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Search results - "Constantine"
IMG_7010.jpg
64 viewsBulgarian trachy of Constantine Tich Asen (1257-1277). Obv: Bust of Christ. Rev: Czar on horseback, holding scepter topped with patriarchal cross. Dumbarton Oaks Vol IV, pl. XLVIII B (3). +Alexios
IMG_7000.jpg
54 views Bulgarian trachy of Constantine Tich Asen (1257-1277). Obv: Bust of Christ, + in left and right fields. Rev: Standing czar holding labarum-headed scepter and globus. Reference: Dumbarton Oaks Vol IV, pl. XLVIII B (1), and Radushev p.171.
+Alexios
MAXIMIAN-5.jpg
71 viewsMAXIMIAN AE3 (Half-follis). 317-318 AD- Posthumous issue struck under Constantine I. - Mint of Siscia
Obv.: DIVO MAXIMIANO SEN FORT IMP, laureate veiled bust right
Rev.: REQVIES OPTIMORVM MERITORVM, Emperor seated left on curule chair, raising hand & holding scepter, SIS in ex.
Gs. 1,7 mm. 17,1
RIC 41 (R3), Cohen 495

1 commentsMaxentius
VA10267LG.jpg
165 viewsCONSTANTINE II, as Caesar. 317-337 AD. Æ Follis (22mm - 3.19 g). Trier mint. Struck 321 AD.
obv: CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C, laureate and cuirassed bust left, holding Victory on a globe in right hand, mappa in left
rev: BEATA TRAN-QVILLITAS, globe set on altar inscribed VOT/IS/XX in three lines; PTR. RIC VII 312. EF, attractive brown patina.

ex VAuctions Sale : 213 Lot: 101, seller's picture
7 commentsareich
coin168.jpg
10 viewsConstantine I Trier RIC VII 317 r5 321
PTR in ex. Coin #168
cars100
coin150.jpg
36 viewsAntioch RIC VIII 37 Constantine the Great AE3.
DV CONSTANTI-NVS PT AVGG, veiled head right /
No legend, emperor veiled to right in quadriga, the
hand of God reaches down to him, star in top centre.
Mintmark: SMANH. Coin #150
cars100
coin165.jpg
37 viewsCyzicus RIC 93.1 Constantine the Great. AD 331,
333-334. CONSTAN-TINOPLI, Helmeted & laureate
Constantinopolis bust left / Victory standing left on prow
of a galley, holding transverse across her body
spear & shield. Coin #165
cars100
Byzantine_follis.JPG
220 views
An Anonymous Follis Class A 2 coin, type 21
Obverse: Christ facing, holding book of gospels IC to left XC to rightEmmanovha IC XC (God with us)
Reverse: +IhSYS XRISTYS bASILEY bASILE (Jesus Christ, King of Kings)
Sear attributes it to the joint reign of Basil II and Constantine VIII 1020-1028 AD
Grierson in DOC says Romanus III and into Michael IV's
1 commentsJon the Lecturer
Constantine_the_Great.JPG
21 viewsConstantine the Great, AD 315-316, AE Follis, Siscia Mint Jon the Lecturer
Constantine_Commemorative_1.JPG
36 viewsConstantine the Great, Commemorative, AD 330-335, Nicomedia Mint
Jon the Lecturer
Constantine_Commemorative_2.JPG
30 viewsConstantine the Great, Commemorative, AD 337-340, Antioch MintJon the Lecturer
CONSTANTINE_II_AE_3_,_AS_FOUND_20mm_2_89_USS7_19.jpg
10 viewsAntonivs Protti
constantius_ii_campgate_smts1.jpg
39 viewsThe patina on this one is a beautiful dark green and glossy
Constantine II CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C LDC left
PROVIDEN-TIAE CAESS 2 6 to 8, three seen with a base, two of them with dots in top layer SMTS Delta Thessalonica RIC VII Thessalonica 157 C3 326-328
James b4
constantine_II_beatatranquillis.jpg
31 viewsConstantine II CONSTANTI-NVS IVN NC RDC left BEATA TRA-NQLITAS VOT - IS - XX
London RIC VII London 286 c3 323-324

James b4
Constantine_victory_left.jpg
35 views1 commentspaul1888
constantin_junior_2.jpg
19 viewsConstantine II CaesarGinolerhino
Constantine_campgate54657.jpg
35 viewsareich
Constantine_campgate.jpg
17 viewsareich
IMG_0023.JPG
20 viewsRIC VII 167 Constantine I AE follis Follis. 322-325 AD. CONSTANTINVS AVG, laureate head right / D N CONSTANTINI MAX AVG, laurel wreath enclosing VOT XX and crescent below. Mintmark TT. Quant.Geek
Constantine_I_OBVERSE_2.jpg
8 viewsSIMON C2
Constantine_I_OBVERSE.jpg
12 viewsOBVERSE - IMP CONSTANTINVS AVG
high-crested helmet, cuirassed, spear across right shoulder

REVERSE - VICTORIAE LAETE PRINC PERP
TWO VICTORIES RESTING SHIELD, INSCRIBED VOT P R ON ALTAR - CONCAVE ROUND TOP ALTAR, WITH GARLAND AND TOP DOT OF GARLAND JUST UNDER ROUND TOP.
UNKNOWN IN EX. ?? UNKNOWN MINT ??

DIMENSION = 19mm
WEIGHT = 3 grams
MATERIAL = BRONZE ?

SIMON C2
Constantine_I,_soldiers__standards,_Antioch,_330-335_AD~0.JPG
13 viewsAntonivs Protti
Constantine_I,_posthumous,_Quadriga,_Antioch,_337-340_AD~0.JPG
12 viewsAntonivs Protti
Constantine_Postumous_2.JPG
12 viewsAntonivs Protti
Sear-840.jpg
21 viewsHeraclius, with Heraclius Constantine. 610-641. Æ Follis (29mm, 8.63 g, 6h). Cyzicus mint, 1st officina. Dated RY 3 (AD 612/3). Crowned and draped figures of Heraclius and Heraclius Constantine standing facing, each holding globus cruciger; cross above / Large M; cross above, A/N/N/O III (date) across fields; A//KYZ. DOC 175a; MIB 185; SB 840Quant.Geek
Constantine_Sol.jpg
58 viewsIMP CONSTANTINVS P AVG
Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right.

SOLI INV-IC-TO COMITI
Sol standing left, raising right hand, holding globe in left; Star to left; PLN in exergue.

3.61g

London Mint, 312-313 AD
RIC 282.

Ex-Calgary Coin
2 commentsJay GT4
image00327.jpg
17 viewsHeraclius & Heraclius Constantine overstruck on Phocas & Leontia . 610-641 / 602-610. Æ follis (26.89 mm, 8.78 g, 6 h). Host coin, Theopolis (Antioch) mint, 602-610 / after 610. overstrike, Thessalonica mint. Overstrike: fragmentary, d N hЄRA[CLIЧS PP AVG] Host coin, also fragmentary, [O N FOCA] NЄ PЄ [AV] , Overstrike: Heraclius (on left, and Heraclius constantine, barely visible on right) standing facing, each holding globus cruciger, cross between their heads Host coin: Phocas on left and Leontia standing facing; Emperor holds globus cruciger, Empress holds cruciform scepter; cross between their heads / Overstrike, large M between A / N / N / O and date (not struck-up), cross above, B below, ΘЄC in exergue Host coin, large m between [A / N /] N / O and date (unclear) cross above, ThЄЧP' in exergue. Host coin, Cf. SBCV 671; Overstrike, Cf. SBCV 824. VF for type, dark green patina on devices, lighter encrustation on fields - overstrike at ~ 90º ccw.

multiply struck: host coin is Phocas & Leontia from Antioch, SBCV 671 or similar overstrike, at ~ 90º ccw, is Heraclius from Thessalonica
Quant.Geek
Sear-847.jpg
10 viewsHeraclius and Heraclius Constantine. A.D. 610-641. AE follis (25.80 mm, 6.21 g, 7 h). Seleucia Isauriae mint, 1st officina. Dated RY 7 (616/7). Crowned and draped facing busts of Heraclius and Heraclius Constantine, each holding globus cruciger / Crowned and draped facing busts of Heraclius and Heraclius Constantine, each holding globus cruciger / Large K; cross above, A below; A/N/N/O ςI (date) across field. SB 847; DOC 182a; MIB 195. VF.



The Seleucia Isauriae mint was in use between 615 and 618 to support Heraclius’ campaigns against the Sasanians
Quant.Geek
fX2MW3jPNE6kR9py5yTHL8ok4mcBnF.jpg
7 viewsObverse:


Laureate bust of Constantine right.


Reverse:


SARMATIA DEVICTA: Victory advancing right, captive at her feet. STR (crescent) in exergue.


Weight:


2.81 grams.


Diameter:


18.81 mm.


Comments:


Glossy dark patina. As struck, no weaknesses and very difficult to better.


References.


RIC 435.
1 commentspaul1888
6s.jpg
Constantine I, RIC VII 213, 319 CE Trier. 30 viewsObverse:IMP CONSTAN-TINVS MAX AVG, laureate, helmeted and cuirassed bust right
Reverse: VICTORIAE LAETAE PRINC PERP, two Victories holding shield inscribed VOT PR over altar. Altar type Helv. 5a2 (a star).
Mintmark dot-STR. 3.6 g, 17.7 mm
RIC VII Trier 213
NORMAN K
conricx.jpg
Constantine I "The Great" 306-337 CE 24 viewsConstantine I, AE 3, 16 mm, 2.2 g. RIC VII 350
Obverse: CONSTANTI-NVS MAX AVG, rosette- diademed, draped, cuirassed bust right.
Reverse: GLOR-IA EXERC-ITVS, two soldiers holding spears and shields with two standards between them, dot on banners.
Mintmark R wreath P. Rome mint
NORMAN K
altar1s.jpg
Constantine the Great, RIC VII 73 Siscia, 319 CE31 viewsObverse: IMP CONSTANTINVS PF AVG, laureate helmet & cuirassed.
Reverse:VICTORIAE LAETAE PRINC PERP [ Joyous victory to the eternal
Prince] two Victories standing, facing one another, together holding shield
inscribed VOT PR [VOTA POPULI ROMANI (vows of the Roman people)]on altar.
gamma SIS dot in ex. RIC VII Siscia 73, 18.9 mm 2.6 g. rare
NORMAN K
vbnw.jpg
Divus Constantine I Posthumous commemorative 27 viewsConstantine I AE 4 “Chariot to God” Constantine “The Great” 306-337 CE.
Obverse: DV CONSTANTI-NVS PT AVGG, veiled head right.
Reverse: no legend, Constantine in quadriga right, the hand of God, upper center, grasps the chariot.
SMKA in ex. Cyzicus mint RIC VIII 19
13.4 mm, 1.0 g
NORMAN K
rjb_cg1_02_05.jpg
38 Trier64 viewsConstantine I
LRBC I 38
RIC VII 504
mauseus
rjb_cg2_02_05.jpg
38 Trier48 viewsConstantine I
LRBC I 38
RIC VII 504
mauseus
rjb_ge_20_12_06.jpg
63 Trier53 viewsConstantine II
LRBC I 63
RIC VII 539
mauseus
rjb_ge2_4_12_06.jpg
72 Trier32 viewsConstantine I
LRBC I 72
RIC VII 549
mauseus
conI79.jpg
CONSTANTINE I, RIC VII 79 Lugdunum mint.28 viewsStruck 320 AD.
Obverse: CONS-TANTINVS AVG, cuirassed bust right, wearing high crested helmet
Reverse: VICTORIAE LAET PRINC PERP, two Victories holding shield inscribed VOT/PR in two lines over altar; P(two captives seated back to back)L.
RIC VII 79; Bastien 19. VF, well centered, Green patina.
Æ Follis (18mm – 3.1 g).
NORMAN K
con336s.jpg
Constantine II, RIC VII Rome 33624 viewsConstantine II, AE follis, 18mm, 2.3 g. Rome.
Obverse: CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C, laureate, draped & cuirassed bust right.
Reverse: GLOR-IA EXERCITVS, two soldiers standing, heads facing each other with two standards between them and each holds a spear and hand resting on a shield.
Mintmark RBS, Rome. 337-340 CE issue
NORMAN K
rjb_ge2_11_12_06.jpg
198 Lyon34 viewsConstantine II
LRBC I 198
RIC VII 254
mauseus
Constantius_I_Siscia_42.jpg
3 Constantius I (Posthumous)27 viewsCONSTANTIUS I
Half Follis, Siscia Mint
By Constantine I, 317-318 AD

DIVO CONSTANTIO PIO PRINCIPI, Veiled laureate bust r. / REQVIES OPTIMOR-VM MERITORVM, Constantius seated, raising right hand and holding scepter, SIS in ex.

Siscia RIC VII Siscia 42 (R3); F/VF
Sosius
rjb_ge2_7_12_06.jpg
367 Arles34 viewsConstantine I
LRBC I 367
RIC VII 358
mauseus
rjb_ge2_6_12_06.jpg
378 Arles35 viewsConstantine I
LRBC I 378
RIC VII 375
1 commentsmauseus
rjb_ge2_5_12_06.jpg
391 Arles26 viewsConstantine I
LRBC I 391
RIC VII 387
mauseus
rjb_vot1_02_05.jpg
466 Ticinum44 viewsConstantine I
LRBC I 466
RIC VII 140
mauseus
rjb_ge2_2_12_06.jpg
537 Rome44 viewsConstantine I
LRBC I 537
RIC VII 335
mauseus
rjb_ge2_3_12_06.jpg
537 Rome48 viewsConstantine I
LRBC I 537
RIC VII 335
2 commentsmauseus
Constantine_RIC_131a.jpg
65 Constantine I20 viewsCONSTANTINE I
AE Follis, Ticinum Mint, 312/3 AD

O: CONSTANTINVS PF AVG, Laureate cuirassed bust r.

R: SOLI INVI-C-TO COMITI, Sol st. r., looking left holding globe, P star T in ex.

RIC VI Ticinum 131a(var.)
Note: Mintmark of P star T is not recorded in RIC. RIC lists as PT.

Former cufflink coin

EF
Sosius
Constantine_RIC_105.jpg
65 Constantine I22 viewsCONSTANTINE I
AE Follis, Trier Mint, 316 AD

O: CONSTANTINVS PF AVG, Laureate cuirassed bust r.

R: SOLI INVIC-TO COMITI, Sol st. l.., holding globe above hip level, T to l., F to r., BTR in ex.

RIC VII Trier 105

Former cufflink coin

aEF, with marks from mounting
Sosius
Constantine_RIC_VII_Siscia_120.jpg
65 Constantine I26 viewsCONSTANTINE I
AE Follis, Siscia Mint
Struck 320 AD

O: CONST-ANTINVS AVG, Helmeted cuirassed bust r.

R: VIRTVS-EXERCIT, Standard inscribed VOT/XX, captives seated to r. and l. below, S in l. field, F/HL in r. field, BSIS* in ex.

RIC VII Siscia 120 (R3), VF, earthen highlights
Sosius
Constantine_I_RIC_VII_Trier_435_no_2.jpg
65 Constantine I, Sarmatia Devicta28 viewsCONSTANTINE I
AE Follis, Trier c. 323-324 AD

O: CONSTAN-TINVS AVG, laureate head right.

R: SARMATIA-DEVICTA, Victory advancing r., holding trophy on r. arm, branch in l. hand, captive on ground r., head turned back. PTR Crescent in ex.

RIC VII Trier 435; Sear 3880. EF

Weight: 3.6g

Diameter: 20mm
Sosius
Constantine_II_J_Q_Adams_-_RIC_VII_Trier_539.jpg
71 Constantine II Ex John Quincy Adams Collection24 viewsAE Follis, Trier Mint

RIC VII Trier 539, Sear (2014) 17314


Ex John Quincy Adams Collection, 6th President of the United States, and His Descendants, ex Massachusetts Historical Society Collection, ex Stack’s Sale, 5-6 March 1971, Lot # 948
Bought by Christian Blom, then sold to Smithsonian Institution underwater archaeologist Mendel Peterson, then to D.C. coin dealer Gene Brandenburg, then to me.
Sosius
rjb_ge2_9_12_06.jpg
747 Siscia26 viewsConstantine I
LRBC I 747
RIC VII 235
mauseus
rjb_ge2_1_12_06.jpg
904 Heraclea33 viewsConstantine I
LRBC I 904
RIC VII 116
mauseus
bizan321.jpg
Alexius III AE Trachy S-20126 views
Alexius III AE Trachy S-2012 DOC 3

Beardless, nimbate bust of Christ, wearing tunic and kolobion; holds scroll in l. hand. Pellet s in each limb of nimbus cross.
REV Full length figure of Emperor on l. and of St. Constantine nimbate, holding between then Globus crucgier. Emperor and Saint wear stemma,divitision, collar piece and jeweled loros of simplified type; both hold labarum headed scepter
Britanikus
barbarian.png
Barbarous Imitation of Constantine era coin ,Danubian Celts27 viewsLaureate, helmeted, cuirassed bust right. Legend H H H H H H H T
Rev :H H H H H H H H H mint mark T? HII Two Victories standing, facing each other, together holding shield
2 commentsBritanikus
john.jpg
Basil II & Constantine VIII, (976-1028 A.D.)42 viewsÆ “Anonymous” Follis
Class A2
O: EMMANOVHΛ, Nimbate bust of Christ facing, wearing pallium and colobium and holding book of Gospels; IC – XC in fields to left and right.
R: + IhSЧS / [X]RISTЧ[S] / bASILЄЧ / bASILЄ / ·, legend in four lines.
8.68g
26mm
SBCV 1793
5 commentsMat
Constantine_Vot_XXX_H_ST_Ticinum.jpg
Constantine Crescent Vot XXX H Ticinum112 viewsConstantine I CONSTAN-TINVS AVG L
DN CONSTANTINI MAX AVG Crescent VOT XXX H
ST Ticinum RIC VII Ticinum 186 r4
James b4
constantine261.jpg
Constantine I AE3, RIC VII 261 Siscia 306-337 CE 19 viewsObverse: CONSTANTI-NVS MAX AVG, Rosette diademed bust right, draped and cuirassed.
Reverse: GLOR-IA EXERC-ITVS, Two Soldiers standing to the front, their heads turned inward at standard, both holding a spear and leaning on shield.
Exe: ASIS (star) Siscia mint: 335-336 = RIC VII, 261 17.1 mm., 1.5 g.
NORMAN K
consita.jpg
Constantine I, AE3, RIC VII 8 Cyzicus15 viewsConstantine I, AE3, 317-320, Cyzicus, Officina 2
Obverse: IMP CONSTA_NTINVS AVG, Laureate, draped bust left, globe and scepter in left hand, map in right
Reverse: IOVI CONS_ERVATORI AVGG, Jupiter standing facing, head left, chlamys across left shoulder, Victory on globe in right hand, scepter in left
Wreath | S across fields
SMK in exergue
18.3mm, 3.5g
NORMAN K
cgnt.jpg
Constantine I, RIC 180b Siscia, 307-337 CE 18 viewsObverse: CONSTANTINVS AVG, Laureate head right.
Reverse: DN CONSTANTINI MAX, wreath with VOT / . / XX
BSIS sunburst in ex., 18.2 mm., 3.8 g.
NORMAN K
conicmg.jpg
Constantine I, RIC 24 Cyzicus19 viewsConstantine I Follis
Obverse: CONSTAN-TINVS AVG, laureate head right.
Reverse: PROVIDEN-TIAE AVGG, camp-gate sith one door, six rows of blocks and two turrits on top. One star above.
SMKB in ex. Cyzicus mint. 20.2 mm., 2.52 g.
NORMAN K
conmarti.jpg
Constantine I, RIC VII 124 Ticinum16 viewsObverse: IMP CONSTANTINVS PF AVG, laureate and cuirassed bust right.
Reverse: MARTI CONSERVATORI, Mars in military dress standing right with spear in hand with point on ground and his left hand on shield set on the ground, cloak across right shoulder. .
19. mm., 2.5 g. Mintmark: S dot T Ticinum mint.
NORMAN K
451s.jpg
Constantine I, RIC VII 194 Arles22 viewsObverse: IMP CONSTAN-TINVS MAX AVG - Helmeted laureate bust right, cuirassed
Reverse: VICTORIAE LAETAE PRINC PERP - Two Victories facing and inscribing VOT PR on shield placed on altar type Helvetica 2d (diamond with dot in centre, in a rectangle with a dot in each corner. )
Exe: PARL Arles mint AD 318-319 = RIC VII, 194 , 19.15 mm, 2.6 g.
NORMAN K
452s.jpg
Constantine I, RIC VII 252, Siscia35 viewsObverse: CONSTANTI-NVS MAX AVG, rosette-diademed, draped, cuirassed bust right.
Reverse: GLOR-IA EXERC-ITVS, two soldiers holding spears and shields with one standard between them. O on banner.
mintmark epsilon SIS star. 17.12 mm, 1.6 g. RIC VII Siscia 252, rated R1
NORMAN K
consol1.jpg
Constantine I, RIC VII 57 Rome12 viewsObverse: IMP CONSTANTINVS PF AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right.
Reverse: SOLI INV-I-CTO COMITI, Sol standing left, chlamys across left shoulder, holding globe, right hand raised.
19.5 mm., 3.0 g. Mintmark: R S Rome
NORMAN K
vbc.jpg
Constantine I, RIC VII 90 Heraclea43 viewsRIC VII 90 Constantine I AE3. 326-327 C.E.
Obverse - CONSTANTINVS AVG. diademed head right, ladder shaped diadem with two dots between segments.
Reverse - DN CONSTANTINI MAX AVG around VOT dot XXX in wreath, dot SMHA in ex. Heraclea mint
17 mm diam., 3.6 g.
NORMAN K
conscamp~0.jpg
Constantine II, AE3, Thessalonica, RIC VII, 157, 326-328 CE27 views

Constantine II, AE3, 326-328, Thessalonica, Officina 4
Obverse: CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C, Laureate, draped, cuirassed bust left
Reverse: PROVIDEN_TIAE CAESS, Campgate with six rows, two turrets, no doors, star above, top and bottom rows empty blocks
SMTSD in exergue
19.5mm, 2.7g
RIC VII, 157 nearly full silvering
NORMAN K
con415s.jpg
Constantine II, RIC 381 var. Trier21 viewsConstantine II, AE19, Trier. 322-323 CE
Obverse: CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C, laureate and cuirassed bust right, holding spear over shoulder and horse by the bridle before.
Reverse: BEATA TRAN-QVILLITAS, large globe on an altar inscribed V dot O - TIS - XX in three lines, three stars above.
Mintmark: PTR dot., RIC VII Trier 381 var (mintmark) 18.9 mm, 2.7 g.
NORMAN K
con199s.jpg
Constantine II, RIC VII 199 Thessalonica21 viewsConstantine II, AE follis, 18.6 mm, 1.8 g. Thessalonica.
Obverse: CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C, laureate, draped & cuirassed bust right.
Reverse: GLOR-IA EXERCITVS, two soldiers standing, heads facing each other with two standards between them and each holds a spear and hand resting on a shield.
Mintmark SMTSB Thessalonica. 337-340 CE.
NORMAN K
conii236f.jpg
Constantine II, RIC VII Siscia 23624 viewsConstantine II, AE follis, 18mm, 1.8 g. Siscia.
Obverse: CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C, laureate, draped & cuirassed bust right.
Reverse: GLOR-IA EXERCITVS, two soldiers standing, heads facing each other with two standards between them and each holds a spear and hand resting on a shield.
Mintmark dot ESIS dot, 334-335 CE issue
NORMAN K
coniivotj.jpg
Constantine II, RIC VII, 128 Thessalonica16 views
Constantine II, AE3, 324, Thessalonica, Officina 2
Obverse: CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C, Laureate, draped, cuirassed bust left
Reverse: CAESARVM NOSTRORVM , Legend surrounding laurel wreath terminating in large jewel enclosing VOT / . / X
TSBVI in exergue Thessalonica
NORMAN K
con41s.jpg
Constantine II, RIC VIII 41 Antioch 18 viewsConstantine II, AE, Antioch 322-323 CE
Obverse: CONSTANTINVS AVG, laureate pearl diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right.
Reverse: GLORIA EXERCITVS, Two soldiers holding spears and shields
Mintmark: SMANB Antioch 14,7mm, 1.4 g.
NORMAN K
conii220.jpg
Constantine II, Siscia RIC VII 22023 viewsConstantine II, 334-335 C.E., AE3
Obverse : CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C. Laureate bust right, cuirassed
Reverse : GLOR-IA EXERCITVS-ITVS. Two soldiers facing and holding a spear two standards between them.
ESIS in ex. Siscia 18.7 mm., 1.7 g. RIC VII, 220 p. 453
NORMAN K
constantinesis.jpg
CONSTANTINE The Great, RIC 200b Siscia, Emperor 307-337 CE23 viewsCONSTANTINE The Great, RIC 200(b)
Obverse: CONSTANTINVS AVG, laureated head right
Reverse: GENIO A-VGVSTA, Genius standing left, modius on head, naked except for chlamys over left shoulder, holding paters and cornucopia. No field marks
in exergue: SIS, 18.4 mm., 1.6 g.
NORMAN K
constantine19.jpg
Constantine, AE Follis, RIC VII 19 Rome, 303-337 CE.16 views
Obverse: IMP CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right.
Reverse: SOLI INV-I-CTO COMITI, Sol standing left, chlamys across left shoulder, holding globe and raising right hand.
R-F across fields.
Mintmark R star S.

RIC VII Rome 19.
NORMAN K
crcg.jpg
Crispus RIC VII 69 Thessalonica, 319 CE30 viewsObverse: IVL CRIS-PVS NOB C, laureate and cuirassed bust right.
Reverse: VIRT EXERC, Sol raising right hand and holding globe in left, standing in center of plan of roman camp.
TS dot E dot in ex. Thessalonica mint
19.53mm., 2.2g. rare
The true meaning of this reverse type has never been fully deciphered. The latest theory being the X shaped pattern represents Constantine's vision before the battle of Milvainbridge. This does not seem likely since the type is known on coins of Licinius a pagan and Constantine's enemy
sold 4-2018

NORMAN K
Crispus_AE.JPG
Crispus, son of Constantine, Caesar 317-326 AD. Trier19 views
Crispus AE3. 317-326 AD. IVL CRISPVS NOB CAES, laureate, cuirassed bust left, holding spear & shield / BEATA TRANQVILLITAS, globe on altar inscribed VOT/IS/XX, 3 stars above, STR in ex. RIC VII 308,S
Antonivs Protti
hand2s.jpg
Divus Constantine I, Posthumous commemorative AE4, 337-341 CE25 viewsObverse: DN CONSTANTI-NVS PT AVGG, veiled head right.
Reverse: No legend, the deified Constantine driving quadriga right, hand of god reaching down from above, star at upper left.
SMANS in ex. Antioch mint, 2nd officina. RIV VIII 37, 16.6 mm, 1.4 g.

It is ironic that Constantine, who tradition tells us was the first Christian emperor (although he only actually became one on his death bed), should have been honored with pagan deification and commemorated posthumously with traditional pagan symbolism as found on this coin. He was the last emperor to be so honored.
NORMAN K
constantine i follis (3).jpg
185 viewsROME. Constantine I. AD 307/310-337
Æ Follis (18mm, 3.46 g, 11 h)
Treveri (Trier) mint, 1st officina. Struck spring AD 317.
IMP CONSTANTINVS PF AVG
Laureate and cuirassed bust right
SOLI INVICTO COMITI
Sol standing left, extending arm and holding globe; T-F//BTR
RIC VII 97
1 commentsArdatirion
constantin1-provavgg-plc.JPG
RIC.225 Constantine I (AE3, Providentiae Avgg)16 viewsConstantine I, caesar (306-307), emperor (307-337)
AE3: Providentiae Avgg (324-325, Lyon mint)

bronze, 20mm diameter, 3.13 g, die axis: 12h

A/ CONSTAN-TINVS AVG; pearl-diademed head right
R/ PROVIDEN-TIAE AVGG / PLC in exergue; open camp gate, two turrets, no door and a star above

Ferrando II 479 (C2)
Droger
constantin1-provavgg-arls.JPG
RIC.309 Constantine I (AE3, Providentiae Avgg)19 viewsConstantine I, caesar (306-307), emperor (307-337)
AE3: Providentiae Avgg (327-328, Arles mint)

bronze, 18mm diameter, 2.66 g, die axis: 7h

A/ CONSTAN-TINVS AVG; pearl-diademed head right
R/ PROVIDEN-TIAE AVGG / ARLS in exergue/S|F in field; open camp gate, two turrets, no door and a star above

Ferrando II 479 (C2)
Droger
constantin2-prov-ROT.JPG
RIC.289 Constantine II (AE3, Providentiae Caess)18 viewsConstantine II, caesar (317-337), western emperor (337-340)
AE3 : Providentiae Caess (326, Rome mint)

bronze, 18mm diameter, 2.80 g, die axis: 6h

A/ CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C; pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right
R/ PROVIDEN-TIAE CAESS / R(wreath)T in exergue; open camp gate, two turrets, no door and a star above
Droger
constantin2-virtvs-arles-tconst-sf.JPG
RIC.322 Constantine II (AE3, Virtvs Caess)9 viewsConstantine II, caesar (317-337), western emperor (337-340)
AE3 : Providentiae Caess (328-329, Arles mint, 3rd officine)

bronze, 19mm diameter, 3.14 g, die axis: 12h

A/ CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C; pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right
R/ VIRTVS - CAESS / TCONST in exergue, S | F in the field; gateway wide wide open doors, four turrets and a star above
Droger
HELENA.jpg
(0271) HELENA34 views(1st wife or consort of Constantiius I; mother of Constantine I)
b. ca.248 - d. 330 AD
STRUCK POSTHUMOUSLY
AE 14mm 0.77 g
O: DIAD DR BUST R
]R: PAX PVBLICA
PAX STANDING L HOLDING BRANCH AND SCEPTER
laney
HELENA_C.jpg
(0271) HELENA24 views(1st wife or consort of Constantiius I; mother of Constantine I)
d. 329 AD (POSTHUMOUS ISSUE STRUCK 337 - 340 AD)
AE
O: DIAD DR BUST R
R: PAX STANDING L HOLDING OLIVE BRANCH AND SCEPTER
CONSTANTINOPLE
laney
HELENA_B.jpg
(0271) HELENA21 views(1st wife or consort of Constantiius I; mother of Constantine I)
d. 329 AD (POSTHUMOUS ISSUE, ca. 340)
AE 13.5 mm 1.58 g
O: FL IVL HELENAE AVG
DIAD DRU BUST R
R: PAX PVBLICA
PAX STANDING L HOLDING BRANCH AND SCEPTER
laney
constantine_antioch_genio_resb.jpg
(0306) CONSTANTINE I (as Caesar)45 viewsstruck 306-307 AD
AE Follis 27.5 mm 8.22 g
Obverse: FL VAL CONSTANTINVS NOB CAES, Laureate head right
R: GENIO POPV_LI ROMANI; Genius standing left, modius on head, naked but for chlamys over left shoulder, liquors flowing from patera in right hand,cornucopiae in left.
D (Officina) in right field
ANT in exergue, Antioch
Not listed in RIC
laney
const_i_as_caes.jpg
(0306) CONSTANTINE I (as Caesar) 14 viewsstruck 306-307 AD
AE Follis 27.5 mm 8.22 g
O: FL VAL CONSTANTINVS NOB CAES, Laureate head right
R: GENIO POPV_LI ROMANI; Genius standing left, modius on head, naked but for chlamys over left shoulder, liquors flowing from patera in right hand,cornucopiae in left.
D (Officina) in right field
ANT in exergue, Antioch
Not listed in RIC
laney
constantine_i_vot_1~0.jpg
(0306) CONSTANTINE I (THE GREAT)74 viewsCaesar 306-307 AD; Filius Augustorum 307-309 AD; Augustus 309-337 AD
AE 19 mm 3.25 g
OBV: CONSTANTINVS AVG
LAUR HEAD R
REV: DN CONSTANTINI MAX AVG AROUND LAUREL WREATH, VOT DOT DOT XX WITHIN, IN 4 LINES
TSAVI IN EXE
THESSALONICA
2 commentslaney
maxentius_discouri_comb_res.jpg
(0306) MAXENTIUS (USURPER)55 views306 - 312 AD
struck 309 AD
AE FOLLIS 24.5 mm 5.78 g
O: IMP C MAXENTIVS PF AVG, LAUR BUST R
R: AETERNITAS AVG N, DIOSCURI STANDING FACING EACH OTHER, WITH STAR ABOVE EACH HEAD, HOLDING HORSES BY BRIDLES, SHE-WOLF AND TWINS BELOW
MOSTB IN EXE
(usurper, killed by Constantine I at Battle of the Milvian Bridge)
OSTIA
RIC (VI) 16
(ex G.Clark)
2 commentslaney
maxentius_discouri_comb_resb.jpg
(0306) MAXENTIUS (USURPER)21 views306 - 312 AD
struck 309 AD
AE FOLLIS 24.5 mm 5.78 g
O: IMP C MAXENTIVS PF AVG, LAUR BUST R
R: AETERNITAS AVG N, DIOSCURI STANDING FACING EACH OTHER, WITH STAR ABOVE EACH HEAD, HOLDING HORSES BY BRIDLES, SHE-WOLF AND TWINS BELOW
MOSTB IN EXE
(usurper, killed by Constantine I at Battle of the Milvian Bridge)
OSTIA
RIC (VI) 16
laney
max_discouri_comb_resized.jpg
(0306) MAXENTIUS (USURPER)/DIOSCURI AND SHE-WOLF WITH TWINS51 viewsAE FOLLIS 24.5 mm 5.78 g
306 - 12 AD; STRUCK 309 AD
O: IMP C MAXENTIVS PF AVG
LAUR BUST R
R: AETERNITAS AVG N
DIOSCURI STANDING FACING EACH OTHER, WITH STAR ABOVE EACH HEAD, HOLDING HORSES BY BRIDLES, SHE-WOLF AND TWINS BELOW
MOSTB IN EXE
(usurper, killed by Constantine I at Battle of the Milvian Bridge)
OSTIA
RIC (VI) 16
(ex G.Clark)
laney
constantine_ii_single_std.jpg
(0316) CONSTANTINE II as Caesar10 views316-337 AD
Struck 337
Æ Follis 17 mm, 1.31 g
O:CONSTANTINV-S IVN NOC Laureate and cuirassed bust r.
R: GLOR-IA EXERC-ITVS Two soldiers holding spears and shields, standard between them; ESIS-star in exe
Siscia, RIC VII 262.
laney
CONSTANTINE_II_VIC_RES.jpg
(0317) CONSTANTINE II (as Augustus)33 views317 - 337 AD (as Caesar)
337 - 340 AD (as Augustus)
AE 14 mm, 1.47 g.
O: VIC CONSTANTINVS AVG, laureate and cuirassed bust of Constantine II right
R: Emperor standing facing, head right, holding spear and resting hand on grounded shield;
ROME RIC 4. (Rare type struck only at the mint of Rome)

laney
cst_II_glor_smanb_res.jpg
(0317) CONSTANTINE II (as Augustus)37 views317 - 337 AD (as Caesar)
337 - 340 AD (as Augustus)
AE 14 mm; 1.60 g
O: CONSTAN-TINVS AVG, rosette diademed, draped, cuirassed bust right
R: GLOR-IA EXERC-ITVS, two soldiers holding spears and shields with one standard between them.; SMANB in exe.
Antioch mint
laney
constantine_ii_gate.jpg
(0317) CONSTANTINE II (as Caesar)14 views317 - 337 AD (as Caesar)
337 - 340 AD (as Augustus)
e 19 mm, 1.66 g
O: CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right.
R: Campgate, six layers, two turrets, star above

laney
constantine_ii_gloria_SMKS_one_std.jpg
(0317) CONSTANTINE II (as Caesar)20 views317 - 337 AD (as Caesar)
337 - 340 AD (as Augustus)
AE 16 mm; 1.90 g
CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C, laureate, draped, cuirassed bust right.
GLOR-IA EXERC-ITVS, Two soldiers standing facing each other;
each holding a spear and resting hand on shield, one
standard between them. SMKS in exe.
Cyzicus Mint; RIC VII Cyzicus 123; Sear 17361
laney
CONSTANTINE_II_B.jpg
(0317) CONSTANTINE II (as Caesar)53 views317 - 337 AD (as Caesar)
337 - 340 AD (as Augustus)
STRUCK 321 - 324
AE 20 mm 2.64 g
O: DN FL CL CONSTANTINVS NOB C; LAUR DR CUIR BUST R
R: IOVI CONSERVATORI; JUPITER STANDING L HOLDING VICTORY ON GLOBE AND EAGLE-TIPPED SCEPTER, EAGLE WITH WREATH AT FEET ON L, CAPTIVE ON R; X/IIG (DOT IN R FIELD?); SMHA IN EXE
HERACLEA RIC 55, R1
laney
constantine_ii_gloria_scons.jpg
(0317) CONSTANTINE II (as Caesar)29 views317 - 337 AD (as Caesar)
337 - 340 AD (as Augustus)
AE 18.5 mm 2.21 g
O: [CONSTANTI]NVS IVN NOB C, Laureate cuirassed bust right
R: GLORIA EXERCITVS, Two soldiers facing each other with two standards between them; pellet between standards; SCONS in exe.
Constantinople mint
laney
constantine_ii_gloria_unk_res.jpg
(0317) CONSTANTINE II (as Caesar)23 views317 - 337 AD (as Caesar)
337 - 340 AD (as Augustus)
AE 17 mm 2.32 g
O: CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C, Laureate cuirassed bust right
R: GLORIA EXERCITVS, Two soldiers facing each other with two standards between them; TRP pellet in exe
Trier mint
laney
consstantine_ii_sis_glor_res.jpg
(0317) CONSTANTINE II (as Caesar)29 views317 - 337 AD (as Caesar)
337 - 340 AD (as Augustus)
AE 18.5 mm, 3.11 g
O: CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C, Laureate cuirassed bust right
R: GLORIA EXERCITVS, Two soldiers facing each other with two standards between them; pellet SIS pellet in exe.
Siscia mint
laney
constantine_ii_cg_res.jpg
(0317) CONSTANTINE II (as Caesar)28 views317 - 337 AD (as Caesar)
337 - 340 AD (as Augustus)
Struck 326-328 AD
O: CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C, laureate, draped & cuirassed bust left
R: PROVIDENTIAE CAESS, campgate with six rows, two turrets, no doors and star above; SMTSD in exe
Thessalonica mint; RIC VII 157
laney
constantine_ii_gloria_plg_res.jpg
(0317) CONSTANTINE II (as Caesar)43 views317 - 337 AD (as Caesar)
337 - 340 AD (as Augustus)
AE 15 mm 1.65 g
O: CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C, Laureate cuirassed bust right
R: GLORIA EXERCITVS, Two soldiers facing each on either side of a single standard; leaf PLG in exe.
Lyons mint; RIC 286; rare (R4)
laney
constantine_ii_gloria_siscia_res.jpg
(0317) CONSTANTINE II (as Caesar)45 views317 - 337 AD (as Caesar)
337 - 340 AD (as Augustus)
AE 18.5 mm 2.21 g
O: CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C, Laureate cuirassed bust right
R: GLORIA EXERCITVS, Two soldiers facing each other with two standards between them; pellet between standards
Siscia mint
laney
constantine_ii_gloria_cyzi_single_std.jpg
(0317) CONSTANTINE II (as Caesar)15 views317 - 337 AD (as Caesar)
337 - 340 AD (as Augustus)
AE 16.8 mm; 1.33 g
O: CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right
R: GLOR-IA EXERC-ITVS, two soldiers holding spears and shields with one standard between them with O on banner.
Mintmark: SMKB.
Cyzicus Mint; Ref: RIC VII Cyzicus 125
laney
constantine_ii_glor_cyz_2_stds.jpg
(0317) CONSTANTINE II (as Caesar)19 views317 - 337 AD (as Caesar)
337 - 340 AD (as Augustus)
AE 18.5 mm; 2.06 g
O: CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C, diademed, draped & cuirassed bust right
R: GLORIA EXERCITVS, two soldiers with spears and sheilds standing either side of two standards, SMKB in ex.
Cyzicus Mint; RIC Vol VII 83 of Cyzicus, rarity R4.
laney
constantine_ii_gloria_thessalon.jpg
(0317) CONSTANTINE II (as Caesar)14 views317 - 337 AD (as Caesar)
337 - 340 AD (as Augustus)
AE 16.5 mm; 1.83 g
O: CONSTANTIN[VS IVN] NOB C, laureate, cuirassed bust right
R: GLORI-A EXER-CITVS, two soldiers holding spears and shields with two
standards between them. SMTS_ in exe
Thessalonica mint


laney
FAUSTA.jpg
(0324) FAUSTA54 views(2nd wife of Constantine I; daughter of Maximian; mother of emperors Constantine II, Constantius II, and Constans)
324 - 326 AD
AE 20.7 mm 2.86 g
O: FLAV MAX FAVSTA AVG
DR BUST R, HAIR WAVED WITH BUN AT TACK, WEARING PEARL NECKLACE
R: SPES REIPVBLICAE
FAUSTA STANDING FACING, LOOKING L, HOLDING INFANTS CONSTANTINE II AND CONSTANTIUS II
SMK DELTA(?) IN EXE
RIC 50 SCARCE
laney
heraclius_and_heraclius_constantine.jpg
(0610) HERACLIUS32 views610 - 641 AD
AE FOLLIS 25X30 mm 9.78 g
O: Heraclius on left holding long cross, and Heraclius Constantine on right holding globus cruciger, standing facing; cross between
R: Large M between ANNO and regnal year; CON in exe.
CONSTINOPLE
laney
heraclius_and_heraclius_constantine_(2).jpg
(0610) HERACLIUS33 views610 - 641 AD
AE FOLLIS 26 mm max. 4.98 g
O: standing figure of Heraclius left and Heraclius Constantine right cross between their heads
R: Large M, officina letter Γ beneath, cross over letter C above, CON in exe.
CONSTANTINOPLE



laney
leo_v.jpg
(0813) LEO V (The Armenian)70 views813-820 AD
AE Follis 17 mm X 20 mm 3.01 g
O: Facing bust of Leo with a short beard, wearing a crown and loros and holding cross potent
R: Facing bust of Constantine, beardless, wearing crown and chlamys and holding globus cruciger.
Syracuse mint, Sear Byzantine 1636



