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Last additions - kc
Commodus SestertiusObv. L AEL AVREL COMM AVG P FEL, laureate head right.
Rev. P M TR P XVII IMP VIII COS VII P P / S C, Roma standing right, holding spear, clasping hands with Fides standing left, holding sceptre; star between.
Mint: Rome, 177-192 AD.

27/28mm 19.75g

RIC 608, Cohen 588.

Purchased from Forum Ancient Coins.
Ex Ammon Shahar Collection.
4 commentskcJul 23, 2021
Roman Empire, Commodus, Bronze Medaillon PomonaObv. M AUREL COMMODUS ANTONINVS AVG PIVS, draped and cuirassed bust right.
Rev. P M TR P VIIII IMP VI COS IIII P P / TEMPORVM FELICITAS, Pomona seated right, holding corn ears and poppy in left hand, right hand raised to grapevine, below which two children in tub, and a third at feet of goddess.
Mint: Rome, 183 AD.

38mm 65.92g

Ex Tradart Sale 21, 15th February 2018, Lot 139.
Ex Ars Classica XVIII, Lucerne 1938, Lot 292.
Ex Collection Giovanni Chiarot, medal holder and foreign diplomate.
Ex Dr. Jacob Hirsch, Auction 18, 27th May 1907, Lot 1031.
Ex Collection Dr. Friedrich Imhoof-Blumer.

Published in Banti lll-3, p. 205, 399.
Published in Francesco Gnecchi, Medaglioni Romani, Volume Secondo Bronzo - Parte Prima: Gran Modulo, p. 66, 133, pl. 87, 2.

Pomona, a goddess among the Romans, presiding over fruit -trees. Her worship was of long standing at Rome, where there was a Flamen Pomonalis who sacrificed to her every year for the preservation of the fruit. She lived in the time of Procas, king of Alba, devoted to the culture of gardens, to which she confined herself and shunning all society with the male deities.
Vertumnus, under various shapes, tried to win her hand, sometimes he came as a reaper, sometimes as a haymaker, another time as a ploughman or a wine-dresser, a soldier and a fisherman, but to equally little purpose. At length, under the guise of an old woman, he won the confidence of the goddess. And, by enlarging on the evils of a single life and the blessings of the wedded state, by launching out into the praises of Vertumnus, and relating a tale of the punishment of female cruelty to a lover, he moved the heart of Pomona; whereupon, resuming his real form, he obtained the hand of the no longer reluctant nymph.

Felicitas Temporum ("Prosperity of the Times"), reflecting a Golden Age ideology, was among the innovative virtues that began to appear during the reigns of Trajan and Antoninus Pius. Septimius Severus, whose reign followed the exceedingly brief tenure of Pertinax and unsatisfactory conditions under Commodus, used coinage to express his efforts toward restoring the Pax Romana, with themes such as Felicitas Temporum and Felicitas Saeculi, "Prosperity of the Age" (saeculum), prevalent in the years 200 to 202. Some Imperial coins use these phrases with images of women and children in the emperor's family.
5 commentskcJun 29, 2021
Roman Empire, Commodus, Bronze Medaillon SolObv. M COMMODVS ANTONINVS PIVS FELIX AVG BRIT, laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right.
Rev. COS VI P P in exergue, Sol, holding whip in right hand and reins in left, driving quadriga up a bank of clouds; to upper left, trace of Zodiac band; to upper right, half-length figure of Lucifer (the Morning Star) right, holding torch in both hands; to lower right, Tellus (Earth) reclining left, raising right hand and holding cornucopia in left, with fruits(?) at her side.
Mint: Rome, 190-191 A.D.

41mm 69.62g

Gnecchi pl. 78, 4; MIR 18, 1149-1/37; cf. Banti 31/32 (for obv./rev.); Froehner p. 137 var. (bust type); Cohen 70 var.

Ex Triton III (1 December 1999), lot 1106.

The scene on the reverse was previously used as a medallic type under Antoninus Pius (Gnecchi pl. 50, 6). A circa 2nd century AD bronze phalera discovered in 1732 on the Palatine Hill (LIMC [Tellus], no. 39 = Tocci pl. LXVIII, D) also features a near identical scene, but includes the inscription “INVENTORI LVCIS SOLI INVICTO AVGVSTO” in two lines (this is among the earliest known references to Sol Invictus). The association between the “invincible” sun and the emperor would frequently be stressed throughout the 3rd century AD, but this medallion and the above mentioned pieces demonstrate that such an assimilation was being explored during the 2nd century AD. Here we see the sun god beginning his daily journey, ascending into the heavens with the guidance of Lucifer, son of Eos (dawn). It stresses Sol’s role in the cycle of life, death, and rebirth, and the dependence of earth on the sun’s life-giving powers. Naturally, an emperor would desire to be associated with a deity who was so essential to the functioning of the universe. As medallions such as this were often presented during New Year’s celebrations, it was perhaps intended to underscore the welfare that the emperor would bring to the earth in the coming year (Toynbee p. 93).
Lucifer (“light-bringer”), the equivalent of the Greek Phosphoros, was the personification of the planet Venus as the morning star. In the book of Isaiah (14:12), the prophet refers to the King of Babylon as a “shining one, son of the morning,” who has fallen from heaven (an obvious parallel to Satan’s fall from heaven). The Hebrew word for “shining one” (helel) was translated into Latin as Lucifer, and the name has since become synonymous with the Devil (written by CNG).
5 commentskcJun 26, 2021
Philippus Arabs SestertiusObv. IMP M IVL PHILIPPVS AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right.
Rev. AEQVITAS AVGG S C, Aequitas standing left, holding scales and cornucopiae.
Mint: Rome , 244-249 AD

28mm 19.28g

RIC 166.

