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Home > Members' Coin Collection Galleries > PMah > Roman Republic

AE 21 Bronze AE 21, c. 241 - 50 BCE Panormus (Palermo) mint, (4.595g, maximum diameter 20.9mm, die axis 315o)
magistrate (L. Axius?) Naso
o: laureate head of Zeus left
r: warrior standing left, sword in extended right, spear vertical behind in left, grounded shield behind leaning on spear, NAS/O left
very rare magistrate

per Forum notes: NASO named on this coin could be Lucius Axius L. f. Naso, who was a moneyer in Rome, c. 73 - 70 B.C. Two inscriptions discovered at Cordoba dedicated to a Lucio Axio Luci filio Polia tribu Nasoni, indicate his honors. He was first decemvir stlitibus iudicandis, then tribunus militum pro legato, then quaestor. Or, this NASO could be completely unrelated.
Calciati I p. 351, 125 (one specimen); HGC 2 1071 (C)
Cr 14/2; Vecchi 26 Æ cast SemisRome, c. 280 b.c.e.
o: Helmeted head of young and beardless Mars (?) l, S below.
r: Head of Venus l, S below.
54mm, 169.13gm
The "Dioscuri/Mercury" series, the first complete issue of bronze from the mint at Rome.
There is some disagreement as to the identity of the heads, which this worn specimen does nothing to allay. Crawford says "Minerva" obverse and "Venus" reverse.
Although quite worn, this specimen is almost exactly at the "half" of the notional "pound".
Cr 14/4 Æ cast Quadrans Dioscuri/Mercury seriesc. 280 b.c.e.
o: Open right hand, three pellets on left
r: Three pellets between two barley-grains, one inverted
52.94 gm
A massively heavy quadrans. This group of bronze are likely the first bronze coins actually produced by the Rome mint.
The obverse is rather soft but the reverse is ok for this issue.
This coin has a bit of a pedigree but I am still sorting it out to my satisfaction.
Cr 16/1a Æ "double Litra"c 276 b.c.e.?
o: Goddess head r.
r: Lion walking r.; in ex,ROMANO
5.91 gm
This coin is significantly lighter than the weight standard. It is, of course, missing a piece at 4:00 and a bit more around the circumference.
Cr 17/1a AE Litra Anonymousc 275-269 BCE, anonymous bronze Litra
(18 mm, 5.03 gr.)
o: ROMANO, Minerva head l.; behind, star
r: Horse's head right, [ROMANO] behind
Reference: Crawford 17/1a
Ex. RBW collection
Ok, this one needs a better photo.
Cr 17/1i Æ Litra c 260 b.c.e.???
o: Head of Minerva in Corinthian helmet, right
r: Horse head left
6.76 gm
It is a bit difficult to determine if this coin is the "1i" variant, which should be anepigraphic on obverse. The centering suggests it is, and is thus among the scarcer of this series. This "litra" or unit is part of a massive issue of not entirely clear dating. Crawford dates this to "shortly before 269 b.c.e.".
1 commentsPMah
Cr 18/2 Anonymous (Apollo/Apollo series) Æ cast Semis ca. 275-270 b.c.e. Rome

o: Pegasus right, "S" below
r: Pegasus left, "S" below

150.08 gms

This first "Apollo/Apollo" series is a bit heavier than the second (Cr. 26) and is associated with the Apollo/Horse "Romano" didrachms (Cr, 15) minted outside of Rome. (The lighter second series bears an acorn symbol on each side, associated with Apollo/Horse "Roma" didrachms, and is considerably rarer.)

This specimen is quite nice and is just a bit on the light side; I suspect there is a sub-surface casting void around 5:00 obverse.
Cr 18/5 Cast SextansApollo/Apollo series. 275-270 BC.
Obv. Head of Dioscurus right; behind, two pellets.
Rev. Head of Dioscurus left; behind, two pellets.
Vecchi ICC 37; Haeberlin pl. 36
(Photo is incorrectly oriented.) Not a beauty, but the obverse is a bit sharper.
Cr 18/6 Cast Æ UnciaRome, c. 270 b.c.e.
o: Barley-grain; pellet to l.
r: Barley-grain; pellet to r.
25mm, 26.65gm, 6h
The "Apollo/Apollo" group, not quite the earliest Roman bronze. The "uncia" or ounce being 1/12th of the Roman pound. This specimen, though having some corrosion, comes rather close to a pound of 320 grams. It also shows the shape of the cast rather distinctly. If we had more photo options, I would show the (ancient) sprue mark and bevel of the cast more clearly.
Cr 20/1 Anonymous AR Didrachmc. 269-266 b.c.e. Rome(?) or Neapolis mint (?)

o: Head of Hercules right, hair bound with ribbon with club and lion's skin over shoulder
r: She-wolf right, suckling twins; in exergue, ROMANO

6.89 gm 21.00 mm

This issue was likely the first to be minted in the city of Rome itself, rather than the prior didrachm issues from Naples or another Greek-oriented southern city, despite the Greek-styled "ROMANO" ethnic, soon permanently replaced with "ROMA".

Although a bit worn, this specimen retains all the design elements quite nicely. On ultra-well-preserved specimens, the wolf's dorsal hair is a bit more distinct, and it would have been nicer if the final "O" had stayed on the flan.
1 commentsPMah
Cr 21/6 Anonymous "Roma/Roma" series Æ cast Unciac. 269-266 b.c.e. Rome

o: Knucklebone seen from outside
r: Knucklebone seen from inside

Vecchi ICC 46

18.27 gm, 25.00 mm

The knucklebone, used for divination and gaming, is a persistent feature of early Italian coinage, appearing as actual life-sized formed bronze pieces a century or more earlier. This series repeated the types of the bronze fractions almost exactly from the earlier "Dioscuri/Mercury" series, Cr 14 (of which some types in this gallery at some point), on a slightly lower weight standard (~265 gm vs. ~ 322 gm).

