 viewsPtolemaic Kingdom of Egypt, Cleopatra VII, Philopator, 51 - 30 B.C., Paphos, Cyprus. Bronze dichalkon, Kreuzer p. 44, first illustration; Svoronos 1160 (Ptolemy IV); Weiser -; SNG Cop 649, F, Paphos mint, 1.190 g, 10.9 mm, 0o, obverse diademed bust of Cleopatra VII as Isis right, hair in melon-coiffure; reverse PTOLEMAIOU BASILEWS, double cornucopia flanked by ribbons. Kreuzer, in his book The Coinage System of Cleopatra VII and Augustus in Cyprus, assembles evidence dating this type to Cleopatra VII instead of the reign of Ptolemy IV used in older references. ex FORVMPodiceps
25363_Cleopatra_VII,_Philopator,_51_-_30_B_C_,_Paphos,_Cyprus_F.jpg
Cleopatra portrait, Paphos, Cyprus10 viewsPtolemaic Kingdom, Cleopatra VII, Philopator, 51 - 30 B.C., Paphos, Cyprus. Bronze dichalkon, Kreuzer p. 44, first illustration; Svoronos 1160 (Ptolemy IV); Weiser -; SNG Cop 649, F, attractive patina, Paphos mint, 1.254g, 11.5mm, 270o, obverse diademed bust of Cleopatra VII as Isis right, hair in melon-coiffure; reverse “ΠΤΟΛΕΜΑΙΟΥ − ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ”, double cornucopia flanked by ribbons; crude, flan flaw. Ex FORVM, photo credit FORVMPodiceps
25389_Cleopatra_VII,_Philopator,_51_-_30_B_C_,_Paphos,_Cyprus_aF.jpg
Cleopatra portrait, Paphos, Cyprus12 viewsPtolemaic Kingdom, Cleopatra VII, Philopator, 51 - 30 B.C., Paphos, Cyprus. Bronze dichalkon, Kreuzer p. 44, first illustration; Svoronos 1160 (Ptolemy IV); Weiser -; SNG Cop 649, aF, Paphos mint, 1.498g, 11.7mm, 0o, obverse diademed bust of Cleopatra VII as Isis right, hair in melon-coiffure; reverse “ΠΤΟΛΕΜΑΙΟΥ − ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ”, double cornucopia flanked by ribbons; green patina. FORVM. Ex FORVM, photo credit FORVMPodiceps
Cleopatra_VII.jpg
Cleopatra portrait, Paphos, Cyprus (2)10 viewsPtolemaic Kingdom of Egypt, Cleopatra VII, Philopator, 51 - 30 B.C., Paphos, Cyprus. Bronze dichalkon, Kreuzer p. 44, first illustration; Svoronos 1160 (Ptolemy IV); Weiser -; SNG Cop 649, VF, obverse off center, 1.660g, 13.5mm, 0o, Paphos mint, obverse diademed bust of Cleopatra VII as Isis right, hair in melon-coiffure; reverse ΠΤΟΛΕΜΑΙΟΥ − ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ, double cornucopia flanked by ribbons; Kreuzer, in his book The Coinage System of Cleopatra VII and Augustus in Cyprus, assembles evidence dating this type to Cleopatra VII instead of the reign of Ptolemy IV used in older references. ex FORVM, photo credit FORVMPodiceps
Cleopatra_Thea_and_Antiochos_VIII_Epiphanes.jpg
Cleopatra Thea and Antiochus VIII Epiphanes. 125-121 B.C.12 viewsCleopatra Thea and Antiochus VIII Epiphanes. 125-121 B.C. Ae 18.5~19.7mm. 5.27g. Ake-Ptolemaïs mint, Dated (ΗΠΡ) S.E. 188 (125/4 B.C.). Obv: Diademed and radiate head of Antiochus VIII, right. Rev: ΒΑΣΙΛΙΣΣΗΣ ΚΛΕΟΠΑΤΠΑΣ KAI ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΥ,
headdress of Isis; monogram high in inner right field. SC 2274.2a; HGC 9, 1191.
1 commentsddwau
Cleopatra_VII~0.JPG
Cleopatra VII41 viewsPtolemaic Kingdom, 13mm, 1.7g, Cleopatra VII, Philopator, 51 - 30 B.C., Paphos, Cyprus
OBV: diademed bust of Cleopatra VII as Isis right, hair in melon-coiffure
REV: Double cornucopiae, ΠΤΟΛΕΜΑΙΟΥ ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ
Kreuzer p. 44 first illustration, Svoronos 1160 (Ptolemy IV), SNG Cop 649,

Kreuzer, in his book The Coinage System of Cleopatra VII and Augustus in Cyprus,
assembles evidence dating this type to Cleopatra VII instead of the reign of Ptolemy IV used in older references.
1 commentsRomanorvm
Cleopatra_VII.jpg
Cleopatra VII17 viewsCleopatra VII, Paphos mint, 11mm
Obverse: Diademed bust of Cleopatra VII as Isis right, hair in melon-coiffure
Reverse: ΠΤΟΛΕΜΑΙΟΥ − ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ, double cornucopia flanked by ribbons
Dk0311USMC
13_Cleopatra.jpg
Cleopatra VII (51 – 30 B.C.)4 viewsAE Dichalkon, 51 – 30 B.C., Paphos, 11.4mm, 1.48g, 0°, Svornos 1160; SNG COP 649.
Obv: Diademed bust of Cleopatra VII as Isis right, hair in melon-coiffure.
Rev: ΠTOΛEMAIOY − BAΣIΛEΩΣ, double cornucopia flanked by ribbons.
Marti Vltori
cleo___poika.jpg
Cleopatra VII and Ptolemy XV, Paphos19 viewsPtolemaic Egypt, Cleopatra VII and Ptolemy XV, 44 - 30 B.C. Bronze obol, Svoronos 1842 (Ptolemy XII), F, Paphos mint, 5.575g, 24.4mm, 0o, 44 - 30 B.C.; obverse diademed and horned head of Zeus-Ammon right; reverse “PTOLEMAIOU BASILEWS”, two eagles standing left on thunderbolt, headdress of Isis before; rough. The two eagles on the reverse symbolize harmony between the two rulers, in this case the mother and son, Cleopatra VII and Caesarion. ex FORVM, photo credit FORVMPodiceps
commodus-isis.jpg
Commodus AE 17 - Nicopolis ad Istrum25 viewsNicopolis ad Istrum
Moesia Inferior
Commodus
Obv.: [AYT K KOMOΔOC]
Laureate head right
Rev.: NЄIKOΠOΛI ΠPOC ICC
Isis standing facing, head left, holding sistrum and situla
17 mm, 2.21 gr, 7 h
Hristova/Hoeft/Jekov (2015) 8.10.30.1
Vladimir P
ctgricviisis127.jpg
Constantine I, RIC VII Siscia 12731 viewsSiscia mint, Constantine I, 307-337 A.D. AE, 19mm 2.83g, RIC VII Siscia 127
O: CONST-ANTINVS AVG, helmeted, cuirassed, bust r.
R: VIRTVS-EXERCIT, Standard inscribed VOT / XX in two lines standing on ground, captive seated on either side, S in r. field, F over conjoined HL in l.
Ex: ASIS star-over-crescent
1 commentscasata137ec
cn2ricviisis236OR.jpg
Constantine II, RIC VII Siscia 23621 viewsSiscia mint, Constantine II, A.D. AE, 17mm 2.68g, RIC VII Siscia 236
O: CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C, laureate, and cuirassed, bust r.
R: GLOR-IA EXERC-ITVS, Two soldiers flanking two standards inscribed with O
Ex: dot ΕSIS dot
casata137ec
ciisc.jpg
Constantius II Silvered campgate, RIC 203 Siscia11 viewsConstantius II AE3, 326-327 CE
Obverse: FL IVL CONSTANTIVS NOB C, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust left.
Reverse: PROVIDENTIAE CAESS, camp gate with two turrits & star above, dot DISIS in ex. Siscia mint
19 mm., 2.7 g.
NORMAN K
008~4.JPG
Dauphiné, Louis I (1409-1415), Dauphins de Viennois, France.5 viewsPatard de 1 denier parisis et demi, argent, 20 mm, 1,10 g
Annelet sous la 3ème lettre pour Embrun

D/ + LVDO — PRMOG — FRAN — REGS (A et N liées), Croix carrée et pattée, cantonnée au 2 d'un dauphin tourné vers la droite et au 3 d'un lis
R/ + DALPHS — VIENESIS, Ecusson carré contenant 4 cercles, avec dans le 1 et le 4, un lis et dans le 2 et le 3, un dauphin tourné vers la gauche.

Poey d'Avant n° 4935 - Morin Pons n° 62
Gabalor
014BValerianII.jpg
Divo Valerian II6 viewsSilver Antoninianus
Roman Imperial - The Crisis of the Third Century

Divo Valerian II

Colonia Agrippinensis mint, posthumous, 258 - 259 A.D.
Fine, toned, centered, flan cracks.
24.5 mm / 2.348 g / 180°

Obverse: "DIVO VALERIANO CAES", radiate and draped bust right, from behind.
Reverse: "CONSECRATIO", Valerian II carried into the heavens seated on eagle flying right, waiving his right hand, scepter in his left.

Ex Forvm Ancient Coins 2015 (65658)

Göbl MIR 911e, SRCV III 10606, RIC V 9 (Lugdunum), RSC IV 5

MyID: 014B

Image Credit: Forvm Ancient Coins
TenthGen
domitian_egypt.jpg
Domitian, diobol, Isis12 viewsDomitian, 13 September 81 - 18 September 96 A.D., Roman Provincial Egypt. Bronze diobol, Dattari 502; Geissen 329; BMC Alexandria p. 37, 302; Milne 467; Emmet 296, F, dark patina, Alexandria mint, 5.401g, 24.3mm, 0o, 29 Aug 82 - 28 Aug 83 A.D.; obverse “ΑΥΤΟΚ ΚΑΙΣΑΡ ΔΟΜΙΤΙΑΝΟΣ ΣΕΒ”, laureate bust right; reverse “ΕΤΟΥΣ ΔΕΥΤΕΡΟΥ”, bust of Isis right, wearing crown of the sun disk, cow horns, and heads of grain, knot on breast. ex FORVMPodiceps
dyrrhachium.jpg
Dyrrhachium drachm, ΦΙΛΩΝ/ ΔYP- ME − ΝΙ. – ΣΚΟΥ, Ceka 43830 viewsIllyria, Dyrrhachium, 200 - 30 B.C. AR Drachm. Obv: ΦΙΛΩΝ, Cow standing left suckling calf, but of Helios above. Rx: ΔYP- ME − ΝΙ. – ΣΚΟΥ, Double stellate pattern within square. As SNGCop492 but Helios instead of Isis. Ceka 438.Podiceps
DyrrhachiumIllyria.jpg
Dyrrhachium, Illyria, AR drachm. After 229 BC.31 viewsObverse :  EUNOUS, cow standing right, head left, suckling calf, head of Isis right above.  
Reverse :DUR FANISKOU around double stellate pattern. Struck after 229 B.C.   19mm.
Ref: Ceka 177.
Same coin is listed at Wildwinds.


From the Sam Mansourati Collection.
Sam
EB0066b_scaled.JPG
EB0066 Zeus / Headdress of Isis5 viewsMyndos, CARIA, AR Drachm 2nd-1st century BC.
Obverse: Laureate head of Zeus right.
Reverse: MYNΔIΩN - TΓΛΓΠΠCC?, Headdress of Isis.
References: Sear 4915.
Diameter: 16.5mm, Weight: 3.724g.
EB
EB0067b_scaled.JPG
EB0067 Zeus / Eagle6 viewsStratonikeia, CARIA, AR Hemidrachm circa 88-85 BC. Pythias, magistrate.
Obverse: Laureate head of Zeus right.
Reverse: ΠYΘEAΣ, Eagle standing left; Σ-E across fields, crown of Isis to left; all within incuse square.
References: SNG von Aulock 8151; Meadows Group A, 117-122.
Diameter: 14mm, Weight: 1.375g.
EB
EB0158b_scaled.JPG
EB0158 Ptolemy XII / Eagle13 viewsEgypt, Ptolemy XII, AR Tetradrachm. Year 29 = 52/51 BC, Paphos Mint.
Obverse: Diademed head of Ptolemy XII right, aegis at neck.
Reverse: ΠTOΛEMAIOY BAΣIΛEΩΣ, eagle standing left on thunderbolt, palm branch over shoulder, IKΘ over headdress of Isis in left field, ΠA in right field.
References: Svoronos 1839; SNG Cop 396; BMC 35-36.
Diameter: 25.5mm, Weight: 14.471g.
1 commentsEB
EB0306b_scaled.JPG
EB0306 Eros / Headdress of Isis2 viewsAntiochus VII, Syria, AE 18, 138-129 BC.
Obverse: Winged Bust of Eros right.
Reverse: [BAΣIΛEΩΣ ANTIOXOY EYEΡΓETOY], Headdress of Isis.
References: Sear 7098.
Diameter: 18mm, Weight: 5.268g.
EB
EB0601_scaled.JPG
EB0601 Vespasian / Isis11 viewsVespasian, AE 25 of Alexandria. Year 4 = 71/72 AD.
Obv: Laureate head right.
Rev: Bust of Isis right, LΔ before.
References: Dattari 383.
Diameter: 25.5mm, Weight: 8.34 grams.
EB
EB0614_scaled.JPG
EB0614 Hadrian / Isis Pharia, AE drachm44 viewsHadrian, AE drachm of Alexandria, Dated year 17 (132-133).
Obv: AVT KAIC TΡAIAN AΔΡIA(NOC CEB?) Laureate draped bust right.
Rev: Isis Pharia standing right, holding billowing sail, LI Z (year 17) to left.
References: Milne 1412 sim; Emmett 1000 sim.
Diameter: 31.5mm, Weight: 27.21 grams
1 commentsEB
EB0624_scaled.JPG
EB0624 Antoninus Pius / Isis12 viewsAntoninus Pius 138-161 AD, AE Drachm of Alexandria, Year 10 (146/147 AD).
Obv: (AVT K T AIΛ AΔP ANTONINOC CEB EYC), laureate & draped bust right
Rev: LΔE-KATOV, Isis enthroned right, holding Harpocrates.
References: Dattari 2649; Milne 1918-1919.
Diameter: 33.5mm, Weight: 21.897 grams.
EB
EB0920_scaled.JPG
EB0920 Isis / Eagle4 viewsPtolemy V, AE 27, 204-181 BC.
Obverse: Wreathed head of Isis right.
Reverse: Eagle standing left on thunderbolt, wings open.
References: Svoronos 1234; SNG Copenhagen 247.
Diameter: 27mm, Weight: 16.8g.
EB
EB0938_scaled.JPG
EB0938 Cleopatra I / Eagle3 viewsPtolemy V 204-180 BC, AE 26.
Obverse: Head of Cleopatra I as Isis right.
Reverse: ΠTOΛEMAIOY BAΣIΛEΩΣ, eagle standing left on thunderbolt; monogram (Omega/Sigma ?) at left.
References: Svoronos 1233 sim.
Diameter: 26.5mm, Weight: 15.86g.
Ex: Malter Auction II, lot 184.
EB
Vespasian_Dattari.jpg
Egypt, Alexandria Vespasian AE Diobol49 viewsEgypt, Alexandria. Dattari. Vespasian, 69-79 Diobol circa 70-71 (year 3), Æ 26.5mm., 9.15g. Laureate head r. Rev. Bust of Isis r.; in front, LΓ. RPC 2430 (this coin cited). Dattari-Savio Pl. 14, 382 (this coin).
Brown tone. Very Fine.
From the Dattari collection.
Naville Numismatics Auction #30, Lot 283, April 02, 2017.




What attracted me to this coin was the bust of ISIS on the reverse. This is just one of the many interesting reverses that appears on the Roman coins of Alexandria.

Another reason this coin was interesting was the provenance. It was a part of the famous Dattari collection of Egyptian coins. Dattari assembled one the most complete collections of Roman-Egyptian coins ever known. In the last several decades quite of number of coins from this collection have come to market. In the last year alone there have been several auctions featuring Ex Dattari coins. These have been very popular with collectors.

I do not buy coins just for provenance, however. In this case I really liked the look of the coin. A nice grumpy looking bust and a culturally significant figure on the reverse were enough to convince me to buy this coin. There was another fact about this coin which led to my purchase. This coin is plate coin. It is the coin depicted in a published collection of Ex Dattari coins. This coin was also cited by Roman Provincial Coins, and is on the Wilwinds.com database.

In short, there are many reasons to like this coin. What might appear at first glance to be a rather rough looking coin is far more interesting than mere appearance might suggest. This is one of just 3 bronze coins I currently own. All the rest of my posted coins are silver. A bronze coin has to be special to make it into my collection.
3 commentsorfew
020-Vespasian_Billon-Tetradrachm,_Alexandria,_AYTOK-KAIS_SEBA-OYESPASIANOY,_L-Gamma_Isis-head-right_K-G-20_29_Q-001_axis-0h_23-25mm_12,14g-s.jpg
Egypt, Alexandria, 020 Vespasian (69-79 A.D.), AR-Tetradrachm, G-287, D-379, LΓ, Isis bust right,82 viewsEgypt, Alexandria, 020 Vespasian (69-79 A.D.), AR-Tetradrachm, G-287, D-379, LΓ, Isis bust right,
avers:- AYTOK-KAIΣ-ΣEBA-OYEΣΠAΣIANOY, laureate head of Vespasianus right.
revers:- LΓ, Isis bust right.
exe: -/-//--, diameter: 25mm, weight: 12,14g, axis: 0h,
mint: Egypt, Alexandria, date: Year (LΓ) 3 = 70-71 A.D., ref: Geissen-287, Dattari-379, Kapmann-Ganschow-20.29-p-69, RPC-2430, Milne- ,
Q-001
quadrans
032_Hadrianus_(117-138_A_D_),_Billon-Tetradrachm,_Milne-1433v_D-1851v_,_Alexandria,_L_IH_Year-18_Q-001_0h_mm_gx-s~0.jpg
Egypt, Alexandria, 032 Hadrianus (117-138 A.D.), AE-Drachm, G-1107-1108, D-1661-1662, L I H, Osiris and Isis,61 viewsEgypt, Alexandria, 032 Hadrianus (117-138 A.D.), AE-Drachm, G-1107-1108, D-1661-1662,L I H, Osiris and Isis,
avers:- AΥT KAIC TPAIAN AΔPIANOC CEB, Laureate draped and cuirassed bust right.
revers:- L I H, Canopic jars of Osiris and Isis within shrine, uraeus crown in pediment.
exe: -/-//--, diameter: mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint:Egypt, Alexandria, date: 133-134 A.D., Year (IH)18., ref: Geissen-1107-1108, Dattari-1661-1662, Kapmann-Ganschow-32.590-p-144, BMC -,
Q-001
quadrans
Vespasian_05.jpg
Egypt, Alexandria, AD 070/071, Vespasian, Isis24 viewsVespasian
Alexandria
AE Diobol
Obv.: [AVT]OK KAIΣ ΣEBA OVEΣΠ[AΣIANOV], laureate head rigt
Rev.: LΓ, year=3, bust of Isis (looking like Vespasian) right, lotus flower atop head
AE, 9.80g, 25mm
Ref.: RG 287, D 379, RPC 2430
1 commentsshanxi
Faustina_II_39~0.jpg
Egypt, Alexandria, AD 153/154, Faustina II, Isis Pharia 24 viewsFaustina II
Alexandria
Billon-Tetradrachm
Obv.: ΦAVCTINA CEBACTH, draped bust right
Rev.: Isis Pharia standing, r., holding sail and sistrum, L - I - Z = year 17 of Antoninus Pius (AD 153/154).
Billon, 11.75g, 22mm
Ref.: Dattari 3250
3 commentsshanxi
alexandria_ant_pius_Emmett1585.jpg
Egypt, Alexandria, Antoninus Pius, Emmett 158521 viewsAntoninus Pius, AD 138-161
AE - drachm, 20.71g, 33mm
struck AD 144/45 (year 8)
obv. [AVT K T AIL ADR ANTWNINOC EVCEB]
Laureate head r.
rev. Isis enthroned r., l. breast nude, nursing infant Harpokrates, who std. on her l. knee and holding
palmbranch in his l. hand; burning altar before.
in field L-H (year 8)
ref. Emmett 1585; cf. Geissen 1473 ("with this altar not edited for year 88")
Very rare, G/F+
pedigree:
ex coll. Keith Emmett

The composition and the style of the rev. is very calm and serene. The observer obtains the feeling to be the witness of a very intimate and peaceful moment.
Jochen
alexandria_antonin_pius_Emmett1590.jpg
Egypt, Alexandria, Antoninus Pius, Milne 192148 viewsAntoninus Pius, AD 138-161
AE - drachm, 35.5mm, 29.29g
Alexandria, AD 146/147 (year 10)
obv. AVT KT AIL ADR - ANTWNEINOC CEB EVC
Bust, draped and cuirassed, laureate, r.
rev. L DEK - ATOV
Isis Pharia, in long chiton, wearing lotus flower on her head, advancing r.,
holding with two hand billowing sail and sistrum.
Milne 1921; Emmett 1590; Geissen 1550VF, nice red-brown patina

Isis had a temple of the island of Pharos (with the famous lighthouse!) in front of Alexandria. Hence her name Isis Pharia. It was worshipped mainly by sailors.
Jochen
alexandria_ant_pius_Milne167var.jpg
Egypt, Alexandria, Antoninus Pius, Milne 1967 var.32 viewsAntoninus Pius, AD 138-161
AE - drachm, 27.94g, 38.47mm, 345°
Alexandria, AD 147/148 (year 11)
obv. AVT KT AIL ADR - ANTWNEINOC C[EB EV]C
Bust, draped and cuirassed, laureate, r.
rev. L ENDE - KATOV
Isis Pharia, in long chiton and peplos, wearing lotus flower on her head, advancing r.,
holding with two hands billowing sail and sistrum.
Milne 1967 var. (legend break); Dattari 2670 var. (positon of date); Geissen 1580; BMC 1116 (var. like Datt.); SNG Copenhagen 488
about VF
2 commentsJochen
alexandria_hadrian_Dattari7901.jpg
Egypt, Alexandria, Hadrian, Dattari 7901123 viewsHadrian, AD 117-138
AE33, drachm, 22.10g
Alexandria, AD 133/134 (year 18)
obv. AVT KAIC TRAIAN - ADRIANOC CEB
Bust, draped and cuirassed, laureate, r.
rev. Agathodaimon, bearded, erected r., and Uraeus-Snake, erected l., confronted;
Agathodaimon, representing Osiris, wearing shkent (double crown of Upper and Lower Egypt) and
holding kerykeion with his tail; Uraeus-Snake, representing Isis, wearing crown of Isis (sundisk
between horns) and holding sistrum.
across field L IH (year 18)
Ref.: Dattari 7901
Very rare, VF
Thanks to Salem!

For more information please look at the thread 'Coins of mythological interest'.
8 commentsJochen
alexandria_hadrian_Milne844.jpg
Egypt, Alexandria, Hadrian, Milne 84440 viewsHadrian, AD 117-138
struck AD 117-118
obv. AVT KAIC TRAIANOC ADRIANOC
Bust, draped, laureate, r.
rev. Euthenia, clad in the garment of Isis with the typical pectoral knot, wearing Uraeus crown
and grain(?) , leaning l., resting with l. arm on small sphinx, laying r., and holding in raised
r. hand grain-ears, poppies and lotus-flower(?)
in field LB (= year 2)
Milne 822; BMC -
VF, brown patina
From Forum Ancient Coins, thanks!

The portrait of Hadrian is unusual and reminds of Caligula(!). This often appears on Alexandrian coins where the typical Roman Imperial portraits are found some times later in the reign of the emperor.
Euthenia was the goddess or spirit (daimon) of prosperity, abundance and plenty. She appears to have been one of a group of four younger Graces, the others being her sisters Eukleia (Good Repute), Eupheme (Acclaim) and Philophrosyne (Welcome) (from www.theoi.com)
Jochen
ptolbrzOR.jpg
Egypt, Ptolemaic 2nd-1st C. B.C., Svoronos 184329 viewsPtolemaic 2nd-1st C. B.C. AE, 25mm 5.99g, Svoronos 1843; Weiser -; Noeske 388; SNG Copenhagen 684
O: Bust of Zeus, r.
R: Two eagles facing l., crown of Isis before
It's a late, perhaps Cypriot origin, Ptolemaic bronze. there is some ambiguity about precisely which ruler, but that really doesn't matter much. it's an interesting type that fits in with later (2nd-1st C. BC) crudely made bronzes. the Isis headdress on reverse to the left is also found on a series of tetradrachms (which have only 1 eagle, though). you could form an interesting collection of just these late 2-eagle types - there's one with isis headdress, one with a thunderbolt, one 'plain', etc. not sure what the various symbols mean, but they do all seem to fit together as a group that more or less look alike and I believe they all lack any 'leg monograms'. part of what makes these interesting is that you can see in them, their crude art and manufacture compared to the finely crafted coins of a century earlier, the decline of the Ptolemaic state.

PtolemAE
casata137ec
egypt_02.jpg
Egypt, Ptolemaios V. Epiphanes, Isis, Eagle13 viewsEgypt
Ptolemaios V. Epiphanes
204-180 BC
Æ Tetrobol
Obv: Draped and wreathed bust of Isis right
Rev: ΠTOΛEMAIOΥ – BAΣIΛEΩΣ, Eagle standing left on thunderbolt
AE, 16.05g, 28mm
Ref.: Svoronos 1234
shanxi
Faience_Dwarf_-_sm.jpg
Egyptian Faience Dwarf with Large Phallus149 viewsA Large Faience Egyptian Amulet of a Dwarf. A large faience amulet of a dwarf with large phallus, Late Period, c. 664 - 30 BC, seated with his knees drawn up before him, tufts of hair on each side of his head. He holds his enormous engorged phallus against his chest with both hands, resting his chin on the end. Suspension loop at the back of his head. H: 46 mm. Intact, glaze fade though traces of black still on the hair. Ex Negus collection, UK, late 19th Century.
Ex Agora Auctions #1 - Nov 2013

Great info from FORVM member Russ (thanks!):
These items represent the ancient Egyptian god Min, and date from the XXVIth Dynasty to Roman times. See:
1. Andrews, Carol. Amulets of Ancient Egypt. Avon/Austin, 1994: pages 11, 16, 17, 88; Figs 5a and 11b.
2. Blanchard, R.H. Handbook of Egyptian Gods and Mummy Amulets. Cairo, 1909 (reprinted by Attic Books, no date): page 19, Figs. 193 & 194, Plate XXXVII. Blanchard notes " Min, Minu or Khem, the ithyphalic god of procreation and harvest. He was allied to Amen and wears the two feathers. He hoolds aloft the flail with his right arm. He was the son of Isis, father of Ra, and husband of his mother. Min was the original of the Greek god Pan, and was worshipped at Akhmim, or the Panopolis of the Greeks."
3. Petrie, W.M.F. Amulets, London, 1914, reprinted 1974: page 37, Section 161, Plate XXX.
4 commentsSosius
Lead_Seal.jpg
Egyptian lead seal/token, Roman period, 2nd-3rd Century A.D.24 viewsEgyptian lead seal/token. Roman period, 2nd-3rd Century A.D. Pb. 19.3~20.4mm. 6.13g. Obv: Isis seated r. suckling baby Horus, Ram central and figure holding an ornate staff r. Rev: Triad - Isis, Osiris and Horus (?).1 commentsddwau
Hadrian_2Canopi.jpg
Emmett 0935 - Hadrian Drachm, 2 Canopi of Osirus, facing each other31 viewsEGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian. AD 117-138. Æ Drachm (32mm, 22.6 g). Dated RY 18 (AD 133/4). Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right / Canopi of Isis and Osiris under canopic canopy; date across fields. Köln 1141-1142; D.1949-1951, Milne 1430; Emmett 935.18. K.32.605.
The canopic jar gets its name for the port city of Canopus in the Delta. Kanopus was also the name of the pilot of Menelaos’s ship in The Iliad, and it is uncertain whether the city’s demotic name was hellenized to Canopus to reflect the Homeric myth, or whether Homer adopted the maritime name from the city. In any case the Egyptian god Osiris was worshiped in Canopus in the specific form of a jar or reliquary, and the name became attached by Egyptologists to the four jars used to hold the viscera of the mummified dead, as well as the cult objects associated with Osiris and Isis.
mattpat
AntoninusPius_Isis_Harpocrates3.jpg
Emmett 1585 - Antoninus Pius drachm, Isis suckling Harpokrates19 viewsAntoninus Pius. Egypt, Alexandria. AE Drachm, year 11 (147-148 AD)
Laureate head right. / Isis seated right suckling Harpokrates.
D 2651, E 1585.11 (R2), G 1579, K 35.405
mattpat
AntoninusPius_Isis_Harpocrates2.jpg
Emmett 1587 - Antoninus Pius Alexandria Drachm, Isis Lactans32 viewsAntoninus Pius AE Drachm of Alexandria, Egypt. 22.72g / 33mm. AD 138-161. AVT O KPAK..ANTWNINOC CEB, laureate head right / Isis seated right, suckling within distyle temple, with columns of papyrus plant, uraeus in pediment; date L-Epsilon across fields. G.1419-1420 ; D.3040 ; Milne 1695/1721. Emmett 1587.5 (R2) ; K/G.35.167 mattpat
AntoninusPius_Isis_Harpocrates1.jpg
Emmett 1587 - Antoninus Pius Alexandria Drachm, Isis Lactans34 viewsEGYPT, Alexandria. Antoninus Pius. AD 138-161. Æ Drachm (18.2 g, 33mm). Dated RY 8 (AD 144/5). Laureate and draped bust right / Isis seated right, suckling Re Harpokrates; all within distyle temple, with columns of papyrus plant, uraeus in .pediment; date around. Köln 1485; Dattari (Savio) 3044; cf. Emmett 1587.8 (R4) , Kampmann-Ganschow 35.252 mattpat
AntoninusPius_Isis_Pharos.jpg
Emmett 1592 - Antoninus Pius Alexandria Drachm, Isis and Pharos32 viewsEGYPT, Alexandria. Antoninus Pius. AD 138-161. Æ Drachm (33mm, 19.90 g, 11h). Dated RY 12 (AD 148/9). Laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right / Isis Pharia holding billowing sail, advancing right toward Pharos.
Good Fine, green and brown patina. From the Mark Staal Collection.
Köln 1608; Emmett 1592.12; K/G 35.434
mattpat
AntoninusPius_Nilus2.jpg
Emmett 1621 - Antoninus Pius - AE Drachm Alexandria - Nilus 39 viewsAntoninus Pius 145-146 AD
OBV: AVT KT AI[Delta] A[Delta]P ANTONINOC CEBEVC Laureate head right
REV: L ENATOV IS Nilus reclining left, holding reed and cornucopiae (from which emerges a genius) Crocodile below and to right. L ENATOY = Year 9, the IS refers to the ideal inuntation of the nile (16 cubits, 7.3 meters). The "genius" emerging from the cornucopia is in fact, a representation of Harpokrates, son of Isis. 22.50 g Diameter 33.4 mm. Emmett 1621(9); D.2747corr; G.1449; MILNE 1868, Kampmann-Ganschow 35.217
mattpat
ephesos10.jpg
Ephesos Cistophoric Tetradrachm79 viewsEphesos --AR Cistophoric Tetradrachm. 82 B.C. Cista mystica with snake emerging, within ivy wreath / Bow case and headdress of Isis between two upright snakes; lighted torch to r., ethnic and date (NB=year 52) at l. BMC 164 1 commentsfeatherz
fustet_0.jpg
Faustina Jr. (147 - 175 A.D.)31 viewsEgypt, Alexandria
Billon Tetradrachm
O: Draped bust right
R:Isis Pharia standing right, holding sistrum and billowing sail; L I Z (Year 17) across field.
Stuck 153-154 A.D.
12g
23mm
Dattari (Savio) 3250; K&G 38.86; Emmett 1949.17.

Ex. Roma Numismatics E-Sale 16; Lot 306. Feb. 28, 2015
Ex. Gorny & Mosch Giessener Münzhandlung Auction 247; Lot 4627. March 10, 2017
4 commentsMat
Festival_of_Isis.jpg
Festival of Isis. Anonymous AE3159 viewsAnonymous Issue for the Festival of Isis, AE3, 4th Century, Rome. DEO SARAPIDI, Jugate, draped busts of Serapis right wearing modius and Isis wearing hem-hem crown / VOTA-PVBLICA, Isis riding hound.1 commentsancientone
punic2~4.jpg
First Punic War 2 Shekels4 viewsPUNIC. Carthage. 241 B.C.
2 Shekels.

Obverse: Head of Isis facing left.
Reverse: 3 ears.

SNG 226
Tanit
FF_Gien.JPG
France (Feudal): Gien (County of Donzy). Geoffrey III (1120-1160) or Herve III (1160-1194).24 viewsBoudeau 297, Poey d'Avant 1998 (p. 42 no. 21), Duplessy 605, Legros 1565, Roberts 1497-8

AR denier, struck 1120-1191, 19 mm.

Obv: + GOSEDVS COS (Geoffroi, count), cross with staff and hammer in second angle and triangles in other three angles.

Rev: + GIEMIS CA (Castle of Gien), degraded monogram of Fulk of Anjou (legend begins at 9 o’clock).

The deniers of Gien were derived from those of Angers and bear a degraded monogram of Fulk of Angers. The reason for this is unclear as the regions are far apart and there is no connection between them. Standards of weight and fineness appear to have been similar, as records from 1202-3 value the denier giennois at 1.5 deniers parisis and the denier angevin at 1.46 d.p.

The deniers are struck in the name of a Count Geoffrey, and the type may have begun under Geoffrey II (1169-1184) or more probably Geoffrey III (1120-1160), but was immobilized after 1160. The coin is variously attributed to either or both of them, and also to Herve III (1160-1194). It ceased to be minted in 1191 when King Phillip II Augustus (1180-1223) acquired Gien and closed its mint.
Stkp
PhilipIIAugustus.jpg
FRANCE - PHILIP II AUGUSTUS153 viewsPhilip II Augustus 1180 - 1223 Arras - Denier. Parisis D 164. Ex-Maskukat Collection.
dpaul7
FRANCE_PHILIP_IV_PARISIS_1.jpg
FRANCE - PHILIP IV59 viewsFRANCE -- Philippe IV, le Bel (The Fair) (1285-1314) - Double Parisis (1st emission, 1295-1303). Floreate cross; + PhILIPPVS REX Rev.: REGA / LIS under a fleur de lis. mOnETA. DVPLEX around. Reference: Lafaurie 232.dpaul7
galb11_(1).JPG
Galba35 viewsGalba
AE25 Diobol
Alexandria, Egypt.
Obv. Laur. head left.
Rev. Bust of Isis right.
Dattari 320. Year 2 = 68/69 AD.
2 commentsRandygeki(h2)
024HGallienus.jpg
Gallienus11 viewsBillon Antoninianus
Roman Imperial - The Crisis

Gallienus

Rome mint, 257-258 A.D.
F, flan crack on reverse.
21.0 mm / 2.703 g / 0°

Obverse: "IMP GALLIENVS PF AVG GERM", radiate, cuirassed right.
Reverse: "VIRTVS AVGG", Mars, helmeted, walking right, holding transverse spear and trophy.

RIC 186. Gobl 120. Sear 10409.

