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Search results - "Cornelia"
QuinCnLentulus.jpg
19 viewsAR Quinarius - 88 B.C.
CN. CORNELIVS LENTVLVS CLODIANVS - Gens Cornelia
Obv.: Laureate head of Jupiter right
Rev.: Victory right crowning trophy. In ex. CN LENT (NT in monogram)
Gs. 1,5 mm. 13,4x14,5
Crawford 345/2, Sear RCV 255

Maxentius
DenCnCornelioLentulo.jpg
18 viewsDenarius - 88 BC.
CN. CORNELIVS LENTVLVS CLAVDIANVS - Gens Cornelia
Obv.: Helmeted bust of Mars right, seen from behind, with spear and parazonium Rev.: Victory in biga right. In ex. CN LENTVL
Gs. 3,7 mm. 16,7x18,3
Crawford 345/1; Sear RCV 254

Maxentius
DenCnCornelioBlasio.jpg
25 viewsDenarius, 112/111 B.C. Rome Mint
CN. CORNELIVS CN.F. BLASIO - Gens Cornelia
Obv.:Mars, helmeted, right (or Scipio Africanus), CN. BLASIO CN.F. before (var. N retrograde), bucranium behind. XVI (in monogram) above
Rev.: Juno, Jupiter being crowned by Minerva; letter Θ in field, ROMA in ex.
Gs. 3,25 mm. 20,6x18,4
Crawford 296/1c, Sear RCV 173, Grueber 626



Maxentius
DenLentuloMarcello.jpg
67 viewsDenarius - 49 B.C.
L CORNELIVS LENTVLVS & C CLAVDIVS MARCELLVS - Gens Cornelia.
Obv.: Facing head of Medusa in center of triskeles, ear of corn between each leg
Rev.: Jupiter standing right with thunderbolt & eagle. LENT MAR (NT & MAR in monogram) left, COS right.
Gs. 3,5 mm. 18,4
Craw. 445/1b, Sear RCV 414.



3 commentsMaxentius
AsseCINA.jpg
21 viewsAs - 169/157 - Rome mint
L. CORNELIVS CINA - Gens Cornelia
Obv.: Laureate head of janus. Above, I
Rev.: Prow right. Above, CINA. Before, I. Below, ROMA
Gs. 27,7 mm. 29,7
Crawf. 178/1, Sear RCV 699, Grueber 804
Maxentius
DenManlioTorquatoLSilla.jpg
86 viewsDenarius - 82 BC. - Mint moving with Sulla
L. MANLIVS TORQVATVS & L. CORNELIVS SVLLA - Gens Manlia & Cornelia
Obv.: Helmeted head of Roma right, PROQ behind; L MANLI T (T in horizontal position) before.
Rev.: Triumphator in quadriga right, crowned by flying Victory, L SVLLA IMP in ex.
Gs. 4,1 mm. 17,86x18,26
Crawf. 367/3, Sear RCV 287, Grueber II (East) 13

On the coins of this Sulla's issue, there is one of the best stylistic depictions of Rome's head
2 commentsMaxentius
CnCorneliusLentulusMarcellinusARDenariusSear323.jpg
(503f) Cn. Cornelius Lentulus Marcellinus Silver Denarius85 viewsCn. Cornelius Lentulus Marcellinus Silver Denarius, Sear-323, Cr-393/1a, Syd-752, RSC-Cornelia 54, struck 76-75 BC at Spanish Mint, 3.94 grams, 18 mm. EF. Obverse: GPR above Diademed, draped and bearded bust of the Genius of the Roman People facing right, sceptre over shoulder; Reverse: EX in left field, SC in right field; CN LEN Q in exergue, Sceptre with wreath, terrestrial globe and rudder. An exceptional example that is especially well centered and struck on a slightly larger flan than normally encountered with fully lustrous surfaces and a most attractive irridescent antique toning. Held back from the Superb EF/FDC by a small banker's mark in the right obverse field, but still worthy of the finest collection of Roman Republican denarii. Ex Glenn Woods.

Re: CORNELIA 54:

“Cn. Cornelius Lentulus Marcellinus may be the same moneyer whose issues have been already described (no.s 702-704). Mommsen suggested that these coins were struck in 74 B.C. as a special issue, authorized by the Senate, to defray the cost of armaments against Mithridates of Pontus and the Mediterranean pirates. But Grueber’s view that they were struck in 76 B.C. by Cn. Cornelius Lentulus acting in the capacity of quaestor of Pompey, seems more in accordance with the evidence of finds" (see: G. ii, p. 359n and The Coinage of the Roman Republic, by Edward A. Sydenham, 1976, pgs. 1).

H. A. Seaby shows the coin with the smaller head (Roman Silver Coins Vol. I, Republic to Augustus pg. 33) while David R Sear shows a coin sporting a larger version (Roman Coins and Their Values, pg. 132).

“Cn. Lentulus strikes in Spain in his capacity as quaestor to the proconsul Pompey, who had been sent to the peninsula to assist Q. Caecillus Metellus Piusagainst sertorius”(Roman Coins and Their Values, by David Sear, Vol.1, 2000, pg. 132).

This is not an imperatorial minted coin for Pompey. At the time these coins were minted the Procounsel Pompey was sent to Spain to aid in the war against Sertorius. The moneyer Cn Lentulus served as his Quaestor where he continued to mint coins for Rome.

CN = Cneaus; LEN = Lentulus

Cneaus was his first name. His last, or family name is Lentulus and this clan is a lesser clan within the Cornelii, which is what his middle name of Cornelius implies.

Q = This tells us that he was a Quaestor, or Roman magistrate with judicial powers at the time when the coin was issued, with the responsibility for the treasury. Had this been a position that he once held it would be noted on the coin as PROQ or pro [past] Questor.

For Further Reading on the Cornelia 54 & 55:

Coins of the Roman Republic in the British Museum, by H. A. Grueber. London, 1910, Vol. II, pgs. 358, 359, 52, 57

Roman Silver Coins Vol. I, Republic to Augustus, by H.A.Seaby 1952, pgs. 32-33

The Coinage of the Roman Republic, by Edward A. Sydenham, 1976, pgs. 122, 241

Roman Coins and Their Values, by David Sear, Vol.1, 2000, pg. 132, 133

Roman Republican Coinage Volume I by Michael H. Crawford 2001, pg. 407

by Jerry Edward Cornelius, April 2006, THE 81 ROMAN COINS OF THE CORNELIA
http://www.cornelius93.com/Cornelia54.html
1 commentsCleisthenes
coins2.JPG
000c. Sextus Pompey72 viewsSextus Pompeius Magnus Pius, in English Sextus Pompey, was a Roman general from the late Republic (1st century BC). He was the last focus of opposition to the second triumvirate.

Sextus Pompeius was the youngest son of Pompey the Great (Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus) by his third wife, Mucia Tertia. His older brother was Gnaeus Pompeius, from the same mother. Both boys grew up in the shadow of their father, one of Rome's best generals and originally non-conservative politician who drifted to the more traditional faction when Julius Caesar became a threat.

When Caesar crossed the Rubicon in 49 BC, thus starting a civil war, Sextus' older brother Gnaeus followed their father in his escape to the East, as did most of the conservative senators. Sextus stayed in Rome in the care of his stepmother, Cornelia Metella. Pompey's army lost the battle of Pharsalus in 48 BC and Pompey himself had to run for his life. Cornelia and Sextus met him in the island of Mytilene and together they fled to Egypt. On the arrival, Sextus watched his father being killed by treachery on September 29 of the same year. After the murder, Cornelia returned to Rome, but in the following years Sextus joined the resistance against Caesar in the African provinces. Together with Metellus Scipio, Cato the younger, his brother Gnaeus and other senators, they prepared to oppose Caesar and his army to the end.

Caesar won the first battle at Thapsus in 46 BC against Metellus Scipio and Cato, who committed suicide. In 45 BC, Caesar managed to defeat the Pompeius brothers in the battle of Munda. Gnaeus Pompeius was executed, but young Sextus escaped once more, this time to Sicily.

Back in Rome, Julius Caesar was murdered on the Ides of March (March 15) 44 BC by a group of senators led by Cassius and Brutus. This incident did not lead to a return to normality, but provoked yet another civil war between Caesar's political heirs and his assassins. The second triumvirate was formed by Octavian, Mark Antony and Lepidus, with the intention of avenging Caesar and subduing all opposition. Sextus Pompeius in Sicily was certainly a rebellious man, but the Cassius and Brutus faction was the second triumvirate's first priority. Thus, with the whole island as his base, Sextus had the time and resources to develop an army and, even more importantly, a strong navy operated by Sicilian marines.

Brutus and Cassius lost the twin battles of Philippi and committed suicide in 42 BC. After this, the triumvirs turned their attentions to Sicily and Sextus.

But by this time, Sextus was prepared for strong resistance. In the following years, military confrontations failed to return a conclusive victory for either side and in 39 BC, Sextus and the triumvirs signed for peace in the Pact of Misenum. The reason for this peace treaty was the anticipated campaign against the Parthian Empire. Antony, the leader, needed all the legions he could get so it was useful to secure an armistice in the Sicilian front. The peace did not last for long. Octavian and Antony's frequent quarrels were a strong political motivation for resuming the war against Sextus. Octavian tried again to conquer Sicily, but he was defeated in the naval battle of Messina (37 BC) and again in August 36 BC. But by then, Octavian had Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa, a very talented general, on his side. Only a month afterwards, Agrippa destroyed Sextus' navy off Naulochus cape. Sextus escaped to the East and, by abandoning Sicily, lost all his base of support.

Sextus Pompeius was caught in Miletus in 35 BC and executed without trial (an illegal act since Sextus was a Roman citizen) by order of Marcus Titius, Antony's minion. His violent death would be one of the weapons used by Octavian against Antony several years later, when the situation between the two became unbearable.

Sicilian Mint
Magn above laureate Janiform head
PIVS above, IMP below, prow of galley right
Sear RCV 348, RPC 671, Sydenham 1044a, Cohen 16
43-36 BC

Check
ecoli
Sulla_denaroius_new.jpeg
001 Sulla AR Denarius17 viewsL.Sulla. 84-83 BC. AR Denarius
(3.34 g).
Obv: Diademed head of Venus right; cupid with long palm branch before
Rev: Capis and lituus between two trophies.
Cr359/2; Syd 761; Cornelia 30
Forum Ancient Coins Member auctions September 2017
orfew
0016.jpg
0016 - Denarius Cornelia 56 BC50 viewsObv/Head of Hercules r. in lion skin, SC and TAS in monogram behind, below winged paws.
Rev/Globe between jeweled wreath and three triumphal wreaths.

Ag, 19.9mm, 3.74g
Moneyer: Faustus Cornelius Sulla.
Mint: Rome.
RRC 426/4a [dies o/r: 33/37] - Syd. 882 - BMCRR 3912 - Cohen Cornelia 49 - Calicó 498 - RCV 385 - RSC Cornelia 61
ex-Kuenker, auction 124, lot 8390
1 commentsdafnis
Craw_459_1_Denario_Q_CAECILIUS_METELLUS_PIUS_SCIPIO.jpg
02-20 - Q. CAECILIUS METELLUS PIUS SCIPIO (47-46 A.C.)26 views Quinto Cecilio Metelo Pio Corneliano Escipión Nasica
AR Denarius 18.2 mm 3.94 gr

Anv: "Q.METEL" sobre la Cabeza laureada de Jupiter viendo a derecha, barba y cabello rizado, "PIVS" debajo.
Rev: "SCIPIO" sobre un elefante avanzando hacia la derecha, "IMP" en exergo.

Escipión fue un comandante pompeyano de las fuerzas anti-Cesáreas. Fruto de esta colaboración fue el matrimonio de Pompeyo con su hija Cornelia (52 a. C.), que se convirtió en su quinta mujer.
Su sede se ubicaba en la capital provincial de Utica, cerca de Cartago, y esta es probablemente la ceca de la acuñación. Derrotado por las fuerzas de César, Escipión se suicidó en el año 46 A.C..

Acuñada durante los años 47 - 46 A.C.
Ceca: Utica - Norte de Africa

Referencias: Sear RCTV Vol.1 #1379 Pag.262 - Craw RRC #459/1 - Syd CRR #1046 - BMCRR (Africa) #1 - Vagi #77 - RSC Vol.1 Caecilia 47 Pag.21 - Babelon I #47 Pag.278
mdelvalle
hierapolis_AE18.jpg
098-217 AD - HIERAPOLIS (Phrygia) AE18 61 viewsobv: - (bare head of Hercules)
rev: IERAPO-LITWN (winged Nemesis standing left, holding bridle, within dotted border)
ref: SNG Cop. 422. Weber, Hierapolis 142, 8
4.43gms, 18mm
Rare
Hierapolis can mean "sacred city", because of the several temples. The city was devastated by an earthquake which took place in 17 A.D. during the reign of Tiberius. In 60 AD, during the rule of emperor Nero, an even more severe earthquake left the city completely in ruins. Afterwards the city was rebuilt in Roman style with the financial support from the emperor. Hierapolis was visited by the Emperor Hadrian in 129 A.D., the Emperor Caracalla in 215 and the Emperor Valens in 370.
On obverse is a typical Hercules head, compare to my CORNELIA 58 denarius.
berserker
Cornelia51QuinVict.jpg
0aa Defeat of Hannibal on Sicily, 222 BC11 viewsCn. Lentulus, moneyer
90-85 BC

Quinarius

Laureled head of Jupiter, right
Victory crowning trophy, CN LENT in ex

Seaby, Cornelia 51

Possibly a reference to this event: [Q. Fabius Maximus, afterwards called Cunctator] broke up his camp at Suessula and decided to begin by an attack on Arpi. . . . Now at last the enemy was roused; there was a lull in the storm and daylight was approaching. Hannibal's garrison in the city amounted to about 5000 men, and the citizens themselves had raised a force of 3000. These the Carthaginians put in front to meet the enemy, that there might be no attempt at treachery in their rear. The fighting began in the dark in the narrow streets, the Romans having occupied not only the streets near the gate but the houses also, that they might not be assailed from the roofs. Gradually as it grew light some of the citizen troops and some of the Romans recognised one another, and entered into conversation. The Roman soldiers asked what it was that the Arpinians wanted, what wrong had Rome done them, what good service had Carthage rendered them that they, Italians-bred and born, should fight against their old friends the Romans on behalf of foreigners and barbarians, and wish to make Italy a tributary province of Africa. The people of Arpi urged in their excuse that they knew nothing of what was going on, they had in fact been sold by their leaders to the Carthaginians, they had been victimised and enslaved by a small oligarchy. When a beginning had been once made the conversations became more and more general; at last the praetor of Arpi was conducted by his friends to the consul, and after they had given each other mutual assurances, surrounded by the troops under their standards, the citizens suddenly turned against the Carthaginians and fought for the Romans. A body of Spaniards also, numbering something less than a thousand, transferred their services to the consul upon the sole condition that the Carthaginian garrison should be allowed to depart uninjured. The gates were opened for them and they were dismissed, according to the stipulation, in perfect safety, and went to Hannibal at Salapia. Thus Arpi was restored to the Romans without the loss of a single life, except in the case of one man who had long ago been a traitor and had recently deserted. The Spaniards were ordered to receive double rations, and the republic availed itself on very many occasions of their courage and fidelity.

