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Imperial Coinage of Vespasian


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Titus Flavius Vespasianus - Augustus 69-79 AD

Imperial coins are arranged according to the new RIC II Part 1.

References cited:
• RIC - The Roman Imperial Coinage II Part 1, I. Carradice and T.V. Buttrey (London, 2007)
• BMC - Coins of the Roman Empire in the British Museum II, H. Mattingly (London, 1966)
• RSC - Roman Silver Coins II, H.A. Seaby (London, 1979)
• RPC - Roman Provincial Coinage II, A. Burnett, M. Amandry, I. Carradice (London and Paris, 1999)
• BNC - Monnaies de l'Empire Romain III, J.-B. Giard (Paris, 1998)
• Hendin - Guide to Biblical Coins, D. Hendin (New York, 2010)

RIC frequency ratings:
R3 = unique
R2 = very few examples known
R = rare
C = common
C2 = very common
C3 = extremely common

282 files, last one added on Jul 02, 2022
Album viewed 231 times

Imperial Coinage of Titus


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Titus Flavius Vespasianus - Caesar 69-79 AD, Augustus 79-81 AD

Imperial coins are arranged according to the new RIC II Part 1.

References cited:
• RIC - The Roman Imperial Coinage II Part 1, I. Carradice and T.V. Buttrey (London, 2007)
• BMC - Coins of the Roman Empire in the British Museum II, H. Mattingly (London, 1966)
• RSC - Roman Silver Coins II, H.A. Seaby (London, 1979)
• RPC - Roman Provincial Coinage II, A. Burnett, M. Amandry, I. Carradice (London and Paris, 1999)
• BNC - Monnaies de l'Empire Romain III, J.-B. Giard (Paris, 1998)
• Hendin - Guide to Biblical Coins, D. Hendin (New York, 2010)

RIC frequency ratings:
R3 = unique
R2 = very few examples known
R = rare
C = common
C2 = very common
C3 = extremely common

197 files, last one added on Mar 10, 2022
Album viewed 172 times

Imperial Coinage of Domitian


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Titus Flavius Domitianus - Caesar 69-81 AD, Augustus 81-96 AD

Imperial coins are arranged according to the new RIC II Part 1.

References cited:
• RIC - The Roman Imperial Coinage II Part 1, I. Carradice and T.V. Buttrey (London, 2007)
• BMC - Coins of the Roman Empire in the British Museum II, H. Mattingly (London, 1966)
• RSC - Roman Silver Coins II, H.A. Seaby (London, 1979)
• RPC - Roman Provincial Coinage II, A. Burnett, M. Amandry, I. Carradice (London and Paris, 1999)
• BNC - Monnaies de l'Empire Romain III, J.-B. Giard (Paris, 1998)
• Hendin - Guide to Biblical Coins, D. Hendin (New York, 2010)

RIC frequency ratings:
R3 = unique
R2 = very few examples known
R = rare
C = common
C2 = very common
C3 = extremely common

Common Minerva Types:
M1 Minerva advancing right, brandishing spear
M2 Minerva advancing right, brandishing spear, on capital of rostral column, accompanied by owl
M3 Minerva standing, facing left, with thunderbolt and spear and shield behind her feet
M4 Minerva standing left with spear

315 files, last one added on Jun 19, 2022
Album viewed 260 times

Imperial Coinage of Julia Titi


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Flavia Julia Titi - Augusta 80-91 AD

Imperial coins are arranged according to the new RIC II Part 1.

References cited:
• RIC - The Roman Imperial Coinage II Part 1, I. Carradice and T.V. Buttrey (London, 2007)
• BMC - Coins of the Roman Empire in the British Museum II, H. Mattingly (London, 1966)
• RSC - Roman Silver Coins II, H.A. Seaby (London, 1979)
• RPC - Roman Provincial Coinage II, A. Burnett, M. Amandry, I. Carradice (London and Paris, 1999)
• BNC - Monnaies de l'Empire Romain III, J.-B. Giard (Paris, 1998)

RIC frequency ratings:
R3 = unique
R2 = very few examples known
R = rare
C = common
C2 = very common
C3 = extremely common

4 files, last one added on Jan 17, 2020
Album viewed 19 times

Imperial Coinage of Domitia


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Domitia Longina - Augusta 81-96 AD

Imperial coins are arranged according to the new RIC II Part 1.

