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Home > Members' Coin Collection Galleries > Carausius

Early Coinage to 218 BCE


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Over a few hundred years, as the Roman Republic evolved from small town to small empire, its monetary system evolved from weighed bronze lumps (Aes Rude) to a bi-metallic, struck coinage. This album captures that period of intense development. By the early third century BCE, Rome began producing currency bars (Aes Signatum) which circulated as bullion, and heavy cast bronze coins (Aes Grave) which were subsequently issued in various series from circa 280 to 215 BCE. While the mint of Rome produced Aes Grave and Currency Bars, Italo-Greek cities to the south struck the first silver Didrachms and related bronze coins bearing the legend “ROMANO.” The Didrachm coinage was issued infrequently until circa 240 BCE, when the ROMANO inscriptions were replaced with ROMA and Didrachm production increased. Perhaps with the influx of silver from the Carthaginian’s indemnity following the First Punic War, Rome introduced the large issue of Quadrigati circa 225 BCE, though Quadrigatus production would eventually decentralize when the Second Punic War ensued.

31 files, last one added on Apr 24, 2022
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Second Punic War (218-200 BCE)


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The immense financial pressure of defending Hannibal’s invasion of Italy, and subsequent successes, are reflected in periods of debasement, reform and renewal in the Republican coinage of the Second Punic War period. This album depicts the upheaval and rebirth. We see gradual reduction in the weight standard of the bronze coinage and debasement of the Quadrigatus silver coinage. The semilibral reduction in the bronze coinage occurs from 217-215 BCE and is soon followed by further weight reductions. Bronze overstrikes are common during this period as coinage of defeated regions are restruck by Rome (Roman overstruck on foreign) and as Rome reduced the weight standard of its bronze currency (Roman overstruck on Roman). Eventually, the monetary system is completely reformed with the introduction of the Denarius coinage of good silver, the Victoriatus coinage (of not such good silver!) and the so-called sextantal struck bronzes. This denarius system would continue with occasional changes for the next 450 years.

40 files, last one added on Feb 28, 2021
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Second Century (199-100 BCE)


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During the second century BCE, we see Roman moneyers becoming progressively more independent, both in terms of type selection and messaging on the coinage. The office of moneyer was an important early rung on the Cursus Honorum - the imposed political path toward consulship and personal prestige.   Testing traditional constraints, moneyers gradually chose types and inscriptions to increase their name recognition and brand for future elected offices.  Early in the century we see standard types (Roma/Dioscuri or Bigati) paired with symbols, initials and abbreviated monograms.  By the close of the century, full names and creative devices (some focusing on a moneyer's illustrious ancestors) are common. This use of the coinage as a propaganda device would continue to expand in the next century.

37 files, last one added on Aug 15, 2022
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Late Republic (99-49 BCE)


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By the first century BCE, the Republican coinage had fully-matured into a personal propaganda medium for politicians on the rise.  Many of these politicians sided with Marius or Sulla during their supremacy struggle, and the selection of coin types sometimes reflect those alliances.  The abilities of the mint were tested during the Social War crisis of 90 BCE, which required massive expenditure in coined money to put down.  By the close of this period, a new supremacy struggle echoing Marius and Sulla would emerge - that between Pompey and Caesar - which would plunge the Roman world into years of civil war and eventually end the Republic.

49 files, last one added on Aug 14, 2022
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Imperatorial (49-27 BCE)


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This era of the Roman Republic is referred to as the "Imperatorial" period, because it is marked by the political and military struggle for supremacy among the premier generals ("imperator" in Latin).  It begins with Caesar crossing the Rubicon with his legions,  challenging and ultimately defeating Pompey.  In preparing for his next great military challenge against the Parthians, Caesar would authorize the production of coins bearing his own portrait and honors - the first Roman to do so - completing the evolution of personal propaganda on Republican coinage.  Caesar would be assassinated before his Parthian campaign could launch.  The next 20 years of Roman coinage depict and reflect the various protagonists and antagonists and their respective allies in the supremacy struggles among Caesarians, Republicans, Octavian and Antony.  Following the defeat of Antony and Cleopatra at Actium, Octavian (later known as Augustus) would at last emerge as undisputed master of Rome and the Mediterranean world . This marks the end of the Republican coinage, and the commencement of Imperial coinage.