Ex FAC Member Auctions (2016)

MyID: 024H
TenthGen
009CGallienus.jpg
Gallienus15 viewsBillon Antoninianus
Roman Imperial - The Crisis

Gallienus

Milan mint, 260 - 268 A.D.
F.
20.0 mm / 1.804 g / 180°

Obverse: "GALLIENVS AVG", radiate bust right.
Reverse: "DIANA FELIX", Diana standing right, drawing arrow from quiver at shoulder, holding bow, hind/hound at foot.

RIC 473, RSC 173, Sear 10196.

MyID: 009C
TenthGen
010AGordianIII.jpg
Gordian III9 viewsSilver Antoninianus
Roman Imperial - The Crisis

Gordian III

Rome mint, 241-243 A.D.
gF
23.5 mm / 2.451 g / 0°

Obverse: "IMP GORDIANVS PIVS FEL AVG", radiate, draped, bust right.
Reverse: "IOVI STATORI", Jupiter standing right with scepter and thunderbolt.

RIC 84. RSC 109.

MyID: 010A
TenthGen
gIII-Moesia-inferior-nemisis.JPG
Gordian III Provincial - Nicopolis Ad Istrum60 viewsAE 27, 14.15 gms, Moesia Inferior, Nicopolis Ad Istrum

AVT K M ANT GORDIANOC AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right
VP CAB MODECTOV NIKOPOLEITWN PROC ICTPON, Nemesis standing left with arshin over wheel, and cornucopiae. magistrate's name, Sabinius Modestus, to left

clear devices and nearly complete legends visible, and a pleasing green patina
1 commentsjimwho523
009BGordianIII.jpg
Gordian III, Fourree22 viewsFourree Antoninianus
Roman Imperial - The Crisis

Gordian III
Base metal underneath silver surface. Fine
Unofficial Mint, 241-243 A.D.

23.5 mm / 3.891 g / 180°

Obverse: "IMP GORDIANVS PIVS FEL AVG", radiate, draped, cuirassed bust right.
Reverse: "LAETITIA AVG N", Laetitia standing right with wreath and anchor.

RIC 86. RSC 121.

MyID: 009B
TenthGen
018AGordianIII.jpg
Gordian III, Iridescent11 viewsSilver Antoninianus
Roman Imperial - The Crisis

Gordian III

Rome mint, 240-243 A.D.
Iridescent toning, VF
23.5 mm / 4.414 g / ~180°

Obverse: "IMP GORDIANVS PIVS FEL AVG", radiate, draped, cuirassed bust right.
Reverse: "AETERNITATI AVG", Sol standing left, head left with raised hand and holding globe.

RIC 83. RSC 41.

Ex Frans Diederik (2015/16)

MyID: 018A
TenthGen
FotorCreated~97.jpg
Greek, Cleopatra I, Ptolemaic Kings of Egypt, Ptolemy 6th circa 180-176 BC Ae 2894 viewsHead of Cleopatra 1st as Isis. Rev eagle standing on thunderbolt left.
EX NFA
Grant H
rp219.jpg
Greek, Kyme Aeolis. Pseudo-autonomous coinage204 viewsAE 24 (7.8 g)
obv: IEPA CYNKΛHTOC, draped and diademed bust of the Senate right
rev: E ACK[Λ]ANIOV B KVM/AIΩN, Isis Pelagia on galley right holding inflated sail with both hands and left foot.

Ref: -

- BMC 116 (different magistrate) EΠ EΛΠIΔHΦOPOV KVMAI
- Forni 50 (different magistrate) EΠ EΛΠIΔHΦOPOV KVMAI
- Mionnet suppl VI n. 129 reverse legend CAC….. NOV B KVMAIΩN.

I think the actual reverse legend is probably E ACKΛANIOV B KVMAIΩN as appears on the reverse listed for another issue, Forni 46 (Senate bust vs Tyche, time of Gordianus (?), Valerianus and Gallienus).
1 commentstacrolimus
Kyrene,_North_Africa,_Ptolemy_Apion,_c__101_-_96_B_C_.jpg
GREEK, North Africa, Kyrene mint. c. 101 - 96 BC.20 viewsNorth Africa, Kyrene mint. c. 101 - 96 BC. Bronze quarter-obol, Fair, 1.214g, 12.2mm. Obv: diademed head of Ptolemy I as Zeus right, wearing aegis, hole from minting process. Rev: head of Libya or Isis right, PTOLEMAIOU BASILEWS. Ref: Buttrey: The Extramural Sanctuary of Demeter and Persephone at Cyrene, Libya, Final Reports, Volume VI, 542 - 603. Rare

Ptolemy Apion was a son of Ptolemy VIII, perhaps by an Egyptian concubine. This makes him a half-brother of Ptolemy IX and X. Ptolemy Apion died in 96 B.C., without an heir, leaving his kingdom to the Roman Republic. According to Butrey, Apion's coinage was nothing but very small change, with a peak about 1.3 grams. Buttrey notes, "the Greek coinage of Cyrenaica, of glorious tradition, ended in the lamentable small bronzes of Apion."
Bard Gram O
Kyrene_North_Africa_Ptolemy_Apion_101-96_BC_Rare.jpg
GREEK, North Africa, Kyrene mint. c. 101 - 96 BC. 16 viewsNorth Africa, Kyrene mint. c. 101 - 96 BC. Bronze quarter-obol, F/VF, 1.141g, 13.6mm. Dark patina, untrimmed flan edges. Obv: diademed head of Ptolemy I as Zeus right, wearing aegis, hole from minting process. Rev: head of Libya or Isis right, [PTOLEMAIOU] BASILEWS. Ref: Buttrey: The Extramural Sanctuary of Demeter and Persephone at Cyrene, Libya, Final Reports, Volume VI, 542 - 603. Rare Bard Gram O
gae681_pair.jpg
GREEK, Ptolemaic Egypt, Ptolemy VI Medium Bronze - Isis Head Type351 viewsPtolemy VI - Alexandria - Diobol - 180/145BC
AE 25.0-25.7mm : 15.962gm : 11h
OBV - Goddess Isis with hanging curls, headdress with with corn wreath, facing right
REV - Eagle with open wing standing facing left on thunderbolt with PI-ALPHA monogram at left
REF - Svoronos 1384
NOTE - Early sole reign of Ptolemy VI.
7 commentsPtolemAE
FotorCreated~96.jpg
GREEK, Ptolemaic Kings of Egypt, Ptolemy XII, Ptolemy 12th Neos Dionysos {Auletes} restored 55-51 BC75 viewsAlexandreia mint dated RY 28 {54-3} Diademed head of Ptolemy right wearing aegis. Rev eagle standing left on thunderbolt LKH date and headdress of Isis in left field.
Nicknamed Auletes the flute player .
Grant H
Katane_(Catania),_Sicily,_2nd_-_1st_Centuries_B_C_.jpg
GREEK, SICILY, Katane (Catania) mint. 2nd - 1st Centuries B.C.37 viewsSicily, Katane (Catania) mint. 2nd - 1st Centuries B.C. Bronze AE 16, .462g, 15.8mm, F, rough, dark patina. Obv: jugate busts of Serapis and Isis right. Rev: Apollo standing left, left elbow on column, olive branch in right, bow in left, quiver and omphalos at his feet left, KATANAIWN. Ref: Calciati III, p. 108, 22; SNG ANS 1277; SNG Cop 192. Very rareBard Gram Okland
hadtet2.jpg
Hadrian (117 - 138 A.D.)99 viewsEgypt, Alexandria
Billon Tetradrachm
O: AYT KAI-TPAI AΔPIA CEB, Laureate, draped, cuirassed bust right, seen from behind.
R: L Δ_EK_ATOY Agathodaemon erect right at left, wearing skhent and enfolding caduceus, facing Uraeus erect left at right, wearing disk and horns, enfolding sistrum, their tails knotted together and holding a club erect.
Alexandria Mint, 125/126 (Year 10)
10.6g
19.5mm
Emmett 804 Dattari 1552; BMC 668; Milne 1164; Curtis 351; Demetrio 1247


Rare

The Caluceus refers to Hermanubis, the Sistrum is a symbol for Isis and the Club refers to Harpocrates.
6 commentsMat
Hadrian ISIS.jpg
Hadrian- Egypt, Alexandria - Agathodaemon serpent37 viewsHadrian, 11 August 117 - 10 July 138 A.D.

Obverse:

Hadrian laureate head right

No legend

Reverse:

No legend

Headdress of Isis or the shape of the Agathodaemon serpent


Domination: Tetradrachme, silver, 23 mm, AE 14

Mint: Egypt, Alexandria

John Schou
Hadrian .jpg
Hadrian- Egypt, Alexandria - ISIS and Horus42 viewsHadrian, 11 August 117 - 10 July 138 A.D.

Obverse:

Hadrian laureate head right

No legend

Reverse:

No legend

Isis seated right and suckling Horus

Domination: Bronze drachm, size 34 mm, AE 14

Mint: Egypt, Alexandria

John Schou
172~0.JPG
Henri III, Roi de France (1574-1589) - Double sol9 viewsDouble sol parisis, O à midi au revers pour l'atelier de Riom.
Argent, 4,29 g, 27 mm.
Av./ + HENRICVS III D G FRAN ET P REX 1578 L, H couronné entouré de trois lis.
Rv./ SIT NOMEN DOMINI BENEDICTVM O, croix fleurdelisée.
Réfs : Dup. 1136
Gabalor
041~0.JPG
Henri III, Roi de France (1574-1589) - Double sol5 viewsDouble sol parisis, second type, N à midi au revers pour l'atelier de Montpellier.
Billon, 4,23 g, 27 mm.
Av./ + HENRICVS III D G FRA ET P REX 1581 , H couronné entouré de trois lis.
Rv./ SIT NOMEN DOMINI BENEDICTVM N, croix fleurdelisée.
Réfs : Sb-4472
Gabalor
032.JPG
Henri III, Roi de France (1574-1589) - Double sol5 viewsDouble sol parisis, H à midi à l'avers pour l'atelier de la Rochelle.
Billon, 4,06 g, 24 mm.
Av./ + HENRICVS III D G FRA ET POL REX, H couronné entouré de trois lis.
Rv./ SIT NOMEN DOMINI BENEDICTVM 1586, croix fleurdelisée.
Réfs : Sb-4472
Gabalor
Caracalla-AE34-PISISDIA-ANTIOCHIA-LupaRomanarechts.jpg
II-CARACALLA -d- 008 AEAE34 // PISIDIA // ANTIOCHIA- SNG France 114113 viewsAv) IMP CAE M AVR ANTONINVS PIVS AVG
Laureated head right

R) COL CAES ANTIOCH
Exergue: SR
Lupa Romana standing right, suckling twins

Weight: 26,18g; Ø:34mm; Reference: Krzyzanowska Group F, XXXIV/60; SNG France 1141-1143; mint: PISIDIA // ANTIOCHIA
sulcipius
Gülbay_Kireç-___.jpg
Ionia, Ephesus: Anonymous (ca. 2nd-3rd Century CE) Pb Tessera (Gülbay-Kireç ???)3 viewsObv: Filleted cornucopia; Isis crown to left
Rev: Blank
Quant.Geek
Isis_Villa_Hadriana.jpg
Isis from the Villa Hadriana87 viewsIsis, marble statue from the Hadrian period, found in the 17th century at the Villa Hadriana near Tivoli. Isis, crowned with small throne (= aset, Egyptian name for Isis), in long garment with Isis knot over her breast, holding situla in lowered l. hand and sistrum in raised r. hand.

The original statue was acquired 1753 for the Capitoline Museums/Rome, 1798 displaced by Napoleon to Paris, 1815 donated by Pope Pius VII to King Louis XVIII, and still in the Louvre/Paris.
Jochen
isis F.jpg
Isis on an Alexandrian diobol of Galba220 viewsAlexandria, AE diobol of Galba, year 2 (= 68-69 AD), Isis bust r.
Emmett 179(2), Geissen 241-242, BMC 202-203.
Not a tremendously rare coin, or in spectacularly good condition, but a portrait of a real, strong-minded young person, who seems to say "hello" to me every time I hold the coin.
- Britannicus
Britannicus
John_Comnenus-Ducas_I_SBCV_2215_CLBC14_19_3.JPG
John Comnenus-Ducas I, SBCV 2215, CLBC14.19.321 viewsFull brockage (Should be crescent between four stars and four groups of pellets)
[IWΔE CΠO]
Full length figure of John wearing stemma, divisistion, collar-piece and chlamys, holding labarum and globus criciger
Empire of Thessalonica
AE trachy, 20mm, 1.02g
novacystis
JubaII.jpg
Juba II & Cleopatra Selene89 viewsREX IVBA
Diademed and draped bust right, club over shoulder

BACIΛICCA KΛEOΠATPA
Headdress of Isis, with stalks of grain, crescent above

Caesarea mint, 25 B.C. - 24 A.D

12.62g

Bronze AE 27, Alexandropoulos 209, Mazard 351 (RRR), SNG Cop 605, De Luynes 4013

Very Rare! Excellent for the type!

From a very old collection


Juba II was the only son and heir of his father King Juba I. King Juba I was the King of Numidia and ally to Pompey the Great. He fought against Julius Caesar at the battle of Thapsus and lost commiting suicide soon after. His son Juba II was taken away to Rome to be paraded in Caesar's Triumph's. He was then raised in Caesar's houshold and educated in both Latin and Greek excelling in his studies. He was praised as one of Rome's most educated citizens and at age 20 even published a work entitled Roman Archaeology. He became life long friends with Julius Caesar's heir Octavian. He accompanied Octavian on several campaigns during the turbulent times after Caesar's death even fighting at the battle of Actium against his future wifes parents...Antony and Cleopatra VII.

Augustus restored Juba II as the king of Numidia between 29 BC-27 BC and Numidia become one of the most loyal client kings that served Rome. Between 26 BC-20 BC, Augustus arranged for him to marry Cleopatra Selene II (Daughter of Antony and Cleopatra) giving her a large dowry and appointing her queen. She also had been paraded in a Triumph in Rome after the battle of Actium. It was probably due to his services with Augustus in a campaign in Spain that led Augustus to make him King of Mauretania.

Cleopatra is said to have exerted considerable influence on Juba II's policies. Juba II encouraged and supported the performing arts, research of the sciences and research of natural history. Juba II also supported Mauretanian trade. Mauretania traded all over the Mediterranean and exported fish grapes, pearls, figs, grain, wooden furniture and purple dye harvested from certain shellfish, which was used in the manufacture of purple stripes for senatorial robes. Juba II sent a contingent to Iles Purpuraires to re-establish the ancient Phoenician dye manufacturing process.

Cleopatra Selene seems to have inherited the same qualities of both Antony and Cleopatra VII. She was strong willed and maintained her Egyptian/Greek heritage. She seems intent on continuing the Ptolomaic line of strong women rulers using the same titles as her mother. She died sometime before Juba II. The Greek Historian Plutarch describes Juba II as 'one of the most gifted rulers of his time'. Between 2 BC-2, he travelled with Gaius Caesar as a member of his advisory staff to the troubled Eastern Mediterranean. In 21, Juba II made his son Ptolemy co-ruler. Juba II died in 23 AD. He had two children by Cleopatra Selene, Ptolomy of Mauretania (1 BC- 40 AD) and Drusilla of Mauretania (born in 5 AD). He was burried in the Mausolium he constructed for himself and his wife which is still visible today.

Sold to Calgary Coin Feb 2017
1 commentsJay GT4
008CJuliaDomna.jpg
Julia Domna6 viewsSilver Denarius
Roman Imperial - The Principate

Julia Domna

Rome mint, ~201 A.D
VF, luster
19.0 mm / 2.360 g / 0°

Obverse: "IVLIA AVGVSTA", draped bust right.
Reverse: "SAECVLI FELICITAS", Isis, wearing peaked headdress on head, standing right, left foot on prow, holding Horus; behind, rudder. Unequal ship heights.

RIC 577, RSC 174.

MyID: 008C
TenthGen
J5.JPG
Julia Domna - Isis and Horus91 viewsDenarius 201
O/ IULIA - AUGUSTA Draped bust right
R/ SAECULI - FELICITAS Isis, wearing polos on head, standing right, left foot on prow, she holds Horus; behind, rudder which rests against altar
C174 - RIC S577
Mint: Rome (6th off., 11th emission)
septimus
Julia_Domna.jpg
Julia Domna - RIC 57771 viewsSilver Denarius. ca 200 AD. IVLIA AVGVSTA, draped bust right / SAECVLI FELICITAS, Isis, wearing polos on head, standing right, left foot on prow, holding Horus; behind, rudder. RSC 174, RIC 577, BMC 75, RCV 66061 commentsBud Stewart
jd3.jpg
Julia Domna 193-211 denarius32 viewsOb. IVLIA AVGVSTA, draped bust right
Rev. SAECVLI FELICITAS, Isis, wearing peaked head-dress on head, standing right, left foot on prow, holding Horus (or more properly - Harpokrates); behind, rudder resting against altar.

Ref. RIC 577, RSC 174, BMC 75

IVLIA AVGVSTA Julia is your Empress
SAECVLI FELICITAS This is a happy age


-:Bacchus:-
Bacchus
Julia_Domna_2.jpg
JULIA DOMNA Denarius RIC 577, Isis18 viewsOBV: IVLIA AVGVSTA, draped bust right
REV: SAECVLI FELICITAS, Isis, wearing polos on head, standing right, left foot on prow, holding Horus; behind, rudder
2.37 grs, 19mm

Minted at Rome, 201 AD
Legatus
julia_domna_577c.jpg
Julia Domna RIC IV, 57755 viewsJulia Domna AD 193-217, wife of Septimius Severus
AR - Denar, 3.5g, 18mm
Rome AD 196-211
obv. IVLIA - AVGVSTA
Bust, draped, r., hair waved in five waves and coiled at back
rev. SAECVLI - FELICITAS
Isis, draped, with polos on head, stg. r, foot on prow, holding the infant Horus
at her breast, and sistrum (or rattle) in r. hand, altar at left behind her with rudder
leaning against it.
RIC IV/1, 577; C.174; BMC 76
about EF

The half-circled lock of hair at her cheek should be typically for Rome after AD 196 (?). The sistrum is not mentioned in RIC!

The first ISIS temple in Rome was built by Caracalla some years later in AD 217. The prow may be an allusion to the NAVIGIUM ISIDIS, a big ceremony on March 5. to celebrate the opening of the safe sailing season after the winter.
1 commentsJochen
domna_saec_laod.jpg
Julia Domna SAECVLI FELICITAS30 viewsJulia Domna (Augusta)
AR Denarius 2.37g / 18mm / -
Ob: IVLIA AVGVSTA - Draped bust right
Rv: SAECVLI FELICITAS - Isis wearing polos, standing l., holding Horus; behind, rudder resting on altar.
Mint: Laodicea ad Mare (196-211)
Ref: RIC IV 645; RSC III 174
Scotvs Capitis
JulDomStobi32.JPG
Julia Domna, AE 23 Diassaria67 viewsAVGUS/TA IVLIA
Bust draped, right
MVNICI STOBEN
Josifovski describes this reverse as Nike standing facing, head right, holding torch with entwined snake and cornucopia, lotus flower on head; a very syncretic Nike-Demeter-Tyche-Ma-Isis. Unlisted die pair, the reverse is R99 of Josif. 250, the obverse is V33.
Cohen IV 271, BMCG 9, AMNG Gaebler 9
whitetd49
4596_4597.jpg
Julia Domna, Denarius, SAECVLI FELICITAS18 viewsAR Denarius
Julia Domna
Born circa 170AD - Died 217AD
Augusta: 193 - 211AD
Issued: 196 - 211AD
19.0 x 18.0mm
O: IVLIA AVGVSTA; Draped bust, right.
R: SAECVLI FELICITAS; Isis standing right, holding baby Horus, stepping on galley prow, rudder in front of altar, left.
Rome Mint
Sear 6606; RIC 577; RSC 174.
Aorta: 131: B6, O2, R87, T62, M4.
Jonathan Kern CICF 2013
4/3/17
1 commentsNicholas Z
collage2~4.jpg
Julia Domna, Isis86 viewsJulia Domna
Ar Denarius; 22mm

IVLIA - AVGVSTA
Draped bust right

SAECVLI - FELICITAS
Isis standing right, stepping on galley prow, holding baby

RIC 577, RSC 174, BMC 75
1 commentsarizonarobin
Julia_Domna_RIC_S577.JPG
Julia Domna, wife of Septimius Severus, mother of Caracalla and Geta20 viewsObv: IVLIA AVGVSTA, draped bust of Julia Domna facing right, hair in a bun behind her head.

Rev: SAECVLI FELICITAS, Isis wearing a peaked headdress standing right, left foot on the prow of a galley, nursing the infant Horus held at her breast; to the left is an altar against which is leaning a rudder.

Silver Denarius, Rome mint, 201 AD

3.45 grams, 18.4 x 16 mm, 0°

RIC IVi S Severus 577, RSC 174, S6606, VM 44
SPQR Coins
Katane.JPG
Katane, Sicily29 viewsafter 217 BC (Roman rule)
AE Hexas (16mm, 3.16g)
O: Laureate head of Apollo right.
R: Isis standing right, holding bird in right hand.
SNG ANS 1278; SNG Cop 198; Sear 1074v
Scarce
ex Alex Malloy
Enodia
katane_apollo_isis.jpg
Katane; Head of Apollo r./ KATAN/AIΩN, Isis & bird over altar, AE 1511 viewsSicily Katane 3rd-2nd Century B.C. Æ Hexas. AE 15.4mm, 3.06g; Obverse: Laureate head of Apollo right. Reverse: KATAN / AIΩN, Isis standing right, sacrificing over altar, holding bird. SNG Cop. 193. Podiceps
Rama 9_comm.jpg
King Rama 9 of Thailand, 60th Anniversary25 viewsKing Rama 9 of Thailand, 60 th Anniversary Celebrations of His Majesty's Accession to the Throne. These coins were issued on 9 June 2006.

His Majesty, King Bhumibol Adulyadej was born December 5, 1927; he is officially styled "the Great" (Thai: มหาราช, Maharaja) and also known as Rama IX. His name, Bhumibol Adulyadej, means "Strength of the Land, Incomparable Power". Having reigned since June 9, 1946, Bhumibol is the world's longest-serving current Head of State and the longest-serving monarch in Thai history.

Although Bhumibol is a constitutional monarch, he has several times made decisive interventions in Thai politics, including the political crisis of 2005-2006. Bhumibol has been widely credited with facilitating Thailand's transition to democracy in the 1990s.

Bhumibol uses his great wealth to fund numerous development projects, particularly in rural areas. He is immensely popular in Thailand, and is revered by all Thais.

In May 2006, UN Secretary-General, Kofi Annan, presented the United Nations' first Human Development Lifetime Achievement Award to Bhumibol.

Bhumibol is an accomplished jazz musician and composer. He was awarded honorary membership of the Vienna Institute of Music and Arts at the age of 32. He used to play jazz music on air on the Or Sor radio station. In his travels, he has played with such jazz legends as Benny Goodman, Jack Teagarden, Lionel Hampton and Maynard Ferguson. His songs can often be heard at social gatherings and are performed in concerts.

Bhumibol is also a painter, photographer, author and translator. His book Phra Mahachanok is based on a traditional Jataka story of Buddhist scripture. The Story of Thong Daeng is the story of his dog Thong Daeng. He is also the only Thai monarch—and possibly the only monarch in the world, to hold a patent; holding one in 1993 for a waste water aerator named "Chai Pattana" and several patents on rainmaking since 1955: the "sandwich" rainmaking patent in 1999 and lately the "supersandwich" patent in 2003.

Bhumibol is an accomplished sailor and sailboat designer. He won a gold medal for sailing in the Fourth Southeast Asian Peninsular (SEAP) Games in 1967, together with HRH Princess Ubol Ratana who he tied for points. This accomplishment is all the more remarkable given Bhumibol's lack of binocular depth perception. Bhumibol has also sailed the Gulf of Thailand from Hua Hin to Toey Harbour in Sattahip, covering 60 nautical miles in a 14-hour journey on the "Vega 1", an OK Class dinghy he built.

Like his father, a former naval engineer, Bhumibol was an avid boat designer and builder. He produced several small sail-boat designs in the International Enterprise, OK, and Moth Classes. His designs in the Moth class include the “Mod”, “Super Mod”, and “Micro Mod”.

Bhumibol was crowned King of Thailand on May 5, 1950 at the Royal Palace in Bangkok where he pronounced his Oath of Succession "I will reign with righteousness for the benefit and happiness of the Siamese people" ("เราจะครองแผ่นดินโดยธรรม เพื่อประโยชน์สุขแห่งมหาชนชาวสยาม").


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bhumibol_Adulyadej




Cleisthenes
den001_quad_sm.jpg
L SEPT SEV PERT AVG IMP [VIIII?] / P M TR P V COS II P P / Septimius Severus Fortuna denarius (197 AD) 13 viewsL SEPT SEV PERT AVG IMP [VIIII?], laureate head right / P M TR P V COS II P P, Fortuna standing left, holding rudder on globe in right hand, cornucopiae in left.

AR (post 196 mint, so probably 54% purity), 17 mm, 3.48g, die axis 12h.

Both small flan and image style (bust, wreath, shape of the rudder etc.) point towards the mint of Rome rather than the Eastern one. A bit heavier than expected (the standard supposed to be 3.41g), but WildWinds reports a 3.63g denarius of this type. Unfortunately it is impossible to read the number after IMP (it can be either VIIII or X for TR P V), but based on the spacing and, perhaps, a hint of V I think it is VIIII. So this must be RIC IV 104, BMCRE 229, RSC 442 type. Two other, less probable ID possibilities: RIC 115A (Rome, IMP X) and RIC 493 (Eastern mint, Laodicea ad Mare(?) IMP VIIII).

Lucius SEPTimius SEVeverus PERTinax AVGustus IMPerator (in this case not just an imperial title, but a military one, "invested with the Nth imperial acclaim", a victorious general, the number refers to important victories when the title was renewed); Pontifex Maximus (the high priest, starting with Augustus the emperor was always the head of state religion) TRibunitia Potestas (Tribunal power, the function of the tribune of the people, originally an important republican official, was "hijacked" by Augustus when he was building the imperial structure of power and subsequently became another emperor's title, renewed every year and thus very useful for dating coins) V (5th year means 193+4=197, give or take the actual date of renewing the title), COnSul (under the Empire, the office of Consul remained of some importance and was held by the Emperor with some frequency) II (during or after the consulship of 194 and before next one in 202), Pater Patriae (Father of his Country, the title was held by most Augusti but was usually not assumed at the very beginning of the reign). Denarius was the staple of Roman monetary system from 211 BC to mid 3d century AD.

SEPTIMIUS SEVERUS, *11 Apr 145 in Leptis Magna (Khoms, Libya) † 4 Feb 211 (aged 65) Eboracum (York, England) ‡ 14 April 193 – 4 February 211

Septimius Severus was born in the Roman province of Africa. He came from a wealthy and distinguished family of equestrian rank, had Roman ancestry on his mother's side (gens Fulvia was one of the most famous plebeian clans in Rome) and descended from Punic, and perhaps also Libyan, forebears on his father's side. Several members of his family held important imperial offices (although, strangely, not his father who seemed to have no career to speak about). He was trilingual, speaking Punic, Latin and Greek, and got some classical education, but probably less than he wanted to. At 17 he was helped by his influential relatives to relocate to Rome, to be presented to the Emperor Marcus Aurelius, and start his political career. With some difficulty he started to advance through the cursus honorum, holding a variety of offices. His career was helped by the Antonine Plague of 166, Septimius avoided it by returning to Leptis Magna for a while, and when he was back in Rome he found his competition conveniently thinned out. Despite him going through an impressive number of offices in a very short time there is very little record of his actual accomplishments in 170s and 180s.

In 191 Severus was appointed governor of Pannonia Superior (one of the provinces on Danube frontier) by Emperor Commodus (on advice from one of Septimius' friends). When the hell was unleashed by the assassination of Commodus on 31 December 192 and 193, , the infamous Year of the Five Emperors started, as a general in charge of significant army Severus was able to fight for the highest office. While he moved on Rome, Pertinax, the first Emperor of 193, was killed by the Praetorian Guard, and the next one, Didius Julianus, who famously bought the emperorship at an auction, was condemned by the Senate and executed, so Septimius entered Rome virtually unopposed. He then wisely appeased the powerful governor of Britannia, Clodius Albinus, who was also proclaimed the Emperor, by offering him the title of Caesar, which implied some degree of co-ruling and a chance to succession (Albinus did not give up that easy, reasserting his claim in three years, but then he was easily dealt with at the Battle of Lugdunum in Gaul). Afterwards he had to fight off the final pretender, Pescennius Niger, the former governor of Syria, who was proclaimed the Emperor by the eastern legions. Losing no time, Severus sent a considerable vanguard force to the East and, later, joined in with additional armies. In a series of battles in 193-195 Niger and his supporters were defeated. The last to surrender was Byzantium, which held even after the head of Niger was sent there. It is interesting to note that during this campaign Septimius visited the tomb of his famous fellow countryman, Hannibal Barca in Libyssa (Gebze, Turkey) and ordered to cover it with fine marble. Severus also took an opportunity to wage a short punitive campaign beyond the eastern frontier, annexing the Kingdom of Osroene as a new province.

After consolidating his rule over the western provinces, Severus waged another brief, more successful war in the east against the Parthian Empire, sacking their capital Ctesiphon in 197 and expanding the eastern frontier to the Tigris. He then enlarged and fortified the Limes Arabicus in Arabia Petraea. In 202 he campaigned in Africa and Mauretania against the Garamantes; capturing their capital Garama and expanding the Limes Tripolitanus along the southern desert frontier of the empire. In 208 he travelled to Britain, strengthening Hadrian's Wall and reoccupying the Antonine Wall. In the same year he invaded Caledonia (modern Scotland), but his ambitions were cut short when he fell fatally ill in late 210, dying in early 211 at Eboracum (York, England), and was succeeded by his sons Caracalla and Geta, thus founding the Severan dynasty. It was the last dynasty of the Roman empire before the Crisis of the Third Century.

In the context of this coin it is interesting to note, that, due to huge military expenses, upon his accession Severus decreased the silver purity of the denarius from 81.5% to 78.5%, although the silver weight actually increased, rising from 2.40 grams to 2.46 grams. Nevertheless, the following year he debased the denarius again because of rising military expenditures. The silver purity decreased from 78.5% to 64.5% – the silver weight dropping from 2.46 grams to 1.98 grams. In 196 he reduced the purity and silver weight of the denarius again, to 54% and 1.82 grams respectively [corresponds to this issue]. Severus' currency debasement was the largest since the reign of Nero.
Yurii P
lata.jpg
Laodikea, Phrygia9 views14 - 37 AD
AE14 (13.7-14.0mm) 2.79g
Bust of Apolllo right / Altar above headdress of Isis
RPC I - 2909
1 commentsPekka K
pseudo-autonomous_Saitta_Heracles_Isis_AE18_3_48g.jpg
Lydia, Saitta, Heracles / Isis, AE18 31 views18mm, 3.48g
time of Caracalla to Gallienus
Obv: head of young Heracles right, club behind neck
Rev: CAITTHNΩN, Isis, in long chiton, standing to front, head left, holding in raised right hand sistrum and in lowered left hand situla

BMC Lydia, p. 214, No. 14, SNG Aulock -, SNG Leypold –

ex Rutten & Wieland
areich
thyat_serap_isis.jpg
LYDIA, THYATEIRA14 views2nd Century AD
Semi-autonomous
AE 19.5 mm; 3.47 g
O: Draped bust of Serapis right, kalathos on head; countermark of right-facing head at left
R: QUATEI-RHNWN, Isis standing left, holding sistrum and sceptre.
Thyateira mint; BMC 53, SNG Leypold 1268
laney
Lydia_Tripolis_Serapis_Isis_AE17_3_24g_1.jpg
Lydia, Tripolis, Serapis / Isis, AE1730 views3rd century AD
17mm, 2.24g
obv: bearded and draped bust of Serapis right, wearing modius
rev: TPIΠOΛEITΩN; Isis facing, head left, wearing kalathos and crescent, sistrum in raised right, situla in left hand
BMC 369, 33; SNG von Aulock 3312; SNG München 798

A sistrum is a (percussive) hand instrument, a situla a bucket-shaped vessel.
areich
plaetorius_cestianus_Crawford409.1.jpg
M. Plaetorius Cestianus, Crawford 409/148 viewsRoman Republic, M. Plaetorius Cestianus, gens Plaetoria
AR - denarius, 18.52mm, 3.86g
Rome, 67 BC
obv. Bust of a winged goddess, r., wearing crested helmet, lotus-blossom and grain-ears on forehead, bow and quiver over r. shoulder, cornucopiae under chin
behind CESTIANVS, before S.C
rev. in ex. M PLAE, then TORIVS F AED CVR
Eagle with spread wings stg. r. on thunderbolt, head turned l.
Crawford 409/1, Sydenham 809; BMCRR 3596; Plaetoria 4
VF, toned
Pedigree:
ex. M&M AG Auktion 38, Basel 6./7.12.1968, coll. August Voirol, Lot 181
Plaetorius Cestianus was a friend of Cicero.

The goddess on the obv. often is called Vacuna in error. But actually she is an unknown goddess with the attributes of Isis, Ceres, Minerva, Diana and Victoria.
For more information please look at the thread 'Coins of mythological interest'.
Jochen
M__Plaetorius_M_f__Cestianus~0.JPG
M. Plaetorius M.f. Cestianus – Plaetoria-443 viewsROMAN REPUBLIC M. Plaetorius M.f. Cestianus AR Denarius 67 BC (18.96 mm 3.45 grams) SESTIANVS - S C, Helmeted draped bust right, with attributes of Isis, Minerva, Apollo, Diana, and Victory, cornucopia below chin / M.PLAETORIVS.M.F.AED - CVR, Eagle standing right on thunderbolt, head left, wings spread. Ex Madroosi collection. Crawford 409/1, Plaetoria 4, Syd 809, RCV 349Bud Stewart
thessalonika_elagabal_AMNG53.jpg
Macedonia, Thessalonica, Elagabal, AMNG 5373 viewsElagabal AD 218-222
AE 22, 6.08g
obv. AV KM AUR ANT - WNINOC EV[C]
bust, laureate, r.
rev. QECCALO - NIKEWN
Kabeiros in short chiton stg. l., holding rhyton in r. hand and hammer in raised l.
hand. At both sides short column with elephant tusk on it.
AMNG III, 53 (1 ex., London)
very rare, VF

The 'horn-shaped symbol' - often attached to the Thessalian Kabeiri - has no special connection to the cult of this deity - as suggested so long - but is an elephant tusk which we find as dedicated gift to Serapis, Isis, Astarte and Atergatis too (Gaebler, AMNG).
2 commentsJochen
LVerusAsTrophies~0.jpg
MAFJ6 Brother and Emperor5 viewsLucius Verus

As
166-167

Laureate head, right, L VERVS AVG ARM PARTH MAX
3 trophies, TR P VII IMP III[I] COS III

RIC 1464

Son of Aelius Caesar and adopted son of Antoninus Pius, Marcus Aurelius elevated his adoptive brother to co-ruler in 161. At that time, according to the Historia Augusta, "To Lucius, legally his brother, he betrothed his daughter Lucilla. In honor of this union, they gave orders that new institutions of boys and girls, named after them, should be added to the state child-welfare scheme."

