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Last additions - *Alex
GRATIAN_AE2_BSISC~0.JPG
ROMAN EMPIRE, GRATIAN. AE2 of Siscia. Struck A.D.378 - 38310 viewsObverse: D N GRATIANVS P F AVG. Pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust of Gratian facing right.
Reverse: REPARATIO REIPVB. Gratian standing facing, holding Victory on globe in his left hand and raising kneeling turreted female figure with his right; in exergue, BSISC.
RIC IX : 26a | LRBC : 1512-18
*AlexJun 08, 2019
GRATIAN_GLOR-ROM_Galley_SMKDelta~0.JPG
ROMAN EMPIRE, GRATIAN. AE2 of Cyzicus. Struck c.A.D.379 - 3839 viewsObverse: D N GRATIANVS P F AVG. Helmeted, draped and cuirassed bust of Gratian, holding spear in his right hand, facing right.
Reverse: GLORIA ROMANORVM. Gratian standing facing, head right, on galley sailing left with Victory at the helm: in left field, wreath; in exergue, SMKA.
RIC IX : 14a
SCARCE
*AlexJun 08, 2019
GRATIAN_GLOR-ROM_SMAQS~0.JPG
ROMAN EMPIRE, GRATIAN. AE3 of Aquileia. Struck A.D.367 - 3759 viewsObverse: D N GRATIANVS P F AVG. Pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust of Gratian facing right.
Reverse: GLORIA ROMANORVM. Gratian advancing right, holding standard in his left hand and dragging captive by the hair with his right; in exergue, •SMAQS.
RIC IX : 11c | LRBC : 1017-22.
SCARCE
*AlexJun 08, 2019
GRATIAN_VIRTUS_SMAQS~0.JPG
Roman Empire, GRATIAN. AE3 of Aquileia. Struck A.D.378 - 3839 viewsObverse: D N GRATIANVS P F AVG. Pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust of Gratian facing right.
Reverse: VIRTVS ROMANORVM. Roma seated facing, head left, holding globe in her right hand and downward facing spear in her left; in exergue, SMAQS.
RIC IX : 35a.
RARE
*AlexJun 08, 2019
GRATIAN_NOVA_SAECVULI~0.JPG
ROMAN EMPIRE, GRATIAN. AE3 of Arles, Struck A.D.367-37510 viewsObverse: D N GRATIANVS AVGG AVG. Diademed, draped and cuirassed bust of Gratian facing right.
Reverse: GLORIA NOVI SAECVLI. Gratian standing facing, head left, holding labarum and leaning on shield; in exergue, TCON.
Diameter: 17.9mm | Weight: 2.9gms.
RIC IX : 15
This unusual type, unique to Gratian, was only struck at one mint, Arles (Arelate). By this time Arelate had been renamed Constantina by Constantine I. The city was probably renamed in connection with Constantine II's elevation to Caesar in A.D.317, particularly since Constantine II was born there.

The AVGG AVG in the obverse legend probably alludes to Gratian's right to the succession. The question of his succession arose because, according to Ammianus Marcellinus, when Valentinian I lay ill and had not named a successor, the soldiers planned on raising a candidate of their own choosing. Valentinian, however, recovered and quickly raised Gratian to the position of Augustus to ensure his dynastic position. The reverse inscription indicates that Gratian is destined to fulfill the Messianic prophecy of the Sibylline books, to bring in a golden era of justice and plenty.
*AlexJun 08, 2019
Honorius_GLOR-ROM_2_soldiers_SMKA~0.JPG
Roman Empire, HONORIUS AE3 of Cyzicus. Struck A.D.408 - 4239 viewsObverse: D N HONORIVS P F AVG. Pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust of Honorius facing right; behind head, star.
Reverse: GLORIA ROMANORVM. Two emperors standing facing, each holding a spear and shield; in exergue, SMKA.
RIC X : 403
*AlexJun 08, 2019
Honorius_facing_Cyzicus.JPG
Roman Empire, HONORIUS. AE3 of Cyzicus. Struck A.D.393 - 4239 viewsObverse: D N HONORIVS P F AVG. Helmeted and cuirassed facing bust of Honorius holding spear and shield.
Reverse: CONCORDIA AVGG. Constantinopolis seated facing, head right, holding Victory and sceptre; in exergue, SMKΓ.
RIC X : 95
SCARCE
*AlexJun 08, 2019
Jovian_Hd-R_VOTVMVLTX_ASISC~0.JPG
Roman Empire, JOVIAN. AE3 of Siscia. Struck A.D.363 - 3649 viewsObverse: D N IOVIANVS P F AVG. Pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust of Jovian facing right.
Reverse: VOT V MVLT X in four lines within laurel-wreath; in exergue, ASISC.
RIC VIII : 424.
RARE
*AlexJun 08, 2019
Jovian_Hd-L_VOTV_CONSPI~0.JPG
Roman Empire, JOVIAN. AE3 of Constantinopolis. Struck A.D.363 - 36411 viewsObverse: D N IOVIANVS P F AVG. Pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust of Jovian facing left.
Reverse: VOT V within laurel-wreath; in exergue, CONSPΓ.
RIC VIII : 178.
SCARCE
*AlexJun 08, 2019
THEODOSIUS-1_REP-REIP_BSISC~0.JPG
ROMAN EMPIRE, THEODOSIUS I. AE2 of Siscia. Struck c.A.D.379 - 38315 viewsObverse: D N THEODOSIVS P F AVG. Pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust of Theodosius facing right.
Reverse: REPARATIO REIPVB. Theodosius standing facing, head left, raising kneeling turreted female figure with his right hand holding Victory on globe in his left. In exergue, *BSISC•.
RIC IX : 26d
1 comments*AlexJun 06, 2019
Theodosius-1_BSISC_AE3~0.JPG
ROMAN EMPIRE, THEODOSIUS I. AE3 of Siscia. Struck c.A.D.379 - 38310 viewsObverse: D N THEODO-SIVS P F AVG. Pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust of Theodosius facing right.
Reverse: CONCOR-DIA AVGGG. Roma seated facing on throne, her left leg bare and her head turned left. She is holding a globe in her right hand and reversed spear in her left; in exergue, BSISC.
RIC IX : 27d
SCARCE
*AlexJun 06, 2019
Theodosius_I_VOT_V_MVLT_X_ASISC~0.JPG
ROMAN EMPIRE, THEODOSIUS I. AE4 of Siscia. Struck c.A.D.379 - 38315 viewsObverse: D N THEODOSIVS P F AVG. Pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust of Theodosius facing right.
Reverse: VOT V MVLT X in four lines within laurel wreath; in exergue, ASISC.
RIC IX : 292
1 comments*AlexJun 06, 2019
DIVONUMERIAN_KAA~0.JPG
ROMAN EMPIRE, NUMERIAN. Commemorative AE Antoninianus of Rome. Struck A.D.284 - 285 under Carinus9 viewsObverse: DIVO NVMERIANO. Radiate head of Numerian facing right.
Reverse: CONSECRATIO. Eagle standing facing, head left; in exergue, KAA.
RIC V ii : 424
RARE

Though mis-rated as common by Cohen and RIC, antoninianii of Divus Numerian are in fact quite rare: there were only 15 of his antoninianii of all types in the Venera hoard, as compared to 25 antoninianii of the 'very rare' Divus Nigrinian. - source HJB
*AlexMay 11, 2019
Julian-2_Bull_HERACLB~0.JPG
ROMAN EMPIRE, JULIAN II, AE1 Heraclea. Follis struck A.D.361 - 3635 viewsObverse: D N FL CL IVLIANVS P F AVG. Pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust of Julian II facing right.
Reverse: SECVRITAS REIPVB. Bull standing facing right; above, two stars; in exergue, •HERACL•B.
RIC VIII : 103 | LRBC : 1910 | VM : 25.
SCARCE
*AlexMay 11, 2019
Hadrian_Divus_AR_Denarius.JPG
ROMAN EMPIRE, HADRIAN. Commemorative AR Denarius of Rome. Struck A.D.139 under Antoninus Pius13 viewsObverse: DIVVS HADRIANVS AVG. Bare head of Hadrian facing right.
Reverse: CONSECRATIO. Eagle standing facing on globe, head turned left.
RIC II : 389b
VERY RARE
2 comments*AlexMar 03, 2019
GALERIUS_DIVO_FORTUNA_SISCIA.JPG
Roman Empire, GALERIUS. Commemorative AE Follis of Siscia. Struck A.D.312 under Licinius6 viewsObverse: DIVO GAL VAL MAXIMIANO. Veiled head of Galerius facing right.
Reverse: FORTI FORTVNAE. Fortuna standing facing left holding rudder on globe and cornucopiae, wheel behind at her feet; in right field, star on crescent over B; in exergue, SIS.
Weight: 4.75gms
RIC VI : 226
RARE
1 comments*AlexMar 03, 2019
Galerius_Divo_Shrine_Thessalonika.JPG
Roman Empire, GALERIUS. Commemorative AE Follis of Thessalonica. Struck A.D.311 under Licinius5 viewsObverse: DIVO MAXIMIANO. Veiled head of Galerius facing right.
Reverse: MEM DIVI MAXIMIANI. Eagle surmounting domed shrine with closed doors; in right field, A; in exergue, •SM•TS•.
RIC VI : 48
EXTREMELY RARE
*AlexMar 03, 2019
FAUSTINA_JNR_DIVA_Denarius_PEACOCK.JPG
ROMAN EMPIRE, FAUSTINA II (JUNIOR). Commemorative denarius of Rome. Struck A.D.176-180 under Marcus Aurelius6 viewsObverse: DIVA FAVSTINA PIA. Draped bust of Faustina Junior facing right.
Reverse: CONSECRATIO. Peacock standing facing right.
Diameter: 18mm | Weight: 3.2grms | Die Axis: 12
RIC III : 744

Annia Galeria Faustina was the youngest daughter of Antoninus Pius and Faustina Senior. She married Marcus Aurelius in A.D.145 and was given the title of Augusta on the birth of her first child in A.D.146. She went on to have several more children, one of whom was the future emperor Commodus. In A.D.175 Faustina accompanied Marcus Aurelius on his journey to the East but she died at Halala, a village at the foot of the Taurus Mountains.
1 comments*AlexMar 03, 2019
MAXIMINUS_2_FOLLIS_HERCULES.JPG
ROMAN EMPIRE, MAXIMINUS II as AUGUSTUS. AE Follis of Nicomedia. Struck c.A.D.3123 viewsObverse: IMP C GAL VAL MAXIMINVS P F AVG. Laureate head of Maximinus facing right.
Reverse: HERCVLI VICTORI. Hercules standing facing right, his right hand on his hip, his left hand holding lionskin and resting on club; in left field, A with star above; in exergue, SMN.
Weight 5.7gms
RIC VI : 75
*AlexMar 02, 2019
Mariniana_Diva_Antoninianus~0.JPG
ROMAN EMPIRE, MARINIANA. Commemorative AR Antoninianus of Rome. Struck A.D.253 - 254 under Valerian I7 viewsObverse: DIVAE MARINIANAE. Diademed and veiled bust of Mariniana, resting on crescent, facing right.
Reverse: CONSECRATIO. Mariniana being borne to heaven seated on the back of a peacock flying right.
Diameter: 21mm | Weight: 2.18gms | Die Axis: 6
RIC V i : 6
RARE

Mariniana was the wife of Valerian I but it would seem that she must have died before he became emperor because all of her coins are posthumous commemoratives.
*AlexMar 02, 2019
Mariniana_Diva_Antoninianus.JPG
Struck A.D.253 - 254 under Valerian I. DIVA MARINIANA. Commemorative AR Antoninianus of Rome3 viewsObverse: DIVAE MARINIANAE. Diademed and veiled bust of Mariniana, resting on crescent, facing right.
Reverse: CONSECRATIO. Mariniana being borne to heaven seated on the back of a peacock flying right.
Diameter: 21mm | Weight: 2.18gms | Die Axis: 6
RIC V i : 6
RARE

Mariniana was the wife of Valerian I but it would seem that she must have died before he became emperor because all of her coins are posthumous commemoratives.
1 comments*AlexMar 02, 2019
Marcus_Aurelius_Divus_Denarius_Eagle.JPG
Roman Empire, MARCUS AURELIUS. Commemorative AR denarius of Rome. Struck A.D.180 under Commodus5 viewsObverse: DIVVS M ANTONINVS PIVS. Bare head of Marcus Aurelius facing right.
Reverse: CONSECRATIO. Eagle facing left, head turned right, standing on bar.
RIC III : 266
Ex Harlan J Berk. Ex D. Clark Collection. This coin is featured on Wildwinds.
SCARCE
1 comments*AlexMar 02, 2019
LICINIVS_1__IOVI_EAGLE_PARL.JPG
ROMAN EMPIRE, LICINIUS I, AE3 of Arelate. Struck A.D.314 viewsObverse: IMP LICINIVS AVG. Laureate and cuirassed bust of Licinius facing right.
Reverse: IOVI CONSERVATORI AVG. Jupiter seated facing left on eagle with wings open standing facing right; Jupiter, looking back. holds sceptre in his left hand and a thunderbolt in his right; in exergue, PARL.
Weight 2.9gms.
RIC VII : 196
VERY RARE
*AlexMar 02, 2019
Licinius_2__ROMA__RT.JPG
ROMAN EMPIRE, LICINIUS II as CAESAR. AE3 of Rome. Struck A.D.32013 viewsObverse: LICINIVS IVN NOB C. Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust of Licinius II facing right.
Reverse: ROMAE AETERNAE. Roma seated facing right, inscribing XV on shield set on her knees: in left field, P; in right field, R; in exergue, RT.
RIC VII : 154 | VM : 9
VERY RARE
1 comments*AlexMar 02, 2019
Oliver_Cromwell_by_Samuel_Cooper.jpg
3 views*AlexFeb 25, 2019
Great_Seal_of_the_Commonwealth.JPG
4 views*AlexFeb 22, 2019
Charles_I.JPG
2 views*AlexFeb 18, 2019
Elizabeth_I.jpg
4 views*AlexFeb 18, 2019
JAMES_VI_AND_I.JPG
3 views*AlexFeb 18, 2019
ELIZABETH_I_1794.JPG
1794 AE Halfpenny Token. Chichester, Sussex5 viewsObverse: QUEEN ELIZABETH •. Three-quarter facing crowned bust of Queen Elizabeth I right, sceptre resting on her right shoulder.
Reverse: CHICHESTER HALFPENNY •. View of Chichester Cross; in exergue, 1794.
Edge: PAYABLE AT DALLY'S CHICHESTER + + + +.
Diameter 29mm | Die Axis 6
Dalton & Hamer: 15

This token was manufactured by Peter Kempson in Birmingham and the dies were engraved by Thomas Wyon. Little is known about the issuer of the token, seemingly to have been Dally and Son who were drapers in Chichester in the 18th century.

Chichester Cross is an elaborate perpendicular market cross standing at the intersection of the four principal streets in the centre of the city of Chichester, West Sussex. According to the inscription upon it, this cross was built by Edward Story, Bishop of Chichester from 1477 to 1503, but little is known for certain and the style and ornaments of the building suggest that it may date from the reign of Edward IV. It was apparently built so that the poor people should have somewhere to sell their wares, and as a meeting point. An earlier wooden cross had been erected on the same site by Bishop Rede (1369-1385). The stone cross, which underwent repairs during the reign of Charles II and again in 1746, still stands to this day.
3 comments*AlexFeb 07, 2019
Vespasian_capricorns_SC.JPG
Struck A.D. 80 - 81 under Titus. DIVUS VESPASIAN. Commemorative AR Denarius of Rome8 viewsObverse: DIVVS • AVGVSTVS VESPASIANVS •. Laureate head of Vespasian facing right.
Reverse: No legend. SC on shield supported by two capricorns back to back, globe below.
Diameter: 18mm | Weight: 3.1gms | Die Axis: 6
RIC II : 63 | VM : 102 | RSC : 497 | Sear : 2569
SCARCE

Vespasian (Titus Flavius Sabinus Vespasianus) was born at Falacrinae on 17th November, A.D.9 and became emperor on 1st July, A.D.69. He died at Aquae Cutiliae on 23rd June, A.D.79 and was buried in the Mausoleum of Augustus. His remains were later transferred to the Temple of the Flavian Family.

EVENTS OCCURRING AT THE TIME THIS COIN WAS STRUCK
A.D.80
Titus completed and inaugurated the Colosseum (Flavian Amphitheatre) with 100 days of games.
Gnaeus Julius Agricola began his invasion of Scotland.
A.D.81
The Arch of Titus was constructed in Rome.
1 comments*AlexFeb 06, 2019
Valerian_2_Consecratio_eagle~0.JPG
ROMAN EMPIRE, VALERIAN II CAESAR. Commemorative AR Antoninianus of Lugdunum. Struck A.D.255 - 256 under Gallienus4 viewsObverse: DIVO VALERIANO CAES. Radiate and draped bust of Valerian II facing right.
Reverse: CONSACRATIO. Valerian II being borne to heaven seated on the back of an eagle flying right.
Diameter: 20mm | Weight: 2.4gms | Die Axis: 2
RIC V i : 9
*AlexFeb 02, 2019
Valerian_2_Consecratio_eagle.JPG
Struck A.D.255 - 256 under Gallienus. DIVUS VALERIAN II CAESAR. Commemorative AR Antoninianus of Lugdunum20 viewsObverse: DIVO VALERIANO CAES. Radiate and draped bust of Valerian II facing right.
Reverse: CONSACRATIO. Valerian II being borne to heaven seated on the back of an eagle flying right.
Diameter: 20mm | Weight: 2.4gms | Die Axis: 2
RIC V i : 9
3 comments*AlexFeb 02, 2019
Julian_2_VotXMvltXX.JPG
Struck A.D.361 - 363. JULIAN II as Augustus. AE3 of Siscia17 viewsObverse: D N FL CL IVLIANVS P F AVG. Helmeted, pearl-diademed and cuirassed bust of bearded Julian facing left, holding spear and shield.
Reverse: VOT X MVLT XX in four lines within laurel-wreath; in exergue, ASIS .
RIC VIII : 422
2 comments*AlexFeb 01, 2019
Julian_2_Fel_Temp.JPG
Struck A.D.355 - 360. JULIAN II as CAESAR. AE3 of Sirmium3 viewsObverse: D N IVLIANVS NOB C. Bare-headed, draped and cuirassed bust of Julian facing right.
Reverse: FEL TEMP REPARATIO. Soldier standing facing left, spearing fallen horseman; in left field, M; in exergue, BSIRM.
Weight: 2.25gms
RIC VIII : 72, 74 or 78 dependant on whether there was a • or ✱ after the mint-mark (off flan).
(72) BSIRM - Scarce | (74) BSIRM• & (78) BSIRM✱
*AlexFeb 01, 2019
Tacitus_Prov_Deor.JPG
Struck A.D.275 - 276. TACITUS. Silvered AE ANTONINIANUS of Serdica7 viewsObverse: IMP C M CL TACITVS AVG. Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust of Tacitus facing right.
Reverse: PROVIDEN DEOR. Fides and Sol standing facing one another, Fides holding two standards and Sol, his right hand raised, holding a globe in his left; in field between figures, star; in exergue, KA•B.
Diameter: 23mm | Weight: 4.7gms | Die Axis: 1
RIC V i : 195
1 comments*AlexFeb 01, 2019
Tacitus_Temp_Fel_IIII.JPG
Struck A.D.275 - 276. TACITUS. AE ANTONINIANUS of uncertain Gallic mint, probably Lugdunum3 viewsObverse: IMP C M CL TACITVS P F AVG. Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust of Tacitus facing right.
Reverse: TEMPORVM FELICITAS. Felicitas standing facing left, holding caduceus in her right hand and cornucopiae in left; in right field, star; in exergue, IIII.
Diameter: 22mm | Weight: 3.7gms | Die Axis: 5
RIC V i : 63
*AlexFeb 01, 2019
Constans_Caes_Glor_Ex.JPG
Struck A.D.333 - 336. CONSTANS as Caesar. AE3 of Heraclea4 viewsObverse: CONSTANS IVN NOB C. Laureate and cuirassed bust of Constans facing right.
Reverse: GLORIA EXERCITVS. Two soldiers standing either side of two standards; in exergue, SMHB✱.
Weight: 2.7gms
RIC VII : 139
EXTREMELY RARE
*AlexFeb 01, 2019
Edward_VI_of_England.jpg
3 views*AlexJan 18, 2019
Maria_Tudor1.jpg
5 views*AlexJan 18, 2019
Edward_II__Detail_NPG,_London.JPG
1 views*AlexJan 18, 2019
JOHN33.JPG
2 views*AlexJan 18, 2019
ALEXANDER_III_MONUMENT,_KINGHORN,_FIFE.JPG
3 views*AlexJan 18, 2019
1491_HENRY_VIII.JPG
2 views*AlexJan 18, 2019
CARDINAL_THOMAS_WOLSEY.JPG
1 views*AlexJan 18, 2019
1280_-1286_Alexander_III_AR_Penny.JPG
MEDIEVAL, SCOTLAND, ALEXANDER III (1249 - 1286), AR Penny minted at Roxburgh, Scotland4 viewsObverse: + ALEXANDER DEI GRA . Crowned head of Alexander III facing left within circle of pellets; sceptre topped with fleur-de-lis before. Cross potent in legend.
Reverse: REX SCOTORVM +. Long cross pattée dividing legend into quarters, with three pierced mullets of six points and one mullet of seven points in quarters of inner circle. The total of 25 points is indicative of the mint of Roxburgh.
Class Mb with unbarred “A”, wider portrait and cross potent mintmark in legend.
Roxburgh only accounts for some 9% of Alexander's second coinage so issues from this mint are quite rare.
Diameter: 18mm | Weight: 1.0gm | Die Axis: 3
SPINK: 5054
*AlexJan 18, 2019
1488-1513_JAMES_IV_Bil__PLACK.JPG
MEDIEVAL, SCOTLAND, JAMES IV (1488 - 1513), Billon Plack (Groat) minted at Edinburgh, Scotland6 viewsObverse: + IACOBVS ★ 4 : DEI ★ GRACIA ★ REX ★ SCOTTO. Crowned shield bearing lion rampant within a tressure of four arcs, crown on each side of the shield and fleur-de-lis in all the spandrels. Star stops and old English lettering in legend.
Reverse: + VILLA ★ DE EDINBVRG. Floriate cross fourchée with a saltire in the centre. Crown in each quarter of the cross. Star stops and old English lettering in legend.
Type IV issue. Scarce
Diameter: 25mm | Weight: 2.4gm | Die Axis: 3
SPINK: 5352
*AlexJan 18, 2019
ALEXANDER_III.JPG
4 views*AlexJan 17, 2019
EDWARD_I,_WESTMINSTER_ABBEY.JPG
5 views*AlexJan 17, 2019
HENRY_VI_from__National_portrait_gallery.JPG
2 views*AlexJan 17, 2019
KING_HENRY_VII.JPG
5 views*AlexJan 17, 2019
EFFIGY_OF_RICHARD_I_FONTEVRAUD_ABBEY__C_1199.JPG
9 views*AlexJan 16, 2019
HENRY_III_FUNERAL_HEAD__WESTMINSTER_ABBEY_C_1272.JPG
2 views*AlexJan 16, 2019
HENRYII.JPG
1 views*AlexJan 16, 2019
JAMES_IV.JPG
3 views*AlexJan 15, 2019
KING_EDWARD_IV.JPG
1 views*AlexJan 15, 2019
KING_HENRY_V.JPG
1 views*AlexJan 15, 2019
1488-1513_JAMES_IV_PLACK.JPG
Struck 1488 - 1513, James IV (1488 - 1513), Billon Plack (Groat) minted at Edinburgh, Scotland19 viewsObverse: + IACOBVS ★ 4 : DEI ★ GRACIA ★ REX ★ SCOTTO. Crowned shield bearing lion rampant within a tressure of four arcs, crown on each side of the shield and fleur-de-lis in all the spandrels. Star stops and old English lettering in legend.
Reverse: + VILLA ★ DE EDINBVRG. Floriate cross fourchée with a saltire in the centre. Crown in each quarter of the cross. Star stops and old English lettering in legend.
Type IV issue. Scarce
Diameter: 25mm | Weight: 2.4gm | Die Axis: 3
SPINK: 5352

James IV was the King of Scotland from June 1488 until his death in battle at the age of 40 on the 9th September, 1513.
James IV's mother, Margaret of Denmark, was more popular than his father, James III, and though somewhat estranged from her husband she raised their sons at Stirling Castle until she died in 1486. Two years later, a rebellion broke out, where the rebels set up the 15-year-old Prince James as their nominal leader. The rebels fought James III at the Battle of Sauchieburn where, on 11th June 1488, the king was killed. Prince James assumed the throne as James IV and was crowned at Scone on 24th of June. However he continued to bear an intense guilt for the indirect role which he had played in the death of his father.
James maintained Scotland's traditional good relations with France, and this occasionally created diplomatic problems with England, but James recognised nonetheless that peace between Scotland and England was in the interest of both countries, and established good diplomatic relations with England as well. First he ratified the Treaty of Ayton in 1497, then, in 1502 James signed the Treaty of Perpetual Peace with Henry VII which was sealed by his marriage to Henry's daughter Margaret Tudor the next year. Anglo-Scottish relations generally remained stable until the death of Henry VII in 1509.
James saw the importance of building a fleet that could provide Scotland with a strong maritime presence, he founded two new dockyards and acquired a total of 38 ships for the Royal Scots Navy. These including the “Great Michael” which, built at great expense, was launched in 1511 and was at that time the largest ship in the world.
When war broke out between England and France, James found himself in a difficult position as an ally by treaty to both countries. But relations with England had worsened since the accession of Henry VIII, and when Henry invaded France, James reacted by declaring war on England.
James sent the Scottish navy, including the “Great Michael”, to join the ships of Louis XII of France and, hoping to take advantage of Henry's absence at the siege of Thérouanne, he himself led an invading army southward into Northumberland. However, on 9th September 1513 at the disastrous Battle of Flodden James IV was killed, he was the last monarch in Great Britain to be killed in battle. His death, along with many of his nobles including his son the archbishop of St Andrews, was one of the worst military defeats in Scotland's history and the loss of such a large portion of the political community was a major blow to the realm. James IV's corpse was identified after the battle and taken to Berwick, where it was embalmed and placed in a lead coffin before being transported to London. Catherine of Aragon, wife of Henry VIII, sent the dead king's slashed, blood-stained surcoat to Henry, who was fighting in France, with the recommendation that he use it as a war banner.
James IV's son, James V, was crowned three weeks after the disaster at Flodden, but he was not yet two years old, and his minority was to be fraught with political upheaval.
2 comments*AlexJan 15, 2019
Tericus_2_Augustus.JPG
Struck A.D.274, TETRICUS II as AUGUSTUS, AE Antoninianus5 viewsObverse: IMP C TETRICVS AG. Radiate bust of Tetricus II facing right, seen from behind.
Reverse: Struck from extremely worn reverse die which might be Salus feeding serpent arising from altar, but that is far from certain given the lack of detail.
Diameter: 14mm | Weight: 1.7gms | Die Axis: 6
Cf. RIC V ii : 290
RARE

This is an irregular issue (barbarous radiate) giving Tetricus II the title of Augustus rather than Caesar.

Interestingly the Historia Augusta makes this statement with regard to Aurelian's triumph in A.D.274. "In the procession was Tetricus also, arrayed in a scarlet cloak, a yellow tunic, and Gallic trousers, and with him his son, whom he had proclaimed in Gaul as Imperator." (Historia Augusta, xxxiv, iii). Imperator was a title that invariably, when referring to an Imperial figure, implied the rank of Augustus, but no regular official coinage issues of Tetricus II citing him as such are known.
*AlexJan 09, 2019
Tetricus_2_Caes_Pietas.JPG
Struck A.D.273 - 274. TETRICUS II as CAESAR. AE ANTONINIANUS of Cologne3 viewsObverse: C P E TETRICVS CAES. Radiate and draped bust of Tetricus Caesar facing right.
Reverse: PIETAS AVGG. Sacrificial implements, i.e. aspergum, patera, urceus etc.
Diameter: 16mm | Weight: 2.4gms | Die Axis: 6
RIC V ii : 255

C. Pius Esuvius Tetricus was the son of Tetricus I and was given the rank of Caesar when his father was made Augustus. After the surrender and abdication of Tetricus I he relinquished the title of Caesar and spent the rest of his life as a private citizen.
*AlexJan 09, 2019
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Struck A.D.274 - 275. SEVERINA, Wife of Aurelian. AE Antoninianus of Rome10 viewsObverse: SEVERINA AVG. Diademed and draped bust of Severina resting on crescent facing right.
Reverse: CONCORDIA AVGG. Severina standing facing right clasping hands with Aurelian standing facing left; in exergue, XXIR.
RIC V i : 3

This coin was struck to celebrate Salonina's promotion to Augusta in A.D.274. Her subsequent fate is unknown.
1 comments*AlexJan 09, 2019
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Struck A.D.273 - 275. SEVERINA, Wife of Aurelian. AE Antoninianus of Antioch6 viewsObverse: SEVERINA AVG. Diademed and draped bust of Severina resting on crescent facing right.
Reverse: CONCORDIAE MILITVM. Concordia standing facing, head left, holding two standards; in lower left field, V; in exergue, XXI.
Diameter: 22mm | Weight: 3.8gms | Die Axis: 6
RIC V i : 20
*AlexJan 09, 2019
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Struck A.D.271 - 274. TETRICUS I. AE ANTONINIANUS of Treveri4 viewsObverse: IMP TETRICVS P F AVG. Radiate bust of Tetricus facing right.
Reverse: HILARITAS AVGG. Hilaritas standing facing left, holding long palm in right hand and cornucopiae in left.
Diameter: 19mm | Weight: 2.2gms | Die Axis: 5
RIC V ii : 80

C. Pius Esuvius Tetricus was governor of Aquitania when Victorinus was murdered. He was elevated to Augustus due to the influence of Victoria, Victorinus' mother. The Gallo-Roman Empire was in decline and when Aurelian invaded Gaul in A.D.273, Tetricus surrendered to him. He was not only spared by Aurelian, but spent the rest of his life in Rome having been given a position in the government of Italy.
*AlexJan 09, 2019
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Struck A.D.270 - 275. AURELIAN. Silvered AE ANTONINIANUS of Siscia9 viewsObverse: IMP AVRELIANVS AVG. Radiate and cuirassed bust of Aurelian facing right.
Reverse: IOVI CONSER. Jupiter standing facing left, presenting globe to Aurelian standing facing right; in exergue, ✱ S.
Diameter: 22mm | Weight: 3.2gms | Die Axis: 6
RIC V i : 225
1 comments*AlexJan 08, 2019
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Struck A.D.268. CLAUDIUS II GOTHICUS. AE Antoninianus of Siscia4 viewsObverse: IMP CLAVDIVS AVG. Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust of Claudius II facing right.
Reverse: LIBERITAS AVG. Liberitas standing facing left, holding cap of liberty (pileus) in right hand and cornucopiae in left; in right field, S.
Diameter: 20mm | Weight: 2.5gms | Die Axis: 12
RIC V i : 184
*AlexJan 08, 2019
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Struck A.D.267. GALLIENUS. AE ANTONINIANUS of Antioch4 viewsObverse: GALLIENVS AVG. Radiate and cuirassed bust of Gallienus facing right.
Reverse: LVNA LVCIF. Diana as Luna advancing right holding long torch in both hands; in exergue, PXV.
(PXV = Tribunician year = A.D.267)
Diameter: 21mm | Weight: 3.3gms | Die Axis: 6
RIC V i : 609
SCARCE
*AlexJan 08, 2019
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Struck A.D.270 - 275. AURELIAN. AE Denarius of Rome2 viewsObverse: IMP AVRELIANVS AVG. Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust of Aurelian facing right.
Reverse: VICTORIA AVG. Victory advancing left, laurel-wreath in her outstretched right hand, palm in her left, captive at her feet. In exergue, R.
Diameter: 18mm | Weight: 2.0gms | Die Axis: 12
RIC V i 72
SCARCE
*AlexJan 08, 2019
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Struck A.D.267 - 268. GALLIENUS. AE ANTONINIANUS of Rome12 viewsObverse: GALLIENVS AVG. Radiate head of Gallienus facing right.
Reverse: APOLLINI CONS AVG. Centaur walking right, drawing bow.
RIC V i : 163
2 comments*AlexJan 08, 2019
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Struck A.D.260 - 268. POSTUMUS. AR ANTONINIANUS of Lugdunum6 viewsObverse: IMP C POSTVMVS P F AVG. Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust of Postumus facing right.
Reverse: MONETA AVG. Moneta standing facing left, holding scales in her right hand and cornucopiae in her left.
Diameter: 22mm | Weight: 3.6gms | Die Axis: 5
RIC V : 75 | RSC : 199
*AlexJan 07, 2019
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Struck A.D.260 - 268. POSTUMUS. AE ANTONINIANUS of Treveri (Issue 6)7 viewsObverse: IMP C POSTVMVS P F AVG. Radiate and cuirassed bust of Postumus facing right.
Reverse: ORIENS AVG. Sol advancing left, raising right hand and holding whip in left; in left field, P.
Diameter: 21mm | Weight: 2.9gms | Die Axis: 6
RSC : 213a
*AlexJan 07, 2019
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Struck A.D.158 - 159. ANTONINUS PIUS. AR Denarius of Rome7 viewsObverse: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P XXII. Laureate head of Antoninus Pius facing right.
Reverse: TEMPLVM DIV AVG REST. Octastyle temple with standing statues of Victory before the two outer columns and seated figures of Divus Augustus and Diva Livia within; in exergue, COS IIII.
RIC III : 290a | C: 804 | BMC: 939
Rough surfaces

The Temple of Divus Augustus was originally built to commemorate the deified first emperor, Augustus. It was built between the Palatine and Capitoline Hills, behind the Basilica Julia, on the site of the house that Augustus had lived in before he entered public life.
The temple's construction took place during the 1st century AD, having been vowed by the Roman Senate shortly after the death of Augustus in A.D.14. It was not, however, finally completed until after the death of Tiberius in A.D.37 and was dedicated by Tiberius' successor, Caligula at the end of August that year.
During the reign of Domitian the temple was destroyed by fire but it was rebuilt and rededicated in A.D.89-90 as a memorial to four deified emperors, including Vespasian and Titus. It also incorporated a shrine to Domitian's favourite deity, Minerva.
The temple was restored again by Antonius Pius, who was possibly motivated by a desire to be publicly associated with the first emperor. The exact date of the restoration is not known, but the restored temple is shown on coins of A.D.158 onwards, like the one above.
The temple is depicted as an octostyle design with Corinthian capitals and two statues - presumably of Augustus and Livia - in the cella. The pediment displayed a relief featuring Augustus and was topped by a quadriga. Two figures stood on the eaves of the roof, that on the left representing Romulus and the one on the right depicting Aeneas leading his family out of Troy, alluding to Rome's mythical origins. The steps of the temple were flanked by two statues of Victory.
The last known reference to the temple was in A.D.248, at some point after that it was completely destroyed and its stones were presumably quarried for later buildings. Today it's remains are no longer visible and the area in which it sat has never been excavated.
*AlexJan 07, 2019
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Struck A.D.115 - 117 under Trajan. DIVUS TRAJAN PATER. AR Denarius of Rome4 viewsObverse: IMP TRAIANVS AVG GER DAC P M TR P COS VI P P. Laureate and draped bust of Trajan facing right.
Reverse: DIVVS PATER TRAIAN. Trajan's father seated facing left, holding patera and sceptre.
Diameter: 19mm | Weight: 2.8gms | Die Axis: 6
RIC II : 252 | VM : 17 | RCV II : 3323
SCARCE
*AlexJan 07, 2019
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Struck A.D.270 - 271, probably under Aurelian. DIVUS CLAUDIUS II. Commemorative AE Antoninianus of Rome5 viewsObverse: DIVO CLAVDIO. Radiate head of Claudius II facing right.
Reverse: CONSECRATIO. Eagle standing facing left, head turned right.
Diameter: 21mm | Weight: 3.0gms | Die Axis: 12
RIC V i : 266
*AlexJan 07, 2019
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Struck 1485 - 1509, HENRY VII (1489 - 1500), AR Penny minted under Archbishop Rotherham at York, England18 viewsObverse: HENRIC DI GRA REX AN. Crowned and robed figure of Henry VII holding a lis topped sceptre in his right hand and a globus cruciger in his left, seated facing on throne, the one visible pillar of which is topped with a lis, all except the king's crown within a circle of pellets.
Reverse: CIVITAS EBORACI. Shield bearing coat-of-arms of England and France on cross fourchée, two keys below shield.
Diameter: 17mm | Weight: 0.6gms | Die Axis: 3
SPINK: 2237

Thomas Rotherham, also known as Thomas (Scot) de Rotherham, was an English cleric and statesman. He served as bishop of several dioceses, most notably as Archbishop of York and, on two occasions as Lord Chancellor. Rotherham was educated at King's College, Cambridge, he graduated as a Bachelor of Divinity and became a Fellow of his college where he lectured on Grammar, Theology, and Philosophy. After his ordination as a priest, he became a prebendary of Lincoln in 1462 and then of Salisbury in 1465. He moved on to powerful positions in the Church, being appointed as Bishop of Rochester in 1468, Bishop of Lincoln in 1472, and then Archbishop of York in 1480, a position he held until his death in 1500.
In 1467, King Edward IV appointed Rotherham as Keeper of the Privy Seal. He was sent as ambassador to France in 1468 and as joint ambassador to Burgundy in 1471, and in 1475 was entrusted with the office of Lord Chancellor. When Edward IV died in April 1483, Rotherham was one of the celebrants of the funeral mass on 20th April 1483 and immediately after Edward's death he sided with the dowager queen, Elizabeth Woodville, in her attempt to deprive Richard, Duke of Gloucester of his role as Lord Protector of her son, the new King Edward V. When Elizabeth sought sanctuary after Richard had taken charge of the king, Rotherham released the Great Seal to her (though he later recovered it and handed it over to Thomas Bourchier, the Archbishop of Canterbury).
Rotherham's mishandling of the seal was perceived as indicative of questionable loyalty and led to his dismissal as Lord Chancellor. He was replaced by John Russell, who earlier had also been his successor as Bishop of Lincoln. On 13th June 1483, Rotherham was charged with being involved in a conspiracy between Lord Hastings and the Woodvilles against Richard and imprisoned in the Tower of London, but he was released a few weeks later, around the middle of July, after Richard's coronation as King Richard III. Rotherham was re-instated as Chancellor in 1485, however he was dismissed shortly afterwards by Henry VII and retired from public work.
Rotherham died of the plague in Cawood near York on 29th May 1500. His remains were transferred to a magnificent marble tomb in York Minster in 1506.
2 comments*AlexJan 07, 2019
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Struck A.D.144 - 145. ANTONINUS PIUS. AR (Billon) Tetradrachm of Alexandria5 viewsObverse: ANTωNINOC CEB EVCEB. Laureate head of Antoninus Pius facing right.
Reverse: No legend. Serapis seated on throne facing left, holding sceptre in left hand and stretching right hand out over Kerberos at his feet. In field, L - H (= regnal year 8 = A.D.144-145).
Diameter: 24mm | Weight: 12.54gms
Milne : 1792 | Geißen: 1440 | Dattari: 2366
1 comments*AlexJan 02, 2019
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201926 viewsTHIS YEAR'S WINNERS
CLICK ON A COIN FOR ITS DETAILS

*AlexDec 27, 2018
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Struck 1421, Henry V (1413 - 1422), AR billon Niquet (Double Tournois) minted at Rouen, France21 viewsObverse: + H REX ANGL HERES FRANC. Crowned lion passant facing left, fleur-de-lis above. Pellet mintmark below first letter of legend = Rouen mint.
Reverse: + SIT NOME DNI BENEDICTV. Cross pattée with lis in angles and lombardic 'h' in centre.
Diameter: 24mm | Weight: 1.9gms | Die Axis: 9
SPINK: 8162 | Duplessy: 441

This Anglo-Gallic coin, colloquially called a “leopard” after its obverse design, bears the titles of Henry V as king of England and heir to the French kingdom.

Henry V was King of England from 1413 until his sudden death on 31st August 1422. He is thought to have died from dysentery contracted during the siege of Meaux in France. He was 36 years old and had reigned for nine years. He was the second English monarch of the House of Lancaster.
During the reign of his father, King Henry IV, Henry had acquired an increasing share in England's government due to his father's declining health. After his father's death in 1413, Henry assumed control of the country and asserted the pending English claim to the French throne.
In 1415, Henry embarked on war with France in the ongoing Hundred Years' War between the two countries. Despite his relatively short reign, Henry's outstanding military successes, most notably in his famous victory at the Battle of Agincourt in 1415, made England one of the strongest military powers in Europe.
In 1420, after months of negotiation with Charles VI of France, the Treaty of Troyes was signed recognising Henry V as regent and heir apparent to the French throne. To seal the pact Henry married Charles' daughter, Catherine of Valois. Henry's sudden death however, prevented the prospect of the English King taking the French throne from ever taking place.
Immortalised in the plays of Shakespeare, Henry V is known and celebrated as one of the great warrior kings of medieval England.
2 comments*AlexDec 14, 2018
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Struck 1553 - 1554, Mary I Tudor (1553 - 1558), AR Groat minted at London, England6 viewsObverse: MARIA D G ANG FRA Z HIB REGI. Crowned bust of Mary I, wearing pearl necklace with pendant, facing left. Mintmark in legend after MARIA, pomegranate.
Reverse: VERITAS TEMPORIS FILIA. Long cross fourchée over quartered royal arms. Mintmark in legend after VERITAS, pomegranate.
Diameter: 25mm | Weight: 1.7gms | Die Axis: 10
SPINK: 2492

Although this coin is undated, Mary married Philip of Spain on the 25th of July, 1554 and thereafter his name appears along with Mary's in the inscriptions on the coinage. Since Mary only came to the throne on 1st October, 1553 and Philip's name is absent on this coin it must have been struck during the ten months between those two dates.
*AlexDec 14, 2018
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Struck 1477 - 1480, EDWARD IV, Second Reign (1471 - 1483), AR Groat minted at London, England16 viewsObverse: EDWARD DEI GRA REX ANGL (Z FRANC +). Crowned bust of Edward IV facing within tressure of arches, trefoils on cusps, all within beaded circle. Small crosses in spaces between words in legend. Mintmark, off-flan, pierced cross.
Reverse: POSVI DEVM ADIVTORE MEVM +/ CIVITAS LONDON. Long cross dividing two concentric legends separated by two beaded circles into quarters, trefoil in each quarter of inner circle. Mintmark, pierced cross.
Diameter: 25mm | Weight: 2.7gms | Die Axis: 11
SPINK: 2096 var. (DEI rather than DI in obverse legend)

Edward IV was King of England from March 1461 to October 1470, and again from April 1471 until his sudden death in 1483. He was the first Yorkist King of England. The first half of his rule was marred by the violence associated with the Wars of the Roses, but he overcame the Lancastrian challenge to the throne at Tewkesbury in 1471 and there were no further rebellions in England during the rest of his reign.
In 1475, Edward declared war on France, landing at Calais in June. However, his ally Charles the Bold, Duke of Burgundy, failed to provide any significant military assistance leading Edward to undertake negotiations with the French, with whom he came to terms under the Treaty of Picquigny. France provided him with an immediate payment of 75,000 crowns and a yearly pension of 50,000 crowns, thus allowing him to "recoup his finances.” Edward also backed an attempt by Alexander Stewart, 1st Duke of Albany and brother of King James III of Scotland, to take the Scottish throne in 1482. Edward's younger brother, the Duke of Gloucester (and future King Richard III) led an invasion of Scotland that resulted in the capture of Edinburgh and the Scottish king himself. Alexander Stewart, however, reneged on his agreement with Edward. The Duke of Gloucester then withdrew from his position in Edinburgh, though he did retain Berwick-upon-Tweed.
Edward became subject to an increasing number of ailments when his health began to fail and he fell fatally ill at Easter in 1483. He survived long enough though to add some codicils to his will, the most important being to name his brother Richard, Duke of Gloucester as Protector after his death. He died on 9th April 1483 and was buried in St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle. He was succeeded first by his twelve-year-old son Edward V of England, who was never crowned, and then by his brother who reigned as Richard III.
It is not known what actually caused Edward's death. Pneumonia, typhoid and poison have all been conjectured, but some have attributed his death to an unhealthy lifestyle because he had become stout and inactive in the years before his death.
2 comments*AlexDec 10, 2018
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Struck 1305 - 1306, EDWARD I (1272 - 1307), AR Penny minted at London, England11 viewsObverse: EDWAR ANGL DNS HYB. Crowned bust of Edward I facing within circle of pellets.
Reverse: CIVITAS LONDON. Long cross dividing legend into quarters, trefoil in each quarter of inner circle.
Diameter: 18.5mm | Weight: 1.2gms | Die Axis: 9
SPINK: 1410

Undated Penny, type 10cf1. Edward I began a major recoinage in 1279 which consisted not only of pennies and new round half-pennies and farthings, but also introduced a new denomination, a fourpenny piece called the "Groat".