2 commentslaney
romanus_i_const_vii.jpg
(0920) CONSTANTINE VII and ROMANUS I LECAPENUS18 views920 - 944 AD
AE 23 mm, 4.99 g
O: Romanus I facing, bearded, wearing jewelled chlamys and crown with cross, globus cruciger in left, transverse labarum in right
R: Legend in four lines
laney
CONSTANTINE_VII.jpg
(0945) CONSTANTINE VII AND ROMANUS II28 viewsApr 945 - Nov 959 AD
AE FOLLIS 26 mm 5.77 g
(double strike on rev.)
O: +COnST bASIL ROM
CONSTINE VII FACING, BEARDED, WEARING MODIFIED LOROS AND CROWN WITH CROSS, GLOBUS CRUCIGER IN L HAND, AKAKIA IN R HAND
R: + COnSt/EnThEO bA/SILEVS R/OmEOn
DOC 26; SEAR 1761
laney
connstantine_x_a.jpg
(1059) CONSTANTINE X24 views1059-1067 AD
AE FOLLIS 27 mm 4.17 g
Obverse: Christ facing
Reverse: Eudocia and Constantine facing
SB 1853
laney
constantine_x.jpg
(1059) CONSTANTINE X26 views1059-1067 AD
AE FOLLIS 31 mm max. 6.92 g
Obverse: Christ facing
Reverse: Eudocia and Constantine facing
SB 1853
(gouges on obverse are the result of overstriking on an earlier issue that appears to be a class D anonymous follis (Sear 1836).
laney
alexius_iii.jpg
(1195) ALEXIUS III ANGELUS COMNENUS41 views1195 - 1203 AD
BILLON ASPRON TRACHY 26 mm 3.05 g
O: BUST OF CHRIST, FACING
R: ALEXIUS III (ON LEFT) AND ST. CONSTANTINE (ON RIGHT) STANDING, FACING
SEAR 2012

laney
2Pdwc7jEspK64DozHPy5Q3RmZFg8a9.jpg
(610-641) Heraclius [Sear 811]10 viewsHeraclius 610-641 AD
AE Follis (4.71 gm ; 22 mm)
Constantinople Mint
Obv: No Legend. Heraclius (center)� in military dress with long beard and mustache, Heraclius Constantine, and Heraclonas, all standing facing.
Rev: Large M between ANNO and numeric regnal year,� B (officina 2)� below; CONE in exergue
Ségusiaves
072~0.JPG
(610-641) Heraclius [Sear 871]8 viewsAR Half Siliqua, 0.70 gm. Carthage mint. Struck 617-641 AD. Crowned, draped, and cuirassed bust of Heraclius right / no legend, facing busts of Heraclius Constantine on left, wearing crown and chlamys, and Martina on right, wearing crown with long pendilia, and robes; cross between their heads, sometimes with four dots between their shoulders. DOC 233; MIB 149; SB 871.Ségusiaves
_T2eC16J,!)!FIcVeTMb)BSJhtPOzsw~~60_12.JPG
(613-632) Heraclius and Heraclius Constantine [Sear 886]18 viewsHeraclius and Heraclius Constantine, AE Decanummium, Catania mint. No legend, Heraclius, bearded on left and Heraclius Constantine, unbearded on right, crowned, draped and cuirassed busts facing, cross between their heads / Large I, ANNO to left, regnal year to right, mintmark CAT. SB 886, MIB 241.Ségusiaves
mi5K3Gagpx4S8iREL9tBCrX7oP6fc2.jpg
(717-741) LEO III [Sear 1530]12 viewsCrowned bust facing, wearing chlamys, holding cross on globe and akakia / DN O CONSTANTI... around crowned, facing bust of Constantine V, holding akakia and cross on globe, all above ornate horizontal bar; SC to left, L to right; large M below. SB 1530, DOC 54Ségusiaves
DCons.jpg
(Deceased) Constantine I Magnus59 views(Deceased) Constantine I Magnus, (338-340 CE)
Constantine I, veiled head/Constantine riding quadriga right, reaching up towards the hand of god (Manus Dei).
Trier Mint (?)
AE 12
Belisarius
Cons.jpg
(Deceased) Constantine I Magnus29 viewsFuneral issue of Constantine I (347-348 CE)
Veiled head of Constantine, right/Constantine standing right, wearing toga and veil. Legend: Veneranda Memoria.
Minted in Constantinople.
AE
Belisarius
rjb_lon4_05_06.jpg
(VI) 96cf35 viewsConstantine I
FL VAL CONSTANTINVS NOB C
Laureate, cuirassed bust right
MARTI PATRI PROPVGNATORI
Mars advancing right
-/-//PLN
RIC (VI) - (cf 96)
1 commentsmauseus
rjb_2010_02_02.jpg
(VI)10921 viewsConstantine I
IMP CONSTANTINVS P AVG
Laureate, cuirassed bust right
MARTI PATRI PROPVG
Mars advancing right
-/-//PLN
RIC (VI) 109
mauseus
rjb_2011_09_04.jpg
(VI)11118 viewsConstantine I
IMP CONSTANTINVS PF AVG
Laureate, cuirassed bust right
PRINCIPI IVVENTVTIS
Emperor standing left holding two standards
-/-//PLN
RIC (VI) 111
mauseus
rjb_lon5_05_06.jpg
(VI)121a42 viewsConstantine I
IMP CONSTANTINVS PF AVG
Laureate, cuirassed bust right
SOLI INVICTO COMITI
Sol standing left
T/F//PLN
RIC (VI) 121a
mauseus
rjb_con1_10_08.jpg
(VI)12429 viewsConstantine I
IMP CONSTANTINVS P AVG
Laureate, cuirassed bust right
SOLI INVICTO COMITI
Sol standing left
T/F//PLN
RIC (VI) 124
mauseus
rjb_2011_03_02.jpg
(VI)133cf33 viewsConstantine I
CONSTANTINVS PF AVG
Laureate, cuirassed bust left
ADVENTVS AVG
Emperor on horseback left
-/star//PLN
RIC (VI) - (cf 133ff), Huvelin -
1 commentsmauseus
rjb_lon_07_07.jpg
(VI)15338 viewsConstantine I
CONSTANTINVS PF AVG
Laureate, cuirassed bust right
COMITI AVGG NN
Sol standing left holding globe and whip
-/*//PLN
RIC (VI) 153
1 commentsmauseus
rjb_2009_09_18.jpg
(VI)15321 viewsConstantine I
CONSTANTINVS PF AVG
Laureate, cuirassed bust right
COMITI AVGG NN
Sol standing left holding globe and whip
-/*//PLN
RIC (VI) 153
mauseus
rjb_2010_02_04.jpg
(VI)17718 viewsConstantine I
CONSTANTINVS P AVG
Helmeted, laureate, cuirassed bust left holding spear and shield
COMITI AVGG NN
Sol standing left holding globe and whip
-/*//PLN
RIC (VI) 177
mauseus
rjb_2011_04_12.jpg
(VI)17712 viewsConstantine I
CONSTANTINVS P AVG
Helmeted, laureate, cuirassed bust left holding spear and shield
COMITI AVGG NN
Sol standing left holding globe and whip
-/*//PLN
RIC (VI) 177
mauseus
rjb_2010_10_12.jpg
(VI)206cf18 viewsConstantine I
CONSTANTINVS AVG
Laureate bust left wearing trabea and holding eagle tipped sceptre
CONCORD MILIT
Concordia standing left with two standards
-/star//PLN
RIC (VI) - (cf 206); Huvelin 92a
mauseus
rjb_08_09_a.jpg
(VI)21213 viewsConstantine I
CONSTANTINVS PF AVG
Laureate cuirassed bust right
GENIO POP ROM
Genius standing left
-/star//PLN
RIC (VI) 212
mauseus
rjb_lon7_05_06.jpg
(VI)21519 viewsConstantine I
CONSTANTINVS PF AVG
Laureate, cuirassed bust right
PRINCIPI IVVENTVTIS
Emperor standing left holding two standards
-/star//PLN
RIC (VI) 215
mauseus
rjb_lond_09_07.jpg
(VI)21522 viewsConstantine I
CONSTANTINVS PF AVG
Laureate, cuirassed bust right
PRINCIPI IVVENTVTIS
Emperor standing left holding two standards
-/star//PLN
RIC (VI) 215
mauseus
rjb_lon6_05_06.jpg
(VI)23424 viewsConstantine I
CONSTANTINVS PF AVG
Laureate, cuirassed bust right
SOLI INVICTO COMITI
Sol standing left
-/star//PLN
RIC (VI) 234
mauseus
rjb_2015_12_04.jpg
(VI)24115 viewsConstantine I
CONSTANTINVS P F AVG
Laureate and cuirassed bust right
SPES REIPVBL
Emperor on horseback left, extending arm in salute and holding spear; to left below, captive seated left
*/-//PLN
RIC (VI) 241
mauseus
rjb_2015_12_06.jpg
(VI)241cf10 viewsConstantine I
CONSTANTINVS P AVG
Helmeted and cuirassed bust left holding spear and shield
SPES REIPVBL
Emperor on horseback left, extending arm in salute and holding spear; to left below, captive seated left
*/-//PLN
RIC (VI) - (cf 241)
mauseus
rjb_2011_09_03.jpg
(VI)26520 viewsConstantine I
CONSTANTINVS PF AVG
Laureate, cuirassed bust right
PRINCIPI IVVENTVTIS
Emperor standing right holding spear and globe
star/-//PLN
RIC (VI) 265
mauseus
rjb_con2_10_08.jpg
(VI)28017 viewsConstantine I
IMP CONSTANTINVS PF AVG
Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right
SOLI INVICTO COMITI
Sol standing left
star/-//PLN
RIC (VI) 280
mauseus
rjb_08_09_b.jpg
(VI)28113 viewsConstantine I
IMP CONSTANTINVS P AVG
Laureate cuirassed bust right
SOLI INVICTO COMITI
Sol standing left
star/-//PLN
RIC (VI) 281
mauseus
rjb_2009_08_04.jpg
(VI)28112 viewsConstantine I
IMP CONSTANTINVS P AVG
Laureate cuirassed bust right
SOLI INVICTO COMITI
Sol standing left
star/-//PLN
RIC (VI) 281
mauseus
rjb_lon2_07_09.jpg
(VI)28223 viewsConstantine I
IMP CONSTANTINVS P AVG
Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right
SOLI INVICTO COMITI
Sol standing left
star/-//PLN
RIC (VI) 282
mauseus
rjb_2009_10_04.jpg
(VI)28211 viewsConstantine I
IMP CONSTANTINVS P AVG
Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right
SOLI INVICTO COMITI
Sol standing left
star/-//PLN
RIC (VI) 282
mauseus
rjb_adv_10_07.jpg
(VII) 121 viewsConstantine I
IMP CONSTANTINVS AVG
Laureate, cuirassed bust right
ADVENTVS AVG N
Emperor on horseback left
S/F//PLN
RIC (VII) 1
mauseus
rjb_2009_10_05.jpg
(VII) 88 viewsConstantine I
IMP CONSTANTINVS P AVG
Laureate, cuirassed bust right
SOLI INVICTO COMITI
Sol standing left
S/F//PLN
RIC (VII) 8
mauseus
rjb_lon_08_07.jpg
(VII) 1016 viewsConstantine I
IMP CONSTANTINVS AVG
Laureate, cuirassed bust right
SOLI INVICTO COMITI
Sol standing left
S/F//PLN
RIC (VII) 10
mauseus
rjb_lon4_07_09.jpg
(VII) 1014 viewsConstantine I
IMP CONSTANTINVS AVG
Laureate, cuirassed bust right
SOLI INVICTO COMITI
Sol standing left
S/F//PLN
RIC (VII) 10; Toone 15
mauseus
rjb_08_09_c.jpg
(VII) 1010 viewsConstantine I
IMP CONSTANTINVS AVG
Laureate, cuirassed bust right
SOLI INVICTO COMITI
Sol standing left
S/F//PLN
RIC (VII) 10
mauseus
rjb_2009_10_09.jpg
(VII) 1011 viewsConstantine I
IMP CONSTANTINVS AVG
Laureate, cuirassed bust right
SOLI INVICTO COMITI
Sol standing left
S/F//PLN
RIC (VII) 10
mauseus
rjb_lon5_07_09.jpg
(VII) 159 viewsConstantine I
CONSTANTINVS P AVG
Laureate, cuirassed bust right
SOLI INVICTO COMITI
Sol standing left
S/F//PLN
RIC (VII) 15; Toone 21
mauseus
rjb_2010_02_03.jpg
(VII) 1817 viewsConstantine I
CONSTANTINVS AVG
Helmeted, laureate, cuirassed bust left holding spear and shield
SOLI INVICTO COMITI
Sol standing left
S/F//PLN
RIC (VII) 18
mauseus
rjb_con_07_06_temp.jpg
(VII) 2128 viewsConstantine I
IMP CONSTANTINVS AVG
Laureate, cuirassed bust right
ADVENTVS AVG N
Emperor on horseback left
S/F//MLL
RIC (VII) 21
mauseus
rjb_2011_04_08.jpg
(VII) 2113 viewsConstantine I
IMP CONSTANTINVS AVG
Laureate, cuirassed bust right
ADVENTVS AVG N
Emperor on horseback left
S/F//MLL
RIC (VII) 21
mauseus
rjb_2009_08_05.jpg
(VII) 2728 viewsConstantine I
IMP CONSTANTINVS AVG
Laureate, cuirassed bust right
SOLI INVICTO COMITI
Sol standing left
S/F//MLL
RIC (VII) 27
mauseus
rjb_con3_10_08.jpg
(VII) 3217 viewsConstantine I
IMP CONSTANTINVS AVG
Laureate, cuirassed bust right
SOLI INVICTO COMITI
Sol standing left
S/F//MSL
RIC (VII) 32
mauseus
rjb_2009_10_10.jpg
(VII) 3312 viewsConstantine I
IMP CONSTANTINVS AG
Laureate, cuirassed bust right
SOLI INVICTO COMITI
Sol standing left
S/F//MSL
RIC (VII) 33
mauseus
rjb_lon8_05_06.jpg
(VII) 4614 viewsConstantine I
CONSTANTINVS P AVG
Laureate, cuirassed bust right
SOLI INVICTO COMITI
Sol standing left
S/F//MLN
RIC (VII) 46
mauseus
rjb_con_lon_04_06.jpg
(VII) 7012 viewsConstantine I
IMP CONSTANTINVS AG (sic)
Laureate, cuirassed bust right
SOLI INVICTO COMITI
Sol standing left
S/P//MSL
RIC (VII) 70
mauseus
rjb_08_09_e.jpg
(VII) 769 viewsConstantine I
CONSTANTINVS P AVG
Laureate, cuirassed bust right
SOLI INVICTO COMITI
Sol standing left
S/P//MSL
RIC (VII) 76
mauseus
rjb_2009_08_41.jpg
(VII) 9210 viewsConstantine I
CONSTANTINVS P AVG
Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right
SOLI INVICTO COMITI
Sol standing left
T/F//PLN
RIC (VII) 92
mauseus
rjb_lon_vii93_08_06.jpg
(VII) 9311 viewsConstantine I
CONSTANTINVS P AVG
Laureate, cuirassed bust right
SOLI INVICTO COMITI
Sol standing left
T/F//PLN
RIC (VII) 93
mauseus
rjb_2009_10_06.jpg
(VII)1118 viewsConstantine I
CONSTANTINVS P AVG
Laureate, cuirassed bust right
SOLI INVICTO COMITI
Sol standing left
S/P//PLN
RIC (VII) 111
mauseus
rjb_lond2_07_08.jpg
(VII)11719 viewsConstantine II
FL CL CONSTANTINVS IVN N C
Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right viewed from back
SOLI INVICTO COMITI
Sol standing left
S/P//PLN
RIC (VII) 117
mauseus
rjb_con_norm85_05_06.jpg
(VII)137cf40 viewsConstantine I
CONSTANTINVS AVG
Laureate, cuirassed bust right
SOLI INVICTO COMITI
Sol standing left
crescent/-//PLN
RIC (VII) - (cf 137-41)
2 commentsmauseus
rjb_lon3_07_09.jpg
(VII)13813 viewsConstantine I
CONSTANTINVS PF AVG
Laureate, cuirassed bust right
SOLI INVICTO COMITI
Sol standing left
crescent/-//PLN
RIC (VII) 138
mauseus
rjb_2009_10_07.jpg
(VII)14310 viewsConstantine II
CONSTANTINVS IVN N C
Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right viewed from back
SOLI INVICTO COMITI
Sol standing left
crescent/-//PLN
RIC (VII) 143
mauseus
rjb_2010_01_04~0.jpg
(VII)15618 viewsConstantine I
IMP CONSTANTINVS AVG
Helmeted, cuirassed bust left holding globe and spear
VICTORIAE LAETAE PRINC PERP
Two victories with inscribed shield on a short column
-/-//PLN
RIC (VII) 156
mauseus
rjb_2010_10_14~0.jpg
(VII)1579 viewsConstantine I
IMP CONSTANTINVS MAX AVG
Laureate helmeted, cuirassed bust right
VICTORIAE LAETAE PRINC PERP
Two victories with inscribed shield on a diamond patterned altar
-/-//PLN
RIC (VII) 157
mauseus
rjb_2014_01_06.jpg
(VII)16912 viewsConstantine I
IMP CONSTANTINVS AG
High crest helmeted, cuirassed bust left with spear over shoulder
VICTORIAE LAETAE PRINC PERP
Two victories with inscribed shield on an altar decorated with a wreath
-/-//PLN
RIC (VII) 169
mauseus
rjb_2010_10_15~0.jpg
(VII)181corr12 viewsConstantine II
FL CL CONSTANTINVS IVN N C
Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust left seen from rear
VICTORIAE LAETAE PRINC PERP
Two victories with inscribed shield on an altar decorated with a wreath
-/-//PLN
RIC (VII) 181corr

mauseus
rjb_lond1_07_08.jpg
(VII)19125 viewsConstantine I
CONSTANTINVS AVG
Helmeted, cuirassed bust right
VIRTVS EXERCIT VOT XX
Two captives seated below a standard
-/-//PLN
RIC (VII) 191
mauseus
f1.jpg
(VII)19117 viewsConstantine I
CONSTANTINVS AVG
Helmeted, cuirassed bust right
VIRTVS EXERCIT VOT XX
Two captives seated below a standard
-/-//PLN
RIC (VII) 191
mauseus
rjb_lon9_05_06.jpg
(VII)24317 viewsConstantine I
CONSTANTINVS AVG
Laureate, (cuirassed?) bust left holding eagle tipped sceptre
BEAT TRANQLITAS VOTIS XX
Altar
F/B//PLON
RIC (VII) 243
mauseus
rjb_lon14_05_06.jpg
(VII)25517 viewsConstantine II
CONSTANTINVS IVN NC
Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust left
BEAT TRANQLITAS VOTIS XX
Altar
F/B//PLON
RIC (VII) 255
mauseus
rjb_lon13_05_06.jpg
(VII)284var22 viewsConstantine II
CONSTANTINVS IVN NC
Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust left
BEAT TRANQLITAS VOTIS XX
Altar
-/-//PLON
RIC (VII) - (cf 284)
Bust C2?
1 commentsmauseus
rjb_lon12_05_06.jpg
(VII)28720 viewsConstantine II
CONSTANTINVS IVN NC
Helmeted, cuirassed bust left
BEAT TRANQLITAS VOTIS XX
Altar
-/-//PLON
RIC (VII) 287
1 commentsmauseus
rjb_2011_04_17.jpg
(VII)28914 viewsConstantine I
CONSTANTINVS AVG
Laureate head right
SARMATIA DEVICTA
Victory walking right with captive at feet
-/-//PLON crescent
RIC (VII) 289
mauseus
rjb_2011_08_10.jpg
(VII)29018 viewsConstantine I
CONSTANTINVS AG
Laureate head right
SARMATIA DEVICTA
Victory walking right with captive at feet
-/-//PLON crescent
RIC (VII) 290
1 commentsmauseus
rjb_2011_09_09.jpg
(VII)29315 viewsConstantine I
CONSTANTINVS AVG
Diademed bust right
PROVIDENTIAE AVGG
Camp gate with two turrets, star between
-/-//PLON
RIC (VII) 293
mauseus
rjb_2009_09_20.jpg
(VII)29627 viewsConstantine II
CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C
Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right viewed from the rear
PROVIDENTIAE CAESS
Camp gate with two turrets, star between, pellet in doorway
-/-//PLON
RIC (VII) 296 note
mauseus
rjb_08_09_f.jpg
(VII)29626 viewsConstantine II
CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C
Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right viewed from the rear
PROVIDENTIAE CAESS
Camp gate with two turrets, star between
-/-//PLON
RIC (VII) 296
mauseus
Constantine_I.jpg
*SOLD*31 viewsConstantine the Great AE3

Attribution: RIC VII 153, Nicomedia
Date: AD 328-329
Obverse: CONSTAN-TINVS AVG; head r. w/ pearl diadem
Reverse: RPVIDEN-TIAE AVGG; camp gate, two turrets, no doors, star above
Size: 18.54 mm
Weight: 3.1 grams
Noah
Constantine_I_31.jpg
*SOLD*71 viewsConstantine I AE3 Follis

Attribution: RIC VII 167, Ticinum
Date: AD 322-325
Obverse: CONSTAN-TINVS AVG, laureate head r.
Reverse: DN CONSTANTINIMAX AVG, VOT dot XX and crescent below within wreath,
ST in exergue
Size: 17.2 mm
Weight: 2.82 grams

This was my gift to my father on Father's Day 2010...a history fan himself, he LOVED it!!
3 commentsNoah
urbs_roma.jpg
*SOLD*34 viewsConstantine the Great
City Commemorative (VRBS ROMA)

Attribution: RIC VI 561, Trier
Date: AD 333-335
Obverse: VRBS ROMA; helmeted and cuirassed bust l.
Reverse: She-wolf stg. l. suckling Romulus and Remus; above palm between two stars, TRP in exergue
Size: 18.6 mm
Weight: 2,03 grams
Noah
Byzantine1.jpg
001 - Anonymus follis class A2 - Sear 181346 viewsObv: +EMMANOVHA, Bust of Christ facing, wearing nimbus cross with two pellets in each limb of cross, pallium and colobium, and holding book of Gospels, the cover ornamented with central pellet in border of dots. To left IC and to right XC.
Rev: IhSYS / XRISTYS / bASILEY / bASILE in foyr lines. Dot above and below.
This type is attributed to the joint regin of Basil II and Constantine VIII 976-1025 AD.
30.0 mm. diameter.
pierre_p77
normal_coin369.jpg
001. Constantine I9 viewsecoli
a39.jpg
001. Constantine I Barbarian56 viewsConstantine AE3 Barbarian Constantine I the "Great"ecoli
coins76.JPG
001. Constantine I Barbarian6 viewsConstantine AE3 Barbarian Constantine I the "Great"
ecoli
coins176.JPG
001. Constantine I Campgate Sisicia24 viewsConstantine I Ric Vii Sisicia 214

ecoli
coin366.JPG
001. Constantine I VLPP Siscia7 viewsRIC VII Siscia 61
ecoli
alexandria1.jpg
002 Constantine II 40 viewsobv: CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C. laur.,dr.and cuir.bust l.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE CAESS campgate two turrents star above
fld:/ex: wreath-II/SMAL(dot)
hill132
w9~0.JPG
002. Constantine II GLORIA EXERCITVS Nicomedia26 viewsRIC VIII Nicomedia 5
ecoli
c11~1.JPG
002. Constantine II Rome Vota16 viewsRIC VII Rome 236
ecoli
a13~0.JPG
002. Constantine II Solders and Standards Siscia 33 viewsConstantine II
CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C LC
GLOR-IA EXERC-ITVS
dot epsilon SIS dot
RIC VII Siscia 236
ecoli
t31.JPG
002. Constantine II Thessalonica GLORIA EXERCITVS32 viewsRIC VIII Thessalonica 55 c2
ecoli
p8.JPG
002. Constantine II Thessalonica GLORIA EXERCITVS23 viewsRIC VII Thessalonica 223 R5
ecoli
a23~0.JPG
002. Constantine II Thessalonica GLORIA EXERCITVS31 viewsCONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C
GLORI-A EXER-CITVS

RIC VII Thessalonica 199 R1
ecoli
coins134.JPG
002. CONSTANTINOPOLIS10 views002. CONSTANTINOPOLIS

Constantinopolis Commemmorative AE3/4. Time of Constantine the Great. CONSTANTINOPOLIS, laureate, helmeted & mantled bust left holding scepter / Victory standing left on foot of prow with scepter and leaning on sheild.
ecoli
alexandria2.jpg
003 Constantine II 20 viewsobv: CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C laur.,dr.and cuir. bust l.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE CAESS campgate with two turrents star above
ex: SMAL(A=alpha=1)
hill132
coins155.JPG
003. Pop Romanvs Constantinople13 viewsConstantine the Great, Commemorative issue, (0.84g) POP
ROMANVS Laureate and draped bust of Roman people left, cornucopia
on shoulder. / Star and CONSS in wreath. These tiny coins are
associated with the founding of the new capital at
Constantinople. F
ecoli
ConstantineI_(1).jpg
004 - Constantine I "the great" (307-337 AD), Follis - RIC 15340 viewsObv: CONSTANTINVS P F AVG. laureated and cuirassed bust right.
Rev: COMITI AVGG NN, Sol standing left, chlamys falling from left shoulder, holding up globe in right hand and whip in left hand.
Minted in Londinium - London - (* in right field, PLN in exe.), c mid 310 - late 312 AD.
pierre_p77
alexandria3.jpg
004 Constantine I 26 viewsobv: CONSTAN_TINVS AVG laur. head r.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE AVGG campgate with two turrents star above
fld:/ex: wreath-A/SMAL
hill132
alexandria4.jpg
005 Constantine I 20 viewsobv: CONSTAN_TINVS AVG laur. bust r.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE AVGG campgate with two turrents star above
fld:/ex: wreath/SMALA
hill132
005_Tiberius_Constantine.JPG
005. Tiberius Constantine, 578-582. AE 40 Nummi.44 viewsObv. Bust of Tiberius Constantine
Rev. Large M, CON below ANNO II to sides
Constantinople Mint, 580.
SB 430.
LordBest
Constantio_pio.jpg
006 - Constantius "Chlorus" (struck under Constantine I, 307-337 AD), Follis - RIC 78948 viewsObv: DIVO CONSTANTIO PIO, veiled, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right.
Rev: MEMORIA FELIX, lighted and garlanded altar; on either side an eagle.

Struck in Trier (PTR in exe) autumn 307 - end of 308. Commemorative issue struck under Constantine I.
pierre_p77
alexandria5.jpg
006 Constantine I 17 viewsobv: CONSTAN_TINVS AVG laur.bust r.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE AVGG campgate with two turrents star above
fld:/ex: wreath-B/SMAL
hill132
008_Heraclius,_Heraclonas,_Heraclius_Constantine.JPG
008. Heraclius 610-641. AE 40 Nummi.40 viewsObv. Heraclius flanked by Heraclonas and Heracius Constantine.
Rev. Large M, ANNO above, XXII to right.
? Mint.
LordBest
antioch2a.jpg
009 Constantine II 25 viewsobv: CONSTANTINUS IVN NOB C laur.,dr. and cuir. bust l.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE CAESS campgate with to turrents star above
fld:/ex: dot in doorway / SMANT(delta=4)
hill132
01-Constantine-II-Sis-95.jpg
01. Constantine II / 2 soldiers and standard.56 viewsAE 4, 337 - 341, Siscia mint.
Obverse: CONSTANTINVS MAX AVG / Diademed bust of Constantine II.
Reverse: GLORIA EXERCITVS / Two soldiers, each holding spear and shield, one standard between them. Christogram on standard.
Mint mark: ASIS (crescent and dot)
1.70 gm., 15 mm.
RIC #95; LRBC #770; Sear #17432.

Several mints used the title MAX for all three sons of Constantine the Great for a short time after his death. It's use on coins of Constantius II and Constans was quickly dropped, and P F (Pius Felix) was used instead, reserving MAX for the senior emperor (Constantine II).
Callimachus
antioch3a~0.jpg
010 Constantine I18 viewsobv: CONSTAN_TINVS AVG laur. head r.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE AVGGampgate with two turrents star above
ex: SMANTB
hill132
antioch3a.jpg
010 Constantine II21 viewsobv: CONSTAN_TINVS AVGG laur.bust r.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE AVGG campgate with two turrents star above
ex: SMANT(B=beta=2)
hill132
Constantin_the_greate.jpg
011 - Constantine I (307-337 AD), AE 3 - RIC 34169 viewsObv: CONSTAN-TINVS AVG, helmeted, cuirassed bust right.
Rev: BEATA TRAN-QVILLITAS, altar inscribed VO-TIS XX, surmounted by globe decorated with two diagonal lines, dot in upper and lower field and a horizontal row of dots. Three stars above
Minted in Trier (STR. in exe) 322 AD
4 commentspierre_p77
antioch4a.jpg
011 Constantine II 18 viewsobv: CONSTANTINVS IVN OB C laur.drp and cuir. bust l.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE CAESS campgate with two turrents star above
fld:/ex: dot in doorway / SMANT(B=beta=2)
hill132
Constantine_RIC_38.png
012 Constantine Follis61 viewsConstantine I. Follis. Constantinople (328-9)
Obv: CONSTANTINVS MAX AVG, rosette-diademed, draped bust right
Rev: CONSTANTINIANA DAFNE, Victory seated left on cippus, looking right, holding palm branch in each hand, trophy in background, captive seated left at foot.
Officina letter B in left field. Mintmark CONS star.
RIC VII 38 B (R4). EF-/EF. Very scarce.
Ex: Dattari Collection
Jesus Vico Auction 147 March 9, 2017
4 commentsorfew
antioch5a.jpg
012 Constantine II 18 viewsobv: CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C laur. drp. and cuir.bust l.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE CAESS campgate with two turrents star above
fld:/ex: dot in doorway / SMANT(delta=4)
hill132
antioch6a.jpg
013 Constantine I15 viewsobv: CONSTAN_TINVS AVG rosetta dia.bust r.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE AVGG campgate wit two turrents star above
ex: SMANTZ
hill132
0133.jpg
0133 - Nummus Constantine I 307-10 AC17 viewsObv/ IMP CONSTANTINVS PF AVG, laureate and cuirassed bust of C. r.
Rev/ PRINCIPI IV-VE-NTVTIS, C. in military outfit, held l., holding a standard on each hand; PLN in ex.

AE, 25.5 mm, 6.24 g
Mint: Londinium.
RIC VI/111 [S]
ex-Numismatik Lanz, eBay jul 2011 - art. #300571161041
dafnis
0134.jpg
0134 - Nummus Constantine I 319-20 AC28 viewsObv/ IMP CONSTANTIN-VS AVG, helmeted bust of C. l., cuirassed and with spear on r. shoulder.
Rev/ VICTORIAE LAETAE PRINC PERP, two Victories standing face to face, holding vota shield, with VOT / PR inscribed within; diamond mint mark inside altar, PLN in ex.

AE, 17.5 mm, 2.92 g
Mint: Londinium.
RIC VII/158 var. [S]
ex-Numismática Hinojosa, eBay jul 2011 - art. #280702971071
1 commentsdafnis
antioch8a.jpg
015 Constantine II12 viewsobv: CONSTANTIVS NO C laur. drp. and cuir.bust l.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE CAESS campgate with two turrents star above
ex: SMANTdelta
hill132
0156.jpg
0156 - Nummus Constantine II 324-5 AC30 viewsObv/ CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust of C. r.
Rev/ PROVIDEN-TIAE CAESS, camp gate with two turrets, star above, no door; PLON in ex.

AE, 19.2 mm, 3.59 g
Mint: Londinium.
RIC VII/296 [C3]
ex-Harlan J Berk, auction 176, lot 499
dafnis
antioch9a.jpg
016 Constantine I12 viewsobv: CONSTAN_TINVS AVG rosetta dia. bust r.
rev: PROVEDEN_TIAE AVGG campgate with two turrents star above
ex: SMANTr
hill132
0166.jpg
0166 - Nummus Constantine I 307-10 AC16 viewsObv/ IMP CONSTANTINVS P AVG, laureate and cuirassed bust of C. r.
Rev/ GENIO POP ROM, Genius standing l., modius on top, togate from waist down and holding patera and cornucopia; PLN in ex.

AE, 25.6 mm, 5.88 g
Mint: Londinium.
RIC VI/104 [S]
ex-Soler y Llach, auction Oct 2012, lot #2482
dafnis
antioch10a.jpg
017 Constantine II13 viewsobv: CONSTANTINVS IVN NOC C laur. drp. cuir. bust l.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE AVGG campgate with two turrents star above
fld:/ex: dot in doorway / SMANTS
hill132
0179.jpg
0179 - Nummus Constantine II 320-1 AC18 viewsObv/ CONSTANTINVS IVN NC, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust of C. l.
Rev/ VIRTVS EXERCIT, standard with VOT XX inscribed, cautives on both sides; PLON in ex.

AE, 18.9 mm, 3.38 g
Mint: Londinium.
RIC VII/290 [S]
ex-Artemide Aste, auction colln. English Gentleman, lot 504
dafnis
0196.jpg
0196 - Nummus Constantine I 313-4 AC33 viewsObv/ IMP CONSTANTINVS AVG, laureate and cuirassed bust of C. r.
Rev/ SOLI INVICTO COMITI, Sol standing l., extending r. arm and holding globe with l.h.; S F in field; PLN in ex.

AE, 21 mm, 3.93 g
Mint: Londinium.
RIC VII/10 [C3].
ex-vAuctions (Triskeles), auction 313, lot 365.
dafnis
0198.jpg
0198 - Nummus Constantine I 312-3 AC33 viewsObv/ IMP CONSTANTINVS P AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust of C. r.
Rev/ SOLI INVICTO COMITI, Sol standing l., extending r. arm and holding globe with l.h.; star in field; PLN in ex.

AE, 21 mm, 3.44 g.
Mint: Londinium.
RIC VI/282 [C].
ex-Naville Numismatics, auction e11, lot 284.
dafnis
02-Claudius-II-The-26.jpg
02. Claudius II: Thessalonica fractional.19 viewsAE3 fractional (half follis?), 317-18, Thessalonica mint.
Obverse: DIVO CLAVDIO OPTIMO IMP / Veiled bust of Claudius II, Gothicus.
Reverse: REQVIES OPTIMORVM MERITORVM / Emperor seated on curule chair, raising right hand and holding sceptre.
Mint mark:: . TS . Γ .
1.35 gm., 16 mm.
RIC #26; PBCC #906; Sear #16399.

Around the years 317 - 318, Constantine issued commemorative coins honoring three deified emperors: Claudius II Gothicus, Constantius I, and Maximian. It is not real clear when these coins were issued, but RIC assigns them to the years 317-18 saying there is evidence they were issued near or at the end of the Sol coinage. They are small AE3 in size (16 mm), but on flans that are much thinner and weigh significantly less than other coins of the period. Therefore they are generally regarded as fractionals. They were minted at Treveri, Arelate, Rome, Aquileia, Siscia, and Thessalonica.

Why these three emperors? Constantine claimed Claudius II Gothicus was one of his ancestors (probably not true). Constantius I was Constantine's father, and Maximian was the father of Constantine's wife, Fausta.

Callimachus
antioch13.jpg
020 Constantine I11 viewsobv: CONSTAN_TINVS AVG laur. bust r.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE AVGG campgate with two turrents star above, base
ex: delta-dot in doorway-epsilon / SMANT
hill132
antioch14.jpg
021 Constantine I38 viewsobv: CONSTAN_TINVS AVG rosetta dia. bust r.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE AVGG campgate with two turrents star above
ex: delta-dot in doorway-epsilon / SMANT
1 commentshill132
0212_RICVI_254.jpg
0212 - Nummus Constantine 312-3 AC13 viewsObv/ CONSTANTINVS PF AVG, laureate and cuirassed bust of C. r.
Rev/ MARTI CON SERVATORI, Mars standing r., holding inverted spear and leaning on shield. Star on field l.; PLN in ex.

AE, 22.1 mm, 4.97 g.
Mint: Londinium.
RIC VI/254 - CT 7.10.003 [C]
ex-vAuctions (Triskeles), auction 319, lot 348.
dafnis
0217_RICVII_290.jpg
0217 - Nummus Constantine I 323-4 AC8 viewsObv/ CONSTANTINVS AG, laureate bust of C. r.
Rev/ Victory advancing r. holding trophy and branch, advancing over captive on ground; around, SARMATIA DEVICTA; in ex., PLON and symbol.

AE, 20.5 mm, 3.78 g
Mint: Londinium.
RIC VII/2 [R2] - CT 10.01.003 [C]
ex-Roma Numismatics, auction e35, lot 1539 (ex-colln of a connoisseur)
dafnis
0218_RICVII_292.jpg
0218 - Nummus Constantine II c.324 AC11 viewsObv/ CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C, laureate bust of C. II r.
Rev/ Laurel wreath with VOT X inscribed on two lines inside; around, CAESARVM NOSTRORVM; in ex., PLON and symbol.

AE, 20.1 mm, 4.18 g
Mint: Londinium.
RIC VII/292 [C3] - CT 10.01.007 [CC]
ex-Roma Numismatics, auction e35, lot 1586
dafnis
antioch15.jpg
022 Constantine I 21 viewsobv: CONSTAN_TINVS AVGG rosetta dia. bust r.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE AVGG campgate with two turrents star above
ex: delta-dot in doorway-epsilon/SMANT
hill132
antioch18.jpg
025 Constantine I13 viewsobv: CONSTAN_TINVS AVGG laur. bust r.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE AVGG campgate with two turrents star above
fld:ex: dot in doorway / SMANTS
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arles1.jpg
028 Constantine I48 viewsobv: CONSTAN_TINVS AVGG pearl dia. bust r.
rev: VIRTV_S AVGG campgate with four turrents star above, wide open doors
fld:/ex: SF/ARLS
4 commentshill132
arles2.jpg
029 Constantine I13 viewsobv: CONSTAN_TINVS AVG pearl dia.bust r.
rev: VIRTV_S AVGG campgate with four turrents star above,wide open doors
fld:/ex: SF/ARLP
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03-Constantius-The-25.jpg
03. Constantius I: Thessalonica fractional.20 viewsAE3 fractional (half follis?), 317-18, Thessalonica mint.
Obverse: DIVO CONSTANTIO PIO PRINCIPI / Veiled bust of Constantius I.
Reverse: REQVIES OPTIMORVM MERITORVM / Emperor seated on curule chair, raising right hand and holding sceptre.
Mint mark: . T . SB .
1.78 gm., 16 mm.
RIC #25; PBCC #908; Sear unlisted.

Around the years 317 - 318, Constantine issued commemorative coins honoring three deified emperors: Claudius II Gothicus, Constantius I, and Maximian. It is not real clear when these coins were issued, but RIC assigns them to the years 317-18 saying there is evidence they were issued near or at the end of the Sol coinage. They are small AE3 in size (16 mm), but on flans that are much thinner and weigh significantly less than other coins of the period. Therefore they are generally regarded as fractionals. They were minted at Treveri, Arelate, Rome, Aquileia, Siscia, and Thessalonica.

Why these three emperors? Constantine claimed Claudius II Gothicus was one of his ancestors (probably not true). Constantius I was Constantine's father, and Maximian was the father of Constantine's wife, Fausta.