References cited:
• RIC - The Roman Imperial Coinage II Part 1, I. Carradice and T.V. Buttrey (London, 2007)
• BMC - Coins of the Roman Empire in the British Museum II, H. Mattingly (London, 1966)
• RSC - Roman Silver Coins II, H.A. Seaby (London, 1979)
• RPC - Roman Provincial Coinage II, A. Burnett, M. Amandry, I. Carradice (London and Paris, 1999)
• BNC - Monnaies de l'Empire Romain III, J.-B. Giard (Paris, 1998)

RIC frequency ratings:
R3 = unique
R2 = very few examples known
R = rare
C = common
C2 = very common
C3 = extremely common

1 files, last one added on Jul 25, 2018
Album viewed 13 times

Provincial Coinage of the Flavian Dynasty


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Flavian Dynasty 69-96 AD

Provincial coins are arranged according to RPC II.

References cited:
• RPC - Roman Provincial Coinage II, A. Burnett, M. Amandry, I. Carradice (London and Paris, 1999)
• Hendin - Guide to Biblical Coins, D. Hendin (New York, 2010)
• Emmett - Alexandrian Coins, K. Emmett (Lodi, Wisconsin, 2001)
• Dattari-Savio - Catalogo completo della collezione Dattari Numi Augg. Alexandrini, A. Savio, ed. (Trieste, 1999)
• Prieur - The Syro-Phoenician Tetradrachms and their Fractions from 57 BC to AD 258, M. Prieur & K. Prieur (Lancaster, PA, 2000)

RPC frequency is determined by the number of specimens in the 'core collections'.

Core collections:
Berlin, Staatliche Museen
Cambridge, Fitzwilliam Museum
Copenhagen, Nationalmuseet
Glasgow, Hunterian Museum
London, British Museum
Munich, Staatliche Münzsammlung
New York, American Numismatic Society
Oxford, Ashmolean Museum
Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale de France
Vienna, Kunsthistorisches Museum

141 files, last one added on Jun 26, 2022
Album viewed 62 times

Restoration Coinage of the Flavian Dynasty


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Flavian Dynasty 69-96 AD

Restoration coins are arranged according to the new RIC II Part 1.

References cited:
• RIC - The Roman Imperial Coinage II Part 1, I. Carradice and T.V. Buttrey (London, 2007)
• BMC - Coins of the Roman Empire in the British Museum II, H. Mattingly (London, 1966)
• BNC - Monnaies de l'Empire Romain III, J.-B. Giard (Paris, 1998)

RIC frequency ratings:
R3 = unique
R2 = very few examples known
R = rare
C = common
C2 = very common
C3 = extremely common

9 files, last one added on May 28, 2022
Album viewed 26 times

 

7 albums on 1 page(s)

Last additions - David Atherton's Gallery
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Vespasian-RIC-1331Æ As, 9.52g
Tarraco(?) mint, 70 AD
Obv: IMP CAESAR VESPASIANVS AVG P M TR P; Head of Vespasian, laureate, r.
Rev: S C in field; IMP V P P COS II DESIG III FORT RED; Fortuna, draped, standing l.,setting r. hand on prow and holding cornucopiae in l. hand
RIC 1337 (R). BMC spec. acquired 1989. BNC -.
Acquired from eBay, June 2022.

Spain declared for Vespasian late in 69 after the second battle of Cremona in October. Spanish mints immediately began striking coinage in all metals for Vespasian, with perhaps Tarraco being the main mint of the province. The early aes coinage copies many of the reverse designs seen on the precious metals at Rome, as is the case with this Fortuna type. All the coins from the issue are quite rare indicating they were not struck for any length of time, perhaps only to address a shortage of bronze coinage in the region. This as additionally has an unusual and extremely rare variant reverse legend. Missing from the Paris collection.
2 commentsDavid AthertonJul 02, 2022
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RPC-2017-Domitian as Caesar [Vespasian]Æ Semis, 6.35g
Antioch mint, 76-77 AD
Obv: DOMITIANVS CAESAR; Head of Domitian, laureate, bearded, l.
Rev: S • C in laurel wreath
RPC 2017 (34 spec.).
Acquired from Ken Dorney, June 2022.