Livy, History of Rome, 24.46-47
Blindado
Rep_AR-Den_Cn_Blasio,Cornelia_CN_BLASIO_CN_F-wreath_Juno-Jupiter-Minerva_below-ROMA_Gamma_Crawford-296-1e_Syd-561b_Rome_111-12-BC_Q-001_axis-9h_17,5-19mm_3,99g-s.jpg
112-111 B.C., Cn.Cornelius Cn.F. Blasio, AR-Denarius, Crawford 296/1e, Rome,83 viewsCn.Cornelius Cn.F. Blasio (112-111 B.C.), AR-Denarius, Crawford 296/1e, Rome,
avers: CN•BLASIO•CN•F, Helmeted head of Mars right (Corinthian helmet), above the star, behind wreath.
reverse: Jupiter standing facing between Juno and Minerva, in the field Υ, below ROMA.
exergue: -/-//ROMA, diameter: 17,5-19mm, weight: 3,99g, axis: 9h,
mint: Rome, date: 111-112 B.C., ref: Crawford 296/1e, Sydenham 561b,
Q-001
quadrans
99134.jpg
204a. Julia Paula153 viewsIVLIA CORNELIA PAVLA was the daughter of Julius Paulus, who was a Praetorian Praefect under Elagablalus. The Emperor Elagabalus, who arrived in Rome in the autumn of 219, was quickly becoming unpopular. It was probably Julia Maesa, his grandmother, who conceived the plan to marry him to a well-born Roman woman for two reasons: 1) to counter his public displays of homosexual and trans-sexual tendencies, and 2) to soften the disdain Romans felt for Syrians. She became the first wife of the fifteen-year-old Elagabalus 219, but was divorced only one year later, and returned to private life.

JULIA PAULA, wife of Elagabalus. Augusta, 219 AD. AR Denarius (20mm, 2.67 gm). Rome mint. Draped bust right / Concordia seated left holding patera; star in left field. RIC IV 211 (Elagabalus); RSC 6a. Toned;Ex-Cng
1 commentsecoli73
julia_paula_RIC211.jpg
220 AD - JULIA PAULA AR denarius25 viewsobv: IVLIA PAVLA AVG (draped bust right)
rev: CONCORDIA (Concordia seated left, holding patera; star in left field)
ref: RIC IVii 211 (Elagabalus) (S), RSC 6 (6frcs)
mint: Rome
2.91gms, 19mm
Scarce

In July 219, Julia Maesa had arranged for Julia Cornelia Paula (the daughter of Paulus, praetorian prefect) to marry her grandson, Rome's new emperor Elagabalus. Their wedding ceremony was a lavish ceremony that occurred in Rome. In September 220, Elagabalus ended his marriage to Paula and after the divorce, Elagabalus removed Paula's Augusta title. She withdrew from public life and her fate afterwards is unknown.
berserker
coin244.JPG
307. Aemilian30 viewsMarcus Aemilius Aemilianus was born about AD 207 either on the island of Jerba in Africa, or somewhere in Mauretania.
His career saw him becoming senator and reaching the office of consul. In AD 252 he then became governor of Lower Moesia.

In the spring of AD 253 the Goths broke the treaty made with the emperor Trebonianus Gallus. Aemilian quickly drove them out of Moesia and then, crossed the Danube crushing the Gothic forces.

In a time when Rome suffered continuous setbacks his unexpected triumph made him an outstanding leader in the eyes of his men. So, in July or August AD 253 Aemilian was proclaimed emperor by his troops. The new emperor didn't waste time. Immediately he marched his troops into Italy, rapidly moving on Rome. Only fifty miles north of the capital, at Interamna, they were were approached by the much inferior army of unprepared emperor Gallus and with his son and co-emperor Volusianus. Their troops however, realizing themselves dead if they were sent to fight Aemilian's much larger and more experienced Danubian forces, turned on them and killed them, leaving Aemilian sole emperor.

The senate, having only recently declared Aemilian a public enemy under Gallus, immediately confirmed him as emperor and Aemilian's wife Gaia Cornelia Supera was made Augusta.

All the empire now lay at Aemilian's feet, but for one big problem. Publius Licinius Valerianus, called to aid by the late Trebonianus Gallus, was marching toward Rome. His emperor might have been dead, but his usurper was still alive, giving Valerian all the reasons needed to carry on towards the capital. In fact the soldiers of his Rhine armies now declared him emperor in place of Aemilian.

As Aemilian now moved north to face his challenger history repeated itself. His own soldiers not wanting to fight a army they thought superior to their own, turned on him near Spoletium and stabbed him to death (October AD 253). The bridge where he died was afterwards known as the pons sanguinarius, the 'bridge of blood'.

Aemilian had ruled for only 88 days.

Aemilian AR Antonininus. 253 AD. IMP AEMILIANVS PIVS FEL AVG, radiate draped bust right / VIRTVS AVG, Virtus standing left, foot on helmet, holding branch & spear. RSC 60. RIC 12. Ex-WCNC
ecoli
coin246.JPG
307a. Cornelia Supera24 viewsMYSIA, Parium. Cornelia Supera, wife of Aemilian. Augusta, AD 253. Æ 20mm (4.44 g). Diademed and draped bust right / Capricorn right. SNG Copenhagen -; SNG von Aulock 7448. Fair, green and red patina, rough surfaces. Rare.

A little rough but I think it's the only one I can afford :P
ecoli
coin247.JPG
309. Gallienus32 viewsOne of the key characteristics of the Crisis of the Third Century was the inability of the Emperors to maintain their hold on the Imperium for any marked length of time. An exception to this rule was the reign of the Emperor Gallienus. The fact that Gallienus served as junior Emperor with his father, Valerian, from 253 to 260 may have had something to do with his successes. Father and son each wielded his authority over a smaller area, thus allowing for more flexible control and imperial presence. Another, more probable reason, lay in Gallienus's success in convincing Rome that he was the best man for the job. However, Gallienus had to handle many rebellions of the so-called "Gallienus usurpers".

In 260, Valerian was taken prisoner by Sapor, King of Persia while trying to negotiate a peace settlement. Although aware that his father had been taken alive (the only Emperor to have suffered this fate), Gallienus did not make public Valerian's death until a year later. His decision hinged on the fact that Romans believed that their fate rose and fell with the fate of the Emperor, which in turn depended upon his demonstrating the proper amount of piety (Latin pietas) to the gods and maintaining their favor. A defeated Emperor would surely have meant that the gods had forsaken Valerian and, by extension, Gallienus.

Gallienus's chief method of reinforcing his position is seen in the coinage produced during his reign (see Roman currency). The coinage provides clear evidence of a successful propaganda campaign. Gallienus took pains to make sure that he was regularly represented as victorious, merciful, and pious. The people who used these coins on a daily basis saw these messages and, with little evidence to the contrary, remained supportive of their Emperor.

There were, however, those who knew better. During Gallienus' reign, there was constant fighting on the western fringes of the Empire. As early as 258, Gallienus had lost control over a large part of Gaul, where another general, Postumus, had declared his own realm (typically known today as the Gallic Empire). As Gallienus' influence waned, another general came to the fore. In time-honored tradition, Claudius II Gothicus gained the loyalty of the army and succeeded Gallienus to the Imperium.

In the months leading up to his mysterious death in September of 268, Gallienus was ironically orchestrating the greatest achievements of his reign. An invasion of Goths into the province of Pannonia was leading to disaster and even threatening Rome, while at the same time, the Alamanni were raising havoc in the northern part of Italy. Gallienus halted the Allamanic progress by defeating them in battle in April of 268, then turned north and won several victories over the Goths. That fall, he turned on the Goths once again, and in September, either he or Claudius, his leading general, led the Roman army to victory (although the cavalry commander Aurelian was the real victor) at the Battle of Naissus.

At some time following this battle, Gallienus was murdered during the siege of usurper Aureolus in Mediolanum; many theories abound that Claudius and Aurelian conspired to have the emperor killed. Be that as it may, Claudius spared the lives of Gallienus' family — Gallienus' wife, Iulia Cornelia Salonina, had given him three sons: Valerianus (who died in 258), Saloninus (died in 260 after becoming co-emperor), and Egnatius Marinianus — and had the emperor deified.

Gallienus Antoninianus - Minerva
OBVERSE: GALLIENVS AVG, radiate, cuirassed bust right
REVERSE: MINERVA AVG, Minerva standing right with spear and shield.
23mm - 3.7 grams
ecoli
Corn-Supera-copy-RIC-30.jpg
34. Cornelia Supera.16 viewsAntoninianus. Cast copy.
Obverse: C CORNEL SVPERA AVG / Diademed bust of Supera, on crescent.
Reverse: VESTA / Vesta standing, holding patera and transverse sceptre.
3.20 gm., 20 mm.
(copy of RIC #30; Sear #9876.)

This is a cast copy of a Cornelia Supera antoninianus. The surfaces have that grainy look to them often seen on cast coins. The flan cracks at the edges, which should be nice and sharp on a genuine coin, have smooth and rounded edges.
Callimachus
Scipio.jpg
47-46 BC Q. Caecilius Metellus Pius Scipio66 viewsQ METEL SCIPIO IMP
head of Africa right, laur. and clad in elephant's skin, corn-ear before, plough below

EPPIVS LEG F C

Naked Hercules standing facing right, hand on hip resting on club set on rock

North Africa
47-46 BC

Sear 1380/1

Born Publius Cornelius Scipio Nasica. He was adopted by his uncle by marriage and father's second cousin Quintus Caecilius Metellus Pius. He married Aemilia Lepida, daughter of Mamercus Aemilius Lepidus Livianus (son of the Censor Marcus Livius Drusus and wife Cornelia Scipio and adopted by Mamercus Aemilius Lepidus) and wife Claudia (sister of Appius Claudius Pulcher (Senior)), and was the father in law of Pompey the Great, married to his daughter Cornelia Metella, called Quinta Pompeia for being his fifth wife.

He was Tribune in 59 BC and became Consul with Pompey the Great in 52 BC. During Caesar's civil war, he served the party of Pompey and fought against Caesar and Marcus Antonius. In 49 BC he was sent as Proconsul to Syria and the following year he took part in the Battle of Pharsalus, where he commanded the center of the Republican battleline. After Pharsalus he fled to Africa were he commanded an army with Cato the Younger, losing in the Battle of Thapsus. After the defeat he tried to escape but was cornered by the fleet of Publius Sittius when he wrecked the ship as he tried to escape to the Iberian Peninsula, to continue to fight from there. He committed suicide by stabbing himself so he would not fall at the hands of his enemies.

SOLD to Calgary Coin June 2017
1 commentsJay GT4
Cornelia_Supera,_AE-24,_Cilicia,_Aigeai__Year_299,_AD_253__Tyche__SNG_Lev__1790.jpg
Cilicia, Aigeai. Cornelia Supera. AE-24, Year 266. (AD 253). Tyche stg lt.22 viewsCilicia, Aigeai. Cornelia Supera, the wife of Aemilian. Augusta, AD 253. AE24, Year 299. 8.52g. ΓAI KOPNH COYΠEPA CEB, her diademed and draped bust rt. / AIΓEAIWN NEWKONAYA, Tyche standing lt., holding a rudder and cornucopiae, C – Θ/Y (retrograde) in fields.
SNG Lev 1790 (same dies).
Fausta
Cn__Lentulus.jpg
Cn. Cornelius Lentulus Marcellinus - Cornelia-5578 viewsROMAN REPUBLICAN, Cn. Cornelius Lentulus Marcellinus. 76-75 B.C. AR denarius (3.80 g, 17.7 mm). Spanish (?) mint. G. P. R - Diademed and draped bust of Genius right, scepter over shoulder / LENT CVR ӿ F Scepter with wreath, globe, and rudder; EX to left; S.C to right. Crawford 393/1b; Sydenham 752a; RSC Cornelia 55; SRCV 324. banker's mark on cheek.2 commentsBud Stewart
cornelia.jpg
Cn. Cornelius Lentulus, 76 - 75 B.C.210 viewsSilver denarius, S 324, BMC 57, Crawf. 393/1b, Syd. 752a, EF, 3.918g, 19.5mm, 180o, Spanish mint, 76 - 75 A.D.; obverse G•P•R•, diademed bust of Genius of the Roman People right, scepter across shoulder; reverse EX S C, wreathed scepter, globe and rudder, LENT CVR X FL below;

CVR X FL is the abbreviation for "Curator denariorum flandorum" meaning "Curator of the casting of denarii".
b70
Cn__Lentulus_Q.jpg
Cn. Cornelius P.f. Lentulus Marcellinus -AR denarius11 views²Taras or Brundisium
¹Spain
²late 75 BC
¹76-75 BC
diademed bust of Genius Populi Romani right, scepter across shoulder
G·P·R
wreathed scepter, globe, rudder
EX _ S·C
CN·LEN·Q
¹Crawford 393/1a; SRCV I 323; Sydenham 752, RSC I Cornelia 54, Russo RBW 1432
²Mark Passehl - Roman moneyer & coin type chronology, 150 – 50 BC
3,9g
ex Roma Numismatics

Moneyer struck this coin as questor of proconsul Pompey when he was sent to support Q. Caecilius Metellus Pius in lenghty war against Sertorius in Spain. Moneyer became consul in 56 BC.
Johny SYSEL
clodianus.jpg
Cn. Lentulus Clodianus. 88 BC.67 viewsCn. Lentulus Clodianus. 88 BC, silver denarius.
Obverse- Helmeted bust of Mars right, seen from behind.
Reverse- Victory in biga right, holding wreath.
Crawford 345/1; Sydenham 702; Cornelia 50.
18 mm, 3.79 g
Ex Wayne C. Phillips Collection.
1 commentsb70
Cornelia_19.JPG
Cnaeus Cornelius Blasio Cn.f104 viewsObv: Head of Mars (sometimes referenced as Scipio Africanus) facing right, wearing a crested Corinthian helmet, XVI in monogram above, CN BLASIO CN F before, caduceus behind.