This specimen is rather well preserved; the missing metal presumably stayed on the casting sprue when cracked off.
Cr 25/3 AE Litra Anonymousc 241-235 BCE Anonymous bronze Litra
16 mm, 3.07 grams
o: Head of Mars, right, beardless, wearing Corinthian helmet
r: ROMA below Horse head, right, with bridle; behind, sickle
Crawford 25/3
Ex. RBW collection
2 commentsPMah
Cr 25/5 Dioscuri/Mercury / sickle Æ Cast Semisc. 241-235 b.c.e. Rome
o: Head of Minerva left, wearing Corinthian helmet; below, S
r: Female head left; behind, sickle; below, S.
Vecchi ICC 49

118.20 gm., 51.00 mm.

These are the cast bronze accompanying the silver didrachm with Mars/Horse/sickle. The reverse female head is not as certainly identifiable as helmeted Minerva on obverse, perhaps she is Juno, who is surprisingly unrepresented on the early Republic coinage. There are other theories, of course.

As with all the earliest cast bronze coins, the number of surviving specimens seems relatively low compared to the relatively long period of issue, c. 280-226 b.c.e.; of course, the same is true with the silver coins prior to the quadrigatus. As I do not have the As, I note that the weight standard is about 272 gm for the As, thus this specimen is a bit light. The surface is a bit rough, but the elements are all sharp and in high relief.

Cr 25/7 Æ cast Quadrans "Sickle series"Rome, c. 241-235 b.c.e.
o: Right hand with open palm; in l. field, three pellets (value), in r. field, sickle
r: Three pellets (value) between two barley-grains
68.5 gm
This series repeats the Cr 14 types, with the addition of a sickle. However, this issue, was produced some 30-40 years later on a lighter weight standard: the "14" were based on an As of approx 332 gms, but this issue was about 272 gm As. Extremely close readers of this gallery will note that my "14" specimens are actually lighter-weight average than my "25/sickles".
Although I am not a pedigree fanatic, my posted 25/sickle coins are in the pedigreed camp:
NAC Auction 61 (RBW Collection), lot 23; NAC Auction 7, 1994 (purchased by RBW), lot 342; RBW 44 (this coin)
3 commentsPMah
Cr 26/3 Æ Litra [Apollo Horse series]234 -231 b.c.e Rome

o: Apollo laureate hd rt
r: Horse, prancing, left; ROMA below belly
2.33 gm
The bronze fractions of this issue are termed "litra" and tied to the distinct didrachm and drachm (mine to be posted). This specimen is a bit light off the weight standard (Crawford gives 3.375 gm) even accounting for the wear.
Cr 26/3 AE litra "Apollo/Horse" seriesRome, c. 234-231 BCE
o: Laureate head of Apollo right
r: Bridled horse prancing left; below, ROMA
4.00 gm 15.50 mm
A slightly rough but overall decent example of this type, one of the early coins to bridge the currency gap with the Greek cities. Typically called the "Apollo/Horse" series based on the silver didrachm that has a larger and unbridled horse. (One can just make out the bridle passing under the horse's jaw and across the neck.) Crawford describes the denomination as a "litra", but other writers refer to it as a unit or merely a bronze.
Cr 263/5a Æ Quadrans M. Caecilius Q.f. Q.n. MetellusRome, c. 127 b.c.e.

o: Hercules hd r., lion's skin headdress; behind, three pellets
r: Prow r., inscribed M·METELLVS; abv, Macedonian shield; bf, three pellets; below, ROMA

Although not particularly fascinating, this type has the moneyer's name inscribed across the galley side. For extra measure, young Marcus-son-of-Quintus-grandson-of-Quintus added the Macedonian shield often found with the Metelli, which, in my view, always includes an elephant at the center of the shield, even on this tiny object, and more readily visible on the denarius and semis in this series.

19.8 mm., 4.10 gm I think there is some sign of overstriking; it is not a common coin.
Cr 27/2 Anonymous [Mars/Horse/Club] Æ Litra230-226 b.c.e. Rome

o: Head of Mars right, helmeted; behind, club
r: Horse galloping right; below, ROMA; above, club

2.70 gm, 16.00 mm

Associated with the "Mars/Horse/Club" didrachm, minted at Rome (and thus similar in appearance from the Cr. 13 series minted 50-ish years earlier in the south), the fractional pieces are also complex, as these token value coins are nonetheless associated with cast bronze of libral weight standard.