Edward I was King of England from 1272 – 1307. He was the eldest surviving son of Henry III and Eleanor of Provence. The contests between his father and the barons led by Simon de Montfort called Edward early into active life when he restored the royal authority within months by defeating and killing de Montfort at the battle of Evesham in 1265. He then proceeded to Palestine, where no conquest of any importance was achieved. After further campaigns in Italy and France he returned to England on his father's death and was crowned at Westminster Abbey in 1274.
Edward was popular because he identified himself with the growing tide of nationalism sweeping the country, displayed later in his persecution and banishment of the Jews which was the culmination of many years of anti-semitism in England.
Edward now turned his attention to the mountainous land to the west which had never been completely subdued. So, following a revolt in the Principality of Wales against English influence, Edward commenced a war which ended in the annexation of the Principality to the English Crown in 1283. He secured his conquest by building nine castles to watch over it and created his eldest son, Edward the Prince of Wales in 1301.
Edward's great ambition, however, was to gain possession of Scotland, but the death of Margaret, the Maid of Norway, who was to have been married to Edward's son, for a time frustrated the king's designs. However the sudden death of the King of Scotland, Alexander III, and the contested succession soon gave him the opportunity to intervene. He was invited by the Scots to arbitrate and choose between the thirteen competitors for the Scottish throne. Edward's choice, John Balliol, who he conceived as his puppet, was persuaded to do homage for his crown to Edward at Newcastle but was then forced to throw off Edward's overlordship by the indignation of the Scottish people. An alliance between the French and the Scots now followed, and Edward, then at war with the French king over possession of Gascony, was compelled to march his army north. Edward invaded Scotland in 1296 and devastated the country, which earned him the sobriquet 'Hammer of the Scots'. It was at this time that the symbolic Stone of Destiny was removed from Scone. Edward's influence had tainted Balliol's reign and the Scottish nobility deposed him and appointed a council of twelve to rule instead. Balliol abdicated and was eventually sent to France where he retired into obscurity, taking no more part in politics. Scotland was then left without a monarch until the accession of Robert the Bruce in 1306.
Meanwhile Edward assumed the administration of the country. However the following summer a new opposition to Edward took place under William Wallace whose successes, notably at Stirling Bridge, forced Edward to return to Scotland with an army of 100,000 men. Although he defeated Wallace's army at Falkirk, and Wallace himself was betrayed, Edward's unjust and barbaric execution of him as a traitor in London made Wallace a national hero in Scotland, and resistance to England became paramount among the people. All Edward's efforts to reduce the country to obedience were unravelling, and after the crowning of Robert Bruce, Earl of Carrick, as Robert I of Scotland in 1306 an enraged Edward assembled another army and marched yet again against the Scots. However, Edward only reached Burgh-on-Sands, a village near Carlisle, when he died. His body was taken back to London and he was buried at Westminster Abbey.
Edward I was married twice: to Eleanor of Castile, by whom he had sixteen children, and Margaret of France by whom he had three. Twelve memorials to his first wife stood between Nottingham and London to mark the journey taken by her funeral cortege. Three of those memorials, known as “Eleanor Crosses”, can still be seen today at Geddington, Hardingstone near Northampton and Waltham Cross. London's Charing Cross is also named after one, but the original was demolished in 1647 and the monument seen there today is a Victorian replica.
1 comments*AlexDec 02, 2018
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Struck 1594, ELIZABETH I (1558 - 1603), AR Sixpence minted at London, England9 viewsObverse: ELIZAB•D•G•ANG•FR•ET•HIB•REGI• Crowned bust of Elizabeth I of England facing left. Tudor rose behind bust and mintmark (woolpack) in legend above.
Reverse: POSVI DEV:ADIVTOREM:MEV: Square topped shield, bearing the arms of England and France, quartered by long cross fourchee; 1594 above; mintmark (woolpack) in legend above.
Diameter: 26mm | Weight: 2.5gms | Die Axis: 2
SPINK: 2578A

The sixpence was first introduced during the reign of Edward VI in 1551, it had a facing portrait of the king with a rose to the left and the denomination VI to the right.
1 comments*AlexDec 02, 2018
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Struck 1605, JAMES I (1603 - 1625) England & JAMES VI (1567 -1625) Scotland, AR Sixpence minted at London 4 viewsObverse: IACOBVS•D:G:MAG:BRIT:FRA:ET•HIB:REX. Crowned and armoured bust of James I of England facing right, VI in field behind bust and mintmark (Rose) in legend above.
Reverse: QUAE•DEVS•CONIVNXIT•NEMO•SEPARET•mintmark (Rose)• Square topped shield bearing the arms of England, Scotland and Ireland; 1605 above.
Second coinage (1604 – 1619) and fourth bust with long square cut beard.
Diameter: 26mm | Weight: 2.8gms | Die Axis: 10
SPINK: 2658

The sixpence was first introduced during the reign of Edward VI in 1551, it had a facing portrait of the king with a rose to the left and the denomination VI to the right.
With the accession of James VI of Scotland to the throne of England, reigning there as James I, the royal titles and the coat of arms were altered on the coinage. The Scottish lion rampant and the Irish harp now made their appearance in the second and third quarters of the royal coat of arms of the newly formed United Kingdom and, from 1604, MAG BRIT replaced ANG SCO in the King's titles.

The infamous “Gunpowder Plot” took place on November the fifth in the year this coin was struck. The plot, to blow up the English Houses of Parliament, was foiled when a Justice of the Peace, Sir Thomas Knyvet, was secretly informed of a Catholic plot and, after giving orders for a search of the area, discovered Guy Fawkes in a cellar below the Parliament building. Thirty-six barrels of gunpowder were found and Guy Fawkes was arrested for treason and charged with trying to kill King James along with the members of Parliament who were scheduled to sit together next day.
Guy Fawkes, also known as Guido Fawkes, was tortured and questioned over the next few days and eventually confessed. He was sentenced to being hung, drawn and quartered. However, immediately before his execution on the 31st of January 1606 he fell from the scaffold where he was about to be hanged and broke his neck, so avoiding the agony of the mutilation that followed.
Guy Fawkes has become synonymous with the Gunpowder Plot which has been commemorated in Britain on the 5th of November ever since. His effigy is traditionally burned on a bonfire, usually accompanied by a fireworks display.
When I was young, on the run-up to “bonfire night”, children used to make their own “Guy” and then tout it through the streets with cries of “Penny for the Guy” something like today's Hallowe'en “trick or treat”. But this has pretty much died out now having been replaced by officially staged events.
*AlexDec 02, 2018
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Struck 1280 - 1286, Alexander III (1249 - 1286), AR Penny minted at Roxburgh, Scotland12 viewsObverse: + ALEXANDER DEI GRA . Crowned head of Alexander III facing left within circle of pellets; sceptre topped with fleur-de-lis before. Cross potent in legend.
Reverse: REX SCOTORVM +. Long cross pattée dividing legend into quarters, with three pierced mullets of six points and one mullet of seven points in quarters of inner circle. The total of 25 points is indicative of the mint of Roxburgh.
Class Mb with unbarred “A”, wider portrait and cross potent mintmark in legend.
Roxburgh only accounts for some 9% of Alexander's second coinage so issues from this mint are quite rare.
Diameter: 18mm | Weight: 1.0gm | Die Axis: 3
SPINK: 5054

Alexander III's reign saw the introduction of the round halfpenny and farthing to Scottish medieval coinage.
Following the English recoinage of Edward I in 1279, Alexander introduced his second coinage which began in 1280 and ended when he died in 1286. This coin was therefore struck between those dates.

Alexander III was born at Roxburgh, he came to the throne when he was just 7 years old following the death of his father, Alexander II.
At the age of ten, in 1251, Alexander married Margaret, daughter of Henry III of England. Henry seized the opportunity to demand from his son-in-law homage from the Scottish kingdom. Alexander did not comply but In 1255, after a meeting between the English and Scottish kings at Kelso, he was compelled to consent to the creation of a regency representative of both monarchs.
The early years of Alexander III’s reign were dominated by a power struggle between the two factions, but when he reached the age of 21 he was able to rule in his own right. His first action was to claim control of the Western Isles which were then under the domination of Norway. The Norwegian King Haakon rejected the claim, and in 1263, responded with a formidable invasion force which sailed around the west coast of Scotland and halted off the Isle of Arran. Alexander craftily delayed negotiations until the autumn storms began which resulted in the Norwegian ships being greatly damaged. Haakon, losing patience, attacked the Scots at Largs, but the battle proved indecisive and his position became hopeless. The Norwegians set sail for home but Haakon died en route, on Orkney, towards the end of the year. In 1266, at the Treaty of Perth, Norway formally ceded the Western Isles and the Isle of Man to Scotland in return for a monetary payment.
Alexander, when only 44 years old, met his end on the night of 19th March 1286. After entertaining guests at Edinburgh Castle he decided that night that he would return home to his wife near Kinghorn. His aides advised against it because there was a storm and the party would have to travel in darkness for many miles along a treacherous coastal path. Alexander was determined to travel anyway and ignored his advisors. It is not clear what happened, but it seems he got separated from the rest of his group and his horse lost its footing in the dark. The following day Alexander's body, and that of his horse, was found on the shore at the foot of the cliffs, the King's neck was broken. In 1886, a monument to him was erected in Kinghorn, on the side of the cliffs, at the approximate location of Alexander's death.
Alexander had no heirs, which ultimately led to a war with England that lasted almost thirty years.
1 comments*AlexDec 01, 2018
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Struck 1637 - 1638, CHARLES I (1625 - 1649), AR Twenty Pence minted at Edinburgh, Scotland18 viewsObverse: CAR•D:G•SCOT•ANG•FR•ET•HIB•R•. Crowned bust of Charles I, which goes to the edge of the coin, facing left, XX with a small lozenge above and below behind bust; small B (for Briot) below.
Reverse: IVSTITIA•THRONVM•FIRMAT• small B (off flan, for Briot) at end of legend. Thistle with Scottish crown above. The reverse legend translates as 'Justice strengthens the Throne'.
This coin was produced using Briot's new coining press during the third coinage period which ran from 1637 to 1642.
Diameter: 17mm | Weight: 0,8gms | Die Axis: 6
SPINK: 5581

Nicholas Briot, a Frenchman previously employed by the French and English mints, was appointed Master of the Scottish mint in August 1634. He was later joined by his son-in-law John Falconer, who succeeded him in 1646.
Briot's work was of the highest calibre, and his introduction of the mill and screw press gave the Scottish series of coins a technical excellence previously unknown.
After Briot's departure from Scotland in 1638 there was a rapid falling off from his high standard of workmanship. Although considerable use was made of Briot's punches for Falconer's third coinage issues, many of the dies were badly executed, and there was even more of a deterioration during the fourth coinage period which resulted in poorly produced coins of no artistic merit.

After his succession, Charles quarrelled with the Parliament of England, which sought to curb his royal prerogative. Charles believed in the divine right of kings and thought he could govern according to his own conscience. Many of his subjects opposed his policies, in particular the levying of taxes without parliamentary consent, and perceived his actions as those of a tyrannical absolute monarch. His religious policies, coupled with his marriage to a Roman Catholic, generated the antipathy and mistrust of Reformed groups such as the English Puritans and the Scottish Covenanters, who thought his views were too Catholic. He supported high church Anglican ecclesiastics and his attempts to force the Church of Scotland to adopt high Anglican practices led to the Bishops' Wars, and helped precipitate his own downfall.
From 1642, Charles fought the Parliamentary army in the English Civil War. After his defeat in 1645, he surrendered to a Scottish force that eventually handed him over to the English Parliament. Charles refused to accept his captors' demands for a constitutional monarchy, and after temporarily escaping captivity in November 1647, he was re-imprisoned on the Isle of Wight. Although Charles had managed to forge an alliance with Scotland, by the end of 1648 Oliver Cromwell's New Model Army had consolidated its control over England and Charles was tried, convicted, and executed for high treason in January 1649. The monarchy was abolished and a republic called the Commonwealth of England was declared. The Parliament of Scotland however, proclaimed Charles I's son as King Charles II on the 5th of February 1649.
The political crisis in England that followed the death of Cromwell in 1658 resulted in the restoration of the monarchy whereby Charles II was invited to return and, on the 29th of May 1660, he was received in London to public acclaim. After 1660 all Charles II's legal documents in Britain were dated from 1649, the year when he had succeeded his father as king in Scotland.
2 comments*AlexDec 01, 2018
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Struck 1651 - 1653, THE COMMONWEALTH OF ENGLAND (1649 - 1660), AR Half-groat minted at London, England14 viewsObverse: No legend. Shield bearing the Cross of Saint George between palm branch to left and laurel branch to right.
Reverse: • II • above two conjoined shields side by side, that on the left bearing the Cross of Saint George, that on the right bearing the Harp of Ireland.
Diameter: 17mm | Weight: 0.9gms | Die Axis: 11
SPINK: 3221

The Commonwealth coinage was once referred to as "breeches money", because the reverse design of two conjoined shields was reminiscent of the shape of a pair of the breeches which were worn at the time. This coinage was minted in England after a period of civil war which culminated in the execution of King Charles I in London in 1649. Commonwealth coins bear no portrait of a monarch because after Charles I was beheaded there wasn't one, instead the coins have a simple puritan design. The language of the legends on the coins also changed, traditionally it was in Latin, giving the name of the monarch and their titles, but now this was replaced with ‘THE COMMONWEALTH OF ENGLAND’ on the obverse and ‘GOD WITH US’ on the reverse. These simple statements not only did away with all references to royal power, they also replaced the Catholic-sounding Latin with Protestant English laying claim to God’s favour and support in true Puritan style.
There appear to be no surviving records of the exact amount of Commonwealth coinage which was produced. Although Samuel Pepys in his Diaries suggested that during the Commonwealth period from 1649 to 1660 some 750,000 pounds worth of coins were minted in total and that after the restoration in 1660 much of this, some 650,000 pounds, was recovered and melted down. This leaves an outstanding 100,000 pounds which it is believed was exported as bullion.
It seems, too, that during the Commonwealth Period 46.8% of the silver coinage from the mint was produced between December 1651 and November 1653, which would tally with the treasure trove which was captured from foreign ships and brought to London during that period. A second coining period occurred in 1656 when more foreign ships were captured by the navy, brought to London and their precious metal offloaded to the Tower.
This particular coin denomination is undated, but it has been suggested that the coin above can probably be attributed to the first coinage period on stylistic grounds.
1 comments*AlexNov 23, 2018
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Struck 1158 - 1163, HENRY II (1154 - 1189), AR 'Tealby' Penny minted at Canterbury, England26 viewsObverse: (HE)NRI • R(EX• A -). Crowned facing bust of Henry II, his head facing slightly to the left, holding sceptre tipped with a cross potent in his right hand. Crown has three vertical uprights each topped by a fleur-de-lis.
Reverse: + (ROGI)ER : ON : (C)A(NT) surrounding short cross potent within beaded circle, small cross potents in each quarter. Moneyer: Rogier. Mintmark: Cross potent.
Uncommonly clear Class A bust
Diameter: 20mm | Weight: 1.3gms | Die Axis:1
Flan chipped and cracked
SPINK: 1337

For the first few years of Henry II's reign the coins of King Stephen continued to be produced, but in 1158, in order to restore public confidence in the currency, a new 'cross and crosslet' coinage was introduced in England which was of sufficient importance for the contemporary chroniclers to record that 'a new money was made, which was the sole currency of the kingdom.' While this coinage was acceptable in terms of weight and silver quality, it is notorious for its ugly appearance, bad craftsmanship and careless execution. In fact the 'Tealby' coinage is among the worst struck of any issue of English regal coinage, so much so that collectors consider it something of a bonus if they are able to make out the name of the moneyer, or the mint, from the letters showing.
The cross and crosslet type coinage of King Henry II is more often called 'Tealby' because of the enormous hoard of these coins which was found in late 1807 at Bayons Manor farm near Tealby in Lincolnshire. This hoard, which originally amounted to over 5,700 pieces, was first reported in the Stamford Mercury of the 6th November 1807, but unfortunately the majority of the coins, more than 5,000 of them, were sent to be melted at the Tower of London and only some 600 pieces were saved for national and important private collections.
A total of 30 mints were employed in the initial 'Tealby' recoinage, however once the recoinage was completed only 12 mints were permitted to remain active and this marks the beginning of the gradual decline in the number of mints which were used to strike English coins.
The 'Tealby' issue continued until 1180 when a new style coin of much better workmanship, the short-cross penny, was introduced.
1 comments*AlexNov 13, 2018
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Struck 1189 - 1199, RICHARD I (the lionheart), AR Denier minted at Melle, Poitou, France37 viewsObverse: +RICARDVS REX. Cross pattée within braided inner circle, all within braided outer circle.
Reverse: PIC / TAVIE / NSIS in three lines within braided circle.
Diameter: 20mm | Weight: 1.0gms | Die Axis: 2
Spink: 8008 | Elias: 8

Poitou was an Anglo-Gallic province in what is now west-central France and its capital city was Poitiers, the mint at this time was however located at Melle. Melle was an active centre of minting during the early Middle Ages due to the important silver mines located under and around the city. This is the only coin issue struck during the reign of Richard I to bear his own name and titles as King of England.

Richard I was King of England from 1189 until his death on 6th April 1199. He also ruled several territories outwith England, and was styled as Duke of Normandy, Aquitaine and Gascony, Lord of Cyprus, Count of Poitiers, Anjou, Maine, and Nantes, as well as being overlord of Brittany at various times during the same period. He was the third of five sons of King Henry II of England and Duchess Eleanor of Aquitaine. He was known as Richard the Lionheart (Richard Cœur de Lion) because of his reputation as a great military leader and warrior when, at the age of 16 and commanding his own army, he had put down rebellions against his father in Poitou.
Richard was a commander during the Third Crusade, and led the campaign after the departure of Philip II of France. However, although he scored several notable victories against the Muslims led by Saladin, he failed to retake Jerusalem from them.
Although Richard was born in England and spent his childhood there before becoming king, he lived most of his adult life in the Duchy of Aquitaine. Following his accession, his life was mostly spent on Crusade, in captivity, or actively defending his lands in France. Rather than regarding England as a responsibility requiring his presence as ruler, he appears to have used it merely as a source of revenue to support his armies. Nevertheless, he was seen as a pious hero by his subjects and he remains one of the few kings of England who is remembered by his epithet rather than by his regnal number, and even today he is still an iconic figure in both England and France.
2 comments*AlexNov 10, 2018
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Struck 1430 - 1434, HENRY VI (First Reign 1422 - 1461), AR Halfpenny minted at Calais, France24 viewsObverse: HENRICVS (pinecone) REX (mascle) ANGL. Crowned facing bust of Henry VI within circle of pellets. Mintmark: Cross patonce.
Reverse: VIL(mascle)LA CALISIE (pinecone). Long cross pattée dividing legend around inner circle of pellets into quarters, trefoil in each quarter of circle.
Diameter: 15mm | Weight: 0.45gms
SPINK: 1885

This issue of coins is known as the pinecone-mascle issue because these symbols are incorporated in the obverse and reverse legends. This issue was struck between 1430 and 1434 at the mints of London and Calais.

Henry VI was King of England from 1422 to 1461 and again from 1470 to 1471. The only child of Henry V, he succeeded to the English throne at the age of nine months when his father died.
This was during the period of the long-running Hundred Years' War (1337–1453) and Henry is the only English monarch to also have been crowned King of France (as Henri II), in 1431. During his early reign several people were ruling for him and by the time Henry was declared fit to rule in 1437 he found his realm in a difficult position, faced with setbacks in France and divisions among the nobility at home. Henry is described as timid, shy, passive, well-intentioned, and averse to warfare and violence; he was also at times mentally unstable. Partially in the hope of achieving peace, Henry married the ambitious and strong-willed Margaret of Anjou in 1445. The peace policy failed and the war recommenced with France taking the upper hand such that by 1453 Calais was Henry's only remaining territory on the continent.
With Henry effectively unfit to rule, Queen Margaret took advantage of the situation to make herself an effective power behind the throne. Starting around 1453 Henry began suffering a series of mental breakdowns and tensions mounted between Margaret and Richard of York, not only over control of the incapacitated king's government, but over the question of succession to the throne. Civil war broke out in 1459, leading to a long period of dynastic conflict, now known as the Wars of the Roses. Henry was deposed on 29th March 1461 after a crushing defeat at the Battle of Towton by Richard of York's son, who took the throne as Edward IV. Margaret continuing to resist Edward, but Henry was captured by Edward's forces in 1465 and imprisoned in the Tower of London.
Queen Margaret, who was first exiled in Scotland and then in France, was still determined to win back the throne on behalf of her husband and son. So, when Edward IV fell out with two of his main supporters, Richard Neville the Earl of Warwick and George the Duke of Clarence, Margaret formed a secret alliance with them backed by Louis XI of France. Warwick returned with an army to England, forced Edward IV into exile, and restored Henry VI to the throne on 30th October 1470, though Henry's position was nominal as Warwick and Clarence effectively ruled in his name.
But Henry's return to the throne lasted less than six months. Warwick overreached himself by declaring war on Burgundy, whose ruler responded by giving Edward IV the assistance he needed to win back his throne by force. Edward retook power in 1471, killing Warwick at the Battle of Barnet and Henry's only son at the Battle of Tewkesbury. Henry was again imprisoned in the Tower where, during the night of 21st May he died, possibly killed on Edward's orders.
2 comments*AlexNov 07, 2018
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Struck 1311 - 1316, EDWARD II (1307 - 1327), AR Penny minted at Durham, England17 viewsObverse: EDWAR ANGL DNS HYB +. Crowned and draped bust of Edward II facing within circle of pellets.
Reverse: CIVITAS DVNELM. Long cross, the upper limb of which is in the form of a bishop's crozier, dividing legend into quarters, trefoil in each quarter of inner circle.
Diameter: 18mm | Weight: 1.2gms | Die Axis: 7
Rare
SPINK: 1469

Undated Penny, Class 11a, struck under Bishop Kellawe. Bishop Kellawe was enthroned as Bishop of Durham in 1311 and since he died in 1316 this coin must have been struck between those two dates. These coins are sometimes called “poker pennies” presumably because the shape of the crozier on the reverse is reminiscent of an iron fireside poker. It's an unfortunate nickname considering the reputed manner of the King's death.

Edward II
Edward II was crowned King of England when his father, Edward I, died in 1307. In 1308 he married Isabella, the daughter of King Philip IV of France, to try and resolve tensions between the two countries.
Edward II caused discontent among the barons by his close relationship with Piers Gaveston, who was arrogant with the power he had as Edward's favourite. In 1311 the barons pressured the King into agreeing to wide-ranging reforms and the newly empowered barons had Gaveston banished. Angered, Edward responded by revoking the reforms and recalling his favourite, but in 1312 a group of barons, led by the Earl of Lancaster, seized and executed Gaveston.
The war with Scotland was not going well either, the English forces were pushed back and in 1314 Edward was decisively defeated by the Scottish King, Robert the Bruce, at the Battle of Bannockburn. Edward was obliged to sign a truce which brought an end to almost thirty years of warfare between the two countries.
When this was followed by a widespread famine in England opposition to Edward II's reign grew until, in 1325, when Isabella was sent to France to negotiate a peace treaty she turned against Edward, allied herself with the exiled Roger Mortimer, and refused to return. In 1326, Mortimer and Isabella invaded England with a small army. Edward's regime collapsed and he fled into Wales, but he was soon captured and in January 1327 he was forced to relinquish his crown in favour of his fourteen-year-old son, Edward III. Edward II died in Berkeley Castle on 21 September the same year, reportedly gruesomely murdered on the orders of the new regime.

Bishop Kellawe, Bishop of Durham
Richard de Kellawe was sub-prior at St. Cuthbert's, Durham, and on the death of Antony Bek in 1311, Kellawe was chosen to replace him as Bishop of Durham by the monks. The palatinate of Durham was at this time in a deplorable condition owing to the Scottish wars, and in 1312 Kellawe even received a papal dispensation for not attending the council at Vienne in consideration of the state of his province. Troubles with the Scots continued after Bannockburn and the Palatinate was now so exhausted that it could not provide even for its own defence and Bishop Kellawe had to purchase peace with a levy of fifteen hundred men and a gift of one thousand marks.
On 10th October 1316, at Middleham, Bishop Kellawe died. He was buried in the chapter-house at Durham. His grandly adorned tomb was destroyed when the chapter house was demolished in 1796.
2 comments*AlexNov 07, 2018
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ROMAN EMPIRE PROVINCIAL, NUMERIAN as Augustus. Billon Tetradrachm of Alexandria. Struck A.D.28416 viewsObverse: A K M A NOVMEPIANOC CEB. Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust of Numerian facing right.
Reverse: ETOYC Γ (= regnal year 3 = A.D.284). Eirene standing facing left, raising her right hand and holding transverse sceptre in her left.
Curtis : 1947 | Emmett : 4020 | Milne : 4735 | Dattari : 5609 | Geissen : 3198 | BMC : 2466.
Weight : 8.03gms. Diameter : 19.7mm.
Purchased from FORVM
*AlexOct 31, 2018
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Struck 1205 - 1216, John (1199 – 1216), AR Penny minted at Winchester, England16 viewsObverse: HENRICVS REX around central circle enclosing a crowned, draped and bearded facing bust of the king holding a sceptre tipped with a cross pommee in his right hand, bust extending to edge of flan.
Reverse: +ANDREV•ON•WI around voided short cross within circle, crosslets in each quarter. Moneyer, Andrew.
Diameter: 19mm | Weight: 1.2gms | Die Axis: 4
Class 5b
SPINK: 1351

The class four type short cross pennies of Henry II continued to be struck during the early years of John's reign, but in 1205 a recoinage was begun and new short cross pennies of better style replaced the older issues. Sixteen mints were initially employed for this recoinage but they were reduced to ten later on. All John's coins continued to bear his father's (Henry II) title of henricvs rex.

John was King of England from 1199 until his death in 1216. The baronial revolt at the end of John's reign led to the sealing of the first Magna Carta, a document sometimes considered an early step in the evolution of the constitution of the United Kingdom.
John, the youngest of the five sons of Henry II and Eleanor of Aquitaine, was not expected to inherit significant lands which resulted in him being given the nickname John Lackland. However, after the failed rebellion of his elder brothers between 1173 and 1174, John became Henry's favourite child. He was appointed Lord of Ireland in 1177 and given lands in England and on the continent. John's elder brothers William, Henry and Geoffrey died young and when Richard I became king in 1189, John was the potential heir to the throne. John unsuccessfully attempted a rebellion against Richard's administration whilst his brother was participating in the Third Crusade but despite this, after Richard died in 1199, John was proclaimed King of England.
Contemporary chroniclers were mostly critical of John's performance as king, and his reign has been the subject of much debate by historians from the 16th century onwards. These negative qualities have provided extensive material for fiction writers since the Victorian era, and even today John remains a recurring character within popular culture, primarily as a villain in films and stories regarding the Robin Hood legends.
2 comments*AlexOct 30, 2018
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Roman Empire, CONSTANTIUS GALLUS CAESAR. AE2 Maiorina or Centenionalis of Antioch. Struck A.D.351 - 35446 viewsObverse: D N CONSTANTIVS NOB CAES. Bare-headed draped and cuirassed bust of Constantius Gallus facing right.
Reverse: FEL TEMP REPARATIO. Soldier advancing left, spearing fallen horseman, discarded shield on ground at feet; in left field, Γ : in exergue, ANH.
Weight 5.6gms
RIC VIII: 134
2 comments*AlexOct 25, 2018
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Roman Empire, CONSTANTIUS GALLUS CAESAR. AE Centenionalis of Siscia. Struck A.D.35118 viewsObverse: D N CONSTANTIVS IVN NOB C. Bare-headed, draped and cuirassed bust of Constantius Gallus facing right; behind bust, H.
Reverse: HOC SIGNO VICTOR ERIS. Constantius Gallus standing facing left, holding labarum in his right hand and spear in his left, being crowned by Victory standing behind him. In left field, III; in exergue, ASIS•.
RIC VIII : 308
RARE
1 comments*AlexOct 25, 2018
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Roman Empire, CONSTANTINE I, Posthumous Commemorative AE4 of Antioch. Struck A.D.347 - 348 under Constantius II15 viewsObverse: DV CONSTANTINVS PT AVGG. Veiled head of Constantine facing right.
Reverse: Constantine I, veiled and togate, standing facing right; across field, VN - MR; in exergue, SMANE.
RIC VIII : 112
*AlexOct 25, 2018
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ROMAN EMPIRE, CONSTANTINE I as CAESAR. Large AE Follis of Carthage. Struck A.D.30730 viewsObverse: CONSTANTINVS NOB CAES. Laureate head of Constantine facing right.
Reverse: CONSERVATO-RES KART SVAE. Hexastyle temple within which is Carthage standing facing left holding fruits in both hands. In exergue, PKΔ.
Diameter: 25.15mm | Weight: 6.4gms
RIC VI : 61
2 comments*AlexOct 17, 2018
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Roman Empire, Constantine I as Augustus. AE3 of Constantinople. Struck A.D.327 - 32812 viewsObverse: CONSTANTINVS MAX AVG. Diademed head of Constantine facing right.
Reverse: GLORIA ROMANORVM. Roma seated on shield facing left, holding Victory in her right hand and spear in her left; in left field, A; in exergue, CONS.
RIC VII : 23.
VERY RARE
*AlexOct 17, 2018
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Roman Empire, CONSTANTINE I as Augustus. AE3 of Constantinople. Struck A.D.327 - 32811 viewsObverse: CONSTANTINVS MAX AVG. Diademed head of Constantine facing right.
Reverse: GLORIA EXERCITVS. Constantine standing facing, head right, holding spear in right hand and leaning on shield; in left field, S; in exergue, CONS.
RIC VII : 22
VERY RARE
*AlexOct 17, 2018
Edward_VI_AR_Shilling.JPG
Struck 1551 - 1553, EDWARD VI (1547 - 1553), AR Shilling minted at London, England38 viewsObverse: EDWARD:VI:D:G:AGL:FRA:Z:HIB(:R)EX•Y: Crowned facing bust of Edward VI head turned slightly to left. Tudor rose to left of bust and XII to right; mintmark Y, in legend after REX above.
Reverse: POSV(I) DEV:ADIVTORE:MEVM:Y. Square topped shield, bearing the arms of England and France, quartered by long cross fourchee; mintmark Y, in legend after MEVM.
Diameter: 33mm | Weight: 5.8gms | Die Axis: 2 | Holed
SPINK: 2482

In 1551 Edward VI issued a new fine silver coinage, his previous silver issues having been very debased. The sixpence denomination was first introduced at this time. It was similar to the new shilling above in having a facing portrait of the king with a tudor rose to the left, but the denomination value to the right of the King's portrait was VI on the sixpence instead of the XII seen on the shilling.
3 comments*AlexOct 16, 2018
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ROMAN EMPIRE, CONSTANS, AE2 of ANTIOCH. Struck A.D.348 - 35059 viewsObverse: D N CONSTANS P F AVG. Pearl diademed, draped and cuirassed bust of Constans holding globe facing left.
Reverse: FEL TEMP REPARATIO. Soldier advancing right, dragging small barbarian from hut beneath tree; in exergue, ANΔ.
RIC VIII : 126
5 comments*AlexOct 15, 2018
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ROMAN EMPIRE, CLAUDIUS II GOTHICUS. Commemorative AE Antoninianus of Cyzicus. Struck A.D.270 - 271, probably under Aurelian13 viewsObverse: DIVO CLAVDIO. Radiate head of Claudius II Gothicus facing right, three pellets below.
Reverse: CONSACRATIO. Ustrinum or pyre of three storeys, arch in lowest storey, uppermost storey flanked by two statues, flames (or perhaps an eagle) rising from summit.
Diameter: 21mm | Weight: 2.9gms | Die Axis: 6
RIC V : 267
RARE
*AlexOct 15, 2018
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ROMAN EMPIRE, City Commemorative, POP ROMANUS, AE4 of Constantinople. Struck A.D.341 - 346 under Constantius II19 viewsObverse: POP ROMANVS. Laureate and draped bust of the Genius of the Roman people facing left, cornucopiae over left shoulder.
Reverse: No legend. Star with CONSB below, all within wreath.
RIC VIII : 22
*AlexOct 15, 2018
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Roman Empire, CARINUS as Caesar. AE Antoninianus of Rome. Struck A.D.282 - 28310 viewsObverse: M AVR CARINVS NOB CAES. Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust of Carinus facing right.
Reverse: PIETAS AVGG. Sacrificial/pontifical implements; in exergue, KAZ.
Diameter: 22mm | Weight: 3.3gms | Die Axis: 12
RIC V ii : 156
*AlexOct 15, 2018
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Roman Empire, AURELIAN. Silvered AE Antoninianus of Mediolanum. Struck A.D.272 - 27321 viewsObverse: IMP AVRELIANVS AVG. Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust of Aurelian facing right.
Reverse: RESTITVT ORIENTIS. Female figure standing facing right presenting wreath to Aurelian who is standing facing left and holding sceptre; in exergue, S.
RIC V i : 140.

Struck after the defeat of Vabalathus and Queen Zenobia this coin commemorates the re-absorption of the Palmyran territories into the Roman Empire.
1 comments*AlexOct 15, 2018
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Roman Empire, AURELIAN. Silvered Antoninianus of Mediolanum or Ticinum. Struck A.D.271 - 2759 viewsObverse: AVRELIANVS AVG. Radiate and cuirassed bust of Aurelian facing right.
Reverse: ORIENS AVG. Sol standing facing left, right hand raised, left hand holding globe; at foot left, seated captive facing left; in exergue, S.
RIC V i : 135. (Post Reform Issue)
*AlexOct 15, 2018
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ROMAN EMPIRE, ANTONINUS PIUS. Commemorative AR Denarius of Rome. Struck A.D.161 under Marcus Aurelius7 viewsObverse: DIVVS ANTONINVS. Bare headed and draped bust of Antoninus Pius facing right.
Reverse: CONSECRATIO. Eagle standing facing right, head left, on garlanded altar.
RIC III : 431
*AlexOct 15, 2018
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Roman Empire, ANTONINUS PIUS. Commemorative AR Denarius of Rome. Struck A.D.161 - 164 under Marcus Aurelius15 viewsObverse: DIVVS ANTONIN'S. Bare head of Antoninus Pius facing right.
Reverse: DIVO PIO. Seated statue of Antoninus Pius holding branch and sceptre, facing left.
Diameter: 18mm | Weight: 3.2gms | Die Axis: 6
RIC III : 442 | VM : 137/1 | Sear : 5194
1 comments*AlexOct 14, 2018
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Roman Empire, ANTONINUS PIUS. Commemorative AR Denarius of Rome. Struck A.D.161 - 164 under Marcus Aurelius.6 viewsObverse: DIVVS ANTONINVS. Bare head of Antoninus Pius facing right.
Reverse: DIVO PIO. Altar-enclosure, with double panelled door and horns visible above.
Diameter: 18mm | Weight: 3.1gms | Die Axis: 12
RIC III : 441 | VM : 137/3 | Sear : 5196
*AlexOct 14, 2018
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Medieval, England, HENRY VIII (1509 - 1547), AR Half-groat struck 1526 - 1530 at York under Archbishop Thomas (Cardinal) Wolsey7 viewsObverse: HENRIC•VIII•D•G•R•AGL•Z•F•. Youthful profile crowned bust of Henry VIII facing right within circle of pellets. Mint-mark: Voided cross.
Reverse: CIVITAS EBORACI. Shield bearing coat-of-arms on cross fourchée; T - W in upper field divided by shield; galero (cardinal's hat) below.
Diameter: 19mm | Weight: 1.0gm | Die Axis: 8 | Dark, almost black, tone
SPINK: 2346

The T W on the reverse of this coin refers to Thomas Wolsey, known to posterity as Cardinal Wolsey, one of the most powerful figures at the court of Henry VIII. Although this coin is undated, the issue of Henry VIII's second coinage only began in 1526 and so, since Cardinal Wolsey died in 1530, it must have been struck between those two dates.
*AlexOct 14, 2018
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Medieval, England, Henry III (1216 – 1272), AR Penny struck 1248 - 1250 at London7 viewsObverse: HENRICVS REX : III. Crowned bust of Henry III facing within circle of pellets. Mintmark: Six pointed star.
Reverse: NICOLE ON LVND. Voided long cross dividing legend into quarters, trefoil in each quarter of inner circle. Moneyer, Nicholas.
Diameter: 19mm | Weight: 1.3gms | Die Axis: 6
SPINK: 1363
*AlexOct 14, 2018
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Medieval, England, EDWARD I (1272 - 1307), AR Penny minted at London in 1279.4 viewsObverse: EDW REX ANG DNS HYB. Crowned bust of Edward I facing within circle of pellets.
Reverse: CIVITAS LONDON. Long cross dividing legend into quarters, trefoil in each quarter of inner circle.
Diameter: 19mm | Weight: 1.3gms | Die Axis: 11
SPINK: 1382

Undated Penny, type 1c. Edward I began a major recoinage in 1279 which consisted not only of pennies and new round half-pennies and farthings, but also introduced a new denomination, a fourpenny piece called the "Groat".
*AlexOct 07, 2018
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LINK6 views*AlexOct 06, 2018
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Struck 1526 - 1530, HENRY VIII (1509 - 1547), AR Half-groat minted at York, England under Archbishop Thomas (Cardinal) Wolsey10 viewsObverse: HENRIC•VIII•D•G•R•AGL•Z•F•. Youthful profile crowned bust of Henry VIII facing right within circle of pellets. Mint-mark: Voided cross.
Reverse: CIVITAS EBORACI. Shield bearing coat-of-arms on cross fourchée; T - W in upper field divided by shield; galero (cardinal's hat) below.
Diameter: 19mm | Weight: 1.0gm | Die Axis: 8
Virtually uncirculated but with a dark, almost black, tone
SPINK: 2346

The T W on the reverse of this coin refers to Thomas Wolsey, known to posterity as Cardinal Wolsey, one of the most powerful figures at the court of Henry VIII. Although this coin is undated, the issue of Henry VIII's second coinage only began in 1526 and so, since Cardinal Wolsey died in 1530, it must have been struck between those two dates.

Cardinal Wolsey
When Henry VIII became King of England in 1509 he appointed Thomas Wolsey to the post of Almoner, a position that gave him a seat on the Privy Council and an opportunity for establishing a personal rapport with the King to such an extent that by 1514 Wolsey had become the controlling figure in virtually all matters of state. In 1515, he was awarded the title Archbishop of York and this, followed by his appointment that same year as Cardinal by Pope Leo X, gave him precedence over all other English clerics. His ecclesiastical power advanced even further in 1523 when the Bishop of Durham, a post with wide political powers, was added to his titles.
After Wolsey attained the position of Lord Chancellor, the King's chief adviser, he had achieved more power than any other Crown servant in English history and during his fourteen years of chancellorship Wolsey, who was often alluded to as an alter rex (other king), used his power to neutralise the influence of anyone who might threaten his position..
In spite of having made many enemies, Cardinal Wolsey retained Henry VIII's confidence until, in 1527, the King decided to seek an annulment of his marriage to Catherine of Aragon so that he could marry Anne Boleyn. Henry asked Wolsey to negotiate the annulment with the Pope and in 1528 the Pope decided to allow two papal legates, Wolsey himself and Cardinal Campeggio, to decide the outcome in England. Wolsey was confident of the outcome, but Campeggio took a long time to arrive, and then he delayed proceedings so much, that the case had to be suspended and the Pope decided that the official decision should therefore be made in Rome and not in England.
After his failure to negotiate the annulment, Wolsey fell out of favour with Henry and in 1529 he was stripped of his government office and property, including the magnificent Palace of Hampton Court, which Henry took as his own main London residence.
Wolsey was however permitted to retain the title of Archbishop of York and so he travelled to Yorkshire, for the first time in his career, to carry out those duties.
Now that he was no longer protected by Henry, Wolsey's enemies, including it is rumoured, Ann Boleyn, conspired against him and Henry had him arrested and recalled to London to answer to charges of treason. But Wolsey, now in great distress, fell ill on the journey back to the capital and at Leicester, on 29 November 1530, aged about 57, he died from natural causes before he could be beheaded.
1 comments*AlexOct 04, 2018
PROBUS_XXIB_CONSERVAT.JPG
Struck A.D.276 - 282. PROBUS Silvered AE ANTONINIANUS of Rome5 viewsObverse: IMP C M AVR PROBVS AVG. Radiate and cuirassed bust of Probus facing right.
Reverse: CONSERVAT AVG. Sol walking left, right hand raised, left hand holding whip; in exergue, XXIB.
Diameter: 22mm | Weight: 4.0gms | Die Axis: 12
RIC Vii : 673.
Re-attributed to the first emission of Rome by Pink
1 comments*AlexOct 03, 2018
George_IV_Half-Farthing_1828.JPG
1828 GEORGE IV AE HALF FARTHING1 viewsObverse: GEORGIUS IV DEI GRATIA 1828. Laureate head of George IV facing left.
Reverse: BRITANNIAR: REX FID: DEF: Britannia seated facing right, right hand resting on shield, left holding trident. Shamrock, Rose and Thistle (indicative of Ireland, England and Scotland respectively) in exergue.
Diameter 18mm | Axis 12
SPINK: 3826

This portrait of George IV, used on all his later coinage, was designed by William Wyon (1795 - 1851).

The half-farthing was first issued in 1828, a year later than the third farthing, for use exclusively in Ceylon. However, it is usually considered to be part of the British coin series as Ceylon used British currency at that time.
*AlexOct 03, 2018
1839_Victoria_fourpence_groat.JPG
1839 VICTORIA AR GROAT (FOURPENCE)2 viewsObverse: VICTORIA D:G: BRITANNIAR: REGINA F:D: Young head of Queen Victoria facing left.
Reverse: FOUR PENCE. Britannia seated facing right, her right hand resting on shield, her left holding a trident; 1839 in exergue.
Diameter 16mm.
SPINK: 3913

This "young head" portrait of Queen Victoria was designed by William Wyon (1795 - 1851).

There are visible indications that this coin was struck from clashed dies.
*AlexOct 03, 2018
1836_William_IV_Groat.JPG
1836 WILLIAM IV AR GROAT (FOURPENCE)3 viewsObverse: GULIELMUS IIII D:G: BRITANNIAR: REX F:D: Bare head of William IV facing right.
Reverse: FOUR PENCE. Britannia seated facing right, her right hand resting on shield, her left holding a trident; 1836 in exergue.
Diameter 16mm
SPINK: 3837

The portrait of William IV used on his coinage was designed by William Wyon (1795 - 1851).
*AlexOct 03, 2018
Victoria_bronze_penny_1901.JPG
1901 VICTORIA BRONZE "OLD HEAD" PENNY0 viewsObverse: VICTORIA.DEI.GRA.BRITT.REGINA.FID.DEF.IND.IMP. Veiled bust of Queen Victoria facing left.
Reverse: ONE PENNY. Britannia seated facing right, right hand resting on shield, left hand holding trident. 1901 in exergue.
SPINK: 3961

Victoria's "veiled head" portrait was designed by Thomas Brock (1847 - 1922), this is marked by a small "T.B." below the Queen's bust.
*AlexOct 01, 2018
Victoria_bronze_halfpenny_1901.JPG
1901 VICTORIA BRONZE "OLD HEAD" HALFPENNY2 viewsObverse: VICTORIA.DEI.GRA.BRITT.REGINA.FID.DEF.IND.IMP. Veiled bust of Queen Victoria facing left.
Reverse: HALF PENNY. Britannia seated facing right, right hand resting on shield, left hand holding trident. 1901 in exergue.
Diameter 25mm
SPINK: 3962

Victoria's "veiled head" portrait was designed by Thomas Brock (1847 - 1922), this is marked by a small "T.B." below the Queen's bust.
*AlexOct 01, 2018
Victoria_bronze_farthing_1896.JPG
1896 VICTORIA BRONZE "OLD HEAD" FARTHING1 viewsObverse: VICTORIA.DEI.GRA.BRITT.REGINA.FID.DEF.IND.IMP. Veiled bust of Queen Victoria facing left.
Reverse: FARTHING. Britannia seated facing right, right hand resting on shield, left hand holding trident. 1896 in exergue.
SPINK: 3963

Victoria's "veiled head" portrait was designed by Thomas Brock (1847 - 1922), this is marked by a small "T.B." below the Queen's bust.
*AlexOct 01, 2018
HENRY_III.JPG
Struck 1248 - 1250, Henry III (1216 – 1272), AR Penny minted at London, England36 viewsObverse: HENRICVS REX : III. Crowned bust of Henry III facing within circle of pellets. Mintmark: Six pointed star.
Reverse: NICOLE ON LVND. Voided long cross dividing legend into quarters, trefoil in each quarter of inner circle. Moneyer, Nicholas.
Diameter: 19mm | Weight: 1.3gms | Die Axis: 6
SPINK: 1363

The First Barons' War (1215–1217) was a civil war in England in which a group of rebellious barons led by Robert Fitzwalter and supported by a French army under the future Louis VIII of France, waged war against King John of England. The war resulted from King John's refusal to accept and abide by the Magna Carta, which he had been forced to put his seal to on 15th June 1215, as well as from Louis' own ambitions regarding the English throne.
It was in the middle of this war that King John died leaving his son, the nine year old Henry III (who had been moved to safety at Corfe Castle in Dorset along with his mother, Queen Isabella) as his heir.
On his deathbed John appointed a council of thirteen executors to help Henry reclaim the kingdom, requesting that his son be placed into the guardianship of William Marshal, 1st Earl of Pembroke. The loyalists decided to crown Henry immediately to reinforce his claim to the throne. William knighted the boy, and Cardinal Guala Bicchieri, the papal legate to England, then oversaw his coronation at Gloucester Cathedral on 28th October 1216. In the absence of the archbishops of either Canterbury or York, Henry was anointed by the bishops of Worcester and Exeter, and crowned by Peter des Roches, bishop of Winchester. During the civil war the royal crown had been lost, so instead, the ceremony used a simple gold corolla belonging to Queen Isabella. In 1217, Henry's forces, led by William Marshal, finally defeated the rebels at the battles of Lincoln and Sandwich.
Henry's early rule was dominated first by Hubert de Burgh, 1st Earl of Kent and Justiciar of England and Ireland, then by Peter des Roches, and they re-established royal authority after the war. In 1225 Henry promised to abide by the final and definitative version of the Magna Carta, freely authenticated by the great seal of Henry III himself, which protected the rights of the major barons and placed a limit on royal power. It is the clauses of this, the 1225 Magna Carta signed by Henry III, not the King John Magna Carta of 1215, which are on the Statute Books of the United Kingdom today.
4 comments*AlexSep 24, 2018
1876H_Victoria_Penny.JPG
1876 "H" VICTORIA BRONZE "BUN HEAD" PENNY6 viewsObv: VICTORIA D:G: BRITT:REG:FID:DEF: "Bun head" bust of Queen Victoria with elderly features facing left.
Rev: ONE PENNY. Britannia seated facing right, her right hand resting on shield, her left holding a trident; in left background, a lighthouse and in right background, a ship; 1876, small H below, in exergue.
SPINK: 3955

Victoria's "bun head" portrait was designed by Leonard Charles Wyon (1826 - 1891), he was the eldest son of William Wyon, who had previously designed the "young head" portrait of the Queen. The letters L C WYON are incuse amongst the ornamentation of the Queen's dress.