The Parthians launched an attack against Roman Syria that it had planned before the death of Pius, and Marcus, with the agreement of the Senate, dispatched Lucius to deal with the crisis. According to the Historia Augusta, "Verus, of course, after he arrived in Syria, lived in luxury at Antioch and Daphne, although he was acclaimed imperator while waging the Parthian war through legates." This coin's reverse honors his military victory over the Parthians in 165.

When Lucius returned to Rome, according to the Historia Augusta, "Lucius requested that Marcus should triumph with him. Lucius requested further that the sons [Commodus and M. Annius Verus] of Marcus should be called Caesars. But Marcus had such great moderation that, although he triumphed together with Lucius, yet after Lucius' death he called himself Germanicus only, because he had won that name for himself in his own war. At the triumph, moreover, they let Marcus' children of both sexes ride with them, even the unmarried girls." A family affair!
Blindado
00juba.jpg
MAURETANIA . JUBA II38 viewsAR denarius. Caesarea. c 11 AD. 3,25 grs. 6 h. Diademed head right. [REX I] VBA / Headress of Isis above crescent. KΛEOΠATPA BACIΛICCA.
Mazard 333.
1 commentsbenito
iol.JPG
MAURETANIA, Iol-Caesarea111 viewsObverse: Head of Isis left, wearing vulture headdress with horns above
Reverse: Three wheat-ears
Mint : Iol-Caesarea
Date : Late 3rd-2nd century BC
Reference : MAA 145; SNG Copenhagen 679
Grade : VF
Weight : 5.69 g
Denom : AE
Dealer : CNG
Acquired: 19/12/07
Comments : 22mm.
Bolayi
mauretanien_jubaII_SNGcop574.jpg
Mauretania, Juba II, SNG Copenhagen 57432 viewsMauretania, Juba II, 25 BC - AD 23
AR - drachm, 3.24g, 17.83mm, 180°
struck AD 11 (?)
obv. REX IVBA
diademed head of Juba r.
rev. BACIL - ICC - A KLEO[PA]TRA.
Crown of Isis with grain-ears, below crescent
ref. SNG Copenhagen 574
about VF, obv. a bit excentrically
pedigree:
ex Marc Breitsprecher
ex Harlan J. Berk

Iuba II., like his father, was one of the Roman client kings. Grown up in Rome and educated by Octavia, sister of Octavian, he was appointed as king of Mauretania by Augustus in 25 BC. He was highly cultivated and promoted the Hellenistic culture. Her 1. wife was Kleopatra, daughter of the famous Kleopatra VII and Marcus Antonius. Her time of death is disputed and therewith the dating of this coin. Kleopatra Selene, like her mother, thought herself the incarnation of Isis, whose celestial body was the moon. Therefore on the crescent the crown of Isis above crescent.

One of the rare coins with Greek and Latin legends!
2 commentsJochen
juba_cleo.jpg
Mauretanian King Juba II and Cleopatra Selene79 viewsObverse: Diademed head right. 'REX IVBA'
Reverse: Head-dress of Isis, sistrum. 'BACILICC KLEOPATP'
Date : 25 BC - 23 AD
Reference : S6003, SNG Cop 570-573
Grade : VF
Weight : 2.54 g
Denom : Denarius
Metal : Silver
Comments : Nice toned, 19mm, From an old collection, acquired 1961

Thanks to Barry & Darling for the picture
Bolayi
Maximianus_Isis~1.jpg
Maximianus - Alexandria20 viewsAE didrachm?
296 AD ?
laureate head right
MAΞIMIA_NOC CEB
Isis holding scepter and sistrum standing left
IC_IC
maybe unique! Variant with Diocletian: CNG 63, Lot: 1104.
4,39g

few AE tetradrachms with weight 6-8g are known but this is clearly smaller flan just like CNG 63, Lot: 1104.

CNG:
" The Isis festival was a major celebration in Rome in the 3rd and 4th centuries, heralding the arrival of the ship of Isis (navigium Isidis) from Alexandria on the 5th of March. Such coins or tokens were first struck by Diocletian at Rome to mark the arrival of the ship, but this item, with its Alexandrian flan and Greek legend, was clearly struck in Egypt, perhaps upon the ship's departure. It may be one of the last issues struck in Alexandria before the closure of the mint in 296 AD. Alföldi proposes that the festival associated with the Isis ship (also known as carrus navalis) became, in the Middle Ages, the carne levare or carnival."
Johny SYSEL
nikopolis_marc_aurel_Isis_neu.jpg
Moesia inferior, Nikopolis ad Istrum, 07. Marcus Aurelius, HrHJ (2018) 8.7.30.01 (plate coin)36 viewsMarcus Aurelius as Caesar, AD 139-161
AE 25, 11.47g, 24.83mm, 195°
obv. AVRHLIOC OV - HROC KAICAR
Bust, draped, bare-headed, r.
rev. [NEIKOPOLEI] - TWN PROC ICT
Isis in long garment, throne on head, stg. l., holding situla in
lowered l. hand and in raised r. hand sistrum.
ref. a) not in AMNG
b) not in Varbanov (engl.)
c) Hristova/Hoeft/Jekov (2018) No. 8.7.30.1 (plate coin)
known too for Antoninus Pius No. 8.6.30.2
very rare, F+, big spot of corrosion under chin
Jochen
nikopolis_commodus_Hr(2012)8_10_10_2(rev).jpg
Moesia inferior, Nikopolis ad Istrum, 10. Commodus, HrHJ (2018) 8.10.10.02 (plate coin) 14 viewsCommodus, AD 177-192
AE 17, 2.96g, 17.49mm, 225°
obv. AVT M AVRH - KOMODOC
laureate head r.
rev. NEIKOPO - PROC EI (or rather CI?)
Hermes, nude, chlamys over l. shoulder, stg. frontal, head r., holding in l. arm kerykeion
and in lowered r. hand purse
ref. a) not in AMNG
b) not in Varbanov (engl.)
c) Hristova/Hoeft/Jekov (2018) No. 8.10.10.2
under this number several different types ar subsumed:
obv. e.g. No. 8.10.30.2 (Isis, same die)
F+, black green patina

I think it is CI on the reverse. Both Cs have a dot in the centre, so that it could misinterpreted as E.
Jochen
nikopolis_commodus_isis.jpg
Moesia inferior, Nikopolis ad Istrum, 10. Commodus, HrHJ (2018) 8.10.30.01 (plate coin)50 viewsCommodus, AD 177-192
AE 17, 2.47g, 17.32mm, 30°
obv. [AV]T KAI KO - MODOC (AVT below bust)
bust, laureate, r.
rev. [NEIKOPO] - LI PROC ICC
Isis, in long robe with knot of Isis, crowned with throne, standing facing, head l., holding in lowered l. hand situla and in raised r.
hand sistrum
ref. a) not in AMNG
b) not in Varbanov (engl.):
A similar rev. for Antoninus Pius #2124, misattributed as Liberalitas
c) Hristova/Hoeft/Jekov (2018) No. 8.10.30.1 (plate coin)
very rare (R7), good F

Legend errors: R from PROC retrograd, ICC instead of ICT

'aset, jst' = throne, is the Egyptian name for Isis
The Isis knot 'tet' was a symbol for wellbeing
sistrum, a kind of rattle, originally belonging to Hathor
situla, an Egyptian jug for sacred water, lower part tapering with pointed end
Jochen
nikopolis_commodus_HrHJ(2013)8_10_30_1(rev).jpg
Moesia inferior, Nikopolis ad Istrum, 10. Commodus, HrHJ (2018) 8.10.30.01 var. (plate coin)11 viewsCommodus, AD 177-192
AE 19, 3.05g, 19.45mm, 210°
obv. AVT K - [KOMODOC]
laureate head r.
rev. NEIKOPO - LI PROC ICC
Isis, in long robe with knot of Isis, crowned with throne, standing facing, head l., holding in lowered l.
hand situla and in raised r. hand sistrum.
ref. a) not in AMNG
b) not in Varbanov (engl.):
A similar rev. for Antoninus Pius #2124, misattributed as Liberalitas
c) Hristova/Hoeft/Jekov (2018) No. 8.10.30.1 var. (plate coin)
obv. e.g. No. 8.10.1.14 (same die)
rare (R7), good F

Legend errors: R from PROC retrograde, ICC instead of ICT

'aset, jst' = throne, is the Egyptian name for Isis
The Isis knot ('tet') was a symbol for wellbeing
Sistrum, a kind of rattle, originally belonging to Hathor
Situla, an Egyptian jug for sacred water, lower part tapering with pointed end
Jochen
nikopolis_commodus_HrJ(2011)8_10_30_2cf.jpg
Moesia inferior, Nikopolis ad Istrum, 10. Commodus, HrHJ (2018) 8.10.30.02 (plate coin)26 viewsCommodus, AD 177-192
AE 19, 2.78g, 18.78mm, 25°
obv. AVT M AVRH - KOMODOC
laureate head r.
rev. NEIKOPO - L - ITWN PROC ICT
Isis, in long robe with knot of Isis, crowned with throne, stg. facing, head l., holding in lowered l. hand situla
and in raised r. hand sistrum
ref. a) not in AMNG
b) not in Varbanov (engl.)
c) Hristova/Hoeft/Jekov (2018) No. 8.10.30.2 (plate coin)
Very rare (R7), about VF, dark green patina

The obv. legend was difficult to read. The H of AVRH looks like N. But HrHJ (2015) 8.10.1.10 seems to be from same die.
Jochen
nikopolis_commodus_HrHJ(2013)8_10_35_3corr.jpg
Moesia inferior, Nikopolis ad Istrum, 10. Commodus, HrHJ (2018) 8.10.35.03 #1 (plate coin)19 viewsCommodus, AD 177-192
AE 17, 3.64g, 17.24mm, 165°
obv. AV - T KAI M - AV - RH KOMODO - C
laureate head r.
rev. NEIKOPO - PROC ICTR (from upper right)
Female figure (Nemesis?) in long garment and mantle, veiled, stg. facing, head r., r. hand
in fold of mantle before body, holding in lowered l. hand unidentified object (bridle?)
ref. a) not in AMNG:
cf. AMNG I/1, 1246 (different rev. legend, different object!)
b) Varbanov (engl.) 2158 corr. (writes ICT in error)
c) Hristova/Hoeft/Jekov (2018) No. 8.10.35.3 (plate coin)
F+, nearly black patina

The figure on reverse is called:
Nemesis (Pick)
Isis with hydra (Varbanov)
Isis with sistrum (Dr.Brandt)
Jochen
nikopolis_commodus_Varbanov2158corr_#2.jpg
Moesia inferior, Nikopolis ad Istrum, 10. Commodus, HrHJ (2018) 8.10.35.03 #232 viewsCommodus, AD 172-192
AE 19, 3.54g, 18.59mm, 195°
obv. AV - T KAI M AV - RH KOMODO - C
Head, laureate, r.
rev. NEIKOPO - PROC ICTR
Female figure in long garment and mantle, veiled, stg. facing, head r., r. hand in fold of mantle before
body, holding in lowered l. hand unidentified object lookinh like a big loop (bridle?)
ref. a) not in AMNG
cf. AMNG I/1 1246 (different rev. legend, different object!)
b) Varbanov (engl.) 2158 corr. (writes ICT in error)
c) Hristova/Hoeft/Jekov (2018) No. 8.10.35.3
about VF/F+, stripped, weak strike rev. lower left

The figure on the reverse is named:
Nemesis with bridle (by Pick)
Isis with hydria (by Varbanov)
Asklepios with snake-stuff (by Hristova/Jekov)
I think there were two different types confused.
Jochen
nikopolis_commodus_Varbanov2158corr_#3.jpg
Moesia inferior, Nikopolis ad Istrum, 10. Commodus, HrHJ (2018) 8.10.35.03 #342 viewsCommodus, AD 172-192
AE 17, 23.51g, 16.58mm, 180°
obv. AV - T KAI M AV - RH KOMODO - C
laureate head r.
rev. NEIKOPO - PROC ICTR
Female figure in long garment and mantle, veiled, stg. facing, head r., r. hand in fold of mantle before
body, holding in lowered l. hand unidentified object looking like a big loop (bridle?)
ref. a) not in AMNG
cf. AMNG I/1 1246 (different rev. legend, different object!)
b) Varbanov (engl.) 2158 corr. (writes ICT in error)
c) Hristova/Hoeft/Jekov (2018) No. 8.10.35.3
F+, some encrustations on both sides

The figure on reverse is named:
Nemesis with bridle (by Pick)
Isis with hydria (by Varbanov)
Asklepios with snake-stuff (by Hristova/Jekov)
I think there were two different types confused.
Jochen
nikopolis_commodus_Varbanov2158corr_#1.jpg
Moesia inferior, Nikopolis ad Istrum, 10. Commodus, HrHJ (2018) 8.10.35.03 #440 viewsCommodus, AD 172-192
AE 17, 3.52g, 16.94mm, 180°
obv. AV - T - KAI M AV - RH KOMODO - C
Head, laureate, r.
rev. NEIKOPO - PROC ICTR
Female figure in long garment and mantle, veiled, stg. facing, head r., r. hand in fold of mantle before
body, holding in lowered l. hand unidentified object lookinh like a big loop (bridle?)
ref. a) not in AMNG
cf. AMNG I/1 1246 (different rev. legend, different object!)
b) Varbanov (engl.) 2158 corr. (writes ICT in error)
c) Hristova/Hoeft/Jekov (2018) No. 8.10.35.3
F+

The figure on the reverse is named:
Nemesis with bridle (by Pick)
Isis with hydria (by Varbanov)
Asklepios with snake-stuff (by Hristova/Jekov)
I think there were two different types confused.
Jochen
septimius_nikopolis_unbekannt.jpg
Moesia inferior, Nikopolis ad Istrum, 14. Septimius Severus, HrHJ (2018) 8.14.30.01 #1 (plate coin)44 viewsSeptimius Severus, AD 193-211
AE 17, 2.74g, 17.23mm, 45°
obv. AV K.L.C - CEVHROC
laureate head r.
rev. NIKOPOL - PROC IC
Harpokrates, nude, standing l., cornucopiae in l. hand, and r. hand before his
mouth
ref. a) not in AMNG
b) cf. Varbanov (engl.) 2522
c) Hristova/Hoeft/Jekov (2018) No. 8.14.30.1 (plate coin)
added to www.wildwinds.com

A grubby small coin. But I want do add it to my gallery because it is unpublished. Harpokrates, son of Isis, is depicted always with his hand before the mouth as sign of his childness.
Jochen
Myndos_drachm.jpg
Myndos, Caria Drachm60 viewsAR Drachm
Size: 17 mm Weight: 4.22 grams Die axis: 12h

Myndos, Caria
Mid 2nd century BCE

Obverse: Laureate head of Serapis right.

Reverse: Headress of Isis set on two grain ears, thunderbolt below. MYNΔIΩN to left, ΘEOΔΩΡOΣ to right.

Notes:
- Until recently the obverse was described as the head of Zeus, wearing the headdress of Osiris (off flan on this coin).
- It is scarce for the reverse to still retain details of the snake on the shield of the headdress.
- Myndos was originally founded by Dorian colonists from Troezen and is recorded as contributing silver and one ship to the Delian Confederacy circa 500 BCE. Later the city was refounded by Mausolos, ruler of Halicarnassus, closer to the coast.

Ex Civitas Galleries, 2007
3 commentsPharsalos
mysia_pitane_AE16_2_12g.jpg
Mysia, Pitane, Roma / pentagram, AE1655 views1st-2nd century AD
16mm, 2.12g
obv: ΘΕΑ ΡΟΜΗ, draped bust of Roma, wearing crown of Isis right
rev: ΠΙΤΑΝΑΙΩΝ around round shield with pentagram

SNG von Aulock 1431
3 commentsareich
National_Jewish_Hospital_at_Denver.jpg
National Jewish Hospital at Denver (Denver, Colorado)10 viewsAE 23.90 mm., 180°

Obv: NATIONAL JEWISH HOSPITAL / • AT DENVER •, surrounding NJH in circle at top with rays emanating, caduceus below, GOLDEN / ANNIVERSARY through caduceus.

Rev: NONE MAY ENTER WHO CAN PAY / • NONE CAN PAY WHO ENTER •, surrounding 50 YEARS / OF / HEALTH & HOPE / 1899-1949 / star below.

Frances Wisebart Jacobs (k nown as "Mother of Charities") and a young rabbi, William Sterne Friedman, raised the money to buy some land and erect a building for a tuberculosis hospital in Denver. Construction was completed in 1893, but due to the combination of the "Silver Crisis of 1893" and a national depression, the hospital sat vacant for six years until Friedman persuaded B'nai B'rith to provide the operating funds on an annual basis. B'nai B'rith continued to do until the early 1950s. The hospital opened on December 10, 1899 as the National Jewish Hospital for Treatment of Consumptives. From its inception, the hospital was non-sectarian. To reflect its openness to the impoverished of every background, it adopted the motto, "none may enter who can pay --none can pay who enter," which appears on the reverse of this token. Until 1968, the hospital only accepted patients without health insurance and all care was free. Today, National Jewish Health is an academic medical research facility specializing in respiratory, cardiac, immune and allergic disorders.
Stkp
066~5.JPG
Nivernais - Comté de Nevers - Robert de Dampierre (1271-1296), France.4 viewsObole, argent, 0,51 g
A/ + ROBERTVS COMES, croix auxerroise cantonnée au 2 d'une étoile à six rais .
R/ + NIVERNEISIS, écu de Flandre brisé d'un lambel à quatre pendants, accosté de trois étoiles à six rais, celle de droite étant sur un annelet .
Réfs : PA 4667
Gabalor
Rep_AR-Den_IUBA-II_-KLEOPATRA-SELENE_REX-IVBA_BACILICC-KLEOPATP_CNNM-309_SNG-Cop-572_Caesareia_25-24-BC_Q-001_7h_17,5-18mm_3,12ga-s.jpg
Numidia, Kings, Iuba-II. (025-024 B.C.), and Kleopatra Selene, AR-Denarius, SNG Cop 572, Caesaeria,62 viewsNumidia, Kings, Iuba-II. (025-024 B.C.), and Kleopatra Selene, AR-Denarius, SNG Cop 572, Caesaeria,
Iuba-II. (25-24 B.C.), King of Mauretania.
avers:- REX-IVBA, Head of Taenia right.
revers:- BACIΛICCA-KLEOΠATPA, Isis-krown and Sistrum.
exerg: -/-//--, diameter: 17,5 18 mm, weight: 3,12g, axis: 7h,
mint: Caesareia (Mauretania), date: 25-24 B.C., ref: CNNM-309, SNG-Cop-572,
Q-001
quadrans
015EPhilipII.jpg
Philip II4 viewsSilver Antoninianus
Roman Imperial - The Crisis of the Third Century

Philip II

Rome mint, 244 - 246 A.D.
VF
25.1 mm / 3.072 g / 0°

Obverse: "M IVL PHILIPPVS CAES", radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right, from behind.
Reverse: "PRINCIPI IVVENT", Philip II standing left in military dress, globe in right, inverted spear in left, captive seated left at feet on left.

Ex Forvm Ancient Coins 2015 (72383)

RIC IV 219 corr. (standard vice spear), RSC IV 57, Hunter III 10, SRCV III 9241

MyID: 015E

Image Credit: Forvm Ancient Coins
TenthGen
004FPhilipII.jpg
Philip II, Provincial / Imperial Mule15 viewsProvincial / Imperial Mule
Roman Imperial - The Crisis

Philip II

Unofficial Bizya, Thrace mint? ~ 240s AD.
Fair. Perhaps a fourree. Definitely a mule.
22.0 mm / 3.548 g / 0°

Obverse: "M IOVΛ ΦIΛIΠΠOC [KAICAP?]", Bare-headed right.
Reverse: "PROV [IDENTIA?]". Providentia standing left, holding cornucopiae and wand with globe at feet.

Obverse is Moushmov 3819A, Reverse is imperial PROVIDENTIA type.

Found in unclean lot in 2015. Truly a weird coin.

MyID: 004F
TenthGen
041~7.JPG
Philippe II, roi de France (1180-1223) - Denier3 viewsDenier parisis, frappée pour Arras
Argent, 1,19 g, 20,5 mm.
Av./ + PHILIPVS REX, FRA NCO.
Rv./ + ARRAS CIVIS, croix cantonnée d'un lis en 1 et 4.
Réfs : Dup. 168
Gabalor
045~8.JPG
Philippe VI Roi de France (1328-1350) - Denier5 viewsDenier Parisis, argent, 1,10 g
Av./ PhILIPPVS REX, FRA NCO en deux lignes.
Rv./ PARISIVS CIVIS, croix
Réfs : Duplessy 273
Gabalor
034~3.JPG
Philippe VI Roi de France (1328-1350) - Double parisis3 viewsDouble Parisis, argent, 1,21 g
Av./ PhILIPPVS REX, FRAN CORV en deux lignes.
Rv./ MONETA DVPLEX, croix fleurdelisée
Réfs : Duplessy 270
Gabalor
Laodicea_ad_Lycum,_Phrygia__AE12,_Ps_aut_iss_t_ofTiberius(14-37AD)_Pythes,_son_of_Pythes,_magistr__RPC_2903_SNG_Cop__510_SNG_v_Aulock_3806_BMC_61_Q-001_0h_14-15mm_4,42g-s.jpg
Phrygia, Laodicea ad Lycum, 005 Tiberius (14-37 A.D.), Pythes, son of Pythes, magistrate, SNG Cop. 510, AE-14, Pseudo-autonomous issue. time of Tiberius, ΠYΘHΣ/ΠYΘOY, serpent-entwined altar, 93 viewsPhrygia, Laodicea ad Lycum, 005 Tiberius (14-37 A.D.), Pythes, son of Pythes, magistrate, SNG Cop. 510, AE-14, Pseudo-autonomous issue. time of Tiberius, ΠYΘHΣ/ΠYΘOY, serpent-entwined altar,
avers: ΛAOΔIKEΩN, laureate head of Apollo right; lyre before.
revers: ΠYΘHΣ/ΠYΘOY, to left and right of serpent-entwined altar, surmounted by headdress of Isis.
exe: -/-//--, diameter: 14-15mm, weight: 4,42g, axis: 0h,
mint: Phrygia, Laodicea ad Lycum, Pseudo-autonomous issue. time of Tiberius, date: 14-37 A.D., ref: RPC 2903; SNG Copenhagen 510; SNG von Aulock 3806; BMC 61.
Q-001
2 commentsquadrans
kremna_caracalla_Lindgren_Kovacs1292+.jpg
Pisisidia, Kremna, Caracalla, Lindgren & Kovacs 129221 viewsCaracalla, AD 198-217
AE 19, 4.97g
obv. IM - P C M AV - R ANT PF AV
Bust, draped and cuirassed, laureate, r.
rev. COL.CREM. - MID.DEAE (beginning upper r.)
Goddess Mida in the attitude of Kybele enthroned l., holding in extended r. hand patera
ref. Lindgren&Kovacs 1292 (this coin); obv. from same die as asiaminorcoins #4590
rare, VF, dark green patina

For more information please take a look at the article in the Mythology Thread!
1 commentsJochen
Poppaea_RPC_1756.JPG
Poppaea, RPC 175618 viewsPOPPAIA ΣEBASTH
AE 26 of Perinthus, 9.68g
Headdress of Isis within wreath, PE to sides
Wife of Nero

Poorly preserved specimen
novacystis
027DProbus.jpg
Probus14 viewsAE Antoninianus
Roman Imperial - The Crisis

Probus

Ticinum mint, 276 - 282 A.D.
F. Better in hand.
23.0 mm / 2.95 g / 0°

Obverse: "IMP C PROBVS AVG", Radiate, with imperial mantle, left. Holding eagle-tipped sceptre.
Reverse: "PROVIDENT AVG", Providentia standing left holding globe and sceptre. Q in left field. Mintmark: SXXI

RIC 490. Cohen 478.

Ex FAC Members Auction (2016)

MyID: 027D
TenthGen
Ptolemaic_Kingdom_Cleopatra_51-30_BC_AR_Tetradrachm_Yr__17_(36_to_35_BC_).jpg
Ptolemaic Kingdom Cleopatra 51-30 BC AR Tetradrachm Yr. 17 (36/5 BC). ISIS HEADDRESS SYMBOL102 viewsPtolemaic Kingdom Cleopatra 51-30 BC AR Tetradrachm Yr. 17 (36/5 BC). Diademed head of Ptolemy I
PTOLEMAIOU BASILEWS, Eagle standing, headdress of Isis before and palm branch at shoulder.
Size: 23 mm 13.24 grams SOLD
Antonivs Protti
Egyp_0030_Ns.jpg
Ptolemaic Kingdom, Cleopatra I - 011026 viewsBust of Isis right
PTOLEMAIOY BASILEOS, Eagle left
16.37 gr, 25 mm
Ref : Sear # 7880
1 commentsPotator II
ISIS_EAGLE_PTOL_RES_2.jpg
PTOLEMAIC KINGDOM--PTOLEMY VI PHILOMETOR17 views180-145 BC.
Æ 26.5 mm, 13.21 g
O: Wreathed and draped bust of Isis right /
Eagle standing left on thunderbolt, with wings spread; monogram to left
Alexandria mint
laney
PtolemyI26mms.jpg
Ptolemy I Soter Tetradrachm as Satrap18 viewsPtolemy I Soter. Silver Tetradrachm (15.68 g, 26mm), as Satrap, 323-305 BC. Alexandria, in the name of Alexander III. Overstruck on earlier Alexander tetradrachm, 306-305 BC.
O: Diademed head of the deified Alexander right, wearing elephant's skin headdress, aegis around neck with tiny Δ in scales.
R: AΛEΞANΔPOY in left field, Athena Alkidemos advancing right, wielding javelin and holding forth shield;in right field, monogram, Corinthian helmet right above ΔI and eagle standing right on thunderbolt.
Overstruck, undertype beading visible on obverse just above elephant's ear; on the reverse, portrait of Alexander above eagles head into Athena's shield.

The earlier 17g tetradrachms were withdrawn from circulation in 306/305 BC and reissued after weight adjustment. They were trimmed to remove 1.5g of silver, heated and restruck. This must have been faster than melting them down into bullion and restriking. Some of these issues, such as this one, show the clear evidence of the edges being trimmed, although many do not.

Ptolemy was feeling the financial burden of repelling Antigonus’ invasion and supporting Rhodes through a thirteen-month siege. The government needed extra currency and Egypt produced little or no silver. The recall of the heavy issues meant 8 tetradrachms were restruck into 9 “Crisis Issues” but with no change in the appearance of the dies.
3 commentsNemonater
Ptolemy_30mms.jpg
Ptolemy I Soter Tetradrachm as Satrap17 viewsPtolemy I Soter. Silver Tetradrachm (15.65 g, 30mm), as Satrap, 323-305 BC. Alexandria, in the name of Alexander III
O: Diademed head of the deified Alexander right, wearing elephant's skin headdress.
R: AΛEΞANΔPOY in left field, Athena Alkidemos advancing right, wielding javelin and holding forth shield;in right field, monogram, Corinthian helmet above and eagle standing right on thunderbolt.
Overstruck, traces of undertype visible.

The earlier 17g tetradrachms were withdrawn from circulation in 306/305 BC and reissued after weight adjustment. They were trimmed to remove 1.5g of silver, heated and restruck. This must have been faster than melting them down into bullion and restriking. Some issues show clear evidence of the edges being trimmed, although many, such as this one, do not.

Ptolemy was feeling the financial burden of repelling Antigonus’ invasion and supporting Rhodes through a thirteen-month siege. The government needed extra currency and Egypt produced little or no silver. The recall of the heavy issues meant 8 tetradrachms were restruck into 9 “Crisis Issues” but with no change in the appearance of the dies.
3 commentsNemonater
PtolemyIIIcyrene2.jpg
Ptolemy III. Cyrenaica, Cyrene. Isis39 views PTOLEMY III EUERGETES, 246-221 B.C.

Cyrenaica, Cyrene. AE 1.79 g. Diademed head of Ptolemy I Soter, r. Rev. ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ - ΠΤΟΛΕΜΑΙΟΥ Diademed, female head of Isis r., cornuacopia in field l. Svoronos, Pt. 873. SNG Cop. 439. Rare
ancientone
38373_ptolemy_IV_s1154.jpg
Ptolemy IV Philopator, obol; Alexandria; Isis; Svoronos 115411 viewsPtolemy IV Philopator, 220 - 203 B.C. Bronze obol, Svoronos 1154; SNG Copenhagen 240 - 242; Noeske 54; BMC Alexandria p. 79, 9-12 (Ptolemy VI); SGCV 7848; Weiser -, F, rough, Alexandria mint, 6.950g, 20.2mm, 315o, obverse head of Isis right, wearing grain wreath; reverse “ΠΤΟΛΕΜΑΙΟΥ ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ”, eagle standing left on thunderbolt, head right, wings closed, cornucopia across shoulder. Ex FORVM, photo credit FORVMPodiceps
Ptolémée V Epiphane Sear 7880.jpg
Ptolemy V Epiphanes - Ae 2730 viewsHead of Isis (Cleopatra I) right
ΠTOΛEMAIOY BAΣIΛEΩΣ , eagle standing left on thunderbolt
Ginolerhino
41117_Ptolemaic_Kingdom,_Ptolemy_V_Epiphanes,_205_-_180_B_C_S1238.jpg
Ptolemy V Epiphanes, AE17, Isis, Svoronos 123811 viewsPtolemaic Kingdom, Ptolemy V Epiphanes, 205 - 180 B.C. Bronze AE 17, Svoronos 1238, SNG Cop 256, F, Alexandria mint, 3.856g, 17.0mm, 0o, 180 B.C.; obverse head of Isis right, wearing grain wreath; reverse “ΠΤΟΛΕΜΑΙΟΥ ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ”, eagle standing left. Ex FORVM, photo credit FORVMPodiceps
41476_Ptolemy_V_S1234.jpg
Ptolemy V Epiphanes; Alexandria; Isis; Svoronos 123435 viewsPtolemaic Kingdom, Ptolemy V Epiphanes, 205/4 - 180 B.C. GB41476. Bronze AE 20, Svoronos 1234, SNG Cop 247, Alexandria mint, 15.302g, 27.2mm, 0o, obverse wreathed head of Isis right; reverse “ΠΤΟΛΕΜΑΙΟΥ ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ”, eagle standing left on thunderbolt, wings spread. Ex FORVM, photo credit FORVMPodiceps
Isis_k.jpg
Ptolemy V-VI, 204-145 BC5 viewsÆ Hemidrachm, 27mm, 18.4g, 6h; Alexandria mint.
Obv.: Diademed head of Isis right.
Rev.: ΠTOΛEMAIOΥ BAΣIΛEΩΣ; Eagle on thunderbolt.
Reference: Svoronos 1234 and SNG Cop 247 (as Ptolemy IV)
16-375-115
John Anthony
Comb29072018114216.jpg
Ptolemy V. 204 - 180 BC11 viewsObv: Head of Cleopatra I as Isis.
Rev: Eagle standing on thunderbolt with one open wing.
Svoronos 1237.
SNG Copenhagen 253.
15mm and 2.97 grams
Canaan
Ptolemaic_Isis_Eagle_AE27_15_3g.jpg
Ptolemy VI and Cleopatra I, Cleopatra I as Isis, AE 2814 viewsPtolemaic Egypt, Ptolemy VI and Cleopatra I. AE 28. Cleopatra I as Isis, eagle standing left on thunderbolt, wings open. Sear 7903 var. ex areich, photo credit areichPodiceps
isis_cleo.jpg
Ptolemy VI and Cleopatra I. AE 27. Cleopatra I as Isis13 viewsPtolemaic Egypt, Ptolemy VI and Cleopatra I. AE 27, 17,37g. Cleopatra I as Isis, eagle standing left on thunderbolt, wings open. Sear 7903 var.Podiceps
1__PTOLEMY_VI.jpg
Ptolemy VI Philometer, Hellenistic ruler of Egypt 180-145 BC39 viewsDenom: Bronze Diobol
Mint:Alexandria; Date: ca.175BC (lathing dimples)
Obv: Boarder of dots,Isis with hanging curls, wreathed with corn wreath, facing right.
Rev: Boarder of dots, ΠΤΟΛΕΜΑΙΟΥ left, ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ right.
Eagle facing left,open wings,standing on a thunderbolt.
Left field monogram: PI-ALPHA
No leg control symbol
Size: 27mm;15.11gms
Ref: Svor.1384, SNG Cop. 279-87, Weiser 147.
2 commentsbrian l
41065_Ptolemaic_Kingdom,_Ptolemy_VI_Philometor,_180_-_145_B_C_,_Cleopatra_I_Thea_as_Regent_S1384.jpg
Ptolemy VI Philometor, Cleopatra I Thea as Regent. Tetrobol, Svoronos 138412 viewsPtolemaic Kingdom, Ptolemy VI Philometor, 180 - 145 B.C., Cleopatra I Thea as Regent. Bronze tetrobol, Svoronos 1384, SNG Cop 286, Fair, Alexandria mint, 13.790g, 28.1mm, 0o, 180 - 177 B.C.; obverse head of (Cleopatra I as) Isis right, wearing grain wreath; reverse “ΠΤΟΛΕΜΑΙΟΥ ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ”, eagle standing half left, wings open, head left, monogram left. Ex FORVM, photo credit FORVMPodiceps
a_125.JPG
Ptolemy XII58 viewsPtolemy XIII Auletes 81-50 BC

Obverse:Head of Zeus right
Reverse:ΠΤΟΛΕΜΑΙΟΥ ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ;Two eagles with closed wings standing left at thunderbolt;Isis headdress at top of monogram at left field

22.71mm 6.94gm

Svoronos 1842
maik
nT4A8WFyreZ2p3wFEb9qo3H57Bszc6.jpg
Ptolemy XII AE23, 2 eagles, headdress of Isis. Cyprus13 viewsPtolemy XII AE23, 2 eagles, headdress of Isis. Cyprus
S#7950. _1200
Antonivs Protti
cleoptol.jpg
Ptolemy XII Auletes [53 BC] AR Tetradrachm24 views Svoronos 1837, SNG Cop 395. Paphos Mint, 11.9 grams

Obverse: Diademed head of Ptolemy I with feminine features.
Reverse:Eagle standing left with thunderbolt in claws and Isis crown to left, palm branch over its right shoulder. In the left field 'LKH' (=year 28); in right field 'PA' (=Paphos)/ BASILEWE PTOLEMAIOY (of King Ptolemy)


In 54 BC, Ptolemy XII returned to Egypt from a 3-year exile and issued new Tetradrachms for the last 27-30th years of his rule. They show the crown of Isis in the eagle's claw that recognized Cleopatra as his heir and likely co-regent. The Isis crown remained the symbol of Cleo VII on her coins following Ptolemy's death in 51 BC. This pattern remained unchanged for all of Cleopatra's tetradrachms though the quality of coins became very bad owing to the huge bribes that had to be paid for Roman "protection". For a great discussion of these attributions and coin history see the link: http://www.ptolemaic.net/cleopatra/4coin-isis.htm#p5bydelay.

This coin was issued by Ptolemy XII in his 28th regnal year (53 BC) when his daughter, Cleopatra was about 15.

