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Last additions - Pharsalos
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Trajan Denarius Annona42 viewsAR Denarius
Trajan 98-117 CE
Diameter: 19 mm, Weight: 3.56 grams, Die axis: 7h

Obverse: IMP TRAIANO AVG GER DAC PM TR P COS V PP
Laureate bust to right, with medusa aegis

Reverse: SPQR OPTIMO PRINCIPI
Annona standing left, holding grain ears in her right hand and cornucopiae with her left, modius to left, stern of galley to right.

Mint: Rome

Notes:
- Dates between 103 and 111 CE

Ex Silbury Coins
1 commentsPharsalosJun 18, 2019
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Gyrton, Thessaly Dichalkon20 viewsAE Dichalkon
Size: 18 mm, Weight: 5.21 grams, Die Axis: 6h

Gyrton, Thessaly
Mid 4th century BCE

Obverse: Bare Head of hero Gyrton to left of head of bridled horse, both facing right.

Reverse: Head of the nymph Gyrtone facing right

Ex Ken Dorney 2018, Ex CNG eAuction 392 2017, part of lot 165, Ex the BCD Collection with his ticket indicating purchase in 1992
1 commentsPharsalosMar 23, 2019
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Maximianus Follis Carthage13 viewsAE Follis
Maximianus, 286 - 305 CE
Diameter: 28 mm, Weight: 11.60 grams, Die Axis: 6h

Obverse: IMP MAXIMIANVS PF AVG
Laureate bust to right.

Reverse: SALVIS AVGG ET CAESS FEL KART
Personification of Carthage standing left, with fruits in both hands.

Mint: B, Carthage

Ex Incitatus Coins 2018
PharsalosMar 23, 2019
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Constantius Gallus Fel Temp Reparatio Falling Horseman21 viewsAE Centenionalis
Constantius Gallus, 351-354 CE
Diameter: 22 mm, Weight: 4.15 grams, Die Axis: 11h

Obverse: D N CONSTANTIVS NOB CAES
Bare-headed, draped and cuirassed bust to right.
Reverse: FEL TEMP REPARATIO
Soldier on right holding shield, spearing falling enemy horseman on left. Horseman sits facing soldier with hands extended upwards.

Mint: *TSЄ* , Γ in field to left, * in field to right: Thessalonica

Notes:
- RIC 177 records *TSЄ•, but *TSЄ* is not in RIC for Constantius Gallus.

Ex Roman Lode, 2019
2 commentsPharsalosMar 23, 2019
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Salonina Antoninianus Venus17 viewsBi Antoninianus
Salonina, 253-268CE
Diameter: 20mm, Weight: 4.00 grams, Die axis: 12h

Obverse: SALONINA AVG
Draped bust to right, on crescent.

Reverse: VENVS AVG
Venus standing left, holding helmet in right hand, and spear under left arm which rests on a shield. In exergue PXV.

Mint: Asian mint, probably Antioch

Notes:
- PXV marks Gallienus' 15th Tribuncian year; 267 CE.
-Antioch continued to mint relatively fine coinage compared to the later issues of Gallienus and Salonina from other mints. See another well made Antioch antoninianus in my gallery, a LVNA LVCIFERA type of Gallienus. I think the dies of both coins could be engraved by the same celator: http://www.forumancientcoins.com/gallery/displayimage.php?pos=-134551

Ex Victor's Imperial Coins, 2018
PharsalosOct 21, 2018
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Postumus Antoninianus Victoria 22 viewsAR Antoninianus
Postumus, 260 - 268 CE
Diameter: 24 mm, Weight: 3.71 grams, Die axis: 11h

Obverse: IMP C POSTVMVS . P . F . AVG
Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust to right.

Reverse: VICTORIA AVG
Victory advancing left, holding wreath in outstretched right hand, palm frond resting over left shoulder. Captive seated to left at Victory's feet.

Mint: Probably Colonia Agrippinensis (Cologne)

Notes:
- A fine and unusual portrait struck early in Postumus' usurpation, mid to late 260 CE as part of Postumus' 2nd coinage issue.
-Silver content was still decent during this period, at around 20%.

Ex Poinsignon Numismatique, 2018
PharsalosAug 28, 2018
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Abdera, Thrace Tetrobol42 viewsAR Tetrobol
Size: 16mm, Weight: 2.87 grams, Die Axis: 3h

Abdera, Thrace
411 - 375 BCE

Obverse: Griffin to left, forelegs raised.

Reverse: Wreathed bust of Dionysos to left, MOΛΠAΓOPHΣ around, all within linear frame and shallow incuse square.

Notes:
- Abdera was was repopulated by citizens from Teos circa 544 BCE, who brought with them the griffin symbol. The griffin on coins from Teos face right, and on coins from Abdera, left.
- The worship of Dionysos appears to have been important in Abdera, and may have been reinforced by the pre-existence of the cult among the native Thracian population.
- The magistrate's name Molpagores also appears on staters of Abdera, where the punning reverse type is a dancing woman performing the 'molpe' (dancing and singing).

Ex Harlan J. Berk, 2018
PharsalosJun 05, 2018
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Constantius II Centenionalis Fel Temp Reparatio Falling Horseman53 viewsAE Centenionalis
Constantius II, 337-361 CE
Diameter: 21 mm, Weight: 6.32 grams, Die Axis: 6h

Obverse: D N CONSTANTIVS PF AVG
Diademed, draped and cuirassed bust to right.

Reverse: FEL TEMP REPARATIO
Soldier (described also as Constantius II or the personification of Virtus) to right holding shield, spearing falling enemy horseman to left. Horseman tumbles over neck of horse, facing forwards with arms outstretched.

Mint: ANΘ, Γ in field to left: Antioch

Notes:
-This issue was minted circa 351-354 CE.

Ex David L. Tranbarger 2018, Ex Triskeles Auction 22 2017, Lot 554 (the Maple Leaf Collection)
3 commentsPharsalosApr 16, 2018
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Artabanos III, AE Chalkous24 viewsAE Chalkous
Parthia, Artabanos III, 10-38 CE
Diameter: 12 mm Weight: 1.45 grams Die axis: 12h

Obverse: Diademed bust to left.

Reverse: King on horseback to right.

