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Search results - "Helena"
HELENA.jpg
(0271) HELENA34 views(1st wife or consort of Constantiius I; mother of Constantine I)
b. ca.248 - d. 330 AD
STRUCK POSTHUMOUSLY
AE 14mm 0.77 g
O: DIAD DR BUST R
]R: PAX PVBLICA
PAX STANDING L HOLDING BRANCH AND SCEPTER
laney
HELENA_C.jpg
(0271) HELENA24 views(1st wife or consort of Constantiius I; mother of Constantine I)
d. 329 AD (POSTHUMOUS ISSUE STRUCK 337 - 340 AD)
AE
O: DIAD DR BUST R
R: PAX STANDING L HOLDING OLIVE BRANCH AND SCEPTER
CONSTANTINOPLE
laney
HELENA_B.jpg
(0271) HELENA21 views(1st wife or consort of Constantiius I; mother of Constantine I)
d. 329 AD (POSTHUMOUS ISSUE, ca. 340)
AE 13.5 mm 1.58 g
O: FL IVL HELENAE AVG
DIAD DRU BUST R
R: PAX PVBLICA
PAX STANDING L HOLDING BRANCH AND SCEPTER
laney
q10.JPG
005a. Helena Antioch SECVRITAS REIPVBLICE25 viewsRIC VII Antioch 67 R4
ecoli
ss31.JPG
005a. Helena Siscia SECVRITAS REIPVBLICE30 viewsRIC VII Siscia 204 S
ecoli
08-Helena-Con-34-49.jpg
08. Helena: Constantinople.23 viewsA 4, 337 - 341, Constantinople mint.
Obverse: FL IVL HELENAE AVG / Diademed bust of Helena.
Reverse: PAX PVBLICA / Pax standing, holding branch and sceptre.
Mint mark: CONSE
1.57 gm., 15.5 mm.
RIC 34/49; LRBC #1047 var.; Sear #17497/98.

This coin does not really fit the description of RIC #34 or RIC #49:
RIC #34 - terminal dot to reverse legend, Officina E.
RIC #49 - without terminal dot. Officina Θ.
This coin - without terminal dot. Officina E.
Callimachus
Personajes_Imperiales_10.jpg
10 - Personalities of the Empire43 viewsSeverus II, Maxentius, Romulus, Constantine I, Helena, Fausta, Alexander, Licinius I, Constantia, Maximinus II, Valerius Valens, Licinius II, Crispus and Martinianusmdelvalle
Personajes_Imperiales_10~0.jpg
10 - Personalities of the Empire41 viewsRomulus, Constantine I, Helena, Fausta, Licinius I, Constantia, Maximinus II, Licinius II, Crispus, Constantine II, Delmatius, Hanibalianus, Constans and Constantius II.

mdelvalle
1059-1067 Constantin IX S 1853.jpg
1059-1067 Constantin IX - follis from Constantinople53 views+EMMANOVHΛ , Christ standing facing, in field IC / XC
+ KωN T ΔK EVΔK AVΓO , Eudocia and Constantine IX standing facing holding labarum (Constantine IX and Eudocia are depicted like the icon of Constantine the Great and his mother Helena holding the True Cross).

Sear 1853
Ginolerhino
124a.jpg
124a Helena. AE follis 3.8gm17 viewsobv: FL HELENA_AVGVSTA dia. and mantledbust r., wearing necklace
rev: SECVRITRITAS_ REIPVBLICE Securitas std. l., holding palm and drawing drapery
ex: SMH(EPSOLON)
"Mother of Constantine I and first wife of Constantius I)
hill132
124b.jpg
124b Helena. AE follis 2.9gm19 viewsobv: FL HELENA AVGVSTA dia.and mantled bust r.
rev: SECVRITAS REIPVBLICE Securitas std. l. holding olive branch
ex: SMALA
hill132
124c.jpg
124c Helena. AE follis 3.5gm16 viewsobv: FL HELENA AVGVSTA dia. and mantled bust r.
rev: SECVRITAS REIPVBLICE Securitas std. l. holding olive branch
ex: PTR(dot in crescent)
hill132
124d.jpg
124d Helena. AE follis24 viewsobv: FL HELENA AVGVSTA dia. and mantled bust r.
rev: SECRITAS REIPVBLICE Securitas std. l. holding olive branch
ex: STRE
hill132
124e.jpg
124e Helena. AE follis 3.0gm19 viewsobv: FL HELENA AVGVSTA dia. and mantled bust r.
rev: SECVRITVS REIPVBLICE Securitas std. l. holding olive branch
ex: .SMANTS
hill132
Constantius1_silvered_follis.jpg
1304a, Constantius I, May 305 - 25 July 306 A.D.47 viewsSilvered follis, RIC 20a, S 3671, VM 25, gVF, Heraclea mint, 10.144g, 27.7mm, 180o, 297 - 298 A.D. Obverse: FL VAL CONSTANTIVS NOB CAES, laureate head right; Reverse GENIO POPVLI ROMANI, Genius standing left, modius on head, naked except for chlamys over shoulder, cornucopia in left, pouring liquor from patera, HTD in exergue; some silvering, nice portrait, well centered.



De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Constantius I Chlorus (305-306 A.D.)

Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Salve Regina University

Constantius' Early Life and Marriage

Born March 31st, Emperor Flavius Valerius Constantius may have come into the world ca. 250. His family was from Illyricum. In the army he served as a protector, tribunus, and a praeses Dalmatiarum. During the 270s or the 280s, he became the father of Constantine by Helena, his first spouse. By 288 he was the Praetorian Prefect of the western emperor Maximianus Herculius.

Constantius' Reign as Caesar

On 1 March 293 Diocletian appointed Galerius as his Caesar (junior emperor) in the east and Constantius as the Caesar of Maximianus Herculius. Caesar in the west. Both Caesars had the right of succession. In order to strengthen the dynastic relationship between himself and Herculius., Constantius put aside his wife Helena and married Theodora, the daughter, or perhaps stepdaughter, of Maximianus Herculius.. The union was fruitful and of it there were six issue: Flavius Dalmatius, Julius Constantius, Hannibalianus, Constantia, Anastasia, and Eutropia. To strengthen his bond with Galerius and Diocletian in the east, Constantius allowed Galerius to keep his son Constantine as a hostage for his good behavior.

In the remainder of the time that he was a Caesar, Constantius spent much of his time engaged in military actions in the west. In the summer of 293 Constantius expelled the troops of the usurper Carausius from northern Gaul; after Constantius' attack on Bononia (Boulogne), Carausius was murdered. At the same time he dealt with the unrest of the Germans. In 296 he invaded Britain and put down the revolt of the usurper Allectus. Between 300 and 305 A.D. the Caesar campaigned successfully several times with various German tribes. It is worth noting in passing, that while his colleagues rigidly enforced the "Great Persecution in 303," Constantius limited his action to knocking down a few churches.

Constantius as Augustus and His Untimely Death

On 1 May 305 Diocletian, at Nicomedia, and Maximianus Herculius, at Mediolanum (Milan), divested themselves of the purple, probably because of the almost fatal illness that Diocletian contracted toward the end of 304. Diocletian forced Maximianus to abdicate. They appointed as their successors Constantius and Galerius, with Severus and Maximinus Daia as the new Caesars. The retired emperors then returned to private life. Constantius, as had his predecessor, ruled in the west, while Galerius and Daia ruled in the east. Almost as soon as he was appointed Augustus, he crossed to Britain to face incursions by the Picts where he died at York on 25 July 306 with his son (Constantine I, known to history as “The Great”) at his side.

Copyright (C) 1996, Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
Helena_FL-IVL-HE-LANAE-AVG_PAX-PVBLICA-dot_CONS-E_RIC-VIII-33-p-449-H1-M-Scarce_Constantinopolis_328-29-AD_Q-001_axis-11h_16mm_1,65g-s.jpg
139 Helena (? -329 A.D.), AE-3 Follis, Constantinopolis, RIC VIII 033, -/-//CONSE, PAX PVBLICA•, Pax standing left, Scarce!,104 views139 Helena (? -329 A.D.), AE-3 Follis, Constantinopolis, RIC VIII 033, -/-//CONSE, PAX PVBLICA•, Pax standing left, Scarce!,
avers:- FL-IVL-HELENAE-AVG, (H1,M), Diademed, mantled bust right, with necklace.
revers:- PAX-PV-BLICA•, Pax standing left, holding branch and transverse scepter.
exergo: -/-//CONSE, diameter: 16mm, weight:1,65g, axis:11h,
mint: Constantinopolis, date: 330 A.D., ref: RIC-VIII-33, p-449, Scarce!
Q-001
quadrans
139_Helena_Constantinopolis_RIC-VIII_033_FL-IVL-HE-LANAE-AVG_PAX-PVBLICA-dot_CONS-E_p-449-H1-M_328-29-AD_S_Q-002_11h_15,5-17mm_1,34g-s.jpg
139 Helena (? -329 A.D.), AE-3 Follis, Constantinopolis, RIC VIII 033, -/-//CONSE, PAX PVBLICA•, Pax standing left, Scarce!, #2160 views139 Helena (? -329 A.D.), AE-3 Follis, Constantinopolis, RIC VIII 033, -/-//CONSE, PAX PVBLICA•, Pax standing left, Scarce!, #2
avers:- FL-IVL-HELENAE-AVG, (H1,M), Diademed, mantled bust right, with necklace.
revers:- PAX-PV-BLICA•, Pax standing left, holding branch and transverse scepter.
exergo: -/-//CONSE, diameter: 15,5-17,0mm, weight:1,34g, axis:11h,
mint: Constantinopolis, date: 330 A.D., ref: RIC-VIII-33, p-449, Scarce!
Q-002
2 commentsquadrans
Helena_FL-HELENA-AVGVSTA_SECVRITAS-REIPVBLICA_SMKGamma-dot_RIC-VII-39-p-649-(12-E10)_Cyzicus_325-6-AD_R4_Q-001_0h_16,5-18mm_3,09g-s.jpg
139 Helena (? -329 A.D.), AE-3 Follis, Cyzicus, RIC VII 039, -/-//SMKΓ•, SECVRITAS REIPVBLICA, Securitas standing left, R4!!!79 views139 Helena (? -329 A.D.), AE-3 Follis, Cyzicus, RIC VII 039, -/-//SMKΓ•, SECVRITAS REIPVBLICA, Securitas standing left, R4!!!
avers:- FL-HELENA-AVGVSTA, (12,E10), Diademed, draped bust right, with necklace.
revers:- SECVRITAS-REIPVBLICA, Securitas standing left, lowering branch with left hand, raising robe with right hand.
exergo: -/-//SMKΓ•, diameter: 16,5-18mm, weight: 3,09g, axis: 0h,
mint: Cyzicus, date: 325-26 A.D., ref: RIC-VII-039, p-649, R4!!!
Q-001
quadrans
Helena_FL-HELENA-AVGVSTA_SECVRITAS-REIPVBLICA_SMNDelta_RIC-VII-95-p-615-12-E10_R4_Nicomedia_324-25-AD_Q-001_5h_19mm_3,22ga-s.jpg
139 Helena (? -329 A.D.), AE-3 Follis, Heraclea, RIC VII 079, -/-//SMHΔ, SECVRITAS REIPVBLICA, Securitas standing left, R3!!!,62 views139 Helena (? -329 A.D.), AE-3 Follis, Heraclea, RIC VII 079, -/-//SMHΔ, SECVRITAS REIPVBLICA, Securitas standing left, R3!!!,
avers:- FL HELENA AVGVSTA, 12,E10, Diademed, draped bust right.
revers:- SECVRITAS REIPVBLICA, Securitas standing left, lowering branch with left hand, raising robe with the right hand.
exergo: -/-//SMHΔ, diameter: 19mm, weight: 3,22g, axis: 5h,
mint: Heraclea, date: 324-25 A.D., ref: RIC-VII-79, p-551,
Q-001
quadrans
139_Helena_Heracleia_RIC-VII_079_FL-HELENA-AVGVSTA_SECVRITAS-REIPVBLICA_SMHB_p-551-12-E10_325-26-AD_S_Q-001,_11h,_18,5-21,5mm,_3,58g-s.jpg
139 Helena (? -329 A.D.), AE-3 Follis, Heraclea, RIC VII 079, -/-//SMHB, SECVRITAS REIPVBLICA, Securitas standing left, 125 views139 Helena (? -329 A.D.), AE-3 Follis, Heraclea, RIC VII 079, -/-//SMHB, SECVRITAS REIPVBLICA, Securitas standing left,
avers:- FL HELENA AVGVSTA, 12,E10, Diademed, draped bust right.
revers:- SECVRITAS REIPVBLICA, Securitas standing left, lowering branch with left hand, raising robe with the right hand.
exergo: -/-//SMHB, diameter: 18,5-21,5mm, weight: 3,58g, axis: 11h,
mint: Heraclea, date: 325-26 A.D., ref: RIC-VII-79, p-551, Scarce!
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
139_Helena_Heracleia_RIC-VII_079_FL-HELENA-AVGVSTA_SECVRITAS-REIPVBLICA_SMHE_p-551-12-E10_325-26-AD_R2_Q-001_11h_17,5-18mm_3,18ga-s.jpg
139 Helena (? -329 A.D.), AE-3 Follis, Heraclea, RIC VII 079, -/-//SMHE, SECVRITAS REIPVBLICA, Securitas standing left, R2!,97 views139 Helena (? -329 A.D.), AE-3 Follis, Heraclea, RIC VII 079, -/-//SMHE, SECVRITAS REIPVBLICA, Securitas standing left, R2!,
avers:- FL HELENA AVGVSTA, 12,E10, Diademed, draped bust right.
revers:- SECVRITAS REIPVBLICA, Securitas standing left, lowering branch with left hand, raising robe with the right hand.
exergo: -/-//SMHE, diameter: 17,5-18mm, weight: 3,18g, axis: 11h,
mint: Heraclea, date: 325-26 A.D., ref: RIC-VII-79, p-551, R2 !
Q-001
quadrans
Helena_FL-HELENA-AVGVSTA_SECVRITAS-REIPVBLICA_dot-SMHE_RIC-VII-95-p-554-12-E10_c1_Heracleia_327-29-AD_Q-001_5h_18mm_2,67ga-s.jpg
139 Helena (? -329 A.D.), AE-3 Follis, Heraclea, RIC VII 095, -/-//•SMHE, SECVRITAS REIPVBLICA, Securitas standing left, C1!, #163 views139 Helena (? -329 A.D.), AE-3 Follis, Heraclea, RIC VII 095, -/-//•SMHE, SECVRITAS REIPVBLICA, Securitas standing left, C1!, #1
avers:- FL HELENA AVGVSTA, 12,E10, Diademed, draped bust right.
revers:- SECVRITAS REIPVBLICA, Securitas standing left, lowering branch with left hand, raising robe with the right hand.
exergo: -/-//•SMHE, diameter: 18mm, weight: 2,67g, axis: 5h,
mint: Heraclea, date: 327-29 A.D., ref: RIC-VII-95, p-554,
Q-001
quadrans
Helena_FL-HELENA-AVGVSTA_SECVRITAS-REIPVBLICA_dot-SMH__RIC-VII-95-p-554-12-E10_c1_Heracleia_327-29-AD_Q-002_11h_19mm_3,22ga-s.jpg
139 Helena (? -329 A.D.), AE-3 Follis, Heraclea, RIC VII 095, -/-//•SMHE, SECVRITAS REIPVBLICA, Securitas standing left, C1!, #262 views139 Helena (? -329 A.D.), AE-3 Follis, Heraclea, RIC VII 095, -/-//•SMHE, SECVRITAS REIPVBLICA, Securitas standing left, C1!, #2
avers:- FL HELENA AVGVSTA, 12,E10, Diademed, draped bust right.
revers:- SECVRITAS REIPVBLICA, Securitas standing left, lowering branch with left hand, raising robe with the right hand.
exergue: -/-//•SMHE, diameter: 19mm, weight: 3,22g, axis: 11h,
mint: Heraclea, date: 327-29 A.D., ref: RIC-VII-95, p-554,
Q-002
quadrans
139_Helena_Siscia_RIC-VII_204_FL-HELENA-AVGVSTA_SECVRITAS-REIPVBLICA_dot-Gamma-SIS-dot_p-450-12-E10_326-27-AD_S_Q-001_0h_18,5-19,8mm_2,84g-s.jpg
139 Helena (? -329 A.D.), AE-3 Follis, Siscia, RIC VII 204, -/-//•ΓSIS•, SECVRITAS REIPVBLICA, Securitas standing left, Scarce, #1100 views139 Helena (? -329 A.D.), AE-3 Follis, Siscia, RIC VII 204, -/-//•ΓSIS•, SECVRITAS REIPVBLICA, Securitas standing left, Scarce, #1
avers:- FL-HELENA-AVGVSTA, 12,E10, Diademed, draped bust right, with two-row necklace.
revers:- SECVRITAS-REIPVBLICA Securitas standing left, lowering branch with left hand, raising robe with right hand.
exergo: -/-//•ΓSIS•, diameter: 18,5-19,8mm, weight: 2,84g, axis: 0h,
mint: Siscia, date: 326-27 A.D., ref: RIC-VII-204, p-450, Scarce,
Q-001
quadrans
Helena_FL-HELENA-AVGVSTA_SECVRITAS-REIPVBLICA_dot-_-SIS-dot_RIC-VII-204-p-450-12-E10_r1_Siscia_326-27-AD_Q-001_axis-0h_19mm_3,21ga-s.jpg
139 Helena (? -329 A.D.), AE-3 Follis, Siscia, RIC VII 204, -/-//•ESIS•, SECVRITAS REIPVBLICA, Securitas standing left, R1!, #187 views139 Helena (? -329 A.D.), AE-3 Follis, Siscia, RIC VII 204, -/-//•ESIS•, SECVRITAS REIPVBLICA, Securitas standing left, R1!, #1
avers:- FL-HELENA-AVGVSTA, 12,E10, Diademed, draped bust right, with two-row necklace.
revers:- SECVRITAS-REIPVBLICA Securitas standing left, lowering branch with left hand, raising robe with right hand.
exergo: -/-//•ESIS•, diameter: 19mm, weight: 3,21g, axis: 0h,
mint: Siscia, date: 326-27 A.D., ref: RIC-VII-204, p-450, R1,
Q-001
quadrans
Helena_FL-HELENA-AVGVSTA_SECVRITAS-REIPVBLICA_dot-E-SIS-dot_RIC-VII-204-p-450-12-E10_r1_Siscia_326-27-AD_Q-002_0h_20mm_3,24ga-s.jpg
139 Helena (? -329 A.D.), AE-3 Follis, Siscia, RIC VII 204, -/-//•ESIS•, SECVRITAS REIPVBLICA, Securitas standing left, R1!, #265 views139 Helena (? -329 A.D.), AE-3 Follis, Siscia, RIC VII 204, -/-//•ESIS•, SECVRITAS REIPVBLICA, Securitas standing left, R1!, #2
avers:- FL-HELENA-AVGVSTA, 12,E10, Diademed, draped bust right, with two-row necklace.
revers:- SECVRITAS-REIPVBLICA, Securitas standing left, lowering branch with left hand, raising robe with right hand.
exergo: -/-//•ESIS•, diameter: 20mm, weight: 3,24g, axis: 0h,
mint: Siscia, date: 326-27 A.D., ref: RIC-VII-204, p-450, R1,
Q-002
quadrans
139_Helena_Siscia_RIC-VII_204_FL-HELENA-AVGVSTA_SECVRITAS-REIPVBLICA_dot-E-SIS-dot_p-450-12-E10_326-27-AD_R1_Q-002_1h_18-18,5mm_3,35ga-s.jpg
139 Helena (? -329 A.D.), AE-3 Follis, Siscia, RIC VII 204, -/-//•ESIS•, SECVRITAS REIPVBLICA, Securitas standing left, R1!, #399 views139 Helena (? -329 A.D.), AE-3 Follis, Siscia, RIC VII 204, -/-//•ESIS•, SECVRITAS REIPVBLICA, Securitas standing left, R1!, #3
avers:- FL-HELENA-AVGVSTA, 12,E10, Diademed, draped bust right, with two-row necklace.
revers:- SECVRITAS-REIPVBLICA Securitas standing left, lowering branch with left hand, raising robe with right hand.
exergo: -/-//•ESIS•, diameter: 18-18,5mm, weight: 3,35g, axis: 1h,
mint: Siscia, date: 326-27 A.D., ref: RIC-VII-204, p-450, R1,
Q-003
quadrans
Helena_FL-HELENA-AVGVSTA_SECVRITAS-REIPVBLICA_Gamma-SIS-Crescentincrescent_RIC-VII-218-p-453-12-E10_c2_Siscia_328-29-AD_Q-001_h_mm_g-s.jpg
139 Helena (? -329 A.D.), AE-3 Follis, Siscia, RIC VII 218, -/-//ΓSIS Crescent in crescent, SECVRITAS REIPVBLICA, Securitas standing left, C2!,62 views139 Helena (? -329 A.D.), AE-3 Follis, Siscia, RIC VII 218, -/-//ΓSIS Crescent in crescent, SECVRITAS REIPVBLICA, Securitas standing left, C2!,
avers:- FL-HELENA-AVGVSTA, 12,E10, Diademed, draped bust right, with two-row necklace.
revers:- SECVRITAS-REIPVBLICA, Securitas standing left, lowering branch with left hand, raising robe with right hand.
exergo: -/-//ΓSIS Crescent in crescent, diameter: mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Siscia, date: 328-29 A.D., ref: RIC-VII-218, p-453, C2,
Q-001
quadrans
Helena_FL-HELENA-AVGVSTA_SECVRITAS-REIPVBLICA_E-SIS-crescent-in-crescent_RIC-VII-218-p-453-12-E10_c2_Siscia_328-29-AD_Q-001_0h_18mm_3,05ga-s.jpg
139 Helena (? -329 A.D.), AE-3 Follis, Siscia, RIC VII 218, -/-//ESIS Crescent in crescent, SECVRITAS REIPVBLICA, Securitas standing left, C2!70 views139 Helena (? -329 A.D.), AE-3 Follis, Siscia, RIC VII 218, -/-//ESIS Crescent in crescent, SECVRITAS REIPVBLICA, Securitas standing left, C2!
avers:- FL-HELENA-AVGVSTA, 12,E10, Diademed, draped bust right, with two-row necklace.
revers:- SECVRITAS-REIPVBLICA, Securitas standing left, lowering branch with left hand, raising robe with right hand.
exergo: -/-//ESIS Crescent in crescent, diameter: 18mm, weight: 3,05g, axis: 0h,
mint: Siscia, date: 328-29 A.D., ref: RIC-VII-218, p-453, C2,
Q-001
quadrans
Helena_FL-HELENA-AVGVSTA_SECVRITAS-REIPVBLICA_SMTSA_RIC-VII-159-p-519-12-E10_r2_Thessalonica_326-28-AD_Q-001_0h_19-20mm_3,56g-s.jpg
139 Helena (? -329 A.D.), AE-3 Follis, Thessalonica, RIC VII 159, -/-//SMTSA, SECVRITAS REIPVBLICA, Securitas standing left, #1302 views139 Helena (? -329 A.D.), AE-3 Follis, Thessalonica, RIC VII 159, -/-//SMTSA, SECVRITAS REIPVBLICA, Securitas standing left, #1
avers:- FL-HELENA-AVGVSTA, 12,E10, Diademed, draped bust right, with two-row necklace.
revers:- SECVRITAS-REIPVBLICA, Securitas standing left, lowering branch with left hand, raising robe with right hand.
exergo: -/-//SMTSA, diameter:19- 20mm, weight: 3,22g, axis:0h,
mint: Thessalonica, date: 326-28 A.D., ref: RIC-VII-159, p-519,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Helena_FL-HELENA-AVGVSTA_SECVRITAS-REIPVBLICA_SMTSE_RIC-VII-159-p-519-12-E10_r2_Thessalonica_326-28-AD_Q-001_6h_20mm_3,06ga-s.jpg
139 Helena (? -329 A.D.), AE-3 Follis, Thessalonica, RIC VII 159, -/-//SMTSE, SECVRITAS REIPVBLICA, Securitas standing left, R2!!65 views139 Helena (? -329 A.D.), AE-3 Follis, Thessalonica, RIC VII 159, -/-//SMTSE, SECVRITAS REIPVBLICA, Securitas standing left, R2!!
avers:- FL-HELENA-AVGVSTA, 12,E10, Diademed, draped bust right, with two-row necklace.
revers:- SECVRITAS-REIPVBLICA, Securitas standing left, lowering branch with left hand, raising robe with right hand.
exergo: -/-//SMTSE, diameter: 20mm, weight: 3,22g, axis: 6h,
mint: Thessalonica, date: 326-28 A.D., ref: RIC-VII-159, p-519, R2!!
Q-001
quadrans
Helena_FL-HELENA-AVGVSTA_SECVRITAS-REIPVBLICA_RIC-VII-202-p-387-12-E10_R2_Ticinium_326-AD__Q-001_11h_19mm_2,84ga-s.jpg
139 Helena (? -329 A.D.), AE-3 Follis, Ticinum, RIC VII 202, -/-//Q crescent T, SECVRITAS REIPVBLICA, Securitas standing left, R2!!65 views139 Helena (? -329 A.D.), AE-3 Follis, Ticinum, RIC VII 202, -/-//Q crescent T, SECVRITAS REIPVBLICA, Securitas standing left, R2!!
avers:- FL-HELENA-AVGVSTA, 12,E10, Pearl diademed, draped bust right with necklace.
revers:- SECVRITAS-REIPVBLICA, Securitas standing left, lowering branch with left hand, raising robe with right hand.
exergo: -/-//Q crescent T, diameter: 19mm, weight: 2,84g, axis: 11h,
mint: Ticinum, date: 326 A.D., ref: RIC-VII-202, p-387, R2 !!
Q-001
quadrans
St.Helena.jpg
1401a, St. Helena, Augusta 8 November 324 - 328 to 330 A.D., mother of Constantine the Great95 viewsBronze AE 3, RIC 148, VF, Alexandria mint, 3.243g, 19.4mm, 165o, 327 - 328 A.D. Obverse: FL HELENA AVGVSTA, diademed and mantled bust right wearing double necklace; Reverse: SECVRITAS REIPVBLICE, Securitas holding branch downward in right and lifting fold of robe in left, wreath left, I right, SMAL in exergue; rare.