Callimachus
arles5.jpg
032 Constantine I13 viewsobv: CONSTAN_TINVS AVG peal dia. bust r.
rev: VIRTV_S AVGG campgate with four turrents star above,wide open doors
ex: SF/SCONST
hill132
arles6.jpg
033 Constantine I12 viewsobv: CONSTAN_TINUS AVG pearl dia. bust r.
rev: VIRTV_S AVGG campgate with four turrents star above,wide open doors
ex: SF/SCONST
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arles7.jpg
034 Constantine I 12 viewsobv: CONSTAN_TINVS AVG pearl dia. bust r.
rev: VIRTV_S AVGG campgate with four turrents star above, wide open doors
ex: SF/SCONST
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arles8.jpg
035 Constantine II16 viewsobv: CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C laur. drp. cuir. bust l.
rev: VIRTVS CAESS campgate with four turrents star above, wide open doors
ex: SF/TCONST
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arles10.jpg
037 Constantine II13 viewsobv: CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C laur. drp. cuir. bust l.
rev: VIRTVS CAESS campgate with four turrents star above, wide open doors
ex: SF/TCONST
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04-Maximianus-Sis-41.jpg
04. Maximian: Siscia fractional.43 viewsAE3 fractional (half follis?), 317-18, Siscia mint.
Obverse: DIVO MAXIMIANO SEN FORT IMP / Veiled bust of Maximian.
Reverse: REQVIES OPTIMORVM MERITORVM / Emperor seated on curule chair, raising right hand and holding sceptre.
Mint mark: SIS
1.61 gm., 15mm.
RIC #41; PBCC #838; Sear #16412.

Around the years 317 - 318, Constantine issued commemorative coins honoring three deified emperors: Claudius II Gothicus, Constantius I, and Maximian. It is not real clear when these coins were issued, but RIC assigns them to the years 317-18 saying there is evidence they were issued near or at the end of the Sol coinage. They are small AE3 in size (16 mm), but on flans that are much thinner and weigh significantly less than other coins of the period. Therefore they are generally regarded as fractionals. They were minted at Treveri, Arelate, Rome, Aquileia, Siscia, and Thessalonica.

Why these three emperors? Constantine claimed Claudius II Gothicus was one of his ancestors (probably not true). Constantius I was Constantine's father, and Maximian was the father of Constantine's wife, Fausta.

Callimachus
arles13.jpg
040 Constantine II15 viewsobv: CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C laur. drp. cuir. bust l.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE CAESS campgate with two turrents star above
ex: SF/ARLT
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arles16.jpg
043 Constantine I12 viewsobv: CONSTAN_TINEVS AVG pearl dia. bust r.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE AVGG campgate with two turrents star above, arches at top
fld:/ex: SF/SCONST
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FaustaCONSSalus.JPG
043. Fausta, wife of Constantine I. AE Follis, Constantinople mint.76 viewsAE Follis. Constantinople mint, late 326AD.

Obv.Bust of Fausta right FLAV MAX FAVSTA AVG

Rev. Fausta standing holding Constantine II and Constantius II SALVS REIPVBLICAE.

RIC VII 12; LRBC 976. gVF

A very rare and interesting coin. The mint at Constantinople was only in operation for a couple of months when Fausta was executed, coins of her and Crispus from this mint are very hard to come by.
1 commentsLordBest
faustaspes~0.jpg
043. Fausta, wife of Constantine I. AE Follis, Rome mint. FDC.190 viewsAE Follis. Rome mint.

Obv.Bust of Fausta right FLAV MAX FAVSTA AVG

Rev. Fausta standing holding Constantine II and Constantius II SPES REIPVBLICAE

RIC 292, S 3903, VM 6. R4.

FDC. Finest known Fausta bronze, with full mint lustre sheathed in a thin Tiber patina. ex- Tom Cederlind.
5 commentsLordBest
arles17.jpg
044 Constantine I13 viewsobv: CONSTAN_TINVS AVG pearl dia.bust r.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE AVGG campgate with two turrents star above
fld:/ex: SF/PCONST
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arles18.jpg
045 Constantine I8 viewsobv: CONSTAN_TINVS AVG laur bust r.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE AVGG campgate with two turrents star above
fld:/ex: SF/ARLP
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arles19.jpg
046 Constantine I10 viewsobv: CONSTAN_TINVS AVG pearl dia. bust r.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE AVGG campgate with two turrents star above
fld:/ex: SF/PCONST
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arles21.jpg
048 Constantine I. AE38 viewsobv: CONSTAN_TINVS AVG laur. bust r.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE AVGG campgate with two turrents star above
ex: P*AR
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arles22.jpg
049 Constantine I. AE324 viewsobv: CONSTAN_TINVS AVG pearl dia. bust r.
rev: VIRTV_S AVGG campgate with four turrents star above wide open doors
fld:/ex: SF/ARLP
1 commentshill132
05-Constantine-Ale-12.jpg
05. Constantine: Alexandria.49 viewsAE 4, 337 - 341, Alexandria mint.
Obverse: DV CONSTANTINVS PT AVGG / Veiled bust of Constantine.
Reverse: Constantine riding to heaven in quadriga; Hand of God reaches down to him.
Mint mark: ALB
1.05 gm., 15 mm.
RIC #12 var.; LRBC #1454 var.; Sear #17490var.

That this coin is from the mint in Alexandria is beyond doubt. However the mint mark without SM does not seem to be listed in RIC or LRBC.
2 commentsCallimachus
arles23.jpg
050 Constantine I. AE312 viewsobv: CONSTAN_TINUS AVG laur. bust r.
rev: VIRTVS AVGG campgate with four turrents star above wide open doors
fld:/ex: SF/ARLS
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arles26.jpg
053 Constantine I. AE311 viewsobv: CONSTAN_TINVS AVG laur. bust r.
rev: VIRTV_S AVGG campgate with four turrents star above wide open doors
ex: PA(crescent)RL
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arles28.jpg
056 Constantine I. AE312 viewsobv: CONSTAN_TINUS AVG pearl dia. bust r.
rev: VIRTV_S AVGG campgate with four turrents star above,wide open doors
fld:/ex:SF/PCONST
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ConstantineITrier.JPG
057. Constantine I, 307-337AD. AE3 Trier.37 viewsConstantine I. AE3. Trier mint. 321 AD. 2.87g.
Obv. Helmeted and cuirassed bust right CONSTANTINVS AVG.
Rev. Globe set on altar inscribed with VOTIS XX, BEATA TRANQVILLITAS. PTR in Exe.
RIC VII, p. 303, 316. C3. aEF.
LordBest
arles30.jpg
058 Constantine I. AE310 viewsobv: CONSTAN_TINVS AVG pearl dia. bust r.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE AVGG campgate with two turrents star above
fld:/ex: SF/PCONST
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arles31.jpg
059 Constantine II. AE331 viewsobv: COSTANTINVS IVN NOB C laur. drp. cuir bust l.
rev: VIRTVS CAESS campgate with four turrents star above wide open doors
ex: TA(crescent)RL
1 commentshill132
06-Constantine-Nic-57.jpg
06. Constantine: Nicomedia.57 viewsAE 4, 347 - 348, Nicomedia mint.
Obverse: DV CONSTANTINVS PT AVGG / Veiled bust of Constantine.
Reverse: VN MR / Constantine standing, veiled.
Mint mark: SMNI .
.96 gm., 14 mm.
RIC #57; LRBC #1155; Sear #17469.

VN MR stands for Venerabilis Memoria (Revered Memory).
RIC dates this coin 347 - 348, which was the 10'th anniversary of Constantine's death. LRBC, however, dates it to 341 - 346.

Callimachus
arles32.jpg
060 Constantine I. AE3 9 viewsobv: CONSTAN_TINVS AVG laur. bust r
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE AVGG campgate with two turrents star above
ex: SA crescent RL
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arles33.jpg
061 Constantine II10 viewsobv: COSTANTINVS IVN NOB C laur. drp. cuir bust l.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE CAESS campgate with two turrents star
fld:/ex: SF/ARLT
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arles34.jpg
062 Constantine I. AE315 viewsobv: CONSTAN_TINUS AVG pearl dia. head r.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE AVGG campgate with two turrents star above
fld:/ex: SF/PCONST
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arles35.jpg
063 Constantine I. AE313 viewsobv: CONSTAN_TINUS AVG laur. bust r.
rev: VIRTV_S AVGG campgate with four turrents star above,wide open doors
fld:/ex: SF/ARLS
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arles36.jpg
064 Constantine I. AE315 viewsobv: CONSTAN_TINVS AVG pearl dia. bust r.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE AVGG campgate with two turrents star above
fld:/ex: SF/ARLS
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arles37.jpg
065 Constantine I. AE321 viewsobv: CONSTAN_TINUS AVG laur. bust r.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE AVGG campgate with two turrents star above
fld:/ex: SF/ARLP
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arles38.jpg
066 Constantine I. AE317 viewsobv: CONSTAN_TINUS AVG pearl dia. head r.
rev: VIRTV_S AVGG campgate with four turrents star above wide open doors
ex: SF/PCONST
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arles39.jpg
067 Constantine I. AE318 viewsobv: CONSTAN_TINUS AVG pearl dia. head r.
rev: VIRTV_S AVGG campgate with four turrents star above wide open doors
ex: SF/PCONST
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arles40.jpg
068 Constantine II. AE314 viewsobv: CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C laur. drp. cuir. bust l
rev: VIRTVS CAESS campgate with four turrents star above wide open doors
ex: TA(crescent)RL
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arles41.jpg
069 Constantine I. AE322 viewsobv: CONSTAN_TINUS AVG pearl dia. head r.
rev: VIRTV_S AVGG campgate with four turrents star above wide open doors
ex: SF/ARLP
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06a-Constantine-Car-051c.jpg
06a. Constantine as Caesar: Carthage follis.52 viewsFollis, Nov. - Dec. 306, Carthage mint.
Obverse: FL VAL CONSTANTINVS NOB CAES / Laureate bust of Constantine.
Reverse: SALVIS AVGG ET CAESS FEL KART / Carthage standing, dressed in long robe, holding fruit in both hands. H in left field.
Mint mark: Γ
9.49 gm., 27 mm.
RIC #51c; PBCC #575; Sear #15551.
1 commentsCallimachus
06c-Constantine-Ser-026.jpg
06c. Constantine as Caesar: Serdica follis.54 viewsFollis, July 306 - Spring 307, Serdica mint.
Obverse: FL VAL CONSTANTINVS NOB CAESAR / Laureate bust of Constantine.
Reverse: GENIO POPVLI ROMANI / Genius standing, chlamys over left shoulder, pouring liquid from patera, holding cornucopiae. A in right field.
Mint mark: . SM . SD .
8.28 gm., 27 mm.
RIC #26; PBCC #848; Sear #15532.

RIC (vol VI, p. 489) says of this coin: " Rare for the Augusti, and very rare for the Caesars. This was evidently a small issue." This was the first issue to have Constantine on it, and due to political considerations, the last at Serdica. If you want a coin from each of the 19 mints that produced coins for Constantine, Serdica is the hardest to find.
2 commentsCallimachus
06d-Constantine-RIC-Lon-88b.jpg
06d. Constantine as Caesar: London follis.13 viewsFollis, summer 307, Londinium mint.
Obverse: FL VAL CONSTANTINVS NOB C / Laureate bust of Constantine.
Reverse: GENIO POP ROM / Genius standing, holding patera and cornucopiae.
Mint mark: PLN
7.05 gm., 28 mm.
RIC #88b; PBCC #11; Sear unlisted.
Callimachus
06e-Constantine-Rom-164.jpg
06e. Constantine as Caesar: Rome follis.41 viewsFollis, Summer 307, Rome mint.
Obverse: CONSTANTINVS NOB CAES / Laureate bust of Constantine.
Reverse: CONSERVATORES VRB SVAE / Roma seated in tetrastyle temple, holding globe and sceptre; knobs as acroteria, plain pediment.
Mint mark: RQ
5.64 gm., 25 mm.
RIC #164; PBCC #407; Sear #15512.
1 commentsCallimachus
07-Constantine-brockage.jpg
07. Constantine: brockage.20 viewsAE 4, 337-348.
Obverse: DV CONSTANTINVS PT AVGG / Veiled bust of Constantine.
Reverse: (incuse impression of the obverse side.)
1.41 gm., 14 mm.

A brockage is a coin that has a reverse showing an incuse impression of the obverse side. A brockage is created when a newly minted coin sticks to the reverse die, causing the next coin to be struck to have an incuse impression of the obverse of the stuck coin instead of an impression of the reverse die.
Callimachus
arles42~0.jpg
070 Constantine I12 viewsobv: CONSTAN_TINVS AVG pearl dia. head r.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE AVGG campgate with two turrents star above
ex: SF/PCONST
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arles42.jpg
070 Constantine I. AE319 viewsobv: CONSTAN_TINUS AVG pearl dia. head r.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE AVGG campgate with two turrents star above
ex: SF/PCONST
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07a-Constantine-Lug-273.jpg
07a. Constantine: Lugdunum follis.25 viewsFollis, Autumn 307 - Summer 308, Lugdunum mint.
Obverse: IMP C CONSTANTINVS P F AVG / Laureate bust of Constantine.
Reverse: PRINCIPI IVVENTVTIS / Constantine standing, in military dress, holding standard in each hand.
Mint mark: PLG
7.44 gm., 26 mm.
RIC #273; PBCC #259; Sear #16027.
Callimachus
07c-Constantine-Tre-841a.jpg
07c. Constantine: Treveri follis.16 viewsFollis, 309, Treveri mint.
Obverse: IMP CONSTANTINVS P F AVG / Laureate bust of Constantine.
Reverse: PRINCIPI IVVENTVTIS / Constantine standing, in military dress, holding transverse spear and globe. T in left field; F in right field.
Mint mark: PTR
8.25 gm., 28 mm.
RIC #841a; PBCC #153; Sear #16024.
Callimachus
07e-Constantine-Sis-200b.jpg
07e. Constantine as Filius Augustorum: Siscia follis.29 viewsFollis, 309 - 310, Siscia mint.
Obverse: CONSTANTINVS FIL AVGG / Laureate bust of Constantine.
Reverse: GENIO AVGVSTI / Genius standing, chlamys over left shoulder, pouring liquid from patera, and holding cornucopiae. Crescent in left field; A in right field.
Mint mark: SIS
6.14 gm., 24 mm.
RIC #200b; PBCC #786; Sear #15581.

The obverse legend shows Constantine as "Filius Augustorum" -- an empty title granted him after the conference at Carnuntum in November 308. Coins with this title were issued for a short time at 5 mints under the control of Galerius (Siscia, Thessalonica, Nicomedia, Antioch, Alexandria). This title was not recognized in the area under the control of Constantine himself, nor in Italy which was under the control of Maxentius.
Callimachus
07g-Constantine-Tre-862.jpg
07g. Constantine: Treveri follis.13 viewsFollis, 310 - May 313, Treveri mint.
Obverse: CONSTANTINVS P F AVG / Laureate bust of Constantine.
Reverse: MARTI CONSERVATORI / Mars standing, leaning on reversed spear, resting shield on ground. T in left field; F in right field.
Mint mark: PTR
3.80 gm., 23.5 mm.
RIC #862; PBCC #155a; Sear #15981.
Callimachus
07i-Constantine-Tre-884.jpg
07i. Constantine: Treveri follis.20 viewsFollis, 310 - 313, Treveri mint.
Obverse: CONSTANTINVS P F AVG / Laureate bust of Constantine.
Reverse: MARTI CONSERVATORI / Helmeted bust of Mars.
Mint mark: (none)
4.05 gm., 23 mm.
RIC #884; PBCC #156; Sear #16001.
Callimachus
07k-Constantine-Tre-890.jpg
07k. Constantine: Treveri follis.52 viewsFollis, 310 - 313, Treveri mint.
Obverse: IMP CONSTANTINVS AVG / Laureate bust of Constantine.
Reverse: SOLI INVICTO COMITI / Radiate bust of Sol.
Mint mark: (none)
4.86 gm., 23 mm.
RIC #890; PBCC #158; Sear #16125.
2 commentsCallimachus
07m-Constantine-Ant-167c.jpg
07m. Constantine: Antioch follis.41 viewsFollis, 312, Antioch mint.
Obverse: IMP C FL VAL CONSTANTINVS P F AVG / Laureate bust of Constantine.
Reverse: SOLI INVICTO / Sol in long robe, holding head of Serapis; Z in left field; star in right field.
Mint mark: ANT
5.05 gm., 19 mm.
RIC #167c; PBCC #1137; Sear #16044.
1 commentsCallimachus
LarryW1915.jpg
0805 Heraclius, 610-64143 viewsÆ follis, 31mm, 11.56g, F
Struck 613-614 at Constantinople, officina Δ
DD NN HERACLIUS ET HERA CONST PP A, Heraclius, bearded at left, and Heraclius Constantine, at right, both standing facing wearing crown and chlamys and holding globus cruciger, cross between their heads / Large M between ANNO and numeric regnal year, cross above and officina below.
Overstrike: a follis of Phocas with a portion of the obverse legend still present at 10 o'clock on the obv.
Ex: Glenn W. Woods
Sear 805; MIB 159
Lawrence Woolslayer
constantinople1.jpg
082 Constantine II19 viewsobv: FL IVL CONSTANTIVS NOB C laur. drp. cuir. bust l.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE CAESS campgate with two turrents star between, base at bottom
ex: B/CONS
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constantinople2.jpg
083 Constantine II15 viewsobv: CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C laur. drp. cuir. bust r.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE CAESS campgate with two turrents star above
ex: r/CONS
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constantinople3.jpg
084 Constantine I 17 viewsobv: CONSTAN_TINUS AVG laur. head r.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE AVGG campgate with two turrents star above
ex: A.CONS
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constantinople4.jpg
085 Constantine I15 viewsobv: CONSTAN_TINUS AVG laur. head r.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE AVGG campgate with two turrents star above
ex: A/CONS
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cyzicus1.jpg
087 Constantine I14 viewsobv: CONSTAN_TINUS AVG laur. head r.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE AVGG campgate with two turrents star above
ex: .SMK(DELTA).
hill132
cyzicus2.jpg
088 Constantine I12 viewsobv: CONSTAN_TINUS AVG laur. head r.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE AVGG campgate with two turrents star above
ex: ./SMK(epsilon)
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cyzicus3.jpg
089 Constantine I13 viewsobv: CONSTAN_TINVS AVG dotted dia. head r.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE AVGG campgate with two turrents star above
ex: SMKB.
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cyzicus5.jpg
091 Constantine I14 viewsobv: CONSTAN_TINVS AVG plain dia. head r.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE AVGG campgate with two turrents star above
ex: SMKB.
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cyzicus6.jpg
092 Constantine I12 viewsobv: CONSTAN_TINUS AVG laur. head r.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE AVGG campgate with two turrents star above
ex: .SMKr.
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cyzicus7.jpg
093 Constantine I9 viewsobv: CONSTAN_TINUS AVG laur. head r.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE AVGG campgate with two turrents star above
ex: SMKr.
hill132
cyzicus8.jpg
094 Constantine I11 viewsobv: CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C laur. drp. cuir. bust l.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE CAESS campgate with two turrents star above
ex: SMKA.
hill132
cyzicus9.jpg
095 Constantine II15 viewsobv: CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C laur. drp. cuir. bust l.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE CAESS campgate with two turrents star above
ex: SMKB
hill132
cyzicus10.jpg
096 Constantine II14 viewsobv: CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C laur. drp. cuir. bust l.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE CAESS campgate with two turrents star above
ex: SMKA.
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LarryW1925.jpg
0964 Constans II, AD 641-66852 viewsGold solidus, 20mm, 4.31g, EF
[legend blundered and fragmentary], facing busts of Contans II with long beard (on left), and Constantine IV, beardless (on right), each clad in chlamys, Constans wearing plumed crown (or helmet), his son wearing simple crown, cross in upper field between their heads / VICTORIA AVGU Δ, cross potent on three steps between facing standing figures of Heraclius (on left) and Tiberius (on right), both beardless, each wearing crown and chlamys and holding globus cruciger in right hand; CONOB in exergue. Some surface deposits on obverse and a little flatness in the striking affecting both sides.
Certificate of Authenticy by David R. Sear, ACCS
Ex: Forvm Ancient Coins
Sear 964; DOC 30d; MIB 31; Wroth (BMC) 55; Tolstoi 293
Lawrence Woolslayer
cyzicus11.jpg
097 Constantine I15 viewsobv: CONSTAN_TINUS AVG laur. head r.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE AVGG campgate with two turrents star above
ex: SMKr.
hill132
cyzicus12.jpg
098 Constantine I14 viewsobv: CONSTAN_TINUS AVG laur. head r.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE AVGG campgate with two turrents star above
ex: SMKA.
hill132
cyzicus13a.jpg
099 Constantine II9 viewsobv: CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C pearl dia. drp. bust l.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE CAESS
ex: SMK(delta)
hill132
Personajes_Imperiales_10.jpg
10 - Personalities of the Empire43 viewsSeverus II, Maxentius, Romulus, Constantine I, Helena, Fausta, Alexander, Licinius I, Constantia, Maximinus II, Valerius Valens, Licinius II, Crispus and Martinianusmdelvalle
Personajes_Imperiales_10~0.jpg
10 - Personalities of the Empire41 viewsRomulus, Constantine I, Helena, Fausta, Licinius I, Constantia, Maximinus II, Licinius II, Crispus, Constantine II, Delmatius, Hanibalianus, Constans and Constantius II.

mdelvalle
cyzicus14a.jpg
100 Constantine II10 viewsobv: CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB CAESS laur. drp. cuir. bust l.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE CAESS campgate with two turrents star above
ex: .SMKr.
hill132
100- Constantine -10.JPG
100- Constantine The Great -1050 viewsAE reduced follis, 317-320 Cyzicus mint.
Obv: IMP CONSTANTINVS AVG, Laureate draped bust left withg globe and mappa.
Rev: IOVI CONSERVATORI AVGG, Jupiter standing holding Victory on globe and scepter. Wreath left, B right.
SMK in exergue.
18mm, 3.1gm
RIC 8, R1
jdholds
cyzicus15a.jpg
101 Constantine II18 viewsobv: CONSTANTINVS IVN OB C laur. drp. cuir. bust l.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE CAESS campgate with two turrents star above
ex: SMKr.
1 commentshill132
cyzicus16a.jpg
102 Constantine II13 viewsobv: CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C laur. drp. cuir. bust l.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE CAESS campgate with two turrents star above
ex: SMK(epsilon)
hill132
cyzicus19a.jpg
105 Constantine II9 viewsobv: CONSTANTINVS IVN OB C laur. drp. cuir. bust l.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE CAESS campgate with two turrents star above
ex: SMK(delta).
hill132
1059-1067 Constantin IX S 1853.jpg
1059-1067 Constantin IX - follis from Constantinople53 views+EMMANOVHΛ , Christ standing facing, in field IC / XC
+ KωN T ΔK EVΔK AVΓO , Eudocia and Constantine IX standing facing holding labarum (Constantine IX and Eudocia are depicted like the icon of Constantine the Great and his mother Helena holding the True Cross).

Sear 1853
Ginolerhino
cyzicus20a.jpg
106 Constantine I 9 viewsobv: CONSTAN_TINVS AVG laur. head r.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE AVGG campgate with two turrents star above
ex: .SMKr.
hill132
cyzicus21.jpg
107 Constantine I11 viewsobv: CONSTAN_TINVS AVG laur. head r.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIE AVGG campgate with two turrents star above
ex: SMKA.
hill132
107- Constantine -17.JPG
107- Constantine The Great -17837 viewsAE4, 337-340 AD, Cyzicus mint.
Obv: DN CONSTANTINVS PT AVGG, Veiled head right.
Rev: Constantine in quadriga galloping left, the hand of God reaching down from heaven to welcome him.
SMKE. in exergue.
16mm, 1.8gm
RIC VIII 19
jdholds
cyzicus22.jpg
108Constantine I 11 viewsobv: CONSTAN_TINVS AVGG laur. head r.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE AVGG campgate with two turrents star above
ex: SMKA
hill132
cyzicus23.jpg
109 Constantine I14 viewsobv: CONSTAN_TINVS AVG laur. head r.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE AVGG campgate with two turrents star above
ex: SMKB.
hill132
cyzicus24.jpg
110 Constantine I 9 viewsobv: CONSTAN_TINVS AVG laur. head r.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE AVGG campgate with two turrents star above
ex: .SMK(delta).
hill132
rjb_con_1108_11_05.jpg
1108 Nicomedia39 viewsLRBC I 1108
RIC VII 153
1 commentsmauseus
cyzicus25.jpg
111 Constantine I15 viewsobv: CONSTAN_TINVS AVG laur. head r.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE AVGG campgate with two turrents star above
ex: SMKB.
hill132
111-Constantine-19.JPG
111-Constantine The Great-19-S48 viewsAE Follis, 313-317 AD , Nicomedia mint.
Obv: IMP C FL VAL CONSTANTINVS PF AVG, Laureate head right.
Rev: IOVI CONSERVATORI, Jupiter standing holding Victory on globe and sceptre. Eagle at feet with wreath in beak, S right.
SMN in exergue.
19mm, 3.3gm.
RIC12
jdholds
cyzicus26.jpg
112 Constantine II 17 viewsobv: CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C laur. drp. cuir. bust r.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE CAESS campgate with two turrents star above
ex: .SMKr.
hill132
cyzicus26~0.jpg
112 Constantine II12 viewsobv: CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C laur. drp. cuir. bust l.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE CAESS campgate with two turrents star above
ex: .SMKr.
hill132
112- Constantine-20.JPG
112- Constantine The Great -2042 viewsSilvered AE3, 317-320 AD, Cyzicus mint.
Obv: IMP CONSTANTINVS AVG, Laureate bust left wearing imperial mantle and holding globe and mappa.
Rev: IOVI CONSERVATORI CAESS, Jupiter standing left holding Victory on globe and sceptre. Wreath left A right.
SMK in exergue.
17mm, 3.1gm.
Mule, RIC 8 Obv, RIC 10-12 Rev.
jdholds
cyzicus27.jpg
113 Constantine I17 viewsobv: CONSTAN_TINVS AVG laur. head r.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE AVGG campgate with two turrents star above
ex: .SMK(delta).
hill132
113- Constantine-21.JPG
113- Constantine The Great -21-S34 viewsAE Follis, 312-313 AD, Alexandria mint.
Obv: F VALER CONSTANTINVS PF AVG, Laureate head right.
Rev: GENIO AVGVSTI, Genius holding the head of Serapis, N left A right, Palm at feet.
ALE in exergue.
20mm
RIC 161.
jdholds
114- Constantine-22.JPG
114- Constantine The Great -22-S46 viewsAE Follis, 313-317 AD , Nicomedia mint.
Obv: IMP C FL VAL CONSTANTINVS PF AVG, Laureate head right.
Rev: IOVI CONSERVATORI, Jupiter standing holding Victory on globe and sceptre. Eagle at feet with wreath in beak, Z right.
SMN in exergue.
21mm, 3.1gm.
RIC12
jdholds
cyzicus29.jpg
115 Constantine II12 viewsobv: CONSTANTINVS VN NOB C laur. drp. cuir. bust l.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE CAESS campgate with two turrents star above
ex: SMKB.
hill132
115- Constantine-23.JPG
115- Constantine The Great -23-S37 viewsAE Follis, 313-317 AD , Heraclea mint.
Obv: IMP C FL VAL CONSTANTINVS PF AVG, Laureate head right.
Rev: IOVI CONSERVATORI, Jupiter standing holding Victory on globe and sceptre. Eagle at feet with wreath in beak, G right.
SMHT in exergue.
24mm, 3.0gm.
RIC5
jdholds
cyzicus30.jpg
116 Constantine I12 viewsobv: CONSTAN_TINVS AVG laur. head r.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE AVGG campgate with two turrents star above
ex: .SMK(delta).
hill132
cyzicus31.jpg
117 Constantine II16 viewsobv: CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C laur. drp. cuir. bust l.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE CAESS campgate with two turrents star above
ex: SMK(delta).
hill132
cyzicus32.jpg
118 Constantine I14 viewsobv: CONSTAN_TINVS AVG laur. head r.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE AVGG campgate with two turrents star above
ex: SMKA.
hill132
cyzicus33.jpg
119 Constantine I11 viewsobv: CONSTAN_TINVS AVG laur. head r.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE AVGG campgate with two turrents star above
ex: SMKr.
hill132
rjb_cg3_02_05.jpg
1195 Cyzicus28 viewsConstantine I
LRBC I 1195
RIC VII 51
mauseus
Heraclius_SB_890.jpg
12. Heraclius and Heraclius Constantine12 viewsHERACLIUS & HERACLIUS CONSTANTINE
Half follis, Rome, 610-641

DD NN ERACLIORVN Facing busts of Heraclius, no beard, on l., Heraclius Constantine, no beard, on r. / Large XX, cross above, ROM below

SB 890, DOC 262 aF/F
Sosius
2860424.jpg
12. Heraclius with Heraclius Constantine16 viewsHeraclius, with Heraclius Constantine

AV Solidus (19mm, 4.51 g, 7h). Constantinople mint, 5th officina. Struck 616-circa 625.

O: Crowned facing busts of Heraclius and Heraclius Constantine; cross above

R: Cross potent set on three steps; Є//CONOB.


DOC 13d; MIB 11; SB 738. VF.

Ex CNG
1 commentsSosius
image~4.jpg
12. Heraclius with Heraclius Constantine and Heraclonas39 viewsHeraclius, with Heraclius Constantine and Heraclonas. 610-641.
AV Solidus (18mm, 4.34 g, 6h). Constantinople mint, 6th officina.
Dated IY 11 (AD 637/8).
Crowned figures of Heraclonas, Heraclius, and Heraclius Constantine standing facing, each holding globus cruciger / Cross potent set on three steps; monogram to left, IA monogram (date) to right; ς//CONOB.
DOC 39e; MIB 45; SB 764. EF, areas of weak strike.
Ex-CNG
1 commentsSosius
cyzicus34.jpg
120 Constantine II12 viewsobv: CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C laur. drp.cuir. bust l.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE CAESS campgate with two turrents star above
ex: SMK(delta)
hill132
121c.jpg
121c Constantine I. AE follis 4.1gm24 viewsobv: IMP CONSTANTINVS AVG laur. cuir. bust r.
rev: SOLI INVIC_TO CAMITI Sol rad.std. l. raising r. hand, globe in l. chlamys across l. shoulder
ex: T-F//PTR
hill132
121d.jpg
121d Constantine I. AE follis 3.2gm25 viewsobv: CONSTAN_TINVS AVG rossetta dia. head r. looking upward
rev: DN CONSTANTINI MAX AVG laur. wreath Inclosing VOT/XXX
EX: .SMHA
hill132
121e.jpg
121e Constantine I. AE4 1.3gm25 viewsobv: D V CONSTANTINVS PT AVGG head veiled in toga r.
rev: emp. veiled to r. in quadriga, th hand of God reaches down to him
ex: SMN(EPSOLON)(dot)
hill132
121f.jpg
121f Constantine I. AE follis 3.4gm17 viewsobv: CONSTA_NTINVS AVG laur. helm. cuir. bust r.
rev: VICT.LAETAE PRINC PERP/ two victories std. facing one another, together holding shield inscribed VOT/PR, I in alter
ex: .BSIS.
hill132
121g.jpg
121g Constantine I. Ae barbarous follis 2.8gm26 viewsobv: BLA!BLA!BLA! laur.helm. cuir. bust l.
rev: SSSSSSSS two victories inscribing shield set upon alter with MMM
EX: BLA!
hill132
121h.jpg
121h Constantine I. AE follis 3.1g16 viewsobv: IMP CONSTANTINVS PF AVG laur. helm. cuir. bust r.
rev: VICTORIAE LAETAE PRINC PERP two victories std. facing together holding shield inscribed VOT/PR S in alter
ex: (delta)SIS.
hill132
121i.jpg
121i Constantine I. AE4 1.9gm35 viewsobv: CONSTANTI_NV MAX AVG ros. dia. drp. cuir. bust r.
rev: GLORI_A EXERC_ITVS two soldiers, one standard
ex: SMAN(delta)
2 commentshill132
121j.jpg
121j Constantine I. AE3/4 2.4gm20 viewsobv: CONSTANTI_NVS MAX AVG rosetta dia. drp.cuir. bust r.
rev: GLOR_IA EXERC_ITVS two soldiers, two standards
ex: SMANA
hill132
121k.jpg
121k Constantine I. AE follis 4.0gm29 viewsobv: IMP C CONSTANTINVS PF AVGG laur. drp. cuir. bust r.
rev: IOVI CONSERVATORIA AVG NN Jupiter std. l. holding Victory on globe and scepter, eagle at feet, wreath in beak
ex: .TS.(epsilon).
hill132
121l.jpg
121l Constantine I. AE follis 3.4gm20 viewsobv: IMP CONSTANTIVS PF AVG helm. and cuir. bust r.
rev: VICTORIA LAETAE PRINC PERP two Victories holding shield inscribe VOT/PR alter below
ex: BSIS*
hill132
121m.jpg
121m Constantine I. AE follis 3.5gm20 viewsobv: CONSTAN_TINVS AVG laur. bust r.
rev: DN CONSTANTINVS MAX AVG / VOT XX in wreath
ex: */ST
hill132
121n.jpg
121n Constantine I. AE follis 2.8gm16 viewsobv: CONSTAN_TINVS AVG laur head r.
rev: DN CONSTANTINVS MAX AVG/ VOT . XX in wreath
ex: ST
hill132
121o.jpg
121o Constantine I. AE follis 3.5gm29 viewsobv: IMP C FL VAL CONSTANTINVS PF AVG laur. head r.
rev: IOVI CONS_ERVATORI Jupiter std. l. holding victory on globe and scepter, eagle with wreath at feet
ex: -(epsilon)/SMN
1 commentshill132
121p.jpg
121p Constantine I. AE follis 3.0gm27 viewsobv: IMP CONSTANTINVS PF AVG helm. cuir. bust r.
rev: VICTORIAE LAETAE PRINC PERP two victories holding shield inscribe VOT/PR, * in alter
ex: ASIS
hill132
121q.jpg
121q Constantine I. AE follis 18 viewsobv: IMP C FL VAL CONSTANTINO PF INV AVG laur. head r.
rev: IOVI CONS_ERVATORI Jupiter std. l. holding globe and scepter
ex: (wreath)/HTA
hill132
121r.jpg
121r Constantine I. AE 3/4 1.7gm17 viewsobv: DN CONSTAN_TINVS PF AVG laur. bust r.
rev: GLOR_IA EXERC_ITVS two soldiers one standard
ex: SMKr
hill132
121s.jpg
121s Constantine I. AE3/4 2.1gm21 viewsobv: CONSTANTI_NVS MAX AVG ross. dia. drp. cuir. bust r.
rev: GLOR_IA ERERC_ITVS two soldiers two standards
ex: SMANr
hill132
121t.jpg
121t Constantine I. AE follis 15 viewsobv: IMP C FL VAL CONSTANTINVS PF AVG laur. head r.
rev: IOVI CONS_ERVATORI Jupiter std. l. holding victory on globe and scepter, eagle at feet
ex: -r/SMN
hill132
121u.jpg
121u Constantine I. AE follis 2.4gm25 viewsobv: CONSTANTINVS MAX AVG laur. helm. cuir. bust r.
rev: VICTORIAE LAETAE PRINC PERP two victories holding shield inscribed VOT/PR * in alter
ex: STR
1 commentshill132
121v.jpg
121v Constantine I. AE3/4 15 viewsobv: CONSTANTI_NVS MAX AVG ros. dia. drp. and cuir. bust r.
rev: GLOR_IA EXER C_ITVS two soldiers. two standards
ex: SMNS
hill132
121w.jpg
121w Constantine I. AE follis 13 viewsobv: IMP CONSTANTINVS PF AVG laur. drp. cuir. bust r.
ex: MARTI CON_SERVTORI Mars r. holding spear and shield
ex: T-F//PTR
hill132
cyzicus36.jpg
122 Constantine II 13 viewsobv: CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C laur. drp. cuir bust l.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE CAESS campgate with two turrents star above
ex: SMKA.
hill132
rjb_ge2_10_12_06.jpg
1225 Cyzicus27 viewsConstantine II
LRBC I 1225
RIC VII 83
mauseus
cyzicus37.jpg
123 Constantine I11 viewsobv: CONSTAN_TINVS AVG laur. head r.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE AVGG campgate with two turrents star above
ex: SMK(delta)
hill132
123.jpg
123 Fausta. AE follis. 2.9gm23 viewsobv: FLAV.MAX.-FAVSTA AVG bare-head mantled bust r.
rev: SALVS REI_PVBLICAE Salus std. facing head l. holding two infants in her arms
ex: STR
"2nd wife of Constantine I"
hill132
cyzicus38.jpg
124 Constantine I13 viewsobv: CONSTAN_TINVS AVG laur. head r.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE AVGG campgate with two turrents star above
ex: SMKB.
hill132
124a.jpg
124a Helena. AE follis 3.8gm17 viewsobv: FL HELENA_AVGVSTA dia. and mantledbust r., wearing necklace
rev: SECVRITRITAS_ REIPVBLICE Securitas std. l., holding palm and drawing drapery
ex: SMH(EPSOLON)
"Mother of Constantine I and first wife of Constantius I)
hill132
129a.jpg
129a Constantine II. AE 3/4 1.9gm13 viewsobv: CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C laur. cuir. bust r.
rev: GLOR_IA EXERC_ITVS two soldiers, two standards
ex: SMANS
hill132
129b.jpg
129b Constantine II. AE 313 viewsobv: CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C laur. head r.
rev: CAESARM NOSTROVM laur. wreath inclosing VOT/./X
ex: ASIS(sun)
hill132
129c.jpg
129c Constantine II. AE 3 3.8gm11 viewsobv: CONSTANTINVS NN NOB C laur. drp. cuir. bust r.
rev: DOMINOR.OSTROM.CAESS laur. wreath inclosing VOT/V/*
ex: SMHD
hill132
129d.jpg
129d Constantine II. AE 322 viewsobv: CONSTANTINVS NN NOB C laur. drp. cuir. bust r.
rev: DOMINORVM NOCTRORVM CAESS laur. wreath inclosing VOT/./V
ex: PT
1 commentshill132
129e.jpg
129e Constantine I. AE 3/4 2.9gm23 viewsobv: CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C laur. cuir. bust r.
rev: GLOR_IA EXERC_ITVS two soldiers, two standards
ex: SMALB
hill132
129f.jpg
129f Constantine II. AE 3/4 15 viewsobv: CONSTANTINVS NOB C laur. cuir. bust r.
rev: GLOR_IA EXERC_ITVS two soldiers, two standards
ex: SMALA
hill132
129g.jpg
129g Constantine II. AE 3/4 14 viewsobv: CONSTANTI_NVS MAX AVG ros. drp. cuir. bust r.
rev: GLOR_IA EXERC_ITVS two soldiers,two standards
ex: SMALA
hill132
129h.jpg
129h Constantine II. AE 3/4 13 viewsobv: CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C laur. cuir. bust r.
rev: GLOR_IA EXERC_ITVS two soldiers, two standards
ex: SMANS
hill132
12a-Constantine-Rom-350a.jpg
12a. Constantine: Rome follis.19 viewsFollis, Oct. 312 - 313, Rome mint.
Obverse: IMP CONSTANTINVS P F AVG / Laureate bust of Constantine.
Reverse: SPQR OPTIMO PRINCIPI / Legionary eagle between two vexilla.
Mint mark: RQ
3.83 gm., 22 mm.
RIC #350a; PBCC #470; Sear #16128.
Callimachus
12c-Constantine-Ost-094.jpg
12c. Constantine: Ostia follis.23 viewsFollis, Oct 312 - May 313, Ostia mint.
Obverse: IMP C CONSTANTINVS P F AVG / Laureate bust of Constantine.
Reverse: SPQR OPTIMO PRINCIPI / Legionary eagle between two vexilla.
Mint mark: MOSTT
3.49 gm., 20 mm.
RIC #94; PBCC #631; Sear #16129.
Callimachus
12e-Constantine-The-061b.jpg
12e. Constantine: Thessalonica follis.17 viewsFollis, 312 - 313, Thessalonica mint.
Obverse: IMP C CONSTANTINVS P F AVG / Laureate bust of Constantine.
Reverse: IOVI CONSERVATORI AVGG NN / Jupiter standing, chlamys over left shoulder, holding Victory on globe, leaning on sceptre. Eagle with wreath in its beak at his feet.
Mint mark: . TS . Γ .
2.95 gm., 25 mm.
RIC #61b; PBCC #872; Sear #15972.
Callimachus
12g-Constantine-Her-075.jpg
12g. Constantine: Heraclea follis.35 viewsFollis, 313 - 314, Heraclea mint.
Obverse: IMP C FL VAL CONSTANTINVS P F AVG / Laureate bust of Constantine.
Reverse: IOVI CONSERVATORI AVGG / Jupiter standing, chlamys over left shoulder, holding Victory on globe, leaning on sceptre. Eagle with wreath in its beak at his feet. E in right field.
Mint mark: SMHT
3.95 gm., 22 mm.
RIC #75 (vol VI) and #5 (vol VII); Sear #15958.

This coin seems to be listed twice in RIC: #75 in Volume VI, and #5 in Volume VII.

RIC Volume VI (page 541) assigns this coin to the year 313, just before Maximinus (Daza) occupied the city of Heraclea for a month or so, during which he issued his own different coinage.

RIC Volume VII (page 542) assigns the coin to the period of time just after Maximinus withdrew from Heraclea and into the year 314. Page 533 says the coinage from before Maximinus' occupation continued after his withdrawal "with exactly the same reverse as before the occupation."