On 1st April 1850 the auction was announced of equipment from the defunct Soho Mint, created by Matthew Boulton around 1788. At the auction, on 29th April, Ralph Heaton II bought Boulton's four steam-powered screw presses and six planchet presses for making blanks from strip metal. These were installed at Heaton's Bath Street works, and his Birmingham Mint began to strike trade tokens for use in Australia. In 1851 copper planchets were made for the Royal Mint to make into pennies, halfpennies, farthings, half-farthings and quarter-farthings.
In 1853 the Royal Mint was overwhelmed with producing silver and gold coins and so Ralph Heaton and Sons won their first contract to strike finished coins for Britain, these coins had no mintmark to identify them as from Birmingham.
In 1860 the firm bought a 1-acre plot on Icknield Street and constructed a three storey red brick factory. Completed in 1862 and employing 300 staff, it was at this time the largest private mint in the world.
From 1874 the Birmingham Mint began striking bronze pennies, halfpennies and farthings for the Royal Mint. This time though, the Birmingham Mint issues are distinguished by an H (for Heaton) mintmark below the date on the reverse. Victorian British coins bearing the H mintmark were produced in 1874, 1875, 1876, 1881 and 1882.
*AlexSep 09, 2018
Victoria_Halfpenny_1876H.JPG
1876 "H" VICTORIA BRONZE "BUN HEAD" HALFPENNY3 viewsObv: VICTORIA D:G: BRITT:REG:FID:DEF: "Bun head" bust of Queen Victoria with elderly features facing left.
Rev: HALF PENNY. Britannia seated facing right, her right hand resting on shield, her left holding a trident; in left background, a lighthouse and in right background, a ship; 1876, small H below, in exergue.
SPINK: 3957

Victoria's "bun head" portrait was designed by Leonard Charles Wyon (1826 - 1891), he was the eldest son of William Wyon, who had previously designed the "young head" portrait of the Queen. The letters L C WYON are incuse amongst the ornamentation of the Queen's dress.

On 1st April 1850 the auction was announced of equipment from the defunct Soho Mint, created by Matthew Boulton around 1788. At the auction, on 29th April, Ralph Heaton II bought Boulton's four steam-powered screw presses and six planchet presses for making blanks from strip metal. These were installed at Heaton's Bath Street works, and his Birmingham Mint began to strike trade tokens for use in Australia. In 1851 copper planchets were made for the Royal Mint to make into pennies, halfpennies, farthings, half-farthings and quarter-farthings.
In 1853 the Royal Mint was overwhelmed with producing silver and gold coins and so Ralph Heaton and Sons won their first contract to strike finished coins for Britain, these coins had no mintmark to identify them as from Birmingham.
In 1860 the firm bought a 1-acre plot on Icknield Street and constructed a three storey red brick factory. Completed in 1862 and employing 300 staff, it was at this time the largest private mint in the world.
From 1874 the Birmingham Mint began striking bronze pennies, halfpennies and farthings for the Royal Mint. This time though, the Birmingham Mint issues are distinguished by an H (for Heaton) mintmark below the date on the reverse. Victorian British coins bearing the H mintmark were produced in 1874, 1875, 1876, 1881 and 1882.
*AlexSep 09, 2018
Victoria_Halfpenny.JPG
1854 VICTORIA COPPER "YOUNG HEAD" HALFPENNY6 viewsObverse: VICTORIA DEI GRATIA 1854. Young head of Queen Victoria facing left.
Reverse: BRITANNIAR: REG: FID: DEF: Britannia seated facing right, right arm resting on shield, left arm holding trident. Shamrock, Rose and Thistle (indicative of Ireland, England and Scotland respectively) in exergue.
Diameter 28mm
SPINK: 3949

Victoria's "young head" portrait was designed by William Wyon (1795 - 1851), this is marked by a small incuse "WW" at the base of the Queen's neck on this coin.
*AlexSep 09, 2018
Victoria_copper_farthing.JPG
1853 VICTORIA COPPER "YOUNG HEAD" FARTHING7 viewsObverse: VICTORIA DEI GRATIA 1853. Young head of Queen Victoria facing left.
Reverse: BRITANNIAR: REG: FID: DEF: Britannia seated facing right, right arm resting on shield, left arm holding trident. Shamrock, Rose and Thistle (indicative of Ireland, England and Scotland respectively) in exergue.
Diameter 22mm
SPINK: 3950

Victoria's "young head" portrait was designed by William Wyon (1795 - 1851), this is marked by a small raised "WW" at the base of the Queen's neck on this coin.
1 comments*AlexSep 09, 2018
VICTORIA_AE_Third-Farthing.JPG
1844 VICTORIA COPPER THIRD FARTHING5 viewsObverse: VICTORIA DEI GRATIA 1844. Young head of Queen Victoria facing left.
Reverse: BRITANNIAR: REG: FID : DEF : Britannia seated facing right, right hand resting on shield, left holding trident. Shamrock, Rose and Thistle (indicative of Ireland, England and Scotland respectively) in exergue.
Diameter 16mm
SPINK: 3952

This portrait of Queen Victoria was designed by William Wyon (1795 - 1851).

This coin was produced exclusively for use in Malta, but it is considered to be part of the British coinage as at that time Malta was considered more as a part of Britain than a colony. Because the cost of living was lower in Malta than in Britain it was not considered necessary to introduce the third-farthing coin into Britain itself.
*AlexSep 09, 2018
George_IV_Farthing_1822.JPG
1822 GEORGE IV AE FARTHING5 viewsObverse: GEORGIUS IIII DEI GRATIA. Laureate and draped bust of George IV facing left.
Reverse: BRITANNIAR: REX FID: DEF: Britannia seated facing right, her right hand holding olive branch and resting on shield, her left holding trident; at her feet, a lion. In exergue, 1822.
Diameter 22mm | UNC with lustre
SPINK: 3822

The first copper coinage of George IV consisted of farthings only, they were the work of Benedetto Pistrucci (1783 - 1855). This first series of coinage, of which the farthings formed a part, was distasteful to the king because they represented his face as puffed and bloated, his neck undoubtedly thick, and his hair harsh and wiry. The upshot was that Pistrucci was replaced as Master of the Mint by William Wyon and in 1825 the whole series of George IV's coinage was completely redesigned.
*AlexSep 05, 2018
George_IV_Halfpenny_1826.JPG
1826 GEORGE IV AE HALFPENNY4 viewsObverse: GEORGIUS IV DEI GRATIA • 1826 •. Laureate head of George IV facing left.
Reverse: BRITANNIAR: REX FID: DEF: Britannia seated facing right, right hand resting on shield, left holding trident. Shamrock, Rose and Thistle (indicative of Ireland, England and Scotland respectively) in exergue.
Diameter 28mm | Weight 9.32gms
SPINK: 3824

This portrait of George IV, used on his later coinage, was designed by William Wyon (1795 - 1851).
With the issues of George IV, Britannia now appears on pennies, halfpennies and farthings facing right instead of left, she would remain that way until 1967. She also acquires a helmet, recalling Roma and, before that, Athena.
*AlexSep 05, 2018
William_IV_penny_1831.JPG
1831 William IV AE PENNY5 viewsObverse: GULIELMUS IIII DEI GRATIA 1831. Bare head of William IV facing right.
Reverse: BRITANNIAR: REX FID: DEF: Britannia seated facing right, right hand resting on shield, left holding trident. Shamrock, Rose and Thistle (indicative of Ireland, England and Scotland respectively) in exergue.
Diameter 34mm
SPINK: 3845

William IV's portrait was designed by William Wyon (1795 - 1851), this is sometimes marked by a small incuse "WW" at the base of the King's neck. This coin, however, is one of those that do not bear Wyon's initials.
*AlexSep 04, 2018
William_IV_Halfpenny_1831.JPG
1831 William IV AE HALFPENNY5 viewsObverse: GULIELMUS IIII DEI GRATIA 1831. Bare head of William IV facing right.
Reverse: BRITANNIAR: REX FID: DEF: Britannia seated facing right, right hand resting on shield, left holding trident. Shamrock, Rose and Thistle (indicative of Ireland, England and Scotland respectively) in exergue.
Diameter 28mm
SPINK: 3847

William IV's portrait was designed by William Wyon (1795 - 1851), this is marked by a small incuse "WW" at the base of the King's neck.
*AlexSep 04, 2018
William_IV_Farthing_1835.JPG
1835 William IV AE FARTHING5 viewsObverse: GULIELMUS IIII DEI GRATIA 1835. Bare head of William IV facing right.
Reverse: BRITANNIAR: REX FID: DEF: Britannia seated facing right, right hand resting on shield, left holding trident. Shamrock, Rose and Thistle (indicative of Ireland, England and Scotland respectively) in exergue.
Diameter 22mm
SPINK: 3848

William IV's portrait was designed by William Wyon (1795 - 1851), this is marked by a small incuse "WW" at the base of the King's neck.
*AlexSep 04, 2018
CONSTANTINE_I_as_CAESAR_AD307.JPG
Struck A.D.307. CONSTANTINE I as CAESAR. Large AE Follis of Treveri18 viewsObverse: FL VAL CONSTANTINVS NOB C. Laureate and cuirassed bust of Constantine I facing right.
Reverse: PRINCIPI IVVENTVTIS. Constantine I, clad in military dress, standing facing left holding a standard in each hand. Across field, S - A; in exergue, PTR.
RIC VI : 734

The boots shown worn by Constantine on this coin are not the usual army boots but a special type of boot called a mulleus (pl. mullei), it was a kind of fur boot where a catlike animal's scalp was attached to the upper front of the boot leg and the animal's paws hung down from both sides. These type of mullei were shown worn by deities like Mars, Virtus, Honos, Roma, and sometimes emperors. Iconographically they were connected to gods and heroes.
Goette, in his " Ikonographische Studien zu Römischem Schuhwerk", has shown that the mulleus appears from the time of Augustus to the period of the Tetrarchy on Roman artwork.
It is notable that these types of mullei are often depicted being worn by cuirassed statues in a war-like connection. It is therefore possible, even probable, that the boots were made from lion's skin, which would match the symbol of royal power and strength with the godlike power of their wearer. - credit Jochen

This coin was struck in A.D.307 to commemorate Constantine's proclamation as Caesar.
1 comments*AlexSep 02, 2018
Victoria_Groat_Fourpence_1888.JPG
1888 VICTORIA AR GROAT (FOURPENCE)7 viewsObverse: VICTORIA D:G: BRITANNIAR: REGINA F:D: Jubilee bust of Queen Victoria facing left.
Reverse: FOUR PENCE. Britannia seated facing right, her right hand resting on shield, her left holding a trident; 1888 in exergue.
Diameter 16mm
SPINK: 3930

This "Jubilee head" portrait of Queen Victoria was designed by Sir Joseph Edgar Boehm (1834 – 1890), this is marked by the initials “J.E.B." below the Queen's bust.
*AlexAug 28, 2018
CHARLES_II_AR_Farthing_Pattern_1676.JPG
1676 Charles II AR "Pattern Farthing"30 viewsObverse: CAROLVS•A•CAROLO•. Laureate and cuirassed bust of Charles II with long hair facing left, 1676 below.
Reverse: QVATVOR•MARIA VINDICO•. Britannia seated facing left, holding laurel branch and spear; BRITANNIA in exergue. No pellet between MARIA and VINDICO.
Diameter: 26mm | Weight: 5.9gms | Die Axis: 12h
Peck : 492
PATTERN OR MEDALET - RARE

This periwigged portrait of Charles II was designed by Jan (John) Roettier (1631 - 1700).
The legend, "Quatuor Maria Vindico," means "I claim the four seas," which Peck explains was "intended to give prominence to the king's pride and interest in the navy." The reason this legend never appeared on circulating coinage was probably because the legend was thought to be too provocative to the King of France.

It was Montagu who called this a Roettier pattern farthing of Charles II which, until the discovery in 1903 of 89 specimens in the cabinet of the Marquis of Ailsbury, had hitherto been considered the rarest of the “pattern farthings” of this type.
Peck, however, rejected Montagu's idea that these were patterns and wrote that it was much more likely that they were official medalets. In support of this view it should be noted that not only was this issue struck on a broader flan than usual, it was produced some four years after the issue of regular farthings had begun. It is perhaps also significant that this issue is unknown in copper and that it's die orientation is 12h (medallic orientation), against the 6h orientation which is the norm for the regular farthing coinage of the period. Incidentally, the silver value of this "farthing" would have been equivalent to one shilling and sixpence, that is 72 times the face value of a farthing at the time.
3 comments*AlexAug 28, 2018
George_III_Bank_of_England_Dollar_1804.JPG
1804 GEORGE III AR BANK OF ENGLAND DOLLAR 39 viewsObverse: GEORGIUS III DEI GRATIA REX. Laureate and draped bust of George III facing right.
Reverse: BANK OF ENGLAND 1804. Britannia, seated left, holding a branch and spear, her left arm resting on a shield which in turn rests on a cornucopia, a beehive is in the background to the left; all within a garter inscribed FIVE SHILLINGS DOLLAR. The garter is surmounted by a castellated "crown" of five circular stone turrets.
On this coin there are enough traces of the host coin discernible on the reverse, near the edge between 'BANK' and 'OF', and on the obverse below the bust to make an accurate identification of the undertype possible. It was overstruck on a Spanish Colonial 8 Reales minted at Potosi in Bolivia which bore the date 1806.
Spink 3768; Obverse die A, Reverse die 2
Diameter: 41mm | Weight: 26.7gms | Die Axis: 11
SPINK: 3768

This portrait of George III was designed by Conrad Heinrich Kuchler (c.1740 - 1810), this is marked by C. H. K. in raised letters on the truncation at the king's shoulder. The reverse, which was also designed by Kuchler has the raised initial K in the triangular space between the shield, cornucopia, and Britannia's dress. Kuchler moved to Birmingham in 1795 and designed many of the coins and medals which were struck at Matthew Boulton's SOHO mint.

Note on George III Bank of England Silver Dollars
Although George III reigned for sixty years from 1760 to 1820, the only crowns issued were in the last three years of his reign, apart from these Bank of England dollars issued as an emergency measure.
There had been a persistent shortage of silver coins throughout most of George's reign, and the Bank of England attempted to alleviate this by counter-marking Spanish colonial 8-Reale pieces (the “pieces of eight” of pirate legend) with a punch bearing the head of George III. When this counter-mark was enthusiastically counterfeited, the bank resorted to counter-stamping the entire coin. Most survivors were struck on Mexican or Peruvian 8-Reale pieces, though a few have been found to be struck on issues from Spain proper. Although these Bank of England dollars are all dated 1804, they were issued every year until 1811, and occasionally the dates of Spanish 8 Reales minted after 1804 can be discerned on them. In 1811, to take account of the increase in the value of silver, the Bank of England dollar coins were revalued at 5s6d and they stayed at this value until they were withdrawn from circulation in 1817, by which time a massive silver re-coinage was being undertaken.
2 comments*AlexAug 27, 2018
Louis_15_Gilt_Jeton.JPG
Struck c.1726 - 1741, Louis XV (1715 - 1774), Gilt AE (Brass) Jeton11 viewsObverse: LUD•XV•D•G•FR•ET•N•REX. Laureate, draped and cuirassed juvenile bust of Louis XV facing left.
Reverse: VIS ANIMI CUM CORPORE CRESCIT. Apollo standing facing, head right, right hand on hip, bow in left hand, his right foot trampling the dragon that he has just defeated. Die flaw obscuring Apollo's face and in the left field of the reverse. Exergue, blank.

Struck at Nuremburg, Germany.
Die engraver: Although it is known that Michael Leykauff (Leichkauff or Leikauf)
was mint-master at Nuremburg from 1724 until he retired in 1768 the actual engraver of this jeton (which dates from around 1726 to 1741) is uncertain.
Dimensions: 23.78mm | Weight: 4.8gms | Die Axis: 6
Ref. Feuardent: 13230

This jeton was issued while Louis was still young. Louis reigned from the age of 5 under the regency of his uncle Philippe, son of Louis XIV's younger brother, also Philippe. The regency ran from 1715 until 1723, the year Louis attained his majority and which was also the year of Philippe's death.
The reverse inscription, which translates as “The strength of the mind grows with the body” is an almost exact quote from Lucretius' work “On the nature of things” which was popular in France at this time.
1 comments*AlexJul 25, 2018
Loius_14_Copper_Jeton.JPG
Struck c.1650, Louis XIV (1643 – 1715), AE (Copper) Jeton5 viewsObverse: LVD•XIIII•D•G•FR•ET•NAV•REX. Laureate and draped youthful bust of Louis XIV facing right.
Reverse: IVSTIS•SPES•PACIS•IN ARMIS. Pax, helmeted, seated on a pile of arms, holding an olive branch in her outstretched right hand and a narrow cornucopia in her left.

Struck at unverified mint, probably Monnaie de Louvre, Paris, France
Die engraver: Jean Varin
Dimensions: 27.94mm | Weight: 6.8gms | Die Axis: 12
Ref. Feuardent: 12482 var.

Jean Varin (6 February 1604 Liège – 26 August 1672 Paris) was a French sculptor and engraver who made important innovations in the process of minting coins. He moved to Paris in 1625 or 1626 where, after demonstrating his talent as an engraver, he obtained the support of Cardinal Richelieu and in 1629 he was assigned as a “Conducteur de la Monnaie du Moulin”. In 1647 he was appointed head of the French mint, and became “engraver of the king's seal” and a member of the Academy of painting and sculpture. Varin brought back the use of the screw press in the mint, initially using it to produce a gold coin, the Louis d'or, which featured his youthful portrait of the King which is similar to that on this jeton.

This jeton, likely struck between 1650 and 1653, commemorates the signing of the Treaty of Münster between France and the Holy Roman Empire on 15 May 1648 which ended the Thirty Years War. France, to the detriment of the Holy Roman Empire, retained control of the bishoprics of Metz, Toul and Verdun near Lorraine as well as receiving the city of Pignerol near the Spanish Duchy of Milan and the cities of the Décapole in Alsace, excluding Strasbourg.
*AlexJul 25, 2018
1799_George_3_farthing.JPG
1799 GEORGE III AE FARTHING5 viewsObverse: GEORGIUS III DEI GRATIA REX 1799. Laureate and draped bust of George III facing right.
Reverse: BRITANNIA. 1 . FARTHING, small tudor rose and thistle at either side, in exergue. Britannia seated facing left, holding olive branch and trident, small ship in left background; mint-mark SOHO below shield.
Diameter: 24mm
SPINK: 3779

This portrait of George III was designed by Conrad Heinrich Kuchler (c.1740 - 1810). Kuchler moved to Birmingham in 1795 and designed many of the coins and medals which were struck at Matthew Boulton's SOHO mint.
*AlexJul 25, 2018
CARUS_DIVO_EAGLE_BILLON_TET.JPG
Struck A.D.283 - 284 under Carinus and Numerian. DIVUS CARUS. Commemorative AE Tetradrachm of Alexandria2 viewsObverse: ΘEW KAPW CEB. Laureate head of Carus facing right.
Reverse: AΦIEPOCIC. Eagle standing facing on rod, head right, wings open.
Diameter: 19mm | Weight: 7.96gms | Die Axis: 12
GICV : 4776

This coin is an undated posthumous type bearing the legend AΦIEPOCIC, one of the most interesting features of the Alexandrian coinage of Marcus Aurelius Carus.

Carus died in mysterious circumstances during his Persian campaign against the Sassanids, it was claimed that during a violent dust storm he had been killed by a stroke of lightning. Carus was succeeded by his eldest son Carinus, who had been left in Rome and Numerian, Carinus' younger brother, who had accompanied Carus on the Persian campaign and had been proclaimed emperor by the troops when Carus was killed.
*AlexJul 25, 2018
Elizabeth-2_50_Pence_1999.JPG
1999 ELIZABETH II DECIMAL CuNi FIFTY PENCE5 viewsObverse: ELIZABETH.II.D.G.REG.F.D.1999. Head of Elizabeth II wearing tiara facing right.
Reverse: FIFTY PENCE. Britannia seated facing right, left hand holding laurel branch, right holding trident and resting on shield; recumbent lion behind at her feet; 50 in exergue.
Proof issue struck from polished dies with frosted highlights.
Diameter 27.3mm | Weight 8.0gms
SPINK: 4610 PROOF

This portrait was designed by the sculptor Ian Rank-Broadley, it appeared on all UK and Commonwealth coinage from 1998 until it was superseded by a new portrait in 2015. The tiara which the Queen is shown wearing on this coin was given to her as a wedding present by her grandmother, Queen Mary.

This decimal 50 pence was the last British coin to depict the traditional Britannia which had featured on British coinage for more than 300 years, having begun on a farthing under Charles II in 1672. Britannia made her last appearance in 2008 after Gordon Brown personally approved changing the design as one of his last acts as Chancellor of the Exchequer.
*AlexJul 19, 2018
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Roman Empire, MAXIMIANUS. Commemorative Follis of Ostia. Struck A.D.310 - 312 under Maxentius14 viewsObverse: IMP MAXENTIVS DIVO MAXIMIANO PATRI. Veiled head of Maximianus facing right.
Reverse: AETERNA MEMORIA. Temple with domed roof surmounted by eagle, right door ajar; in exergue, MOSTS.
Weight: 5.2gms
RIC VI : 26
RARE

The temple depicted on the reverse of this coin is in all probability the Temple of Divus Romulus begun by Maxentius around A.D.311 but left unfinished on his death in A.D.312.
*AlexJul 19, 2018
Divo-Galerius_Temple.JPG
Struck A.D.310 - 312 under Maxentius. DIVUS MAXIMIANUS. Commemorative Follis of Ostia4 viewsObverse: IMP MAXENTIVS DIVO MAXIMIANO PATRI. Veiled head of Maximianus facing right.
Reverse: AETERNA MEMORIA. Shrine or temple with domed roof surmounted by eagle, right door ajar; in exergue, MOSTS.
Diameter: 24mm | Weight: 5.2gms | Die Axis: 12
RIC VI : 26
RARE

The temple depicted on the reverse of this coin is in all probability the Temple of Divus Romulus begun by Maxentius around A.D.311 but left unfinished on his death in A.D.312. The original bronze doors of the Temple of Divus Romulus still survive and are pictured below. They are set between two porphyry columns that support a reused marble architrave and open into a rotunda fifty Roman feet in diameter covered by a cupola which is accessible from the rear through the Basilica of Santi Cosma e Damiano. The temple was converted into a vestibule for the church early in the 6th century.
*AlexJul 19, 2018
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1997 ELIZABETH II DECIMAL CuNi SMALL FIFTY PENCE5 viewsObverse: ELIZABETH II D.G.REG.F.D.1997. Diademed bust of Elizabeth II facing right.
Reverse: FIFTY PENCE. Britannia seated facing right, left hand holding laurel branch, right holding trident and resting on shield; recumbent lion behind at her feet; 50 in exergue.
Proof issue struck from polished dies with frosted highlights.
Diameter 27.3mm | Weight 8.0gms
SPINK: 4351 PROOF (Small module)

This "Third Portrait" of Elizabeth II was Raphael Maklouf's first coin design and it was used on the coinage from 1985 to 1997 inclusive. Raphael Maklouf was born in Jerusalem in 1937 and came to the United Kingdom after the Second World War. The Royal diadem which the Queen is shown wearing on this coin is the one she wears on her way to and from the State Opening of Parliament.
*AlexJul 18, 2018
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1989 ELIZABETH II DECIMAL CuNi LARGE FIFTY PENCE5 viewsObverse: ELIZABETH II D.G.REG.F.D.1989. Diademed bust of Elizabeth II facing right.
Reverse: FIFTY PENCE. Britannia seated facing right, left hand holding laurel branch, right holding trident and resting on shield; recumbent lion behind at her feet; 50 in exergue.
Proof issue struck from polished dies with frosted highlights.
Diameter 30mm | Weight 13.5gms
SPINK: 4351 PROOF (Large module)

This "Third Portrait" of Elizabeth II was Raphael Maklouf's first coin design and it was used on the coinage from 1985 to 1997 inclusive. Raphael Maklouf was born in Jerusalem in 1937 and came to the United Kingdom after the Second World War. The Royal diadem which the Queen is shown wearing on this coin is the one she wears on her way to and from the State Opening of Parliament.
*AlexJul 18, 2018
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1935 GEORGE V "Small head" AE PENNY5 viewsObverse: GEORGIVS V DEI GRA:BRITT:OMN:REX FID:DEF:IND:IMP: . Bare head of George V facing left.
Reverse: ONE PENNY. Britannia seated facing right, right hand resting on shield, left hand holding trident; 1935 in exergue.
SPINK: 4055

George V's portrait was designed by Bertram Mackennal (1863 - 1931), this is marked by a small "BM" on the King's neck.
*AlexJul 17, 2018
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1976 ELIZABETH II DECIMAL CuNi FIFTY PENCE7 viewsObverse: ELIZABETH.II D.G.REG.F.D.1976. Draped bust of Elizabeth II, wearing tiara, facing right.
Reverse: NEW PENCE. Britannia seated facing right, left hand holding laurel branch, right holding trident and resting on shield; recumbent lion behind at her feet; 50 in exergue.
Proof issue struck from polished dies.
Diameter 30mm | Weight 13.5gms
SPINK: 4223 PROOF

This portrait of Elizabeth II was designed by Arnold Machin (1911 - 1999), although his design was approved in June 1964 it was not used for United Kingdom coinage until 1968, after which his portrait of Elizabeth II was used on all British decimal coins until 1984. The tiara which the Queen is shown wearing on this coin had been given to her as a wedding present from her grandmother, Queen Mary.
*AlexJul 17, 2018
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1970 ELIZABETH II AE PENNY8 viewsObverse: + ELIZABETH.II.DEI.GRATIA.REGINA.F:D:. Laureate bust of Elizabeth II facing right.
Reverse: ONE PENNY. Britannia seated facing right, right hand resting on shield, left hand holding trident, lighthouse in background to left; 1970 in exergue.
SPINK: 4157 PROOF

Elizabeth II's "young head" portrait was designed by Mary Gillick (1881 - 1965), this is marked by a small "MG" below the Queen's bust.
This coin, dated 1970, is a proof issue struck from polished dies, no pennies were issued for general circulation after 1967.
*AlexJul 17, 2018
Elizabeth_2_Penny_1967.JPG
1967 ELIZABETH II AE PENNY6 viewsObverse: + ELIZABETH.II.DEI.GRATIA.REGINA.F:D:. Laureate bust of Elizabeth II facing right.
Reverse: ONE PENNY. Britannia seated facing right, right hand resting on shield, left hand holding trident, lighthouse in background to left; 1967 in exergue.
SPINK: 4157

Elizabeth II's "young head" portrait was designed by Mary Gillick (1881 - 1965), this is marked by a small "MG" below the Queen's bust.
This was the last year of issue of the "Britannia" penny (other than a proof version dated 1970) prior to the introduction of decimal coinage in Britain in 1971. It was struck in enormous numbers to satisfy the large, mainly speculative, demand for the coin.
*AlexJul 17, 2018
Elizabeth_2_Penny_1953.JPG
1953 ELIZABETH II AE PENNY5 viewsObverse: + ELIZABETH.II.DEI.GRA:BRITT:OMN:REGINA F:D:. Laureate bust of Elizabeth II facing right.
Reverse: ONE PENNY. Britannia seated facing right, right hand resting on shield, left hand holding trident, lighthouse in background to left; 1953 in exergue.
SPINK: 4154

Elizabeth II's "young head" portrait was designed by Mary Gillick (1881 - 1965), this is marked by a small "MG" below the bust.
Demand for pennies was low on the accession of Queen Elizabeth II, so the only pennies issued were in the coin sets made in time for the Coronation. These sets were often broken up, so 1953 pennies could occasionally be found in change. The next year (1954) all the other denominations were re-designed with a revised inscription which omitted BRITT.OMN, but no more pennies were struck for circulation until 1961.
*AlexJul 17, 2018
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ROMAN EMPIRE, ANTONINUS PIUS. AR DENARIUS of Rome. Struck A.D.140 - 14314 viewsObverse: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P COS III. Laureate head of Antoninus Pius facing right.
Reverse: GENIO SENATVS. Genius of the Senate standing facing left, holding branch and sceptre.
RIC III : 69
*AlexJul 15, 2018
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ROMAN EMPIRE PROVINCIAL, PHILIP II as Caesar. Billon Tetradrachm of Alexandria. Struck A.D.245 - 24610 viewsObverse: M IOV ΦIΛI&PiΠOC K CEB. Bare headed and draped bust of Philip II facing right.
Reverse: No legend. Asklepios standing facing left, sacrificing over flaming and garlanded altar out of patera held in his right hand and holding staff, around which a serpent coils, in his left; in left field, LΓ (= regnal year 3 0f Philip I = A.D.245 - 246).
Diameter: 23mm | Weight: 11.9gms | Die Axis: 12
Not in GICV.
VERY RARE
*AlexJul 15, 2018
NERO___DIVUS_AUGUSTUS__STRUCK_A_D__66_-_67~0.JPG
ROMAN EMPIRE PROVINCIAL, NERO. AR (Billon) Tetradrachm of Alexandria. Struck A.D. 66 - 679 viewsObverse: NERΩ KΛAY KAIΣ ΣEB ΓER AY. Radiate bust of Nero facing left, wearing aegis; before LIΓ = regnal year 13 = A.D.66-67.
Reverse: ΘEOΣ ΣEBAΣTOΣ. Radiate head of Augustus facing right.
Diameter: 24mm | Weight: 12.5gms | Die Axis: 12
GICV : 636 | Emmett : 113
*AlexJul 15, 2018
CARUS_TETRADRACHM~0.JPG
Struck A.D.282 - 283. CARUS. Billon Tetradrachm of Alexandria7 viewsObverse: A K M A KAPOC CEB. Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust of Carus facing right.
Reverse: No legend. Dikaiosyne standing facing left, holding scales and cornucopiae; LA in upper left field, (= regnal year 1 = A.D.282 - 283).
Diameter: 18mm | Weight: 7.71gms | Die Axis: 12
GICV : 4774 | Geissen: 3161 ff. | Dattari: 5565 f
*AlexJul 15, 2018
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ROMAN EMPIRE PROVINCIAL, CLAUDIUS II GOTHICUS. AE TETRADRACHM of Alexandria. Struck A.D.268 - 26910 viewsObverse: AVT K KLAVΔIOC CEB. Laureate and cuirassed bust of Claudius II facing right.
Reverse: Eagle standing facing left, head looking back to right, holding wreath in beak; in field L B (= regnal year 2 = A.D.268-269).
Not in GICV.

Ex Harlan J Berk
*AlexJul 15, 2018
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ROMAN EMPIRE PROVINCIAL, CARUS. Commemorative Billon Tetradrachm of Alexandria. Struck A.D.283 - 2849 viewsObverse: ΘEω KAPω CEB. Laureate head of Carus facing right.
Reverse: AΦIEPωCIC. Round, burning and garlanded altar on base, star in upper left field.
GICV : 4777 | Emmett 3995.

This coin is an undated posthumous type struck under Carinus and Numerian and bearing the legend AΦIEPωCIC, one of the most interesting features of the Alexandrian coinage of Marcus Aurelius Carus.
*AlexJul 15, 2018
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ROMAN EMPIRE PROVINCIAL, AURELIAN. Billon Tetradrachm of Alexandria. Struck A.D.274 - 27511 viewsObverse: A K Λ ΔOM AVPHΛIANOC CEB. Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust of Aurelian facing right.
Reverse: ETOVC S. Eagle standing facing left, looking back, wreath in beak.
Diameter: 20mm | Weight: 8.1gms | Die Axis: 12
GICV : 4750
*AlexJul 15, 2018
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Scotland, Antonine Wall, Distance Slab10 viewsThese inscribed stones, known as distance slabs, are unique in the Roman Empire. They celebrate the work of the legions which constructed the Antonine Wall in Scotland. Evidence suggests that the slabs, all made of local sandstone, were set into stone frames along the length of the Wall and are likely to have faced South into the Empire.
Nineteen of these slabs are known of so far, the elaborate carving on many of them celebrating the culmination of a successful campaign by the triumphant Roman army.

IMP CAES TITO AELIO HADRI ANTONINO AVG PIO P P LEG II AVG PER M P IIIIDCLII FEC
"For the Emperor Caesar Titus Aelius Hadrianus Antoninus Augustus Pius, Father of his Country, the Second Augustan Legion completed 4652 feet"

This slab was found at Bridgeness, Bo'ness in 1868, it is now in the National Museum of Scotland in Edinburgh.
*AlexJul 14, 2018
Found_at_Hutcheson_Hill,_West_Dunbartonshire_near_Cleddans_.jpg
Scotland, Antonine Wall, Distance Slab11 viewsThese inscribed stones, known as distance slabs, are unique in the Roman Empire. They celebrate the work of the legions which constructed the Antonine Wall in Scotland. Evidence suggests that the slabs, all made of local sandstone, were set into stone frames along the length of the Wall and are likely to have faced South into the Empire.
Nineteen of these slabs are known of so far, the elaborate carving on many of them celebrating the culmination of a successful campaign by the triumphant Roman army.

IMP C T AE HADRIANO ANTONINO AVG PIO P P VEX LEG XX VV FEC PP III
"For the Emperor Caesar Titus Aelius Hadrianus Antoninus Augustus Pius, Father of his Country, a detachment of the Twentieth Valient and Victorious Legion built this over a distance of 3000 feet"

This slab was found at Hutcheson Hill, near Cleddans, West Dunbartonshire and it is now in the Hunterian Museum in Glasgow.
*AlexJul 14, 2018
Old_Kilpatrick,_West_Dunbartonshire_-_Antonine_Wall.JPG
Scotland, Antonine Wall, Distance Slab12 viewsThese inscribed stones, known as distance slabs, are unique in the Roman Empire. They celebrate the work of the legions which constructed the Antonine Wall in Scotland. Evidence suggests that the slabs, all made of local sandstone, were set into stone frames along the length of the Wall and are likely to have faced South into the Empire.
Nineteen of these slabs are known of so far, the elaborate carving on many of them celebrating the culmination of a successful campaign by the triumphant Roman army.

IMP C T AE HADRIANO ANTONINO AVG PIO P P VEX LEG XX VV FEC PP IIII CDXI
"For the Emperor Caesar Titus Aelius Hadrianus Antoninus Augustus Pius, Father of his Country, a detachment of the Twentieth Valient and Victorious Legion built this over a distance of 4411 feet"

This slab was found at Old Kirkpatrick, West Dunbartonshire and is now in the Hunterian Museum in Glasgow.
*AlexJul 14, 2018
Antonine_Wall.jpg
Scotland, Falkirk, Section of the Antonine Wall20 viewsThe Antonine Wall was built by the Romans across what is now the Central Belt of Scotland, between the Firth of Forth and the Firth of Clyde. Representing the northernmost frontier barrier of the Roman Empire, it spanned approximately 63 kilometres (39 miles) and was about 3 metres (10 feet) high and 5 metres (16 feet) wide.
Construction began in AD 142 at the order of the Emperor Antoninus Pius, and took about 12 years to complete.
Most of the wall and its associated fortifications have been destroyed over time, but some remains are still visible. Many of these have come under the care of Historic Scotland and the UNESCO World Heritage Committee.
1 comments*AlexJul 13, 2018
Lilia__Roughcastle.jpg
Scotland, Roughcastle Roman Fort, Lilia29 viewsThese deep pits, which would have had something like a sharpened stake in the centre of them, were known as lilia because they apparently reminded the Romans of lilies. They are shown on Trajan's column in Rome and were also described by Julius Caesar in his Gallic Wars.
Lilia, which have been found at eight different locations along the 39 miles of the Antonine Wall, are part of its defensive system. The defensive line would have consisted of the ditch, the wall and these lilia, which you might call the ancient Roman equivalent of a minefield.
The lilia pictured above are at the Roman fort of Roughcastle a few miles west of Falkirk.
1 comments*AlexJul 13, 2018
Edward_8_Medal_1937.JPG
1937 EDWARD VIII AE CORONATION MEDAL10 viewsObverse: • HIS • MAJESTY • KING • EDWARD • VIII •, Crowned bust of Edward VIII facing right, wearing ceremonial robes, the legend in raised letters on a raised border with each word separated by a rose.
Reverse: CROWNED – A. D. 1937. Britannia standing facing within a distyle arch, holding crown aloft with her right hand and union flag on pole in her left, in background to left, battleship and to right, London riverside scene in which St Paul's Cathedral can be discerned.
Diameter: 45mm

No coins were issued for Edward VIII who became King on the death of his father, George V, on 20th January 1936. Edward's coronation never took place because he abdicated the throne on 11th December that same year after a reign lasting only 326 days.
As Edward VIII was never crowned the coin types bearing the portrait of George V continued to be struck throughout 1936 and up until the coronation in 1937 of Edward's younger brother Albert, who reigned as George VI.

This unsigned medal was struck in 1936 in anticipation of the proposed Coronation of Edward VIII on 12th May, 1937. The same reverse dies were subsequently reused on coronation medals for George VI.
*AlexJul 13, 2018
George_6_1949_Penny.JPG
1949 GEORGE VI AE PENNY7 viewsObverse: GEORGIVS VI D:G:BR:OMN:REX FIDEI DEF. Bare head of George VI facing left.
Reverse: ONE PENNY. Britannia seated facing right, right hand resting on shield, left hand holding trident, lighthouse in background to left; 1949 in exergue.
SPINK: 4117

George VI's portrait was designed by Thomas Humphrey Paget (1893 - 1974), this is marked by a small "HP" below the King's neck.
*AlexJul 12, 2018
George_6_1947_Penny.JPG
1947 GEORGE VI AE PENNY6 viewsObverse: GEORGIVS VI D:G:BR:OMN:REX F:D:IND:IMP: . Bare head of George VI facing left.
Reverse: ONE PENNY. Britannia seated facing right, right hand resting on shield, left hand holding trident, lighthouse in background to left; 1947 in exergue.
SPINK: 4114

George VI's portrait was designed by Thomas Humphrey Paget (1893 - 1974), this is marked by a small "HP" below the King's neck.
*AlexJul 12, 2018
Elizabeth_2_2_Pounds_2015.JPG
2015 ELIZABETH II DECIMAL Bimetallic TWO POUNDS6 viewsObverse: ELIZABETH II DEI.GRA.REG.FID.DEF.2015. Diademed head of Elizabeth II facing right.
Reverse: TWO POUNDS. Three quarter helmeted bust of Britannia facing right, shield at her side, right hand holding trident over her shoulder.
Edge: QUATUOR MARIA VINDICO.
Diameter 28.4mm | Weight 15.97gms

This is the fifth portrait of Queen Elizabeth II to be used on circulating UK coinage since she was crowned in 1953. It was designed by (Mr) Jody Clark and was introduced in March 2015 to replace the previous portrait on all circulating UK coins. The Royal diadem which the Queen is shown wearing on this coin is the one she wears on her way to and from the State Opening of Parliament.

This 2015 two pound coin welcomed Britannia back onto circulating UK coinage, Britannia having not featured on any UK circulating coin after she was removed from the reverse of 50p coins in 2008. The new portrait of Britannia was designed by sculptor Antony Dofort and is meant to present Britannia in a modern era.
The edge legend of "QUATUOR MARIA VINDICO" meaning "I claim the four seas" first appeared as a reverse legend on coins bearing a Britannia design during the reign of Charles II, but those coins were patterns or prototypes which were never issued for general circulation.
*AlexJul 12, 2018
George_V_1927_Penny.JPG
1927 GEORGE V "Modified Large head" AE Penny5 viewsObverse: GEORGIVS V DEI GRA:BRITT:OMN:REX FID:DEF:IND:IMP: . Bare head of George V facing left.
Reverse: ONE PENNY. Britannia seated facing right, right hand resting on shield, left hand holding trident; 1927 in exergue. Some original mint lustre.
SPINK: 4054

George V's portrait was designed by Bertram Mackennal (1863 - 1931), this is marked by a small "BM" on the King's neck.

No pennies were struck from 1923 to 1925 while the mint made an effort to stop the ghosting which plagued the earlier George V penny issues. Ghosting is when the design from one side of a coin shows through on the opposite side, in this case it is the portrait's outline which can be seen on the reverse. The first attempt at a solution, in 1926, had been to alter the bronze alloy from 95% Copper, 4% tin and 1% Zinc to 95.5% Copper, 3% tin and 1.5% Zinc but this, coupled with modifications to the portrait, proved unsuccessful in addressing the ghosting problem. In 1927, in a further attempt to address the problems of ghosting, both the King's portrait on the obverse and Britannia on the reverse were modified so that the details were more clearly defined and struck in slightly lower relief. However, the ghosting problem was not completely resolved until 1928 when the portrait of the King was reduced in size.
*AlexJul 10, 2018
George_V_1920_Penny.JPG
1920 GEORGE V "Large head" AE Penny6 viewsObverse: GEORGIVS V DEI GRA:BRITT:OMN:REX FID:DEF:IND:IMP: . Bare head of George V facing left.
Reverse: ONE PENNY. Britannia seated facing right, right hand resting on shield, left hand holding trident; 1920 in exergue. Weakly struck reverse.
SPINK: 4051

George V's portrait was designed by Bertram Mackennal (1863 - 1931), this is marked by a small "BM" on the King's neck.
*AlexJul 09, 2018
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LINK5 views*AlexJul 09, 2018
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1843 "BENJAMIN NIGHTINGALE" AE Halfpenny Token. London, Middlesex14 viewsObverse: VILIUS EST ARGENTUM AURO, VIRTUTIBUS AURUM. Female, leaning on books behind her, holding a cornucopia from which coins are spilling, seated facing right in front of an open coin cabinet; in exergue, tudor rose on shield between two branches.
Reverse: BENJAMIN NIGHTINGALE LONDON * PRIVATE TOKEN * 1843 surrounding “BN” monogram in script.
Edge: Plain.
Diameter: 30mm | Weight: 14.2gms | Die Axis: 12
Bell (Middlesex) A3
VERY RARE (Only 72 of these bronzed copper halfpenny tokens were struck)

Privately issued in London by Benjamin Nightingale, the die sinker for this token was William Joseph Taylor (whose initials WJT can be seen to the left below the books on the obverse), following a similar design for halfpennies that he had produced for Matthew Young, a British merchant. Taylor was born in Birmingham in 1802 and was apprenticed to Thomas Halliday in 1818 as the first die-sinker to be trained by him. He set up his own business as a die-sinker, medallist and engraver at 5 Porter Street, Soho, London in 1829, later moving to 3 Lichfield Street, Birmingham. In 1843 the business moved to 33 Little Queen Street and finally, in 1869, to 70 Red Lion Street where, in 1885, Taylor died.
The Soho Mint at Birmingham (founded by Matthew Boulton) closed in 1848, and it's plant and equipment was sold via auction in April 1850. Taylor purchased many of the Soho Mint's hubs and dies from this auction and used them to restrike many of the coins & patterns that the Soho Mint had struck between the 1790's and the 1840's, though he nearly always re-polished or re-engraved elements of the original dies before re-using them.

Benjamin Nightingale was a wine and spirit merchant who lived at 17 Upper Stamford Street, Blackfriars Road in London. He was born in 1806 and died on March 9th, 1862. He was a well known Antiquarian and was a member of the Numismatic Society of London.
In 1863, after his death, Benjamin Nightingale's collection, consisting of 359 lots, was sold over a two day period by Sotheby's. This is from the February 13, 1863 edition of the London Daily News (page 8, column 6).

THE VALUABLE CABINET of COINS and MEDALS of the late BENJAMIN NIGHTINGALE, Esq.
MESSRS S. LEIGH SOTHEBY and WILKINSON, auctioneers of literary property and works illustrative of the fine arts, will SELL BY AUCTION, at their house, No. 13 (late 3), Wellington-street, Strand, W.C., on WEDNESDAY, Feb. 25, and following day, at 1 precisely, the valuable CABINET OF COINS and MEDALS of the late Benjamin Nightingale, Esq.; comprising a few Roman coins in gold, silver, and copper, in the highest state of preservation; a most valuable collection of English medals in all metals; rare and curious jetons, including a very perfect set of those struck to illustrate the history of the low countries; a few remarkable foreign medals, a choice library of numismatic books, several well-made cabinets, & c. – May be viewed two days previous, and catalogues had on receipt of two stamps.

According to Manville and Robertson, prior to his death, Benjamin Nightingale had sold off part of his collection at an auction by Sotheby's on 29th Nov. 1855.
"Benjamin NIGHTINGALE" in ANS copy; Greek, Roman, Tavern Tokens, Town Pieces, 17-18c Tokens, English and Foreign Medals, Books; 165 lots. -Curtis Clay.

The inspiration for these tokens might have been Pye's 1797 halfpenny (Warwickshire 223) which is of a similar design.
*AlexJul 09, 2018
1774_George_III_Farthing.JPG
1774 GEORGE III AE Farthing5 viewsObverse: GEORGIVS.III.REX. Laureate and cuirassed bust of George III facing right.
Reverse: BRITANNIA. Britannia facing left, seated on globe, shield at her side, and holding spear and olive-branch. In exergue, 1774.
Diameter: 23mm | Weight: 4.9gms | Die Axis: 6h
SPINK: 3775

This portrait of George III was designed by John Sigismund Tanner (1705 - 1775).
*AlexJul 06, 2018
1754_George_II_Farthing.JPG
1754 GEORGE II "Old Head" AE Farthing5 viewsObverse: GEORGIVS.II.REX. Laureate and cuirassed bust of George II facing left.
Reverse: BRITANNIA. Britannia facing left, seated on shield and holding spear and olive-branch. In exergue, 1754.
Diameter: 23mm | Weight: 5.1gms | Die Axis: 6h
SPINK: 3722

This portrait of George II was designed by John Sigismund Tanner (1705 - 1775). Tanner started engraving the designs for the copper coinage in 1740 and became Chief Engraver at the Royal Mint on the death of John Croker in 1741.
*AlexJul 06, 2018
1747_GEORGE_II_Halfpenny.JPG
1747 GEORGE II "Old Head" AE Halfpenny7 viewsObverse: GEORGIVS.II.REX. Laureate and cuirassed bust of George II facing left.
Reverse: BRITANNIA. Britannia facing left, seated on shield and holding spear and olive-branch. In exergue, 1747.
Diameter: 29mm | Weight: 9.8gms | Die Axis: 6h
SPINK: 3719

This portrait of George II was designed by John Sigismund Tanner (1705 - 1775). Tanner started engraving the designs for the copper coinage in 1740 and became Chief Engraver at the Royal Mint on the death of John Croker in 1741.
*AlexJul 06, 2018
1902_Edward_VII_One_penny.JPG
1902 EDWARD VII AE PENNY5 viewsObverse: EDWARDVS VII DEI GRA:BRITT:OMN:REX FID:DEF:IND:IMP: . Bare head of Edward VII facing right.
Reverse: ONE PENNY. Britannia seated facing right, right hand resting on shield, left hand holding trident. 1902 in exergue.
SPINK: 3990

Edward VII's portrait was designed by George William De Saulles (1862 - 1903), this is marked by a small "De S" below the King's neck.
*AlexJul 04, 2018
George_5_KN_Penny_1918.JPG
1918 "KN" GEORGE V "Large head" AE Penny6 viewsObverse: GEORGIVS V DEI GRA:BRITT:OMN:REX FID:DEF:IND:IMP: . Bare head of George V facing left.
Reverse: ONE PENNY. Britannia seated facing right, right hand resting on shield, left hand holding trident; 1918 and small "KN" (for Kings Norton) in exergue.
SPINK: 4053
VERY RARE

George V's portrait was designed by Bertram Mackennal (1863 - 1931), this is marked by a small "BM" on the King's neck.

