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Home > Members' Coin Collection Galleries > ecoli > 02. Greek Coinage by City

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Kroisos, Lydia20 viewsLydian Kingdom. Kroisos. Ca. 564/53-550/39 B.C. AR 1/12 stater (7 mm, 0.80 g). Sardes mint. Confronted foreparts of lion, on left, and bull, in right / Incuse square punch. Berk 26-7; SNG Kayhan 1020-1; Trait I 413. VF, toned.ecoli
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Mithradates II28 viewsParthian Kingdom, Mithradates II 123-88 BC, Drachm, 4.16g: Obv: Diademed bust of Mithradates left Rev: Archer seated right, legend around. Sellwood 27.1. Rhagae mint1 commentsecoli
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Achaemenid Kingdom. Artaxerxes I to Artaxerxes II11 viewsAchaemenid Kingdom. Artaxerxes I to Artaxerxes II. Ca. 450-375 B.C. AR siglos (15.69 mm, 4.84 g). Persian king or hero in kneeling-running stance right, holding spear and bow / Rectangular incuse punch. Carradice Type IIIb; SNG Kayhan 1029. Fine, rough.ecoli
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Adramyteion, Mysia36 viewsAdramyteion in Mysia, 200-150 BC.,

Obv.: head of Zeus left.
Rev.: AΔP-A-M-VTHN-ΩN , horseman riding right, hand raised.
ANS 1944.100.42406 ; cf. Sear GC 3805

Adramyteion, is located on the western coast of Turkey. Today Burhaniye, it was previously named Kemer, ("aquaduct"), after a nearby aquaduct which has since been demolished.
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Aegina13 viewsAEGINA. 510-485 BC. AR Stater (11.67 gm). Smooth-shelled turtle / Incuse square of “skew” pattern. SNG.Cop.501. Toned Fine.ecoli
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AEOLIS, Aigai 49 viewsAigai is an ancient Greek site in Turkey, situated at a rather high altitude almost on top of the Mount Gn (Dağı), part of the mountain chain of Yunt (Dağları) in western Anatolia in the location of the present village of Yuntdağı Kseler, depending Manisa central district, although the easier road to the site departs from İzmir's Aliağa district center, though the bifurcation for Şakran township. Aigai lived its brightest period under the Attalid dynasty that ruled from nearby Pergamon in the 3rd century and 2nd century B.C.

Aeolis (Ancient Greek Αιολίς Aiols) or Aeolia (IPA [iːˈoʊlɪə]) (Ancient Greek Αιολία Aiola) was an area that comprised the west and northwestern region of Asia Minor, mostly along the coast, and also several offshore islands (particularly Lesbos), where the Aeolian Greek city-states were located. Aeolis incorporated the southern parts of Mysia which bounded it to the north, Ionia to the south, and Lydia to the east. In early times, the Aeolians' twelve most important cities were independent, and formed a league: Cyme (also called Phriconis), Larissae, Neonteichos, Temnus, Cilla, Notium, Aegiroessa, Pitane, Aegeaeae, Myrina, Gryneia, and Smyrna (Herodotus, 1.149).

According to Homer's description, Odysseus, after his stay with the Cyclopes, reached the island of Aiolos, who provided him with the west wind Zephyr.

AEOLIS, Aigai. Circa 3rd Century BC. Laureate head of Apollo right / Head of goat right. SNG Copenhagen 4

Ebay
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Aeolis, Kyme31 viewsBronze AE 16, BMC Aeolis p. 109, 57, VF, Kyme mint, head of Amazon Kyme right; reverse forepart of galloping horse right, vase behind, KY above, magistrate name LESBIOS below
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Aeolis, Kyme15 viewsAEOLIS, Kyme. 6th century BC. AR Hemiobol. Forepart of horse right / Floral pattern. SNG Copenhagen 34; SNG Kayhan 91; SNG von Aulock 7692; Klein 334. VF, darkly toned.ecoli
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AEOLIS. Temnos13 viewsAEOLIS. Temnos. Ae (3rd century BC).
Obv: Head of Dionysos left, wearing ivy wreath.
Rev: T - A.
Grape bunch on vine.
SNG Copenhagen 246-8.
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Aiolis, Aigai8 viewsAiolis, Aigai. 3rd century B.C. AE 18 (18.3 mm, 4.01 g, 10 h). Head of Apollo right / AIΓAEΩN, Goat standing right. SNG Cop 10; SNG von Aulock 1596. aVF. Scarce.ecoli
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AIOLIS, NEONTEICHOS19 viewsAIOLIS NEONTEICHOS.

Helmeted head of Athena
owl on NE monogram
SNG von Aulock 1669. SNG Mnchen 598.
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Aiolis, Temnos46 viewsAiolis, Temnos, 350-300 B.C.
Obv: Head of Dionysos right, head wreathed with ivy.
Rx: T - A to left and right of bunch of grapes on tendrilled vine.
Cf. SG 4230

CNG Bulk Lot
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Aitolian League 6 viewsAitolian League 20. Circa 205-150 BC. Helmeted head of Athena right / Herakles to front holding club and lions skin. Tsangari, cf. 1446. 6.23,ecoli
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Akarnania8 viewsAKARNANIA, Federal Coinage. Circa 300-167 BC. . Helmeted head of Athena left / Head of a man-headed bull (Achelous) left; t. SNG Copenhagen 423; BMC Thessaly pg. 170, 21. ecoli
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AKARNANIA, Ambracia144 views360-338 BC. 20mm. Helmeted head of Athena left, name of magistrate above / Pegasus flying left, A below. SG 1962v., VF. Very pleasing late classical style. Ex-Sayles V113ecoli73
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AKARNANIA, Anaktorion.143 viewsAKARNANIA, Anaktorion

Founding:

Kypselos & Gorgos, 7th century BC

The Corinthians sent by Cypselus and Gorgus took possession of this shore and also advanced as far as the Ambracian Gulf; and both Ambracia and Anactorium were colonized at this time. (Strabo 10,2,8)

AKARNANIA, Anaktorion. Circa 350-300 BC. AR Stater (20mm, 7.89 gm). Pegasos flying left; AN monogram below / Helmeted head of Athena left; NA[Y] to left, AN monogram and ring with pendants behind. Pegasi II pg. 504, 73. Near VF.

Ex-CNG eAuction 105, Lot: 33 116/150
1 commentsecoli
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AKARNANIA, Leukas121 viewsAKARNANIA, Leukas. Circa 345-307 BC. AR Stater (20mm, 7.66 gm). Pegasos flying right; L below / Helmeted head of Athena left; small L and hippocamp behind. Pegasi II pg. 424, 118; SNG Copenhagen -. VF

Ex-CNG eAuction 104, Lot: 47 150/200
ecoli
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AKARNANIA, Leukas10 viewsAKARNANIA, Leukas. Circa 440-400 BC. AR Diobol (10mm, 0.96 g, 6h). Pegasos flying left / Pegasos standing left. Cf. BCD Akarnania 182-3 and 184.3; cf. BCD Corinth 44-6; SNG Copenhagen -. Fine, some porosity. Very rare.ecoli
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Antigonos I monophthalmos7 viewsKINGS of MACEDON. Antigonos I Monophthalmos. As king, 306/5-301 BC. Unit (16mm, 4.56 g, 12h). Salamis mint. Struck under Demetrius I Poliorketes. Macedonian shield, boss decorated with facing gorgoneion / Macedonian helmet; kerykeion and monogram to lower left and right. Price 3159 (c. 323-315 BC); Zapiti & Michaelidou 78..ecoli
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Apulia, Arpi13 viewsAPULIA, Arpi. Circa 275-250 BC. . Bull butting right / Horse galloping right. SNG ANS 641; HN Italy 645ecoli
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Apulia, Arpi8 viewsAPULIA, Arpi. Circa 325-275 BC. Laureate head of Zeus left / Horse rearing left; star above, monogram below. HN Italy 644; SNG ANS -.ecoli
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Apulia, Ausculum 10 viewsApulia, Ausculum, 18mm. 3rd Century BC. Head of young Herakles left, in lion's skin, club behind neck / Nike standing right, holding wreath & palm. SNG ANS 648ecoli
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Apulia, Ausculum 9 viewsfrom Ausculum, where a battle was fought between the Roman Republic and King Pyrrhus; where afterwards the victor had famously said
to one who was congratulating him: "If we are victorious in one more battle with the Romans, we shall be utterly ruined."

Apulia, Ausculum, 18mm. 3rd Century BC. Head of young Herakles left, in lion's skin, club behind neck / Nike standing right, holding wreath & palm. SNG ANS 648
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Apulia, Teate15 viewsAPULIA, Teate. Circa 225-200 BC. Quincunx, Head of Athena right, wearing crested Corinthian helmet; four pellets above / Owl standing right on Ionic capital; four pellets in exergue. SNG ANS 742; SNG France 1420; SNG Morcom 224 var. (pellets right on reverse); HN Italy 702a.ecoli
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Apulia. Teate6 viewsApulia, Teate, Uncia, c. 225-220 BC; AE; Head of Athena r., wearing crested Corinthian helmet, Rv. TIATI, owl standing r. with closed wings; below one pellet. Dotted border. HNItaly 702d; SNG Copenhagen -; SNG ANS 752.ecoli
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ARGOLIS, Argos33 viewsA Neolithic settlement was located near the central sanctuary of Argois, removed 45 stadia (8 km; 5 miles) from Argos, closer to Mycenae. The temple was dedicated to "Argivian Hera". The main festival of that temple was the Hekatombaia, one of the major festivals of Argos itself. Walter Burkert (Homo necans, p. 185) connected the festival to the myth of the slaying of Argus Panoptes by Hermes ("shimmering" or "quick"), and only secondarily associated with mythological Argus (or the toponym).

Argos was a major stronghold of Mycenaean times, and along with the neighbouring acropolis of Mycenae and Tiryns became a very early settlement because of its commanding positions in the midst of the fertile plain of Argolis.

During Homeric times it belonged to a follower of Agamemnon and gave its name to the surrounding district; the Argolid which the Romans knew as Argeia. The importance of Argos was eclipsed by nearby Sparta after the 6th century BC.[dubious discuss]

Because of its refusal to fight or send supplies in the Graeco-Persian Wars, Argos was shunned by most other city-states.[citation needed] Argos remained neutral or the ineffective ally of Athens during the 5th century BC struggles between Sparta and Athens.

The Mythological kings of Argos are (in order): Inachus, Phoroneus, Argus, Triopas, Agenor, Iasus, Crotopus, Pelasgus (aka Gelanor), Danaus, Lynceus, Abas, Proetus, Acrisius, Perseus, Megapnths, Argeus, and Anaxagoras. An alternative version (supplied by Tatiānus[2]) of the original 17 consecutive kings of Argōs includes Apis, Argios, Kriasos, and Phorbas between Argus and Triopas, explaining the apparent unrelation of Triopas to Argus.

After the original 17 kings of Argos, there were three kings ruling Argos at the same time (see Anaxagoras), one descended from Bias, one from Melampus, and one from Anaxagoras. Melampus was succeeded by his son Mantius, then Oicles, and Amphiaraus, and his house of Melampus lasted down to the brothers Alcmaeon and Amphilochus.

Anaxagoras was succeeded by his son Alector, and then Iphis. Iphis left his kingdom to his nephew Sthenelus, the son of his brother Capaneus.

Bias was succeeded by his son Talaus, and then by his son Adrastus who, with Amphiaraus, commanded the disastrous Seven Against Thebes. Adrastus bequethed the kingdom to his son, Aegialeus, who was subsequently killed in the war of the Epigoni. Diomedes, grandson of Adrastus through his son-in-law Tydeus and daughter Deipyle, replaced Aegialeus and was King of Argos during the Trojan war. This house lasted longer than those of Anaxagoras and Melampus, and eventually the kingdom was reunited under its last member, Cyanippus, son of Aegialeus, soon after the exile of Diomedes.

Argos played a role in the Peloponnesian war and beyond.

ARGOLIS, Argos. Circa 90-50 BC. AR Triobol (2.16 g, 1h). Trypis, magistrate. Forepart of wolf at bay right / Large A; T-PY/ΠI-C in two lines around, piloi of the Dioskouroi below crossbar; all within incuse square. BCD Peloponnesos 1169. VF, darkly toned.

Ex BCD Collection (not in previous BCD sales).

Ex-CNG eAuction 82, Lot: 559 110/150

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Attica, Athens833 viewsAthens, ca. 449-413 BC. Silver tetradrachm.
Denomination : Silver tetradrachm.
Size : 23.7 x 24.3 mm Weight : 17.20 grams.
Reference : Sear-2526.
Grade : gVF and better centered than usual with a significant part of the crest showing.
Obverse : Head of Athena right.
Reverse : Owl standing right, with an olive sprig and crescent moon over its shoulder, with a AQE to the right.
Ex-Calgary Coin 1150
8 commentsecoli
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ATTICA, Athens395 viewsATTICA, Athens. Circa 168/5-50 BC. AR New Style Tetradrachm (30mm, 16.74 gm). Struck circa 136/5 BC. Helmeted head of Athena right / A-QE, owl standing right on amphora; magistrates MI-KI and QEO-FRA; Nike in quadriga right in right field, M on amphora, SW below amphora; all within wreath. Cf. Thompson 315-323 (unlisted dies). EF, lightly toned. Ex -CNG STORE 8951 commentsecoli
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ATTICA, Athens7 viewsATTICA, Athens. Circa 322/17-307 BC. . Helmeted head of Athena right / Two owls confronted, heads facing; Eleusis ring between; all within olive wreath. Kroll 44; SNG Copenhagen 92. ecoli
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ATTICA, Athens15 viewsATTICA, Athens. Circa 322/17-307 BC. (15mm, 2.26 g, 6h). Helmeted head of Athena right / Two owls standing confronted, heads facing; AΘ between; all within wreath. Kroll 46; HGC 4, 1726. ecoli
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ATTICA, Athens11 viewsATTICA, Athens. Circa 335-322/17 BC. Dichalkon (1.85 g, 1h). Helmeted head of Athena right / Double-bodied owl standing, bodies confronted, head facing; crescent and olive-sprig above. Kroll 43; SNG Copenhagen 72-3.ecoli
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Attica, Athens7 viewsATTICA, Athens. Circa 25-19 BC. (17mm, 7.96 g, 12h). Helmeted head of Athena right / Sphinx seated right, wearing modius; all within olive wreath. Kroll 153; SNG Copenhagen 303; Svoronos pl. 80, 18-21.
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Batria, Oriental Greek8 viewsApollodotos I Soter.