1 commentsdaverino
ptolemy_XII.jpg
Ptolemy XII, tetradrachm71 viewsPtolemaic Kingdom of Egypt, Ptolemy XII, Neos Dionysos, 80 - 51 B.C. Silver tetradrachm, Svoronos 1839; BMC 117, 35; SNG Cop 396, gVF, toned, Paphos mint, 13.683 g, 25.9 mm, 0o, 52 - 51 B.C.; obverse diademed head of Ptolemy I or XII? right, wearing aegis; reverse “PTOLEMAIOU BASILEWS”, eagle standing left on thunderbolt, wings closed, date “IKQ” (year 29) and crown of Isis left, “PA ” right. Ptolemy XII was a weak and unpopular ruler. He was awarded the belittling title Auletes - the flute player. Disposed by his own subjects in 58 B.C., he regained his throne with Roman assistance. His daughter, the famous Cleopatra VII, was the last Ptolemaic ruler of Egypt. Minted under Roman supervision. About 33% silver. ex FORVM1 commentsPodiceps
ptolomeu_XII.jpg
Ptolomy XII - Svoronos 18409 viewsPtolemy XII, Neos Dionysos,
AR Tetradrachm. (24 mm, 14.0 g.)
Alexandria mint, dated Year 30 = 52/51 BC.
Diademed head of Ptolemy I right, in aegis /
BASILEWS PTOLEMAIOU, eagle standing left on thunderbolt,
palm over right shoulder; date LL above headdress of Isis to left, PA to right.
xokleng
Punic3~0.jpg
Punic Mauretania, Iol-Caesarea9 viewsMauretania, Iol-Caesarea:
Æ unit, 3rd-2nd century BC, 10.1gm, 24 mm. Obv: Head of Isis left, wearing vulture crown and horned solar-disk headdress. Rev: Three grain ears; Punic letters in fields.

Muller 286 ; SNG 548

RARE

Mauretania - IOL (CAESAREA)
(III - II century BC)
The city was founded by the Phoenicians and the Carthaginians. Its name comes from the hero Iolaus, nephew of Hercules and guide. The city was one of the two capitals Bocchus. Iol before becoming the capital of the kingdom of Mauretania in the first century BC in Juba II - Caesarea or modern Cherchell - the city was part of the independent Numidia. Iol was the main workshop area.
Tanit
RIC_117_Vespasianus.jpg
RIC 0117 Vespasianus67 viewsObv: IMP CAESAR VESPASIANVS AVG P M TR P P P COS III, Laureate head right, with aegis, globe below neck
Rev: S C (across field), Tetrastyle temple of Isis with semi-circular pediment. Between the columns an inner shrine with the statue of Isis; two other statues on right and left side; on pedment Isis on dog running right.
AE/Sestertius (35.56 mm 26.14 g 6h) Struck in Rome 71 A.D. (1st issue)
RIC 117 (R2), BMCRE 780, BNF unpublished
ex Artemide Auction LI lot 269
6 commentsFlaviusDomitianus
RIC 577 Julia Domna.JPG
RIC 577 Julia Domna Denarius Isis46 viewsAR Denarius. Rome mint.

Obv. Draped bust right IVLIA AVGVSTA

Rev. Isis suckling Horus SAECULI FELICITAS.

RSC 174.
LordBest
Vespasian_Dattari~0.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE PROVINCIAL, Egypt, Alexandria Vespasian AE Diobol 51 viewsEgypt, Alexandria. Dattari. Vespasian, 69-79 Diobol circa 70-71 (year 3), Æ 26.5mm., 9.15g.
Obv: Laureate head r.
Rev: Bust of Isis r.; in front, LΓ.
RPC 2430 (this coin cited). Dattari-Savio Pl. 14, 382 (this coin).
From the Dattari collection.
Naville Numismatics Auction #30, Lot 283, April 02, 2017
orfew
802_P_Hadrian_Emmett1093~0.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE PROVINCIAL, Emmett 1093.14, EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Hemidrachm 129-30 AD Isis Pharia standing61 viewsReference.
Emmett 1093.14; Dattari-Savio Pl. 85, 7711 (this coin). RPC 5748.23 (this coin cited).Corr. (holding Situla)

Issue L IΔ = year 14

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙ - ΤΡΑΙ ΑΔΡΙΑ СƐΒ
Laureate draped and cuirassed bust of Hadrian, r., seen from rear

Rev. L ΙΔ
Isis Pharia advancing, r., head r., holding sistrum and sail with situla

12.64 gr
29 mm
12h
1 commentsokidoki
Poppaea.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE PROVINCIAL, Poppaea Wife of Nero,62-65 AD33 viewsPoppaea Wife of Nero,62-65 AD

obv: POPPAIA SEBASTH,Diademed and draped bust right.
rev: Headdress of Isis, P-E to either side, all within laurel wreath.
Mint Perinthus (later called Heraclea, present-day Marmaraereglisi)

RPC I 1756; Varbanov 3695

Poppaea Sabina, daughter of T. Ollius, was married three times -
firstly to the praetorian prefect Rufrius Crispinus, then to the future emperor Otho,
and finally to Nero, who divorced Octavia in A.D. 62 in order to marry her.
She died three years later, the victim of her husband who kicked her in a fit of temper.
George
maximinus_2.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Festival of Isis, Anonymous AE3, 4th century A.D. 25 viewsObverse: DEO SARAPIDI. Bust of Serapis wearing modius facing right.
Reverse: SANCTO NILO. Nile river-god reclining left, holding a small ship and a reed stalk, resting left arm on an overturned urn out of which water flows.
Struck at Rome in the middle of the fourth century.
1 commentsseaotter
IuliaDomna-Denar-Isis-RIC[SeptSev]577.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, IULIA DOMNA, AR Denarius. RIC IV [SeptSev] /I/57716 viewsAv) IVLIA AVGVSTA
Draped bust right

Rv) SAECVLI FELICITAS
Isis wearing polos on head standing right, foot on prow, suckling Horus; behind her, rudder leaning on altar

Weight: 4,0g; Ø:20mm; Reference: RIC IV/I[SepSev]/577; ROME mint,
struck under Septimius Severus
sulcipius
4050502.jpg
Roman Imperial: Claudius II Gothicus (268-270 CE) Æ Antoninianus, Antioch 6 viewsObv: IMP C M AVR CLAVDIVS P F AVG; radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right
Rev: SALVS AVG; Isis standing left, holding sistrum and bucket
Quant.Geek
coin015.jpg
ROMAN REPUBLIC, L. Piso Frugi - Apollo & naked horseman - 90BC - AR Denarius16 viewsObv: Head of Apollo r.; on l., head-dress of Isis (mintmark)
Rev: Naked horseman galloping r., with palm-branch; below, L. PISO. FRVGI. numeral, CXXXXVT.
3.94g - 19mm - s.235

An example from a large, and extremly complex issue from the time of the conflict between Rome and the Marsic Confederation.
What is the symbology of the naked horseman, and palm branch?
jerseyjohnjames
isis.jpg
Roman Rule 212 - 189 BC, AE 21, Head of Isis/ headdress of Isis12 viewsFORVM Syracuse Sicily Roman Rule 212 - 189 BC, AE 19, Calciati II p. 432, 237; SNG ANS 1093, gF, green patina, Syracuse mint, 6.473g, 21.1mm, 0o, 212 B.C.; obverse head of Isis right, wreathed in grain, wearing solar disc headdress; reverse ΣΥΡΑΚΟΣΙΟΝ, the headdress of Isis (solar disc framed by two bull horns and two stalks of grain at the base, two tall plumes behind); scarce. Ex FORVMPodiceps
julia_domnaisis.jpg
Roman Silver Denarius of Julia Domna, AD 207 - 21115 views
Weight: 3.0g
Obv: IVLIA AUGUSTA, head of Julia Domna right.
Rev: SAECVLI FELICITAS, Isis standing right. left foot on prow, nursing infant Horus held at her breast, rudder resting against altar.
SEAR: 6606
Marjan E
Picture_002.jpg
Romano-Egyptian Votive Statue106 viewsCirca 1st century BC - 1st century AD
5.5 inches tall
ex Superior Galleries

Terracotta votive statue of the Hellenistic god Harpokrates.

Harpokrates, the god of silence, is the Hellenistic adaptation of the Egyptian child-god Horus, and as such was said to be the son of Isis and Serapis.

Update;
This item donated to the Hallie Ford museum in Salem Oregon.
3 commentsEnodia
Faustina_II_39.jpg
RPC - Egypt, Alexandria, AD 153/154, Faustina II, Isis Pharia23 viewsFaustina II
Alexandria
Billon-Tetradrachm
Obv.: ΦAVCTINA CEBACTH, draped bust right
Rev.: Isis Pharia standing, r., holding sail and sistrum, L I Z = year 17 of Antoninus Pius (AD 153/154).
Billon, 11.75g, 22mm
Ref.: Dattari 3250
1 commentsshanxi
RPC_II_967A_Vespasianus.jpg
RPC II 0967A Vespasianus15 viewsObv: OYECΠACIANOC KAICAP, Laureate head of Vespasian left
Rev: ΕΠΙ ΑΠΟΛΛΩΝΙΟΥ ΝΕΜΕΟΝΙΚΟΥ / ΑΙΓΑΕΩΝ, Isis standing, leftt, holding sistrum
AE18 (18.17 mm 4.093 g 12h) Struck in Aegae (Aeolis)
RPC II 967A (S3 Supplement)
ex Numismatik Naumann GmbH Auction 44 lot 593
FlaviusDomitianus
RPC_II_2684_Domitianus.jpg
RPC II 2684 Domitianus17 viewsObv: AYT KAICAP ΔOMIT CEB ΓEΡM, Laureate head of Domitian, right
Rev: L IB, Bust of Isis, right
AE/Diobol (23.45 8.50 g 12h) Struck in Alexandria (Egypt) 92-93
RPC 2684, BMC 2744
FlaviusDomitianus
RPC5365b.jpg
RPC536528 viewsHemidrachm, bust of Isis. These larger bronzes of Otho from Alexandria are very rare coins. 11.46 gr, max 30 mm, die-axis 12.jmuona
RPC5368_1B.jpg
RPC536811 viewsDiobol, bust of Isis, long obverse legend. 6.99 gr, 25 mm, die-axis 12.jmuona
RPC5368b.jpg
RPC536827 viewsDiobol, bust of Isis, long obverse legend. 10.73 gr, max 26 mm, die-axis 12.jmuona
RPC5369b.jpg
RPC536921 viewsDiobol, bust of Isis, short obverse legend. 11.45 gr, max 25 mm, die-axis 12.jmuona
RRC243-1.jpg
RRC243/1 (Ti. Minucius C. f. Augurinus)50 viewsObv. Helmeted and winged head of Roma right, mark of value behind;
Rev. TI MINVCI CF – AVGVRINI; RO-MA around column surmounted by statue. At base, a stalk of grain on either side. L. Minucius Esquilinus standing right, M. Minucius Faesus standing left, holding lituus
18 mm, 3.91 grams
Rome, ca. 134 B.C.
References: RRC 243/1v; Syd. 494, RSC Minucia 9

Allusions: The obverse of the coin is traditional, but the reverse shows the achievements of the gens Minucia. Standing to the right and holding the lituus, M. Minucius Faesus was the first plebeian to be co-opted into the college of Augurs (300 B.C.), as soon as this was opened to non-patricians by the lex Ogulnia (Livy 10.92). Facing him stands L. Minucius Esquilinus Augurinus (cos. 458 B.C.), praefectus annonae 440-439 BC. During a famine, he accused Sp. Maelius of seeking regium by bribing the people with grain. The ancient sources are contradictory, though it would appear that, after Maelius’ death, Minucius distributed the grain himself, in his official capacity, at a rate of one as per modius. As a reward, the people – Dionysus of Halicarnassus claims it was the Senate – erected a statue in his honour near the Forum Boarium. A later tradition, spread by the plebeian Minucii, claimed that Esquilinus was originally a patrician, but that he changed his status to join the plebeians in order to become a Tribune of the People (Livy 4.13, Dion. Hal. 12.1-4; Pliny, NH 18.15; 34.21). It is likely that this story is a forgery, intended to give the gens Minucia quasi-patrician status and to enhance their popular image.

Interpretation: The coinage, minted around the time of the Gracchan crisis, thus bears popularis overtones. Whether this was a side-effect of the moneyer honouring his most famous ancestors, or an intended move remains unclear (arguments about the "propaganda" value of coins are ongoing).

Moneyer: Ti. Minucus is unknown except for his coins. The previous year, his brother, C. Minucius, had already minted a coin with a very similar reverse. The family is ancient, providing Rome with a consul as early as 497 B.C.

On this coin: Probably ex-jewellery, soldered at the top.
Syltorian
Scarab.jpg
Second Intermediate Period Steatite Scarab30 viewsBase engraved with three figures, likely a goddess flanked by two gods.

Egypt was an ultrareligious land, every city and town had its own local deity, bearing the title “Lord of the City.” A list found in the tomb of Thutmose III contains the names of some 740 gods. (Ex 12:12) Frequently the god was represented as married to a goddess who bore him a son, “thus forming a divine triad or trinity in which the father, moreover, was not always the chief, contenting himself on occasion with the role of prince consort, while the principal deity of the locality remained the goddess.” (New Larousse Encyclopedia of Mythology, 1968, p. 10) Only a few, relatively speaking, of the hundreds of deities seem to have received worship on a truly national basis. Most popular among these was the trinity or triad of Osiris, Isis (his wife), and Horus (his son). - http://wol.jw.org/en/wol/d/r1/lp-e/1200001265#h=2

Who is represented on this scarab? Perhaps Osiris, Isis and Horus or Latopolis Khnum, Neith and Heka? Or did the carvers have no idea what they were writing or inscribing? I suppose we will never know.
Nemonater
Greek_Q-020_axis-0h_16-17,5mm_4,82g-s.jpg
Seleucia, Seleukid Kingdom, 15 Antiochus VII., (138-129 B.C.), SNG S 1900, AE-17, Headdress of Isis,84 viewsSeleucia, Seleukid Kingdom, 15 Antiochus VII., (138-129 B.C.), SNG S 1900, AE-17, Headdress of Isis,
avers:- Bust of Eros right.
revers:- Headdress of Isis, BAΣIΛEΩΣ ANTIOXOY EYEPΓETOY .
exerg: -/-//--, diameter: 16-17,5mm, weight: 4,82 g, axes: 0h,
mint: Seleucia, Antiochus-VII, date: 138-129 B.C., ref: SNG-Spaer-1900, BMC-52, Houghton 278,
Q-001
quadrans
Seleucia,_Cleopatra_Thea_and_Antiochus_VIII,_125-121_BC,_AE18,_Radiate_head_r,_headdress_of_Isis,_SC_2274,_Hoover_HGC_1191,_Q-001,_0h,_17,5-18mm,_5,07ga-s.jpg
Seleucia, Seleukid Kingdom, 19 Cleopatra Thea and Antiochus VIII., (125-121 B.C.), SC 2274, AE-18, Headdress of Isis, #1133 viewsSeleucia, Seleukid Kingdom, 19 Cleopatra Thea and Antiochus VIII., (125-121 B.C.), SC 2274, AE-18, Headdress of Isis, #1
avers: Radiate head of (Sol)Antiochos right.
reverse: BAΣIΛIΣΣHΣ /KΛEOΠATPAΣ /KAI/BAΣILEΩΣ /ANTIOXOY, To left and right of the headdress of Isis, OΠP, and thunderbolt below.
exergue: -/-//OΠP, diameter: 17,5-18,0mm, weight: 5,07 g, axes: 0h,
mint: Seleucia, Seleukid Kingdom, Cleopatra Thea and Antiochus VIII, date: 125-121 B.C., ref: SC 2274, Hoover HGC 1191,
Q-001
quadrans
Antiochus_VII.jpg
Seleucid - Antiochus VII Euergetes (138-129 BCE)6 viewsMetal/Size: AE18; Weight: 6.0 grams; Denomination: Chalkous; Mint: Seleucia-on-the Tigris; Date: 138-129 BCE; Obverse: Winged bust of Eros right-beaded border surrounds. Reverse: Isis crown star headdress within crescent below monogram to outer left but not discernible. Date is a bit confusing based on letters which appear to be either a "P" or "B", "T" or "Π" and "Y". References: BMC #52; Sear #7098.museumguy
SELEUCID_ANTIOCHOS_VII_w_EROS.jpg
SELEUCID KINGDOM - Antiochos VII Euergetes (Sidetes)16 viewsSELEUCID KINGDOM - Antiochos VII Euergetes (Sidetes) - 138-129 B.C. - Denomination B, AE 18. Mint: Antioch on the Orontes. Obv.: Winged eros bust right. Rev.: Headdress of Isis, symbol below. Legend: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΥ ΕYΕPΓΕΤΟΥ - Date is off flan. Hoover #1087, SC-2065dpaul7
seleucid1.jpg
SELEUCID KINGDOM - ANTIOCHOS VII EUERGETES/SIDETES 137-134 BC25 viewsSIM-S7098 - ANTIOCHOS VII EUERGETES/SIDETES 137-134 BC AE19. Head of Eros right/Reverse: Crown of Isis, crescent below. Legends no longer visible.dpaul7
isis.JPG
Seleucid Kingdom, Antiochos VII Euergetes Sidetes 138-129 B.C.24 viewsAntiochos VII, Antioch mint, 18.5mm

Obverse: Head of Eros right, wreathed with myrtle
Reverse: BAΣIΛEΩΣ ANTIOXOΥ EΥEΡΓETOΥ, head-dress of Isis
Dk0311USMC
SELEUCID_ANTIOCHOS_VII.jpg
SELEUCIDS - Antiochus VII15 viewsSELEUCIDS - Antiochus VII (138-129 BCE) AE 17. Antioch. Obv: Bust of Eros right. Rev.: Headdress of Isis, ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΥ right, ΕYΕPΓΕΤΟΥ left. Date below headdress is off flan. Reference: SNG Spaer-1900.dpaul7
1__Antiochus_VII_Eros_forvm.jpg
Seleukid - Antiochos VII Euergetes 138-12918 viewsMint: Antioch; Date: 134/133 BC
Obv: Winged bust of Eros, wearing mertle wreath, drapery over arm, facing right.
Boarder of dots.
Rev: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΥ ΕΥΕΡΓΕΤΟΥ;, Headress of Isis, ears of corn below,
monogram and palm to left.
Seleukid Date: ΘΟΡ = Seleukid Era 179 = 134/133 BC
Size: 18mm; 5.6gms
Ref: BMC Vol. 4, Seleucid Kings of Syria, Pg. 74, No. 58
SNG Spaer 1932-4 / SNG COP. 326 var. / SC 2067
Brian L
Seleucid_Kingdom,_Seleukos_I,_AE_20_Antioch_on_Orontes.jpg
Seleukid Kingdom, Seleukos I Nikator, 312-281 BC, Æ 20 - Antioch on the Orontes17 viewsWinged head of Medusa right.
ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΣEΛEYKY (sic) Indian humped bull butting right, control mark Ξ in exergue.

SC 21.2(b); CSE 9; WSM 925; SNG Spaer 23; HGC 9, 92a; Sear GCV 5852.
Struck ca. 286-281 BC at Antioch on the Orontes.

(20 mm, 7.06 g, 2h).
Note the misspelled legend, missing the letter O in the genitive of the king's name; the only known example of this apparently unrecorded error.

This coin type was produced at many mints across the Seleukid Empire in the last years of Seleukos’ reign. The bull on the reverse is an allusion to a story about Seleukos’ prowess related to us in Appian: "He (Seleukos) was of such a large and powerful frame that once when a wild bull was brought for sacrifice to Alexander and broke loose from his ropes, Seleukos held him alone, with nothing but his bare hands, for which reason his statues are ornamented with horns."

On the frequency with which this coin type appeared at mints across the Seleukid Empire in the final years of Seleukos I, Newell commented that "Such a widespread coinage of a single type would seem to hint at some effort on the part of the central government, towards the end of the reign, to coordinate what had hitherto been a remarkably diverse selection of types on the bronze coinage of the empire. If such an effort was really made, it proved to be but of short duration. For under Antiochus I and his immediate successors, the bronze types again became extremely varied as between mint and mint. Apparently the authorities in charge of several mints were at liberty to select such types for the minor coins as appeared the most appropriate to them. This is one of the reasons why the Seleukid coinages possess so strong an appeal; in contrast, for instance, to the tiresomely narrow range of Ptolemaic types, with their eternal Ammon, Zeus or Isis heads and their never ending eagle reverses.
1 commentsn.igma
eros_isis.jpg
SELEUKID KINGDOM--(07) ANTIOCHOS VII EUERGETES (SIDETES)33 views138 - 129 BC
AE 17 mm max. 5.81 g
O: Bust of Eros right
Reverse: Headdress of Isis; scepter as monogram to left
ANTIOCH, SYRIA
laney
antiochos_vii_ares.jpg
SELEUKID KINGDOM--(07) ANTIOCHOS VII EUERGETES (SIDETES)14 viewsSELEUKID KINGDOM--(07) ANTIOCHOS VII EUERGETES (SIDETES)
138 - 129 BC
AE 18 mm max. 5.08 g
O: Bust of Eros right
R: Headdress of Isis
ANTIOCH, SYRIA
laney
eros_isis~0.jpg
SELEUKID KINGDOM--(07) ANTIOCHOS VII EUERGETES (SIDETES)15 views138-129 BC
AE 18 mm, 5.59 g
O: Winged laureate bust of Eros right
R: Headdress of Isis
Syria, Antioch
laney
eros_isis~1.jpg
SELEUKID KINGDOM--(07) ANTIOCHOS VII EUERGETES (SIDETES)12 views138-129 BC
AE 18 mm, 5.09 g
O: Winged laureate bust of Eros right
R: BASILEWS ANTIOXOY EUERGETOU Headdress of Isis; EOP below; D scepter monogram to left
Syria, Antioch
laney
eros_headdress.jpg
SELEUKID KINGDOM--(07) ANTIOCHOS VII EUERGETES (SIDETES) 13 views138-129 BC
AE[
O: Winged bust of Eros right.
R: Headdress of Isis
Antioch, Syria
laney
20170531_120027.jpg
SELEUKID KINGS of SYRIA. Antiochos VII Euergetes (Sidetes). 138-129 BC.21 viewsObv. Winged bust of Eros right.
Rev. Isis headdress; monogram to outer left; in exergue, aphlaston above uncertain date.
References: SC 2067; HGC 9, 1087; DCA 207.
18 mm, 5,10 g
1 commentsCanaan
sicisisOR.jpg
Sicily, Syracuse mint, Under Roman Rule, SNG ANS 109315 viewsSicily, Syracuse mint, Under Roman Rule c. 212 B.C., 5.51g 20mm, SNG ANS 1093, Calciati II p. 432, 237
O: head of Isis right, wreathed in grain, wearing solar disc headdress
R: ΣYPAKOΣION, the headdress of Isis (solar disc framed by two bull horns and two stalks of grain at the base, two tall plumes behind)
casata137ec
DSCN7105.jpg
Silvered Barbaric imitation of Constantine ( Probably of RIC VII Siscia 47 ) C. 318AD AE 16mm30 viewsObv. Helmeted, laureate, cuirassed bust right. Blundered legend .

Rev. Two Victories facing & inscribing VOT PR on shield placed on altar, ISIS in ex. Blundered legend .
Lee S
1637_-_1638_Charles_I_Twenty_pence.JPG
Struck 1637 - 1638, CHARLES I (1625 - 1649), AR Twenty Pence minted at Edinburgh, Scotland18 viewsObverse: CAR•D:G•SCOT•ANG•FR•ET•HIB•R•. Crowned bust of Charles I, which goes to the edge of the coin, facing left, XX with a small lozenge above and below behind bust; small B (for Briot) below.
Reverse: IVSTITIA•THRONVM•FIRMAT• small B (off flan, for Briot) at end of legend. Thistle with Scottish crown above. The reverse legend translates as 'Justice strengthens the Throne'.
This coin was produced using Briot's new coining press during the third coinage period which ran from 1637 to 1642.
Diameter: 17mm | Weight: 0,8gms | Die Axis: 6
SPINK: 5581

Nicholas Briot, a Frenchman previously employed by the French and English mints, was appointed Master of the Scottish mint in August 1634. He was later joined by his son-in-law John Falconer, who succeeded him in 1646.
Briot's work was of the highest calibre, and his introduction of the mill and screw press gave the Scottish series of coins a technical excellence previously unknown.
After Briot's departure from Scotland in 1638 there was a rapid falling off from his high standard of workmanship. Although considerable use was made of Briot's punches for Falconer's third coinage issues, many of the dies were badly executed, and there was even more of a deterioration during the fourth coinage period which resulted in poorly produced coins of no artistic merit.

After his succession, Charles quarrelled with the Parliament of England, which sought to curb his royal prerogative. Charles believed in the divine right of kings and thought he could govern according to his own conscience. Many of his subjects opposed his policies, in particular the levying of taxes without parliamentary consent, and perceived his actions as those of a tyrannical absolute monarch. His religious policies, coupled with his marriage to a Roman Catholic, generated the antipathy and mistrust of Reformed groups such as the English Puritans and the Scottish Covenanters, who thought his views were too Catholic. He supported high church Anglican ecclesiastics and his attempts to force the Church of Scotland to adopt high Anglican practices led to the Bishops' Wars, and helped precipitate his own downfall.
From 1642, Charles fought the Parliamentary army in the English Civil War. After his defeat in 1645, he surrendered to a Scottish force that eventually handed him over to the English Parliament. Charles refused to accept his captors' demands for a constitutional monarchy, and after temporarily escaping captivity in November 1647, he was re-imprisoned on the Isle of Wight. Although Charles had managed to forge an alliance with Scotland, by the end of 1648 Oliver Cromwell's New Model Army had consolidated its control over England and Charles was tried, convicted, and executed for high treason in January 1649. The monarchy was abolished and a republic called the Commonwealth of England was declared. The Parliament of Scotland however, proclaimed Charles I's son as King Charles II on the 5th of February 1649.
The political crisis in England that followed the death of Cromwell in 1658 resulted in the restoration of the monarchy whereby Charles II was invited to return and, on the 29th of May 1660, he was received in London to public acclaim. After 1660 all Charles II's legal documents in Britain were dated from 1649, the year when he had succeeded his father as king in Scotland.
2 comments*Alex
greek23.jpg
Syria, Antioch. Seleukis and Pieria. AE 20 7.7gm30 viewsSNG COP 85 var. (symbol) / 29-28 BC
obv: laur. head of Zeus r.
rev: Zeus seated l. holding Nike and scepter.
headdress of ISIS before
1 commentshill132
cyrrhus_cyrrhestica_marc_aurel_SNGuk660.jpg
Syria, Cyrrhestica, Cyrrhus, Marcus Aurelius, SNG UK 66041 viewsMarcus Aurelius, AD 161-180
AE 23, 12.9g
obv. AVTO KM A[VRH] - ANTWNINOC CEB
Bust, laureate, r.
rev. [DIOC] KATEBATOV - KVRRHCTWN
Zeus Kataibates, in himation, std l. on rocks, resting r. arm on knee, holding
thunderbolt in r. hand and leaning with l. hand on sceptre; l. before him eagle
r.
SNG UK 1301, 660
extremely rare, with attractive red earthen patina
added to www.wildwinds.com

Kataibates = descending (in lightning and thunder); epikleisis of Zeus as thunder-god, to whom places struck by thunder (lat. putealis) were sacrified.
For more informations look at the thread 'Mythological interesting coins'!
3 commentsJochen
antiocheia_RPC4216_countermark.jpg
Syria, Seleukis & Pieria, Antiocheia, RPC 4216 countermarked16 viewsAE 23, 9.65g, 23.3mm, 0°
struck 48/47 BC (year 19)
obv. laureate of Zeus r., c/m
rev. r. side ANTIOXEWN / MHTROPOLEWS
l. side AVTONOMOV
Zeus Nikephoros enthroned kl., resting with raised l. hand on sceptre and holding in
extended r. hand small Nike with wreath
in lower field crown of Isis
in ex. IQ (year 19 of Pompeian era)
ref. RPC I, 4216; BMC Syria p.155, 35; SNG Copenhagen -
From Forum Ancient Coins, thanks!

c/m: Portrait of Cleopatra r. in oval incus, McAllee p.74, note 25
Richard McAllee: "It now seems likely that the countermark portaits Cleopatra, and was used to mark coins circulating in the Syro-Phoenician territorries which were given to her by Marcus Antonius." Older references identified the head as Apollo.
Jochen
seleu_pier_zeus.jpg
SYRIA, SELEUKIS AND PIERIA, ANTIOCH28 viewsca 28-29 BC
AE 20 mm; 8.51 g
Civic Issue
O: Laureate head of Zeus right
R: ANTIOXEWN / MHTROPOLEWS to right, AVTONOMOV to left of Zeus seated left, holding Nike and scepter; headdress of Isis before
cf McAlee 70c; RPC I 4216 ff; SNG COP 85 var. (symbol)
laney
AntoSe75.jpg
TEMPLE, ANTONINUS PIUS, Temple of Venus94 viewsorichalcum sestertius (23.78g, 12h). Rome mint struck AD 141-143.
ANTONINVS AVG PIVS PP TR P COS III laureate head of Antoninus Pius facing right
VENERI FELICI S C decastyle temple
RIC 651 (scarce); BMC 1322; Foss (Roman Historical Coins) 125:23
ex Jean Elsen et ses Fils (Bruxelles) auction 97; ex coll. A. Senden: l'architecture des monnaies Romaines
F, dark green patina, corroded

Issued on the occasion of the completion of the temple of Venus and Roma in AD 141. This was the largest temple in Rome dedicated to Venus Felix (Happy Venus) and Roma Aeterna (Eternal Rome). Actually it consists of two temples back under one roof. It was designed by Hadrian himself (who, by the way, executed his architect for critisising the project) and dedicated by him in AD 135, and completed by Antoninus Pius.
Charles S
015JTetricus.jpg
Tetricus I5 viewsBillon Antoninianus
Roman Imperial - The Crisis of the Third Century
Gallic Empire

Tetricus I

Mainz or Trier mint, 273 - 274 A.D
aVF, very crowded flan, soft strike with worn dies
17.9 mm / 2.152 g / 0°

Obverse: "IMP TETRICVS PF AVG", radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right.
Reverse: "LAETITIA AVGG", Laetitia standing left, wreath in right, anchor in left.

Ex Forvm Ancient Coins 2015 (76502)
Ex Forvm Ancient Coins 2006

RIC V 88, SRCV III 11239

MyID: 015J

Image Credit: Forvm Ancient Coins
TenthGen
Crisis_and_Decline_Comp.jpg
The Year of the Six Emperors (And a Caesar) 45 viewsIn order from top left to right: Maximinus Thrax, murdered; Maximus Caesar, murdered; Gordian I suicide; Gordian II killed in battle; Pupienus, murdered; Balbinus, murdered; Gordian III, probably murdered but possibly died in battle. 4 commentsNemonater
perinthos~0.jpg
Thrace, Perinthos. AE23. Osiris and Isis 35 viewsObv: Jugate heads of Osiris and Isis right.
Rev: PERIN-QIWN, bull standing left, two-headed horse below.
23mm.
c350 BC.
ancientone
normal_serdicaMarcusIsis.jpg
Thrace, Serdica. Marcus Aurelius AE20. Bust of Isis91 views
Obv: AY KAI M AYPH ANTΩNINOC Head facing r.
Rev: CEPΔWN Bust of Isis decorated with lotus r.
2 commentsancientone
Thyateria.jpg
Thyateira - AE10 viewsc. 2nd century AD
draped bust of Serapis right wearing kalathos
Isis standing left holding sistrum and scepter
ΘVAT_EI_ΡHNΩN
BMC, Lydia, p. 301.53; SNG Aulock, 8274; SNG Glasgow, 1361; SNRIS Thyatira 05; BMC 53; SNG Leypold 1268
ex Gorny & Mosch
ex Laurent Bricault collection
ex Rauch
wildwinds plate coin
Johny SYSEL
Tiberius__AD_14-37__Æ_Sestertius_(35_5mm,_27_11_g,_7h)__Rome_mint__Struck_AD_36-37__Hexastyle_temple_with_flanking_wings;_Concordia_seated_within_216.jpg
Tiberius (Augustus) Coin: Brass Sestertius3 views(no legend) - Hexastyle temple with flanking wings; Concordia seated inside, holding patera and cornucopiae; Hercules and Mercury stand on podia; Jupiter, Juno, Minerva, Victories and other figures above pediment.
TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVST P M TR POT XXXIIX - Legend surrounding large S C
Exergue:



Mint: Rome (36-37 AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 27.11g / 35.5mm / 6
Rarity: Scarce
References:
RIC I 61
BMCRE 116
Cohen 69
Provenances:
Classical Numismatic Group, Inc.
Acquisition/Sale: CNG Internet 424 #414

From Wikipedia:
The Temple of Concord (Latin: Aedes Concordiae) in the ancient city of Rome refers to a series of shrines or temples dedicated to the Roman goddess Concordia, and erected at the western end of the Roman Forum. The earliest may have vowed by Marcus Furius Camillus in 367 BC, but history also records such a temple erected in the Vulcanal in 304, and another immediately west of the Vulcanal, on the spot the temple later occupied, commissioned in 217. The temple was rebuilt in 121 BC, and again by the future emperor Tiberius between 7 BC and AD 10.

Backed up against the Tabularium at the foot of the Capitoline Hill, the architecture had to accommodate the limitations of the site. The cella of the temple, for instance, is almost twice as wide (45m) as it is deep (24m), as is the pronaos. In the cella a row of Corinthian columns rose from a continuous plinth projecting from the wall, which divided the cella into bays, each containing a niche. The capitals of these columns had pairs of leaping rams in place of the corner volutes. Only the platform now remains, partially covered by a road up to the Capitol.

One tradition ascribes the first Temple of Concord to a vow made by Camillus in 367 BC, on the occasion of the Lex Licinia Sextia, the law passed by the tribunes Gaius Licinius Stolo and Lucius Sextius Lateranus, opening the consulship to the plebeians. The two had prevented the election of any magistrates for a period of several years, as part of the conflict of the orders. Nominated dictator to face an invasion of the Gauls, Camillus, encouraged by his fellow patrician Marcus Fabius Ambustus, Stolo's father-in-law, determined to resolve the crisis by declaring his support for the law, and vowing a temple to Concordia, symbolizing reconciliation between the patricians and plebeians.

Camillus' vow is not mentioned by Livy, who instead describes the dedication of the Temple of Concord in the Vulcanal, a precinct sacred to Vulcan on the western end of the forum, by the aedile Gnaeus Flavius in 304 BC. Flavius' actions were an affront to the senate, partly because he had undertaken the matter without first consulting them, and partly because of his low social standing: not only was Flavius a plebeian, but he was the son of a freedman, and had previously served as a scribe to Appius Claudius Caecus. The Pontifex Maximus, Rome's chief priest, was compelled to instruct Flavius on the proper formulae for dedicating a temple. Cicero and Pliny report that Flavius was a scribe, rather than aedile, at the time of the dedication, and a law was passed immediately afterward forbidding anyone from dedicating a temple without the authorization of the senate or a majority of the plebeian tribunes.

Yet a third Temple of Concord was begun in 217 BC, early in the Second Punic War, by the duumviri Marcus Pupius and Caeso Quinctius Flamininus, in fulfillment of a vow made by the praetor Lucius Manlius Vulso on the occasion of his deliverance from the Gauls in 218. The reason why Manlius vowed a temple to Concordia is not immediately apparent, but Livy alludes to a mutiny that had apparently occurred among the praetor's men. The temple was completed and dedicated the following year by the duumviri Marcus and Gaius Atilius.