Mint: Ekbatana (Hamadan, Iran)

Notes:
- Charles Deetz was an American geographer
- Sellwood type 63.21, Shore 575
- NGC certification number 4372348-009

Ex Pars Coins 2017, Ex Stack's November 1946 (Sale of the Charles H. Deetz Collection), lot 249
PharsalosNov 18, 2017
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Vespasian denarius, Pax48 viewsAR Denarius
Vespasian 69-79CE
Diameter: 17~19 mm, Weight: 3.24 grams, Die axis: 5h

Obverse: IMP CAESAR VESPASIANVS AVG
Laureate bust to right.

Reverse: COS ITER TR POT
Pax seated to left, holding olive branch and caduceus.

Mint: Rome

Notes:
- Struck early in Vespasian's reign, January to June 70 CE. Cos iter is an abbreviation for consul iterum: 'consul again'.
- The veristic style of art and portraiture was popular in the late Republic, but from Augustus through to Nero fell out of fashion in favour of an idealised, Classical Greek style. The year of the four emperors and the Flavian dynasty saw a return to the Roman veristic style, perhaps to emphasise the break from Nero. The early denarii of Vespasian are particularly rich in veristic propaganda - as in this example depicting a serious, unpretentious and practical Emperor; a quintessentially Roman man come to save the Empire from the excesses of Nero.

Ex Marc Walter (Austria), 2017
2 commentsPharsalosSep 29, 2017
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Severus Alexander denarius, Fortuna 22 viewsAR Denarius
Severus Alexander 222-235CE
Diameter: 18mm, Weight: 3.04 grams, Die axis: 6h

Obverse: IMP C M AVR SEV ALEXAND AVG
Laureate and cuirassed bust to right

Reverse: PM TR P COS PP
Fortuna standing left, holding rudder on globe and cornucopiae. Star in left field.

Mint: Antioch

Notes:
- Dates to 222 CE.
- Denarii during this period had a target weight of 3.1 grams, and a silver finesse of 45%.

Ex Central City Coins Brisbane, 2002
1 commentsPharsalosAug 04, 2017
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Julia Domna denarius, Hilaritas42 viewsAR Denarius
Julia Domna 193-217CE
Diameter: 18~19 mm, Weight: 3.12 grams, Die axis: 12h

Obverse: IVLIA AVGVSTA
Draped bust to right, hair in elaborate bun.

Reverse: HILARITAS
Hilaritas standing facing left, holding palm frond in right hand and cornucopiae in left.

Mint: Rome

Notes:
- Dates between 196 and 211 CE, during the reign of Septimius Severus

Ex Sphinx Numismatics 2017, ex CNG Triton XX, part of lot 614 (ex the A.K. Collection) 2017, Ex stock Münzen und Medaillen Basel 1965
1 commentsPharsalosAug 04, 2017
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Persia, Archaemenid Kings Siglos 27 viewsAR Siglos
Size: 12 ~ 16mm, Weight: 5.44 grams, Die Axis: na

Persia, Archaemenid Kings
Circa 485 - 420 BCE (Xerxes I to Darius II)

Obverse: King advancing right, spear in right hand bow in left.

Reverse: Freeform incuse punch. Uncertain bankers punch mark at centre.

Notes:
- Quite a circulated example, but with a nice provenance.

Ex Pavlos S. Pavlou 2017, Ex Baldwins Argentum June 2016 part of lot 25, Ex David Sellwood collection
1 commentsPharsalosJun 09, 2017
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Constantius II half centenionalis Phoenix22 viewsAE Half Centenionalis
Constantius II, 337-361 CE
Diameter: 17 mm, Weight: 2.84 grams, Die Axis: 6h

Obverse: D N CONSTANTIVS PF AVG
Diademed and draped bust to right.

Reverse: FEL TEMP REPARATIO
Nimbate phoenix standing right on globe, star in field to right.

Mint: SMKϚ (digamma, sixth officinae) star in field: Cyzicus

Notes:
-Cyzicus is a scarce mint for the Fel Temp Reparatio phoenix on globe type. The other Cyzicus mint examples I have viewed all share the same common feature of a quite detailed phoenix.
-This issue was minted circa 348 to 350 CE.

Ex EBay UK 2017
PharsalosFeb 26, 2017
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Ariobarzanes III Drachm 23 viewsAR Drachm
Size: 17mm, Weight: 3.53 grams, Die Axis: 12h

Cappadocian Kingdom, Ariobarzanes III Eusebes
Circa 52 – 42 BCE

Obverse: Anepigraphic.
Diademed bust to right.

Reverse: BAΣIΛEΩΣ APIOBAPZANOY EYΣEBOYΣ KAI ΦIΛOPΩMAIOY (of King Ariobarzanes, pious and friend of the Romans)
Athena Nikephoros standing left, spear and grounded shield to right. Star in crescent monogram to left, monogram to right, and IA date in exergue (year 11, 42 BCE).

Notes:
-Ariobarzanes III was the grandson of Mithradates VI of Pontos, and adopted the Pontic royal symbol of a star in crescent.
-Ariobarzanes III was allied with Pompey, but was allowed to keep his position under Julius Caesar. Following Caesar's assassination, he refused to aid Cassius. Cappadocia was invaded, and Ariobarzanes III was executed.

Ex Forvm Ancient Coins, 2016
PharsalosFeb 18, 2017
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Salonina Sestertius Ivno 37 viewsAE Sestertius
Salonina, 253-268 CE
Diameter: 26~29mm, Weight: 15.69 grams, Die axis: 6h

Obverse: CORNELIA SALONINA AVG
Draped and diademed bust to right.

Reverse: IVNO REGINA SC
Juno, draped, standing facing left, holding patera in outstretched right hand, and sceptre in left hand.

Mint: Rome

Notes:
- The wife of Emperor Gallienus, her fate following the assassination of her husband is not certain.
-Salonina was said to be an intellectual woman, and her and her husband were patrons of the influential Greek philosopher Plotinus.
-The Historia Avgvsta records an incident where Salonina was sold gems that turned out to be glass. The seller was apprehended, and was told he would be fed to a lion. When at last the gate was opened, a chicken emerged. The emperor Gallienus was supposed to have said "He deceived, and then was himself deceived".
- Bronze fractional coinage during this period of Roman history is scarce. The silver antoninianus became so debased and inflation so rampant, metal was used to mint this more valuable denomination, rather than fractions such as sestertii. This sestertius dates to 255-256 CE.