I can not tell the difference between these two listings and have to conclude they are the same coin. Either way, it is a nice coin from turbulent times in the history of Heraclea. The original silvering is still under that patina.
Callimachus
12i-Constantine-Lon-008.jpg
12i. Constantine: London follis.20 viewsFollis, ca 313 - 314, Londinium mint.
Obverse: IMP CONSTANTINVS P AVG / Laureate bust of Constantine.
Reverse: SOLI INVICTO COMITI / Sol standing, holding globe. S in left field, F in right field.
Mint mark: PLN
4.00 gm., 21 mm.
RIC #8, PBCC unlisted; Sear #16050.
Callimachus
12k-Constantine-Tre-044.jpg
12k. Constantine: Treveri follis.20 viewsFollis, 313 - 315, Treveri mint.
Obverse: IMP CONSTANTINVS AVG / Laureate bust of Constantine.
Reverse: SOLI INVICTO COMITI / Sol standing, chlamys spread, raising right hand, holding globe in left hand. T in left field; F in right field.
Mint mark: PTR
3.98 gm., 20 mm.
RIC #44; PBCC #172; Sear #16061.
Callimachus
12m-Constantine-Ale-006.jpg
12m. Constantine: Alexandria follis.18 viewsFollis, 314 - 315, Alexandria mint.
Obverse: FL VALER CONSTANTINVS P F AVG / Laureate bust of Constantine.
Reverse: IOVI CONSERVATORI / Jupiter standing, chlamys over left shoulder, holding Victory on globe, leaning on sceptre. Eagle at his feet. N in left field; A in right field.
Mint mark: ALE
5.35 gm., 20 mm.
RIC #6; PBCC #1203; Sear #15947.
Callimachus
12o-Constantine-Sis-015.jpg
12o. Constantine: Siscia follis.22 viewsFollis, 315 - 316, Siscia mint.
Obverse: IMP CONSTANTINVS P F AVG / Laureate bust of Constantine.
Reverse: IOVI CONSERVATORI / Jupiter standing, chlamys over left shoulder, holding Victory on globe, leaning on sceptre. Eagle with wreath in its beak at his feet. B in right field.
Mint mark: . SIS
3.74 gm., 21 mm.
RIC #15; PBCC #802; Sear unlisted.
Callimachus
DiocleAnt.jpg
1301a, Diocletian, 284-305 A.D. (Antioch)86 viewsDIOCLETIAN (284 – 305 AD) AE Antoninianus, 293-95 AD, RIC V 322, Cohen 34. 20.70 mm/3.1 gm, aVF, Antioch. Obverse: IMP C C VAL DIOCLETIANVS P F AVG, Radiate bust right, draped & cuirassed; Reverse: CONCORDIA MILITVM, Jupiter presents Victory on a globe to Diocletian, I/XXI. Early Diocletian with dusty earthen green patina.


De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Diocletian ( 284-305 A.D.)

Ralph W. Mathisen
University of South Carolina


Summary and Introduction
The Emperor Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus (A.D. 284-305) put an end to the disastrous phase of Roman history known as the "Military Anarchy" or the "Imperial Crisis" (235-284). He established an obvious military despotism and was responsible for laying the groundwork for the second phase of the Roman Empire, which is known variously as the "Dominate," the "Tetrarchy," the "Later Roman Empire," or the "Byzantine Empire." His reforms ensured the continuity of the Roman Empire in the east for more than a thousand years.

Diocletian's Early Life and Reign
Diocletian was born ca. 236/237 on the Dalmatian coast, perhaps at Salona. He was of very humble birth, and was originally named Diocles. He would have received little education beyond an elementary literacy and he was apparently deeply imbued with religious piety He had a wife Prisca and a daughter Valeria, both of whom reputedly were Christians. During Diocletian's early life, the Roman empire was in the midst of turmoil. In the early years of the third century, emperors increasingly insecure on their thrones had granted inflationary pay raises to the soldiers. The only meaningful income the soldiers now received was in the form of gold donatives granted by newly acclaimed emperors. Beginning in 235, armies throughout the empire began to set up their generals as rival emperors. The resultant civil wars opened up the empire to invasion in both the north, by the Franks, Alamanni, and Goths, and the east, by the Sassanid Persians. Another reason for the unrest in the army was the great gap between the social background of the common soldiers and the officer corps.

Diocletian sought his fortune in the army. He showed himself to be a shrewd, able, and ambitious individual. He is first attested as "Duke of Moesia" (an area on the banks of the lower Danube River), with responsibility for border defense. He was a prudent and methodical officer, a seeker of victory rather than glory. In 282, the legions of the upper Danube proclaimed the praetorian prefect Carus as emperor. Diocletian found favor under the new emperor, and was promoted to Count of the Domestics, the commander of the cavalry arm of the imperial bodyguard. In 283 he was granted the honor of a consulate.

In 284, in the midst of a campaign against the Persians, Carus was killed, struck by a bolt of lightning which one writer noted might have been forged in a legionary armory. This left the empire in the hands of his two young sons, Numerian in the east and Carinus in the west. Soon thereafter, Numerian died under mysterious circumstances near Nicomedia, and Diocletian was acclaimed emperor in his place. At this time he changed his name from Diocles to Diocletian. In 285 Carinus was killed in a battle near Belgrade, and Diocletian gained control of the entire empire.

Diocletian's Administrative and Military Reforms
As emperor, Diocletian was faced with many problems. His most immediate concerns were to bring the mutinous and increasingly barbarized Roman armies back under control and to make the frontiers once again secure from invasion. His long-term goals were to restore effective government and economic prosperity to the empire. Diocletian concluded that stern measures were necessary if these problems were to be solved. He felt that it was the responsibility of the imperial government to take whatever steps were necessary, no matter how harsh or innovative, to bring the empire back under control.

Diocletian was able to bring the army back under control by making several changes. He subdivided the roughly fifty existing provinces into approximately one hundred. The provinces also were apportioned among twelve "dioceses," each under a "vicar," and later also among four "prefectures," each under a "praetorian prefect." As a result, the imperial bureaucracy became increasingly bloated. He institutionalized the policy of separating civil and military careers. He divided the army itself into so-called "border troops," actually an ineffective citizen militia, and "palace troops," the real field army, which often was led by the emperor in person.

Following the precedent of Aurelian (A.D.270-275), Diocletian transformed the emperorship into an out-and-out oriental monarchy. Access to him became restricted; he now was addressed not as First Citizen (Princeps) or the soldierly general (Imperator), but as Lord and Master (Dominus Noster) . Those in audience were required to prostrate themselves on the ground before him.

Diocletian also concluded that the empire was too large and complex to be ruled by only a single emperor. Therefore, in order to provide an imperial presence throughout the empire, he introduced the "Tetrarchy," or "Rule by Four." In 285, he named his lieutenant Maximianus "Caesar," and assigned him the western half of the empire. This practice began the process which would culminate with the de facto split of the empire in 395. Both Diocletian and Maximianus adopted divine attributes. Diocletian was identified with Jupiter and Maximianus with Hercules. In 286, Diocletian promoted Maximianus to the rank of Augustus, "Senior Emperor," and in 293 he appointed two new Caesars, Constantius (the father of Constantine I ), who was given Gaul and Britain in the west, and Galerius, who was assigned the Balkans in the east.

By instituting his Tetrarchy, Diocletian also hoped to solve another problem. In the Augustan Principate, there had been no constitutional method for choosing new emperors. According to Diocletian's plan, the successor of each Augustus would be the respective Caesar, who then would name a new Caesar. Initially, the Tetrarchy operated smoothly and effectively.

Once the army was under control, Diocletian could turn his attention to other problems. The borders were restored and strengthened. In the early years of his reign, Diocletian and his subordinates were able to defeat foreign enemies such as Alamanni, Sarmatians, Saracens, Franks, and Persians, and to put down rebellions in Britain and Egypt. The easter frontier was actually expanded.

.
Diocletian's Economic Reforms
Another problem was the economy, which was in an especially sorry state. The coinage had become so debased as to be virtually worthless. Diocletian's attempt to reissue good gold and silver coins failed because there simply was not enough gold and silver available to restore confidence in the currency. A "Maximum Price Edict" issued in 301, intended to curb inflation, served only to drive goods onto the black market. Diocletian finally accepted the ruin of the money economy and revised the tax system so that it was based on payments in kind . The soldiers too came to be paid in kind.

In order to assure the long term survival of the empire, Diocletian identified certain occupations which he felt would have to be performed. These were known as the "compulsory services." They included such occupations as soldiers, bakers, members of town councils, and tenant farmers. These functions became hereditary, and those engaging in them were inhibited from changing their careers. The repetitious nature of these laws, however, suggests that they were not widely obeyed. Diocletian also expanded the policy of third-century emperors of restricting the entry of senators into high-ranking governmental posts, especially military ones.

Diocletian attempted to use the state religion as a unifying element. Encouraged by the Caesar Galerius, Diocletian in 303 issued a series of four increasingly harsh decrees designed to compel Christians to take part in the imperial cult, the traditional means by which allegiance was pledged to the empire. This began the so-called "Great Persecution."

Diocletian's Resignation and Death
On 1 May 305, wearied by his twenty years in office, and determined to implement his method for the imperial succession, Diocletian abdicated. He compelled his co-regent Maximianus to do the same. Constantius and Galerius then became the new Augusti, and two new Caesars were selected, Maximinus (305-313) in the east and Severus (305- 307) in the west. Diocletian then retired to his palace at Split on the Croatian coast. In 308 he declined an offer to resume the purple, and the aged ex-emperor died at Split on 3 December 316.

Copyright (C) 1996, Ralph W. Mathisen, University of South Carolina
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

1 commentsCleisthenes
DicletianConcordCyz.jpg
1301b, Diocletian, 20 November 284 - 1 March 305 A.D.56 viewsDiocletian. RIC V Part II Cyzicus 256 var. Not listed with pellet in exegrue
Item ref: RI141f. VF. Minted in Cyzicus (B in centre field, XXI dot in exegrue)Obverse:- IMP CC VAL DIOCLETIANVS AVG, Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right. Reverse:- CONCORDIA MILITVM, Diocletian standing right, holding parazonium, receiving Victory from Jupiter standing left with scepter.
A post reform radiate of Diocletian. Ex Maridvnvm.

De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Diocletian ( 284-305 A.D.)

Ralph W. Mathisen
University of South Carolina


Summary and Introduction
The Emperor Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus (A.D. 284-305) put an end to the disastrous phase of Roman history known as the "Military Anarchy" or the "Imperial Crisis" (235-284). He established an obvious military despotism and was responsible for laying the groundwork for the second phase of the Roman Empire, which is known variously as the "Dominate," the "Tetrarchy," the "Later Roman Empire," or the "Byzantine Empire." His reforms ensured the continuity of the Roman Empire in the east for more than a thousand years.

Diocletian's Early Life and Reign
Diocletian was born ca. 236/237 on the Dalmatian coast, perhaps at Salona. He was of very humble birth, and was originally named Diocles. He would have received little education beyond an elementary literacy and he was apparently deeply imbued with religious piety He had a wife Prisca and a daughter Valeria, both of whom reputedly were Christians. During Diocletian's early life, the Roman empire was in the midst of turmoil. In the early years of the third century, emperors increasingly insecure on their thrones had granted inflationary pay raises to the soldiers. The only meaningful income the soldiers now received was in the form of gold donatives granted by newly acclaimed emperors. Beginning in 235, armies throughout the empire began to set up their generals as rival emperors. The resultant civil wars opened up the empire to invasion in both the north, by the Franks, Alamanni, and Goths, and the east, by the Sassanid Persians. Another reason for the unrest in the army was the great gap between the social background of the common soldiers and the officer corps.

Diocletian sought his fortune in the army. He showed himself to be a shrewd, able, and ambitious individual. He is first attested as "Duke of Moesia" (an area on the banks of the lower Danube River), with responsibility for border defense. He was a prudent and methodical officer, a seeker of victory rather than glory. In 282, the legions of the upper Danube proclaimed the praetorian prefect Carus as emperor. Diocletian found favor under the new emperor, and was promoted to Count of the Domestics, the commander of the cavalry arm of the imperial bodyguard. In 283 he was granted the honor of a consulate.

In 284, in the midst of a campaign against the Persians, Carus was killed, struck by a bolt of lightning which one writer noted might have been forged in a legionary armory. This left the empire in the hands of his two young sons, Numerian in the east and Carinus in the west. Soon thereafter, Numerian died under mysterious circumstances near Nicomedia, and Diocletian was acclaimed emperor in his place. At this time he changed his name from Diocles to Diocletian. In 285 Carinus was killed in a battle near Belgrade, and Diocletian gained control of the entire empire.

Diocletian's Administrative and Military Reforms
As emperor, Diocletian was faced with many problems. His most immediate concerns were to bring the mutinous and increasingly barbarized Roman armies back under control and to make the frontiers once again secure from invasion. His long-term goals were to restore effective government and economic prosperity to the empire. Diocletian concluded that stern measures were necessary if these problems were to be solved. He felt that it was the responsibility of the imperial government to take whatever steps were necessary, no matter how harsh or innovative, to bring the empire back under control.

Diocletian was able to bring the army back under control by making several changes. He subdivided the roughly fifty existing provinces into approximately one hundred. The provinces also were apportioned among twelve "dioceses," each under a "vicar," and later also among four "prefectures," each under a "praetorian prefect." As a result, the imperial bureaucracy became increasingly bloated. He institutionalized the policy of separating civil and military careers. He divided the army itself into so-called "border troops," actually an ineffective citizen militia, and "palace troops," the real field army, which often was led by the emperor in person.

Following the precedent of Aurelian (A.D.270-275), Diocletian transformed the emperorship into an out-and-out oriental monarchy. Access to him became restricted; he now was addressed not as First Citizen (Princeps) or the soldierly general (Imperator), but as Lord and Master (Dominus Noster) . Those in audience were required to prostrate themselves on the ground before him.

Diocletian also concluded that the empire was too large and complex to be ruled by only a single emperor. Therefore, in order to provide an imperial presence throughout the empire, he introduced the "Tetrarchy," or "Rule by Four." In 285, he named his lieutenant Maximianus "Caesar," and assigned him the western half of the empire. This practice began the process which would culminate with the de facto split of the empire in 395. Both Diocletian and Maximianus adopted divine attributes. Diocletian was identified with Jupiter and Maximianus with Hercules. In 286, Diocletian promoted Maximianus to the rank of Augustus, "Senior Emperor," and in 293 he appointed two new Caesars, Constantius (the father of Constantine I ), who was given Gaul and Britain in the west, and Galerius, who was assigned the Balkans in the east.

By instituting his Tetrarchy, Diocletian also hoped to solve another problem. In the Augustan Principate, there had been no constitutional method for choosing new emperors. According to Diocletian's plan, the successor of each Augustus would be the respective Caesar, who then would name a new Caesar. Initially, the Tetrarchy operated smoothly and effectively.

Once the army was under control, Diocletian could turn his attention to other problems. The borders were restored and strengthened. In the early years of his reign, Diocletian and his subordinates were able to defeat foreign enemies such as Alamanni, Sarmatians, Saracens, Franks, and Persians, and to put down rebellions in Britain and Egypt. The easter frontier was actually expanded.

.
Diocletian's Economic Reforms
Another problem was the economy, which was in an especially sorry state. The coinage had become so debased as to be virtually worthless. Diocletian's attempt to reissue good gold and silver coins failed because there simply was not enough gold and silver available to restore confidence in the currency. A "Maximum Price Edict" issued in 301, intended to curb inflation, served only to drive goods onto the black market. Diocletian finally accepted the ruin of the money economy and revised the tax system so that it was based on payments in kind . The soldiers too came to be paid in kind.

In order to assure the long term survival of the empire, Diocletian identified certain occupations which he felt would have to be performed. These were known as the "compulsory services." They included such occupations as soldiers, bakers, members of town councils, and tenant farmers. These functions became hereditary, and those engaging in them were inhibited from changing their careers. The repetitious nature of these laws, however, suggests that they were not widely obeyed. Diocletian also expanded the policy of third-century emperors of restricting the entry of senators into high-ranking governmental posts, especially military ones.

Diocletian attempted to use the state religion as a unifying element. Encouraged by the Caesar Galerius, Diocletian in 303 issued a series of four increasingly harsh decrees designed to compel Christians to take part in the imperial cult, the traditional means by which allegiance was pledged to the empire. This began the so-called "Great Persecution."

Diocletian's Resignation and Death
On 1 May 305, wearied by his twenty years in office, and determined to implement his method for the imperial succession, Diocletian abdicated. He compelled his co-regent Maximianus to do the same. Constantius and Galerius then became the new Augusti, and two new Caesars were selected, Maximinus (305-313) in the east and Severus (305- 307) in the west. Diocletian then retired to his palace at Split on the Croatian coast. In 308 he declined an offer to resume the purple, and the aged ex-emperor died at Split on 3 December 316.

Copyright (C) 1996, Ralph W. Mathisen, University of South Carolina
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.


Cleisthenes
MaxHercRIC5iiRome.jpg
1302a, Maximian, 285 - 305, 306 - 308, and 310 A.D.44 viewsMaximianus AE Antoninianus. RIC V Part II 506 Bust Type C. Cohen 355; VF; Minted in Rome A.D. 285-286. Obverse: IMP MAXIMIANVS P F AVG, radiate, draped & cuirassed bust right; Rverse: IOVI CONSERVAT AVGG, Jupiter standing left holding thunderbolt & scepter, XXIZ in exergue. Ex maridvnvm.

De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Maximian, 285-305, 306-308, and 310 A.D.

Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Salve Regina University

Perhaps born ca. 249/250 A.D. in Sirmium in the area of the Balkans, Marcus Aurelius Valerius Maximianus, more commonly known as Maximianus Herculius (Maximian), had been a soldier before he put on the purple. A fellow soldier with the Emperor Diocletian, he had served in the military during the reigns of Aurelian and Probus.

When the Emperor Diocletian determined that the empire was too large for one man to govern on his own, he made Maximian his Caesar in 285/6 and elevated him to the rank of Augustus in perhaps the spring of 286. While Diocletian ruled in the East, Maximian ruled in the West. In 293, in order to maintain and to strengthen the stability of the empire, Diocletian appointed Constantius I Chlorus to serve Maximian as a Caesar in the West, while Galerius did the same job in the East. This arrangement, called the "Tetrarchy", was meant not only to provide a stronger foundation for the two emperors' rule, but also to end any possible fighting over the succession to the throne once the two senior Augusti had left the throne--a problem which had bedeviled the principate since the time of the Emperor Augustus. To cement the relationship between Maximian and his Caesar, Constantius married Maximian's elder daughter Theodora. A decade later, Constantius' son Constantine would marry Maximia's younger daughter Fausta.

On 1 May 305 Diocletian, at Nicomedeia, and Maximian, at Mediolanum, divested themselves of the purple. Their resignations seem largely due to the almost fatal illness that Diocletian contracted toward the end of 304. Diocletian seems to have forced his colleague to abdicate. In any case, Herculius had sworn an oath at the temple of Capitoline Jupiter to carry out the terms of the abdication. Constantius and Galerius were appointed as Augusti, with Maximinus Daia and Severus as the new Caesars. The retired emperors then returned to private life. Diocletian's retirement was at Salonae in Dalmatia, while Herculius' retreat was either in Lucania or Campania.

Maximian's retirement, however, was of short duration because, a little more than a year later on 28 October 306, his son Maxentius was proclaimed emperor at Rome. To give his regime an aura of legitimacy, Maximian was forced to affirm his son's acclamation. When Galerius learned of Maxentius' rebellion, he sent Severus against him with an army that had formerly been under his father's command. Maxentius invested his father with the purple again to win over his enemy's troops, a ruse which succeeded. Perhaps to strengthen his own position, in 307 Maximian went to Gaul and married his daughter Fausta to Constantine. When Constantine refused to become embroiled in the civil war between Galerius and Maxentius, Maximian returned to Rome in 308 and attempted to depose his son; however, he did not succeed. When Maximian was unable to convince Diocletian to take up the purple again at a meeting in Carnuntum in late 308, he returned to his son-in-law's side in Gaul.

Although Maximian was treated with all of the respect due a former emperor, he still desired to be more than a figurehead. He decided to seize the purple from Constantine when his son-in-law least expected it. His opportunity came in the summer of 310 when the Franks revolted. When Constantine had taken a small part of his army into enemy territory, Maximian proclaimed himself again emperor and paid the soldiers under his command a donative to secure their loyalty. As soon as Constantine received news about Maximian's revolt in July 310, he went south and reached Arelate before his father-in-law could mount a defense of the city. Although Maximian fled to Massilia, his son-in-law seized the city and took Maximian prisoner. Although he was deprived of the purple, he was granted pardon for his crimes. Unable to endure the humiliation of his defeat, he attempted to have Constantine murdered in his bed. The plot failed because he tried to get his daughter Fausta's help in the matter; she chose to reveal the matter to her husband. Because of this attempt on his son-in-law's life Maximian was dead by the end of July either by his own hand or on the orders of his intended victim.

Eutropia was of Syrian extraction and her marriage to Maximian seems to have been her second. She bore him two children: Maxentius and Fausta. An older daughter, Theodora, may have been a product of her first marriage. Fausta became the wife of Constantine I , while her sister Theodora was the second spouse of his father Constantius I Chlorus . Eutropia apparently survived all her children, with the possible exception of her daughter Fausta who seems to have died in 326. Eutropia is also said to have become a Christian.

By Michael DiMaio, Jr., Salve Regina University
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
Max.jpg
1302b, Maximian, 285-305, 306-308, and 310 A.D., commemorative issued by Constantine the Great (Siscia)54 viewsMaximian, 285-305, 306-308, and 310 A.D., commemorative issued by Constantine the Great. Bronze AE3, RIC 41, VF, Siscia, 1.30g, 16.1mm, 0o, 317-318 A.D. Obverse: DIVO MAXIMIANO SEN FORT IMP, laureate and veiled head right; Reverse: REQVIES OPTIMO-RVM MERITORVM, Emperor seated left on curule chair, raising hand and holding scepter, SIS in exergue; scarce (R3).


De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Maximian, 285-305, 306-308, and 310 A.D.

Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Salve Regina University

Perhaps born ca. 249/250 A.D. in Sirmium in the area of the Balkans, Marcus Aurelius Valerius Maximianus, more commonly known as Maximianus Herculius (Maximian), had been a soldier before he put on the purple. A fellow soldier with the Emperor Diocletian, he had served in the military during the reigns of Aurelian and Probus.

When the Emperor Diocletian determined that the empire was too large for one man to govern on his own, he made Maximian his Caesar in 285/6 and elevated him to the rank of Augustus in perhaps the spring of 286. While Diocletian ruled in the East, Maximian ruled in the West. In 293, in order to maintain and to strengthen the stability of the empire, Diocletian appointed Constantius I Chlorus to serve Maximian as a Caesar in the West, while Galerius did the same job in the East. This arrangement, called the "Tetrarchy", was meant not only to provide a stronger foundation for the two emperors' rule, but also to end any possible fighting over the succession to the throne once the two senior Augusti had left the throne--a problem which had bedeviled the principate since the time of the Emperor Augustus. To cement the relationship between Maximian and his Caesar, Constantius married Maximian's elder daughter Theodora. A decade later, Constantius' son Constantine would marry Maximia's younger daughter Fausta.

On 1 May 305 Diocletian, at Nicomedeia, and Maximian, at Mediolanum, divested themselves of the purple. Their resignations seem largely due to the almost fatal illness that Diocletian contracted toward the end of 304. Diocletian seems to have forced his colleague to abdicate. In any case, Herculius had sworn an oath at the temple of Capitoline Jupiter to carry out the terms of the abdication. Constantius and Galerius were appointed as Augusti, with Maximinus Daia and Severus as the new Caesars. The retired emperors then returned to private life. Diocletian's retirement was at Salonae in Dalmatia, while Herculius' retreat was either in Lucania or Campania.

Maximian's retirement, however, was of short duration because, a little more than a year later on 28 October 306, his son Maxentius was proclaimed emperor at Rome. To give his regime an aura of legitimacy, Maximian was forced to affirm his son's acclamation. When Galerius learned of Maxentius' rebellion, he sent Severus against him with an army that had formerly been under his father's command. Maxentius invested his father with the purple again to win over his enemy's troops, a ruse which succeeded. Perhaps to strengthen his own position, in 307 Maximian went to Gaul and married his daughter Fausta to Constantine. When Constantine refused to become embroiled in the civil war between Galerius and Maxentius, Maximian returned to Rome in 308 and attempted to depose his son; however, he did not succeed. When Maximian was unable to convince Diocletian to take up the purple again at a meeting in Carnuntum in late 308, he returned to his son-in-law's side in Gaul.

Although Maximian was treated with all of the respect due a former emperor, he still desired to be more than a figurehead. He decided to seize the purple from Constantine when his son-in-law least expected it. His opportunity came in the summer of 310 when the Franks revolted. When Constantine had taken a small part of his army into enemy territory, Maximian proclaimed himself again emperor and paid the soldiers under his command a donative to secure their loyalty. As soon as Constantine received news about Maximian's revolt in July 310, he went south and reached Arelate before his father-in-law could mount a defense of the city. Although Maximian fled to Massilia, his son-in-law seized the city and took Maximian prisoner. Although he was deprived of the purple, he was granted pardon for his crimes. Unable to endure the humiliation of his defeat, he attempted to have Constantine murdered in his bed. The plot failed because he tried to get his daughter Fausta's help in the matter; she chose to reveal the matter to her husband. Because of this attempt on his son-in-law's life Maximian was dead by the end of July either by his own hand or on the orders of his intended victim.

Eutropia was of Syrian extraction and her marriage to Maximian seems to have been her second. She bore him two children: Maxentius and Fausta. An older daughter, Theodora, may have been a product of her first marriage. Fausta became the wife of Constantine I , while her sister Theodora was the second spouse of his father Constantius I Chlorus . Eutropia apparently survived all her children, with the possible exception of her daughter Fausta who seems to have died in 326. Eutropia is also said to have become a Christian.

By Michael DiMaio, Jr., Salve Regina University
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
GaleriusAugCyz.jpg
1303a, Galerius, 1 March 305 - 5 May 311 A.D.34 viewsGalerius, RIC VI 59, Cyzicus S, VF, Cyzicus S, 6.4 g, 25.86 mm; 309-310 AD; Obverse: GAL MAXIMIANVS P F AVG, laureate bust right; Reverse: GENIO A-VGVS[TI], Genius stg. left, naked but for chlamys over left shoulder, holding patera and cornucopiae. A nice example with sharp detail and nice brown hoard patina. Ex Ancient Imports.


De Imperatoribus Romanis,
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors

Galerius (305-311 A.D.)

Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Salve Regina University


Caius Galerius Valerius Maximianus, more commonly known as Galerius, was from Illyricum; his father, whose name is unknown, was of peasant stock, while his mother, Romula, was from beyond the Danube. Galerius was born in Dacia Ripensis near Sardica. Although the date of his birth is unknown, he was probably born ca. 250 since he served under Aurelian. As a youth Galerius was a shepherd and acquired the nickname Armentarius. Although he seems to have started his military career under Aurelian and Probus, nothing is known about it before his accession as Caesar on 1 March 293. He served as Diocletian's Caesar in the East. Abandoning his first wife, he married Diocletian's daugher, Valeria.

As Caesar he campaigned in Egypt in 294; he seems to have taken to the field against Narses of Persia, and was defeated near Ctesiphon in 295. In 298, after he made inroads into Armenia, he obtained a treaty from the Persians favorable to the Romans. Between 299-305 he overcame the Sarmatians and the Carpi along the Danube. The Great Persecution of the Orthodox Church, which was started in 303 by the Emperor Diocletian, was probably instigated by Galerius. Because of the almost fatal illness that he contracted toward the end of 304, Diocletian, at Nicomedeia, and Maximianus Herculius, at Mediolanum, divested themselves of the purple on 1 May 305. Constantius and Galerius were appointed as Augusti, with Maximinus Daia and Severus as the new Caesars. Constantius and Severus reigned in the West, whereas Galerius' and Daia's realm was the East. Although Constantius was nominally senior Augustus, the real power was in the hands of Galerius because both Caesars were his creatures.

The balance of power shifted at the end of July 306 when Constantius, with his son Constantine at his side, passed away at York in Britain where he was preparing to face incursions by the Picts; his army proclaimed Constantine his successor immediately. As soon as he received the news of the death of Constantius I and the acclamation of Constantine to the purple, Galerius raised Severus to the rank of Augustus to replace his dead colleague in August 306. Making the best of a bad situation, Galerius accepted Constantine as the new Caesar in the West. The situation became more complicated when Maxentius, with his father Maximianus Herculius acquiesing, declared himself princes on 28 October 306. When Galerius learned about the acclamation of the usurper, he dispatched the Emperor Severus to put down the rebellion. Severus took a large field army which had formerly been that of Maximianus and proceeded toward Rome and began to besiege the city, Maxentius, however, and Maximianus, by means of a ruse, convinced Severus to surrender. Later, in 307, Severus was put to death under clouded circumstances. While Severus was fighting in the west, Galerius, during late 306 or early 307, was campaigning against the Sarmatians.

In the early summer of 307 Galerius invaded Italy to avenge Severus's death; he advanced to the south and encamped at Interamna near the Tiber. His attempt to besiege the city was abortive because his army was too small to encompass the city's fortifications. Not trusting his own troops, Galerius withdrew. During its retreat, his army ravaged the Italian countryside as it was returning to its original base. When Maximianus Herculius' attempts to regain the throne between 308 and 310 by pushing his son off his throne or by winning over Constantine to his cause failed, he tried to win Diocletian and Galerius over to his side at Carnuntum in October and November 308; the outcome of the Conference at Carnuntum was that Licinius was appointed Augustus in Severus's place, that Daia and Constantine were denoted filii Augustorum, and that Herculius was completely cut out of the picture. Later, in 310, Herculius died, having been implicated in a plot against his son-in-law. After the Conference at Carnuntum, Galerius returned to Sardica where he died in the opening days of May 311.

By Michael DiMaio, Jr., Salve Regina University; Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Galerius was Caesar and tetrarch under Maximianus. Although a talented general and administrator, Galerius is better known for his key role in the "Great Persecution" of Christians. He stopped the persecution under condition the Christians pray for his return to health from a serious illness. Galerius died horribly shortly after. Joseph Sermarini, FORVM.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.



Cleisthenes
Constantius1_silvered_follis.jpg
1304a, Constantius I, May 305 - 25 July 306 A.D.47 viewsSilvered follis, RIC 20a, S 3671, VM 25, gVF, Heraclea mint, 10.144g, 27.7mm, 180o, 297 - 298 A.D. Obverse: FL VAL CONSTANTIVS NOB CAES, laureate head right; Reverse GENIO POPVLI ROMANI, Genius standing left, modius on head, naked except for chlamys over shoulder, cornucopia in left, pouring liquor from patera, HTD in exergue; some silvering, nice portrait, well centered.



De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Constantius I Chlorus (305-306 A.D.)

Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Salve Regina University

Constantius' Early Life and Marriage

Born March 31st, Emperor Flavius Valerius Constantius may have come into the world ca. 250. His family was from Illyricum. In the army he served as a protector, tribunus, and a praeses Dalmatiarum. During the 270s or the 280s, he became the father of Constantine by Helena, his first spouse. By 288 he was the Praetorian Prefect of the western emperor Maximianus Herculius.

Constantius' Reign as Caesar

On 1 March 293 Diocletian appointed Galerius as his Caesar (junior emperor) in the east and Constantius as the Caesar of Maximianus Herculius. Caesar in the west. Both Caesars had the right of succession. In order to strengthen the dynastic relationship between himself and Herculius., Constantius put aside his wife Helena and married Theodora, the daughter, or perhaps stepdaughter, of Maximianus Herculius.. The union was fruitful and of it there were six issue: Flavius Dalmatius, Julius Constantius, Hannibalianus, Constantia, Anastasia, and Eutropia. To strengthen his bond with Galerius and Diocletian in the east, Constantius allowed Galerius to keep his son Constantine as a hostage for his good behavior.

In the remainder of the time that he was a Caesar, Constantius spent much of his time engaged in military actions in the west. In the summer of 293 Constantius expelled the troops of the usurper Carausius from northern Gaul; after Constantius' attack on Bononia (Boulogne), Carausius was murdered. At the same time he dealt with the unrest of the Germans. In 296 he invaded Britain and put down the revolt of the usurper Allectus. Between 300 and 305 A.D. the Caesar campaigned successfully several times with various German tribes. It is worth noting in passing, that while his colleagues rigidly enforced the "Great Persecution in 303," Constantius limited his action to knocking down a few churches.

Constantius as Augustus and His Untimely Death

On 1 May 305 Diocletian, at Nicomedia, and Maximianus Herculius, at Mediolanum (Milan), divested themselves of the purple, probably because of the almost fatal illness that Diocletian contracted toward the end of 304. Diocletian forced Maximianus to abdicate. They appointed as their successors Constantius and Galerius, with Severus and Maximinus Daia as the new Caesars. The retired emperors then returned to private life. Constantius, as had his predecessor, ruled in the west, while Galerius and Daia ruled in the east. Almost as soon as he was appointed Augustus, he crossed to Britain to face incursions by the Picts where he died at York on 25 July 306 with his son (Constantine I, known to history as “The Great”) at his side.

Copyright (C) 1996, Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
MaxentiusRIC163.jpg
1307a, Maxentius, February 307 - 28 October 312 A.D.59 viewsBronze follis, RIC 163, aEF, Rome mint, 5.712g, 25.6mm, 0o, summer 307 A.D.; obverse MAXENTIVS P F AVG, laureate head right; reverse CONSERVATO-RES VRB SVAE, Roma holding globe and scepter, seated in hexastyle temple, RT in ex; rare. Ex FORVM; Ex Maridvnvm


De Imperatoribus Romanis : An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Maxentius (306-312 A.D.)

Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Salve Regina University

Marcus Aurelius Valerius Maxentius, more commonly known as Maxentius, was the child of the Emperor Maximianus Herculius and the Syrian, Eutropia; he was born ca. 278 A.D. After Galerius' appointment to the rank of Caesar on 1 March 293, Maxentius married Galerius' daughter Valeria Maximilla, who bore him a son named Romulus and another son whose name is unknown. Due to his haughty nature and bad disposition, Maxentius could seldom agree with his father or his father-in-law; Galerius' and Maximianus Herculius' aversion to Maxentius prevented the young man from becoming a Caesar in 305. Little else is known of Maxentius' private life prior to his accession and, although there is some evidence that it was spent in idleness, he did become a Senator.

On 28 October 306 Maxentius was acclaimed emperor, although he was politically astute enough not to use the title Augustus; like the Emperor Augustus, he called himself princeps. It was not until the summer of 307 that he started using the title Augustus and started offending other claimants to the imperial throne. He was enthroned by the plebs and the Praetorians. At the time of his acclamation Maxentius was at a public villa on the Via Labicana. He strengthened his position with promises of riches for those who helped him obtain his objective. He forced his father Maximianus Herculius to affirm his son's acclamation in order to give his regime a facade of legitimacy. His realm included Italy, Africa, Sardinia, and Corsica. As soon as Galerius learned about the acclamation of Herculius' son, he dispatched the Emperor Severus to quell the rebellion. With the help of his father and Severus' own troops, Maxentius' took his enemy prisoner.

When Severus died, Galerius was determined to avenge his death. In the early summer of 307 the Augustus invaded Italy; he advanced to the south and encamped at Interamna near the Tiber. His attempt to besiege the city was abortive because his army was not large enough to encompass the city's fortifications. Negotiations between Maxentius and Galerius broke down when the emperor discovered that the usurper was trying to win over his troops. Galerius' troops were open to Maxentius' promises because they were fighting a civil war between members of the same family; some of the soldiers went over to the enemy. Not trusting his own troops, Galerius withdrew. During its retreat, Galerius' army ravaged the Italian countryside as it was returning to its original base. If it was not enough that Maxentius had to deal with the havoc created by the ineffectual invasions of Severus and Galerius, he also had to deal with his father's attempts to regain the throne between 308 and 310. When Maximianus Herculius was unable to regain power by pushing his son off his throne, he attempted to win over Constantine to his cause. When this plan failed, he tried to win Diocletian over to his side at Carnuntum in October and November 308. Frustrated at every turn, Herculius returned to his son-in-law Constantine's side in Gaul where he died in 310, having been implicated in a plot against his son-in-law. Maxentius' control of the situation was weakened by the revolt of L. Domitius Alexander in 308. Although the revolt only lasted until the end of 309, it drastically cut the size of the grain supply availble for Rome. Maxentius' rule collapsed when he died on 27 October 312 in an engagement he had with the Emperor Constantine at the Milvian Bridge after the latter had invaded his realm.

Copyright (C) 1996, Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
1 commentsCleisthenes
Lcnius1.jpg
1308b, Licinius I, 308 - 324 A.D. (Siscia)59 viewsLicinius I, 11 November 308 - 18 September 324 A.D. Bronze follis, RIC 4, F, Siscia, 3.257g, 21.6mm, 0o, 313 - 315 A.D. Obverse: IMP LIC LICINIVS P F AVG, laureate head right; Reverse IOVI CONSERVATORI AVGG NN, Jupiter standing left holding Victory on globe and scepter, eagle with wreath in beak left, E right, SIS in exergue.



De Imperatoribus Romanis : An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Licinius (308-324 A.D.)

Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Salve Regina University

Licinius' Heritage

Valerius Licinianus Licinius, more commonly known as Licinius, may have been born ca. 265. Of peasant origin, his family was from Dacia. A close friend and comrade of arms of the Emperor Galerius, he accompanied him on his Persian expedition in 297. When campaigns by Severus and Galerius in late 306 or early 307 and in the summer of 307, respectively, failed to dislodge Maxentius who, with the luke warm support of his father Maximianus Herculius, was acclaimed princeps on 28 October 306, he was sent by the eastern emperor to Maxentius as an ambassador; the diplomatic mission, however, failed because the usurper refused to submit to the authority of his father-in-law Galerius. At the Conference of Carnuntum which was held in October or November of 308, Licinius was made an Augustus on 11 November 308; his realm included Thrace, Illyricum, and Pannonia.

Licinius' Early Reign

Although Licinius was initially appointed by Galerius to replace Severus to end the revolt of Maxentius , Licinius (perhaps wisely) made no effort to move against the usurper. In fact, his first attested victory was against the Sarmatians probably in the late spring, but no later than the end of June in 310. When the Emperor Galerius died in 311, Licinius met Maximinus Daia at the Bosporus during the early summer of that year; they concluded a treaty and divided Galerius' realm between them. It was little more than a year later that the Emperor Constantine defeated Maxentius at the Battle of the Milvian Bridge on 28 October 312. After the defeat of the usurper, Constantine and Licinius met at Mediolanum (Milan) where Licinius married the former's sister Constantia; one child was born of this union: Valerius Licinianus Licinius. Licinius had another son, born of a slave woman, whose name is unknown. It appears that both emperors promulgated the so-called Edict of Milan, in which Constantine and Licinius granted Christians the freedom to practice their faith without any interference from the state.

As soon as he seems to have learned about the marital alliance between Licinius and Constantine and the death of Maxentius, who had been his ally, Daia traversed Asia Minor and, in April 313, he crossed the Bosporus and went to Byzantium, which he took from Licinius after an eleven day siege. On 30 April 313 the armies of both emperors clashed on the Campus Ergenus; in the ensuing battle Daia's forces were routed. A last ditch stand by Daia at the Cilician Gates failed; the eastern emperor subsequently died in the area of Tarsus probably in July or August 313. As soon as he arrived in Nicomedeia, Licinius promulgated the Edict of Milan. As soon as he had matters in Nicomedeia straightened out, Licinius campaigned against the Persians in the remaining part of 313 and the opening months of 314.

The First Civil War Between Licinius and Constantine

Once Licinius had defeated Maximinus Daia, the sole rulers of the Roman world were he and Constantine. It is obvious that the marriage of Licinius to Constantia was simply a union of convenience. In any case, there is evidence in the sources that both emperors were looking for an excuse to attack the other. The affair involving Bassianus (the husband of Constantius I's daughter Anastasia ), mentioned in the text of Anonymus Valesianus (5.14ff), may have sparked the falling out between the two emperors. In any case, Constantine' s forces joined battle with those of Licinius at Cibalae in Pannonia on 8 October 314. When the battle was over, Constantine prevailed; his victory, however, was Pyrrhic. Both emperors had been involved in exhausting military campaigns in the previous year and the months leading up to Cibalae and each of their realms had expanded so fast that their manpower reserves must have been stretched to the limit. Both men retreated to their own territory to lick their wounds. It may well be that the two emperors made an agreement, which has left no direct trace in the historical record, which would effectively restore the status quo.