The murder of Gaius Gracchus in 121 BC marked a low point in the relationship between the emerging Roman aristocracy and the popular party, and was immediately followed by the reconstruction of the Temple of Concord by Lucius Opimius at the senate's behest, which was regarded as an utterly insincere attempt to clothe its actions in a symbolic act of reconciliation.

From this period, the temple was frequently used as a meeting place for both the senate and the Arval Brethren, and in later times it came to house a number of works of art, many of which are described by Pliny.

A statue of Victoria placed on the roof of the temple was struck by lightning in 211 BC, and prodigies were reported in the Concordiae, the neighborhood of the temple, in 183 and 181. Little else is heard of the temple until 7 BC, when the future emperor Tiberius undertook another restoration, which lasted until AD 10, when the structure was rededicated on the 16th of January as the Aedes Concordiae Augustae, the Temple of Concordia of Augustus.

The temple is occasionally mentioned in imperial times, and may have been restored again following a fire in AD 284. By the eighth century, the temple was reportedly in poor condition, and in danger of collapsing.

The temple was razed circa 1450, and the stone turned into a lime kiln to recover the marble for building.

From CNG:
The Temple of Concordia at the northern end of the Forum in Rome was unusual in that its width was greater than its length. We do not know precisely when the temple was originally built, but its unorthodox design was likely due to space limitations. The temple was restored after the revolt of the Gracchi in 121 BC, and again under Tiberius in AD 10.
Gary W2
018BTrajanDecius.jpg
Trajan Decius11 viewsSilver Antoninianus
Roman Imperial - The Crisis

Trajan Decius

Rome mint, 249 - 251 A.D.
VF. Better in hand.
22.0 mm / 4.399 g / 180°

Obverse: "IMP C M Q TRAIANVS DECIVS AVG", radiate, draped, cuirassed right.
Reverse: "VBERITAS", Uberitas standing left, holding purse and cornucopia.

RIC 28B. RSC 105. Sear 9384

Ex Frans Diederik (2015/16)

MyID: 018B
TenthGen
010BTrebonianusGallus.jpg
Trebonianus Gallus13 viewsSilver Antoninianus
Roman Imperial - The Crisis

Trebonianus Gallus

Rome mint, 252 - 253 A.D.
VF. Better in hand.
22.0 mm / 3.548 g / 0°

Obverse: "IMP C C VIB TREB GALLVS AVG", radiate, draped, cuirassed bust right.
Reverse: "PAX AETERNA", Pax standing left, holding branch and transverse sceptre.

RIC 71. RSC 76. Sear 9639

MyID: 010B
TenthGen
1280px-MisisBrücke.jpg
Turkey, Misis, Roman bridge over the Pyramus29 viewsRoman bridge in Misis-Mopsuestia over the Pyramus. Constantius II built this magnificent bridge over the Pyramus (Malalas, Chronographia, XIII; P.G., XCVII, 488) afterwards it was restored by Justinian (Procopius, De Edificiis, V. 5) and it has been restored again recently. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mopsuestia Joe Sermarini
1024px-MisisMosaik.jpg
Turkey, Yakapinar (Mopsos) - Mosaics depicting Noah's Ark in the Misis Mosaic Museum109 viewsMosaics depicting Noah's Ark from ancient Mopsos in the Misis Mosaic Museum.1 commentsJoe Sermarini
imgonline-com-ua-twotoone-FoVTANMmEFe7O1M-Julian_II_the_apostate.jpg
ulian II (Augustus) Coin: Bronze Double Maiorina2 viewsD N FL CL IVLIANVS P F AVG - Pearl diademed, draped and cuirassed bust of Julian right
SECVRITAS REIPVB - Apis bull standing right, two stars above horns
Exergue:



Mint: Sirmium (361-363AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 7.95g / 28mm / 360
References:
RIC VIII 106
Acquisition/Sale: xcelatorx Ebay $0.00 7/17
Notes: Oct 13, 18 - The Gary R. Wilson Collection

While the coinage of Julian is most remarkable for its depiction of the Apis bull, historians are uncertain of what the emperor actually intended to portray through this coinage. Was it an effort to link the emperor to the mysterious power of the bull common amongst the Egyptians? Was it an attempt to portray the ritual sacrifice of bulls that Julian re-instated after decades of Christian-sympathizing rule? Or was it something else, perhaps a representation of the astrological sign Taurus? The chronicler Ammianus Marcellinus is the primary source on Julian's reign and unfortunately never commented on the coinage, whilst mostly praising Julian's actions, personality, and character. [1]

More on the Apis Bull:

The Apis bull was an important sacred animal to the ancient Egyptians. As with the other sacred beasts Apis' importance increased over the centuries. During colonization of the conquered Egypt, Greek and Roman authors had much to say about Apis, the markings by which the black calf was recognized, the manner of his conception by a ray from heaven, his house at Memphis (with a court for his deportment), the mode of prognostication from his actions, his death, the mourning at his death, his costly burial, and the rejoicings throughout the country when a new Apis was found. Auguste Mariette's excavation of the Serapeum of Saqqara revealed the tombs of more than sixty animals, ranging from the time of Amenhotep III to that of the Ptolemaic dynasty. Originally, each animal was buried in a separate tomb with a chapel built above it.

According to Arrian, Apis was one of the Egyptian deities Alexander the Great propitiated by offering a sacrifice during his seizure of Ancient Egypt from the Persians. After Alexander's death, his general Ptolemy I Soter made efforts to integrate Egyptian religion with that of the new Hellenic rulers. Ptolemy's policy was to find a deity that might win the reverence of both groups, despite the curses of the Egyptian religious leaders against the deities of the previous foreign rulers (i.e. Set, lauded by the Hyksos). Without success, Alexander had attempted to use Amun for this purpose, but that deity was more prominent in Upper Egypt and not for those in Lower Egypt, where the Greeks had stronger influence. Since the Greeks had little respect for animal-headed deities, a Greek statue was created as an idol and proclaimed as an anthropomorphic equivalent of the highly popular Apis. It was named Aser-hapi (i.e. Osiris-Apis), which became Serapis, and later was said to represent Osiris fully, rather than just his Ka.

The earliest mention of a Serapis is in the authentic death scene of Alexander, from the royal diaries. Here, Serapis has a temple at Babylon, and is of such importance that he alone is named as being consulted on behalf of the dying Alexander. The presence of this temple in Babylon radically altered perceptions of the mythologies of this era, although it has been discovered that the unconnected Babylonian deity Ea was entitled Serapsi, meaning king of the deep, and it is Serapsi who is referred to in the diaries, not Serapis. The significance of this Serapsi in the Hellenic psyche, however, due to its involvement in Alexander's death, also may have contributed to the choice of Osiris-Apis as the chief Ptolemaic deity during their occupation of Ancient Egypt.

According to Plutarch, Ptolemy stole the statue from Sinope, having been instructed in a dream by the Unknown God to bring the statue to Alexandria, where the statue was pronounced to be "Serapis" by two religious experts. Among those experts was one of the Eumolpidae, the ancient family from which the hierophant of the Eleusinian Mysteries traditionally had been chosen since before any historical records. The other expert supposedly was the scholarly Egyptian priest Manetho, which increased acceptability from both the Egyptians and the Greeks.

Plutarch may not be correct, however, as some Egyptologists assert that the Sinope in Plutarch's report is the hill of Sinopeion, a name given to the site of an existing Serapeum at Memphis. Also, according to Tacitus, Serapis (i.e. Apis explicitly identified as Osiris in full) had been the tutelary deity of the village of Rhacotis, before it suddenly expanded into the great capital of "Alexandria".

Being introduced by the Greeks, understandably, the statue depicted a fully human figure resembling Hades or Pluto, both being kings of the Greek underworld. The figure was enthroned with the modius, which is a basket or a grain-measure, on his head, a Greek symbol for the land of the dead. He also held a sceptre, indicating rulership, and Cerberus, gatekeeper of the underworld, rested at his feet. It also had what appeared to be a serpent at its base, fitting the Egyptian symbol of sovereignty, the uraeus.

With his (i.e., Osiris') wife, Isis, and their son (at this point in history) Horus (in the form of Harpocrates), Serapis won an important place in the Greek world, reaching Ancient Rome, with Anubis being identified as Cerberus. The cult survived until 385, when Christians destroyed the Serapeum of Alexandria, and subsequently, the cult was forbidden by the Edict of Thessalonica.[2]

[1] Lewis, Will. Taking the Bull by the Horns, Ancient World Magazine, March 16, 2018
[2] The Apis Bull, Wikipedia online encyclopedia
Gary W2
Severina_Concordiae_Militvm_Large.jpg
Ulpia Severina - A Coin of an Interregnum?3 viewsUlpia Severina, Augusta (274 AD), wife of Aurelian
Obv: SEVERINA AVG; Bust of Severina, diademed, draped, on a lunar crescent, facing right.
Rev: CONCORDIAE MILITVM; Concordia standing left, facing left, flanked by two standards, one in each hand, VI in left field, XXI in exergue.
Denomination: billion antoninianus; Mint: Antioch; Officina: 6th; Issue: 6; Date: early 275 to September 275 AD; Weight: 3.77g; Diameter: 23.3mm; Die axis: 180º; References, for example: RIC V v.1 20; MER - RIC 3198.

Notes:

Is this a coin of an interregnum?
That there was an interregnum, in the literal meaning of the word, between the murder of Aurelian and the Senatorial appointment of Tacitus as emperor is undisputed. What is disputed, however, is the length of the interregnum as well as its meaningfulness, i.e. for whatever period of interregnum that did exist, did Severina or the Senate actually rule the empire and thereby make decisions that engendered consequences and/or directed actions? This coin type (although not the only coin type) has played a part in the interregnum story. In Aurelian and the Third Century (London and New York: Routledge, 1999) Alaric Watson dedicates seven and a half pages (pp. 109 - 116) to discussing the interregnum, where he vociferously argues that there was no meaningful interregnum. As part of this discussion he references, on p. 115, this particular coin type and in footnote 66 he cites a number of sources that assign this type in the name of Severina to the period after Aurelian’s death. For example:
Percy Webb in RIC, vol. V, part 1 (1927), pp. 4, 35, and 253 does not take a stance on the possible length of the interregnum, but on p. 253 he states that if the interregnum lasted eight months, then the mints certainly could not have been closed and so “...it is necessary to find coins representing their output.”1 This coin type, dedicated to Concordia and in the name of Severina alone, might represent that output. In “The Imperial Recovery” (chapter nine of The Cambridge Ancient History, vol. XII, The Imperial Crisis and Recovery AD 193 - 324. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1939) Harold Mattingly acknowledges that although the length of the interregnum is in debate “... the coinage shows clearly that for some considerable period government was carried on in the name of the Empress Severina for the the dead Aurelian.” (p. 310). In all officina for several mints the coinage of Severina, such as the “Concordia Militum” type “...bear witness to the conditions of the interregnum.” (p. 310). In “The Reform of Aurelian” (Revue Numismatique, 6th series, vol. 7, 1965: 225 - 235) R. A. G. Carson mentions on pp. 233 and 234 that Severina’s Concordia Militum type is for Severina alone, and that as such it was minted after the death of Aurelian (p. 233). Carson is not concerned with the question of an interregnum, but his placement of this coin type for Severina alone after Aurelian’s death allows this coin type to be taken as evidence of an interregnum. Eugen Cizek in L’Empereur Aurélien Et Son Temps (Paris: Les Belles Lettres, 1994) also refers to this coin type (not by specific legend, but by reference to “concord with the soldiers”) when discussing the interregnum. He notes that other scholars assign this coinage to the interregnum, a position that he appears to adopt. In Repostiglio della Venèra Nuovo Catalogo Illustrato Aureliano II/I (Rome: L'Erma di Bretschneider, 1995) Sylviane Estiot also assigns this coin type to the period after Aurelian’s death.2

But what of the coin here, this coin actually attributed to the 6th officina, mint of Antioch, 6th issue? Estiot attributes this coin not to an interregnal period between Aurelian and Tacitus, when Severina might have ruled in her own right. Rather, on p. 90 of “Aureliana” (Revue Numismatique, 6th series, vo. 150, 1995: 50 - 94) Estiot attributes this coin, because of exact parallelisms to Aurelian’s coinage at Antioch at this time, to a period of joint coinage between Aurelian and Severina.3

Footnotes:

1He actually allows for the possibility of coinage even if the interregnum was short. See footnote 1, p. 253.
2I assume this to be the case. Although I have no reason to doubt Watson’s citation I was unable to verify it because I am unable to obtain a copy of this book by Estiot.
3Also see Estiot, Monnaies de L’Empire romain XII.1: D’Aurelian à Florien (270 - 276 apres J.-C.). Paris: Bibliothèque nationale de France, 2004, pp. 28 (table 1) and 122.

Photo credits: Forum Ancient Coins
Tracy Aiello
Clipboard7~3~0.jpg
Uncertain AE16 35 viewsObv: Geta? as Ceasar bust r.
Rev: Isis? in distyle temple. [.....]WN
ancientone
Clipboard7~3.jpg
Uncertain Geta AE16 62 viewsObv: Geta as Ceasar bust r.
Rev: Isis? in distyle temple. [.....]IWN
ancientone
015AValerianI.jpg
Valerian I4 viewsBillon antoninianus
Roman Imperial - The Crisis of the Third Century

Valerian I

Syrian mint, 258 - 260 A.D.
aVF
22.9 mm / 3.496 g / 180°

Obverse: "IMP C P LIC VALERIANVS PF AVG", radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right.
Reverse: "RESTITVT ORIENTIS", turreted female (the Orient) presenting wreath to the Emperor standing left holding spear, star above.

Ex Forvm Ancient Coins 2015 (40231)

Göbl MIR 1700q (Samosata), RIC V 287 (Antioch), SRCV III 9967 (uncertain Syrian mint)

MyID: 015A

Image Credit: Forvm Ancient Coins
TenthGen
Vesp_Alex_AE_1.jpg
Vespasian14 viewsVespasian
AE26mm Diobol of Alexandria. Year 5 = 72/73 AD.
Laureate head right / Bust of Isis right, LE before.
Milne 427; RPC 2438
Sosius
Vesp_Diobol.jpg
Vespasian20 viewsVESPASIAN
AE26mm Diobol of Alexandria. Dated Year 5 = 72/73 AD
AVΤΟΚ ΚΑΙΣ ΣΕΒΑ ΟVΕΣΠΑΣΙΑΝΟV, laureate head right / Bust of Isis right, L delta before.
Milne 427; RPC 2438; Koln 296; Dattari 384; Emmett 217; VF
Sosius
Vespasian_11.jpg
VESPASIAN Æ Diobol RPC 2438, Isis27 viewsOBVERSE: AYTOK KAIΣ ΣEBA OYEΣΠAΣIANOY, laureate head right
REVERSE: LE, Draped bust of Isis right wearing uraeus crown
Struck at Alexandria, Egypt, Year 5 = 72/73 A.D
9.15 g, 24.9
1 commentsLegatus
vespasian_ric_544.jpg
Vespasian AR Denarius115 viewsVespasian, 69-79 A.D. AR Denarius, 3.16g. 21.41mm. Rome, 73 A.D.
Obv: IMP CAES VESP AVG CENS. Laureate head of Vespasian to right.
Rev: MAXIM PONTIF. Nemisis walking to right holding caduceus over snake. RIC 544. 
Ex: E. E. Clain-Stefanelli collection. Ex: Numismatica Ars Classica - Auction 92 Part 2, Lot 2133 May 24, 2016; Ex: Ed waddell




This denarius of Vespasian is interesting because of the reverse. The reverse features Nemesis walking with a snake. This reverse was also used earlier by Claudius. In fact, Vespasian revived many of the earlier coin types for his own coinage.

The other interesting fact about this denarius is the provenance. This coin once belonged to E. E. Clain-Stefanelli. She was senior Curator of the National Numismatic Collection in the Numismatics Division of the National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC. She also published works concerning ancient coins and their history.
4 commentsorfew
Vespasian_Milne_420.jpg
Vespasian, AE Diobol, Milne 42010 viewsVespasian
Augustus, (69-79 A.D.)

Coin: AE Diobol

Obverse: AVTOK KAIΣ ΣEBA OVEΣΠAΣIANOV, laureate bust facing right.
Reverse: Crowned and draped bust of Isis, facing right, LΔ in the lower right field.

Weight: 8.86 g, Diameter: 24.5 x 24 x 2.5 mm, Die axis: 0°, Mint: Alexandria, Year: 4 (LΔ = 71-72 A.D.), Reference: Milne 420
Masis
CIIGRICV197unlistedvar.jpg
[1114a] Claudius II Gothicus, September 268 - August or September 270 A.D.57 viewsSilvered antoninianus, RIC V 197 var (pellet in exergue), aEF, 3.880g, 21.1mm, 0o, Antioch mint, 268 - 270 A.D.; Obverse: IMP C CLAVDIVS AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right; Reverse: AEQVITAS AVG, Aequitas standing left, scales in right, cornucopia in left, • in exergue; full silvering, bold strike, excellent centering and eastern style, rare this nice; rare variety. Ex FORVM.


De Imperatoribus Romanis
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors

Claudius II Gothicus (268-270)

Richard D. Weigel
Western Kentucky University

M. Aurelius Claudius, known to history as Claudius Gothicus or Claudius II, was born in either Dalmatia or Illyria on May 10, probably in A.D. 213 or 214. Although the most substantive source on Claudius is the biography in the Scriptores Historiae Augustae (SHA), this account is riddled with fabrications and slanted with fawning praise for this particular emperor, who in the fourth century was viewed as an ancestor of Constantine's father and thus of the ruling imperial family. This biography, attributed to one Trebellius Pollio, must be read with extreme caution and supplemented with information from other sources, including Aurelius Victor, the Epitome de Caesaribus, Eutropius, Orosius, Zonaras, and Zosimus, as well as coins and inscriptions.

The SHA account describes Claudius as being tall, with fiery eyes, and so strong that he could knock out the teeth of man or beast with one punch. It also says that Trajan Decius rewarded him after Claudius demonstrated his strength while wrestling another soldier in the Campus Martius. The SHA author suggests that Claudius may have been descended from the Trojan King Ilus and even from Dardanus, son of Zeus and ancestor of the Trojan royal family, but these suggestions are very likely fabricated to further ennoble Claudius and his putative descendants, the family of Constantine. The SHA biography also includes false letters attributed to the emperors Trajan Decius, Valerian, and Gallienus, all attesting to their high opinions of Claudius. Reference is made in these letters to Claudius' service as tribune in an otherwise unattested legion V Martialis and also as general in command of Illyria, but these positions may also be fictitious. One can assume that Claudius had served for some time in the army, at least under Gallienus and perhaps also under several earlier emperors.

There is some evidence that Claudius was wounded in Gallienus' campaign to put down the revolt of Ingenuus and that he later served with Aureolus under Gallienus in the war with Postumus. By 268, when Gallienus took his troops into Italy to put down Aureolus' revolt, Claudius had emerged as heir-apparent to Gallienus and may also have been involved in the plot to assassinate the emperor. Aurelius Victor says that when Gallienus was killed by his own troops besieging Aureolus in Milan, Claudius as tribune was commanding the soldiers stationed at Ticinum, some twenty miles to the south, and that prior to dying Gallienus designated Claudius as his heir. Victor goes on to claim that after succeeding to the purple Claudius forced the Senate to deify Gallienus. The SHA account states that the soldiers mutinied after Gallienus' death and had to be quieted with a donative of twenty aurei each before settling down and accepting their new emperor. Once in power, Claudius quickly dealt with Aureolus, who surrendered and was killed almost immediately. The new emperor also demanded clemency for the supporters of Gallienus.

The story of Gallienus' deathbed selection of his successor is doubtful at best and is very likely an attempt to deflect blame for the assassination plot from Claudius. The suggestion that the new emperor pressured the Senate to deify Gallienus is more difficult to assess. It is true that securing divine status for one's predecessor is generally seen as a pious act (e.g. Antoninus Pius requesting deification of Hadrian) that reflects positively on the initiator and the story, recorded only in Aurelius Victor, could just be a fabrication used to build up Claudius' moral reputation. What is difficult to penetrate is the biased condemnation of Gallienus that particularly dominates the Latin sources. They make it hard to see why anyone would want to deify Gallienus and so the story seems out of place. However, deification of a predecessor could also be interpreted as the expected thing to do and the act could have fostered legitimacy of the new emperor and gained support from those who were still loyal to Gallienus so it may well have taken place.

The first major challenge facing the new emperor was that of the Alemanni, who had invaded Raetia and Italy. After an early defeat, Claudius replaced some irresponsible officers and soldiers, designated Aurelian as cavalry commander, and led the army to a decisive victory over the Alemanni. This victory earned Claudius the title of Germanicus Maximus and several of his coin-types appear to refer to victory over the Germans.

In 269 Claudius served as consul with Paternus. This year would also feature his major campaign against the Goths. There are indications that Spain separated itself from the Gallo-Roman Empire of Postumus and Tetricus and recognized Claudius, at least nominally, as emperor. In addition, rebellion within Gaul itself demonstrated the weakening of this independent state, although Claudius avoided engagement at Augustodunum and chose only to send a small force to protect Narbonese Gaul. While Claudius concentrated on protecting Roman territory against the Alemanni and Goths, Zenobia extended her Palmyrene Empire by taking Antioch, parts of Asia Minor, and most of Egypt. Although Eusebius and Sulpicius Severus portray the period between the reign of Valerian and that of Diocletian as a peaceful pause in the persecution of Christians, the Acts of the Martyrs does list some individuals allegedly martyred during Claudius II's reign.

The coins issued by Claudius II provide some limited insight into his reign. In addition to the standard "personified virtues" coins that are common with most emperors of the second and third centuries, Claudius struck coin-types proclaiming the security of the Empire (SECVRITAS PERPETVA and PAX AETERNA), the fidelity of the army (FIDES MILITVM), and military victories over the Germans and Goths (VICTORIA GERMAN and VICTORIAE GOTHIC). In addition, Claudius Gothicus' mints struck some other interesting and unusual coin-types. For example, Claudius is one of very few emperors who issued coins portraying the god Vulcan. These must have been limited issues because they are struck only by the Antioch mint and are very rare. The type shows Vulcan standing, with his special tools, the hammer and tongs, and features the unique inscription REGI ARTIS. A variant type with a similar image has been described as carrying another unique coin inscription, DEO CABIRO, and interpreted as depicting one of Vulcan's sons, the Cabiri, with the same tools. However, the existence of this variant type is doubtful. Although the reason for honoring Vulcan (and his sons?) with these coins is unclear, there may be a connection to the fact that the Cabiri were patron gods of Thessalonica who had protected that city against an attack by the Goths. Although a connection between Claudius Gothicus and the Cabiri as defenders against Gothic attacks is relatively attractive, it is weakened somewhat by the fact that Valerian and Gallienus had also issued coins with Vulcan in a temple so there may be some other reason for his reappearance on coins in this period.

Claudius II issued an unusual and scarce series of coins that features a pair of deities, who are presumably conservatores Augusti, on each reverse. The AETER AVG type depicts Apollo and Diana, who, as gods of the sun and moon, are associated with the concept of aeternitas. A type featuring Serapis and Isis is combined with a CONSER AVG inscription and one of Hercules and Minerva with one of CONSERVATORES AVG. Apollo and Diana are depicted with a SALVS AVG inscription, Aesculapius and Salus with one of SPES PVBLIC, and Vulcan and Minerva with VIRT AVG. The general message is that these deities will protect the future of the empire and the emperor.

Other unusual coin-types include MARS VLTOR, the god Augustus had honored with a temple for securing revenge for Caesar's assassination. This deity had appeared on Roman coins in the reigns of Galba and Severus Alexander. Claudius II also minted coins with rarely-seen NEPTVN AVG [see this reverse type in my collection] and SOL AVG types. The latter coin indicates some early interest in the god who would become so dominant a few years later on the coins of Aurelian, yet Claudius also used the INVICTVS AVG inscription that Gallienus had paired with an image of Sol with one of Hercules. ROMAE AETERNAE coin-types were fairly common in the mid-third century, but Claudius II issued an unusual variant type on an aureus that showed the goddess in her temple and echoed the SAECVLVM NOVVM images associated with Philip I. In addition, Claudius introduced a IOVI VICTORI reverse combined with the image normally paired with a IOVI STATORI inscription and a IOVI FVLGERAT reverse inscription, both of which had not been used by any of his predecessors. Andreas Alföldi suggested that Claudius' GENIVS SENATVS type signified improvement of the relationship between emperor and Senate following the senatorial hostility toward Gallienus.

Claudius Gothicus also produced coin-types with reverses of goddesses customarily found paired on coins with images of the Roman empresses. The deities portrayed include Ceres, Diana, Diana Lucifera, and Diana Victrix, Minerva, Venus, and the goddess naturally associated with the image of an empress, Juno Regina. One might suggest that Claudius issued these images because he had no empress with which to pair them, but an examination of other emperors' reigns during this period reveals that those emperors who did not issue coins bearing the empress' image also did not strike these particular goddess types. Although Ceres and Venus images are sometimes paired with an emperor's portrait, Diana Lucifera is rarely found on emperors' coins and Claudius II is the only emperor paired on coins with Juno Regina. In addition, Claudius was the first emperor to issue imperial coins that featured an isolated image of the exotic Egyptian goddess, Isis Faria.

Claudius II's short reign was vulnerable to internal as well as external attack. There may have been a revolt in 269-270 led by a Censorinus, although the date and even the existence of this usurper remain in doubt. The SHA includes him as the last of the "thirty tyrants" and lists a whole series of offices for him, including two consulships, but no other record exists to confirm such service. The SHA account states that he was proclaimed emperor by his soldiers, but soon afterwards killed by them because of his enforcement of strict discipline. His tomb is listed as being in Bologna, which may provide some idea of the location for the revolt. Henry Cohen dates the revolt to the beginning of the year 270, perhaps on the basis of a reference in the Epitome de Caesaribus, but suggests that coins attributed to Censorinus in earlier works may not exist.

The Gothic challenge in 269 proved to be the greatest that Claudius II would face. The Goths assembled a large invading force, reportedly amounting to 320,000 men transported on a fleet of at least 2,000 ships, and first attacked coastal cities along the Black Sea in Moesia. After passing into the Aegean the Goths besieged Thessalonica. At this point, in 269, Claudius left Rome to stop the invasion. The Goths then sent the larger segment of their troops on land toward the Danube, while the fleet took the remaining group to continue the naval attack on Aegean coastal cities. Claudius sent Aurelian's cavalry to Macedonia to protect Illyria from attack, while he commanded the forces blocking the route to the Danube. In the area of Doberus and Pelagonia, the Goths lost 3,000 men to Aurelian's cavalry. At Naissus in Moesia, Claudius' force succeeded in killing some 50,000 Goths. There were follow-up operations on both land and sea, but the Gothic War had essentially been won. Staving off the attacks of the Goths was a major contribution to the survival of the Roman Empire. It was a significant step leading to the subsequent success of Aurelian and the resurrection of the Empire under Diocletian and Constantine. When the Goths eventually succeeded in taking parts of the western Empire in the fifth century, their disruption to the course of civilization was likely much less violent than it would have been had they succeeded in the third century.

In addition to bad weather, a lack of supplies, and hunger, plague was a major factor in the defeat of the Goths. Many of the Gothic prisoners were either impressed into Roman military service or settled on farms as coloni. Claudius received the title Gothicus in recognition of his triumph over the Goths. At some point he had also been given the title Parthicus, but the unlikelihood of any conflict with the Parthians in his short reign makes this difficult to explain. Perhaps Damerau was correct in his suggestion that a Parthian unit may have been involved in one of the battles with the Palmyrenes, although on this front there were few achievements to claim. In any case, Claudius' victory over the Goths was short-lived. The emperor himself caught the plague and died at Sirmium early in 270. He was 56 years old. Claudius' brother, Quintillus, became emperor briefly before losing out to Aurelian. Claudius also had another brother, Crispus, and the SHA traces the link to Constantius through Crispus' daughter Claudia.

The Roman Senate showed its respect for Claudius Gothicus by setting up a gold portrait-shield in the Curia and by approving his deification. He was also honored with a golden statue in front of the great temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus and a silver statue set on a column on the Rostra.

In many ways, Claudius II received more adulation and honor in his Nachleben than he had during his lifetime. In the fourth century, attempts to link Constantine's family to Claudius resulted in the phrases of adoration and outright fabrication that dominate the SHA life and most of our other sources. Constantine even issued commemorative coins honoring Claudius. These carried inscriptions such as: DIVO CLAVDIO OPT[IMO] IMP[ERATORI], MEMORIAE AETERNAE, and REQVIES OPT[IMORVM] ME[RITORVM]. A tradition grew that changed the story of Claudius' death in some sources. In this version, Claudius, instead of dying from the plague, had actually performed a devotion, in response to an oracle found in the Sibylline Books, and sacrificed his life so that Rome could win the Gothic War. One of the most surprising things about the SHA account is that it ignores this more dramatic tradition and has Claudius simply dying from the plague.

One must, of course, reject the excessive claims of the SHA to the effect that Claudius II was "destined to rule for the good of the human race" and would, had he lived longer, "…by his strength, his counsel, and his foresight have restored to us the Scipios, the Camilli, and all those men of old." However, Claudius Gothicus was clearly a good emperor who made a significant contribution to protecting and restoring the Empire. In the third century there aren't too many emperors who merit such an assessment.

Copyright (C) 2001, Richard D. Weigel. Used by permission.
http://www.roman-emperors.org/claudgot.htm


Claudius II Gothicus was born in Illyricum around 215 A.D. Under Valerian and Gallienus he was recognized as a superb general. After the murder of Gallienus, Claudius Gothicus was proclaimed emperor and preceded to crush the Alemani tribe who had invaded Roman territory. Soon after an enormous horde of Goths poured into the empire. Against all advice, Claudius confronted the barbarians at Naissus in Upper Moesia. He fought a brilliant battle and annihilated them. Unfortunately for the empire, he died of plague after a reign of only two years (Joseph Sermarini, FORVM;
http://www.forumancientcoins.com/catalog/roman-and-greek-coins.asp?vpar=741&pos=0#Recovery%20of%20the%20Empire%20Coins).

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
CIIGRICV214.jpg
[1114b] Claudius II Gothicus, September 268 - August or September 270 A.D.51 viewsBronze antoninianus, RIC V 214, VF, 2.930g, 20.3mm, 180o, Antioch mint; Obverse: IMP C CLAVDIVS AVG, radiate bust right; Reverse: NEPTVN AVG, Neptune standing left, dolphin in right, trident in left hand, • in exergue; excellent centering. Ex FORVM.


De Imperatoribus Romanis
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors

Claudius II Gothicus (268-270)

Richard D. Weigel
Western Kentucky University

M. Aurelius Claudius, known to history as Claudius Gothicus or Claudius II, was born in either Dalmatia or Illyria on May 10, probably in A.D. 213 or 214. Although the most substantive source on Claudius is the biography in the Scriptores Historiae Augustae (SHA), this account is riddled with fabrications and slanted with fawning praise for this particular emperor, who in the fourth century was viewed as an ancestor of Constantine's father and thus of the ruling imperial family. This biography, attributed to one Trebellius Pollio, must be read with extreme caution and supplemented with information from other sources, including Aurelius Victor, the Epitome de Caesaribus, Eutropius, Orosius, Zonaras, and Zosimus, as well as coins and inscriptions.

The SHA account describes Claudius as being tall, with fiery eyes, and so strong that he could knock out the teeth of man or beast with one punch. It also says that Trajan Decius rewarded him after Claudius demonstrated his strength while wrestling another soldier in the Campus Martius. The SHA author suggests that Claudius may have been descended from the Trojan King Ilus and even from Dardanus, son of Zeus and ancestor of the Trojan royal family, but these suggestions are very likely fabricated to further ennoble Claudius and his putative descendants, the family of Constantine. The SHA biography also includes false letters attributed to the emperors Trajan Decius, Valerian, and Gallienus, all attesting to their high opinions of Claudius. Reference is made in these letters to Claudius' service as tribune in an otherwise unattested legion V Martialis and also as general in command of Illyria, but these positions may also be fictitious. One can assume that Claudius had served for some time in the army, at least under Gallienus and perhaps also under several earlier emperors.

There is some evidence that Claudius was wounded in Gallienus' campaign to put down the revolt of Ingenuus and that he later served with Aureolus under Gallienus in the war with Postumus. By 268, when Gallienus took his troops into Italy to put down Aureolus' revolt, Claudius had emerged as heir-apparent to Gallienus and may also have been involved in the plot to assassinate the emperor. Aurelius Victor says that when Gallienus was killed by his own troops besieging Aureolus in Milan, Claudius as tribune was commanding the soldiers stationed at Ticinum, some twenty miles to the south, and that prior to dying Gallienus designated Claudius as his heir. Victor goes on to claim that after succeeding to the purple Claudius forced the Senate to deify Gallienus. The SHA account states that the soldiers mutinied after Gallienus' death and had to be quieted with a donative of twenty aurei each before settling down and accepting their new emperor. Once in power, Claudius quickly dealt with Aureolus, who surrendered and was killed almost immediately. The new emperor also demanded clemency for the supporters of Gallienus.

The story of Gallienus' deathbed selection of his successor is doubtful at best and is very likely an attempt to deflect blame for the assassination plot from Claudius. The suggestion that the new emperor pressured the Senate to deify Gallienus is more difficult to assess. It is true that securing divine status for one's predecessor is generally seen as a pious act (e.g. Antoninus Pius requesting deification of Hadrian) that reflects positively on the initiator and the story, recorded only in Aurelius Victor, could just be a fabrication used to build up Claudius' moral reputation. What is difficult to penetrate is the biased condemnation of Gallienus that particularly dominates the Latin sources. They make it hard to see why anyone would want to deify Gallienus and so the story seems out of place. However, deification of a predecessor could also be interpreted as the expected thing to do and the act could have fostered legitimacy of the new emperor and gained support from those who were still loyal to Gallienus so it may well have taken place.

The first major challenge facing the new emperor was that of the Alemanni, who had invaded Raetia and Italy. After an early defeat, Claudius replaced some irresponsible officers and soldiers, designated Aurelian as cavalry commander, and led the army to a decisive victory over the Alemanni. This victory earned Claudius the title of Germanicus Maximus and several of his coin-types appear to refer to victory over the Germans.

In 269 Claudius served as consul with Paternus. This year would also feature his major campaign against the Goths. There are indications that Spain separated itself from the Gallo-Roman Empire of Postumus and Tetricus and recognized Claudius, at least nominally, as emperor. In addition, rebellion within Gaul itself demonstrated the weakening of this independent state, although Claudius avoided engagement at Augustodunum and chose only to send a small force to protect Narbonese Gaul. While Claudius concentrated on protecting Roman territory against the Alemanni and Goths, Zenobia extended her Palmyrene Empire by taking Antioch, parts of Asia Minor, and most of Egypt. Although Eusebius and Sulpicius Severus portray the period between the reign of Valerian and that of Diocletian as a peaceful pause in the persecution of Christians, the Acts of the Martyrs does list some individuals allegedly martyred during Claudius II's reign.