Ex Downies Melbourne Ancient Exclusives July 2016, number 134, Ex Dix Noonan Web 15 March 2012, lot 1262 (part of), from the John Quinn collection
PharsalosFeb 18, 2017
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Menander I Drachm47 viewsAR Drachm
Size: 17mm, Weight: 2.45 grams, Die Axis: 9h

Bactria, Menander I
Circa 155 – 130 BCE

Obverse: BAΣIΛEΩΣ ΣΩTHPOΣ MENAN∆POY (of saviour king Menander)
Diademed and draped bust of Menander I to right.

Reverse: The Kharoshthi script 𐨣𐨚𐨯 𐨚𐨟𐨪𐨯 𐨨𐨱𐨪𐨗𐨯ꅐ (maharajasa tratarasa menadrasa - translation as obverse)
Athena Alkidemos advancing left, brandishing thunderbolt and shield held horizontally decorated with head of Gorgon. Monogram to right.

Notes:
-Menander was one of the most successful Baktrian kings, and according to Strabo conquered more tribes than Alexander the Great. He was said to have raided as far east as modern day Patna, India.
-He is also reported to have converted to Buddhism, but that is according to the Buddhist text the Milinda Panha (The questions of king Milinda). However it is recorded by Plutarch that upon his death his remains were shared amongst cities and 'monuments' were erected to honour these. This may be a reference to Buddhist stupas. There is no doubt, like Alexander before him, he respected the various religions of his kingdom, and used them to gain advantage wherever possible.
-The Periplus of the Erythraean Sea, thought to have been written in the mid first century CE, records the following:
"To the present day ancient drachmae are current in Barygaza (modern day Bharuch in Gujarat, India), coming from this country, bearing inscriptions in Greek letters, and the devices of those who reigned after Alexander, Apollodorus and Menander."
-Kharosthi (also known as Gandharan) was a script used in the region of modern day Afghanistan and Pakistan from about the 3rd century BCE to about the 3rd century CE. There is evidence of the script surviving as late as the 7th century CE in some outposts along the Silk Road. Interestingly, some early Chinese translations of Buddhist works indicate a Kharosthi source.
-Kharosthi is read from right to left, like for example modern Arabic. In the case of Menander, his epithets all end in 𐨯 (sa), so it is quite east to make out each word on the coin. The first letter of Menadrasa ꅐ (me) is made up of 𐨨 (m) combined with the diacritic vowel mark ' (e). This letter 'me', is quite distinctive and clearly visible directly below the monogram on my coin. Thus reading (by English convention) backwards the word me . na . dra . sa is clear. Note I was not able to find the Unicode script for Kharosthi 'me', so the symbol I have used is from 'Yi' script which was the closest approximation of The Kharosthi symbol I could find.

Ex Frank S Robinson Auction 97 lot 13, 2016
1 commentsPharsalosFeb 13, 2017
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Gallienus Antoninianus Luna Lucifera28 viewsBi Antoninianus
Gallienus , 253-268CE
Diameter: 21mm, Weight: 3.60 grams, Die axis: 12h

Obverse: GALLIENVS AVG
Radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust to right

Reverse: LVNA LVCIFERA
Diana as luna, crescent atop head, advancing to right. Holds lit torch in both hands, drapery billows behind.

Mint: Asian mint, probably Antioch

Notes:
- Struck during sole reign of Gallienus, 260 -268 CE.
-The Roman goddess Luna, the equivalent of the Greek Selene, came to be associated in Rome with Diana. The reverse can be translated as 'Diana bringer of light'.
-The goddess Luna had her own temple on the Aventine Hill, but it was destroyed by the great fire of Rome circa 64 CE during Emperor Nero's reign.

Ex Civitas Galleries 2016, ex Tom Cederlind
PharsalosJan 31, 2017
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Constans Centenionalis Fel Temp Reparatio hut41 viewsAE Centenionalis
Constans, 337-350 CE
Diameter: 19 mm, Weight: 4.20 grams, Die axis: 6h

Obverse: D N CONSTANS PF AVG
Diadem, draped, and cuirassed bust to left, holding globe.

Reverse: FEL TEMP REPARATIO
Helmeted soldier advancing right, leading small child from hut beneath tree.

Mint: CONSЄ*: Constantinopolis

Notes:
- This coin depicts a small figure with quite foreign features, for example the upright hair. This depiction is quite common, particularly to some Eastern mints, as noted on Bill Welch's excellent hut site. This is why the small figure is sometimes described as a 'barbarian'. However there are plenty of other plausible interpretations.
- ‘FELix TEMPorvm REPARATIO’ = Happy times restored.
- This type was issued at 13 different mints, each using a different tree, shrub or plant.

Ex Bill Welch hut collection eBay UK 2016, eBay 2006
1 commentsPharsalosMay 25, 2016
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Constantius II Half Centenionalis Fel Temp Reparatio Phoenix on Globe50 viewsAE Half Centenionalis
Constantius II, 337-361 CE
Diameter: 17 mm, Weight: 2.90 grams, Die Axis: 6h

Obverse: D N CONSTANTIVS PF AVG
Diademed and draped bust to right.

Reverse: FEL TEMP REPARATIO
Ornately nimbate phoenix standing right on globe, star in field to right.

Mint: SMNB, star in field: Nicomedia

Notes:
- Nicomedia is a rare mint for the Fel Temp Reparatio phoenix on globe type, and this B emission is not listed in RIC.
- There were likely at least 12 officiniae emissions from Nicomedia in the years 349 and 350 CE, but all seem to have been relatively small outputs. I have only been able to view two other different officiniae (both also star in field), and these too show the distinctive Nicomedia nimbus design. This is in contrast to Antioch, were some emissions possess a spectacular nimbus, while others were engraved with a design similar to other mints. Nicomedia may have followed the same pattern, but there are currently to few published specimens to tell.
- This example has a small vertical cut on the reverse splitting the tail feathers of the Phoenix.


Ex Germania Inferior Numismatics (Netherlands), 2016
2 commentsPharsalosMay 07, 2016
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Kolophon, Ionia Diobol46 viewsAR Diobol
Size: 10 mm, Weight: 1.00 grams, Die Axis: 12h

Kolophon, Ionia
389 – 350 BCE

Obverse: Laureate head of Apollo to left.

Reverse: Kithara, to left ΚΟΛΟΦΩ, to right the magistrate’s abbreviation ΑΣΤΥΑ.