Rev: The Capitoline Triad: Jupiter holding a scepter and a thunderbolt standing facing between Juno on the left and Minerva on the right, the latter crowns Jupiter with a laurel wreath, ROMA in exergue.

Silver Denarius, Rome mint, 112 - 111 BC

4 grams, 19 mm, 270°

RSC Cornelia 19, S173
1 commentsSPQR Coins
Cornelia_50.JPG
Cnaeus Cornelius Lentulus49 viewsObv: Helmeted bust of Mars facing right, viewed from behind, holding a spear and a parazonium, the strap of which is visible over his right shoulder.

Rev: Victory in biga right, holding the reins and raising a laurel wreath, CN LENTVL in exergue.

Silver Denarius, Rome mint, 88 BC

4.01 grams, 20 mm, 180°

RSC Cornelia 50, S254

Ex: FORVM
2 commentsSPQR Coins
CORNEL29R1D+R.jpg
CORNELIA 2924 viewsL. Sulla ( BC 84-83) - Denarius fourrèRugser
sulla denar-.jpg
CORNELIA 39 - L Cornelius Sulla & L Malius AR denarius - 82 BC26 viewsobv: L MANLI PROQ (helmeted head of Roma right)
rev: Triumphator in quadriga right, crowned by flying Victory, L SVLLA IMP in ex.
ref: Cr.367/5, Syd757, Albert1260
3.54gms, 16mm
berserker
CORNEL51Q1D+R.jpg
CORNELIA 51 - Quinarius23 viewsGn. Lentulus Clodianus (BC 88)Rugser
CORNEL51Q2D+R.jpg
CORNELIA 51 - Quinarius28 viewsCn. Lentulus Clodianus (BC 88)Rugser
cornelia58 den-.jpg
CORNELIA 58 Pub. Lentulus P.f. L.n. Spinther AR denarius 71 BC150 viewsobv:Head of Hercules right, behind Q.S.C.
rev:Genius of the Roman People seated facing with cornucopiae & scepter; Nike flying above & crowning Genius
ref:Cr397/1, Syd 791
3.81g
Very rare
Publius Cornelius Lentulus, nicknamed Spinther because of his likeness to a popular actor of that name, came from an ancient Roman patrician family of the Cornelia gens. Although treated with great favour by Julius Caesar, Spinther eventually came to support the aristocratic senatorial cause of Caesar's great rival Pompey and to align himself with the Pompeian party. This proved an unwise move that would eventually lead to his political destruction and perhaps to his death.
6 commentsberserker
CORNEL63R1D+R.jpg
CORNELIA 6354 viewsFaustus Cornelius Sulla (c. BC 56)2 commentsRugser
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Cornelia Salonina RIC 5d, sole reign 260-268 CE14 viewsObverse: : SALONINA AVG, diademed and draped bust right, crescent below.
Reverse: FECVNDITAS AVG, Fecunditas (The fertility) standing left , holding a cornucopia in left hand and extending right hand to a child. it. Officina D in right field.
22.4 mm., 4.06 g.
NORMAN K
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Cornelia Supera, wife of Aemelian. Augusta, 253 CE.186 viewsMysia, Parium. Æ (20.5mm, 3.78g). Struck 253 CE.
Obv: G CORN SUPERA, diademed and draped bust right.
Rev: C. G. I. H. P., Capricorn right, cornucopia on back; globe between legs (Sear describes as a star, but this appears to be a globe). SGI 4408 (var.); SNG Von Aulock 7448.

Ex FORVM Ancient Coins.
EmpressCollector
CNGBlasio.jpg
Cr 296/1d AR Denarius Cn. Blasio Cn.f. 29 viewso: Helmeted male head (Mars or Scipio Africanus?) right; [mark of value] above, prow stem behind
r: Jupiter standing facing, holding scepter and thunderbolt, crowned by Juno on left and Minerva on right
Cn. Blasio Cn.f. 112-111 BC. AR Denarius (17mm, 3.86 g, 6h). Rome mint. Helmeted male head (Mars or Scipio Africanus?) right; [mark of value] above, prow stem behind / Jupiter standing facing, holding scepter and thunderbolt, between Juno on left and Minerva on right, crowning Jupiter with wreath; Π between Jupiter and Minerva. Crawford 296/1d; Sydenham 561b; Cornelia 19.
2 commentsPMah
522Scipio.jpg
Cr 311/1 AR Denarius Cornelius Scipio Asiaticus 5 viewsRome (19.2 MM AND 3.86 GRAMS)
OBVERSE – Laureate head of Jupiter left
REVERSE – Jupiter in quadriga right, brandishing thunderbolt, L SCIP ASIAG in ex
Syd 576 Sear 188 Craw 311/1
Cornelia 24

The moneyer is likely the grandson of L Cornelius Scipio, son of Scipio Africanus.
Keeping track of the Scipiones is an annoying task.
PMah
Roma475.jpg
Cr 329/1b AR Denarius P. Cornelius Lentulus M.f. 42 viewsRome, 100 BCE
o: Bust of Hercules right, seen from behind, holding club, shield in left field, K below pellet in right field, ROMA below
r: Roma standing facing, holding spear and wearing triple-crested helmet, Genius of the Roman People right crowning her and holding cornucopiae, K below pellet in left field, LENT•MAR•F in ex, all within laurel-wreath
Crawford 329/1b; Cornelia 25a
(3.94g, 20mm, 12h)
A somewhat busy design.
5 commentsPMah
484ArteCombo.png
Cr 345/2 AR Quinarius Cn. Cornelius Lentulus Clodianus 9 viewso: Laureate head of Jupiter right
r: Victory standing right, crowning trophy with laurel-wreath
Cr. 345/2. Cornelia 51 (g. 2.12 mm. 13.00)
Nice weight for a quinarius
Say what you will about the Cornelii, but they managed to mint a tremendous number of types. I think more than any other gens. Marcii and Calpurnii are distant 2nds, I think.
PMah
Lentulus_Quin.jpg
Cr 345/2 - Cn. Cornelius Lentulus Clodianus19 viewsTHE ROMAN REPUBLIC
Cn. Cornelius Lentulus Clodianus, moneyer
AR Quinarius (2.18g), 88 B.C.

Laureate head of Jupiter r. / Victory standing r., crowning trophy; CN LENT in exergue

Babelon Cornelia 51. Sydenham 703. Crawford 345/2. aVF
RR0019
Sosius
429G396Lentulus.png
Cr 393/1a AR Denarius Cn. Lentulus6 views76 or 75 BCE
o: Diademed bust of the Genius of the Roman People right, scepter over shoulder, GPR above
r: Scepter with wreath, globe, and rudder, EX - SC across field, CN LEN Q below
(Spanish mint?)

Crawford 393/1a; Cornelia 54
3.97gg. (5h).
PMah
EB0552_scaled.JPG
EB0552 Salonina / Three prize purses8 viewsCornelia Salonina (wife of Gallienus), AE decassarion of Perga, Pamphylia, 254-268 AD.
Obv: KOΡNHΛIA CALΩNINA CЄBA, diademed head on crescent right; I (mark of value) before.
Rev: ΠEΡ ΓAI ΩN, chest with three prize purses on top.
References: SNG Von Aulock 4748.
Diameter: 32mm, Weight: 18.813 grams.
EB
sulla.jpg
FAUSTUS CORNELIUS SULLA32 viewsAR denarius. 56 BC. 4.05 g, 9h. Head of young Hercules right, wearing lion's skin headdress, paws knotted below his chin; SC above FAVSTVS monogram behind. / Globe surrounded by four wreaths, the larger jewelled and tied with fillet; aplustre and stalk of grain below. Crawford 426/4a. RSC Cornelia 61 .
Gemini II,lot 257.
1 commentsbenito
gord2~3.jpg
FAUSTUS CORNELIUS SULLA40 viewsAR denarius. 56 BC. 3.87 gr. Laureate and diademed head of Venus right,sceptre, SC behind. / Three military trophies ,capis left, lituus right. FAVSTVS (in monogram) in exergue. Toned. Craw 426/3. RSC Cornelia 63.

2 commentsbenito
00fcsulla.jpg
FAUSTUS CORNELIUS SULLA37 viewsAR denarius. 56 BC. 3,66 grs. Diademed and draped bust of Diana right. Crescent above,lituus behind. FAVSTVS before. / Sulla seated left,between King Bocchus of Mauretania ,who kneels right before him,presenting olive branch,and King Jugurtha of Numidia,who kneels left behind,hands bound. FELIX on right.
Craw 426/1. RSC Cornelia 59. Smyth VI/1.
1 commentsbenito
00sulla1.jpg
FAUSTUS CORNELIUS SULLA34 viewsAR denarius. 56 BC. 3.87 gr. Laureate and diademed head of Venus right,sceptre, SC behind. / Three military trophies ,capis left, lituus right. FAVSTVS (in monogram) in exergue. Toned. Craw 426/3. RSC Cornelia 63.
benito
00fcsulla2.jpg
FAUSTUS CORNELIUS SULLA64 viewsAR denarius. 56 BC. 3,66 grs. Diademed and draped bust of Diana right. Crescent above,lituus behind. FAVSTVS before. / Sulla seated left,between King Bocchus of Mauretania ,who kneels right before him,presenting olive branch,and King Jugurtha of Numidia,who kneels left behind,hands bound. FELIX on right.
Craw 426/1. RSC Cornelia 59. Smyth VI/1.

1 commentsbenito
00sulla3.jpg
FAUSTUS CORNELIUS SULLA33 viewsAR denarius. 56 BC. 4.05 g, 9h. Head of young Hercules right, wearing lion's skin headdress, paws knotted below his chin; SC above FAVSTVS monogram behind. / Globe surrounded by four wreaths, the larger jewelled and tied with fillet; aplustre and stalk of grain below. Crawford 426/4a. RSC Cornelia 61 .
1 commentsbenito
00sulla3~1.jpg
Faustus Cornelius Sulla153 viewsAR denarius. 56 BC. 4.05 g, 9h. Head of young Hercules right, wearing lion's skin headdress, paws knotted below his chin; SC above FAVSTVS monogram behind. / Globe surrounded by four wreaths, the larger jewelled and tied with fillet; aplustre and stalk of grain below. Crawford 426/4a. RSC Cornelia 61 .
This coin is one of ten million denarii that the Senate of Rome commissioned for the purchase of wheat in the year 56 BC. All those extra denarii, struck alongside the normal coin issues, bear the letters S.C for "Senatus Consulto" (by decree of the Senate) on their obverse, behind the head of Hercules. The ligated letters FAVS refer to the moneyer, Faustus Cornelius Sulla.

The ear of grain on the reverse illustrates that this denarius was indeed minted in connection with the purchase of wheat. Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus, who transacted the business, was the father in law of the moneyer Sulla, and effectually used his son in law's position to advertise himself. Three of the wreaths on the reverse commemorate the three triumphs of Pompey: He was the first Roman to celebrate a triumph on each of the three then-known continents. With this Pompey had made Rome a world power, which is symbolized by the globe in the middle. The fourth wreath, larger than the others, stands for the extraordinary honor that Pompey was bestowed with in 63 BC, when he was allowed to wear a golden headdress when going to the circus or the theater.
1 commentsbenito
00sulla.jpg
Faustus Cornelius Sulla.219 viewsAR denarius. 56 BC. 3,66 grs. Craw 426/1. RSC Cornelia 59.
The moneyer was the son of the famous general and Dictator Lucius Cornelius Sulla (138-78 BC).The reverse of the coin represents the victory of his ancestor in the Jugurthine War. Sulla arranged with his ally Bocchus of Mauretania to have Jugurtha ,King of Numidia,ambushed and captured. On the scene represented, Bocchus offers an olive branch to a seated Sulla, while a bound Jugurtha kneels beside him.
2 commentsbenito
1Cornelia.jpg
Gens Cornelia, denarius (76-75 a.C.), Spagna 15 viewsCn. Cornelius Lentulus, denario (76-75 a.C.) zecca spagnola
AR, 3.98 gr,– 19 mm, qBB
D/ G P R; il Genio del Popolo Romano.
R/ EX S C; CN LEN Q; scettro con corona vittata, globo e timone.
Cr. 393/1a
Provenienza: collezione Berardengo (Roma, Italia, dal 4 luglio 2016, numero catalogo 255), ex collezione Vanni, Tinia numismatica (Follonica, Grosseto, Italia, fino al luglio 2016)
paolo
Curia_Iulia_front.jpg
Italy, Rome, Curia Iulia, Forum Romanum106 viewsCuria Julia (Latin: Curia Iulia, Italian: Curia Iulia) is the third named Curia, or Senate House, in the ancient city of Rome. It was built in 44 BC when Julius Caesar replaced Faustus Cornelius Sulla’s reconstructed Curia Cornelia, which itself had replaced the Curia Hostilia. Caesar did this in order to redesign both spaces within the Comitium and Forum Romanum. The alterations within the Comitium reduced the prominence of the senate and cleared the original space. The work, however, was interrupted by Caesar's assassination at the Theatre of Pompey where the Senate had been meeting temporarily while the work was completed. The project was eventually finished by Caesar’s successor Augustus in 29 BC. The Curia Julia is one of only a handful of Roman structures to survive to the modern day mostly intact, due to its conversion into the basilica of Sant'Adriano al Foro in the 7th century and several later restorations. However the roof, together with the upper elevations of the side walls and rear façade, are modern. These parts date from the remodeling of the deconsecrated church in the 1930s.Joe Sermarini
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L CORNELIUS SULLA FELIX ROMAN REPUBLIC; GENS CORNELIA AR Denarius5 viewsOBVERSE: Diademed head of Venus right
REVERSE: Double cornucopiae; Q below
Rome 81 BC
3.77g, 19mm
Cr 375/2; Syd 755; Cornelia 33
Legatus
lentulus3~0.jpg
L. CORNELIUS LENTULUS. C CLAUDIUS MARCELLUS.44 viewsAR denarius. Militari mint,49 BC. 3,69 grs. Triskeles, with winged head of Medusa facing at center; ear of grain between each leg / Jupiter standing facing, head right, holding thunderbolt in right hand and eagle in left; LENT MAR ( NT and MAR in monogram) to left, COS to right.
Crawford 445/1b. RSC Cornelia 64a.
benito
lentulus3.jpg
L. CORNELIUS LENTULUS. C CLAUDIUS MARCELLUS.33 viewsAR denarius. Militari mint,49 BC. 3,69 grs. Triskeles, with winged head of Medusa facing at center; ear of grain between each leg / Jupiter standing facing, head right, holding thunderbolt in right hand and eagle in left; LENT MAR ( NT and MAR in monogram) to left, COS to right.
Crawford 445/1b. RSC Cornelia 64a.