Apollo standing facing, head left, holding arrow and bow / Tripod; monogram to right. Bopearachchi 6K; SNG ANS -
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BOEOTIA, Thebes171 viewsIn the late 6th century BC the Thebans were brought for the first time into hostile contact with the Athenians, who helped the small village of Plataea to maintain its independence against them, and in 506 repelled an inroad into Attica. The aversion to Athens best serves to explain the unpatriotic attitude which Thebes displayed during the Persian invasion of Greece (480479 BC). Though a contingent of 700 was sent to Thermopylae and remained there with Leonidas until just before the last stand when they surrendered to the Persians[1], the governing aristocracy soon after joined King Xerxes I of Persia with great readiness and fought zealously on his behalf at the battle of Plataea in 479 BC. The victorious Greeks subsequently punished Thebes by depriving it of the presidency of the Boeotian League, and an attempt by the Spartans to expel it from the Delphic amphictyony was only frustrated by the intercession of Athens.

In 457 Sparta, needing a counterpoise against Athens in central Greece, reversed her policy and reinstated Thebes as the dominant power in Boeotia. The great citadel of Cadmea served this purpose well by holding out as a base of resistance when the Athenians overran and occupied the rest of the country (457447). In the Peloponnesian War the Thebans, embittered by the support which Athens gave to the smaller Boeotian towns, and especially to Plataea, which they vainly attempted to reduce in 431, were firm allies of Sparta, which in turn helped them to besiege Plataea and allowed them to destroy the town after its capture in 427 BC. In 424 at the head of the Boeotian levy they inflicted a severe defeat upon an invading force of Athenians at the Battle of Delium, and for the first time displayed the effects of that firm military organization which eventually raised them to predominant power in Greece.

After the downfall of Athens at the end of the Peloponnesian War the Thebans, finding that Sparta intended to protect the states which they desired to annex, broke off the alliance. In 404 they had urged the complete destruction of Athens, yet in 403 they secretly supported the restoration of its democracy in order to find in it a counterpoise against Sparta. A few years later, influenced perhaps in part by Persian gold, they formed the nucleus of the league against Sparta. At the battles of Haliartus (395) and Coronea (394) they again proved their rising military capacity by standing their ground against the Spartans. The result of the war was especially disastrous to Thebes, as the general settlement of 387 stipulated the complete autonomy of all Greek towns and so withdrew the other Boeotians from its political control. Its power was further curtailed in 382, when a Spartan force occupied the citadel by a treacherous coup-de-main. Three years later the Spartan garrison was expelled, and a democratic constitution definitely set up in place of the traditional oligarchy. In the consequent wars with Sparta the Theban army, trained and led by Epaminondas and Pelopidas, proved itself the best in Greece. Some years of desultory fighting, in which Thebes established its control over all Boeotia, culminated in 371 in a remarkable victory over the pick of the Spartans at Leuctra. The winners were hailed throughout Greece as champions of the oppressed. They carried their arms into Peloponnesus and at the head of a large coalition permanently crippled the power of Sparta. Similar expeditions were sent to Thessaly and Macedon to regulate the affairs of those regions.

However the predominance of Thebes was short-lived; the states which she protected refused to subject themselves permanently to her control, and the renewed rivalry of Athens, which had joined with Thebes in 395 in a common fear of Sparta, but since 387 had endeavoured to maintain the balance of power against her ally, prevented the formation of a Theban empire. With the death of Epaminondas at Mantinea in 362 the city sank again to the position of a secondary power. In a war with the neighbouring state of Phocis (356346) it could not even maintain its predominance in central Greece, and by inviting Philip II of Macedon to crush the Phocians it extended that monarch's power within dangerous proximity to its frontiers. A revulsion of feeling was completed in 338 by the orator Demosthenes, who persuaded Thebes to join Athens in a final attempt to bar Philip's advance upon Attica. The Theban contingent lost the decisive battle of Chaeronea and along with it every hope of reassuming control over Greece. Philip was content to deprive Thebes of her dominion over Boeotia; but an unsuccessful revolt in 335 against his son Alexander was punished by Macedon and other Greek states by the severe sacking of the city, except, according to tradition, the house of the poet Pindar.

BOEOTIA, Thebes. Circa 395-338 BC. AR Stater (21mm, 11.98 gm). Boeotian shield / Amphora; magistrate AM-FI. Hepworth, "The 4th Century BC Magistrate Coinage of the Boiotian Confederacy," in Nomismatika Xronika (1998), 2; BMC Central Greece -. Fine.

Ex-Cng eAuction 105, Lot: 34 225/200

2 commentsecoli
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BRUTTIUM, Petelia15 viewsBRUTTIUM, Petelia. Circa 214-212 BC. 20mm
Veiled head of Demeter right / [PETHLINWN], Zeus standing left, head reverted, holding thunderbolt and sceptre; star to left, F to right. Caltabiano, Petelia 3; SNG ANS 602 var. (N not F); HN Italy 2454.
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BRUTTIUM, Rhegion13 viewsBRUTTIUM, Rhegion. Circa 415/0-387 BC. 11mm . Lion's head facing /laureate head of Apollo right. Cf. SNG ANS 702; HN Italy 2524ecoli
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Bruttium, Vibo Valentia (later Hipponium)14 viewsVibo Valentia (later Hipponium), Bruttium, AE19 Semis. Ca. 192-89 BC. Diademed head of Hera right, S behind head / VALENTIA to left of two cornucopiae, S and krater in right field. BMC 15; SNG Cop 1842.1 commentsecoli
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CALABRIA, Tarentum183 viewsTaranto was founded in 706 BC by Dorian immigrants as the only Spartan colony, and its origin is peculiar: the founders were Partheniae, sons of unmarried Spartan women and perioeci (free men, but not citizens of Sparta); these unions were decreed by the Spartans to increase the number of soldiers (only the citizens of Sparta could become soldiers) during the bloody Messenian Wars, but later they were nullified, and the sons were forced to leave. According to the legend Phalanthus, the Parthenian leader, went to Delphi to consult the oracle and received the puzzling answer that he should found a city where rain fell from a clear sky. After all attempts to capture a suitable place to found a colony failed, he became despondent, convinced that the oracle had told him something that was impossible, and was consoled by his wife. She laid his head in her lap and herself became disconsolate. When Phalanthus felt her tears splash onto his forehead he at last grasped the meaning of the oracle, for his wife's name meant clear sky. The harbour of Taranto in Apulia was nearby and he decided this must be the new home for the exiles. The Partheniae arrived and founded the city, naming it Taras after the son of the Greek sea god, Poseidon, and the local nymph Satyrion. A variation says Taras was founded in 707 BC by some Spartans, who, the sons of free women and enslaved fathers, were born during the Messenian War. According to other sources, Heracles founded the city. Another tradition indicates Taras himself as the founder of the city; the symbol of the Greek city (as well as of the modern city) is Taras riding a dolphin. Taranto increased its power, becoming a commercial power and a sovereign city of Magna Graecia, ruling over the Greek colonies in southern Italy.

In its beginning, Taranto was a monarchy, probably modelled on the one ruling over Sparta; according to Herodotus (iii 136), around 492 BC king Aristophilides ruled over the city. The expansion of Taranto was limited to the coast because of the resistance of the populations of inner Apulia. In 472 BC, Taranto signed an alliance with Rhegion, to counter the Messapii, Peuceti, and Lucanians (see Iapygian-Tarentine Wars), but the joint armies of the Tarentines and Rhegines were defeated near Kaila (modern Ceglie), in what Herodotus claims to be the greatest slaughter of Greeks in his knowledge, with 3,000 Reggians and uncountable Tarentines killed. In 466 BC, Taranto was again defeated by the Iapyges; according to Aristotle, who praises its government, there were so many aristocrats killed that the democratic party was able to get the power, to remove the monarchy, inaugurate a democracy, and expel the Pythagoreans. Like Sparta, Tarentum was an aristocratic republic, but became democratic when the ancient nobility dwindled.

However, the rise of the democratic party did not weaken the bonds of Taranto and her mother-city Sparta. In fact, Taranto supported the Peloponnesian side against Athens in the Peloponnesian War, refused anchorage and water to Athens in 415 BC, and even sent ships to help the Peloponnesians, after the Athenian disaster in Sicily. On the other side, Athens supported the Messapians, in order to counter Taranto's power.

In 432 BC, after several years of war, Taranto signed a peace treaty with the Greek colony of Thurii; both cities contributed to the foundation of the colony of Heraclea, which rapidly fell under Taranto's control. In 367 BC Carthage and the Etruscans signed a pact to counter Taranto's power in southern Italy.

Under the rule of its greatest statesman, strategist and army commander-in-chief, the philosopher and mathematician Archytas, Taranto reached its peak power and wealth; it was the most important city of the Magna Graecia, the main commercial port of southern Italy, it produced and exported goods to and from motherland Greece and it had the biggest army and the largest fleet in southern Italy. However, with the death of Archytas in 347 BC, the city started a slow, but ineluctable decline; the first sign of the city's decreased power was its inability to field an army, since the Tarentines preferred to use their large wealth to hire mercenaries, rather than leave their lucrative trades.

In 343 BC Taranto appealed for aid against the barbarians to its mother city Sparta, in the face of aggression by the Brutian League. In 342 BC, Archidamus III, king of Sparta, arrived in Italy with an army and a fleet to fight the Lucanians and their allies. In 338 BC, during the Battle of Manduria, the Spartan and Tarentine armies were defeated in front of the walls of Manduria (nowadays in province of Taranto), and Archidamus was killed.

In 333 BC, still troubled by their Italic neighbours, the Tarentines called the Epirotic king Alexander Molossus to fight the Bruttii, Samnites, and Lucanians, but he was later (331 BC) defeated and killed in the battle of Pandosia (near Cosenza). In 320 BC, a peace treaty was signed between Taranto and the Samnites. In 304 BC, Taranto was attacked by the Lucanians and asked for the help of Agathocles tyrant of Syracuse, king of Sicily. Agathocles arrived in southern Italy and took control of Bruttium (present-day Calabria), but was later called back to Syracuse. In 303 BC-302 BC Cleonymus of Sparta established an alliance with Taranto against the Lucanians, and fought against them.

Arnold J. Toynbee, a classical scholar who taught at Oxford and other prestigious English universities and who did original and definitive work on Sparta (e.g. The Journal of Hellenic Studies, vol. xxxiii 1913 p. 246-275) seemed to have some doubts about Tarentum (Taranto) being of Spartan origin.

In his book The Study of History vol. iii p. 52 he wrote: "...Tarentum, which claimed a Spartan origin; but, even if this claim was in accordance with historical fact..." The tentative phrasing seems to imply that the evidence is neither conclusive or even establishes a high degree of probability of the truth that Tarentum (Taranto) was a Spartan colony.

CALABRIA, Tarentum. Circa 302-281 BC. AR Drachm (17mm, 2.91 gm). Helmeted head of Athena right, helmet decorated with Skylla hurling a stone / Owl standing right head facing, on olive branch; Vlasto 1058; SNG ANS 1312; HN Italy 1015. VF.

Ex-Cng eAuction 103 Lot 2 190/150
2 commentsecoli
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CALABRIA. Tarentum. Circa 280-272 BC36 viewsAR drachm (15mm, 3.17g). .
Helmeted head of Athena left; helmet decorated with Skylla hurling a stone / Owl standing right on thunderbolt, wings spread. Vlasto 1077ff.
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CAMPANIA, Neapolis34 viewsCAMPANIA, Neapolis. Circa 300-275 BC. AR Nomos (18mm, 7.06 g, 5h). Head of nymph right; X behind / Man-headed bull walking right; above, Nike flying right, placing wreath on bull's head; EYΞ below. Sambon 477; HN Italy 579; SNG ANS 370. Fine, toned,ecoli
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Caria, Kaunos 6 viewsCARIA, Kaunos. Circa 350-300 BC. Forepart of a bull right / Sphinx seated right. SNG Keckman 70.ecoli
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Caria, Kos7 views
CARIA. Kos. Ae (Circa 250-210 BC). Anaxip-, magistrate. Obv: Head of Herakles right, wearing lion skin. Rev: ΚΩΙ / ΑΝΑΞΙΠ. Crab. SNG von Aulock 2755 var. (magistrate); HGC 6, 1338.
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Caria, Mylasa13 viewsCaria, Mylasa. 450-400 B.C. AR obol (7.5 mm, 0.49 g, 6 h). Facing forepart of lion / Scorpion, tail to right; within incuse square. SNG Kayhan 934-938; SNG von Aulock 7803. Fine.ecoli
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Caria, Mylasa5 viewsCARIA, Mylasa(?). Circa 420-390 BC. AR Tetartemorion (5mm, 0.18 g, 9h). Forepart of lion left, head right / Bird standing right; pellet to upper left and lower right; all within incuse square. SNG Keckman 9223; SNG Kayhan 9446; SNG von Aulock 1818; SNG Copenhagen ; Klein 432 (Miletos; this coin). VF, toned, porosity, obverse poorly struck. From the Daniel Koppersmith Collection. Ex Elsen FPL 258 (October-December 2011), no. 62.ecoli
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Caria, Rhodos39 viewsRhodos, Caria: AE 10mm / Rhodos

3rd-2nd century BC. Radiate head of Rhodos right, wearing stephane / Rose within incuse square. SNG Cop. 861v. Fine.