Notes:
- The bust of Apollo on coinage minted in Kolophon during the classical period is noted for its fine style.
- Kolophon was one of the oldest and most powerful cities in Ionia and famous for its cavalry. The city also contained a famous temple dedicated to Apollo, hence the lyre on the reverse. Interestingly, the resin from the surrounding pine trees of the city was an important additive to stringed instruments and rosin, also known as colophony, is still used today to improve the sound by direct application to the strings. Wether Apollo was chosen as the city’s main deity because of its association via the pine resin, I do not know.

Ex Aegean Numismatics 2016, Roma E-sale 12, 17 and 20 (all unsold), 2014/2015, and Ebay USA 2011
1 commentsPharsalosMay 05, 2016
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Akanthos, Macedon Obol25 viewsAR Obol
Size: 9 mm Weight: .60grams Die axis: 12h

Akanthos, Macedon
390 - 382 BCE

Obverse: Laureate head of Apollo to right.

Reverse: Seven-stringed lyre, around which AKANΘION

Notes:
- Akanthos was a colony of the Aegean Island of Andros.
- Situated on the Chalkidike peninsula, Akanthos was an important and powerful city. The city was never willing to join the Chalkidian League, 430 – 348 BCE, a federation based on Akanthos’ rival Olynthos. The Chalkidian league’s famous lyre coinage is well known, and bears the name of magistrates rather than city epithets. Yet the use of the lyre on this coin, along with the inscription AKANΘION, indicates there was at one time some significant cooperative arrangement between Akanthos and the Chalkidian League.

Ex eBay USA, 2004
PharsalosMay 03, 2016
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Qin/Han Ban Liang16 viewsAE 半两 (ban.liang)
China, Qin/Han Dynasty? Probably 220 BCE - 180 BCE
Diameter: 30 mm Weight: 5.40 grams

Obverse: The Hanzi 半两 (half liang), arranged right to left. Square hole centre.

Reverse: Blank.

Cast: Uncertain.

Notes:
- The dating of Ban Liang is not precisely defined. The weight and diamter of the coins are important to dating, but these factors are quite variable.
- Hartill 7.8

Ex Bob Reiss 2015
PharsalosFeb 05, 2016
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Western Han Dynasty Ban Liang15 viewsAE 半两 (ban.liang)
China, Western Han Dynasty, 206 BCE - 25 CE
Diameter: 24 mm Weight: 2.93 grams

Obverse: The Hanzi 半两 (half liang), arranged right to left. Square hole centre, thin raised outer rim.

Reverse: Blank.

Cast: Uncertain.

Notes:
- This final issue of Han dynasty Ban Liang are finely cast and date to between 136 and 119 BCE.
- Hartill 7.32

Ex Bob Reiss 2013
PharsalosFeb 05, 2016
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Wang Mang Xiao Quan Zhi Yi14 viewsAE 小泉直一 (xiao.quan.zhi.yi)
China, Xin Dynasty, Emperor Wang Mang 9-23 CE
Diameter: 15 mm Weight: 1.07 grams

Obverse: The Hanzi 小泉直一 (small cash value one), arranged from top to bottom, then right to left. Central square hole with border, outer raised rim.

Reverse: Blank, raised rim and raised border around square hole.

Cast: Uncertain, possibly the capital Xian.

Notes:
- Issued as part of the ‘six coin reform’ of 9 – 14 CE; the da quan wu shi was the largest denomination, and this coin was the smallest.
- This specimen has traces of lacquer.
- Hartill 9.14

Ex Bob Reiss 2013
PharsalosFeb 05, 2016
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Western Han Dynasty Wu Zhu14 viewsAE五铢 (wu.zhu)
China, Western Han Dynasty, 206 BCE - 25 CE
Diameter: 26 mm Weight: 3.53 grams

Obverse: The Hanzi 五铢 (5 zhu), arranged right to left. Bar above centre square hole. Top and bottom strokes of ‘wu’ projecting slightly, raised outer rim.

Reverse: Blank, raised rim and raised border around square hole.

Cast: Uncertain.

Notes:
- Probably cast after 113 BCE during the reign of Emperor WuDi, 140-87 BCE, who was the longest reigning Chinese monarch until KangXi (1662 -1722 CE).
- The wu zhu coinage was being heavily counterfeited, so the Han government set up a new coinage authority know as the 上林三官 (shang.lin.san.guan). Older wu zhus were gathered up and these new coins were cast in very fine quality. This successfully reduced the profitability of ‘private mints’.
- This example was lacquered in antiquity.
- Hartill 8.8

Ex Frank S Robinson 2013
PharsalosFeb 05, 2016
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Tang Dynasty Kai Yuan Tong Bao11 viewsAE 开元通宝 (kai.yuan.tong.bao)
China, Tang Dynasty, 618-907 CE
Diameter: 25 mm Weight: 3.47 grams

Obverse: The Hanzi 开元通宝 (the inaugural currency), arranged top to bottom, then right to left. Raised rim and centre square hole with border. Small hook on final stroke of yuan.

Reverse: Blank, raised rim and raised border around square hole.

Cast: Uncertain.

Notes:
- This coin belongs to the first issue of Kai Yuan, dating between 621 and 718 CE. They are also known as Wu De Kai Yuan, WuDe (武德) being the period title of the emperor Gao Zu.
- Hartill 14.1

Ex Bob Reiss 2013
PharsalosFeb 05, 2016
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Tang Dynasty Qian Yuan Zhong Bao12 viewsAE 乾元重宝 (qian.yuan.zhong.bao)
China, Tang Dynasty, 618-907 CE
Diameter: 24 mm Weight: 3.50 grams

Obverse: The Hanzi 乾元重宝 (Qian Yuan (period title) heavy cash), arranged top to bottom, then right to left. Raised rim and centre square hole with border. Small hook on final stroke of yuan.

Reverse: Crescent below hole, raised rim and raised border around square hole.

Cast: Uncertain.

Notes:
- These heavy cash coins were originally issued at around 5 grams but to be worth ten coins. Then an even heavier coin was issued to be worth 50 coins. Counterfeiting was rife, and they were eventually devalued to 1 cash. This coin belongs to that later period and was issued between 759 and 762 CE during the reign of Su Zong. The weight is exactly in line with normal kai yuan tong bao.
- Hartill 14.116

Ex Bob Reiss 2015
PharsalosFeb 05, 2016
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Wang Mang Huo Quan11 viewsAE 货泉 (Huo.Quan)
China, Xin Dynasty, Emperor Wang Mang 9-23 CE
Diameter: 24 mm Weight: 2.87 grams

Obverse: The Hanzi 货泉 (commodity cash), arranged right to left. Central square hole with double border, outer raised rim.