Unlike my 26/3 litra in this gallery, from the earlier similar series, this one is a bit closer to the weight standard, accounting for wear and some corrosion. The color is nice, though, and the centering is excellent. Sometimes asserted (in sales) to be "scarce" or even "rare", they are seen much more frequently than that suggests.
Cr 28/3 AR Quadrigatus (Didrachm) Anonymous Debased Quadrigatus, 225-215 BCE
o: Laureate head of Janus
r: Jupiter in quadriga driven by Victory right; below, ROMA in relief in linear frame.
Cr. 28/3. Syd. 68.
(g. 5.36 mm. 20.00)
Debased 2nd Punic War issue, probably quite debased as there is almost a brasssy tone to the silver. This deterioration of metal content undermined the Roman monetary system to such an extent that the Didrachm-based system was unsalvagable. The smaller, lighter, but purer Denarius system became the replacement standard.
Cr 28/4 AR Half-Quadrigatus/DrachmAnonymous, Rome mint
2.99 gm; 17 mm
c. 225 BCE?
Laureate head of Fontus/Janus
Jupiter in quadriga driven by Victory l., holding sceptre and thunderbolt; in ex. ROMA.
This type is associated with the series starting with the rare AU stater with Dioscuri/Oath scene, through the first Quadrigatus/ Didrachms. The half-piece has no value mark. The halves are considerably rarer than the full Didrachms and were presumably unsuccessful despite filling a gap to the unwieldy cast bronze denominations. A precursor, in a sense, to the denarius.
This coin is much nicer in hand than the photo.
3 commentsPMah
Cr 35/2 Anonymous "Libral Prow" series Æ cast Semis 225-217 b.c.e. Rome

o: Saturn head left, S below
r: Prow right, S above

129 gm.

The last of the nominally libral "Aes Grave" coinage, this series accompanied the introduction of the "Quadrigatus" didrachm before the silver coin began it's not-so-merry decline (see my debased 28/3 quadrigatus and my forthcoming posts of "post-semilibral" cast prows pieces to see it to the very bottom). (Don't worry, the denarius is coming to the rescue...)

Although this specimen has a few spots of metal loss, particularly on Saturn's hair, it is almost exactly at the weight standard and quite nice in hand. The "raised disk" is distinct, though not as crisp as some specimens. The lazy horizontal S is commonly seen, along with a more vertical orientation, presumably as the engraver saw fit.
Cr 35/3a Æ cast TriensRome, c. 225-217 b.c.e.
o: Head of Minerva l., four pellets (value) below
r: Prow r., four pellets (value) below
95.95 gm.
The "third piece" of the notionally "libral" bronze issue.
This specimen may have been produced relatively earlier in this issue, as it has some wear and some corrosion, but would nontheless suggest a relationship to a notional As above 288 gm., which would be on the heavier side for this issue. Of course, as my other specimens of the issue show, the weight can be across a broad range even accounting for metal loss and wear.
This is a fairly nice specimen; note the distinct raised disk, particularly on the reverse, and relatively crisp cast and trace of the casting sprue.
This coin has an old European collection pedigree that I am still working out.
Cr 35/5 AE cast SextansRome, c. 225-217
o: Mercury hd left, 2 pellets
r: Prow r, 2 pellets
39.7 gm
Another notionally "libral" bronze piece, 1/6th of the 12 "ounce" pound. This piece is softly cast, but essentially at the typical weight for the sextans. Mercury is rather dynamic, although not sharp.
Cr 35/5 Æ cast SextansRome, ca. 225-217 b.c.e.
o: Head of Mercury left, wearing winged petasus; •• value) below; on a raised disk
r: Prow of galley right; •• (value) below
35mm, 38.60 gm, 12h
The so-called "libral" Prow right series of cast bronze is most likely associated with the "quadrigatus" AR didrachms. The weights are generally under the mathematical equivalent of a Roman pound -- in the case of this specimen, a worn "sixth", would be 231 gms,, far short of the likely weight of the libra in the mid-320 gm range. Even account for wear and the chip at the casting sprue point, the weight would not be close to a "pound".
This photo is not great, the coin, is much nicer in hand.
Cr 35/6 Æ cast UnciaRome, c. 225-217 b.c.e.
o: Head of Roma left, wearing Attic helmet; to right, pellet (value).
r: Prow right; below, pellet (value).
19.50 gm, 26.00 mm
An "ounce" of the "pound".
This specimen, although it has been around the block a few times and lost quite a bit of mass, would still represent a notional As of over 235 gms, which would be within the expected standard for this notional "pound" issue.
Cr 38/5 Æ (struck) Sextans217 -215 b.c.e. Rome
o: Head of Mercury right, wearing winged petasus; two pellets (value = 2/12ths) above
r: Prow of gallery right; two pellets (value) below.

[metrics to be posted, sorry!]

This series consists of a mix of cast pieces (As to Quadrans), and then the sextans (sixth-piece) and smaller fractions are struck. In this, the first group of struck coins cleanly integrated into a single system, the sextans is easily distinguished from its later iterations by the broad flan and larger portrait of Mercury, particularly the hat.

The cast pieces will soon cease to be issued and the "anonymous struck bronzes" will be the coins-in-hand for some time to come (see A. McCabe, The Anonymous Struck Bronze Coinage of the Roman Republic: A Provisional Arrangement, in Essays... Russo (2013) for comprehensive analysis and categorization; I believe an update is forthcoming, too.)

Although rather worn, as is expected, the strike on this specimen is rather even, although not deep, compared to more commonly seen specimens with uneven weak strikes.
Cr 38/7 AE Semuncia Anonymous c. 217-215 BCE (19.5mm., 6.09g)
o: Head of Mercury r., wearing winged petasus
r: ROMA Prow r.
Sydenham 87. RBW 101. Crawford 38/7.
Cr 38/7 AE Semuncia Anonymous circa 217-215 BCE. Rome (19mm., 7,43g.)
o: Head of Mercury right, wearing winged petasos
r: Prow right, ROMA above
Crawford 38/7; RBW 100.
Cr 39/2 Æ Quadrans Collateral Semi-Libral Seriesc. 217-215 b.c.e.
o: Head of Hercules right, wearing boar-skin; three pellets behind
r: Bull charging right; three pellets above, snake below, ROMA in ex.
37.81 gm
purportedly ex PNC collection. ex Vecchi Auction 3, lot 56 (1996) (not verified by me)
AKA, the "Anomalous Anonymous Series", which I particularly like. All the types are scarce, and the quadrans seems a bit scarcer than the lower denominations.
2 commentsPMah
Cr 39/3 Anonymous (Semilibral) Æ Sextans217-215 b.c.e. Rome

o: She-wolf sucking twins; two pellets (value = 2/12ths) in exergue
r: Eagle standing right, holding flower in beak; two pellets behind, ROMA before