The mother of Constantine the Great, born about the middle of the third century, possibly in Drepanum (later known as Helenopolis) on the Nicomedian Gulf; died about 330. She was of humble parentage; St. Ambrose, in his "Oratio de obitu Theodosii", referred to her as a stabularia, or inn-keeper. Nevertheless, she became the lawful wife of Constantius Chlorus. Her first and only son, Constantine, was born in Naissus in Upper Moesia, in the year 274. The statement made by English chroniclers of the Middle Ages, according to which Helena was supposed to have been the daughter of a British prince, is entirely without historical foundation. It may arise from the misinterpretation of a term used in the fourth chapter of the panegyric on Constantine's marriage with Fausta, that Constantine, oriendo (i. e., "by his beginnings," "from the outset") had honoured Britain, which was taken as an allusion to his birth, whereas the reference was really to the beginning of his reign.

On the death of Constantius Chlorus, in 308, Constantine, who succeeded him, summoned his mother to the imperial court, conferred on her the title of Augusta, ordered that all honour should be paid her as the mother of the sovereign, and had coins struck bearing her effigy. Her son's influence caused her to embrace Christianity after his victory over Maxentius. This is directly attested by Eusebius (Vita Constantini, III, xlvii): "She (his mother) became under his (Constantine's) influence such a devout servant of God, that one might believe her to have been from her very childhood a disciple of the Redeemer of mankind". It is also clear from the declaration of the contemporary historian of the Church that Helena, from the time of her conversion had an earnestly Christian life and by her influence and liberality favoured the wider spread of Christianity. Tradition links her name with the building of Christian churches in the cities of the West, where the imperial court resided, notably at Rome and Trier, and there is no reason for rejecting this tradition, for we know positively through Eusebius that Helena erected churches on the hallowed spots of Palestine. Despite her advanced age she undertook a journey to Palestine when Constantine, through his victory over Licinius, had become sole master of the Roman Empire, subsequently, therefore, to the year 324. It was in Palestine, as we learn from Eusebius (loc. cit., xlii), that she had resolved to bring to God, the King of kings, the homage and tribute of her devotion. She lavished on that land her bounties and good deeds, she "explored it with remarkable discernment", and "visited it with the care and solicitude of the emperor himself". Then, when she "had shown due veneration to the footsteps of the Saviour", she had two churches erected for the worship of God: one was raised in Bethlehem near the Grotto of the Nativity, the other on the Mount of the Ascension, near Jerusalem. She also embellished the sacred grotto with rich ornaments. This sojourn in Jerusalem proved the starting-point of the legend first recorded by Rufinus as to the discovery of the Cross of Christ.

Constantine I, in 327, improved Drepanum, his mother's native town, and decreed that it should be called Helenopolis, it is probable that the latter returned from Palestine to her son who was then residing in the Orient. Constantine was with her when she died, at the advanced age of eighty years or thereabouts (Eusebius, "Vita Const.", III, xlvi). This must have been about the year 330, for the last coins which are known to have been stamped with her name bore this date. Her body was brought to Constantinople and laid to rest in the imperial vault of the church of the Apostles. It is presumed that her remains were transferred in 849 to the Abbey of Hautvillers, in the French Archdiocese of Reims, as recorded by the monk Altmann in his "Translatio". She was revered as a saint, and the veneration spread, early in the ninth century, even to Western countries. Her feast falls on 18 August.

(See The Catholic Encyclopedia: http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/07202b.htm)

Cleisthenes
CTG_SisCmpGte.jpg
1403i, Constantine I (the Great), early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D. (Siscia)41 viewsSilvered AE 3, RIC 214, VF, Siscia mint, 3.187g, 19.3mm, 0o, 328 - 329 A.D.
Obverse: CONSTAN-TINVS AVG, laureate head right; Reverse PROVIDEN-TIAE AVGG, campgate with two turrets, star above, ASIS and double crescent in exergue.

Flavius Valerius Constantinus, Constantine the Great, was the son of Helena and the First Tetrarchic ruler Constantius I. Constantine is most famous for his conversion to Christianity and the battle of the Milvian Bridge where he defeated emperor Maxentius. It is reputed that before the battle, he saw the words "In Hoc Signo Victor Eris" (By this sign you shall conquer) emblazoned on the sun around the Chi Rho, the symbol of Christianity. Other sources claim the vision came to Constantine I in a dream. The story continues that after placing this Christogram on the shields of his army, he defeated his opponent and thus ruled the empire through divine providence. Constantine I also shifted the capital of the empire to Constantinople, establishing the foundation for an Empire that would last another 1000 years. He died in 337 and his sons divided the Roman territories.

The Emperor Constantine I was effectively the sole ruler of the Roman world between 324 and 337 A.D.; his reign was perhaps one of the most crucial of all the emperors in determining the future course of western civilization. By beginning the process of making Christianity the religious foundation of his realm, he set the religious course for the future of Europe which remains in place to this very day. Because he replaced Rome with Constantinople as the center of imperial power, he made it clear that the city of Rome was no longer the center of power, and he also set the stage for the Middle Ages. His philosophical view of monarchy, largely spelled out in some of the works of Eusebius of Caesarea, became the foundation for the concept of the divine right of kings which prevailed in Europe.

Constantine was not a "Christian convert" in any traditional sense. He was not baptized until close to death, and while that was not an uncommon practice, the mention of Christ in his speeches and decrees is conspicuous by its absence. Eusebius, Church historian and Constantine biographer, is responsible for much of the valorization of Constantine as the Christian Emperor. The somnambulant "sign" in which Constantine was to become victor at the Milvian Bridge is, not so surprisingly, revealed to posterity long after the "fact." Throughout his reign, Constantine continues to portray himself on coins as a sun god (Freeman, Charles. Egypt, Greece and Rome: Civilizations of the Ancient Mediterranean; Second Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004. 582). Above all, Constantine was a pragmatist. It would be cynical to egregiously disavow his commitment to Christianity, but it would be equally wrong to think that he would allow Christianity to meddle in the governance of his empire. As he reputedly told a group of bishops, "You are bishops of those within the church, but I am perhaps a bishop appointed by God of those outside." Whatever the motives for his decision to support Christianity, Christianity benefitted from the arrangement. So, too, did Constantine. It was a match made in heaven.
J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

For perhaps the best Constantine The Great site on the web, see Victor Clark's Constantine The Great Coins: http://www.constantinethegreatcoins.com/
Cleisthenes
CTG_ThesCmpGte.jpg
1403j, Constantine I (the Great), early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D. (Thessalonica)26 viewsBronze AE 3, RIC 153, VF, Thessalonica mint, 2.955g, 19.7mm, 0o, 326 - 328 A.D. Obverse: CONSTAN-TINVS AVG, laureate head right; Reverse: PROVIDEN-TIAE AVGG, campgate with two turrets, star above, dot right, SMTSG in exergue.

Flavius Valerius Constantinus, Constantine the Great, was the son of Helena and the First Tetrarchic ruler Constantius I. Constantine is most famous for his conversion to Christianity and the battle of the Milvian Bridge where he defeated emperor Maxentius. It is reputed that before the battle, he saw the words "In Hoc Signo Victor Eris" (By this sign you shall conquer) emblazoned on the sun around the Chi Rho, the symbol of Christianity. Other sources claim the vision came to Constantine I in a dream. The story continues that after placing this Christogram on the shields of his army, he defeated his opponent and thus ruled the empire through divine providence. Constantine I also shifted the capital of the empire to Constantinople, establishing the foundation for an Empire that would last another 1000 years. He died in 337 and his sons divided the Roman territories.

The Emperor Constantine I was effectively the sole ruler of the Roman world between 324 and 337 A.D.; his reign was perhaps one of the most crucial of all the emperors in determining the future course of western civilization. By beginning the process of making Christianity the religious foundation of his realm, he set the religious course for the future of Europe which remains in place to this very day. Because he replaced Rome with Constantinople as the center of imperial power, he made it clear that the city of Rome was no longer the center of power, and he also set the stage for the Middle Ages. His philosophical view of monarchy, largely spelled out in some of the works of Eusebius of Caesarea, became the foundation for the concept of the divine right of kings which prevailed in Europe.

Constantine was not a "Christian convert" in any traditional sense. He was not baptized until close to death, and while that was not an uncommon practice, the mention of Christ in his speeches and decrees is conspicuous by its absence. Eusebius, Church historian and Constantine biographer, is responsible for much of the valorization of Constantine as the Christian Emperor. The somnambulant "sign" in which Constantine was to become victor at the Milvian Bridge is, not so surprisingly, revealed to posterity long after the "fact." Throughout his reign, Constantine continues to portray himself on coins as a sun god (Freeman, Charles. Egypt, Greece and Rome: Civilizations of the Ancient Mediterranean; Second Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004. 582). Above all, Constantine was a pragmatist. It would be cynical to egregiously disavow his commitment to Christianity, but it would be equally wrong to think that he would allow Christianity to meddle in the governance of his empire. As he reputedly told a group of bishops, "You are bishops of those within the church, but I am perhaps a bishop appointed by God of those outside." Whatever the motives for his decision to support Christianity, Christianity benefitted from the arrangement. So, too, did Constantine. It was a match made in heaven.
J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

For perhaps the best Constantine The Great site on the web, see Victor Clark's Constantine The Great Coins: http://www.constantinethegreatcoins.com/
Cleisthenes
CrispusRIC17.jpg
1404a, Crispus, Caesar 317 - 326 A.D. 38 viewsBronze AE 3, RIC 17, aEF, Cyzicus mint, 3.196g, 19.9mm, 315o, 321 - 324 A.D.; Obverse: D N FL IVL CRISPVS NOB CAES, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right; Reverse: IOVI CONSERVATORI, Jupiter standing left holding Victory on globe in right and scepter in left, eagle with wreath in beak to left, X / IIG and captive right, SMKD in exergue; scarce (RIC R3). Ex FORVM.


De Imperatoribus Romanis;
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors and their Families

Crispus Caesar (317-326 A.D.)

Hans Pohlsander
SUNY Albany

Crispus was the oldest son of the emperor Constantine I and played a fairly important role in the political and military events of the early fourth century. The regular form of his full name is Flavius Iulius Crispus, although the forms Flavius Claudius Crispus and Flavius Valerius Crispus also occur. His mother was a woman named Minervina, with whom Constantine had a relationship, probably illegitimate, before he married Fausta in 307. When Minervina died or when Constantine put her aside we do not know. Nor do we know when she gave birth to Crispus; we may assume, of course, that it was before 307. Some modern authorities, on good grounds, think that it was in 305. Crispus' place of birth must have been somewhere in the East, and it is not known when he was brought to Gaul and when, where, or under what circumstances he was separated from his mother.

Constantine entrusted the education of his son to the distinguished Christian scholar Lactantius, thereby giving a clear sign of his commitment to Christianity. We are not told when Lactantius assumed his duties, but a date before 317 seems likely. Nor do we know how successful he was in instilling Christian beliefs and values in his imperial pupil. No later than January of 322 Crispus must have married a woman named Helena -- not to be confused with Constantine's mother or daughter by the same name- and this woman bore him a child in October of 322. Constantine, we learn, was pleased.

Crispus' official career began at an early age and is well documented. On March 1 of 317, at Serdica (modern Sofia), his father appointed him Caesar. The consulship was his three times, in 318, 321, and 324. While nominally in charge of Gaul, with a prefect at his side, he successfully undertook military operations against the Franks and Alamanni in 320 and 323.

In 324, during the second war between Constantine and Licinius, he excelled as commander of Constantine's fleet in the waters of the Hellespont, the Propontis, and the Bosporus, thus making a significant contribution to the outcome of that war. The high points of his career are amply reflected in the imperial coinage. In addition to coins, we have his portrait, with varying degrees of certainty, in a number of sculptures, mosaics, cameos, etc. Contemporary authors heap praises upon him. Thus the panegyrist Nazarius speaks of Crispus' "magnificent deeds," and Eusebius calls him "an emperor most dear to God and in all regards comparable to his father."

Crispus' end was as tragic as his career had been brilliant. His own father ordered him to be put to death. We know the year of this sad event, 326, from the Consularia Constantinopolitana, and the place, Pola in Istria, from Ammianus Marcellinus. The circumstances, however, are less clear. Zosimus (6th c.) and Zonaras (12th c.) both report that Crispus and his stepmother Fausta were involved in an illicit relationship. There may be as much gossip as fact in their reports, but it is certain that at some time during the same year the emperor ordered the death of his own wife as well, and the two cases must be considered together. That Crispus and Fausta plotted treason is reported by Gregory of Tours, but not very believable. We must resolutely reject the claim of Zosimus that it was Constantine's sense of guilt over these deeds which caused him to accept Christianity, as it alone promised him forgiveness for his sins. A similar claim had already been made by Julian the Apostate. We must also, I think, reject the suggestion of Guthrie that the emperor acted in the interest of "dynastic legitimacy," that is, that he removed his illegitimate first-born son in order to secure the succession for his three legitimate younger sons. But Crispus must have committed, or at least must have been suspected of having committed, some especially shocking offense to earn him a sentence of death from his own father. He also suffered damnatio memoriae, his honor was never restored, and history has not recorded the fate of his wife and his child (or children).

Copyright (C) 1997, Hans A. Pohlsander. Published on De Imperatoribus Romanis;An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors and their Families:
http://www.roman-emperors.org/crispus.htm


What If?

St. Nectarios, in his book, The Ecumenical Synods, writes "Hellenism spread by Alexander paved the way for Christianity by Emperor Constantine the Great."

Constantine's upward gaze on his "Eyes to Heaven" coins recall the coin portraits of Alexander the Great (namely coins struck by the Diodochi), which served as prototypes for the divine ruler portraiture of much of the Hellenistic age. The diadem, of which this is the most elaborate type, was adopted by Constantine and the members of his house as a new symbol of sovereignty.

In the Greek Orthodox Church, Constantine the Great is revered as a Saint.

Is it just possible? Constantine, knowing what happened (or thinking that he does) to Phillip II of Macedon—assassinated on the eve of his greatness, in a plot that most likely involved his wife—and possibly his son. . . isn’t it just possible that Constantine is growing obsessively jealous of his ever more successful and adulated son? Imagine the Constantine who has proven time and again (think: Licinius) that he is a completely self-serving liar and a murderer, decides to murder again? Why "must we resolutely reject the claim of Zosimus that it was Constantine's sense of guilt over these deeds which caused him to accept Christianity, as it alone promised him forgiveness for his sins [?] (see: above). A similar claim had already been made by Julian the [Philosopher]."

Perhaps it is time to cease being apologists for the sometime megalomaniacal Constantine. As Michael Grant notes, "It is a mocking travesty of justice to call such a murderer Constantine the Great . . ." (Grant, Michael. The Emperor Constantine. London: Phoenix Press, 1998. 226).


Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.


Cleisthenes
crispus_votV.jpg
1404b, Crispus, Caesar 317 - 326 A.D. (Thessalonica)33 viewsBronze AE 3, RIC 118, VF, Thessalonica mint, 2.740g, 18.0mm, 180o, 320 - 321 A.D. Obverse: FL IVL CRISPVS NOB CAES, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust left; Reverse: CAESARVM NOSTRORVM, VOT V in wreath, TSDVI in exergue.

Flavius Julius Crispus was the son of Constantine I by his first wife. A brilliant soldier, Crispus was well loved by all until 326 A.D., when Constantine had him executed. It is said that Fausta, Crispus stepmother, anxious to secure the succession for her own sons falsely accused Crispus of raping her. Constantine, learning of Fausta`s treachery, had her executed too.


De Imperatoribus Romanis;
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors and their Families

Crispus Caesar (317-326 A.D.)

Hans Pohlsander
SUNY Albany

Crispus was the oldest son of the emperor Constantine I and played a fairly important role in the political and military events of the early fourth century. The regular form of his full name is Flavius Iulius Crispus, although the forms Flavius Claudius Crispus and Flavius Valerius Crispus also occur. His mother was a woman named Minervina, with whom Constantine had a relationship, probably illegitimate, before he married Fausta in 307. When Minervina died or when Constantine put her aside we do not know. Nor do we know when she gave birth to Crispus; we may assume, of course, that it was before 307. Some modern authorities, on good grounds, think that it was in 305. Crispus' place of birth must have been somewhere in the East, and it is not known when he was brought to Gaul and when, where, or under what circumstances he was separated from his mother.

Constantine entrusted the education of his son to the distinguished Christian scholar Lactantius, thereby giving a clear sign of his commitment to Christianity. We are not told when Lactantius assumed his duties, but a date before 317 seems likely. Nor do we know how successful he was in instilling Christian beliefs and values in his imperial pupil. No later than January of 322 Crispus must have married a woman named Helena -- not to be confused with Constantine's mother or daughter by the same name- and this woman bore him a child in October of 322. Constantine, we learn, was pleased.

Crispus' official career began at an early age and is well documented. On March 1 of 317, at Serdica (modern Sofia), his father appointed him Caesar. The consulship was his three times, in 318, 321, and 324. While nominally in charge of Gaul, with a prefect at his side, he successfully undertook military operations against the Franks and Alamanni in 320 and 323.

In 324, during the second war between Constantine and Licinius, he excelled as commander of Constantine's fleet in the waters of the Hellespont, the Propontis, and the Bosporus, thus making a significant contribution to the outcome of that war. The high points of his career are amply reflected in the imperial coinage. In addition to coins, we have his portrait, with varying degrees of certainty, in a number of sculptures, mosaics, cameos, etc. Contemporary authors heap praises upon him. Thus the panegyrist Nazarius speaks of Crispus' "magnificent deeds," and Eusebius calls him "an emperor most dear to God and in all regards comparable to his father."

Crispus' end was as tragic as his career had been brilliant. His own father ordered him to be put to death. We know the year of this sad event, 326, from the Consularia Constantinopolitana, and the place, Pola in Istria, from Ammianus Marcellinus. The circumstances, however, are less clear. Zosimus (6th c.) and Zonaras (12th c.) both report that Crispus and his stepmother Fausta were involved in an illicit relationship. There may be as much gossip as fact in their reports, but it is certain that at some time during the same year the emperor ordered the death of his own wife as well, and the two cases must be considered together. That Crispus and Fausta plotted treason is reported by Gregory of Tours, but not very believable. We must resolutely reject the claim of Zosimus that it was Constantine's sense of guilt over these deeds which caused him to accept Christianity, as it alone promised him forgiveness for his sins. A similar claim had already been made by Julian the Apostate. We must also, I think, reject the suggestion of Guthrie that the emperor acted in the interest of "dynastic legitimacy," that is, that he removed his illegitimate first-born son in order to secure the succession for his three legitimate younger sons. But Crispus must have committed, or at least must have been suspected of having committed, some especially shocking offense to earn him a sentence of death from his own father. He also suffered damnatio memoriae, his honor was never restored, and history has not recorded the fate of his wife and his child (or children).

Copyright (C) 1997, Hans A. Pohlsander. Published on De Imperatoribus Romanis;An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors and their Families:
http://www.roman-emperors.org/crispus.htm


What If?

St. Nectarios, in his book, The Ecumenical Synods, writes "Hellenism spread by Alexander paved the way for Christianity by Emperor Constantine the Great."

Constantine's upward gaze on his "Eyes to Heaven" coins recall the coin portraits of Alexander the Great (namely coins struck by the Diodochi), which served as prototypes for the divine ruler portraiture of much of the Hellenistic age. The diadem, of which this is the most elaborate type, was adopted by Constantine and the members of his house as a new symbol of sovereignty.

In the Greek Orthodox Church, Constantine the Great is revered as a Saint.

Is it just possible? Constantine, knowing what happened (or thinking that he does) to Phillip II of Macedon—assassinated on the eve of his greatness, in a plot that most likely involved his wife—and possibly his son. . . isn’t it just possible that Constantine is growing obsessively jealous of his ever more successful and adulated son? Imagine the Constantine who has proven time and again (think: Licinius) that he is a completely self-serving liar and a murderer, decides to murder again? Why "must we resolutely reject the claim of Zosimus that it was Constantine's sense of guilt over these deeds which caused him to accept Christianity, as it alone promised him forgiveness for his sins [?] (see: above). A similar claim had already been made by Julian the [Philosopher]."

Perhaps it is time to cease being apologists for the sometime megalomaniacal Constantine. As Michael Grant notes, "It is a mocking travesty of justice to call such a murderer Constantine the Great . . ." (Grant, Michael. The Emperor Constantine. London: Phoenix Press, 1998. 226).


Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
ConstansVot.jpeg
1405a, Constans, 9 September 337 - 19 January 350 A.D. (Alexandria)37 viewsBronze AE 4, RIC 37, gVF, Egypt, Alexandria, 1.54g, 15.0mm, 180o, 345-347 A.D. Obverse: D N CONSTANS P F AVG, pearl diademed head right; Reverse: VOT XX MVLT XXX in wreath, SMALA• in exergue.

Flavius Julius Constans, third and youngest son of Constantine I and Fausta, was born between 320 and 323 A.D. Primary sources for the life and reign of Constans I are scarce. To reconstruct his life and career, one must draw on a variety of references in both fourth century and later works. Raised as a Christian, he was made a Caesar on 25 December 333 A.D. Constans I and his two brothers, after the death of their father on 22 May 337 and the subsequent "massacre of the princes" in which many other relatives were purged, met in the first part of September 337 in Pannonia to re-divide the empire among themselves. There they were acclaimed Augusti by the army. Constans' new realm included Italy, Africa, Illyricum, Macedonia, and Achaea. Shortly before his father's death, Constans' engagement to Olympias, the daughter of the Praetorian Prefect Ablabius, was announced; although the match was never solemnized because of political reasons.

It would appear that Constans was successful in the military sphere. Following his accession to the purple in 337, he seems to have won a victory over the Sarmatians. In 340 Constans was able to beat back an attempt by his brother Constantine II to seize some of his realm. The latter died in a battle fought near Aquileia and Constans absorbed his late brother's territory. In 341 and 342 he conducted a successful campaign against the Franci. He also visited Britain in 343, probably on a military campaign.