Ex-Sayles
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CARIA. Rhodos, Rhodes157 viewsISLANDS off CARIA. Rhodos, Rhodes. Circa 125-88 BC. AR Hemidrachm (14mm, 1.25 gm). Magistrate Melantas. Radiate head of Helios facing slightly right / P-O, rose; MELANTAS above, grape bunch to right; all within incuse square. Jenkins, Rhodian, Group D, Series 98; cf. SNG Helsinki 668; SNG Copenhagen -. Near EF. Ex-CNG(295) B127V1272 commentsecoli73
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CARTHAGE143 viewsCARTHAGE. Circa 400-350 BC. 16mm (2.59 gm). Wreathed head of Tanit left, wearing pendant necklace / Horse standing right, palm behind; pellet above, trefoil of pellets before. Alexandropoulos 18f; SNG Copenhagen 119; Mller 167. Nice VF, green patina. Ex-CNG(77) B54V64ecoli
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CARTHAGE79 viewsCARTHAGE. Circa 370-340 BC. 13mm (1.37 gm). Sicilian mint. Wreathed male head left / Horse prancing right. Calciati III pg. 377, 4; SNG Copenhagen 98. VF, dark brown, green and red patina, some roughness. Scarce. EX-CNG B33V4B
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Carthage32 viewsCarthage (3rd century BC). AE (18 mm / 4.90 g). Head of Tanit left / Horse head right, punic letter before. cf S 6525. Possibly overstruck on another coin, traces barely visible on obverse and reverse. Ex-Barry and Darling G15

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Cilicia, Seleukeia.33 viewsCilicia, Seleukeia. 2nd-1st centuries B.C. 18 mm (3.86 g, 11 h). Laureate head of Apollo right; behind, monogram / [ΣEΛEVKEΩN] TΩN ΠPOΣ TΩI KAΛVKAΔN[OI], forepart of horse right; below, two monograms. Cf. SNG BN 917-28; cf. SNG Levante 690-8; cf. SNG Levante suppl. 181-3; cf. SNG von Aulock 5810-3 (all with diff. monograms).

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1 commentsecoli
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Cilicia, Tarsos. Mazaios23 viewsCilicia, Tarsos. Mazaios. Satrap of Cilicia, 361/0-334 B.C. AR stater (24.30 mm, 10.76 g, 7 h). Baaltars seated left, holding eagle, grain ear, grape bunch and scepter / Lion attacking bull to left. SNG France 340; SNG Levante 102. gVF, a few scratches.3 commentsecoli
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Cimmerian Bosporos, Phanagoreia14 viewsCIMMERIAN BOSPOROS, Phanagoreia (as Agrippia). Circa 14-12 BC. Veiled head of Aphrodite right, wearing stephanos / Prow of galley left; H (mark of value) to right, three pellets below. MacDonald 275/4; RPC I 1935; HGC 7, .ecoli
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Corinth9 viewsPegasus/tridentecoli
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Corinth, Corinthia.8 viewsCorinthia, Corinth. ca. 368-355 B.C. AE 13 (12.6 mm, 1.94 g, 8 h). Pegasos flying left; koppa below / Trident-head upward; Torch in fields. Cf. BCD 279-281ecoli
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Corinth, Corinthia.10 viewsCorinthia, Corinth. ca. 368-355 B.C. AE 13 (12.6 mm, 1.94 g, 8 h). Pegasos flying left; koppa below / Trident-head upward; wreath in fields. Cf. BCD 279-281ecoli
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Corinth, Corinthia.14 viewsCorinthia, Corinth. ca. 368-355 B.C. AE 13 (12.6 mm, 1.94 g, 8 h). Pegasos flying left; koppa below / Trident-head upward; Cf. BCD 279-281ecoli
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Corinthia, Corinth 14 viewsCorinthia, Corinth. ca. 368-355 B.C. AE 13 (12.6 mm, 1.94 g, 8 h). Pegasos flying left; koppa below / Trident-head upward; wreath in fields. Cf. BCD 279-281 ecoli
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Dardanos, Troas12 viewsDardanos, Troas. 4th-3rd centuries BC. AR Obol (9mm, 0.64 g). Horseman riding left / Cock standing left within incuse square. SNG Copenhagen 282.ecoli
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Demetrios I Poliorketes8 viewsKINGS of MACEDON. Demetrios I Poliorketes. 306-283 BC. . Pella mint. Macedonian shield with monogram of Demetrios in central boss / Macedonian helmet. Newell 132; SNG Alpha Bank 969. ecoli
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Dionysios I, Sicily, Syracuse12 viewsSICILY, Syracuse. Dionysios I. 405-367 BC. Drachm. Head of Athena left, wearing Corinthian helmet decorated with wreath / Sea-star between two dolphins. CNS 62; HGC 2, 1436.ecoli
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DYNASTS of LYCIA. Uvug10 views
DYNASTS of LYCIA. Uvug. Circa 470-440 BC. AR Tetrobol (15mm, 2.72 g, 1h). Forepart of winged man-headed bull right / Laureate male head right within dotted square border; all within incuse square. Falghera II 90-3; SNG von Aulock 4119; SNG Copenhagen Supp. 4301. VF, toned, some light porosity, struck from a worn obverse die.
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Egypt, Alexandria127 viewsPtolemaic Kingdom, Ptolemy VI Philometor and Ptolemy VIII Euergetes II (Physcon), c. 170 - 164 B.C.

Two eagles in the reverse may symbolize joint rule
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Egypt, Alexandria28 viewsPtolemy VIII
145-116BC
AE24, 15.06G
SNG COP-334
Head of Alexander in elephant scalp
Eagle standing left on thunderbolt

ex Don Doswell collection
ex HJB
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Egypt, Alexandria42 viewsPTOLEMAIC KINGS of EGYPT. Ptolemy II Philadelphos. 285-246 BC. Alexandreia mint. Struck circa 260 BC. Deified head of Alexander the Great right, wearing elephant skin headdress / Eagle standing left on thunderbolt.ecoli
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Elis, Olympia191 viewsOlympia (Greek: Ολυμπία Olymp'a or Ολύμπια Olmpia, older transliterations, Olimpia, Olimbia), a sanctuary of ancient Greece in Elis, is known for having been the site of the Olympic Games in classical times, comparable in importance to the Pythian Games held in Delphi. Both games were held every olympiad (i.e. every four years), the Olympic Games dating back possibly further than 776 BC. In 394 emperor Theodosius I, or possibly his grandson Theodosius II in 435, abolished them because they were reminiscent of paganism.

The sanctuary itself consists of an unordered arrangement of various buildings. To the north of the sanctuary can be found the prytaneion and the Philippeion, as well as the array of treasuries representing the various city states. The metroon lies to the south of these treasuries, with the Echo Stoa to the East. To the south of the sanctuary is the South Stoa and the Bouleuterion, whereas the West side houses the palaistra, the workshop of Pheidias, the Gymnasion and the Leonidaion. Enclosed within the temenos are the temples of Hera and Zeus, the Pelopion and the area of the altar, where the sacrifices were made. The hippodrome and later stadium were also to the East.

Olympia is also known for the gigantic ivory and gold statue of Zeus that used to stand there, sculpted by Pheidias, which was named one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World by Antipater of Sidon. Very close to the temple of Zeus (see photo of ruins below) which housed this statue, the studio of Pheidias was excavated in the 1950s. Evidence found there such as sculptor's tools, corroborates this opinion.

Excavation of the Olympia temple district and its surroundings began with a French expedition in 1829. German archaeologists continued the work in the latter part of the 19th century. The latter group uncovered, intact, the Hermes of Praxiteles statue, among other artifacts. In the middle of the 20th Century, the stadium where the running contests took place was excavated.

The Olympic flame of the modern-day Olympic Games is lit by reflection of sunlight in a parabolic mirror at the restored Olympia stadium and then transported by a torch to the place where the games are held.

When the modern Olympics came to Athens in 2004, the men's and women's shot put competition was held at the restored stadium.

The ancient ruins sits north of the Alfeios River and lies next to Cronius or Kronios hill (the hill of Kronos, or Saturn). Kladeos, a tributary of Alfeios, flows around the area.

The town has a school and a square (plateia). Tourism is popular throughout the late-20th century. The city has a train station and is the easternmost terminus of the line of Olympia-Pyrgos (Ilia). The train station which the freight yard is west of it is about 300 m east of the town centre.

It is linked by GR-74 and the new road was opened in the 1980s, the next stretch N and NE of Olympia will open in around 2005. Distance from Pyrgos is 20 km E(old: 21 km), about 50 km SW of Lampeia, W of Tripoli and Arcadia and 4 km north of Krestena and N of Kyparissia and Messenia. The highway passed north of the ancient ruins.

A reservoir is located 2 km southwest damming up the Alfeios river and has a road from Olympia and Krestena which in the late-1990s has been closed.

The area is hilly and mountainous, most of the area within Olympia is forested.

Elis, Olympia. After ca. 340/30-late 3rd century B.C. unit (20 mm, 5.99 g). Laureate head of Zeus right / FA above, horse trotting right; [L]U below. BCD 339.3 (this coin). Near VF, dark brown patina.
Ex BCD Collection. Ex-John C Lavender G18
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Gambrion, Mysia32 viewsGambrion, Mysia, c. 350 - 300 B.C.

obverse laureate head of Apollo right;
reverse Γ-A-M between rays of star

Bronze AE 10, SGCV II 3871, BMC 2,
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Histiaia, Euboia23 viewsThe history of the island of Euboea is largely that of its two principal cities, Chalcis and Eretria, both mentioned in the Catalogue of Ships. Both cities were settled by Ionian Greeks from Attica, and would eventually settle numerous colonies in Magna Graecia and Sicily, such as Cumae and Rhegium, and on the coast of Macedonia. This opened new trade routes to the Greeks, and extended the reach of western civilization. The commercial influence of these city-states is evident in the fact that the Euboic scale of weights and measures was used among the Ionic cities generally, and in Athens until the end of the 7th century BC, during the time of Solon.[citation needed] The classicist Barry B. Powell has proposed that Euboea may have been where the Greek alphabet was first employed, c. 775-750 BC, and that Homer may have spent part of his life on the island.

Chalcis and Eretria were rival cities, and appear to have been equally powerful for a while. One of the earliest major military conflicts in Greek history took place between them, known as the Lelantine War, in which many other Greek city-states also took part. In 490 BC, Eretria was utterly ruined and its inhabitants were transported to Persia[clarification needed]. Though it was restored nearby its original site after the Battle of Marathon, the city never regained its former eminence.

Both cities gradually lost influence to Athens, which saw Euboea as a strategic territory. Euboea was an important source of grain and cattle, and controlling the island meant Athens could prevent invasion and better protect its trade routes from piracy.

Athens invaded Chalcis in 506 BC and settled 4,000 Attic Greeks on their lands. After this conflict, the whole of the island was gradually reduced to an Athenian dependency. Another struggle between Euboea and Athens broke out in 446. Led by Pericles, the Athenians subdued the revolt, and captured Histiaea in the north of the island for their own settlement.

By 410 BC, the island succeeded in regaining its independence. Euboea participated in Greek affairs until falling under the control of Philip II of Macedon after the Battle of Chaeronea in 338 BC, and eventually being incorporated into the Roman Republic in the second century BC. Aristotle died on the island in 322 BC soon after fleeing Athens for his mother's family estate in Chalcis.

Tetrobol, 275-225 BC, Sear (GC) 2496
Obv: Anepigraphic. Head of the nymph, Histiaia, right, wearing wreath of vine and hair rolled.
Rev: ΙΣΤΙΑΙΕΩΝ
The nymph Histiaia seated right on stern of galley and holding naval standard.

Ebay
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Illyria, Dyrrhachium29 viewsGR2. Illyria, Dyrrhachium. After 229 BC. Silver drachm

Obverse : Cow with suckling calf,and the moneyers name MENISKOS above the cow's back, with a small eagle above the name.
Reverse : Double star pattern in a square, with an inscription naming the city around.

In 229 BCE, when the Romans seized the city the "-damnos" part of the name was inauspicious to Latin ears, and its name, as it was refounded, became Dyrrhachium. Pausanias (6.x.8) says "the modern Roman city is not the ancient one, being at a short distance from it. The modern city is called Dyrrhachium from its founder." The name Dyrrachion is found on coins of the fifth century BCE; in the Roman period Dyrrachium was more common. However, the city maintained a semi-autonomy and was turned into a Roman colony.

Dyrrachium was the landing place for Roman passengers crossing the Ionian Sea from Brundisium, which made it a fairly busy way-station. Here commenced the Via Egnatia, the Roman military road to Thessalonica that connected Roman Illyria with Macedonia and Thrace. The city itself was part of Macedonia, more specifically Epirus Nova. In 48 BCE Pompey was based at Dyrrachium and beat off an attack by Julius Caesar (see Battle of Dyrrhachium). In 345 BCE the city was levelled by an earthquake and rebuilt on its old foundations. In the 4th century CE, Dyrrachium was made the capital of the Roman province of Epirus nova.

The name "Epidamnos" was still used by the Byzantines, as for example in the 13th-century Synopsis Chronike, referring to contemporary events.

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Indo-Greek Kings of Bactria, Menander23 viewsIndo-Greek Kings of Bactria, Menander, 160-145 BC, Square AE16 (2.76gm), Pushkalavati. Rare.

O: BASILEWS SWTEROS MENANDROU. Head of Pallas r., wearing plumed helmet. R: Karosthi legend. Maharajasa tratarasa Menadrasa. Nike adv. r., holding wreath and palm; Pushkalavati monogram below. Cf. MA 1821-1823 (but dichalkon). VF, glossy dark green patina. G22

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INDO-GREEK, Eukratides I9 viewsHelmeted bust of king right, Greek legend around: BAΣIΛEΩΣ / MEΓAΛOY / EYKPATIΔOY
Reverse Dioscuri on horseback right, Kharoshthi legend around: Maharajasa / Evukratidasa, no monogram
Date c. 171-145 BCE
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INDO-GREEK, Eukratides I 7 viewsHelmeted bust of king right, Greek legend around: BAΣIΛEΩΣ / MEΓAΛOY / EYKPATIΔOY
Reverse Dioscuri on horseback right, Kharoshthi legend around: Maharajasa / Evukratidasa, no monogram
Date c. 171-145 BCE
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Indo-Greek: Apollodotus I 5 viewsApollo standing facing, holding arrow in right hand and bow in left, no monogram at left, Greek legend around: BAΣIΛEΩΣ / AΠOΛΛOΔOTOY / ΣΩTHPOΣ
Tripod with monogram at right, within square dotted border, Kharoshthi legend around: Maharajasa / Apaladatasa / tratarasa
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INDO-SKYTHIANS. Zeionises6 views Indo-Scythian satraps, Zeionises. HGC12-727. Uncertain mint in Chuksa.. Bull to the left, Elephant right.ecoli
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Ionia, Colophon27 viewsColophon (/ˈkɒləfɒn/;[1] Ancient Greek: Κολοφών) was an ancient city in Ionia. Founded around the turn of the first millennium BC, it was likely one of the oldest of the twelve cities of the Ionian League. In ancient times it was located between Lebedos (120 stadia to the west) and Ephesus (70 stadia to its south). Today the ruins of the city can be found south of the town Değirmendere Fev in the Menderes district of Izmir Province, Turkey.