benito
739_311_Scipio_Asiaticus.JPG
L. Cornelius Scipio Asiaticus - AR denarius serratus5 views³Sardinia or Massalia region
¹Rome
²104 BC
¹106 BC
laureate head of Jupiter left
dot over T behind
Jupiter in quadriga right, hurling thunderbolt, holding reins and scepter
L·SCIP·ASIAG
¹Crawford 311/1c, SRCV I 188, RSC I Cornelia 24
²Mark Passehl - Roman moneyer & coin type chronology, 150 – 50 BC
³Mark Passehl
3,4g
ex Lucernae

Moneyer was the great-grandson of Lucius Cornelius Scipio Asiaticus, consul 190 BC who together with Eumenes II of Pergamum defeated Antiochus III the Great. He belonged to the Marian party in Sulla's first civil war and Sulla's second civil war. He was appointed consul in 83 BC with Gaius Norbanus. In this year Lucius Cornelius Sulla returned to the Italian Peninsula, and advanced against the consuls. He defeated Norbanus in Italy, but seduced the troops of Scipio to desert their general. He was taken prisoner in his camp along with his son Lucius, but was dismissed by Sulla uninjured. He was, however, included in the proscription in the following year, 82 BC, whereupon he fled to Massilia, and passed there the remainder of his life. (wikipedia)
Johny SYSEL
sulla~0.jpg
L. CORNELIUS SULLA32 viewsAR denarius. Military mint (Italy). 83 BC. 3,97 grs. Head of Venus right,wearing earring and pearl necklace. On right Cupid standing left holding palm. L.SVLLA below / Two trophies. Between ,praefericulum and lituus. Above IMPER,below ITERVM.
Cr. 359/2 RSC Cornelia 30.
Bremens Beleville 26 Nov 2014 ,lot 251. Ex E.M.collection. Dorotheum ( Viena) June 1956,lot
2718. Ex Apostolo Zeno collection.
2 commentsbenito
L__SCIPIO_ASIAGENUS.jpg
L. SCIPIO ASIAGENUS AR Serrate Denarius20 viewsOBVERSE: Laureate head of Jupiter left, R dot below chin
REVERSE: Jupiter holding sceptre and thunderbolt in quadriga right, L SCIP ASIAG in ex.
Struck at Rome, 106 BC
3.5g, 20mm
Cornelia 24c, Crawford 311/1a-b
1 commentsLegatus
sulla~1.jpg
L.CORNELIUS SULLA27 viewsAR denarius. Military mint (Italy). 83 BC. 3,97 grs. Head of Venus right,wearing earring and pearl necklace. On right Cupid standing left holding palm. L.SVLLA below / Two trophies. Between ,praefericulum and lituus. Above IMPER,below ITERVM.
Cr. 359/2 RSC Cornelia 30.
Bremens Beleville 26 Nov 2014 ,lot 251. Ex E.M.collection. Dorotheum ( Viena) June 1956,lot
2718. Ex Apostolo Zeno collection.
1 commentsbenito
julian_I~1.jpg
L.SULLA24 viewsAR denarius. 81 BC. 3.86 gr. Diademed head of Venus right. / Double cornucopiae. Below Q. Craw 375/2. RSC Cornelia 33.1 commentsbenito
00lsulla.jpg
L.SULLA 16 viewsAR denarius. 81 BC. 3.86 gr. Diademed head of Venus right. / Double cornucopiae. Below Q. Craw 375/2. RSC Cornelia 33.
1 commentsbenito
Roma_Lent_Mar.jpg
P. Cornelius Lentulus Marcellinus - AR denarius16 viewsRome
²97 BC
¹100 BC
bust of Hercules right from behind, wearing lion's skin, club over shoulder; shield left
· / G / ·
Roma facing wearing helmet, holding spear is crowned by Genius standing left, holding wreath and cornucopia, all within laurel wreath
· / G / ·
LE(NT)·(MAR)·F
¹Crawford 329/1b, RSC I Cornelia 25a, Syd 604a
²Mark Passehl - Roman moneyer & coin type chronology, 150 – 50 BC
4,0g
ex Aurea
1 commentsJohny SYSEL
205,1_Cornelius_Sulla.jpg
P. Cornelius Sulla - AR denarius6 viewsRome
151 BC
head of Roma right wearing winged helmet
X
Victory in biga right holding wreath and reins
P.S(VL)A
ROMA
Crawford 205/1 ,SRCV I 84, RSC I Cornelia 1
4,2g
ex Aureo & Calicó
Johny SYSEL
150.jpg
P. Lentulus Marceli – Cornelia-2517 viewsROMAN REPUBLIC. P. Lentulus Marceli, 100 BC. AR Denarius (3.83 gm). Bust of Hercules with club, shield above, dolphin behind, control mark T / Roma standing, crowned by the Genius of the Roman People all in wreath, control mark T . Cornelia25; Cr.329/1b; RCV 208; Sydenham 604Bud Stewart
lentmarcel~0.jpg
P. LENTULUS MARCELLINUS22 viewsAR denarius. 100 BC. 3.08grs. 4h. Bareheaded bust of a young Hercules right, seen from behind, wearing lion skin and holding club. Behind, shield and symbol ( dot above R ). ROMA
below / Genius of the Roman People, holding wreath and cornucopia. symbol (dot above R ) between them. Below LENT MAR F ( NT and MAR lígate).All within wreath.
Crawford 329/1a. RSC Cornelia 25.
Ex A.McCabe collection. Roma Numismatics e-sale 13,lot 340.
benito
psulla2.jpg
P. SULLA.18 viewsAR denarius. 151 BC. 3,5 grs. Helmeted head of Roma right. X behind. / Victory in galloping biga right. SVLLA ( LL in monogram) below horses. ROMA in exergue.
Craw 205/1. RSC Cornelia 1.
1 commentsbenito
lentmarcel.jpg
P.Lentulus Marcellinus18 viewsAR denarius. 100 BC. 3.08grs. 4h. Bareheaded bust of a young Hercules right, seen from behind, wearing lion skin and holding club. Behind, shield and symbol ( dot above R ). ROMA
below / Genius of the Roman People, holding wreath and cornucopia. symbol (dot above R ) between them. Below LENT MAR F ( NT and MAR lígate).All within wreath.
Crawford 329/1a. RSC Cornelia 25.
Ex A.McCabe collection. Roma Numismatics e-sale 13,lot 340.
benito
psulla2~0.jpg
P.SULLA23 viewsAR denarius. 151 BC. 3,5 grs. Helmeted head of Roma right. X behind. / Victory in galloping biga right. SVLLA ( LL in monogram) below horses. ROMA in exergue.
Craw 205/1. RSC Cornelia 1.
benito
434,2_Pompeius_Rufus.jpg
Pompeius Rufus - AR denarius4 viewsRome
¹²54 BC
curule chair, arrow left, laurel branch right
Q·POMPEI·Q·F
RVFVS
COS
curule chair, lituus left, wreath right
SVLLA·COS
Q·POMPEI·RVF
¹Crawford 434/2, SRCV I 400, RSC I Pompeia 5, Cornelia 49, Sydenham 909
²Mark Passehl - Roman moneyer & coin type chronology, 150 – 50 BC
4,1g
ex Aureo and Calico

Coin commemorates two moneyer's grandfathers. Q. Pompeius Rufus, member of the college (collegium) with priestly duties - decimviri sacris faciundis (obverse), and L. Cornelius Sulla, Augur (reverse), held consularship together in 88 BC.
Johny SYSEL
P_Lentulus_Cornelius.jpg
Pub. Lentulus P.f. L.n. Spinther - AR denarius2 viewsRome
²72 BC
¹71 BC
head of Hercules right
Q·S·C
Genius Populi Romani facing, seated on curule chair, with right foot on globe, holding cornucopia and scepter; Victory flying and crowning Genius, holding wreath and palm
P·LENT·P·F__L·N
¹Crawford 397/1; Sydenham 791; Cornelia 58
²Mark Passehl - Roman moneyer & coin type chronology, 150 – 50 BC
3,4g
ex Künker

rare
Johny SYSEL
P1100912a.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Salonina, Antoninianus 9 viewsAntoninien Salonine :

Cornelia Salonina Femme de Gallien, mère de Valérien II et de Salonin - Augusta (253-268)

Poids : 2, 9 g

Diamètre : 22 mm

Date : 263-264

Nom de l'atelier : Rome

Degré de rareté : R2




Titulature avers : SALONINA AVG.
Description avers : Buste diadémé et drapé de Salonine à droite vu de trois quarts en avant posé sur un croissant (L15).
Traduction avers : “Salonina Augusta”, (Salonine augusta).


Titulature revers : CONCORD AET// RP.
Description revers : Concordia (la Concorde) assise à gauche, tenant une patère de la main droite et une double corne d'abondance de la main gauche.
Traduction revers : “Concordia Aeterna”, (La Concorde éternelle).


Historique : Salonine, la femme de Gallien, semble avoir reçu le titre d'augusta en 253 quand son mari était associé au pouvoir par Valérien Ier. Elle a perdu au moins deux de ses enfants, Valérien jeune et Salonin. Elle est assassinée en même temps que son mari. Salonine passe pour avoir eu des sympathies chrétiennes.(CGB.fr)


RIC 2, C 25, MIR 544p. RIC.2 - RSC.25 MIR.36/544 p (15 ex.)
Vamp
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ROMAN EMPIRE, SALONINA, sestertius, RIC # 4659 viewsRome mint, AD 256-260
CORNELIA SALONINA AVG, Diademed and draped bust of Salonina right
IVNO REGINA, Juno standing left, with patera and sceptre, SC in field
20.05 gr
Ref : RIC # 46, RCV #10679, Cohen #62
Potator II
SALONINA CONCORD.JPG
ROMAN EMPIRE, SALONINA. AR ANTONINIANUS of Antioch. Struck A.D.254 - 255.84 viewsObverse: CORN SALONINA AVG. Diademed and draped bust of Salonina facing right and resting on crescent.
Reverse: CONCORDIA AVG. Gallienus and Salonina standing facing each other, clasping one anothers right hands; in upper field, between figures, laurel-wreath.
RSC : 31a | Cf.VM : 9.

Cornelia Salonina was the wife of Gallienus and mother of Valerian II and Saloninus. She was created Augusta by her husband in A.D.254 and although she was a patron of philosophy little else is known about her. It is presumed that she was murdered with Gallienus in his camp outside Milan in A.D.268.

This coin was struck to celebrate her accession as Augusta.

SOLD ON FORVM

1 comments*Alex
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ROMAN IMPERATORIAL, Brutus and Lentulus Spinther, 42 BCE37 viewsRome, The Imperators.
Brutus and Lentulus Spinther, 42 BCE.
AR Denarius (3.91g; 20mm).
Military Mint (Smyrna?).

Obv: BRVTVS; axe, simpulum and knife.

Rev: LENTVLVS SPINT; jug and lituus.

References: Crawford 500/7; HCRI 198; Sydenham 1310; BMCRR East 80-1; Junia 41.

Provenance: Ex Stoeklin Collection [Nomos14 (17 May 2017) Lot 301]; ex Munzhandlung Basel 6 (18 Mar 1936), Lot 1483; ex Trau Collection [Gilhoffer & Ranschburg & Hess (22 May 1935), Lot 37].

The sacrificial implements on the obverse refer to Brutus' membership in the college of Pontifs. The implements on the reverse refer to Spinther's membership in the augurate since 57 BCE.

Spinther was the son of P. Cornelius Lentulus, whose nickname was Spinther (reportedly because he resembled an actor by that name). It was a nickname that his father clearly liked as both he and his son later used it on coins. His father was an aristocrat of the Cornelia gens, who was liked by Julius Caesar and worked with Cicero in suppressing the Cataline conspiracy. He was later governor of part of Spain. With Caesar’s help, his father was elected consul in 57BC, when he recalled Cicero from exile. Thereafter he governed Cilicia, at which time Cicero wrote him a still-surviving letter. As relations deteriorated between Caesar and Pompey, both Spinthers sided with Pompey. Despite initial offers of amnesty by Caesar, Spinther senior would not remain neutral and was eventually killed or committed suicide during the civil wars. His son later allied with Caesar’s assassins and struck coins for both Brutus and Cassius.
3 commentsCarausius
2297137l.jpg
ROMAN IMPERATORIAL, L. Lentulus and C. Marcellus, AR Denarius - Crawford 445/222 viewsRome, The Imperators.
L. Lentulus, C. Marcellus, 49 BCE.
AR Denarius (3.89g; 18mm).
Apollonia in Illyricum Mint.