The coins issued by Claudius II provide some limited insight into his reign. In addition to the standard "personified virtues" coins that are common with most emperors of the second and third centuries, Claudius struck coin-types proclaiming the security of the Empire (SECVRITAS PERPETVA and PAX AETERNA), the fidelity of the army (FIDES MILITVM), and military victories over the Germans and Goths (VICTORIA GERMAN and VICTORIAE GOTHIC). In addition, Claudius Gothicus' mints struck some other interesting and unusual coin-types. For example, Claudius is one of very few emperors who issued coins portraying the god Vulcan. These must have been limited issues because they are struck only by the Antioch mint and are very rare. The type shows Vulcan standing, with his special tools, the hammer and tongs, and features the unique inscription REGI ARTIS. A variant type with a similar image has been described as carrying another unique coin inscription, DEO CABIRO, and interpreted as depicting one of Vulcan's sons, the Cabiri, with the same tools. However, the existence of this variant type is doubtful. Although the reason for honoring Vulcan (and his sons?) with these coins is unclear, there may be a connection to the fact that the Cabiri were patron gods of Thessalonica who had protected that city against an attack by the Goths. Although a connection between Claudius Gothicus and the Cabiri as defenders against Gothic attacks is relatively attractive, it is weakened somewhat by the fact that Valerian and Gallienus had also issued coins with Vulcan in a temple so there may be some other reason for his reappearance on coins in this period.

Claudius II issued an unusual and scarce series of coins that features a pair of deities, who are presumably conservatores Augusti, on each reverse. The AETER AVG type depicts Apollo and Diana, who, as gods of the sun and moon, are associated with the concept of aeternitas. A type featuring Serapis and Isis is combined with a CONSER AVG inscription and one of Hercules and Minerva with one of CONSERVATORES AVG. Apollo and Diana are depicted with a SALVS AVG inscription, Aesculapius and Salus with one of SPES PVBLIC, and Vulcan and Minerva with VIRT AVG. The general message is that these deities will protect the future of the empire and the emperor.

Other unusual coin-types include MARS VLTOR, the god Augustus had honored with a temple for securing revenge for Caesar's assassination. This deity had appeared on Roman coins in the reigns of Galba and Severus Alexander. Claudius II also minted coins with rarely-seen NEPTVN AVG [see this reverse type in my collection] and SOL AVG types. The latter coin indicates some early interest in the god who would become so dominant a few years later on the coins of Aurelian, yet Claudius also used the INVICTVS AVG inscription that Gallienus had paired with an image of Sol with one of Hercules. ROMAE AETERNAE coin-types were fairly common in the mid-third century, but Claudius II issued an unusual variant type on an aureus that showed the goddess in her temple and echoed the SAECVLVM NOVVM images associated with Philip I. In addition, Claudius introduced a IOVI VICTORI reverse combined with the image normally paired with a IOVI STATORI inscription and a IOVI FVLGERAT reverse inscription, both of which had not been used by any of his predecessors. Andreas Alföldi suggested that Claudius' GENIVS SENATVS type signified improvement of the relationship between emperor and Senate following the senatorial hostility toward Gallienus.

Claudius Gothicus also produced coin-types with reverses of goddesses customarily found paired on coins with images of the Roman empresses. The deities portrayed include Ceres, Diana, Diana Lucifera, and Diana Victrix, Minerva, Venus, and the goddess naturally associated with the image of an empress, Juno Regina. One might suggest that Claudius issued these images because he had no empress with which to pair them, but an examination of other emperors' reigns during this period reveals that those emperors who did not issue coins bearing the empress' image also did not strike these particular goddess types. Although Ceres and Venus images are sometimes paired with an emperor's portrait, Diana Lucifera is rarely found on emperors' coins and Claudius II is the only emperor paired on coins with Juno Regina. In addition, Claudius was the first emperor to issue imperial coins that featured an isolated image of the exotic Egyptian goddess, Isis Faria.

Claudius II's short reign was vulnerable to internal as well as external attack. There may have been a revolt in 269-270 led by a Censorinus, although the date and even the existence of this usurper remain in doubt. The SHA includes him as the last of the "thirty tyrants" and lists a whole series of offices for him, including two consulships, but no other record exists to confirm such service. The SHA account states that he was proclaimed emperor by his soldiers, but soon afterwards killed by them because of his enforcement of strict discipline. His tomb is listed as being in Bologna, which may provide some idea of the location for the revolt. Henry Cohen dates the revolt to the beginning of the year 270, perhaps on the basis of a reference in the Epitome de Caesaribus, but suggests that coins attributed to Censorinus in earlier works may not exist.

The Gothic challenge in 269 proved to be the greatest that Claudius II would face. The Goths assembled a large invading force, reportedly amounting to 320,000 men transported on a fleet of at least 2,000 ships, and first attacked coastal cities along the Black Sea in Moesia. After passing into the Aegean the Goths besieged Thessalonica. At this point, in 269, Claudius left Rome to stop the invasion. The Goths then sent the larger segment of their troops on land toward the Danube, while the fleet took the remaining group to continue the naval attack on Aegean coastal cities. Claudius sent Aurelian's cavalry to Macedonia to protect Illyria from attack, while he commanded the forces blocking the route to the Danube. In the area of Doberus and Pelagonia, the Goths lost 3,000 men to Aurelian's cavalry. At Naissus in Moesia, Claudius' force succeeded in killing some 50,000 Goths. There were follow-up operations on both land and sea, but the Gothic War had essentially been won. Staving off the attacks of the Goths was a major contribution to the survival of the Roman Empire. It was a significant step leading to the subsequent success of Aurelian and the resurrection of the Empire under Diocletian and Constantine. When the Goths eventually succeeded in taking parts of the western Empire in the fifth century, their disruption to the course of civilization was likely much less violent than it would have been had they succeeded in the third century.

In addition to bad weather, a lack of supplies, and hunger, plague was a major factor in the defeat of the Goths. Many of the Gothic prisoners were either impressed into Roman military service or settled on farms as coloni. Claudius received the title Gothicus in recognition of his triumph over the Goths. At some point he had also been given the title Parthicus, but the unlikelihood of any conflict with the Parthians in his short reign makes this difficult to explain. Perhaps Damerau was correct in his suggestion that a Parthian unit may have been involved in one of the battles with the Palmyrenes, although on this front there were few achievements to claim. In any case, Claudius' victory over the Goths was short-lived. The emperor himself caught the plague and died at Sirmium early in 270. He was 56 years old. Claudius' brother, Quintillus, became emperor briefly before losing out to Aurelian. Claudius also had another brother, Crispus, and the SHA traces the link to Constantius through Crispus' daughter Claudia.

The Roman Senate showed its respect for Claudius Gothicus by setting up a gold portrait-shield in the Curia and by approving his deification. He was also honored with a golden statue in front of the great temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus and a silver statue set on a column on the Rostra.

In many ways, Claudius II received more adulation and honor in his Nachleben than he had during his lifetime. In the fourth century, attempts to link Constantine's family to Claudius resulted in the phrases of adoration and outright fabrication that dominate the SHA life and most of our other sources. Constantine even issued commemorative coins honoring Claudius. These carried inscriptions such as: DIVO CLAVDIO OPT[IMO] IMP[ERATORI], MEMORIAE AETERNAE, and REQVIES OPT[IMORVM] ME[RITORVM]. A tradition grew that changed the story of Claudius' death in some sources. In this version, Claudius, instead of dying from the plague, had actually performed a devotion, in response to an oracle found in the Sibylline Books, and sacrificed his life so that Rome could win the Gothic War. One of the most surprising things about the SHA account is that it ignores this more dramatic tradition and has Claudius simply dying from the plague.

One must, of course, reject the excessive claims of the SHA to the effect that Claudius II was "destined to rule for the good of the human race" and would, had he lived longer, "…by his strength, his counsel, and his foresight have restored to us the Scipios, the Camilli, and all those men of old." However, Claudius Gothicus was clearly a good emperor who made a significant contribution to protecting and restoring the Empire. In the third century there aren't too many emperors who merit such an assessment.

Copyright (C) 2001, Richard D. Weigel. Used by permission.
http://www.roman-emperors.org/claudgot.htm


Claudius II Gothicus was born in Illyricum around 215 A.D. Under Valerian and Gallienus he was recognized as a superb general. After the murder of Gallienus, Claudius Gothicus was proclaimed emperor and preceded to crush the Alemani tribe who had invaded Roman territory. Soon after an enormous horde of Goths poured into the empire. Against all advice, Claudius confronted the barbarians at Naissus in Upper Moesia. He fought a brilliant battle and annihilated them. Unfortunately for the empire, he died of plague after a reign of only two years (Joseph Sermarini, FORVM;
http://www.forumancientcoins.com/catalog/roman-and-greek-coins.asp?vpar=741&pos=0#Recovery%20of%20the%20Empire%20Coins).

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
ClaudiusIIGothicusRIC34.jpg
[1114c] Claudius II Gothicus, September 268 - August or September 270 A.D.49 viewsAntoninianus. RIC 34. Weight, Size. F. Rome mint. Obverse: IMP C CLAVDIVS AVG, Radiate, draped bust right; Reverse: FIDES EXERCI, Fides standing left, holding two standards. Ex Maridvnvm


De Imperatoribus Romanis
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors

Claudius II Gothicus (268-270)

Richard D. Weigel
Western Kentucky University

M. Aurelius Claudius, known to history as Claudius Gothicus or Claudius II, was born in either Dalmatia or Illyria on May 10, probably in A.D. 213 or 214. Although the most substantive source on Claudius is the biography in the Scriptores Historiae Augustae (SHA), this account is riddled with fabrications and slanted with fawning praise for this particular emperor, who in the fourth century was viewed as an ancestor of Constantine's father and thus of the ruling imperial family. This biography, attributed to one Trebellius Pollio, must be read with extreme caution and supplemented with information from other sources, including Aurelius Victor, the Epitome de Caesaribus, Eutropius, Orosius, Zonaras, and Zosimus, as well as coins and inscriptions.

The SHA account describes Claudius as being tall, with fiery eyes, and so strong that he could knock out the teeth of man or beast with one punch. It also says that Trajan Decius rewarded him after Claudius demonstrated his strength while wrestling another soldier in the Campus Martius. The SHA author suggests that Claudius may have been descended from the Trojan King Ilus and even from Dardanus, son of Zeus and ancestor of the Trojan royal family, but these suggestions are very likely fabricated to further ennoble Claudius and his putative descendants, the family of Constantine. The SHA biography also includes false letters attributed to the emperors Trajan Decius, Valerian, and Gallienus, all attesting to their high opinions of Claudius. Reference is made in these letters to Claudius' service as tribune in an otherwise unattested legion V Martialis and also as general in command of Illyria, but these positions may also be fictitious. One can assume that Claudius had served for some time in the army, at least under Gallienus and perhaps also under several earlier emperors.

There is some evidence that Claudius was wounded in Gallienus' campaign to put down the revolt of Ingenuus and that he later served with Aureolus under Gallienus in the war with Postumus. By 268, when Gallienus took his troops into Italy to put down Aureolus' revolt, Claudius had emerged as heir-apparent to Gallienus and may also have been involved in the plot to assassinate the emperor. Aurelius Victor says that when Gallienus was killed by his own troops besieging Aureolus in Milan, Claudius as tribune was commanding the soldiers stationed at Ticinum, some twenty miles to the south, and that prior to dying Gallienus designated Claudius as his heir. Victor goes on to claim that after succeeding to the purple Claudius forced the Senate to deify Gallienus. The SHA account states that the soldiers mutinied after Gallienus' death and had to be quieted with a donative of twenty aurei each before settling down and accepting their new emperor. Once in power, Claudius quickly dealt with Aureolus, who surrendered and was killed almost immediately. The new emperor also demanded clemency for the supporters of Gallienus.

The story of Gallienus' deathbed selection of his successor is doubtful at best and is very likely an attempt to deflect blame for the assassination plot from Claudius. The suggestion that the new emperor pressured the Senate to deify Gallienus is more difficult to assess. It is true that securing divine status for one's predecessor is generally seen as a pious act (e.g. Antoninus Pius requesting deification of Hadrian) that reflects positively on the initiator and the story, recorded only in Aurelius Victor, could just be a fabrication used to build up Claudius' moral reputation. What is difficult to penetrate is the biased condemnation of Gallienus that particularly dominates the Latin sources. They make it hard to see why anyone would want to deify Gallienus and so the story seems out of place. However, deification of a predecessor could also be interpreted as the expected thing to do and the act could have fostered legitimacy of the new emperor and gained support from those who were still loyal to Gallienus so it may well have taken place.

The first major challenge facing the new emperor was that of the Alemanni, who had invaded Raetia and Italy. After an early defeat, Claudius replaced some irresponsible officers and soldiers, designated Aurelian as cavalry commander, and led the army to a decisive victory over the Alemanni. This victory earned Claudius the title of Germanicus Maximus and several of his coin-types appear to refer to victory over the Germans.

In 269 Claudius served as consul with Paternus. This year would also feature his major campaign against the Goths. There are indications that Spain separated itself from the Gallo-Roman Empire of Postumus and Tetricus and recognized Claudius, at least nominally, as emperor. In addition, rebellion within Gaul itself demonstrated the weakening of this independent state, although Claudius avoided engagement at Augustodunum and chose only to send a small force to protect Narbonese Gaul. While Claudius concentrated on protecting Roman territory against the Alemanni and Goths, Zenobia extended her Palmyrene Empire by taking Antioch, parts of Asia Minor, and most of Egypt. Although Eusebius and Sulpicius Severus portray the period between the reign of Valerian and that of Diocletian as a peaceful pause in the persecution of Christians, the Acts of the Martyrs does list some individuals allegedly martyred during Claudius II's reign.

The coins issued by Claudius II provide some limited insight into his reign. In addition to the standard "personified virtues" coins that are common with most emperors of the second and third centuries, Claudius struck coin-types proclaiming the security of the Empire (SECVRITAS PERPETVA and PAX AETERNA), the fidelity of the army (FIDES MILITVM), and military victories over the Germans and Goths (VICTORIA GERMAN and VICTORIAE GOTHIC). In addition, Claudius Gothicus' mints struck some other interesting and unusual coin-types. For example, Claudius is one of very few emperors who issued coins portraying the god Vulcan. These must have been limited issues because they are struck only by the Antioch mint and are very rare. The type shows Vulcan standing, with his special tools, the hammer and tongs, and features the unique inscription REGI ARTIS. A variant type with a similar image has been described as carrying another unique coin inscription, DEO CABIRO, and interpreted as depicting one of Vulcan's sons, the Cabiri, with the same tools. However, the existence of this variant type is doubtful. Although the reason for honoring Vulcan (and his sons?) with these coins is unclear, there may be a connection to the fact that the Cabiri were patron gods of Thessalonica who had protected that city against an attack by the Goths. Although a connection between Claudius Gothicus and the Cabiri as defenders against Gothic attacks is relatively attractive, it is weakened somewhat by the fact that Valerian and Gallienus had also issued coins with Vulcan in a temple so there may be some other reason for his reappearance on coins in this period.

Claudius II issued an unusual and scarce series of coins that features a pair of deities, who are presumably conservatores Augusti, on each reverse. The AETER AVG type depicts Apollo and Diana, who, as gods of the sun and moon, are associated with the concept of aeternitas. A type featuring Serapis and Isis is combined with a CONSER AVG inscription and one of Hercules and Minerva with one of CONSERVATORES AVG. Apollo and Diana are depicted with a SALVS AVG inscription, Aesculapius and Salus with one of SPES PVBLIC, and Vulcan and Minerva with VIRT AVG. The general message is that these deities will protect the future of the empire and the emperor.

Other unusual coin-types include MARS VLTOR, the god Augustus had honored with a temple for securing revenge for Caesar's assassination. This deity had appeared on Roman coins in the reigns of Galba and Severus Alexander. Claudius II also minted coins with rarely-seen NEPTVN AVG [see this reverse type in my collection] and SOL AVG types. The latter coin indicates some early interest in the god who would become so dominant a few years later on the coins of Aurelian, yet Claudius also used the INVICTVS AVG inscription that Gallienus had paired with an image of Sol with one of Hercules. ROMAE AETERNAE coin-types were fairly common in the mid-third century, but Claudius II issued an unusual variant type on an aureus that showed the goddess in her temple and echoed the SAECVLVM NOVVM images associated with Philip I. In addition, Claudius introduced a IOVI VICTORI reverse combined with the image normally paired with a IOVI STATORI inscription and a IOVI FVLGERAT reverse inscription, both of which had not been used by any of his predecessors. Andreas Alföldi suggested that Claudius' GENIVS SENATVS type signified improvement of the relationship between emperor and Senate following the senatorial hostility toward Gallienus.

Claudius Gothicus also produced coin-types with reverses of goddesses customarily found paired on coins with images of the Roman empresses. The deities portrayed include Ceres, Diana, Diana Lucifera, and Diana Victrix, Minerva, Venus, and the goddess naturally associated with the image of an empress, Juno Regina. One might suggest that Claudius issued these images because he had no empress with which to pair them, but an examination of other emperors' reigns during this period reveals that those emperors who did not issue coins bearing the empress' image also did not strike these particular goddess types. Although Ceres and Venus images are sometimes paired with an emperor's portrait, Diana Lucifera is rarely found on emperors' coins and Claudius II is the only emperor paired on coins with Juno Regina. In addition, Claudius was the first emperor to issue imperial coins that featured an isolated image of the exotic Egyptian goddess, Isis Faria.

Claudius II's short reign was vulnerable to internal as well as external attack. There may have been a revolt in 269-270 led by a Censorinus, although the date and even the existence of this usurper remain in doubt. The SHA includes him as the last of the "thirty tyrants" and lists a whole series of offices for him, including two consulships, but no other record exists to confirm such service. The SHA account states that he was proclaimed emperor by his soldiers, but soon afterwards killed by them because of his enforcement of strict discipline. His tomb is listed as being in Bologna, which may provide some idea of the location for the revolt. Henry Cohen dates the revolt to the beginning of the year 270, perhaps on the basis of a reference in the Epitome de Caesaribus, but suggests that coins attributed to Censorinus in earlier works may not exist.

The Gothic challenge in 269 proved to be the greatest that Claudius II would face. The Goths assembled a large invading force, reportedly amounting to 320,000 men transported on a fleet of at least 2,000 ships, and first attacked coastal cities along the Black Sea in Moesia. After passing into the Aegean the Goths besieged Thessalonica. At this point, in 269, Claudius left Rome to stop the invasion. The Goths then sent the larger segment of their troops on land toward the Danube, while the fleet took the remaining group to continue the naval attack on Aegean coastal cities. Claudius sent Aurelian's cavalry to Macedonia to protect Illyria from attack, while he commanded the forces blocking the route to the Danube. In the area of Doberus and Pelagonia, the Goths lost 3,000 men to Aurelian's cavalry. At Naissus in Moesia, Claudius' force succeeded in killing some 50,000 Goths. There were follow-up operations on both land and sea, but the Gothic War had essentially been won. Staving off the attacks of the Goths was a major contribution to the survival of the Roman Empire. It was a significant step leading to the subsequent success of Aurelian and the resurrection of the Empire under Diocletian and Constantine. When the Goths eventually succeeded in taking parts of the western Empire in the fifth century, their disruption to the course of civilization was likely much less violent than it would have been had they succeeded in the third century.

In addition to bad weather, a lack of supplies, and hunger, plague was a major factor in the defeat of the Goths. Many of the Gothic prisoners were either impressed into Roman military service or settled on farms as coloni. Claudius received the title Gothicus in recognition of his triumph over the Goths. At some point he had also been given the title Parthicus, but the unlikelihood of any conflict with the Parthians in his short reign makes this difficult to explain. Perhaps Damerau was correct in his suggestion that a Parthian unit may have been involved in one of the battles with the Palmyrenes, although on this front there were few achievements to claim. In any case, Claudius' victory over the Goths was short-lived. The emperor himself caught the plague and died at Sirmium early in 270. He was 56 years old. Claudius' brother, Quintillus, became emperor briefly before losing out to Aurelian. Claudius also had another brother, Crispus, and the SHA traces the link to Constantius through Crispus' daughter Claudia.

The Roman Senate showed its respect for Claudius Gothicus by setting up a gold portrait-shield in the Curia and by approving his deification. He was also honored with a golden statue in front of the great temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus and a silver statue set on a column on the Rostra.

In many ways, Claudius II received more adulation and honor in his Nachleben than he had during his lifetime. In the fourth century, attempts to link Constantine's family to Claudius resulted in the phrases of adoration and outright fabrication that dominate the SHA life and most of our other sources. Constantine even issued commemorative coins honoring Claudius. These carried inscriptions such as: DIVO CLAVDIO OPT[IMO] IMP[ERATORI], MEMORIAE AETERNAE, and REQVIES OPT[IMORVM] ME[RITORVM]. A tradition grew that changed the story of Claudius' death in some sources. In this version, Claudius, instead of dying from the plague, had actually performed a devotion, in response to an oracle found in the Sibylline Books, and sacrificed his life so that Rome could win the Gothic War. One of the most surprising things about the SHA account is that it ignores this more dramatic tradition and has Claudius simply dying from the plague.

One must, of course, reject the excessive claims of the SHA to the effect that Claudius II was "destined to rule for the good of the human race" and would, had he lived longer, "…by his strength, his counsel, and his foresight have restored to us the Scipios, the Camilli, and all those men of old." However, Claudius Gothicus was clearly a good emperor who made a significant contribution to protecting and restoring the Empire. In the third century there aren't too many emperors who merit such an assessment.

Copyright (C) 2001, Richard D. Weigel. Used by permission.
http://www.roman-emperors.org/claudgot.htm


Claudius II Gothicus was born in Illyricum around 215 A.D. Under Valerian and Gallienus he was recognized as a superb general. After the murder of Gallienus, Claudius Gothicus was proclaimed emperor and preceded to crush the Alemani tribe who had invaded Roman territory. Soon after an enormous horde of Goths poured into the empire. Against all advice, Claudius confronted the barbarians at Naissus in Upper Moesia. He fought a brilliant battle and annihilated them. Unfortunately for the empire, he died of plague after a reign of only two years (Joseph Sermarini, FORVM;
http://www.forumancientcoins.com/catalog/roman-and-greek-coins.asp?vpar=741&pos=0#Recovery%20of%20the%20Empire%20Coins).

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
ArcadiusManusDei.jpg
[1601b] Arcadius, 19 January 383 - 1 May 408 A.D.62 viewsARCADIUS AE2. Struck at Constantinople, 378-383 AD. Obverse: D N ARCADIVS P F AVG, diademed, draped & cuirassed bust right, holding spear and shield, Hand of God above holding wreath; Reverse - GLORIA ROMANORVM, emperor standing facing, head left, holding standard & resting shield at side, bound captive seated on ground to left, head right, CONG in exergue. RIC 53b. Scarce. Extremely Fine, some roughness and corrosion.


De Imperatoribus Romanis, An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors and their Families


Arcadius (395-408 A.D.)

Geoffrey S. Nathan
University of California at Los Angeles

Introduction and Early Life
The ineffectual life and reign of Flavius Arcadius are of considerably less importance than the quite significant developments that occurred during his reign. Born either in 377 or 378 to then general Theodosius and Aelia Flavia Flacilla, he and his younger brother, Honorius, ruled the eastern and western halves of the Roman Empire respectively from 395.

Shortly after his birth, his father was raised to the imperial purple in 379. Events in Illyricum with the massive influx of Ostrogothic and Visigothic peoples had resulted in the defeat of the Roman army and the death of the emperor, Valens. Theodosius' first task was to confront the Visigoths who had been ravaging the Balkans. Perhaps in the wake of this difficult and almost insurmountable task, the emperor wanted to insure that his infant son would bear some legitimacy should he die on campaign. Whatever the reason, Arcadius was proclaimed Augustus in January of 383 at the age of five or six. In the following year, his younger brother was born and it seems as if Theodosius initially had been interested in preserving the theoretical position of his elder son. While Arcadius enjoyed the status of Augustus, Honorius only achieved the office of consul posterior in 386. Perhaps the eastern emperor had wanted to avoid the possible conflicts that arose earlier in the century with the family of Constantine. Recent events in the west with the assassination of Gratian by Magnus Maximus may have also played a part: Theodosius initially had to leave the murder of his imperial colleague unavenged and leave the boy- emperor, Valentinian II, largely undefended. The profusion of emperors may well have been seen by Theodosius as kindling for civil war. His own autocratic tendencies may have also meant that he saw only one possible successor for himself.

Nevertheless, Theodosius gave Arcadius very little independence in early life. When he went to campaign against Magnus in the late 380's, he placed his son under the Praetorian Prefect of the East, Tatian, who was the de facto emperor in Theodosius' absence. This began a long series of regencies for Arcadius. The strength of Tatian's position with the eastern governing class made the office of Praetorian Prefect all the more powerful in Constantinople, which in turn made it easier to dominate future emperors. When Theodosius replaced Tatian with the more malleable and more ambitious Rufinus in 392, he had appointed a minister who would centralize even greater authority under the prefecture.

By 393, the emperor's situation had changed radically. When events in the west demanded his attention again, Theodosius was in a much stronger position. The ascendancy of the general, Arbogast, and his own puppet emperor, Eugenius, in the west provided Theodosius an opportunity and, indeed, the obligation to take full control of the Empire. The chance for having his own two sons ruling both halves of Rome not only seemed practical and feasible, but such an arrangement would establish himself as the head of a new dynasty. With thoughts in that direction, Honorius was made Augustus in 393 and accompanied his father west in the summer of 394. Arcadius, although near his majority, was nevertheless placed again under the guardianship (epitropos) of the Prefect of the East. In January of 395, Theodosius the Great died and his two sons took theoretical control of the two halves of the Roman Empire.

Early Reign and the Dominance of Rufinus and Eutropius (395-399)
Arcadius was eighteen when he assumed the throne in the east. We do not know whether or not he was ready for the responsibilities. During the mid-380's, the young emperor had been educated in part by Themistius, a famous pagan statesman, philosopher, and speaker. In what way he affected Arcadius is impossible to say, but surely his teachings must have included statecraft. Perhaps because of this influence, the new emperor's attempt to establish himself as an independent force can be seen in a series of laws passed at his accession. In contrast to trying to create a military image for himself, which would not be allowed either by Rufinus or by the eastern court, he attempted to portray himself as a pious Christian emperor. He enacted several comprehensive laws against heresy and paganism.

This was not necessarily an ineffectual strategy. By celebrating his religious piety, he expressed his power in the only way available to an emperor largely controlled by his ministers. He also perhaps sought to gain support and power from the local governing and religious hierarchies in Constantinople. Arcadius also perhaps thought that he was carrying on in the tradition of his father and so, by extension, might share in some of his glory. Rufinus in contrast wanted to tie himself to the emperor through a marriage connection to his daughter. But in April of 395, Arcadius had taken advantage of the Prefect's temporary absence to marry Aelia Eudoxia, whose guardian, the general, Promotus, had been a bitter enemy of Rufinus. Arcadius had been aided in this move by his own grand chamberlain (praepositus sacri cubiculi), Eutropius, and it perhaps indicated the degree to which he wanted to be free of any regent.

But in reality, Arcadius gained little if any power. Rufinus assumed full control of the east, and the Vandal Stilicho, Theodosius' closest advisor and general, took control of Honorius in the west. The tension between east and west quickly grew when Stilicho, in command of all the eastern and western armies, tried to press his guardianship over Arcadius as well. Moreover, there was considerable resentment against Rufinus in the east for using his office to greatly enrich himself and perhaps, too, because he was a westerner. Rufinus, understanding the perils around him, acted quickly. He had Arcadius demand the return of the eastern armies at once. Stilicho acquiesced, perhaps because the general was basing his claim of guardianship on his own legitimacy: to have taken control of the east and Arcadius by force would have undermined his position there and perhaps in the west. The soldiers returned under the command of the Gothic general, Gainas. With the control of the field army, it seemed as if Rufinus was going to be more thoroughly in control of the east and over Arcadius.

He did not long enjoy his victory. When Arcadius and Rufinus came to greet the armies at Hebdoman near Constantinople in November of 395, the soldiers turned on the Praetorian Prefect and cut him down in front of the emperor. Whether Stilicho instigated the assassination is a matter of some debate, but if he did, he received no benefit from it. The armies remained and Arcadius soon fell under the sway of other ministers. Nevertheless, despite the shock and fear Arcadius may have felt at witnessing such a brutal murder, he probably missed Rufinus' presence not at all and even thought it might provide an opportunity to assert his own authority. For the bureaucracy, the death meant that maintaining civilian control over the army was paramount to their own survival.

Soon thereafter, Eutropius assumed Rufinus' place in dominating Arcadius. Since the grand chamberlain could control access to the emperor and commanded the powerful palace bureaucracy, he was well-placed to dictate what and whom the emperor saw and heard. Military officers--frequently Germanic--who dominated the western government, were held suspect by fearful and jealous civil administrators in Constantinople. Eutropius used that fear to his advantage and froze out any access they may have had to the circles of power. His decision to effectively eliminate the military's input in decision-making would eventually lead to his demise.

It is difficult to determine how popular Eutropius was either with Arcadius or with the wider population. As a eunuch and a former slave, the sources generally portray him very negatively. He nevertheless seems to have enjoyed some support from the emperor, likely aided by Eudoxia with whom the grand chamberlain had close ties. The emperor happily took annual vacations in Galatia, apparently upon the Eutropius' suggestion. Moreover, the chamberlain showed great personal courage and talent in leading a campaign against invading Huns in 397/8, for which he won the consulship and the rank of patrician in the following year of 399. He also seems to have gained considerable support from the local clergy by procuring the patriarchate of Constantinople in 398 for John Chrysostom.

Despite Eutropius' rise to power, however, eastern policy changed little. The religious policies of Theodosius and Arcadius continued, including the forced closure of pagan temples in Gaza. More significantly, tension between the two halves of the empire persisted as Stilicho continued to press for his position as guardian. Although Stilicho led periodic raids into Greece and Thrace to attack the new Visigothic king, Alaric, his victories were incomplete and were more likely meant to keep the Germanic people out of western territory. This meant, among other things, that the Visigoths were an enduring problem for the east. Eutropius in turn supported the revolt of the Count Gildo in Africa, which was under western control, in an attempt to destabilize Stilicho's control and further eastern domains.

The failure of the revolt in 398 was the first step in Eutropius' downfall. The decision to exclude the military men of the period, particularly among the growing importance of Germanic officers, created a dangerous situation. By 399, the dissatisfaction with east-west affairs and the Gildo fiasco resulted in a revolt by the Gothic count, Tribigild. He was apparently in collusion with Gainas, who had taken advantage of the crisis to be named chief general in the east (magister utriusque militiae). Gainas quickly reached an agreement with the rebel and part of the settlement was the dismissal of Eutropius, to which Arcadius--at Eudoxia's urging--agreed. The chamberlain took refuge in the Hagia Sophia, and was exiled to Cyprus. But shortly thereafter, in the autumn of 399, Eutropius was recalled, tried and executed in Chalcedon.

The Age of Eudoxia (400-404)
The death of Eutropius precipitated a serious crisis. Gainas, who had wanted high office for years, now tried to force the hand of Arcadius. Having come to a quick resolution with Tribigild, he moved from Thrace towards Constantinople in 400. With the Germanic troops supporting him, Gainas tried for six months to initiate his own primacy-- including seizing the imperial palace--but which failed. He was forced to withdraw personally from the city to regroup and planned to use his troops remaining there to seize the entire city. But they were slaughtered by the inhabitiants and he fled first to Thrace and then to Asia. Eventually Gainas was killed by the Huns later in that year. His attempted coup ensured that Germanic officers would never again be trusted by the eastern government and would forever be kept out of any important decision-making roles.

The likely successor to Eutropius had been the anti-Germanic leader, Aurelianus, who had succeeded to the Prefecture of the East in 399. But Gainas had exiled him, having forced Arcadius to hand him over, and although Aurelianus returned triumphantly after Gainas' departure, he appears to have lost his hold over the emperor. In the meantime, Aelia Eudoxia had done much to forward her own place in the government. In January of 400, she had been named Augusta, a singular distinction offered to only three other women in the previous century. Her position thus gained a semi-official legitimacy afforded to very few Roman empresses. It has been assumed that because of her beauty, her intelligence, and her fecundity (she bore Arcadius five children), she was able to assert her influence to a point where she was the new power behind the throne.

That assessment, while held by many scholars, is not entirely accurate. While there were several events in which she played a crucial part, they were not terribly important moments during Arcadius' reign. But because Eudoxia was enormously wealthy, because she delivered a male heir in 401, and because she was involved in a highly publicized and drawn out political fight with John Chrysostom, this belief that there was an assumption of power is based more on the notoriety of her acts than on actual control. The fact that there was no one clearly dominating the government nor the emperor during this time implies perhaps that Arcadius had more power during these five years of his reign than at any other time.

There are several indications that he did try to improve and assert his own position. The emperor and his court immediately came to some understanding with the west. The east at the very least gave Honorius and Stilicho moral support in their increasing problems with Alaric. In 402, the feeling of goodwill was sealed by a joint consulship between Arcadius and his brother. The emperor also sought to establish his own military prowess and Christian piety with the erection of a column set up in the Hippodrome of Constantinople in 402/3. The column depicted his military victory over Gainas, crowned with a capital emblazoned with the Greek letters chi-rho, symbolizing his devotion to Christ. Arcadius' son, Theodosius II, was born in 401, and was quickly made Augustus at the age of eight months. The eastern ruler was thus interested in assuring his own dynasty.

In all these things, the emperor was largely successful, but they were largely overshadowed by the feud between his empress and the bishop of Constantinople. Eudoxia had already shown herself able in pushing her interests during the baptism of her son. The Bishop of Constantinople, however, was a much tougher opponent than her husband. John Chrysostom, a strong believer in social justice, had boorishly attacked Eudoxia and many of her friends for the conspicuous luxury in which they lived and displayed themselves. At the height of these attacks, John compared the empress to Jezebel. Eudoxia in turn used her considerable influence to inflame hostility among the clergy against the bishop. Working through Bishop Theophilus of Alexandria, in 403 Chrysostom was deposed and forced into exile at a Church council convened by the emperor (the Synod of the Oak at Chalcedon). However, there was soon such turmoil and uproar in the imperial city that the bishop was recalled a few days later. But the public feuding between Eudoxia and Chrysostom continued until at last she had him banished again in 404, this time permanently. Among other things, it caused a breach between Arcadius and his brother, who had, with Pope Innocent I, tried to support Chrysostom.

Eudoxia's victory was short-lived, however. In October of 404, the Augusta died of a miscarriage. Her death was seen by some as retribution for dismissing John. Whatever the reason, her end also signaled a complete retreat into the background by the emperor and no further initiatives seem to have been pushed by the 27-year-old Augustus.

The Final Years: Anthemius and Death (404-408)
The last years of Arcadius' reign were completely dominated by his Praetorian Prefect of the East, Anthemius. It was perhaps fitting that when the emperor seems to have been most retiring, the most able and energetic of his high ministers came to power. Anthemius worked hard to solve a series of governmental abuses, continue to push for Christianization, and secure the east from attack.

Anthemius first seems to have tried to reconcile with the west, so much so that there was a joint consulship between Anthemius and Stilicho in 405. This might have also been meant to symbolize the Prefect's new dominance, however. Additionally, a number of new laws were passed, curtailing paganism, Judaism and heresy. He tried to make use of the continuing problem of incoming Germanic peoples to combat the Isaurian tribes which had been plaguing Asia Minor since 403. While it failed to halt either group's incursions, it was nevertheless a practical and intelligent strategy. As a means of protecting the imperial capital, Anthemius also strengthened the walls around Constantinople. Our records for the last years of Arcadius' rule are quite spotty, but the emperor himself seems to have completely vanished, even symbolically, from the political scene.