Reverse: Blank, raised rim and raised border around square hole.

Cast: Uncertain, possibly the capital Xian.

Notes:
- This coin was issued circa 14 CE. It was issued in great quantity, and imitated in later periods.
- Hartill 9.34

Ex Frank S Robinson 2013
PharsalosFeb 05, 2016
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Wang Mang Da Quan Wu Shi12 viewsAE 大泉五十 (Da.Quan.Wu.Shi)
China, Xin Dynasty, Emperor Wang Mang 9-23 CE
Diameter: 27.5 mm Weight: 4.92 grams

Obverse: The Hanzi 大泉五十 (large cash fifty), arranged top to bottom, then right to left. Raised rim and raised border around square hole.

Reverse: Blank, raised rim and raised border around square hole.

Cast: Uncertain, possibly the capital Xian.

Notes:
- Wang Mang was the only emperor on the Xin (new) dynasty. He was a devoted Confucianist and instituted many radical reforms according to his beliefs. Some had disastrous consequences for the state, despite being quite brilliantly visionary. This coin was part of his first coinage reform, and was an attempt to issue the world’s first fiat currency – this coin had a value of 50 regular coins. The reform was a well intentioned attempt to address the strain on government of minting millions of single value units in copper. These coins are beautifully made and were used and imitated long after Wang Mang’s death, but evidently the average person preferred 50 regular coins.
- Hartill 9.2

Ex IS Wright Adelaide, 2012
PharsalosFeb 05, 2016
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Wang Mang Bu Quan16 viewsAE 布泉 (Bu.Quan)
China, Xin Dynasty, Emperor Wang Mang 9-23 CE
Diameter: 26 mm Weight: 3.35 grams

Obverse: The Hanzi 布泉 (Spade cash), arranged right to left of central square hole. Large 10 mm central square hole around which double border with two spike projections from lower corners. Outer raised rim.

Reverse: Blank, raised rim and raised border around square hole.

Cast: Uncertain, possibly the capital Xian.

Notes:
- This beautiful issue appears to only have lasted 1 year, circa 14 CE. The Hanzi characters are written in the aptly named ‘suspended needle’ script. The casting quality of Wang Mang coinage is generally very high, but these are exceptionally well made.
- This coin appears to be a replacement of the earlier first issue spade coins, which themselves were throwbacks to the Chinese spade coins from centuries past. Wang Mang held a great admiration and nostalgia for the early Zhou period, which he seems to have believed was the ideal Confucianist State.
- Hartill 9.70

Ex ECIN Associates 2015, Ex Frank S Robinson 2002
PharsalosFeb 05, 2016
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Artabanos II AR Drachm13 viewsAR Drachm
Parthia, Artabanos II, 10-38 CE
Diameter: 19-21 mm, Weight: 3.57 grams, Die axis: 12h

Obverse: Bust to left, long square cut beard, hair almost straight, ear ring visible.

Reverse: BΛCIΛEΩC BΛCIΛEΩN ΛPCΛNOΔ EVEPΓETOV ΔIXAIOV EΠIΦΛNOYC ΦIΛEΛΛXOC, Archer enthroned sitting right, mintmark below bow.

Mint: Ekbatana (Hamadan, Iran)

Notes:
- Sellwood type 63.6

Ex Ye Olde Coin Co (South Australia), 2004
PharsalosFeb 05, 2016
Octavian_denarius_prow.jpg
Octavian AR Denarius Prow & Quadriga, circa 30BCE51 viewsAR Denarius
Octavian, 27BCE - 14CE
Diameter: 20mm, Weight: 3.52 grams, Die axis: 8h

Obverse: Anepigraphic, Victory standing on prow to right, holding palm branch over her left shoulder and extends laurel wreath in right hand.

Reverse: IMP. CAESAR
Octavian standing in triumphal quadriga to right, holds reigns in left hand and extends (olive or laurel) branch in right hand.

Mint: Either Brundisium or Rome.

Notes:
- This historically fascinating denarius celebrates the Battle of Actium in which Agrippa and Octavian triumphed over Antony and Kleopatra. The obverse die is the first of the entire IMP CAESAR series of Octavian; the die is shared with the last of the CAESAR DIVI F denarii of the same design. The reverse may refer to Octavian’s entry into Alexandria following the battle of Actium (31/30 BCE), or the triple triumph subsequently awarded to him in Rome (29BCE) – the dating of the type is still not precisely known.
- After the great struggles between the triumvirs, many soldiers from the vast standing armies needed to be de-commissioned and paid. It is possible that this early type was minted using silver from the Ptolemaic treasury seized by Octavian following the Battle of Actium.
- Brundisium (modern day Brindisi) in southern Italy was Octavian’s naval base, which is where this type may have been minted to pay the soldiers. Alternatively the mint may have been Rome.
- Obverse and reverse die match to LHS Numismatik Auction 103, lot 333, 2008.

Ex Praefectus Coins 2015, Ex Nomos Obolos 2 lot 204, 2015

Thank you to Mr Curtis Clay for confirming the die link and providing the published reference to this fact: C.H.V. Sutherland, 1976, Octavian’s Gold and Silver Coinage from c. 32 to 27 B.C.
3 commentsPharsalosSep 12, 2015
Philip_I_antoninianus_annona_portrait.JPG
Philip I Antoninianus Annona28 viewsAR Antoninianus
Philip I, 244-249 CE
Diameter: 24 mm, Weight: 4.50 grams, Die axis: 12h

Obverse: IMP M IVL PHILIPPVS AVG
Draped, Cuirassed and Radiate bust to right.

Reverse: ANNONA AVGG
Annona standing left, holding corn ears over modius, in right arm cornucopia.

Mint: Rome

Notes:
- A lovely obverse portrait, depicting an aged, somewhat drawn and ragged Philip.
-Philip raised his son (Philip II) to the position of Co-Augustus circa 247CE, so the reverse inscription dates this coin to between 247 and 249 CE.
- Central photo credit to Victor’s Imperial Coins.

Ex Victor’s Imperial Coins, 2015
PharsalosAug 20, 2015
Constantius_II_gloria_Alexandria.JPG
Constantius II AE4 Gloria Exercitvs31 viewsAE 4
Constantius II, 337-361 CE
Diameter: 15 mm, Weight: 1.24 grams, Die axis: 5h

Obverse: CONSTANTIVS AVG
Diadem, draped, and cuirassed bust to right.