66 files, last one added on Aug 15, 2022
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5 albums on 1 page(s)

Last additions - Carausius's Gallery
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Crawford 244/3, ROMAN REPUBLIC, C. Aburi Gem, AE QuadransRome, The Republic.
C. Aburi Gem, 134 BCE.
AE Quadrans (5.95g; 21mm; 12h).
Rome Mint.

Obverse: Head of youthful Hercules wearing lion-skin headdress; ••• (mark-of-value) behind.

Reverse: Prow facing right; C•ABVRI|GEM above; ••• (mark-of-value) before; ROMA below.

References: Crawford 244/3; Sydenham 491a; BMCRR 1002; Aburia 3.

Provenance: Ex Professor Dr. Prix Collection [Otto Helbing Auction 63 (29 Apr 1931), Lot 60].

In Essays Hersh, Mattingly dates this issue to 133 BCE. This example is special for its 1931 provenance. It is quite rare to find fairly common Republican bronzes illustrated in pre-War auction catalogues.
CarausiusAug 15, 2022
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Crawford 512/2, ROMAN IMPERATORIAL, C. Clodius VestalisRome, Moneyer Issues of the Imperatorial Period.
C. Clodius C.f. Vestalis. 41 BCE
AR Denarius (3.99g; 20mm; 12h).
Rome mint, 41 BCE.

Obverse: C•CLODIVS - C• F•; Draped, laureate bust of Flora, facing right; flower behind.

Reverse: VESTALIS; Veiled female seated to left, extending culullus in right hand.

References: Crawford 512/2; HCRI 317; Sydenham 1135 (R3); BMCRR 4196; Clodia 13

Provenance: Ex Nomisma 65 (17 Jun 2022) Lot 40; Aretusa Auction 1 (18 Sep 1993) Lot 265; De Nicola FPL (Sep 1968) Lot 248.

Flora was the Roman goddess of flowers and springtime, with an association to fertility, and her festival began at Rome circa 240-238 BCE. Crawford prefers the later date, which would eliminate the Flora connection to the moneyer’s kinsman, C. Claudius Cento, consul in 240 BCE; David Sear thinks the 240 BCE date of the festival is correct and that the connection to C. Claudius Cento is the reason for the obverse type. The reverse depiction of a seated Vestal Virgin might be a punning allusion to the moneyer’s cognomen, Vestalis, or it may depict one of the Vestal Virgins who were members of the Claudia gens (Claudia Quinta ca. 200 BCE, or Claudia, daughter of Appius Claudius Pulcher, consul in 143 BCE). Grueber argues that the coin depicts Claudia Quinta who was instrumental in bringing the cult of Cybele to Rome, and from whom the Claudians assumed the cognomen “Vestalis.”
1 commentsCarausiusAug 15, 2022
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Crawford 348/4, ROMAN REPUBLIC, L. Rubrius Dossenus, AR QuinariusRome, The Republic.
L. Rubrius Dossenus. 87 BCE.
AR Quinarius (1.82g; 15mm; 7h).
Rome Mint, 87 BCE.

Obverse: DOSSEN; Laureate head of Neptune facing right, trident over shoulder.

Reverse: L•RVBRI; Victory holding wreath and palm, standing to right before garlanded alter with snake coiled around top.

References: Crawford 348/4; Sydenham 708; BMCRR 2459-60; Rubria 4.

Provenance: Ex Artemide Auction 57 (30 Apr 2022) Lot 337; Aes Rude Titano Auction 3 (23 Jun 1979) Lot 117.

L. Rubrius Dossenus is not known except for his coins. The snake-coiled alter on the reverse may allude to prayers to Aesculapius, the Roman god of medicine and healing, as a plague had broken out among the troops fighting Marius at the time. A similar snake-coiled alter is seen on the obverse (and on certain rare reverses) of AE Asses produced by the same moneyer. A snake is an attribute of Aesculapius. During an ongoing plague, a Roman temple to Aesculapius was built from 293-290 BCE, on an island in the Tiber where a sacred snake, brought from the god’s sanctuary in Greece, had slithered after arrival in Rome. Babelon and Grueber suggest that Neptune on the obverse may refer to that maritime trip to the Aesculapian sanctuary in 293 BCE, though Crawford thinks the type generally seeks favor for naval victories (and good health) in the ongoing Marian conflict.