Both emperors were variously engaged in different activities between 315 and 316. In addition to campaigning against the Germans while residing in Augusta Treverorum (Trier) in 315, Constantine dealt with aspects of the Donatist controversy; he also traveled to Rome where he celebrated his Decennalia. Licinius, possibly residing at Sirmium, was probably waging war against the Goths. Although not much else is known about Licinius' activities during this period, it is probable that he spent much of his time preparing for his impending war against Constantine; the latter,who spent the spring and summer of 316 in Augusta Treverorum, was probably doing much the same thing. In any case, by December 316, the western emperor was in Sardica with his army. Sometime between 1 December and 28 February 317, both emperors' armies joined battle on the Campus Ardiensis; as was the case in the previous engagement, Constantine' s forces were victorious. On 1 March 317, both sides agreed to a cessation of hostilities; possibly because of the intervention of his wife Constantia, Licinius was able to keep his throne, although he had to agree to the execution of his colleague Valens, who the eastern emperor had appointed as his colleague before the battle, as well as to cede some of his territory to his brother-in-law.

Licinius and the Christians

Although the historical record is not completely clear, Licinius seems to have campaigned against the Sarmatians in 318. He also appears to have been in Byzantium in the summer of 318 and later in June 323. Beyond these few facts, not much else is known about his residences until mid summer of 324. Although he and Constantine had issued the Edict of Milan in early 313, Licinius turned on the Christians in his realm seemingly in 320. The first law that Licinius issued prevented bishops from communicating with each other and from holding synods to discuss matters of interest to them. The second law prohibited men and women from attending services together and young girls from receiving instruction from their bishop or schools. When this law was issued, he also gave orders that Christians could hold services only outside of city walls. Additionally, he deprived officers in the army of their commissions if they did not sacrifice to the gods. Licinius may have been trying to incite Constantine to attack him. In any case, the growing tension between the two rulers is reflected in the consular Fasti of the period.

The Second Civil War Between Licinius and Constantine and Licinius' Death

War actually broke out in 321 when Constantine pursued some Sarmatians, who had been ravaging some territory in his realm, across the Danube. When he checked a similar invasion of the Goths, who were devastating Thrace, Licinius complained that Constantine had broken the treaty between them. Having assembled a fleet and army at Thessalonica, Constantine advanced toward Adrianople. Licinius engaged the forces of his brother-in-law near the banks of the Hebrus River on 3 July 324 where he was routed; with as many men as he could gather, he headed for his fleet which was in the Hellespont. Those of his soldiers who were not killed or put to flight, surrendered to the enemy. Licinius fled to Byzantium, where he was besieged by Constantine. Licinius' fleet, under the command of the admiral Abantus, was overcome by bad weather and by Constantine' s fleet which was under the command of his son Crispus. Hard pressed in Byzantium, Licinius abandoned the city to his rival and fled to Chalcedon in Bithynia. Leaving Martinianus, his former magister officiorum and now his co-ruler, to impede Constantine' s progress, Licinius regrouped his forces and engaged his enemy at Chrysopolis where he was again routed on 18 September 324. He fled to Nicomedeia which Constantine began to besiege. On the next day Licinius abdicated and was sent to Thessalonica, where he was kept under house arrest. Both Licinius and his associate were put to death by Constantine. Martinianus may have been put to death before the end of 324, whereas Licinius was not put to death until the spring of 325. Rumors circulated that Licinius had been put to death because he attempted another rebellion against Constantine.

Copyright (C) 1996, Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

Cleisthenes
Licin1AEFolJupiAlex.jpg
1308c, Licinius I, 308-324 A.D. (Alexandria)66 viewsLicinius I, 308-324 A.D. AE Follis, 3.60g, VF, 315 A.D., Alexandria. Obverse: IMP C VAL LICIN LICINIVS P F AVG - Laureate head right; Reverse: IOVI CONS-ERVATORI AVGG - Jupiter standing left, holding Victory on a globe and scepter; exergue: ALE / (wreath) over "B" over "N." Ref: RIC VII, 10 (B = r2) Rare, page 705 - Hunterian Museum, Glasgow, Scotland.


De Imperatoribus Romanis : An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Licinius (308-324 A.D.)

Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Salve Regina University

Licinius' Heritage

Valerius Licinianus Licinius, more commonly known as Licinius, may have been born ca. 265. Of peasant origin, his family was from Dacia. A close friend and comrade of arms of the Emperor Galerius, he accompanied him on his Persian expedition in 297. When campaigns by Severus and Galerius in late 306 or early 307 and in the summer of 307, respectively, failed to dislodge Maxentius who, with the luke warm support of his father Maximianus Herculius, was acclaimed princeps on 28 October 306, he was sent by the eastern emperor to Maxentius as an ambassador; the diplomatic mission, however, failed because the usurper refused to submit to the authority of his father-in-law Galerius. At the Conference of Carnuntum which was held in October or November of 308, Licinius was made an Augustus on 11 November 308; his realm included Thrace, Illyricum, and Pannonia.

Licinius' Early Reign

Although Licinius was initially appointed by Galerius to replace Severus to end the revolt of Maxentius , Licinius (perhaps wisely) made no effort to move against the usurper. In fact, his first attested victory was against the Sarmatians probably in the late spring, but no later than the end of June in 310. When the Emperor Galerius died in 311, Licinius met Maximinus Daia at the Bosporus during the early summer of that year; they concluded a treaty and divided Galerius' realm between them. It was little more than a year later that the Emperor Constantine defeated Maxentius at the Battle of the Milvian Bridge on 28 October 312. After the defeat of the usurper, Constantine and Licinius met at Mediolanum (Milan) where Licinius married the former's sister Constantia; one child was born of this union: Valerius Licinianus Licinius. Licinius had another son, born of a slave woman, whose name is unknown. It appears that both emperors promulgated the so-called Edict of Milan, in which Constantine and Licinius granted Christians the freedom to practice their faith without any interference from the state.

As soon as he seems to have learned about the marital alliance between Licinius and Constantine and the death of Maxentius, who had been his ally, Daia traversed Asia Minor and, in April 313, he crossed the Bosporus and went to Byzantium, which he took from Licinius after an eleven day siege. On 30 April 313 the armies of both emperors clashed on the Campus Ergenus; in the ensuing battle Daia's forces were routed. A last ditch stand by Daia at the Cilician Gates failed; the eastern emperor subsequently died in the area of Tarsus probably in July or August 313. As soon as he arrived in Nicomedeia, Licinius promulgated the Edict of Milan. As soon as he had matters in Nicomedeia straightened out, Licinius campaigned against the Persians in the remaining part of 313 and the opening months of 314.

The First Civil War Between Licinius and Constantine

Once Licinius had defeated Maximinus Daia, the sole rulers of the Roman world were he and Constantine. It is obvious that the marriage of Licinius to Constantia was simply a union of convenience. In any case, there is evidence in the sources that both emperors were looking for an excuse to attack the other. The affair involving Bassianus (the husband of Constantius I's daughter Anastasia ), mentioned in the text of Anonymus Valesianus (5.14ff), may have sparked the falling out between the two emperors. In any case, Constantine' s forces joined battle with those of Licinius at Cibalae in Pannonia on 8 October 314. When the battle was over, Constantine prevailed; his victory, however, was Pyrrhic. Both emperors had been involved in exhausting military campaigns in the previous year and the months leading up to Cibalae and each of their realms had expanded so fast that their manpower reserves must have been stretched to the limit. Both men retreated to their own territory to lick their wounds. It may well be that the two emperors made an agreement, which has left no direct trace in the historical record, which would effectively restore the status quo.

Both emperors were variously engaged in different activities between 315 and 316. In addition to campaigning against the Germans while residing in Augusta Treverorum (Trier) in 315, Constantine dealt with aspects of the Donatist controversy; he also traveled to Rome where he celebrated his Decennalia. Licinius, possibly residing at Sirmium, was probably waging war against the Goths. Although not much else is known about Licinius' activities during this period, it is probable that he spent much of his time preparing for his impending war against Constantine; the latter,who spent the spring and summer of 316 in Augusta Treverorum, was probably doing much the same thing. In any case, by December 316, the western emperor was in Sardica with his army. Sometime between 1 December and 28 February 317, both emperors' armies joined battle on the Campus Ardiensis; as was the case in the previous engagement, Constantine' s forces were victorious. On 1 March 317, both sides agreed to a cessation of hostilities; possibly because of the intervention of his wife Constantia, Licinius was able to keep his throne, although he had to agree to the execution of his colleague Valens, who the eastern emperor had appointed as his colleague before the battle, as well as to cede some of his territory to his brother-in-law.

Licinius and the Christians

Although the historical record is not completely clear, Licinius seems to have campaigned against the Sarmatians in 318. He also appears to have been in Byzantium in the summer of 318 and later in June 323. Beyond these few facts, not much else is known about his residences until mid summer of 324. Although he and Constantine had issued the Edict of Milan in early 313, Licinius turned on the Christians in his realm seemingly in 320. The first law that Licinius issued prevented bishops from communicating with each other and from holding synods to discuss matters of interest to them. The second law prohibited men and women from attending services together and young girls from receiving instruction from their bishop or schools. When this law was issued, he also gave orders that Christians could hold services only outside of city walls. Additionally, he deprived officers in the army of their commissions if they did not sacrifice to the gods. Licinius may have been trying to incite Constantine to attack him. In any case, the growing tension between the two rulers is reflected in the consular Fasti of the period.

The Second Civil War Between Licinius and Constantine and Licinius' Death

War actually broke out in 321 when Constantine pursued some Sarmatians, who had been ravaging some territory in his realm, across the Danube. When he checked a similar invasion of the Goths, who were devastating Thrace, Licinius complained that Constantine had broken the treaty between them. Having assembled a fleet and army at Thessalonica, Constantine advanced toward Adrianople. Licinius engaged the forces of his brother-in-law near the banks of the Hebrus River on 3 July 324 where he was routed; with as many men as he could gather, he headed for his fleet which was in the Hellespont. Those of his soldiers who were not killed or put to flight, surrendered to the enemy. Licinius fled to Byzantium, where he was besieged by Constantine. Licinius' fleet, under the command of the admiral Abantus, was overcome by bad weather and by Constantine' s fleet which was under the command of his son Crispus. Hard pressed in Byzantium, Licinius abandoned the city to his rival and fled to Chalcedon in Bithynia. Leaving Martinianus, his former magister officiorum and now his co-ruler, to impede Constantine' s progress, Licinius regrouped his forces and engaged his enemy at Chrysopolis where he was again routed on 18 September 324. He fled to Nicomedeia which Constantine began to besiege. On the next day Licinius abdicated and was sent to Thessalonica, where he was kept under house arrest. Both Licinius and his associate were put to death by Constantine. Martinianus may have been put to death before the end of 324, whereas Licinius was not put to death until the spring of 325. Rumors circulated that Licinius had been put to death because he attempted another rebellion against Constantine.

Copyright (C) 1996, Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

Cleisthenes
rjb_ge2_8_12_06.jpg
1356 Antioch22 viewsConstantine I
LRBC I 1356
RIC VII 86
mauseus
rjb_ge_21_12_06.jpg
1357 Antioch19 viewsConstantine II
LRBC I 1357
RIC VII 87
mauseus
Constantinus-I_RIC-VII-14-6h_22mm_2,75ga-s.jpg
136 Constantinus I. (306-309 A.D. Caesar, 309-910 A.D. Filius Augustorum, 307-337 A.D. Augustus), Sirmium, RIC VII 014, AR-Miliarense, -/-//SIRM, CRISPVS ET CO(NSTANTINVS C C), Cripus and Costantinus-II, Bare head right.141 views136 Constantinus I. (306-309 A.D. Caesar, 309-910 A.D. Filius Augustorum, 307-337 A.D. Augustus), Sirmium, RIC VII 014, AR-Miliarense, -/-//SIRM, CRISPVS ET CO(NSTANTINVS C C), Cripus and Costantinus II., Bare head right.
avers:- CONSTANTI(NVS MAX AVG),
revers:- CRISPVS ET CO(NSTANTINVS C C), Busts of Crispus (left) and Constantine II. (right) facing each other.
exe: -/-//SI(RM), diameter: 22mm, weight: 2,74g(half), axis: 6h,
mint: Sirmium, date: 320 A.D., ref: RIC VII 14, p-469, C-3, Gnecchi-8,
Q-001
quadrans
Constantinus-I__AE-Silvered-Follis_IMP-CONSTAN-TINVS-MAX-AVG-_VICTORIA-AVGG-NN-D2-_dot-TS-dot-_-dot-_Not-in-RIC_Thessalonica_3rd_-off__320-AD__Q-001_axis-0h_19mm_3,28g-s.jpg
136 Constantinus I. (306-309 A.D. Caesar, 309-910 A.D. Filius Augustorum, 307-337 A.D. Augustus), Thessalonica, RIC VII ???, AE-3 Follis, -/-//TS•Γ•, VICTORIA AVGG NN, Victoria advancing left, Not in RIC !!!, R!!!106 views136 Constantinus I. (306-309 A.D. Caesar, 309-910 A.D. Filius Augustorum, 307-337 A.D. Augustus), Thessalonica, RIC VII ???, AE-3 Follis, -/-//TS•Γ•, VICTORIA AVG G N N, Victoria advancing left, Not in RIC !!!, R!!!
avers:- IMP CONSTAN TINVS MAX AVG, ,D6, Laurate, helmeted, cuirassed bust right.
rever:- VICTORIA AVG G N N, Victoria advancing left holding wreath in right hand.
exergo: -/-//TS•Γ•, diameter: 19mm, weight: 3,28g, axis: 0h,
mint: Thessalonica, date: 319 A.D., ref: RIC VII after 59, p-506, 3rd.-off.,
RIC VII, THESSALONICA [before 59], CONSTANTINE I, UNLISTED OBVERSE LEGEND AND BUST TYPE, OFFICINA Γ
http://www.forumancientcoins.com/notinric/7the-59_g.html
Q-001
quadrans
Constantinus-I__AE-Follis_CONSTANTINVS-PF-AVG-_SOLI-INVICTO-COMITI-_RIC-VI-893_Trier_-AD_Q-001_axis-6h_20-22,5mm_3,87g-s.jpg
136 Constantinus I. (306-309 A.D. Caesar, 309-910 A.D. Filius Augustorum, 307-337 A.D. Augustus), Ticinum, RIC VI ???, AE-3 Follis, -/-//--, SOLI INVICTO COMITI, Radiate Sol head right, Not in RIC !!!, R!!!405 views136 Constantinus I. (306-309 A.D. Caesar, 309-910 A.D. Filius Augustorum, 307-337 A.D. Augustus), Ticinum, RIC VI ???, AE-3 Follis, -/-//--, SOLI INVICTO COMITI, Radiate Sol head right, Not in RIC !!!, R!!!
avers:- CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, Laureate, cuirassed bust right.
revers:- SOLI INVICTO COMITI, Sol radiate, draped bust right.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 20-22,5mm, weight: 3,87g, axis: 6h,
mint: Ticinum !!!, date: 310-313 A.D., ref: RIC-VI-???, Not in RIC !!!, R!!!
RIC VI, TICINUM [before 115], CONSTANTINE, UNLISTED ISSUE [SOLI INVICTO COMITI]
http://www.forumancientcoins.com/notinric/6tic-115_unm3.html
Q-001
quadrans
Constantinus-I__AR-Argenteus_IMP-CONSTANTI-NVS-AVG_VICTORIA-LAETAE-PRINC-PERP-VOT_PR_PTR_RIC-not_C-not_Trier_318-319-AD__Q-001_19mm_2,73g-s.jpg
136 Constantinus I. (306-309 A.D. Caesar, 309-910 A.D. Filius Augustorum, 307-337 A.D. Augustus), Trier, RIC VII ???, AR-Argenteus, -/-//PTR, VICTORIA LAETAE PRINC PERP, Not in RIC !!!160 views136 Constantinus I. (306-309 A.D. Caesar, 309-910 A.D. Filius Augustorum, 307-337 A.D. Augustus), Trier, RIC VII ???, AR-Argenteus, -/-//PTR, VICTORIA LAETAE PRINC PERP, Not in RIC !!!
avers:- IMP CONSTANTI NVS AVG, bust l., high-crested helmet, cuir., dr., spear across r. shoulder..
rever:- VICTORIA LAETAE PRINC PERP, two Victories stg. facing one another, together holding shield inscribed VOT/PR on altar. PTR in exergue.
"UNLISTED ISSUE. This issue is listed erroneously in RIC VII as regular follis (TRIER 208A, p. 181), but in fact it is "billon argenteus" (c. 25% of silver) and belongs to the group of TREVERI 825-826 in RIC VI. Note that only PTR mark is correct, because of only one officina working at that time at Treveri. Note also that the bust type is similar to H11 from RIC VII, but there are also a few differences: bust is usually larger, half-length, and could be described as cuirassed and draped. Coin should be listed after TREVERI 826. See: Bastien, P., "L’émission de monnaies de billon de Treves au début de 313", Quaderni Ticinesi (Numismatica e Antichità Classiche) 1982, XI, p. 271-278. See: CORRIGENDA, VOL. VII, p. 181, CORRIGENDA, VOL. VI, p. 224" by Lech Stepniewski, in "Not in RIC" , thank you Lech Stepniewski,
http://www.forumancientcoins.com/notinric/6tre-826.html
exergo: -/-//PTR, diameter: 19mm, weight: 2,73g, axis: h,
mint: Trier, date: 318-319 A.D., ref: RIC VI Trier 825-6?, RIC VI, "TREVERI [after 826], CONSTANTINE I, UNLISTED ISSUE" by Lech Stepniewski,
Q-001
2 commentsquadrans
heraclea12.jpg
137 Constantine I16 viewsobv: IMP CONSTA_TINVS AVG laur. drp. bust l. holding scepter and mappa
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE AVGG campgate with three turrents no star
ex: MHTB
hill132
137-C1 VLLP Lyons, RIC 79.JPG
137-C1 VLLP Lyons, RIC 7941 viewsConstantine The Great, AE3, Lyons mint, 320 AD.
Obv: CONSTANTINVS AVG, Cuirassed bust right, wearing high crested helmet.
Rev: VICTORIAE LAETAE PRINC PERP, Two Victories facing , placing shield inscribed VOT / PR on altar.
P(two captives)L in exergue.
Lyons mint, RIC 79.
18mm, 2.5 gm.
jdholds
heraclea13.jpg
138 Constantine I14 viewsobv: IMP CONSTAN_TINVS AVG laur. drp. bust l. holding scepter and mappa
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE AVGG campgate with three turrents no star
ex: MHTB
hill132
138-C1 VLLP Siscia, RIC 48.JPG
138-C1 VLLP Siscia, RIC 4833 viewsConstantine The Great, AE3, Siscia mint.
Obv:IMP CONSTANTINVS PF AVG, Laureate, helmeted, Cuirassed bust right.
Rev: VICTORIAE LAETAE PRINC PERP, Two Victories facing , placing shield inscribed VOT / PR on altar.
(gamma) SIS in exergue.
Siscia mint, RIC 48.
20mm, 2.2 gm.
jdholds
heraclea14.jpg
139 Constantine I15 viewsobv: IMP CONSTAN_TINVS AVG laur. drp. bust l. holding scepter and mappa
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE AVGG campgate with three turrents no star
ex: MHTB
hill132
heraclea15~0.jpg
140 Constantine II18 viewsobv: CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C laur. drp. cuir. bust r.
rev: PROVIDE_TIAE CAESS campgate with three turrents star above
ex: .SMH(epsilon).
hill132
140-C1 VLLP Siscia, RIC 55.JPG
140-C1 VLLP Siscia, RIC 5561 viewsConstantine The Great, AE3, 319-320 AD
Obv: CONSTAN-TINVS AVG, Cuirassed bust left wearing high crested helmet and holding spear.
Rev: VICTORIAE LAETAE PRINC PERP, Two Victories holding shield inscribed VOT/PR over altar.
BSIS in exergue. Siscia mint
19mm, 3.1 gm.
RIC 55
2 commentsjdholds
St.Helena.jpg
1401a, St. Helena, Augusta 8 November 324 - 328 to 330 A.D., mother of Constantine the Great95 viewsBronze AE 3, RIC 148, VF, Alexandria mint, 3.243g, 19.4mm, 165o, 327 - 328 A.D. Obverse: FL HELENA AVGVSTA, diademed and mantled bust right wearing double necklace; Reverse: SECVRITAS REIPVBLICE, Securitas holding branch downward in right and lifting fold of robe in left, wreath left, I right, SMAL in exergue; rare.

The mother of Constantine the Great, born about the middle of the third century, possibly in Drepanum (later known as Helenopolis) on the Nicomedian Gulf; died about 330. She was of humble parentage; St. Ambrose, in his "Oratio de obitu Theodosii", referred to her as a stabularia, or inn-keeper. Nevertheless, she became the lawful wife of Constantius Chlorus. Her first and only son, Constantine, was born in Naissus in Upper Moesia, in the year 274. The statement made by English chroniclers of the Middle Ages, according to which Helena was supposed to have been the daughter of a British prince, is entirely without historical foundation. It may arise from the misinterpretation of a term used in the fourth chapter of the panegyric on Constantine's marriage with Fausta, that Constantine, oriendo (i. e., "by his beginnings," "from the outset") had honoured Britain, which was taken as an allusion to his birth, whereas the reference was really to the beginning of his reign.

On the death of Constantius Chlorus, in 308, Constantine, who succeeded him, summoned his mother to the imperial court, conferred on her the title of Augusta, ordered that all honour should be paid her as the mother of the sovereign, and had coins struck bearing her effigy. Her son's influence caused her to embrace Christianity after his victory over Maxentius. This is directly attested by Eusebius (Vita Constantini, III, xlvii): "She (his mother) became under his (Constantine's) influence such a devout servant of God, that one might believe her to have been from her very childhood a disciple of the Redeemer of mankind". It is also clear from the declaration of the contemporary historian of the Church that Helena, from the time of her conversion had an earnestly Christian life and by her influence and liberality favoured the wider spread of Christianity. Tradition links her name with the building of Christian churches in the cities of the West, where the imperial court resided, notably at Rome and Trier, and there is no reason for rejecting this tradition, for we know positively through Eusebius that Helena erected churches on the hallowed spots of Palestine. Despite her advanced age she undertook a journey to Palestine when Constantine, through his victory over Licinius, had become sole master of the Roman Empire, subsequently, therefore, to the year 324. It was in Palestine, as we learn from Eusebius (loc. cit., xlii), that she had resolved to bring to God, the King of kings, the homage and tribute of her devotion. She lavished on that land her bounties and good deeds, she "explored it with remarkable discernment", and "visited it with the care and solicitude of the emperor himself". Then, when she "had shown due veneration to the footsteps of the Saviour", she had two churches erected for the worship of God: one was raised in Bethlehem near the Grotto of the Nativity, the other on the Mount of the Ascension, near Jerusalem. She also embellished the sacred grotto with rich ornaments. This sojourn in Jerusalem proved the starting-point of the legend first recorded by Rufinus as to the discovery of the Cross of Christ.

Constantine I, in 327, improved Drepanum, his mother's native town, and decreed that it should be called Helenopolis, it is probable that the latter returned from Palestine to her son who was then residing in the Orient. Constantine was with her when she died, at the advanced age of eighty years or thereabouts (Eusebius, "Vita Const.", III, xlvi). This must have been about the year 330, for the last coins which are known to have been stamped with her name bore this date. Her body was brought to Constantinople and laid to rest in the imperial vault of the church of the Apostles. It is presumed that her remains were transferred in 849 to the Abbey of Hautvillers, in the French Archdiocese of Reims, as recorded by the monk Altmann in his "Translatio". She was revered as a saint, and the veneration spread, early in the ninth century, even to Western countries. Her feast falls on 18 August.

(See The Catholic Encyclopedia: http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/07202b.htm)

Cleisthenes
CtG AE3.jpg
1403a,1, Constantine I (the Great), 307-337 A.D.46 viewsConstantine I (the Great), 307-337 A.D. Bronze AE 3, RIC 16, C -, VF, 2.854g, 19.1mm, 180o, Constantinople mint, 327 A.D. Obverse: CONSTANTI-NVS MAX AVG, rosette diademed head right; Reverse: GLORIA EXERCITVS, Soldier standing left, head right, resting left hand on shield and holding inverted spear in right, G in left field, CONS in exergue; very rare (R3).

The Emperor Constantine I was effectively the sole ruler of the Roman world between 324 and 337 A.D.; his reign was perhaps one of the most crucial of all the emperors in determining the future course of western civilization. By beginning the process of making Christianity the religious foundation of his realm, he set the religious course for the future of Europe which remains in place to this very day. Because he replaced Rome with Constantinople as the center of imperial power, he made it clear that the city of Rome was no longer the center of power and he also set the stage for the Middle Ages. His philosophical view of monarchy, largely spelled out in some of the works of Eusebius of Caesarea, became the foundation for the concept of the divine right of kings which prevailed in Europe.

Constantine was not a "Christian convert" in any traditional sense. He was not baptized until close to death, and while that was not an uncommon practice, the mention of Christ in his speeches and decrees is conspicuous by its absence. Eusebius, Church historian and Constantine biographer, is responsible for much of the valorization of Constantine as the Christian Emperor. The somnambulant "sign" in which Constantine was to become victor at the Milvian Bridge is, not so surprisingly, revealed to posterity long after the "fact." Throughout his reign, Constantine continues to portray himself on coins as a sun god (Freeman, Charles. Egypt, Greece and Rome: Civilizations of the Ancient Mediterranean; Second Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004. 582). Above all, Constantine was a pragmatist. It would be cynical to egregiously disavow his commitment to Christianity, but it would be equally wrong to think that he would allow Christianity to meddle in the governance of his empire. As he reputedly told a group of bishops, "You are bishops of those within the church, but I am perhaps a bishop appointed by God of those outside." Whatever the motives for his decision to support Christianity, Christianity benefitted from the arrangement. So, too, did Constantine. It was a match made in heaven.
J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

For perhaps the best Constantine The Great site on the web, see Victor Clark's Constantine The Great Coins: http://www.constantinethegreatcoins.com/
1 commentsCleisthenes
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1403b, Constantine I (the Great), early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D.37 viewsConstantine the Great, early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D., Bronze AE 3, RIC 137, VF, Constantinople mint, 1.476g, 16.4mm, 180o, 336 - 337 A.D. Obverse: CONSTANTI-NVS MAX AVG, laurel and rosette-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; Reverse: GLOR-IA EXERC-ITVS, two soldiers, each holding spear and shield on ground, flanking standard, CONS[ ] in exergue. Ex FORVM.

The Emperor Constantine I was effectively the sole ruler of the Roman world between 324 and 337 A.D.; his reign was perhaps one of the most crucial of all the emperors in determining the future course of western civilization. By beginning the process of making Christianity the religious foundation of his realm, he set the religious course for the future of Europe which remains in place to this very day. Because he replaced Rome with Constantinople as the center of imperial power, he made it clear that the city of Rome was no longer the center of power and he also set the stage for the Middle Ages. His philosophical view of monarchy, largely spelled out in some of the works of Eusebius of Caesarea, became the foundation for the concept of the divine right of kings which prevailed in Europe.

Constantine was not a "Christian convert" in any traditional sense. He was not baptized until close to death, and while that was not an uncommon practice, the mention of Christ in his speeches and decrees is conspicuous by its absence. Eusebius, Church historian and Constantine biographer, is responsible for much of the valorization of Constantine as the Christian Emperor. The somnambulant "sign" in which Constantine was to become victor at the Milvian Bridge is, not so surprisingly, revealed to posterity long after the "fact." Throughout his reign, Constantine continues to portray himself on coins as a sun god (Freeman, Charles. Egypt, Greece and Rome: Civilizations of the Ancient Mediterranean; Second Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004. 582). Above all, Constantine was a pragmatist. It would be cynical to egregiously disavow his commitment to Christianity, but it would be equally wrong to think that he would allow Christianity to meddle in the governance of his empire. As he reputedly told a group of bishops, "You are bishops of those within the church, but I am perhaps a bishop appointed by God of those outside." Whatever the motives for his decision to support Christianity, Christianity benefitted from the arrangement. So, too, did Constantine. It was a match made in heaven.
J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

For perhaps the best Constantine The Great site on the web, see Victor Clark's Constantine The Great Coins: http://www.constantinethegreatcoins.com/
Cleisthenes
CTGDafne.jpg
1403c, Constantine I (the Great), early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D.49 viewsBronze AE 3, RIC VII 35, choice aEF, Constantinople mint, 3.336g, 20.0mm, 180o, 328 A.D.; Obverse: CONSTANTI-NVS MAX AVG, laurel and rosette diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; Reverse: CONSTANTINI-ANA DAFNE, Victory seated left on cippus, head right, palm frond in each hand, trophy and captive before, CONS in exergue, B left; scarce. Ex FORVM.

"The information about Constantine's campaign across [the Danube] is obscure and untrustworthy. The question, therefore, of what he achieved by this enterprise was, and is, subject to contradictory interpretations. On the one hand, the Panegyrists claimed that he had repeated the triumphs of Trajan. On the other, his own nephew, Julian the Apostate, spoke for many when he expressed the view that this second 'conquest' of Dacia was incomplete and extremely brief . . . monetary commemoration was accorded to the building, at about the same time [AD 328], of the river frontier fortress of Constantiniana Dafne (Spantov, near Oltenita) . . ." (Grant, Michael. The Emperor Constantine. London: Phoenix, 1998. 58-9).

The Emperor Constantine I was effectively the sole ruler of the Roman world between 324 and 337 A.D.; his reign was perhaps one of the most crucial of all the emperors in determining the future course of western civilization. By beginning the process of making Christianity the religious foundation of his realm, he set the religious course for the future of Europe which remains in place to this very day. Because he replaced Rome with Constantinople as the center of imperial power, he made it clear that the city of Rome was no longer the center of power and he also set the stage for the Middle Ages. His philosophical view of monarchy, largely spelled out in some of the works of Eusebius of Caesarea, became the foundation for the concept of the divine right of kings which prevailed in Europe.

Constantine was not a "Christian convert" in any traditional sense. He was not baptized until close to death, and while that was not an uncommon practice, the mention of Christ in his speeches and decrees is conspicuous by its absence. Eusebius, Church historian and Constantine biographer, is responsible for much of the valorization of Constantine as the Christian Emperor. The somnambulant "sign" in which Constantine was to become victor at the Milvian Bridge is, not so surprisingly, revealed to posterity long after the "fact." Throughout his reign, Constantine continues to portray himself on coins as a sun god (Freeman, Charles. Egypt, Greece and Rome: Civilizations of the Ancient Mediterranean; Second Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004. 582). Above all, Constantine was a pragmatist. It would be cynical to egregiously disavow his commitment to Christianity, but it would be equally wrong to think that he would allow Christianity to meddle in the governance of his empire. As he reputedly told a group of bishops, "You are bishops of those within the church, but I am perhaps a bishop appointed by God of those outside." Whatever the motives for his decision to support Christianity, Christianity benefitted from the arrangement. So, too, did Constantine. It was a match made in heaven.
J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

For perhaps the best Constantine The Great site on the web, see Victor Clark's Constantine The Great Coins: http://www.constantinethegreatcoins.com/
1 commentsCleisthenes
CTGKyzAE3.jpg
1403d, Constantine I (the Great), early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D. (Cyzicus)37 viewsConstantine the Great, early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D. Bronze AE 3, RIC 199, gVF, corrosion, Cyzicus, 1.402g, 16.2mm, 0o, 336 - 337 A.D. Obverse: CONSTANTI-NVS MAX AVG, laurel and rosette-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; Reverse: GLOR-IA EXERC-ITVS•, two soldiers, each holding spear and shield on ground, flanking standard, SMKA in exergue.

The Emperor Constantine I was effectively the sole ruler of the Roman world between 324 and 337 A.D.; his reign was perhaps one of the most crucial of all the emperors in determining the future course of western civilization. By beginning the process of making Christianity the religious foundation of his realm, he set the religious course for the future of Europe which remains in place to this very day. Because he replaced Rome with Constantinople as the center of imperial power, he made it clear that the city of Rome was no longer the center of power and he also set the stage for the Middle Ages. His philosophical view of monarchy, largely spelled out in some of the works of Eusebius of Caesarea, became the foundation for the concept of the divine right of kings which prevailed in Europe.

Constantine was not a "Christian convert" in any traditional sense. He was not baptized until close to death, and while that was not an uncommon practice, the mention of Christ in his speeches and decrees is conspicuous by its absence. Eusebius, Church historian and Constantine biographer, is responsible for much of the valorization of Constantine as the Christian Emperor. The somnambulant "sign" in which Constantine was to become victor at the Milvian Bridge is, not so surprisingly, revealed to posterity long after the "fact." Throughout his reign, Constantine continues to portray himself on coins as a sun god (Freeman, Charles. Egypt, Greece and Rome: Civilizations of the Ancient Mediterranean; Second Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004. 582). Above all, Constantine was a pragmatist. It would be cynical to egregiously disavow his commitment to Christianity, but it would be equally wrong to think that he would allow Christianity to meddle in the governance of his empire. As he reputedly told a group of bishops, "You are bishops of those within the church, but I am perhaps a bishop appointed by God of those outside." Whatever the motives for his decision to support Christianity, Christianity benefitted from the arrangement. So, too, did Constantine. It was a match made in heaven.
J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

For perhaps the best Constantine The Great site on the web, see Victor Clark's Constantine The Great Coins: http://www.constantinethegreatcoins.com/
Cleisthenes
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1403e, Constantine I (the Great), early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D. (Heraclea)27 viewsConstantine the Great, Bronze AE 3, RIC 69, VF, Heraclea, 3.38g, 19.0mm, 180o, 325 - 326 A.D. Obverse: CONSTAN-TINVS AVG, laureate head right; Reverse: D N CONSTANTINI MAX AVG, VOT XXX in wreath, SMHD in exergue.

The Emperor Constantine I was effectively the sole ruler of the Roman world between 324 and 337 A.D.; his reign was perhaps one of the most crucial of all the emperors in determining the future course of western civilization. By beginning the process of making Christianity the religious foundation of his realm, he set the religious course for the future of Europe which remains in place to this very day. Because he replaced Rome with Constantinople as the center of imperial power, he made it clear that the city of Rome was no longer the center of power and he also set the stage for the Middle Ages. His philosophical view of monarchy, largely spelled out in some of the works of Eusebius of Caesarea, became the foundation for the concept of the divine right of kings which prevailed in Europe.

Constantine was not a "Christian convert" in any traditional sense. He was not baptized until close to death, and while that was not an uncommon practice, the mention of Christ in his speeches and decrees is conspicuous by its absence. Eusebius, Church historian and Constantine biographer, is responsible for much of the valorization of Constantine as the Christian Emperor. The somnambulant "sign" in which Constantine was to become victor at the Milvian Bridge is, not so surprisingly, revealed to posterity long after the "fact." Throughout his reign, Constantine continues to portray himself on coins as a sun god (Freeman, Charles. Egypt, Greece and Rome: Civilizations of the Ancient Mediterranean; Second Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004. 582). Above all, Constantine was a pragmatist. It would be cynical to egregiously disavow his commitment to Christianity, but it would be equally wrong to think that he would allow Christianity to meddle in the governance of his empire. As he reputedly told a group of bishops, "You are bishops of those within the church, but I am perhaps a bishop appointed by God of those outside." Whatever the motives for his decision to support Christianity, Christianity benefitted from the arrangement. So, too, did Constantine. It was a match made in heaven.
J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

For perhaps the best Constantine The Great site on the web, see Victor Clark's Constantine The Great Coins: http://www.constantinethegreatcoins.com/
Cleisthenes
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1403f, Constantine I (the Great), early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D. (Heraclea)20 viewsBronze follis, RIC 5, F/aF, 3.513g, 20.4mm, 180o, Heraclea mint, 313 A.D.; obverse IMP C FL VAL CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, laureate head right; reverse IOVI CONSER-VATORI AVGG, Jupiter standing left holding Victory and scepter, eagle with wreath in beek at feet, B in right field, SMHT in exergue.

The Emperor Constantine I was effectively the sole ruler of the Roman world between 324 and 337 A.D.; his reign was perhaps one of the most crucial of all the emperors in determining the future course of western civilization. By beginning the process of making Christianity the religious foundation of his realm, he set the religious course for the future of Europe which remains in place to this very day. Because he replaced Rome with Constantinople as the center of imperial power, he made it clear that the city of Rome was no longer the center of power and he also set the stage for the Middle Ages. His philosophical view of monarchy, largely spelled out in some of the works of Eusebius of Caesarea, became the foundation for the concept of the divine right of kings which prevailed in Europe.

Constantine was not a "Christian convert" in any traditional sense. He was not baptized until close to death, and while that was not an uncommon practice, the mention of Christ in his speeches and decrees is conspicuous by its absence. Eusebius, Church historian and Constantine biographer, is responsible for much of the valorization of Constantine as the Christian Emperor. The somnambulant "sign" in which Constantine was to become victor at the Milvian Bridge is, not so surprisingly, revealed to posterity long after the "fact." Throughout his reign, Constantine continues to portray himself on coins as a sun god (Freeman, Charles. Egypt, Greece and Rome: Civilizations of the Ancient Mediterranean; Second Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004. 582). Above all, Constantine was a pragmatist. It would be cynical to egregiously disavow his commitment to Christianity, but it would be equally wrong to think that he would allow Christianity to meddle in the governance of his empire. As he reputedly told a group of bishops, "You are bishops of those within the church, but I am perhaps a bishop appointed by God of those outside." Whatever the motives for his decision to support Christianity, Christianity benefitted from the arrangement. So, too, did Constantine. It was a match made in heaven.
J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

For perhaps the best Constantine The Great site on the web, see Victor Clark's Constantine The Great Coins: http://www.constantinethegreatcoins.com/
Cleisthenes
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1403g, Constantine I (the Great), early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D. (Nicomedia)22 viewsConstantine the Great, early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D. Bronze follis, RIC 12, aVF, Nicomedia mint, 2.760g, 22.0mm, 0o, 313 - 317 A.D. Obverse: IMP C FL VAL CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, laureate head right; Reverse: IOVI CONS-ERVATORI, Jupiter standing left holding Victory on globe and scepter, eagle with wreath in beak left, G right, SMN in exergue; scarce.

The Emperor Constantine I was effectively the sole ruler of the Roman world between 324 and 337 A.D.; his reign was perhaps one of the most crucial of all the emperors in determining the future course of western civilization. By beginning the process of making Christianity the religious foundation of his realm, he set the religious course for the future of Europe which remains in place to this very day. Because he replaced Rome with Constantinople as the center of imperial power, he made it clear that the city of Rome was no longer the center of power and he also set the stage for the Middle Ages. His philosophical view of monarchy, largely spelled out in some of the works of Eusebius of Caesarea, became the foundation for the concept of the divine right of kings which prevailed in Europe.

Constantine was not a "Christian convert" in any traditional sense. He was not baptized until close to death, and while that was not an uncommon practice, the mention of Christ in his speeches and decrees is conspicuous by its absence. Eusebius, Church historian and Constantine biographer, is responsible for much of the valorization of Constantine as the Christian Emperor. The somnambulant "sign" in which Constantine was to become victor at the Milvian Bridge is, not so surprisingly, revealed to posterity long after the "fact." Throughout his reign, Constantine continues to portray himself on coins as a sun god (Freeman, Charles. Egypt, Greece and Rome: Civilizations of the Ancient Mediterranean; Second Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004. 582). Above all, Constantine was a pragmatist. It would be cynical to egregiously disavow his commitment to Christianity, but it would be equally wrong to think that he would allow Christianity to meddle in the governance of his empire. As he reputedly told a group of bishops, "You are bishops of those within the church, but I am perhaps a bishop appointed by God of those outside." Whatever the motives for his decision to support Christianity, Christianity benefitted from the arrangement. So, too, did Constantine. It was a match made in heaven.
J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

For perhaps the best Constantine The Great site on the web, see Victor Clark's Constantine The Great Coins: http://www.constantinethegreatcoins.com/
Cleisthenes
CTG.jpg
1403h, Constantine I (the Great), early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D. (Siscia)36 viewsBronze follis, RIC 232b, gVF, Siscia, 3.87g, 23.8mm, 180o, early 313 A.D. Obverse: IMP CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, laureate head right; Reverse: IOVI CONSERVATORI AVGG NN, Jupiter standing left holding Victory on globe and scepter, eagle with wreath in beak left, E right, SIS in exergue.

The Emperor Constantine I was effectively the sole ruler of the Roman world between 324 and 337 A.D.; his reign was perhaps one of the most crucial of all the emperors in determining the future course of western civilization. By beginning the process of making Christianity the religious foundation of his realm, he set the religious course for the future of Europe which remains in place to this very day. Because he replaced Rome with Constantinople as the center of imperial power, he made it clear that the city of Rome was no longer the center of power and he also set the stage for the Middle Ages. His philosophical view of monarchy, largely spelled out in some of the works of Eusebius of Caesarea, became the foundation for the concept of the divine right of kings which prevailed in Europe.