Reverse: GLORIA EXERCITVS
Two soldiers standing either side of one standard.

Mint: SMALB: Alexandria

Notes:
- This small coin has an interesting pedigree and possesses a portrait of unusual finesse for the issue.

Ex Ebay.de 2015, Ex CNG Triton XVIII 2015, Ex Royal Ontario Museum, Ex The Ihnasyah Hoard, Egypt, 1903/1905.
PharsalosAug 20, 2015
Constans_Fel_Temp_Cyzicus_2.jpg
Constans Centenionalis Fel Temp Reparatio Hut Cyzicus64 viewsAE Centenionalis
Constans, 337-350 CE
Diameter: 21 mm, Weight: 4.20 grams, Die axis: 7h

Obverse: D N CONSTANS PF AVG
Diadem, draped, and cuirassed bust to left, holding globe.

Reverse: FEL TEMP REPARATIO
Helmeted and caped Soldier advancing right, dragging small child from hut beneath tree.

Mint: SMKA: Cyzicus

Notes:
- Exceptional strike and style for type; note the graded pearls on the diadem and the beautifully engraved cape over the soldier’s shoulder.
- ‘FELix TEMPorvm REPARATIO’ = Happy times restored.
- This type was issued at 13 different mints, each using a different tree, shrub or plant.

Ex Victor’s Imperial Coins, 2014
3 commentsPharsalosNov 30, 2014
naev_Balbus_denarius.jpg
C. Naevius Balbus Denarius57 viewsAR Serrate Denarius: 18mm, 3.85 grams, Die axis: 6h
Moneyer: C. Naevius Balbus, circa 79 BCE


Obverse: Diademed head of Venus to right, H below chin, SC behind neck.

Reverse: Victory in triga to right, C.NAE BALB monogram in exergue.

Mint: Rome

Notes:
- The purpose of the serrated edge on 1st century BCE denarii is not agreed upon. One hypothesis in that it was an attempt to thwart clipping; another to prove that the coin did not contain a copper core.
- The ancestor of C. Naeveius Balbus, also of the same name, wrote the earliest known Latin epic poem. It was a versed history of the first Punic War, 264 to 241 BCE.
- 79 BCE was the year Sulla resigned his dictatorship and returned to his country estate. He died a year later.

Ex Classical Numismatics Group (CNG), 2005
3 commentsPharsalosNov 09, 2014
Thermus_denarius.jpg
Q. Thermus M.f Denarius24 viewsAR Serrate Denarius: 19mm, 3.75 grams, Die axis: 9h
Moneyer: Q. Thermus M.f, 104-103 BCE


Obverse: Helmeted head of Mars to left.

Reverse: Two soldiers fighting, the Roman soldier on the left protects a fallen comrade, the Ligurian soldier on the right wears a horned helmet. Q. THERM. MF monogram in exergue.

Mint: Rome

Notes:
- The reverse recalls the actions of the moneyer’s ancestor, also Quintus Minucius Thermus, who was a Roman consul in 193 BCE. Assigned the region of Liguria, he fought the Ligurians from his base in Pisa.
- Bankers punch mark to centre head of Mars.

Ex Antiquarius New Zealand, 2013
PharsalosNov 09, 2014
Maroneia_drachm_3.jpg
Maroneia, Thrace Tetrobol97 viewsAR Tetrobol
Size: 15 mm Weight: 2.89 grams Die axis: 9h

Maroneia, Thrace
398-365 BCE

Obverse: Forepart of horse to left, Π to left, Λ to right.

Reverse: Grape bunch on vine; rhyton to lower left, MA to lower right. Surrounded by dotted square border, all within shallow incuse square.

Notes:
- Also described as a drachm or quarter stater.
- Maroneia was famous for the quality of its wine and was named after Maron, a son of Dionysus.
- A rhyton was a ceremonial drinking vessel.

Ex Classical Numismatics Group (CNG) 2007, Ex Gorny & Mosch 156, lot 1203 2007
6 commentsPharsalosNov 05, 2014
Miletos_12_stater.jpg
Miletos, Ionia 1/12 Stater 18 viewsAR 1/12 Stater
Size: 8/10 mm Weight: 1.07 grams

Miletos, Ionia
Circa 510 BCE

Obverse: Lions head to left.

Reverse: Star ornament within incuse square.

Notes:
- One of the earliest coin minting states of the Ionian Confederacy, output was greatly curtailed following the failure of the Ionian revolt against the Persian rule.
- Mother city to a great many colonies, including Abydos, Kyzikos, Sinope, and Pantikapaion.

Ex eBay USA, 2004
PharsalosNov 05, 2014
Myndos_drachm.jpg
Myndos, Caria Drachm64 viewsAR Drachm
Size: 17 mm Weight: 4.22 grams Die axis: 12h

Myndos, Caria
Mid 2nd century BCE

Obverse: Laureate head of Serapis right.

Reverse: Headress of Isis set on two grain ears, thunderbolt below. MYNΔIΩN to left, ΘEOΔΩΡOΣ to right.

Notes:
- Until recently the obverse was described as the head of Zeus, wearing the headdress of Osiris (off flan on this coin).
- It is scarce for the reverse to still retain details of the snake on the shield of the headdress.
- Myndos was originally founded by Dorian colonists from Troezen and is recorded as contributing silver and one ship to the Delian Confederacy circa 500 BCE. Later the city was refounded by Mausolos, ruler of Halicarnassus, closer to the coast.

Ex Civitas Galleries, 2007
3 commentsPharsalosNov 02, 2014
Antoninus_Pius_denarius_Marcus.jpg
Antoninus Pius and Marcus Aurelius denarius12 viewsAR Denarius
Antoninus Pius, 138-161 CE
Diameter: 18mm, Weight: 3.18 grams, Die axis: 6h

Obverse: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS PP TRP COS III
Laureate head of Antoninus Pius to right.

Reverse: AVRELIVS CAESAR AVG PII F COS
Draped, bear-headed bust of Marcus Aurelius to right.

Mint: Rome

Notes:
- Issued early in the reign of Antoninus Pius circa 140 to 144 CE.
- The reverse with Marcus Aurelius draped is scarcer than undraped.