This quinarius type is not rare, although it rarely comes as complete as this example.
CarausiusAug 14, 2022
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Crawford 472/2, ROMAN IMPERATORIAL, L. Papius Celsus, AR DenariusRome, Moneyer Issues of the Imperatorial Period.
L. Papius Celsus. 45 BCE
AR Denarius (3.61g; 21mm; 3h).
Rome mint, 45 BCE.

Obverse: TRIVMPVS; Laureate head of Triumphus, facing right, with trophy over shoulder.

Reverse: CELSVS•III VIR || L•PAPIVS; she-wolf places stick on fire; eagle, with wings extending outside dot border, fans flames.

References: Crawford 472/2; HCRI 83; Sydenham 965 (R4); BMCRR 4023; Papia 3; Bahrfeldt Nachtrage, Vol. 1 (1897), pl. IX, nr. 206 (this coin).

Provenance: Ex Nomisma 65 (17 Jun 2022) Lot 52; Tradart (8 Nov 1992) Lot 154; Sternberg XI (20-1 Nov 1981) Lot 527; Peter Hoefer Collection (Feb 1980) [Silbermunzen der Romischen Republik Privatsammlung PH]; E. J. Haeberlin Collection [Cahn-Hess (1933) Lot 2742], acquired before 1897, per Bahrfeldt.

The moneyer, who was a member of the Papia gens, likely had ancestral origins in Lanuvium, as another of his denarii (with same reverse) depicts Juno Sospita on the obverse. Ancient Lanuvium, a Latin town 32 kilometers southeast of Rome, was famous for its temple to Juno Sospita, who is often depicted on coins by members of the Papia gens [see my example here: https://www.forumancientcoins.com/gallery/displayimage.php?pid=149837]. The reverse depicts one of the foundation myths of Lanuvium: when Aeneas witnessed a she-wolf bringing wood to feed a fire and an eagle fanned the flames, while a fox tried to extinguish the blaze with a wet tail. The eagle is shown with its wings extending beyond the line border of the coin, suggesting a divine origin. Lanuvium and Lavinium are frequently confused, and this confusion appears to have applied to this foundation myth in literature, both ancient and modern.

The provenance of this coin is almost as interesting as its devices. It can be traced back to the famous E.J. Haeberlin Collection, jointly sold by Cahn and Hess in 1933. Also, it is described and shown on the plates of Bahrfeldt, Nachträge und Berichtigungen zur Münzkunde der römischen Republik, vol 1 (1897) where it is cited to the Haeberlin collection; thus we know Haeberlin acquired it before Bahrfeldt’s publication in 1897!
CarausiusAug 14, 2022
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Crawford 473/2, ROMAN IMPERATORIAL, Lollius Palikanus, AR DenariusRome, The Imperators.
Lollius Palikanus. 45 BCE
AR Denarius (3.97g; 20mm; 4h).
Rome mint, 42 BCE.

Obverse: HONORIS; Laureate head of Honos, facing right.

Reverse: PALIKANVS; Curule chair flanked by corn-ears.

References: Crawford 473/2a; HCRI 87; Sydenham 961 (R4); BMCRR 4014-15; Lollia 1.

Provenance: Ex Edouard Schott Collection [E. Bourgey (21-2 Mar 1972), Lot 206].

Precise identity of the moneyer is uncertain, as his coins only reference his cognomen. He might have been the son of Marcus Lollius Palikanus who was a prominent Tribune in 71 and Praetor in 69 BCE. This coin possibly refers to Marcus’ attaining the position of Praetor, which was a “curule” magistrate exercising judicial authority and, when the consuls were engaged outside the City, legislative and executive authority in place of the consuls.

CarausiusAug 14, 2022
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Crawford 468/1, ROMAN IMPERATORIAL, Julius Caesar, AR DenariusRome. The Imperators.
Julius Caesar, 49-44 BCE.
AR Denarius (4.03g; 19mm; 4h).
Spanish mint, 46-45 BCE.

Obverse: Diademed head of Venus Genetrix, facing right, wearing earing and necklace of pendants; Cupid on shoulder.

Reverse: Gallic captives, bound and seated under trophy of Gallic arms; CAESAR in exergue.

References: Crawford 468/1; Sydenham 1014; BMCRR (Spain) 89; Julia 11.

Provenance: Ex Inasta Auction 100 (24 Jun 2022) Lot 180; Varesi E-Live 2 (20 Sep 2020) lot 253; Busso Peus Auction 393 (31 Oct 2007) Lot 488; Numismatik Lanz Auction 42 (23 Nov 1987) Lot 399.