The city's name comes from the word κολοφών, "summit", which is also the origin of the bibliographic term "colophon", in the metaphorical sense of a 'crowning touch', as it was sited along a ridgeline. The term "colophony" for rosin comes from the term colophonia resina, that is, resin from the pine trees of Colophon, which was highly valued for the strings of musical instruments.

Ionia, Colophon, c. 389-350 BC, 0.80g. ANSNNM 96, Milne, Kolophon-57. Obv: Head of Apollo l. Rx: Lyre.
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IONIA, Ephesos20 viewsIONIA, Ephesos. 387-295 BC.

Female head left. /Greek letters on either side of bee. BMC 14, 55, 68-70; Sear 4409 .
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IONIA, EPHESOS (Ephesus) 24 viewsIONIA, EPHESOS (Ephesus) AE 3rd century BC. Bee within laurel wreath Reverse, Stag grazing right,ecoli
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Ionia, Ephesus20 viewsIonia, Ephesus c.390-330BC Silver Diobol

Obv: EΦ, Bee with straight wings, border of dots.
Rev: EΦ, Stag's heads facing.

SNG Copenhagen 242; SNG Kayhan 194f.
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Ionia, Klazomenai13 viewsIonia, Klazomenai Ca. 375-340 BC. 19mm

OBVERSE: Three-quarter facing head of Athena, head slightly right, in triple crested helmet decorated with olive branch, earrings & necklace.
REVERSE: Ram walking right; Trophy before
SNG Copenhagen 86
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Ionia, Kolophon26 viewsObverse: No Legend: Head of Apollo right, hair bound with taenia
Reverse: No Legend: Lyre.
Mint: KolophonMinted: 389-350bc
Ref: SNGvA-2008

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Ionia, Kolophon;6 viewsIONIA, Kolophon. Circa 530/25-500 BC. AR Tetartemorion (5mm, 0.17 g). Archaic head of Apollo left / Incuse square punch. SNG Kayhan 343; SNG Copenhagen -. Near VF, toned and porous.ecoli
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Ionia, Miletos87 viewsIonia, Miletos, late 6th-early 4th century BC, AR 1/12th Stater (1.16 gm.). Obv.: Head lion left. Rev.: Star. SNG Helsinki II , 267. Attractive very fine. g231 commentsecoli
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IONIA, Phokaia36 viewsIONIA, Phokaia. Circa 521-478 BC. AR Hemihekte (9mm, 1.32 g). Head of nymph left, hair in plain sakkos / Quadripartite incuse square. SNG von Aulock 1815; SNG Copenhagen (Cyprus, etc.) 38993. Good VF, toned. Fine archaic style.

Ex CNG eAuction 311, Lot 737 85/100
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IONIA, Phokaia7 views
IONIA, Phokaia. Late 6th century BC. AR Tetartemorion (8mm, 0.12 g). Head of griffin left / Quadripartite incuse square. SNG von Aulock 7938 (head right); SNG Copenhagen Supp. 339 var. (same); Rosen 603 (same). VF, toned, porous. From the Daniel Koppersmith Collection. Ex Classical Numismatic Group Electronic Auction 263 (31 August 2011), lot 106.
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IONIA, Phokaia.38 viewsThe ancient Greek geographer Pausanias says that Phocaea was founded by Phocians under Athenian leadership, on land given to them by the Aeolian Cymaeans, and that they were admitted into the Ionian League after accepting as kings the line of Codrus. Pottery remains indicate Aeolian presence as late as the 9th century BC, and Ionian presence as early as the end of the 9th century BC. From this an approximate date of settlement for Phocaea can be inferred.

According to Herodotus the Phocaeans were the first Greeks to make long sea-voyages, having discovered the coasts of the Adriatic, Tyrrhenia and Spain. Herodotus relates that they so impressed Arganthonios, king of Tartessus in Spain, that he invited them to settle there, and, when they declined, gave them a great sum of money to build a wall around their city.

Their sea travel was extensive. To the south they probably conducted trade with the Greek colony of Naucratis in Egypt, which was the colony of their fellow Ionian city Miletus. To the north, they probably helped settle Amisos (Samsun) on the Black Sea, and Lampsacus at the north end of the Hellespont (now the Dardanelles). However Phocaea's major colonies were to the west. These included Alalia in Corsica, Emporiae and Rhoda in Spain, and especially Massalia (Marseille) in France.

Phocaea remained independent until the reign of the Lydian king Croesus (circa 560545 BC), when they, along with the rest of mainland Ionia, first, fell under Lydian control[8] and then, along with Lydia (who had allied itself with Sparta) were conquered by Cyrus the Great of Persia in 546 BC, in one of the opening skirmishes of the great Greco-Persian conflict.

Rather than submit to Persian rule, the Phocaeans abandoned their city. Some may have fled to Chios, others to their colonies on Corsica and elsewhere in the Mediterranean, with some eventually returning to Phocaea. Many however became the founders of Elea, around 540 BC.

In 500 BC, Phocaea joined the Ionian Revolt against Persia. Indicative of its naval prowess, Dionysius, a Phocaean was chosen to command the Ionian fleet at the decisive Battle of Lade, in 494 BC. However, indicative of its declining fortunes, Phocaea was only able to contribute three ships, out of a total of "three hundred and fifty three". The Ionian fleet was defeated and the revolt ended shortly thereafter.

After the defeat of Xerxes I by the Greeks in 480 BC and the subsequent rise of Athenian power, Phocaea joined the Delian League, paying tribute to Athens of two talents. In 412 BC, during the Peloponnesian War, with the help of Sparta, Phocaea rebelled along with the rest of Ionia. The Peace of Antalcidas, which ended the Corinthian War, returned nominal control to Persia in 387 BC.

In 343 BC, the Phocaeans unsuccessfully laid siege to Kydonia on the island of Crete.

During the Hellenistic period it fell under Seleucid, then Attalid rule. In the Roman period, the town was a manufacturing center for ceramic vessels, including the late Roman Phocaean red slip.

It was later under the control of Benedetto Zaccaria, the Genoan ambassador to Byzantium, who received the town as a hereditary lordship; Zaccaria and his descendants amassed a considerable fortune from his properties there, especially the rich alum mines. It remained a Genoese colony until it was taken by the Turks in 1455. It is a titular see of the Roman Catholic Church.

IONIA, Phokaia. Circa 521-478 BC. AR Hemidrachm (9mm, 1.54 g). Head of griffin left / Quadripartite incuse square. SNG Copenhagen ; SNG von Aulock 2116; SNG Kayhan 512-6. VF, dark toning.
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IONIA, Teos11 viewsIONIA, Teos. Circa 450-425 BC. AR Hemitritemorion (6mm, 0.14 g). Forepart of griffin right / Quadripartite incuse square. Matzke Group Cb7-3, 103 (this coin); Balcer -; SNG Copenhagen -; MACW 77. Near VF, toned, some porosity. From the Daniel Koppersmith Collection. Ex Elsen FPL 206 (November-December 1999), no. 69P.
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Judea Alexander Jannaeus 31 viewsAlexander Janneus 103-76 BC

Obv: Hebrew Inscription (Yehonatan the High Priest and the Council of the Jews) surrounded by wreath.
Rev: Double cornucopia adorned with ribbons, pomegranate between horns.

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Judean imitation of athenian owl26 viewsJudean imitation of Athenian owl, probably an obolecoli
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Kallatis30 viewsOBVERSE: Bust of Apollo right, counter mark of uncertain deity? below chin.
REVERSE: KALLA above wreath with mongram within
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Katane, Sicily9 viewsSicily, Katane, c. 405-402 BC. Litra (27mm, 13.55g, 10h). Wreathed head of Arethusa l.; two dolphins before. R/ Man-headed bull standing r. CNS III, 3; HGC 2, 616. Rare. Green patina, Good Fineecoli
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Kings of Macedon4 views KINGS of MACEDON. Alexander III the Great. 336-323 BC. 1/2 Unit Uncertain mint in Macedon. Possible lifetime issue, struck under Antipater, Polyperchon, or Kassander, circa 325-310 BC. Macedonian shield, boss decorated with thunderbolt between two pellets / Macedonian helmet; Δ below. Price 417.ecoli
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Kyme, Aeolis35 viewsCumae (Cuma, in Italian) is an ancient Greek settlement lying to the northwest of Naples in the Italian region of Campania. The settlement is believed to have been founded in the 8th century BC by Greeks from the city of Cuma and Chalkis in Euboea upon the earlier dwellings of indigenous, Iron-Age peoples whom they supplanted. Eusebius placed Cumae's Greek foundation at 1050 BC. Its name comes from the Greek word kyma (κύμα), meaning wave - perhaps in reference to the big waves that the peninsula of Κyme in Euboea has.

There is also a small, modern Greek Euboean city called Kύμη (Kyme or Cuma or Cyme) as well as the nearby recently excavated ancient Greek city of Cuma [1], the source point for the Cumae alphabet. According to a myth mentioned by Aristotle and Pollux, princess Demodike (or Hermodike) of Kyme, is the inventor of money. (Aristot. fr. 611, 37; Pollux 9, 83,[2])

Cumae was the first Greek colony on the mainland of Italy (Magna Graecia), there having been earlier starts on the islands of Ischia and Sicily by colonists from the Euboean cities of Chalcis (Χαλκίς) and possibly Eretria (Ερέτρια) or Cuma (Kύμη).

Cumae is perhaps most famous as the seat of the Cumaean Sibyl. Her sanctuary is now open to the public. The colony was also the entry point onto the Italian peninsula for the Cumean alphabet, a variant of which was adapted by the Romans.

The colony spread throughout the area over the 6th and centuries BC, gaining sway over Puteoli and Misenum and, thereafter, the founding of Neapolis in 470 BC.

The growing power of the Cumaean Greeks, led many indigenous tribes of the region, notably the Dauni and Aurunci with the leadership of the Capuan Etruscans. This coalition was defeated by the Cumaeans in 524 BC under the direction of Aristodemus. The combined fleets of Cumae and Syracuse defeated the Etruscans at the Battle of Cumae in 474 BC.

Lucius Tarquinius Superbus, the last mythical King of Rome, lived his life in exile at Cumae after the establishment of the Roman Republic.

Cumae was also a place where a widely influential early Christian work The Shepherd of Hermas was said to have been inspired by way of visions.

The colony was built on a large rise, the seaward side of which was used as a bunker and gun emplacement by the Germans during World War II.

In Roman mythology, there is an entrance to the underworld located at Avernus, a crater near Cumae, and was the route Aeneas used to descend to the Underworld


Kyme in Aeolis, c.350-250 BC, Ae 9-16 mm, cf. Sear 4186-7

Obv: Eagle
Rev: One handled vase (or cup, it is upside down in photo)
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Lesbos24 viewsLesbos, c. 500 - 450 B.C.
Silver 1/10th stater, SGCV II 3488, Rosen 542, VF, 1.078g, 9.0mm, Lesbos mint, confronting boar heads, creating the illusion of a facing head of a panther; reverse incuse square punch; an unusual use of illusion on a coin. The two confronting boars' heads can also be viewed as the facing head of a panther.

Ex- FORVM
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LESBOS, Mytilene36 viewsLESBOS, Mytilene. Circa 377-326 BC. EL Hekte Sixth Stater (10mm, 2.44 g, 9h). Head of Athena right, wearing crested Attic helmet / Owl standing right, head facing, within linear square. Bodenstedt 105; SNG von Aulock 1706; HGC 6, 1031. Near VF. Scarce.

Ex-CNG eAuction 312 lot 109 320/300
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Lokri Opuntii9 viewsLOKRIS, Lokri Opuntii. Circa 325-300 BC. . Helmeted head of Athena right; Grape bunch.ecoli
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Lokri Opuntii12 viewsLOKRIS. Lokri Opuntii. Ae (Circa 325-300 BC).
Obv: Helmeted head of Athena right; letter above.
Rev: ΛΟΚΡΩΝ.
Grape bunch on vine.
BCD Lokris-Phokis 111.2.
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Lokri Opuntii17 viewsHead of Hermes l. Rev. Bunch of grapes hanging from stalk. LOK r. down, RWN l. down. Corpus group 11, 4a. BMC 41 corr.

Extremely rare, one of five(Now six or more?) known of this variety with the head to left
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LOKRIS, Lokris Opuntii.13 viewsLOKRIS, Lokris Opuntii. Circa 338-316 BC. Helmeted head of Athena right / Grape bunch. SNG Copenhagen 74.ecoli
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LOKRIS, Lokris Opuntii.14 viewsAthena/ Grape bunchecoli
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LUCANIA, Metapontion28 viewsLUCANIA, Metapontion. Circa 400-340 BC. AR Nomos (7.76 g, 9h). Head of Demeter left / Barley ear of seven grains with leaf to right; ivy leaf above leaf. Noe 521; HN Italy 1545. Near VF, lightly toned, struck from worn obverse die, a few scratches. Rare, Noe records only 2 examples.

From the Colin E. Pitchfork Collection.

Ex-CNG(120)

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LUCANIA, Metapontion49 viewsLUCANIA, Metapontion. Circa 300-250 BC. 12mm (1.71 g). Radiate head of Helios facing / Three barley grains radiating from center; race-torch between two grains. Johnston Bronze 53; HN Italy 1689. Near VF, brown patina.

Ex-CNG(62)
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LUCANIA, Metapontion24 viewsLUCANIA, Metapontion. Circa 470-440 BC. AR Nomos (19mm, 7.33 g, 12h). Barley ear; to left, rams head upward; cable border / Incuse barley ear. Noe 220 (same dies); HN Italy 1485. Fine, a bit porous and rough.

From the Colin E. Pitchfork Collection. Ex Malter 76 (15 April 2000), lot 17.