23.94 gm, 29 mm, 3h

Sydenham 95

The mysterious "Anomalous Anonymous" series, which is unlike any other segment of the Republican bronze coins. (I believe I have posted all but the "difficult" Triens of the series.) The sextans is particularly notable, with the enigmatic eagle with a flower (not the usual behavior of Roman eagles) and the iconic Wolf and Twins, who are seen far less often on the early coinage than one might expect (the spectacular didrachm reverse being the other large scale representation -- Cr. 20/1).
I posted this specimen for the clarity of the visible ribs and lean body of this hungry wolf, who nonetheless skips lunch/knows who the Dad is/senses kindred spirits of the foundational twins. (I have another specimen with a fine eagle; together, they would make a great coin...)

Cr 39/4 Æ Uncia Anonymousc. 217-215 B.C.E. Rome

Radiate and draped facing bust of Sol; • (value) to left
Crescent; two stars and • (value) above; ROMA below
24mm 12.47 gm

ex. McCabe; ex RBW

This large "unit" of the semilibral standard comes from the series sometimes also described as "collateral", "anomalous", and, painfully, "anomalous anonymous". Crawford identified only struck bronzes from Triens to Semuncia for this issue. There are no clearly-associated cast bronze larger denominations, with the nearest-dated such cast types having more directly-related struck smaller denominations.
Yet, this series demonstrates the last great gasp of creativity in Republican bronze, no Prows in sight and without standardized presentations of the soon-to-be-rigid obverse gods.
Although not rare, these interesting types do not show up in every sale. This specimen has a bit of roughness but also a wonderful strike.
1 commentsPMah
Cr 41/11 Anonymous Æ Semunciac. 212-215
Head of Mercury r. Rev. ROMA Prow r.
18.5mm, 4.76 gm
Part of the vast Crawford 41 Anonymous group, I think this falls into McCabe group A1. The photo is a bit light for close reading, my apologies.
I like this coin for the fine centering.
Cr 41/5a Cast Æ As Rome, c. 215-212 b.c.e.
o: Laureate head of bearded Janus on a raised disk
r: Prow of galley l. on a raised disk, I (value) above
42mm, 56.11gm, 12h
The "post semi-libral" issue represents the end of the "Aes Grave" series, soon to be followed by the Crawford "56" issues, entirely struck. This issue is perhaps more of a grouping than a single issue and has a mixture of cast and struck pieces in the lower denominations.
This specimen is fun to have in hand. The cast is a bit soft, and is missing a bit of metal at the top and bottom, yet still weighs roughly a "quarter-pound", soon to drop to less than one-sixth. The "raised disk" is still distinct.

Cr 42/3 Æ Sextans ["corn ear"]214-212 b.c.e. Sicily mint
o: Head of Mercury, r, in petasos, •• above
r: Prow right, ROMA above, wheat ear ["corn ear"] atop, •• below
16.00 gm
ex PNC and Hoffman collections
As viewed by Crawford, the series leaps from the Dioscuri/Jupiter didrachm to the quadrans.
This sextans, rather heavy considering the wear, is fairly scarce.
Cr 44/1 AR Victoriatus Anonymous after 211 BC. AR Victoriatus (17mm, 3.14g, 11h) Rome mint
O: Laureate head of Jupiter r.
R: Victory standing r., crowning trophy
Crawford 44/1
[my opinion: Although Victoriati can be seen as excruciatingly repetitive, with good reason, the obverse of this coin shows considerable artistry in execution.]
3 commentsPMah
Cr 44/5 AR Denarius Anonymousc. 211 BCE -- ish
o: Helmeted head of Roma right; behind, X
r: The Dioscuri galloping right, stars above heads; in exergue, ROMA partially incuse on raised tablet
4.10 gm 20.00 mm
This type is the earliest or nearly earliest denarius.
2 commentsPMah
Cr 44/6 AR Quinarius Anonymous After 211 BCE
o: Helmeted head of Roma right (small, normal nose), V behind head
r: The Dioscuri riding right, stars above, ROMA in linear frame below
Crawford 44/6
Cr 44/7 AR Sestertius AnonymousO: Helmeted head of Roma right; behind, IIS [= 2 and Semi]
R: The Dioscuri galloping right; below, ROMA in linear frame
0.81 gms; 13.50 mm
Broad flan, toned

A bit light, but achieving a consistent weight in casting flans was one of the challenges with this small coin at a time when the silver weight was still a critical component of acceptance.