Obverse: Head of Apollo facing right; L·LENT·C MARC COS surrounding.

Reverse: Jupiter facing right, holding thunderbolt and eagle; to right, alter decorated with garland; to left, * Q.

References: Crawford 445/2; HCRI 5; Sydenham 1030 (R3); BMCRR East 21; Cornelia 65.

Provenance: Ex NAC 92 (24 May 2016), Lot 1866; Vico 120 (2009), Lot 173; Argenor Numismatique Auction 4 (27 Apr 2001), Lot 94.

The dating for this type is firm because it was struck for the consuls, Lentulus and Marcellus, who shared the office in 49 BCE. Both consuls were Pompey supporters who fled Rome when Caesar marched on the City. Lentulus was later killed in Egypt, where he fled with Pompey following the defeat at Pharsalus. Little further is known of Marcellus and he likely died during the wars.

The head of Apollo on this type was chosen because the coins were struck in Apollonia, where Apollo was prominent on the coinage.

The Quaestor that produced these coins was T. Antistius. Antistius was already Quaestor in Macedonia when the Pompeians arrived in flight from Caesar. Cicero reports that Antistius was reluctant to assist the Pompeians who forced him to produce their coins. Antistius’ ambivalence is evidenced by his desire to remain anonymous, choosing only to identiy his office by the letter Q. He was pardoned by Caesar following Pompey’s defeat at Pharsalus.
3 commentsCarausius
Faustus_Sulla_Fourré.jpg
ROMAN REPUBLIC, Fourree of Faustus Sulla117 viewsObv: Laureate and diademed head of Venus right, sceptre on shoulder, SC behind;
Rev: Three military trophies between jug and lituus, FAVSTVS monogram in exergue
Denarius subaeratus (2,372 g, 18,5 mm)

Reproducing RRC 426/3, RSC Cornelia 63 of ca. 56. B.C. The coin was struck by the son of the dictator Sulla, but under Pompey: the reverse design may refer to both men, as both used three trophies on their seal (Cassius Dio 42.18.3). Acquired from Forum.
Syltorian
SullaCombined.jpg
ROMAN REPUBLIC, L. Cornelius Sulla, AR Denarius - Crawford 359/212 viewsRome, The Republic.
L. Cornelius Sulla, 84-83 BCE.
AR Denarius (3.88g; 21mm).
Military Mint.

Obverse: L·SVLLA; diademed head of Venus facing right; before, Cupid holding palm to left.

Reverse: IMPER – ITERV; two trophies with jug and lituus between them.

References: Crawford 359/2; Sydenham 761a; BMCRR East 3; Cornelia 30.

Provenance: Ex Nomisma 58 (6 Nov 2018) Lot 76.

These coins were struck in the east, just before Sulla’s march on Rome. The fabric and style of these coins are certainly different from other Roman Republican denarii of the era, more eastern than Roman. Perhaps not obvious from my photo, the obverse is struck in very high relief and the reverse has pronounced cupping (from a convex reverse die, which more efficiently drives the metal into the high relief obverse die). The obverse honors Venus, whom Sulla considered his protectress. The jug and lituus on the reverse are suggestive of the office of Augur, but Crawford did not think Sulla was an Augur at the time these coins were produced. The implements may refer to an ancestor of Sulla that was an Augur, or, as Crawford surmises, to Sulla’s imperium. The trophies on the reverse refer to Sulla’s victories in the east against Mithradates. Two trophies were also used by Sulla in an issue of tetradrachms in the Athenian “New Style” form.

Sulla’s seizure of dictatorial power following his march on Rome (leading an army that was loyal to him, rather than to the state) became a paradigm for Roman political struggles thereafter. Julius Caesar would initiate similar consequences when he crossed the Rubicon at the head of his army 30+ years later. Unlike Sulla, Caesar showed no interest in resigning his power. Also unlike Sulla, Caesar would strike coins bearing his own likeness. Sulla’s portrait did not appear on a Roman coin until 25 years after Sulla’s death (See, Crawford 434/1).
1 commentsCarausius
15209134281481306291510.jpg
ROMAN REPUBLIC, L. Scipio Asiagenus, 106 BCE - Crawford 311/1a27 viewsRome, The Republic.
L. Scipio Asiagenus, 106 BCE.
AR Serrate Denarius (3.95g; 19mm).
Rome Mint.

Obv: Laureate head of Jupiter facing left; R● (control mark) behind.

Rev: Jupiter in quadriga galloping right, hurling thunderbolt and holding scepter; L●SCIP●ASIAG in exergue.

References: Crawford 311/1a; Sydenham 576; BMCRR 1372; Cornelia 24

Provenance: Ex Gemini XII (11 Jan 2015), Lot 287; HJB 163 (25 March 2009), lot 224; ex A.K. Collection [Triton XII (6 Jan 2009), lot 462 (part)]; Münzhandlung E. Button Auction 101 (28-29 October 1959), Lot 149.

Each control mark in this series is a single die. The reverse recalls the moneyer's ancestor, L. Cornelius Scipio (son of Africanus), who had a victory against the Syrians in 190 BCE and took the name Asiagenus. The moneyer was likely the L. Cornelius Asiaticus that became consul in 83 BCE. He served in the Social War and was allied with Marius at the time of his consulship. He was imprisoned by Sulla and released. However he was later proscribed by Sulla and fled Rome.
3 commentsCarausius
1501000808527688724636.jpg
ROMAN REPUBLIC, Lucius Cornelius Cinna, AE As - Crawford 178/114 viewsRome, The Republic.
Lucius Cornelius Cinna, 169-158 BCE.
AE As (32.53g).
Rome Mint.

Obv: Laureate, bearded head of Janus.

Rev: Prow facing right; CINA above; [ROMA] below; I (mark-of-value) before.

References: Crawford 178/1; BMCRR 804-6; Sydenham 368; RBW 752 (this coin illustrated); Cornelia 11.

Provenance: Ex Kuenker eLive Auction 46 (25 Jul 2017) Lot 53; ex RBW Collection [NAC 61 (2011), Lot 748]; ex Aes Rude 56 (1994), Lot 150.

Crawford surmises that the moneyer is L. Cornelius Cinna who become consul in 127 BCE. The significant passage of time from his moneyership when this coin was struck and consulship 27 years later is attributed to him being the first in his family to reach the office, and thus he failed to get elected to the intervening, required office at the earliest possible time. These prescribed political offices, their order and timing, are referred to as the "Cursus Honorum." When considered with available prosopographical evidence, the Cursus Honorum is a critical clue for dating and attributing Roman Republican coins.
Carausius
cornelia58 denar-.jpg
ROMAN REPUBLIC, Pub Lentulus Pf Ln Spinther. 71 BC. AR Denarius158 viewsobv:Head of Hercules right - Q.S.C.
rev:Genius of the Roman People seated facing with cornucopiae & scepter; Nike flying above & crowning Genius
ref:Cr397/1; Syd 791
Rare
2 commentsberserker
10400525.jpg
ROMAN REPUBLIC, Spinther AR Denarius59 viewsRome, The Republic.
Pub. Lentulus P.f.L.n. Spinther, 71 BCE.
AR Denarius (3.85g; 18mm).
Rome Mint

Obv: Q●S●C; Hercules head right.

Rev: P●LENT●P●F / [L]●N; Genius Romani seated facing on chair, holding coruncopia and scepter, being crowned by Victory.

Provenance: ex Collection of a Director [Triton XX (10 Jan 2017) Lot 525; ex Eton College Collection [Sotheby's (1 Dec 1976) Lot 219).

In my humble opinion, this is one of the more artistic reverse types of the Roman Republic denarius series – almost Greek in execution. It depicts Genius of the Roman People exerting dominance over the world with one foot on the globe while being crowned victorious. The message may be related to the ongoing wars with Sertorius in Spain, Mithridates in the East and possibly the servile revolt led by Spartacus in Italy (if the 71BC date proposed by Hersh and Walker is accepted, see below). Other members of the Cornelia gens also depicted Genius of the Roman People on their coinages, so the cult of Genius may have been important to the family, or it may be coincidental that the Corneliae happened to strike these coins during strife when the message of the Genius of the Roman People would have been appropriate. Crawford agrees with the latter explanation. SC [Senatus consulto] in the obverse legend suggests it was struck by special decree of the Roman Senate.

The coin is scarce and missing from many major hoards, making it difficult to precisely date. In fact, it’s listed in only four hoards on Table XIII in Crawford’s Roman Republican Coin Hoards. Of those four hoards: in two hoards (Cosa and Palestrina), it’s deemed the final issue (terminus ante quem), lacking the context of later coins; in the third hoard (Tolfa), it’s the next to last issue with the last being a serrate denarius of Q. Creperei Rocus, which Crawford dates to 72BC; and in the fourth hoard (San Gregorio), it appears in the middle context in which Rocus is again the next latest coin. Crawford’s Roman Republican Coinage dates the coin 74BC, concurring with Grueber’s dating in the British Museum Catalogue. David Sear stuck with Crawford’s dating of 74BC in the Millennium Edition of Roman Coins and Their Values. However, in their 1984 analysis of the Mesagne Hoard (which contained no examples of this coin), Hersh and Walker revised the dating to 71BC, which lumps the Spinther issue with several other, non-serrate, “SC” issues of the late 70s. Hersh and Walker re-date the serrate Rocus issue to 69BC, where it is lumped with other serrate issues. In my collection catalogue, I’ve chosen to use the 71BC date proposed by Hersh and Walker, because it fits neatly with the fabric and special circumstances of the coinage and is consistent with the cursus honorum dates discussed in the following paragraph.

The moneyer was the Quaestor, P. Cornelius Lentulus, whose nickname was Spinther (reportedly because he resembled an actor by that name). It was a nickname that he clearly liked as both he and his son later used it on coins. Spinther, an aristocrat of the Cornelia gens, was liked by Julius Caesar and rose through the cursus honorum, beginning with his Quaestorship when this coin was struck. He was elected Aedile in 63BC and worked with Cicero in suppressing the Cataline conspiracy. The date of his Aedileship is important in that 6-8 years was the required waiting period between Quaestor and Aedile in the cursus honorum, the career path for a Roman politician, which is consistent with Hersh and Walker’s proposed dating of this coin issue to 71BC; Crawford’s dating of 74BC implied that Spinther failed to reach the Aedileship for several years after he qualified for the position (being elected in the first qualification year was an important distinction to the Romans, though certainly an accomplishment that many Roman aristocrats failed to attain). He was later governor of part of Spain. With Caesar’s help, he was elected consul in 57BC, when he recalled Cicero from exile. Thereafter he governed Cilicia, at which time Cicero wrote him a still-surviving letter. As relations deteriorated between Caesar and Pompey, Spinther sided with Pompey. Despite initial offers of amnesty by Caesar, Spinther would not remain neutral and was eventually killed or committed suicide during the civil wars. His son later allied with Caesar’s assassins and struck the well-known LENTVLVS SPINT coins for both Brutus and Cassius.

This example comes from the Eton College Collection, which was auctioned by Sotheby’s in 1976. Eton College initiated its ancient coin collection by acquiring a large group of British Museum duplicates in the 1870s, and Eton added to this collection in the ensuing years. By the mid-1970s, the ancient coin market was white-hot, and Eton decided to cash-out the lion’s share of its collection, keeping a representative core for study purposes. I’ve contacted the British Museum’s Department of Coins and Medals to link this coin to the original tranche of BM duplicates purchased by Eton. Unfortunately, before adoption of modern curatorial standards, the BM did not accession duplicates into the BM collection; rather, they simply put duplicates into the “duplicates cabinet” without cataloging them. These uncatalogued duplicates would be sold or traded from time to time to acquire needed specimens for the BM collection. There might be record of the transaction somewhere at the BM, but there would be no description of the duplicates sold. By 1980 or so, the BM began cataloguing all coins, even duplicates. There is an 1880s book published about Eton's Roman coin collection, but it describes only a representative sample of the collection and this coin is not included.

6 commentsCarausius
RR_Cornelia_1.jpg
RR - Cornelia 118 viewsSosius
Faustus_Sulla_Fourré~1.jpg
RRC 494/23 (Faustus Sulla) Subaeratus47 viewsObv: Laureate and diademed head of Venus right, sceptre on shoulder, SC behind;
Rev: Three military trophies between jug and lituus, FAVSTVS monogram in exergue
Denarius subaeratus (2,372 g, 18,5 mm)

Reproducing RRC 426/3, RSC Cornelia 63 of ca. 56. B.C. The coin was struck by the son of the dictator Sulla, but under Pompey: the reverse design may refer to both men, as both used three trophies on their seal (Cassius Dio 42.18.3). Acquired from Forum.
Syltorian
002.JPG
RSC Cornelia 140 views151 B.C.
Silver Denarius
3.44 gm, 17 mm
Obv: Helmeted head of Roma right, X behind
Rev: Victory in biga right, P.SVLA below horses
Exe: ROMA
Rome mint: 151 B.C.
Sydenham 386, Sear 84, Crawford 205/1
1 commentsJaimelai
Salonina 40.jpg
Salonina - UNIFACE PLASTER CAST56 viewsObv:- CORNELIA SALONINA AVG, Diademed, draped bust right

UNIFACE PLASTER CAST
maridvnvm
salonina_RIC63.jpg
SALONINA billon antoninianus - 255-258 AD21 viewsobv: CORN SALONINA AVG (diademed and draped bust right, resting on crescent)
rev: CONCORDIA AVGG (Gallienus and Salonina clasping hands)
ref: RIC Vi 63 (C), RSC 31 (2 frcs)
mint: Antioch
3.14gms, 22mm

The family of Cornelia Salonina is unknown, but all historians agree in characterising this lady as one whose beauty and wisdom were equalled only by her prudence, courage, and conjugal virtue.
berserker
salonina sest.jpg
SALONINA sestertius - c.255-256 AD65 viewsobv: CORNELIA.SA[L]O[NINA.AVG] (diademed & draped bust right)
rev: IVNO.REGINA / S.C. (Juno standing left, holding patera & scepter)
ref: RIC Vi-46, C.62
mint: Rome
21.11gms, 26-29mm
Rare
Wife of Gallienus, and mother of Valerianus II, Saloninus, and Egnatius Marinianus. She was married to Gallienus before 242. Salonina saw the murder of her husband in 268, in front of the walls of sieged Milan.
berserker
IMG_1075.JPG
Salonina Sestertius Ivno 32 viewsAE Sestertius
Salonina, 253-268 CE
Diameter: 26~29mm, Weight: 15.69 grams, Die axis: 6h

Obverse: CORNELIA SALONINA AVG
Draped and diademed bust to right.