The “King's Norton Metal Company” (King's Norton being an area south of central Birmingham) was registered as a Limited Company in 1890 and was a general manufacturer of small metal goods. Minting did not become part of its business until 1912 when the Royal Mint placed an order for bronze blanks which were then used to strike coins. Minting was only a sideline part of the business and the company only struck coins for Britain in 1918 and 1919 after being awarded with a contract to strike George V Pennies. The pennies struck by the Kings Norton Metal Company can be identified by a small “KN” next to the date on the reverse.
*AlexJul 03, 2018
George_5_H_Penny_1912.JPG
1912 "H" GEORGE V "Large head" AE Penny6 viewsObverse: GEORGIVS V DEI GRA:BRITT:OMN:REX FID:DEF:IND:IMP: . Bare head of George V facing left.
Reverse: ONE PENNY. Britannia seated facing right, right hand resting on shield, left hand holding trident; 1912 and small "H" (for Heaton) in exergue.
SPINK: 4052
SCARCE

George V's portrait was designed by Bertram Mackennal (1863 - 1931), this is marked by a small "BM" on the King's neck.

The Heaton Mint in Birmingham was founded in 1850 by Ralph Heaton Junior using second-hand equipment purchased from Matthew Boulton's old Soho Mint. Ralph Heaton pioneered the modern mill striking of bronze coins, and in 1860 he was contracted by the Royal Mint to assist it in striking Britain's new bronze penny, half-penny and farthing issues. The Birmingham Mint continued striking these bronze issues for the Royal Mint off and on until the 1880s.
In 1912, the Royal Mint once again subcontracted the Birmingham Mint to strike enough British pennies to meet the demand, and those pennies carry a small 'H' (for Heaton) mintmark to the left of the date on the reverse. During the First World War, the Birmingham Mint was employed in other aspects of metalwork, producing brass and copper tubing for bullets and artillery rounds, but was again contracted to strike more Heaton pennies in 1918 and 1919.
*AlexJul 03, 2018
Victoria_Penny_1891.JPG
1891 VICTORIA BRONZE "BUN HEAD" PENNY3 viewsObv: VICTORIA D:G: BRITT:REG:FID:DEF: "Bun head" bust of Queen Victoria with elderly features facing left.
Rev: ONE PENNY. Britannia seated facing right, her right hand resting on shield, her left holding a trident; in left background, a lighthouse and in right background, a ship; 1891 in exergue.
SPINK: 3954

Victoria's "bun head" portrait was designed by Leonard Charles Wyon (1826 - 1891), he was the eldest son of William Wyon, who had previously designed the "young head" portrait of the Queen. The letters L C WYON are incuse amongst the ornamentation of the Queen's dress.
From 1881 heraldic colouring was added to Britannia's shield on the reverse.
*AlexJun 27, 2018
George_V_Halfpenny_1935.JPG
1935 GEORGE V "Small head" AE HALFPENNY7 viewsObverse: GEORGIVS V DEI GRA:BRITT:OMN:REX FID:DEF:IND:IMP: . Bare head of George V facing left.
Reverse: HALF PENNY. Britannia seated facing right, right hand resting on shield, left hand holding trident; 1935 in exergue.
Diameter 25mm
SPINK: 4058

George V's portrait was designed by Bertram Mackennal (1863 - 1931), this is marked by a small "BM" on the King's neck.

In common with the pennies, from 1928, the King's portrait was reduced in size to finally solve the problem of ghosting which had plagued earlier George V issues.
*AlexJun 26, 2018
George_5_halfpenny_1920.JPG
1920 GEORGE V "Large head" AE Halfpenny1 viewsObverse: GEORGIVS V DEI GRA:BRITT:OMN:REX FID:DEF:IND:IMP: . Bare head of George V facing left.
Reverse: HALF PENNY. Britannia seated facing right, right hand resting on shield, left hand holding trident; 1920 in exergue.
Diameter 25mm
SPINK: 4056

George V's portrait was designed by Bertram Mackennal (1863 - 1931), this is marked by a small "BM" on the King's neck.
*AlexJun 26, 2018
Edward_7_Farthing_1903.JPG
1903 EDWARD VII AE FARTHING4 viewsObverse: EDWARDVS VII DEI GRA:BRITT:OMN:REX FID:DEF:IND:IMP: . Bare head of Edward VII facing right.
Reverse: FARTHING. Britannia seated facing right, right hand resting on shield, left hand holding trident; in exergue, 1903.
Diameter 20mm | Die Axis 12
SPINK: 3992

Edward VII's portrait was designed by George William De Saulles (1862 - 1903), this is marked by a small "De S" below the King's neck.
All Edward VII farthings were darkened artificially at the mint to avoid confusion with half sovereigns. An acid gas, sodium thiosulphate was used to react with the surface of the farthings after they had been struck, permanently altering their appearance chemically by turning them black. This coin still retains some of it's original black appearance.
*AlexJun 24, 2018
George_III_farthing_1806.JPG
1806 GEORGE III AE Farthing4 viewsObverse: GEORGIUS III • D : G • REX. 1806. Laureate bust of George III facing right.
Reverse: BRITANNIA. Britannia seated facing left, holding olive branch and trident. Small ship in background to left; mint-mark SOHO below shield.
Diameter: 22mm | Weight: 4.6gms
SPINK: 3482

The portrait of George III was designed by Conrad Heinrich Kuchler (c.1740 - 1810), this is marked by a small "K" in the drapery at the base of the King's bust. The reverse of this coin was also designed by Kuchler, this is indicated by a small "K" to the bottom left of Britannia's shield. Kuchler moved to Birmingham in 1795 and designed many of the coins and medals which were struck at Matthew Boulton's SOHO mint.
*AlexJun 22, 2018
George_III_HALFPENNY_1799.JPG
1799 GEORGE III AE HALFPENNY3 viewsObverse: GEORGIUS III DEI GRATIA REX. Laureate and draped bust of George III facing right.
Reverse: BRITANNIA 1799. Britannia seated facing left, holding olive branch and trident, small ship in left background; mint-mark SOHO below shield.
Edge: Centre grained.
Diameter: 30mm.
SPINK: 3778

This portrait of George III was designed by Conrad Heinrich Kuchler (c.1740 - 1810). Kuchler moved to Birmingham in 1795 and designed many of the coins and medals which were struck at Matthew Boulton's SOHO mint.
*AlexJun 22, 2018
George_II_AE_Farthing.JPG
1735 GEORGE II "Young Head" AE Farthing4 viewsObverse: GEORGIVS.II.REX. Laureate and cuirassed bust of George II facing left.
Reverse: BRITANNIA. Britannia facing left, seated on shield and holding spear and olive-branch. In exergue, 1735.
Weakly struck reverse.
Diameter: 23mm | Weight: 4.8gms | Die Axis: 6
SPINK: 3720

This portrait of George II was designed by John Coker (1670 - 1741). Coker joined the Royal Mint in 1697 and became chief engraver there in 1705.
*AlexJun 22, 2018
Constantine_II_Beata_Altar_PLON_London.JPG
Struck A.D.320 - 324. CONSTANTINE II as Caesar. AE3 of Londinium4 viewsObverse: CONSTANTINVS IVN N C. Helmeted and cuirassed bust of Constantine II facing left.
Reverse: BEAT TRANQLITAS (sic). Altar, inscribed VOT IS XX in three lines, surmounted by cosmic globe with three stars above; in exergue, PLON.
RIC VII : 287.

Flavius Claudius Constantinus was the eldest son of Constantine and Fausta, he was given the rank of Caesar in A.D.316, at the same time as Crispus.
This coin was struck in connection with the fifteenth anniversary of his father, Constantine the great.
*AlexJun 22, 2018
GRATIAN_VIRTUS_SMAQS.JPG
Struck A.D.378 - 383. GRATIAN. AE3 of Aquileia10 viewsObverse: D N GRATIANVS P F AVG. Pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust of Gratian facing right.
Reverse: VIRTVS ROMANORVM. Roma seated facing, head left, holding globe in her right hand and downward facing spear in her left; in exergue, SMAQS.
RIC IX : 35a.
RARE
1 comments*AlexJun 22, 2018
Jovian_Hd-L_VOTV_CONSPI.JPG
Struck A.D.363 - 364. JOVIAN AE3 of Constantinopolis4 viewsObverse: D N IOVIANVS P F AVG. Pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust of Jovian facing left.
Reverse: VOT V within laurel-wreath; in exergue, CONSPΓ.
RIC VIII : 178.
SCARCE
*AlexJun 22, 2018
MAXIMINUS_II_AS_FIL-AVG.JPG
Struck A.D.308 - 309. MAXIMINUS II as Filius Augustorum. AE Follis (Nummus) of Thessalonika4 viewsObverse: MAXIMINVS FIL AVGG. Laureate head of Maximinus II facing right.
Reverse: GENIO CAESARIS. Genius standing facing left, holding patera in right hand and cornucopiae in left; in left field, star; in right field, delta; in exergue, •SM•TS•.
RIC VI : 32a
RARE

Maximinus Daia was the nephew of Galerius, who made him Caesar in A.D.305. He then changed his name to Galerius Valerius Maximinus and ruled over the East and Egypt from his headquarters at Antioch. When Licinius was made Augustus in A.D.308, Maximinus demanded the title also, especially since it had been usurped by Constantine in the West. Instead, both he and Constantine received the novel rank of Filius Augustorum in late A.D.308 or early 309 though Galerius finally acceded to his demands and he was promoted to Augustus in May, A.D.310.
This coin bears the new (and short lived) Filius Augustorum title which only appears on some coins struck for Maximinus in the West. The issues of his capital, Antioch, stress his position as Caesar and member of the imperial Jovian family.
*AlexJun 21, 2018
Victorinus_Divus_Consacratio.JPG
Struck A.D.271 under Tetricus I. DIVUS VICTORINUS. Commemorative AE antoninianus of Cologne3 viewsObverse: DIVO VICTORINO PIO. Radiate head of Victorinus facing right.
Reverse: CONSACRATIO. Eagle facing right, head turned left, standing on globe and holding wreath in beak.
Diameter: 18mm | Weight: 2.4gms | Die Axis: 6
RIC Vii : 85 | AGK 1 | Elmer 785 | Cunetio 2633
VERY RARE

Early in A.D.271 Victorinus was assassinated by Attitianus, an actuarius (regimental quartermaster), reportedly for reasons of personal revenge but more likely part of an officer coup. The most likely interpretation of the evidence is that the enigmatic usurper Domitianus II was involved in this coup and, having presumably been hailed as Emperor by some of the troops, managed to secure temporary control of one of the 'Gallic' mints. However, those forces favouring Tetricus I as the new Emperor were able to assert themselves so swiftly and decisively that Domitianus’s elevation was unlikely to have lasted more than a few days. This coin, deifying Victorinus, was struck by Tetricus I towards the end of the year.
*AlexJun 21, 2018
PHILIP_I_TETRADRACHM.JPG
Struck A.D.246 - 247. PHILIP I. Billon Tetradrachm of Alexandria4 viewsObverse: A K M IOV ΦIΛIΠΠOC EVCE. Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust of Philip I facing right.
Reverse: No legend. Elpis standing facing left, holding flower and raising the hem of her dress; across field L - Δ (= regnal year 4 = A.D 246-247).
Diameter: 23mm | Weight: 11.41gms | Die Axis: 12
Geissen: 2727 var. | Dattari: 4873 (var)
Ex Dionysos (VCoins)
*AlexJun 21, 2018
1826_GEORGE_IV_Penny.JPG
1826 GEORGE IV AE PENNY2 viewsObverse: GEORGIUS IV DEI GRATIA • 1826 •. Laureate head of George IV facing left.
Reverse: BRITANNIAR: REX FID: DEF: . Britannia seated facing right, right hand resting on shield, left holding trident. Shamrock, Rose and Thistle (indicative of Ireland, England and Scotland respectively) in exergue.
Diameter 34mm
SPINK: 3823

This portrait of George IV, used on his later coinage, was designed by William Wyon (1795 - 1851).
With the issues of George IV, Britannia now appears on pennies, halfpennies and farthings facing right instead of left, she would remain that way until 1967. She also acquires a helmet, recalling Roma and, before that, Athena.
*AlexJun 20, 2018
1893_Victoria_Halfpenny.JPG
1893 VICTORIA BRONZE "BUN HEAD" HALFPENNY3 viewsObverse: VICTORIA D:G: BRITT:REG:F:D: "Bun head" bust of Queen Victoria with elderly features facing left.
Reverse: HALF PENNY. Britannia seated facing right, her right hand resting on shield, her left holding a trident; in left background, a lighthouse and in right background, a ship; 1893 in exergue.
Diameter 25mm
SPINK: 3956

Victoria's "bun head" portrait was designed by Leonard Charles Wyon (1826 - 1891), he was the eldest son of William Wyon, who had previously designed the "young head" portrait of the Queen. The letters L C WYON are incuse amongst the ornamentation of the Queen's dress.
From 1881 heraldic colouring was added to Britannia's shield on the reverse.
*AlexJun 20, 2018
1902_EDWARD_VII_FLORIN.JPG
1902 EDWARD VII AR FLORIN2 viewsObverse: EDWARDVS VII D: G: BRITT: OMN: REX F: D: IND: IMP: . Bare head of Edward VII facing right.
Reverse: ONE FLORIN - TWO SHILLINGS. Britannia standing on galley, facing right, left hand gripping top of shield, right hand holding trident; 1902 on galley in exergue.
Diameter 28.5mm
SPINK: 3981

Edward VII's portrait was designed by George William De Saulles (1862 - 1903), this is marked by a small "De S" below the King's neck.
*AlexJun 18, 2018
1902_Edward_VII_halfpenny.JPG
1902 EDWARD VII AE HALFPENNY2 viewsObverse: EDWARDVS VII DEI GRA:BRITT:OMN:REX FID:DEF:IND:IMP: . Bare head of Edward VII facing right.
Reverse: HALF PENNY. Britannia seated facing right, right hand resting on shield, left hand holding trident; in exergue, 1902.
Diameter 25mm
SPINK: 3991

Edward VII's portrait was designed by George William De Saulles (1862 - 1903), this is marked by a small "De S" below the King's neck.
*AlexJun 18, 2018
George-5_Farthing_1936.JPG
1936 GEORGE V AE FARTHING9 viewsObverse: GEORGIVS V DEI GRA:BRITT:OMN:REX FID:DEF:IND:IMP: . Bare head of George V facing left.
Reverse: FARTHING. Britannia seated facing right, right hand resting on shield, left hand holding trident; 1936 in exergue.
SPINK: 4061

George V's portrait was designed by Bertram Mackennal (1863 - 1931), this is marked by a small "BM" on the King's neck.

Numismatic note
On January 20th 1936, King George V died, his death hastened by his physician who administered a lethal injection to him. George V was succeeded by his eldest son, Edward VIII, but in December Edward signed an instrument of abdication and his brother, Prince Albert, became King, reigning as King George VI.
No coins were issued for Edward VIII, the types bearing the portrait of George V continued to be struck throughout 1936 and up until the coronation of George VI in 1937.
*AlexJun 17, 2018
DIVOPIO_ALTAR.JPG
Struck A.D.161 - 164 under Marcus Aurelius. DIVUS ANTONINUS PIUS. Commemorative AR Denarius of Rome2 viewsObverse: DIVVS ANTONINVS. Bare head of Antoninus Pius facing right.
Reverse: DIVO PIO. Altar-enclosure, with double panelled door and horns visible above.
Diameter: 18mm | Weight: 3.1gms | Die Axis: 12
RIC III : 441 | VM : 137/3 | Sear : 5196
*AlexJun 17, 2018
ANTONINUS_PIUS_DIVUS_PYRE.JPG
Struck A.D.161 under Marcus Aurelius. DIVUS ANTONINUS PIUS. Commemorative AR Denarius of Rome12 viewsObverse: DIVVS ANTONINVS. Bare headed and draped bust of Antoninus Pius facing right.
Reverse: CONSECRATIO. Building of four storeys surmounted by Antoninus Pius in a quadriga. Unbarred A in consecratio.
Diameter: 18mm | Weight: 3.3gms | Die Axis: 6
RIC III : 438

The reverse of this coin depicts the Ustrinum Antonini Pii, the building where the body of Antoninus Pius lay. Its remains were discovered near the Piazza Montecitorio. Located just south of the Column of Antoninus Pius, it consisted of three concentric rectangle enclosures. The innermost rectangle measured 13 meters wide, the second 23 meters and the outermost 30 meters. This monument, commonly misleadingly described as a pyre on his coinage, was the monumental building in which the body was placed. It was built prior to A.D.141 and was also used for the funerals of Faustina I, Lucius Verus and Faustina II. Antoninus Pius was ultimately buried in the Mausoleum of Hadrian (now the Castel St.Angelo).
1 comments*AlexJun 17, 2018
Theodosius-1_BSISC_AE3.JPG
Struck A.D.379 - 383. THEODOSIUS I. AE3 of Siscia3 viewsObverse: D N THEODO-SIVS P F AVG. Pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust of Theodosius facing right.
Reverse: CONCOR-DIA AVGGG. Roma seated facing on throne, her left leg bare and her head turned left. She is holding a globe in her right hand and reversed spear in her left; in exergue, BSISC.
RIC IX : 27d
SCARCE
*AlexJun 17, 2018
Arcadius_VOTV_CONGamma.JPG
Struck A.D.383 - 408. ARCADIUS. AE4 of Constantinopolis3 viewsObverse: D N ARCADIVS P F AVG. Diademed and draped bust of Arcadius facing right.
Reverse: VOT V in two lines within laurel-wreath; in exergue, CONΓ✱.
RIC IX : 62b
*AlexJun 17, 2018
1862_LEPTON.JPG
BRITISH PROTECTORATE, GREEK IONIAN ISLANDS, 1862 VICTORIA AE Lepton8 viewsObverse: IONIKON KPATOΣ•. Winged lion of St. Mark standing left, head wearing nimbus crown facing, and holding Bible containing seven arrows in outstretched paw; 1862• below.
Reverse: BRITANNIA•. Britannia seated facing right, right hand resting on shield at her side, left hand holding trident.
Edge: Plain
Diameter: 16.5mm | Weight: 1.75gm | Die Axis: 6h
KM 34

The dies for this coin were engraved by William Wyon and the coin was struck at the Royal Mint in London.

Britain issued coins for the Ionian Islands based on the obol, equal to a British half-penny, intermittently until 1862. One obol was equal to four lepta up until 1834 when it was revalued at five lepta.
The obol was replaced by the Greek drachma when the Ionian Islands were given to Greece.

The Ionian Islands were seized by the British from the French when the French fleet was defeated off the island of Zakynthos (Zante) in 1809. Britain immediately took possession of Zante, Cephalonia, Kythira and Ithaca and in 1810 took over Santa Maura as well. The islands of Corfu and Paxos remained occupied by the French until 1814 when they too surrendered to the British who then ruled all the islands until 1864.
With de facto British occupation the Ionian Islands were placed under the exclusive "amicable protection" of the United Kingdom. This arrangement was formalised in 1817 when the seven principal islands became the United States of the Ionian Islands formed as a British Protectorate. The seven main islands are represented by the seven arrows held by the winged lion of St. Mark depicted on the coins. The British greatly improved the islands' communications and introduced modern education and justice systems, but after Greek independence was established, the islanders pressed for union with Greece and they were ceded to Greece in 1864 as a gift of the United Kingdom to the newly enthroned King George.
*AlexJun 16, 2018
1902_Edward_VII_British_Trade_Dollar.JPG
BRITISH OVERSEAS TRADE. 1902 EDWARD VII AR DOLLAR3 viewsObverse: • ONE DOLLAR •. Britannia standing on shore, facing left, left hand gripping top of shield, right hand holding trident; ship in full sail sailing left behind her; 1902 in exergue.
Reverse: Arabesque design with a Chinese labyrinth, one of the many variations of the Chinese character "shou" for longevity, in the centre, and the denomination in two languages, Chinese and Jawi Malay, the two main languages of the intended areas of circulation.
Diameter: 39mm | Weight: 26.9gms.

The dies were originally designed by George William De Saulles (1862 - 1903), who was later responsible for Edward VII's portrait on the British coinage as well as the reverse of that king's iconic florin which has a passing resemblance to the portrayal of Britannia on this coin.

British Trade Dollars were a direct result of the Opium Wars which began when China tried to stop Britain from selling opium to its citizens. The loser, China, had to open up a number of ports to British trade and residence, as well as ceding Hong Kong to Britain. In the decades that followed, merchants and adventurers flocked to these areas, and international trade flourished. Foreign banks were established and silver coins from all over the world began arriving to pay for tea, silk and Chinese porcelain to be shipped abroad. With the extension of British trading interests throughout the East, it became necessary to produce a special Dollar so as to remove the reliance of a British Colony upon the various foreign coins then in circulation. These .900 fine silver British Trade Dollars began being minted in 1895 and were readily accepted as a medium of exchange throughout the area. They continued being minted up until 1935 when production ceased, but coins struck in 1934 and 1935 are very rare because they were not released into circulation and were mostly melted down. The coin was officially demonetised on August 1st, 1937.
To keep up with demand these coins were minted in Bombay (now Mumbai) and Calcutta (now Kolkata) in India as well as at the Royal Mint in London. The London minted coins have no mint-mark but those struck at Bombay have the mint-mark “B” in the centre prong of Britannia's trident and those minted at Calcutta are marked with a small “C” in the ground between Britannia's left foot and the base of her shield. This coin is a product of the Bombay mint.
*AlexJun 16, 2018
Antoninus_Pius_Divus_statue.JPG
Struck A.D.161 - 164 under Marcus Aurelius. DIVUS ANTONINUS PIUS. Commemorative AR Denarius of Rome4 viewsObverse: DIVVS ANTONIN'S. Bare head of Antoninus Pius facing right.
Reverse: DIVO PIO. Seated statue of Antoninus Pius holding branch and sceptre, facing left.
Diameter: 18mm | Weight: 3.2gms | Die Axis: 6
RIC III : 442 | VM : 137/1 | Sear : 5194

EVENTS OCCURRING AT THE TIME THIS COIN WAS STRUCK
A.D.162
Lucius Verus went to war against the Parthians after the invasion of Syria and Armenia by Vologases IV of Parthia.
A.D.164
Avidius Cassius, the governor of Syria, and one of Lucius Verus' generals, crossed the Euphrates and invaded Parthian territory. Ctesiphon was captured by the Romans, but returned to the Parthians after the end of the war.
The Antonine Wall, constructed between the Clyde and the Forth estuaries in Scotland by Antoninus Pius, was largely abandoned by the Romans around this time.
*AlexJun 16, 2018
Nero___Divus_Augustus__Struck_A_D__66_-_67.JPG
Struck A.D. 66 - 67 under Nero. DIVUS AUGUSTUS. AR Billon tetradrachm of Alexandria10 viewsObverse: NERΩ KΛAY KAIΣ ΣEB ΓER AY. Radiate bust of Nero facing left, wearing aegis; before LIΓ = regnal year 13 = A.D.66-67.
Reverse: ΘEOΣ ΣEBAΣTOΣ. Radiate head of Augustus facing right.
Diameter: 24mm | Weight: 12.5gms | Die Axis: 12
GICV : 636 | Emmett : 113
Ex Pavlos S. Pavlou (London)

EVENTS OCCURRING AT THE TIME THIS COIN WAS STRUCK
A.D.66
The Jewish Revolt began in October this year when the Zealots laid siege to Jerusalem and annihilated the Roman garrison, a cohort of Legio III Cyrenaica.
The Roman writer Petronius died in this year. Having been charged with treason he committed suicide. Pliny the Elder stated that before he died, Petronius broke his fluorspar wine-dipper, which had cost 300,000 sesterces, so that Nero could not inherit it.
A.D.67
Vespasian arrived in Ptolemais, along with Legio X Fretensis and Legio V Macedonica, to put down the Jewish Revolt.
Nero travelled to Greece to participate in the Olympic Games and other festivals.
1 comments*AlexJun 16, 2018
Faustina_II_Diva_Altar~0.JPG
Struck A.D.176-180 under Marcus Aurelius. DIVA FAUSTINA JUNIOR. Commemorative denarius of Rome5 viewsObverse: DIVA FAVSTINA PIA. Draped bust of Faustina Junior facing right.
Reverse: CONSECRATIO. Altar-enclosure with closed doors.
Diameter: 19mm
RIC III : 746

Annia Galeria Faustina was the youngest daughter of Antoninus Pius and Faustina Senior. She married Marcus Aurelius in A.D.145 and was given the title of Augusta on the birth of her first child in A.D.146. She went on to have several more children, one of whom was the future emperor Commodus. In A.D.175 Faustina accompanied Marcus Aurelius on his journey to the East but she died at Halala, a village at the foot of the Taurus Mountains.
*AlexJun 16, 2018
Faustina_I_Diva_Temple~0.JPG
Struck A.D.150 or thereabouts under Antoninus Pius. DIVA FAUSTINA SENIOR. Commemorative AR Denarius of Rome2 viewsObverse: DIVA FAVSTINA. Draped bust of Faustina, hair waved and coiled on top of her head, facing right.
Reverse: AED DIV FAVSTINAE. Hexastyle temple of Diva Faustina containing seated statue of Faustina I, trellis-work fencing in the foreground in front of steps.
Diameter: 18mm | Weight: 3.2gms | Die Axis: 6
RIC III : 343
SCARCE

Construction of the temple shown on the reverse of this coin began in the year following the death of the Empress in A.D.141. It was probably completed about A.D.150, the date assigned to this issue by Philip V. Hill in "The Monuments of Ancient Rome as Coin Types".
The temple was later rededicated to Divus Antoninus and Diva Faustina and the shell of the building survives to this day in the Roman Forum, enclosing the Church of S. Lorenzo in Miranda.
*AlexJun 16, 2018
1675_Charles_II_AE_farthing.JPG
1675 CHARLES II AE FARTHING5 viewsObverse: CAROLVS•A•CAROLO. Laureate and cuirassed bust of Charles II facing left.
Reverse: BRITANNIA•. Britannia seated facing left, holding laurel branch and spear; 1675 in exergue.
Diameter: 23mm | Weight: 5.2gms | Die Axis: 6h
SPINK: 3394

This portrait of Charles II was designed by Jan (John) Roettier (1631 - 1700).
The copper coinage of King Charles II, beginning in 1672, was the first modern coinage to show Britannia. The representation was adapted from a figure of Britannia on a sestertius of the Roman emperor Antoninus Pius, who reigned from A.D.138 to 161. Frances Teresa Stewart, who became Duchess of Richmond, is reputed to have been the model for this figure. Charles II was infatuated with her despite her refusal to be his mistress. It has also been said that the model may have been Barbara Villiers, Duchess of Cleveland, who was another one of King Charles II's lady associates.
*AlexJun 16, 2018
1673_Charles_II_Halfpenny.JPG
1673 CHARLES II AE HALFPENNY7 viewsObverse: CAROLVS•A•CAROLO. Laureate and cuirassed bust of Charles II facing left.
Reverse: BRITANNIA•. Britannia seated facing left, holding laurel branch and spear; 1673 in exergue.
Diameter: 29mm | Weight: 10.6gms | Die Axis: 6h
SPINK: 3393

This portrait of Charles II was designed by Jan (John) Roettier (1631 - 1700).
The copper coinage of King Charles II, beginning in 1672, was the first modern coinage to show Britannia. The representation was adapted from a figure of Britannia on a sestertius of the Roman emperor Antoninus Pius, who reigned from A.D.138 to 161. Frances Teresa Stewart, who became Duchess of Richmond, is reputed to have been the model for this figure. Charles II was infatuated with her despite her refusal to be his mistress. It has also been said that the model may have been Barbara Villiers, Duchess of Cleveland, who was another one of King Charles II's lady associates.

On May 17th this year, Louis Joliet, a trader, and Jaques Marquette, a Jesuit missionary, began exploring the Mississippi River and the Great Lakes in America. A month later, on June 17th, they reached the headwaters of the Mississippi River, and descended to Arkansas.
On August 8th a Dutch fleet of 23 ships under the command of Admiral Cornelis Evertsen de Jonge demanded the surrender of New York and on the following day captured it from the British (the city was recaptured by the British though in 1674).
*AlexJun 16, 2018
1853_VICTORIA__PENNY.JPG
1853 VICTORIA COPPER "YOUNG HEAD" PENNY5 viewsObverse: VICTORIA DEI GRATIA 1853. Young head of Queen Victoria facing left.
Reverse: BRITANNIAR: REG: FID: DEF: Britannia seated facing right, right arm resting on shield, left arm holding trident. Shamrock, Rose and Thistle (indicative of Ireland, England and Scotland respectively) in exergue.
Diameter 34mm
SPINK: 3948

Victoria's "young head" portrait was designed by William Wyon (1795 - 1851), this is marked by a small incuse "WW" at the base of the Queen's neck on this coin.
*AlexJun 14, 2018
1734_George_II_AE_Halfpenny.JPG
1734 GEORGE II "Young Head" AE Halfpenny7 viewsObverse: GEORGIVS.II.REX. Laureate and cuirassed bust of George II facing left.
Reverse: BRITANNIA. Britannia facing left, seated on shield and holding spear and olive-branch. In exergue, 1734.
Diameter: 29mm | Weight: 10.2gms | Die Axis: 6h
SPINK: 3717

This portrait of George II was designed by John Coker (1670 - 1741). Coker joined the Royal Mint in 1697 and became chief engraver there in 1705.
*AlexJun 14, 2018
CONSTANTIUS_II_CONCORDIA_MILITUM_ASIS.JPG
Struck A.D.350. CONSTANTIUS II as Augustus. AE2 Maiorina of Siscia2 viewsObverse: D N CONSTANTIVS P F AVG. Pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust of Constantius II facing right. Behind head, A; below chin, star.
Reverse: CONCORDIA MILITVM. Constantius II standing facing left, star above head, holding labarum in each hand. In left field, A; in exergue, •ASIS•.
RIC VIII : 284.
SCARCE
*AlexJun 14, 2018
1713_ANNE_FARTHING.JPG
1713 Anne AE Pattern Farthing3 viewsObverse: ANNA DEI GRATIA. Draped bust of Anne facing left.
Reverse: BRITANNIA • 1713 •. Britannia seated facing left, left arm holding spear and resting on shield, raised right hand holding olive-branch; exergue blank.
Diameter: 22mm on thick flan. | Weight: 5.1gms. | Die axis: 6h
PATTERN - EXTREMELY RARE

All of Anne's farthings are patterns, no farthings were issued for general circulation during her reign. The portrait of Anne on this example was designed by John Coker (1670 - 1741). Coker joined the Royal Mint in 1697 and became chief engraver there in 1705.

Although Anne farthings are generally very rare, there are at least six distinct pattern varieties known to exist and there is one variety, dated 1714, of which, according to Peck, between 300 and 500 coins may have been produced. The fact that such a large number of these farthings were released in the last year of Anne's reign may be because the type was about to be produced in larger quantities for circulation at the time of Anne's death on the 1st of August.
All the other farthing varieties are certainly patterns, and were never struck as currency for circulation.

This particular coin is of good weight and metal and it appears to be a die match for another Anne pattern farthing, in this instance struck in silver, which was sold at the 12th September 2011 Heritage Long Beach Signature World & Ancient Coins Auction. It was Lot 27289 and, for comparison purposes, I have illustrated it below.
*AlexJun 14, 2018
1835_WILLIAM_IV_THIRD_FARTHING.JPG
1835 William IV AE THIRD FARTHING2 viewsObverse: GULIELMUS IIII DEI GRATIA 1835. Bare head of William IV facing right.
Reverse: BRITANNIAR: REX FID: DEF: Britannia seated facing right, right hand resting on shield, left holding trident. Shamrock, Rose and Thistle (indicative of Ireland, England and Scotland respectively) in exergue.
Diameter 16mm
SPINK: 3850

William IV's portrait was designed by William Wyon (1795 - 1851).

This coin was produced exclusively for use in Malta, but it is considered to be part of the British coinage as at that time Malta was considered more as a part of Britain than a colony. Because the cost of living was lower in Malta than in Britain it was not considered necessary to introduce the third-farthing coin into Britain itself.
*AlexJun 14, 2018
George-4_Third_Farthing_1827.JPG
1827 GEORGE IV AE THIRD FARTHING4 viewsObverse: GEORGIUS IV DEI GRATIA • 1827 •. Laureate head of George IV facing left.
Reverse: BRITANNIAR: REX FID: DEF: Britannia seated facing right, right hand resting on shield, left holding trident. Shamrock, Rose and Thistle (indicative of Ireland, England and Scotland respectively) in exergue.
Diameter 16mm
SPINK: 3827

This portrait of George IV, used on all his later coinage, was designed by William Wyon (1795 - 1851).
With the issues of George IV, Britannia now appears on pennies, halfpennies and farthings and fractions facing right instead of left, she would remain that way until 1967. She also acquires a helmet, recalling Roma and, before that, Athena.

This coin was produced in 1827 exclusively for use in Malta, but it is considered to be part of the British coinage as at that time Malta was considered more as a part of Britain than a colony. The grano, a coin dating from before British rule, was valued at a twelfth of a penny so the decision was made to coin the equivalent in a British denomination. Because the cost of living was lower in Malta than in Britain it was not considered necessary to introduce the third-farthing coin into Britain itself.
*AlexJun 14, 2018
George_3_Penny_1806.JPG
1806 GEORGE III AE Penny7 viewsObverse: GEORGIUS III • D : G • REX. 1806. Laureate bust of George III facing right.
Reverse: BRITANNIA. Britannia seated facing left, holding olive branch and trident. Small ship in background to left; mint-mark SOHO below shield.
Diameter: 34mm | Weight: 19.2gms
SPINK: 3780

The portrait of George III was designed by Conrad Heinrich Kuchler (c.1740 - 1810), this is marked by a small "K" in the drapery at the base of the King's bust. The reverse of this coin was also designed by Kuchler, this is indicated by a small "K" to the bottom left of Britannia's shield. Kuchler moved to Birmingham in 1795 and designed many of the coins and medals which were struck at Matthew Boulton's SOHO mint.
*AlexMay 29, 2018
George_3_Twopence_1797.JPG
1797 GEORGE III AE "CARTWHEEL" TWOPENCE8 viewsObverse: GEORGIUS III • D : G • REX. Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust of George III facing right.
Reverse: BRITANNIA. 1797. Britannia seated facing left, holding olive branch and trident. Small ship in left background; mint-mark SOHO below shield.
Diameter: 41mm. Weight: 56.7gms.
SPINK: 3776

This portrait of George III was designed by Conrad Heinrich Kuchler (c.1740 - 1810), this is marked by a small "K." in the drapery at the base of the King's bust. Kuchler moved to Birmingham in 1795 and designed many of the coins and medals which were struck at Matthew Boulton's SOHO mint.

The figure of Britannia was portrayed seated amid the waves and holding a trident instead of a spear for the first time on the Cartwheel twopences and pennies of this year. This mighty coin was struck in Birmingham by Matthew Boulton at his Soho Mint, but, since it weighed a full two ounces (56.7gms) and measured 5mm thick with a diameter of 41mm, it was a bit heavy for the pocket and was soon discontinued. Many have survived though, battered and worn, having been used as weights for kitchen scales. Some of these twopence coins, because they were so big, were even turned into patch boxes.
*AlexMay 26, 2018
George_3_Cartwheel_Penny_1797.JPG
1797 GEORGE III AE "CARTWHEEL" PENNY9 viewsObverse: GEORGIUS III • D : G • REX. Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust of George III facing right.
Reverse: BRITANNIA 1797. Britannia seated facing left, holding olive branch and trident. Small ship in left background; mint-mark SOHO below shield.
Diameter: 36mm
SPINK: 3777

This portrait of George III was designed by Conrad Heinrich Kuchler (c.1740 - 1810), this is marked by a small "K." in the drapery at the base of the King's bust. Kuchler moved to Birmingham in 1795 and designed many of the coins and medals which were struck at Matthew Boulton's SOHO mint.

This was the year that the first copper penny was struck, it was also the first time that the figure of Britannia was portrayed seated amid the waves and holding a trident instead of a spear. The coin was struck by Matthew Boulton at the Soho Mint, Birmingham but, weighing a full one ounce (28.3g) and with a diameter of 36mm, it was rather heavy for the pocket and was soon discontinued. Many have survived though, battered and worn, having been used as weights for kitchen scales.
*AlexMay 25, 2018
Victoria_BH_halfpence_1862.JPG
1862 VICTORIA BRONZE "BUN HEAD" HALFPENNY3 viewsObverse: VICTORIA D:G: BRITT:REG:F:D: "Bun head" bust of Queen Victoria with youthful features facing left.
Reverse: HALF PENNY. Britannia seated facing right, her right hand resting on shield, her left holding a trident; in left background, a lighthouse and in right background, a ship; 1862 in exergue.
Diameter 25mm
SPINK: 3956

Victoria's "bun head" portrait was designed by Leonard Charles Wyon (1826 - 1891), he was the eldest son of William Wyon, who had previously designed the "young head" portrait of the Queen. The letters L C WYON are incuse amongst the ornamentation of the Queen's dress.
*AlexMay 20, 2018
George-3_halfpenny_1806.JPG
1806 GEORGE III AE Halfpenny5 viewsObverse: GEORGIUS III • D : G • REX. 1806. Laureate bust of George III facing right.
Reverse: BRITANNIA. Britannia seated facing left, holding olive branch and trident. Small ship in background to left; mint-mark SOHO below shield.
Diameter: 28m | Weight: 9.6gms
SPINK: 3781

The portrait of George III was designed by Conrad Heinrich Kuchler (c.1740 - 1810), this is marked by a small "K" in the drapery at the base of the King's bust. The reverse of this coin was also designed by Kuchler, this is indicated by a small "K" to the bottom left of Britannia's shield. Kuchler moved to Birmingham in 1795 and designed many of the coins and medals which were struck at Matthew Boulton's SOHO mint.
*AlexMay 11, 2018
George-3_halfpenny_1771.JPG
1771 GEORGE III AE Halfpenny9 viewsObverse: GEORGIVS.III.REX. Laureate and cuirassed bust of George III facing right.
Reverse: BRITANNIA. Britannia facing left, seated on globe, shield at her side, and holding spear and olive-branch. In exergue, 1771.
Diameter: 29mm | Weight: 9.6gms | Die Axis: 6h
SPINK: 3774

This portrait of George III was designed by John Sigismund Tanner (1705 - 1775).
*AlexMay 11, 2018
George-4_farthing_1828.JPG
1828 GEORGE IV AE FARTHING6 viewsObverse: GEORGIUS IV DEI GRATIA • 1826 •. Laureate head of George IV facing left.
Reverse: BRITANNIAR: REX FID: DEF: Britannia seated facing right, right hand resting on shield, left holding trident. Shamrock, Rose and Thistle (indicative of Ireland, England and Scotland respectively) in exergue.
Diameter 22mm
SPINK: 3825

This portrait of George IV, used on all his later coinage, was designed by William Wyon (1795 - 1851).
With the issues of George IV, Britannia now appears on pennies, halfpennies and farthings facing right instead of left, she would remain that way until 1967. She also acquired a helmet, recalling Roma and, before that, Athena.
*AlexMay 09, 2018
JAMES-2_TIN_HALFPENNY_1687.JPG
1687 JAMES II TIN HALFPENNY6 viewsObverse: IACOBVS • SECVNDVS. Laureate and draped bust of James II facing right.
Reverse: BRITANNIA•. Britannia seated facing left, holding laurel branch and spear.
Edge: NVMMORVM * FAMVLVS * 1687 * in raised letters.
Diameter: 29mm | Die Axis: 6h
SPINK: 3419

This portrait of James II was designed by Jan (John) Roettier (1631 - 1700). In 1684, the production of farthings was changed from copper to tin with a copper centre plug. This was done to not only alleviate the critical state of the Cornish tin mining industry, but also to recoup the King's losses by giving the Crown an even greater profit margin. As there was great concern about the potential for forgery, in addition to the copper plug as a security feature, the tin coins were also produced with a lettered edge inscription which translates as "The servant of the coinage", presumably meaning that it also serves to protect the coinage from forgery. In 1685, under James II, tin halfpennies, also with a copper centre plug, were introduced. The reverse designs were identical to the previous ones of Charles II.