Ex-CNG
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LUCANIA, Thourioi152 viewsGR7

Thurii was one of the latest of all the Greek colonies in this part of Italy, not having been founded until nearly 70 years after the fall of Sybaris. The site of that city had remained desolate for a period of 58 years after its destruction by the Crotoniats; when at length, in 452 BC, a number of the Sybarite exiles and their descendants made an attempt to establish themselves again on the spot, under the guidance of some leaders of Thessalian origin; and the new colony rose so rapidly to prosperity that it excited the jealousy of the Crotoniats, who, in consequence, expelled the new settlers a little more than 5 years after the establishment of the colony. The fugitive Sybarites first appealed for support to Sparta, but without success: their application to the Athenians was more successful, and that people determined to send out a fresh colony, at the same time that they reinstated the settlers who had been lately expelled from thence. A body of Athenian colonists was accordingly sent out by Pericles, under the command of Lampon and Xenocritus; but the number of Athenian citizens was small, the greater part of those who took part in the colony being collected from various parts of Greece. Among them were two celebrated names Herodotus the historian, and the orator Lysias, both of whom appear to have formed part of the original colony. The laws of the new colony were established by the sophist Protagoras at the request of Pericles

LUCANIA, Thourioi. Circa 400-350 BC. AR Triobol (11mm, 1.18 gm). Helmeted head of Athena right, helmeted decorated with Skylla / Bull butting left; fish in exergue. SNG ANS 1138-47; HN Italy 1806. VF. Ex-CNG BB0VFA
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LUCANIA, Velia215 viewsLUCANIA, Velia. Circa 365-340 BC. AR Nomos (23mm, 7.57 gm). Head of Athena left, wearing Attic helmet decorated with a griffin; O behind neck / Lion walking right;  above. Williams 263 II (O151'/R203); SNG ANS 1296-7 (same dies); HN Italy 1284. VF, struck with deteriorating dies. Ex-Cng B10DV15E2 commentsecoli
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MACEDON, Akanthos23 viewsMACEDON, Akanthos. Circa 470-390 BC. AR Tetrobol (15mm, 2.42 g). Forepart of bull left, head reverted; A above / Quadripartite incuse square with granulated recesses. SNG ANS 47-8. VF. ecoli
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Macedon, Akanthos6 views
MACEDON, Akanthos. Circa 470-390 BC. AR Hemiobol (8mm, 0.39 g). Bulls head right / Quadripartite incuse square. SNG ANS 51. Good Fine, slightly pitted.
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Macedon, Alexander III, 336-323 BC208 viewsAlexander the Great (Greek:Μέγας Αλέξανδρος[1], Megas Alexandros; July 356 BC June 11, 323 BC), also known as Alexander III, king of Macedon (336323 BC), is considered one of the most successful military commanders in history, conquering most of his known world before his death; he is frequently included in a list along with Napoleon Bonaparte, Julius Caesar, and Ghengis Khan, as the greatest military strategists and tacticians who ever lived. Alexander is also known in the Zoroastrian Middle Persian work Arda Wiraz Nāmag as "the accursed Alexander" due to his conquest of the Persian Empire and the destruction of its capital Persepolis. He is known as Eskandar in Persian and even acclaimed during the construction of the Great Wall Sadd-e Eskandar by the Parthian Dynasty[citation needed]. He is often identified as Dhul-Qarnayn in Middle Eastern traditions and is called al-Iskandar al-Kabeer in Arabic, Sikandar-e-azam in Urdu, Skandar in Pashto, Dul-Qarnayim in Hebrew, and Tre-Qarnayia in Aramaic (the two-horned one), apparently due to an image on coins minted during his rule that seemingly depicted him with the two ram's horns of the Egyptian god Ammon. He is known as Sikandar in Urdu and Hindi, a term also used as a synonym for "expert" or "extremely skilled".

Following the unification of the multiple city-states of ancient Greece under the rule of his father, Philip II of Macedon, (a labour Alexander had to repeat twice because the southern Greeks rebelled after Philip's death), Alexander would conquer the Persian Empire, including Anatolia, Syria, Phoenicia, Gaza, Egypt, Bactria and Mesopotamia and extend the boundaries of his own empire as far as the Punjab. Alexander integrated foreigners (non-Macedonians, non-Greeks known as the Successors[2]) into his army and administration, leading some scholars to credit him with a "policy of fusion." He encouraged marriage between his army and foreigners, and practised it himself. After twelve years of constant military campaigning, Alexander died, possibly of malaria, typhoid, or viral encephalitis. His conquests ushered in centuries of Greek settlement and rule over distant areas, a period known as the Hellenistic Age. Alexander himself lived on in the history and myth of both Greek and non-Greek cultures. Already during his lifetime, and especially after his death, his exploits inspired a literary tradition in which he appears as a legendary hero in the tradition of Achilles.

Alexander III, 336-323 BC, Bronze AE18, Price-275, struck 336-323BC at Macedonia, 7.09 grams, 17.3 mm. Choice VF

Obv: Head of Herakles with a lion scalp headdress
Rev: Club above legend with bow and quiver below, thunderbolt above club, 'Delta' below quiver

A wonderful bronze issue from the lifetime of Alexander III 'the Great.' Perfectly centered and struck with minimal, if any, actual wear. Highly attractive.
Ex-Glenn Woods g28
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Macedon, Antigonas Gonatas27 viewsKings of Macedon - Antigonas Gonatas
277-239 BC

Obv.: Head of Athena right in crested Corinthian Helmet
Rev.: B-A, Pan erecting trophy right, M to left? ,ANT monogram below.
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Macedonia 27 viewsPhillip V

Beardless head of Hercules/Athena Alkis right
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Macedonia, Alexander31 viewsObverse: Bust of Alexander as Herakles in lion skin
Reverse: Quiver and bow, club below, ALEXANDER between, mintmark to left
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Macedonia, Amphipolis227 viewsAmphipolis was an ancient city of Macedonia, on the east bank of the river Strymon, where it emerges from Lake Cercinitis, about 3 m. from the sea.

Originally a Thracian town, known as Ennea Odoi ("Nine Roads"), it was colonized by Athenians with other Greeks under Hagnon in 437 BC, previous attempts--in 497, 476 (Schol. Aesch. De fals. leg. 31) and 465--having been unsuccessful.

In 424 BC it surrendered to the Spartan Brasidas without resistance, owing to the gross negligence of the historian Thucydides, who was with the fleet at Thasos. In 422 BC Cleon led an unsuccessful expedition to recover it, in which both he and Brasidas were slain (see Battle of Amphipolis).

The importance of Amphipolis in ancient times was due to the fact that it commanded the bridge over the Strymon, and consequently the route from northern Greece to the Hellespont; it was important also as a depot for the gold and silver mines of the district, and for timber, which was largely used in shipbuilding. This importance is shown by the fact that, in the peace of Nicias (421 BC), its restoration to Athens is made the subject of a special provision, and that about 417, this provision not having been observed, at least one expedition was made by Nicias with a view to its recovery.

Philip of Macedon made a special point of occupying it (357), and under the early empire it became the headquarters of the Roman propraetor, though it was recognized as independent. Many inscriptions, coins, etc., have been found here, and traces of the ancient fortifications and of a Roman aqueduct are visible.

Alexander III, 336-323 BC, Silver Tetradrachm, Price-113, struck 323-320BC at Amphipolis, 17.12 grams, 25.3 mm. Choice VF

Obv: Head of Herakles wearing lion skin headdress
Rev: Zeus enthroned with sceptre and eagle, parallel legs, Macedonian helmet in left field

Well centered and struck with a full EF reverse. Attractive lifetime issue of Alexander III 'The Great'. G5
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Macedonia, Amphipolis17 viewsMacedonia, Amphipolis. After 168 B.C.

Artemis / Two goats head butting. BMC 39
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Macedonia, Kassander25 viewsKings of Macedonia, Kassander (319-297 BC)
Obv.: Head of young Herakles right in lionskin.
Rev.: KASSAN / DROU above and below lion seated right.
SNG Cop 1138-1141
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Macedonia, Philip V and Perseus28 viewsObver: Zeus
Reverse: eagle
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Maroneia, Thrace35 viewsnumbers 944-951 in the Schoenert-Geiss catalog for the city.ecoli
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Megaris, Megara7 viewsMEGARIS, Megara. Circa 250-175 BC. Chalkous Prow of galley left / Obelisk of Apollo; to left and right, dolphins swimming upward. BCD Peloponnesos 21.

Bridging Attica on the east and Corinthia on the west, Megaris comprised only a few towns, with Megara being its capital and only major city. Megariss location in the northern part of the Isthmus of Corinth put the region in the middle of any conflict between the two cities. Shortly before the outbreak of the Peloponnesian War, the Athenians sought revenge on the Megarians for their support of Corinth. As a result, Athens instituted the Megarian Decree, an embargo designed to economically strangle the Megarians; this decree was used as a pretext by some in Sparta for the Peloponnesian War. Siding with Sparta in the war, Megara lost its main port to the Athenian general Nikias, and, for a short time, a pro-Athenian goverment seized power in the city. While Megara remained prosperous following the war and founded colonies in Sicily and the Hellespont, little else is recorded. Megara periodically struck coinage from the 4th through 1st centuries BC.
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Mesembria, Thrace. 8 viewsMesembria, Thrace: AE 21 / Athena

2nd c. BC. Diademed head of female right / Athena Promachos standing left, hurling spear. SG 1676, VF with black patina. Nicely centered on a compact flan.
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Mesembria, Thrace: AE 21 / Athena87 viewsMesembria, Thrace: AE 21 / Athena

2nd c. BC. Diademed head of female right / Athena Promachos standing left, hurling spear. SG 1676, VF with green patina. Nicely centered on a compact flan. Ex-Sayles g29
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MOESIA, Istros173 viewsMOESIA, Istros. Circa 4th Century BC. AR Drachm (5.86 gm).

Histria or Istros (Ancient Greek: Ἰστρίη, Thracian river god, Danube), was a Greek colony or polis (πόλις, city) near the mouths of the Danube (known as Ister in Ancient Greek), on the western coast of the Black Sea. Established by Milesian settlers in order to facilitate trade with the native Getae, it is considered the oldest urban settlement on Romanian territory. Scymnus of Chios (ca 110 BC), dated its founding to 630 BC, while Eusebius of Caesarea set it during the time of the 33rd Olympic Games (657 656 BC). The earliest documented currency on Romanian territory was an 8-gram silver drachma, issued by the city around 480 BC.

Archaeological evidence seems to confirm that all trade with the interior followed the foundation of Histria. Traders reached the interior via Histria and the Danube valley, demonstrated by finds of Attic black-figure pottery, coins, ornamental objects, an Ionian lebes and many fragments of amphoras. Amphoras have been found in great quantity at Histria, some imported but some local. Local pottery was produced following establishment of the colony and certainly before mid-6th century. During the archaic and classical periods, when Histria flourished, it was situated near fertile arable land. It served as a port of trade soon after its establishment, with fishing and agriculture as additional sources of income. By 100 AD, however, fishing had become the main source of Istrian revenue.

Around 30 AD, Histria came under Roman domination. During the Roman period from the 1st to 3rd centuries AD, temples were built for the Roman gods, besides a public bath and houses for the wealthy. Altogether, it was in continuous existence for some 14 centuries, starting with the Greek period up to the Roman-Byzantine period. The Halmyris bay where was the city founded was closed by sand deposits and access to the Black Sea gradually was cut. Trade continued until the 6th century AD. The invasion of the Avars and the Slavs in the 7th century AD almost entirely destroyed the fortress, and the Istrians dispersed; the name and the city disappeared.

Facing male heads, the left inverted / Sea-eagle left, grasping dolphin with talons; H between wing and tail, D below dolphin. SNG BMC Black Sea 245; Pick 431. EF.
Ex-Barry Murphy g30
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Mysia, Astyra48 viewsAstyra, Mysia
Tissaphernes, satrap 400 - 395 BC
Head of Athena r.
TISSA
Tissaphernes riding r.
Cahn AA 1985, 589. Not in Aulock, BMC, Copenhagen, Lindgren.
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Mysia, Cyzicus47 viewsCyzicus, Mysia. 400 - 280 BC
Head of Apollo left.
KU - SI Amphora.

SNG Copenhagen 57
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MYSIA, Kyzikos35 viewsMYSIA, Kyzikos. Circa 450-400 BC. AR Hemiobol (8mm, 0.23 g, 11h). Forepart of boar left, [retrograde K on shoulder]; to right, tunny upward / Head of lion left; to upper left, head of panther(?) facing; all within incuse square. Von Fritze II 13; SNG Ashmolean 540; SNG France 386; SNG von Aulock 1215. Good VF, find patina, struck with worn obverse die.ecoli
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MYSIA, Parion160 viewsMYSIA, Parion. Circa 4th century B.C. AR Hemidrachm (12mm, 2.31 gm). Facing gorgoneion, tounge protruding / Bull standing left, head turned back; PI and star below. SNG France 1367-72. VF, toned. Ex-CNG B69V9B1 commentsecoli73
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Mysia, Parion29 views480 BC
hemidrachm, 2.05g

obv Gorgoneion
Rv Cruciform incuse Square, pellet at center

Poor Style or ancient imitation. Dealer notes that these are more common than the better styled ones making imitation aspect unlikely

Ex-HJB
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MYSIA, Parion9 viewsMYSIA, Parion. 5th century BC. AR Drachm (12mm, 3.36 g). Facing gorgoneion with protruding tongue / Linear pattern within incuse square. SNG France 1347. VF, toned, light porosity.ecoli
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MYSIA, Pergamon7 viewsMYSIA, Pergamon. Circa 133-27 BC. (16mm, 2.32 g, 12h). Helmeted head of Athena right, helmet decorated with star / Owl, with wings spread, standing right, head facing, on palm branch; ΔI-O across central field. Von Fritze, Pergamon 26 var. (control letters); SNG France 1905-29 var. (same); SNG Copenhagen 383-92 var. (same); BMC 190-204 var. (same)ecoli
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MYSIA, Pergamon.7 viewsMYSIA, Pergamon. Early-mid 2nd century BC. Helmeted head of Athena right / Owl standing facing on palm frond. SNG BN 19004.ecoli
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MYSIA, Pergamon.4 views Pergamon AE, 2nd-1st Century BC
Pergamon , Mysia. AE15 (4.15 g), c. 2nd to 1st Century BC.
Obv. Laureate head of Asklepios right.
Rev. Serpent-entwined staff.
SNG BN 1857; BMC p. 130, 164.
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Numidia; Kings of Numidia, Massinissa or Micipsa21 viewsKings of Numidia, Massinissa or Micipsa Unit / Horse

Attribution: SNG Copenhagen 505
Date: 148-118 BC
Obverse: Laureate bearded head left
Reverse: Horse jumping left
Size: 27.4 mm
Weight: 13.92 grams
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Orra, Calabria8 viewsCALABRIA, Orra. Circa 210-150 BC. Quincunx (17mm, 5.40 g, 6h). Draped bust of Venus right, wearing laureate stephanos / Cupid standing right, playing kithara; five pellets (mark of value) to left. Travaglini pl. 102, 4; HN Italy, Very rare.