This was part of Caesar’s military mint output during the Spanish campaign against Pompey’s sons. The obverse depicts Venus Genetrix to whom Caesar dedicated a temple in Rome. The reverse, alluding to Caesar’s triumphs in Gaul, was perhaps directed toward his remaining veteran troops from the Gallic campaign. The male captive on right, with wild hair and pointed beard, bears some resemblance to the Gallic head depicted on Crawford 448/2a, which is often attributed as Vercingetorix but which Crawford thought was merely a typical male Gaul.
1 commentsCarausiusAug 14, 2022
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Crawford 450/2, ROMAN IMPERATORIAL, D. Junius Brutus Albinus, AR DenariusRome, Moneyer Issues of the Imperatorial Period.
D. Junius Brutus Albinus, 48 BCE.
AR Denarius (3.74g; 20mm; 5h).
Rome Mint.

Obverse: Head of Pietas facing right, her hair tied-up in a knot, wearing necklace and cruciform earing; PIETAS behind.

Reverse: Two hands clasping caduceus; ALBINVS·BRVTI·F, below.

References: Crawford 450/2; HCRI 26; Sydenham 942; BMCRR 3964; Postumia 10.

Provenance: Ex Leu Numismatik 11 (14 May 2022) Lot 222; Alde (19 Oct 2016) Lot 183; Andre J. Collection [E. Bourgey (20 Dec 1929) Lot 78].

Decimus Junius Brutus Albinus, not to be confused with his cousin, Marcus Brutus, lived on a similar trajectory to his cousin. He was first close with Julius Caesar, having served in the Gallic Wars and on Caesar’s side in the civil war against Pompey. Eventually, Albinus joined the conspiracy to assassinate Caesar. After the assassination, the Senate gave him control of Cisalpine Gaul where he came under assault by Antony who wanted control of the province. Albinus was killed by Gauls while trying to escape to Macedonia to join the other Liberators. This coin type was struck during the civil war between Caesar and Pompey when Albinus sided with Caesar. The reverse, with its symbols of concord, alludes to Caesar’s policy of reconciliation during the war.

This coin is an upgrade of my prior example, and with an exceptional provenance.

CarausiusAug 14, 2022
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Crawford 460/2, ROMAN IMPERATORIAL, Q. Metellus Pius Scipio & P. Licinius Crassus Junianus, AR DenariusRome, The Imperators.
Q. Metellus Pius Scipio and P. Licinius Crassus Junianus, 47-46 BCE
AR Denarius (3.74g; 19mm; 3h).
African mint, 47-46 BCE.

Obverse: METEL• PI[VS] - SCIP• IMP; Bust of Jupiter, facing right; eagle and scepter below.

Reverse: CRASS• I[VN] - [LEG•P]RO• P[R]; Curule chair; scales and cornucopia above; corn-ear on left; carnyx (or dragon head?) below.

References: Crawford 460/2: HCRI 41; Sydenham 1048 (R6); BMCRR (Africa) 4; Caecilia 49.

Provenance: Ex DNW Auction (13 Apr 2022) Lot 1339; purchased from Associated Arts Co., July 1969

This scarce type was struck for Q. Metellus Pius Scipio by his legate, P. Licinius Crassus Junianus, possibly in a mint at or near Utica. A descendent of the great Scipio Africanus, Metellus Scipio inherited little of his famous ancestor’s military talent or character. In the civil war against Caesar, he was a supporter of Pompey with whom he shared the consulship in 52 BCE. He was also Pompey’s father-in-law, through his daughter, Cornelia. After Pompey’s murder in Egypt, Scipio commanded Pompey’s remaining troops at Thapsus (in modern Tunisia) where he was defeated by Caesar. Later cornered by the enemy, Scipio took his own life and his legate, Crassus probably shared the same suicidal fate.