These tin coins had an alarming rate of wear from circulation, and furthermore, because tin was far too reactive a metal to be used for coins, the tin coinage has readily corroded when exposed to the elements. The values of extremely rare high grade examples are thus at a premium.
*AlexMay 08, 2018
William___Mary_Farthing_1694.JPG
1694 WILLIAM & MARY AE FARTHING6 viewsObverse: GVLIELMVS•ET•MARIA•. Laureate and cuirassed bust of William III, jugate with Queen Mary, facing right.
Reverse: BRITANNIA•. Britannia facing left, seated on shield and holding spear and olive-branch. In exergue, 1694.
Diameter: 23mm | Weight: 5.0gms | Die Axis: 6h
SPINK: 3453

This portrait of the conjoined busts of William III and Mary was originally designed by George Bower (1664 - 1689).
*AlexMay 08, 2018
George-1_Farthing_1719.JPG
1719 GEORGE I AE Farthing6 viewsObverse: GEORGIVS • REX •. Laureate and cuirassed bust of George I facing right.
Reverse: BRITANNIA •. Britannia facing left, seated on shield and holding spear and olive-branch. In exergue, 1719.
Diameter: 23mm | Weight: 4.6gms | Die Axis: 6h
SPINK: 3662

This portrait of George I was designed by John Coker (1670 - 1741). Coker joined the Royal Mint in 1697 and became chief engraver there in 1705.
*AlexMay 05, 2018
Aelia_Eudoxia_AE3_Antioch.JPG
Struck A.D.401 - 403. EUDOXIA. Wife of Arcadius. AE3 of Antioch3 viewsObverse: AEL EVDOXIA AVG. Diademed and draped bust of Eudoxia facing right; above, hand holding wreath.
Reverse: SALVS REIPVBLICAE. Victory seated facing right, inscribing Christogram on shield set on cippus; in exergue, ANT followed by A or Δ, the exact officina is uncertain.
RIC X : 104
*AlexApr 29, 2018
Valentinian-2_AE4_Victoria_Auggg_BSIS.JPG
Struck A.D.384 - 387. VALENTINIAN II. AE4 of Siscia4 viewsObverse: D N VALENTINIANVS P F AVG. Pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust of Valentinian II facing right.
Reverse: VICTORIA AVGGG. Victory walking left, holding wreath in her right hand and palm branch in her left; in exergue, BSIS•.
RIC IX : 39a
*AlexApr 29, 2018
Valentinian-2_AE4_Cyzicus_SMKB.JPG
Struck A.D.388 - 392. VALENTINIAN II. AE4 of Cyzicus5 viewsObverse: D N VALENTINIANVS P F AVG. Pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust of Valentinian II facing right.
Reverse: SALVS REIPVBLICAE. Victory advancing left, carrying trophy over right shoulder and dragging captive with left hand; in left field, ; in exergue, SMKB.
RIC IX : 26a
*AlexApr 29, 2018
Honorius_Emperor_crowned_by_Victory_Alexandria.JPG
Struck A.D.395 - 401. HONORIUS. AE3/4 of Alexandria4 viewsObverse: D N HONORIVS P F AVG. Pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust of Honorius facing right.
Reverse: VIRTVS EXERCITI. Honorius, standing facing, head right, holding spear and resting his left hand on shield, being crowned by Victory standing facing left beside him; in exergue, ALE-.
Weight 2.2gms
RIC X : 76
*AlexApr 25, 2018
Theodosius-2_GLOR-ROM_SMKA.JPG
Struck A.D.408 - 423. THEODOSIUS II. AE3 0f Cyzicus5 viewsObverse: D N THEODOSIVS P F AVG. Pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust of Theodosius II facing right; star behind head.
Reverse: GLORIA ROMANORVM. Two emperors standing facing, each holding a spear and shield; in exergue, SMKA.
RIC X : 404
*AlexApr 25, 2018
Marcian_Monogram_CON.JPG
Struck A.D.450 - 457. MARCIAN. AE4 of Constantinopolis5 viewsObverse: D N MARCIANVS P F AVG. Pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust of Marcian facing right.
Reverse: No legend. Monogram of Marcianus surrounded by laurel-wreath, cross above; in exergue, CON.
RIC X : 545
*AlexApr 25, 2018
Honorius_GLOR-ROM_2_soldiers_SMKA.JPG
Struck A.D.408 - 423. HONORIUS. AE3 of Cyzicus6 viewsObverse: D N HONORIVS P F AVG. Pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust of Honorius facing right; behind head, star.
Reverse: GLORIA ROMANORVM. Two emperors standing facing, each holding a spear and shield; in exergue, SMKA.
RIC X : 403
*AlexApr 24, 2018
Arcadius_GLOR-ROM_BSISC_Siscia.JPG
Struck A.D.384 - 387. ARCADIUS. AE3 of Siscia5 viewsObverse: D N ARCADIVS P F AVG. Pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust of Arcadius facing right.
Reverse: GLORIA ROMANORVM. Arcadius advancing right, holding labarum in his left hand and dragging captive by the hair in his right hand; in exergue, BSISC.
RIC IX : 38c
*AlexApr 24, 2018
Arcadius_Gloria_Romanorum_SMHB.JPG
Struck A.D.392 - 395. ARCADIUS. AE2 of Heraclea4 viewsObverse: D N ARCADIVS P F AVG. Pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust of Arcadius facing right.
Reverse: GLORIA ROMANORVM. Arcadius standing facing, head turned to right, holding standard in his right hand and globe in his left; in exergue, SMHB.
RIC IX : 27b
*AlexApr 24, 2018
Valens_Securitas_ASISC_Siscia.JPG
Struck A.D.367 - 375. VALENS. AE3 of SISCIA3 viewsObverse: D N VALENS P F AVG. Pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust of Valens facing right.
Reverse: SECVRITAS REIPVBLICAE. Victory advancing left, holding wreath in right hand; in left field, ✱ over K; in right field, Q; in exergue, ASISCR.
Weight 2.8gms.
RIC IX : 15b
*AlexApr 18, 2018
Magnus_Maximus_AE2.JPG
Struck A.D.383 - 388. MAGNUS MAXIMUS. AE2 of Lugdunum (Lyons)3 viewsObverse: D N MAG MAXIMVS P F AVG. Pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust of Magnus Maximus facing right.
Reverse: REPARATIO REIPVB. Magnus Maximus standing facing left, holding Victory on globe in his left hand and reaching out with his right hand to raise kneeling turreted female figure facing right. In right field, P; in exergue, LVGP.
RIC IX : 32 5.0gms
SCARCE
*AlexApr 18, 2018
Arcadius_facing_Antioch.JPG
Struck A.D.401 - 403. ARCADIUS. AE3/4 of Antioch7 viewsObverse: D N ARCADIVS P F AVG. Helmeted and diademed bust of Arcadius facing, holding spear over right shoulder and shield bearing cross in his left.
Reverse: CONCORDI-A AVGG. Constantinopolis seated facing, head right; in exergue, ANTΓ.
RIC X : 97
SCARCE
Ex Harlan J Berk
*AlexApr 18, 2018
Honorius_facing.JPG
Struck A.D.393 - 423. HONORIUS. AE3/4 of Cyzicus3 viewsObverse: D N HONORIVS P F AVG. Helmeted and cuirassed facing bust of Honorius holding spear and shield.
Reverse: CONCORDIA AVGG. Constantinopolis seated facing, head right, holding Victory and sceptre; in exergue, SMKΓ.
RIC X : 95
SCARCE
*AlexApr 18, 2018
Valentinian-1_Securitas_Siscia.JPG
Struck A.D.367 - 375. VALENTINIAN I. AE3 of SISCIA5 viewsObverse: D N VALENTINIANVS P F AVG. Pear-diademed draped and cuirassed bust of Valentinian I facing right.
Reverse: SECVRITAS REIPVBLICAE. Victory advancing left, holding wreath in right hand; in left field, R over R; in right field, F; in exergue, ΓSISCΣ•.
Weight 2.4gms.
RIC IX : 15a
*AlexApr 16, 2018
Valens_Restitutor_TESDelta.JPG
Struck A.D.364 - 367. VALENS. AE3 of THESSALONICA12 viewsObverse: D N VALENS P F AVG. Pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust of Valens facing right; • above head.
Reverse: RESTITVTOR REIP. Valens standing facing, head right, holding labarum in his right hand and Victory in his left; in exergue, TESΔ.
RIC IX : 17b.
RARE
1 comments*AlexApr 16, 2018
Valens_Gloria_Rom_CONST.JPG
Struck A.D.364 - 367. VALENS AE3 of ARELATE5 viewsObverse: D N VALENS P F AVG. Pear-diademed draped and cuirassed bust of Valens facing right.
Reverse: GLORIA ROMANORVM. Valens advancing right, dragging captive and holding labarum; in left field, OF; in right field, I (1st Officina); in exergue, CONST.
RIC IX : 7d
*AlexApr 16, 2018
GRATIAN_GLOR-ROM_SMAQS.JPG
Struck A.D.367 - 375. GRATIAN. AE3 of Aquileia5 viewsObverse: D N GRATIANVS P F AVG. Pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust of Gratian facing right.
Reverse: GLORIA ROMANORVM. Gratian advancing right, holding standard in his left hand and dragging captive by the hair with his right; in exergue, •SMAQS.
RIC IX : 11c | LRBC : 1017-22.
SCARCE
*AlexApr 15, 2018
Valentinian-1_GloriaRom_BSISCV.JPG
Struck A.D.367 - 375. VALENTINIAN I. AE3 of SISCIA8 viewsObverse: D N VALENTINIANVS P F AVG. Pear-diademed draped and cuirassed bust of Valentinian I facing right.
Reverse: GLORIA ROMANORVM. Valentinian advancing right, dragging captive and holding labarum; in left field, Q; in right field, R over K; in exergue, BSISCV.
RIC IX : 14a
*AlexApr 15, 2018
Valentinian-1_VOTVMVLTX_ASIRM.JPG
Struck A.D.364. VALENTINIAN I. AE3 of SIRMIUM5 viewsObverse: D N VALENTINIANVS P F AVG. Pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust of Valentinian I facing right.
Reverse: VOT V MVLT X in laurel-wreath; in exergue, ASIRM.
RIC IX : 8
SCARCE
*AlexApr 15, 2018
Valentinian-1_Restitvt_ASIRM.JPG
Struck A.D.364. VALENTINIAN I. AE3 of SIRMIUM15 viewsObverse: D N VALENTINIANVS P F AVG. Pear-diademed draped and cuirassed bust of Valentinian I facing right.
Reverse: RESTITVTOR REIP. Valentinian standing facing, head right, holding standard in his right hand and Victory in his left; in exergue, ASIRM.
RIC IX : 6a.
SCARCE
1 comments*AlexApr 15, 2018
Jovian_Hd-R_VOTVMVLTX_ASISC.JPG
Struck A.D.363 - 364. JOVIAN. AE3 of Siscia5 viewsObverse: D N IOVIANVS P F AVG. Pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust of Jovian facing right.
Reverse: VOT V MVLT X in four lines within laurel-wreath; in exergue, ASISC.
RIC VIII : 424.
RARE
*AlexApr 14, 2018
Constantius-2_Aug_SIRM_(Sirmium).JPG
Struck A.D.351 - 355. CONSTANTIUS II as Augustus. AE3 of Sirmium4 viewsObverse: D N CONSTANTIVS P F AVG. Pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust of Constantius II facing right.
Reverse: VICTORIA AVGVSTORVM. Victory walking left, holding wreath in each hand; in exergue, SIRM.
RIC VIII : 25.
RARE
*AlexApr 10, 2018
Constantius_Gallus_HOC_SIGNO_Siscia.JPG
Struck A.D.351. CONSTANTIUS GALLUS CAESAR. AE Centenionalis of Siscia4 viewsObverse: D N CONSTANTIVS IVN NOB C. Bare-headed, draped and cuirassed bust of Constantius Gallus facing right; behind bust, H.
Reverse: HOC SIGNO VICTOR ERIS. Constantius Gallus standing facing left, holding labarum in his right hand and spear in his left, being crowned by Victory standing behind him. In left field, III; in exergue, ASIS•.
RIC VIII : 308
RARE
*AlexApr 04, 2018
Constantius_Gallus_Galley_BSIS.JPG
Struck A.D.351 - 354. CONSTANTIUS GALLUS CAESAR. AE Majorina or Centenionalis of Siscia13 viewsObverse: D N CONSTANTIVS IVN NOB C. Bare-headed, draped and cuirassed bust of Constantius Gallus facing right; behind bust, A.
Reverse: FEL TEMP REPARATIO. Constantius Gallus standing facing left on galley, holding Victory in his right hand and labarum in his left; Victory at helm, star in field above her head. In left field, III; in exergue, BSIS.
Weight 4.1gms.
RIC VIII : 329
1 comments*AlexApr 04, 2018
Magnentius_Horseman_TRS.JPG
Struck A.D.350 - 353. MAGNENTIUS. AE CENTENIONALIS of Treveri (Trier)4 viewsObverse: D N MAGNENTIVS P F AVG. Bare-headed, draped and cuirassed bust of Magnentius facing right; behind bust, A.
Reverse: GLORIA ROMANORVM. Magnentius in military dress galloping right, shield on his left arm, spear in his right, spearing barbarian kneeling facing left with outstretched arms in front of horse; below horse, oval shield and broken spear; in exergue, TRS.
RIC VIII : 271
*AlexApr 04, 2018
THEODOSIUS-1_GLOR-ROM_ANTGamma_.JPG
Struck A.D.379 - 383. THEODOSIUS I. AE2 of Antioch6 viewsObverse: D N THEODOSIVS P F AVG. Helmeted, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust of Theodosius facing right, holding spear in his right hand and shield in his left.
Reverse: GLORIA ROMANORIVM. Theodosius, his head turned right and right hand raised, standing facing left on galley sailing left with Victory at the helm. In left field, wreath; at top right, cross; in exergue, eagle on globe ANTΓ.
RIC IX : 40d.
SCARCE
*AlexApr 03, 2018
GRATIAN_VICTORIA_SECVNDA_.JPG
Struck A.D.367 - 378. GRATIAN. AE3 of Rome4 viewsObverse: D N GRATIANVS P F AVG. Pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust of Gratian facing right.
Reverse: SECVRITAS REIPVBLICAE. Victory walking left, holding wreath in her right hand and palm in her left; in exergue, RSECVNDA.
RIC IX : 24c.
SCARCE
*AlexApr 03, 2018
Constantius-2vSPES.JPG
Struck A.D.357 - 361. CONSTANTIUS II as Augustus. AE4 of Cyzicus5 viewsObverse: D N CONSTANTIVS P F AVG. Pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust of Constantius II facing right.
Reverse: SPES REIPVBLICE. Constantius II standing facing left, holding globe and spear; in left field, uncertain symbol; in exergue, SMKB.
RIC VIII : 119 or 121
SCARCE
*AlexApr 03, 2018
1724_George_I_Halfpenny.JPG
1724 GEORGE I AE Halfpenny6 viewsObverse: GEORGIVS.REX. Laureate and cuirassed bust of George I facing right.
Reverse: BRITANNIA. Britannia facing left, seated on shield and holding spear and olive-branch. In exergue, 1724.
Diameter: 29mm | Weight: 8.7gms | Die Axis: 6h
SPINK: 3660

This portrait of George I was designed by John Coker (1670 - 1741). Coker joined the Royal Mint in 1697 and became chief engraver there in 1705.
*AlexApr 02, 2018
1696_WILLIAM_III_HALFPENNY.JPG
1696 WILLIAM III AE HALFPENNY7 viewsObverse: GVLIELMVS•TERTIVS•. Laureate and cuirassed bust of William III facing right.
Reverse: BRITANNIA•. Britannia facing left, seated on shield and holding spear and olive-branch. In exergue, 1696.
Centre of reverse weakly struck.
Diameter: 29mm | Weight: 10.6gms | Die Axis: 6h
SPINK: 3554
*AlexApr 02, 2018
1699_WILLIAM_III_FARTHING~0.JPG
1699 WILLIAM III AE FARTHING8 viewsObverse: GVLIELMVS•TERTIVS•. Laureate and cuirassed bust of William III facing right.
Reverse: BRITANNIA•1699. Britannia facing left, seated on shield and holding spear and olive-branch.
Diameter: 23mm | Weight: 4.3gms | Die Axis: 6h
SPINK: 3558

This portrait of William III was designed under John (Jan) Roettier (1631-c.1700) and his sons, Norbert and James. The Roettiers were medallists from a family whose members had distinguished themselves in the art for nearly two centuries. John was born in Antwerp, the eldest son, he learned the art of medal engraving and stone cutting from his father, Philip Roettiers who was a medallist and goldsmith. At an early age John was an assistant at the Antwerp Mint, but left in 1661 to go to London at the invitation of Charles II. In 1670 he became Chief engraver at the royal Mint, London, and remained at that post until 1698. Norbert Roettiers (1665-1727) was the third son of John Roettiers, with whom he apprenticed. In 1690 he was appointed Assistant Engraver at the Royal Mint, together with his brother James. James, however, was removed from his office at the mint in consequence of the theft of dies from the Tower of London and he died in 1698 after falling from his horse.
*AlexApr 02, 2018
1697_WILLIAM_III_FARTHING.JPG
1697 WILLIAM III AE FARTHING8 viewsObverse: GVLIELMVS•TERTIVS•. Laureate and cuirassed bust of William III facing right.
Reverse: BRITANNIA•. Britannia facing left, seated on shield and holding spear and olive-branch. In exergue, 1697.
Diameter: 23mm | Weight: 4.6gms | Die Axis: 6h
SPINK: 3557

This portrait of William III was designed under John (Jan) Roettier (1631-c.1700) and his sons, Norbert and James. The Roettiers were medallists from a family whose members had distinguished themselves in the art for nearly two centuries. John was born in Antwerp, the eldest son, he learned the art of medal engraving and stone cutting from his father, Philip Roettiers who was a medallist and goldsmith. At an early age John was an assistant at the Antwerp Mint, but left in 1661 to go to London at the invitation of Charles II. In 1670 he became Chief engraver at the royal Mint, London, and remained at that post until 1698. Norbert Roettiers (1665-1727) was the third son of John Roettiers, with whom he apprenticed. In 1690 he was appointed Assistant Engraver at the Royal Mint, together with his brother James. James, however, was removed from his office at the mint in consequence of the theft of dies from the Tower of London and he died in 1698 after falling from his horse.
*AlexApr 02, 2018
1694_WILLIAM___MARY_HALFPENNY.JPG
1694 WILLIAM & MARY AE HALFPENNY13 viewsObverse: GVLIELMVS•ET•MARIA•. Laureate and cuirassed bust of William III, jugate with Queen Mary, facing right.
Reverse: BRITANNIA•. Britannia facing left, seated on shield and holding spear and olive-branch. In exergue, 1694.
Diameter: 29mm | Weight: 11.1gms | Die Axis: 6h
SPINK: 3452

This portrait of the conjoined busts of William III and Mary was originally designed by George Bower (1664 - 1689).
1 comments*AlexApr 02, 2018
CONSTANTIN-1_VOT_XX_AQP.JPG
Struck A.D.322. CONSTANTINE I as Augustus. AE3 of Aquileia10 viewsObverse: CONSTAN-TINVS AVG. Laureate head of Constantine facing right.
Reverse: D N CONSTANTINI MAX AVG. Laurel wreath encircling palm branches either side of VOT • XX; in exergue, AQP.
RIC VII : 104

This coin is one of the issues struck to commemorate the fifteenth anniversary of Constantine's reign.
*AlexApr 01, 2018
Constantius-2_VIC-DD-NN_ASIS.JPG
Struck A.D.347 - 348. CONSTANTIUS II as Augustus. AE4 of Siscia5 viewsObverse: CONSTANTIVS P F AVG. Rosette-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust of Constantius II facing right.
Reverse: VICTORIAE DD AVGG Q NN. Two Victories standing facing each other; in exergue, SIS.
RIC VIII : 182
*AlexApr 01, 2018
Constans_Aug_FEL-TEMP_Galley_ESIS.JPG
Struck A.D.348 - 350. CONSTANS as Augustus. AE3 of Siscia6 viewsObverse: D N CONSTANS P F AVG. Pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust of Constans facing right.
Reverse: FEL TEMP REPARATIO. Constans standing facing left on galley, holding Victory and labarum, Victory at helm; in exergue, ASISΓ.
Diameter: 19mm | Weight: 2.1gm
RIC VIII : 230 Var. (Emperor holds Victory instead of phoenix)
*AlexApr 01, 2018
Constantius-2_Fallen-horse_ANAI.JPG
Struck A.D.350 - 354. CONSTANTIUS II as Augustus. AE MAIORINA of Antioch16 viewsObverse: D N CONSTANTIVS P F AVG. Pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust of Constantius facing right.
Reverse: FEL TEMP REPARATIO. Soldier advancing left, holding shieldvand spearing fallen horseman, discarded shield on ground at feet; in left field, ; in exergue, ANAI.
RIC VIII : 144
Struck on slightly undersized flan.

This coin is one of the vast issues struck for several years after a reform of the bronze coinage by Constantius II and Constans in conjunction with the 1100th anniversary of Rome in A.D.348. The coins depict historical events associated with these emperors. This type, since the defeated horseman is obviously a Persian, is likely an allusion to Constantius II's victory against the Persians in a battle which took place near Ctesiphon, the Persian capital, in A.D.344 which resulted in the Romans capturing the heir to the Persian throne.
2 comments*AlexApr 01, 2018
CONSTANTIUS-2_HOC_SIGNO_Siscia.JPG
Struck A.D.350. CONSTANTIUS II as Augustus. AE Centenionalis of Siscia4 viewsObverse: D N CONSTANTIVS P F AVG. Pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust of Constantius II facing left; behind bust, A.
Reverse: HOC SIGNO VICTOR ERIS. Constantius II standing facing left, holding labarum and crowned by Victory standing behind him; in exergue, ΕSIS✱; in left field, III.
RIC VIII : 302 | VM : 93
SCARCE
*AlexMar 31, 2018
Constantius-2_VOTXMVLTXXX_SMANA.JPG
Struck A.D.347 - 348. CONSTANTIUS II as Augustus. AE4 of Antioch6 viewsObverse: D N CONSTANTIVS P F AVG. Pearl-diademed head of Constantius II facing right.
Reverse: VOT XX MVLT XXX within laurel-wreath; in exergue, SMANA.
RIC VIII : 113
*AlexMar 31, 2018
Constantine_GLOR-_EXERC_ASIS.JPG
Struck A.D.337. CONSTANTINE I as Augustus. AE3/4 of Siscia5 viewsObverse: CONSTANTINVS MAX AVG. Rosette and laurel diademed, draped and cuirassed bust of Constantine facing right.
Reverse: GLORIA EXERCITVS. Two soldiers standing either side of a single standard, annulet in banner; in exergue, ASIS✱.
RIC VII : 261.
VERY RARE
*AlexMar 29, 2018
Constans_phoeni-globe_TR.JPG
Struck A.D.348 - 350. CONSTANS as Augustus. AE3 of Treveri (Trier)5 viewsObverse: D N CONSTANS P F AVG. Pearl diademed and draped bust of Constans facing right.
Reverse: FEL TEMP REPARATIO. Phoenix standing facing right on globe; in exergue, TRS•.
Weight: 2.9gms
RIC VIII : 234

This coin is one of the vast issues struck for several years after a reform of the bronze coinage by Constantius II and Constans in conjunction with the 1100th anniversary of Rome in A.D.348. This reverse type of a phoenix is the general symbol of renewal and rebirth.
*AlexMar 29, 2018
Constans_Phoenix-rock_BSIS.JPG
Struck A.D.348 - 350. CONSTANS as Augustus. AE3 of Siscia5 viewsObverse: D N CONSTANS P F AVG. Pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust of Constans facing right.
Reverse: FEL TEMP REPARATIO. Phoenix standing facing right on pyre; in exergue, BSIS.
RIC VIII : 241 | VM : 69

This coin is one of the vast issues struck for several years after a reform of the bronze coinage by Constantius II and Constans in conjunction with the 1100th anniversary of Rome in A.D.348. This reverse type of a phoenix is the general symbol of renewal and rebirth.
*AlexMar 29, 2018
Constantine-2_VIC-CONS_RP.JPG
Struck A.D.337 - 340. CONSTANTINE II as AUGUSTUS. AE4 of Rome4 viewsObverse: VIC CONSTANTINVS AVG. Rosette-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust of Constantine II facing right.
Reverse: VIRTVS AVGVSTI. Constantine II standing facing right, holding spear and leaning on shield.
In exergue, RP.
Weight 1.3gms.
RIC VIII : 14
SCARCE
*AlexMar 29, 2018
Constantine-2_Caesar_VIRT-EXER_TSB.JPG
Struck A.D.320. CONSTANTINE II as CAESAR. Silvered AE3 of Thessalonika7 viewsObverse: CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C. Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust of Constantine II facing left.
Reverse: VIRTVS EXERCIT. Two captives seated below standard inscribed VOT XX; in left field, S; in right field, F; in exergue, •TS•B•.
RIC VII : 80
VERY RARE
*AlexMar 29, 2018
Constantine-2_Sol_PLN_London.JPG
Struck A.D.317. CONSTANTINE II CAESAR. AE3 of London5 viewsObverse: CONSTANTINVS IVN N C. Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust of Constantine II facing right, viewed from the rear.
Reverse: SOLI INVICTO COMITI. Sol, radiate, chlamys across left shoulder, standing facing left, his right hand raised and holding globe in his left. In left field, S; in right field, P; in exergue, PLN.
RIC VII : 118
VERY RARE
*AlexMar 29, 2018
Diocletian_IOVI-AVGG_A.JPG
Struck A.D.290 - 291. DIOCLETIAN. AE Antoninianus of Lugdunum7 viewsObverse: IMP DIOCLETIANVS AVG. Radiate bust of Diocletian facing left, wearing Imperial mantle and holding eagle-tipped sceptre.
Reverse: IOVI AVGG. Jupiter standing facing left, holding Victory on globe in his right hand and sceptre in his left; eagle to left at his feet; in exergue, A.
Diameter: 22mm | Weight: 3.1gms | Die Axis: 12
RIC Vii : 26 var
SCARCE
1 comments*AlexMar 27, 2018
Maximianus_PAX_AVGG_S.JPG
Struck A.D.286 - 295. MAXIMIANUS. Silvered AE Antoninianus of Lugdunum4 viewsObverse: IMP C MAXIMIANVS P F AVG. Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust of Maximianus facing right.
Reverse: PAX AVGG. Pax standing facing left, holding Victory in her right hand and sceptre in her left; in exergue, S.
Diameter: 22mm | Weight: 4.6gms | Die Axis: 6
Still retaining much silvering. Struck from worn reverse die.
RIC Vii : 399
*AlexMar 27, 2018
DIOLCLETIAN_FOLLIS_K_Carthage.JPG
Struck A.D.299 - 303. DIOCLETIAN. Large AE Follis of Carthage3 viewsObverse: IMP DIOCLETIANVS P F AVG. Laureate head of Diocletian facing right.
Reverse: SALVIS AVGG ET CAESS FEL KART. Carthago standing facing left, holding fruits in both hands; in exergue, A.
Diameter: 28mm | Weight: 10.3gms | Die Axis: 6 | Traces of silvering
RIC VI : 31a
SCARCE
*AlexMar 26, 2018
Diocletian_IOVI-CONS_QXXIT.JPG
Struck A.D.285. DIOCLETIAN. AE Antoninianus of Ticinum2 viewsObverse: IMP C C VAL DIOCLETIANVS P F AVG. Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust of Diocletian facing right.
Reverse: IOVI CONSERVAT. Jupiter standing facing left, holding sceptre in left hand and thunderbolt in right; at Jupiter's feet, small figure of emperor standing facing left with right arm outstretched; in exergue, QXXIT.
Diameter: 22mm | Weight: 3.2gms | Die Axis: 12
RIC Vii : 220
*AlexMar 26, 2018
Drawing_of_statue_of_Justinian_(15th__century)_2.JPG
LINK7 viewsCLICK ON IMAGE TO ENLARGE*AlexMar 26, 2018
Galarius_as_Caesar_CONC-MIL_KGamma.JPG
Struck A.D.295 - 299. GALERIUS as Caesar. AE Post-reform radiate of Cyzicus5 viewsObverse: GAL VAL MAXIMIANVS NOB CAES. Radiate and draped and cuirassed bust of Galerius facing right.
Reverse: CONCORDIA MILITVM. Constantius standing facing right, receiving Victory on globe from Jupiter standing facing left; in field between figures, KΓ.
Diameter: 21mm | Weight: 4.1gms | Die Axis: 12
RIC VI : 18b
*AlexMar 26, 2018
Galerius_as_Caesar_Follis_ST.JPG
Struck A.D.300 - 303. GALERIUS as Caesar. AE Follis of Ticinum4 viewsObverse: MAXIMIANVS NOB CAES. Laureate head of Galerius facing right.
Reverse: SACRA MONET AVGG ET CAESS NOSTR. Moneta standing facing left, holding scales and cornucopiae; in exergue, ST•.
Diameter: 27mm | Weight: 8.4gms | Die Axis: 12
RIC VI : 46b
*AlexMar 25, 2018
Arcadius_Horseback_Plumes_CONSA.JPG
Struck A.D.392 - 395. ARCADIUS. AE3 of Constantinopolis9 viewsObverse: D N ARCADIUS P F AVG. Pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust of Arcadius facing right.
Reverse: GLORIA ROMANORVM. Arcadius on horseback advancing right, his right hand raised; in exergue, CONSΔ.
RIC IX : 89c
RARE

The statue on the reverse of this coin may be the one mentioned by FORVM member Masis in this thread http://www.forumancientcoins.com/board/index.php?topic=114678.0 and also here. The differences between the headgear depicted in the 15th century artist's drawing of the statue and the helmet with "feathers" shown on this coin might be due to damage or alterations caused by the ravages of time, given that the statue would already have been almost 1,000 years old when the drawing was made.
*AlexMar 25, 2018
THEODOSIUS_I_VICTORIA_Siscia_BSIS.JPG
Struck A.D.384 - 387. THEODOSIUS I. AE4 of Siscia11 viewsObverse: D N THEODOSIVS P F AVG. Pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust of Theodosius facing right.
Reverse: VICTORIA AVGGG. Victory walking left; in exergue, BSIS.
RIC IX : 39b | LRBC : 1575-78
SCARCE
2 comments*AlexMar 22, 2018
Theodosius_I_VOT_V_MVLT_X_ASISC.JPG
Struck A.D.379 - 383. THEODOSIUS I. AE4 of Siscia9 viewsObverse: D N THEODOSIVS P F AVG. Pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust of Theodosius facing right.
Reverse: VOT V MVLT X in four lines within laurel wreath; in exergue, ASISC.
RIC IX : 29d
1 comments*AlexMar 22, 2018
SEVERUS-2_CAES_GEN-POP-R_SIS.JPG
Struck A.D.305 - 306. SEVERUS II as Caesar. AE Quarter Nummus of Siscia1 viewsObverse: FL VAL SEVERVS NOB C. Laureate head of Severus II facing right.
Reverse: GENIO POPVLI ROMANI. Genius of the Roman people standing facing left, wearing modius on head and holding patera and cornucopiae; in exergue, SIS.
Weight 2.1gms
RIC VI : 170
RARE
*AlexMar 22, 2018
Constantius-1_Caesar_CONC-MIL_KB.JPG
Struck A.D.293 - 305. CONSTANTIUS I CHLORUS as Caesar. AE Post-reform radiate of Cyzicus4 viewsObverse: FL VAL CONSTANTIVS NOB CAES. Radiate and draped bust of Constantius I facing right.
Reverse: CONCORDIA MILITVM. Constantius standing facing right, receiving Victory on globe from Jupiter standing facing left; in field between figures, KB.
Diameter: 21mm | Weight: 2.1gms | Die Axis: 6
RIC VI : 18a
*AlexMar 22, 2018
Maximinus-2_as_Caesar_GEN-CAES_HTB.JPG
Struck A.D.305 - 308. MAXIMINUS II as Caesar. AE Follis (Nummus) of Heraclea4 viewsObverse: GAL VAL MAXIMINVS NOB CAES. Laureate head of Maximinus II facing right.
Reverse: GENIO CAESARIS. Genius standing facing left, holding patera and cornucopiae; in exergue, •HTB•.
Weight 7.4gms
RIC VI : 36
*AlexMar 22, 2018
Severus-2_Aug_ALE.JPG
Struck A.D.306 - 307. SEVERUS II as Augustus. AE Post-reform radiate of Alexandria4 viewsObverse: IMP C SEVERVS P F AVG. Radiate and draped bust of Severus II facing right.
Reverse: CONCORDIA MILITVM. severus standing facing right receiving Victory on globe from Jupiter standing facing left; in field between figures, B; in exergue, ALE.
Weight 2.4gms
RIC VI : 84
*AlexMar 21, 2018
MAXIMINUS-2_GEN-AVG_MKVB.JPG
Struck A.D.311. MAXIMINUS II as Augustus. AE Follis (Nummus) of Cyzicus1 viewsObverse: IMP C GAL VAL MAXIMINVS P F AVG. Laureate head of Maximinus II facing right.
Reverse: GENIO AVGVSTI G M. Genius standing facing left, holding patera in right hand and cornucopiae in left; in exergue, MKVB.
Weight 6.5gms
RIC VI : 77a
*AlexMar 21, 2018
CLAUDIUS_II_DIVO_USTRINUM_(Pyre).JPG
Struck A.D.270 - 271, probably under Aurelian. DIVUS CLAUDIUS II. Commemorative AE Antoninianus of Cyzicus10 viewsObverse: DIVO CLAVDIO. Radiate head of Claudius II Gothicus facing right, three pellets below.
Reverse: CONSACRATIO. Ustrinum or pyre of three storeys, arch in lowest storey, uppermost storey flanked by two statues, flames or smoke (or possibly an eagle) rising from circular opening at summit.
Diameter: 21mm | Weight: 2.9gms | Die Axis: 6
RIC V i : 267 (RIC mentions only two pellets, but this might simply be an error)
VERY RARE
1 comments*AlexMar 09, 2018
URBS_ROMA_SMANTheta.JPG
Struck A.D.335 - 337 under Constantine I. AE3 "URBS ROMA" COMMEMORATIVE ISSUE of Antioch13 viewsObverse: VRBS ROMA. Helmeted and plumed bust of Roma facing left.
Reverse: No legend. She-wolf, flower symbol on shoulder, standing facing left, suckling Romulus and Remus; above, two stars; in exergue, SMANΘ.
Diameter: 16mm | Weight: 1.98gms
RIC VII : 113
1 comments*AlexMar 09, 2018
URBS_ROMA_SMNE~0.JPG
Struck A.D.330 - 335 under Constantine I. AE3 "URBS ROMA" COMMEMORATIVE ISSUE of Nicomedia3 viewsObverse: VRBS ROMA. Helmeted and plumed bust of Roma facing left, one dot on helmet.
Reverse: No legend. She-wolf, standing facing left, suckling Romulus and Remus; above, two stars, three vertical dots between them; in exergue, SMNε.
RIC VII : 195.
RARE
*AlexMar 09, 2018
CONSTANTINE_I_VIRTUS_EXERCIT_STR.JPG
Struck A.D.320 - 321. CONSTANTINE I as Augustus. AE3 (Follis) of Treveri (Trier)4 viewsObverse: CONSTANTINVS AVG. Helmeted and cuirassed bust of Constantine I facing right.
Reverse: VIRTVS EXERCIT. Two prisoners, hands bound behind their backs, seated back to back beneath trophy. In left field, T; in right field, F; in exergue, STR.
RIC VII : 279
EXTREMELY RARE
*AlexMar 08, 2018
THEODOSIUS-1_REP-REIP_BSISC.JPG
Struck A.D.379 - 383. THEODOSIUS I. AE2 of Siscia10 viewsObverse: D N THEODOSIVS P F AVG. Pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust of Theodosius facing right.
Reverse: REPARATIO REIPVB. Theodosius standing facing, head left, raising kneeling turreted female figure with his right hand holding Victory on globe in his left. In exergue, ✱BSISC•.
RIC IX : 26d
1 comments*AlexMar 08, 2018
CONSTANTINE-1_VOTIS_XX_PTR.JPG
Struck A.D.321. CONSTANTINE I as Augustus. AE3 of Treveri (Trier)3 viewsObverse: CONSTANTINVS AVG. Helmeted and cuirassed bust of Constantine facing right.
Reverse: BEATA TRANQVILLITAS. Globe set on altar inscribed VOT/IS/XX in three lines; above, three stars; in exergue, PTR
RIC VII : 303
*AlexMar 08, 2018
CONSTANTIUS-1_AUG_GEN-POP-ROM_SLS__(2).JPG
Struck A.D.305 - 306. CONSTANTIUS I CHLORUS as Augustus. AE Quarter Nummus of Siscia4 viewsObverse: IMP C CONSTANTIVS P F AVG. Laureate head of Constantius I facing right.
Reverse: GENIO POPVLI ROMANI. Genius standing facing left, modius on head, holding patera in right hand and cornucopiae in left; in exergue, SIS.
Diameter: 19mm | Weight: 2.2gms | Die Axis: 6
RIC VI : 167 var.
VERY RARE
*AlexMar 08, 2018
Julian-2_Bull_HERACLB.JPG
Struck A.D.361 - 363. JULIAN II as Augustus. AE1 Follis of Heraclea4 viewsObverse: D N FL CL IVLIANVS P F AVG. Pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust of Julian II facing right.
Reverse: SECVRITAS REIPVB. Bull standing facing right; above, two stars; in exergue, •HERACL•B.
RIC VIII : 103 | LRBC : 1910 | VM : 25
SCARCE
*AlexMar 01, 2018
LICINIUS-1_IOVI-CONS_SMN.JPG
Struck A.D.317 - 320. LICINIUS I. AE3 of Nicomedia3 viewsObverse: IMP LICINIVS AVG. Laureate bust of Licinius, wearing imperial mantle, facing left, and holding globe, mappa and sceptre.
Reverse: IOVI CONSERVATORI AVGG. Jupiter standing facing left, holding Victory in his right hand and sceptre in his left, palm branch to left at his feet. In right field, Epsilon; in exergue, SMN.
Weight: 3.0gms
RIC VII : 24
SCARCE
*AlexFeb 23, 2018
Aelia_Flaccilla_Salus-R_ANTE.JPG
Struck A.D.383 - 386. AELIA FLACCILLA (Wife of Theodosius I). AE2 of Antioch27 viewsObverse: AEL FLACCILLA AVG. Pearl-diademed and draped bust of Aelia Flaccilla, wearing pearl necklace and earring, facing right.
Reverse: SALVS REIPVBLICAE. Victory seated on cippus facing right and inscribing Christogram (Chi-Rho) on shield which is also set on a short column (cippus). In right field, T; in exergue, ANTE.
RIC IX : 61
RARE

Aelia Flaccilla was the wife of Theodosius I, and the mother of Arcadius and Honorius. She died in A.D.386.
4 comments*AlexFeb 22, 2018
Theodosius_I_SMHA_Gloria_Romanorum.JPG
Struck A.D.392 - 395. THEODOSIUS I. AE2 of Heraclea3 viewsObverse: D N THEODOSIVS P F AVG. Pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust of Theodosius facing right.
Reverse: GLORIA ROMANORVM. Theodosius standing facing, head turned to right, holding standard in his right hand and globe in his left; in exergue, SMHA.
RIC IX : 27a
*AlexFeb 22, 2018
Constantine-1_Virtus-Exercitus_VOTXX_STR.JPG
Struck A.D.320. CONSTANTINE I as Augustus. AE3 of Treveri10 viewsObverse: CONSTANTINVS AVG. Helmeted and cuirassed bust of Constantine facing right.
Reverse: VIRTVS EXERCIT. Two captives seated back to back at foot of standard inscribed VOT XX; in exergue, STR.
RIC VII : 258
EXTREMELY RARE

This coin is one of the issues struck in A.D.320 to commemorate the fifteenth anniversary of Constantine's reign.
1 comments*AlexFeb 21, 2018
CONSTANTIUS_2_GLOR-EXER_ASIS.JPG
Struck A.D.330 - 333. CONSTANTIUS II as CAESAR. AE3 of Siscia3 viewsObverse: FL IVL CONSTANTIVS NOB C. Laureate and cuirassed bust of Constantius facing right.
Reverse: GLORIA EXERCITVS. Two soldiers standing either side of two standards; in exergue, ASIS.
RIC VII : 221.
VERY RARE
*AlexFeb 14, 2018
Licinius_2_VOTV_ASIS.JPG
Struck A.D.320. LICINIUS II as CAESAR. AE3 of Siscia3 viewsObverse: LICINIVS IVN NOB C. Laureate head of Licinius II facing right.
Reverse: CAESARVM NOSTRORVM around VOT • V within laurel-wreath; in exergue, ΔSIS.
RIC VII : 155
RARE
*AlexFeb 14, 2018
AURELIAN_VIRT-MILIT_T.JPG
Struck A.D.270 - 275. AURELIAN. AE ANTONINIANUS of Mediolanum or Tarraco7 viewsObverse: IMP AVRELIANVS AVG. Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust of Aurelian facing right.
Reverse: VIRTVS MILITVM. Aurelian standing facing right, holding globe and spear, being presented with Victory by soldier, holding transverse spear, standing facing left; in exergue, T.
Diameter: 21mm | Weight: 3.3gms | Die Axis: 6
Not in RIC
EXTREMELY RARE
*AlexFeb 13, 2018
AURELIAN_ORIENS_XXIR.JPG
Struck A.D.271 - 275. AURELIAN. Silvered Antoninianus of Rome3 viewsObverse: IMP AVRELIANVS AVG. Radiate and cuirassed bust of Aurelian facing right.
Reverse: ORIENS AVG. Sol advancing right, holding laurel branch in his right hand and bow in his left, treading down prostrate enemy. In left field, Z; in exergue, XXIR.
Diameter: 22mm | Weight: 3.9gms | Die Axis: 12
RIC V i : 64
*AlexFeb 13, 2018
AURELIAN_FORT-REDUX_Q.JPG
Struck A.D.270 - 275. AURELIAN. Silvered Antoninianus of Siscia10 viewsObverse: IMP AVRELIANVS AVG. Radiate and cuirassed bust of Aurelian facing right.
Reverse: FORTVNA REDVX. Fortuna seated facing left on wheel, holding rudder in her right hand and cornucopiae in her left; in exergue, ✱ Q.
Diameter: 20mm | Weight: 3.0gms | Die Axis: 6
RIC V i : 220
*AlexFeb 13, 2018
CONSTANTIN-1_GLOR-EXER_TRS.JPG
Struck A.D.332. CONSTANTINE I as Augustus. AE3/4 of Treveri (Trier)1 viewsObverse: CONSTANTINVS MAX AVG. Rosette-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust of Constantine facing right.
Reverse: GLORIA EXERCITVS. Two soldiers standing either side of two standards; in exergue, TR•S.
RIC VII : 537
*AlexFeb 12, 2018
GRATIAN_AE2_BSISC.JPG
Struck A.D.378 - 383. GRATIAN. AE2 of Siscia3 viewsObverse: D N GRATIANVS P F AVG. Pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust of Gratian facing right.
Reverse: REPARATIO REIPVB. Gratian standing facing, holding Victory on globe in his left hand and raising kneeling turreted female figure with his right; in exergue, BSISC.
RIC IX : 26a | LRBC : 1512-18

The son of Valentinian I and Severa, Flavius Gratianus was born around A.D.360. He was murdered at Lugdunum by supporters of Magnus Maximus on 25th August, A.D.383.
*AlexFeb 11, 2018
VALENTINIAN-2_REP-REIP_BSISC_2.JPG
Struck A.D.378 - 383. VALENTINIAN II. AE2 of Siscia2 viewsObverse: D N VALENTINIANVS IVN P F AVG. Pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust of Valentinian II facing right.
Reverse: REPARATIO REIPVB. Valentinian II standing facing left, holding Victory on globe in left hand and raising kneeling turreted female figure with right; in exergue, ✱BSISC.
RIC IX : 26b
*AlexFeb 11, 2018
Aurelian_Oriens-aug_Sol_S.JPG
Struck A.D.271 - 275. AURELIAN. Silvered Antoninianus of Mediolanum or Ticinum8 viewsObverse: AVRELIANVS AVG. Radiate and cuirassed bust of Aurelian facing right.
Reverse: ORIENS AVG. Sol standing facing left, right hand raised, left hand holding globe; at foot left, seated captive facing left; in exergue, S.
Diameter: 22mm | Weight: 4.6gms | Die Axis: 11
RIC V i : 135
*AlexFeb 11, 2018
VALENTINIAN-2__CONC-AVGGG_ANTS.JPG
Struck A.D.378 - 383. VALENTINIAN II. AE3 of Antioch2 viewsObverse: D N VALENTINIANVS P F AVG. Pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust of Valentinian facing right.
Reverse: CONCORDIA AVGGG. Roma seated facing on throne, head facing left, holding globe in her right hand and spear in her left; in left field, Θ; in right field Φ over K; in exergue, ANTS.
RIC IX : 45b
*AlexFeb 11, 2018
LICIN-2_IOVI-CONS_SMHA.JPG
Struck A.D.321 - 324. LICINIUS II CAESAR. AE3 of Heraclea5 viewsObverse: D N VAL LICIN LICINIVS NOB C. Helmeted and cuirassed bust of Licinius Caesar facing left, holding shield and spear.
Reverse: IOVI CONSERVATORI. Jupiter standing facing left, leaning on sceptre and holding Victory on globe in his right hand. On ground to left, eagle holding wreath in beak; on ground to right, bound captive seated facing right. In right field, X over II gamma; in exergue, SMHA.
Weight: 2.8gms
RIC VII : 54
VERY RARE
*AlexFeb 09, 2018
LICIN-1_IOVI_Radiate_SMALA.JPG
Struck A.D.321 - 324. LICINIUS I. AE Post-reform radiate of Alexandria5 viewsObverse: IMP C VAL LICIN LICINIVS P F AVG. Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust of Licinius facing right.
Reverse: IOVI CONSERVATORI. Jupiter standing facing left, leaning on sceptre and holding Victory in right hand; on ground to left, eagle holding wreath in beak; on ground to right, bound captive; in right field, X over II gamma. In exergue, SMALA.
Weight 3.4gms.
RIC VII : 28
RARE
*AlexFeb 09, 2018
VALENTINIAN-2__URBSROMA_ANTB.JPG
Struck A.D.378 - 383. VALENTINIAN II. AE3 of Antioch8 viewsObverse: D N VALENTINIANVS IVN P F AVG. Pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust of Valentinian II facing right.
Reverse: VRBS ROMA. Roma seated on cuirass facing left, holding Victory in her right hand and spear in her left; in right field, ✱; in exergue, ANTB.
RIC IX : 51
1 comments*AlexFeb 09, 2018
VALENTIN-2__GLOR-ROM_ASISC.JPG
Struck A.D.384 - 387. VALENTINIAN II. AE3 of SISCIA4 viewsObverse: D N VALENTINIANVS P F AVG. Pear-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust of Valentinian II facing right.
Reverse: GLORIA ROMANORVM. Valentinian II advancing right, holding labarum in his left hand and dragging barbarian by the hair in his right; in exergue, ASISC.
RIC IX : 38a
1 comments*AlexFeb 07, 2018
CONSTANTIN-1_VOTXXX_Rome_RP.JPG
Struck A.D.325. CONSTANTINE I as Augustus. AE3 of Rome4 viewsObverse: CONSTAN-TINVS AVG. Laureate head of Constantine facing right.
Reverse: D N CONSTANTINI MAX AVG. Laurel wreath enclosing VOT • XXX; in exergue, RP.
RIC VII : 318
SCARCE

This coin was struck to celebrate the twentieth anniversary of the reign of Constantine in A.D.325.
This was also the year that the Council of Nicaea set out its definition of Christian orthodoxy.
*AlexFeb 06, 2018
CONSTANTIN-1_VOTXXX_SMHDelta.JPG
Struck A.D.327 - 329. Constantine I as Augustus. AE3 of Heraclea2 viewsObverse: CONSTANTINVS AVG. Diademed head of Constantine I, tilted up towards heaven, facing right.
Reverse: D N CONSTANTINI MAX AVG. Laurel wreath surrounding VOT • XXX; in exergue, •SMHΔ.
RIC VII : 92 with E5 bust
SCARCE

This coin was struck to commemorate the twentieth anniversary of the reign of Constantine in A.D.325.
*AlexFeb 06, 2018
LICIN_GENIO_C-Gate_PTR.JPG
Struck A.D.313 - 315. LICINIUS I. AE Follis (Nummus) of Treveri (Trier)8 viewsObverse: IMP LICINIVS P F AVG. Lauretae, draped and cuirassed bust of Licinius facing right.
Reverse: GENIO POP ROM. Genius of the Roman people, crowned with two turreted camp-gate, wearing himation and holding patera in right hand and cornucopiae on left arm. Across field, T - F; in exergue, PTR.
Diameter: 19mm | Weight: 3.0gms
RIC VII : 57
VERY RARE

Completed in A.D.315, the Arch of Constantine in Rome was built at the time that this coin was struck.