From the Colin E. Pitchfork Collection
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Pamphylia Side46 viewsPamphylia Side AE13 Athena / Pomegranate

Attribution: BMC 59, S 1931
Date: 3rd century BC
Obverse: Head of Athena right in plumed Corinthian helmet
Reverse: Pomegranate
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PAMPHYLIA, Aspendos83 viewsPAMPHYLIA, Aspendos. Circa 380-325 BC.

Greek ASPENDOS, modern BELKIS, ancient city of Pamphylia, now in southwestern Turkey. It is noted for its Roman ruins. A wide range of coinage from the 5th century BC onward attests to the city's wealth. Aspendus was occupied by Alexander the Great in 333 BC and later passed from Pergamene to Roman rule in 133 BC. According to Cicero, it was plundered of many of its artistic treasures by the provincial governor Verres. The hilltop ruins of the city include a basilica, an agora, and some rock-cut tombs of Phrygian design. A huge theatre, one of the finest in the world, is carved out of the northeast flank of the hill. It was designed by the Roman architect Zeno in honour of the emperor Marcus Aurelius (reigned AD 161-180)

The present-day Belkiz was once situated on the banks of the River Eurymedon, now known as the Kopru Cay. In ancient times it was navigable; in fact, according to Strabo, the Persians anchored their ships there in 468 B.C., before the epic battle against the Delian Confederation.

It is commonly believed that Aspendos was founded by colonists from Argos. One thing is certain: right from the beginning of the 5th century, Aspendos and Side were the only two towns to mint coins. An important river trading port, it was occupied by Alexander the Great in 333 B.C. because it refused to pay tribute to the Macedonian king. It became an ally of Rome after the Battle of Sipylum in 190 B.C. and entered the Roman Empire.

The town is built against two hills: on the "great hill" or Buyuk Tepe stood the acropolis, with the agora, basilica, nymphaeum and bouleuterion or "council chamber". Of all these buildings, which were the very hub of the town, only ruins remain. About one kilometer north of the town, one can still see the remains of the Roman aqueduct that supplied Aspendos with water, transporting it from a distance of over twenty kilometers, and which still maintains its original height.

Aspendos' theatre is the best preserved Roman theatre anywhere in Turkey. It was designed during the 2nd century A.D. by the architect Zeno, son of Theodore and originally from Aspendos. Its two benefactors the brothers Curtius Crispinus and Curtius Auspicatus dedicated it to the Imperial family as can be seen from certain engravings on the stones. Discovered in 1871 by Count Landskonski during one of his trips to the region, the theatre is in excellent condition thanks to the top quality of the calcareous stone and to the fact that the Seljuks turned it into a palace, reinforcing the entire north wing with bricks. Its thirty-nine tiers of steps96 meters longcould seat about twenty thousand spectators. At the top, the elegant gallery and covered arcade sheltered spectators. One is immediately struck by the integrity and architectural distinction of the stage building, consisting of a Irons scacnae which opens with five doors onto the proscenium and scanned by two orders of windows which also project onto the outside wall. There is an amusing anecdote about the construction of this theatrein which numerous plays are still held, given its formidable acoustics and the aqueduct just outside the town: in ancient times, the King of Aspendos had a daughter of rare beauty named Semiramis, contended by two architects; the king decided to marry her off to the one who built an important public work in the shortest space of time. The two suitors thus got down to work and completed two public works at the same time: the theatre and the aquaduct. As the sovereign liked both buildings, he thought it right and just to divide his daughter in half. Whereas the designer of the aquaduct accepted the Solomonic division, the other preferred to grant the princess wholly to her rival. In this way, the sovereign understood that the designer of the theatre had not only built a magnificent theatre which was the pride of the town, but would also be an excellent husband to his daughter; consequently he granted him her hand in marriage

AR Stater (21mm, 10.76 g). Two wrestlers grappling; DA between / Slinger to right; triskeles in field. Tekin Series D; SNG France 87 (same reverse die). Ex-CNG B9FV15E
1 commentsecoli
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Pamphylia, Perge10 viewsPamphylia, Perge 50-30 BC, AE17, 3.08g: Obv: Cult statue of Artemis Pergaia facing within a distyle temple Rev: Bow and quiver "PERGAIA" to right. SNG France 373.ecoli
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Paphlagonia, Sinope48 viewsobv: head of Artemis right wearing stephane; quiver and bow over shoulder
rev: SINW-PHS, tripod with lebes
BMC 51 (plate XXIII, 5)

Check
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Paphlagonia, Sinope11 viewsPAPHLAGONIA, Sinope. Late 4th-3rd century BC. AR Hemidrachm, Head of nymph left, hair in sakkos / Eagle facing, head left, wings displayed; ΠP monogram to upper right. RG 30; SNG BM Black Sea 1496; HGC 7, 394.ecoli
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Paphos. Arsinoe III9 viewsPtolemaic Kingdom. Arsinoe III, wife of Ptolemy IV Philopator. 222-205/4 B.C. AE dichalkon (12.2 mm, 1.78 g, 1 h). Paphos. Diademed and draped bust right / ΠTOΛEMAIOY BAΣIΛEΩΣ, double cornucopia tied with fillet. Svronos 1161; Wieser 96; SNG Cop 650. ecoli
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Pergamene Kingdom60 viewsPergamene Kingdom, 282 - 133 B.C.

The regal bronze coinage of Pergamon is all inscribed in the name of the dynasty's founder, Philetairos. Attribution to specific reigns is not yet possible.

Bronze AE 15, cf. SGCV II 7228 (magistrate on obverse), aVF, Pergamon mint,282 - 133 B.C.;

obverse helmeted head of Athena right, magistrate's name below; reverse ΦIΛETAIΡOΥ, coiled snake right;
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Pergamon, Mysia33 viewsPergamon or Pergamum (Greek: Πέργαμος, modern day Bergama in Turkey, 397′N 2711′E) was an ancient Greek city, in Mysia, northwestern Anatolia, 16 miles from the Aegean Sea, located on a promontory on the north side of the river Caicus (modern day Bakıray), that became an important kingdom during the Hellenistic period, under the Attalid dynasty, 282-129 BC. G34

The Attalids, the descendants of Attalus, the father of Philetaerus who came to power in 282 BC, were among the most loyal supporters of Rome among the Hellenistic successor states. Under Attalus I, they allied with Rome against Philip V of Macedon, during the first and second Macedonian Wars, and again under Eumenes II, against Perseus of Macedon, during the Third Macedonian War. For support against the Seleucids, the Attalids were rewarded with all the former Seleucid domains in Asia Minor.

The Attalids ruled with intelligence and generosity. Many documents survive showing how the Attalids would support the growth of towns through sending in skilled artisans and by remitting taxes. They allowed the Greek cities in their domains to maintain nominal independence. They sent gifts to Greek cultural sites like Delphi, Delos, and Athens. They defeated the invading Celts. They remodeled the acropolis of Pergamum after the Acropolis in Athens. The Great Altar of Pergamon is in the Pergamon Museum of Berlin.

Pergamon had the second best library in the ancient Greek civilisation, after Alexandria. When the Ptolemies stopped exporting papyrus, partly because of competitors and partly because of shortages, the Pergamenes invented a new substance to use in codices, called pergaminus or parchment after the city. This was made of fine calf skin, a predecessor of vellum.

When Attalus III died without an heir in 133 BC he bequeathed Pergamon to Rome, in order to prevent a civil war.

Close to the city was a sanctuary of Asclepius, the god of healing. In this place people with health problems could bath in the water of the sacred spring, and in the patients' dreams Asklepios would appear in a vision to tell them how to cure their illness. Archeology has found lots of gifts and dedications that people would make afterwards, such as small terracotta body parts, no doubt representing what had been healed.

In the first century AD, the Christian Church at Pergamon was one of the Seven Churches to which the Book of Revelation was addressed (Revelation 1:11, NRSV).

Pergamon, Mysia, struck by Philetairos, 282-263 BC.
Obv: head of athena wearing attic helmet right.
Rev: FILETAIROU, Asklepios seated left, feeding snake from patera.
SNG BN 1643 ff.

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Pergamon, Mysia5 viewsMYSIA, Pergamon. Circa 450 BC. (9mm, 0.83 g, 3h). Laureate head of Apollo right / Confronted bulls head SNG France 1551ecoli
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Pergamum civic coinage, c.200-133 BC.25 viewsBMC Mysia p.131, 180-2; Head p.536ecoli
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Perseus, Macedonia7 viewsMacedonian Kingdom. Perseus. 179-168 B.C. unit (19.5 mm, 4.16 g, 1 h). Helmeted head of the hero Perseus right, harpa to right / Eagle standing left, head right, on thunderbolt; EP monogram to left, ΣH below. SNG Alpha Bank 1135. VF.ecoli
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Petra, Nabatea. Aretas IV88 viewsAretas IV Philopatris was the King of the Nabataeans from roughly 9 BC to AD 40.

His full title, as given in the inscriptions, was "Aretas, King of the Nabataeans, Friend of his People." Being the most powerful neighbour of Judea, he frequently took part in the state affairs of that country, and was influential in shaping the destiny of its rulers. While on not particularly good terms with Rome - as intimated by his surname, "Friend of his People", which is in direct opposition to the prevalent φιλορώμαις ("Friend of the Romans") and φιλόκαισαρ ("Friend of the Emperor") - and though it was only after great hesitation that Augustus recognized him as king, nevertheless he took part in the expedition of Varus against the Jews in the year 4 BC, and placed a considerable army at the disposal of the Roman general.

His daughter Phasaelis married Herod Antipas (4 BC AD 39), otherwise known as Herod the Tetrarch. When Herod divorced Phasaelis to take his brother's wife Herodias, mother of Salome, in 36, Phasaelis fled to her father. Relations between Herod and Aretas IV were already strained over border disputes, and with his family honour shamed, Aretas IV invaded Herod's holdings, defeating his army[1] and capturing territories along the West Bank of the Jordan River, including the areas around Qumran[citation needed].

The classical author Josephus connects this battle, which occurred during the winter of AD 36/37, with the beheading of John the Baptist, which occurred about the same time.

Herod Antipas then appealed to Emperor Tiberius, who dispatched the governor of Syria to attack Aretas. But because of the emperor's death in AD 37 this action was never carried out.

The Christian Apostle, Paul, mentions that he had to sneak out of Damascus in a basket through a window in the wall to escape King Aretas. (2 Corinthians 11:32, 33, cf Acts 9:23, 24).

NABATAEA. Aretas IV. 9 BC-AD 40. Quadrans. Petra mint. Dated RY 5 (5/4 BC). Laureate head right; Aramaic het-samekh flanking / Female figure (Huldu?) standing left, raising hand; date in legend. Meshorer, Nabataea 58.

Ex- CNG sale 143, Lot: 340
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Phalanna, Thessaly22 viewsYoung Male head Right
Nymph of Phalanra Hd r/ Hair in sakkos

From Ebay

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Philip II39 viewsPhilip II Macedon, AE 18 Philip II Macedon, Father of Alexander The Great, 359-336B.C. AE (copper or bronze) 18 mm., 6.67 g. Obv.: Head of Apollo right, hair bound with tainia. Rev.: Naked youth on horseback prancing right. Ex-AAH 1 commentsecoli
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Philip II Macedon20 viewsPhilip II Macedon, Father of Alexander The Great, 359-336B.C. AE (copper or bronze) Obv.: Head of Apollo right, hair bound with tainia. Rev.: Naked youth on horseback prancing right.
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Philip II, 359-336 BC 68 viewsPhilip II, 359-336 BC, Bronze AE18, SNG ANS-842, struck 359-336BC at Macedonia, 6.23 grams, 17.3 mm. Near EF

Obv: Head of Apollo facing right, hair bound with tainia
Rev: Naked youth on horse prancing right, legend above and monogram below

A lovely example with a light green patina and of an earlier than normal style. Just a touch of strike weakness at the very center of both surfaces prevent this piece from being a full EF. Overall quite attractive and desireable. Ex-Glenn Woods

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PHOENICIA, Marathos.8 viewsPHOENICIA, Marathos. 199/8-169/8 BC. . Dated Year 91 (169/8 BC). Laureate and draped bust of Ptolemy VI as Hermes right, kerykeion over shoulder / Marathos standing left, leaning on column and holding aphlaston; date to left. Duyrat, Ateliers 263; SNG Copenhagen 161 var. (date); BMC 23.ecoli
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PHOKIS, Federal Coinage22 viewsPHOKIS, Federal Coinage. Circa 485-480 BC. AR Obol (9mm, 0.92 g, 5h). Facing boukranion / Forepart of boar right. Williams 28 var. (O/R19 [unlisted obv. die]); BCD Lokris 192. VF, toned, granular surface, die break on reverse. ecoli
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PHOKIS, Federal Coinage7 views PHOKIS, Federal Coinage. Circa 445-420 BC. AR Triobol (13mm, 2.60 g, 2h). Facing bucranium / Head of Artemis right within incuse square. Williams - (O-/R151); BCD Lokris 260.1 (same dies). VF, light porosity.ecoli
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PONTOS, Amisos26 viewsPONTOS, Amisos. Circa 300-125 BC. AR Siglos Drachm (14mm, 3.95 g, 12h). Chian standard. Uncertain magistrate. Head of Hera left, wearing ornate polos / Eagle with spread wings standing facing on shield. Cf. SNG BMC 1099-1100; HGC 7, 232. Fine, toned, porous. ecoli
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Prusias I or II, Bithynia10 viewsBithynia, Kings of. Prusias I or II. ca 238-149 BC. AE 28mm. Helmeted head of Athena left / BASILEWS PROUSIOU, Nike advancing right, holding trophy; MH monogram in inner right field. SNG Cop 642.ecoli
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Ptolemaic Kingdom. Ptolemy III Euergetes.40 viewsPtolemaic Kingdom. Ptolemy III Euergetes. 246-222 B.C. drachm (43 mm, 60.36 g, 11 h). Alexandria. Head of Zeus Ammon right wearing taenia and Osiris cap / Eagle standing left on thunderbolt; to left, cornucopia; between legs, XP monogram. Svoronos 964; SNG Copenhagen 171-2. VF, multihued rough brown, black and green patina. ecoli
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Ptolemy V23 viewsWeiser 136 (Ptolemy V)ecoli
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Pyrrhus, Syracuse, Sicily13 viewsSICILY, Syracuse. Pyrrhus. 278-276 BC. 24mm (10.41 gm). Head of Herakles left, wearing lion's skin headdress / Athena Promachos standing right, holding thunderbolt overhead in right hand, shield on left arm; owl before. SNG ANS 847; SNG Copenhagen 809. ecoli
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Sardes, Lydia24 viewsSeleukid Kingdom, Antiochos III, 223 - 187 B.C., Sardes, Lydia

obverse laureate head of Apollo right, hair in corkscrew curls down neck;
reverse BAΣIΛEΩΣ ANTIOXOΥ, Apollo standing left, naked, examining arrow in right, resting left on tripod