Reverse: IVNO REGINA SC
Juno, draped, standing facing left, holding patera in outstretched right hand, and sceptre in left hand.

Mint: Rome

Notes:
- The wife of Emperor Gallienus, her fate following the assassination of her husband is not certain.
-Salonina was said to be an intellectual woman, and her and her husband were patrons of the influential Greek philosopher Plotinus.
-The Historia Avgvsta records an incident where Salonina was sold gems that turned out to be glass. The seller was apprehended, and was told he would be fed to a lion. When at last the gate was opened, a chicken emerged. The emperor Gallienus was supposed to have said "He deceived, and then was himself deceived".
- Bronze fractional coinage during this period of Roman history is scarce. The silver antoninianus became so debased and inflation so rampant, metal was used to mint this more valuable denomination, rather than fractions such as sestertii. This sestertius dates to 255-256 CE.

Ex Downies Melbourne Ancient Exclusives July 2016, number 134, Ex Dix Noonan Web 15 March 2012, lot 1262 (part of), from the John Quinn collection
Pharsalos
ARI-Salonina-3.jpg
Salonina, AD 254-268 11 viewsBi Double-Denarius, Sear #10640, RIC 29.

Grade: AU: Strike 4/5: Surface 5/5

Obv.:SALONINA AVG, draped bust right on crescent

Rev.: IVNO REGINA, Juno standing left holding patera and sceptre.

Julia Cornelia Salonina (died 268, Mediolanum) was an Augusta, wife of Roman Emperor Gallienus.
Richard M10
1salonina_unita.jpg
SALONINA, antoniniano d'argento (D/ SALONINA AVG) 257-258 d.C.25 viewsSalonina (Cornelia Salonina) augusta (254-268), moglie di Gallieno. Antoniniano d'argento, zecca di Lugdunum 257-258
AR, gr. 3,2; mm. 23,0; 180°; MB
D/ SALONINA AVG, busto drappeggiato a dx su crescente lunare
R/ VESTA, Vesta seduta a sx con foglia di palma sul braccio sin. e Vittoria (o Palladio?) sulla mano dx.
RIC 9, Cohen139
Provenienza: collezione Berardengo, Roma Italia (14 maggio 2008, numero catalogo 68g); ex collezione A. B. (Venezia, Italia, fino al 2008).
paolo
salonina_92.jpg
Salonina, Göbl 161924 viewsCornelia Salonina, killed AD 268, wife of Gallienus
Billon Antoninianus, 3.37g, 23.12mm, 0°
struck in Antiochia, time of Gallienus' sole-reign
obv. [SAL]ONINA AVG
Bust, draped and with stephane, on crescent, r.
rev. IVNO REGINA
Juno, in long clothes, wearing polos, stg. half left, holding patera in outstretched r. hand
and resting with l. hand on her sceptre; at her feet peacock stg. l.
ex. star (for Antiochia)
RIC V/1, 92; C.67; Göbl 1619
scarce, VF

Here Juno wears a real polos belonging rightly to her as queen of heaven.
Jochen
0441-310np_noir.jpg
Salonina, Sestertius - *95 viewsRome mint, AD 256-260
CORNELIA SALONINA AVG, Diademed and draped bust of Salonina right
IVNO REGINA, Juno standing left, with patera and sceptre, SC in field
20.05 gr
Ref : RIC # 46, RCV #10679, Cohen #62
2 commentsPotator II
SALONINA-3~0.jpg
Salonina, wife of Gallienus. Augusta, 254-268 CE.183 viewsBillon antoninianus. Rome mint.
Obv: COR SALONINA AVG, diademed and draped bust right on crescent.
Rev: IVNONI CONS AVG, doe walking left, delta in exergue. RIC 16, Cohen 70; Sear 3041.
1 commentsEmpressCollector
111c.jpg
SALONINO Cesare (R/ PIETAS AVG), 258-260 d.C., zecca di Colonia o Lugdunum26 viewsSalonino, figlio di Gallieno e Cornelia Salonina e fratello di Valeriano II. Antoniniano d'argento. Zecca di Colonia Agrippinensis o Lugdunum (258-260 d.C.)
AR, 1.9 gr., 22 mm, B (F), S
D/ SALON VALERIANVS CAES, busto radiato e drappeggiato a dx.
R/ PIETAS AVG, accessori sacrificali
RIC 9, RSC 41
Provenienza: collezione Berardengo, Roma Italia (22 luglio 2008, numero catalogo 109); ex Steve McBride collection (Incitatus coins, St. Johns's NL Canada, fino al 2008).
paolo
scribonia8 den-.jpg
SCRIBONIA 8 - L. Scribonius Libo denarius - 62 BC112 viewsobv: BON.EVENT-LIBO (head of Bonus Eventus right, with broad diadem)
rev: PVTEAL-SCRIBON (well-head ornamented with garland and two lyres, hammer at base)
ref:: Cr416/1a, Syd928, Sear(2000)367
3.64gms
The Puteal Scribonianum or Puteal Libonis (Puteal of Libo) was a building in the Forum at Rome. According to ancient authorities the Puteal Libonis was the name a spot which had been struck by lightning. Reverse of this coin representing the puteal of Libo which rather resembles an altar with laurel wreaths, two lyres and a hammer (sometimes a pair of pincers or tongs below the wreaths). Perhaps these tools are symbolical of Vulcan as forger of lightning.
Lucius Scribonius Libo was apart of a senatorial family. Lucius had married Cornelia, granddaughter of Pompey and Lucius Cornelius Sulla. Their children were Scribonia (second wife to Augustus).
berserker
Sulla_Crawford_359_2.jpg
Sulla - Denarius - Crawford 359/27 viewsObv: Head of Venus r., wearing diadem; on r., Cupid holding palm-branch; below, L SVLLA
Rev: Two trophies; between, jug and lituus; above, IMPER; below, ITERV
Size: 19 mm
Weight: 3,47 g
Mint: military mint moving with Sulla in Italy
Date: 84-83 BC
Ref: Crawford 359/2, Sydenham 761, Cornelia 30
vs1969
s-l500_(8).jpg
VI - SALONINA - AR/BI Antoninianus, ROME THE ETERNAL10 viewsAncient Roman Empire, mid 3rd Century AD
Empress Cornelia Salonina, died 268 AD. This Silver Antoninianus coin was struck between the years 259 - 268 AD at the Antioch mint, in what, at the time was located in the Roman Imperial Province of Syria.
Weight: 4.56 Grams (Quite heavy AR coin from this time period)
Titles in Latin;

obv: " SALONINA AUG " - Tiara crowned bust facing right with nicely braided hair, draped and seen from the front, her bust resting upon a very well struck Crescent Moon (many of the crescent moons that are beneath the bust on coins of Empress' are far less clear). This coin has a very nice portrait on the obverse(front), and a *RARE* reverse, for Empress Salonina, that is; "Rome, the Eternal" is the English translation of the Latin titles on the reverse, the reverse shows a depiction of Roma seated handing the Goddess Victory from Roma's hand to the Emperor standing before

rev:" ROMAE AETERNAE " = " Rome, the Eternal " ( English translation ) - Roma seated, shield at her side, sceptre in one hand, wearing military helmet and extending outstretched other hand, holding Goddess Victory, to standing Emperor.
rexesq
s-l500_(9).jpg
VI - SALONINA - AR/BI Antoninianus, ROME THE ETERNAL.7 viewsAncient Roman Empire, mid 3rd Century AD
Empress Cornelia Salonina, died 268 AD. This Silver Antoninianus coin was struck between the years 259 - 268 AD at the Antioch mint, in what, at the time was located in the Roman Imperial Province of Syria.
Weight: 4.56 Grams (Quite heavy AR coin from this time period)
Titles in Latin;

obv: " SALONINA AUG " - Tiara crowned bust facing right with nicely braided hair, draped and seen from the front, her bust resting upon a very well struck Crescent Moon (many of the crescent moons that are beneath the bust on coins of Empress' are far less clear). This coin has a very nice portrait on the obverse(front), and a *RARE* reverse, for Empress Salonina, that is; "Rome, the Eternal" is the English translation of the Latin titles on the reverse, the reverse shows a depiction of Roma seated handing the Goddess Victory from Roma's hand to the Emperor standing before

rev:" ROMAE AETERNAE " = " Rome, the Eternal " ( English translation ) - Roma seated, shield at her side, sceptre in one hand, wearing military helmet and extending outstretched other hand, holding Goddess Victory, to standing Emperor.
rexesq
s-l500_(3).jpg
VI - SALONINA - AR/BI Antoninianus, VENUS.11 viewsAncient Rome, mid 3rd Century AD.
Silver/Billon Antoninianus of Empress CorneliaSalonina, died 268 AD. Rome mint.
Latin titles;
obv: " SALONINA AUG " - Bust of Empress Salonina, hair braided and crowned with a Tiara. Draped bust, set upon a crescent moon. Frontal.
rev: " VENUS AUG " - Goddess Venus standing left, holding helmet in outstretched hand, and spear in other, elbow resting on shield set on ground. "PXV" below.
*The weight is 4,73 grams, quite heavy for the time period. Also, amazing detail on the Empress' bust, specifically her braids and the crescent moon her bust sits upon.*
rexesq
salonina_antoninianus_MP_obv_04.JPG
VI - Salonina, Wife of Gallienus - Antoninianus12 viewsAncient Roman Empire
Empress Julia Cornelia Salonina, Wife of Roman Emperor Gallienus (253 - 268 AD)
AR Antoninianus, Milan Mint.

obv: SALONINA AUG - Diademed and draped bust right, seated on a crescent.
rev: AVG IN PACE - Empress seated left, holding olive branch and scepter. M P in exergue below.

Size: 23x 22.5 mm
Weight: 2.3 Grams
rexesq
salonina_antoninianus_MP_obv_05.JPG
VI - Salonina, Wife of Gallienus - Antoninianus10 viewsAncient Roman Empire
Empress Julia Cornelia Salonina, Wife of Roman Emperor Gallienus (253 - 268 AD)
AR Antoninianus, Milan Mint.

obv: SALONINA AUG - Diademed and draped bust right, seated on a crescent.
rev: AVG IN PACE - Empress seated left, holding olive branch and scepter. M P in exergue below.

Size: 23x 22.5 mm
Weight: 2.3 Grams
rexesq
salonina_antoninianus_MP_rev_01.JPG
VI - Salonina, Wife of Gallienus - Antoninianus - Reverse17 viewsAncient Roman Empire
Empress Julia Cornelia Salonina, Wife of Roman Emperor Gallienus (253 - 268 AD)
AR Antoninianus, Milan Mint.

obv: SALONINA AUG - Diademed and draped bust right, seated on a crescent.
rev: AVG IN PACE - Empress seated left, holding olive branch and scepter. M P in exergue below.

Size: 23x 22.5 mm
Weight: 2.3 Grams
rexesq
salonina_ant_juno_o_04_ud_r_05_ud_flipped.JPG
VI - Salonina, Wife of Gallienus - AR Antoninianus 37 views*This photo is the two Upside Down photos of this coin, the one of the obverse one of the reverse shots, I took them and flipped then over and conjoined the two photos.... the detail looks quite nice especially on the reverse and on her hair in the portrait IMO. The peacock looks well detailed and in great shape as well, I do love this coin, it is my favorite one of the Empress Salonina that is in my collection.
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Ancient Roman Empire
Empress Julia Cornelia Salonina, Wife of Roman Emperor Gallienus (253 - 268 A.D.)
Silver Antoninianus -

obv: SALONINA AUG - Diademed and draped bust right, seated on a crescent.
rev: JUNO REGINA - Juno standing facing left holding a patera and sceptre. Peacock to left, star in left field.

Size: 23 mm
Weight: 4.1 Grams
7 commentsrexesq
Copy_of_salonina_antoninianus_juno-regina_o_02_r_02.JPG
VI - Salonina, Wife of Gallienus - AR Antoninianus27 viewsAncient Roman Empire
Empress Julia Cornelia Salonina, Wife of Roman Emperor Gallienus (253 - 268 A.D.)
Silver Antoninianus -

obv: SALONINA AUG - Diademed and draped bust right, seated on a crescent.
rev: JUNO REGINA - Juno standing facing left holding a patera and sceptre. Peacock to left, star in left field.

Size: 23 mm
Weight: 4.1 Grams
rexesq
Copy_of_salonina_antoninianus_juno-regina_o_01_r_01_70%.JPG
VI - Salonina, Wife of Gallienus - AR Antoninianus29 viewsAncient Roman Empire
Empress Julia Cornelia Salonina, Wife of Roman Emperor Gallienus (253 - 268 A.D.)
Silver Antoninianus -

obv: SALONINA AUG - Diademed and draped bust right, seated on a crescent.
rev: JUNO REGINA - Juno standing facing left holding a patera and sceptre. Peacock to left, star in left field.

Size: 23 mm
Weight: 4.1 Grams
3 commentsrexesq
Copy_of_salonina_antoninianus_juno-regina_o_04_upside-down.jpg
VI - Salonina, Wife of Gallienus - AR Antoninianus - Obv. Upside Down19 viewsAncient Roman Empire
Empress Julia Cornelia Salonina, Wife of Roman Emperor Gallienus (253 - 268 A.D.)
Silver Antoninianus -

obv: SALONINA AUG - Diademed and draped bust right, seated on a crescent.
rev: JUNO REGINA - Juno standing facing left holding a patera and sceptre. Peacock to left, star in left field.