As an emperor Constans gets mixed reviews. In what may be a topos, sources suggest that the first part of his reign was moderate but in later years, however, he became overbearing. The emperor apparently attempted to obtain as much money as he could from his subjects and sold government posts to the highest bidder. His favorites were allowed to oppress his subjects. Sources also condemn his homosexuality. He did have some military success and, in addition to other military threats, he had to deal with Donatist-related bandits in North Africa.

Like his father Constantine I and his brother Constantius II, Constans had a deep interest in Christianity. Together with Constantius II he issued (or perhaps re-issued) a ban against pagan sacrifice in 341. The next year, they cautioned against the destruction of pagan temples. Unlike his brother Constantius II, who supported the Arian faction, he stood shoulder to shoulder with Athanasius and other members of the Orthodox clique. In fact, it is due to his request that the Council of Serdica was called to deal with the ecclesiastical squabble between Athanasius of Alexandria and Paul of Constantinople on one side and the Arian faction on the other.

When Magnentius was declared emperor in Gaul during January 350, Constans realized his reign was at an end. When he learned of the revolt, he fled toward Helena, a town in the Pyrenees. Constans was put to death by Gaeso and a band of Magnentius' assassins, who dragged their victim from a temple in which he had sought refuge.

By Michael DiMaio, Jr., Salve Regina University and Robert Frakes, Clarion UniversityPublished: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

Cleisthenes
Constans.jpg
1405n, Constans, 9 September 337 - 19 January 350 A.D. (Siscia)54 viewsConstans, 9 September 337 - 19 January 350 A.D. Bronze AE 3, RIC 241, S 3978, VM 69, VF, Siscia, 2.32g, 18.3mm, 180o. Obverse: D N CONSTANS P F AVG, pearl diademed draped and cuirassed bust right; Reverse: FEL TEMP REPARATIO, Phoenix radiate, standing on rocky mound, GSIS and symbol in ex; nice green patina.

Flavius Julius Constans, third and youngest son of Constantine I and Fausta, was born between 320 and 323 A.D. Primary sources for the life and reign of Constans I are scarce. To reconstruct his life and career, one must draw on a variety of references in both fourth century and later works. Raised as a Christian, he was made a Caesar on 25 December 333 A.D. Constans I and his two brothers, after the death of their father on 22 May 337 and the subsequent "massacre of the princes" in which many other relatives were purged, met in the first part of September 337 in Pannonia to re-divide the empire among themselves. There they were acclaimed Augusti by the army. Constans' new realm included Italy, Africa, Illyricum, Macedonia, and Achaea. Shortly before his father's death, Constans' engagement to Olympias, the daughter of the Praetorian Prefect Ablabius, was announced; although the match was never solemnized because of political reasons.

It would appear that Constans was successful in the military sphere. Following his accession to the purple in 337, he seems to have won a victory over the Sarmatians. In 340 Constans was able to beat back an attempt by his brother Constantine II to seize some of his realm. The latter died in a battle fought near Aquileia and Constans absorbed his late brother's territory. In 341 and 342 he conducted a successful campaign against the Franci. He also visited Britain in 343, probably on a military campaign.

As an emperor Constans gets mixed reviews. In what may be a topos, sources suggest that the first part of his reign was moderate but in later years, however, he became overbearing. The emperor apparently attempted to obtain as much money as he could from his subjects and sold government posts to the highest bidder. His favorites were allowed to oppress his subjects. Sources also condemn his homosexuality. He did have some military success and, in addition to other military threats, he had to deal with Donatist-related bandits in North Africa.

Like his father Constantine I and his brother Constantius II, Constans had a deep interest in Christianity. Together with Constantius II he issued (or perhaps re-issued) a ban against pagan sacrifice in 341. The next year, they cautioned against the destruction of pagan temples. Unlike his brother Constantius II, who supported the Arian faction, he stood shoulder to shoulder with Athanasius and other members of the Orthodox clique. In fact, it is due to his request that the Council of Serdica was called to deal with the ecclesiastical squabble between Athanasius of Alexandria and Paul of Constantinople on one side and the Arian faction on the other.

When Magnentius was declared emperor in Gaul during January 350, Constans realized his reign was at an end. When he learned of the revolt, he fled toward Helena, a town in the Pyrenees. Constans was put to death by Gaeso and a band of Magnentius' assassins, who dragged their victim from a temple in which he had sought refuge.

By Michael DiMaio, Jr., Salve Regina University and Robert Frakes, Clarion University
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
U2476F1OVDKUXTA.jpeg
1405t, Constans, 9 September 337 - 19 January 350 A.D. (Thessalonica )37 viewsConstans, 9 September 337 - 19 January 350 A.D., Bronze AE 3, unattributed; Thessalonica mint, 2.25g, 18.9mm, 0; aVF.

Flavius Julius Constans, third and youngest son of Constantine I and Fausta, was born between 320 and 323 A.D. Primary sources for the life and reign of Constans I are scarce. To reconstruct his life and career, one must draw on a variety of references in both fourth century and later works. Raised as a Christian, he was made a Caesar on 25 December 333 A.D. Constans I and his two brothers, after the death of their father on 22 May 337 and the subsequent "massacre of the princes" in which many other relatives were purged, met in the first part of September 337 in Pannonia to re-divide the empire among themselves. There they were acclaimed Augusti by the army. Constans' new realm included Italy, Africa, Illyricum, Macedonia, and Achaea. Shortly before his father's death, Constans' engagement to Olympias, the daughter of the Praetorian Prefect Ablabius, was announced; although the match was never solemnized because of political reasons.

It would appear that Constans was successful in the military sphere. Following his accession to the purple in 337, he seems to have won a victory over the Sarmatians. In 340 Constans was able to beat back an attempt by his brother Constantine II to seize some of his realm. The latter died in a battle fought near Aquileia and Constans absorbed his late brother's territory. In 341 and 342 he conducted a successful campaign against the Franci. He also visited Britain in 343, probably on a military campaign.

As an emperor Constans gets mixed reviews. In what may be a topos, sources suggest that the first part of his reign was moderate but in later years, however, he became overbearing. The emperor apparently attempted to obtain as much money as he could from his subjects and sold government posts to the highest bidder. His favorites were allowed to oppress his subjects. Sources also condemn his homosexuality. He did have some military success and, in addition to other military threats, he had to deal with Donatist-related bandits in North Africa.

Like his father Constantine I and his brother Constantius II, Constans had a deep interest in Christianity. Together with Constantius II he issued (or perhaps re-issued) a ban against pagan sacrifice in 341. The next year, they cautioned against the destruction of pagan temples. Unlike his brother Constantius II, who supported the Arian faction, he stood shoulder to shoulder with Athanasius and other members of the Orthodox clique. In fact, it is due to his request that the Council of Serdica was called to deal with the ecclesiastical squabble between Athanasius of Alexandria and Paul of Constantinople on one side and the Arian faction on the other.

When Magnentius was declared emperor in Gaul during January 350, Constans realized his reign was at an end. When he learned of the revolt, he fled toward Helena, a town in the Pyrenees. Constans was put to death by Gaeso and a band of Magnentius' assassins, who dragged their victim from a temple in which he had sought refuge.

By Michael DiMaio, Jr., Salve Regina University and Robert Frakes, Clarion University.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
U809F1JMXNTCBT.jpg
1407a, Constantius II, 337-361 A.D. (Antioch)50 viewsAE4, 337-361 A.D. Antioch, aVF/VF,Obv:– DN CONSTANTIVS P F AVG, Pearl and rosette diadem, head right/R: Wreath with VOT XX MVLT XXX, SMANB in exe.RIC VIII Antioch 113,Item ref: RI170b.

AE3, 2.80 grams, 330-333, Heraclea, aVF. Obv: FL IVL CONSTANTIVS NOB C - Laureate bust right, draped and cuirassed. R: GLOR-IA EXERC-ITVS - Two soldiers looking in at each other and both holding a spear; between them, two standards Exe: SMHB.

Constantius II was born in Illyricum in August AD 317, the son of Constantine the Great and Fausta, and was proclaimed Caesar in AD 323.

In AD 337, at the death of his father Constantine, he acceded to the throne together with his two brothers Constantine II and Constans. But this accession by the three brothers was tainted by the murder of their cousins Dalmatius and Hannibalianus, whom Constantine had also intended as joint heirs. These murders are believed to have been masterminded by Constantius II.

Eventually, Constantius II was left as the sole emperor of the Roman empire. Constantius elevated his cousin, Julian, to the rank of Caesar (junior emperor) and gave him his sister Helena in marriage. Julian was assigned the task of dealing with the Frankish leader, Silvanus, who had proclaimed himself emepror at Colonia Agrippina. Julian's success led his men to declare him Augustus. Julian, while reluctant to take the throne, accepted.

Constantius II, therefore, left the Mesopotamian frontier and marched his troops west, seeking to deal with the usurper. As he reached Cilicia in the winter of AD 361, he was overcome by a sudden fever and died at Mopsucrene. Julian, the Apostate, succeded him as Emperor.

Our chief source for Constantius' reign is the great historian Ammianus Marcellinus. He presents a mixed view of that emperor. In some ways a sound administrator and competent general, Constantius is also portrayed as easily influenced by those around him such as his wives, courtiers and the eunuchs of the court (Ammianus 21. 16. 16). Ammianus (21.16.18) also attacks Constantius' great interest in Church affairs--alleging that he bankrupted the courier service with calls for Church councils. Of course, imperial interest in Church affairs was a major policy of his father Constantine and it may be that Constantius was trying to emulate his model (if only with mixed success). Indeed, Constantius II (like his brothers Constantine II and Constans) was raised a Christian. Among his many laws is the famous CTh 16.10.2 of 341 which either prohibited or re-issued his father's prohibition of pagan sacrifices. Sympathetic to Arianism, he spent a great deal of his reign calling Church councils. One of the longest-reigned emperors in Roman history, Constantius is hard for the modern historian to fully understand both due to his own actions and due to the interests of the authors of primary sources for his reign.

By Michael DiMaio, Jr., Salve Regina University & Robert Frakes, Clarion University
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

1 commentsCleisthenes
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1407h, Constantius II, 337-361 A.D. (Heraclea)31 viewsConstantius II 337-361 A.D. AE3, 2.80 grams, 330-333, Heraclea, aVF. Obverse: FL IVL CONSTANTIVS NOB C - Laureate bust right, draped and cuirassed; Reverse: GLOR-IA EXERC-ITVS - Two soldiers looking in at each other and both holding a spear; between them, two standards; SMHB in exergue.

Constantius II was born in Illyricum in August AD 317, the son of Constantine the Great and Fausta, and was proclaimed Caesar in AD 323.

In AD 337, at the death of his father Constantine, he acceded to the throne together with his two brothers Constantine II and Constans. But this accession by the three brothers was tainted by the murder of their cousins Dalmatius and Hannibalianus, whom Constantine had also intended as joint heirs. These murders are believed to have been masterminded by Constantius II.

Eventually, Constantius II was left as the sole emperor of the Roman empire. Constantius elevated his cousin, Julian, to the rank of Caesar (junior emperor) and gave him his sister Helena in marriage. Julian was assigned the task of dealing with the Frankish leader, Silvanus, who had proclaimed himself emepror at Colonia Agrippina. Julian's success led his men to declare him Augustus. Julian, while reluctant to take the throne, accepted.

Constantius II, therefore, left the Mesopotamian frontier and marched his troops west, seeking to deal with the usurper. As he reached Cilicia in the winter of AD 361, he was overcome by a sudden fever and died at Mopsucrene. Julian, the Apostate, succeded him as Emperor.

Our chief source for Constantius' reign is the great historian Ammianus Marcellinus. He presents a mixed view of that emperor. In some ways a sound administrator and competent general, Constantius is also portrayed as easily influenced by those around him such as his wives, courtiers and the eunuchs of the court (Ammianus 21. 16. 16). Ammianus (21.16.18) also attacks Constantius' great interest in Church affairs--alleging that he bankrupted the courier service with calls for Church councils. Of course, imperial interest in Church affairs was a major policy of his father Constantine and it may be that Constantius was trying to emulate his model (if only with mixed success). Indeed, Constantius II (like his brothers Constantine II and Constans) was raised a Christian. Among his many laws is the famous CTh 16.10.2 of 341 which either prohibited or re-issued his father's prohibition of pagan sacrifices. Sympathetic to Arianism, he spent a great deal of his reign calling Church councils. One of the longest-reigned emperors in Roman history, Constantius is hard for the modern historian to fully understand both due to his own actions and due to the interests of the authors of primary sources for his reign.
By Michael DiMaio, Jr., Salve Regina University & Robert Frakes, Clarion University
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
Constantius II.jpg
1407r, Constantius II, 22 May 337 - 3 November 361 A.D.39 viewsBronze AE 3, RIC 272, aVF, 2.203g, 18.1mm, 0o, Rome mint, 352 - 355 A.D.; obverse D N CONSTAN-TIVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse FEL TEMP REPARATIO, soldier spearing fallen horseman, RT in ex.

Constantius II was born in Illyricum in August AD 317, the son of Constantine the Great and Fausta, and was proclaimed Caesar in AD 323.

In AD 337, at the death of his father Constantine, he acceded to the throne together with his two brothers Constantine II and Constans. But this accession by the three brothers was tainted by the murder of their cousins Dalmatius and Hannibalianus, whom Constantine had also intended as joint heirs. These murders are believed to have been masterminded by Constantius II.

Eventually, Constantius II was left as the sole emperor of the Roman empire. Constantius elevated Julian to the rank of Caesar (junior emperor) and gave him his sister Helena in marriage. Julian was assigned the task of dealing with the Frankish leader, Silvanus, who had proclaimed himself emepror at Colonia Agrippina. Julian's success lead his men to declare him Augustus. Julian, while reluctant to take the throne, accepted.

Constantius II, therefore left the Mesopotamian frontier and marched his troops west, seeking to deal with the usurper. As he reached Cilicia in the winter of AD 361, he was overcome by a sudden fever and died at Mopsucrene. Julian, the Apostate, succeded him as Emperor.

Our chief source for Constantius' reign is the great historian Ammianus Marcellinus. He presents a mixed view of that emperor. In some ways a sound administrator and competent general, Constantius is also portrayed as easily influenced by those around him such as his wives, courtiers and the eunuchs of the court (Ammianus 21. 16. 16). Ammianus (21.16.18) also attacks Constantius' great interest in Church affairs--alleging that he bankrupted the courier service with calls for Church councils. Of course, imperial interest in Church affairs was a major policy of his father Constantine and it may be that Constantius was trying to emulate his model (if only with mixed success). Indeed, Constantius II (like his brothers Constantine II and Constans) was raised a Christian. Among his many laws is the famous CTh 16.10.2 of 341 which either prohibited or re-issued his father's prohibition of pagan sacrifices. Sympathetic to Arianism, he spent a great deal of his reign calling Church councils. One of the longest-reigned emperors in Roman history, Constantius is hard for the modern historian to fully understand both due to his own actions and due to the interests of the authors of primary sources for his reign.

By Michael DiMaio, Jr., Salve Regina University & Robert Frakes, Clarion University
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.



Cleisthenes
Julian2VotXConstantinople.jpg
1409a, Julian II "the Philosopher," February 360 - 26 June 363 A.D.142 viewsJulian II, A.D. 360-363; RIC 167; VF; 2.7g, 20mm; Constantinople mint; Obverse: DN FL CL IVLIANVS P F AVG, helmeted & cuirassed bust right, holding spear & shield; Reverse: VOT X MVLT XX in four lines within wreath; CONSPB in exergue; Attractive green patina. Ex Nemesis.


De Imperatoribus Romanis,
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors

Julian the Apostate (360-363 A.D.)

Walter E. Roberts, Emory University
Michael DiMaio, Jr., Salve Regina University

Introduction

The emperor Flavius Claudius Julianus reigned from 360 to 26 June 363, when he was killed fighting against the Persians. Despite his short rule, his emperorship was pivotal in the development of the history of the later Roman empire. This essay is not meant to be a comprehensive look at the various issues central to the reign of Julian and the history of the later empire. Rather, this short work is meant to be a brief history and introduction for the general reader. Julian was the last direct descendent of the Constantinian line to ascend to the purple, and it is one of history's great ironies that he was the last non-Christian emperor. As such, he has been vilified by most Christian sources, beginning with John Chrysostom and Gregory Nazianzus in the later fourth century. This tradition was picked up by the fifth century Eusebian continuators Sozomen, Socrates Scholasticus, and Theodoret and passed on to scholars down through the 20th century. Most contemporary sources, however, paint a much more balanced picture of Julian and his reign. The adoption of Christianity by emperors and society, while still a vital concern, was but one of several issues that concerned Julian.

It is fortunate that extensive writings from Julian himself exist, which help interpret his reign in the light of contemporary evidence. Still extant are some letters, several panegyrics, and a few satires. Other contemporary sources include the soldier Ammianus Marcellinus' history, correspondence between Julian and Libanius of Antioch, several panegyrics, laws from the Theodosian Code, inscriptions, and coinage. These sources show Julian's emphasis on restoration. He saw himself as the restorer of the traditional values of Roman society. Of course much of this was rhetoric, meant to defend Julian against charges that he was a usurper. At the same time this theme of restoration was central to all emperors of the fourth century. Julian thought that he was the one emperor who could regain what was viewed as the lost glory of the Roman empire. To achieve this goal he courted select groups of social elites to get across his message of restoration. This was the way that emperors functioned in the fourth century. By choosing whom to include in the sharing of power, they sought to shape society.

Early Life

Julian was born at Constantinople in 331. His father was Julius Constantius, half-brother of the emperor Constantine through Constantius Chlorus, and his mother was Basilina, Julius' second wife. Julian had two half-brothers via Julius' first marriage. One of these was Gallus, who played a major role in Julian's life. Julian appeared destined for a bright future via his father's connection to the Constantinian house. After many years of tense relations with his three half-brothers, Constantine seemed to have welcomed them into the fold of the imperial family. From 333 to 335, Constantine conferred a series of honors upon his three half-siblings, including appointing Julius Constantius as one of the consuls for 335. Julian's mother was equally distinguished. Ammianus related that she was from a noble family. This is supported by Libanius, who claimed that she was the daughter of Julius Julianus, a Praetorian Prefect under Licinius, who was such a model of administrative virtue that he was pardoned and honored by Constantine.

Despite the fact that his mother died shortly after giving birth to him, Julian experienced an idyllic early childhood. This ended when Constantius II conducted a purge of many of his relatives shortly after Constantine's death in 337, particularly targeting the families of Constantine's half-brothers. ulian and Gallus were spared, probably due to their young age. Julian was put under the care of Mardonius, a Scythian eunuch who had tutored his mother, in 339, and was raised in the Greek philosophical tradition, and probably lived in Nicomedia. Ammianus also supplied the fact that while in Nicomedia, Julian was cared for by the local bishop Eusebius, of whom the future emperor was a distant relation. Julian was educated by some of the most famous names in grammar and rhetoric in the Greek world at that time, including Nicocles and Hecebolius. In 344 Constantius II sent Julian and Gallus to Macellum in Cappadocia, where they remained for six years. In 351, Gallus was made Caesar by Constantius II and Julian was allowed to return to Nicomedia, where he studied under Aedesius, Eusebius, and Chrysanthius, all famed philosophers, and was exposed to the Neo-Platonism that would become such a prominent part of his life. But Julian was most proud of the time he spent studying under Maximus of Ephesus, a noted Neo-Platonic philospher and theurgist. It was Maximus who completed Julian's full-scale conversion to Neo-Platonism. Later, when he was Caesar, Julian told of how he put letters from this philosopher under his pillows so that he would continue to absorb wisdom while he slept, and while campaigning on the Rhine, he sent his speeches to Maximus for approval before letting others hear them. When Gallus was executed in 354 for treason by Constantius II, Julian was summoned to Italy and essentially kept under house arrest at Comum, near Milan, for seven months before Constantius' wife Eusebia convinced the emperor that Julian posed no threat. This allowed Julian to return to Greece and continue his life as a scholar where he studied under the Neo-Platonist Priscus. Julian's life of scholarly pursuit, however, ended abruptly when he was summoned to the imperial court and made Caesar by Constantius II on 6 November 355.

Julian as Caesar

Constantius II realized an essential truth of the empire that had been evident since the time of the Tetrarchy--the empire was too big to be ruled effectively by one man. Julian was pressed into service as Caesar, or subordinate emperor, because an imperial presence was needed in the west, in particular in the Gallic provinces. Julian, due to the emperor's earlier purges, was the only viable candidate of the imperial family left who could act as Caesar. Constantius enjoined Julian with the task of restoring order along the Rhine frontier. A few days after he was made Caesar, Julian was married to Constantius' sister Helena in order to cement the alliance between the two men. On 1 December 355, Julian journeyed north, and in Augusta Taurinorum he learned that Alamannic raiders had destroyed Colonia Agrippina. He then proceeded to Vienne where he spent the winter. At Vienne, he learned that Augustudunum was also under siege, but was being held by a veteran garrison. He made this his first priority, and arrived there on 24 June 356. When he had assured himself that the city was in no immediate danger, he journeyed to Augusta Treverorum via Autessioduram, and from there to Durocortorum where he rendezvoused with his army. Julian had the army stage a series of punitive strikes around the Dieuse region, and then he moved them towards the Argentoratum/Mongontiacum region when word of barbarian incursions reached him.

From there, Julian moved on to Colonia Agrippina, and negotiated a peace with the local barbarian leaders who had assaulted the city. He then wintered at Senonae. He spent the early part of the campaigning season of 357 fighting off besiegers at Senonae, and then conducting operations around Lugdunum and Tres Tabernae. Later that summer, he encountered his watershed moment as a military general. Ammianus went into great detail about Julian's victory over seven rogue Alamannic chieftains near Argentoratum, and Julian himself bragged about it in his later writing. After this battle, the soldiers acclaimed Julian Augustus, but he rejected this title. After mounting a series of follow-up raids into Alamannic territory, he retired to winter quarters at Lutetia, and on the way defeated some Frankish raiders in the Mosa region. Julian considered this campaign one of the major events of his time as Caesar.

Julian began his 358 military campaigns early, hoping to catch the barbarians by surprise. His first target was the Franks in the northern Rhine region. He then proceeded to restore some forts in the Mosa region, but his soldiers threatened to mutiny because they were on short rations and had not been paid their donative since Julian had become Caesar. After he soothed his soldiers, Julian spent the rest of the summer negotiating a peace with various Alamannic leaders in the mid and lower Rhine areas, and retired to winter quarters at Lutetia. In 359, he prepared once again to carry out a series of punitive expeditions against the Alamanni in the Rhine region who were still hostile to the Roman presence. In preparation, the Caesar repopulated seven previously destroyed cities and set them up as supply bases and staging areas. This was done with the help of the people with whom Julian had negotiated a peace the year before. Julian then had a detachment of lightly armed soldiers cross the Rhine near Mogontiacum and conduct a guerilla strike against several chieftains. As a result of these campaigns, Julian was able to negotiate a peace with all but a handful of the Alamannic leaders, and he retired to winter quarters at Lutetia.

Of course, Julian did more than act as a general during his time as Caesar. According to Ammianus, Julian was an able administrator who took steps to correct the injustices of Constantius' appointees. Ammianus related the story of how Julian prevented Florentius, the Praetorian Prefect of Gaul, from raising taxes, and also how Julian actually took over as governor for the province of Belgica Secunda. Hilary, bishop of Poitiers, supported Ammianus' basic assessment of Julian in this regard when he reported that Julian was an able representative of the emperor to the Gallic provincials. There is also epigraphic evidence to support Julian's popularity amongst the provincial elites. An inscription found near Beneventum in Apulia reads:
"To Flavius Claudius Julianus, most noble and sanctified Caesar, from the caring Tocius Maximus, vir clarissimus, for the care of the res publica from Beneventum".

Tocius Maximus, as a vir clarissimus, was at the highest point in the social spectrum and was a leader in his local community. This inscription shows that Julian was successful in establishing a positive image amongst provincial elites while he was Caesar.