Ex Colonial Coins & Medals Brisbane, 2003
PharsalosNov 01, 2014
Corinth_drachm.jpg
Corinth, Corinthia Drachm44 viewsAR Drachm
Size: 14 mm Weight: 2.41 grams Die axis: 6h

Corinth, Corinthia
350-300 BCE

Obverse: Pegasos with straight wings, flying to left, Q beneath.

Reverse: Head of Aphrodite to left, hair tied up elaborately, Δ behind neck.

Notes:
- A Corinthian drachm was practically the equivalent of an Aegiatic standard hemidrachm, as a stater was about equal to a didrachm.

Ex World Coins Japan, 2005
1 commentsPharsalosNov 01, 2014
Pharsalos_hemidrachm.jpg
Pharsalos, Thessaly Hemidrachm32 viewsAR Hemidrachm
Size: 14 mm Weight: 2.91grams Die axis: 9h

Pharsalos, Thessaly
400 – 344 BCE

Obverse: Head of Athena Pallas to right, wearing helmet ornamented with wing. T/IΠ between helmet crest and neck.

Reverse: Head of horse to right, (Φ)A(RΣ) encircling.

Notes:
- The ‘T’ behind the neck is the initial of the engraver Telephantos. IΠ are thought to be the initials of his apprentice.

Ex Central City Coins Brisbane, 2002
1 commentsPharsalosNov 01, 2014
Trajan_denarius_pax.jpg
Trajan denarius Pax17 viewsAR Denarius
Trajan, 98-117 CE
Diameter: 19mm, Weight: 3.12 grams, Die axis: 7h

Obverse: IMP TRAIANO AVG GER DAC PM TRP
Laureate and draped bust to right.

Reverse: COS V PP SPQR OPTIMO PRINC
Pax standing left, holding branch and cornucopia.

Mint: Rome

Notes:
- Trajan was granted his fifth consulship in 103 and his sixth in 112 CE, so this coin dates within this period.

Ex Colonial Coins & Medals Brisbane, 2010
PharsalosOct 30, 2014
Marcus_Aurelius_dupondius_fides.jpg
Marcus Aurelius Dupondius23 viewsAE Dupondius
Marcus Aurelius, 161-180 CE
Diameter: 24 mm, Weight: 11.40 grams, Die axis: 11h

Obverse: IMP M ANTONINVS AVG TRP XXV
Radiate bust to right.

Reverse: FIDES EXERCITVVM COS III
Fides militum standing left, holding victory and standard.

Mint: Rome

Notes:
- This coin can be dated between December 170 to 171 CE.
- Quite a scarce reverse type for the dupondius; also minted on Marcus Aurelius sestertii.

Ex D Hendy Collection, Ex Mike Vosper Coins, 2006
PharsalosOct 30, 2014
Faustina_II_aeternitas_2_3.jpg
Faustina II Sestertius22 viewsAE Sestertius
Faustina II, 146-176 CE
Diameter: 30 mm, Weight: 25.16 grams, Die axis: 6h

Obverse: DIVA FAVSTINA PIA
Draped bust to right, hair tied in a bun at the back of neck.

Reverse: AETERNITAS SC
Aeternitas seated to left, holding phoenix atop globe in left hand, sceptre in right arm.

Mint: Rome

Notes:
- Issued by Marcus Aurelius after the death of his wife Faustina.

Ex World Coins Japan, 2006
PharsalosOct 29, 2014
Crispus_Ae4_vot_x.jpg
Crispus Ae311 viewsAE 3
Crispus, Caesar 316-326 CE
Diameter: 19 mm, Weight: 3.06 grams, Die axis: 7h

Obverse: IVL CRISPVS NOB C
Laureate bust to right.

Reverse: CAESARVM NOSTRORVM VOT X
Laurel wreath encircling VOT X.

Mint: STR U: Trier, second mint house

Notes:
- The German region of Treveri takes its name from a Celtic tribe who occupied the area.

Ex Boswell Books & Coins Brisbane, 2003
PharsalosOct 29, 2014
Thespiai_obol.jpg
Thespiai, Boeotia Obol48 viewsAR Obol
Size: 12 mm Weight: .80grams Die axis: 3h

Thespiai, Boeotia
Early-Mid 4th century BCE

Obverse: Boeotian shield decorated with crescent (crescent near worn off on this coin).

Reverse: Head of Aphrodite Melainis (the black) to right, Θ to right, EΣ to left, letters retrograde.

Notes:
- Thespiai was one of the few Boeotian cities to oppose the Persian invasion – they sent a force to fight at Thermopylae with Sparta and remained for the final battle. After the Persian victory, Thebes finally sided with the Persians, leaving only Thespiai and Plataea as Boetian states opposing the invasion. Both cities were burned by Xerxes, yet Thespiai still furnished hoplites for the Battle of Plataea.

Ex Classical Numismatics Group (CNG) eAuction 177, lot 74 (2007), Ex BCD Collection
2 commentsPharsalosOct 25, 2014
Constantius_II_Centenionalis.jpg
Constantius II Centenionalis Fel Temp Reparatio hut62 viewsAE Centenionalis
Constantius II, 337-361 CE
Diameter: 21 mm, Weight: 3.97 grams, Die axis: 1h

Obverse: D N CONSTANTIVS PF AVG
Diadem, draped, and cuirassed bust to left, holding globe.

Reverse: FEL TEMP REPARATIO
Soldier advancing right, dragging young barbarian from hut beneath tree.

Mint: TRS: Trier, second mint house

Notes:
- ‘FELix TEMPorvm REPARATIO’ = Happy times restored.
- This type was issued at 13 different mints, each using a different tree, shrub or plant.
- The Fel Temp reform coinage began around 348 CE and initially had a target weight of 5.5 grams and a diameter of 23 mm, with a silver content of 2-3%. From circa 351 the series was gradually debased in both weight and size until it was finally discontinued circa 357 CE. The weight and diameter of this piece indicate it was struck between 351 and 354 CE.
- This coin has a deep glossy green patina; I guess it was found in a sealed container. Only the high points show wear suggesting contact with other coins in a sealed environment.

Ex Central City Coins Brisbane, 2002
3 commentsPharsalosOct 25, 2014
Antoninus_Pius_sestertius_tiberis.jpg
Antoninus Pius sestertius Tiber38 viewsAE Sestertius
Antoninus Pius, 138-161 CE
Diameter: 33 mm, Weight: 23.03 grams, Die axis: 5h

Obverse: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS PP TRP COS III
Laureate bust to right.