Constantine was not a "Christian convert" in any traditional sense. He was not baptized until close to death, and while that was not an uncommon practice, the mention of Christ in his speeches and decrees is conspicuous by its absence. Eusebius, Church historian and Constantine biographer, is responsible for much of the valorization of Constantine as the Christian Emperor. The somnambulant "sign" in which Constantine was to become victor at the Milvian Bridge is, not so surprisingly, revealed to posterity long after the "fact." Throughout his reign, Constantine continues to portray himself on coins as a sun god (Freeman, Charles. Egypt, Greece and Rome: Civilizations of the Ancient Mediterranean; Second Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004. 582). Above all, Constantine was a pragmatist. It would be cynical to egregiously disavow his commitment to Christianity, but it would be equally wrong to think that he would allow Christianity to meddle in the governance of his empire. As he reputedly told a group of bishops, "You are bishops of those within the church, but I am perhaps a bishop appointed by God of those outside." Whatever the motives for his decision to support Christianity, Christianity benefitted from the arrangement. So, too, did Constantine. It was a match made in heaven.
J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

For perhaps the best Constantine The Great site on the web, see Victor Clark's Constantine The Great Coins: http://www.constantinethegreatcoins.com/
Cleisthenes
CTG_SisCmpGte.jpg
1403i, Constantine I (the Great), early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D. (Siscia)41 viewsSilvered AE 3, RIC 214, VF, Siscia mint, 3.187g, 19.3mm, 0o, 328 - 329 A.D.
Obverse: CONSTAN-TINVS AVG, laureate head right; Reverse PROVIDEN-TIAE AVGG, campgate with two turrets, star above, ASIS and double crescent in exergue.

Flavius Valerius Constantinus, Constantine the Great, was the son of Helena and the First Tetrarchic ruler Constantius I. Constantine is most famous for his conversion to Christianity and the battle of the Milvian Bridge where he defeated emperor Maxentius. It is reputed that before the battle, he saw the words "In Hoc Signo Victor Eris" (By this sign you shall conquer) emblazoned on the sun around the Chi Rho, the symbol of Christianity. Other sources claim the vision came to Constantine I in a dream. The story continues that after placing this Christogram on the shields of his army, he defeated his opponent and thus ruled the empire through divine providence. Constantine I also shifted the capital of the empire to Constantinople, establishing the foundation for an Empire that would last another 1000 years. He died in 337 and his sons divided the Roman territories.

The Emperor Constantine I was effectively the sole ruler of the Roman world between 324 and 337 A.D.; his reign was perhaps one of the most crucial of all the emperors in determining the future course of western civilization. By beginning the process of making Christianity the religious foundation of his realm, he set the religious course for the future of Europe which remains in place to this very day. Because he replaced Rome with Constantinople as the center of imperial power, he made it clear that the city of Rome was no longer the center of power, and he also set the stage for the Middle Ages. His philosophical view of monarchy, largely spelled out in some of the works of Eusebius of Caesarea, became the foundation for the concept of the divine right of kings which prevailed in Europe.

Constantine was not a "Christian convert" in any traditional sense. He was not baptized until close to death, and while that was not an uncommon practice, the mention of Christ in his speeches and decrees is conspicuous by its absence. Eusebius, Church historian and Constantine biographer, is responsible for much of the valorization of Constantine as the Christian Emperor. The somnambulant "sign" in which Constantine was to become victor at the Milvian Bridge is, not so surprisingly, revealed to posterity long after the "fact." Throughout his reign, Constantine continues to portray himself on coins as a sun god (Freeman, Charles. Egypt, Greece and Rome: Civilizations of the Ancient Mediterranean; Second Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004. 582). Above all, Constantine was a pragmatist. It would be cynical to egregiously disavow his commitment to Christianity, but it would be equally wrong to think that he would allow Christianity to meddle in the governance of his empire. As he reputedly told a group of bishops, "You are bishops of those within the church, but I am perhaps a bishop appointed by God of those outside." Whatever the motives for his decision to support Christianity, Christianity benefitted from the arrangement. So, too, did Constantine. It was a match made in heaven.
J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

For perhaps the best Constantine The Great site on the web, see Victor Clark's Constantine The Great Coins: http://www.constantinethegreatcoins.com/
Cleisthenes
CTG_ThesCmpGte.jpg
1403j, Constantine I (the Great), early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D. (Thessalonica)26 viewsBronze AE 3, RIC 153, VF, Thessalonica mint, 2.955g, 19.7mm, 0o, 326 - 328 A.D. Obverse: CONSTAN-TINVS AVG, laureate head right; Reverse: PROVIDEN-TIAE AVGG, campgate with two turrets, star above, dot right, SMTSG in exergue.

Flavius Valerius Constantinus, Constantine the Great, was the son of Helena and the First Tetrarchic ruler Constantius I. Constantine is most famous for his conversion to Christianity and the battle of the Milvian Bridge where he defeated emperor Maxentius. It is reputed that before the battle, he saw the words "In Hoc Signo Victor Eris" (By this sign you shall conquer) emblazoned on the sun around the Chi Rho, the symbol of Christianity. Other sources claim the vision came to Constantine I in a dream. The story continues that after placing this Christogram on the shields of his army, he defeated his opponent and thus ruled the empire through divine providence. Constantine I also shifted the capital of the empire to Constantinople, establishing the foundation for an Empire that would last another 1000 years. He died in 337 and his sons divided the Roman territories.

The Emperor Constantine I was effectively the sole ruler of the Roman world between 324 and 337 A.D.; his reign was perhaps one of the most crucial of all the emperors in determining the future course of western civilization. By beginning the process of making Christianity the religious foundation of his realm, he set the religious course for the future of Europe which remains in place to this very day. Because he replaced Rome with Constantinople as the center of imperial power, he made it clear that the city of Rome was no longer the center of power, and he also set the stage for the Middle Ages. His philosophical view of monarchy, largely spelled out in some of the works of Eusebius of Caesarea, became the foundation for the concept of the divine right of kings which prevailed in Europe.

Constantine was not a "Christian convert" in any traditional sense. He was not baptized until close to death, and while that was not an uncommon practice, the mention of Christ in his speeches and decrees is conspicuous by its absence. Eusebius, Church historian and Constantine biographer, is responsible for much of the valorization of Constantine as the Christian Emperor. The somnambulant "sign" in which Constantine was to become victor at the Milvian Bridge is, not so surprisingly, revealed to posterity long after the "fact." Throughout his reign, Constantine continues to portray himself on coins as a sun god (Freeman, Charles. Egypt, Greece and Rome: Civilizations of the Ancient Mediterranean; Second Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004. 582). Above all, Constantine was a pragmatist. It would be cynical to egregiously disavow his commitment to Christianity, but it would be equally wrong to think that he would allow Christianity to meddle in the governance of his empire. As he reputedly told a group of bishops, "You are bishops of those within the church, but I am perhaps a bishop appointed by God of those outside." Whatever the motives for his decision to support Christianity, Christianity benefitted from the arrangement. So, too, did Constantine. It was a match made in heaven.
J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

For perhaps the best Constantine The Great site on the web, see Victor Clark's Constantine The Great Coins: http://www.constantinethegreatcoins.com/
Cleisthenes
CrispusRIC17.jpg
1404a, Crispus, Caesar 317 - 326 A.D. 38 viewsBronze AE 3, RIC 17, aEF, Cyzicus mint, 3.196g, 19.9mm, 315o, 321 - 324 A.D.; Obverse: D N FL IVL CRISPVS NOB CAES, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right; Reverse: IOVI CONSERVATORI, Jupiter standing left holding Victory on globe in right and scepter in left, eagle with wreath in beak to left, X / IIG and captive right, SMKD in exergue; scarce (RIC R3). Ex FORVM.


De Imperatoribus Romanis;
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors and their Families

Crispus Caesar (317-326 A.D.)

Hans Pohlsander
SUNY Albany

Crispus was the oldest son of the emperor Constantine I and played a fairly important role in the political and military events of the early fourth century. The regular form of his full name is Flavius Iulius Crispus, although the forms Flavius Claudius Crispus and Flavius Valerius Crispus also occur. His mother was a woman named Minervina, with whom Constantine had a relationship, probably illegitimate, before he married Fausta in 307. When Minervina died or when Constantine put her aside we do not know. Nor do we know when she gave birth to Crispus; we may assume, of course, that it was before 307. Some modern authorities, on good grounds, think that it was in 305. Crispus' place of birth must have been somewhere in the East, and it is not known when he was brought to Gaul and when, where, or under what circumstances he was separated from his mother.

Constantine entrusted the education of his son to the distinguished Christian scholar Lactantius, thereby giving a clear sign of his commitment to Christianity. We are not told when Lactantius assumed his duties, but a date before 317 seems likely. Nor do we know how successful he was in instilling Christian beliefs and values in his imperial pupil. No later than January of 322 Crispus must have married a woman named Helena -- not to be confused with Constantine's mother or daughter by the same name- and this woman bore him a child in October of 322. Constantine, we learn, was pleased.

Crispus' official career began at an early age and is well documented. On March 1 of 317, at Serdica (modern Sofia), his father appointed him Caesar. The consulship was his three times, in 318, 321, and 324. While nominally in charge of Gaul, with a prefect at his side, he successfully undertook military operations against the Franks and Alamanni in 320 and 323.

In 324, during the second war between Constantine and Licinius, he excelled as commander of Constantine's fleet in the waters of the Hellespont, the Propontis, and the Bosporus, thus making a significant contribution to the outcome of that war. The high points of his career are amply reflected in the imperial coinage. In addition to coins, we have his portrait, with varying degrees of certainty, in a number of sculptures, mosaics, cameos, etc. Contemporary authors heap praises upon him. Thus the panegyrist Nazarius speaks of Crispus' "magnificent deeds," and Eusebius calls him "an emperor most dear to God and in all regards comparable to his father."

Crispus' end was as tragic as his career had been brilliant. His own father ordered him to be put to death. We know the year of this sad event, 326, from the Consularia Constantinopolitana, and the place, Pola in Istria, from Ammianus Marcellinus. The circumstances, however, are less clear. Zosimus (6th c.) and Zonaras (12th c.) both report that Crispus and his stepmother Fausta were involved in an illicit relationship. There may be as much gossip as fact in their reports, but it is certain that at some time during the same year the emperor ordered the death of his own wife as well, and the two cases must be considered together. That Crispus and Fausta plotted treason is reported by Gregory of Tours, but not very believable. We must resolutely reject the claim of Zosimus that it was Constantine's sense of guilt over these deeds which caused him to accept Christianity, as it alone promised him forgiveness for his sins. A similar claim had already been made by Julian the Apostate. We must also, I think, reject the suggestion of Guthrie that the emperor acted in the interest of "dynastic legitimacy," that is, that he removed his illegitimate first-born son in order to secure the succession for his three legitimate younger sons. But Crispus must have committed, or at least must have been suspected of having committed, some especially shocking offense to earn him a sentence of death from his own father. He also suffered damnatio memoriae, his honor was never restored, and history has not recorded the fate of his wife and his child (or children).

Copyright (C) 1997, Hans A. Pohlsander. Published on De Imperatoribus Romanis;An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors and their Families:
http://www.roman-emperors.org/crispus.htm


What If?

St. Nectarios, in his book, The Ecumenical Synods, writes "Hellenism spread by Alexander paved the way for Christianity by Emperor Constantine the Great."

Constantine's upward gaze on his "Eyes to Heaven" coins recall the coin portraits of Alexander the Great (namely coins struck by the Diodochi), which served as prototypes for the divine ruler portraiture of much of the Hellenistic age. The diadem, of which this is the most elaborate type, was adopted by Constantine and the members of his house as a new symbol of sovereignty.

In the Greek Orthodox Church, Constantine the Great is revered as a Saint.

Is it just possible? Constantine, knowing what happened (or thinking that he does) to Phillip II of Macedon—assassinated on the eve of his greatness, in a plot that most likely involved his wife—and possibly his son. . . isn’t it just possible that Constantine is growing obsessively jealous of his ever more successful and adulated son? Imagine the Constantine who has proven time and again (think: Licinius) that he is a completely self-serving liar and a murderer, decides to murder again? Why "must we resolutely reject the claim of Zosimus that it was Constantine's sense of guilt over these deeds which caused him to accept Christianity, as it alone promised him forgiveness for his sins [?] (see: above). A similar claim had already been made by Julian the [Philosopher]."

Perhaps it is time to cease being apologists for the sometime megalomaniacal Constantine. As Michael Grant notes, "It is a mocking travesty of justice to call such a murderer Constantine the Great . . ." (Grant, Michael. The Emperor Constantine. London: Phoenix Press, 1998. 226).


Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.


Cleisthenes
crispus_votV.jpg
1404b, Crispus, Caesar 317 - 326 A.D. (Thessalonica)33 viewsBronze AE 3, RIC 118, VF, Thessalonica mint, 2.740g, 18.0mm, 180o, 320 - 321 A.D. Obverse: FL IVL CRISPVS NOB CAES, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust left; Reverse: CAESARVM NOSTRORVM, VOT V in wreath, TSDVI in exergue.

Flavius Julius Crispus was the son of Constantine I by his first wife. A brilliant soldier, Crispus was well loved by all until 326 A.D., when Constantine had him executed. It is said that Fausta, Crispus stepmother, anxious to secure the succession for her own sons falsely accused Crispus of raping her. Constantine, learning of Fausta`s treachery, had her executed too.


De Imperatoribus Romanis;
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors and their Families

Crispus Caesar (317-326 A.D.)

Hans Pohlsander
SUNY Albany

Crispus was the oldest son of the emperor Constantine I and played a fairly important role in the political and military events of the early fourth century. The regular form of his full name is Flavius Iulius Crispus, although the forms Flavius Claudius Crispus and Flavius Valerius Crispus also occur. His mother was a woman named Minervina, with whom Constantine had a relationship, probably illegitimate, before he married Fausta in 307. When Minervina died or when Constantine put her aside we do not know. Nor do we know when she gave birth to Crispus; we may assume, of course, that it was before 307. Some modern authorities, on good grounds, think that it was in 305. Crispus' place of birth must have been somewhere in the East, and it is not known when he was brought to Gaul and when, where, or under what circumstances he was separated from his mother.

Constantine entrusted the education of his son to the distinguished Christian scholar Lactantius, thereby giving a clear sign of his commitment to Christianity. We are not told when Lactantius assumed his duties, but a date before 317 seems likely. Nor do we know how successful he was in instilling Christian beliefs and values in his imperial pupil. No later than January of 322 Crispus must have married a woman named Helena -- not to be confused with Constantine's mother or daughter by the same name- and this woman bore him a child in October of 322. Constantine, we learn, was pleased.

Crispus' official career began at an early age and is well documented. On March 1 of 317, at Serdica (modern Sofia), his father appointed him Caesar. The consulship was his three times, in 318, 321, and 324. While nominally in charge of Gaul, with a prefect at his side, he successfully undertook military operations against the Franks and Alamanni in 320 and 323.

In 324, during the second war between Constantine and Licinius, he excelled as commander of Constantine's fleet in the waters of the Hellespont, the Propontis, and the Bosporus, thus making a significant contribution to the outcome of that war. The high points of his career are amply reflected in the imperial coinage. In addition to coins, we have his portrait, with varying degrees of certainty, in a number of sculptures, mosaics, cameos, etc. Contemporary authors heap praises upon him. Thus the panegyrist Nazarius speaks of Crispus' "magnificent deeds," and Eusebius calls him "an emperor most dear to God and in all regards comparable to his father."

Crispus' end was as tragic as his career had been brilliant. His own father ordered him to be put to death. We know the year of this sad event, 326, from the Consularia Constantinopolitana, and the place, Pola in Istria, from Ammianus Marcellinus. The circumstances, however, are less clear. Zosimus (6th c.) and Zonaras (12th c.) both report that Crispus and his stepmother Fausta were involved in an illicit relationship. There may be as much gossip as fact in their reports, but it is certain that at some time during the same year the emperor ordered the death of his own wife as well, and the two cases must be considered together. That Crispus and Fausta plotted treason is reported by Gregory of Tours, but not very believable. We must resolutely reject the claim of Zosimus that it was Constantine's sense of guilt over these deeds which caused him to accept Christianity, as it alone promised him forgiveness for his sins. A similar claim had already been made by Julian the Apostate. We must also, I think, reject the suggestion of Guthrie that the emperor acted in the interest of "dynastic legitimacy," that is, that he removed his illegitimate first-born son in order to secure the succession for his three legitimate younger sons. But Crispus must have committed, or at least must have been suspected of having committed, some especially shocking offense to earn him a sentence of death from his own father. He also suffered damnatio memoriae, his honor was never restored, and history has not recorded the fate of his wife and his child (or children).

Copyright (C) 1997, Hans A. Pohlsander. Published on De Imperatoribus Romanis;An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors and their Families:
http://www.roman-emperors.org/crispus.htm


What If?

St. Nectarios, in his book, The Ecumenical Synods, writes "Hellenism spread by Alexander paved the way for Christianity by Emperor Constantine the Great."

Constantine's upward gaze on his "Eyes to Heaven" coins recall the coin portraits of Alexander the Great (namely coins struck by the Diodochi), which served as prototypes for the divine ruler portraiture of much of the Hellenistic age. The diadem, of which this is the most elaborate type, was adopted by Constantine and the members of his house as a new symbol of sovereignty.

In the Greek Orthodox Church, Constantine the Great is revered as a Saint.

Is it just possible? Constantine, knowing what happened (or thinking that he does) to Phillip II of Macedon—assassinated on the eve of his greatness, in a plot that most likely involved his wife—and possibly his son. . . isn’t it just possible that Constantine is growing obsessively jealous of his ever more successful and adulated son? Imagine the Constantine who has proven time and again (think: Licinius) that he is a completely self-serving liar and a murderer, decides to murder again? Why "must we resolutely reject the claim of Zosimus that it was Constantine's sense of guilt over these deeds which caused him to accept Christianity, as it alone promised him forgiveness for his sins [?] (see: above). A similar claim had already been made by Julian the [Philosopher]."

Perhaps it is time to cease being apologists for the sometime megalomaniacal Constantine. As Michael Grant notes, "It is a mocking travesty of justice to call such a murderer Constantine the Great . . ." (Grant, Michael. The Emperor Constantine. London: Phoenix Press, 1998. 226).


Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
ConstansVot.jpeg
1405a, Constans, 9 September 337 - 19 January 350 A.D. (Alexandria)37 viewsBronze AE 4, RIC 37, gVF, Egypt, Alexandria, 1.54g, 15.0mm, 180o, 345-347 A.D. Obverse: D N CONSTANS P F AVG, pearl diademed head right; Reverse: VOT XX MVLT XXX in wreath, SMALA• in exergue.

Flavius Julius Constans, third and youngest son of Constantine I and Fausta, was born between 320 and 323 A.D. Primary sources for the life and reign of Constans I are scarce. To reconstruct his life and career, one must draw on a variety of references in both fourth century and later works. Raised as a Christian, he was made a Caesar on 25 December 333 A.D. Constans I and his two brothers, after the death of their father on 22 May 337 and the subsequent "massacre of the princes" in which many other relatives were purged, met in the first part of September 337 in Pannonia to re-divide the empire among themselves. There they were acclaimed Augusti by the army. Constans' new realm included Italy, Africa, Illyricum, Macedonia, and Achaea. Shortly before his father's death, Constans' engagement to Olympias, the daughter of the Praetorian Prefect Ablabius, was announced; although the match was never solemnized because of political reasons.

It would appear that Constans was successful in the military sphere. Following his accession to the purple in 337, he seems to have won a victory over the Sarmatians. In 340 Constans was able to beat back an attempt by his brother Constantine II to seize some of his realm. The latter died in a battle fought near Aquileia and Constans absorbed his late brother's territory. In 341 and 342 he conducted a successful campaign against the Franci. He also visited Britain in 343, probably on a military campaign.

As an emperor Constans gets mixed reviews. In what may be a topos, sources suggest that the first part of his reign was moderate but in later years, however, he became overbearing. The emperor apparently attempted to obtain as much money as he could from his subjects and sold government posts to the highest bidder. His favorites were allowed to oppress his subjects. Sources also condemn his homosexuality. He did have some military success and, in addition to other military threats, he had to deal with Donatist-related bandits in North Africa.

Like his father Constantine I and his brother Constantius II, Constans had a deep interest in Christianity. Together with Constantius II he issued (or perhaps re-issued) a ban against pagan sacrifice in 341. The next year, they cautioned against the destruction of pagan temples. Unlike his brother Constantius II, who supported the Arian faction, he stood shoulder to shoulder with Athanasius and other members of the Orthodox clique. In fact, it is due to his request that the Council of Serdica was called to deal with the ecclesiastical squabble between Athanasius of Alexandria and Paul of Constantinople on one side and the Arian faction on the other.

When Magnentius was declared emperor in Gaul during January 350, Constans realized his reign was at an end. When he learned of the revolt, he fled toward Helena, a town in the Pyrenees. Constans was put to death by Gaeso and a band of Magnentius' assassins, who dragged their victim from a temple in which he had sought refuge.

By Michael DiMaio, Jr., Salve Regina University and Robert Frakes, Clarion UniversityPublished: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

Cleisthenes
Constans.jpg
1405n, Constans, 9 September 337 - 19 January 350 A.D. (Siscia)54 viewsConstans, 9 September 337 - 19 January 350 A.D. Bronze AE 3, RIC 241, S 3978, VM 69, VF, Siscia, 2.32g, 18.3mm, 180o. Obverse: D N CONSTANS P F AVG, pearl diademed draped and cuirassed bust right; Reverse: FEL TEMP REPARATIO, Phoenix radiate, standing on rocky mound, GSIS and symbol in ex; nice green patina.

Flavius Julius Constans, third and youngest son of Constantine I and Fausta, was born between 320 and 323 A.D. Primary sources for the life and reign of Constans I are scarce. To reconstruct his life and career, one must draw on a variety of references in both fourth century and later works. Raised as a Christian, he was made a Caesar on 25 December 333 A.D. Constans I and his two brothers, after the death of their father on 22 May 337 and the subsequent "massacre of the princes" in which many other relatives were purged, met in the first part of September 337 in Pannonia to re-divide the empire among themselves. There they were acclaimed Augusti by the army. Constans' new realm included Italy, Africa, Illyricum, Macedonia, and Achaea. Shortly before his father's death, Constans' engagement to Olympias, the daughter of the Praetorian Prefect Ablabius, was announced; although the match was never solemnized because of political reasons.

It would appear that Constans was successful in the military sphere. Following his accession to the purple in 337, he seems to have won a victory over the Sarmatians. In 340 Constans was able to beat back an attempt by his brother Constantine II to seize some of his realm. The latter died in a battle fought near Aquileia and Constans absorbed his late brother's territory. In 341 and 342 he conducted a successful campaign against the Franci. He also visited Britain in 343, probably on a military campaign.

As an emperor Constans gets mixed reviews. In what may be a topos, sources suggest that the first part of his reign was moderate but in later years, however, he became overbearing. The emperor apparently attempted to obtain as much money as he could from his subjects and sold government posts to the highest bidder. His favorites were allowed to oppress his subjects. Sources also condemn his homosexuality. He did have some military success and, in addition to other military threats, he had to deal with Donatist-related bandits in North Africa.

Like his father Constantine I and his brother Constantius II, Constans had a deep interest in Christianity. Together with Constantius II he issued (or perhaps re-issued) a ban against pagan sacrifice in 341. The next year, they cautioned against the destruction of pagan temples. Unlike his brother Constantius II, who supported the Arian faction, he stood shoulder to shoulder with Athanasius and other members of the Orthodox clique. In fact, it is due to his request that the Council of Serdica was called to deal with the ecclesiastical squabble between Athanasius of Alexandria and Paul of Constantinople on one side and the Arian faction on the other.

When Magnentius was declared emperor in Gaul during January 350, Constans realized his reign was at an end. When he learned of the revolt, he fled toward Helena, a town in the Pyrenees. Constans was put to death by Gaeso and a band of Magnentius' assassins, who dragged their victim from a temple in which he had sought refuge.

By Michael DiMaio, Jr., Salve Regina University and Robert Frakes, Clarion University
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
U2476F1OVDKUXTA.jpeg
1405t, Constans, 9 September 337 - 19 January 350 A.D. (Thessalonica )37 viewsConstans, 9 September 337 - 19 January 350 A.D., Bronze AE 3, unattributed; Thessalonica mint, 2.25g, 18.9mm, 0; aVF.

Flavius Julius Constans, third and youngest son of Constantine I and Fausta, was born between 320 and 323 A.D. Primary sources for the life and reign of Constans I are scarce. To reconstruct his life and career, one must draw on a variety of references in both fourth century and later works. Raised as a Christian, he was made a Caesar on 25 December 333 A.D. Constans I and his two brothers, after the death of their father on 22 May 337 and the subsequent "massacre of the princes" in which many other relatives were purged, met in the first part of September 337 in Pannonia to re-divide the empire among themselves. There they were acclaimed Augusti by the army. Constans' new realm included Italy, Africa, Illyricum, Macedonia, and Achaea. Shortly before his father's death, Constans' engagement to Olympias, the daughter of the Praetorian Prefect Ablabius, was announced; although the match was never solemnized because of political reasons.

It would appear that Constans was successful in the military sphere. Following his accession to the purple in 337, he seems to have won a victory over the Sarmatians. In 340 Constans was able to beat back an attempt by his brother Constantine II to seize some of his realm. The latter died in a battle fought near Aquileia and Constans absorbed his late brother's territory. In 341 and 342 he conducted a successful campaign against the Franci. He also visited Britain in 343, probably on a military campaign.

As an emperor Constans gets mixed reviews. In what may be a topos, sources suggest that the first part of his reign was moderate but in later years, however, he became overbearing. The emperor apparently attempted to obtain as much money as he could from his subjects and sold government posts to the highest bidder. His favorites were allowed to oppress his subjects. Sources also condemn his homosexuality. He did have some military success and, in addition to other military threats, he had to deal with Donatist-related bandits in North Africa.

Like his father Constantine I and his brother Constantius II, Constans had a deep interest in Christianity. Together with Constantius II he issued (or perhaps re-issued) a ban against pagan sacrifice in 341. The next year, they cautioned against the destruction of pagan temples. Unlike his brother Constantius II, who supported the Arian faction, he stood shoulder to shoulder with Athanasius and other members of the Orthodox clique. In fact, it is due to his request that the Council of Serdica was called to deal with the ecclesiastical squabble between Athanasius of Alexandria and Paul of Constantinople on one side and the Arian faction on the other.

When Magnentius was declared emperor in Gaul during January 350, Constans realized his reign was at an end. When he learned of the revolt, he fled toward Helena, a town in the Pyrenees. Constans was put to death by Gaeso and a band of Magnentius' assassins, who dragged their victim from a temple in which he had sought refuge.

By Michael DiMaio, Jr., Salve Regina University and Robert Frakes, Clarion University.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
Cnstntine2.jpg
1406a, Constantine II, 22 May 337 - March or April 340 A.D. (Antioch)28 viewsConstantine II, 22 May 337 - March or April 340 A.D. Bronze AE 3, RIC 87, gVF, Antioch, 2.17g, 17.6mm, 0o, 330-335 A.D. Obverse: CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C, laureate and cuirassed bust right; Reverse: GLOR-IA EXERC-ITVS, two soldiers, each holding spear and shield on ground, flanking two standards, SMANE in exergue.

Constantine II (February 317 - 340) was Roman Emperor (337 - 340). The eldest son of Constantine I the Great and Fausta, he was born at Arles. Following the death of his father in 337, Constantine II became Emperor jointly with his brothers Constantius II and Constans. His section of the Empire was Gaul, Britain and Spain. At first, he was the guardian of his younger brother Constans, whose portion was Italy, Africa and Illyria. As Constans came of age, Constantine would not relinquish the guardianship, and in 340 he marched against Constans in Italy, but was defeated at Aquileia and died in battle. Constans came to control Constantine II's portion of the empire.
Cleisthenes
Constantine2.jpg
1406c, Constantine II, 337-340 A.D.34 viewsConstantine II, 317-340. AE3, RIC VII, 74 ('theta' = r), page 581 2.22 grams, 333-335 AD, Constantinople mint, VF. Obverse : CONSTANTIVS IVN NOB C - Laureate bust right, draped and cuirassed. Reverse: GLOR-IA EXERC-ITVS - Two soldiers looking in at each other and both holding a spear; between them, two standards. CONS (theta) (dot) in exergue. Rare.

Constantine II (February 317 - 340) was Roman Emperor (337 - 340). The eldest son of Constantine I the Great and Fausta, he was born at Arles. Following the death of his father in 337, Constantine II became Emperor jointly with his brothers Constantius II and Constans. His section of the Empire was Gaul, Britain and Spain. At first, he was the guardian of his younger brother Constans, whose portion was Italy, Africa and Illyria. As Constans came of age, Constantine would not relinquish the guardianship, and in 340 he marched against Constans in Italy, but was defeated at Aquileia and died in battle. Constans came to control Constantine II's portion of the empire.
Cleisthenes
U809F1JMXNTCBT.jpg
1407a, Constantius II, 337-361 A.D. (Antioch)50 viewsAE4, 337-361 A.D. Antioch, aVF/VF,Obv:– DN CONSTANTIVS P F AVG, Pearl and rosette diadem, head right/R: Wreath with VOT XX MVLT XXX, SMANB in exe.RIC VIII Antioch 113,Item ref: RI170b.

AE3, 2.80 grams, 330-333, Heraclea, aVF. Obv: FL IVL CONSTANTIVS NOB C - Laureate bust right, draped and cuirassed. R: GLOR-IA EXERC-ITVS - Two soldiers looking in at each other and both holding a spear; between them, two standards Exe: SMHB.

Constantius II was born in Illyricum in August AD 317, the son of Constantine the Great and Fausta, and was proclaimed Caesar in AD 323.

In AD 337, at the death of his father Constantine, he acceded to the throne together with his two brothers Constantine II and Constans. But this accession by the three brothers was tainted by the murder of their cousins Dalmatius and Hannibalianus, whom Constantine had also intended as joint heirs. These murders are believed to have been masterminded by Constantius II.

Eventually, Constantius II was left as the sole emperor of the Roman empire. Constantius elevated his cousin, Julian, to the rank of Caesar (junior emperor) and gave him his sister Helena in marriage. Julian was assigned the task of dealing with the Frankish leader, Silvanus, who had proclaimed himself emepror at Colonia Agrippina. Julian's success led his men to declare him Augustus. Julian, while reluctant to take the throne, accepted.

Constantius II, therefore, left the Mesopotamian frontier and marched his troops west, seeking to deal with the usurper. As he reached Cilicia in the winter of AD 361, he was overcome by a sudden fever and died at Mopsucrene. Julian, the Apostate, succeded him as Emperor.

Our chief source for Constantius' reign is the great historian Ammianus Marcellinus. He presents a mixed view of that emperor. In some ways a sound administrator and competent general, Constantius is also portrayed as easily influenced by those around him such as his wives, courtiers and the eunuchs of the court (Ammianus 21. 16. 16). Ammianus (21.16.18) also attacks Constantius' great interest in Church affairs--alleging that he bankrupted the courier service with calls for Church councils. Of course, imperial interest in Church affairs was a major policy of his father Constantine and it may be that Constantius was trying to emulate his model (if only with mixed success). Indeed, Constantius II (like his brothers Constantine II and Constans) was raised a Christian. Among his many laws is the famous CTh 16.10.2 of 341 which either prohibited or re-issued his father's prohibition of pagan sacrifices. Sympathetic to Arianism, he spent a great deal of his reign calling Church councils. One of the longest-reigned emperors in Roman history, Constantius is hard for the modern historian to fully understand both due to his own actions and due to the interests of the authors of primary sources for his reign.

By Michael DiMaio, Jr., Salve Regina University & Robert Frakes, Clarion University
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

1 commentsCleisthenes
Cnstntius2b.jpg
1407h, Constantius II, 337-361 A.D. (Heraclea)31 viewsConstantius II 337-361 A.D. AE3, 2.80 grams, 330-333, Heraclea, aVF. Obverse: FL IVL CONSTANTIVS NOB C - Laureate bust right, draped and cuirassed; Reverse: GLOR-IA EXERC-ITVS - Two soldiers looking in at each other and both holding a spear; between them, two standards; SMHB in exergue.

Constantius II was born in Illyricum in August AD 317, the son of Constantine the Great and Fausta, and was proclaimed Caesar in AD 323.

In AD 337, at the death of his father Constantine, he acceded to the throne together with his two brothers Constantine II and Constans. But this accession by the three brothers was tainted by the murder of their cousins Dalmatius and Hannibalianus, whom Constantine had also intended as joint heirs. These murders are believed to have been masterminded by Constantius II.

Eventually, Constantius II was left as the sole emperor of the Roman empire. Constantius elevated his cousin, Julian, to the rank of Caesar (junior emperor) and gave him his sister Helena in marriage. Julian was assigned the task of dealing with the Frankish leader, Silvanus, who had proclaimed himself emepror at Colonia Agrippina. Julian's success led his men to declare him Augustus. Julian, while reluctant to take the throne, accepted.

Constantius II, therefore, left the Mesopotamian frontier and marched his troops west, seeking to deal with the usurper. As he reached Cilicia in the winter of AD 361, he was overcome by a sudden fever and died at Mopsucrene. Julian, the Apostate, succeded him as Emperor.

Our chief source for Constantius' reign is the great historian Ammianus Marcellinus. He presents a mixed view of that emperor. In some ways a sound administrator and competent general, Constantius is also portrayed as easily influenced by those around him such as his wives, courtiers and the eunuchs of the court (Ammianus 21. 16. 16). Ammianus (21.16.18) also attacks Constantius' great interest in Church affairs--alleging that he bankrupted the courier service with calls for Church councils. Of course, imperial interest in Church affairs was a major policy of his father Constantine and it may be that Constantius was trying to emulate his model (if only with mixed success). Indeed, Constantius II (like his brothers Constantine II and Constans) was raised a Christian. Among his many laws is the famous CTh 16.10.2 of 341 which either prohibited or re-issued his father's prohibition of pagan sacrifices. Sympathetic to Arianism, he spent a great deal of his reign calling Church councils. One of the longest-reigned emperors in Roman history, Constantius is hard for the modern historian to fully understand both due to his own actions and due to the interests of the authors of primary sources for his reign.
By Michael DiMaio, Jr., Salve Regina University & Robert Frakes, Clarion University
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
Constantius II.jpg
1407r, Constantius II, 22 May 337 - 3 November 361 A.D.39 viewsBronze AE 3, RIC 272, aVF, 2.203g, 18.1mm, 0o, Rome mint, 352 - 355 A.D.; obverse D N CONSTAN-TIVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse FEL TEMP REPARATIO, soldier spearing fallen horseman, RT in ex.

Constantius II was born in Illyricum in August AD 317, the son of Constantine the Great and Fausta, and was proclaimed Caesar in AD 323.

In AD 337, at the death of his father Constantine, he acceded to the throne together with his two brothers Constantine II and Constans. But this accession by the three brothers was tainted by the murder of their cousins Dalmatius and Hannibalianus, whom Constantine had also intended as joint heirs. These murders are believed to have been masterminded by Constantius II.

Eventually, Constantius II was left as the sole emperor of the Roman empire. Constantius elevated Julian to the rank of Caesar (junior emperor) and gave him his sister Helena in marriage. Julian was assigned the task of dealing with the Frankish leader, Silvanus, who had proclaimed himself emepror at Colonia Agrippina. Julian's success lead his men to declare him Augustus. Julian, while reluctant to take the throne, accepted.

Constantius II, therefore left the Mesopotamian frontier and marched his troops west, seeking to deal with the usurper. As he reached Cilicia in the winter of AD 361, he was overcome by a sudden fever and died at Mopsucrene. Julian, the Apostate, succeded him as Emperor.

Our chief source for Constantius' reign is the great historian Ammianus Marcellinus. He presents a mixed view of that emperor. In some ways a sound administrator and competent general, Constantius is also portrayed as easily influenced by those around him such as his wives, courtiers and the eunuchs of the court (Ammianus 21. 16. 16). Ammianus (21.16.18) also attacks Constantius' great interest in Church affairs--alleging that he bankrupted the courier service with calls for Church councils. Of course, imperial interest in Church affairs was a major policy of his father Constantine and it may be that Constantius was trying to emulate his model (if only with mixed success). Indeed, Constantius II (like his brothers Constantine II and Constans) was raised a Christian. Among his many laws is the famous CTh 16.10.2 of 341 which either prohibited or re-issued his father's prohibition of pagan sacrifices. Sympathetic to Arianism, he spent a great deal of his reign calling Church councils. One of the longest-reigned emperors in Roman history, Constantius is hard for the modern historian to fully understand both due to his own actions and due to the interests of the authors of primary sources for his reign.

By Michael DiMaio, Jr., Salve Regina University & Robert Frakes, Clarion University
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.



Cleisthenes
Julian2VotXConstantinople.jpg
1409a, Julian II "the Philosopher," February 360 - 26 June 363 A.D.142 viewsJulian II, A.D. 360-363; RIC 167; VF; 2.7g, 20mm; Constantinople mint; Obverse: DN FL CL IVLIANVS P F AVG, helmeted & cuirassed bust right, holding spear & shield; Reverse: VOT X MVLT XX in four lines within wreath; CONSPB in exergue; Attractive green patina. Ex Nemesis.


De Imperatoribus Romanis,
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors

Julian the Apostate (360-363 A.D.)

Walter E. Roberts, Emory University
Michael DiMaio, Jr., Salve Regina University

Introduction

The emperor Flavius Claudius Julianus reigned from 360 to 26 June 363, when he was killed fighting against the Persians. Despite his short rule, his emperorship was pivotal in the development of the history of the later Roman empire. This essay is not meant to be a comprehensive look at the various issues central to the reign of Julian and the history of the later empire. Rather, this short work is meant to be a brief history and introduction for the general reader. Julian was the last direct descendent of the Constantinian line to ascend to the purple, and it is one of history's great ironies that he was the last non-Christian emperor. As such, he has been vilified by most Christian sources, beginning with John Chrysostom and Gregory Nazianzus in the later fourth century. This tradition was picked up by the fifth century Eusebian continuators Sozomen, Socrates Scholasticus, and Theodoret and passed on to scholars down through the 20th century. Most contemporary sources, however, paint a much more balanced picture of Julian and his reign. The adoption of Christianity by emperors and society, while still a vital concern, was but one of several issues that concerned Julian.

It is fortunate that extensive writings from Julian himself exist, which help interpret his reign in the light of contemporary evidence. Still extant are some letters, several panegyrics, and a few satires. Other contemporary sources include the soldier Ammianus Marcellinus' history, correspondence between Julian and Libanius of Antioch, several panegyrics, laws from the Theodosian Code, inscriptions, and coinage. These sources show Julian's emphasis on restoration. He saw himself as the restorer of the traditional values of Roman society. Of course much of this was rhetoric, meant to defend Julian against charges that he was a usurper. At the same time this theme of restoration was central to all emperors of the fourth century. Julian thought that he was the one emperor who could regain what was viewed as the lost glory of the Roman empire. To achieve this goal he courted select groups of social elites to get across his message of restoration. This was the way that emperors functioned in the fourth century. By choosing whom to include in the sharing of power, they sought to shape society.

Early Life

Julian was born at Constantinople in 331. His father was Julius Constantius, half-brother of the emperor Constantine through Constantius Chlorus, and his mother was Basilina, Julius' second wife. Julian had two half-brothers via Julius' first marriage. One of these was Gallus, who played a major role in Julian's life. Julian appeared destined for a bright future via his father's connection to the Constantinian house. After many years of tense relations with his three half-brothers, Constantine seemed to have welcomed them into the fold of the imperial family. From 333 to 335, Constantine conferred a series of honors upon his three half-siblings, including appointing Julius Constantius as one of the consuls for 335. Julian's mother was equally distinguished. Ammianus related that she was from a noble family. This is supported by Libanius, who claimed that she was the daughter of Julius Julianus, a Praetorian Prefect under Licinius, who was such a model of administrative virtue that he was pardoned and honored by Constantine.

Despite the fact that his mother died shortly after giving birth to him, Julian experienced an idyllic early childhood. This ended when Constantius II conducted a purge of many of his relatives shortly after Constantine's death in 337, particularly targeting the families of Constantine's half-brothers. ulian and Gallus were spared, probably due to their young age. Julian was put under the care of Mardonius, a Scythian eunuch who had tutored his mother, in 339, and was raised in the Greek philosophical tradition, and probably lived in Nicomedia. Ammianus also supplied the fact that while in Nicomedia, Julian was cared for by the local bishop Eusebius, of whom the future emperor was a distant relation. Julian was educated by some of the most famous names in grammar and rhetoric in the Greek world at that time, including Nicocles and Hecebolius. In 344 Constantius II sent Julian and Gallus to Macellum in Cappadocia, where they remained for six years. In 351, Gallus was made Caesar by Constantius II and Julian was allowed to return to Nicomedia, where he studied under Aedesius, Eusebius, and Chrysanthius, all famed philosophers, and was exposed to the Neo-Platonism that would become such a prominent part of his life. But Julian was most proud of the time he spent studying under Maximus of Ephesus, a noted Neo-Platonic philospher and theurgist. It was Maximus who completed Julian's full-scale conversion to Neo-Platonism. Later, when he was Caesar, Julian told of how he put letters from this philosopher under his pillows so that he would continue to absorb wisdom while he slept, and while campaigning on the Rhine, he sent his speeches to Maximus for approval before letting others hear them. When Gallus was executed in 354 for treason by Constantius II, Julian was summoned to Italy and essentially kept under house arrest at Comum, near Milan, for seven months before Constantius' wife Eusebia convinced the emperor that Julian posed no threat. This allowed Julian to return to Greece and continue his life as a scholar where he studied under the Neo-Platonist Priscus. Julian's life of scholarly pursuit, however, ended abruptly when he was summoned to the imperial court and made Caesar by Constantius II on 6 November 355.