Julian Augustus

In early 360, Constantius, driven by jealousy of Julian's success, stripped Julian of many troops and officers, ostensibly because the emperor needed them for his upcoming campaign against the Persians. One of the legions ordered east, the Petulantes, did not want to leave Gaul because the majority of the soldiers in the unit were from this region. As a result they mutinied and hailed Julian as Augustus at Lutetia. Julian refused this acclamation as he had done at Argentoratum earlier, but the soldiers would have none of his denial. They raised him on a shield and adorned him with a neck chain, which had formerly been the possession of the standard-bearer of the Petulantes and symbolized a royal diadem. Julian appeared reluctantly to acquiesce to their wishes, and promised a generous donative. The exact date of his acclamation is unknown, but most scholars put it in February or March. Julian himself supported Ammianus' picture of a jealous Constantius. In his Letter to the Athenians, a document constructed to answer charges that he was a usurper, Julian stated that from the start he, as Caesar, had been meant as a figurehead to the soldiers and provincials. The real power he claimed lay with the generals and officials already present in Gaul. In fact, according to Julian, the generals were charged with watching him as much as the enemy. His account of the actual acclamation closely followed what Ammianus told us, but he stressed even more his reluctance to take power. Julian claimed that he did so only after praying to Zeus for guidance.

Fearing the reaction of Constantius, Julian sent a letter to his fellow emperor justifying the events at Lutetia and trying to arrange a peaceful solution. This letter berated Constantius for forcing the troops in Gaul into an untenable situation. Ammianus stated that Julian's letter blamed Constantius' decision to transfer Gallic legions east as the reason for the soldiers' rebellion. Julian once again asserted that he was an unwilling participant who was only following the desire of the soldiers. In both of these basic accounts Ammianus and Julian are playing upon the theme of restoration. Implicit in their version of Julian's acclamation is the argument that Constantius was unfit to rule. The soldiers were the vehicle of the gods' will. The Letter to the Athenians is full of references to the fact that Julian was assuming the mantle of Augustus at the instigation of the gods. Ammianus summed up this position nicely when he related the story of how, when Julian was agonizing over whether to accept the soldiers' acclamation, he had a dream in which he was visited by the Genius (guardian spirit) of the Roman state. The Genius told Julian that it had often tried to bestow high honors upon Julian but had been rebuffed. Now, the Genius went on to say, was Julian's final chance to take the power that was rightfully his. If the Caesar refused this chance, the Genius would depart forever, and both Julian and the state would rue Julian's rejection. Julian himself wrote a letter to his friend Maximus of Ephesus in November of 361 detailing his thoughts on his proclamation. In this letter, Julian stated that the soldiers proclaimed him Augustus against his will. Julian, however, defended his accession, saying that the gods willed it and that he had treated his enemies with clemency and justice. He went on to say that he led the troops in propitiating the traditional deities, because the gods commanded him to return to the traditional rites, and would reward him if he fulfilled this duty.

During 360 an uneasy peace simmered between the two emperors. Julian spent the 360 campaigning season continuing his efforts to restore order along the Rhine, while Constantius continued operations against the Persians. Julian wintered in Vienne, and celebrated his Quinquennalia. It was at this time that his wife Helena died, and he sent her remains to Rome for a proper burial at his family villa on the Via Nomentana where the body of her sister was entombed. The uneasy peace held through the summer of 361, but Julian concentrated his military operations around harassing the Alamannic chieftain Vadomarius and his allies, who had concluded a peace treaty with Constantius some years earlier. By the end of the summer, Julian decided to put an end to the waiting and gathered his army to march east against Constantius. The empire teetered on the brink of another civil war. Constantius had spent the summer negotiating with the Persians and making preparations for possible military action against his cousin. When he was assured that the Persians would not attack, he summoned his army and sallied forth to meet Julian. As the armies drew inexorably closer to one another, the empire was saved from another bloody civil war when Constantius died unexpectedly of natural causes on 3 November near the town of Mopsucrenae in Cilicia, naming Julian -- the sources say-- as his legitimate successor.

Julian was in Dacia when he learned of his cousin's death. He made his way through Thrace and came to Constantinople on 11 December 361 where Julian honored the emperor with the funeral rites appropriate for a man of his station. Julian immediately set about putting his supporters in positions of power and trimming the imperial bureaucracy, which had become extremely overstaffed during Constantius' reign. Cooks and barbers had increased during the late emperor's reign and Julian expelled them from his court. Ammianus gave a mixed assessment of how the new emperor handled the followers of Constantius. Traditionally, emperors were supposed to show clemency to the supporters of a defeated enemy. Julian, however, gave some men over to death to appease the army. Ammianus used the case of Ursulus, Constantius' comes sacrum largitionum, to illustrate his point. Ursulus had actually tried to acquire money for the Gallic troops when Julian had first been appointed Caesar, but he had also made a disparaging remark about the ineffectiveness of the army after the battle of Amida. The soldiers remembered this, and when Julian became sole Augustus, they demanded Ursulus' head. Julian obliged, much to the disapproval of Ammianus. This seems to be a case of Julian courting the favor of the military leadership, and is indicative of a pattern in which Julian courted the goodwill of various societal elites to legitimize his position as emperor.

Another case in point is the officials who made up the imperial bureaucracy. Many of them were subjected to trial and punishment. To achieve this goal, during the last weeks of December 361 Julian assembled a military tribunal at Chalcedon, empanelling six judges to try the cases. The president of the tribunal was Salutius, just promoted to the rank of Praetorian Prefect; the five other members were Mamertinus, the orator, and four general officers: Jovinus, Agilo, Nevitta, and Arbetio. Relative to the proceedings of the tribunal, Ammianus noted that the judges, " . . . oversaw the cases more vehemently than was right or fair, with the exception of a few . . .." Ammianus' account of Julian's attempt at reform of the imperial bureaucracy is supported by legal evidence from the Theodosian Code. A series of laws sent to Mamertinus, Julian's appointee as Praetorian Prefect in Italy, Illyricum, and Africa, illustrate this point nicely. On 6 June 362, Mamertinus received a law that prohibited provincial governors from bypassing the Vicars when giving their reports to the Prefect. Traditionally, Vicars were given civil authority over a group of provinces, and were in theory meant to serve as a middle step between governors and Prefects. This law suggests that the Vicars were being left out, at least in Illyricum. Julian issued another edict to Mamertinus on 22 February 362 to stop abuse of the public post by governors. According to this law, only Mamertinus could issue post warrants, but the Vicars were given twelve blank warrants to be used as they saw fit, and each governor was given two. Continuing the trend of bureaucratic reform, Julian also imposed penalties on governors who purposefully delayed appeals in court cases they had heard. The emperor also established a new official to weigh solidi used in official government transactions to combat coin clipping.

For Julian, reigning in the abuses of imperial bureaucrats was one step in restoring the prestige of the office of emperor. Because he could not affect all elements of society personally, Julian, like other Neo-Flavian emperors, decided to concentrate on select groups of societal elites as intercessors between himself and the general populace. One of these groups was the imperial bureaucracy. Julian made it very clear that imperial officials were intercessors in a very real sense in a letter to Alypius, Vicar of Britain. In this letter, sent from Gaul sometime before 361, the emperor praises Alypius for his use of "mildness and moderation with courage and force" in his rule of the provincials. Such virtues were characteristic of the emperors, and it was good that Alypius is representing Julian in this way. Julian courted the army because it put him in power. Another group he sought to include in his rule was the traditional Senatorial aristocracy. One of his first appointments as consul was Claudius Mamertinus, a Gallic Senator and rhetorician. Mamertinus' speech in praise of Julian delivered at Constantinople in January of 362 is preserved. In this speech, Claudius presented his consular selection as inaugurating a new golden age and Julian as the restorer of the empire founded by Augustus. The image Mamertinus gave of his own consulate inaugurating a new golden age is not merely formulaic. The comparison of Julian to Augustus has very real, if implicit, relevance to Claudius' situation. Claudius emphasized the imperial period as the true age of renewal. Augustus ushered in a new era with his formation of a partnership between the emperor and the Senate based upon a series of honors and offices bestowed upon the Senate in return for their role as intercessor between emperor and populace. It was this system that Julian was restoring, and the consulate was one concrete example of this bond. To be chosen as a consul by the emperor, who himself had been divinely mandated, was a divine honor. In addition to being named consul, Mamertinus went on to hold several offices under Julian, including the Prefecture of Italy, Illyricum, and Africa. Similarly, inscriptional evidence illustrates a link between municipal elites and Julian during his time as Caesar, something which continued after he became emperor. One concrete example comes from the municipal senate of Aceruntia in Apulia, which established a monument on which Julian is styled as "Repairer of the World."

Julian seems to have given up actual Christian belief before his acclamation as emperor and was a practitioner of more traditional Greco-Roman religious beliefs, in particular, a follower of certain late antique Platonist philosophers who were especially adept at theurgy as was noted earlier. In fact Julian himself spoke of his conversion to Neo-Platonism in a letter to the Alexandrians written in 363. He stated that he had abandoned Christianity when he was twenty years old and been an adherent of the traditional Greco-Roman deities for the twelve years prior to writing this letter.

(For the complete text of this article see: http://www.roman-emperors.org/julian.htm)

Julian’s Persian Campaign

The exact goals Julian had for his ill-fated Persian campaign were never clear. The Sassanid Persians, and before them the Parthians, had been a traditional enemy from the time of the Late Republic, and indeed Constantius had been conducting a war against them before Julian's accession forced the former to forge an uneasy peace. Julian, however, had no concrete reason to reopen hostilities in the east. Socrates Scholasticus attributed Julian's motives to imitation of Alexander the Great, but perhaps the real reason lay in his need to gather the support of the army. Despite his acclamation by the Gallic legions, relations between Julian and the top military officers was uneasy at best. A war against the Persians would have brought prestige and power both to Julian and the army.

Julian set out on his fateful campaign on 5 March 363. Using his trademark strategy of striking quickly and where least expected, he moved his army through Heirapolis and from there speedily across the Euphrates and into the province of Mesopotamia, where he stopped at the town of Batnae. His plan was to eventually return through Armenia and winter in Tarsus. Once in Mesopotamia, Julian was faced with the decision of whether to travel south through the province of Babylonia or cross the Tigris into Assyria, and he eventually decided to move south through Babylonia and turn west into Assyria at a later date. By 27 March, he had the bulk of his army across the Euphrates, and had also arranged a flotilla to guard his supply line along the mighty river. He then left his generals Procopius and Sebastianus to help Arsacius, the king of Armenia and a Roman client, to guard the northern Tigris line. It was also during this time that he received the surrender of many prominent local leaders who had nominally supported the Persians. These men supplied Julian with money and troops for further military action against their former masters. Julian decided to turn south into Babylonia and proceeded along the Euphrates, coming to the fortress of Cercusium at the junction of the Abora and Euphrates Rivers around the first of April, and from there he took his army west to a region called Zaitha near the abandoned town of Dura where they visited the tomb of the emperor Gordian which was in the area. On April 7 he set out from there into the heart of Babylonia and towards Assyria.

Ammianus then stated that Julian and his army crossed into Assyria, which on the face of things appears very confusing. Julian still seems to be operating within the province of Babylonia between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. The confusion is alleviated when one realizes that,for Ammianus, the region of Assyria encompassed the provinces of Babylonia and Assyria. On their march, Julian's forces took the fortress of Anatha, received the surrender and support of several more local princes, and ravaged the countryside of Assyria between the rivers. As the army continued south, they came across the fortresses Thilutha and Achaiachala, but these places were too well defended and Julian decided to leave them alone. Further south were the cities Diacira and Ozogardana, which the Roman forces sacked and burned. Soon, Julian came to Pirisabora and a brief siege ensued, but the city fell and was also looted and destroyed. It was also at this time that the Roman army met its first systematic resistance from the Persians. As the Romans penetrated further south and west, the local inhabitants began to flood their route. Nevertheless, the Roman forces pressed on and came to Maiozamalcha, a sizable city not far from Ctesiphon. After a short siege, this city too fell to Julian. Inexorably, Julian's forces zeroed in on Ctesiphon, but as they drew closer, the Persian resistance grew fiercer, with guerilla raids whittling at Julian's men and supplies. A sizable force of the army was lost and the emperor himself was almost killed taking a fort a few miles from the target city.
Finally, the army approached Ctesiphon following a canal that linked the Tigris and Euphrates. It soon became apparent after a few preliminary skirmishes that a protracted siege would be necessary to take this important city. Many of his generals, however, thought that pursuing this course of action would be foolish. Julian reluctantly agreed, but became enraged by this failure and ordered his fleet to be burned as he decided to march through the province of Assyria. Julian had planned for his army to live off the land, but the Persians employed a scorched-earth policy. When it became apparent that his army would perish (because his supplies were beginning to dwindle) from starvation and the heat if he continued his campaign, and also in the face of superior numbers of the enemy, Julian ordered a retreat on 16 June. As the Roman army retreated, they were constantly harassed by guerilla strikes. It was during one of these raids that Julian got caught up in the fighting and took a spear to his abdomen. Mortally wounded he was carried to his tent, where, after conferring with some of his officers, he died. The date was 26 June 363.

Conclusion

Thus an ignominious end for a man came about who had hoped to restore the glory of the Roman empire during his reign as emperor. Due to his intense hatred of Christianity, the opinion of posterity has not been kind to Julian. The contemporary opinion, however, was overall positive. The evidence shows that Julian was a complex ruler with a definite agenda to use traditional social institutions in order to revive what he saw as a collapsing empire. In the final assessment, he was not so different from any of the other emperors of the fourth century. He was a man grasping desperately to hang on to a Greco-Roman conception of leadership that was undergoing a subtle yet profound change.
Copyright (C) 2002, Walter E. Roberts and Michael DiMaio, Jr. Used by permission.

In reality, Julian worked to promote culture and philosophy in any manifestation. He tried to reduce taxes and the public debts of municipalities; he augmented administrative decentralisation; he promoted a campaign of austerity to reduce public expenditure (setting himself as the example). He reformed the postal service and eliminated the powerful secret police.
by Federico Morando; JULIAN II, The Apostate, http://www.forumancientcoins.com/NumisWiki/view.asp?key=Julian%20II

Flavius Claudius Iulianus was born in 331 or maybe 332 A.D. in Constantinople. He ruled the Western Empire as Caesar from 355 to 360 and was hailed Augustus by his legions in Lutetia (Paris) in 360. Julian was a gifted administrator and military strategist. Famed as the last pagan emperor, his reinstatement of the pagan religion earned him the moniker "the Apostate." As evidenced by his brilliant writing, some of which has survived to the present day, the title "the Philosopher" may have been more appropriate. He died from wounds suffered during the Persian campaign of 363 A.D. Joseph Sermarini, FORVM.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.




2 commentsCleisthenes
IMG_4365~0.jpg
157. Helena (Wife of Constantius I Chlorus)16 viewsAv.: FL HELENA AVGVSTA
Rv.: SECVRITAS REIPVBLICE
Ex.: dot SMH epsilon

AE Follis Ø18 / 2.5g
RIC VII Heraclea 95
Juancho
RI_163j_img.jpg
163 - Helena - AE3 - RIC VII Alexandria 48 40 viewsAE3
Obv:– FL HELENA AVGVSTA, Diademed, draped bust right
Rev:– SECVRITAS REIPVBLICE, Securitas, standing left, holding branch
Minted in Alexandria (Wreath | B //SMAL). A.D. 327-328
Reference:– RIC VII Alexandria 48 (R4); LRBC 1417
4 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_163i_img.jpg
163 - Helena - AE3 - RIC VII Trier 458 23 viewsAE3
Obv:– FL HELENA AVGVSTA, Diademed, draped bust right
Rev:– SECVRITAS REIPVBLICE, Securitas, standing left, holding branch
Minted in Trier (//STR).
Reference(s) – RIC VII Trier 458 (C1).
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_163a_img.jpg
163 - Helena - RIC VII Constantinople 011 (AE3)32 viewsObv:– FL HELENA AVGVSTA, Diademed draped bust right, with necklace
Rev:– SECVRITAS REIPVBLICE, Helena standing left, holding branch
Minted in Constantinople. B in left field, CONS in exe. A.D. 326-327
Reference:– RIC VII Constantinople 11 (R2)
2 commentsmaridvnvm
RI 163b img.JPG
163 - Helena - RIC VII Heraclea 079 (AE3)31 viewsObv:– FL HELENA AVGVSTA, Diademed draped bust right, with necklace
Rev:– SECVRITAS REIPVBLICE, Helena standing left, holding branch
Minted in Heraclea. SMHΔ in exe. A.D. 325-326
Reference:– RIC VII Heraclea 79 (R3)
Still elements of silvering remaining.
maridvnvm
RI_163g_img.jpg
163 - Helena - RIC VII Lugdunum 23428 viewsObv:– FL HELENA AVGVSTA, Diademed, draped bust right
Rev:– SECVRITAS REIPVBLICE, Securitas, standing left, holding branch
Minted in Lugdunum (//PLC). A.D. 324-325
Reference(s) – Bastien 192 (13 examples cited). RIC 234 (R2)
1 commentsMartin Griffiths
RI_163h_img.jpg
163 - Helena - RIC VII Lugdunum 23414 viewsObv:– FL HELENA AVGVSTA, Diademed, draped bust right
Rev:– SECVRITAS REIPVBLICE, Securitas, standing left, holding branch
Minted in Lugdunum (//PLC). A.D. 324-325
Reference(s) – Bastien 192 (13 examples cited). RIC 234 (R2)
maridvnvm
RI 163f img.jpg
163 - Helena - RIC VII Sirmius 054 (AE3)22 viewsObv:– FL HELENA AVGVSTA, Diademed draped bust right, with necklace
Rev:– SECVRITAS REIPVBLICE, Helena standing left, holding branch
Minted in Sirmium. SIRM in exe. A.D. 325-326
Reference:– RIC VII Sirmium 54 (R2)
maridvnvm
RI 163c img.JPG
163 - Helena - RIC VII Siscia 218 (AE3)39 viewsObv:– FL HELENA AVGVSTA, Diademed draped bust right, with necklace
Rev:– SECVRITAS REIPVBLICE, Helena standing left, holding branch
Minted in Siscia. ΓSIS double crescent in exe. A.D. 325-326
Reference:– RIC VII Siscia 218 (C2)
maridvnvm
RI 163e img.JPG
163 - Helena - RIC VIII Constantinople 048 (AE4)33 viewsObv:– FL IVL HELENA AVG, Diademed, draped bust right
Rev:– PAX PVBLICA, Pax, standing left, holding staff and branch
Minted in Constantinople. CONSE in exe.
Reference:– RIC VIII Constantinople 48 (S)
maridvnvm
ConstantinusFollisSol.jpg
1ec_2 Constantine the Great15 views307-337

Follis

Laureate, draped, cuirassed bust right, IMP CONSTANTINVS PF AVG
Sol standing left, chlamys across left shoulder, raising right hand and holding globe in left hand, captive to left. Mintmark RQ.

RIC VII 52

According to Zonaras: Constans, in the eleventh year of his reign since he had been proclaimed Caesar, having ruled gently and mildly, came to the end of his life while residing in Britain, having, because of his goodness, bequeathed grief for himself among those he ruled, first having appointed successor the elder of his own sons, namely Constantine the Great, whom he begat by his first wife. He also had by his second wife, Herculius’ daughter Theodora, other sons, Constantinus, Hannibalianus, and Constantius. Constantine the Great was preferred over them, since they were judged by their father to be unsuited for sovereignty. . . . Constantine, when he was still a lad, was actually given by his father as a hostage to Gallerius, in order that, serving as a hostage, at the same time he be trained in the exercise of the soldierly art.

Eutropius summarizes: CONSTANTINE, being a man of great energy, bent upon effecting whatever he had settled in his mind, and aspiring to the sovereignty of the whole world, proceeded to make war on Licinius, although he had formed a connexion with him by marriage,5 for his sister Constantia was married to Licinius. And first of all be overthrew him, by a sudden attack, at Cibalae in Pannonia, where he was making vast preparations for war; and after becoming master of Dardania, Maesia, and Macedonia, took possession also of several other provinces.

There were then various contests between them, and peace made and broken. At last Licinius, defeated in a battle at Nicomedia by sea and land, surrendered himself, and, in violation of an oath taken by Constantine, was put to death, after being divested of the purple, at Thessalonica.

At this time the Roman empire fell under the sway of one emperor and three Caesars, a state of things which had never existed before; the sons of Constantine ruling over Gaul, the east, and Italy. But the pride of prosperity caused Constantine greatly to depart from his former agreeable mildness of temper. Falling first upon his own relatives, he put to death his son, an excellent man; his sister's son, a youth of amiable disposition; soon afterwards his wife, and subsequently many of his friends.

He was a man, who, in the beginning of his reign, might have been compared to the best princes; in the latter part of it, only to those of a middling character. Innumerable good qualities of mind and body were apparent in him; he was exceedingly ambitious of military glory, and had great success in his wars; a success, however, not more than proportioned to his exertions. After he had terminated the Civil war, he also overthrew the Goths on various occasions, granting them at last peace, and leaving on the minds of the barbarians a strong remembrance of his kindness. He was attached to the arts of peace and to liberal studies, and was ambitious of honourable popularity, which he, indeed, sought by every kind of liberality and obligingness. Though he was slow, from suspicion, to serve some of his friends,6 yet he was exceedingly generous towards others, neglecting no opportunity to add to their riches and honours.

He enacted many laws, some good and equitable, but most of them superfluous, and some severe. He was the first that endeavoured to raise the city named after him to such a height as to make it a rival to Rome. As he was preparing for war against the Parthians, who were then disturbing Mesopotamia, he died in the Villa Publica, at Nicomedia, in the thirty-first year of his reign, and the sixty-sixth of his age.

Zosimus described Constantine's conversion to Christianity: For he put to death his son Crispus, stiled (as I mentioned) Caesar, on suspicion of debauching his mother-in-law Fausta, without any regard to the ties of nature. And when his own mother Helena expressed much sorrow for this atrocity, lamenting the young man's death with great bitterness, Constantine under pretence of comforting her, applied a remedy worse than the disease. For causing a bath to be heated to an extraordinary degree, he shut up Fausta in it, and a short time after took her out dead. Of which his conscience accusing him, as also of violating his oath, he went to the priests to be purified from his crimes. But they told him, that there was no kind of lustration that was sufficient to clear him of such enormities. A Spaniard, named Aegyptius, very familiar with the court-ladies, being at Rome, happened to fall into converse with Constantine, and assured him, that the Christian doctrine would teach him how to cleanse himself from all his offences, and that they who received it were immediately absolved from all their sins. Constantine had no sooner heard this than he easily believed what was told him, and forsaking the rites of his country, received those which Aegyptius offered him ; and for the first instance of his impiety, suspected the truth of divination.
Blindado
HelenaAE4Pax.jpg
1ee Helena10 viewsAE4

Draped bust with pearl necklace, right, FL IVL HELENAE AVG

Pax standing left, holding olive branch & transverse sceptre; mintmark CONS Epsilon, PAX PVBLICA [dot?]

Mother of Constantine. She is responsible for the supposed discovery of parts of the True Cross and various holy sites across the Mediterranean littoral.

RIC 33
Blindado
ConstansAE3GlorEx.jpg
1ei Constans21 views337-350

AE3

RIC 93

Rosette diademed, draped & cuirassed bust, right, CONSTANS P F AVG
Two soldiers standing to either side of one standard with chi-rho on banner, GLORIA EXERCITVS, [A]SIS-crescent in ex.

Constans received Italy, Africa, and the Balkans when the empire was divided. He took charge of the remainder of the West after Constantine II imprudently attacked him in 340. Zosimus recorded, "Constans, having thus removed his brother, exercised every species of cruelty toward his subjects, exceeding the most intolerable tyranny. He purchased some well favoured Barbarians, and had others with him as hostages, to whom he gave liberty to harrass his subjects as they pleased, in order to gratify his vicious disposition. In this manner he reduced all the nations that were subject to him to extreme misery. This gave uneasiness to the court guards, who perceiving that he was much addicted to hunting placed themselves under the conduct of Marcellinus prefect of the treasury, and Magnentius who commanded the Joviani and Herculiani (two legions so termed), and formed a plot against him in the following manner. Marcellinus reported that he meant to keep the birth-day of his sons, and invited many of the superior officers to a feast. Amongst the rest Magnentius rose from table and left the room; he presently returned, and as it were in a drama stood before them clothed in an imperial robe. Upon this all the guests saluted him with the title of king, and the inhabitants of Augustodunum, where it was done, concurred in the same sentiment. This transaction being rumoured abroad, the country people flocked into the city; while at the same time a party of Illyrian cavalry who came to supply the Celtic legions, joined themselves with those that were concerned in the enterprize. When the officers of the army were met together, and heard the leaders of the conspiracy proclaim their new emperor, they scarcely knew the meaning of it; they all, however, joined in the acclamation, and saluted Magnentius with the appellation of Augustus. When this became known to Constans, he endeavoured to escape to a small town called Helena, which lies near the Pyrenean mountains. He was taken by Gaison, who was sent with some other select persons for that purpose, and being destitute of all aid, was killed. "
Blindado
JulianIIAE3VotX.jpg
1en Julian II "Apostate"26 views360-363

AE3

Pearl-diademed, helmeted, cuirassed bust left, holding shield & spear, D N FL CL IVLIANVS P F AVG
VOT X MVLT XX in four lines within wreath, palm branch-BSIS-palm branch in ex [?].