In May of 408, Flavius Arcadius died at the age of 31 of unknown causes. Our only physical description of Arcadius is heavily influenced by the generally low regard in which he was held. The emperor was supposedly short, thin and dark-complected. A more kindly correspondent described him as good-natured and temperate. His son succeeded him without any controversy and the government remained unchanged. Arcadius thus left the world much as he entered it: without much significance and overshadowed by more powerful forces.

Assessment
Despite the ineffectual nature of Arcadius and his rule, a number of significant changes occurred during his stewardship of the eastern empire. His inability to forcefully or at least effectively govern meant that there were few consistent or long-range goals of his administration. With the exception of trying to emphasize the emperor's piety, an important development in the history of the Byzantine monarchy, Arcadius and his ministers were for the most part simply reacting to events.

The emperor became an even more remote figure to the general public. Even in the capital city itself, he was rarely seen: we read in one account that people came running to see the emperor for the first time when he happened to be praying in a local church. A series of "orientalizing" court practices no doubt continued in order to emphasize the symbolic separation of the emperor from the rest of society. The hieratic, almost semi- divine nature of the imperial person, also became a feature of the eastern ruler.

Perhaps of greatest importance was the political and cultural split between east and west. With the death of Theodosius, the two halves of the Roman Empire increasingly went their separate ways. For the most part, the west was thrown back upon its own resources, unable to deal with the problems of the fifth century. The east proved more compact and more resilient: it largely weathered the political storms from without and within.

Moreover, Constantinople fully became the imperial capital of the east, a Roma nova. The emperor rarely left the city and the palace officials became more influential than many of the more theoretically important ministers outside the city. Constantinople was also made an archepiscopate and Chrysostom and others started to push strongly for its primacy in the east. Both public and private building projects beautified and enlarged the city. Under Arcadius' reign, it truly became the second city of the Roman Empire.
Finally, the hard stance against Germanic officers in Roman government became a central feature in the east. While the reasons for this development were inspired largely out of fear and perhaps racism, the eastern Roman Empire did manage to avoid the largely detrimental succession of Germanic generalissimos who controlled the west in the fifth century. It also encouraged the eastern rulers in the following century to take hard lines against other peoples, including the Isaurians, the Huns and the Persians. Taken in all, the era of Arcadius was far more important than Arcadius himself. He perhaps had his father's pretensions, but none of the skills or powers necessary to leave his mark on the Empire.

By Geoffrey S. Nathan, University of California at Los Angeles
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
Justinan1Nikomedia.jpg
[1611a] Justinian I, 4 April 527 - 14 November 565 A.D.67 viewsBronze follis, S 201, choice VF, 22.147g, 43.8mm, 180o, 2nd officina, Nikomedia mint, 541 - 542 A.D.; Obverse: D N IVSTINIANVS PP AVG, helmeted and cuirassed bust facing, globus cruciger in right, shield decorated with a horseman brandishing a spear, cross right; Reverse: large M, cross above, ANNO left, Xu (= year 15) right, B below, NIKO in ex; full circle strike on a huge flan. Ex FORVM.



De Imperatoribus Romanis
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors

Justinian (527-565 A.D.).

James Allan Evans
University of British Columbia

Introduction
The reign of Justinian was a turning-point in Late Antiquity. It is the period when paganism finally lost its long struggle to survive, and when the schism in Christianity between the Monophysite east and the Chalcedonian west became insurmountable. From a military viewpoint, it marked the last time that the Roman Empire could go on the offensive with hope of success. Africa and Italy were recovered, and a foothold was established in Spain. When Justinian died, the frontiers were still intact although the Balkans had been devastated by a series of raids and the Italian economy was in ruins. His extensive building program has left us the most celebrated example of Byzantine ecclesiastical architecture that still survives: Hagia Sophia in modern Istanbul. His reign was a period when classical culture was in sharp decline and yet it had a last flowering, with historians such as Procopius and Agathias working within the tradition inherited from Herodotus and Thucydides, and poets such as Paul the Silentiary who wrote some of the most sensuous poems that the classical tradition has ever produced. The Codex Justinianus, the Institutes and the Digest of Roman jurisprudence, all commissioned by Justinian, are monuments to the past achievements of Roman legal heritage. Justinian's reign sums up the past. It also provides a matrix for the future. In particular, there was the bubonic plague, which appeared in Constantinople in 542, for the first time in Europe, and then travelled round the empire in search of victims, returning to the capital for a new crop in 558. The plague ended a period of economic growth and initiated one of overstrained resources.

The 'Nika' Revolt
The 'Nika' Revolt which broke out in January, 532, in Constantinople, was an outburst of street violence which went far beyond the norms even in a society where a great deal of street violence was accepted. Every city worth notice had its chariot-racing factions which took their names from their racing colors: Reds, Whites, Blues and Greens. These were professional organizations initially responsible for fielding chariot-racing teams in the hippodromes, though by Justinian's time they were in charge of other shows as well. The Blues and the Greens were dominant, but the Reds and Whites attracted some supporters: the emperor Anastasius was a fan of the Reds. The aficionados of the factions were assigned their own blocs of seats in the Hippodrome in Constantinople, opposite the imperial loge, and the Blue and Green "demes" provided an outlet for the energies of the city's young males. G. M. Manojlovic in an influential article originally published in Serbo-Croat in 1904, argued that the "demes" were organized divisions of a city militia, and thus played an important role in the imperial defense structure. His thesis is now generally disregarded and the dominant view is that of Alan Cameron, that demos, whether used in the singular or plural, means simply "people" and the rioting of the "demes", the "fury of the Hippodrome", as Edward Gibbon called it, was hooliganism, which was also Gibbon's view. Efforts to make the Greens into supporters of Monophysitism and the Blues of Orthodoxy founder on lack of evidence. However, in support of Manojlovic's thesis, it must be said that, although we cannot show that the Blue and Green "demes" were an organized city militia, we hear of "Young Greens" both in Constantinople and Alexandria who bore arms, and in 540, when Antioch fell to the Persians, Blue and Green street-fighters continued to defend the city after the regular troops had fled.

Justinian and Theodora were known Blue supporters, and when street violence escalated under Justin I, Procopius claims that they encouraged it. But since Justinian became emperor he had taken a firmer, more even-handed stand. On Saturday, January 10, 532, the city prefect Eudaemon who had arrested some hooligans and found seven guilty of murder, had them hanged outside the city at Sycae, across the Golden Horn, but the scaffold broke and saved two of them from death, a Blue and a Green. Some monks from St. Conon's monastery nearby took the two men to sanctuary at the church of St Lawrence where the prefect set troops to watch. The following Tuesday while the two malefactors were still trapped in the church, the Blues and Greens begged Justinian to show mercy. He ignored the plea and made no reply. The Blues and Green continued their appeals until the twenty-second race (out of twenty-four) when they suddenly united and raised the watchword 'Nika'. Riots started and the court took refuge in the palace. That evening the mob burned the city prefect's praetorium.

Justinian tried to continue the games next day but only provoked more riot and arson. The rioting and destruction continued throughout the week; even the arrival of loyal troops from Thrace failed to restore order. On Sunday before sunrise, Justinian appeared in the Hippodrome where he repented publicly and promised an amnesty. The mob turned hostile, and Justinian retreated. The evening before Justinian had dismissed two nephews of the old emperor Anastasius, Hypatius and Pompey, against their will, from the palace and sent them home, and now the mob found Hypatius and proclaimed him emperor in the Hippodrome. Justinian was now ready to flee, and perhaps would have done so except for Theodora, who did not frighten easily. Instead Justinian decided to strike ruthlessly. Belisarius and Mundo made their separate ways into the Hippodrome where they fell on Hypatius' supporters who were crowded there, and the 'Nika' riot ended with a bloodbath.

A recent study of the riot by Geoffrey Greatrex has made the point that what was unique about it was not the actions of the mob so much as Justinian's attempts to deal with it. His first reaction was to placate: when the mob demanded that three of his ministers must go, the praetorian prefect of the East, John the Cappadocian, the Quaestor of the Sacred Palace Tribonian and the urban prefect Eudaemon, Justinian replaced them immediately. He hesitated when he should have been firm and aggravated the situation. It may well have been Theodora who emboldened him for the final act of repression. Procopius imagines Theodora on the last day engaging in formal debate about what should be done, and misquoting a famous maxim that was once offered the tyrant of Syracuse, Dionysius the Elder "Tyranny is a good shroud." Theodora emends it to "Kingship is a good shroud" and readers of Procopius may have thought wryly that the emendation was unnecessary. The formal debate, and Theodora's great scene, was probably a creation of Procopius' imagination, but a splendid one.

The 'Nika' revolt left Justinian firmly in charge. The mob was cowed and the senatorial opposition that surfaced during the revolt was forced underground. The damage to Constantinople was great, but it cleared the way for Justinian's own building program. Work in his new church of Hagia Sophia to replace the old Hagia Sophia that was destroyed in the rioting, started only forty-five days after the revolt was crushed. The two leaders of the Hippodrome massacre, Mundo and Belisarius, went on to new appointments: Mundo back to Illyricum as magister militum and Belisarius to make his reputation as the conqueror of the Vandals in Africa. The 530s were a decade of confidence and the 'Nika' riot was only a momentary crisis.

(for a detailed account of the reign of Justinian I, see: http://www.roman-emperors.org/justinia.htm)

Last Years
Misfortune crowded into the final years of Justinian's reign. There was another Samaritan revolt in midsummer, 556. Next year, in December, a great earthquake shook Constantinople and in May of the following year, the dome of Justinian's new Hagia Sophia collapsed, and had to be rebuilt with a new design. About the same time, the plague returned to the capital. Then in early 559 a horde of Kutrigur 'Huns' (proto-Bulgars) crossed the frozen Danube and advanced into the Balkans. It split into three columns: one pushed into Greece but got no further than Thermopylae, another advanced into the Gallipoli peninsula but got no further than the Long Wall, which was defended by a young officer from Justinian's native city, while the third, most dangerous spearhead led by the 'Hun' khan, Zabergan himself, made for Constantinople. Faced with this attack and without any forces for defense, Justinian called Belisarius out of retirement, and Belisarius, using a scratch force, the core of which was 300 of his veterans, ambushed the Kutrigur horde and routed it. Once the immediate danger was over, however, Justinian recalled Belisarius and took charge himself. The news that Justinian was reinforcing his Danube fleet made the Kutrigurs anxious and they agreed to a treaty which gave them a subsidy and safe passage back across the river. But as soon as they were north of the Danube, they were attacked by their rivals the Utigurs who were incited by Justinian to relieve them of their booty. The Kutrigurs raided Thrace again in 562, but they and the Utigurs were soon to fall prey to the Avars who swept out of the Asian steppes in the early 560s.

There was discontent in the capital. Street violence was on the increase again. There were bread shortages and water shortages. In late 562, there was a conspiracy which almost succeeded in killing the emperor. The chief conspirator was Marcellus, an argyroprates, a goldsmith and banker, and the conspiracy probably reflected the dissatisfaction of the business community. But Justinian was too old to learn to be frugal. He resorted to forced loans and requisitions and his successor found the treasury deeply in debt.

What remained of the great emperor's achievement? His successor Justin II, out of a combination of necessity and foolhardiness, denied the 'barbarians' the subsidies which had played a major role in Justinian's defense of the frontiers, and, to be fair, which had also been provided by emperors before him. Subsidies had been part of Anastasius' policy as well, but that was before the plague, while the imperial economy was still expanding. The result of Justin II's change of policy was renewed hostility with Persia and a shift of power in the Balkans. In 567 the Avars and Lombards joined forces against the Gepids and destroyed them. But the Lombards distrusted their allies and next year they migrated into Italy where Narses had just been removed from command and recalled, though he disobeyed orders and stayed in Rome until his death. By the end of the century only a third of Italy was in Byzantine hands. On the eastern frontier, Justin alienated the Ghassanid allies and lost the fortress of Daras, a reverse which overwhelmed his frangible sanity. For this Justinian can hardly be blamed. No one can deny his greatness; a recent study by Asterios Gerostergios even lionizes him. But if we look at his reign with the unforgiving eye of hindsight, it appears to be a brilliant effort to stem the tide of history, and in the end, it was more a failure than a moderate success.

Copyright (C) 1998, James Allan Evans. Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

The Church we know today as Hagia Sophia - or Divine Wisdom, its true name - was dedicated by the Emperor Justinian in 537AD. Through many visitudes Justinian's cathedral church of Constantinople still stands, its soring vaults and amazing dome testiments to the human spirit, the engineering talents of its builders and Divine inspiration. In the same fashion that Vespasian's Collesium (the Flavian Amphitheatre) is symbolic of Rome, Justinian's Hagia Sophia is a symbol of Byzantium.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
PontiusPilate29BCHendin648.jpg
[18H648] Pontius Pilate prefect for Tiberius Prutah, 29 BC46 viewsPONTIUS PILATE PRUTAH, "SIMPULUM;" Hendin 648, AVF/VF, 15.3mm, 2.20 grams, struck 29 C.E. Nice round, good weight Pontius Pilate Prutah.

THE COINS OF PONTIUS PILATE
Jean-Philippe Fontanille

INTRODUCTION
They are not really beautiful, or truly rare, nor are they of very great monetary value. Yet these apparently modest coins carry in their weight an era and an act which would have immense consequence to the history of the world. Indeed, they are closely associated with three basic factors which saw the foundation of Christianity :
1 - The temporal proximity : Most modern experts agree in recognising that the year now designated 30 C.E. marked the trial and the death of Jesus. Given that time-frame, Pilate's coins were minted in 29, 30 and 31 C.E.
2 - The geographic proximity : The most credible hypothesis indicates that these particular coins where struck in Jerusalem, the city in which the significant events took place.
3 - The human proximity : Pontius Pilate himself designed and put the coins into circulation, and of course he was the man who conducted the trial and ordered the crucifixion of Jesus.

So it is that everyone, whether a believer or simply a lover of history or of numismatics, will find in these coins direct evidence of and witness to an episode the memory of which has survived 2000 years : A momentous event which has to a great extent fashioned the world we know.

Throughout this article we will also note the exceptional character of Pilate's coins: Exceptional in the nature of the images they bear, for the numerous variants they offer, for the presence of countermarks, and above all for the part their originator played in history. The putative appearance of these coins imprints on the Turin shroud has yet to be confirmed by more solid scientific proofs.

Pilate's coins are Roman coins, the words on them are Greek, they were circulated in Judea, and today they are to be found distributed among world-wide collectors after having spent 2000 years buried in the earth. They were minted and used during a period which produced an event destined to change the face of the world, and issued at the command of one of the principal actors in that event. An amazing and dramatic destiny for apparently such humble and unassuming little coins !

For 35 years Pilate's coins were passed from hand to hand every day. They knew the scent of spice-stalls, heard the merchants' ranting, smelled the sweat and dust of daily works. They were alive to the sounds of Hebrew, Aramaic, Greek and Latin voices ¬ now haggling over a price, now offering prayers to YHVH, Jesus or Jupiter.

Nobody prays to Jupiter any more [?], but Pilate's coins are surviving witnesses to a time when the first Christians were considered as a messianic sect among several others in the midst of Judaism in crisis. The absolute split between Judaism and Christianity took place from about 70 C.E, the year which marked the tragic ending of the first Jewish rebellion. It was from that time, too, that Pilate's money ceased to be used.

Like each one of us, who carries always a few small coins in the bottom of our pockets; there is no doubt that some of Pilate's coins resonated to the last words of the most famous of all supplicants. A very long story had its beginning...

2. MANUFACTURE AND CIRCULATION
LOCATION OF MINTS
Although the prefects had their residencies in Cesarea, the administrative capital of the province, it seems that their money was minted in Jerusalem. Indeed, a specimen dated year 31 has been found in this town in an incomplete state of manufacture.

DURATION OF USE
It would seem that Pilate's money was in current use for at least 35 years. Indeed, some of it has been discovered among other coins during the excavation of remains of dwellings destroyed by the Romans during the first Jewish revolt, which is evidence that they were still in use at that time.

AREA OF CIRCULATION
These coins circulated far beyond the frontiers of Judea. Some samples have been discovered as far away as Antioch in present-day Turkey, nearly 500 kilometres from Jerusalem where they were minted. Others have also been found in Jordan. These limits represent a circulation area of at least 100.000 square kilometres, that is five times larger than the size of the state of Israel. Taking into account that it was a time when distances were expressed in terms of days of march, one begins to see the important influence of these coins.

3. THE IMAGES AND THE TEXTS
THE SIMPULUM
A fairly frequent symbol from the Roman religion of the time, the simpulum was a utensil used by the priests during their religious ceremonies. This little ladle, provided with shaft and a handle, allowed the priests to taste the wine which they poured onto the head of an animal destined for sacrifice, after which the soothsayer was empowered to examine the animal's entrails for signs and portents sent to men by the Gods through the medium of the interpreter. As I pointed, none of this would have been obvious at first sight of the motif except perhaps to a Roman citizen. However, it throws some light on the theory put forward by F.A. Banks [Coins of the Bible Days].

This wasn't the first time that the simpulum appeared on Roman coins, but it is the first time it figured alone. This fact gives an additional specificity to Pilate's coins, not only in the context of Judea but also in comparison with all the other coins of the Empire.

THE THREE EARS OF BARLEY
The three ears or barley are featured on the opposing face of the simpulum. Unlike the simpulum, these ears of barley are not in contravention of the Jewish Law. The motif is nevertheless distinctive because it is the first time it appears on a Judean coin. The motif would reappear twelve years later on one of Herod Agrippa's coin, then on another, much rarer, of Agrippa II (ears of barley held in a hand). After that, the motif disappeared altogether from ancient Jewish coins.

THE LITUUS
The lituus was the wooden staff which the augurs held in the right hand; it symbolised their authority and their pastoral vocation. It was raised toward heavens while the priests invoked the Gods and made their predictions. Legend records that Romulus used it at the time of Rome's foundation in 753 B.C.E. It is interesting to note that the cross used in present times is the direct descendant of the lituus. As with the simpulum, Pilate's coinage is exceptional in that it alone displays the lituus as the sole object illustrated on the face.

THE WREATH
The laurel wreath is a symbol of power and victory, and figures on various ancient Greek and Roman coins. In Judea it can be found during the reign of John Hyrcanus I (134 to 104 B.C.E.). After that, Herod Antipas, speaker for Pilate, used it on all his coins. On Pilate's coins, the laurel wreath figures on the reverse side of the lituus, framing the date.

THE DATES
The notation of dates uses a code invented by the Greeks whereby each letter of the alphabet was assigned a number. This code would be used again in Judaism under the name of Guematria. The system is simple : the first ten letters of the alphabet are linked to units (1,2,3...), the following ten letters to tens (10,20,30...) and the four remaining letters to the first four hundreds. The "L" is an abbreviation meaning "year". Tiberius became emperor on September 17 of year 14 C.E, so we have :

LIS = Year 29 C.E. * LIZ = Year 30 C.E. * LIH = Year 31 C.E.

THE TEXTS
The legends on Pontius Pilate's coins are written in Greek. Judea, governed by the Ptolemy dynasty (301 to 198 B.C.E) then by the Syrians until 63 B.C.E, came under the same powerful influence of the Hellenic culture which touched the other territories of the ancient Persian Empire won by Alexander the Great. In spite of a certain amount of resistance, this Hellenistic heritage eventually crept into every aspect of daily life. Apart from the dates, the texts on Pilate's coinage consisted of only three different words : - TIBEPIOY KAICAPOC (Of Tiberius Emperor) on all three coins; - IOYLIA KAICAPOC (Empress Julia) added to the coin of year 29.
http://www.numismalink.com/fontanille1.html


Pontius Pilate
After the deposition of the eldest son of Herod, Archelaus (who had succeeded his father as ethnarch), Judea was placed under the rule of a Roman procurator. Pilate, who was the fifth, succeeding Valerius Gratus in A.D. 26, had greater authority than most procurators under the empire, for in addition to the ordinary duty of financial administration, he had supreme power judicially. His unusually long period of office (A.D. 26-36) covers the whole of the active ministry both of St. John the Baptist and of Jesus Christ.
As procurator Pilate was necessarily of equestrian rank, but beyond that we know little of his family or origin. Some have thought that he was only a freedman, deriving his name from pileus (the cap of freed slaves) but for this there seems to be no adequate evidence, and it is unlikely that a freedman would attain to a post of such importance. The Pontii were a Samnite gens. Pilate owed his appointment to the influence of Sejanus. The official residence of the procurators was the palace of Herod at Cæsarea; where there was a military force of about 3,000 soldiers. These soldiers came up to Jerusalem at the time of the feasts, when the city was full of strangers, and there was greater danger of disturbances, hence it was that Pilate had come to Jerusalem at the time of the Crucifixion. His name will be forever covered with infamy because of the part which he took in this matter, though at the time it appeared to him of small importance.
Pilate is a type of the worldly man, knowing the right and anxious to do it so far as it can be done without personal sacrifice of any kind, but yielding easily to pressure from those whose interest it is that he should act otherwise. He would gladly have acquitted Christ, and even made serious efforts in that direction, but gave way at once when his own position was threatened.
The other events of his rule are not of very great importance. Philo (Ad Gaium, 38) speaks of him as inflexible, merciless, and obstinate. The Jews hated him and his administration, for he was not only very severe, but showed little consideration for their susceptibilities. Some standards bearing the image of Tiberius, which had been set up by him in Jerusalem, caused an outbreak which would have ended in a massacre had not Pilate given way. At a later date Tiberius ordered him to remove certain gilt shields, which he had set up in Jerusalem in spite of the remonstrances of the people. The incident mentioned in St. Luke 13:1, of the Galilaeans whose blood Pilate mingled with the sacrifices, is not elsewhere referred to, but is quite in keeping with other authentic events of his rule. He was, therefore, anxious that no further hostile reports should be sent to the emperor concerning him.
The tendency, already discernible in the canonical Gospels, to lay stress on the efforts of Pilate to acquit Christ, and thus pass as lenient a judgment as possible upon his crime, goes further in the apocryphal Gospels and led in later years to the claim that he actually became a Christian. The Abyssinian Church reckons him as a saint, and assigns 25 June to him and to Claudia Procula, his wife. The belief that she became a Christian goes back to the second century, and may be found in Origen (Hom., in Mat., xxxv). The Greek Church assigns her a feast on 27 October. Tertullian and Justin Martyr both speak of a report on the Crucifixion (not extant) sent in by Pilate to Tiberius, from which idea a large amount of apocryphal literature originated. Some of these were Christian in origin (Gospel of Nicodemus), others came from the heathen, but these have all perished.
His rule was brought to an end through trouble which arose in Samaria. An imposter had given out that it was in his power to discover the sacred vessels which, as he alleged, had been hidden by Moses on Mount Gerizim, whither armed Samaritans came in large numbers. Pilate seems to have thought the whole affair was a blind, covering some other more important design, for he hurried forces to attack them, and many were slain. They appealed to Vitellius, who was at that time legate in Syria, saying that nothing political had been intended, and complaining of Pilate's whole administration. He was summoned to Rome to answer their charges, but before he could reach the city the Emperor Tiberius had died.
Catholic Encyclopedia: http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/12083c.htm

As the man who presided over the trial of Jesus, who found no fault with the defendant and washed his hands of the affair by referring it back to the Jewish mob, but who signed the final death warrant, Pontius Pilate represents almost a byword for ambivalence.
He appears in a poor light in all four Gospels and in a favourable light in the apocryphal Gospel of Peter where the Jews take all the blame for Jesus' death.
In the later Acts of Pilate, he is both cleared of responsibility for the Crucifixion and is said to have converted to Christianity.
In the drama of the Passion, Pilate is a ditherer who drifts towards pardoning Jesus, then drifts away again. He tries to pass the buck several times, makes the decision to save Jesus, then capitulates.
The former Archbishop of Canterbury, the late Robert Runcie once wrote, "It would have been better for the moral health of Christianity if the blame had stayed with Pilate."
In a poignant moment in the course of the trial, Pontius Pilate responds to an assertion by Jesus by asking "What is truth?"
The truth about Pilate is difficult to ascertain since records are few. Legends say he was a Spaniard or a German, but most likely he was a natural-born Roman citizen from central Italy.
But the fact that he was definitely the Procurator of Judea from 26 to 36 AD helps to establish Jesus as a real person and fixes him in time.
The official residence of the procurators was the palace of Herod at Caesarea, a mainly non-Jewish city where a force of some 3,000 Roman soldiers were based.
These would come to Jerusalem during the time of feasts when there was a greater danger of disturbances. This would explain Pilate's presence in the city during the time of the Crucifixion.
Pilate is recorded by several contemporary historians; his name is inscribed on Roman coins and on a stone dug up in Caesarea in the 1960s with the words, PONTIUS PILATUS PRAEFECTUS PROVINCIAE JUDAEAE.
The governorship of Judea was only a second-rate posting, though having the Jewish religious capital, Jerusalem, on its patch would have increased its importance.
Pilate ruled in conjunction with the Jewish authorities and was under orders from Emperor Tiberius, to respect their culture. He was a soldier rather than a diplomat.
The Jews relied on the Romans to keep their own rebellious factions under control. But they appeared to hate Pilate.
One contemporary Jewish historian Philo, describes him as a violent thug, fond of executions without trial. Another, Josephus, records that, at the start of his term, Pilate provoked the Jews by ordering the imperial standards to be carried into Jerusalem.
But he backed off from an all-out confrontation. On the other hand, later, he helped himself to Jewish revenues to build an aqueduct.
When, according to Josephus, bands of resistance fighters, supported by crowds of ordinary people, sabotaged the project by getting in the way of Pilate's workmen, he sent in his soldiers. Hundreds were massacred.
Anne Wroe, author of a recent book Pilate: the Biography of an Invented Man, says that for some modern scholars, given this propensity for violence when the occasion warranted, the idea of Pilate as a waverer is nonsense.
A Roman governor, they point out, would not have wasted two minutes thinking about a shabby Jewish villain, one among many. Wroe's depiction of Pilate, however, suggests he was something of a pragmatist.
His first duty was to keep the peace in Judea and to keep the revenues flowing back to Rome. "Should I have jeopardised the peace for the sake of some Jew who may have been innocent?", she has Pilate asking. "Should I have defied a furious crowd, maybe butchered them, to save one life?"
Whatever the truth about the real Pontius Pilate, such dilemmas are what he has come to symbolise.
Anne Wroe makes the modern comparisons of Neville Chamberlain in 1938. Bill McSweeney, of the Irish School of Ecumenics suggests that "without the Pilates of Anglo-Irish politics, we might never have had the Good Friday Agreement".
Tony Blair has said of Pilate: "It is possible to view Pilate as the archetypal politician, caught on the horns of a dilemma."
Even if, in reality, the Jesus affair was nothing but a small side-show in the career of Pontius Pilate, it had monumental repercussions for his image.
His inclusion in the Christian creeds, in the words of Robert Runcie, "binds the eternal realms to the stumbling, messy chronology of earthly time and place".
BBC: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/1273594.stm

The Ethiopian Church recognized Pilate as a saint in the sixth century, based on the account in the Acts of Pilate

Although historians can pinpoint the exact date of death of many distinguished historical figures, the date of the crucifixion of Jesus Christ remains a matter of scholarly debate. Christ’s birth is most often dated between 7-5 BC (some scholars have suggested, however, His birth was as early as 20 BC). Christ’s Death and Resurrection is dated between 29-36 AD.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

Cleisthenes
PontiusPilate30BCHendin649.jpg
[18H649] Pontius Pilate Prefect under Tiberius Prutah, "LIZ", 30 BC69 viewsPONTIUS PILATE PRUTAH, 'LIZ;' Hendin 649, VF, 15.5mm, 1.90 grams. Struck 30 C.E. Nice historic coin.

THE COINS OF PONTIUS PILATE
Jean-Philippe Fontanille

INTRODUCTION
They are not really beautiful, or truly rare, nor are they of very great monetary value. Yet these apparently modest coins carry in their weight an era and an act which would have immense consequence to the history of the world. Indeed, they are closely associated with three basic factors which saw the foundation of Christianity :
1 - The temporal proximity : Most modern experts agree in recognising that the year now designated 30 C.E. marked the trial and the death of Jesus. Given that time-frame, Pilate's coins were minted in 29, 30 and 31 C.E.
2 - The geographic proximity : The most credible hypothesis indicates that these particular coins where struck in Jerusalem, the city in which the significant events took place.
3 - The human proximity : Pontius Pilate himself designed and put the coins into circulation, and of course he was the man who conducted the trial and ordered the crucifixion of Jesus.

So it is that everyone, whether a believer or simply a lover of history or of numismatics, will find in these coins direct evidence of and witness to an episode the memory of which has survived 2000 years : A momentous event which has to a great extent fashioned the world we know.

Throughout this article we will also note the exceptional character of Pilate's coins: Exceptional in the nature of the images they bear, for the numerous variants they offer, for the presence of countermarks, and above all for the part their originator played in history. The putative appearance of these coins imprints on the Turin shroud has yet to be confirmed by more solid scientific proofs.

Pilate's coins are Roman coins, the words on them are Greek, they were circulated in Judea, and today they are to be found distributed among world-wide collectors after having spent 2000 years buried in the earth. They were minted and used during a period which produced an event destined to change the face of the world, and issued at the command of one of the principal actors in that event. An amazing and dramatic destiny for apparently such humble and unassuming little coins !

For 35 years Pilate's coins were passed from hand to hand every day. They knew the scent of spice-stalls, heard the merchants' ranting, smelled the sweat and dust of daily works. They were alive to the sounds of Hebrew, Aramaic, Greek and Latin voices ¬ now haggling over a price, now offering prayers to YHVH, Jesus or Jupiter.

Nobody prays to Jupiter any more [?], but Pilate's coins are surviving witnesses to a time when the first Christians were considered as a messianic sect among several others in the midst of Judaism in crisis. The absolute split between Judaism and Christianity took place from about 70 C.E, the year which marked the tragic ending of the first Jewish rebellion. It was from that time, too, that Pilate's money ceased to be used.

Like each one of us, who carries always a few small coins in the bottom of our pockets; there is no doubt that some of Pilate's coins resonated to the last words of the most famous of all supplicants. A very long story had its beginning...

2. MANUFACTURE AND CIRCULATION
LOCATION OF MINTS
Although the prefects had their residencies in Cesarea, the administrative capital of the province, it seems that their money was minted in Jerusalem. Indeed, a specimen dated year 31 has been found in this town in an incomplete state of manufacture.

DURATION OF USE
It would seem that Pilate's money was in current use for at least 35 years. Indeed, some of it has been discovered among other coins during the excavation of remains of dwellings destroyed by the Romans during the first Jewish revolt, which is evidence that they were still in use at that time.

AREA OF CIRCULATION
These coins circulated far beyond the frontiers of Judea. Some samples have been discovered as far away as Antioch in present-day Turkey, nearly 500 kilometres from Jerusalem where they were minted. Others have also been found in Jordan. These limits represent a circulation area of at least 100.000 square kilometres, that is five times larger than the size of the state of Israel. Taking into account that it was a time when distances were expressed in terms of days of march, one begins to see the important influence of these coins.

3. THE IMAGES AND THE TEXTS
THE SIMPULUM
A fairly frequent symbol from the Roman religion of the time, the simpulum was a utensil used by the priests during their religious ceremonies. This little ladle, provided with shaft and a handle, allowed the priests to taste the wine which they poured onto the head of an animal destined for sacrifice, after which the soothsayer was empowered to examine the animal's entrails for signs and portents sent to men by the Gods through the medium of the interpreter. As I pointed, none of this would have been obvious at first sight of the motif except perhaps to a Roman citizen. However, it throws some light on the theory put forward by F.A. Banks [Coins of the Bible Days].

This wasn't the first time that the simpulum appeared on Roman coins, but it is the first time it figured alone. This fact gives an additional specificity to Pilate's coins, not only in the context of Judea but also in comparison with all the other coins of the Empire.

THE THREE EARS OF BARLEY
The three ears or barley are featured on the opposing face of the simpulum. Unlike the simpulum, these ears of barley are not in contravention of the Jewish Law. The motif is nevertheless distinctive because it is the first time it appears on a Judean coin. The motif would reappear twelve years later on one of Herod Agrippa's coin, then on another, much rarer, of Agrippa II (ears of barley held in a hand). After that, the motif disappeared altogether from ancient Jewish coins.

THE LITUUS
The lituus was the wooden staff which the augurs held in the right hand; it symbolised their authority and their pastoral vocation. It was raised toward heavens while the priests invoked the Gods and made their predictions. Legend records that Romulus used it at the time of Rome's foundation in 753 B.C.E. It is interesting to note that the cross used in present times is the direct descendant of the lituus. As with the simpulum, Pilate's coinage is exceptional in that it alone displays the lituus as the sole object illustrated on the face.

THE WREATH
The laurel wreath is a symbol of power and victory, and figures on various ancient Greek and Roman coins. In Judea it can be found during the reign of John Hyrcanus I (134 to 104 B.C.E.). After that, Herod Antipas, speaker for Pilate, used it on all his coins. On Pilate's coins, the laurel wreath figures on the reverse side of the lituus, framing the date.

THE DATES
The notation of dates uses a code invented by the Greeks whereby each letter of the alphabet was assigned a number. This code would be used again in Judaism under the name of Guematria. The system is simple : the first ten letters of the alphabet are linked to units (1,2,3...), the following ten letters to tens (10,20,30...) and the four remaining letters to the first four hundreds. The "L" is an abbreviation meaning "year". Tiberius became emperor on September 17 of year 14 C.E, so we have :

LIS = Year 29 C.E. * LIZ = Year 30 C.E. * LIH = Year 31 C.E.