Julian as Caesar

Constantius II realized an essential truth of the empire that had been evident since the time of the Tetrarchy--the empire was too big to be ruled effectively by one man. Julian was pressed into service as Caesar, or subordinate emperor, because an imperial presence was needed in the west, in particular in the Gallic provinces. Julian, due to the emperor's earlier purges, was the only viable candidate of the imperial family left who could act as Caesar. Constantius enjoined Julian with the task of restoring order along the Rhine frontier. A few days after he was made Caesar, Julian was married to Constantius' sister Helena in order to cement the alliance between the two men. On 1 December 355, Julian journeyed north, and in Augusta Taurinorum he learned that Alamannic raiders had destroyed Colonia Agrippina. He then proceeded to Vienne where he spent the winter. At Vienne, he learned that Augustudunum was also under siege, but was being held by a veteran garrison. He made this his first priority, and arrived there on 24 June 356. When he had assured himself that the city was in no immediate danger, he journeyed to Augusta Treverorum via Autessioduram, and from there to Durocortorum where he rendezvoused with his army. Julian had the army stage a series of punitive strikes around the Dieuse region, and then he moved them towards the Argentoratum/Mongontiacum region when word of barbarian incursions reached him.

From there, Julian moved on to Colonia Agrippina, and negotiated a peace with the local barbarian leaders who had assaulted the city. He then wintered at Senonae. He spent the early part of the campaigning season of 357 fighting off besiegers at Senonae, and then conducting operations around Lugdunum and Tres Tabernae. Later that summer, he encountered his watershed moment as a military general. Ammianus went into great detail about Julian's victory over seven rogue Alamannic chieftains near Argentoratum, and Julian himself bragged about it in his later writing. After this battle, the soldiers acclaimed Julian Augustus, but he rejected this title. After mounting a series of follow-up raids into Alamannic territory, he retired to winter quarters at Lutetia, and on the way defeated some Frankish raiders in the Mosa region. Julian considered this campaign one of the major events of his time as Caesar.

Julian began his 358 military campaigns early, hoping to catch the barbarians by surprise. His first target was the Franks in the northern Rhine region. He then proceeded to restore some forts in the Mosa region, but his soldiers threatened to mutiny because they were on short rations and had not been paid their donative since Julian had become Caesar. After he soothed his soldiers, Julian spent the rest of the summer negotiating a peace with various Alamannic leaders in the mid and lower Rhine areas, and retired to winter quarters at Lutetia. In 359, he prepared once again to carry out a series of punitive expeditions against the Alamanni in the Rhine region who were still hostile to the Roman presence. In preparation, the Caesar repopulated seven previously destroyed cities and set them up as supply bases and staging areas. This was done with the help of the people with whom Julian had negotiated a peace the year before. Julian then had a detachment of lightly armed soldiers cross the Rhine near Mogontiacum and conduct a guerilla strike against several chieftains. As a result of these campaigns, Julian was able to negotiate a peace with all but a handful of the Alamannic leaders, and he retired to winter quarters at Lutetia.

Of course, Julian did more than act as a general during his time as Caesar. According to Ammianus, Julian was an able administrator who took steps to correct the injustices of Constantius' appointees. Ammianus related the story of how Julian prevented Florentius, the Praetorian Prefect of Gaul, from raising taxes, and also how Julian actually took over as governor for the province of Belgica Secunda. Hilary, bishop of Poitiers, supported Ammianus' basic assessment of Julian in this regard when he reported that Julian was an able representative of the emperor to the Gallic provincials. There is also epigraphic evidence to support Julian's popularity amongst the provincial elites. An inscription found near Beneventum in Apulia reads:
"To Flavius Claudius Julianus, most noble and sanctified Caesar, from the caring Tocius Maximus, vir clarissimus, for the care of the res publica from Beneventum".

Tocius Maximus, as a vir clarissimus, was at the highest point in the social spectrum and was a leader in his local community. This inscription shows that Julian was successful in establishing a positive image amongst provincial elites while he was Caesar.

Julian Augustus

In early 360, Constantius, driven by jealousy of Julian's success, stripped Julian of many troops and officers, ostensibly because the emperor needed them for his upcoming campaign against the Persians. One of the legions ordered east, the Petulantes, did not want to leave Gaul because the majority of the soldiers in the unit were from this region. As a result they mutinied and hailed Julian as Augustus at Lutetia. Julian refused this acclamation as he had done at Argentoratum earlier, but the soldiers would have none of his denial. They raised him on a shield and adorned him with a neck chain, which had formerly been the possession of the standard-bearer of the Petulantes and symbolized a royal diadem. Julian appeared reluctantly to acquiesce to their wishes, and promised a generous donative. The exact date of his acclamation is unknown, but most scholars put it in February or March. Julian himself supported Ammianus' picture of a jealous Constantius. In his Letter to the Athenians, a document constructed to answer charges that he was a usurper, Julian stated that from the start he, as Caesar, had been meant as a figurehead to the soldiers and provincials. The real power he claimed lay with the generals and officials already present in Gaul. In fact, according to Julian, the generals were charged with watching him as much as the enemy. His account of the actual acclamation closely followed what Ammianus told us, but he stressed even more his reluctance to take power. Julian claimed that he did so only after praying to Zeus for guidance.

Fearing the reaction of Constantius, Julian sent a letter to his fellow emperor justifying the events at Lutetia and trying to arrange a peaceful solution. This letter berated Constantius for forcing the troops in Gaul into an untenable situation. Ammianus stated that Julian's letter blamed Constantius' decision to transfer Gallic legions east as the reason for the soldiers' rebellion. Julian once again asserted that he was an unwilling participant who was only following the desire of the soldiers. In both of these basic accounts Ammianus and Julian are playing upon the theme of restoration. Implicit in their version of Julian's acclamation is the argument that Constantius was unfit to rule. The soldiers were the vehicle of the gods' will. The Letter to the Athenians is full of references to the fact that Julian was assuming the mantle of Augustus at the instigation of the gods. Ammianus summed up this position nicely when he related the story of how, when Julian was agonizing over whether to accept the soldiers' acclamation, he had a dream in which he was visited by the Genius (guardian spirit) of the Roman state. The Genius told Julian that it had often tried to bestow high honors upon Julian but had been rebuffed. Now, the Genius went on to say, was Julian's final chance to take the power that was rightfully his. If the Caesar refused this chance, the Genius would depart forever, and both Julian and the state would rue Julian's rejection. Julian himself wrote a letter to his friend Maximus of Ephesus in November of 361 detailing his thoughts on his proclamation. In this letter, Julian stated that the soldiers proclaimed him Augustus against his will. Julian, however, defended his accession, saying that the gods willed it and that he had treated his enemies with clemency and justice. He went on to say that he led the troops in propitiating the traditional deities, because the gods commanded him to return to the traditional rites, and would reward him if he fulfilled this duty.

During 360 an uneasy peace simmered between the two emperors. Julian spent the 360 campaigning season continuing his efforts to restore order along the Rhine, while Constantius continued operations against the Persians. Julian wintered in Vienne, and celebrated his Quinquennalia. It was at this time that his wife Helena died, and he sent her remains to Rome for a proper burial at his family villa on the Via Nomentana where the body of her sister was entombed. The uneasy peace held through the summer of 361, but Julian concentrated his military operations around harassing the Alamannic chieftain Vadomarius and his allies, who had concluded a peace treaty with Constantius some years earlier. By the end of the summer, Julian decided to put an end to the waiting and gathered his army to march east against Constantius. The empire teetered on the brink of another civil war. Constantius had spent the summer negotiating with the Persians and making preparations for possible military action against his cousin. When he was assured that the Persians would not attack, he summoned his army and sallied forth to meet Julian. As the armies drew inexorably closer to one another, the empire was saved from another bloody civil war when Constantius died unexpectedly of natural causes on 3 November near the town of Mopsucrenae in Cilicia, naming Julian -- the sources say-- as his legitimate successor.

Julian was in Dacia when he learned of his cousin's death. He made his way through Thrace and came to Constantinople on 11 December 361 where Julian honored the emperor with the funeral rites appropriate for a man of his station. Julian immediately set about putting his supporters in positions of power and trimming the imperial bureaucracy, which had become extremely overstaffed during Constantius' reign. Cooks and barbers had increased during the late emperor's reign and Julian expelled them from his court. Ammianus gave a mixed assessment of how the new emperor handled the followers of Constantius. Traditionally, emperors were supposed to show clemency to the supporters of a defeated enemy. Julian, however, gave some men over to death to appease the army. Ammianus used the case of Ursulus, Constantius' comes sacrum largitionum, to illustrate his point. Ursulus had actually tried to acquire money for the Gallic troops when Julian had first been appointed Caesar, but he had also made a disparaging remark about the ineffectiveness of the army after the battle of Amida. The soldiers remembered this, and when Julian became sole Augustus, they demanded Ursulus' head. Julian obliged, much to the disapproval of Ammianus. This seems to be a case of Julian courting the favor of the military leadership, and is indicative of a pattern in which Julian courted the goodwill of various societal elites to legitimize his position as emperor.

Another case in point is the officials who made up the imperial bureaucracy. Many of them were subjected to trial and punishment. To achieve this goal, during the last weeks of December 361 Julian assembled a military tribunal at Chalcedon, empanelling six judges to try the cases. The president of the tribunal was Salutius, just promoted to the rank of Praetorian Prefect; the five other members were Mamertinus, the orator, and four general officers: Jovinus, Agilo, Nevitta, and Arbetio. Relative to the proceedings of the tribunal, Ammianus noted that the judges, " . . . oversaw the cases more vehemently than was right or fair, with the exception of a few . . .." Ammianus' account of Julian's attempt at reform of the imperial bureaucracy is supported by legal evidence from the Theodosian Code. A series of laws sent to Mamertinus, Julian's appointee as Praetorian Prefect in Italy, Illyricum, and Africa, illustrate this point nicely. On 6 June 362, Mamertinus received a law that prohibited provincial governors from bypassing the Vicars when giving their reports to the Prefect. Traditionally, Vicars were given civil authority over a group of provinces, and were in theory meant to serve as a middle step between governors and Prefects. This law suggests that the Vicars were being left out, at least in Illyricum. Julian issued another edict to Mamertinus on 22 February 362 to stop abuse of the public post by governors. According to this law, only Mamertinus could issue post warrants, but the Vicars were given twelve blank warrants to be used as they saw fit, and each governor was given two. Continuing the trend of bureaucratic reform, Julian also imposed penalties on governors who purposefully delayed appeals in court cases they had heard. The emperor also established a new official to weigh solidi used in official government transactions to combat coin clipping.

For Julian, reigning in the abuses of imperial bureaucrats was one step in restoring the prestige of the office of emperor. Because he could not affect all elements of society personally, Julian, like other Neo-Flavian emperors, decided to concentrate on select groups of societal elites as intercessors between himself and the general populace. One of these groups was the imperial bureaucracy. Julian made it very clear that imperial officials were intercessors in a very real sense in a letter to Alypius, Vicar of Britain. In this letter, sent from Gaul sometime before 361, the emperor praises Alypius for his use of "mildness and moderation with courage and force" in his rule of the provincials. Such virtues were characteristic of the emperors, and it was good that Alypius is representing Julian in this way. Julian courted the army because it put him in power. Another group he sought to include in his rule was the traditional Senatorial aristocracy. One of his first appointments as consul was Claudius Mamertinus, a Gallic Senator and rhetorician. Mamertinus' speech in praise of Julian delivered at Constantinople in January of 362 is preserved. In this speech, Claudius presented his consular selection as inaugurating a new golden age and Julian as the restorer of the empire founded by Augustus. The image Mamertinus gave of his own consulate inaugurating a new golden age is not merely formulaic. The comparison of Julian to Augustus has very real, if implicit, relevance to Claudius' situation. Claudius emphasized the imperial period as the true age of renewal. Augustus ushered in a new era with his formation of a partnership between the emperor and the Senate based upon a series of honors and offices bestowed upon the Senate in return for their role as intercessor between emperor and populace. It was this system that Julian was restoring, and the consulate was one concrete example of this bond. To be chosen as a consul by the emperor, who himself had been divinely mandated, was a divine honor. In addition to being named consul, Mamertinus went on to hold several offices under Julian, including the Prefecture of Italy, Illyricum, and Africa. Similarly, inscriptional evidence illustrates a link between municipal elites and Julian during his time as Caesar, something which continued after he became emperor. One concrete example comes from the municipal senate of Aceruntia in Apulia, which established a monument on which Julian is styled as "Repairer of the World."

Julian seems to have given up actual Christian belief before his acclamation as emperor and was a practitioner of more traditional Greco-Roman religious beliefs, in particular, a follower of certain late antique Platonist philosophers who were especially adept at theurgy as was noted earlier. In fact Julian himself spoke of his conversion to Neo-Platonism in a letter to the Alexandrians written in 363. He stated that he had abandoned Christianity when he was twenty years old and been an adherent of the traditional Greco-Roman deities for the twelve years prior to writing this letter.

(For the complete text of this article see: http://www.roman-emperors.org/julian.htm)

Julian’s Persian Campaign

The exact goals Julian had for his ill-fated Persian campaign were never clear. The Sassanid Persians, and before them the Parthians, had been a traditional enemy from the time of the Late Republic, and indeed Constantius had been conducting a war against them before Julian's accession forced the former to forge an uneasy peace. Julian, however, had no concrete reason to reopen hostilities in the east. Socrates Scholasticus attributed Julian's motives to imitation of Alexander the Great, but perhaps the real reason lay in his need to gather the support of the army. Despite his acclamation by the Gallic legions, relations between Julian and the top military officers was uneasy at best. A war against the Persians would have brought prestige and power both to Julian and the army.

Julian set out on his fateful campaign on 5 March 363. Using his trademark strategy of striking quickly and where least expected, he moved his army through Heirapolis and from there speedily across the Euphrates and into the province of Mesopotamia, where he stopped at the town of Batnae. His plan was to eventually return through Armenia and winter in Tarsus. Once in Mesopotamia, Julian was faced with the decision of whether to travel south through the province of Babylonia or cross the Tigris into Assyria, and he eventually decided to move south through Babylonia and turn west into Assyria at a later date. By 27 March, he had the bulk of his army across the Euphrates, and had also arranged a flotilla to guard his supply line along the mighty river. He then left his generals Procopius and Sebastianus to help Arsacius, the king of Armenia and a Roman client, to guard the northern Tigris line. It was also during this time that he received the surrender of many prominent local leaders who had nominally supported the Persians. These men supplied Julian with money and troops for further military action against their former masters. Julian decided to turn south into Babylonia and proceeded along the Euphrates, coming to the fortress of Cercusium at the junction of the Abora and Euphrates Rivers around the first of April, and from there he took his army west to a region called Zaitha near the abandoned town of Dura where they visited the tomb of the emperor Gordian which was in the area. On April 7 he set out from there into the heart of Babylonia and towards Assyria.

Ammianus then stated that Julian and his army crossed into Assyria, which on the face of things appears very confusing. Julian still seems to be operating within the province of Babylonia between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. The confusion is alleviated when one realizes that,for Ammianus, the region of Assyria encompassed the provinces of Babylonia and Assyria. On their march, Julian's forces took the fortress of Anatha, received the surrender and support of several more local princes, and ravaged the countryside of Assyria between the rivers. As the army continued south, they came across the fortresses Thilutha and Achaiachala, but these places were too well defended and Julian decided to leave them alone. Further south were the cities Diacira and Ozogardana, which the Roman forces sacked and burned. Soon, Julian came to Pirisabora and a brief siege ensued, but the city fell and was also looted and destroyed. It was also at this time that the Roman army met its first systematic resistance from the Persians. As the Romans penetrated further south and west, the local inhabitants began to flood their route. Nevertheless, the Roman forces pressed on and came to Maiozamalcha, a sizable city not far from Ctesiphon. After a short siege, this city too fell to Julian. Inexorably, Julian's forces zeroed in on Ctesiphon, but as they drew closer, the Persian resistance grew fiercer, with guerilla raids whittling at Julian's men and supplies. A sizable force of the army was lost and the emperor himself was almost killed taking a fort a few miles from the target city.
Finally, the army approached Ctesiphon following a canal that linked the Tigris and Euphrates. It soon became apparent after a few preliminary skirmishes that a protracted siege would be necessary to take this important city. Many of his generals, however, thought that pursuing this course of action would be foolish. Julian reluctantly agreed, but became enraged by this failure and ordered his fleet to be burned as he decided to march through the province of Assyria. Julian had planned for his army to live off the land, but the Persians employed a scorched-earth policy. When it became apparent that his army would perish (because his supplies were beginning to dwindle) from starvation and the heat if he continued his campaign, and also in the face of superior numbers of the enemy, Julian ordered a retreat on 16 June. As the Roman army retreated, they were constantly harassed by guerilla strikes. It was during one of these raids that Julian got caught up in the fighting and took a spear to his abdomen. Mortally wounded he was carried to his tent, where, after conferring with some of his officers, he died. The date was 26 June 363.

Conclusion

Thus an ignominious end for a man came about who had hoped to restore the glory of the Roman empire during his reign as emperor. Due to his intense hatred of Christianity, the opinion of posterity has not been kind to Julian. The contemporary opinion, however, was overall positive. The evidence shows that Julian was a complex ruler with a definite agenda to use traditional social institutions in order to revive what he saw as a collapsing empire. In the final assessment, he was not so different from any of the other emperors of the fourth century. He was a man grasping desperately to hang on to a Greco-Roman conception of leadership that was undergoing a subtle yet profound change.
Copyright (C) 2002, Walter E. Roberts and Michael DiMaio, Jr. Used by permission.

In reality, Julian worked to promote culture and philosophy in any manifestation. He tried to reduce taxes and the public debts of municipalities; he augmented administrative decentralisation; he promoted a campaign of austerity to reduce public expenditure (setting himself as the example). He reformed the postal service and eliminated the powerful secret police.
by Federico Morando; JULIAN II, The Apostate, http://www.forumancientcoins.com/NumisWiki/view.asp?key=Julian%20II

Flavius Claudius Iulianus was born in 331 or maybe 332 A.D. in Constantinople. He ruled the Western Empire as Caesar from 355 to 360 and was hailed Augustus by his legions in Lutetia (Paris) in 360. Julian was a gifted administrator and military strategist. Famed as the last pagan emperor, his reinstatement of the pagan religion earned him the moniker "the Apostate." As evidenced by his brilliant writing, some of which has survived to the present day, the title "the Philosopher" may have been more appropriate. He died from wounds suffered during the Persian campaign of 363 A.D. Joseph Sermarini, FORVM.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.




2 commentsCleisthenes
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142-C1 VLLP Siscia, RIC 4729 viewsConstantine The Great, AE3, Siscia mint. 318 AD
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Rev: VICTORIAE LAETAE PRINC PERP, Two Victories facing , placing shield inscribed VOT / PR on altar.
BSIS* in exergue.
Siscia mint, RIC 47.
20mm, 2.8 gm.
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143 Constantine II15 viewsobv: DN FL CL CONSTNTINVS NOB C laur. drp. cuir. bust l. holding scepter and mappa
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144-C1 VLLP Arelate, RIC 190-227 viewsConstantine The Great, AE3, Arelate mint, 319 AD.
Obv:IMP CONSTANTINVS MAX AVG, Laureate, helmeted, Cuirassed bust right.
Rev: VICTORIAE LAETAE PRINC PERP, Two Victories facing , placing shield inscribed VOT / PR on altar.
PARL in exergue.
Arelate mint, RIC 190.
18mm, 2.6 gm.
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Rev:– MEMORIAE AETERNAE, eagle standing right, looking left, wings spread
Minted in Rome (// RT). A.D. 317-318
Reference:– RIC VII Rome110 (R3)

Divo Maximianus half follis issued by Constantine I A.D. 317-318
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RI_146dr_img.jpg
146 - Maximianus Herculius - RIC VI Antioch 112c29 viewsFollis
Obv:– IMP C M AVR VAL MAXIMIANVS P F AVG, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:– GENIO IMP-ERATORIS, Genius standing left holding patera and cornucopia
Minted in Antioch (_ | Theta / E //ANT Dot). Early to Later A.D. 309
Reference:– RIC VI Antioch 112c (R) (Citing Oxford; Apparently a rare issue for Maximianus Herculius and only issued from this officina)
 
6.39 gms. 26.19 mm. 0 degrees. Better than the RIC plate coin (reverse only illustrated).
 
From RIC Notes "A very remarkable innovation, peculiar to this issue, is the reappearance of Herculius (with the long legend Imp C M Aur Val Maximianus P F Aug matching those of Galerius and Licinus, and with cuirassed bust) on rare coins with Genio Imperatoris; this is parallelled at the same time (see RIC VI page 656). Expelled from Italy c. April 308, and rejected at the Carnuntum conference in November 308, Herculius had received ample share in the coinage of Constantine's mints, and it seems that Maximinus (now antagonisitc to both Galerius and Licinius) may have been momentarily willing to demontsrate his hostility by including the name of the man who might still play and anti-Galerian part in the west."
2 commentsmaridvnvm
heraclea21.jpg
146 Constantine II14 viewsobv: CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C laur, drp. cuir. bust r.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE CAESS campgate with two turrents star above
ex: */SMH(delta)
hill132
heraclea22.jpg
147 Constantine II10 viewsobv: CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C laur.drp. cuir. bust r.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE CAESS campgate with two turrents star above
ex: SMHr
hill132
147-C1 VLLP London, RIC 158.JPG
147-C1 VLLP London, RIC 15825 viewsConstantine The Great, AE3, London mint, 319-320 AD.
Obv:IMP CONSTANTINVS AVG, Cuirassed bust left, wearing high crested helmet and carrying spear.
Rev: VICTORIAE LAETAE PRINC PERP, Two Victories facing , placing shield inscribed VOT / PR on altar.
PLN in exergue.
London mint, RIC 158.
18mm, 2.9 gm.
jdholds
heraclea23.jpg
148 Constantine II 13 viewsobv: CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C laur. drp. cuir. bust r.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE CAESS campgate with two turrents star above
ex: SMHr
hill132
148-C1 VLLP , Arelate, RIC 190-2.JPG
148-C1 VLLP Arelate, RIC 190-323 viewsConstantine The Great, AE3, Arelate mint, 319 AD.
Obv:IMP CONSTANTINVS MAX AVG, Laureate, helmeted, Cuirassed bust right.
Rev: VICTORIAE LAETAE PRINC PERP, Two Victories facing , placing shield inscribed VOT / PR on altar.
PARL in exergue.
Arelate mint, RIC 190.
17mm, 3.7 gm.
jdholds
149-C1 VLLP Ticinum, RIC 82-3.JPG
149-C1 VLLP Ticinum, RIC 82-328 viewsConstantine The Great, AE3
Obv: IMP CONSTAN-TINVS MAX AVG, Helmeted, Laureate, cuirassed bust right.
Rev: VICTORIAE LAETAE PRINC PERP, Two Victories placing shield inscribed VOT / PR on altar.
ST in exergue.
17mm , 3.5 gm.
RIC 82 , Ticinum.
jdholds
Follis Anonimo Clase A2 SB01813.jpg
15-02 - Follis Anónimo Clase A2 (976 - 1025 D.C.)28 viewsAtribuida al reinado conjunto de Basilio II y Constantino VIII.
AE Follis 30 x 27 mm 9.6 gr.

Anv: "EMMA - NOVHΛ", "IX - XC" (en campos izq. y derecho) - Busto de Cristo de frente nimbado (Forma rectangular en la cruz del limbo), sosteniendo el Libro de los Evangelios (5 puntos en el libro).
Rev: " IhSUS / XRISTUS / bASILEU / bASILE " (Jesús Cristo Rey de Reyes), leyenda en 4 líneas, debajo y arriba ornamentos tipo 47 (Forma rectangular).

Acuñada 976 - 1025 D.C.
Ceca: Constantinopla

Referencias: Sear BCTV #1813 Pag. 376 - Bellinger D.O. pp.651 - B.M.C. (Basil II and Constantine VII) #21-40 - Ratto M.B.(Basil II and Constantine VII) #1951-65 - Morrisson C.M.b.B.N. pp.596/8 #1-66
mdelvalle
Follis Anonimo Clase D SB01836.jpg
15-04 - Follis Anónimo Clase D (1042 - 1055 D.C.) 25 viewsAtribuida al reinado de Constantino IX.
AE Follis 28 x 26 mm 10.9 gr.

Anv: "IX - XC" (en campos izq. y derecho) - Cristo sentado en trono con respaldo de frente, vistiendo nimbus cruciger (Halo redondo con cruz que rodea su busto), Pallium (Tipo de capa o manto) y Collobium (Túnica especial sin mangas), sosteniendo el Libro de los Evangelios con ambas manos.
Rev: " IhSUS / bASILEU / bASILE " (Jesús Rey de Reyes), leyenda en 3 líneas, ornamentado debajo con "- u -" y arriba con "- + -".

Acuñada 1042 - 1055 D.C.
Ceca: Constantinopla

Referencias: Sear BCTV #1836 Pag. 378 - Bellinger D.O. pp.685/7 - B.M.C. (Constantine X) #10-17 - Ratto M.B.(Constantine X) #2015/7 - Morrisson C.M.b.B.N. pp.601 #107/19
mdelvalle
Constans_II_Doc_26b.jpg
15. Constans II with Constantine IV17 viewsBYZANTINE
Constans II, with Constantine IV
641-668. AV Solidus (20mm, 4.40 g, 6h). Const. mint, 3rd off. Struck 654-659.

O: Crowned facing busts of Constans, bearded, and Constantine, beardless; cross above

R: Cross potent on 3 steps; Γ//CONOBI. DOC 26b; MIB 28; SB 960. Near EF.
R: Cross potent on 3 steps; Γ//CONOBI.

DOC 26b; MIB 28; SB 960. Near EF.

Ex CNG
1 commentsSosius
Constans_II_Solidus.jpg
15. Constans II with Constantine IV8 viewsConstans II, with Constantine IV.
641-668.
AV Solidus (19mm, 4.32 g, 7h).
Constantinople mint, 10th officina. Struck 654-659.

O: ∂ N CONSτA τINЧS C CONSτA, crowned and draped busts facing; cross between

R: VICTORIA AVςЧ, cross potent set on three steps; I//CONOB. DOC 25j; MIB 26; SB 959.

Good VF, graffiti on the reverse.

Ex CNG
Sosius
Constans_II_Solidus_2.jpg
15. Constans II with Constantine IV11 viewsConstans II, with Constantine IV.
641-668.
AV Solidus (19mm, 4.39 g, 7h).
Constantinople mint, 7th officina.
Struck 654-659.

O: ∂ N CONSτAτINЧS C CONSτ, crowned and draped busts facing; cross between

R: VICTORIA AVςЧ, cross potent set on three steps; Z (retrograde)//CONOB+.

DOC 27; MIB 27; SB 961. VF.

Ex CNG
Sosius
15-Constantine-I-Lon-RIC-8.jpg
15. Constantine I.19 viewsFollis, ca 313-314, London mint.
Obverse: IMP CONSTANTINVS P AVG / Laureate bust of Constantine.
Reverse: SOLI INVICTO COMITI ; S F in field / Sol standing, holding globe.
Mint mark: PLN in exergue.
4.00 gm., 22 mm.
RIC vol VII, #8; PBCC unlisted; Sear #16050.
Callimachus
150-C1 VLLP Ticinum, RIC 82-4.JPG
150-C1 VLLP Ticinum, RIC 82-422 viewsConstantine The Great, AE3
Obv: IMP CONSTAN-TINVS MAX AVG, Helmeted, Laureate, cuirassed bust right.
Rev: VICTORIAE LAETAE PRINC PERP, Two Victories placing shield inscribed VOT / PR on altar.
PT in exergue.
17mm , 3.0 gm.
RIC 82 , Ticinum.
jdholds
Theo1Ae3Ant.jpeg
1505b, Theodosius I, 19 January 379 - 17 January 395 A.D. (Antioch)66 viewsTheodosius I, 19 January 379 - 17 January 395 A.D. Bronze AE 3, RIC 44(b), VF, Antioch, 2.17g, 18.1mm, 180o, 9 Aug 378 - 25 Aug 383 A.D. Obverse: D N THEODOSIVS P F AVG, rosette-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; Reverse: CONCORDIA AVGGG, Constantinopolis enthroned facing, r. foot on prow, globe in l., scepter in r., Q and F at sides, ANTG in ex; scarce.


De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

THEODOSIUS I (379-395 A.D.)
David Woods
University College of Cork


Origin and Early Career
Flavius Theodosius was born at Cauca in Spain in about 346 to Thermantia and Theodosius the Elder (so-called to distinguish him from his son). Theodosius the Elder was a senior military officer serving in the Western empire and rose to become the magister equitum praesentalis under the emperor Valentinian I from late 368 until his execution in early 375. As the son of a soldier, Theodosius was legally obliged to enter upon a military career. He seems to have served under his father during his expedition to Britain in 367/8, and was the dux Moesiae Primae by late 374. Unfortunately, great controversy surrounds the rest of his career until Gratian had him hailed as his imperial colleague in succession to the emperor Valens at Sirmium on 19 January 379. It is clear that he was forced to retire home to Spain only to be recalled to active service shortly thereafter, but the circumstances of his forced retirement are shrouded in mystery. His father was executed at roughly the same time, and much speculation has centred on the relationship between these events.

[For a very detailed and interesting discussion of the Foreign Policy of Theodosius and the Civil Wars that plagued his reign, please see http://www.roman-emperors.org/theo1.htm]

Family and Succession
Theodosius married twice. His first wife was the Spanish Aelia Flavia Flaccilla. She bore him Arcadius ca. 377, Honorius on 9 September 384, and Pulcheria ca. 385. Theodosius honoured her with the title of Augusta shortly after his accession, but she died in 386. In late 387 he married Galla, daughter of Valentinian I and full-sister of Valentinian II. She bore him Gratian ca. 388, Galla Placidia ca. 388/390, and died in childbirth in 394, together with her new-born son John. Of his two sons who survived infancy, he appointed Arcadius as Augustus on 19 January 383 and Honorius as Augustus on 23 January 393. His promotion of Arcadius as a full Augustus at an unusually young age points to his determination right from the start that one of his own sons should succeed him. He sought to strengthen Arcadius' position in particular by means of a series of strategic marriages whose purpose was to tie his leading "generals" irrevocably to his dynasty. Hence he married his niece and adoptive daughter Serena to his magister militum per Orientem Stilicho in 387, her elder sister Thermantia to a "general" whose name has not been preserved, and ca. 387 his nephew-in-law Nebridius to Salvina, daughter of the comes Africae Gildo. By the time of his death by illness on 17 January 395, Theodosius had promoted Stilicho from his position as one of the two comites domesticorum under his own eastern administration to that of magister peditum praesentalis in a western administration, in an entirely traditional manner, under his younger son Honorius. Although Stilicho managed to increase the power of the magister peditum praesentalis to the disadvantage of his colleague the magister equitum praesentalis and claimed that Theodosius had appointed him as guardian for both his sons, this tells us more about his cunning and ambition than it does about Theodosius' constitutional arrangements.

Theodosius' importance rests on the fact that he founded a dynasty which continued in power until the death of his grandson Theodosius II in 450. This ensured a continuity of policy which saw the emergence of Nicene Christianity as the orthodox belief of the vast majority of Christians throughout the middle ages. It also ensured the essential destruction of paganism and the emergence of Christianity as the religion of the state, even if the individual steps in this process can be difficult to identify. On the negative side, however, he allowed his dynastic interests and ambitions to lead him into two unnecessary and bloody civil wars which severely weakened the empire's ability to defend itself in the face of continued barbarian pressure upon its frontiers. In this manner, he put the interests of his family before those of the wider Roman population and was responsible, in many ways, for the phenomenon to which we now refer as the fall of the western Roman empire.


Copyright (C) 1998, David Woods.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

There is a nice segue here, as we pick-up John Julius Norwich's summation of the reign of Theodosius, "Readers of this brief account of his career may well find themselves wondering, not so much whether he deserved the title of 'the Great' as how he ever came to acquire it in the first place. If so, however, they may also like to ask themselves another question: what would have been the fate of the Empire if, at that critical moment in its history after the battle of Adrianople, young Gratian had not called him from his Spanish estates and put the future of the East into his hands? . . . the probability is that the whole Empire of the East would have been lost, swallowed up in a revived Gothic kingdom, with effects on world history that defy speculation.

In his civil legislation he showed, again and again, a consideration for the humblest of his subjects that was rare indeed among rulers of the fourth century. What other prince would have decreed that any criminal, sentenced to execution, imprisonment or exile, must first be allowed thirty days' grace to put his affairs in order? Or that a specified part of his worldly goods must go to his children, upon whom their father's crimes must on no account be visited? Or that no farmer should be obliged to sell his produce to the State at a price lower than he would receive on the open market?

Had he earned his title? Not, perhaps, in the way that Constantine had done or as Justinian was to do. But, if not ultimately great himself, he had surely come very close to greatness; and had he reigned as long as they did his achievements might well have equalled theirs. He might even have saved the Western Empire. One thing only is certain: it would be nearly a century and a half before the Romans would look upon his like again" (Norwich, John Julius. Byzantium, the Early Centuries. London: Penguin Group, 1990. 116-7;118).

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.



Cleisthenes
Theod1GlrMan.jpg
1505c, Theodosius I, 379 - 395 A.D. (Constantinople)76 viewsTheodosius I (379 - 395 AD) AE3. 388-394 AD, RIC IX 27(a)3, Third Officina. Seventh Period. 20.27 mm. 4.8gm. Near VF with black and earthen patina. Constantinople. Obverse: DN THEODO-SIANVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped, & cuirassed bust right; Reverse: GLORIA-ROMANORVM, Theodosius I standing, facing, holding labarum and globe, CONSB in exergue (scarcer reverse). A Spanish find.



De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

THEODOSIUS I (379-395 A.D.)
David Woods
University College of Cork


Origin and Early Career
Flavius Theodosius was born at Cauca in Spain in about 346 to Thermantia and Theodosius the Elder (so-called to distinguish him from his son). Theodosius the Elder was a senior military officer serving in the Western empire and rose to become the magister equitum praesentalis under the emperor Valentinian I from late 368 until his execution in early 375. As the son of a soldier, Theodosius was legally obliged to enter upon a military career. He seems to have served under his father during his expedition to Britain in 367/8, and was the dux Moesiae Primae by late 374. Unfortunately, great controversy surrounds the rest of his career until Gratian had him hailed as his imperial colleague in succession to the emperor Valens at Sirmium on 19 January 379. It is clear that he was forced to retire home to Spain only to be recalled to active service shortly thereafter, but the circumstances of his forced retirement are shrouded in mystery. His father was executed at roughly the same time, and much speculation has centred on the relationship between these events.

[For a very detailed and interesting discussion of the Foreign Policy of Theodosius and the Civil Wars that plagued his reign, please see http://www.roman-emperors.org/theo1.htm]

Family and Succession
Theodosius married twice. His first wife was the Spanish Aelia Flavia Flaccilla. She bore him Arcadius ca. 377, Honorius on 9 September 384, and Pulcheria ca. 385. Theodosius honoured her with the title of Augusta shortly after his accession, but she died in 386. In late 387 he married Galla, daughter of Valentinian I and full-sister of Valentinian II. She bore him Gratian ca. 388, Galla Placidia ca. 388/390, and died in childbirth in 394, together with her new-born son John. Of his two sons who survived infancy, he appointed Arcadius as Augustus on 19 January 383 and Honorius as Augustus on 23 January 393. His promotion of Arcadius as a full Augustus at an unusually young age points to his determination right from the start that one of his own sons should succeed him. He sought to strengthen Arcadius' position in particular by means of a series of strategic marriages whose purpose was to tie his leading "generals" irrevocably to his dynasty. Hence he married his niece and adoptive daughter Serena to his magister militum per Orientem Stilicho in 387, her elder sister Thermantia to a "general" whose name has not been preserved, and ca. 387 his nephew-in-law Nebridius to Salvina, daughter of the comes Africae Gildo. By the time of his death by illness on 17 January 395, Theodosius had promoted Stilicho from his position as one of the two comites domesticorum under his own eastern administration to that of magister peditum praesentalis in a western administration, in an entirely traditional manner, under his younger son Honorius. Although Stilicho managed to increase the power of the magister peditum praesentalis to the disadvantage of his colleague the magister equitum praesentalis and claimed that Theodosius had appointed him as guardian for both his sons, this tells us more about his cunning and ambition than it does about Theodosius' constitutional arrangements.

Theodosius' importance rests on the fact that he founded a dynasty which continued in power until the death of his grandson Theodosius II in 450. This ensured a continuity of policy which saw the emergence of Nicene Christianity as the orthodox belief of the vast majority of Christians throughout the middle ages. It also ensured the essential destruction of paganism and the emergence of Christianity as the religion of the state, even if the individual steps in this process can be difficult to identify. On the negative side, however, he allowed his dynastic interests and ambitions to lead him into two unnecessary and bloody civil wars which severely weakened the empire's ability to defend itself in the face of continued barbarian pressure upon its frontiers. In this manner, he put the interests of his family before those of the wider Roman population and was responsible, in many ways, for the phenomenon to which we now refer as the fall of the western Roman empire.


Copyright (C) 1998, David Woods.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

There is a nice segue here, as we pick-up John Julius Norwich's summation of the reign of Theodosius, "Readers of this brief account of his career may well find themselves wondering, not so much whether he deserved the title of 'the Great' as how he ever came to acquire it in the first place. If so, however, they may also like to ask themselves another question: what would have been the fate of the Empire if, at that critical moment in its history after the battle of Adrianople, young Gratian had not called him from his Spanish estates and put the future of the East into his hands? . . . the probability is that the whole Empire of the East would have been lost, swallowed up in a revived Gothic kingdom, with effects on world history that defy speculation.

In his civil legislation he showed, again and again, a consideration for the humblest of his subjects that was rare indeed among rulers of the fourth century. What other prince would have decreed that any criminal, sentenced to execution, imprisonment or exile, must first be allowed thirty days' grace to put his affairs in order? Or that a specified part of his worldly goods must go to his children, upon whom their father's crimes must on no account be visited? Or that no farmer should be obliged to sell his produce to the State at a price lower than he would receive on the open market?

Had he earned his title? Not, perhaps, in the way that Constantine had done or as Justinian was to do. But, if not ultimately great himself, he had surely come very close to greatness; and had he reigned as long as they did his achievements might well have equalled theirs. He might even have saved the Western Empire. One thing only is certain: it would be nearly a century and a half before the Romans would look upon his like again" (Norwich, John Julius. Byzantium, the Early Centuries. London: Penguin Group, 1990. 116-7;118).