RIC 415

According to Zosimus: Constantius, having so well succeeded in his design against Vetranio, marched against Magnentius, having first conferred the title of Caesar on Gallus, the son of his uncle, and brother to Julian who was afterwards emperor, and given him in marriage his sister Constantia. . . . CONSTANTIUS, after having acted towards Gallus Caesar in the manner I have related, left Pannonia to proceed into Italy. . . . He scarcely thought himself capable of managing affairs at this critical period. He was unwilling, however, to associate any one with himself in the government, because he so much desired to rule alone, and could esteem no man his friend. Under these circumstances he was at a loss how to act. It happened, however, that when the empire was in the greatest danger, Eusebia, the wife of Constantius, who was a woman of extraordinary learning, and of greater wisdom than her sex is usually endowed with, advised him to confer the government of the nations beyond the Alps on Julianus Caesar, who was brother to Gallus, and grandson to Constantius. As she knew that the emperor was suspicious of all his kindred, she thus circumvented him. She observed to him, that Julian was a young man unacquainted with the intrigues of state, having devoted himself totally to his studies; and that he was wholly inexperienced in worldly business. That on this account he would be more fit for his purpose than any other person. That either he would be fortunate, and his success would be attributed to the emperor's conduct, or that he would fail and perish; and that thus Constantius would have none of the imperial family to succeed to him.

Constantius, having approved her advice, sent for Julian from Athens, where he lived among the philosophers, and excelled all his masters in every kind of learning. Accordingly, Julian returning from Greece into Italy, Constantius declared him Caesar, gave him in marriage his sister Helena, and sent him beyond the Alps. . . .

Constantius, having thus disposed of Julian, marched himself into Pannonia and Moesia, and having there suppressed the Quadi and the Sarmatians, proceeded to the east, and was provoked to war by the inroads of the Persians. Julian by this time had arrived beyond the Alps into the Gallic nations which he was to rule. Perceiving that the Barbarians continued committing the same violence, Eusebia, for the same reasons as before, persuaded Constantius to place the entire management of those countries into the hands of Julian. . . . Julian finding the military affairs of Gallia Celtica in a very ruinous state, and that the Barbarians pased the Rhine without any resistance, even almost as far as the sea-port towns, he took a survey of the remaining parts of the enemy. And understanding that the people of those parts were terrified at the very name of the Barbarians, while those whom Constantius had sent along with him, who were not more than three hundred and sixty, knew nothing more, as he used to say, than how to say their prayers, he enlisted as many more as he could and took in a great number of volunteers. He also provided arms, and finding a quantity of old weapons in some town he fitted them up, and distributed them among the soldiers. The scouts bringing him intelligence, that an immense number of Barbarians had crossed the river near the city of Argentoratum (Strasburg) which stands on the Rhine, he no sooner heard of it, than he led forth his army with the greatest speed, and engaging with the enemy gained such a victory as exceeds all description.

After these events he raised a great army to make war on the whole German nation; He was opposed however by the Barbarians in vast numbers. Caesar therefore would not wait while they came up to him, but crossed the Rhine, preferring that their country should be the seat of war, and not that of the Romans, as by that means the cities would escape being again pillaged by the Barbarians. A most furious battle therefore took place; a great number of the Barbarians being slain on the field of battle, while the rest fled, and were pursued by Caesar into the Hercynian forest, and many of them killed. . . .

But while Julian was at Parisium, a small town in Germany, the soldiers, being ready to march, continued at supper till midnight in a place near the palace, which they so called there. They were as yet ignorant of any design against Caesar [by Constantius], when some tribunes, who began to suspect the contrivance against him, privately distributed a number of anonymous billets among the soldiers, in which they represented to them, that Caesar, by his judicious conduct had so managed affairs, that almost all of them had erected trophies over the Barbarians ; that he had always fought like a private soldier, and was now in extreme danger from the emperor, who would shortly deprive him of his whole army, unless they prevented it. Some of the soldiers having read these billets, and published the intrigue to the whole army, all were highly enraged. They suddenly rose from their seats in great commotion, and with the cups yet in their hands went to the palace. Breaking open the doors without ceremony, they brought out Caesar, and lifting him on a shield declared him emperor and Augustus. They then, without attending to his reluctance, placed a diadem upon his head. . . .

Arriving at Naisus, he consulted the soothsayers what measures to pursue. As the entrails signified that he must stay there for some time, he obeyed, observing likewise the time that was mentioned in his dream. When this, according to the motion of the planets, was arrived, a party of horsemen arrived from Constantinople at Naisus, with intelligence that Constantius was dead, and that the armies desired Julian to be emperor. Upon this he accepted what the gods had bestowed upon him, and proceeded on his journey. On his arrival at. Byzantium, he was received with joyful acclamations. . . .

[After slashing through Persia and crossing the Tigris,] they perceived the Persian army, with which they engaged, and having considerably the advantage, they killed a great number of Persians. Upon the following day, about noon, the Persians drew up in a large body, and once more attacked the rear of the Roman army. The Romans, being at that time out of their ranks, were surprised and alarmed at the suddenness of the attack, yet made a stout and spirited defence. The emperor, according to his custom, went round the army, encouraging them to fight with ardour. When by this means all were engaged, the emperor, who sometimes rode to the commanders and tribunes, and was at other times among the private soldiers, received a wound in the heat of the engagement, and was borne on a shield to his tent. He survived only till midnight. He then expired, after having nearly subverted the Persian empire.

Note: Julian favored the pagan faith over Christianity and was tarred by the church as "the apostate."
Blindado
24w-Helena-Tre-508.jpg
24w. Helena: Treveri.13 viewsAE3, 327 - 328, Treveri mint.
Obverse: FL HELENA AVGVSTA / Diademed bust of Helena.
Reverse: SECVRITAS REIPVBLICE / Securitas standing, holding branch in right hand, and raising pallium with left hand.
Mint mark: PTRE
3.19 gm., 18 mm.
RIC #508; LRBC #41; Sear #16594.
Callimachus
HelenaVM4.jpg
324-328/9 AD - Helena - Van Meter 4 - PAX PVBLICA24 viewsAugusta: Helena (324-328/9 AD)
Date: after 328/9 AD (Posthumous)
Condition: Mediocre
Size: AE4

Obverse: FL IVL HE-LENA AVG
Flavia Julia Helena Augusta
Bust right; diademed and draped

Reverse: PAX PVBLICA
The people are at peace.
Pax standing left.
Exergue: unknown

VM 4
1.57g; 16.8mm; 150°
Pep
HelenaVM4_2.jpg
324-328/9 AD - Helena - Van Meter 4 - PAX PVBLICA - 2nd Example35 viewsAugusta: Helena (324-328/9 AD)
Date: after 328/9 AD (Posthumous)
Condition: Fine
Size: AE4

Obverse: FL IVL HELENA AVG
Flavia Julia Helena Augusta
Bust right; diademed and draped

Reverse: PAX PVBLICA
The people are at peace.
Pax standing left.
Exergue: unknown

VM 4
1.69g; 15.6mm; 165°
Pep
coin220.JPG
405. CONSTANTIUS I, as Caesar53 viewsBorn March 31st, Emperor Flavius Valerius Constantius may have come into the world ca. 250. His family was from Illyricum. In the army he served as a protector, tribunus, and a praeses Dalmatiarum. During the 270s or the 280s, he became the father of Constantine by Helena, his first spouse. By 288 he was the Praetorian Prefect of the western emperor Maximianus Herculius.

On 1 March 293 Diocletian appointed Galerius as his Caesar (junior emperor) in the east and Constantius as the Caesar of Maximianus Herculius. Caesar in the west. Both Caesars had the right of succession. In order to strengthen the dynastic relationship between himself and Herculius., Constantius put aside his wife Helena and married Theodora, the daughter, or perhaps stepdaughter, of Maximianus Herculius. The union was fruitful and of it there were six issue: Flavius Dalmatius, Julius Constantius, Hannibalianus, Constantia, Anastasia, and Eutropia. To strengthen his bond with Galerius and Diocletian in the east, Constantius allowed Galerius to keep his son Constantine as a hostage for his good behavior.

In the remainder of the time that he was a Caesar, Constantius spent much of his time engaged in military actions in the west. In the summer of 293 Constantius expelled the troops of the usurper Carausius from northern Gaul; after Constantius' attack on Bononia (Boulogne), Carausius was murdered. At the same time he dealt with the unrest of the Germans. In 296 he invaded Britain and put down the revolt of the usurper Allectus. Between 300 and 305 A.D. the Caesar campaigned successfully several times with various German tribes. It is worth noting in passing, that while his colleagues rigidly enforced the "Great Persecution in 303," Constantius limited his action to knocking down a few churches.

On 1 May 305 Diocletian, at Nicomedia, and Maximianus Herculius, at Mediolanum (Milan), divested themselves of the purple, probably because of the almost fatal illness that Diocletian contracted toward the end of 304. Diocletian forced Maximianus to abdicate. They appointed as their successors Constantius and Galerius, with Severus and Maximinus Daia as the new Caesars. The retired emperors then returned to private life. Constantius, as had his predecessor, ruled in the west, while Galerius and Daia ruled in the east. Almost as soon as he was appointed Augustus, he crossed to Britain to face incursions by the Picts where he died at York on 25 July 306 with his son at his side.


CONSTANTIUS I, as Caesar. 293-305 AD. Æ Follis (9.24 gm). Lugdunum mint. Struck 301-303 AD. CONSTANTIVS NO[B CAE]S, laureate and draped bust right, holding spear over right shoulder and shield at left / [GENIO POPV]LI ROMANI; altar-B/PLC. RIC VI 136a. VF, brown patina, some silvering. Ex CNG
1 commentsecoli
helena.JPG
405a. Helena104 viewsFlavia Iulia Helena, also known as Saint Helena, Saint Helen, Helena Augusta, and Helena of Constantinople, (c.248 - c.329) was the first wife of Constantius Chlorus, and the mother of Emperor Constantine I. She is traditionally credited with finding the relics of the True Cross.

Many legends surround her. She was allegedly the daughter of an innkeeper. Her son Constantine renamed the city of Drepanum on the Gulf of Nicomedia as 'Helenopolis' in her honor, which led to later interpretions that Drepanum was her birthplace.

Constantius Chlorus divorced her (c.292) to marry the step-daughter of Maximian, Flavia Maximiana Theodora. Helena's son, Constantine, became emperor of the Roman Empire, and following his elevation she became a presence at the imperial court, and received the title Augusta.

She is considered by the Orthodox and Catholic churches as a saint, famed for her piety. Eusebius records the details of her pilgrimage to Palestine and other eastern provinces. She is traditionally credited (but not by Eusebius) with the finding of relics of the True Cross (q.v.), and finding the remains of the Three Wise Men, which currently reside in the Shrine of the Three Kings at Cologne Cathedral. Her feast day as a saint of the Orthodox Christian Church is celebrated with her son on May 21, the Feast of the Holy Great Sovereigns Constantine and Helen, Equal to the Apostles. Her feast day in the Roman Catholic Church falls on August 18.

At least 25 sacred wells currently exist in Britain that were dedicated to her. She is also the patron saint of Colchester.

Helena Follis. FL HELENA AVGVSTA, diademed and draped bust right / SECVRITAS REIPVBLICE, Securitas standing left, holding branch in right hand; PTR(crescent) in ex.
1 commentsecoli
coin409.JPG
405b. Theodora23 viewsFlavia Maximiana Theodora (known as Theodora) was the step-daughter of Maximian. Her parents were Afanius Hannibalianus and Eutropia, later wife of Maximian. Theodora's father was consul in 292, and praetorian prefect under Diocletian. In 293, Theodora married Flavius Valerius Julius Constantius (later known as Constantius Chlorus), after he had divorced from his first wife, Helena, to strengthen his political position.

Copper AE4, RIC 36, S 3911, VM 1, VF, 1.4g, 15.2mm, 180o, Constantinople mint, 337-340 A.D.; obverse FL MAX THEODORAE AVG, diademed and draped bust right; reverse PIETAS ROMANA, Pietas standing right holding child in her arms;Ex Forum
ecoli
coin269.JPG
501a. Fausta45 viewsFausta Flavia Maxima was the daughter of the Roman Emperor Maximianus. To seal the alliance between them for control of the Tetrarchy, Maximianus married her to Constantine I in 307.

It is suspected that Fausta was fiercely anti-Christian and plotting the Roman empire's return to paganism behind her husband's back. Although the real reasons are not clear, Constantine eventually put her to death along with Crispus, his eldest son by a previous marriage to Minervina, in 326. Eusebius of Caesarea suspected step-mother and step-son to be lovers to each other.

Her sons became Roman Emperors: Constantine II reigned 337 - 340, Constantius II reigned 337 - 361, and Constans reigned 337 - 350. Variety of sources, of more or less reliability, attest that she bore daughters Constantina, Helena and Fausta. Of these, Constantina married her cousins, firstly Hannibalianus and secondly Gallus Caesar, and Helena married Emperor Julian. Apparently a genealogical claim that her daughter Fausta became mother of Emperor Valentinian I is without foundation (Valentinian I and children of Constantine I's second marriage were born in years close to each other, i.e they were of the same generation).

Fausta, wife of Constantine I. 325-326 AD. Æ Follis

OBVERSE: FLAV MAX FAVSTA AVG, mantled bust right
REVERSE: SPES REIP-VBLICAE, Spes standing facing, looking left, head veiled, holding two children in her arms
19mm - 3.1 grams

RIC VII Thessalonica 161 R3

Sear 3903
ecoli
coins432.JPG
501b. Crispus29 viewsIn 326, Crispus was suddenly executed according to the orders of his own father in Pola, Istria. Though the decision of Constantine was certainly cruel and unexpected, historians remain more interested in the motivation leading to it.

Zosimus in the 5th century and Joannes Zonaras in the 12th century both reported that Fausta, step-mother of Crispus, was extremely jealous of him. She was reportedly afraid that Constantine would put aside the sons she bore him. So, in order to get rid of Crispus, Fausta set him up. She reportedly told the young Caesar that she was in love with him and suggested an illegitimate love affair. Crispus denied the immoral wishes of Fausta and left the palace in a state of a shock. Then Fausta said to Constantine that Crispus had no respect for his father, since the Caesar was in love with his father's own wife. She reported to Constantine that she dismissed him after his attempt to rape her. Constantine believed her and, true to his strong personality and short temper, executed his beloved son. A few months later, Constantine reportedly found out the whole truth and then executed his wife Fausta at the end of 326.

This version of events has become the most widely accepted, since all other reports are even less satisfactory.

A treason against Constantine jointly plotted by Fausta and Crispus is rejected by most historians. They would have nothing to gain considering their positions as favourites of Constantine.

Another version suggests that Constantine killed Crispus because as an illegitimate son, he would cause a crisis in the order of succession to the throne. However, Constantine had kept him at his side for twenty years without any such decision. Constantine also had the authority to appoint his younger, legitimate sons as his heirs. Nevertheless, Crispus' status as a legitimate or illegitimate son remains uncertain.

Some reports claimed that Constantine was envious of the success of his son and afraid of him. This seems improbable, given that Constantine had twenty years of experience at Emperor while Crispus was still a young Caesar. Similarly, there seems to be no evidence that Crispus had any ambitions to harm or displace his father.

So while the story of Zosimus and Zonaras seems the most believable one, there are also problems relating to their version of events.

Constantine's reaction suggest that he suspected Crispus of a crime so terrible that death was not enough. Crispus also suffered damnatio memoriae, meaning his name was never mentioned again and was deleted from all official documents and monuments. Crispus, his wife Helena and their son were never to be mentioned again in historical records. The eventual fate of Helena and her son is a mystery.

Constantine may have been eventually convinced of Crispus' innocence. But he did not restore his son's innocence and name, as he probably would have on learning of his son's innocence. Perhaps Constantine's pride or shame at having executed his son prevented him from publicly admitting having made a mistake.

Beyond doubt there was a connections between the executions of Crispus and Fausta. Both happened too close in time to be coincidental. Such agreement among different sources connecting the two deaths is extremely rare in itself. A number of modern historians have suggested that Crispus and Fausta really did have an illegitimate affair. When Constantine found out, his reaction was executing both of them. What delayed the death of Fausta may have been a pregnancy. Since the years of birth for the two known daughters of Constantine and Fausta remain unknown, one of their births may have delayed their mother's execution.


Crispus, 316-326, Bronze Reduced Anepigraphic Follis, RIC-VII-53-R5, struck 324-325 at Antioch, 1.87 grams, 17.9 mm. Nice VF

Obv: Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust of Crispus facing left
Rev: CRISPVS CAESAR SMANTZ - Legend and mint signature in three lines, star above, dot below

An excessively rare coin of Crispus. Nicely centered and struck with even wear to both surfaces. Important and MUCH nicer than the image projects.

Ex-Glenn Woods
ecoli
Centenional Helena RIC VII Nicomedia 159G.jpg
A123-05 - Helena (318 - 328 D.C.)32 viewsAE3 Centenional 18 mm 2.6 gr.
Esposa/Concubina de Constancio I Cloro y madre de Constantino I.

Anv: "FL HELENA AVGVSTA" - Busto con diadema en forma de banda decorada por cadenas de perlas, vistiendo túnica y collar formado por dos hiladas de perlas, viendo a derecha.
Rev: "SECVRITAS REIPVBLICE" - Securitas/Helena de pié a izquierda, portando una rama en la mano de su brazo derecho extendido y bajo y sosteniendo su vestido con mano izquierdo. "SMNΓ" en exergo.

Acuñada 328/9 D.C.
Ceca: Nicomedia (Off.3ra.)
Rareza: R2

Referencias: RIC Vol.VII (Nicomedia) #159 (Por la forma de la diadema) Pag.626 - Cohen Vol.VII #13 Pag.97 - DVM #3 Pag.293 - Salgado MRBI Vol.III #8334.l.3. Pag.178 - Sear RCTV (1988) #3908
mdelvalle
Centenional Helena RIC VIII Constantinopolis 49D.jpg
A123-08 - Helena (318 - 328 D.C.)45 viewsAE3 Centenional 18 x 17 mm 2.9 gr.
Esposa/Concubina de Constancio I Cloro y madre de Constantino I.

Anv: "FL HELENA AVGVSTA" - Busto con diadema consistente en una línea de perlas, vistiendo túnica y collar formado por una hilada de perlas, viendo a derecha.
Rev: "SECVRITAS REIPVBLICE" - Securitas/Helena de pié a izquierda, portando una rama en la mano de su brazo derecho extendido y bajo y sosteniendo su vestido con mano izquierdo. "MNΔ" en exergo.

Acuñada 325/6 D.C.
Ceca: Nicomedia (Off.4ta.)
Rareza: R2

Referencias: RIC Vol.VII (Nicomedia) #129 Pag.621 - Cohen Vol.VII #13 Pag.97 - DVM #3 Pag.293 - Salgado MRBI Vol.III #8334.l.2. Pag.178 - Sear RCTV (1988) #3908
1 commentsmdelvalle
Centenional reducido Helena RIC VIII Constantinopolis 49Theta.jpg
A123-12 - Helena (318 - 328 D.C.)43 viewsAE4 Centenional reducido 16 x 15 mm 1.2 gr.
Esposa/Concubina de Constancio I Cloro y madre de Constantino I.
Emisión póstuma realizada en este caso por Constancio II, también realizaron emisiones similares Constantino II en Treveri y Constante en Roma.

Anv: "FL IVL HELENA AVG" - Busto con diadema laureada, vistiendo túnica ornamentada y collar formado por dos hiladas de perlas, viendo a derecha.
Rev: "PAX PVBLICA" – Pax (La Paz) de pié a izquierda, portando una rama de olivo en la mano de su brazo derecho extendido y bajo, y cetro transversal en la izquierda. "CONSΘ" en exergo.

Acuñada 337 - 340 D.C.
Ceca: Constantinopla (Off.9na.)
Rareza: S

Referencias: RIC Vol.VIII (Constantinople) #49 Pag.450 - Cohen Vol.VII #4 Pag.95 - DVM #4 Pag.293 - Salgado MRBI Vol.III #8531.c. Pag.201 - Sear RCTV (1988) #3910
mdelvalle
sear_2057.jpg
Billion trachy lg module clipped Hendy Type C (of Thessalonica) SB 205753 viewsObverse: Christ bearded and nimbate wearing tunic and colobion, std on backless throne.
Reverse: SS Helena and Constantine stg, facing turned slightly Patriarchal cross inbetween, both wear stemma, divitison, collar andloros
Mint: Thessalonica
Date: 1204-1224 Attributed to Boniface de Montferrat )1204-07) or Demetrius de Montferrat bu Malloy et al
Sear 2057 Hendy type C 28.9-10
17mm .78gm
wileyc
2010-12-11_SB_2049.jpg
Billion trachy small module as SB 205728 viewsObverse: Christ seated
Reverse: St Helena and St Constantine stg holding patriarchal cross between them
Date: Middle period? Robert de Courtenai? 1219-28 CE
Sear 2049
18 mm 1.26gm
wileyc
LatinS2050.JPG
BYZANTINE, Latin Trachy 1204-1261 Constantinople82 viewsObv: Christ Enthroned (indistinct)
Rev: St. Helena and St. Constantine with Patriarchal Cross Between Them
Sear 2049 (Small Module Version of Sear 2057)
Overstruck on an uncertain undertype.
Laetvs
LatinS2057.JPG
BYZANTINE, Latin Trachy 1204-1261 Thessalonica100 viewsObv: Christ Seated
Rev: St. Helena and St. Constantine with Patriarchal Cross Between Them
Sear 2057
1 commentsLaetvs
constansbeac.JPG
Constans AE3 333-337 AD63 viewsOBV: FL CONSTANTIS BEAC; Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right
REV: GLORI-AEXERC-ITUS; Two soldiers standing with inverted spears and leaning on shields, two military standards between.
in Exergue: dot ASIS dot
RIC VII 238 Siscia mint,

The coin is the only type using the genitive inflection in the legends FLavii CONSTANTIS BEAtissimus Caesaris or "of Flavius Constans, most blessed Caesar". This is common in Greek coins but otherwise unknown in Roman coins. All others are given in the nominative or occasionally the dative case eg. "divo constantino" (per Gert). Constans was only 10-13 years of age when the coin was issued.
Constans' father had established Christianity in Rome and his grandmother Helena was a Saint (or religious fanatic, if you prefer). Additionally Constantine had other older sons who might succeed him. Though it is only a guess I think that the young Constans expressed a desire to join the church rather than compete for imperial power and thus inspired this coin.

Rarity R4 wt 2.4 gms
1 commentsdaverino
coin_8_quart.jpg
CONSTANS PF AVG / GLORIA EXERCITVS AE4 follis (337-350 A.D.)24 viewsCONSTAN-S PF AVG, laurel and rosette-diademed, draped (and cuirassed?) bust right / GLOR-IA EXERC-ITVS, two soldiers facing each other, holding spears and shields, with one standard between them, O ("dot"?) on banner. Mintmark: BSIS* in exergue.

AE4, 15.5mm, 1.41g, die axis 6 (coin alignment), material: bronze/copper-based alloy.

P F AVG = Pius Felix Augustus = the pius (dutiful) and fortunate (happy) emperor. Gloria Exercitus (noun + genitive) "The Glory of the Army" BSIS* = officina B (workshop #2), SIScia mint (now Sisak, Croatia), issue mark *

Mintmark BSIS* corresponds to only one type, RIC VIII Siscia 78 with the description matching this coin (except the banner device is described as "dot").
I in SIS missing due to clogged die or just got lost due to damage? Minting years mentioned for this coin are 346-348 A.D.