An undated issue of leaded bronze coins with Latin legends were struck at Antioch sometime between 76 and 78. They can be distinguished from an earlier Rome mint issue with similar designs by the local style and 12 o'clock die axis. Production of the series likely commenced soon after the Rome issue had run its course. This Domitian Caesar semis is much commoner than the corresponding examples struck for Vespasian and Titus Caesar.
David AthertonJun 26, 2022
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Vespasian RIC-581Æ Dupondius, 12.53g
Rome mint, 73 AD
Obv: IMP CAES VESP AVG P M T P COS IIII CENS; Head of Vespasian, radiate, l.
Rev: FELICITAS PVBLICA; S C in field; Felicitas stg. l., with caduceus and cornucopiae
RIC 581 (C). BMC 661. BNC 652.
Acquired from CGB.fr, June 2022.

In 73 Vespasian and Titus Caesar held a joint censorship which was duly recorded on the coinage. The Felicitas on the reverse symbolises the prosperity and abundance Vespasian has brought to the empire after a period of turmoil. It is easily one of the commonest reverse types struck for the dupondius issues during Vespasian's reign.
1 commentsDavid AthertonJun 24, 2022
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Domitian RIC-605 AR Denarius, 3.14g
Rome mint, 88 AD
Obv: IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM P M TR P VIII; Head of Domitian, laureate, bearded, l.
Rev: COS XIIII across field; Column inscribed LVD SAEC FEC; all within laurel wreath
RIC 605 (R3). BMC -. RSC -. BNC -.
Ex CNG E517, 1 June 2022, lot 509. A. Short Collection, acquired from Peus 2021.

In October 88 AD Domitian held the Secular Games, a festival featuring theatrical performances and circus games accompanied by six various daytime and night-time religious ceremonies. The games marked the transition from one era (saeculum) to another and were supposedly held once every 110 years, or the maximum span of a human lifetime, making them a 'once in a lifetime' event. Domitian conducted his games on the Augustan calculation, rejecting the formula for the Claudian games held in 47 AD. The festival was important enough to interrupt the normal striking of reverse types on the coinage and for the mint to produce a new unique issue commemorating the event both in precious metal and bronze. The precious metal designs tended to be symbolic while the bronze were more narrative in nature, focusing on the various religious sacrifices that were at the heart of the games. Three reverse designs were produced for the denarii: herald with wand, cippus (column) within wreath, and herald standing by a cippus and incense burner. The vast majority of the Secular Games denarii were produced with right facing portraits, only a scarce handful feature one facing left. This cippus reverse with portrait left is only the second known specimen, the lone example cited by RIC is from the ANS collection (a double die match), a supreme testament to its rarity!
2 commentsDavid AthertonJun 19, 2022
RPC2011.jpg
RPC-2011-Vespasian Æ Semis, 7.53g
Antioch mint, undated
Obv: IMP CAESAR VESPASIAN AVG; Head of Vespasian, laureate, l.
Rev: S C; in laurel wreath
RPC 2011 (12 spec.).
Acquired from David Connors, June 2022.

An undated issue of leaded bronze coins with Latin legends were struck at Antioch sometime between 76 and 78. They can be distinguished from an earlier Rome mint issue with similar designs by the local style and 12 o'clock die axis. Production of the series likely commenced soon after the Rome issue had run its course. This semis likely dates between 76-78 and is very close in style to the contemporary Cypriot tetradrachms struck at Antioch.
David AthertonJun 17, 2022
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RPC-1605-Titus as Caesar [Vespasian] Æ19, 6.21g
Antioch Pisidia (Galatia-Cappadocia) mint, 76 AD
Obv: T CAES IMP PONT; Head of Titus, laureate, r.
Rev: ANT COL; Priest holding vexillum ploughing with two oxen, r.; above, crescent
RPC 1605 (9 spec.).
Acquired from eBay, June 2022.

Antioch Pisidia became a Roman colony under Augustus. Coins were sparingly struck under Augustus (probably a foundational issue) and Nero. Under Vespasian a small issue was struck commemorating the foundation of the colony by the veterans of the 5th and 7th legions. Although this coin is undated, it is in similar style to those struck in 76 with Vespasian as COS VII and Titus Caesar as COS V. The ploughing ritual depicted is the creation of a boundary known as the sulcus primigenius, the first furrow, which delineated the line of the pomerium. The pomerium was a city’s ritual boundary which demarcation the sacred from the profane. The creation of this boundary was the first step in the foundation of a new colony.
1 commentsDavid AthertonJun 12, 2022
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RPC-2591-DomitianÆ Obol, 4.49g
Alexandria mint, 90-91 AD
Obv: ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙϹΑΡ ΔΟΜΙΤ ϹƐΒ ΓƐΡΜ; Head of Domitian, laureate, r.
Rev: LΙ; Hippopotamus, r.
RPC 2591 (0 spec.). Emmett 320.10. Dattari-Savio 615.
Acquired from London Ancient Coins, May 2022. Ex Naville Numismatics 72, 27 March 2022, lot 254.