Although the quarter-denarius seems like it should have been a very handy coin, saving the need to carry two large As and the Semis, the silver sestertius was minted only sporadically and then was discontinued. Accordingly, they are relatively rare, and I have to say this one is very nice.
2 commentsPMah
Cr 50/3 Æ As Anonymous [Anchor]209-208 b.c.e. Rome mint
Laureate head of Janus; I (value) above
Prow right; I (value) above, anchor before, ROMA below
32.66 gm 34 mm
This issue is associated with a 60-As gold piece. A nice specimen with a pronounced eye and oar-box on the prow.
1 commentsPMah
Cr 50/3 Æ As Anonymous [anchor] c. 209-208 BCE
o: Laureate head of Janus, I above
r: Prow to r.; Anchor before; I above; ROMA in ex.
(34 mm, 33.91 grams)
Crawford 50/3
weighty coin
ex RBW
Cr 53/1 AR Victoriatus AnonymousAfter 211 BCE
(17.38 mm, 2.93 g, 1 h). Rome mint
o: Laureate head of Jupiter right
r: ROMA, Victory standing right, crowning trophy
Crawford 53/1; RSC 9
Cr 53/1 AR Victoriatus AnonymousAfter 211 BCE
(16.7 mm, 2.80 g, 7 h). Rome mint
o: Laureate head of Jupiter right
r: ROMA, Victory standing right, crowning trophy
Crawford 53/1; RSC 9
Another variation on this type, emphasizing other details on reverse

Cr 56/2 AE As AnonymousAfter 211 BCE
(32.57 mm, 42.11 g, 5 h). Uncial standard. Rome mint
o: Laureate head of bearded Janus; I above
r: ROMA, prow of galley right; I above
Crawford 56/2; Sydenham 143.

No great beauty, but one accumulates Cr 56 series. Any more specific attribution assistance would be appreciated.
Cr 56/2 Æ As Anonymous (Spanish)Spanish imitative cast circa 100 BCE (29.5mm., 20.84g)
o: Laureate head of Janus; above, mark of value
r: Prow r.; above, mark of value and value mark before below, ROMA
Crawford 56/2.
In retrospect, why would anyone imitate the ubiquitous "Cr 56/2"? This is a cast contemporary copy, likely from Spain
Cr 56/3 AE Semis Anonymous c. 211 BCE 25.7 mm, 12.54 grams.
o: Saturn head laureate r
r: Prow r, ROMA below, S above
Crawford 56/3.
Ex. RBW collection
Coin nicer than this photo, but I am trying to round out the Cr. 56 types.
Cr 56/4 AE Triens AnonymousSextantal series. Rome, after 211 BCE
o: Helmeted head of Minerva right; above, four pellets
r: Prow right; above, ROMA; below, four pellets.
11.45 gm 25.00 mm
Another nice example of a triens of the Crawford 56 group, much better in hand. See my notes on other specimen of this group, which hopefully appears next to this one. This one has a rougher reverse surface, but somewhat more successful engraving of the prow. Yet my other example has a nearly perfect flan.
Cr 56/4 Æ Triens Anonymous after 211 B.C.E. (25.8 mm, 10.73 g, 4 h). Sardinia mint.
o: Helmeted head of Mercury right, four pellets above
r: ROMA, prow of galley right; four pellets below. Crawford 56/4
Ex RBW collection
This coin is a bit rough but I thought I should put up at least one of each denomination of Anonymous Crawford 56 types.
Cr 56/4 AE Triens AnonymousRome, after 211 BCE
o: Helmeted head of Minerva right; above, four pellets
r: ROMA. Prow right; below, four pellets.
9.08 gm, 25.00 MM
This coin is vastly better in hand than this photo. The patination is perfect. The execution of the reverse is somewhat amusing -- the prow is almost crammed to fit within the border due to a disproportionally large hull and seems curled back on itself, hardly an impressive vessel if it were real.
The "sextantal" series that are collected under Crawford's Type 56 is really a catch-all for numerous sub-groups, for which there is no better resource than McCabe's website to distinguish into several groups. Obviously, since I am not making that attribution at the moment, I have not taken the close effort with this coin, even though I like looking at it. Compare it to my earlier example in this gallery, which is not nearly as nice.
Cr 56/4 cf. Æ Triens post-211 b.c.e. Sardinia?
o: Helmeted head of Minerva r.; above, four pellets
r: ROMA Prow r.; below, four pellets
20.8 mm, 4.20 gm
An interesting coin. Attributed by dealer as McCabe group H1, which are low-weight overstrikes on Punic/Sicilian coins. The obverse shows some sign of overstriking above the head, in the jumbled pellets, and through the ear and neck; the reverse seems very cleanly struck, to me.
Cr 56/5 AE Quadrans Anonymous c. 211 BCE (20.4 mm, 6.04 grams)
o: Helmeted head of Hercules right, 3 dots behind
r: ROMA - Prow to right, 3 dots behind
Crawford 56/5.
Overstruck, possibly Hieron II of Sicily with Zeus/Trident
1 commentsPMah
Cr 56/5 Æ Quadrans Anonymous Anonymous Sextantal series. After 211 BCE.
o: Head of Hercules right; behind, three pellets
r: Prow right; above, ROMA; below, three pellets.
Cr. 56/5. (g. 5.83 mm. 20.00)
Nice earthen olive-green patina
Cr 56/6 AE Sextans Anonymousc. 211 BCE, bronze sextans
16.5 mm, 3.28 grams.
o: Mercury head right, 2 pellets.
r: Prow r, ROMA above, 2 pellets below
Crawford 56/6; [further specification TBD]
Ex. RBW collection
A decent specimen of this common coin.
Cr 56/6 AE Sextans Anonymous c. 211 BC, bronze sextans 16.5 mm, 3.28 grams
O: Mercury head right, 2 pellets.
R: ROMA, 2 pellets, prow r.
Crawford 56/6.
Ex. RBW Collection
Cr 56/7 Æ Uncia Anonymous After 211 BCE. (18mm, 5.38 g, 10h). Rome mint.
o: Helmeted head of Roma right; • (mark of value) behind
r: Prow of galley right; • (mark of value) below.
Crawford 56/7; Sydenham 143e
Cr 57/3 Æ As [Crescent]207 b.c.e.
o: Janus head, I above
r: Prow right; Crescent above; I above
39.64 gm
This coin is a bit light, mostly from the evident wear, but I do like the gigantic crescent on reverse, large enough to displace the value mark. In the few "signed" issues that immediately pre- and post- date this one, the mark is more effectively placed before the prow.
Cr 60/4 Æ Triens [Caduceus]211-208 b.c.e.
o: Helmeted head of Minerva, right
r: Prow, right, Caduceus above, ROMA below
6.62 gm
A somewhat scarce type among the anonymous bronze of this period. If the reverse was slightly more centered, this would be a quite nice specimen.
Cr 60/4 Æ Triens [Caduceus]211-208 b.c.e.
o: Helmeted head of Minerva, right
r: Prow, right, Caduceus above, ROMA below
6.62 gm
Apparently, despite the relative scarcity of this type, I have two specimens.
Cr 60/6 AE Sextans Anonymous [Caduceus]c. 211 - 208 BCE, anonymous bronze sextans
24.6 mm, 9.23 grams
o: Mercury head to right, wearing winged petasos; 2 pellets above
r: Prow to r., caduceus above; in exergue, ROMA
Ex. RBW collection
Cr 61/6 AE Sextans Anonymous [Victory Series] 211-208 BC. Æ Sextans Victory series, Central Italy (21mm, 6.06g, 12h).
O: Draped bust of Mercury r., wearing petasus
R: Prow right; above, Victory flying r., holding wreath
Crawford 61/6; RBW 258.
Cr 63/6 Æ Sextans Anonymous [C Series]211 BCE Sardinia