CONSTANS, * c. 323 † February 350 (aged ~27) in Vicus Helena, southwestern Gaul (Elne, southern France)
‡ 25 December 333 – 337 (as Caesar in Constantinople under his father); 337 – 340 (joint emperor with Constantius II and Constantine II, over Italia and Africa); 340 – 350 (after defeating Constantine II, Western Emperor, together with Constantius II in the East).

More biographical info in http://www.forumancientcoins.com/gallery/displayimage.php?pos=-147486
Yurii P
coin16_quad_sm.jpg
CONSTANS PF AVG / GLORIA EXERCITVS AE4 follis, 346-348 1 viewsCONSTAN - S PF AVG, laureate, draped, cuirassed bust left, the laurel leaves are denoted as longish shapes / GLOR - IA EXERC - ITVS, two soldiers, helmeted, draped, cuirassed, standing front, heads turned toward each another, each holding inverted spear in outer hand and resting inner hand on shield; between them, a standard, device on banner large dot, with 3 badges. Mintmark AQS in exergue, palm branch "upright" in both left and right fields.

Ӕ4, 15.5mm, 1.10g, die axis 6h (coin alignment), material: bronze/copper-based alloy

RIC VIII Aquileia 22: ID straightforward thanks to unusual obverse and palm branches in the fields, even if the mintmark were unclear.

P F AVG = Pius Felix Augustus = the pius (dutiful) and fortunate (happy) emperor. Gloria Exercitus (noun + genitive) "The Glory of the Army" AQuileia mint, S = officina #2.

CONSTANS, * c. 323 † February 350 (aged ~27) in Vicus Helena, southwestern Gaul (Elne, southern France)
‡ 25 December 333 – 337 (as Caesar in Constantinople under his father); 337 – 340 (joint emperor with Constantius II and Constantine II, over Italia and Africa); 340 – 350 (after defeating Constantine II, Western Emperor, together with Constantius II in the East).

More biographical info in http://www.forumancientcoins.com/gallery/displayimage.php?pos=-147486
Yurii P
Constantine the Great.jpg
Constantine the Great37 viewsFlavius Valerius Constantinus, Constantine the Great, was the son of Helena and the First Tetrarchic ruler Constantius I. Constantine is most famous for his conversion to Christianity after the battle of the Milvian Bridge where he defeated emperor Maxentius. Before the battle he saw the words "In Hoc Signo Victor Eris" (By this sign you shall conquer) emblazoned on the sun around the Chi Rho, the symbol of Christianity. After placing this Christogram on the shields of his army, he defeated his opponent and thus ruled the empire through divine providence. He also shifted the capital of the empire to Constantinople, establishing the foundation for an Empire that would last another 1000 years. He died in 337 and his sons divided the Roman territories.

Bronze AE 3, RIC 123, VF, Thessalonica mint, 3.225g, 18.4mm, 0o, 324 A.D.; obverse CONSTAN-TINVS AVG, laureate head right; reverse D N CONSTANTINI MAX AVG, VOT XX in wreath, TSEVI in ex;
Dumanyu2
coin_5_quart.jpg
CONSTANTINVS MAX AVG (the 1st) / GLORIA EXERCITVS AE3/4 follis (306-337 A.D.)17 viewsCONSTANTI-NVS MAX AVG, (laurel and?) rosette diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / GLOR-IA EXERC-ITVS, two soldiers standing inward facing each other, holding spears, shields and two standards between them, "dot" (clearly filled) on banners. Mintmark: SMNE (?) in exergue.

AE3/4, 16.5-17mm, 2.46g, die axis 12 (medal alignment), material: bronze/copper-based alloy

MAX AVG = Maximus Augustus, the Great Emperor, Gloria Exercitus (noun + genitive) "The Glory of the Army", SMNE = Sacra Moneta Nicomedia, "officina epsilon", i. e. workshop#5.

Limiting information to only what is known for sure: the legends with the particular breaks, two standards and four-letter mintmark starting with SM, we conclude that this is definitely Constantine I, and only 3 mints are possible: SMN... Nicomedia (RIC VII Nicomedia 188), SMH... Heraclea (RIC VII Nicomedia 111) and SMK... Cyzicus (RIC VII Cyzicus 76-79). All are minted in 330-335 A.D. If the mintmark is indeed SMN..., two variations are listed: rosette-diademed and laurel- and rosette-diademed (laurels typically designated by longish shapes and rosettes as squares with dots). Since the obverse is worn, it is difficult to judge which one is the case here. One can definitely see the rosettes, but as for laurels... probably, not. Officina may be E or S, but I think E fits better.

Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus, aka Constantine the Great, aka Saint Constantine, born 27 Feb c. 272 to Flavius Valerius Constantius (aka Constantius I), a Roman Army officer of Illyrian origins, and a Greek woman of low birth Helena (aka Saint Helena). His father became Caesar, the deputy emperor in the west, in 293 AD. Constantine was sent east, where he rose through the ranks to become a military tribune under Emperors Diocletian and Galerius. In 305, Constantius raised himself to the rank of Augustus, senior western emperor, and Constantine was recalled west to campaign under his father in Britannia (Britain). Constantine was acclaimed as emperor by the army at Eboracum (modern-day York) after his father's death in 306 AD, and he emerged victorious in a series of civil wars against Emperors Maxentius and Licinius to become sole ruler of both west and east by 324 AD. He did so many a great deed that there is no point to list them here. Best known for (having some sort of Christ-related mystical experience in 312, just before the decisive Battle of the Milvian Bridge with Maxentius) being the first Roman Emperor to convert to Christianity and for being a champion of this faith, in particular, he played an influential role in the proclamation of the Edict of Milan in 313, which declared religious tolerance for Christianity in the Roman empire, and called the First Council of Nicaea in 325 that produced the statement of Christian belief known as the Nicene Creed. Died 22 May 337, famously being baptized on his deathbed. Succeeded by his 3 sons: Constantine II, Constantius II and Constans.
Yurii P
coin15_quad_sm.jpg
DN CONSTANS PF AVG / GLORIA EXERCITVS AE4 follis, Constantinople, 346-348 2 viewsDN CONSTA - NS PF AVG, pearl and rosette-diademed head only, right / GLOR - IA EXERC - ITVS, two soldiers facing each other, holding spears and shields, with one standard between them, device on banner large "o"? Mintmark CONSS (or CONSI?) in exergue.

AE4, 15.5mm, 1.35g, die axis 6h (coin alignment), material: bronze/copper-based alloy

RIC VIII Constantinople 45? Obverse legend crystal clear, reverse not so much, but seems no trailing dot, definitely pearls, rosettes – unclear, a pity, because in this type they are special "square pearl rosettes with a pearl in the centre"; device is most probably "o", weird shape due to damage (but I would not completely disregard "star" or "chi-rho" possibility); CONSS almost certain, but CONSI may be possible. This most probably narrows the type down to RIC 45. But if we allow CONSI, it allows for another, more exotic possibility of * device on banner (RIC 54).

DN = Dominus Noster = Our Lord, P F AVG = Pius Felix Augustus = the pius (dutiful) and fortunate (happy) emperor. Gloria Exercitus (noun + genitive) "The Glory of the Army" CONStantinopolis, S = officina #6.

CONSTANS, * c. 323 † February 350 (aged ~27) in Vicus Helena, southwestern Gaul (Elne, southern France)
‡ 25 December 333 – 337 (as Caesar in Constantinople under his father); 337 – 340 (joint emperor with Constantius II and Constantine II, over Italia and Africa); 340 – 350 (after defeating Constantine II, Western Emperor, together with Constantius II in the East).

More biographical info in http://www.forumancientcoins.com/gallery/displayimage.php?pos=-147486
Yurii P
EB0790_scaled.JPG
EB0790 Helena / Securitas11 viewsHelena, mother of Constantine I, AE Follis of Antioch. 325-326.
Obverse: FL HELENA AVGVSTA, diademed, mantled bust right, hair in a crest, single row of pearls.
Reverse: SECVRITAS REIPVBLICE, Securitas standing left holding branch and raising robe, mintmark SMANTB.
References: RIC VII 67, B.
Diameter: 19mm, Weight: 3.077g.
EB
1Elena_completo.jpg
Elena, follis (326 d.C.), Boyd & Gaviller collection43 viewsElena, prima moglie di Costanzo e madre di Costantino I.
Follis di bronzo, zecca di Treviri I officina, 326 d.C.
AE, gr 3,46, mm 18,0, BB (VF)
D/ FL HELENA AVGVSTI, Busto a sx, diademato, mantellato con collana
R/ SECVRITAS REIPVBLICAE, Securitas stante a sin. tiene un ramo rivolto in basso e con la mano destra regge un mantello. PTRU in ex.
RIC 481

Provenienza: collezione Berardengo, Roma Italia (9 luglio 2010, numero archivio 1), ex George Henry Gaviller Collection (morto c.1880), acquisita per legato testamentario da W. C. Boyd (1840-1906). Collezione Boyd dispersa da Baldwin's Auctions (42), 26 September 2005. Moneta acquistata da Antony Wilson (York coins, London-New York).
paolo
Naamloos_(2).jpg
Follis Helena28 viewsHelena
FL HELENA-AVGVSTA, diademed and draped bust of Helena
SECVRITAS-REIPVBLICE, S-F across fields, ARLT in ex.
Arles / Arelate, RIC VII 317, 327-327AD
Sebastiaan v
Helena.JPG
Helena26 viewsHelena AE3. F L HELENA AVGVSTA, diademed bust right / SECVRITAS REIPVLICE, Securitas standing leftMarjan E
helena com~0.JPG
Helena26 viewsAE 20 mm 3.2 grams
OBV :: FL HELENA AVGVS(TA).Single band diadem with a row of dots, decorated with strings of pearls, mantle and single necklace . Hair is in a crest
REV :: SECVRITAS REIPVPLICE. Securitas standing left, lowering branch with left hand, raising robe with right hand
EX :: SMANTZ
RIC VII Antioch 80, Sear 3908, Van Meter 3
RIC rated R4
from uncleaned lot 02/2008
Johnny
Helena~0.JPG
Helena31 viewsHelena AE reduced follis, 3.2g, 328 - 329 AD, Antioch, RIC VII 82
OBV: FL HELENA-AVGVSTA, mantled bust right with necklace, wearing ladder shaped diadem
REV: SECVRITAS-REIPVBLICE, Securitas standing left, lowering branch with left hand, raising robe with right hand; right field: officina letter Delta-Epsilon, dot SMANT in ex.

RARE (R2)
Romanorvm
00379-Helena.JPG
Helena9 viewsHelena AE 3
21 mm 3.47 gm
O: FL HELENA AVGVSTA
Diademed, mantled with necklace bust right
R: SECVRITAS REPVBLICE
Securitas standing left, lowering branch and raising a rope with right hand
Koffy
00helena.jpg
HELENA27 viewsAE follis. Sirmium 324-325 AD. 3,29 grs. Pearl diademed and draped bust right,wearing necklace . FL HELENA AVGVSTA. / Securitas standing left holding olive branch in extended right hand. SECVRITAS REIPVBLICE. In exergue SIRM.
C12. RIC 54. LRBC 808.
1 commentsbenito
HELENA_HERACLEIA.JPG
HELENA66 viewsHELENA - Heraclea Mint - Officina 5 - AE Follis - RIC VII 95

O: FL HELENA AVGVSTA, diademed & mantled bust right

R: SECVRITAS REIPVBLICE, Securitas standing left, holding branch pointing down, raising robe with right hand; mintmark dotSMHε in exergue

2.9g, 19mm, 135 degree die axis, 325-326AD
BiancasDad
hélène.jpg
Helena4 viewsGinolerhino
00helena~2.jpg
HELENA33 viewsAE follis. Sirmium 324-325 AD. 3,29 grs. Pearl diademed and draped bust right,wearing necklace . FL HELENA AVGVSTA. / Securitas standing left holding olive branch in extended right hand. SECVRITAS REIPVBLICE. In exergue SIRM.
C12. RIC 54. LRBC 808.
1 commentsbenito
Helena_RIC_VII_Alexandria_38_neu.jpg
Helena31 viewsAE3 (3,4g - 19mm)
obv.F L HELENA AVGVSTA
diademed bust right
rev. SECVRITAS REIPVLICE
Securitas standing left
in exergue SMALA
RIC VII Alexandria 38 ne
HG
1___Helena.jpg
Helena Augusta 8 November 324 - 328 to 330 AD25 viewsAE3-Half Centenionalis
Mint: Heraclea, Date: 327-329 AD
Obv: FL HELENA AVGVSTA- Diademed, mantled with necklace bust right.
Rev: SECVRITAS REIPVBLICE - Securitas standing left, lowering branch and raising a rope with right hand.
Exergue: •SMH epsilon
Size: 20 mm; 2gms
Ref: RIC VII 95
1 commentsbrian l
helena com.JPG
Helena RIC VIII Constantinopolis27 viewsAE 16 mm 1.7 grams 337-340 AD
OBV :: FL IVL HE-LENAE AVG. Ornamental mantle and necklace, hair elaborately dressed bust right
REV :: PAX PV-BLICA dot .Pax standing left holding branch and transverse sceptre
EX :: CONSE (Constantinople)
RIC VIII Constantinopolis 33/ Sear 3910
RIC Rated Scarce
Purchased e-bay auction 12/2007



Johnny
hel2.jpg
Helena (324 - 330 A.D)52 viewsÆ3
O: FL HELENA AVGVSTA, Draped bust right.
R: SECVRITAS-REIPVBLICE, Securitas standing left.
Siscia Mint, 5th offcina
19mm
2.8g
RIC 218
2 commentsMat
Helena F.JPG
Helena (325-326 AD)15 viewsObv. FL HELENA AVGVSTA, diademed and draped bust right

Rev. SECVRITAS REIPVBLICE, Securitas standing left, holding branch in right hand

RIC VII, Nicomedia 129, rated R4
Marjan E
RIC_Helena_RIC_VIII_Constantinople_49.JPG
Helena (mother of Constantine I & first wife of Constantius I Chlorus)18 viewsRIC VIII Constantinople 49, Sear RCV 3910, Cohen 4

AE4, 15 mm, die alignment 180°

Constantinople mint, struck posthumously, 337-340 A.D.

Obv: FL IVL HE—LENAE AVG, bust facing right, ornamental mantle and necklace, hair elaborately dressed.

Rev: PAX PV—BLICA, CONS theta in exergue, Pax standing left, holding branch and transverse scepter.


Stkp
00363.jpg
Helena (RIC 218, Coin #363)14 viewsRIC 218, AE3, Siscia, 328-329 AD.
Obv: FL HELENA AVGVSTA Diademed bust right, wearing mantle and necklace.
Rev: SECVRITAS REIPVBLICE (Epsilon SIS Double Wreath) Seccuritas standing left, holding branch and raising robe.
Size: 19.1mm 3.56gm
MaynardGee
00122.jpg
Helena (RIC 465, Coin #122), 9 viewsRIC 465, AE Follis, Trier, 325-326 AD.
Obv: FL HELENA AVGVSTA Mantled bust right wearing band diadem,
necklace and hair crest.
Rev: SECVRITAS REIPVBLICE (STR cresent) Secutitas standing left
holding branch pointing down in left, rasing pallium with right.
Size: 19.0mm 2.12gm
MaynardGee
00328.jpg
Helena (RIC 48, Coin #328), 8 viewsRIC 48, AE4, Constantinople, 337 - 340 AD.
Obv: F L IVL HELENAE AVG Bust right, ornamental mantle and necklace, hair elaborately dressed, wide hairband.
Rev: PAX PVBLICA dot (CONS epsilon) Pax standing left holding branch and transverse scepter.
Size: 15.8mm 1.14gm
MaynardGee
00506.jpg
Helena (RIC 481, Coin #506)8 viewsHelena, RIC 481, AE3, Trier, 326 AD
Obv: F L HELENA AVGVSTA Diademed bust right, wearing mantle and necklace.
Rev: SECVRITAS REIPVBLICE (PTR dot in crescent) Securitas standing half left,
branch pointed down in right, raising pallium with left.
Size: 19.1mm 2.98gr
MaynardGee
00507.jpg
Helena (RIC 481, Coin #507)9 views
Helena, RIC 481, AE3, Trier, 326 AD
Obv: F L HELENA AVGVSTA Diademed bust right, wearing mantle and necklace.
Rev: SECVRITAS REIPVBLICE (STR dot in crescent) Securitas standing half left,
branch pointed down in right, raising pallium with left.
Size: 18.8mm 3.12gr

MaynardGee
00508.jpg
Helena (RIC 82, Coin #508)9 views
Helena, RIC 82 (R2), AE3, Antioch, 328 - 329 AD
Obv: F L HELENA AVGVSTA Diademed bust right, wearing mantle and necklace.
Rev: SECVRITAS REIPVBLICE (dot SMANT) Securitas standing half left, branch
pointed down in right, raising pallium with left. Delta epsilon in right field.
Size: 19.8mm 3.12gr

MaynardGee
00377.jpg
Helena (RIC 85, Coin #377)9 viewsRIC 85, AE3, Heraclea, 326 AD.
Obv: F L HELENA AVGVSTA Diademed bust right, wearing mantle and necklace.
Rev: SECVRITAS REIPVBLICE (SMHB•) Securitas standing left, lowering branch in left hand, raising robe with right hand.
Size: 20.7mm 3.26gm
MaynardGee
Helena_202.jpg
Helena - AE 329 viewsTicinum
326 AD
diademed, draped bust right
FL HELENA__AVGVTA
Securitas standing left, holding branch
SECVRITAS__REIPVBLICE
S crescent T
RIC VII Ticinum 202; Sear 16603
2,8 g 20-19,5 mm

doublestrike
Johny SYSEL
584_Helena_CONSE.jpg
Helena - AE 33 viewsConstantinople
IX 337 - spring 340 AD
draped bust right with broad diadem
FL IVL HELE_NAE AVG
Pax standing left, holding branch and scepter
PA_X PV_BLICA·
CONSE
RIC VIII Constantinople 35
1,28g
Johny SYSEL
Helena_Trier.jpg
Helena - AE 429 viewsposthumous
Trier
337-340 AD
diademed, draped bust right
FL IVL HE_LENAE AVG
Pax standing left, holding branch and scepter
PA_X PV_BLICA
?TRP?
RIC VIII Trier (47, 55, 63, 78, 90)
1,58 g 14,5 mm
Johny SYSEL
1297_Helena_TRP%.jpg
Helena - AE 42 viewsTrier
337-340 AD
diademed and draped bust right
FL IVL HE_LENAE AVG
Pax standing half left, holding branch pointing left and long scepter
PA_X PV-BLICA
TRP branch
RIC VIII Trier 90
ex Aurea
Johny SYSEL
Helena~2.JPG
Helena - Bronze AE4 Struck posthumously circa 337-340 AD18 viewsObverse: FL IVL HELENA AVG - Diademed, draped bust right
Reverse: PAXPVBLICA - Pax standing left, holding branch and sceptor
Size: 16 mm
Marjan E
s-l1600_(61)~0.jpg
Helena - Trier - PAX PVBLICA - .TRS. mintmark5 viewsHelena - Trier - PAX PVBLICA - 16 mm / 1,6 gr

Helena AE4. FL IVL HELENAE AVG, diademed and draped bust right / PAX PVBLICA, Pax standing left with branch and sceptre. Mintmark TRP or TRS in ex. (.TRS.)
Antonivs Protti
unknown_jg_100.jpg
Helena - Uncleaned Find58 viewsFL HELENA - AVGVSTA (legend # 12) 18.8mm 18.degrees
diademed, mantled, with necklece (Helena) (bust E10)
SECVRITAS - REIPVBLICE
Empress stg. l., lowering branch, raising robe.
with SMTSG in the exergue
Struck 326 to 328 rated an R1
Tkonnova
helenaobvrev.jpg
Helena -Posthumous188 viewsAttribution-RIC VIII Constantinople 33,38 or 48

Obv. FL IVL HE-LENAE AVG Head right with ornamental mantle and necklace with elaborate hairstyle
Rev. PAX PV-BLICA Pax standing left holding branch and transverse sceptre-Double strike
Ex.? Not sure but my guess based on style is Constantinople
5 commentsblack-prophet
2288.jpg
Helena / Mother of Constantine I / Siscia116 viewsAttribution: RIC 204 (RIC VII)

Mint: Siscia, ESIS

Date: 326-327 AD

Obverse: FL HELENA AUGUSTA
Helena facing right

Reverse: SECURITAS REIPUBLICE, Helena standing left, holding branch, ESIS in exergue

Size: 18mm x 20.5mm

Weight: 3.2 grams

former Roman Lode
1 commentsAnemicOak
helena_1~0.png
Helena 10.02.009a10 viewsHelena
Obv FL HELENA AVGVSTA
(diademed, mantled , with necklace)
Rev SECVRITAS REIPVBLICE
(Securitas, lowering branch and holding pallium)
PLON in ex
London
RIC VII 299 CT 10.02.009 (S)
2.8g
Noviomagus
helena_2~0.png
Helena 10.02.009b9 viewsHelena
Obv FL HELENA AVGVSTA
(diademed, mantled , with necklace)
Rev SECVRITAS REIPVBLICE
(Securitas, lowering branch and holding pallium)
PLON in ex
London
RIC VII 299 CT 10.02.009 (S)
2.9g
Noviomagus
helena~3.JPG
Helena AE Follis19 viewsObverse: FL HELENA AVGVSTA, diademed and draped bust right

Reverse: SECVRITAS REIPVBLICE, Securitas standing left, holding branch in right hand pointing down, left hand holding robe

Mint: coming soon
Marjan E
Helena_AE.jpg
Helena AE follis167 viewsHelena, Sainted mother of Constantine the Great, AE follis
Siscia mint.
2.31g 18mm 180o
Obverse: FL HELENA AVGVSTA, mantled bust right with necklace, wearing hair band
Reverse: SAECVRITAS REIPVBLICE, Securitas standing left holding branch & hem of dress
1 commentsmihali84
Helena_AE_Follis.jpg
Helena AE Follis24 viewsHelena. As nobillissima femina. AD 306-324. AE Follis (20mm, 3.12 g, 6h). Thessalonica mint. Struck under Constantine I, AD 318-319. HELE NA N F, mantled bust right / Star of eight rays within laurel wreath. Choice EF, green patina, light smoothing1 commentsOctopus Grabus
Helena1.JPG
Helena AE330 views Obverse: Helena diademed and jewelled bust rt.

Reverse: SECVRITAS REIPVBLICE, Helena stands left holding branch, STR in exergue,

Trier mint. Centered, slightly rough black patina, decent clear portrait and rev

Attribution: RC1102
Marjan E
Helena1.jpg
Helena AE313 viewsObv: FL HELENA AVGVSTA - Diademed, draped bust right

Rev: SECVRITAS REIPVBLICE - Securitas standing left, holding branch

Treveri 325-326 A.D.
BamaCS
helena.jpg
Helena AE3 10 viewsHelena AE3 (19mm, 3.30g). Struck 326-327 AD
Obv- FL HELENA AVGVSTA, Diademed and draped bust right.
Rev- SECVRITAS REI PVBLICE, Securitas standing left, holding olive branch in extended right hand.raising hem of robe with left hand. Mintmark dot ΓSIS dot. RIC VII Siscia 204; Sear 16609.
Paul R3
Helena_2.jpg
HELENA AE31 viewsOBVERSE: F L HELENA AVGVSTA, diademed bust right
REVERSE: SECVRITAS REIPVBLICE, Securitas standing left, lowering branch with right hand, raising hem of robe with left hand.
Struck at Alexandria 327-328 AD
1.4g, 18mm
RIC 38A
Legatus
7.jpg
HELENA AE3 - SECVRITAS REIPVBLICE - MNΓ - Nicomedia7 viewspannonii
5~0.jpg
HELENA AE3 - SECVRITAS REIPVBLICE - SMNΓ - Nicomedia8 viewspannonii
4~0.jpg
HELENA AE3 - SECVRITAS REIPVBLICE - SMTSB - Thessalonica5 viewspannonii
6.jpg
HELENA AE3 - SECVRITAS REIPVLICE - SMNΓ - Nicomedia10 viewspannonii
helenaAE3-.jpg
HELENA AE3 AD325-32721 viewsobv: FL HELENA AVGVSTA (diademed mantled bust right)
rev: SECVTITAS REIPVBLICAE / SMKA (Securitas standing left holding branch & raising robe)
ref: RIC VIII-Cyzicus39 (R2), C.12
2.98g, 19mm
Very Rare
Helena was the 1st wife of Contantius I and mother of Constantine I. She was probably onsible for Constantine's acceptance of Christianity, and was known to the Christian Church as the discoverer of the True Cross during a pilgrimage to the Holy Land. She died in 328 or 329 AD.
berserker
0-00P0_030.JPG
Helena AE3, Pax. Constantinopla. 20 viewsHelena AE3. FL IVL HELENAE AVG, bust right wearing ornamental mantle and necklace, hair elaborately dressed, and broad hairband / PAX PVBLICA·, Pax standing left holding branch and transverse sceptre, CONSЄ in ex.
Constantinople.
Partially clean.
RIC VIII 34
Antonivs Protti
helen.jpg
Helena AE3, Securitas (RIC VII Thessalonica 159)13 viewsThessalonica mint, 3rd officina, 326-328. 21 mm, 3.34 g, 0º.