Antiochus' victory at the Battle of Panium in 198 B.C. transferred control of Judaea from Ptolemaic Egypt to the Seleukid Kingdom. When Antiochos conquered Asia Minor, however, the Romans responded. Antiochos' losses were so great that the whole of his empire was shattered and he was forced to content himself with the region that he had held in the beginning, Syria.
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Sarmatia Olbia31 viewsAttribution: Dittrich 96
Date: 69-96 AD
Obverse: Laureate head of Apollo right, caduceus counterstamp
Reverse: Sea Eagle standing right on back of Dolphin right

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Sarmatia, Olbia.11 viewsSarmatia, Olbia. Late 5th-4th centuries B.C. Cast 53 (53.1 mm, 33.41 g, 12 h). Wheel with four spokes / Smooth. SNG BM Black Sea 386. VF, pierced.ecoli
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SELEUKID EMPIRE. Antiochos IV Epiphanes.9 viewsSELEUKID EMPIRE. Antiochos IV Epiphanes. 175-164 BC. (32.5mm, 34.24 g, 1h). Egyptianizing series. Antioch on the Orontes mint. Struck 169-168 BC. Laureate head of Zeus-Serapis right, wearing tainia with Osiris cap at tip / Eagle standing right on thunderbolt. SC 1413; HGC 9, 643.ecoli
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SICILY, Akragas90 viewsSICILY, Akragas. Before 406 BC. Tetras (20mm, 9.16 gm). Eagle right, clutching dead hare in its talons / Crab; three pellets and crayfish left below. Calciati I pg. 180, 54; SNG ANS 1034ff.. Near VF/VF, dark green patina, old gouge in obverse patina. From the Tony Hardy Collection. Ex-CNG B8FVAF1 commentsecoli
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Sicily, Halykiai7 viewsSICILY, Halykiai. Circa 390-370 BC. Man-headed bull standing left / Boar standing left. Lazzarini, Monetazione, Series III.1; CNS 445 (Himera?); HGC 2, 493 (Himeraia?) . Fineecoli
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Sicily, Halykiai7 viewsSICILY, Halykiai. Circa 390-370 BC. Man-headed bull standing left / Boar standing left. Lazzarini, Monetazione, Series III.1; CNS 445 (Himera?); HGC 2, 493 (Himeraia?) . Fineecoli
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Sicily, Halykiai 4 viewsSICILY, Halykiai. Circa 390-370 BC. Man-headed bull standing left / Boar standing left. Lazzarini, Monetazione, Series III.1; CNS 445 (Himera?); HGC 2, 493 (Himeraia?) . Fineecoli
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SICILY, Leontini19 viewsSICILY, Leontini. Circa 476-466 BC. AR Litra (9mm, 0.55 g, 4h). Facing lions scalp / Barley grain. Boehringer, Mnzgeschichte 19; SNG ANS 215; HGC 2, 687. VF, toned, minor roughness. From the Daniel Koppersmith Collection.1 commentsecoli
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SICILY, Panormos5 viewsSICILY, Panormos . After 241 BC. Jugate heads of the Dioscuri right / PANOR/MITAN, legend in two lines within laurel wreath. SNG ANS -; Calciati I pg. 329, 1; BMC Sicily pg. 123, 21; SNG Copenhagen -; SNG Morcom -; Laffaille -; Virzi 1323.ecoli
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SICILY, Segesta10 viewsSICILY, Segesta. Circa 390-380 BC. Head of Aigiste right / Hound leaping right. Brend, Monnayage, Group E, 49bis; CNS 48; cf. HGC 2, 1200. Very rare.ecoli
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Sicily, Segesta3 viewsSICILY, Segesta. Roman protectorate. Circa 210-mid 1st century BC. Head of female right, wearing stephanos / Warrior standing facing, head left, holding rein of horse standing left in background. BAR Issue 4; CNS 53/12; HGC 2, 1203.ecoli
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SICILY, Syracuse87 viewsSICILY, Syracuse. Circa 425-415 BC. Onkia (11mm, 0.80 gm). Female head right / Octopus. Calciati I pg. 29, 9; SNG ANS 383; SNG Morcom 679. VF, dark brown patina. EX-CNG B58V782 commentsecoli
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Sicily, Syracuse.30 viewsSicily, Syracuse.
Head of Athena left, wearing Corinthian helmet
Hippocamp left; SNG Copenhagen 721.

From the D. Alighieri Collection.

Ex - CNG
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Sicily, Syracuse.24 viewsSicily, Syracuse. Hiketas II. 287-278 B.C. 22 mm (9.26 g, 4 h). Ca. 283-279 B.C. [ΔIOΣ EΛΛANIOY], laureate head of Zeus Hellanios left / [ΣYPAK]O[ΣI]ON, eagle, wings displayed, standing left on thunderbolt. CNS II p. 301, 157; SNG ANS 788.

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Sidon41 viewsPTOLEMAIC KINGS of EGYPT. Ptolemy II Philadelphos. 285-246 BC. Obol (23mm, 11.34 g). Sidon mint. Struck 256-249 BC. Laureate head of Zeus right / Eagle standing left on thunderbolt; double cornucopia before. Svoronos 761; Weiser 44; SNG Copenhagen -. VF, attractive black patina.

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Sidon, Ptolemy II15 viewsPtolemy II
285-246 BC
Sidon
AE 37, 43.24 g
sv-759, SNG Cop
Obv: Head of Zeus Ammon
Rx: Eagle standing l. on thunderbolt, double conucopia before

Ex Don Doswell Collection
Ex HJB
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Sikyon, Sikyonia8 viewsSIKYONIA, Sikyon. Circa 196-146 BC. Chalkous Dove flying left/ ΣΙ within olive wreath with ties above. Warren, Bronze 8A.2a; BCD Peloponnesos ; HGC 5, . VF, dark green patina.
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Skarpheia, Loris11 viewsLOKRIS, Skarpheia. Circa 400-338 BC. (16mm, 3.59 g, 12h). Head of Demeter right / Ajax advancing right, with shield and sword. BCD Lokris-Phokis 159.4; SNG Copenhagen 81.
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Spain, Castulo8 viewsSPAIN, Castulo. Late 2nd century BC. 22mm (6.56 g, 3h). Diademed male head right; palm branch before / Bull standing right; crescent above. CNH p. 336, 42; SNG BM Spain 1345. Near VF, dark green patina.ecoli
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Spain, Castulo4 viewsCastulo, Spain, c. 150 - 100 B.C. Bronze AE 26, cf. SNG Budapest I 140 ff. (on rev: ethnic in ex, star right) and SNG Mnchen 222 obverse bare male head right; reverse kastelo (in Iberian script), helmeted sphinx right walking right, star right; rare variety. ecoli
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Spain, Castulo9 viewsIberia, Castulo. Late 2nd century B.C. quadrans (17.8 mm, 3.20 g, 2 h). Rare variety. Diademed male head right; E before / Boar standing right; letter above. ACIP 2154; SNG BM Spain 1358. VF, sandy patina.ecoli
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Spain, Gadir37 viewsFounded as Gadir or Agadir by Phoenicians from Tyre, Cdiz is sometimes counted as the most ancient city still standing in Western Europe. The expeditions of Himilco around Spain and France and of Hanno around Western Africa began here. The Phoenician settlement traded with Tartessos, a city-state whose exact location remains unknown but is thought to have been somewhere near the mouth of the Guadalquivir River.

One of the city's notable features during antiquity was the temple on the south end of its island dedicated to the Phoenician god Melqart, who was conflated with Hercules by the Greeks and Romans under the names "Tyrian Hercules" and "Hercules Gaditanus". It had an oracle and was famed for its wealth. In Greek mythology, Hercules was sometimes credited with founding Gadeira after performing his tenth labor, the slaying of Geryon, a monster with three heads and torsos joined to a single pair of legs. (A tumulus near Gadeira was associated with Geryon's final resting-place.) According to the Life of Apollonius of Tyana, the "Heracleum" (i.e., the temple of Melqart) was still standing during the 1st century. Some historians, based in part on this source, believe that the columns of this temple were the origin of the myth of the "pillars of Hercules".

The city fell under the sway of Carthage during Hamilcar's Iberian campaign after the First Punic War. Cdiz became a depot for Hannibal's conquest of southern Iberia, but the city fell to Romans under Scipio Africanus in 206 BC. The people of Cdiz welcomed the victors. Under the Roman Republic and Empire, the city flourished as a port and naval base known as Gades. Its people formed an alliance with Rome and Julius Caesar bestowed Roman citizenship on all its inhabitants in 49 BC. The Roman historian Livy did not credit its founding to Hercules but instead placed its creation c. 1104 BC, by his reckoning about 80 year after the Trojan War.[citation needed] By the time of Augustus's census, Cdiz was home to more than five hundred equites (members of the wealthy upper class), a concentration rivaled only by Patavium (Padua) and Rome itself. It was the principal city of the Roman colony of Augusta Urbs Julia Gaditana. An aqueduct provided fresh water to the town (the island's supply was notoriously bad), running across open sea for its last leg. However, Roman Gades was never very large; consisted only of the northwest corner of the present island; and most of its wealthy citizens maintained estates outside of it on the nearby island or on the mainland. The lifestyle maintained on the estates led to the Gaditan dancing girls becoming infamous throughout the ancient world.

IBERIA, Gadir. Late 2nd century BC. Unit (26mm, 14.02 g, 6h). Head of Melqart (Herakles) left, wearing lion skin; club behind / Two tunnies to left; pellet within crescent to left; caduceus between tails. ACIP 687; CNH 57; SNG BM Spain 306-8. VF, dark brown and red patina, light roughness.

Ex Archer M. Huntington Collection (HSA 1001.1.21477).
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Spain, Obulco39 viewsObulco, Spain, AE26.

Laureate head right(Celtic)
Bull standing right, head facing, crescent above.

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Sparta11 viewsACHAIA, Achaian League. Lakedaimon (Sparta). Circa 85 BC. AR Hemidrachm (15mm, 2.32 g, 8h). Laureate head of Zeus right / Achaian League monogram; monogram above, piloi of the Dioskouroi flanking, ΠY below; all within laurel wreath. Benner 15; BCD Peloponnesos 865.1; HGC 5, 643. Good VF, tone, slightly off center. Good metal.

From the J. Cohen Collection.

A note from the previous collector:

This collection of Peloponnesian coins was born from my personal interest in ancient Greek history and inspired primarily by the BCD sales. The collection was formed as a study of the varying coinage types produced through the ruling cycles of the Peloponnese. Initial focus of the collection was on Sparta, the coinage produced under Roman rule and issues produced bearing the iconography of the Achaean League. Given the less than amicable relationship between the League and Sparta, this area proved highly interesting to collect. The initial phase of collecting Sparta/Lacedaemon pieces set the groundwork for the evolution of the collection.

The collection was then expanded to Sparta's immediate neighbor in Messene and then to the entire Peloponnese. As I moved through the wider Peloponnesian regions I aimed, where possible, to collect an example of Achaean League coinage of the respective City States, examples of the Greek Imperial coinage and finally, Roman Provincial coinage. The goal being to develop a snapshot of the evolution of coins issued within the Peloponnese. Collecting in this way allowed for a timeline of both political and artistic change throughout the Peloponnese to be mapped out. The uniform coinage, both in silver and bronze of the Achaean league can be compared against the unique iconography of the corresponding Imperial issues and the later, highly stylized Roman issues. From a historical perspective, the evolution and membership of the League as well as the wars within the region can also be viewed through the issuing of coinage.

Numismatically, the primary goals of this collection have been broadly achieved by focusing on the smaller issues of the City States within the Peloponnese, no large silver issues beyond the enigmatic Tetradrachms have representation within the collection. The product of my labors is what I believe to be a highly diverse, interesting and accessible group of coins which provides an insight into one of the most interesting periods and regions of the Ancient world.
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Syracuse, Sicily24 viewsSicily, Syracuse.
Head of Athena left, wearing Corinthian helmet
Hippocamp left; SNG Copenhagen 721.

From the D. Alighieri Collection.

Ex - CNG
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Syracuse, SICILY21 viewsSICILY, Syracuse. Hieron II. 275-215 BC. (17mm, 4.19 g, 12h). Struck circa 275-269 BC. Wreathed head of Kore left / Bull butting left; club and AP monogram above, IE in exergue. BAR Issue 59; CNS 192; SNG ANS 600 (Agathokles); HGC 2, 1497.ecoli
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Syria, Antioch 20 viewsS. 5856, Ae 27

Obv: Laur. bearded head of Zeus r
Rev: Zeus enthroned l, ANTIOXE N/ TH MHTPO behind, O E KAI/ AYTONOMOY before
From Ebay
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Syria, Apameia23 viewsApamea is located on the right bank of the Orontes river about 55 km to the north west of Hama. It overlooks the Ghab valley and was built by Seleucus Nicator, the first king of the Seleucids in Syria in 300 BC. He named it after his parisian wife, Afamea.

The city flourished to an extent that its population numbered half a million. As an Eastern crossroads, it received many distinguished visitors: Cleopetra, Septimus Severus and the Emperor Caracalla. In the Christian era, Apamea became a center of philosophy and thought, especially of Monophostism.

Most of the uncovered ruins in it date back to the Roman and Byzantine ages. It is distinguished for its high walls and the main thoroughfare surrounded by columns with twisted fluting. The street is 1850 meters long and 87 meters wide. The ruins of the Roman theater which have been frequently disturbed, are now a great mass of stone.

Its colonnade (The Cardo Maximus) is 145 meters long. Erected in the 2nd century, it was destroyed in the 12th century by two violent earthquakes; some columns are still standing nevertheless.

To the west of the city, stands the Mudiq citadel, which once formed a defense line along the Orontes.

Fierce battles with Crusaders attempting to conquer it took place in the 12th century, and Nour Eddin finally surrendered it in 1149.

The citadel has huge towers, overlooking the Ghab valley. It also has a Khan (Inn) built by Ottomans in the 16th century which was transformed into an archaeological museum housing Apamea's wonderful mosaics, paintings, and 15,000 cuneiform clay tablets.