Head of Mercury right, wearing winged petasos; • • (mark of value) above
Prow of galley right; C to right, ROMA above, • • (mark of value) below.
19mm 4.64 gm

This series is associated only from Quinarius to Sextans by Crawford, likely issued by L. Cornelius Lentulus, and critical for the now-accepted dating of the start of the denarius, as Lentulus was Praetor in Sardinia in 211.
The sextans is the most common denomination of the series, which is probably why I have one...
Cr 64/6a Æ Sextans [MA series] P. Manlius Vulso ?210 B.C.E. Sardinia
Head of Mercury right, wearing winged petasus; • • (value) above
Prow of galley right; MA ligate and vertical to right, •• (value) below
18 mm 3.88 gms
Another series not directly associated with a denarius, running Quinarius to Sextans.
As with the other Sardinian issues, this issue helps to date the denarius, as Manlius Vulso was Praetor for Sardinia in 210.
This specimen is a but rough but overall has a fine strike and centering. The issue is somewhat rare.
Cr 64/6b? Æ Sextans P. Manlius Vulso210 b.c.e. Sardinia
o: Mercury hd right, 2 pellets above
r: Prow rt, ROMA above, 2 pellets below, Σ (=MA ligate) before
There are some variations on the signature, only on the sextans, of which this worn example seems to me to be the vertical ligate of MAnlius.
Cr 65/6 Æ Sextans [AVR] C. Aurunculeius209 B.C.E. Æ Sextans Sardinia mint.
Head of Mercury right, wearing winged petasos; • • (value) above
Prow of galley right; ROMA above, AVR ligate vertical before, •• (value) below
18mm 3.12 gm
C. Aurunculeius was Praetor for Sardinia in 209 b.c.e., and, along with issues by his immediate predecessors L. Cornelius (211) and P. Manlius Vulso (210), his issue helps to date the introduction of the Denarius, despite no identified denarii in any of the three issues, but including identifiable quinarii (which would be meaningless without the Denarius.)
Not a beautiful specimen, but well-centered and complete, and an overall rare-ish coin.
Cr 65/6 Æ Sextans AVR210 b.c.e. Sardinia
o: Mercury hd right, two pellets above
r: Prow of galley right, ROMA above, two pellets below, AVR (ligate) before
3.35 gm
From the group of consecutive issues by the praetors for Sicily. usually overstruck on a local issue; this one hard to see the undertype, which distorts the back of the head and the prow.

Cr 69/4b Æ Triens [corn ear]c. 211-208 b.c.e. Sicily mint
o: Minerva head right, four pellets above
r: Prow right, Corn-ear above, ROMA below, IC (=K) before
10.67 gm
A complicated issue with several variants on the form of the "K", and rather scarce.
Despite the substantial wear, I noticed this one because the eye on the prow retained some definition, without, I think, any tooling.
Cr 69/5 Æ Quadrans Anonymous [Corn/KA]Sicily 211-208 BCE

o: Head of Hercules right, wearing lion's skin; ••• (mark of value) to left
r: Bull leaping right; ••• (mark of value) and grain ear above, serpent below.
20mm, 6.34 gm

Type and overstrike as RBW 292; for overstrike, see Crawford Table XVIII, 64. Overstruck on a Syracusan bronze (Poseidon/Trident). A bit of smoothing has been noted.

From the Andrew McCabe Collection. His note: " Essentially all known examples of this type are overstrikes, mostly on an Poseidon/Ornamental trident. This coin is an unusually clear strike, complete as to overstrike and with little visible under, but a number of lines can be seen on the bull's flank that may be from an underlying trident."