THE TEXTS
The legends on Pontius Pilate's coins are written in Greek. Judea, governed by the Ptolemy dynasty (301 to 198 B.C.E) then by the Syrians until 63 B.C.E, came under the same powerful influence of the Hellenic culture which touched the other territories of the ancient Persian Empire won by Alexander the Great. In spite of a certain amount of resistance, this Hellenistic heritage eventually crept into every aspect of daily life. Apart from the dates, the texts on Pilate's coinage consisted of only three different words : - TIBEPIOY KAICAPOC (Of Tiberius Emperor) on all three coins; - IOYLIA KAICAPOC (Empress Julia) added to the coin of year 29.
http://www.numismalink.com/fontanille1.html


Pontius Pilate
After the deposition of the eldest son of Herod, Archelaus (who had succeeded his father as ethnarch), Judea was placed under the rule of a Roman procurator. Pilate, who was the fifth, succeeding Valerius Gratus in A.D. 26, had greater authority than most procurators under the empire, for in addition to the ordinary duty of financial administration, he had supreme power judicially. His unusually long period of office (A.D. 26-36) covers the whole of the active ministry both of St. John the Baptist and of Jesus Christ.
As procurator Pilate was necessarily of equestrian rank, but beyond that we know little of his family or origin. Some have thought that he was only a freedman, deriving his name from pileus (the cap of freed slaves) but for this there seems to be no adequate evidence, and it is unlikely that a freedman would attain to a post of such importance. The Pontii were a Samnite gens. Pilate owed his appointment to the influence of Sejanus. The official residence of the procurators was the palace of Herod at Cæsarea; where there was a military force of about 3,000 soldiers. These soldiers came up to Jerusalem at the time of the feasts, when the city was full of strangers, and there was greater danger of disturbances, hence it was that Pilate had come to Jerusalem at the time of the Crucifixion. His name will be forever covered with infamy because of the part which he took in this matter, though at the time it appeared to him of small importance.
Pilate is a type of the worldly man, knowing the right and anxious to do it so far as it can be done without personal sacrifice of any kind, but yielding easily to pressure from those whose interest it is that he should act otherwise. He would gladly have acquitted Christ, and even made serious efforts in that direction, but gave way at once when his own position was threatened.
The other events of his rule are not of very great importance. Philo (Ad Gaium, 38) speaks of him as inflexible, merciless, and obstinate. The Jews hated him and his administration, for he was not only very severe, but showed little consideration for their susceptibilities. Some standards bearing the image of Tiberius, which had been set up by him in Jerusalem, caused an outbreak which would have ended in a massacre had not Pilate given way. At a later date Tiberius ordered him to remove certain gilt shields, which he had set up in Jerusalem in spite of the remonstrances of the people. The incident mentioned in St. Luke 13:1, of the Galilaeans whose blood Pilate mingled with the sacrifices, is not elsewhere referred to, but is quite in keeping with other authentic events of his rule. He was, therefore, anxious that no further hostile reports should be sent to the emperor concerning him.
The tendency, already discernible in the canonical Gospels, to lay stress on the efforts of Pilate to acquit Christ, and thus pass as lenient a judgment as possible upon his crime, goes further in the apocryphal Gospels and led in later years to the claim that he actually became a Christian. The Abyssinian Church reckons him as a saint, and assigns 25 June to him and to Claudia Procula, his wife. The belief that she became a Christian goes back to the second century, and may be found in Origen (Hom., in Mat., xxxv). The Greek Church assigns her a feast on 27 October. Tertullian and Justin Martyr both speak of a report on the Crucifixion (not extant) sent in by Pilate to Tiberius, from which idea a large amount of apocryphal literature originated. Some of these were Christian in origin (Gospel of Nicodemus), others came from the heathen, but these have all perished.
His rule was brought to an end through trouble which arose in Samaria. An imposter had given out that it was in his power to discover the sacred vessels which, as he alleged, had been hidden by Moses on Mount Gerizim, whither armed Samaritans came in large numbers. Pilate seems to have thought the whole affair was a blind, covering some other more important design, for he hurried forces to attack them, and many were slain. They appealed to Vitellius, who was at that time legate in Syria, saying that nothing political had been intended, and complaining of Pilate's whole administration. He was summoned to Rome to answer their charges, but before he could reach the city the Emperor Tiberius had died.
Catholic Encyclopedia: http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/12083c.htm

As the man who presided over the trial of Jesus, who found no fault with the defendant and washed his hands of the affair by referring it back to the Jewish mob, but who signed the final death warrant, Pontius Pilate represents almost a byword for ambivalence.
He appears in a poor light in all four Gospels and in a favourable light in the apocryphal Gospel of Peter where the Jews take all the blame for Jesus' death.
In the later Acts of Pilate, he is both cleared of responsibility for the Crucifixion and is said to have converted to Christianity.
In the drama of the Passion, Pilate is a ditherer who drifts towards pardoning Jesus, then drifts away again. He tries to pass the buck several times, makes the decision to save Jesus, then capitulates.
The former Archbishop of Canterbury, the late Robert Runcie once wrote, "It would have been better for the moral health of Christianity if the blame had stayed with Pilate."
In a poignant moment in the course of the trial, Pontius Pilate responds to an assertion by Jesus by asking "What is truth?"
The truth about Pilate is difficult to ascertain since records are few. Legends say he was a Spaniard or a German, but most likely he was a natural-born Roman citizen from central Italy.
But the fact that he was definitely the Procurator of Judea from 26 to 36 AD helps to establish Jesus as a real person and fixes him in time.
The official residence of the procurators was the palace of Herod at Caesarea, a mainly non-Jewish city where a force of some 3,000 Roman soldiers were based.
These would come to Jerusalem during the time of feasts when there was a greater danger of disturbances. This would explain Pilate's presence in the city during the time of the Crucifixion.
Pilate is recorded by several contemporary historians; his name is inscribed on Roman coins and on a stone dug up in Caesarea in the 1960s with the words, PONTIUS PILATUS PRAEFECTUS PROVINCIAE JUDAEAE.
The governorship of Judea was only a second-rate posting, though having the Jewish religious capital, Jerusalem, on its patch would have increased its importance.
Pilate ruled in conjunction with the Jewish authorities and was under orders from Emperor Tiberius, to respect their culture. He was a soldier rather than a diplomat.
The Jews relied on the Romans to keep their own rebellious factions under control. But they appeared to hate Pilate.
One contemporary Jewish historian Philo, describes him as a violent thug, fond of executions without trial. Another, Josephus, records that, at the start of his term, Pilate provoked the Jews by ordering the imperial standards to be carried into Jerusalem.
But he backed off from an all-out confrontation. On the other hand, later, he helped himself to Jewish revenues to build an aqueduct.
When, according to Josephus, bands of resistance fighters, supported by crowds of ordinary people, sabotaged the project by getting in the way of Pilate's workmen, he sent in his soldiers. Hundreds were massacred.
Anne Wroe, author of a recent book Pilate: the Biography of an Invented Man, says that for some modern scholars, given this propensity for violence when the occasion warranted, the idea of Pilate as a waverer is nonsense.
A Roman governor, they point out, would not have wasted two minutes thinking about a shabby Jewish villain, one among many. Wroe's depiction of Pilate, however, suggests he was something of a pragmatist.
His first duty was to keep the peace in Judea and to keep the revenues flowing back to Rome. "Should I have jeopardised the peace for the sake of some Jew who may have been innocent?", she has Pilate asking. "Should I have defied a furious crowd, maybe butchered them, to save one life?"
Whatever the truth about the real Pontius Pilate, such dilemmas are what he has come to symbolise.
Anne Wroe makes the modern comparisons of Neville Chamberlain in 1938. Bill McSweeney, of the Irish School of Ecumenics suggests that "without the Pilates of Anglo-Irish politics, we might never have had the Good Friday Agreement".
Tony Blair has said of Pilate: "It is possible to view Pilate as the archetypal politician, caught on the horns of a dilemma."
Even if, in reality, the Jesus affair was nothing but a small side-show in the career of Pontius Pilate, it had monumental repercussions for his image.
His inclusion in the Christian creeds, in the words of Robert Runcie, "binds the eternal realms to the stumbling, messy chronology of earthly time and place".
BBC: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/1273594.stm

The Ethiopian Church recognized Pilate as a saint in the sixth century, based on the account in the Acts of Pilate

Although historians can pinpoint the exact date of death of many distinguished historical figures, the date of the crucifixion of Jesus Christ remains a matter of scholarly debate. Christ’s birth is most often dated between 7-5 BC (some scholars have suggested, however, His birth was as early as 20 BC). Christ’s Death and Resurrection is dated between 29-36 AD.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
1 commentsCleisthenes
PontiusPilate31BCHendin650.jpg
[18H650] Pontius Pilate prefect for Tiberius Prutah, 31 BC67 viewsPONTIUS PILATUS PRUTAH. Hendin 650, aVF, 14.3mm, 1.94 grams. Minted 31 C.E. FULL "LIH" Date, (H partially hidden behind pretty patina can be revealed.)

THE COINS OF PONTIUS PILATE
Jean-Philippe Fontanille

INTRODUCTION
They are not really beautiful, or truly rare, nor are they of very great monetary value. Yet these apparently modest coins carry in their weight an era and an act which would have immense consequence to the history of the world. Indeed, they are closely associated with three basic factors which saw the foundation of Christianity :
1 - The temporal proximity : Most modern experts agree in recognising that the year now designated 30 C.E. marked the trial and the death of Jesus. Given that time-frame, Pilate's coins were minted in 29, 30 and 31 C.E.
2 - The geographic proximity : The most credible hypothesis indicates that these particular coins where struck in Jerusalem, the city in which the significant events took place.
3 - The human proximity : Pontius Pilate himself designed and put the coins into circulation, and of course he was the man who conducted the trial and ordered the crucifixion of Jesus.

So it is that everyone, whether a believer or simply a lover of history or of numismatics, will find in these coins direct evidence of and witness to an episode the memory of which has survived 2000 years : A momentous event which has to a great extent fashioned the world we know.

Throughout this article we will also note the exceptional character of Pilate's coins: Exceptional in the nature of the images they bear, for the numerous variants they offer, for the presence of countermarks, and above all for the part their originator played in history. The putative appearance of these coins imprints on the Turin shroud has yet to be confirmed by more solid scientific proofs.

Pilate's coins are Roman coins, the words on them are Greek, they were circulated in Judea, and today they are to be found distributed among world-wide collectors after having spent 2000 years buried in the earth. They were minted and used during a period which produced an event destined to change the face of the world, and issued at the command of one of the principal actors in that event. An amazing and dramatic destiny for apparently such humble and unassuming little coins !

For 35 years Pilate's coins were passed from hand to hand every day. They knew the scent of spice-stalls, heard the merchants' ranting, smelled the sweat and dust of daily works. They were alive to the sounds of Hebrew, Aramaic, Greek and Latin voices ¬ now haggling over a price, now offering prayers to YHVH, Jesus or Jupiter.

Nobody prays to Jupiter any more [?], but Pilate's coins are surviving witnesses to a time when the first Christians were considered as a messianic sect among several others in the midst of Judaism in crisis. The absolute split between Judaism and Christianity took place from about 70 C.E, the year which marked the tragic ending of the first Jewish rebellion. It was from that time, too, that Pilate's money ceased to be used.

Like each one of us, who carries always a few small coins in the bottom of our pockets; there is no doubt that some of Pilate's coins resonated to the last words of the most famous of all supplicants. A very long story had its beginning...

2. MANUFACTURE AND CIRCULATION
LOCATION OF MINTS
Although the prefects had their residencies in Cesarea, the administrative capital of the province, it seems that their money was minted in Jerusalem. Indeed, a specimen dated year 31 has been found in this town in an incomplete state of manufacture.

DURATION OF USE
It would seem that Pilate's money was in current use for at least 35 years. Indeed, some of it has been discovered among other coins during the excavation of remains of dwellings destroyed by the Romans during the first Jewish revolt, which is evidence that they were still in use at that time.

AREA OF CIRCULATION
These coins circulated far beyond the frontiers of Judea. Some samples have been discovered as far away as Antioch in present-day Turkey, nearly 500 kilometres from Jerusalem where they were minted. Others have also been found in Jordan. These limits represent a circulation area of at least 100.000 square kilometres, that is five times larger than the size of the state of Israel. Taking into account that it was a time when distances were expressed in terms of days of march, one begins to see the important influence of these coins.

3. THE IMAGES AND THE TEXTS
THE SIMPULUM
A fairly frequent symbol from the Roman religion of the time, the simpulum was a utensil used by the priests during their religious ceremonies. This little ladle, provided with shaft and a handle, allowed the priests to taste the wine which they poured onto the head of an animal destined for sacrifice, after which the soothsayer was empowered to examine the animal's entrails for signs and portents sent to men by the Gods through the medium of the interpreter. As I pointed, none of this would have been obvious at first sight of the motif except perhaps to a Roman citizen. However, it throws some light on the theory put forward by F.A. Banks [Coins of the Bible Days].

This wasn't the first time that the simpulum appeared on Roman coins, but it is the first time it figured alone. This fact gives an additional specificity to Pilate's coins, not only in the context of Judea but also in comparison with all the other coins of the Empire.

THE THREE EARS OF BARLEY
The three ears or barley are featured on the opposing face of the simpulum. Unlike the simpulum, these ears of barley are not in contravention of the Jewish Law. The motif is nevertheless distinctive because it is the first time it appears on a Judean coin. The motif would reappear twelve years later on one of Herod Agrippa's coin, then on another, much rarer, of Agrippa II (ears of barley held in a hand). After that, the motif disappeared altogether from ancient Jewish coins.

THE LITUUS
The lituus was the wooden staff which the augurs held in the right hand; it symbolised their authority and their pastoral vocation. It was raised toward heavens while the priests invoked the Gods and made their predictions. Legend records that Romulus used it at the time of Rome's foundation in 753 B.C.E. It is interesting to note that the cross used in present times is the direct descendant of the lituus. As with the simpulum, Pilate's coinage is exceptional in that it alone displays the lituus as the sole object illustrated on the face.

THE WREATH
The laurel wreath is a symbol of power and victory, and figures on various ancient Greek and Roman coins. In Judea it can be found during the reign of John Hyrcanus I (134 to 104 B.C.E.). After that, Herod Antipas, speaker for Pilate, used it on all his coins. On Pilate's coins, the laurel wreath figures on the reverse side of the lituus, framing the date.

THE DATES
The notation of dates uses a code invented by the Greeks whereby each letter of the alphabet was assigned a number. This code would be used again in Judaism under the name of Guematria. The system is simple : the first ten letters of the alphabet are linked to units (1,2,3...), the following ten letters to tens (10,20,30...) and the four remaining letters to the first four hundreds. The "L" is an abbreviation meaning "year". Tiberius became emperor on September 17 of year 14 C.E, so we have :

LIS = Year 29 C.E. * LIZ = Year 30 C.E. * LIH = Year 31 C.E.

THE TEXTS
The legends on Pontius Pilate's coins are written in Greek. Judea, governed by the Ptolemy dynasty (301 to 198 B.C.E) then by the Syrians until 63 B.C.E, came under the same powerful influence of the Hellenic culture which touched the other territories of the ancient Persian Empire won by Alexander the Great. In spite of a certain amount of resistance, this Hellenistic heritage eventually crept into every aspect of daily life. Apart from the dates, the texts on Pilate's coinage consisted of only three different words : - TIBEPIOY KAICAPOC (Of Tiberius Emperor) on all three coins; - IOYLIA KAICAPOC (Empress Julia) added to the coin of year 29.
http://www.numismalink.com/fontanille1.html


Pontius Pilate
After the deposition of the eldest son of Herod, Archelaus (who had succeeded his father as ethnarch), Judea was placed under the rule of a Roman procurator. Pilate, who was the fifth, succeeding Valerius Gratus in A.D. 26, had greater authority than most procurators under the empire, for in addition to the ordinary duty of financial administration, he had supreme power judicially. His unusually long period of office (A.D. 26-36) covers the whole of the active ministry both of St. John the Baptist and of Jesus Christ.
As procurator Pilate was necessarily of equestrian rank, but beyond that we know little of his family or origin. Some have thought that he was only a freedman, deriving his name from pileus (the cap of freed slaves) but for this there seems to be no adequate evidence, and it is unlikely that a freedman would attain to a post of such importance. The Pontii were a Samnite gens. Pilate owed his appointment to the influence of Sejanus. The official residence of the procurators was the palace of Herod at Cæsarea; where there was a military force of about 3,000 soldiers. These soldiers came up to Jerusalem at the time of the feasts, when the city was full of strangers, and there was greater danger of disturbances, hence it was that Pilate had come to Jerusalem at the time of the Crucifixion. His name will be forever covered with infamy because of the part which he took in this matter, though at the time it appeared to him of small importance.
Pilate is a type of the worldly man, knowing the right and anxious to do it so far as it can be done without personal sacrifice of any kind, but yielding easily to pressure from those whose interest it is that he should act otherwise. He would gladly have acquitted Christ, and even made serious efforts in that direction, but gave way at once when his own position was threatened.
The other events of his rule are not of very great importance. Philo (Ad Gaium, 38) speaks of him as inflexible, merciless, and obstinate. The Jews hated him and his administration, for he was not only very severe, but showed little consideration for their susceptibilities. Some standards bearing the image of Tiberius, which had been set up by him in Jerusalem, caused an outbreak which would have ended in a massacre had not Pilate given way. At a later date Tiberius ordered him to remove certain gilt shields, which he had set up in Jerusalem in spite of the remonstrances of the people. The incident mentioned in St. Luke 13:1, of the Galilaeans whose blood Pilate mingled with the sacrifices, is not elsewhere referred to, but is quite in keeping with other authentic events of his rule. He was, therefore, anxious that no further hostile reports should be sent to the emperor concerning him.
The tendency, already discernible in the canonical Gospels, to lay stress on the efforts of Pilate to acquit Christ, and thus pass as lenient a judgment as possible upon his crime, goes further in the apocryphal Gospels and led in later years to the claim that he actually became a Christian. The Abyssinian Church reckons him as a saint, and assigns 25 June to him and to Claudia Procula, his wife. The belief that she became a Christian goes back to the second century, and may be found in Origen (Hom., in Mat., xxxv). The Greek Church assigns her a feast on 27 October. Tertullian and Justin Martyr both speak of a report on the Crucifixion (not extant) sent in by Pilate to Tiberius, from which idea a large amount of apocryphal literature originated. Some of these were Christian in origin (Gospel of Nicodemus), others came from the heathen, but these have all perished.
His rule was brought to an end through trouble which arose in Samaria. An imposter had given out that it was in his power to discover the sacred vessels which, as he alleged, had been hidden by Moses on Mount Gerizim, whither armed Samaritans came in large numbers. Pilate seems to have thought the whole affair was a blind, covering some other more important design, for he hurried forces to attack them, and many were slain. They appealed to Vitellius, who was at that time legate in Syria, saying that nothing political had been intended, and complaining of Pilate's whole administration. He was summoned to Rome to answer their charges, but before he could reach the city the Emperor Tiberius had died.
Catholic Encyclopedia: http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/12083c.htm

As the man who presided over the trial of Jesus, who found no fault with the defendant and washed his hands of the affair by referring it back to the Jewish mob, but who signed the final death warrant, Pontius Pilate represents almost a byword for ambivalence.
He appears in a poor light in all four Gospels and in a favourable light in the apocryphal Gospel of Peter where the Jews take all the blame for Jesus' death.
In the later Acts of Pilate, he is both cleared of responsibility for the Crucifixion and is said to have converted to Christianity.
In the drama of the Passion, Pilate is a ditherer who drifts towards pardoning Jesus, then drifts away again. He tries to pass the buck several times, makes the decision to save Jesus, then capitulates.
The former Archbishop of Canterbury, the late Robert Runcie once wrote, "It would have been better for the moral health of Christianity if the blame had stayed with Pilate."
In a poignant moment in the course of the trial, Pontius Pilate responds to an assertion by Jesus by asking "What is truth?"
The truth about Pilate is difficult to ascertain since records are few. Legends say he was a Spaniard or a German, but most likely he was a natural-born Roman citizen from central Italy.
But the fact that he was definitely the Procurator of Judea from 26 to 36 AD helps to establish Jesus as a real person and fixes him in time.
The official residence of the procurators was the palace of Herod at Caesarea, a mainly non-Jewish city where a force of some 3,000 Roman soldiers were based.
These would come to Jerusalem during the time of feasts when there was a greater danger of disturbances. This would explain Pilate's presence in the city during the time of the Crucifixion.
Pilate is recorded by several contemporary historians; his name is inscribed on Roman coins and on a stone dug up in Caesarea in the 1960s with the words, PONTIUS PILATUS PRAEFECTUS PROVINCIAE JUDAEAE.
The governorship of Judea was only a second-rate posting, though having the Jewish religious capital, Jerusalem, on its patch would have increased its importance.
Pilate ruled in conjunction with the Jewish authorities and was under orders from Emperor Tiberius, to respect their culture. He was a soldier rather than a diplomat.
The Jews relied on the Romans to keep their own rebellious factions under control. But they appeared to hate Pilate.
One contemporary Jewish historian Philo, describes him as a violent thug, fond of executions without trial. Another, Josephus, records that, at the start of his term, Pilate provoked the Jews by ordering the imperial standards to be carried into Jerusalem.
But he backed off from an all-out confrontation. On the other hand, later, he helped himself to Jewish revenues to build an aqueduct.
When, according to Josephus, bands of resistance fighters, supported by crowds of ordinary people, sabotaged the project by getting in the way of Pilate's workmen, he sent in his soldiers. Hundreds were massacred.
Anne Wroe, author of a recent book Pilate: the Biography of an Invented Man, says that for some modern scholars, given this propensity for violence when the occasion warranted, the idea of Pilate as a waverer is nonsense.
A Roman governor, they point out, would not have wasted two minutes thinking about a shabby Jewish villain, one among many. Wroe's depiction of Pilate, however, suggests he was something of a pragmatist.
His first duty was to keep the peace in Judea and to keep the revenues flowing back to Rome. "Should I have jeopardised the peace for the sake of some Jew who may have been innocent?", she has Pilate asking. "Should I have defied a furious crowd, maybe butchered them, to save one life?"
Whatever the truth about the real Pontius Pilate, such dilemmas are what he has come to symbolise.
Anne Wroe makes the modern comparisons of Neville Chamberlain in 1938. Bill McSweeney, of the Irish School of Ecumenics suggests that "without the Pilates of Anglo-Irish politics, we might never have had the Good Friday Agreement".
Tony Blair has said of Pilate: "It is possible to view Pilate as the archetypal politician, caught on the horns of a dilemma."
Even if, in reality, the Jesus affair was nothing but a small side-show in the career of Pontius Pilate, it had monumental repercussions for his image.
His inclusion in the Christian creeds, in the words of Robert Runcie, "binds the eternal realms to the stumbling, messy chronology of earthly time and place".
BBC: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/1273594.stm

The Ethiopian Church recognized Pilate as a saint in the sixth century, based on the account in the Acts of Pilate

Although historians can pinpoint the exact date of death of many distinguished historical figures, the date of the crucifixion of Jesus Christ remains a matter of scholarly debate. Christ’s birth is most often dated between 7-5 BC (some scholars have suggested, however, His birth was as early as 20 BC). Christ’s Death and Resurrection is dated between 29-36 AD.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

Cleisthenes
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[1901a] Ardashir I, The Great (AD 224-241) 1446 viewsSASANIAN EMPIRE. Ardashir I, 224-241 AD. AR Drachm; Göbl 10; 4.27 gm; Toned VF. Obverse: Crowned draped bust; Reverse: Fire-altar. Ex Pegasi.

Ardashir I, The Great (AD 226-241)

Ardashir I (early Middle Persian Arđaxšēr "Who has the Divine Order as his Kingdom"), also known as Ardashīr-i Pāpagān "Ardashir, son of Pāpağ" Ardeshiri Babakan, and as Artaxerxes, was ruler of Persia (226–241) and the founder of the Sassanid dynasty (226–651). Other variants of his name appear as Artaxares, Artashastra, Ardaxshir, Ardasher, Artashir and Artakhshathra.

Early Years
Ardashir I was born in the late 2nd century in Istakhr, (located today in Iran) a vassal kingdom of the Parthian Empire. His father Pāpağ (sometimes written as Pāpak or Babak) deposed the previous king, Gochihr, and took his throne. His mother may have been named Rodhagh. During his father's reign, Ardashir I ruled the town of Darabjird and received the title of "argbadh". Upon Pāpağ's death, Ardashir I's elder brother Šāpūr ascended to the throne. However, Ardashir I rebelled against his brother and took the kingship for himself in 208.

Ardashir I rapidly extended his territory, demanding fealty from the local princes of Fars and gaining control over the neighboring provinces of Kerman, Isfahan, Susiana, and Mesene. This expansion brought the attention of the Arsacid Great King Artabanus IV (216–224), Ardashir I's overlord and ruler of the Parthian Empire, who marched against him in 224. Their armies clashed at Hormizdeghan, and Artabanus IV was killed. Ardashir I went on to invade the western provinces of the now-defunct Parthian Empire. This led to a confrontation between Kurds and Aradshir I which is recorded in a historical text named "Book of the Deeds of Ardashir son of Babak". It is written in Pahlavi script. In this book, the author explains the battle between King of the Kurds, "Madig" and Ardashir I.

Crowned in 226 as the sole ruler of Persia, and taking the title Šāhānšāh "King of Kings" (his consort Adhur-Anahid took the title "Queen of Queens"), Ardashir I finally brought the 400 year-old Parthian Empire to an end and began four centuries of Sassanid rule.
Over the next few years, Ardashir I further expanded his new empire to the east and northwest, conquering the provinces of Sistan, Gorgan, Khorasan, Margiana (in modern Turkmenistan), Balkh, and Chorasmia. Bahrain and Mosul were also added to Sassanid possessions. Furthermore, the Kings of Kushan, Turan, and Mekran recognized Ardashir as their overlord. In the West, assaults against Hatra, Armenia and Adiabene met with less success.

Religion and State
According to historian Arthur Christensen, the Sassanid state as established by Ardashir I was characterized by two general trends which differentiated it from its Parthian predecessor: a strong political centralization and organized state sponsorship of Zoroastrianism.

The Parthian Empire had consisted of a loose federation of vassal kingdoms under the suzerainty of the Great King. Ardashir I, perhaps seeing from his own successes the weaknesses of such decentralized authority, established a strong central government by which to rule Persia. The empire was divided into cantons, the dimensions of which were based on military considerations. These cantons were designed to resist the influence of hereditary interests and feudal rivalries. Local governors who descended from the ruling family bore the title of shāh. In an attempt to protect royal authority from regional challenges, the personal domains of the Sassanids and branch families family were scattered across the empire. While the old feudal princes (vāspuhrs) remained, they were required to render military service with their local troops (for the most part peasant levies). The lesser nobility was cultivated as a source of military strength, forming the elite cavalry of the army, and the royal household found a useful (and presumably reliable) military force through the hiring of mercenaries.

Zoroastrianism had existed in the Parthian Empire, and its holy text, the Avesta, had likely been compiled during the years of the Arsacid dynasty. The Sassanids could trace their heritage to the Temple of Anahita at Staxr, where Ardashir I's grandfather had been a dignitary. Under Ardashir I, the Zoroastrian (sometimes called Mazdean) religion was promoted and regulated by the state. The Sassanids built fire temples and, under royal direction, a new and official version of the Avesta was compiled by a cleric named Tansār. The government officially backed the Zurvanist doctrine of the religion, which emphasized the concept of time as the "original principle", over the competing doctrine of Vayism, which stressed the importance of space over time. Despite this state backing of a particular sect, it appears that other religious practices were tolerated so long as they did not interfere with the political authority of the Sassanids.

In other domestic affairs, Ardashir I maintained his familial base in Fars, erecting such structures as the Ghal'eh Dokhtar and the Palace of Ardashir. Despite these impressive structures, he established his government at the old Parthian capital of Ctesiphon on the Tigris River. He also rebuilt the city of Seleucia, located just across the river, which had been destroyed by the Romans in 165, renaming it Veh-Ardashir. Trade was promoted and important ports at Mesene and Charax were repaired or constructed.

War with Rome
In the latter years of his reign, Ardashir I engaged in a series of armed conflicts with Persia's great rival to the west – the Roman Empire.

Ardashir I's expansionist tendencies had been frustrated by his failed invasions of Armenia, where a relative of the former Arsacid rulers of Parthia sat on the throne. Given Armenia's traditional position as an ally of the Romans, Ardashir I may have seen his primary opponent not in the Armenian and Caucasian troops he had faced, but in Rome and her legions.

In 230 Ardashir I led his army into the Roman province of Mesopotamia, unsuccessfully besieging the fortress town of Nisibis. At the same time, his cavalry ranged far enough past the Roman border to threaten Syria and Cappadocia. It seems that the Romans saw fit to attempt a diplomatic solution to the crisis, reminding the Persians of the superiority of Roman arms, but to no avail. Ardashir I campaigned unsuccessfully against Roman border outposts again the following year (231). As a result, the Roman emperor Alexander Severus (222–235) moved to the east, establishing his headquarters at Antioch, but experienced difficulties in bringing his troops together and thus made another attempt at diplomacy, which Ardashir I rebuffed.

Finally, in 232, Severus led his legions in a three-pronged assault on the Persians. However, the separate army groups did not advance in a coordinated fashion, and Ardashir I was able to take advantage of the disorder and concentrate his forces against the enemy advancing through Armenia, where he was able to halt the Roman advance. Hearing of the Roman plans to march on his capital at Ctesiphon, Ardashir I left only a token screening force in the north and met the enemy force that was advancing to the south, apparently defeating it in a decisive manner. However, one can discern that the Persians must have suffered considerable losses as well, as no attempt was made to pursue the fleeing Romans. Both leaders must have had reason to avoid further campaigning, as Severus returned to Europe in the following year (233) and Ardashir I did not renew his attacks for several years, probably focusing his energies in the east.

On 237 Ardashir I, along with his son and successor Shapur I (241–272), again invaded Mesopotamia. This effort resulted in successful assaults on Nisibis and Carrhae and the shock this caused in Rome led the emperor to revive the Roman client-state of Osroene. In 241, Ardashir I and Shapur finally overcame the stubborn fortress of Hatra. Ardashir I died later in the year.

Final Assessment
Ardashir I was an energetic king, responsible for the resurgence of Persia, the strengthening of Zoroastrianism, and the establishment of a dynasty that would endure for four centuries. While his campaigns against Rome met with only limited success, he achieved more against them than the Parthians had done in many decades and prepared the way for the substantial successes his son and successor Shapur I would enjoy against the same enemy.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

Cleisthenes
Antiochos1ARTetPhiletairos.jpg
[2400c] Pergamene Kingdom: Attalid Dynasty: Philetairos: 282-- 263 B.C. 50 viewsPergamene Kingdom, Attalid Dynasty; AR Tetradrachm (17.10 gm, 29 mm), VF, Struck in Pergamon under Philetairos, in the name of Seleukos I, circa 279-274 BC. Obverse: head of Herakles right, wearing lion's skin headdress; Reverse: Zeus seated left, holding eagle and sceptre; helmeted head of Athena in left field; crescent under throne. SC 308a. Nicely toned and scarce. Ex Eukratides. Photo by Eukratides.

Philetairos first struck in the name of Lysimachos, then posthumous Alexander types under Seleukos I (such as this specimen), then Seleukos portrait types under Antiochos I, and lastly a type with his own portrait.

The Attalid dynasty was a Hellenistic dynasty that ruled the city of Pergamon after the death of Lysimachus, a general of Alexander the Great. The Attalid kingdom was the rump state left after the collapse of the Lysimachian Empire. One of Lysimachus' officers, Philetaerus, took control of the city in 282 BC. The later Attalids were descended from his father, and they expanded the city into a kingdom. Attalus I proclaimed himself King in the 230s BC, following his victories over the Galatians. The Attalids ruled Pergamon until Attalus III bequeathed the kingdom to the Roman Republic in 133 BC to avoid a likely succession crisis.

On the interior of the Pergamon Altar is a frieze depicting the life of Telephos, son of Herakles, whom the ruling Attalid dynasty associated with their city and utilized to claim descendance from the Olympians. Pergamon, having entered the Greek world much later than their counterparts to the west, could not boast the same divine heritage as older city-states, and had to retroactively cultivate their place in Greek mythos.

The Attalid Dynasty of Pergamum

Philetaerus (282 BC–263 BC)
Eumenes I (263 BC–241 BC)
Attalus I Soter (241 BC–197 BC)
Eumenes II (197 BC–158 BC)
Attalus II Philadelphus (160 BC–138 BC)
Attalus III (138 BC–133 BC)
Eumenes III Aristonicus (pretender, 133 BC–129 BC)
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Attalid_dynasty


The Relationship between the Attalids and the Seleucids

September 281 A.D.: death of Seleucus I; accession of Antiochus I; Philetaerus of Pergamon buys back the corpse of Seleucus I (the father of Antiochos I and a member of the Diodochi: the period of the Diadochi is said to end with the victory of Seleucus I over Lysimachus at the battle of Corupedion in 281, fixing the boundaries of the Hellenistic world for the next century).

Antiochus I Soter (Greek Ἀντίoχoς Σωτήρ, i.e. "Saviour"; 324/​323-​262/​261 B.C.), was an emperor of the Hellenistic Seleucid Empire. He reigned from 281 - 261 B.C. He was half Persian, his mother Apama being one of the eastern princesses whom Alexander the Great had given as wives to his generals in 324 B.C. In in 294 B.C., prior to death of his father Seleucus I, Antiochus married his step-mother, Stratonice, daughter of Demetrius Poliorcetes. His elderly father reportedly instigated the marriage after discovering that his son was in danger of dying of lovesickness.

On the assassination of his father in 281 B.C., the task of holding together the empire was a formidable one, and a revolt in Syria broke out almost immediately. Antiochus was soon compelled to make peace with his father's murderer, Ptolemy Keraunos, abandoning apparently Macedonia and Thrace. In Asia Minor he was unable to reduce Bithynia or the Persian dynasties that ruled in Cappadocia.

In 278 BC the Gauls broke into Asia Minor, and a victory that Antiochus won over these hordes is said to have been the origin of his title of Soter (Gr. for "saviour").

At the end of 275 B.C. the question of Coele-Syria, which had been open between the houses of Seleucus and Ptolemy since the partition of 301 B.C., led to hostilities (the First Syrian War). It had been continuously in Ptolemaic occupation, but the house of Seleucus maintained its claim.

About 262 B.C. Antiochus tried to break the growing power of Pergamum by force of arms, but suffered defeat near Sardis and died soon afterwards. His eldest son Seleucus, who had ruled in the east as viceroy from 275 BC(?) till 268/267 BC, was put to death in that year by his father on the charge of rebellion. He was succeeded (261 BC) by his second son Antiochus II Theos

263 A.D.: Eumenes I of Pergamon, successor of Philetaerus, declares himself independent.

262 A.D.: Antiochus defeated by Eumenes.
http://www.livius.org/am-ao/antiochus/antiochus_i_soter.html

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

Cleisthenes
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[2410a] Mysia, Pergamon. Regal Issue, 281-133 BC.74 viewsMysia, Pergamon. Regal Issue, 281-133 BC. AE 14mm (1.94 gm). Obverse: Athena in Attic helmet right. Reverse: ΦIΛE-TAIPOY; bow. SNG France 5, 1683. Good very fine. Ex Tom Vossen.


The Attalid dynasty was a Hellenistic dynasty that ruled the city of Pergamon after the death of Lysimachus, a general of Alexander the Great. The Attalid kingdom was the rump state left after the collapse of the Lysimachian Empire. One of Lysimachus' officers, Philetaerus, took control of the city in 282 BC. The later Attalids were descended from his father, and they expanded the city into a kingdom. Attalus I proclaimed himself King in the 230s BC, following his victories over the Galatians. The Attalids ruled Pergamon until Attalus III bequeathed the kingdom to the Roman Republic in 133 BC to avoid a likely succession crisis.

On the interior of The Great Altar of Zeus at Pergamon is a frieze depicting the life of Telephos, son of Herakles, whom the ruling Attalid dynasty associated with their city and utilized to claim descendance from the Olympians. Pergamon, having entered the Greek world much later than their counterparts to the west, could not boast the same divine heritage as older city-states, and had to retroactively cultivate their place in Greek mythos.

The Pergamon Museum (in German, Pergamonmuseum) is one of the museums on the Museum Island in Berlin. It was planned by Alfred Messel and Ludwig Hoffmann and was built over a period from 1910 to 1930. It houses original-sized, reconstructed monumental buildings such as the Pergamon Altar. Sections of The Telephos Frieze, originaly composed of the sequnce of 52 panels--only some scenes of this beautiful frieze were "saved" by German archeologists in the 19th century--are exhibited there.

The Attalid Dynasty of Pergamum

Philetaerus (282 BC–263 BC)
Eumenes I (263 BC–241 BC)
Attalus I Soter (241 BC–197 BC)
Eumenes II (197 BC–158 BC)
Attalus II Philadelphus (160 BC–138 BC)
Attalus III (138 BC–133 BC)
Eumenes III Aristonicus (pretender, 133 BC–129 BC)
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Attalid_dynasty

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
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