2 comments*AlexFeb 04, 2018
VALENTINIAN-2_AE4_SMKB.JPG
Struck A.D.378 - 383. VALENTINIAN II. AE4 Half centenionalis of CYZICUS4 viewsObverse: D N VALENTINIANVS P F AVG. Pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust of Valentinian II facing right.
Reverse: VOT X MVLT XX. in four lines within laurel-wreath; in exergue, SMKB.
Weight 1.08gms
RIC IX : 21(b)1.
SCARCE
EX FORVM
*AlexFeb 03, 2018
Valentinian-2_Galley_ANTE.JPG
Struck A.D.378 - 383. VALENTINIAN II. AE2 of Antioch7 viewsObverse: D N VALENTINIANVS P F AVG. Helmeted, diademed, draped and cuirassed bust of Valentinian, holding spear and shield, facing right.
Reverse: GLORIA ROMANORVM. Valentinian standing facing left, on galley sailing left with Victory at the helm; in left field, wreath; in right field, cross; in exergue, ANTE.
RIC IX : 40c
SCARCE
*AlexFeb 03, 2018
GRATIAN_CONCORD_BSIS.JPG
Struck A.D.378 - 383. GRATIAN. AE3 of Siscia4 viewsObverse: D N GRATIANVS P F AVG. Pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust of Gratian facing right.
Reverse: CONCORDIA AVGGG. Roma seated facing, head left, holding globe in her right hand and downward facing spear in her left; in exergue, ✱BSISC.
RIC IX : 27a.
SCARCE
*AlexFeb 03, 2018
GRATIAN_AE4_VOTXXMVLTXXX__Antooch.JPG
Struck A.D.378 - 383. GRATIAN. AE4 of Antioch3 viewsObverse: D N GRATIANVS P F AVG. Pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust of Gratian facing right.
Reverse: VOT / XX / MVLT / XXX in laurel-wreath; in exergue, ANTA.
RIC IX : 58a.
SCARCE
*AlexFeb 02, 2018
GRATIAN_AE4_VOT_XV_MVLT_XX__Siscia.JPG
Struck A.D.378 - 383. GRATIAN. AE4 of Siscia5 viewsObverse: D N GRATIANVS P F AVG. Pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust of Gratian facing right.
Reverse: VOT / XV / MVLT / XX in laurel-wreath; in exergue, ASISC.
RIC IX : 31a.
SCARCE
*AlexFeb 02, 2018
VALENS_SILIQ_ANT_2.JPG
Struck A.D.367 - 375. VALENS. AR Siliqua of Antioch3 viewsObverse: D N VALENS P F AVG. Pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust of Valens facing right.
Reverse: VOT X MVLT XX in laurel-wreath; in exergue, ANT.
RIC IX : 33c.
SCARCE
*AlexFeb 02, 2018
GRATIAN_GLOR-ROM_Galley_SMKDelta.JPG
Struck A.D.379 - 383. GRATIAN. AE2 of Cyzicus7 viewsObverse: D N GRATIANVS P F AVG. Helmeted, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust of Gratian facing right, holding spear in his right hand and shield in his left.
Reverse: GLORIA ROMANORIVM. Gratian, his head turned right and right hand raised, standing facing left on galley sailing left with Victory at the helm. In left field, wreath; in exergue, SMKΔ.
RIC IX : 14a.
SCARCE
1 comments*AlexJan 31, 2018
VOLOGASES_III~1.JPG
PARTHIA/PERSIA, Vologases III (c. A.D. 105-147), AR Drachm, struck at Ecbatana6 viewsObv: bare-headed bust left with long, pointed beard wearing diadem with loop at the top and three ends; earring visible; border of dots
Rev: archer seated right on throne holding bow, below bow monogram 26; archer's seat omitted; blundered Greek legend
Weight: 3.69 g, Size: 21 mm, Rarity: R
Ref: Sellwood 78.3
Originally uploaded by Jorge C
*AlexJan 31, 2018
VOLOGASES_IV~1.JPG
PARTHIA/PERSIA, Vologases IV (c. 147-191 A.D.), AR Drachm, minted in Ecbatana7 viewsObv: bearded bust of king left, wearing diademed tiara with ear flap and hooked appendages, diadem ends as three lines; border of dots.
Rev: beardless archer, wearing kyrbasia and cloak, seated right on throne; in right hand, bow; in front, no pellet above bow, below bow monogram 26; Pahlavi inscription: VoLGaŠI MaLKa, Greek inscription is Sellwood iv.
Ref: Shore 434; Sellwood 84.132
Weight: 3.53 g, Size: 20 mm
Originally uploaded by Jorge C
*AlexJan 31, 2018
AR_SINATRUCES.JPG
PARTHIA/PERSIA, Sinatruces (c. 77 - 70 B.C.), AR Drachm6 viewsWeight: 3.99 g | Size: 20 mm | Minted in Rhegium
Obv: bearded bust left wearing tiara (T34i) decorated on side with fleur de lys, around crest with pairs of pellets on
stalks; behind bust, anchor symbol erased from die; circular border of pellets
Rev: beardless archer wearing bashlyk and cloak seated right on throne, holding bow in right hand; empty cloak
sleeve pellet ended and reaching well below seat; no border; six-line Greek inscription = ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΜΕΓΑΛΟΥ
ΑΡΣΑΚΟΥ ΕΥΕΡΓΕΤΟΥ ΕΠΙΦΑΝΟΥΣ ΦΙΛΕΛΛΗΝΟΣ
Ref: Sellwood 33.4 ; Shore 113
Rarity: R1
Originally uploaded by Jorge C
*AlexJan 31, 2018
SILVER_PHRAATES_III.JPG
PARTHIA/PERSIA, Phraates III (c. 70 - 57 B.C.), AR Drachm8 viewsWeight: 3.83 g | Size: 21 mm | Minted in Ecbatana
Obv: bearded bust left wearing diadem and griffin-ended torque; circular border of pellets
Rev: beardless archer wearing bashlyk and cloak seated right on throne, holding bow in right hand; below bow,
monogram [~~]; no border; seven-line Greek inscription = ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΜΕΓΑΛΟΥ ΑΡΣΑΚΟΥ ΕΥΕΡΓΕΤΟΥ ΕΠΙΦΑΝΟΥΣ
ΦΙΛΕΛΛΗΝΟΣ
Ref: Sellwood 38.3 ; Shore 169
Rarity: R
Originally uploaded by Jorge C
*AlexJan 31, 2018
SILVER_ORODES_II_MOEDA.JPG
PARTHIA/PERSIA, Orodes II (c. 57 - 38 B.C.), AR Drachm6 viewsWeight: 4.37 g | Size: 18 mm | Minted in Mithradatkart
Obv: short-bearded bust left wearing diadem and torque with no upper end visible; circular border of
pellets
Rev: beardless archer wearing bashlyk and cloak seated right on throne, holding bow in right hand; below
bow,
monogram [ΑΤ]; no border; seven-line Greek inscription = ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΝ ΑΡΣΑΚΟΥ
ΦΙΛΟΠΑΤΟΡΟΣ ΔΙΚΑΙΟΥ
ΕΠΙΦΑΝΟΥΣ ΦΙΛΕΛΛΗΝΟΣ
Ref: Sellwood 43.1; Shore 214
Rarity: Common
Originally uploaded by Jorge C
*AlexJan 31, 2018
GRATIAN_NOVA_SAECVULI.JPG
Struck A.D.367-375. GRATIAN. AE3 of Arles4 viewsObverse: D N GRATIANVS AVGG AVG. Diademed, draped and cuirassed bust of Gratian facing right.
Reverse: GLORIA NOVI SAECVLI. Gratian standing facing, head left, holding labarum and leaning on shield; in exergue, TCON.
Diameter: 17.9mm | Weight: 2.9gms.
RIC IX : 15
This unusual type, which is unique to Gratian, was only struck at one mint, Arles (Arelate) which had been renamed Constantina at this time.

The AVGG AVG in this unusual obverse legend alludes to Gratian's right to the succession. The question of his succession arose because, according to Ammianus Marcellinus, when Valentinian I lay ill and had not named a successor, the soldiers planned on raising a candidate of their own choosing. Valentinian, however, recovered and quickly raised Gratian to the position of Augustus to ensure his dynastic position. The reverse inscription indicates that Gratian is destined to fulfill the Messianic prophecy of the Sibylline books, to bring in a golden era of justice and plenty.
*AlexJan 30, 2018
CONSTANTIN-1_GLOR-EX_CONS.JPG
Struck A.D.327 - 328. CONSTANTINE I as Augustus. AE3 of Constantinople6 viewsObverse: CONSTANTINVS MAX AVG. Diademed head of Constantine facing right.
Reverse: GLORIA EXERCITVS. Constantine standing facing, head right, holding spear in right hand and leaning on shield; in left field, S; in exergue, CONS.
RIC VII : 22
VERY RARE
*AlexJan 30, 2018
CONSTANTIN-1_DAFNE_CONS.JPG
Struck A.D.327 - 330. CONSTANTINE I as Augustus. AE3 of Constantinople4 viewsObverse: CONSTANTINVS MAX AVG. Rosette diademed, draped and cuirassed bust of Constantine facing right.
Reverse: CONSTANTINIANA DAFNE. Victory seated on cippus facing left, holding palm branch in each hand, head turned away to right spurning kneeling captive at foot of trophy before her. In left field, Z; in exergue, CONS.
RIC VII : 35
RARE

This coin most likely symbolized the defeat of Licinius (the Greek word for laurel is daphne, and laurel wreaths were signs of victory). The legend of the Dafne coin would actually translate as 'Constantinian Victory'.
The fort on the north bank of the Danube, often cited as being commemorated on this coin, could very well have been named "Dafne", after all a fort alluding to victory seems more than appropriate and is not without precedent. However, the fort can have no connection with the Dafne coinage, other than the use of the word "Dafne" because the Dafne coins were probably issued as early as A.D.327 and the fort was not constructed until around A.D.330. It seems unlikely a coin was issued to commemorate a fort that was yet to be built.
This coin replaced other reverse types for Constantine and was the only type issued for almost three years exclusively in the name of Constantine, this is an important point. If this coin commemorated the building of a fortress, three years would be a very long time for a coin to have been issued. Becoming the sole ruler of the Roman Empire, however, might just merit a special coinage! Also the adjective CONSTANTINIANA was never used except on this issue, the word is unique to this series. It seems most likely, therefore, that the Dafne coinage commemorates the A.D.324 victory of Constantine over Licinius rather than any other event.

The above comments are from Victor Clark's "Constantine the Great" website.
*AlexJan 30, 2018
CONSTANTIN-1_ANEPIGRAPH_SMANT.JPG
Struck A.D.324 - 325. CONSTANTINE I as Augustus. AE3 of Antioch5 viewsObverse: No legend (Anepigraphic). Laureate head of Constantine I facing right.
Reverse: CONSTAN/TINVS/AVG in three lines; wreath above; SMANTB below; • in exergue under A of SMANTB.
RIC VII : 57
EXTREMELY RARE
1 comments*AlexJan 30, 2018
CONSTANTIN-1_Victory_TSGamma.JPG
Struck A.D.319. CONSTANTINE I as Augustus. AE Follis of Thessalonika4 viewsObverse: CONSTANTINVS AVG. Laureate and cuirassed bust facing right.
Reverse: VICTORIA AVGG NN. Victory advancing left, holding wreath in her right hand and palm leaf in her left; in exergue, •TS•Γ•.
RIC VII : 59
VERY RARE

In the year that this coin was struck Constantine I issued a decree prohibiting the separation of the families of slaves during a change in ownership.
*AlexJan 29, 2018
CONSTANTIN-1_VOT_PR_RT.JPG
Struck A.D.318 - 319. CONSTANTINE I as Augustus. AE3 of Ticinum5 viewsObverse: IMP CONSTANTINVS MAX AVG. Laureate, helmeted and cuirassed bust of Constantine facing right.
Reverse: VICTORIAE LAETAE PRINC PERP. Two Victories standing facing one another, holding between them shield inscribed VOT/PR set on garlanded altar; in exergue, PT.
RIC VII : 82
VERY RARE

Although classed as an AE3 by modern numismatists, these coins generally contain approximately 5% silver, so a coin such as this was probably intended to pass at the time as an, albeit very debased, argenteus.
*AlexJan 28, 2018
CONSTANTIN-1_VOT_PR_2-CAPTIVES.JPG
Struck A.D.319 - 320. CONSTANTINE I as Augustus. Silvered AE3 of Lugdunum3 viewsObverse: CONSTANTINVS AVG. High-crested helmeted and cuirassed bust of Constantine facing right.
Reverse: VICTORIAE LAETAE PRINC PERP. Two Victories resting shield inscribed VOT PR, on altar; in exergue, two bound captives seated back to back.
RIC VII : 65
RARE

Although classed as an AE3 by modern numismatists, these coins generally contain approximately 5% silver, so a coin such as this was probably intended to pass at the time as an, albeit very debased, argenteus.
*AlexJan 28, 2018
LICIN-2_ROMA_RT.JPG
Struck A.D.321. LICINIUS II as CAESAR. AE3 of Rome8 viewsObverse: LICINIVS IVN NOB C. Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust of Licinius II facing right.
Reverse: ROMAE AETERNAE. Roma seated facing right, inscribing XV on shield set on her knees: in left field, P; in right field, R; in exergue, RT.
RIC VII : 154 | VM : 9.
VERY RARE.

Struck to celebrate the 15th Anniversary of the reign of Constantine I.
2 comments*AlexJan 27, 2018
MAXENT_CART_TEMPLE_PKB.JPG
Struck A.D.307. MAXENTIUS as Augustus. AE Follis (Nummus) of Carthage3 viewsObverse: IMP MAXENTIVS P F AVG. Laureate head facing right.
Reverse: CONSERVATORES KART SVAE. Temple of six columns within which stands Karthago facing left, holding fruits in both hands; in exergue, PKB.
RIC VI : 60.

This coin is one of the issues which were struck in A.D.307 to commemorate and advertise Maxentius' alliance with Constantine, reflected in types common to both rulers, and the celebrations for the benefactions given to Rome and Carthage. Carthage was one of Maxentius' power bases.
*AlexJan 27, 2018
MAXENT_DIOSCURI_MOSTDelta.JPG
Struck A.D.309. MAXENTIUS as Augustus. AE Follis of Ostia6 viewsObverse: IMP C MAXENTIUS P F AVG. Laureate head of Maxentius facing right.
Reverse: AET-ERNITAS A-VG N. The Dioscuri standing facing each other, each holding horse by bridle, between them, wolf and twins; in exergue, MOSTA.
RIC VI : 16.

The statues of the Dioscuri represented on this coin are likely those which were situated in the precinct of the Lacus Juturnae and probably dated from the 5th century B.C. The moneyer, L. Memmius struck denarii with this type during the Republic and although the positions of the Dioscuri relative to their mounts differ on this coin it is possible that, as the statues occupied separate bases, they had been transposed at some period during the intervening four centuries.
1 comments*AlexJan 27, 2018
CONSTANTIN-1_MARTI_TT.JPG
Struck A.D.312 - 313. CONSTANTINE I as Augustus. AE Follis of Ticinum2 viewsObverse: IMP CONSTANTINVS P F AVG. Laureate and cuirassed bust of Constantine facing right.
Reverse: MARTI CONSERVATORI. Mars standing facing right, leaning on shield and holding vertical spear in his right hand; in left field, star; in exergue, T T.
RIC VII : 12
EXTREMELY RARE
*AlexJan 27, 2018
CONSTANTIN-1_SOLI_PLN.JPG
Struck A.D.317. CONSTANTINE I as AUGUSTUS. AE Follis of Londinium3 viewsObverse: CONSTANTINVS P AVG. Laureate and cuirassed bust of Constantine I facing right.
Reverse: SOLI INVICTO COMITI. Sol, radiate, standing facing left, raising his right hand and holding globe in his left; across field, S - P; in exergue, PLN.
RIC VII : 109
EXTREMELY RARE
*AlexJan 25, 2018
CONSTANTIN-1_GENIOAVG_SMN.JPG
Struck A.D.312. CONSTANTINE I as Augustus. AE Follis of Nicomedia6 viewsObverse: IMP C FL VAL CONSTANTINVS P F AVG. Laureate head of Constantine facing right.
Reverse: GENIO AVGVSTI. Genius standing facing left, cloak over his shoulders and modius on his head, pouring libation out of patera held in his right hand over lighted altar at his feet, left arm cradling cornucopiae. In right field, ✱ over Δ ; in exergue, SMN.
RIC VI : 74c
RARE
1 comments*AlexJan 25, 2018
CONSTANTIN-1_GEN-POP-ROM_PTR.JPG
Struck A.D.308 or late A.D.307. CONSTANTINE I as Augustus. Large AE Follis of Treveri5 viewsObverse: IMP CONSTANTINVS P F AVG. Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust of Constantine facing right.
Reverse: GENIO POP ROM. Genius of the Roman people standing facing left, holding patera in right hand and cornucopiae in left; across field, S - A; in exergue, PTR.
25.26mm
RIC VI : 770
SCARCE
*AlexJan 25, 2018
CONSTANTIN_1_SOL_SMH.JPG
Struck A.D.312. CONSTANTINE I as Augustus. AE Follis of Nicomedia12 viewsObverse: IMP C FL VAL CONSTANTINVS P F AVG. Laureate head of Constantine facing right.
Reverse: SOLI INVICTO. Sol, fully dressed in long robe, standing facing left, right hand raised and holding head of Serapis in left; in left field, A; in right field, crescent; in exergue, SMN.
RIC VI : 73c
SCARCE
1 comments*AlexJan 20, 2018
CONSTANTIN_1_STANDARDS_ROME.JPG
Struck A.D.312 - 313. CONSTANTINE I as Augustus. AE FOLLIS of Rome4 viewsObverse: IMP CONSTANTINVS P F AVG. Laureate and draped bust of Constantine I, seen from the rear, facing right.
Reverse: S P Q R OPTIMO PRINCIPI. Legionary eagle tipped standard between two military standards; in exergue, RP.
Weight: 5.24gms
RIC VI : 348
Ex Barry Murphy
*AlexJan 20, 2018
CONSTANT_1_PREINC-IVV_PLG.JPG
Struck A.D.309 - 310. CONSTANTINE I as Augustus. Large AE Follis of Lugdunum5 viewsObverse: IMP CONSTANTINVS P F AVG. Laureate and draped bust of Constantine, seen from the rear, facing right.
Reverse: PRINCIPI IVVENTVTIS. Constantine standing facing, head right, clad in military dress, holding spear in his right hand and globe in his left; across field, F - T; in exergue, PLG.
RIC VI : 305.
SCARCE
1 comments*AlexJan 20, 2018
VALENTINIAN_AE1_SMHA.JPG
Struck A.D.364 - 367. VALENTINIAN I. AE1 of HERACLEA13 viewsObverse: D N VALENTINIANVS P F AVG. Pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust of Valentinian facing right.
Reverse: RESTITVTOR REIPVBLICAE. Valentinian standing facing, head right, holding standard and Victory; in exergue, SMHA.
Diameter: 26mm | Weight: 6.7gms | Die Axis: 6
RIC IX : 2.
Extremely Rare

The Colossus of Barletta is a large bronze statue of a Roman Emperor, nearly three times life size currently located in the coastal town of Barletta, Italy. The legs and hands were replaced in the 15th Century, but the 5-metre-high statue is still a powerful reminder of the later days of the Roman Empire.
There are many different versions of the story of this statue, the most popular being that the statue washed up on the shore after a Venetian ship sank returning from the sack of Constantinople during the Fourth Crusade, but if that was indeed the case it is not impossible that the statue had been sent to Constantinople much earlier. The identity of the Emperor is uncertain, the most likely subjects appear to be Valentinian I (A.D.364–375), Honorius (A.D.393–423), Theodosius II (A.D.408–450), Marcian (A.D.450–457), Leo I (A.D.457–474) and Justinian I (A.D.527–565). The facial features on my coin seem to me to closely resemble those on the statue, so Valentinian I would be my own personal choice as to the identity of the emperor.
*AlexJan 19, 2018
CONSTANTIN_1_IOVI-CONS_TSB.JPG
Struck A.D.317 - 318. CONSTANTINE I as Augustus. Large AE Follis of Thessalonica7 viewsObverse: IMP CONSTANTINVS P F AVG. Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust of bearded Constantine facing right.
Reverse: IOVI CONSERVATORI AVGG NN.Jupiter standing facing left, eagle at feet, holding Victory in his outstretched right hand and sceptre in his left; in exergue, •TS•B•.
RIC VI : 61b
*AlexJan 19, 2018
LICIN1_VOTXX_TSA.JPG
Struck A.D.320. LICINIUS I. Silvered AE3 of Thessalonica12 viewsObverse: IMP LICINIVS AVG. Laureate and cuirassed bust of Licinius facing right.
Reverse: VOT XX • MVLT • XXX • TS • A • in four lines encircled by laurel-wreath.
RIC VII : 33.
SCARCE

This coin still retains most of its original silvering, it is one of the issues which were struck in A.D.320 to commemorate the fifteenth anniversary of the reign of Constantine, celebrated in the West as also the fifteenth year anniversary of Licinius.
1 comments*AlexJan 19, 2018
LICIN1_IOVI-CONS_ANT.JPG
Struck A.D.313 - 314. LICINIUS I. Silvered AE Follis (Nummus) of Antioch4 viewsObverse: IMP C VAL LICIN LICINIVS P F AVG. Laureate head of Licinius facing right.
Reverse: IOVI CONSERVATORI AVGG. Jupiter standing facing left, cloak over shoulder, holding Victory on globe in his right hand and sceptre in his left; on ground at feet, eagle holding wreath in beak. In right field, S over III with wreath above; in exergue, ANT.
Weight 3.5gms
RIC VII : 8
VERY RARE

This coin still retains most of its original silvering.
*AlexJan 18, 2018
JULIAN2_SILIQ_CON.JPG
Struck A.D.360 - 363. JULIAN II as Augustus. AR Siliqua of Arelate9 viewsObverse: D N FL CL IVLIANVS P F AVG. Pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust of bearded Julian facing right.
Reverse: VOT X MVLT XX in four lines within laurel-wreath surmounted by medallion containing eagle; in exergue, PCONST.
RIC VIII : 309
1 comments*AlexJan 18, 2018
DELMATIUS_GLOR-EX_ROME.JPG
Struck A.D.335 - 337. DELMATIUS CAESAR. AE3/4 of Rome1 viewsObverse: FL DELMATIVS NOB C. Laureate and cuirassed bust of Delmatius facing right.
Reverse: GLORIA EXERCITVS. Two soldiers standing either side of standard; in exergue, R S .
Diameter: 16mm | Weight: 1.6gms | Die axis: 6
EXTREMELY RARE, POSSIBLY UNIQUE

Unlisted in RIC for this ruler. (Cf. RIC VII : 385 but with addition of palm-branches). This mintmark is not associated with Delmatius in RIC, it is an unrecorded issue associated with the next mint mark group and should be included between RIC 389 and RIC 390. Issues with this mint-mark are listed by RIC only for Constantine II, Constans and Urbs Roma and all of these are rated as R5, extremely rare.

Flavius Julius Delmatius was the son of Julius Constantius and the grandson of Constantius I. He was elevated to the rank of Caesar by Constantine I in September A.D.335 and given charge of Thrace, Macedonia and Greece. He was murdered together with the other members of his family after the death of Constantine I in the summer of A.D.337.
*AlexJan 17, 2018
CONSTANT1_LIB-PUB_CONS.JPG
Struck A.D.327. CONSTANTINE I as Augustus. AE3 of Constantinople5 viewsObverse: CONSTANTINVS MAX AVG. Laureate head of Constantine facing right.
Reverse: LIBERTAS PVBLICA. Victory standing facing on galley sailing right, her arms raised and holding a wreath in each hand. In left field, B; in exergue, CONS.
RIC VII : 18
RARE
*AlexJan 17, 2018
CONSTANT1_GLOR-ROM_CONS.JPG
Struck A.D.327 - 328. Constantine I as Augustus. AE3 of Constantinople4 viewsObverse: CONSTANTINVS MAX AVG. Diademed head of Constantine facing right.
Reverse: GLORIA ROMANORVM. Roma seated on shield facing left, holding Victory in her right hand and spear in her left; in left field, A; in exergue, CONS.
RIC VII : 23.
VERY RARE
*AlexJan 17, 2018
CRISPUS_VOTX_PLGC.JPG
Struck A.D.321. CRISPUS CAESAR. AE3 of Lugdunum10 viewsObverse: IVL CRISPVS NOB C. Laureate head of Crispus facing right.
Reverse: CAESARVM NOSTRORVM. Laurel-wreath around VOT X; in exergue, PLGC.
RIC VII : 215.

This coin is one of the issues which were struck to commemorate the quinquennalia of the Caesars in A.D.321.
1 comments*AlexJan 16, 2018
CRISPUS_PRINCIVV_TST.JPG
Struck A.D.316. CRISPUS CAESAR. AE3 of Thessalonica5 viewsObverse: CRISPVS NOBILISSIMVS CAES. Laureate and draped bust of Crispus facing right.
Reverse: PRINCIPIA IVVENTVTIS. Crispus, in military dress, standing facing right, spear in his right hand and shield in his left; in exergue, •TS•Γ•.
RIC VII : 20
VERY RARE
1 comments*AlexJan 16, 2018
CRISPUS_2VICT_VOTPR_SIS.JPG
Struck A.D.319. CRISPUS CAESAR. Silvered AE3 of Siscia3 viewsObverse: CRISPVS NOB CAESAR. Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust of Crispus facing right.
Reverse: VICTORIAE LAETAE PRINC PERP. Two Victories standing facing each other, resting shield inscribed VOT PR on altar or cippus: in exergue, ΔSIS•.
RIC VII : 63
EXTREMELY RARE
*AlexJan 16, 2018
CONSTANTINOPOL_SMANI.JPG
Struck A.D.335 - 337 under Constantine I. AE3 "CONSTANTINOPOLIS" COMMEMORATIVE ISSUE of Antioch5 viewsObverse: CONSTANTINOPOLIS. Laureate and helmeted bust of Constantinopolis wearing imperial mantle facing left and holding sceptre over left shoulder.
Reverse: No legend. Victory standing facing left, right foot on prow, holding sceptre and shield with dot in centre; in exergue, SMANI.
Diameter: 18mm | Weight: 2.1gms.
RIC VII : 114
SCARCE
*AlexJan 16, 2018
CONSTANTINOPOL_SMTSDelta.JPG
Struck A.D.330 - 333 under Constantine I. AE3 "CONSTANTINOPOLIS" COMMEMORATIVE ISSUE of Thessalonika3 viewsObverse: CONSTANTINOPOLIS. Laureate and helmeted bust of Constantinopolis wearing imperial mantle facing left and holding sceptre over left shoulder. Two dots in crest of helmet.
Reverse: No legend. Victory standing facing left, right foot on prow, holding sceptre and shield with ring in centre; in exergue, SMTSΔ (Δ = fourth officina).
Diameter: 18mm | Weight: 2.29gms
RIC VII : 188

The victory on a prow type alludes to the naval victory of Crispus and his subsequent capture of Byzantium (which Constantine I re-named Constantinople).
*AlexJan 16, 2018
CONSTANTINOPOL_SMHDelta.JPG
Struck A.D.330 - 333 under Constantine I. AE3 "CONSTANTINOPOLIS" COMMEMORATIVE ISSUE of Heraclea2 viewsObverse: CONSTANTINOPOLI. Laureate and helmeted bust of Constantinopolis wearing imperial mantle facing left and holding sceptre over left shoulder.
Reverse: No legend. Victory standing facing left, right foot on prow, holding sceptre and shield with dot in centre; in exergue, •SMHΔ• (Δ = fourth officina).
Diameter: 17mm | Weight: 2.8gms
RIC VII : 125
SCARCE
*AlexJan 16, 2018
CONSTANTINOPOL_Rome.JPG
Struck A.D.336 under Constantine I. AE3 "CONSTANTINOPOLIS" COMMEMORATIVE ISSUE of Rome4 viewsObverse: CONSTANTINOPOLIS. Laureate and helmeted bust of Constantinopolis wearing imperial mantle facing left and holding sceptre over left shoulder.
Reverse: No legend. Victory standing facing left, loop or circle at her waist, right foot on prow, holding sceptre and plain shield; in exergue, R wreath E.
Diameter: 16.58mm | Weight: 2.72gms
RIC VII : 387

The victory on a prow type alludes to the naval victory of Crispus and his subsequent capture of Byzantium (which Constantine I re-named Constantinople).
*AlexJan 16, 2018
CONSTANTINOPOL_CONSZ.JPG
Struck A.D.333 - 335 under Constantine I. AE3 "CONSTANTINOPOLIS" COMMEMORATIVE ISSUE of Constantinopolis4 viewsObverse: CONSTANTINOPOLI. Laureate and helmeted bust of Constantinopolis wearing imperial mantle facing left and holding sceptre over left shoulder.
Reverse: No legend. Victory standing facing left, right foot on prow, holding sceptre and shield with dot in centre; in exergue, •CONSZ•.
Diameter: 18mm | Weight: 2.5gms
RIC VII : 86
EXTREMELY RARE

The victory on a prow type alludes to the naval victory of Crispus and his subsequent capture of Byzantium (which Constantine I re-named Constantinople).
*AlexJan 16, 2018
CONSTANTINOPOL_CONSE.JPG
Struck A.D.336 under Constantine I. AE3/4 "CONSTANTINOPOLIS" COMMEMORATIVE ISSUE of Arelate12 viewsObverse: CONSTANTINOPOLIS. Laureate and helmeted bust of Constantinopolis wearing imperial mantle facing left and holding sceptre over left shoulder.
Reverse: No legend. Victory standing facing left, right foot on prow, holding sceptre and plain shield; in left field, Chi-Rho; in exergue, SCONST.
Diameter: 16mm | Weight: 2.3gms
RIC VII : 401
VERY RARE

This is one of the few coins with a Chi-Rho that was actually minted during Constantine's lifetime.
2 comments*AlexJan 14, 2018
CONSTANTINOPOL_AQP.JPG
Struck A.D.334 - 335 under Constantine I. AE3 "CONSTANTINOPOLIS" COMMEMORATIVE ISSUE of Aquileia4 viewsObverse: CONSTANTINOPOLIS. Laureate and helmeted bust of Constantinopolis wearing imperial mantle facing left and holding sceptre over left shoulder.
Reverse: No legend. Victory standing facing left, right foot on prow, holding sceptre and shield with dot in centre; in exergue, AQP.
Diameter: 18mm | Weight: 2.3gms.
RIC VII : 123
VERY RARE
*AlexJan 14, 2018
CONSTANTINOPOL_SMALA.JPG
Struck A.D.333 - 335 under Constantine I. AE3 "CONSTANTINOPOLIS" COMMEMORATIVE ISSUE of Alexandria4 viewsObverse: CONSTANTINOPOLIS. Laureate and helmeted bust of Constantinopolis wearing imperial mantle facing left and holding sceptre over left shoulder. Dot in crest of helmet.
Reverse: No legend. Victory standing facing left, right foot on prow, holding sceptre and shield with dot in centre; in exergue, SMALA.
RIC VII : 64

The victory on a prow type alludes to the naval victory of Crispus and his subsequent capture of Byzantium (which Constantine I re-named Constantinople).
*AlexJan 14, 2018
CONSTANTINOPOL_SMKE.JPG
Struck A.D.335 - 336 under Constantine I. AE3 "CONSTANTINOPOLIS" COMMEMORATIVE ISSUE of Cyzicus5 viewsObverse: CONSTANTINOPOLI. Laureate and helmeted bust of Constantinopolis wearing imperial mantle facing left and holding sceptre over left shoulder.
Reverse: No legend. Victory standing facing left, right foot on prow, holding sceptre and shield with circle in the centre; in exergue, •SMKE.
Diameter: 17mm
RIC VII : 107
EXTREMELY RARE

The victory on a prow type alludes to the naval victory of Crispus and his subsequent capture of Byzantium (which Constantine I re-named Constantinople).
*AlexJan 14, 2018
CONSTANTINOPOL_SMNA.JPG
Struck A.D.330 - 335 under Constantine I. AE3 "CONSTANTINOPOLIS" COMMEMORATIVE ISSUE of Nicomedia5 viewsObverse: CONSTANTINOPOLI. Laureate and helmeted bust of Constantinopolis wearing imperial mantle facing left and holding sceptre over left shoulder.
Reverse: No legend. Victory standing facing left, right foot on prow, holding sceptre and shield with dot in centre; in exergue, SMNA (A = First officina).
Weight: 2.31gms
RIC VII : 196
SCARCE

The victory on a prow type alludes to the naval victory of Crispus and his subsequent capture of Byzantium (which Constantine I re-named Constantinople).
*AlexJan 14, 2018
CONSTANTINOPOL_TRP.JPG
Struck A.D.332 - 333 under Constantine I. AE3 "CONSTANTINOPOLIS" COMMEMORATIVE ISSUE of Treveri3 viewsObverse: CONSTANTINOPOLIS. Laureate and helmeted bust of Constantinopolis wearing imperial mantle facing left and holding sceptre over left shoulder.
Reverse: No legend. Victory standing facing left, right foot on prow, holding sceptre and plain shield; in exergue, TR•P.
RIC VII : 543

The victory on a prow type alludes to the naval victory of Crispus and his subsequent capture of Byzantium (which Constantine I re-named Constantinople).
*AlexJan 13, 2018
CONSTANTINOPOL_PLG.JPG
Struck A.D.335 under Constantine I. AE3 "CONSTANTINOPOLIS" COMMEMORATIVE ISSUE of Lugdunum4 viewsObverse: CONSTANTINOPOLIS. Laureate and helmeted bust of Constantinopolis wearing imperial mantle facing left and holding sceptre over left shoulder.
Reverse: No legend. Victory standing facing left, right foot on prow, holding sceptre and shield with circle in the centre; in exergue, PLG.
Weight: 2.4gms
RIC VII : 241
RARE

The victory on a prow type alludes to the naval victory of Crispus and his subsequent capture of Byzantium (which Constantine I re-named Constantinople).
*AlexJan 13, 2018
CONSTANTINOPOL_BSIS.JPG
Struck A.D.330 - 333 under Constantine I. AE3 "CONSTANTINOPOLIS" COMMEMORATIVE ISSUE of Siscia2 viewsObverse: CONSTANTINOPOLIS. Laureate and helmeted bust of Constantinopolis wearing imperial mantle facing left and holding sceptre over left shoulder. Crescent in crest of helmet.
Reverse: No legend. Victory standing facing left, right foot on prow, holding sceptre and shield with dot in centre; in exergue, BSIS.
RIC VII : 224

The victory on a prow type alludes to the naval victory of Crispus and his subsequent capture of Byzantium (which Constantine I re-named Constantinople).
*AlexJan 13, 2018
FAUSTA_AE3_SPES_THESSALONIKA.JPG
Struck A.D.324 - 326. FAUSTA. AE3 of Thessalonika7 viewsObverse: FLAV MAX FAVSTA AVG. Draped bust of Fausta facing right.
Reverse: SPES REIPVBLICAE. Fausta standing facing, her head turned left, holding Constantine II and Constantius II as babes in arms; in exergue, SMTSB (B = second officina).
RIC VII : 161
VERY RARE

Flavia Maxima Fausta was the daughter of Maximianus and the second wife of Constantine I. Fausta was made Augusta in A.D.324 at the same time as Helena and this coin was struck to celebrate that event. In A.D.326, however, she was involved in the death of Crispus and Constantine had her executed soon after.
1 comments*AlexJan 13, 2018
URBS_ROMA_AQP_Flower.JPG
Struck A.D.334 - 335 under Constantine I. AE3 "URBS ROMA" COMMEMORATIVE ISSUE of Aquileia4 viewsObverse: VRBS ROMA. Helmeted and plumed bust of Roma facing left. Two dots on helmet.
Reverse: No legend. She-wolf, flower symbol on shoulder, standing facing left, suckling Romulus and Remus; above, two stars; dot in field to right; in exergue, AQP.
Diameter: 15mm | Weight: 2.1gms.
RIC VII : 128 | Sear : 16504
VERY RARE
*AlexJan 12, 2018
GALERIUS_POP_ROM_KE.JPG
Struck A.D.305 - 306. GALERIUS as Augustus. AE Follis of Cyzicus3 viewsObverse: IMP C GAL VAL MAXIMIANVS P F AVG. Laureate head of Galerius facing right.
Reverse: GENIO POPVLI ROMANI. Genius standing facing left, holding patera and cornucopiae; in exergue, KE.
Diameter: 26mm | Weight: 8.7gms | Die Axis: 6
RIC VI : 21b
*AlexJan 12, 2018
URBSROMA_GLORIAEX.JPG
Struck A.D.336 - 337 under Constantine I. AE3/4 "URBS ROMA" COMMEMORATIVE ISSUE of Constantinople3 viewsObverse: VRBS ROMA. Helmeted and plumed bust of Roma facing left.
Reverse: GLORIA EXERCITVS. Two soldiers, each holding a spear and shield, standing either side of a single standard; in exergue, CONSZ.
RIC VII : 154
VERY RARE

With a weight of 1.47gms this type has sometimes been referred to as a half-follis.
*AlexJan 12, 2018
THEODORA_TRP2.JPG
Struck A.D.337 - 340 after her death, THEODORA, AE4 of Treveri (Trier)3 viewsObverse: FL MAX THEODORAE AVG. Laureate and draped bust of Theodora facing right.
Reverse: PIETAS ROMANA. Pietas standing facing right, holding child in arms; in exergue, •TRP•.
Struck under Constantine II.
RIC VIII : 65.
Found in Cambridgeshire, England
*AlexJan 12, 2018
TRAJ-DEC_PANNONIA.JPG
Struck A.D.249 - 251. TRAJAN DECIUS. AR Antoninianus of Rome3 viewsObverse: IMP C M Q TRAIANVS DECIVS AVG.Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust of Trajan Decius facing right.
Reverse: PANNONIAE. The two Pannoniae veiled, standing wearing robes reaching to their feet and raising their right hands. The Pannonia on the left holding standard and looking left, the other Pannonia looking right with standard beside her to right.
RIC IV iii : 21b

This coin is one of the issues struck early in the reign of Trajan Decius in celebration of his home province of Pannonia, and of the Danubian armies which put him in power.
*AlexJan 12, 2018
URBSROMA_SMHE.JPG
Struck A.D.330 - 333 under Constantine I. AE3 "URBS ROMA" COMMEMORATIVE ISSUE of Heraclea9 viewsObverse: VRBS ROMA. Helmeted and plumed bust of Roma, wearing earring, facing left.
Reverse: No legend. She-wolf standing facing left, suckling Romulus and Remus; above, two stars; in exergue, •SMHE.
RIC VII : 119
RARE
1 comments*AlexJan 12, 2018
URBSROMA_CONSE.JPG
Struck A.D.333 - 335 under Constantine I. AE3 "URBS ROMA" COMMEMORATIVE ISSUE of Constantinople9 viewsObverse: VRBS ROMA. Helmeted and plumed bust of Roma facing left.
Reverse: No legend. She-wolf standing facing left, suckling Romulus and Remus; above, two stars; in exergue, CONSΕ•.
Diameter: 17mm | Weight: 2.35gms | Die Axis: 12h
RIC VII : 78 | LRBC: 1013
RARE
1 comments*AlexJan 12, 2018
URBSROMA_SMKDelta.JPG
Struck A.D.331 under Constantine I. AE3 "URBS ROMA" COMMEMORATIVE ISSUE of Cyzicus4 viewsObverse: VRBS ROMA. Helmeted and plumed bust of Roma facing left.
Reverse: No legend. She-wolf standing facing left, unclear symbol on shoulder, suckling Romulus and Remus; above, two stars; in exergue, SMKΔ.
RIC VII : 91
VERY RARE
*AlexJan 12, 2018
URBSROMA_SISCIA.JPG
Struck A.D.334 - 335 under Constantine I. AE3 "URBS ROMA" COMMEMORATIVE ISSUE of Siscia3 viewsObverse: VRBS ROMA. Helmeted and plumed bust of Roma facing left, two dots on helmet.
Reverse: No legend. She-wolf standing facing left, suckling Romulus and Remus; above, two stars; in exergue, •ΓSIS•.
RIC VII : 240
*AlexJan 11, 2018
URBSROMA_SMTSE.JPG
Struck A.D.330 - 333 under Constantine I. AE3 "URBS ROMA" COMMEMORATIVE ISSUE of Thessalonika4 viewsObverse: VRBS ROMA. Helmeted and plumed bust of Roma facing left.
Reverse: No legend. She-wolf, spear head and dot symbols on shoulder, standing facing left, suckling Romulus and Remus; above, two stars; in exergue, SMTSΕ (Epsilon = fifth officina).
RIC VII : 187
*AlexJan 11, 2018
URBSROMA_SMALB.JPG
Struck A.D.337 - 340 under Constantine II, Constantius II and Constans. AE3 "URBS ROMA" COMMEMORATIVE ISSUE of Alexandria4 viewsObverse: VRBS ROMA. Helmeted and plumed bust of Roma facing left.
Reverse: No legend. She-wolf, two dots above it's head, standing facing left, suckling Romulus and Remus; above, S - R either side of two stars; in exergue, SMALB.
Diameter: 15.7mm | Weight: 1.88gms
RIC VIII : 8
*AlexJan 10, 2018
URBSROMA_RBQ.JPG
Struck A.D.330 - 331 under Constantine I. AE3 "URBS ROMA" COMMEMORATIVE ISSUE of Rome3 viewsObverse: VRBS ROMA. Helmeted and plumed bust of Roma facing left, two dots on helmet.
Reverse: No legend. She-wolf, flower symbol on shoulder, standing facing left, suckling Romulus and Remus; above, two stars; in exergue, RFQ.
RIC VII : 338 (var)
SCARCE
*AlexJan 10, 2018
URBSROMA_CONST.JPG
Struck A.D.331 under Constantine I. AE3 "URBS ROMA" COMMEMORATIVE ISSUE of Arelate3 viewsObverse: VRBS ROMA. Helmeted and plumed bust of Roma facing left.
Reverse: No legend. She-wolf standing facing left, suckling Romulus and Remus; above, two stars, crescent between them; in exergue, SCONST.
RIC VII : 356
EXTREMELY RARE
*AlexJan 10, 2018
URBSROMA_TRS.JPG
Struck A.D.332 - 333 under Constantine I. AE3 "URBS ROMA" COMMEMORATIVE ISSUE of Treveri (Trier)3 viewsObverse: VRBS ROMA. Helmeted and plumed bust of Roma facing left.
Reverse: No legend. She-wolf, double crescent or plate in perspective symbol on shoulder, standing facing left, suckling Romulus and Remus; above, two stars; in exergue, TR•S.
RIC VII : 542

This coin is from the Grassmoor Hoard, Derbyshire, England. This hoard, consisting of some 1375 coins, was deposited about A.D.340. It was found by a metal detectorist near Chesterfield on 7th January 2001. The find site at Grassmoor lies close to the route of a Roman Road, the modern-day A61, running south from Rotherham to Derby. However, there is no evidence of any Roman settlement in the immediate area so it is thought that the hoard was either buried by a traveller along the road or by someone living close to the nearby Chesterfield fort, which seems to have been abandoned by this date. All the coins were professionally conserved and identified by the British museum. Some of the coins from the hoard were retained by the British Museum to be displayed both there and at the Chesterfield Museum, the remainder were put up for auction and this is one of those.
*AlexJan 09, 2018
URBSROMA_PLG.JPG
Struck A.D.330 - 331 under Constantine I. AE3 "URBS ROMA" COMMEMORATIVE ISSUE of Lugdunum4 viewsObverse: VRBS ROMA. Helmeted and plumed bust of Roma facing left.
Reverse: No legend. She-wolf, crescent or plate in perspective symbol on shoulder, standing facing left, suckling Romulus and Remus; above, two stars; in exergue, •PLG.
Diameter: 18mm | Weight: 3.04gms
RIC VII : 247
RARE
*AlexJan 09, 2018
AURELIAN_GENIUS_ILLVR.JPG
Struck A.D.270 - 271. AURELIAN. Silvered Antoninianus of Siscia11 viewsObverse: IMP AVRELIANVS AVG. Radiate and cuirassed bust of Aurelian facing right.
Reverse: GENIVS ILLVR. Genius standing facing left beside standard to right, outstretched right hand holding patera, left holding cornucopiae; in left field, star; in exergue, Q.
Diameter: 22mm | Weight: 4.6gms | Die Axis: 12
RIC V i : 223

This coin is one of the issues which were struck on Aurelian's accession in celebration of the Danube provinces whose troops had brought him to power.
1 comments*AlexJan 09, 2018
CONS_GALLUS_ANH.JPG
Struck A.D.351 - 354. CONSTANTIUS GALLUS CAESAR. AE2 Majorina or Centenionalis of Antioch10 viewsObverse: D N CONSTANTIVS NOB CAES. Bare-headed draped and cuirassed bust of Constantius Gallus facing right.
Reverse: FEL TEMP REPARATIO. Soldier advancing left, spearing fallen horseman, discarded shield on ground at feet; in left field, Γ : in exergue, ANH.
Diameter 24mm | Weight 5.6gms.
RIC VIII: 134

This coin is one of the vast issues struck for several years after a reform of the bronze coinage by Constantius II and Constans in conjunction with the 1100th anniversary of Rome in A.D.348. The coins depict historical events associated with these emperors. This type more than likely is an allusion to Constantius II's victory against the Persians in a battle which took place near Ctesiphon, the Persian capital, in A.D.344 which resulted in the Romans capturing the heir to the Persian throne.
1 comments*AlexJan 08, 2018
CONSTANS_ANDelta.JPG
Struck A.D.348 - 350. CONSTANS as Augustus. AE Majorina or Centenionalis of Antioch17 viewsObverse: D N CONSTANS P F AVG. Pearl diademed, draped and cuirassed bust of Constans holding globe facing left.
Reverse: FEL TEMP REPARATIO. Soldier advancing right, dragging small barbarian from hut beneath tree; in exergue, ANΔ.
RIC VIII : 126.

This coin is one of the vast issues struck for several years following a reform of the bronze coinage by Constantius II and Constans in conjunction with the 1100th anniversary of Rome in A.D.348. The coins depict historical events associated with these emperors. This reverse type, though struck for both emperors, was in the East struck in greater numbers for Constans, even though this part of the Empire wasn't under his jurisdiction. It is therefore more than likely representative of Constans' defeat and settlement of the Franks in Toxandria, (part of Belgium) in A.D.342.
2 comments*AlexJan 08, 2018
CONSTANTIUS2_2Captives.JPG
Struck A.D.350. CONSTANTIUS II as Augustus. AE Centenionalis of Siscia3 viewsObverse: D N CONSTANTIVS P F AVG. Pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust of Constantius II facing left, holding globe.
Reverse: FEL TEMP REPARATIO. Constantius standing facing left, holding labarum in his right hand and resting his left hand on shield. In front of him stand two bound captives wearing pointed caps, their heads turned towards one another; above captives, star. In exergue, ASISR.
RIC VIII : 225 | VM : 87

This coin is one of the vast issues struck for several years after a reform of the bronze coinage by Constantius II and Constans in conjunction with the 1100th anniversary of Rome in A.D.348. The coins depict historical events associated with these emperors. This reverse type, struck for both emperors, was only struck by mints in the Central and Eastern parts of the Empire, and only Siscia in the Central part struck for Constans. The type therefore more than likely is an allusion to Constantius' victory against the Persians in a battle which took place near Ctesiphon, the Persian capital, in A.D.344 which resulted in the Romans capturing the heir to the Persian throne.
*AlexJan 08, 2018
Coinstantius2_Galley_RQ.JPG
Struck A.D.348 - 350. CONSTANTIUS II as Augustus. AE Maiorina of Rome8 viewsObverse: D N CONSTANTIVS P F AVG. Laurel and rosette diademed, draped and cuirassed bust of Constantius II facing right; behind head, A.
Reverse: FEL TEMP REPARATIO. Constantius II, bare-headed and in military dress, standing facing left on galley sailing left with Victory at the helm. Constantius holds globe surmounted by phoenix with wreath in its beak in his right hand and standard with Chi-Rho on banner in his left In left field, A; in exergue, RQ.
RIC VIII : 112
SCARCE

This coin is one of the vast issues struck for several years after a reform of the bronze coinage by Constantius II and Constans in conjunction with the 1100th anniversary of Rome in A.D.348. The coins depict historical events associated with these emperors. This reverse type, though struck under both emperors, was in the East struck only for Constans, even though this part of the Empire wasn't under his jurisdiction. It therefore more than likely alludes to Constans' crossing to Britannia in c.A.D.343 to repel incursions into the province by the Picts. An extremely rare gold medallion exists celebrating the same event, it depicts Constans and has the legend "BONONIA OCEANEN".
1 comments*AlexJan 08, 2018
ALLECTUS_PAX_ML.JPG
Struck A.D.293 - 296, ALLECTUS, AE Antoninianus minted at Londinium (London, England)2 viewsObverse: IMP C ALLECTVS P F AVG. Radiate and cuirassed bust of Allectus facing right.
Reverse: PAX AVG. Pax standing facing left, holding olive-branch in her right hand and transverse sceptre in her left; across field, S- A; in exergue, ML.
Diameter: 23mm | Weight: 3.9gms | Die Axis: 12
RIC V ii : 28

Allectus, a chief minister under Carausius, murdered the British Emperor soon after the capture of Boulogne by Constantius in A.D.293 and took his place. Constantius invaded Britain in A.D.297 in a two pronged attack. Allectus was caught off balance and he was defeated and killed near Farnham as he hurriedly marched west to meet the invaders.
*AlexJan 08, 2018
CARAUSIUS_PAX_MLXXI.JPG
Struck A.D.289 - 293, CARAUSIUS, AE Antoninianus minted at Londinium (London, England)2 viewsObverse: IMP C CARAVSIVS P F AVG. Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust of Carausius facing right.
Reverse: PAX AVG. Pax standing facing left, holding olive branch in her right hand and vertical sceptre in left; across field, S - P: in exergue, MLXXI.
Diameter: 23mm | Weight: 3.9gms | Die Axis: 6 | Some remaining patches of silvering.
Unlisted. cf.RIC V ii : 98
VERY RARE

Marcus Aurelius Mausaeus Carausius, of Menapian origin and commander of the fleet under Maximianus, rebelled and set himself up as Emperor in Britain in A.D.287. All attempts by the central Empire to dislodge him failed and he adopted the title "Caesar" c.A.D.289 having negotiated a peace with Diocletian. He was murdered by Allectus, one of his chief ministers, in A.D.293.
*AlexJan 08, 2018
HELENA_SMANT.JPG
Struck A.D.324 -326. HELENA. AE3 of Antioch3 viewsObverse: FL HELENA AVGVSTA. Draped bust of Helena with elaborate hair-style and wearing pearl necklace and earring, facing right.
Reverse: SECVRITAS REIPVBLICE. Helena, veiled, holding branch in her right hand, standing facing left; in exergue, SMANTZ (Z = sixth officina).
RIC VII : 67
EXTREMELY RARE

Flavia Julia Helena was the wife of Constantius I and the mother of Constantine I. Constantine made her Augusta in A.D.324, and this coin was struck to celebrate her promotion and as part of the celebrations for Constantines's victory over Licinius. Helena had been converted to Christianity by the time of her promotion and she used her enormous wealth to devote much attention to the church. She died when she was about eighty years of age around A.D.330.
*AlexJan 07, 2018
CRISPUS_ALEM-DEV.JPG
Struck A.D.323. CRISPUS CAESAR. AE3 of Sirmium10 viewsObverse: FL IVL CRISPVS NOB CAES. Laureate head of Crispus facing right.
Reverse: ALAMANNIA DEVICTA. Victory carrying trophy advancing right, left foot on seated captive; in exergue, •SIRM•.
RIC VII : 49

This coin was struck to commemorate the victories of Crispus in Germany.
2 comments*AlexJan 06, 2018
POP_ROM_BRIDGE_2.JPG
Struck A.D.341 - 346 under Constantius II. POP ROM COMMEMORATIVE AE4 of Constantinople2 viewsObverse: POP ROMANVS. Laureate and draped bust of the Genius of the Roman people facing left, cornucopiae over left shoulder.
Reverse: No legend. Bridge with tower at each end, river beneath; between towers, CONS/I.
RIC VIII : 21
*AlexJan 06, 2018
DIV-CONST_1_QUADRIGA_2.JPG
Struck A.D.337 - 340 under Constantine II. DIVUS CONSTANTINE I. Commemorative AE4 of Treveri (Trier)6 viewsObverse: DIV CONSTANTINVS PT AVGG. Veiled head of Constantine I facing right.
Reverse: No legend. Constantine I in quadriga galloping right, his right hand extended up towards the hand of God, above; in exergue, TRS.
RIC VIII : 68
SCARCE
*AlexJan 05, 2018
POP_ROM_STAR.JPG
Struck A.D.341 - 346 under Constantius II. POP ROM COMMEMORATIVE AE4 of Constantinople10 viewsObverse: POP ROMANVS. Laureate and draped bust of the Genius of the Roman people facing left, cornucopiae over left shoulder.
Reverse: No legend. Star with CONSB below, all within wreath.
RIC VIII : 22
1 comments*AlexJan 05, 2018
CONST_1_VN_MR.JPG
Struck A.D.347 - 348 under Constantius II. DIVUS CONSTANTINE I. Commemorative AE4 of Antioch16 viewsObverse: DV CONSTANTINVS PT AVGG. Veiled head of Constantine facing right.
Reverse: Constantine I, veiled and togate, standing facing right; across field, VN - MR; in exergue, SMANE.
RIC VIII : 112
*AlexJan 05, 2018
CONST_1_SARM_DEV.JPG
Struck A.D.322. CONSTANTINE I as Augustus. AE3 (FOLLIS) of Trier2 viewsObverse: CONSTANTINVS AVG. Laureate head of Constantine I facing right.
Reverse: SARMATIA DEVICTA. Victory advancing right, holding trophy over her left shoulder and palm branch in her right hand, bound captive at her feet; in exergue, PTR☾
RIC VII : 435.