Size: 23 mm
Weight: 4.1 Grams
rexesq
Copy_of_salonina_antoninianus_juno-regina_r_01.jpg
VI - Salonina, Wife of Gallienus - AR Antoninianus - Reverse 01.9 viewsAncient Roman Empire
Empress Julia Cornelia Salonina, Wife of Roman Emperor Gallienus (253 - 268 A.D.)
Silver Antoninianus -

obv: SALONINA AUG - Diademed and draped bust right, seated on a crescent.
rev: JUNO REGINA - Juno standing facing left holding a patera and sceptre. Peacock to left, star in left field.

Size: 23 mm
Weight: 4.1 Grams
rexesq
Copy_of_salonina_antoninianus_juno-regina_r_02.jpg
VI - Salonina, Wife of Gallienus - AR Antoninianus - Reverse 02.12 viewsAncient Roman Empire
Empress Julia Cornelia Salonina, Wife of Roman Emperor Gallienus (253 - 268 A.D.)
Silver Antoninianus -

obv: SALONINA AUG - Diademed and draped bust right, seated on a crescent.
rev: JUNO REGINA - Juno standing facing left holding a patera and sceptre. Peacock to left, star in left field.

Size: 23 mm
Weight: 4.1 Grams
rexesq
Copy_of_salonina_antoninianus_juno-regina_r_03.jpg
VI - Salonina, Wife of Gallienus - AR Antoninianus - Reverse 03.20 viewsAncient Roman Empire
Empress Julia Cornelia Salonina, Wife of Roman Emperor Gallienus (253 - 268 A.D.)
Silver Antoninianus -

obv: SALONINA AUG - Diademed and draped bust right, seated on a crescent.
rev: JUNO REGINA - Juno standing facing left holding a patera and sceptre. Peacock to left, star in left field.

Size: 23 mm
Weight: 4.1 Grams
rexesq
Copy_of_salonina_antoninianus_juno-regina_r_04.jpg
VI - Salonina, Wife of Gallienus - AR Antoninianus - Reverse.10 viewsAncient Roman Empire
Empress Julia Cornelia Salonina, Wife of Roman Emperor Gallienus (253 - 268 A.D.)
Silver Antoninianus -

obv: SALONINA AUG - Diademed and draped bust right, seated on a crescent.
rev: JUNO REGINA - Juno standing facing left holding a patera and sceptre. Peacock to left, star in left field.

Size: 23 mm
Weight: 4.1 Grams
rexesq
Valerian1RIC232.jpg
[1112a] Valerian I, October 253 - c. June 260 A.D.59 viewsSilver antoninianus, RIC 232, RSC 10, VF, worn die reverse, Mediolanum mint, 3.909g, 22.2mm, 180o, 257 A.D.; Obverse: IMP VALERIANVS P AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right; Reverse: AETERNITATI AVGG, Sol standing left, raising right, globe in left; nice portrait, good silver for the reign. Ex FORVM.


De Imperatoribus Romanis,
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors and their Families

Valerian (A.D. 253-260) and Gallienus (A.D. 253-268)

Richard D. Weigel
Western Kentucky University


P. Licinius Valerianus, or Valerian, was unusual for his time period in that he was an emperor who came from an old Roman senatorial family. He was likely born shortly before 200 A.D., but little is known of his early life. Valerian married Egnatia Mariniana and had two sons, Gallienus and Valerian Junior. Gallienus was born around 218. Valerian makes his first appearance in the sources in 238 A.D. as an ex-consul and princeps senatus negotiating with (more likely than serving on) the embassy sent to Rome by Gordian I's African legions to secure senatorial approval of Gordian's rebellion against and replacement of Maximinus Thrax as emperor. The Scriptores Historiae Augustae probably report accurately that Trajan Decius, on the recommendation of the Senate, offered Valerian the censorship in 251. Although the senatus consultum cited and the specific office are of doubtful authenticity, the high reputation Valerian possessed in the Senate and his association with the government under Decius probably are truthful aspects of the story. In 253 Valerian was apparently commanding in Raetia and Noricum when Trebonianus Gallus sent him to bring legions from Gaul and Germany to Italy for the struggle with the forces of Aemilianus. After Gallus' troops killed him and his son and joined Aemilianus, Valerian's men proclaimed their general emperor and their arrival in Italy caused Aemilianus' soldiers to desert and kill their commander and join Valerian's forces in acclaiming Valerian as emperor.

The Senate presumably was pleased to ratify the position of Valerian, one of their own, as emperor and they also accepted his son and colleague, P. Licinius Egnatius Gallienus, as Augustus, rather than just as Caesar. Valerian apparently realized the necessity of sharing power equally with his son and of dividing their efforts geographically, with Gallienus responsible for the West and Valerian himself concentrating on the East. The biographies of Valerian and Gallienus in the Scriptores Historiae Augustae, attributed to Trebellius Pollio, are not especially helpful in putting together an account of their joint reign. The life of Valerian is fragmentary and that of Gallienus projects an extremely biased negative interpretation of his career.

Gallienus in the early years of the joint reign concentrated, with some success, on protecting Gaul and the Rhine frontier by driving back Germanic tribes and fortifying cities such as Cologne and Trier. In a move which would characterize later diplomacy with Germans, Gallienus concluded an alliance with one of their chieftains, presumably to assist the Romans in protecting the empire from other Germanic tribes. The invasions increased in number around 257-258 as the Franks entered Gaul and Spain, destroying Tarraco (Tarragona), and the Alamanni invaded Italy. Gallienus defeated the Alamanni at Milan, but soon was faced with the revolts in Pannonia and Moesia led first by his general there, Ingenuus, and then by Regalianus, commander in Illyricum. Gallienus put down these rebellions by 260 and secured stability in the region by concluding an alliance with the Marcomannic king, whose daughter Pipa the emperor apparently accepted as his concubine although he was still married to Cornelia Salonina.

In the East, Valerian had succeeded by A.D. 257 in rescuing Antioch in Syria from Persian control, at least temporarily, but was soon faced with a major invasion of the Goths in Asia Minor. The Scriptores Historiae Augustae biography of Aurelian has Valerian appear to speak in the Baths at Byzantium to publicly commend Aurelian for his success in driving back the Goths and reward him with the consulship and even with adoption as imperial successor. However, it is not clear that Valerian even reached Byzantium because he sent Felix to that city while he remained to protect the eastern section of Asia Minor and then returned to Antioch to guard it against renewed Persian attacks. It was at this point, around 259, that Valerian moved to defend Edessa and his troops lost significant numbers to the plague. Valerian tried to negotiate a peace with the Persian king, Sapor, but was captured by treachery and taken into captivity. The ultimate humiliation of a Roman emperor by a foreign leader was enacted through Sapor's use of Valerian as a human stepping-stool to assist the Persian king in mounting his horse and Valerian's body was later skinned to produce a lasting trophy of Roman submission.

Eusebius discusses the policy of Valerian toward the Christians and says that, after initially treating them most positively, Valerian was persuaded by Macrianus to lead another persecution against them. Valerian in fact after his brutal imprisonment and death in Persia would serve as a negative moral exemplum for some Latin Christian writers who gleefully pointed out that those who oppose the true God receive their just desserts.

Eusebius also credits Gallienus with reversing his father's policy and establishing peace with the Church, citing imperial edicts which established freedom of worship and even restored some lost property. Paul Keresztes claims that Gallienus in fact established a peace with Christians that lasted for forty-three years, from A.D. 260 until 303, and gave the community a kind of legal status which they had previously lacked.

Andreas Alföldi details a growing separation between Gallienus and his father which goes well beyond the geographical one which had developed out of military necessity. In addition to the strikingly different policies, just described, which they pursued toward the Christians, Gallienus began to make his military independence clear through changes in coin inscriptions and by 258 he had created his central cavalry unit and stationed it at Milan. This independent force, which was under the command of a man of equestrian rank and soon stood on a level at least equal to that of the Praetorian Guard, would play a significant role in Gallienus' upcoming battles and, of course, was a foretoken of a new trend for military organization in the future. Alföldi cites as evidence of the increasing separation between the joint emperors the statement that Gallienus did not even seek his father's return from captivity, which Lactantius of course interpreted as part of Valerian's divine punishment, but one wonders what indeed Gallienus might have done and his "indifference" may have been instead his attempt to reassert confidence in his armies and not dwell on the depressing and humiliating servitude and ultimate death of Valerian. Another reform which Alföldi discusses as part of Gallienus' independent stand is his exclusion of the senatorial class from major military commands. H.M.D. Parker credits Gallienus with beginning to separate the civil and military functions of Rome's provincial governors, thus making senatorial governors purely civil administrators and starting to replace them even in this reduced role by equestrians. The disappearance in this period of the S.C. stamp of senatorial authority on bronze coins was probably also seen as an attack on the prestige of the order, although the debasement of the silver coinage had by this time practically reached the point where the "silver" coins were themselves essentially bronze and the change may have been more for economic than for political reasons. Gallienus' exclusion of senators from military command further broke down class distinctions because sons of centurions were by this time regularly given equestrian rank and the move further accelerated the alienation of Rome as center of the Empire. In addition, the bitterness of the senatorial class over Gallienus' policy most likely explains the hatred of Latin writers toward this particular emperor.

Although Gallienus' military innovations may have made his forces more effective, he still had to face numerous challenges to his authority.In addition to systemic invasions and revolts, the plague wreaked havoc in Rome and Italy and probably in several provinces as well. It must have seemed that every commander he entrusted to solve a problem later used that authority to create another threat. When Gallienus was involved in putting down the revolt of Ingenuus in Pannonia, he put Postumus in charge of the armies guarding the Rhine and Gaul. There is some doubt about which of Gallienus' sons, Cornelius Valerianus or P. Cornelius Licinius Saloninus, was left in Cologne under the care of the Praetorian Prefect Silvanus and perhaps also Postumus. In any case, when Postumus revolted and proclaimed his independent Gallic Empire, Silvanus and one of the emperor's sons were killed. Gallienus probably restricted Postumus' expansion, but he never gained the personal revenge that, according to one source, drove him to challenge Postumus to single combat. While Gallienus was thus engaged, and after Valerian's capture by the Persians, Macrianus had his soldiers proclaim his sons, Macrianus and Quietus, emperors in Syria, Asia Minor, and Egypt. Gallienus sent Aureolus to defeat Macrianus and one son in the area of Illyria and Thrace; Odenathus of Palmyra defeated the other son and restored stability in Syria and, with Gallienus' approval, followed that up with a victory over the Persians. After Odenathus' assassination ca. 267, his wife Zenobia continued to rule the independent Palmyrene section of the Empire.

In A.D. 262 Gallienus concluded his tenth year in office by celebrating in Rome his Decennalia with a spectacular procession involving senators, equestrians, gladiators, soldiers, representatives of foreign peoples, and many other groups. This festival included feasts, games, entertainment, and spectacle which probably reminded Romans of the millennial Secular Games celebrations of Philip I and likely were intended to secure popular support at home for Gallienus. Over the next five years little is known about specific activities of the emperor and he presumably spent more time in Rome and less along the frontiers.

Gallienus and Salonina as rulers patronized a cultural movement which collectively is known as the Gallienic Renaissance. The imperial patrons are most directly connected with the philosophical aspects of this movement because Porphyry testifies to their friendship for the Neoplatonic philosopher Plotinus. Porphyry goes on to say that Plotinus asked Gallienus to rebuild an abandoned former city of philosophers in Campania, rename it Platonopolis, and govern it as a kind of Platonic Republic, but that the jealousy and spite of others at court scuttled the plan. In addition to Neoplatonic philosophy, according to Gervase Matthew, the Gallienic Renaissance included the "upward glance" and other stylistic changes in imperial sculpture and religious beliefs that were characterized by "an overwhelming sense of the transcendent and immutable." Matthew points out both the return to artistic models of Augustus, Hadrian, and even Severus Alexander and also "a new Romantic tension" which breaks with the past and points toward a new and very different world. The Hellenic character of much of the Gallienic Renaissance is also stressed in the emperor's trip to Athens where he, likely in imitation of Hadrian, became eponymous archon and received initiation into the Eleusinian cult of Demeter.
Late in his reign, Gallienus issued a series of coins in Rome which honored nine deities as Conservator Augusti or protector of the emperor by pairing his portrait with reverses picturing an animal or animals symbolic of each deity. Included in this group of celestial guardians are Apollo, Diana, Hercules, Jupiter, Juno, Liber Pater, Mercury, Neptune, and Sol. For example, Apollo's coin-types portray a centaur, a gryphon, or Pegasus; Hercules is represented by either the lion or the boar. It appears that Gallienus was issuing the "animal series" coins both to secure, through some religious festival, the aid of Rome's protective gods against continuing invasions, revolts, and plague and to entertain the Roman populace with pageantry and circus games, thus to divert their attention away from the same problems and maintain the security of the regime in power.

In A.D. 268, Gallienus saw his third son, Marinianus, become consul, but in the spring another Gothic invasion brought the emperor back to Greece. He defeated the invaders at Naissus in Moesia , but was deterred from pursuing them further by a revolt of the commander of his elite cavalry, Aureolus. He besieged this last rebel emperor in Milan, but a plot involving his Praetorian Prefect and two future emperors, Claudius and Aurelian, all three men Illyrians popular with many of the soldiers, lured Gallienus away from the city on a false pretext and assassinated him.The emperor's brother Valerian and young son Marinianus were also murdered. In spite of the bitter resentment which many of the senators must have felt toward the dead emperor and his reform policies, Claudius II, perhaps only to legitimize his own reign, persuaded the Senate to deify Gallienus.