Ex Numismatik Lanz, Germany, July 2020.
2 commentskcAug 03, 2020
Septimius Severus Heavy SestertiusObv. IMP CAES L SEPT SEV PERT AVG, laureate head right.
Rev. SAECVLO FRVGIFERO TR P COS S C, Saeculum Frugiferum standing left, holding caduceus and fork.
Mint: Rome, 193 AD

32/33mm 37.29g

C 637. RIC 655.

Ex Naville Numismatics, Live Auction 57, 26th April 2020, Lot 558.
kcAug 01, 2020
Roman Empire, Hadrian, Sestertius GalliaeObv. HADRIANVS AVG COS III P P, laureate and draped bust right.
Rev. RESTITVTORI GALLIAE S C, Hadrian standing right, holding volumen and raising up Gallia kneeling left.
Mint: Rome, 134-138 A.D.

32/33mm 25.22g

RIC II 948; Banti 655

Between the years 119 and 136 AD, the emperor Hadrian travelled throughout the Roman Empire, visiting various provinces to take stock of his inheritance and calm the disquiet which had arisen in the later years of Trajan's reign. His travels can be divided into two major episodes. The first tour was designed to shore-up Rome's northern borders and began sometime around 119 AD when Hadrian first visited the provinces of Gaul and Germania Inferior and Superior.
6 commentskcJul 11, 2020
Vespasianus SestertiusObv. IMP CAESAR VESPASIANVS AVG P M T P P P COS III, laureate head right.
Rev. VICT-O-RIA AVGV-STI S C, Victory standing right, with left foot on helmet, inscribing a Shield, OB CIVES SER in three lines, set on palm tree.
Mint: Rome, 71 A.D.

35mm 25.10g

RIC² 127 (R), BMC 578-9, Hendin 1507.

The Palm Desert Collection Purchase from Saslow 1980s.

The type is perhaps the oldest in the Jewish War series, as it was introduced by Vespasian's predecessor, Vitellius, on his sestertii of the Rome mint. On his coins the inscription and composition are identical to the present piece, though without the figure of Judaea. By the time Vitellius came to power the tide of the Jewish War had turned in favour of the Romans, making it possible to issue coins touting Rome's success. His coins of this type cannot refer to his victories over Otho in the civil war since the Romans did not officially celebrate victories over fellow citizens, and the use of a palm tree made the distinction clear. Kraay has observed that this composition was also used by Vespasian for his rare sestertii inscribed DEVICTA IVDAEA SC, and, importantly, Carradice and Buttrey have documented three VICTORIA AVGVSTI SC sestertii of Vespasian (RIC II, pt. I, nos. 57, 58, 127 and 217) struck with reverse dies originally used to produce coins of Vitellius. Also helping to prove the connection between the Judaea issues of Vitellius and Vespasian is the fact that Vitellius produced asses inscribed VICTOR AVGVSTI SC that show Victory alighting to the left, placing a shield on a trophy with Judaea seated at its base. This type also was adopted by Vespasian for his Jewish War commemorative series, sometimes with the expanded inscription VICTORIA AVGVSTI SC (written by NAC).
2 commentskcApr 30, 2020
Roman Empire, Septimius Severus MedaillonObv. L SEPTIMIVS SEVERVS PERTINAX AVG IMP VII, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust with Gorgoneion right.
Rev. DIVI M P II F P M TR P IIII COS V P P, Virtus standing left, holding parazonium, spear, shield at feet.
Mint: Rome, 196 A.D.

40/42mm 53.60g

Gnecchi Tav. 92,10 (extremely rare)

Ex Fritz Rudolf Künker, Auction 333, 16th March 2020, lot 1072.
Ex Collection Phoibos.
3 commentskcApr 15, 2020
Roman Empire, Gordian I, Gordianus Africanus I SestertiusObv. IMP CAES M ANT GORDIANVS AFR AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right.
Rev. VICTORIA AVGG, Victory advancing left, holding wreath and palm.
Mint: Rome, 238 AD

33mm 24.09g

RIC 12; Banti 8; BMCRE 14-16; RSC 14.

Ex Monsieur Note (1910-1982) Collection, France.
2 commentskcMar 01, 2020
Roman Empire, Severus Alexander, Bimetallic MedaillonObv. IMP CAES M AVREL SEV ALEXANDER PIVS FELIX AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust left, seen from behind.
Rev. PONTIF MAX TR P V COS II P P, Alexander on quadriga right, holding eagle-tipped scepter and olive branch, crowned by Victory.
Mint: Rome, 226 AD.