Obverse: FL HELENA AVGVSTA Diademed, mantled bust right, wearing necklace.

Reverse: SECVRITAS REIPVBLICE Securitas standing left, lowering branch and raising hem of robe.

Exergue: SMTSΓ

References: RIC VII Thessalonica 159; Sear 16612.
Manuel
Helena~4.jpg
Helena AE3/4 (died ca.329 AD)11 views Obverse: FL IVL HEL-ENAE AVG, bust right wearing ornamental mantle and necklace, hair elaborately dressed, and broad hairband

Reverse: PAX PV-BLICA, Pax standing left holding branch and transverse sceptre, TR P in exergue.

Size: 15mm, 1.3 grams

Mint: Trier.
Marjan E
helena2.jpg
Helena AE437 viewsHelena AE4
Ob: FL IVL HELENAE AVG, diademed and draped bust right
Rv: PAX PVBLICA (?), Pax standing left with branch & scepter
Ex: off flan, probably Trier mint
RIC VIII, 63
This type is described as a comemorative issue, possibly an unofficial issue.
1 commentsScotvs Capitis
10.jpg
HELENA AE4 - PAX PVBLICA - CONSC - Constantinople4 viewspannonii
8.jpg
HELENA AE4 - PAX PVBLICA - CONSE - Constantinople6 viewspannonii
9.jpg
HELENA AE4 - PAX PVBLICA - TES - Thessalonica6 viewspannonii
helenaAD330-.jpg
HELENA AE4 AD33018 viewsobv: F L IVL HE-LENA AVG (diademed & mantled bust right)
rev: PAX PVBLICA / CONS (Pax standing left, holding olive branch & transverse scepter)
ref: RIC VIII-Constantinople33 (S)
1.53g, 14.5mm
Scarce
This coin a special issue for the dedication of the new capital, Constantinople in AD330.
berserker
214FIH001_Helena_Pax_RIC8_Trier_90_var.jpg
Helena AE4, Pax (RIC Trier 90)14 viewsTrier mint, 2nd officina, 337-340. 14 mm, 1.35 g, 0º.

Obverse: FL IVL HELENAE AVG Diademed bust, looking right, wearing mantle.

Reverse: PAX PVBLICA Pax, holding olive branch and transverse sceptre.

Exergue: TRS [palm]

Reference: RIC VIII Trier 90 var (headpiece).
Manuel
helena_pax_trier_k.jpg
Helena Augusta, AD 324-328/307 viewsÆ Reduced Centenionalis, 14mm, 1.6g, 12h; Trier mint, AD 337-340.
Obv.: FL IVL HE-LENA AVG; Diademed and mantled bust right wearing necklace.
Rev.: PAX PVBLICA, Pax standing left, olive branch pointed down in right hand, long scepter transverse in left hand // TRS branch
Reference: RIC VIII 90, p. 144
From the YOC Collection
John Anthony
helena_pax_k.jpg
Helena Augusta, AD 324-328/3013 viewsÆ Reduced Centenionalis, 15mm, 1.6g, 6h; Trier mint, AD 337-340.
Obv.: FL IVL HE-LENA AVG; Diademed and mantled bust right wearing necklace.
Rev.: [PAX] PVBLICA; Pax standing left, olive branch pointed down in right hand, long scepter transverse in left hand // TRS• or •TRS•
Reference: RIC VIII 55 or 63, p. 143
From the YOC Collection, 17-19-40
John Anthony
Helena_Pax_RIC_34.jpg
Helena Pax RIC 3426 viewsHELENA, Mother of Constantine I. Augusta, 324 - 328/30 AD, Constantinople mint. Posthumous issue, struck 337-341 AD, RIC VIII pg 449, 34
OBV: FL IVL HEL-ENAE AVG, (H2 bust) diademed and draped bust right
REV: PAX PVBLICA•, Pax standing left, holding branch and sceptre, CONSE in exergue

SCARCE
Romanorvm
helena_39.jpg
Helena RIC VII, Cyzikus 3946 viewsHelena 248 - 332, mother of Constantine I
AE - AE 3, 2.96g, 17mm
Cyzikus 2. officina, AD 325/326
obv. FL HELENA - AVGVSTA
bust mantled, with necklace, pearl-diademed head r.
rev. SECVRITAS - REI PVBLICE
Securitas standing l., holding branch in lowered r., raising robe
with l.
exergue: SMKB dot
RIC VII, Cyzikus 39; cf. C.11; LRBC. 1177
Rare; good VF, nearly uncirculated, partially silvered

The MAGNIA URBICA hair-style with a marked hair-crest is exceptional (RIC)
Jochen
he33.jpg
Helena RIC VIII 33 Constantinople15 viewsHelena AE4 Wife of Constantius I and mother of Constantine the Great. 330 CE
Obverse: FL IVL HEL-ENA AVG - Diademed, mantled with necklace bust right.
Reverse: PAX PV-BLICA dot, Pax standing left, holding branch and transverse scepter.
Mintmark CONS epsilon. Constantinople, 15.0 mm., 1.2 g.
sold 2-2018
NORMAN K
helena_const_33.jpg
Helena RIC VIII, Constantinopolis 3332 viewsHelena, AD 248-328, mother of Constantine I the Great
AE - AE 4, 1.56g, 16.92
Constantinopolis 5th officina, AD 330(?)
obv. FL IVL HE - LENAE AVG
bust with ornamential mantle and necklace, hair elaborate dressed
rev. PAX PV - BLICA
Pax standing frontal, head r., holding branch and transverse sceptre
in ex. CONS Epsilon
RIC VIII, Constantinopolis 33; C.4; Gerin 2; LRBC 1046
Scarce, nice VF

Helena with 'anablepein', staring to heaven
Jochen
Helena_Securitas_Cyzikus_RIC_28.JPG
helena Securitas Cyzikus RIC 2824 viewsHelena, AE3, Cyzicus, 324 - 325 AD, 3.38g, 19mm, RIC VII Cyzicus 28 (R3), Sear 16623
OBV: FL HELENA AVGVSTA, diademed, draped bust right 
REV: SAECVRITAS REIPVBLICAE, Securitas standing left holding branch & hem of dress, SMK gamma in exergue
Romanorvm
Helena_Securitas_RIC_159.JPG
Helena Securitas RIC 15930 viewsHelena, Thessalonica, AE3, 326 - 328 AD, RIC VII p. 519 159 (R4), Sear 16612
OBV: FL HELENA AVGVSTA, diademed, mantled with necklace bust right
REV: SECVRITAS REIPVBLICE, Securitas standing left, lowering branch & raising hem of robe with right hand, SMTSB in ex.

RARE (R4)
Romanorvm
coins438.JPG
Helena SECVRITAS REIPVBLICE Cyzicus 12 viewsFL HELENA-AVGVSTA
SECVRITAS-REIPVBLICE

dot SMK delta dot

RIC VII Cyzicus 49 S



ecoli
HELENA-1.jpg
Helena, 1st (?) wife of Constantius I, mother of Constantine the Great. Augusta, 324-328/30 CE.163 viewsÆ 3 (18 mm, 2.94 gm). Nicomedia mint, 325-326 CE.
Obv: F L HELENA AVGVSTA, diademed bust right.
Rev: SECVRITAS REIPVLICE, Securitas standing left, lowering branch, raising robe with r. hand; MNGamma in exergue.
RIC 129; Cohen 11; Sear4 3908 var.
EmpressCollector
Helena, 325-326 AD, Antioch.JPG
Helena, 325-326 AD, Antioch28 viewsHelena,
Follis – 19.5mm
Antioch, 326-327 AD
single pearl diadem, hair arranged as a crest
FL HELENA-AVGVSTA
Securitas standing left, lowering branch with left hand, raising robe with right hand
SECVRITAS-REIPVBLICE
SMANTS in exergue, dot in center
RIC 67
R4
Ardatirion
Helena.doc
HELENA, about 326 AD. AE Nummus (20 mm, 2.29 gm). Antioch mint. 34 viewsObverse: FL HELENA - AVGVSTA Draped, diademed bust right.
Reverse: SECVRITAS - REI PVBLICE / PTR Securitas, veiled, standing left, holding laurel branch in her lowered right. hand; in exergue, SMANTS
Reference: RIC 218

Grade: VERY FINE
Marjan E
Helena_R_I_C__VII_Trier_508.jpg
Helena, AE Follis, RIC VII Trier 50872 viewsHelena
Augusta, 325 - 330 A.D.

Coin: AE Follis

Obverse: FL HELENA - AVGVSTA, diademed and draped bust, facing right, wearing an ornamental Cloak and a Necklace.
Reverse: SECVRITAS-REIPVBLICE, Securitas, standing, facing left, holding an Olive branch with her right hand and holding the end of her Stola with her left.

Weight: 3.30 g, Diameter: 18.2 x 17.6 x 1.4 mm, Die axis: 210°, Mintmark: STRE (Trier), struck between 327-328 A.D. Reference: RIC VII Trier 508
Masis
0642-310np_noir.jpg
Helena, AE3116 viewsHeraclea mint, 5th officina
FL HELENA AVGVSTA, draped and diademed bust right
SECVRITAS REIPVBLICE, Helena standing left, holding branch and raising her dress. dot SMHE dot at exergue
2.9 gr
Ref : Cohen # 12, LRBC # 879
3 commentsPotator II
049-3-horz.jpg
Helena, AE3 (Billon Nummus), Antioch Mint11 viewsc.AD 324-328/30
3.89 grams
Obv: FL HELENA AVGVSTA, diademed & mantled bust right
Rev: SECVRITAS REIPVBLICE, Securitas standing left with branch pointing down & raising robe; SMANTS in ex.
RIC 67,S or 80,S (Both are a rarity 4)
Purchased from a Heritage Auction
NGC MS: Strike: 4/5 Surface: 4/5
Richard M10
5010_5011.jpg
Helena, AE3, SECVRITAS REPVBLICAE4 viewsAE3
Helena
Born circa 250AD; Died: 329AD
Issued: 326 - 328AD
19.0mm 3.10gr
O: FL HELENA AVGVSTA; Diademed, draped bust, right.
R: SECVRITAS REPVBLICAE; Securitas standing left, lowering branch and raising hem of robe with right hand.
Exergue: SMTSΔ
Thessalonica Mint
Aorta: 91: B1, O1, R3, T3, M13.
RIC VII, Thessalonica, 159.
okta2000-2013 281725924698
6/28/15 2/3/17
Nicholas Z
Helena_AE4.JPG
Helena, AE410 viewsFL IVL HELENA AVG
PAX PVBLICA
AE4, 16mm, 1.65g
Diademed, mantled bust right
Pax standing left, holding olive branch and transverse scepter
CONS in ex.
novacystis
helena-reshoot.jpg
Helena, AE4, Constantinopolis17 viewsRoman Imperial, Helena, AE4, Constantinopolis. 13.63mm, 1.1g

Obverse: FL IVL HELE-NAE AVG, ornamental mantle and necklace, hair elaborately dressed.

Reverse: PAX PV-BLICA, Pax standing left holding branch and sceptre. Mintmark: CONS. "Public Peace"

Reference: RIC VIII Constantinoplis 38
Gil-galad
Helena.jpg
HELENA, AE4, RIC 90, Pax17 viewsOBV: FL IVL HE-LENAE AVG, draped bust right wearing ornamental mantle, necklace and broad hairband
REV: PA-X PV-BLICA, Pax standing left holding branch and transverse sceptre
1.36g, 13.91mm

Minted at Trier, 337-40 AD
Legatus
collage~0.jpg
Helena, Antioch62 viewsFL HELENA - AVGVSTA
Bust, Mantled with necklace, Plain band diademed with hair crest

SECVRITAS - REIPVBLICE
Securitas standing, facing, holding branch

SMANT Δ Ε in right field

RIC VII Antioch 82
Ae Follis; 3.62g; 20mm
arizonarobin
collage1~0.jpg
Helena, Antioch41 viewsO:FL HELENA - AVGVSTA
Band diademed, mantled, hair in crest
R: SECVRITAS-REIPVBLICAE
Securitas standing left, lowering branch with left hand
E: SMANTS

RIC VII Antioch 80 (year 327-328)
Ae Follis; 17-18mm; 3.40g
arizonarobin
collage6~0.jpg
Helena, Antioch24 viewsFL HELENA - AVGVSTA
Diademed draped bust right

SECVRITAS - REIPVBLICAE
Securitas standing left, holding branch

SMANT Delta E in right field

Ae Follis; 18-19mm; 3.04g
RIC 82
arizonarobin
collage.jpg
Helena, Antioch39 viewsO: FL HELENA - AVGVSTA
Bust, mantled with necklace, ladder shaped diademed with hair crest
R: SECVRITAS - REIPVBLICE
Securitas standing left, holding branch
E: (dot)SMANTB

RIC VII Antioch 82 (year 328-329)
Ae Follis; 18-19mm; 2.93g
arizonarobin
helena_k.jpg
Helena, b. c.246/50 - d. 3305 viewsAE3: 18mm, 3.15g, 6h; Siscia Mint: 328-9
Obv.: FL HELENA AVGVSTA; Diademed, mantled bust right, with necklace.
Rev.: SECURITAS REIPVBLICE; Securitas standing left, branch in left hand, lifting pallium in right // ЄSIS
Reference: RIC VII, Siscia 218 (p. 453)
John Anthony
collage9~0.jpg
Helena, Constantinople40 viewsO: FL IVL HE-LENAE AVG
Bust, ornamental mantle and necklace, hair elaborately dressed
R: PAX PVBLICA
Pax standing left holding branch and transverse sceptre
E: CONS Ε

RIC VIII Constantinopolis 48, year 337-340
Ae4; 15-16mm; 1.74g
Prov. Martin Griffiths
arizonarobin
helena100409.jpg
Helena, Constantinople19 viewsHelena
Ae 14mm; 1.30g

FL IVL HEL-ENAE AVG
bust right wearing mantle and necklace

PAX PV-BLICA(pellet)
Pax standing left holding branch and transverse scepter

CONSE
RIC VII Constantinople 34
arizonarobin
2012-12-031.jpg
Helena, Constantinople42 viewsFL IVL HE-LENAE AVG
draped bust right

PAX PV-BLICA
Pax standing left

CONS
Constantinople Mint

Ae 16mm; 1.43g; 337-340 AD;
RIC VIII Constantinople 38
3 commentsRobin Ayers
HELENA-1-ROMAN.jpg
Helena, Constantinople RIC VIII-3312 viewsAE4
Constantinople mint, 337-340 A.D.
15mm, 1.16g
RIC VIII-33

Obverse:
FL IVL HELENAE AVG
Ornamental mantle and necklace, hair elaborately dressed, bust right.

Reverse:
PAX PVBLICA
CONS E
Pax standing left, holding branch and transverse sceptre.
rubadub
collage13.jpg
Helena, Cyzicus82 viewsHELENA, mother of Constantine the Great
AD 325-326
AE 3 minted at Cyzicus
RIC 39;19-22mm;3.28g
Fully silvered

FL HELENA AVGVSTA
Draped and diademed bust of Helena right

SECVRIATAS REIPVBLICAE
Helena standing left, holding branch

Much nicer in hand and almost fully silvered
2 commentsarizonarobin
collage2~0.jpg
Helena, Heraclea43 viewsO: FL HELENA - AVGVSTA
mantled bust right, hair in crest
R: SECVRITAS - REIPVBLICE
Securtias standing, facing, holding branch
E: SMHΔ

RIC VII Heraclea 79 (year 325-326)
Ae follis; 3.82g; 18-19mm
Prov. Martin Griffiths
arizonarobin
Helena Obverse and Reverse.jpg
Helena, Mother of Constantine I15 viewsDiademed, draped bust facing right. Inscription reads FLHELENAAVGUVSTA. Securitas standing facing left holding branch. Inscription reads SECVRITASREIPVBLICAE.cwonsidler
Helena~0.JPG
Helena, Mother of Constantine the Great41 viewsVF Helena AE 4. Mother of Constantine the Great.

1.8 g, 14.6 x 15.5 mm.

Van Meter 4.

OBV.: Helena right, FL IVL HELENA AVG.

REV.: Pax standing left, PAX PVBLICA.

Minted in Constantinople.
1 commentsMarjan E
Helena,_SECVRITAS_REIPVBLICE,_Rome,_r1.JPG
Helena, RIC Rome 29112 viewsHelena, Augusta, struck 324-325 AD, I wife of Constantius I Chlorus. 19mm, 2.5g. Obverse: FL HELENA AVGVSTA, diademed and draped bust right. Reverse: SECVRITAS REIPVBLICE, Securitas standing half left, branch pointed down in right, raising pallium with left, R wreath S in ex. RIC VII Rome 291, r1. ex areich, photo credit areich

Podiceps
collage1~4.jpg
Helena, Siscia92 viewsFL HELENA - AVGVSTA
Draped bust right

SECVRITAS REIPVBLICE
Securitas standing left, holding branch
E: εSIS(crescent)
Siscia Mint

Ae3
RIC VII Siscia 218; Sear 16610
1 commentsarizonarobin
helena030801.jpg
Helena, Thessalonica50 viewsHelena

FL HELENA-AVGVSTA
draped bust right

SECVRITAS-REIPVBLICAE
Securitas standing, facing, holding branch

SMTSA
Thessalonica Mint

Ae 19mm; 2.7g
RIC 159 Thessalonica
1 commentsarizonarobin
2012-12-030.jpg
Helena, Thessalonica53 viewsHelena
Æ reduced follis; 19mm; 3.24g
Thessalonica

HELENA N F
draped bust right

laurel wreath enclosing eight-pointed star

RIC 50; LRBC 821
1 commentsRobin Ayers
collage1~12.jpg
Helena, Trier89 viewsHelena,Mother of Constantine I
Bronze Folles

FL HELENA AVGVSTI,
diademed, mantled with necklace

SECVRITAS REIPVBLICAE,
Securitas standing left, holding branch, raising robe with right hand

PTRE Treveri mint- first officina, A.D. 327-328

Ae;17-19mm;3.11g
RIC 515
3 commentsarizonarobin
helenaalexandria.jpg
Helena-Securitas Repvblice-Ae3 Alexandria89 viewsAttribution-Helena 327-328 AD.RIC VII Alexandria 48- r4

Obv. FL HELENA-AVGVSTA Diademed mantled bust right
Rev. SECVRITAS-REPVBLICE Securitas standing left holding branch & raising robe
Lf. Wreath
Rf. B
Ex. SMAL
black-prophet
20180313_114118.jpg
Helena. Augusta, A.D. 324-328/30. Æ follis Heraclea, under Constantine I19 viewsObv. FL HELENA AVGVSTA, diademed and draped bust of Helena right, wearing pearl necklace.
Rev. SECVRITAS REIPVBLICE, Securitas standing facing, head left, holding branch and lifting he of skirt; SMHB·.
References: RIC 85; LRBC 879.
Brown patina. Very fine. 3,02 gr 20,5 mm
1 commentsCanaan
Helena_Augusta_Æ_Follis.png
Helena. Augusta, AD 324-328/30. Æ Follis 39 viewsHelena. Augusta, AD 324-328/30. Æ Follis (19mm). Siscia mint
Diademed and mantled bust right / Securitas standing left, holding branch and raising robe; ЄSIS(double crescent).
RIC VII 218.
Superb golden brown patina. Ch aEF.
6 commentsSam
oohelena.jpg
Helena. Mother of Constantine156 viewsAE follis. Sirmium 324-325 AD. 3,29 grs. Pearl diademed and draped bust right,wearing necklace . FL HELENA AVGVSTA. / Securitas standing left holding olive branch in extended right hand. SECVRITAS REIPVBLICE. In exergue SIRM.
C12. RIC 54. LRBC 808.
1 commentsbenito
helena.jpg
Helena: SECVRITAS REIPVBLICE, Constantinople6 viewsHelena; AE 3. Obverse: FL HELENA AVGVSTA, Diademed draped bust right, with necklace; Reverse: SECVRITAS REIPVBLICE, Securitas standing left, holding branch. Minted in Constantinople (B | / CONS), A.D. 326-327; RIC VII Constantinople 11 (R2). Ref: RI163a. ex Maridvnvm.Podiceps
coin562.JPG
Helena; Antioch13 viewsFL HELENA-AVGVSTA
SECVRITAS-REIPVBLICE
SMANTZ

RIC VII Antioch 80; Sear 16627
ecoli
CLBC-11_25_3.jpg
Latin Empire of Constantinople: Anonymous (1204-1261) BI Small Module Trachy, Constantinople (Sear 2049; DOC IV, Type C B.35; Grierson 1272; CLBC 11.25.3; Lianta 125-26)18 viewsObv: IC XC in field; Christ, bearded and nimbate, seated upon throne without back; right hand raised in benediction; left hand holds Gospel. Cross above cushion of throne, to right
Rev: ΗΑΓΙΑЄΛЄΝΗ ΘΚΟΤΑΝΤ; Full-length figure of St. Helena, on left, and St. Constantine bearded, on right; between them patriarchal cross on long shaft and step. Both wear stemma, divitision, collar-piece, and jeweled loros of simplified type; St. Helen holds jeweled scepter and St. Constantine holds scepter cruciger

Note, that due to the smaller flan and die size, legends are either not present or illegible.
Quant.Geek
Sear-2057.jpg
Latin Empire of Constantinople: Anonymous (ca. 1204-1261) BI Trachy, Constantinople (Sear 2057; DOC IV, Type C B.26; Grierson 1264; CLBC 11.25.1; Lianta 124)15 viewsObv: IC XC in field; Christ, bearded and nimbate, seated upon throne without back; right hand raised in benediction; left hand holds Gospel. Cross above cushion of throne, to right
Rev: ΗΑΓΙΑЄΛЄΝΗ ΘΚΟΤΑΝΤ; Full-length figure of St. Helena, on left, and St. Constantine bearded, on right; between them patriarchal cross on long shaft and step. Both wear stemma, divitision, collar-piece, and jeweled loros of simplified type; St. Helen holds jeweled scepter and St. Constantine holds scepter cruciger
SpongeBob
Sear-2057(1).jpg
Latin Empire of Constantinople: Anonymous (ca. 1204-1261) BI Trachy, Constantinople (Sear 2057; DOC IV, Type C B.26; Grierson 1264; CLBC 11.25.1; Lianta 124)13 viewsObv: IC XC in field; Christ, bearded and nimbate, seated upon throne without back; right hand raised in benediction; left hand holds Gospel. Cross above cushion of throne, to right
Rev: ΗΑΓΙΑЄΛЄΝΗ ΘΚΟΤΑΝΤ; Full-length figure of St. Helena, on left, and St. Constantine bearded, on right; between them patriarchal cross on long shaft and step. Both wear stemma, divitision, collar-piece, and jeweled loros of simplified type; St. Helen holds jeweled scepter and St. Constantine holds scepter cruciger
Quant.Geek
CLBC-11_25_2.jpg
Latin Rulers of Constantinople: Anonymous (1204-1261) Æ Medium Module Trachy, Constantinople (CLBC 11.25.2)13 viewsObv: IC XC in field; Christ, bearded and nimbate, seated upon throne without back; right hand raised in benediction; left hand holds Gospel. Cross above cushion of throne, to right
Rev: Full-length figure of St. Helena, on left, and St. Constantine bearded, on right; between them patriarchal cross on long shaft and step. Both wear stemma, divitision, collar-piece, and jeweled loros of simplified type; St. Helen holds jeweled scepter and St. Constantine holds scepter cruciger.
Quant.Geek
helena~0.jpg
PAX PVBLICA, Constantinople7 viewsHelena, Æ 4. mint of Constantinople. 1.3g, 15mm, FL IVL HELENAE AVG, bust right wearing ornamental mantle and necklace, hair elaborately dressed, and broad hairband / PAX PVBLICA•, Pax standing left holding branch and transverse sceptre, CONSЄ in ex. Constantinople, RIC VIII 34Podiceps
helena_1.jpg
PAX PVBLICA, RIC VIII 49 Constantinople5 viewsHelena, Æ 4 (15mm) 1.4g. Rev. PAX PVBLICA, Pax standing left, CONSE in exergue. RIC VIII 49 Constantinople.Podiceps
helena_2.jpg
PAX PVBLICA·, RIC VIII 33 Constantinople8 viewsHelena, Æ 4 (15mm) 1.4g. Rev. PAX PVBLICA·, Pax standing left, CONSE in exergue. RIC VIII 33 Constantinople. Podiceps
Helena_1.jpg
RIC 7, p.453, 218 - Helena, Securitas, Siscia 14 viewsHelena
Siscia mint
Obv.: FL HELENA AVGVSTA, draped bust right
Rev.: SECVRITAS REIPVBLICAE, Securitas standing left, holding branch
AE, 2.38g, 18.7mm
Ref.: RIC 218
shanxi
Helena_2.jpg
RIC 7, p.710, 48, Helena, Securitas 22 viewsHelena
AE3, Alexandria mint
Obv.: FL HELENA AVGVSTA, diademed bust right wearing double necklace
Rev.: SECVRITAS REIPVBLICE, Securitas standing left, branch in right hand, raising pallium, wreath in field left, I right, SMAL in ex.
AE, 3.11g, 19.1mm
Ref.: RIC VII 48
Ex Dionysos Numismatik
1 commentsshanxi
ga_0041.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE - HELENA17 viewsHelena AD 324-328 AE 4 PAX PVBLICA "The People are at peace" Helena and her son Constantine the Great were canonized by the Church for their role in making the Christianity official religion of the Roman Empire. Today they are celebrated as St. St. Constantine and Helena. Obv: FL IVL HELENA AVG - Diademed, mantled with necklace Rev: PAX PVBLICA - Pax standing left, holding branch and transverse scepter. , 1.39 g.dpaul7
1.jpg
Roman Empire, Constantine I AE follis, Constantinople, RIC 3565 views18mm
3 gm

Obv: CONSTANTI-NVS MAX AVG
laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right

Rev: CONSTANTINI-ANA DAFNE, Victory seated left on cippus,
head right, holding palm branch in each hand; trophy before, captive seated before her;
Left field: Epsilon
Mintmark: CONS.
RIC VII 35.