As with the other 3 coins posted in this group, the coin is much better in hand.
Cr 69/6a Æ Sextans [Corn-ear/KA series]c. 211-208 B.C.E. Sicily
Draped bust of Mercury right, wearing winged petasus; • • (value) above
Prow of galley right; grain ear above, ligate KA to right, [ROMA] below
18.5 mm 5.86 gm
Cr 80 cf. [unofficial?] Æ Semis [dolphin]post-135 b.c.e.
o: Laureate head of Saturn r.; behind, S
r: Prow r, above S, before dolphin, below ROMA
22 mm, 5.23 gm
A dolphin semis in a series that does not have a semis, per Crawford? The semis is found in Cr 160, but those dolphins swim above the prow. The prow was apparently described to the engraver with considerable vagueness, and the rostrum is similarly impressionistic.
Thus the "unofficial" attribution, not entirely satisfying to me with respect to either series based on the low weight.

Cr 80/4 Æ Quadrans [Dolphin]c. 209-208 b.c.e. Sicily mint?
o: Hercules hd right, three pellets behind
r: Prow right, ROMA above, Dolphin before, three pellets below
10.15 gm
The dolphin series is tentatively given to Sicily by Crawford. The quadrans is rare, and so this non-beautiful specimen is the one for my collection.
Cr 85/7 AE Uncia Anonymous "H" Series South East Italy, c. 211-210 BCE
o: Helmeted head of Roma right; behind, pellet
r: ROMA. Prow right; before, H; below, pellet.
4.01 gm 17.50 mm
The key "H" symbol on the reverse is not easy to see in this somewhat washed out photo, but it is there. The H series is somewhat rare.
McCabe attributes the H series to Venusia in Apulia. (The Roman Bronze Coinage struck in Apulia and South East Italy in the Second Punic War, in Proceedings XV International Numismatic Congress (2015)) There are multiple slightly varying styles within the H series.
Cr 97/7c AE Uncia Anonymous Bronze Uncia Luceria mint, 211 - 206 B.C.E. (4.316g, maximum diameter 17.9mm, die axis 45o)
o: helmeted head of Roma right, pellet (mark of value) behind
r: ROMA, galley prow right, ROMA above, L and pellet (mark of value) below;
Crawford 97/7c, Sydenham 304, BMCRR Italy 173, SRCV I 1320
Cr 113/1 AR Denarius [Star]Rome, 206-195 b.c.e.
o: Head of Roma right, X behind head
r: Dioscuri riding right, star below; ROMA in linear frame.
4.0 gm
Similar to my Cr. 122/2 denarius, this issue is part of a group with stylistic similarities and associated bronze denominations, in this case As through Sextans.
This specimen is better than the photo; there is a small amount of corrosion along the obverse crack, which is not plating. The earring and hair of Roma are quite sharp; the bodies of the Dioscuri on reverse are distinct. I have always found the "cloak versus armor" question as to their main attire difficult to determine.
Cr 113/5 Æ Quadrans Anonymous [star - first series]c. 206-195 BCE Rome mint
o: Head of Hercules right, wearing lion's skin; behind, three pellets
r: ROMA. Prow right; before, eight-rayed star; below, three pellets.
3.50 gm; 16.00 mm
The bronze of this series, which exists from denarius to sextans, is fairly rare. The denarii are somewhat more common.
This coin has a somewhat lopsided flan, with most of the elements in very nice condition and a beautiful chocolate brown patina.
Cr 114/3 Æ Semis Anonymous [Rostrum tridens] Rostrum tridens (second) series.
Probably a late unofficial issue, after 82 BCE
o: Laureate head of Saturn right; behind, S.
r: Prow right; above, rostrum tridens; before, S; below, ROMA.
Cf. Cr. 114/3. (g. 9.08 mm. 24.00)
Coarse style and light?
Cr 117/A/1 AR Denarius Anonymous [Rudder] c. 206-195 BCE
o: Helmeted head of Roma right; behind, X
r: The Dioscuri galloping right; below, rudder and ROMA in partial tablet.
Cr. 117 A/1;RSC Anon. 20y (g. 3.62 mm. 19.50)
a bit scarce

Cr 117b/1 AE As Anonymous [bird/rudder]c. 206-195 BC, AE As (34.5 mm, 38.78 grams)
O: Laureate head of bearded Janus; I (mark of value) above.
R: ROMA I, prow r., Bird and rudder
Crawford 117b/1
Ex. RBW Collection
Cr 118/3 AE Triens Anonymous [helmet] Bronze triens, Crawford 118/3, Sydenham 272b, BMCRE II Italy p. 226, SRCV I 939
Italian mint, weight 9.132g, maximum diameter 23.7mm, 206 - 194 B.C.;
O: helmeted head of Minerva right, four pellets above
R: prow of galley right, ROMA above, helmet with cheek-pieces and crest above in form of a crescent on right before prow, four pellets below
from the Andrew McCabe Collection; rare
Purchased from Forum Ancient Coins
Cr 122/2 AR Denarius Anonymous [Dog]Rome c. 206-195 b.c.e.
o: Helmeted head of Roma right; X behind head
r: The Dioscuri riding right, star above each head; hound running right below; ROMA in linear frame
3.81 gm
This issue is part of a range of anonymous coinage near the start of the 2nd century b.c.e. The "Dog" issue includes a full range of coinage from silver Victoriatus and Denarius through bronze Sextans.
This weak specimen has the dog almost escaping through the reverse border.
Cr 124/5 Æ Triens "Meta" seriesRome, ca. 206-195 b.c.e.

o: Helmeted head of Minerva r., ···· above
r: Prow r. ; Meta (turning post) above, ···· to r.