The obverse bust of Jupiter (confirmed by his attributes of eagle and scepter) is of similar style to the terminal bust shown on Pompey’s denarius issue [see my example here: https://www.forumancientcoins.com/gallery/displayimage.php?pid=166939]. Sear and Grueber think the ear of corn and cornucopia refer to Africa’s grain production fertility; and the curule chair likely refers to the imperium of Scipio’s shared consulship with Pompey. Sear thinks the dragon head may be in rebuttal to Caesar’s trampling elephant coinage [see my example here: https://www.forumancientcoins.com/gallery/displayimage.php?pid=148765], although Grueber thinks the device is a carnyx head, possibly referring to the Scipiones’ successes in past Spanish campaigns.
CarausiusAug 14, 2022
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Crawford 545/1, ROMAN IMPERATORIAL, Marcus Antonius and D. Turullius, AR DenariusRome. The Imperators.
Marcus Antonius and Decimus Turullius, 44-30 BCE.
AR Denarius (3.84g; 19mm; 4h).
Military mint, 31 BCE.

Obverse: M ANTONIVS AVG IMP IIII COS TERT III VIR R P C; bare head of Antony, facing right.

Reverse: Victory holding filleted wreath and palm branch; D TVR to right; all within laurel wreath border.

References: Crawford 545/1; HCRI 387; Sydenham 1211(R7); BMCRR (East) 227; Antonia 146; Turullia 5.

Provenance: Ex Heritage Auction 3093 (29 Oct 2021) lot 31125; obverse collectors’ marks [fleur-de-lis stamp and India-inked #2] suggest a modern history in old European collections.

This is one of the final denarius issues struck by Antony in the lead-up to Actium. The obverse inscription is notable in that it mentions: an uncertain fourth imperatorial acclamation which is lost to history and likely not of real importance; and an intended third consulship with Octavian, which Antony never actually served (Octavian chose another partner).

Decimus Turullius was part of the assassination plot against Julius Caesar and initially fought with the Liberators against the Triumvirate. While a naval commander for Cassius, Turullius sourced wood for a fleet by ordering that a grove of trees sacred to Asclepios, on the Island of Cos, be cut down. He later defected to Antony after Philippi. Turullius was captured by Octavian following Actium, and it is said he was executed on Cos in that same sacred grove that he cut down years earlier.

This scarce coin has an interesting pair of collectors’ marks on the obverse field – a stamped fleur-de-lis and an India ink “2”. The fleur-de-lis is likely not an ancient banker’s mark, but a modern collector stamp as occurs on coins from collections of royalty and nobility in the 17th- 19th centuries. The India ink number is probably later than the stamp, perhaps late 19th or early 20th century. Whether both marks are from the same collection is not yet known. I have so far been unable to determine a likely collection for the fleur-de-lis mark, although a French noble or French royal collection seems plausible.

1 commentsCarausiusAug 14, 2022
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Crawford 463/5, ROMAN IMPERATORIAL, Mn. Cordius Rufus, AR SestertiusRome, The Imperators.
Manius Cordius Rufus. 46 BCE
AR Sestertius (0.73g; 11mm; 6h).
Rome mint, 46 BCE.

Obverse: MN CORD; Diademed head of Venus, facing right.

Reverse: RVFI; Cupid advancing to right, holding wreath and palm.

References: Crawford 463/5b; Sear, HCRI 67 (this coin illustrated); Sydenham 980a (R5); BMCRR 4045-48; Cordia 7; RBW 1609 (this coin illustrated).

Provenance: Ex J. de Wilde Collection [CNG 120 (12 May 2022) Lot 727]; RBW Collection [NAC 63 (17 May 2012), Lot 384]; Numismatic Fine Arts XXIV (18 Oct 1990) Lot 1348; Consul E.F. Weber († Sep 1907) Collection [Hirsch XXIV (10 May 1909) Lot 322].

Another rare, silver sestertius from 46 BCE! The moneyer may have originated from Tusculum where an inscription was found identifying him as a Praetor. There was a cult of the Dioscuri at Tusculum and some of Manius’ denarii bore the Dioscuri on the obverse. His coins, such as this sestertius, also honor Venus, which may be either a canting pun to Venus Verticordia or a nod to Julius Caesar, whose gens claimed descent through Venus.
1 commentsCarausiusMay 24, 2022
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Crawford 464/7, ROMAN IMPERATORIAL, T. Carisius, AR SestertiusRome, The Republic.
T. Carisius, 46 BCE.
AR Sestertius (0.65g; 12mm).
Rome Mint.

Obverse: [Mask of Silenus]; [T·]CARISI[VS] below.

Reverse: Panther advancing right with thyrsus; III VIR in exergue.