Reverse: TIBERIS SC
Personification of the Tiber river reclining left, with one hand on ship’s prow, water flowing beneath.

Mint: Rome

Notes:
- Issued to commemorate the 900th anniversary of the founding of Rome.
- The reed behind Tiber on this coin has been tooled.

Ex Aegean Numismatics, 2014
PharsalosOct 25, 2014
Tegea_tetartemorion.jpg
Tegea, Arkadia Tetartemorion22 viewsAR Tetartemorion
Size: 6 mm Weight: .25 grams Die axis: 9h

Tegea, Arkadia
423 – 400 BCE

Obverse: Head of Athena Alea to left, wearing crested helmet.

Reverse: Large T within shallow incuse square.

Notes:
- A tiny scarce fraction, the letter T thought to be an indication of denomination (tetartemorion) rather than the initial of the city.
- The ruins of the important Temple of Athena Alea can still be seen in the modern town of Alea.
- Tegea is listed by Homer as a contributor to the Greek attack on Troy.

Ex Tom Vossen, 2009
PharsalosOct 25, 2014
Athens_tetradrachm.jpg
Athens, Attica Tetradrachm73 viewsAR Tetradrachm
Size: 23 mm Weight: 16.73 grams Die axis: 9h

Athens, Attica
454 – 415 BCE

Obverse: Head of Athena to right, wearing crested Attic helmet decorated with three olive leaves above the visor and a floral scroll on the bowl. Hair is drawn in parallel curves, wears a round earring.

Reverse: Owl standing to right, head facing with tail feathers as a single protrusion. Olive sprig and crescent moon to upper left. AΘE to right.

Notes:
- Some porosity and crystallisation, attractive style. Possible bankers mark on cheek.

Ex Freeman & Sear, 2008
2 commentsPharsalosOct 25, 2014
Massalia_obol.jpg
Massalia, Gaul Obol18 viewsAR Obol
Size: 11 mm Weight: .575grams Die axis: 11h

Massalia, Gaul
400 – 350 BCE

Obverse: Youthful male head to left, probably Apollo.

Reverse: Wheel with four spokes, M and A in two of the quarters.

Notes:
- Massalia is modern day Marseille, France.
- Founded by Phokaians circa 600 BCE, Massalia was by far the most important place of contact between classical Greece and the Gauls. Forming an alliance with Rome, Gaulish threats precipitated an appeal for Roman assistance in the late 2nd century BCE, which eventually led to the formation of the Roman province of Gallia Transalpina.

Ex Noble Numismatics, 2002
PharsalosOct 25, 2014
Probus_Antoninianus_adventi.jpg
Probus antoninianus Adventus24 viewsAE Antoninianus
Probus, 276-282 CE
Diameter: 22 mm, Weight: 3.86 grams, Die axis: 12h

Obverse: IMP CM AVR PROBVS PF AVG
Cuirassed bust to left.

Reverse: ADVENTVS PROBI AVG
Probus on horseback advancing left, raising right hand, captive seated in front of horse.

Mint: XXI, Γ between horses feet : Siscia

Notes:
- Minted around 277 CE to commemorate the arrival of Probus in Rome following his victory over Florian near Tarsus.

Ex eBay USA, 2004
PharsalosOct 25, 2014
Septimius_Severus_Urbs.jpg
Septimius Severus Denarius Urbs18 viewsAR Denarius
Septimius Severus, 193-211 CE
Diameter: 18 mm, Weight: 3.23 grams, Die axis: 6h

Obverse: SEVERVS AVG PART MAX
Laureate bust to right.

Reverse: RESTITVTOR VRBIS
Severus, wearing military dress, standing left and sacrificing over tripod while holding spear.

Mint: Rome

Notes:
- Refers to the urban renewal program begun in Rome circa 201 CE
- Severus was awarded the title of Parthia Maximus in 198 CE
- Severus denarii minted after 198 had a target weight of 3.4 grams and a silver purity of 56%.

Ex Colonial Coins & Medals, Brisbane 2011
PharsalosOct 25, 2014
Antoninus_Pius_denarius_italia.jpg
Antoninus Pius denarius Italia33 viewsAR Denarius
Antoninus Pius, 138-161 CE
Diameter: 18mm, Weight: 3.24 grams, Die axis: 7h

Obverse: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS PP TRP COS III
Laureate head to right.

Reverse: ITALIA
Italia towered, seated left on globe, holding cornucopiae and sceptre.

Mint: Rome

Notes:
- This coin can be dated between 140 to 143 CE.
- A scarcer issue of Antoninus, alluding to Italian domination over the world. The cornucopiae symoblises the Roman belief in the prosperity and good fortune they had brought the world
- Denarii minted under the reign of Antoninus Pius had a target weight of 3.4 grams and an average silver content of 88%.

Ex Mike Vosper Coins, 2006
1 commentsPharsalosOct 24, 2014
Hadrian_Sestertius,_Roma.jpg
Hadrian Sestertius, Roma29 viewsAE Sestertius
Hadrian, 117-138 CE
Diameter: 31mm, Weight: 23.24 grams, Die axis: 5h

Obverse: HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS
Laureate bust to right, trace of cuirass on left shoulder.

Reverse: COS III SC
Roma seated left on cuirass with right foot on helmet, holding cornucopiae, and crowning victory in right hand. Shield behind.

Mint: Rome

Notes:
- Paludamentum (Roman military cloak) fastened on left shoulder of bust.
- Hadrian was awarded his 3rd consulship in 119 CE. This sestertius can be dated between 124 to 128 CE.

Ex Compagnie Generale de Bourse (CGB), 2012
PharsalosOct 23, 2014
Vespasian_Pax_Denarius.jpg
Vespasian Denarius, Pax32 viewsAR Denarius
Vespasian, 69-79 CE
Diameter: 20mm, Weight: 3.37 grams, Die axis: 7h

Obverse: IMP CAESAR VESPASIANVS AVG
Laureate head to right.

Reverse: PON MAX TRP COS VI
Pax seated on throne to left, holding branch.

Mint: Rome

Notes:
- This coin can be dated to 75 AD, the year Vespasian held the 6th Consulship.
- Denarii minted under the reign of Vespasian had a target weight of 3.4 grams and an average silver content of 91%.

Ex Rudnik Numismatics, 2005
2 commentsPharsalosOct 23, 2014
 
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