One of the scarcer issues of Constantine. The precise meaning of this curious legend is unclear, though various theories have been advanced. Dafne (or Daphne) was the name of a Constantinian fortress on the Danube, of the imperial palace in Constantinople, and of a celebrated park south of Antioch (the source of the city's water supply) where a statue of the Empress Helena had been erected. Daphne also means 'laurel' and the type may simply be in commemoration of Constantine's numerous military victories
Tim v
168.JPG
ROMAN EMPIRE, Fausta AD 324-326 Thessalonica (SMTSA)27 viewsObv: FLAVMAX-FAVSTAAVG
Rev: Fausta Holding Sons,
SPES REIPVBLICAE
RIC VII 161v

Fausta with rare Helena-type hairstyle.
Laetvs
Helena_FL-HELENA-AVGVSTA_SECVRITAS-REIPVBLICA_SMN__RIC-VII-95-p-615-12-E10_R4_Nicomedia_324-25-AD__Q-001_axis-5h_19mm_3,22g-s.jpg
Roman Empire, Helena (? -329 A.D.), AE-3 Follis, Heraclea, RIC VII 079, -/-//SMHΔ, SECVRITAS REIPVBLICA, Securitas standing left, R3!!!,176 views139 Helena (? -329 A.D.), AE-3 Follis, Heraclea, RIC VII 079, -/-//SMHΔ, SECVRITAS REIPVBLICA, Securitas standing left, R3!!!,
avers:- FL-HELENA-AVGVSTA, 12,E10, Diademed, draped bust right .
revers:- SECVRITAS-REIPVBLICA, Securitas standing left, lowering branch with left hand, raising robe with right hand.
exergo: -/-//SMHΔ, diameter: 19mm, weight: 3,22g, axis: 5h,
mint: Heraclea, date: 324-25 A.D., ref: RIC-VII-79, p-551,
Q-001
quadrans
Helena_FL-HELENA-AVGVSTA_SECVRITAS-REIPVBLICA_dot-SMH__RIC-VII-95-p-554-12-E10_c1_Heracleia_327-29-AD__Q-001_axis-5h_18mm_2,67g-s.jpg
Roman Empire, Helena (? -329 A.D.), AE-3 Follis, Heraclea, RIC VII 095, -/-//SMHE, SECVRITAS REIPVBLICA, Securitas standing left, C1!, #1158 views139 Helena (? -329 A.D.), AE-3 Follis, Heraclea, RIC VII 095, -/-//SMHE, SECVRITAS REIPVBLICA, Securitas standing left, C1!, #1
avers:- FL-HELENA-AVGVSTA, 12,E10, Diademed, draped bust right .
revers:- SECVRITAS-REIPVBLICA, Securitas standing left, lowering branch with left hand, raising robe with right hand.
exergo: -/-//SMHE, diameter: 18mm, weight: 2,67g, axis: 5h,
mint: Heraclea, date: 327-29 A.D., ref: RIC-VII-95, p-554,
Q-001
quadrans
Helena_FL-HELENA-AVGVSTA_SECVRITAS-REIPVBLICA__-SIS-dot_RIC-VII-218-p-453-12-E10_c2_Siscia_328-29-AD__Q-002_axis-0h_20mm_3,24g-s.jpg
Roman Empire, Helena (? -329 A.D.), AE-3 Follis, Siscia, RIC VII 204, -/-//•εSIS•, SECVRITAS REIPVBLICA, Securitas standing left, R1!, #2157 views139 Helena (? -329 A.D.), AE-3 Follis, Siscia, RIC VII 204, -/-//•εSIS•, SECVRITAS REIPVBLICA, Securitas standing left, R1!, #2
avers:- FL-HELENA-AVGVSTA, 12,E10, Diademed, draped bust right, with two-row necklace.
revers:- SECVRITAS-REIPVBLICA, Securitas standing left, lowering branch with left hand, raising robe with right hand.
exergo: -/-//•εSIS•, diameter: 20mm, weight: 3,24g, axis: 0h,
mint: Siscia, date: 326-27 A.D., ref: RIC-VII-204, p-450, R1,
Q-002
quadrans
Helena_FL-HELENA-AVGVSTA_SECVRITAS-REIPVBLICA__-SIS-crescent-in-crescent_RIC-VII-218-p-453-12-E10_c2_Siscia_328-29-AD__Q-001_axis-0h_18mm_3,05g-s.jpg
Roman Empire, Helena (? -329 A.D.), AE-3 Follis, Siscia, RIC VII 218, -/-//ESIS Crescent in crescent, SECVRITAS REIPVBLICA, Securitas standing left, C2!,167 views139 Helena (? -329 A.D.), AE-3 Follis, Siscia, RIC VII 218, -/-//ESIS Crescent in crescent, SECVRITAS REIPVBLICA, Securitas standing left, C2!,
avers:- FL-HELENA-AVGVSTA, 12,E10, Diademed, draped bust right, with two-row necklace.
revers:- SECVRITAS-REIPVBLICA, Securitas standing left, lowering branch with left hand, raising robe with right hand.
exergo: -/-//εSIS Crescent in crescent, diameter: 18mm, weight: 3,05g, axis: 0h,
mint: Siscia, date: 328-29 A.D., ref: RIC-VII-218, p-453, C2,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Helena_FL-HELENA-AVGVSTA_SECVRITAS-REIPVBLICA_SMTS-__RIC-VII-159-p-519-12-E10_r2_Thessalonica_326-28-AD__Q-001_axis-6h_20mm_3,06g-s.jpg
Roman Empire, Helena (? -329 A.D.), AE-3 Follis, Thessalonica, RIC VII 159, -/-//SMTSE, SECVRITAS REIPVBLICA, Securitas standing left, R2!!152 views139 Helena (? -329 A.D.), AE-3 Follis, Thessalonica, RIC VII 159, -/-//SMTSE, SECVRITAS REIPVBLICA, Securitas standing left, R2!!
avers:- FL-HELENA-AVGVSTA, 12,E10, Diademed, draped bust right, with two-row necklace.
revers:- SECVRITAS-REIPVBLICA, Securitas standing left, lowering branch with left hand, raising robe with right hand.
exergo: -/-//SMTSE, diameter: 20mm, weight: 3,22g, axis: 6h,
mint: Thessalonica, date: 326-28 A.D., ref: RIC-VII-159, p-519, R2!!
Q-001
quadrans
Helena_FL-HELENA-AVGVSTA_SECVRITAS-REIPVBLICA_RIC-VII-202-p-387-12-E10_R2_Ticinium_326-AD__Q-001_axis-11h_19mm_2_84g-s.jpg
Roman Empire, Helena (? -329 A.D.), AE-3 Follis, Ticinum, RIC VII 202, -/-//Q crescent T, SECVRITAS REIPVBLICA, Securitas standing left, R2!!158 views139 Helena (? -329 A.D.), AE-3 Follis, Ticinum, RIC VII 202, -/-//Q crescent T, SECVRITAS REIPVBLICA, Securitas standing left, R2!!
avers:- FL-HELENA-AVGVSTA, 12,E10, Pearl diademed, draped bust right with necklace.
revers:- SECVRITAS-REIPVBLICA, Securitas standing left, lowering branch with left hand, raising robe with right hand.
exergo: -/-//Q crescent T, diameter: 19mm, weight: 2,84g, axis: 11h,
mint: Ticinum, date: 326 A.D., ref: RIC-VII-202, p-387, R2 !!
Q-001
quadrans
helenasecuritasrepublicae.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Helena - SECVRITVS REIPVBLICE44 viewsAE3
Obv: FL HELENA AVGVSTA - Diademed bust right
Rev: SECVRITAS REIPVBLICE - Helena standing left holding branch, SMTS(A, B, Delta or Epsilon) in exergue - Thessalonica Mint
RIC VII THESSALONICA 159
1 commentsKingJames
049-3-horz~0.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Helena, AE3 (Billon Nummus), Antioch Mint91 viewsc.AD 324-328/30
3.89 grams
Obv: FL HELENA AVGVSTA, diademed & mantled bust right
Rev: SECVRITAS REIPVBLICE, Securitas standing left with branch pointing down & raising robe; SMANTS in ex.
RIC 67s (I think)
Richard M10
helena_ae_20.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Helena, AE3, Antioch24 viewsHelena

AE 20mm
1 commentsseaotter
Helena AE4 Pax.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Helena, AE427 viewsRIC 33
AE4, 13mm.
Rev: PAX PVBLICA, Pax standing left holding olive branch & sceptre.
Mint: Constantinople (CONSG)

Helena was the 1st wife of Constantius I Chlorus and the mother of Constantine I.
E Pinniger
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ROMAN EMPIRE, Helena, AE4, 330 A.D.7 viewsHelena was the mother of Constantine the Great.jessvc1
bpC1N1Helena.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Helena, Constantinople RIC VII, 11 R262 viewsAe3 3.1 gm 18.5 mm Struck: 326-328 Mark: B/CONS
Obv: FL HELENA AVGVSTA
Diademed and mantled bust, right with necklace
Rev: SECVRITAS REPVBLICE
Securitas standing left, lowering branch and raising robe with right hand.
Massanutten
bpC1N4Helena.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Helena, Constantinople LRBC 104650 viewsAe4 1.5 gm 14.5 mm Struck: 337-341 Mark: CONSA
Obv: FL IVL HELENAE AVG
Diademed and draped bust, right.
Rev: PAX PVBLICA•
Pax standing, left.
Comment: Issued in her honor by her grandchildren after the death of Constantine.
Massanutten
moneta 509.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Helena, Cyzicus - RIC VII 39147 viewsHelena AE3
obv: FL HELENA AVGVSTA. Bust right, diademed, mantled and necklaced
rev: SECVRITAS REPVBLICE. Securitas standing left, lowering branch, raising robe with right hand.
exergue: SMKB dot
RIC VII 39 (R1)
Struck 325-326 A.D. at Cyzicus
3 commentsJericho
Picture_8~2.png
ROMAN EMPIRE, Helena, The mother of Constantine the Great 330 A.D.9 viewsHELENA . mother of Constantine The Great. 330 A.D. Fourth Bronze (16mm, 2gms), posthumous commemorative minted c. 337-340 ADjessvc1
moneta 247.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Helena, Thessalonica - RIC VII 15938 viewsHelena AE3
obv: FL HELENA AVGVSTA. Diadamed, mantled, with necklace
rev: SECVRITAS REPVBLICE. Helena standing left, holding branch, raising robe.
exergue: SMTS epsilon
Struck 326-328 A.D. at Thessalonica
RIC VII 159 (R2)
Jericho
Helena.jpg
Roman Helena Follis37 viewsHelena Æ Follis.
Obv: FL HELENA AVGVSTA, diademed and draped bust right
Rev:SECVRITAS REIPVBLICE, Securitas standing left, holding branch in right hand; PTR(crescent) in ex.

Trier RIC 465

RARE: R4
1 commentsTanit
helena-2.jpg
Roman, Helena123 views4 commentsblack-prophet
helena_39~0.jpg
Securitas207 viewsHelena, died AD 328, mother of Constantin I
AE - AE3, 2.96g, 17mm
Cyzikus 2. officina, AD 325/6
obv. FL HELENA - AVGVSTA
bust draped, with necklace, pearl-diademed head r.
rev. SECVRITAS - REI PVBLICE
Securitas draped, diademed, standing l., with r. hand holding down a branch,
with l. raising her robe
exergue: SMK[B] dot
RIC VII, Cyzicus 39; cf. C.39; LRBC.1177
R2; uncirculated, partially silvered

SECURITAS, security, connected with the ideas of Peace and Victory. Sometimes depicted as leaning on a column (meaning security for itself). Here providing security for the empire.
1 commentsJochen
Helena.jpg
SECVRITAS REIPVBLICE39 viewsAE3 Follis, 3.10 g, 19 mm, 12 h, 324-325 AD

Obverse: FL HELENA AVGVSTA
Diademed bust with mantle and necklace right

Reverse: SECVRITAS REIPVBLICE
Securitas standing left, holding downward pointing branch with right hand and raising skirt with left hand

Exergue: SIRM

Sirmium mint

RIC VII 54
1 commentsdrjbca
Saint_Helen_and_Ascension.jpg
St. Helena and Ascension 25 viewsKm13a - 1 Penny - 1997-2003Daniel F
141224.jpg
Star within wreath126 viewsHelena. Augusta, AD 324-328/30. Æ19 Follis (2.31mm, ). Thessalonica mint. Struck 318-319 AD. Draped bust right / Eight-pointed star in laurel wreath. RIC VII 50; LRBC 821. Good VF Ex-CNG

The coinage of Helena as Augusta commenced with her elevation to full imperial status in 324 and continued until her death five years later. Preceding these issues, however, was a remarkable series struck circa 318 AD at the Thessalonica mint on which both Helena and her daughter-in-law Fausta are accorded the lesser title of Nobilissima Femina (N F). Both ladies had borne this rank for some considerable time, Helena since her son's elevation to imperial status in 306, Fausta since her marriage to Constantine in March of the following year. The significance of the anepigraphic reverse with star within wreath remains unexplained, though presumably it contains some reference to divine providence and destiny.
3 commentsecoli
FAUSTA_AE3_SPES_THESSALONIKA.JPG
Struck A.D.324 - 326. FAUSTA. AE3 of Thessalonika7 viewsObverse: FLAV MAX FAVSTA AVG. Draped bust of Fausta facing right.
Reverse: SPES REIPVBLICAE. Fausta standing facing, her head turned left, holding Constantine II and Constantius II as babes in arms; in exergue, SMTSB (B = second officina).
RIC VII : 161
VERY RARE

Flavia Maxima Fausta was the daughter of Maximianus and the second wife of Constantine I. Fausta was made Augusta in A.D.324 at the same time as Helena and this coin was struck to celebrate that event. In A.D.326, however, she was involved in the death of Crispus and Constantine had her executed soon after.
1 comments*Alex
HELENA_SMANT.JPG
Struck A.D.324 -326. HELENA. AE3 of Antioch3 viewsObverse: FL HELENA AVGVSTA. Draped bust of Helena with elaborate hair-style and wearing pearl necklace and earring, facing right.
Reverse: SECVRITAS REIPVBLICE. Helena, veiled, holding branch in her right hand, standing facing left; in exergue, SMANTZ (Z = sixth officina).
RIC VII : 67
EXTREMELY RARE

Flavia Julia Helena was the wife of Constantius I and the mother of Constantine I. Constantine made her Augusta in A.D.324, and this coin was struck to celebrate her promotion and as part of the celebrations for Constantines's victory over Licinius. Helena had been converted to Christianity by the time of her promotion and she used her enormous wealth to devote much attention to the church. She died when she was about eighty years of age around A.D.330.
*Alex
The_Ladies_opt.jpg
The Ladies of Rome48 viewsFaustina I
Faustina II
Lucilla
Julia Soaemias
Julia Domna
Julia Maesa
Helena
Herennia Etruscilla
Salonina
Severina
Fausta
Aelia Flaccilla
Legatus
Theodora.jpg
Theodora 337-340 AD12 viewsTheodora 337-340 AD. Trier. Ae14 Weight 1.21g. Obv: FL MAX THEO-DORAE AVG, bust right wearing plain mantle and necklace, hair elaborately dressed Rev: PIETAS-ROMANA, Pietas standing facing, carrying an infant at her breast. Cross in left field. Mintmark TRP.
Constantius I divorced his wife Helena to marry Theodora, the step-daughter of the emperor Maximianus. RIC VIII Trier 43; Sear (1988) 3911, Cohen 4.
ddwau
TitusTramplingEnemy.jpg
TITUS, as Caesar131 viewsTITUS, as Caesar. 69-79 AD. Rome Mint AE Sestertius (36mm, 26.62 g). Struck 72 AD. O: Laureate head right, T CAES VESPASIAN IMP PON TR POT COS II R: Titus in military dress, cloak flying behind him, his horse rearing as he attacks prostrate Jew who is armed with sword and shield. SC in exergue. RIC 430, Hendin 1524, Ex Harry N. Sneh Collection Gemini Auction X, ex Goldberg 41, part of lot 2841 (Alan Levin Collection)

It is likely this coin refers to a battle recorded in Josephus Wars Book V Chapter 2, where Titus was ambushed by Jews who “leaped out suddenly at the towers called the "Women's Towers," through that gate which was over against the monuments of queen Helena.”

Cut off from his men, the account goes on, “So he perceived that his preservation must be wholly owing to his own courage, and turned his horse about, and cried out aloud to those that were about him to follow him, and ran with violence into the midst of his enemies, in order to force his way through them to his own men. And hence we may principally learn, that both the success of wars, and the dangers that kings are in, are under the providence of God; for while such a number of darts were thrown at Titus, when he had neither his head-piece on, nor his breastplate, (for, as I told you, he went out not to fight, but to view the city,) none of them touched his body, but went aside without hurting him; as if all of them missed him on purpose, and only made a noise as they passed by him. So he diverted those perpetually with his sword that came on his side, and overturned many of those that directly met him, and made his horse ride over those that were overthrown.
4 commentsNemonater
C7R2auSolidus.jpg
[1642c] Constantine VII and Romanus II, 6 Apr 945 - 9 Nov 959 A.D.61 viewsGold solidus, SBCV 1751; DOC III part 2, 15, gVF, Constantinople mint, weight 4.332g, maximum diameter 20.8mm, die axis 180o. Obverse: Ihs XPS REX REGNANTIUM, bust of Christ facing wearing nimbus cruciger, pallium and colobium, raising right in benediction, Gospels in left; Reverse: COnSTAnT, crowned facing busts of Constantine VII, in a loros on left, and his son Romanus II, in a chlamys, they hold a long patriarchal cross; small "finder's scrape" on reverse, obverse die slightly rusted.

Constantine VII Porphyrogenitus, 945-959 A.D.

Constantine VII (Greek: Κωνσταντίνος Ζ΄ Πορφυρογέννητος, Kōnstantinos VII Porphyrogennētos) Porphyrogenitus is a nickname that alludes to the Purple Room of the imperial palace, decorated with the stone porphyry, where legitimate children of reigning emperors were normally born.

In his book, A Short History of Byzantium, John Julius Norwich refers to Constantine VII as "The Scholar Emperor" (180). Norwich states, “He was, we are told, a passionate collector--not only of books and manuscripts but works of art of every kind; more remarkable still for a man of his class, he seems to have been an excellent painter. He was the most generous of patrons--to writers and scholars, artists and craftsmen. Finally, he was an excellent Emperor: a competent, conscientious and hard-working administrator and an inspired picker of men, whose appointments to military, naval, ecclesiastical, civil and academic posts were both imaginative and successful. He did much to develop higher education and took a special interest in the administration of justice" (181). In 947, Constantine VII, Porphyrogenitus ordered "the immediate restitution, without compensation, of all peasant lands thus, by the end of [his] reign, the condition of the landed peasantry—which formed the foundation of the whole economic and military strength of the Empire—was better off than it had been for a century . . . on 9 November 959, he died aged fifty-four, surrounded by his sorrowing family: his wife Helena, his five daughters and his twenty-year old son Romanus, now Emperor of Byzantium (182-3).

Works cited:
Norwich, John Julius, A Short History of Byzantium. London: Viking, 1997.

Edited by J.P.Fitzgerald, Jr.
1 commentsCleisthenes
C7R1AE_Follis.jpg
[1642d] Constantine VII and Romanus I, Æ Follis, 945-950, Constantinople 60 viewsConstantine VII and Romanus I, Æ Follis, 7.59g, 25mm x 27mm, SB 1761; DO 26; VF, Constantinopleb; Obverse: Facing bust of Constantine VII with short beard, wearing crown and vertical loros, akakia in right hand, globus cruciger in left; Reverse: Legend in four lines: +COnST / En QEO bA / SILEVS R / OmEOn. Ex Beast Coins.


Constantine VII Porphyrogenitus, 945-959 A.D.

Constantine VII (Greek: Κωνσταντίνος Ζ΄ Πορφυρογέννητος, Kōnstantinos VII Porphyrogennētos) Porphyrogenitus is a nickname that alludes to the Purple Room of the imperial palace, decorated with the stone porphyry, where legitimate children of reigning emperors were normally born.

In his book, A Short History of Byzantium, John Julius Norwich refers to Constantine VII as "The Scholar Emperor" (180). Norwich states, “He was, we are told, a passionate collector--not only of books and manuscripts but works of art of every kind; more remarkable still for a man of his class, he seems to have been an excellent painter. He was the most generous of patrons--to writers and scholars, artists and craftsmen. Finally, he was an excellent Emperor: a competent, conscientious and hard-working administrator and an inspired picker of men, whose appointments to military, naval, ecclesiastical, civil and academic posts were both imaginative and successful. He did much to develop higher education and took a special interest in the administration of justice" (181). In 947, Constantine VII, Porphyrogenitus ordered "the immediate restitution, without compensation, of all peasant lands thus, by the end of [his] reign, the condition of the landed peasantry—which formed the foundation of the whole economic and military strength of the Empire—was better off than it had been for a century . . . on 9 November 959, he died aged fifty-four, surrounded by his sorrowing family: his wife Helena, his five daughters and his twenty-year old son Romanus, now Emperor of Byzantium (182-3).

Works cited:
Norwich, John Julius, A Short History of Byzantium. London: Viking, 1997.

Edited by J.P.Fitzgerald, Jr.


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