11.09 gm; 24.5 mm

A relatively rare coin from one of the earlier struck bronze series with symbols and no specific reference to the moneyer.
Cr 126/1 AR Denarius Terentius Varro(?)A. Terentius Varro (?) uncertain mint circa 206-200 BCE
Helmeted head of Roma r.; behind, X
Dioscuri galloping r.; below, VAR ligate, ROMA in ex.
Terentia 1
19 mm 3.69 gm
No bronze associated with this type. The moneyer is presumed as A. Terentius Varro, Praetor of 184 b.c.e., but the name is only the cognomen, and ligate at that.
Not a beautiful specimen, but a scarce type.
Cr 137/1 AR Denarius CrescentCrescent series AR Denarius. Rome, 194-190 BCE 3.54gm, 19mm, 12h
o: Helmeted head of Roma right; X behind
r: Dioscuri on horseback riding right; crescent above; ROMA in linear frame below.
Crawford 137/1; RSC 20i.
One of the increasingly less anonymous but still merely symbolized series, this denarius was very nicely centered, particularly on the obverse, with, I think, well-used dies for both sides.
Cr 144/4 AE Quadrans o: head of Hercules right, clad in Nemean Lion's scalp, three pellets (mark of value) behind
r: prow of galley right, Victory flying right crowning LFP monogram with wreath above, three pellets (mark of value) before, ROMA below

Roman Republic, LFP monogram (L. Furius Philus?), 189 - 179 B.CBronze quadrans, Crawford 144/4, Sydenham 300c, SRCV I 1088, F, nice olive green patina, pitting on obverse, Rome mint, weight 7.513g, maximum diameter 22.3mm, die axis 180o, 189 - 179 B.C.; obverse head of Hercules right, clad in Nemean Lion's scalp, three pellets (mark of value) behind; reverse prow of galley right, Victory flying right crowning LFP monogram with wreath above, three pellets (mark of value) before, ROMA below; from the Andrew McCabe Collection; very rare;
Purchased from Forum Ancient Coins
Cr 162/6a Ӕ Quadrans MAT[ienus]179-170 b.c.e. Rome mint
Head of Hercules right, three pellets behind
Prow right; MAT ligate above, three pellets before, ROMA below
7.20 gm 21mm

The MAT issue runs Victoriatus, Denarius, and bronze As through Sextans. The smaller bronze fractions are not seen every day. This specimen also nicely shows the clipping/snapping point on the rim where the flans were broken from a sprue or strip of multiple pieces.
Cr 163/1 AR Denarius [Feather]Anonymous "Feather" c. 179-170 BCE Rome mint
Helmeted head of Roma r.; behind, X. Rev. Luna in prancing biga r.; below, feather and ROMA in partial tablet.
18.5 mm 3.60 gm
No bronze associated with the "feather" mark.
This one is nicely centered for the issue.
Cr 167/1 AR Denarius AnonymousRome, c. 179-170 BCE
o: Helmeted head of Roma right; behind, X
r: The Dioscuri galloping right; in exergue, ROMA
3.42 gm 20.00 mm
An "OK, meh" example of the group of anonymous denarii, likely the 167/1 although some of the distinquishing features, such as Roma's earring shape, are difficult to make out.
Cr 167/1 AR Denarius AnonymousRome, c. 179-170 bce 3.82 gm
o: Head of Roma, rt, X behind, dotted border.
r: Dioscuri riding right, ROMA in linear border below.
This type is among the many anonymous Roma/Dioscuri denari, and I believe the Crawford attribution is correct.
Brinkman and Debernardini, in their excellent online guide, call this the "beaky" nose style, also emphasizing the full bar on the "A", the short rear legs on the horses (I would say only the foreground horse), the ROMA frame on top and right, and the main rider's cape. (The cape on this specimen is somewhat more worn than their illustrations.)
Cr 174/1 Æ As Caecilius c. 169-158 b.c.e. Rome mint likely moneyer: A. Caecilius A.f.
Laureate head of Janus; above, I [value]
[A] CAE above, R[OMA] below, prow of galley right; before, I [value]
33 mm 29.35 gm

Ex RBW Collection, from Christie's (17 October 1984), lot 21 (part)

This issue has not been securely dated, and some view the time frame for these issues to be earlier and longer. For this 10-20 year period, only the bronze coins use a ligated, short-form of about 20 moneyers' names, which do not have associated named denarii.
This coin is no beauty, but it is clear enough and quite weighty, with a fine provenance that shows even great collectors had to grab the right coins when available. In this issue, the As is easy to find but the fractions are not.
Cr 177/2 AE Semis [TP or PT]Bronze semis, Crawford 177/2, Sydenham 353a (R4), SRCV I 843, Rome mint 169 - 158 B.C.E.
weight 16.187g, maximum diameter 25.3mm
O: Laureate head of Saturn right, L below, S behind
R: Galley prow right, TP or PT monogram above, S right, ROMA below
from the Andrew McCabe Collection; scarce
Cr 179/1 AE As Anonymous [BAL] Anonymous [BAL]. Ca. 169-158 B.C. AE as (31.9 mm, 24.03 g, 8 h). Central Italian mint. Laureate head of Janus, I above / BAL monogram / ROMA, prow of galley right, I to right. Crawford 179/1; Sydenham 354.
Ex RBW collection
Cr 182/2 Æ As GryphonAnonymous "Gryphon" series
Rome mint, c. 169-158 BCE
Laureate head of Janus; value I above
Prow of galley; griffin above, [ROMA] below.
32.9 mm 32.9 gm
The issue runs from Denarii through Sextans
This hefty coin is not a beauty (anymore) but Janus is rather distinct, as is the important griffin
From the x6 Collection = SteveP of the Forum Boards
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