Copyright Richard D. Weigel, 2007. Published on De Imperatoribus Romanis,
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors and their Families

Valerian I was proclaimed emperor after the death of Trajan Decius. He successfully repulsed many barbarian incursions but the standard of living declined and would never recover. In 260 A.D., after four years of war during which Roman forces suffered great losses in battle and to plague, he arranged for peace talks. He set off with a small group to discuss terms with the Sassinian emperor Sapor and was never seen again. The date of his death is unknown, but in Rome it was rumored that he had been murdered and that Sapor was using his stuffed body as a footstool. Joseph Sermarini, FORVM.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
GalllienusRIC163.jpg
[1113a] Gallienus, August 253 - 24 March 268 A.D.70 viewsBronze antoninianus, RIC 163, RSC 72, choice EF, Rome mint, 3.716g, 21.6mm, 180o, 268 A.D.; Obverse: GALLIENVS AVG, radiate head right; Reverse: APOLLINI CONS AVG, centaur walking right drawing bow, Z in exergue; struck on a full and round flan, rare this nice. Commemorates vows to Apollo invoking his protection against the revolt of Aureolus. Ex FORVM.


De Imperatoribus Romanis,
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors and their Families

Valerian (A.D. 253-260) and Gallienus (A.D. 253-268)

Richard D. Weigel
Western Kentucky University


P. Licinius Valerianus, or Valerian, was unusual for his time period in that he was an emperor who came from an old Roman senatorial family. He was likely born shortly before 200 A.D., but little is known of his early life. Valerian married Egnatia Mariniana and had two sons, Gallienus and Valerian Junior. Gallienus was born around 218. Valerian makes his first appearance in the sources in 238 A.D. as an ex-consul and princeps senatus negotiating with (more likely than serving on) the embassy sent to Rome by Gordian I's African legions to secure senatorial approval of Gordian's rebellion against and replacement of Maximinus Thrax as emperor. The Scriptores Historiae Augustae probably report accurately that Trajan Decius, on the recommendation of the Senate, offered Valerian the censorship in 251. Although the senatus consultum cited and the specific office are of doubtful authenticity, the high reputation Valerian possessed in the Senate and his association with the government under Decius probably are truthful aspects of the story. In 253 Valerian was apparently commanding in Raetia and Noricum when Trebonianus Gallus sent him to bring legions from Gaul and Germany to Italy for the struggle with the forces of Aemilianus. After Gallus' troops killed him and his son and joined Aemilianus, Valerian's men proclaimed their general emperor and their arrival in Italy caused Aemilianus' soldiers to desert and kill their commander and join Valerian's forces in acclaiming Valerian as emperor.

The Senate presumably was pleased to ratify the position of Valerian, one of their own, as emperor and they also accepted his son and colleague, P. Licinius Egnatius Gallienus, as Augustus, rather than just as Caesar. Valerian apparently realized the necessity of sharing power equally with his son and of dividing their efforts geographically, with Gallienus responsible for the West and Valerian himself concentrating on the East. The biographies of Valerian and Gallienus in the Scriptores Historiae Augustae, attributed to Trebellius Pollio, are not especially helpful in putting together an account of their joint reign. The life of Valerian is fragmentary and that of Gallienus projects an extremely biased negative interpretation of his career.

Gallienus in the early years of the joint reign concentrated, with some success, on protecting Gaul and the Rhine frontier by driving back Germanic tribes and fortifying cities such as Cologne and Trier. In a move which would characterize later diplomacy with Germans, Gallienus concluded an alliance with one of their chieftains, presumably to assist the Romans in protecting the empire from other Germanic tribes. The invasions increased in number around 257-258 as the Franks entered Gaul and Spain, destroying Tarraco (Tarragona), and the Alamanni invaded Italy. Gallienus defeated the Alamanni at Milan, but soon was faced with the revolts in Pannonia and Moesia led first by his general there, Ingenuus, and then by Regalianus, commander in Illyricum. Gallienus put down these rebellions by 260 and secured stability in the region by concluding an alliance with the Marcomannic king, whose daughter Pipa the emperor apparently accepted as his concubine although he was still married to Cornelia Salonina.

In the East, Valerian had succeeded by A.D. 257 in rescuing Antioch in Syria from Persian control, at least temporarily, but was soon faced with a major invasion of the Goths in Asia Minor. The Scriptores Historiae Augustae biography of Aurelian has Valerian appear to speak in the Baths at Byzantium to publicly commend Aurelian for his success in driving back the Goths and reward him with the consulship and even with adoption as imperial successor. However, it is not clear that Valerian even reached Byzantium because he sent Felix to that city while he remained to protect the eastern section of Asia Minor and then returned to Antioch to guard it against renewed Persian attacks. It was at this point, around 259, that Valerian moved to defend Edessa and his troops lost significant numbers to the plague. Valerian tried to negotiate a peace with the Persian king, Sapor, but was captured by treachery and taken into captivity. The ultimate humiliation of a Roman emperor by a foreign leader was enacted through Sapor's use of Valerian as a human stepping-stool to assist the Persian king in mounting his horse and Valerian's body was later skinned to produce a lasting trophy of Roman submission.

Eusebius discusses the policy of Valerian toward the Christians and says that, after initially treating them most positively, Valerian was persuaded by Macrianus to lead another persecution against them. Valerian in fact after his brutal imprisonment and death in Persia would serve as a negative moral exemplum for some Latin Christian writers who gleefully pointed out that those who oppose the true God receive their just desserts.

Eusebius also credits Gallienus with reversing his father's policy and establishing peace with the Church, citing imperial edicts which established freedom of worship and even restored some lost property. Paul Keresztes claims that Gallienus in fact established a peace with Christians that lasted for forty-three years, from A.D. 260 until 303, and gave the community a kind of legal status which they had previously lacked.

Andreas Alföldi details a growing separation between Gallienus and his father which goes well beyond the geographical one which had developed out of military necessity. In addition to the strikingly different policies, just described, which they pursued toward the Christians, Gallienus began to make his military independence clear through changes in coin inscriptions and by 258 he had created his central cavalry unit and stationed it at Milan. This independent force, which was under the command of a man of equestrian rank and soon stood on a level at least equal to that of the Praetorian Guard, would play a significant role in Gallienus' upcoming battles and, of course, was a foretoken of a new trend for military organization in the future. Alföldi cites as evidence of the increasing separation between the joint emperors the statement that Gallienus did not even seek his father's return from captivity, which Lactantius of course interpreted as part of Valerian's divine punishment, but one wonders what indeed Gallienus might have done and his "indifference" may have been instead his attempt to reassert confidence in his armies and not dwell on the depressing and humiliating servitude and ultimate death of Valerian. Another reform which Alföldi discusses as part of Gallienus' independent stand is his exclusion of the senatorial class from major military commands. H.M.D. Parker credits Gallienus with beginning to separate the civil and military functions of Rome's provincial governors, thus making senatorial governors purely civil administrators and starting to replace them even in this reduced role by equestrians. The disappearance in this period of the S.C. stamp of senatorial authority on bronze coins was probably also seen as an attack on the prestige of the order, although the debasement of the silver coinage had by this time practically reached the point where the "silver" coins were themselves essentially bronze and the change may have been more for economic than for political reasons. Gallienus' exclusion of senators from military command further broke down class distinctions because sons of centurions were by this time regularly given equestrian rank and the move further accelerated the alienation of Rome as center of the Empire. In addition, the bitterness of the senatorial class over Gallienus' policy most likely explains the hatred of Latin writers toward this particular emperor.

Although Gallienus' military innovations may have made his forces more effective, he still had to face numerous challenges to his authority.In addition to systemic invasions and revolts, the plague wreaked havoc in Rome and Italy and probably in several provinces as well. It must have seemed that every commander he entrusted to solve a problem later used that authority to create another threat. When Gallienus was involved in putting down the revolt of Ingenuus in Pannonia, he put Postumus in charge of the armies guarding the Rhine and Gaul. There is some doubt about which of Gallienus' sons, Cornelius Valerianus or P. Cornelius Licinius Saloninus, was left in Cologne under the care of the Praetorian Prefect Silvanus and perhaps also Postumus. In any case, when Postumus revolted and proclaimed his independent Gallic Empire, Silvanus and one of the emperor's sons were killed. Gallienus probably restricted Postumus' expansion, but he never gained the personal revenge that, according to one source, drove him to challenge Postumus to single combat. While Gallienus was thus engaged, and after Valerian's capture by the Persians, Macrianus had his soldiers proclaim his sons, Macrianus and Quietus, emperors in Syria, Asia Minor, and Egypt. Gallienus sent Aureolus to defeat Macrianus and one son in the area of Illyria and Thrace; Odenathus of Palmyra defeated the other son and restored stability in Syria and, with Gallienus' approval, followed that up with a victory over the Persians. After Odenathus' assassination ca. 267, his wife Zenobia continued to rule the independent Palmyrene section of the Empire.

In A.D. 262 Gallienus concluded his tenth year in office by celebrating in Rome his Decennalia with a spectacular procession involving senators, equestrians, gladiators, soldiers, representatives of foreign peoples, and many other groups. This festival included feasts, games, entertainment, and spectacle which probably reminded Romans of the millennial Secular Games celebrations of Philip I and likely were intended to secure popular support at home for Gallienus. Over the next five years little is known about specific activities of the emperor and he presumably spent more time in Rome and less along the frontiers.

Gallienus and Salonina as rulers patronized a cultural movement which collectively is known as the Gallienic Renaissance. The imperial patrons are most directly connected with the philosophical aspects of this movement because Porphyry testifies to their friendship for the Neoplatonic philosopher Plotinus. Porphyry goes on to say that Plotinus asked Gallienus to rebuild an abandoned former city of philosophers in Campania, rename it Platonopolis, and govern it as a kind of Platonic Republic, but that the jealousy and spite of others at court scuttled the plan. In addition to Neoplatonic philosophy, according to Gervase Matthew, the Gallienic Renaissance included the "upward glance" and other stylistic changes in imperial sculpture and religious beliefs that were characterized by "an overwhelming sense of the transcendent and immutable." Matthew points out both the return to artistic models of Augustus, Hadrian, and even Severus Alexander and also "a new Romantic tension" which breaks with the past and points toward a new and very different world. The Hellenic character of much of the Gallienic Renaissance is also stressed in the emperor's trip to Athens where he, likely in imitation of Hadrian, became eponymous archon and received initiation into the Eleusinian cult of Demeter.

Late in his reign, Gallienus issued a series of coins in Rome which honored nine deities as Conservator Augusti or protector of the emperor by pairing his portrait with reverses picturing an animal or animals symbolic of each deity. Included in this group of celestial guardians are Apollo, Diana, Hercules, Jupiter, Juno, Liber Pater, Mercury, Neptune, and Sol. For example, Apollo's coin-types portray a centaur, a gryphon, or Pegasus; Hercules is represented by either the lion or the boar. It appears that Gallienus was issuing the "animal series" coins both to secure, through some religious festival, the aid of Rome's protective gods against continuing invasions, revolts, and plague and to entertain the Roman populace with pageantry and circus games, thus to divert their attention away from the same problems and maintain the security of the regime in power.

In A.D. 268, Gallienus saw his third son, Marinianus, become consul, but in the spring another Gothic invasion brought the emperor back to Greece. He defeated the invaders at Naissus in Moesia , but was deterred from pursuing them further by a revolt of the commander of his elite cavalry, Aureolus. He besieged this last rebel emperor in Milan, but a plot involving his Praetorian Prefect and two future emperors, Claudius and Aurelian, all three men Illyrians popular with many of the soldiers, lured Gallienus away from the city on a false pretext and assassinated him.The emperor's brother Valerian and young son Marinianus were also murdered. In spite of the bitter resentment which many of the senators must have felt toward the dead emperor and his reform policies, Claudius II, perhaps only to legitimize his own reign, persuaded the Senate to deify Gallienus.

Copyright (C) 1998, Richard D. Weigel. Published on De Imperatoribus Romanis,
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/gallval.htm. Used by permission.


Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus was born in about AD 213. This means that he was about 40 years old when his father Valerian, in AD 253, was hailed emperor by his troops in Raetia. Gallienus was made Caesar immediately by his father. But within a month, when Valerian got to Rome, Gallienus received the rank of Augustus.

Compared to other Roman emperors of the age, Gallienus was an exception, as far as he was not a soldier-emperor. He was rather a thoughtful, intellectual ruler, possessing sophisticated Greek tastes. However, this made him deeply unpopular with the gritty Danubian generals, who very much understood it as their right to choose a leader among their own ranks to rule the empire.

If the Danubian military elite didn't like Gallienus, then he certainly soon proved that he was a capable military leader. Between AD 254 to AD 256 he campaigned along the Danube, securing this troubled frontier against the barbarians. In AD 256 he then moved west to fight the Germans along the Rhine.

Then by autumn AD 260 the message of Valerian's capture by the Persians reached Gallienus. If Gallienus had always been unpopular among the military leaders, then now with his father gone and Roman authority crumbling, rebellion was in the air.

On a night in September, AD 268, at the siege of Mediolanum (Milan), an alarm was suddenly raised in the camp of the emperor. In the brief moment of confusion, Gallienus was struck down in the dark as he emerged from his tent.

During his reign, Gallienus began numerous reforms and military campaigns to defend the empire, as much from usurpers as from barbarians. In doing so, he perhaps saved the empire from oblivion. At the same time he presided over perhaps the last flowering of classical Roman culture, patronizing poets, artists and philosophers.

As a last gesture of disrespect to this, most unfortunate of emperors, the Romans should lay Gallienus to rest not in one of the great mausoleums in Rome, but in a tomb nine miles south of the capital, along the Via Appia.

Ironically, he was deified by the senate at the request of Claudius II Gothicus, one of the men who must be held accountable for the assassination of Gallienus.
See: http://www.roman-empire.net/decline/gallienus.html


Gallienus was the son of Valerian I and was named Caesar at his father's accession to the throne in 253 A.D. Upon his father's capture by the Parthians he assumed the rank of Augustus and began numerous reforms and military campaigns to defend the empire, as much from usurpers as from barbarians. At the same time he presided over perhaps the last flowering of classical Roman culture, patronizing poets, artists and philosophers. Gallienus was assassinated while besieging Milan. Joseph Sermarini, FORVM.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
     
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