This coin was struck to commemorate Constantine's victories over the Sarmatians in A.D.322.
*AlexJan 05, 2018
DIV-CONST_1_Emperor_STD.JPG
Struck A.D.317 - 318 under Constantine I. DIVUS CONSTANTIUS I. Commemorative AE3/4 of Siscia2 viewsObverse: DIVO CONSTANTIO PIO PRINCIPI. Laureate and veiled head of Constantius I facing right.
Reverse: REQVIES OPTIMORVM MERITORVM. Constantius, seated on curule chair, facing left, his right hand raised, left hand holding scroll; in exergue, SIS.
Diameter: 16mm | Weight: 1.5gms | Die Axis: 12
RIC VII : 42
VERY RARE
*AlexJan 04, 2018
DIV-MAXIMIANUS_EAGLE.JPG
Struck A.D.317 - 318 under Constantine I. DIVUS MAXIMIANUS. Commemorative AE4 of Rome3 viewsObverse: DIVO MAXIMIANO SEN FORT IMP. Laureate and veiled head of Maximianus facing right.
Reverse: MEMORIAE AETERNAE. Eagle standing right, head turned left; in exergue, RS.
Diameter: 15mm | Weight: 1.9gms | Die Axis: 6
RIC VII : 110 | VM : 62
VERY RARE
*AlexJan 04, 2018
MAXIMINUS_2_FOLLIS_HERC.JPG
Struck A.D.312. MAXIMINUS II as AUGUSTUS. AE Follis of Nicomedia7 viewsObverse: IMP C GAL VAL MAXIMINVS P F AVG. Laureate head of Maximinus facing right.
Reverse: HERCVLI VICTORI. Hercules standing facing right, his right hand on his hip, his left hand holding lionskin and resting on club; in left field, A with star above; in exergue, SMN.
RIC VI : 75. Weight 5.7gms.
1 comments*AlexJan 03, 2018
DIV-MAXIMIAN_EMP_STD.JPG
Struck A.D.317 - 318 under Constantine I. DIVUS MAXIMIANUS. Commemorative AE4 of Treveri4 viewsObverse: DIVO MAXIMIANO OPT IMP. Laureate and veiled head of Maximianus facing right.
Reverse: REQVIES OPT MER. Maximianus, veiled and togate, seated on curule chair facing left, right hand outstretched, left hand holding scroll. In exergue, STR.
Weight: 1.7gms
RIC VII : 205
VERY RARE
*AlexJan 03, 2018
AUREL_ORIENS.JPG
Struck A.D.272 - 273. AURELIAN. Silvered AE Antoninianus of Mediolanum4 viewsObverse: IMP AVRELIANVS AVG. Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust of Aurelian facing right.
Reverse: RESTITVT ORIENTIS. Female figure standing facing right presenting wreath to Aurelian who is standing facing left and holding sceptre; in exergue, S.
Diameter: 22mm | Weight: 4.0gms | Die Axis: 12
RIC V i : 140.

Struck after the defeat of Vabalathus and Queen Zenobia this coin commemorates the re-absorption of the Palmyran territories into the Roman Empire.
*AlexJan 01, 2018
AUREL_ORBIS.JPG
Struck A.D.274 - 275. AURELIAN. Silvered AE Antoninianus of Cyzicus7 viewsObverse: IMP AVRELIANVS AVG. Radiate and cuirassed bust of Aurelian facing right.
Reverse: RESTITVTOR ORBIS. Victory holding palm, standing facing right, presenting wreath to Aurelian, standing facing left, his right hand reaching out to take the wreath from Victory, his left holding a spear. In lower field, Epsilon; in exergue, XXI.
Post reform issue. Diameter: 23mm | Weight: 3.1gms | Die Axis: 6
RIC V i : 369

Struck after the defeat of Tetricus I this coin commemorates the conquest of the breakaway Gallic territories which completed the reunification of the Roman Empire.
*AlexJan 01, 2018
DIV-CLAUD_2_ALTAR.JPG
Struck A.D.270 - 271, probably under Aurelian. DIVUS CLAUDIUS II. Silvered Commemorative AE Antoninianus of Rome4 viewsObverse: DIVO CLAVDIO. Radiate head of Claudius facing right.
Reverse: CONSECRATIO. Large flaming altar.
RIC Vi : 259
*AlexJan 01, 2018
DIV-SEV_PIO_EAGLE.JPG
Struck A.D.211 under Caracalla and Geta. DIVUS SEPTIMIUS SEVERUS. Commemorative AR Denarius of Rome5 viewsObverse: DIVO SEVERO PIO. Bare head of Septimius Severus facing right.
Reverse: CONSECRATIO. Eagle standing facing on globe, head facing left.
Diameter: 19.5mm | Weight: 2.1gms | Die Axis: 6
RIC IV i : 191c (Caracalla) | RCV II : 7051 | RSC : 84
SCARCE
*AlexJan 01, 2018
DIV-CLAUD_2_CONST.JPG
Struck A.D.317 - 318 under Constantine I. DIVUS CLAUDIUS II. Commemorative AE3 of Thessalonika6 viewsObverse: DIVO CLAVDIO OPTIMO IMP. Laureate and veiled head of Claudius facing right.
Reverse: REQVIES OPTIMORVM MERITORVM. Claudius seated facing left on curule chair, raising right hand and holding scroll in left; in exergue, •TS•Γ•.
Diameter: 16mm | Weight: 1.5gms | Die Axis: 1
RIC VII : 26 (r5)
EXTREMELY RARE
1 comments*AlexDec 31, 2017
DIV-CONSTANTIUS_1_EAGLE.JPG
Struck A.D.317 - 318 under Constantine I. DIVUS CONSTANTIUS I. Commemorative AE4 of Rome3 viewsObverse: DIVO CONSTANTIO PIO PRINC. Laureate and veiled head of Constantius facing right.
Reverse: MEMORIAE AETERNAE. Eagle standing, head left; in exergue, RP.
Diameter: 14mm | Weight: 1.3gms | Die Axis: 6
RIC VII : 111
VERY RARE
*AlexDec 31, 2017
Coventina__s_Well.jpg
LINK 1 | LINK 210 views*AlexDec 31, 2017
DIV-CONST_1_SHRINE_TT.JPG
Struck A.D.307 - 308 under Maxentius. DIVUS CONSTANTIUS I. Commemorative AE Follis of Ticinum4 viewsObverse: DIVO CONSTANTIO AVG. Veiled head of Constantius I facing right.
Reverse: MEMORIA DIVI CONSTANTI. Mausoleum or Temple of classical shape with double closed doors embellished with handles in the shape of a ring held in the mouth of a lion, apex of roof surmounted by eagle; in exergue, T T.
Diameter: 25mm | Weight: 4.5gms | Die Axis: 12
RIC VI : 97
RARE
*AlexDec 30, 2017
DIVO-CONSTANTIO_ALTAR_2.JPG
Struck A.D.307 - 308 under Maxentius. DIVUS CONSTANTIUS I. Commemorative AE Follis of Aquileia3 viewsObverse: DIVO CONSTANTIO AVG. Veiled head of Constantius I facing right.
Reverse: MEMORIA DIVI CONSTANTI. Large altar, doors embellished with handles in the shape of a ring held in the mouth of a lion, surmounted by eagle with wings spread standing facing, head turned to left and holding wreath in its beak; in exergue, AQS.
Diameter: 25mm | Weight: 5.3gms | Die Axis: 6
RIC VI : 127
SCARCE

"Cohen 24 (not giving mintmark) and Voetter, Gerin Cat., p. 62, have AVG only in the obv. legend of this type at Aquileia." - source Curtis Clay.
*AlexDec 30, 2017
DIV-GAL_FORTUNA-NEMESIS.JPG
Struck A.D.312 under Licinius I. DIVUS GALERIUS. Commemorative AE Follis of Siscia10 viewsObverse: DIVO GAL VAL MAXIMIANO. Veiled head of Galerius facing right.
Reverse: FORTI FORTVNAE. Fortuna standing facing left holding rudder on globe and cornucopiae, wheel with cubit rule leaning against it (the attributes of Nemesis), behind at her feet; in right field, star on crescent over B; in exergue, SIS.
Diameter: 23mm | Weight: 4.75gms | Die Axis: 12
RIC VI : 226
EX FORVM
RARE
1 comments*AlexDec 29, 2017
Constantius_1_Altar_eagles.JPG
Struck A.D.307 - 308 under Constantine I. DIVUS CONSTANTIUS I. Commemorative AE Follis of Treveri (Trier)4 viewsObverse: DIVO CONSTANTIO PIO. Laureate and veiled bust of Constantius I facing right.
Reverse: MEMORIA FELIX. Lighted and garlanded altar with eagle on either side; in exergue, PTR.
Diameter: 26mm | Weight: 7.4gms | Die Axis: 7
RIC VI : 789
*AlexDec 29, 2017
CLAUD_2_GOTHICO_ALTAR.JPG
Struck A.D.271, probably under Aurelian. DIVUS CLAUDIUS II. Commemorative AE Antoninianus of Mediolanum4 viewsObverse: DIVO CLAVDIO GOTHICO. Radiate head of Claudius facing right.
Reverse: CONSECRATIO. Flaming altar. In exergue, T (Third officina).
Diameter: 18mm | Weight: 3.06gms | Die Axis: 7
RIC V i : 264 | Gobl : 23k.
VERY RARE

Mediolanum (Milan) operated with three officina at the time that this coin was struck, however this particular issue, with the "GOTHICO" in the obverse legend, was only struck at the third officina.
*AlexDec 29, 2017
PHIL_2_GOAT.JPG
Struck A.D.248. PHILIP II. AR Antoninianus of Rome5 viewsObverse: IMP PHILIPPVS AVG. Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust of Philip II facing right, seen from behind.
Reverse: SAECVLARES AVGG. Goat walking left; in exergue, III (officina 3).
Diameter: 22mm | Weight: 4.4gms | Die Axis: 6
RIC IV iii : 224
SCARCE

This coin is one of a series of coins struck by Philip I and Philip II in A.D.248 to commemorate the 1000th anniversary of Rome. Many of these coins depict the various animals, brought from all over the Empire, which were displayed in the arena during the games celebrating this event.
*AlexDec 28, 2017
PHIL_1_TEMPLE.JPG
Struck A.D.248. PHILIP I. AR Antoninianus of Rome10 viewsObverse: IMP PHILIPPVS AVG. Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust of Philip I facing right, seen from behind.
Reverse: SAECVLVM NOVVM. Hexastyle temple containing seated statue of Roma.
Diameter: 21mm | Weight: 3.64gms | Die Axis: 7
RIC IV iii : 25b | Cohen : 198

This coin is one of a series of coins struck by Philip I in A.D.248 to commemorate the 1000th anniversary of Rome.
1 comments*AlexDec 27, 2017
PHILIP_!_LION.JPG
Struck A.D.248. PHILIP I. AR Antoninianus of Rome1 viewsObverse: IMP PHILIPPVS AVG. Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust of Philip I facing right, seen from behind.
Reverse: SAECVLARES AVGG. Lion walking right; in exergue, I (officina 1).
Diameter: 22mm | Weight: 4.12gms | Die Axis: 12
RIC IV iii : 12 | RSC : 173

This coin is one of a series of coins struck by Philip I in A.D.248 to commemorate the 1000th anniversary of Rome. Many of these coins depict the various animals, brought from all over the Empire, which were displayed in the arena during the games celebrating this event.
*AlexDec 26, 2017
PHILIP_1_CIPPUS.JPG
Struck A.D.248. PHILIP I. AR Antoninianus of Rome11 viewsObverse: IMP PHILIPPVS AVG. Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust of Philip I facing right, seen from behind.
Reverse: SAECVLARES AVGG. Cippus inscribed COS III.
Diameter: 22mm | Weight: 3.9gms | Die Axis: 12
RIC IV iii : 24c

This coin is one of a series of coins struck by Philip I in A.D.248 to commemorate the 1000th anniversary of Rome.
1 comments*AlexDec 26, 2017
PHIL_1_ANTELOPE.JPG
Struck A.D.248. PHILIP I. AR Antoninianus of Rome6 viewsObverse: IMP PHILIPPVS AVG. Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust of Philip I facing right, seen from behind.
Reverse: SAECVLARES AVGG. Antelope walking left; in exergue, VI (officina 6).
RIC IV iii : 21 | RSC IV : 189 | SRCV III : 8959
Diameter 22.3mm | Weight 3.347gms | Die axis: 6
EX FORVM

This coin is one of a series of coins struck by Philip I in A.D.248 to commemorate the 1000th anniversary of Rome. Many of these coins depict the various animals, brought from all over the Empire, which were displayed in the arena during the games celebrating this event.
*AlexDec 26, 2017
DIV-FAUST_1_PROV_1.JPG
Struck A.D.141- 161 under Antoninus Pius. DIVA FAUSTINA SENIOR. Commemorative AE14 of Bostra, Arabia4 viewsObv: ΘЄA ΦAVCTЄINA. Diademed and draped bust of Faustina facing right.
Rev: TVXH NЄAC TPAIANHC BOCTPAC, Tyche (City-goddess) standing facing, head left, holding spear and resting left hand on shield.
Diameter: 14mm | Weight: 2.06gms | Die Axis: 6
ANS 1181 | Spijkerman 11 | BMC 7-9.

Originally a Nabataean city, in A.D.106 Bostra was conquered by the emperor Trajan who renamed it Nova Trajana Bostra and made it the capital of the Roman province of Arabia Petraea. Bostra was the residence of the Legio III Cyrenaica and served as a key Roman fortress east of the Jordan River. Since it was at the juncture of several trade routes connecting Damascus to the Red Sea the city flourished and Bostra eventually achieved the title metropolis under the emperor Philip I, who was a native of the city. Its coins have Greek legends from the time of Antoninus Pius to Elagabalus, and Latin legends from Severus Alexander to the time of Trajan Decius.
Today Bostra is a major archaeological site and has been declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO. Its main feature is it's Roman theatre (below) reputed to be the best preserved Roman theatre in the world.
*AlexDec 26, 2017
SEVALEX_TET_LA.JPG
Struck A.D.222. SEVERUS ALEXANDER. Billon Tetradrachm of Alexandria10 viewsObverse: A KAI MAP AYP CEYHP AΛEΞANΔPOC EYCEB. Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust of Severus Alexander facing right.
Reverse: No legend. Tyche, holding rudder, reclining facing left on garlanded couch; above, L A (= regnal year 1 = A.D 222).
Diameter: 22mm | Weight: 11.91gms | Die Axis: 12
Geissen: 2405. | Dattari: 4381
Ex Dionysos (VCoins)
1 comments*AlexDec 26, 2017
DIV-SEVERO_USTRINUM.JPG
Struck A.D.211 under Caracalla and Geta. DIVUS SEPTIMIUS SEVERUS. Commemorative AR Denarius of Rome6 viewsObverse: DIVO SEVERO PIO. Bare head of Septimius Severus facing right.
Reverse: CONSECRATIO. Ustrinum of five storeys, plaque or door on second level, apex surmounted by emperor in facing quadriga. Engraver's variant with drapery hung across base and upper tiers.
Diameter: 19mm | Weight: 1.9gms | Die Axis: 6
RIC IV i : 191f (Caracalla) | RSC : 89
RARE

At the beginning of February, while on campaign in Britain, Septimius Severus fell ill and died at York (Eboracum). He had reigned for 18 years and was deified by the Senate. His sons, Caracalla and Geta, succeeded their father as joint Roman Emperors, but on December 19th Geta was murdered by his older brother leaving Caracalla the sole ruler of the Empire.
1 comments*AlexDec 25, 2017
PROBUS_VICT_GERM_RA~0.JPG
Struck A.D.278 - 282. PROBUS. Silvered AE Antoninianus of Rome10 viewsObverse: IMP PROBVS P F AVG. Radiate and cuirassed bust of Probus facing right.
Reverse: VICTORIA GERM. Two captives seated at foot of trophy; in exergue, R A.
RIC V ii : 220

After two years successfully campaigning against the Germanic peoples, including Franks, Vandals and Burgundians, Probus issued this coin to commemorate their defeat and the restoration of the Roman frontier on the Rhine and Upper Danube.
*AlexDec 24, 2017
PROBUS_VICT_GERM_RA.JPG
Struck A.D.278 - 282. PROBUS. Silvered AE Antoninianus of Rome. 6 viewsObverse: IMP PROBVS P F AVG. Radiate and cuirassed bust of Probus facing right.
Reverse: VICTORIA GERM. Two captives seated at foot of trophy; in exergue, R - A divided by thunderbolt.
RIC V ii : 220

After two years successfully campaigning against the Germanic peoples, including Franks, Vandals and Burgundians, Probus issued this coin to commemorate their defeat and the restoration of the Roman frontier on the Rhine and Upper Danube.
*AlexDec 24, 2017
DIV-FAUSTINA2_PEACOCK.JPG
Struck A.D.176-180 under Marcus Aurelius. DIVA FAUSTINA JUNIOR. Commemorative denarius of Rome8 viewsObverse: DIVA FAVSTINA PIA. Draped bust of Faustina Junior facing right.
Reverse: CONSECRATIO. Peacock standing facing right.
Diameter: 18mm | Weight: 3.24gms | Die Axis: 12
RIC III : 744 | RSC : 71a

Annia Galeria Faustina was the youngest daughter of Antoninus Pius and Faustina Senior. She married Marcus Aurelius in A.D.145 and was given the title of Augusta on the birth of her first child in A.D.146. She went on to have several more children, one of whom was the future emperor Commodus. In A.D.175 Faustina accompanied Marcus Aurelius on his journey to the East but she died at Halala, a village at the foot of the Taurus Mountains.
1 comments*AlexDec 24, 2017
DIV-AURELIUS_EAGLE.JPG
Struck A.D.180 under Commodus. DIVUS MARCUS AURELIUS. Commemorative AR denarius of Rome7 viewsObverse: DIVVS M ANTONINVS PIVS. Bare head of Marcus Aurelius facing right.
Reverse: CONSECRATIO. Eagle facing left, head turned right, standing on bar.
Diameter: 17mm | Weight: 2.9gms | Die Axis: 6
RIC III : 266
Featured on Wildwinds.
SCARCE

Marcus Aurelius died at his camp in Vindobona (Vienna) on March 17th, A.D.180 after a week's illness. He was succeeded by his 18 year old son, Commodus.
*AlexDec 24, 2017
DIV-VERUS_EAGLE.JPG
Struck A.D.169 under Marcus Aurelius. DIVUS LUCIUS VERUS. Commemorative AR denarius of Rome7 viewsObverse: DIVVS VERVS. Bare head of Lucius Verus facing right.
Reverse: CONSECRATIO. Eagle facing right, head turned left, standing on bar.
Diameter: 18mm | Weight: 2.84gms | Die Axis: 6
RIC III : 596a
SCARCE

Lucius Aurelius Verus was made co-emperor along with Marcus Aurelius on the death of Antoninus Pius in A.D.161. Although he campaigned in the East with considerable success, he was addicted to pleasure, and his death in A.D.169 came as something of a relief to Aurelius.
*AlexDec 24, 2017
DIV-FAUST1_AUGUSTA.JPG
Struck A.D.141- 142 under Antoninus Pius. DIVA FAUSTINA SENIOR. Commemorative AR Denarius of Rome5 viewsObv: DIVA FAVSTINA. Draped bust of Faustina, hair waved and coiled on top of her head, facing right.
Rev: AVGVSTA. Vesta standing facing left, holding palladium and sacrificing out of patera over garlanded altar.
Diameter: 16mm | Weight: 3.2gms | Die Axis: 6
RIC III : 370.

This coin was struck soon after her death.

Vesta was the goddess of the hearth, fire, and the household, and therefore the deity of domestic life. Her Greek counterpart was Hestia.
*AlexDec 23, 2017
DIV-FAUST1_CERES.JPG
Struck A.D.141 or shortly after under Antoninus Pius. DIVA FAUSTINA SENIOR. Commemorative AR Denarius of Rome6 viewsObverse: DIVA FAVSTINA. Draped bust of Faustina, hair waved and coiled on top of her head, facing right.
Reverse: CERES. Ceres standing facing left, holding corn-ears and torch.
Diameter: 17mm | Weight: 3.3gms | Die Axis: 6
RIC III : 378

Ceres was the Roman goddess of agriculture; equivalent to the Greek goddess Demeter.

EVENTS OCCURRING AT THE TIME THIS COIN WAS STRUCK
The Temple now known as that of Antoninus and Faustina was constructed in Rome in A.D.141. The temple was initially dedicated to Faustina the Elder but was rededicated to Antoninus and Faustina after the emperor's death.
*AlexDec 23, 2017
DIVOPIO_EAGLE.JPG
Struck A.D.161 under Marcus Aurelius. DIVUS ANTONINUS PIUS. Commemorative AR Denarius of Rome6 viewsObverse: DIVVS ANTONINVS. Bare headed and draped bust of Antoninus Pius facing right.
Reverse: CONSECRATIO. Eagle standing facing right, head left, on garlanded altar.
Diameter: 19mm | Weight: 2.9gms | Die Axis: 6
RIC III : 431
*AlexDec 22, 2017
DIVOPIO_COLUMN.JPG
Struck A.D.164 under Marcus Aurelius. DIVUS ANTONINUS PIUS. Commemorative AR Denarius of Rome5 viewsObverse: DIVVS ANTONINVS. Bare head of Antoninus Pius facing right.
Reverse: DIVO PIO. Column of Antoninus Pius surmounted by statue of the emperor and surrounded by enclosure.
Diameter: 18mm | Weight: 3.1gms | Die Axis: 6
RIC III : 439 | VM : 137/2 | Sear : 5195

The Column of Antoninus Pius (Columna Antonini Pii) was erected in the Campus Martius in memory of Antoninus Pius by Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus c.A.D.158 on the twentieth anniversary of his reign. Constructed of red granite, the column was 14.75 metres high and 1.90m in diameter, unlike the otherwise similar column of Trajan it had no decorating reliefs. The masons' inscription shows that it was quarried out in A.D.106 and architecturally it belonged to the Ustrinum which was 25m north of it on the same orientation. It was surmounted by a statue of Antoninus Pius, as is represented on the coin. Previous to the 18th century the base was completely buried, but the lower part of the shaft projected about 6m above the ground. In 1703, when some buildings were demolished in the area of Montecitorio, the rest of the column and the base were discovered and excavated. The base, all four sides of which are shown below, still survives and is now housed in the Cortile della Pigna in the Vatican Museums.
*AlexDec 22, 2017
HADRIAN_CONSECRATIO.JPG
Struck A.D.139 under Antoninus Pius. DIVUS HADRIAN. Commemorative AR Denarius of Rome16 viewsObverse: DIVVS HADRIANVS AVG. Bare head of Hadrian facing right.
Reverse: CONSECRATIO. Eagle standing facing on globe, head turned left.
Diameter: 18mm | Weight: 3.2gms | Die Axis: 6
RIC II : 389b
VERY RARE.

The Mausoleum of Hadrian in Rome was completed in the year this coin was struck, the emperor Antoninus Pius cremated the body of Hadrian and placed his ashes together with that of his wife Vibia Sabina and his adopted son, Lucius Aelius in the tomb.
The mausoleum was originally a towering decorated cylinder topped with a garden and a golden quadriga. The building, used by the popes in later centuries as a fortress and castle, is known today as the Castel Sant'Angelo. It is situated in Parco Adriano, Rome and is now a museum.
2 comments*AlexDec 21, 2017
AUGCIST_ARCH.JPG
Struck 19 - 18 B.C. AUGUSTUS. AR Cistophorus (Cistophoric Tetradrachm = 3 denarii) of Pergamum15 viewsObverse: IMP•IX•TR•PO•V. Bare head of Augustus facing right.
Reverse: Triumphal arch surmounted by Augustus in facing triumphal quadriga; IMP IX TR POT V on architrave; S P R SIGNIS RECEPTIS in three lines within arch opening, standards at either side.
Diameter: 24 - 25mm | Weight: 11.7gms | Die Axis: 12
RIC I : 510 | BMC : 703 | RSC : 298
Ex ROMA NUMISMATICS (London) | Ex Künker, 2006
RARE

This coin commemorates Augustus' triumphant agreement with the Parthians in 20 B.C. under which they returned the legionary standards captured from Crassus who was defeated and killed at Carrhae thirty-three years earlier (53 B.C.). Augustus installed these standards in the Temple of Mars Ultor.
The reverse of the coin shows the triumphal arch which was awarded to Augustus on the occasion of his recovery of the standards. This was the second triumphal arch awarded to Augustus and, like the earlier arch which had been constructed in 29 BC to honour his victory over Cleopatra, this second arch, which archaeological evidence suggests may actually have incorporated the first arch, stood in close proximity to the Temple of Divus Julius at the southern entrance to the Roman Forum.
This is the rarest cistophorus struck during the reign of Augustus with the exception of the exceedingly rare issues featuring a sphinx.
1 comments*AlexDec 21, 2017
LICIN1_IOVI_EAGLE_PARL.JPG
Struck A.D.319. LICINIUS I. AE3 of Arelate4 viewsObverse: IMP LICINIVS AVG. Laureate and cuirassed bust of Licinius facing right.
Reverse: IOVI CONSERVATORI AVG. Jupiter seated facing left on eagle with wings open standing facing right; Jupiter, looking back. holds sceptre in his left hand and a thunderbolt in his right; in exergue, PARL.
Weight 2.9gms.
RIC VII : 196
VERY RARE
*AlexDec 21, 2017
DIVNERVA_BERYTUS.JPG
Struck A.D. 98 - 99 under Trajan. DIVUS NERVA. Commemorative AE 25 of Berytus, Phoenicia14 viewsObv: DIVOS NERVA AVGVSTVS. Laureate head of Nerva facing right.
Rev: COL IVL AVG FEL BER. Nerva, as priest-founder, ploughing with yoke of oxen right.
Diameter: 25mm | Weight: 13.6gms | Die Axis: 12
BMC : 81 (Phoenicia) | GICV : 950.
RARE

This coin was struck by Trajan shortly after the death of Nerva.

At the beginning of January A.D.98 Nerva suffered a stroke during a private audience and a few weeks later died of a fever at his villa in the Gardens of Sallust. He was succeeded by Trajan, whom he had adopted as his son and heir.
1 comments*AlexDec 20, 2017
CITYCOM_APOLLO.JPG
Struck A.D.310 - 313 under Maximinus II. CITY COMMEMORATIVE AE3/4 of Antioch19 viewsObverse: GENIO ANTIOCHENI. The Tyche of Antioch seated facing with the river-god Orontes swimming facing below.
Reverse: APOLLONI SANCTO. Apollo standing facing left, holding lyre in his left hand and patera in his right; in right field, A; in exergue, SMA.
Diameter: 16mm | Weight: 1.6gms | Die Axis: 12
Vagi 2954

This coin, often called a quarter nummus or twelfth follis, the exact denomination being uncertain, is assigned to the time of the great persecution of Christians under Galerius and Maximinus II.
The obverse of the coin shows the famous Tyche of Antioch which was made by Eutychides of Sikyon in the second half of the 4th century B.C. The reverse possibly represents the statue of Apollo of Antioch which was made my Bryaxis around 400-350 B.C.
The statue below is a late Roman marble copy of the original Greek bronze statue of the Tyche of Antioch by Eutychides and it is now in the Vatican Museum (Galleria dei Candelabri).
3 comments*AlexDec 20, 2017
MAXIM_2ND_REIGN_AQP.JPG
Struck A.D.307 - 308. MAXIMIANUS. Second Reign. AE Follis (Nummus) of Aquileia3 viewsObverse: IMP C MAXIMIANVS P F AVG. Laureate head of Maximianus facing right.
Reverse: CONSERV VRB SVAE. Roma seated facing, head left, holding globe in her right hand and spear or sceptre in her left, all within hexastyle temple with ornamented pediment. In exergue, AQP.
Diameter: 26mm | Weight: 7.9gms | Die Axis: 12
RIC VI : 118

This coin was struck c.A.D.307 - 308, during Maximianus' short joint reign with Maxentius, to commemorate the rebuilding of the Temple of Venus and Rome and in conjunction with celebrations for the benefactions given to Rome and Carthage, Maxentius' principal bases of power. The Temple of Venus and Rome, thought to be that shown on this coin, was commissioned by Hadrian in A.D.121 and finished under Antoninus Pius in A.D.141. In A.D.283 a fire destroyed the roof, and the temple was rebuilt by Maxentius, who retained the original plan.
The existing remains of this temple are on the right side of the picture below.
*AlexDec 20, 2017
BOTLAUREL_2018.JPG
201861 viewsTHIS YEAR'S WINNERS
CLICK ON A COIN FOR ITS DETAILS



*AlexDec 19, 2017
ANTPIUS_BRIT_ROM_MNT~0.JPG
Struck A.D.154 - 155. ANTONINUS PIUS AE AS8 viewsObverse: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P XVIII, laureate and draped bust of Antoninus Pius facing right.
Reverse: BRITANNIA COS IIII, Britannia seated facing left on rock, shield and vexillum in background; in exergue, S C.
Diameter: 26mm | Weight: 12.7gms | Die Axis: 6h
RIC III: 934 | RCV: 4296 | Cohen: 117 | BMC: 1971
SCARCE

The bronze coins of Antoninus Pius bearing the "Britannia" reverse type have been found in considerable quantities in Britain, but are not generally recorded from Roman sites in France and Germany. The old theory that the "Britannia" issues of Antoninus Pius were minted in Britain is therefore not improbable, though it is possible that the issue was both issued at Rome and produced locally in Britannia. The many "Britannia" issues of Antoninus Pius found in Coventina's Well, Carrawburgh, seem to have come from only a few dies, suggesting that the place of mintage for them was not far distant.
However this coin, because of it's excellent style, size and weight, can possibly be attributed to a Roman mint or at least to dies produced there.
The reverse type of Britannia seated on a rock, eventually adorned Great Britain's coinage many centuries later when the design was reintroduced by Charles II in 1672.
*AlexDec 18, 2017
ANTPIUS_BRIT_ROM_MNT.JPG
154 - 155, ANTONINUS PIUS, AE AS17 viewsObverse: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P XVIII, laureate and draped bust of Antoninus Pius facing right.
Reverse: BRITANNIA COS IIII, Britannia seated facing left on rock, shield and vexillum in background; in exergue, S C.
Diameter: 26mm | Weight: 12.7gms | Die Axis: 6h
RIC III: 934 | RCV: 4296 | Cohen: 117 | BMC: 1971
SCARCE

The bronze coins of Antoninus Pius bearing the "Britannia" reverse type have been found in considerable quantities in Britain, but are not generally recorded from Roman sites in France and Germany. The old theory that the "Britannia" issues of Antoninus Pius were minted in Britain is therefore not improbable, though it is possible that the issue was both issued at Rome and produced locally in Britannia. The many "Britannia" issues of Antoninus Pius found in Coventina's Well, Carrawburgh, seem to have come from only a few dies, suggesting that the place of mintage for them was not far distant.
The reverse type of Britannia seated on a rock, eventually adorned Great Britain's coinage many centuries later when the design was reintroduced by Charles II in 1672.

Dedications to Coventina and votive deposits were found in a walled area, now called “Coventina's Well”, which had been built to contain the outflow from a spring near the site of a Roman fort and settlement, on Hadrian's Wall. Now called Carrawburgh, the site is named as Procolita in the 5th century “Notitia Dignitatum”. The remains of a Roman Mithraeum and Nymphaeum were also found near the site.
1 comments*AlexDec 18, 2017
ANTPIUS_BRIT_BRIT_MNT.JPG
154 - 155 A.D. ANTONINUS PIUS AE AS (Britannia mint)12 viewsObverse: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P XVIII, laureate and draped bust of Antoninus Pius facing right.
Reverse: BRITANNIA COS IIII, Britannia seated facing left on rock, shield and vexillum in background; in exergue, S C.
Diameter: 26mm | Weight: 9.4gms | Die Axis: 7h
RIC III: 934 | RCV: 4296 | Cohen: 117
SCARCE

The bronze coins of Antoninus Pius bearing the "Britannia" reverse type have been found in considerable quantities in Britain, but are not generally recorded from Roman sites in France and Germany. The old theory that the "Britannia" issues of Antoninus Pius were minted in Britain is therefore not improbable, the many "Britannia" issues of Antoninus Pius found in Coventina's Well, Carrawburgh, seem to have come from only a few dies suggesting that the place of mintage for them was not far distant. It is possible though that the issue was struck at Rome and produced locally in Britannia as well.
The reverse type of Britannia seated on a rock, eventually adorned Great Britain's coinage many centuries later when the design was reintroduced by Charles II in 1672.

Dedications to Coventina and votive deposits were found in a walled area, now called “Coventina's Well”, which had been built to contain the outflow from a spring near the site of a Roman fort and settlement, on Hadrian's Wall. Now called Carrawburgh, the site is named as Procolita in the 5th century “Notitia Dignitatum”. The remains of a Roman Mithraeum and Nymphaeum were also found near the site.
*AlexDec 18, 2017
CITYCOM_IOVI_VICT_ANT.JPG
Struck A.D.310 - 313 under Maximinus II. CITY COMMEMORATIVE AE3/4 of Antioch2 viewsObverse: IOVI CONSERVATORI. Jupiter seated facing left on throne, holding globe in right hand and sceptre in left.
Reverse: VICTORIA AVGG. Victory advancing left, holding wreath in her outstretched right hand and palm in her left; in right field, A; in exergue, ANT.
Diameter: 15mm | Weight: 1.6gms | Die Axis: 12
C : 53 | Vagi : 2955

This coin, often called a quarter nummus or twelfth follis, the exact denomination being uncertain, is assigned to the time of the great persecution of Christians under Gallienus and Maximinus II.
The obverse of the coin possibly depicts the statue of Zeus Nikephoros at the Temple of Apollo at Daphne, near Antioch, which Antiochos IV commissioned for his great festival in 167 B.C.
*AlexDec 17, 2017
ConstantineCaesar_PKD.JPG
Struck A.D.307. CONSTANTINE I as CAESAR. Large AE Follis of Carthage2 viewsObverse: CONSTANTINVS NOB CAES. Laureate head of Constantine facing right.
Reverse: CONSERVATO-RES KART SVAE. Hexastyle temple within which is Carthage standing facing left holding fruits in both hands. In exergue, PKΔ.
Diameter: 25.15mm | Weight: 6.4gms
RIC VI : 61

This coin is one of the issues which were struck in A.D.307 to commemorate and advertise Constantine's alliance with Maxentius, reflected in types common to both rulers. Carthage was one of Maxentius' power bases.
*AlexDec 15, 2017
DIVONUMERIAN_KAA.JPG
Struck A.D.284 - 285 under Carinus. DIVUS NUMERIAN. Commemorative AE Antoninianus of Rome3 viewsObverse: DIVO NVMERIANO. Radiate head of Numerian facing right.
Reverse: CONSECRATIO. Eagle standing facing, head left; in exergue, KAA.
Diameter: 22mm | Weight: 4.0gms | Die Axis: 7
RIC V ii : 424
VERY RARE

Though misrated as common by Cohen and RIC, antoninianii of Divus Numerian are in fact quite rare: there were only 15 of his antoninianii of all types in the Venera hoard, as compared to 25 antoninianii of the 'very rare' Divus Nigrinian. - source HJB

Numerian, who had accompanied Carus on the Persian campaign, was proclaimed emperor by the troops when Carus was killed. However, as he led the army back to Europe, it was discovered that he had been murdered in his litter.
*AlexDec 15, 2017
CARINCAES_PIETAS_KAZ.JPG
Struck A.D.282 - 283. CARINUS as Caesar. AE Antoninianus of Rome2 viewsObverse: M AVR CARINVS NOB CAES. Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust of Carinus facing right.
Reverse: PIETAS AVGG. Sacrificial/pontifical implements; in exergue, KAZ.
Diameter: 22mm | Weight: 3.3gms | Die Axis: 12
RIC V ii : 156
*AlexDec 15, 2017
CARINAVG_AEQV_KAZ.JPG
Struck A.D.283 - 285. CARINUS as Augustus. Silvered Antoninianus of Rome7 viewsObverse: IMP C M AVR CARINVS AVG. Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust of Carinus facing right.
Reverse: AEQVITAS AVGG. Aequitas standing facing left, holding scales in her right hand and cornucopiae in her left; in exergue, KAZ.
Diameter: 21mm | Weight: 3.6gms | Die Axis: 12
RIC V ii : 238
*AlexDec 15, 2017
NUMERCAES_VIRTUS_XXI.JPG
Struck A.D.283. NUMERIAN as Caesar. AE Antoninianus of Antioch5 viewsObverse: IMP C M AVR NVMERIANVS NOB C. Radiate and draped bust of Numerian facing right.
Reverse: VIRTVS AVGGG. Numerian standing facing right, receiving Victory from Jupiter standing facing left; star above Victory; in field between figures, E Δ ; in exergue, XXI.
Diameter: 22mm | Weight: 3.9gms | Die Axis: 6
RIC V ii : 378.
SCARCE
*AlexDec 13, 2017
NUMERAVG_PAX_B.JPG
Struck A.D.283 - 284. NUMERIAN as Augustus. Silvered Antoninianus of Lugdunum14 viewsObverse: IMP C NVMERIANVS AVG. Radiate and cuirassed bust of Numerian facing right.
Reverse: PAX AVGG. Pax standing facing left holding olive branch in her right hand and transverse sceptre in left; in left field, B.
Diameter: 22mm | Weight: 2.9gms | Die Axis: 12
RIC V ii : 394
1 comments*AlexDec 13, 2017
DIVOCARO_ALTAR_XXI.JPG
Struck A.D.283 - 284 under Carinus and Numerian. DIVUS CARUS. Commemorative AE Antoninianus of Antioch13 viewsObverse: DIVO CARO AVG. Radiate head of Carus facing right.
Reverse: CONSECRATIO. Lighted, garlanded altar; in right field Δ ; in exergue, XXI.
Diameter: 21mm | Weight: 4.11gms | Die Axis: 6
RIC V ii : 127
1 comments*AlexDec 12, 2017
DIVOCARO_EAGLE_II.JPG
Struck A.D.283 - 284 under Carinus and Numerian. DIVUS CARUS. Commemorative AE Antoninianus of Lugdunum18 viewsObverse: DIVO CARO PIO. Radiate head of Carus facing right.
Reverse: CONSECRATIO. Eagle standing facing left, head right; in exergue, II.
Diameter: 22mm | Weight: 3.2gms | Die Axis: 12
RIC V ii : 29
1 comments*AlexDec 10, 2017
CARUS_PAX_PXXI.JPG
Struck A.D.282 - 283. CARUS. AE Antoninianus of Ticinum11 viewsObverse: IMP CARVS P F AVG. Radiate and cuirassed bust of Carus facing right.
Reverse: PAX EXERCITI. Pax standing facing left, holding olive branch in her right hand and standard in her left; in exergue, PXXI.
Diameter: 23mm | Weight: 3.4gms | Die Axis: 5
RIC V ii : 75
*AlexDec 09, 2017
PROBUS_MARS_RQM.JPG
Struck A.D.276 - 282. PROBUS. AE ANTONINIANUS of Rome11 viewsObverse: PROBVS P F AVG. Radiate and cuirassed bust of Probus with aegis, facing right.
Reverse: MARTI PACIF. Mars advancing left, holding olive-branch in raised right hand, spear and decorated shield in left; in exergue, R Q Γ.
Diameter: 21mm | Weight: 3.4gms | Die Axis: 6
RIC V ii : 177.
Part of the "AEQVITI" series of Rome, this coin = "Q".
1 comments*AlexDec 08, 2017
PROBUS_VIRTUS_TROPHY_R.JPG
Struck A.D.276 - 282. PROBUS. AE ANTONINIANUS of Rome.2 viewsObverse: IMP C M AVR PROBVS AVG. Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust of Probus facing right.
Reverse: VIRTVS AVGVSTI. Probus standing facing left, holding sceptre and crowning trophy; to left of trophy, seated captive; in exergue, R.
Diameter: 23mm | Weight: 3.2gms | Die Axis: 12
RIC V ii : 243 var. Unlisted in RIC with this bust type.
EXTREMELY RARE
*AlexDec 07, 2017
PROBUS_PAX__XXI.JPG
Struck A.D.276 - 282. PROBUS. AE Antoninianus of Siscia5 viewsObverse: IMP PROBVS P F AVG. Helmeted, radiate and cuirassed bust of Probus facing left, holding shield in his left hand and spear over his right shoulder.
Reverse: PAX AVGVSTI. Pax standing facing left, holding olive branch in her right hand and transverse sceptre in her left. In right field, V; in exergue, XXI.
Diameter: 21mm | Weight: 3.6gms | Die Axis: 1
RIC V ii : 713
*AlexDec 07, 2017
PROBUS_XXIP_3_STANDARDS.JPG
Struck A.D.277 (winter). PROBUS. AE ANTONINIANUS of Siscia14 viewsObverse: IMP C PROBVS P F AVG. Radiate and cuirassed bust of Probus facing right.
Reverse: FIDES MILITVM. Fides seated facing left, with three standards; in exergue, XXIP.
Diameter: 23mm | Weight: 3.5gms | Die Axis: 7
RIC V ii : 692. (4th emission, Siscia)
1 comments*AlexDec 07, 2017
COMMODUS_Tetradrachm.JPG
Struck A.D.189 - 190. COMMODUS. AE (Billon) Tetradrachm of Alexandria.5 viewsObverse: M A KOM ANTW CEB EYCEB. Laureate head of Commodus facing right.
Reverse: No legend. Eagle, with wings open, standing facing right on thunderbolt. In right field, L Λ (= regnal year 30 of Marcus Aurelius = August A.D.189 to August 190).
Diameter: 24mm | Weight: 11.49gms | Die Axis: 12
Milne : 2696 | Curtis : 799 | Dattari : 3905 | Geissen : 2245 | SNG Cop : 589
EX FORVM
*AlexDec 07, 2017
PROBUS_SOL_QUADRIGA_LEFT.JPG
ROMAN EMPIRE, PROBUS. Silvered AE Antoninianus of Rome. Struck A.D.276 - 282. 31 viewsObverse: IMP PROBVS P F AVG. Radiate bust of Probus, wearing imperial mantle and holding eagle tipped sceptre, facing left.
Reverse: SOLI INVICTO. Radiate Sol in quadriga galloping left; in exergue, R Γ.
RIC V ii : 200
Scarce.
1 comments*AlexDec 06, 2017
PROBUS_VICTORIA_AUG.JPG
ROMAN EMPIRE, PROBUS. Silvered AE Antoninianus of Rome. Struck A.D.276 - 28216 viewsObverse: PROBV-S P F AVG. Radiate and cuirassed bust of Probus wearing aegis, facing right.
Reverse: VICTO-RIA AVG. Victory advancing left, holding wreath and trophy; in exergue, R Stigma (6th officina).
Diameter: 21mm | Weight: 3.9gms | Die Axis: 12
RIC V ii : 215
*AlexDec 06, 2017
probus_ric116_18_00.JPG
ROMAN EMPIRE, PROBUS. Silvered AE Antoninianus of Lugdunum. Struck A.D.276 - 282.15 viewsObverse: IMP C PROBVS P F AVG. Radiate and cuirassed bust of Probus facing right.
Reverse: COME-S AVG. Minerva standing facing left leaning on shield and holding olive branch in her right hand and spear in her left; in left field, A.
Diameter: 22mm | Weight: 3.7gms | Die Axis: 12
RIC V ii : 116
*AlexDec 06, 2017
PROBUS_IOVI_RB~0.JPG
ROMAN EMPIRE, PROBUS. Silvered AE Antoninianus of Rome. Struck A.D.276 - 282.24 viewsObverse: IMP PROBVS P F AVG. Radiate and cuirassed bust of Probus facing right.
Reverse: IOVI CONS PROB AVG. Jupiter standing facing left, holding thunderbolt in right hand and sceptre in left. In exergue, R B.
RIC Vii : 173
SCARCE
1 comments*AlexDec 06, 2017
PROBUS_VIRTUS_XXIQ~0.JPG
Roman Empire, PROBUS. Silvered AE Antoninianus of Siscia. Struck A.D.276 - 282.15 viewsObverse: IMP C M AVR PROBVS P AVG. Radiate bust of Probus, wearing Imperial mantle and holding eagle tipped sceptre, facing left.
Reverse: VIRTVS PROBI AVG. Mars advancing right carrying spear and trophy; in exergue, XXIQ.
RIC V ii : 816 var. Bust type H not listed for this officina. Alföldi type 96, n° 131.
VERY RARE
*AlexDec 06, 2017
PROBUS_PROVID_DEOR_KAA.JPG
Struck A.D.276 - 282. PROBUS. AE Antoninianus of Serdica. 3 viewsObverse: IMP C M AVR PROBVS AVG. Radiate and draped bust of Probus facing right.
Reverse: PROVIDEN DEOR. Fides, holding two standards, standing facing right and facing Sol, his right hand raised and holding globe in his left, standing facing left. In lower field, between figures, star; in exergue, KA•A•.
Diameter: 22mm | Weight: 3.7gms | Die Axis: 6
RIC V ii : 845
*AlexDec 06, 2017
PROBUS_PROVIDENT_XXIA.JPG
Struck A.D.276 - 282. PROBUS. Silvered AE Antoninianus of Rome. 4 viewsObverse: IMP C M AVR PROBVS AVG. Radiate and cuirassed bust of Probus facing right.
Reverse: PROVIDENTIA AVG. Providentia standing facing left, globe at her feet, holding baton in her right hand and cornucopiae in her left; in exergue, XXIA.
Diameter: 22mm | Weight: 3.7gms | Die Axis: 1
RIC V ii : 726.
(Re-attributed to first emission of Rome by Pink)
*AlexDec 06, 2017
PROBUS_VIRTUS_KHD.JPG
Struck A.D.276 - 282. PROBUS. Silvered AE Antoninianus of Serdica. 3 viewsObverse: IMP C M AVR PROBVS AVG. Helmeted, radiate and cuirassed bust of Probus facing left, holding spear over shoulder in his right hand and shield in his left.
Reverse: VIRTVS PROBI AVG. Probus galloping right spearing enemy, shield below horse; in exergue, KA•Δ•.
Diameter: 23mm | Weight: 3.6gms | Die Axis: 6
RIC V ii : 878
*AlexDec 06, 2017
PROBUS_VIRTUS_XXIQ.JPG
Struck A.D.276 - 282. PROBUS. Silvered AE Antoninianus of Siscia.3 viewsObverse: IMP C M AVR PROBVS P AVG. Radiate bust of Probus, wearing Imperial mantle and holding eagle tipped sceptre, facing left.
Reverse: VIRTVS PROBI AVG. Mars advancing right carrying spear and trophy; in exergue, XXIQ.
Diameter: 22mm | Weight: 3.9gms | Die Axis: 12
RIC V ii : 816 var. Bust type H not listed for this officina. Alföldi type 96, n° 131.
VERY RARE
*AlexDec 06, 2017
PROBUS_CLEMENTIA_XX.JPG
Struck A.D.280. PROBUS. Silvered AE ANTONINIANUS of Tripolis. 5 viewsObverse: IMP C M AVR PROBVS P F AVG. Radiate and draped bust of Probus facing right.
Reverse: CLEMENTIA TEMP. Probus standing facing right, holding sceptre surmounted by eagle, receiving globe from Jupiter standing facing left, holding sceptre; in lower field, star; in exergue, XXI.
Diameter: 23mm | Weight: 3.9gms | Die Axis: 12
RIC V ii : 927 (var)
*AlexDec 06, 2017
PROBUS_FCNG_QUAD.JPG
Struck A.D.276 - 277. PROBUS. Silvered AE Antoninianus of Cyzicus. 6 viewsObverse: IMP C M AVR PROBVS P F AVG. Radiate bust of Probus, wearing imperial mantle and holding eagle tipped sceptre, facing left.
Reverse: SO-LI INVICT-O. Sol in galloping quadriga facing; below horses, CM over XXIV.
Diameter: 22mm | Weight: 3.85gms | Die Axis: 12
RIC V ii : 911
*AlexDec 05, 2017
PROBUS_IOVI_RB.JPG
Struck A.D.276 - 282. PROBUS. Silvered AE Antoninianus of Rome. 5 viewsObverse: IMP PROBVS P F AVG. Radiate and cuirassed bust of Probus facing right.
Reverse: IOVI CONS PROB AVG. Jupiter standing facing left, holding thunderbolt in right hand and sceptre in left. In exergue, R thunderbolt B.
Diameter: 22mm | Weight: 4.3gms | Die Axis: 12
RIC Vii : 173
SCARCE
*AlexDec 05, 2017
FLORIAN_VIRT_XXIS.JPG
Struck A.D.276. FLORIANUS. Silvered AE Antoninianus of Rome. 10 viewsObverse: IMP C FLORIANVS AVG. Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust of Florianus facing right.
Reverse: VIRTVS AVG. Florianus standing facing right, holding globe in left hand and spear in right; in exergue, XXIS.
Diameter: 22mm | Weight: 2.2gms | Die Axis: 12 | Weak strike
RIC V i : 47
*AlexDec 05, 2017
PROBUS_ADVENTUS_HELMET.JPG
Struck A.D.276 -280. PROBUS. Silvered AE Antoninianus of Cyzicus. 5 viewsObverse: VIRTVS PROBI AVG. Helmeted, radiate and cuirassed bust of Probus facing left, holding shield in his left hand and spear over his right shoulder.
Reverse: ADVENTVS PROBI AVG. Probus on horseback advancing left, right hand raised, left hand holding sceptre, figure kneeling before horse.
Diameter: 23mm | Weight: 3.5gms | Die Axis: 12
RIC V ii : 904