References: Crawford 464/7a; Sydenham 988 (R8); RBW 1620 (this coin); BMCRR 4076; Babelon, Carisia 12 (this coin illustrated inaccurately as Carisa 13); Borghesi, Oeuvres, Vol 1, Pl. 1, Fig 7 (this coin illustrated inaccurately); Riccio, Le Monete Delle Antiche Famiglie di Roma (2nd Ed., 1843), Carisia 9 and Pl. 54, Fig 2 (this coin cited and illustrated inaccurately); B. Borghesi, “Dodici sesterzj illustrati”, Giornale numismatico, No. IV, July 1808, pp. 52-57, extracted and republished in Borghesi 1862-4, vol. 1, pp. 29-38 (this coin described inaccurately).

Provenance: Ex STR collection; RBW Collection [NAC 63 (2012) Lot 395]; bought from W. Verres in Aug 2002; Sarti Collection [Hirsch VII (1903), Lot 1606]; Bartolomeo Borghesi (d. 1860) Collection, acquired before July 1808 (when it was described in the Borghesi article in Giornale numismatico).

An extremely rare coin with only 5 obverse and 4 or 5 reverse dies known to Crawford (Richard Schaefer identified 6 obverse dies in his Roman Republican Die Project). Crawford listed two obverse varieties – the first with inscription beside and below Silenus’ head (464/7a), and the second with inscription above Silenus’ head (464/7b) for which my coin was the basis. The misinterpretation of my coin by Borghesi, a famous 19th century collector with mediocre eyesight, and the subsequent reliance by cataloguers on the numismatic artist Dardel’s line drawing of the coin which followed Borghesi’s misinterpretation, resulted in the cataloguing of the second obverse variety by Babelon, Sydenham and Crawford. In fact, Borghesi was holding the obverse upside down and thought Silenus’ beard was the top of his head – an easy mistake to make with limited, 19th century numismatic aids and resources. My comparison of this coin to known dies for the type yielded a die match to the Berlin specimen (Crawford’s plate for 464/7a) which proved that the visible obverse device is actually Silenus’ beard, and thus the inscription runs beside and below and beard as per Crawford 464/7a. Recently, an example of the type was auctioned which bore an obverse inscription running over the top of Silenus’ head, providing plausible support to the Crawford 464/7b variety.

Prior researchers have alternately identified the obverse mask as either Silenus or Pan. See, Sear HCRI, no. 75 (Silenus); Crawford 464/7a and 464/7b (Pan); Banti 1981, Carisia 36-38 (Pan); BMCRR, no. 4076 (Pan); Babelon, Carisia 12 and 13 (Pan); Cohen, Carisia 9 (Silenus); Borghesi 1862-4, vol. 1, p. 32, n. 2 (Silenus); Riccio 1843, p. 46, Carisia 9 (Silenus). Silenus is typically identifiable as an old man with pug nose and some horse characteristics (notably, ears and tail), while Pan is recognized as part goat and part man. I believe that this coin actually depicts a Silenus.
3 commentsCarausiusMay 24, 2022
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Crawford 28/3, ROMAN REPUBLIC, Didrachm-QuadrigatusAnonymous, 225-214 BCE.
AR Didrachm/Quadrigatus (6.79 g; 20mm; 12h).
Apulian Mint.

Obv: Janiform head with straight neck truncaction.

Rev: Jupiter and Victory on fast quadriga, right; ROMA in relief within semi-trapezoidal linear frame below.

Reference: Crawford 28/3; Sydenham 65; BMCRR 101; Gentilehomme II.B.1.

Provenance: Ex Andrew McCabe Collection [Roma E-Sale (6 Jan 2022) lot 856]; Pierre Egbers Collection (active 1930s to 1960s) [Joel Creusy (6 Nov 2014), lot 78]; French export permit no. 159230.

The last few series of Roman silver didrachm coinage, produced from 225-214 BCE, are nicknamed "quadrigati" because of the common reverse type of Jupiter and Victory in a fast quadriga. Crawford's arrangement of quadrigati into distinct series requires a great amount of study to understand. Collectors and dealers alike often misattribute quadrigati among Crawford's series.