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
151.jpg
151 Constantine III. AR siliqua 1.6m33 viewsobv: DN CONSTAN_TINVS PF AVG pearl dia. drp. cuir. bust r.
rev: VICTORI_A AAVGGG roma seated on cuirass holding Victory on globe and inerted spear
ex: SMLD
2 commentshill132
heraclea29~0.jpg
154 Constantine II8 viewsobv: CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C laur. drp. cuir. bust r.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE CAESS campgate with two turrents star above
ex: ./SMHr
hill132
155-C1 VLLP Arelate, RIC 191.JPG
155-C1 VLLP Arelate, RIC 19126 viewsConstantine The Great, AE3, Arelate mint, 319 AD.
Obv:IMP CONSTANTINVS AVG, Laureate, helmeted, Cuirassed bust right.
Rev: VICTORIAE LAETAE PRINC PERP, Two Victories facing , placing shield inscribed VOT / PR on altar.
PARL in exergue.
Arelate mint, RIC 191.
19mm, 2.2 gm.
jdholds
157-C1 VLLP Trier, RIC 221.JPG
157-C1 VLLP Trier, RIC 22122 viewsConstantine The Great, AE3, Trier mint
Obv: IMP CONSTAN-TINVS MAX AVG, Helmeted, Laureate, cuirassed bust right.
Rev: VICTORIAE LAETAE PRINC PERP, Two Victories placing shield inscribed VOT / PR on altar.
STR in exergue.
17mm , 3.3 gm.
RIC 221 , Trier
jdholds
heraclea34.jpg
159 Constantine II10 viewsobv: CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C laur. drp. cuir. bust r.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE CAESS campgate with two turrents star above
ex: SMHr
hill132
RI_160gc_img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great (as Caesar) - AE3 - RIC VII Lugdunum 32714 viewsFollis
Obv:– FL VAL CONSTANTINVS NOB C, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:– GENIO POPVLI ROMANI, Genius standing left by lighted altar, modius on head, loins draped, holding patera and cornucopiae
Minted in Lugdunum (_|N// PLC). Spring A.D. 307
Reference:– RIC VI Lyons 211 (S). Bastien 399 (19)
maridvnvm
RI_160fg_img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - AE Folis - RIC VI Lugdunum 304 19 viewsObv:– IMP CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right (seen from rear)
Rev:- MARTI CO-NSERVATORI, Mars helmeted, in military dress, cloak hanging over right shoulder, standing, right, holding reversed spear, left hand leaning on shield
Minted in Lugdunum (F | T / PLC). Sping A.D. 310-311
Reference:– Bastien XI 531 (34 examples of which 29 with this reverse legend break). RIC VI Lugdunum 304 (C)

24.30 mm. 3.98 gms. 45 degrees.
maridvnvm
RI_160ga_img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - AE3 - RIC VII Arles 34514 viewsAE3
Obv:– CONSTANTI-NVS MAX AVG, Rosette-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:– GLORIA EXERCITVS, Two helmeted soldiers standing with spears & shields, facing two standards between them
Minted in Arles (* // PCONST). A.D. 330 - 331
Reference:– RIC VII Arles 345 (C2)
maridvnvm
RI_160fx_img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - AE3 - RIC VII Arles 3758 viewsAE3
Obv:– CONSTANTI-NVS MAX AVG, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:– GLORIA EXERCITVS, Two helmeted soldiers standing with spears & shields, facing two standards between them
Minted in Arles (laurel wreath with dot in it's centre / Dot in centre field// PCONST). A.D. 333 - 334
Reference:– RIC VII Arles 375 (R3)
maridvnvm
RI_160fc_img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - AE3 - RIC VII Lugdunum 261 18 viewsObv:–CONSTANTI-NVS MAX AVG, Rosette-diadem, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:–.GLOR-IA EXERC-ITVS, Two helmeted soldiers standing with spears & shields, facing two standards between them
Minted in Lugdunum (*PLG). A.D. 333-334
Reference(s) – Bastien XIII 249 (5). RIC VII Lugdunum 261 (R5)
maridvnvm
RI_160fy_img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - AE3 - RIC VII Rome 327 13 viewsAE3
Obv:– CONSTANTI-NVS MAX AVG, Rosette-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:– GLORIA EXERCITVS, Two helmeted soldiers standing with spears & shields, facing two standards between them
Minted in Rome (// RFP). A.D. 330
Reference:– RIC VII Rome 327
maridvnvm
RI_160fz_img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - AE3 - RIC VII Rome 32717 viewsAE3
Obv:– CONSTANTI-NVS MAX AVG, Rosette-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:– GLORIA EXERCITVS, Two helmeted soldiers standing with spears & shields, facing two standards between them
Minted in Rome (// RFP). A.D. 330
Reference:– RIC VII Rome 327
maridvnvm
RI_160ff_img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - AE3 - RIC VII Ticinum 08724 viewsObv:- IMP CONSTAN-TINVS MAX AVG, Laureate helmeted cuirassed bust right
Rev:- VICTORIAE LAETAE PRINC PERP, Two Victories holding shield inscribed VOT PR over Altar. Star on Altar
Minted in Ticinum, (//ST). A.D. 319
Reference:- RIC VII Ticinum 87 (Rated R4)
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_160fe_img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - AE3 - RIC VII Trier 526 19 viewsObv:– CONSTANTINVS MAX AVG, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:– GLORIA EXERCITVS, Two helmeted soldiers standing with spears & shields, facing two standards between them
Minted in Trier (TRP•)
Reference:– RIC VII Trier 526 (S)
maridvnvm
RI_160fd_img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - AE3 - RIC VII Trier 53718 viewsObv:– CONSTANTINVS MAX AVG, Rosette diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:– GLORIA EXERCITVS, Two helmeted soldiers standing with spears & shields, facing two standards between them
Minted in Trier (TR•P)
Reference:–  RIC VII Trier 537
maridvnvm
RI_160gf_img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - Follis - RIC VI 138 var. (unlisted officina).15 viewsAE Follis
Obv:– FL VALERIVS CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, laureate head right
Rev:– BONO GENIO PII IMPERATORIS, Genius standing left, holding patera and cornucopia
Minted in Alexandria (crescent / K | G / P //ALE)
Reference:– RIC VI 138 var. (unlisted officina).

26.94 mm, 6.05g, 0 degrees
maridvnvm
RI_160ex_img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - Follis - RIC VI London 121a29 viewsFollis
Obv:– IMP CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, Laureate, cuirassed bust right
Rev:– SOLI INVICTO COMITI, Sol standing left holding globe in left and raising right
Minted in London (T | F / PLN) A.D. Autumn A.D. 310
Reference(s) – RIC VI London 121a
maridvnvm
RI_160fi_img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - Follis - RIC VI London 121a22 viewsFollis
Obv:– IMP CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, Laureate, cuirassed bust right
Rev:– SOLI INVICTO COMITI, Sol standing left holding globe in left and raising right
Minted in London (T | F / PLN) A.D. Autumn A.D. 310
Reference(s) – RIC VI London 121a

2.84 gms. 23-26mm
maridvnvm
RI_160fh_img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - Follis - RIC VI London 121a23 viewsFollis
Obv:– IMP CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, Laureate, cuirassed bust right
Rev:– SOLI INVICTO COMITI, Sol standing left holding globe in left and raising right
Minted in London (T | F / PLN) A.D. Autumn A.D. 310
Reference(s) – RIC VI London 121a

4.46 gms. 22mm
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RI_160eq_img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - Follis - RIC VI London 15331 viewsObv:– CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, Laureate, cuirassed bust right
Rev:- COMITI AVGG N N, Sol standing left, holding globe in right hand and whip in left hand
Minted in London (_ | * / PLN).
Reference:– RIC VI London 153
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RI_160fm_img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - Follis - RIC VI London 16918 viewsFollis (AE3)
Obv:– CONSTANTINVS P AVG, Laureate cuirassed bust right
Rev:– COMITI AVGG NN, Sol radiate standing left, holding globe and whip
Minted in London (_ | * //PLN) A.D. 310-312
Reference(s) – RIC VI London 169 (S citing Oxford)
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RI_160fv_img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - Follis - RIC VI London 251 13 viewsFollis
Obv:– IMP CONSTANTINVS P F AVG. Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:– MARTI CO-NSERVATORI. Mars helmeted, in military dress, cloak hanging over right shoulder, standing, right, holding reversed spear, left hand leaning on shield
Minted in London (* | _ // PLN). Late A.D. 312- May A.D. 313
Reference:– RIC VI London 251 (Rated S with CON-S, noted rarely occurring with CO-NS. This seems to be supported by a spot check of other coins of this issue)
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RI_160el_img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - Follis - RIC VI Lugdunum -42 viewsObv:– CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:- SOLI INVIC-TO COMITI, Sol standing left holding globe in left hand and raising right
Minted in Lugdunum (F | T / PLC).
Reference:– RIC VI Lugdunum -. Bastien -.

4.76 gms. 0 degrees. 22.77 mm.

Not known with this obverse legend.
maridvnvm
RI_160ez_img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - Follis - RIC VI Lugdunum 25528 viewsObv:– IMP C CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:– GENIO POP ROM, Genius standing left before lighted altar in turreted crown, left shoulder & loins draped, holding patera & cornucopia.
Minted in Lugdunum (//PLC)
Reference:– RIC VI Lugdunum 255. Bastien XI 470 (122)
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_160ek_img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - Follis - RIC VI Lugdunum 31049 viewsObv:– IMP CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:- SOLI INVIC-TO COMITI, Sol standing left holding globe in left hand and raising right
Minted in Lugdunum (F | T / PLC).
Reference:– RIC VI Lugdunum 310
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RI_160dw_img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - Follis - RIC VI Lugdunum 312 17 viewsObv:– IMP CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from behind
Rev:- SOLI INVIC-TO COMITI, Sol advancing left, raising right hand, holding whip in left hand
Minted in Lugdunum (F | T / PLG). Spring A.D. 310 - 311
Reference:– RIC VI Lugdunum 312 (Rated Scarce). Bastien XI 528 (28 examples)
3.32g. 24.26mm
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RI_160gd_img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - Follis - RIC VI Lyons 24246 viewsAE Follis
Obv:– IMP C CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, Laureate, cuirassed bust right
Rev:– MARTI PATRI PROPVGNATORI, Mars, naked, advancing right, holding transverse spear in right hand and shield
Minted in Lugdunum (N|_// PLC). Autumn A.D. 307 - 309/310
Reference:– RIC VI Lyons 242 (S). Bastien 462 (9 examples cited)
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_160dp_img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - Follis - RIC VI Trier 86235 viewsObv:– CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, Laureate, cuirassed bust right
Rev:– MARTI CONSERVATORI. Mars helmeted, in military dress, spread cloak, standing, right, holding reversed spear, left hand leaning on shield
Minted in Trier (T | F / PTR).
Reference:– RIC VI Trier 862

Weight 4.63g. 23.27mm.
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RI_160ed_img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - Follis - RIC VI Trier 87031 viewsObv:– IMP CONSTANTINVS AVG, Laureate cuirassed bust right
Rev:- SOLI INVICTO COMITI, Sol standing left holding globe in left hand and raising right
Minted in Trier (T | F / PTR).
Reference:– RIC VI Trier 870
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RI_160dq_img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - Follis - RIC VI Trier 873 39 viewsObv:– CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:– SOLI INVICTI COMITI, Sol standing left, holding right hand high in salute and globe
Minted in Trier (T | F / PTR).
Reference:– RIC VI Trier 873

Weight 4.32g. 23.73mm.
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_160ee_img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - Follis - RIC VI Trier 87321 viewsObv:– CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, Laureate cuirassed bust right
Rev:- SOLI INVIC-TO COMITI, Sol standing left holding globe in left hand and raising right
Minted in Trier (T | F / PTR).
Reference:– RIC VI Trier 873
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_160ef_img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - Follis - RIC VI Trier 87318 viewsObv:– CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, Laureate cuirassed bust right
Rev:- SOLI INVIC-TO COMITI, Sol standing left holding globe in left hand and raising right
Minted in Trier (T | F / PTR).
Reference:– RIC VI Trier 873
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RI_160eo_img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - Follis - RIC VII Arles 08026 viewsObv:– IMP CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:- SOLI INV-I-CTO COMITI, Sol standing left, holding globe in left hand and raising right
Minted in Arles (T / * | F / SARL).
Reference:– RIC VII Arles 80 (Rated S)
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160 - Constantine the Great - Follis - RIC VII Arles 15015 viewsObv:– IMP CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:- SOLI INVI-CTO COMITI, Sol standing right, head left, holding globe in left hand and raising right, chlamys spread across both shoulders
Minted in Arles (C | S / PARL).
Reference:– RIC VII Arles 150 (Rated S)
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RI_160dv_img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - Follis - RIC VII Arles 28626 viewsAE3
Obv:– CONSTANTINVS AVG, Laureate head right
Rev:– PROVIDENTIAE AVGG, Campgate with five rows, two turrets, no doors, star above
Minted in Arles (//PA crescent RL).
Reference:– RIC VII Arles 286
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RI_160fl_img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - Follis - RIC VII Heraclea 08218 viewsObv: CONSTAN-TINVS AVG, laureate head right.
Rev: D N CONSTANTINI MAX AVG, VOT XXX in two lines within wreath
Minted in Heraclea (//SMHG dot)
Reference:- RIC VII Heraclea 082
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RI_160ep_img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - Follis - RIC VII London 14918 viewsObv:– CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, Laureate, cuirassed bust right
Rev:- SOLI INV-I-CTO COMITI, Sol standing left, holding globe in left hand and raising right, chlamys spread across both shoulders
Minted in London (Crescent | * / PLN).
Reference:– RIC VII London 149 (Rated R4)
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RI_160du_img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - Follis - RIC VII London 26723 viewsAE3
Obv:– CONSTANTINVS AVG, Laureate, bust right wearing trabea, holding eagle tipped sceptre in right hand
Rev:– BEAT TRANQLITAS, Altar inscribed VOT/IS/XX, surmounted by globe with plain vertical lines and diagonals between horizontal lines, three stars above
Minted in London (//PLON). A.D. 323 - 324
Reference:– RIC VII London 267
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RI_160dr_img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - Follis - RIC VII London 28025 viewsObv:– IMP CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:– SOLI INVICTI COMITI, Sol standing left, holding right hand high in salute and globe
Minted in London (* | _ / PLN).
Reference:– RIC VII London 280

Weight 3.55g. 20.79mm.
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RI_160ec_img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - Follis - RIC VII Lugdunum 0311 viewsObv:– IMP CONSTANTINVS AVG, Laureate, draped cuirassed bust right (see from rear)
Rev:- SOLI INVICTO COMITI, Sol standing left holding globe in left hand and raising right
Minted in Lugdunum (S | F / PLG), A.D. 322-323
Reference:– Bastien XI 540. RIC VII Lugdunum 3 (Rated Scarce)
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RI_160dt_img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - Follis - RIC VII Lugdunum 059 viewsObv:– CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from rear
Rev:– SOLI INVICTO COMITI, Sol standing left holding globe in left and raising right
Minted in Lugdunum (S | F / PLC). A.D. 309 - 310
Reference:– Bastien XI 543 (245 examples). RIC VII Lugdunum 5
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RI_160dn_img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - Follis - RIC VII Lugdunum 5312 viewsObv:– CONSTANTINVS AVG, Laureate, cuirassed bust right.
Rev:– SOLI INVICTO COMITI, Sol standing left holding globe in left hand and raising right.
Minted in Lugdunum (A | S / PLG).
Reference:– RIC VII Lugdunum 53

Weight 3.29g. 19.13mm.
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160 - Constantine the Great - Follis - RIC VII Lugdunum unlisted21 viewsObv:– CONSTANTINVS AVG, Laureate bust left wearing imperial mantle, holding eagle tipped sceptre in tight hand
Rev:– BEATA TRANQVILLITAS, Altar inscribed VO/TIS/XX, surmounted by globe with plain vertical lines and diagonals between horizontal lines, three stars above.
Minted in Lugdunum (C | R / PLC)
Reference– RIC VII Lugdunum -. Bastien XIII 111 (3 examples cited)
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RI_160fo_img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - Follis - RIC VII Siscia 1520 viewsFollis
Obv:– IMP CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, Laureate cuirassed bust right
Rev:- IOVI CONSERVATORI, Jupiter standing left, chlamys across left shoulder, holding Victory on globe and sceptre, eagle with wreath at foot left
Minted in Siscis (_ | D / dot SIS dot). A.D. 315-316
Reference(s) – RIC VII Siscia 15
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RI_160fk_img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - Follis - RIC VII Thessalonica 15312 viewsObv:– CONSTANTINVS AVG, Laureate head right
Rev:– PROVIDENTIAE AVGG, Campgate with six rows, two turrets, no doors, star above, top and bottom rows blocks.
Minted in Thessalonica. • in right field, SMTSE in exe.
Reference:– RIC VII Thessalonica 153
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RI_160fj_img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - Follis - RIC VII Ticinum 16723 viewsObv: CONSTAN-TINVS AVG, laureate head right.
Rev: D N CONSTANTINI MAX AVG, VOT XX crescent in three lines within wreath, dot in centre
Minted in Ticinum (//ST)
RIC VII Ticinum 167
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RI_160em_img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - Follis - RIC VII Ticinum 314 viewsObv:– CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, Laureate, cuirassed bust right
Rev:- SOLI INVI-C-TO COMITI, Sol standing left holding globe in left hand and raising right, chlamys spread across both shoulders
Minted in Ticinum (// TT).
Reference:– RIC VII Ticinum 3 (Rated R2)
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RI_160ds_img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - Follis - RIC VII Trier 10419 viewsObv:– CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:– SOLI INVICTI COMITI, Sol standing left, holding right hand high in salute and globe
Minted in Trier (T | F / ATR).
Reference:– RIC VII Trier 104

Weight 3.65g. 20.62mm.
maridvnvm
RI_160er_img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - Follis - RIC VII Trier 10518 viewsObv:– CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, Laureate, cuirassed bust right
Rev:– SOLI INVICTO COMITI, Sol standing left, holding right hand high in salute and globe
Minted in Trier (T | F / BTR) A.D.
Reference:– RIC VII Trier 105
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_160gk_img~0.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - Follis - RIC VII Trier 10518 viewsObv:– CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, Laureate, cuirassed bust right
Rev:– SOLI INVICTO COMITI, Sol standing left holding globe in left hand and raising right
Minted in Trier (T | F / ATR).
Reference:– RIC VII Trier 105

Weight 3.19g. 19.95mm. 180 degrees.
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_160do_img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - Follis - RIC VII Trier 105 var29 viewsObv:– CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, Laureate, cuirassed bust right
Rev:– SOLI INVICTO COMITI, Sol standing left holding globe in left hand and raising right (spread coak)
Minted in Trier (T | F / ATR).
Reference:– RIC VII Trier 105 var (Spread chlamys rather than over shoulder as on 105)

Weight 3.45g. 20.36mm.
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RI_160eh_img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - Follis - RIC VII Trier 12813 viewsObv:– IMP CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, Laureate cuirassed bust right
Rev:- SOLI INVIC-TO COMITI, Sol standing left holding globe in left hand and raising right, chlamys spread across both shoulders
Minted in Trier (T | F / BTR).
Reference:– RIC VII Trier 128 (Rated R4)
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RI_160fa_img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - Follis - RIC VII Trier 13221 viewsObv:– IMP CONSTANTINVS AVG, Laureate, cuirassed bust right
Rev:– SOLI INVICTO COMITI, Sol standing left, holding right hand high in salute and globe, chlamys spread over both shoulders.
Minted in Trier (T | F / BTR)
Reference:– RIC VII Trier 132
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_160ei_img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - Follis - RIC VII Trier 13211 viewsObv:– IMP CONSTANTINVS AVG, Laureate cuirassed bust right
Rev:- SOLI INVIC-TO COMITI, Sol standing left holding globe in left hand and raising right, chlamys spread across both shoulders
Minted in Trier (T | F / BTR).
Reference:– RIC VII Trier 132
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RI_160eg_img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - Follis - RIC VII Trier 13511 viewsObv:– CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, Laureate cuirassed bust right
Rev:- SOLI INVIC-TO COMITI, Sol standing left holding globe in left hand and raising right
Minted in Trier (T | F / .ATR).
Reference:– RIC VII Trier 135
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RI_160ej_img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - Follis - RIC VII Trier 13511 viewsObv:– CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, Laureate cuirassed bust right
Rev:- SOLI INVIC-TO COMITI, Sol standing left holding globe in left hand and raising right, chlamys spread across both shoulders
Minted in Trier (T | F / BTR).
Reference:– RIC VII Trier 135
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RI_160fb_img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - Follis - RIC VII Trier 16221 viewsObv:– CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, Laureate, cuirassed bust right
Rev:– SOLI INVICTO COMITI, Sol standing left, holding right hand high in salute and globe,.
Minted in Trier (F | T / .ATR)
Reference:– RIC VII Trier 162 (R4).
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RI_160fs_img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VI Alexandria 161 16 viewsFollis
Obv:– FL VALER CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, Laureate head right
Rev:– GENIO AVGVSTI, Genius, naked but for chlamys fastened at his right shoulder and hanging from his left shoulder, standing facing, head left, wearing modius, holding head of Serapis, which faces him, in right hand and ornate cornucopia in left arm behind
Minted in Alexandria (* / N / Palm | A // ALE). A.D. 312 - 313
Reference(s) – RIC VI Alexandria 161 (S)
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RI 160aa img.JPG
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VI Cyzicus 077b48 viewsFollis
Obv:– IMP C FL VAL CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, Laureate head right
Rev:– GENIO AVGVSTI CMH, Genius standing left
Minted in Cyzicus (MKVA), Mid A.D. 311.
Reference:– RIC VI 77b

(SOLD)
maridvnvm
RI 160ce img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VI London 25125 viewsFollis
Obv:– IMP CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:–. MARTI CONSERVATORI, Mars helmeted, in military dress, spread cloak, standing, right, holding reversed spear, left hand leaning on shield
Minted in London (* | _ / PLN). Late A.D. 312-313
Reference:– RIC VI London 251 (Scarce)
maridvnvm
RI 160co img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VI Lugdunum -22 viewsFollis
Obv:– IMP CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from rear
Rev:– SOLI INVIC-TO COMITI, Sol walking left holding globe in left and raising right.
Minted in Lugdunum. F in left field, T in right field, PLC in exe. A.D. 309 - 310
Reference:– RIC VI Lugdunum - (Unlisted reverse type variation). Bastien 529 (4 examples cited)
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RI_160dk_img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VI Lugdunum 28753 viewsObv:– IMP C CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, Laureate, draped bust right (seen from the rear)
Rev:– GENIO POP ROM, Genius standing left, wearing modius and chlamys, sacrificing from patera on flaming altar and holding cornucopiae
Minted in Lugdunum (CI | H/S / PLC) A.D. Autumn A.D. 308 to start A.D. 309 (Bastien)
Reference:– Bastien 509 (75 examples cited). RIC VI 287 (though Bastien groups both Modius and Towered versions into one group)
6.35 gms. 25.67 mm.
4 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_160ew_img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VI Lugdunum 28721 viewsObv:– IMP C CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, Laureate, draped bust right (seen from the rear)
Rev:– GENIO POP ROM, Genius standing left, wearing modius and chlamys, sacrificing from patera on flaming altar and holding cornucopiae
Minted in Lugdunum (CI | H/S / PLC) A.D. Autumn A.D. 308 to start A.D. 309 (Bastien)
Reference:– Bastien 509 (75 examples cited). RIC VI 287 (though Bastien groups both Modius and Towered versions into one group)
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RI_160dk_revb.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VI Lugdunum 287 (Genius - FULL SIZE)48 viewsObv:– IMP C CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, Laureate, draped bust right (seen from the rear)
Rev:– GENIO POP ROM, Genius standing left, wearing modius and chlamys, sacrificing from patera on flaming altar and holding cornucopiae
Minted in Lugdunum (CI | H/S / PLC) A.D. Autumn A.D. 308 to start A.D. 309 (Bastien)
Reference:– Bastien 509 (75 examples cited). RIC VI 287 (though Bastien groups both Modius and Towered versions into one group)
6.35 gms. 25.67 mm.

Click on the image to see Genius full size.
2 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_160dk_obva.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VI Lugdunum 287 (Portrait - FULL SIZE)30 viewsObv:– IMP C CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, Laureate, draped bust right (seen from the rear)
Rev:– GENIO POP ROM, Genius standing left, wearing modius and chlamys, sacrificing from patera on flaming altar and holding cornucopiae
Minted in Lugdunum (CI | H/S / PLC) A.D. Autumn A.D. 308 to start A.D. 309 (Bastien)
Reference:– Bastien 509 (75 examples cited). RIC VI 287 (though Bastien groups both Modius and Towered versions into one group)
6.35 gms. 25.67 mm.

Click on the image to see this portrait full size.
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI 160db img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VI Lugdunum 29428 viewsFollis
Obv:– IMP C CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, Laureate, draped bust right (seen from the rear)
Rev:– MARTI PATRI CONSERVATORI, Helmeted Mars, naked, standing right, right hand holding reversed spear, left hand leaning on shield
Mint – Lugdunum (CI | H/S / PLC) Autumn A.D. 308 to Spring A.D. 309
Reference:– RIC VI Lugdunum 294 (Scarce). Bastien XI 511 (20)
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI 160cg img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VI Lugdunum 3099 viewsFollis
Obv:– IMP CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from front
Rev:– SOLI INVIC-TO COMITI, Sol standing left holding globe in left and raising right.
Minted in Lugdunum. F in left field, T in right field, PLC in exe. A.D. 309 - 310
Reference:– RIC VI Lugdunum 309
maridvnvm
RI 160cf img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VI Lugdunum 3099 viewsFollis
Obv:– IMP CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from front
Rev:– SOLI INVI-C-TO COMITI, Sol standing left holding globe in left and raising right.
Minted in Lugdunum. F in left field, T in right field, PLC in exe. A.D. 309 - 310
Reference:– RIC VI Lugdunum 309. Bastien XI 525 (14 example cited)
maridvnvm
RI 160cb img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VI Lugdunum 309 12 viewsFollis
Obv:– IMP CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from front
Rev:– SOLI INVIC-TO COMITI, Sol standing left holding globe in left and raising right.
Minted in Lugdunum. F in left field, T in right field, PLC in exe. A.D. 309 - 310
Reference:– RIC VI Lugdunum 309. Bastien XI 525 (14 example cited)
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI 160aj img~0.JPG
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VI Lugdunum 31049 viewsFollis
Obv:– IMP CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from rear
Rev:– SOLI INVI-C-TO COMITI, Sol standing left holding globe in left and raising right.
Minted in Lugdunum. F in left field, T in right field, PLC in exe. A.D. 309 - 310
Reference:– RIC VI Lugdunum 310
maridvnvm
RI 160ax img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VI Lugdunum 31018 viewsFollis
Obv:– IMP CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from rear
Rev:– SOLI INVI-CTO COMITI, Sol standing left holding globe in left and raising right.
Minted in Lugdunum. F in left field, T in right field, PLC in exe. A.D. 309 - 310
Reference:– RIC VI Lugdunum 310
maridvnvm
RI 160by img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VI Lugdunum 31030 viewsFollis
Obv:– IMP CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from rear
Rev:– SOLI INVIC-TO COMITI, Sol standing left holding globe in left and raising right.
Minted in Lugdunum. F in left field, T in right field, PLC in exe. A.D. 309 - 310
Reference:– RIC VI Lugdunum 310
maridvnvm
RI 160bd img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VI Lugdunum 310 13 viewsFollis
Obv:– IMP CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from rear
Rev:– SOLI INVIC-TO COMITI, Sol standing left holding globe in left and raising right.
Minted in Lugdunum. F in left field, T in right field, PLC in exe. A.D. 309 - 310
Reference:– RIC VI Lugdunum 310

(SOLD)
maridvnvm
RI 160y img.JPG
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VI Siscia 225c41 viewsFollis
Obv:– IMP CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, Laureate head right
Rev:– IOVI CONSERVATORI, Jupiter standing left, holding thunderbolt, eagle at feet
Minted in Siscia. B over μ in right field, SIS in exe. earlier A.D. 312.
Reference:– RIC VI Siscia 225c (Scarce)

(SOLD)
maridvnvm
RI 160ck img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VI Ticinum 124a42 viewsFollis
Obv:– CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, Laureate cuirassed bust right
Rev:–. MARTI CONSERVATORI. Mars helmeted, in military dress, spread cloak, standing, right, holding reversed spear, left hand leaning on shield
Minted in Ticinum (//TT). A.D. 312-313
Reference:– RIC VI Ticinum 124a (S)
2 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_160gj_imga.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VI Ticinum 124a35 viewsFollis
Obv:– CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, Laureate cuirassed bust right
Rev:–. MARTI CONSERVATORI. Mars helmeted, in military dress, spread cloak, standing, right, holding reversed spear, left hand leaning on shield
Minted in Ticinum (//TT). A.D. 312-313
Reference:– RIC VI Ticinum 124a (S)
3 commentsmaridvnvm
RI 160ai img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VI Trier 77656 viewsFollis
Obv:– IMP CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, Laureate, cuirassed bust right
Rev:– MARTI PATRI PROPVGNATORI, Mars, naked but for chlamys, advancing right with transverse spear and shield.
Minted in Trier. S in left field, A in right field, PTR in exe. A.D. 307 – 308
Reference:– RIC VI Trier 776 (Scarce)
maridvnvm
RI 160aw img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VI Trier 77631 viewsFollis
Obv:– IMP CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, Laureate, cuirassed bust right
Rev:– MARTI PATRI PROPVGNATORI, Mars, naked but for chlamys, advancing right with transverse spear and shield.
Minted in Trier. S in left field, A in right field, PTR in exe. A.D. 307 – 308
Reference:– RIC VI Trier 776 (Scarce)
maridvnvm
RI_160gn_img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VI Trier 85525 viewsFollis
Obv:– IMP CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, Laureate cuirassed bust right
Rev:- MARTI CON-SERVATORI, Mars helmeted, in military dress, spread cloak, standing, right, holding reversed spear, left hand leaning on shield
Minted in Trier (T | F / PTR). A.D. 310 - 313
Reference(s) – RIC VI Trier 855 (S).

3.64g. 23.95 mm. 180 degrees.
2 commentsmaridvnvm
RI 160bc img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VI Trier 87331 viewsFollis
Obv:– CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, Laureate, cuirassed bust right
Rev:–. SOLI INVIC-TO COMITI, Sol standing left holding globe in left and raising right
Minted in Trier (T | F / PTR).
Reference:– RIC VI Trier 873
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_160fu_img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VI Trier 881 (Follis)27 viewsObv:– IMP CONSTANTINVS AVG. Laureate, cuirassed bust right
Rev:– MARTI CONSERVATORI. Helmeted bust of Mars facing right
Minted in Trier (unmarked). A.D. 310 - 313
Reference:– RIC VI Trier 881
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI 160bt img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VI Trier 88439 viewsFollis
Obv:– CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, Laureate and cuirassed bust right
Rev:– MARTI CONSERVATORI, Helmeted bust of Mars facing right
Minted in Trier
Reference– RIC VI Trier 884
maridvnvm
RI 160bt img~0.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VI Trier 88431 viewsFollis
Obv:– CONSTANTINVS P F AVG. Laureate and cuirassed bust right
Rev:–. MARTI CONSERVATORI. Helmeted bust of Mars facing right
Minted in Trier
Reference:– RIC VI Trier 884
maridvnvm
RI_160ft_img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VI Trier 897 (Half Follis)17 viewsHalf Follis
Obv:– CONSTANTINVS AVG, Laureate, cuirassed bust right
Rev:– MARTI CONSERV, Mars helmeted, in military dress, spread cloak, standing, right, holding reversed spear, left hand leaning on shield
Minted in Trier (// PTR). A.D. 310 - 311
Reference:– RIC VI Trier 897 (S)
maridvnvm
RI_160fw_img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VI Trier 897 (Half Follis)15 viewsHalf Follis
Obv:– CONSTANTINVS AVG, Laureate, cuirassed bust right
Rev:– MARTI CONSERV, Mars helmeted, in military dress, spread cloak, standing, right, holding reversed spear, left hand leaning on shield
Minted in Trier (// PTR). A.D. 310 - 311
Reference:– RIC VI Trier 897 (S)
maridvnvm
RI 160ae img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VII Alexandria 02232 viewsObv:– IMP CONSTANTINVS AVG, Laureate bust left, draped mappa, orb and scepter
Rev:– IOVI CONSERVATORI AVGG, Jupiter standing left, holding Victory on a globe and scepter
Minted in Alexandria, crescent in left field, B in right field, SMAL in exe
Reference:– RIC VII Alexandria 22 (R3)
maridvnvm
RI 160ah img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VII Alexandria 03419 viewsObv:– CONSTAN-TINVS AVG, Laureate bust right
Rev:–.PROVIDEN-TIAE AVGG, Campgate with five rows, two turrets, no doors, star above.
Minted in Alexandria (SMALB in exe.)
Reference:– RIC VII Alexandria 34
maridvnvm
RI_160fr_img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VII Alexandria 34 22 viewsAE3
Obv:– CONSTAN-TINVS AVG, Laureate bust right
Rev:– PROVIDEN-TIAE AVGG, Campgate with five rows, two turrets, no doors, star above.
Minted in Alexandria (SMALA).
Reference:– RIC VII Alexandria 34 (S)
maridvnvm
RI_160gp_img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VII Antioch 08111 viewsObv:- CONSTAN-TINVS AVG, Rosette, diademed head right
Rev:- PROVIDENTIAE AVGG Campgate with eight rows, two turrets, no doors, star above, Dot in archway
Minted in Antioch. SMANTA in exe. A.D. 327-328
Reference:- RIC VII Antioch 81 (R4)

Partially silvered
2.40g. 20mm.
maridvnvm
RI 160ab img.JPG
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VII Arles 19439 viewsObv:– IMP CONSTANTINVS AVG, Laureate, helmeted, and cuirassed bust right
Rev:– VICTORIAE LAETAE PRINC PERP, Two victories placing shield inscribed VOT P R on an altar
Minted in Arles, PARL in exe. A.D. 319
Reference:– RIC VII Arles 194 (R4) (SOLD)
maridvnvm
RI_160ev_img.jpg
160 - Constantine The Great - RIC VII Arles 364 54 viewsObv:– CONSTANTINVS MAX AVG, Rosette diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:– GLORIA EXERCITVS, Two helmeted soldiers standing with spears & shields, facing two standards between them
Minted in Arles (Palm Branch //PCONST)
Reference:– RIC VII Arles 364 (S)
maridvnvm
RI_160eu_img.jpg
160 - Constantine The Great - RIC VII Arles 37049 viewsObv:– CONSTANTINVS MAX AVG, Rosette diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:– GLORIA EXERCITVS, Two helmeted soldiers standing with spears & shields, facing two standards between them
Minted in Arles (Wreath //PCONST)
Reference:– RIC VII Arles 370 (R2)
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI 160k img.JPG
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VII Cyzicus 04446 viewsObv:– CONSTANTINVS AVG, Laureate head right
Rev:– PROVIDENTIAE AVGG, Campgate with six rows, two turrets, no doors, star above, top and bottom row blocks
Minted in Cyzicus. •SMKG• in exe.
Reference:– RIC VII Cyzicus 44
maridvnvm
RI 160j img.JPG
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VII Heraclea 06041 viewsObv:– CONSTANTINVS AVG, Laureate bust right
Rev:– DN CONSTANTINI MAX AVG, Wreath enclosing VOT XX
Minted in Heraclea. SMHA in exe.
Date Minted – A.D. 324
Reference:– RIC VII Heraclea 60
maridvnvm
RI 160o img.JPG
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VII Heraclea 060 (A)46 viewsObv:– CONSTANTINVS AVG, Laureate head right
Rev:– DN CONSTANTINI MAX AVG, VOT XX, star below, within wreath
Minted in Heraclea, SMHA in exe. A.D. 324
Reference:– RIC VII Heraclea 60
maridvnvm
RI 160g img.JPG
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VII Heraclea 08236 viewsObv:– CONSTANTINVS AVG, Laureate head right
Rev:– DN CONSTANTINI MAX AVG, Wreath enclosing VOT XXX
Minted in Heraclea. SMHΔ• in exe. A.D. 326
Reference:– RIC VII Heraclea 82 (R2)
maridvnvm
RI 160n img.JPG
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VII Heraclea 09067 viewsObv:– CONSTANTINVS AVG, Diademed head right
Rev:– DN CONSTANTINI MAX AVG, VOT XXX within wreath
Minted in Heraclea. •SMHA in exe. A.D. 327-329
Reference:– RIC VII Heraclea 90 (Scarce)
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI 160v img.JPG
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VII Heraclea 090 (B)44 viewsObv:– CONSTANTINVS AVG, Diademed bust right
Rev:– DN CONSTANTINI MAX AVG, VOT XXX, within wreath
Minted in Heraclea. •SMHB in exe. A.D. 327 - 329
Reference:– RIC VII Heraclea 90
maridvnvm
RI_160df_img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VII London -23 viewsObv:- IMP CONSTANTINVS AG, Laureate, cuirassed bust right
Rev:- SOLI INVICTO COMITI, Sol standing left etc.
Minted in London (S|P/MLN)
Ref:- RIC VII London Unlisted. Note AG instead of AVG.
1 commentsMartin Griffiths
RI 160ad img.JPG
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VII London 00648 viewsObv:– IMP CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, Laureate, cuirassed bust right
Rev:– SOLI INVICTO COMITI, Sol standing left holding globe in left and raising right
Minted in London. S in left field, F in right field; PLN in exe. A.D. 313 - 314
Reference:– RIC VII London 6 (R1)
maridvnvm
RI_160dg_img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VII London 7028 viewsObv:– IMP CONSTANTINVS AG, Laureate, cuirassed bust right
Rev:– SOLI INVICTO COMITI, Sol standing left holding globe in left and raising right
Minted in London S | P / MSL
Reference:– RIC VII London 70 (R4)
Martin Griffiths
RI 160bp img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VII Lugdunum 00210 viewsObv:– IMP CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right (rear)
Rev:– SOLI INVIC-TO COMITI, Sol standing left holding globe in left and raising right.
Minted in Lugdunum (S | F / PLC), A.D. 312
Reference:– RIC VII Lugdunum 2 (R1). Bastien XI 538 (6 examples cited)
maridvnvm
RI 160bl img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VII Lugdunum 0035 viewsObv:– IMP CONSTANTINVS AVG, Laureate, cuirassed bust right
Rev:– SOLI INV-IC-TO COMITI, Sol standing left holding globe in left and raising right.
Minted in Lugdunum (S | F / PLC), A.D. 313-314
Reference:– RIC VII Lugdunum 3 (S). Bastien XI 540 (155 examples cited)
maridvnvm
RI 160au img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VII Lugdunum 00412 viewsObv:– IMP CONSTANTINVS AVG, Laureate, cuirassed bust right
Rev:– SOLI INVIC-TO COMITI, Sol standing left holding globe in left and raising right.
Minted in Lugdunum (S | F / PLC), A.D. 313-314
Reference:– RIC VII Lugdunum 4 (R1). Bastien XI 541 (54 examples cited)
maridvnvm
RI 160bf img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VII Lugdunum 0048 viewsObv:– IMP CONSTANTINVS AVG, Laureate, cuirassed bust right
Rev:– SOLI INV-I-C-TO COMITI, Sol standing left holding globe in left and raising right.
Minted in Lugdunum (S | F / PLC), A.D. 313-314
Reference:– RIC VII Lugdunum 4 (R1). Bastien XI 541 (54 examples cited)
maridvnvm
RI 160ay img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VII Lugdunum 0057 viewsObv:– CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right (rear)
Rev:– SOLI INVIC-TO COMITI, Sol standing left, holding globe in left hand, right hand high in salute
Minted in Lugdunum. S in left field, F in right field; PLG in exe. A.D. 313/4
Reference:– RIC VII Lugdunum 5. Bastien XI 543 (245 examples cited)
maridvnvm
RI 160ao img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VII Lugdunum 00730 viewsObv:– CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, Laureate, cuirassed bust right
Rev:– SOLI INVICTO COMITI, Sol standing left, holding globe in left hand, right hand high in salute
Minted in Lugdunum. S in left field, F in right field; PLG in exe. A.D. 313/4
Reference:– RIC VII Lugdunum 7
maridvnvm
RI_160fq_img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VII Lugdunum 01019 viewsFollis
Obv:– IMP CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right (seen from rear)
Rev:- MARTI CON-SERVATORI, Mars helmeted, in military dress, cloak hanging over right shoulder, standing, right, holding reversed spear, left hand leaning on shield
Minted in Lugdunum (T | F / PLC). A.D. 315
Reference:– Bastien XI 570 (30 examples cited). RIC VII Lugdunum 10 (R2)

20.19mm. 3.41 gms. 180 degrees.
maridvnvm
RI 160bx img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VII Lugdunum 01514 viewsObv:– IMP CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right (seen from rear)
Rev:– SOLI INVIC-TO COMITI, Sol standing left holding globe in left and raising right
Minted in Lugdunum. T in left field, F in right field; PLG in exe. A.D. 314-315
Reference:– RIC VII Lugdunum 15. Bastien XI 562
maridvnvm
RI 160cr img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VII Lugdunum 0158 viewsObv:– IMP CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right (seen from rear)
Rev:– SOLI INVIC-TO COMITI, Sol standing left holding globe in left and raising right
Minted in Lugdunum. T in left field, F in right field; PLG in exe. A.D. 314-315
Reference:– RIC VII Lugdunum 15. Bastien XI 562
maridvnvm
RI 160ca img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VII Lugdunum 01626 viewsObv:– IMP CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right (seen from rear)
Rev:– SOLI INV-IC-TO COMITI, Sol standing left holding globe in left and raising right
Minted in Lugdunum. T in left field, F in right field; PLG in exe. A.D. 314-315
Reference:– RIC VII Lugdunum 16 (Rated R4). Bastien XI ???
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI 160bw img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VII Lugdunum 01723 viewsObv:– IMP CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, Laureate, cuirassed bust right
Rev:– SOLI INVIC-TO COMITI, Sol standing left holding globe in left and raising right
Minted in Lugdunum. T in left field, F in right field; PLG in exe. A.D. 314-315
Reference:– RIC VII Lugdunum 17 (R1).
maridvnvm
RI 160as img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VII Lugdunum 01910 viewsObv:– IMP CONSTANTINVS AVG, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right (seen from front)
Rev:– SOLI INVIC-TO COMITI, Sol standing left holding globe in left and raising right
Minted in Lugdunum. T in left field, F in right field; PLG in exe. A.D. 314-315
Reference:– RIC VII Lugdunum 19 (R3)
maridvnvm
RI 160av img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VII Lugdunum 02014 viewsObv:– IMP CONSTANTINVS AVG, Laureate, cuirassed bust right
Rev:– SOLI INVIC-TO COMITI, Sol standing left holding globe in left and raising right.
Minted in Lugdunum. T in left field, F in right field; PLG in exe. A.D. 314-315
Reference:– RIC VII Lugdunum 20
maridvnvm
RI 160at img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VII Lugdunum 03215 viewsObv:– IMP CONSTANTINVS AVG, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right (seen from rear)
Rev:– SOLI INVIC-TO COMITI, Sol standing left holding globe in lef