38mm 41.44g

Cohen 481?

Curtis Clay

"A spectacular acquisition!

I know of two other specimens of this medallion:

(1) In ANS, ex Newell Coll.; ex Naville X, 1926, 1765; ex Hirsch 29, 1910, Herzfelder Coll., 1221; ex Sotheby, 29 June 1893, Hermann Weber Coll., 230; doubtless ex Northwick Sale, 1860, 333 (description only). Published by Toynbee, Roman Medallions, p. 85, note 103 and Fagerlie, ANS Medallions, Museum Notes 15, 1969, p. 82.

From the same dies as yours, 55.14g, and also bimetallic according to the Naville X catalogue, though Fagerlie fails to mention this fact and it's not clear one way or the other from the photographs.

(2) In Paris according to Gnecchi no. 21, 50.0g, not illustrated, no mention of bimetallic, but personal examination would be needed to be sure!"
3 commentskcJun 25, 2019
Hadrian Sestertius DaciaObv. HADRIANVS AVG COS III P P, draped bust right.
Rev. DACIA S C, Dacia seated left on rock, holding vexillum in right hand, curved sword in left.
Mint: Rome, 134-138 AD.

32/33mm 23.71g

RIC 849

Ex Kölner Münzkabinett, MA-Shops 2019
Ex Heidelberger Münzhandlung, Auction 76, 14th May 2018, lot 202.
Ex Thierry Parsy, Paris Auction 13/14th February 2018, lot 148.
Ex Collection Note (1910-1982)

This sestertius belongs to Hadrian's much-beloved travel series of coins depicting the provinces and cities he visited on his several tours throughout the empire. Earlier in his reign, Hadrian had reorganized the Dacian territories so recently conquered by his predecessor, Trajan, giving up to the Roxolani Sarmatians to rule as a client kingdom on behalf of Rome much of the Dacian territory that had been added to Moesia Inferior. Trajan's sweeping conquests along the Danube frontier as well as in the East had greatly extended Rome's borders, but Hadrian correctly saw the impractical nature of the additional strain this imposed on the Empire and quickly shored them.
5 commentskcJun 14, 2019
Roman Empire, Nerva Sestertius ConcordiaObv. IMP NERVA CAES AVG P M TR P COS II DESIGN III P P, laureate head right.
Rev. CONCORDIA EXERCITVVM S C, clasped hands in front of legionary standard.
Mint: Rome, 96-98 AD.

33.5mm 26.40g

RIC 70

Ex CNG, Electronic Auction 156, 2007, Lot 173.
Ex CNG, Mail Bid Sale 67, 22.09.2004, Lot 1402.
EX Tony Hardy Collection
Ex Mazzini Collection

This sestertius shows the clasped hands of unity holding a legionary aquila set on a prow, the latter symbolizing the imperial navy.
The type of this reverse alludes to the concurrence and union of the forces, both on land and at sea, during the reign of this good prince. (numiswiki, FAC)

3 commentskcJun 11, 2019
Roman Empire, Caracalla Bimetallic SestertiusObv. M AVR ANTONINVS PIVS FELIX AVG, laureate and cuirassed bust right.
Rev. P M TR P XVII IMP III COS IIII P P, emperor, accompanied by two officiers, standing r. on platform, haranguing soldiers behind, standards, in ex. S C.
Mint: Rome, 214 A.D.

32mm 32.71g

RIC 525c var. (draped bust); Banti 59

Before a battle, or on parade, the emperor would address his troops in an event known as an adlocutio cohortium (address to the cohorts). This was an important opportunity for the emperor to be present among his troops and inspire morale and esprit de corps among them. A sestertius of Gaius (Caligula), issued on behalf of a donative for the Praetorian Guard, was the first to employ the adlocutio as a reverse type. Similar subsequent issues were minted to emphasize the emperor's perceived, if not actual, role as military commander. The present specimen commemorates Caracalla's victory against the Germans and his preparations for a Persian war. Caracalla idolized Alexander the Great and, as other emperors before him, wished to recreate his successes in the east. Thus, in 214 AD, after having been proclaimed "Alexander" at Philippopolis in Thrace, he assembled his troops, who had been outfitted as Macedonians, and proceeded into Asia Minor. Caracalla's ambitions were, however, hampered by his own unfit physical and mental state; over the next three years the campaign degeneratged into near-chaos and ended with Caracalla's murder.
(written by CNG, 2003)
7 commentskcMay 12, 2017
GREEK, Attica, Athens, 465-454 BC, AR TetradrachmObv. Head of Athena to right, wearing crested Attic helmet adorned with three olive leaves and palmette, round earring and pearl necklace.
Rev. Owl standing right with head facing, ΑΘΕ to right, crescent and olive sprig to left; all within incuse square.
Mint: Attica, Athens, ca. 465-454 BC.

17.10g, 24mm, 10h.

Starr Group V.B.

Ex Roma Numismatics, E-Sale 19, 1. August 2015, lot 95
9 commentskcMay 13, 2016
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