The Crawford 28 series of quadrigati, to which this example belongs, really should be split into two separate series. The first (early) series of 28s are almost certainly the earliest of the quadrigatus coinage - struck in good silver and of fine style in high relief with ROMA incuse in a rectangular tablet. The second (later) series of 28s, shown here, is of lower quality style and fabric; the neck truncation is wide and straight; ROMA is in relief in a linear frame. Like other Apulian coins, they often show tabs or other signs of cast flan production, visible on the edge of this coin but not in the photos.
1 commentsCarausiusApr 24, 2022

Random files - Carausius's Gallery
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Crawford 041/10, ROMAN REPUBLIC, Anonymous Post Semi-Libral AE UnciaRome, The Republic.
Anonymous (Post Semi-libral Series), 215-212 BCE.
AE Uncia (7.87g; 24mm).
Rome Mint.

Obverse: Helmeted head of Roma facing right; pellet (mark-of-value) behind.

Reverse: Prow facing right; ROMA above; pellet (mark-of-value) below.

References: Crawford 41/10; McCabe Group A1; RBW 135.

Provenance: Ex Nomisma E-Live Auction 10 (18 Jun 2019) Lot 12.

This series is the second of the “prow” struck bronze series. It is most easily recognized by the left side of the prow device which has a clearly delineated edge, while on later series the left side of the prow appears to extend off the side of the coin. The series was issued during the Second Punic War and reflects the continued reduction in weight standard of the Roman bronze coinage during the conflict; this issue having occurred on the heels of the “semi-libral reduction” of 217-215 BCE. It would soon be followed by further weight reductions.
2 commentsCarausius
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Crawford 494/38, ROMAN IMPERATORIAL, C. Vibius Varus, AR DenariusRome, Moneyer Issues of the Imperatorial Period.
Caius Vibius Varus, 42 BCE.
AR Denarius (3.56; 20mm).
Rome mint.

Obverse: Bust of Minerva wearing crested Corinthian helmet and aegis, facing right.

Reverse: Hercules standing front, head left, holding lion skin, hand resting on club.

References: Crawford 494/38; HCRI 194; Sydenham 1140; BMCRR 4303-5; Banti 67/10 (this coin illustrated).

Provenance: Ex Künker Auction 280 (26 Sep 2016), Lot 396; ex Peus Auction 328 (1990), Lot 507; ex Kunst und Münzen (June 1977), Lot 209.

There is little known about any of the four moneyers of 42 BCE besides their coins. Grueber notes that there is equally little known connection between the Vibia gens and the devices on this coin. Sear suggests that the type represents the strength of the triumvirs in their impending fight with the republican forces.

6 commentsCarausius
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Crawford 322/1, ROMAN REPUBLIC, C. Fabius C.f. Hadrianus, AR DenariusRome. The Republic.
C. Fabius C. f. Hadrianus, 102 BCE.
AR Denarius (4.01g; 20mm).
Rome Mint.

Obverse: Veiled and turreted head of Cybele, facing right; EX· A· PV, behind.

Reverse: Victory in fast biga galloping right; A· and heron/stork below; C· FABI· C· F in exergue.

References: Crawford 322/1b; Sydenham 590; BMCRR 1592; Fabia 14.

Provenance: Ex Heritage Europe Auction 44 (26 Nov 2014), Lot 35.


While not certain, the moneyer may be Caius Fabius Hadrianus, who was praetor in 84 BCE, propraetor in 83–82 BCE and who was burned alive in his official residence during a Sullan uprising in 82. He struck two distinct series of this denarius: one, without an obverse inscription but with Greek letter control marks behind the obverse head; the other with Latin letter control marks on the reverse and the EX· A· PV obverse inscription. The obverse inscription is an abbreviation for EX A[RGENTO] PV[BLICO] meaning “from the public silver”. Only eight issues of Roman Republican coins reference the public silver, and it is not abundantly clear why this reference is needed since official silver coinage should always be struck from state silver. Fabius’s issue is the first of four issues struck circa 102-100 to bear a “public silver” inscription, which Crawford attributes as a sign of the populist times. Given that Hadrianus may have been killed in 82 by Sulla supporters because of his populist sympathies, Crawford’s attribution of the inscription as a populist message may be correct.

The bird on the reverse of the coin deserves some comment. According to Pliny, some members of the Fabia gens took the cognomen Buteones (a Buteo is a type of hawk or bird), after a bird settled on a Fabian’s ship and was taken as a good omen in advance of a victory. Both Grueber and Crawford interpret the heron/stork on the reverse of this coin as further evidence of Pliny’s story, and as likely proof that Pliny got the type of bird wrong in his retelling of the story. The bird is certainly important to the moneyer, as he also included the symbol on his AE Asses.
Carausius

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