Apameia, Syria: Athena / Nike

2nd c. BC. 22mm. Helmeted bust of Athena right / Nike walking left, As SG 5868 but variant legend. aVF. Ex-Sayles
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Tauric Chersonesus, Panticapaeum29 viewsTauric Chersonesus, Panticapaeum, 4th cent. BC, 1.98g. SNG BM-474, SNG Cop-50. Obv: Beardless head of Pan r. Rx: Bow in case, inscription PAN above, TI below. . ecoli
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Thasos, Thrace8 viewsISLANDS off THRACE, Thasos. Circa 480-463 BC. AR Stater. Satyr advancing right, carrying off protesting nymph / Quadripartite incuse square. Le Rider, Thasiennes 5; SNG Copenhagen 1010-1; HGC 6, 334.ecoli
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THESSALIA, LARISSA26 viewsTHESSALIA, LARISSA, Bronze 400-344 BC

Bronze 400-344 BC. Head of nymph Larissa right / Horse grazing right. SNG Cop.142
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Thessalonika, Macedonia47 viewsMacedonia, Thessalonika c. 168 BC and later
Dionysos with wreath of ivy / Goat standing right A / O / N IKH (or similar)
BMC 10 ff. G48
new pic
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Thessalonika, Macedonia19 viewsCheckecoli
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Thessaly, Larissa.7 viewsThessaly, Larissa. 365-356 B.C. AR drachm (19.03 mm, 5.69 g, 2 h). Rider wearing Kausia on fast horse galloping right / ΛAPIΣAIΩN, bull charging right. BCD 186; BMC 54; Herr. pl. 4, 17; SNG Copenhagen 118; Lorber 101. Fine, some prosity. Very Rare.

Ex John Haer Collection; Ex Triton XV; Ex BCD Collection.
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Thessaly, Magnesia39 viewsThessaly, Magnesia. Circa 400-344 BC.
Thessalian horseman right /
Bull butting left
1 commentsecoli
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THESSALY, Phalanna17 viewsTHESSALY, Phalanna. Mid 4th century BC. Chalkous (13mm, 1.92 g, 5h). Male head right / Head of nymph right; ΦΑΛΑΝΝΑ ΙΩΝ around from upper right. Papaevangelou-Genakos 6; Rogers ; BCD Thessaly II 586.2. Good VF, dark brown patina.

From the BCD Collection.
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THESSALY, Pharsalos85 viewsTHESSALY, Pharsalos. Circa 400-344 BC. AR Drachm (20mm, 5.53 gm). Helmeted head of Athena right / Warrior on horseback right, holding mace over shoulder. SNG Copenhagen 220-1; BMC Thessaly pg. 43, 6. Fine. Ex-Cng B5AV6Eecoli
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THESSALY, Pharsalos38 viewsTHESSALY, Pharsalos. Mid 5th century BC. AR Obol (9mm, 0.86 g, 12h). Helmeted head of Athena right / Φ AP downward from upper right, head of horse right; all within incuse square with rounded corners. Lavva 4 (V3/R3); BCD Thessaly II 627 (same dies). VF, toned.

From the BCD Collection.
1 commentsecoli
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Thessaly, Pharsalos8 viewsTHESSALY, Pharsalos. Late 5th-mid 4th century BC. Chalkous. Helmeted head of Athena left, Skylla on bowl / Φ-Α-P-Σ (partially retrograde), Thessalian cavalryman on horse rearing right. Lavva ; Rogers ; BCD Thessaly II 667.4; HGC 4, 660.ecoli
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Thessaly, Thessalian 31 viewsTHESSALY - THESSALIAN LEAGUE - AE - HEAD OF APOLLO - ATHENA HURLING SPEAR - MAGISTRATE: HIPPOLOCHOS
Obv.: Laureate head of Apollo right
Rev.: QECCA /LWN /IPP-OLO; Athena standing right, holding shield, hurling spear

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Thessaly, Thessalian league6 viewsKoinon of Thessaly. AE17 mm, dichalkon. 172-171 BC. Magistrate Hippaitas. IΠΠAI-TAΣ above and beneath helmeted head of Athena right / ΘEΣ-ΣAΛΩN above and beneath horse trotting right. Rogers 44; BCD Thessaly 840.ecoli
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Thrace Mesembria18 viewsThrace Mesembria

SNG Copenhagen 658
Date: 250-200 BC
Obverse: Helmet with cheek guard right
Reverse: METAM-BPIANΩN, Wheel with four spokes and hub, seen from angle
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Thrace Mesembria 36 viewsSNG BMC 277
Date: 4th-3rd Century BC
Obverse: Helmeted head of Athena right
Reverse: Shield with Greek letters M-E-T-A
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Thrace Mesembria24 viewsThrace Mesembria 21 / Helmet / Wheel

SNG Copenhagen 658
Date: 250-200 BC
Obverse: Helmet with cheek guard right
Reverse: METAM-BPIANΩN, Wheel with four spokes and hub, seen from angle
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Thrace, Apollonia Pontica35 viewsApollonia Pontica was founded by Miletos towards the end of the seventh century. Strabo says the greater part of the city occupied an offshore island, which must have been the present Sveti Kyrikos, but it extended over the Sozopol peninusla and Greeks also settled on the Atiya peninsula, a few kilometres to the north. The site was evidently chosen for its two excellent harbours - the city's emblem on coins was an anchor and a prawn - rather than trade. Its immediate hinterland was rugged and had no easy routes to the interior. The growing seaborne traffic plying the western Black Sea coast had shown the need for a port of call for revictualling and repairs between the Bosphoran harbours and such wealthy trading colonies as Histria and Olbia, established some half a century ealier further north." R F Hoddinott, Bulgaria in Antiquity, p 33

Princeton Encyclopedia of Classical Sites Apollonia del Ponto: Two large gates and an island are known where the celebrated Sanctuary of Apollo and the major part of the ancient city were situated. A Greek inscription records the reconstruction of the ruined city and of the famous sanctuary by a Thracian tribe. The Imperial coins continue to use the name Apollonia until the 3d c. A.D., when the name Sozopol appears. During the Byzantine Empire Sozopol was the seat of a bishop, a rich and prosperous city that was frequented by the Genoese until it fell under Turkish domination in 1383. Today it is a modest town. Nothing of the ancient city remains visible above ground. Early excavations furnished little clarification. It is certainly on the island of St. Ciriaco where the stele of Anaxandros was found that the Temple of Apollo must be sought since all the material found in 1904, including a series of terracotta figurines datable to the 6th c. B.C., is connected with that cult; on the island of St. George there are traces of Byzantine construction. Both older and more recent excavations at Kalfata and the port of Giardino brought to light rich Greek necropoleis containing painted funerary vases dating between the 5th and the 2d c. B.C. The promontory is called Cape Kolokuntas (pumpkins) because of the great number of tumuli in the area. They are scattered over the upland and contain dromoi and funerary chambers, as was the Thracian custom. There are also cultural blendings as in the tumulus of Mapes, with dromoi and painted sarcophagi, where the Greek influence dominates.

Xenophon 7, 5 describes the Salmydessian coast between Apollonia and the Bosphorus:

...they [Xenophon and his troops] continued the march with Seuthes, and, keeping the Pontus upon the right through the country of the millet-eating Thracians, as they are called, arrived at Salmydessus. Here many vessels sailing to the Pontus run aground and are wrecked; for there are shoals that extend far and wide. [7.5.13] And the Thracians who dwell on this coast have boundary stones set up and each group of them plunder the ships that are wrecked within their own limits; but in earlier days, before they fixed the boundaries, it was said that in the course of their plundering many of them used to be killed by one another. [7.5.14] Here there were found great numbers of beds and boxes, quantities of written books, and an abundance of all the other articles that shipowners carry in wooden chests.

Apollonia Pontica, 450 - 400 BC. Silver Drachm. Anchor. / Gorgoneian facing with wild hair and a protruding tongure. VF
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Thrace, Cherronesos.335 viewsThrace, Cherronesos. Ca. 400-350 B.C. AR tetrobol (13 mm, 2.40 g). Forepart of a lion right, looking back / Quadripartite incuse; monogram and letter in two quadrants. McClean 4122. EF. Ex-John C Lavender G50
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Thrace, Maroneia30 viewsThrace, Maroneia. c189-145 BC. AR Tetradrachm.

Wreathed head of young Dionysos right / DIONUSOU SWTHROS MARWNITWN, nude Dionysos standing half-left, holding grapes narthex stalks & cloak.
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Thrace, Mesembria123 viewsThrace, Mesembria.

Originally a Thracian settlement, known as Menebria, the town became a Greek colony when settled by Dorians from Megara at the beginning of the 6th century BC, and was an important trading centre from then on and a rival of Apollonia (Sozopol). It remained the only Dorian colony along the Black Sea coast, as the rest were typical Ionian colonies. At 425-424 BC the town joined the Delian League, under the leadership of Athens. Remains from the Hellenistic period include the acropolis, a temple of Apollo, and an agora. A wall which formed part of the fortifications can still be seen on the north side of the peninsula. Bronze and silver coins were minted in the city since the 5th century BC and gold coins since the 3rd century BC. The town fell under Roman rule in 71 BC, yet continued to enjoy privileges such as the right to mint its own coinage.

GR4 Circa Fourth Century BC. AR Diobol (1.18 gm) 11.25 mm. Crested helmet / Radiate wheel of four spokes; M-E-T-A within. SNG BM Black Sea 268. Very fine.
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Thrace, Mesembria31 viewsMesembria, Thrace: AE 16 / Helmet

4th - 3rd c. BC. Corinthian helmet facing / META within spokes of a wheel. Fine+ with green and black patina. SNG BMC 273.
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Thrace, Mesembria34 viewsGR6

Thrace, Mesembria. Circa Fourth Century BC. AR Diobol Crested helmet / Radiate wheel of four spokes; M-E-T-A within. SNG BM Black Sea 268. Very fine.
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Thrace, Mesembria27 views Thrace, Mesembria
Mesembria, Thrace: AE 16 / Helmet

4th - 3rd c. BC. Corinthian helmet facing / META within spokes of a wheel. Fine+ with green and black patina. SNG BMC 273.
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Thrace, Thasos8 viewsISLANDS off THRACE, Thasos. Circa 412-404 BC. AR Hemiobol (7mm, 0.27 g). Head of a nymph left / Dolphin leaping left within incuse square. Le Rider, Thasiennes 13; SNG Copenhagen 1035; HGC 6, 341. VF, light porosity, deposit on reverse.ecoli
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Thrace, Thasos7 viewsISLANDS off THRACE, Thasos. Circa 500-480 BC. AR Hemiobol (7mm, 0.37 g). Two dolphins swimming in opposite directions / Quadripartite incuse square. Le Rider, Thasiennes, 9; HGC 6, 337. VF, darkly toned, some light porosity.ecoli
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Thracian Kings, Lysimachos24 viewsThracian Kings, Lysimachos, ?20mm. Struck circa 306-281 BC. Helmeted head of Athena right / BASILEWS LUSIMACOU above & below lion charging right; SNGCop 1149. G55ecoli
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Troas, Abydos7 viewsTroas, Abydos. AE 11 (11.1 mm, 1.38 g, 3 h). Laureate head of Apollo right, ABY, eagle standing right. SNG Copenhagen 33; SNG von Aulock 1445. VF.ecoli
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TROAS, Birytis118 viewsTROAS, Birytis 300-250 B.C. AE 1.23 g. Bearded head of Kabiros l., wearing pileus. Rev. Β-Ι/Ρ-Υ Club, whole in laurel wreath. SNG Munich 170. SNG Tbingen 2574.ecoli
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Troas, Gergis141 viewsTroas, Gergis (4th cent. BC).
Obv.: Laureate head of the Sibyl Herophile three-quarter facing to right.
Rev.: Sphinx seated to right.
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Troas, Gergis140 viewsTroas, Gergis (4th cent. BC).
Obv.: Laureate head of the Sibyl Herophile three-quarter facing to right.
Rev.: Sphinx seated to right.
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TROAS, Kebren31 viewsThe earliest Greek archaeological remains found at Cebren date to the mid-7th and early 6th century BCE and were found together with indigenous pottery, suggesting that to begin with the city was a mixed Greco-Anatolian community. Writing in the early 4th century BCE, Xenophon implies that the population of Cebren ca. 400 BCE still consisted of both Greek and Anatolian elements, indicating that the two ethnic groups co-existed long after the period of Greek colonization. Sources dating to the mid-4th century BCE considered the city an Aeolian Greek foundation, and the historian Ephorus of Cyme claimed that its founders were in fact from his own city, although this statement needs to be treated with some caution, since Ephorus was notorious in antiquity for exaggerating his hometown's importance. While we cannot ascertain the truth of Ephorus' statement, we can be sure that the early settlers were Aeolians, since a grave inscription for a citizen of Kebren written in the Aeolic dialect has been found at nearby Gergis.

In the 5th century BCE Cebren was a member of the Delian League and is listed in the Hellespontine district paying a tribute to Athens of 3 Talents from 454/3 down to 425/4, except in 450/49 when it only paid 8,700 drachmas. Following the defeat of Athens at the end of the Peloponnesian War in 404 BCE, Cebren came under the control of Zenis, the tyrant of Dardania, and his wife Mania who together controlled the Troad on behalf of the Persian satrap Pharnabazos. Cebren was captured by the Spartan commander Dercylidas in 399 BCE, but soon after returned to Persian control. In 360/59, the Greek mercenary commander Charidemus briefly captured the city before being repelled by the Persian satrap Artabazos. At some point in the 4th century BCE Cebren produced coinage depicting a satrap's head as the obverse type, indicating the city's close relationship with its Persian overlords. Cebren ceased to exist as an independent city ca. 310 when Antigonus I Monophthalmus founded Antigonia Troas (after 301 BCE renamed Alexandria Troas) and included Cebren in the synoecism.

TROAS, Kebren. Circa 387-310 BC. AR Obol (6mm, 0.43 g, 6h). Rams head right / Youthful male head right. SNG Ashmolean ; SNG Copenhagen ; SNG von Aulock 7621; Klein 313. VF, toned. Good metal.
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TROAS, Kebren12 viewsTROAS, Kebren. Circa 387-310 BC. Laureate head of Apollo right / Head of ram right. Lazzarini Series 4; SNG Ashmolean 1107; SNG Copenhagen 263-5 var. (ethnic).ecoli
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