This coin was struck to celebrate the emperor's arrival in Cyzicus during the Imperial progress westward from Syria in A.D.276.
*AlexDec 04, 2017
PROBUS_TEMPLE_RD.JPG
Struck A.D.276 - 282. PROBUS. Silvered AE Antoninianus of Rome. 4 viewsObverse: IMP PROBVS P F AVG. Radiate bust of Probus, wearing imperial mantle and holding eagle tipped sceptre, facing left.
Reverse: ROMAE AETER. Roma seated facing, head left, within hexastyle temple; in exergue, R Δ.
Diameter: 21mm | Weight: 3.88gms | Die Axis: 6
RIC V ii : 183.
Ex Aiello Collection. | Ex FORVM
*AlexDec 04, 2017
PROBUS_FID_MIL_III.JPG
Struck A.D.278 - 279. PROBUS. Silvered AE Antoninianus of Lugdunum. 4 viewsObverse: IMP C M AVR PROBVS AVG. Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust of Probus facing right.
Reverse: FIDES MILITVM. Fides standing facing left, holding two standards; in exergue, III.
Diameter: 22mm | Weight: 4.5gms | Die Axis: 6
RIC V ii : 79 (RIC 79 (rather than 28.) based on style, Bastien 278 (15 examples), Emission 6, A.D. 278 - 279 - Maridunum)
Ex Ian Johnson (Manchester)
*AlexDec 04, 2017
PROBUS_FIDES_RS.JPG
Struck A.D.276 - 282. PROBUS. Silvered AE ANTONINIANUS of Rome. 7 viewsObverse: PROBVS P F AVG. Radiate and cuirassed bust of Probus facing right.
Reverse: FIDES MILITVM. Fides, holding two standards, standing facing left; in exergue, R E.
Diameter: 20mm | Weight: 3.6gms | Die Axis: 12
RIC V ii : 170
*AlexDec 03, 2017
CARINUS_TET_LA.JPG
Struck A.D.282 - 283. CARINUS as CAESAR. Billon Tetradrachm of Alexandria. 7 viewsObverse: A K M A KAPINOC K. Laureate and cuirassed bust of Carinus facing right.
Reverse: No legend. Tyche (Fortuna) standing facing left, holding rudder in her right hand and cornucopiae in her left; in left field, LA (Year one of Carus).
Diameter: 18mm | Weight: 7.5gms | Die Axis: 12
GICV : 4778
*AlexDec 03, 2017
CARUS_DIV_ALTAR_TET~0.JPG
Struck A.D.283 - 284 under Carinus and Numerian. DIVUS CARUS. Commemorative AE Tetradrachm of Alexandria.11 viewsObverse: ΘEW KAPW CEB. Laureate head of Carus facing right.
Reverse: AΦIEPOCIC. Round, burning and garlanded altar on base, star in upper left field.
Diameter: 18mm | Weight: 7.1gms | Die Axis: 12
GICV : 4777 | Emmett 3995

This coin is an undated posthumous type bearing the legend AΦIEPOCIC, one of the most interesting features of the Alexandrian coinage of Marcus Aurelius Carus.

Carus died in mysterious circumstances during his Persian campaign against the Sassanids, it was claimed that during a violent dust storm he had been killed by a stroke of lightning. Carus was succeeded by his eldest son Carinus, who had been left in Rome and Numerian, Carinus' younger brother, who had accompanied Carus on the Persian campaign and had been proclaimed emperor by the troops when Carus was killed.
*AlexDec 03, 2017
CARUS_DIV_ALTAR_TET.JPG
Struck A.D.283 - 284 under Carinus and Numerian. CARUS. Posthumous commemorative AE Tetradrachm of Alexandria.6 viewsObverse: ΘEW KAPW CEB. Laureate head of Carus facing right.
Reverse: AΦIEPOCIC. Round, burning and garlanded altar on base, star in upper left field.
Diameter: 18mm | Weight: 7.1gms | Die Axis: 12
GICV : 4777 | Emmett 3995

This coin is an undated posthumous type bearing the legend AΦIEPOCIC, one of the most interesting features of the Alexandrian coinage of Marcus Aurelius Carus.
*AlexDec 03, 2017
NUMERIAN_TET_G.JPG
Struck A.D.284. NUMERIAN as Augustus. Billon Tetradrachm of Alexandria. 8 viewsObverse: A K M A NOVMEPIANOC CEB. Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust of Numerian facing right.
Reverse: ETOYC Γ (= regnal year 3 = A.D.284). Eirene standing facing left, raising her right hand and holding transverse sceptre in her left.
Diameter: 19mm | Weight: 8.03gms | Die Axis: 12
Curtis : 1947 | Emmett : 4020 | Milne : 4735 | Dattari : 5609 | Geissen : 3198 | BMC : 2466
EX FORVM
*AlexDec 03, 2017
PROBUS_COMES_ANT_2.JPG
Struck A.D.276 - 282. PROBUS. Silvered AE Antoninianus of Lugdunum.6 viewsObverse: IMP C PROBVS P F AVG. Radiate and cuirassed bust of Probus facing right.
Reverse: COME-S AVG. Minerva standing facing left leaning on shield and holding olive branch in her right hand and spear in her left; in left field, A.
Diameter: 23mm | Weight: 3.7gms | Die Axis: 12
RIC V ii : 116
1 comments*AlexDec 02, 2017
PROB_ANT_SOL_RT.JPG
Struck A.D.276 - 282. PROBUS. Silvered AE Antoninianus of Rome. 13 viewsObverse: IMP PROBVS P F AVG. Radiate bust of Probus, wearing imperial mantle and holding eagle tipped sceptre, facing left.
Reverse: SOLI INVICTO. Radiate Sol in quadriga galloping left; in exergue, R thunderbolt Γ.
Diameter: 23mm | Weight: 5.0gms | Die Axis: 12
RIC V ii : 200.
SCARCE
2 comments*AlexDec 02, 2017
PROB_VIC_ANT_R.JPG
Struck A.D.276 - 282. PROBUS. Silvered AE Antoninianus of Rome. 12 viewsObverse: PROBV-S P F AVG. Radiate and cuirassed bust of Probus wearing aegis, facing right.
Reverse: VICTO-RIA AVG. Victory advancing left, holding wreath and trophy; in exergue, R (6th officina).
Diameter: 21mm | Weight: 3.9gms | Die Axis: 12
RIC V ii : 215
1 comments*AlexDec 02, 2017
DIV_MAX_GAL_FOLLIS_SMTS.JPG
Struck A.D.311 under Licinius. DIVUS GALERIUS. Commemorative AE Follis of Thessalonica. 4 viewsObverse: DIVO MAXIMIANO. Veiled head of Galerius facing right.
Reverse: MEM DIVI MAXIMIANI. Eagle surmounting domed shrine with closed doors; in right field, A; in exergue, •SM•TS•.
Diameter: 24mm | Weight: 4.6gms | Die Axis: 6
RIC VI : 48 (r5).
EXTREMELY RARE
*AlexDec 02, 2017
MAXIM_FOLLIS_HERC_ALEX.JPG
Struck A.D.304 - 305. MAXIMIANUS. Follis of Alexandria. 4 viewsObverse: IMP C M A MAXIMIANVS P F AVG. Laureate head of Maximianus facing right.
Reverse: HERCVLI VICTORI. Hercules standing facing, head left, holding club in his right hand, apple and lionskin in his left. In upper left field, S; in right field, A; in exergue, ALE.
Diameter: 28mm | Weight: 8.2gms | Die Axis: 12 | Traces of silvering
RIC VI : 41.

The gilded bronze statue below is probably the one, mentioned by Pliny, which originally stood in the Temple of Hercules Victor by the Tiber. It lacks the lion skin, perhaps an actual lion skin was once draped on it. The sculpture is now in the Musei Capitolini, Rome.
*AlexDec 02, 2017
CONST_1_FOLLIS_AQS.JPG
Struck A.D.305 - 306. CONSTANTIUS I CHLORUS as Augustus. AE Follis of Aquileia. 8 viewsObverse: IMP CONSTANTIVS P F AVG. Laureate head of Constantius I facing right.
Reverse: FIDES MILITVM AVGG ET CAESS NN. Fides standing facing left holding two standards; in exergue, AQS.
Diameter: 27mm | Weight: 8.9gms | Die Axis: 6
RIC VI : 60a
*AlexDec 01, 2017
MAXIM_TET_LG.JPG
Struck A.D.287 - 288. MAXIMIANUS. Billon Tetradrachm of Alexandria.3 viewsObverse: A K M OVA MAΞIMIANOC CEB. Laureate bust of Maximianus facing right.
Reverse: No legend. Homonoia standing facing left, right hand raised, holding double cornucopiae; in left field, star; across field, L Γ (= regnal year 3 = A.D.287-288).
Diameter: 19mm | Weight: 7.25gms | Die Axis: 12
GICV: 4791 | Geißen: 3292 | Dattari: 5927 var.
Ex Dionysos (VCoins)
*AlexDec 01, 2017
DIOCL_TET_LB.JPG
Struck A.D.285 - 286. DIOCLETIAN. Billon Tetradrachm of Alexandria. 7 viewsObverse: A K Γ OVAL DIOKLHTIANOC CEB. Laureate and cuirassed bust of Diocletian facing right.
Reverse: No legend. Dikaiosyne (Aequitas) standing facing left, holding scales in her right hand and cornucopiae in her left. Across field, L - B (= regnal year 2 = A.D.285/286).
Diameter: 20mm | Weight: 6.9gms | Die Axis: 12
Milne : 4768 | BMC G : 2490
*AlexDec 01, 2017
CONST1_BEATA_TRAN.JPG
Struck A.D.322. CONSTANTINE I as Augustus. AE3 of Treveri. 6 viewsObverse: CONSTANTINVS AVG. Laureate bust of Constantine wearing imperial mantle facing right and holding eagle tipped sceptre.
Reverse: BEATA TRANQVILLITAS. Globe set on altar inscribed VO TIS XX; above, three stars; in exergue, PTR•.
RIC VII : 342

This coin is one of the many issues struck to commemorate the fifteenth anniversary of Constantine's reign.
*AlexNov 30, 2017
DV_CARUS_TET_EAGLE.JPG
Struck A.D.283 - 284 under Carinus and Numerian. CARUS. Posthumous commemorative AE Tetradrachm of Alexandria.7 viewsObverse: ΘEW KAPW CEB. Laureate head of Carus facing right.
Reverse: AΦIEPOCIC. Eagle standing facing on rod, head right, wings open.
Diameter: 19mm | Weight: 7.96gms | Die Axis: 12
GICV : 4776
Ex Zurqieh (Dubai)

This coin is an undated posthumous type bearing the legend AΦIEPOCIC, one of the most interesting features of the Alexandrian coinage of Marcus Aurelius Carus.
*AlexNov 30, 2017
PROB_TET_LD.JPG
Struck A.D.278 - 279. PROBUS. Billon Tetradrachm of Alexandria. 5 viewsObverse: A K M AVP ΠPOBOC CEB. Laureate and cuirassed bust of Probus facing right.
Reverse: Eirene standing facing left, olive branch in her right hand and transverse sceptre in her left. In left field, &Delta over L (= regnal year 4 = A.D.278-279).
Diameter: 19mm | Weight: 8.11gms | Die Axis: 12
Curtis : 1878 | Emmett : 3986 | Milne : 4574
Ex Harlan J Berk (USA)
*AlexNov 30, 2017
AUREL_TET_S.JPG
Struck A.D.274 - 275. AURELIAN. Billon Tetradrachm of Alexandria. 10 viewsObverse: A K Λ ΔOM AVPHΛIANOC CEB. Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust of Aurelian facing right.
Reverse: ETOVC S. Eagle standing facing left, looking back, wreath in beak.
Diameter: 20mm | Weight: 8.1gms | Die Axis: 12
GICV : 4750
*AlexNov 30, 2017
PHIL2_TET_LG.JPG
Struck A.D.246. PHILIP II as Caesar. AE Tetradrachm of Alexandria. 4 viewsObverse: M IOV ΦIΛIΠΠOC K CEB. Bare headed and draped bust of Philip II facing right.
Reverse: No legend. Asklepios standing facing left, sacrificing over flaming and garlanded altar out of patera held in his right hand and holding staff, around which a serpent coils, in his left; in left field, LΓ.
Diameter: 23mm | Weight: 11.9gms | Die Axis: 12
Not in GICV
VERY RARE
*AlexNov 28, 2017
CLAUD2_TET_LB.JPG
Struck A.D.268 - 269. CLAUDIUS II GOTHICUS. Billon Tetradrachm of Alexandria. 6 viewsObverse: AVT K KLAVΔIOC CEB. Laureate and cuirassed bust of Claudius II facing right.
Reverse: No legend. Eagle standing facing left, head looking back to right, holding wreath in beak; in field L B (= regnal year 2 = A.D.268-269).
Diameter: 20mm | Weight: 10.20gms | Die Axis: 12
Curtis : 1683 | BMC : 2333
Ex Harlan J Berk (USA)
*AlexNov 28, 2017
TRAJ_TET_LITHETA_2.JPG
Struck A.D.115 - 116. TRAJAN. AR (Billon) Tetradrachm of Alexandria.9 viewsObverse: AVT TPIAN(sic) API CEB ΓEPM ΔAKIK. Laureate head of Trajan facing right, star in right field below chin.
Reverse: No legend. Diademed and draped bust of Zeus facing right, LI in left field, Θ in right (= regnal year 19 = A.D.115/116)
Legend error TRIAN instead of TRAIAN
Diameter: 24mm | Weight: 12.39gms | Die Axis: 12
BMC.G: 356 (var)
Ex Zurqieh (Dubai)
1 comments*AlexNov 28, 2017
SAL_TET_LI.JPG
Struck A.D.267 - 268. SALONINA (Wife of Gallienus). Billon Tetradrachm of Alexandria. 4 viewsObverse: KOPNHΛIA CAΛWNEINA CEB. Diademed and draped bust of Salonina facing right.
Reverse: No legend. Eagle standing facing right, holding wreath in beak, palm above left; in right field, LIE (= regnal year 15 of Gallienus = A.D.267-268).
Diameter: 21mm | Weight: 9.83gms | Die Axis: 12
Dattari : 5346 | Milne : 4189 | Curtis : 1642 | Geissen : 2983 | BMC : 2280
EX FORVM
*AlexNov 27, 2017
DVPIO_ANT_TRDE.JPG
Struck A.D.249 - 251 by Trajan Decius. DIVUS ANTONINUS PIUS. Commemorative AR Antoninianus of Mediolanum. 5 viewsObverse: DIVO PIO. Radiate head of Antoninus Pius facing right.
Reverse: CONSECRATIO. Large altar.
Diameter: 23mm | Weight: 2.8gms | Die Axis: 11
RIC IV iii : 90
VERY RARE

This coin is one of a series of commemorative antoninianii of previous emperors believed to have been struck under Trajan Decius, although it has also been mooted that these coins may have been struck under Philip I in connection with the 1000th Anniversary of Rome. The other emperors commemorated in this series are Augustus, Vespasian, Titus, Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian, Marcus Aurelius, Commodus, Septimius Severus and Severus Alexander.

This particular coin was struck from a recently discovered die which has been registered on Joaquim Blay Detrell’s website. DIVI SERIES as die # AN61.
This coin is 90-175 and the obverse die is P069, documented for other coins which can be found in the database.
*AlexNov 27, 2017
URBS_ROMA_FELIX.JPG
Struck A.D.404 - 408. THEODOSIUS II. AE3 of Rome. 7 viewsObverse: D N THEODOSIVS P F AVG. Diademed, draped and cuirassed bust of Theodosius facing right.
Reverse: VRBS ROMA FELIX. Roma standing facing, head right, holding spear with trophy attached in her right hand and Victory on globe in her left; at feet, shield. In exergue, SMROM; across field, OF - Q.
RIC X : 1283 under Honorius. Also see RIC IX : 67a under Theodosius I and RIC X p130
VERY RARE
*AlexOct 29, 2017
NERO.JPG
Struck A.D. 66 - 67 NERO & DIVUS AUGUSTUS. AR Billon tetradrachm of Alexandria.10 viewsObverse: NERΩ KΛAY KAIΣ ΣEB ΓER AY. Radiate bust of Nero facing left, wearing aegis; before LIΓ = regnal year 13 = A.D.66-67.
Reverse: ΘEOΣ ΣEBAΣTOΣ. Radiate head of Augustus facing right.
Diameter: 24mm | Weight: 12.5gms | Die Axis: 12
GICV : 636 | Emmett : 113
Ex Pavlos S. Pavlou (London)
1 comments*AlexOct 29, 2017
HADRIAN~0.JPG
Struck A.D.136 - 137. HADRIAN. AR (Billon) Tetradrachm of Alexandria.14 viewsObverse: AVT KAIC TPA AΔPIANOC CEB. Laureate head of Hadrian facing left.
Reverse: No legend. Demeter, wearing long chiton, standing facing left, holding poppies and grain ears in her right hand and long torch in her left. In field, L K A (= regnal year 21 = A.D.136-137).
Diameter: 24mm | Weight: 12.1gms | Die Axis: 12
Milne : 1518 | Emmett : 832 (var) | Dattari : 1336 | Geissen : 1210
Ex Zurqieh (Dubai)
RARE
1 comments*AlexOct 29, 2017
LOUIS_XIV_Louvre.JPG
Struck c.1667, Louis XIV and Marie-Thérèse, AE (Copper) Jeton3 viewsObverse: +LVD•XIIII•ET•MAR•THER•D•G•FRA•ET•NAV•REX•ET•REG. Busts of Louis XIV and Marie Therese facing one another. To the left, draped and laureate bust of Louis XVI facing right. To the right, draped bust of Marie Therese facing left, small crown on the back of her head.
Reverse: MAIESTATI•AC•AETERNIT•GALL•IMPERII•SACRVM+. Front view of the new Louvre Palace in Paris.

Struck at indeterminate mint, possibly Lisse, Netherlands
Engraved by Jean Varin or faithfully copied from his dies
Diameter: 27.5mm | Weight: 5.7gms | Die Axis: 6
Ref. Feuardent: 13082

The site of the Louvre was originally a fortress, built in the middle ages by King Philippe-Auguste (1165-1223). Between 1364 and 1380, Charles V (1338-1380) undertook work on this building to transform it into a castle, turning the old fort into a comfortable residence.
François I (1494-1547), known as the sovereign of the Renaissance, demolished the castle begun by Charles V and rebuilt it as the Louvre Palace and Catherine de Medici (1519-1589) had the Tuileries Palace built alongside.
Then King Henri IV (1553-1610), began further modernisations and had a large gallery built between the Louvre Palace and Tuileries Palace to facilitate movement between the seat of power and his apartments. The modernisation work begun by Henri IV was not completed until the reign of Louis XIV, and it is this that is commemorated on this jeton. It was Louis XIV who, before moving on to his work at Versailles, entrusted the development of the gardens to André Le Nôtre. But when the court of the Sun King moved to his new Palace of Versailles the Louvre Palace became somewhat run down and was occupied by a variety of intellectuals and artists who took up residence there.
*AlexOct 28, 2017
ALEXANDER_III_AR_Drachm.JPG
Kingdom of Macedonia, Alexander the Great. AR Drachm. Struck 323 – 317 BC at Lampsakos, Mysia.21 viewsObverse: No legend. Head of Herakles, wearing lion-skin knotted at base of neck, facing right.
Reverse: AΛEΞANĐPOY. Zeus Aëtophoros seated facing left, right leg drawn back, feet on stool, eagle in right hand, sceptre in left; buckle in left field; Λ above Ω below throne.
Diameter: 18mm | Weight: 4.16gms | Die Axis: 7 | Cut mark above eyebrow on obverse.
Price: 1376

Alexander the Great reigned from 336 to 323 BC but this coin was struck shortly after his death, in around 323 to 317 BC under Leonnatos, Philip III Arrhidaios, or Antigonos I Monophthalmos.

Leonnatos was a Macedonian officer under Alexander the Great and one of the diadochi, rival generals, family and friends of Alexander the Great who fought for the control of Alexander's empire after his death in 323 BC.
Leonnatos was the same age as Alexander and was very close to him. After Alexander died, Leonnatos was made satrap of Phrygia and Alexander's sister, Cleopatra, offered him her hand in marriage. When the Athenians heard that Alexander had died, they revolted against Macedonia. Leonnatos led an army of 20,000 infantry and 1,500 cavalry to relieve the new regent, Antipater, probably with the ambition of usurping Antipater's power since a victory over the Athenians would have enhanced Leonnatos' own claim to the throne. However, in 322 BC, Leonnatus was killed in battle against the Athenians and his marriage to Cleopatra never took place.
Philip III Arrhidaeus was the king of Macedonia after the death of Alexander the Great, from 323 BC until his own death in 317 BC. He was a son of King Philip II of Macedonia and a half-brother of Alexander. Named Arrhidaeus at birth, he assumed the name Philip when he ascended the throne.
As Arrhidaeus grew older it became apparent that he had mild learning difficulties. Alexander was very fond of him, and took him on his campaigns, both to protect his life and to ensure he would not be used as a pawn in a challenge for the throne. After Alexander's death in Babylon, Arrhidaeus was proclaimed king by the Macedonian army in Asia, but he was a mere figurehead, and a pawn of the powerful generals, one after the other.
Antigonos I Monophthalmus (Antigonos the One-eyed) was a Macedonian nobleman, general, and satrap under Alexander the Great. As part of the division of the provinces after Alexander's death, Antigonos received Pamphylia and Lycia from Perdiccas, regent of the empire, but he incurred the enmity of Perdiccas by refusing to assist Eumenes to obtain possession of Paphlagonia and Cappadocia, the provinces which had been allotted to him. Leonnatos had left with his army for Greece, leaving Antigonos to deal with Cappadocia, a task he apparently couldn't complete alone and Perdiccas seems to have viewed this as a direct affront to his authority. Perdiccas then went with the royal army to conquer the area himself and from there he turned west towards Phrygia in order to confront Antigonos. Antigonos, however, escaped to Greece where, in 321 BC, he obtained the favour of Antipater, regent of Macedonia.
When Perdiccas died later that same year, a new attempt at division of the empire took place and Antigonos found himself entrusted with the command of the war against Eumenes, who had joined Perdiccas against the coalition of the other generals which included Antipater, Antigonos, Ptolemy and Craterus. Eumenes was defeated and forced to retire to the fortress of Nora in Cappadocia, and a new army that was marching to his relief was routed by Antigonos.
In 319 BC Antipater died, and Polyperchon was given the regentship, but Antigonos and the other dynasts refused to recognize him since it undermined their own ambitions. Antigonos' old adversary, Eumenes, who had been given authority over anyone within the empire by Polyperchon, raised an army and built a fleet in Cilicia and Phoenicia, and soon after formed a coalition with the satraps of the eastern provinces. Antigonos fought against him in two great battles and, though both were inconclusive, in the aftermath of the second battle Antigonos managed to capture the family and possessions of the Silvershields, an elite regiment within Eumenes' army. The Silvershields negotiated the release of their families by handing over Eumenes to Antigonos in return. Antigonos had Eumenes executed resulting in him now being in possession of the empire's Asian territories, stretching from the eastern satrapies to Syria and Asia Minor in the west.
2 comments*AlexOct 21, 2017
323_-_315_BC_ALEXANDER_III_AE_Quarter-Obol.JPG
Kingdom of Macedonia, Alexander the Great. AE Quarter-Obol (2 Chalkoi). Struck 323 – 315 BC under Nikokreon at Salamis, Cyprus.5 viewsObverse: No legend. Macedonian shield with Gorgoneion (Medusa) head as the boss in the centre. The shield boss is sometimes called the episema, the Greek name for a symbol of a particular city or clan which was placed in the centre of a soldier's shield.
Reverse: Macedonian helmet surmounted with a horse hair crest; B - A (for BAΣIΛEOΣ AΛEΞANĐPOY = King Alexander) above; mint marks below the helmet, to left, a kerykeion (caduceus) and to the right, the monogram NK (for Nikokreon).
Diameter: 14mm | Weight: 4.6gms | Die Axis: 1
Price: 3162 | Liampi, Chronologie 170-92

This coin is a Type 7 (Macedonian shield type) bronze Quarter-Obol (two chalkoi). Price dated the Macedonian Shield coins as beginning during the latter part of Alexander's life, c.325 BC, and ending c.310 BC. Liampi later argued, based on new hoard evidence, that they were minted as early as 334 BC. This particular coin is dated from c.323 to 315 BC.

Salamis was founded around 1100 BC by the inhabitants of Enkomi, a Late Bronze Age city on Cyprus, though in Homeric tradition, the city was established by Teucer, one of the Greek princes who fought in the Trojan War. After Alexander the Great conquered the Persian Empire, of which Salamis was a part, Greek culture and art flourished in the city and, as well as being the seat of the governor of Cyprus, it was the island's most important port.
Nikokreon had succeeded Pnytagoras on the throne of Salamis and is reported to have paid homage to Alexander after the conqueror’s return from Egypt to Tyre in 331 BC. After Alexander's death, his empire was split between his generals, Cyprus falling to Ptolomy I of Egypt. In 315 BC during the war between Antigonos and Ptolemy, Nikokreon supported the latter and was rewarded by being made governor of all Cyprus. However, in 311 BC Ptolemy forced Nikokreon to commit suicide because he no longer trusted him. Ptolemy's brother, King Menelaus, was made governor in Nikokreon's stead.
In 306 BC, Salamis was the scene of a naval battle between the fleets of Ptolemy and Demetrius I of Macedon. Demetrius won the battle and captured the island.
*AlexOct 21, 2017
LOUIS_XIV_AE__NEC_PACE_MINOR.JPG
Struck c.1699, LOUIS XIV (1643 – 1715), AE (Brass) Jeton3 viewsObverse: LVDOVICVS•MAGNVS•REX•. Head of Louis XIV facing right; T•B in small letters below head.
Reverse: NEC•PACE•MINOR•. Hercules standing facing, head left, leaning on club in his left hand and holding cloak at his hip with his right; in exergue, crossed palms.

Struck at unidentified mint, possibly Caen, France
Die engraver: Thomas Bernard
Dimensions: 26.5mm | Weight: 5.1gms | Die Axis: 6
Ref. Feuardent: 12788

Thomas Bernard entered the King's service while still young and from 1685 to 1688 famously engraved dies to produce a history of Louis XIV in gold medallions. He was Engraver General at the Caen mint between 1693 and 1703.

This jeton was struck under the authority of the “Extraordinaire des Guerres” in commemoration of the signing of the “Peace of Rijswijk” on the 20th of September 1697. This treaty settled the War of the League of Augsburg (Nine Years' War), which had seen France pitted against the Grand Alliance of England, Spain, the Holy Roman Empire and the United Provinces.

Louis XIV was unusual by taking particular pleasure from having a large collection of coins and medals, claiming that he used his coins to instruct himself in classical history. He enjoyed his coin collection so much that, at Versailles, he had his cabinet of coins and medals placed where visitors passed every day, between the grand staircase and his apartments, so that he could see them and show them off.
*AlexOct 15, 2017
1690_Louis_XIV_Pont_Royal_Paris.JPG
Struck c.1690 – 1695, Louis XIV (1643 - 1715), AE (Brass) Jeton3 viewsObverse: LVDOVICVS•MAGNVS•REX•. Laureate head of Louis XIV facing right; LGL in small letters below.
Reverse: NOVVM•DECVS•ADDIDIT VRBI. View of the five arched Pont Royal crossing over the River Seine. PONTS ET CHAVS/SEES• in small letters in exergue.

Struck at Nuremburg, Germany
Die engraver: Lazarus Gottlieb Laufer (or Lauffer)
Diameter: 27.44 mm | Weight: 5.6gms | Die Axis: 6
Ref. Feuardent: 2838

Lazarus Gottlieb Laufer was mint-master at Nuremburg from 1663 until his death in 1709.

This jeton celebrates the building of the new “Pont Royal” in Paris. A bridge had stood at this site since 1632 when a wooden toll bridge of fifteen arches was built to replace the Tulleries Ferry. However this bridge, known colloquially as the “Pont Rouge” due to its colour, proved to be a very fragile construction. It needed extensive repairs in 1648 and again in 1651 before being burnt in 1654 and damaged by a flood in 1656 such that, by 1660, it needed completely rebuilt. The bridge needed repaired again in 1673 but, in 1684, it was completely destroyed when eight of its arches were swept away by a flood. A completely new stone bridge, consisting of five arches, was constructed between 1685 and 1689. The work was entirely funded by Louis XIV himself and it was he who named the new bridge the “Pont Royal”. In the 18th century the bridge, which is still standing to this day, was a popular meeting place for a variety of festivities and celebrations.
*AlexOct 15, 2017
Louis_XIV_AE_(Brass)_Jeton~0.JPG
Struck c.1690, Louis XIV (1643 - 1715), AE (Brass) Jeton5 viewsObverse: LVDOVICVS•MAGNVS•REX•. Bare head of Louis XIV facing right; L G L in small letters below bust.
Reverse: PROPRIIS INVICTVS•IN•ARMIS•. Lion walking left, head facing. In exergue, ORDINAIRE•DES•GUERRES.

Struck at Nuremburg, Germany
Die engraver: Lazarus Gottlieb Laufer (or Lauffer)
Dimensions: 25.87mm | Weight: 4.6gms | Die Axis: 6
Ref. Feuardent: 473

Lazarus Gottlieb Laufer was mint-master at Nuremburg from 1663 until his death in 1709.

In 1366 the French war treasury was divided into permanent (ordinaire) and temporary (extraordinaire) divisions. These treasuries minted jetons, so the inscription “Ordinaire des Guerres” on this jeton refers to the minting authority. The “Ordinaire des Guerres” was the permanent administration that managed the regular costs and expenses incurred by the use of the armed forces. It was different from the “Extraordinaire des Guerres” that only took office for the administration of specific campaigns. This jeton was struck around 1690.
*AlexOct 07, 2017
Louis_XIV_and_Maria_Theresa.jpg
Struck c.1667, Louis XIV and Marie-Thérèse, AE (Brass) Jeton7 viewsObverse: +LVD•XIIII•ET•MAR•THER•D•G•FRA•ET•NAV•REX•ET•REG. Busts of Louis XIV and Marie Therese facing one another. To the left, draped and laureate bust of Louis XVI facing right. To the right, draped bust of Marie Therese facing left, small crown on the back of her head.
Reverse: VINCIT•DVM•RESPICIT (The sun dissipates the clouds). Radiant disc of the sun with facial features parting billowing clouds below; in exergue, 1667.

Struck at Lisse, Netherlands
Die engraver: Unknown
Dimensions: 27mm | Weight: 6.1gms | Die Axis: 6
Ref. Feuardent: 13069

Marie-Thérèse, daughter of Philip IV of Spain, was born on the 10th of September 1638. She was also called Marie-Thérèse D'Autriche because the Spanish Kings of those days had a Hapsburg-Austrian origin and her name refers to that and not the home country were she was born and lived.
In 1660 Philip IV, and the entire Spanish court accompanied Marie-Thérèse to the Isle of Pheasants, in the Bidassoa, where she was met by Louis XIV and his court. She and Louis XIV were married in 1660, the marriage agreement being one aspect of the peace negotiations that took place between Spain and France during 1659 and 1660. On the day of her wedding, Marie-Thérèse wore a gown covered in the royal fleur-de-lys and it is said that her uncovered hair proved to be so thick that it was difficult to attach a crown to it. This might account for the odd positioning of the crown as it appears on her bust.
Jetons commemorating the marriage, bearing the busts of Louis XIV and Marie-Thérèse, were issued each year from 1660 through to 1673. Marie-Thérèse died on 30th July, 1683.
*AlexOct 07, 2017
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Struck c.1644 – 1645, Louis XIV (1643 - 1715), AE (Brass) Jeton4 viewsObverse: LVD•XIIII•D:G•FR•ET•NA•REX. Laureate and cuirassed youthful bust of Louis XIV facing right; • B • (for Briot) below.
Reverse: CONSILIO•NIL•NISI•. The escutcheon of France, surrounded by the chain of the Ordre du Saint-Esprit (Order of the Holy Spirit): Necklace and Cross. The legend translates as “He undertakes nothing without Council”, a reference to the administrative council of the king.

Struck at the Monnaie de Louvre mint, Paris, France
Die engraver: Nicholas Briot
Dimensions: 25.65mm | Weight: 5.4gms | Die Axis: 12
Ref. Feuardent: 239 var.

Nicholas Briot (c.1579–1646) was an innovative French coin engraver, medallist and mechanical engineer, who is credited with the invention of the coining-press. He emigrated to England in 1625 and in 1626 he was commissioned to make 'puncheons and dies' for the Coronation of Charles I. His Coronation Medal established his reputation and he went on to produce a considerable number of dies for medals and coins in the following years. In 1633, he was appointed chief engraver to the Royal Mint and went to Scotland to prepare and coin the coronation pieces of Charles I. These demonstrated both his artistic skill and the technical superiority of his new coining machinery and in 1635, on the death of Sir John Foulis, Briot was appointed Master of the Mint in Scotland and superintended the Scottish coinage for several years. Briot was then recalled to England by the King, and on the outbreak of the English Civil War he took possession of the coining apparatus at the Tower and had it removed 'for the purpose of continuing the coining operations in the cause of the King'. Briot travelled to France in the early 1640's and sent coining presses to his brother Isaac, now in a senior position at the Paris Mint, he died on Christmas Eve 1646.
*AlexOct 07, 2017
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Struck c.1615 - 1616, Louis XIII and Anne d'Autriche. AE (Brass) Jeton7 viewsObverse: LVDO•XIII D G FR•ET•NA•ANNA•AVSTR•HISPAN. Crowned jugate busts of Louis XIII and Anne facing right, both wearing ruffs.
Reverse: Crown and two branches above two hearts, between which are the scrolled words CARITAS / *SPES* / *FIDES* in three lines above * L * - * A * (for Louis and Anne) either side of facing eagle. Below, scroll bearing the words •HANS•LAVFER•; in exergue H – L (for Hans Laufer) either side of floral device.

Struck at Nuremburg, Germany
Die engraver: Hans Laufer
Dimensions: 27.1mm | Weight: 3.87gms | Die Axis: 12
Ref. M: 3714 | Feuardent: 12329

Hans Laufer became Guild master at Nuremburg in 1611, though he had been responsible for issuing jetons from 1607. He died in 1632.

Louis XIII became king of France and Navarre in 1610, shortly before his ninth birthday, after his father Henry IV was assassinated. He ruled France until he died of Tuberculosis in 1643. Anne was betrothed to him at the age of eleven and, on 24th November 1615, they were married by proxy in Burgos. The marriage following the tradition of cementing military and political alliances between France and Spain that had begun with the marriage of Philip II of Spain to Elisabeth of Valois in 1559 as part of the Peace of Cateau-Cambrésis. Anne and Louis, both fourteen years old, were pressured to consummate their marriage in order to forestall any possibility of future annulment, but this was ignored and Louis' mother, Marie de Medici, continued to conduct herself as Queen of France, without showing any deference to her daughter-in-law. However, in 1617, Louis conspired with Charles d'Albert, Duke of Luynes, to dispense with his mother's influence and she was ousted in a palace coup d'état which also saw her favourite, Concino Concini, assassinated. Louis turned now to Cardinal Richelieu as his advisor but Anne was opposed to Richelieu and became embroiled in several intrigues against him. This inevitably created tension between Louis and Anne. But despite this, and after having endured several stillbirths, in 1638 Anne finally gave birth to a son, the future Louis XIV, and the Bourbon line was further secured when in 1640 she gave birth to a second son, Philippe.
*AlexOct 06, 2017
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GREEK, Baktria, Azes II, Drachm12 viewsMoneda bilingüe de 15 mm y 2,42 g acuñada en tiempos del soberano indoescita Azes II (entre el 35 a.C. y el 5 d.C.), en Bactria.
Anverso: Azes II a caballo, levantando su mano y sosteniendo un látigo. Leyendas en griego BAΣIΛEΩΣ BAΣIΙΛEΩN MEΓAΛXOY AZOY (Gran Rey Azes).
Reverso: Atenea con lanza y Nike alada, rodeada por las leyendas Maharajasa rajadirajasa mahatasa Ayasa escritas en jaroshti, que indican lo mismo del anverso. Con monogramas en el campo.

Bilingual coin measuring 15 mm and weighing 2.42 gms minted by King Azes II in Bactria between 35 B.C. and 5 A.D.
Obverse: Azes II on horseback, raising his hand and holding a whip. Legends in Greek BAΣIΛEΩΣ BAΣIΙΛEΩN MEΛAΛXOY AZOY (Great King Azes).
Reverse: Athena holding spear and Nike, surrounded by legends written in jaroshti, which mean the same as those on the obverse. Monograms in the field.

Originally uploaded by Pedro jose D
*AlexAug 19, 2017
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GREEK, ATTICA, Athens, Obol12 viewsObolo de plata
449 - 420 a.C.
ANV: Atenea con casco acorazado
REV: Leyenda AQE, lechuza a derecha con rama de olivo y cuarto menguante

Originally uploaded by Pedro Jose D
*AlexAug 19, 2017
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GREEK, Apollonia Pontika, AR obol9 viewsObolo de plata
450 - 400 A.c.
ANV: Esvastica con delfines en angulos
REV: Ancla del reves

Original upload by Pedro Jose D
*AlexAug 19, 2017
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GREEK, Apollonia Pontika, Diobol11 viewsDiobolo de plata
450 - 350 a.C.
ANV: Cabeza de Gorgona ( Medusa )
REV: Ancla del reves con letra A y cangrejo

Original upload by Pedro Jose D
*AlexAug 19, 2017
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GREEK, Apollonia Pontika, Hemiobol10 viewsHemiobolo de plata
261 – 246 a.C.
ANV: Ancla
REV: Cruz con dos líneas paralelas en cada cuadrante

Original upload by Pedro Jose D
*AlexAug 19, 2017
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Italy, Monza, Serpero Museum, Duomo di Monza.36 viewsIvory diptych of Stilicho, Roman General (magister militum), Patrician and Consul of the Western Roman Empire. The diptych depicts Stilicho, on the right and, on the left, his wife Serena standing with his son, Eucherius.

The Duomo di Monza is the main religious building of Monza. Although known in English as Monza Cathedral, the building is not in fact a cathedral, as Monza is part of the Diocese of Milan. The church is also known as the Basilica of San Giovanni Battista from its dedication to John the Baptist. In the right transept is the entrance to the Serpero Museum which houses the treasury.
*AlexAug 17, 2017
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Turkey, Ankara, Column of Julian22 viewsThe Column of Julian in Ankara was erected in dedication to his visit sometime in 362 AD. It has a strange ribbed design. In fact it looks like a giant marble kebab to me.
Photograph by Will Hooton
*AlexAug 14, 2017
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Turkey, Ankara, Theatre (1)19 viewsNot to far from the Anatolian Museum in Ankara, a theatre is currently being excavated. It certainly looks promising, although excavation is expected to continue for a long while. To excavate something like this in the middle of a metropolitan city is quite extraordinary!
Photograph by Will Hooton
*AlexAug 14, 2017
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Turkey, Ankara, Theatre (2)19 viewsAnother view of the Theatre.
Photograph by Will Hooton
*AlexAug 14, 2017
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Turkey, Ankara, Roman Baths17 viewsPhotograph by Will Hooton*AlexAug 14, 2017
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Turkey, Ankara, Roman Baths20 viewsPhotograph by Will Hooton*AlexAug 14, 2017
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Turkey, Antalya, Archaeological Museum of Antalya.23 viewsHeroic statue of Hadrian.
Photograph by Will Hooton
*AlexAug 14, 2017