The Alexandrian mint under Domitian around regnal year 10  experienced a 'dramatic improvement in style' and the 'adoption of a wide range of new types' (Milne). One of those new types was this ethnic hippopotamus reverse that had previously been struck under the Julio-Claudians. The hippo in local Egyptian mythology was a potent symbol of prosperity, rebirth, and regeneration. In the days of the pharaohs the killing of a hippo was symbolic of courage and strength. Hippo hunts were necessary due to the animal's habit of grazing and destroying precious crops. Today the Nile hippopotamus is extinct in Egypt. This Domitanic hippo obol is extremely rare, likely due to it being sparingly struck for just a couple of issues.

2 commentsDavid AthertonJun 10, 2022
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Vespasian RIC 10 Æ As, 10.12g
Rome mint, 70 AD
Obv: IMP CAESAR AVG•VIISPAS•SIAN ; Head of Vespasian, bare, r.
Rev: PROVID in exergue; S C in field; Altar
RIC 10 (R2). BMC -. BNC -.
Acquired from London Ancient Coins, May 2022.

A rare Rome mint first bronze issue as struck for Vespasian in early 70. The standardised legend formula and portrait for Vespasian had yet to be developed. Instead, we have an unusual obverse legend featuring the odd misspelling VIISPAS•SIAN(!) paired with a bare headed portrait of the newly throned emperor. Although attributed to Rome, RIC speculates this could be an early Spanish issue, however, there are no Spanish findspots attested. The reverse copies a Provident Altar type struck for Divus Augustus by Tiberius and was later revived during the Civil War by Galba and Vitellius. This is the first occasion of the type on Flavian coinage. Bronze coinage was not the Rome mint's primary concern at the outset, as evident by the extreme rarity of this early as. It may have predated the massive denarius issues which were struck later that same year. Missing from both the BM and Paris collections. Obverse and reverse die match with the lone Oxford specimen cited by RIC.

I can forgive the off-centre obverse legend and worn state, especially for such a scarce piece!
1 commentsDavid AthertonJun 05, 2022
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Domitian RIC-230 Æ As, 9.63g
Rome mint, 84 AD
Obv: IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM COS X; Head of Domitian, laureate, bearded, r., with aegis
Rev: S C in field; Victory adv. r., holding aquila with both hands
RIC 230 (R). BMC -. BNC -.
Acquired from CGB.fr, May 2022.

The Victory holding aquila reverse was fleetingly struck for Domitian in 84 and 85 amidst the flurry of Germania Capta types, which it is undoubtedly a part of. Of note, the COS X issues are the first appearance of the Domitian's new title of Germanicus (GERM), awarded for his recent triumph over the Chatti. This rare variant of the type with an abbreviated obverse legend is missing from both the BM and Paris, RIC cites only one specimen in Glasgow.
1 commentsDavid AthertonJun 03, 2022
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Vespasian-RIC-1426(5A)1 AR Denarius, 2.80g
Ephesus mint, 71 AD
Obv: IMP CAESAR VESPAS AVG COS III TR P P P; Head of Vespasian, laureate, r.
Rev: AVG in oak wreath, no mintmark
RIC 1426(5A)1 (R2). BMC -. RPC -. BNC -.
Acquired from Kornblum, May 2022. Ex Gorny and Mosch 216, 10 October 2013, lot 2968.


Ephesus struck a series of stylish denarii early in Vespasian's reign. Previously, it was thought all but the first issue were produced with mintmarks, that is until several specimens dated COS III recently surfaced that unquestionably lack any such control marks. The new RIC II.1 Addenda & Corrigenda records three COS III reverse types lacking mintmarks: AVG in oak wreath, confronting heads of Titus and Domitian, and Turreted female bust. All three types are known for Vespasian, just one specimen (turreted female bust) is recorded for Titus Caesar. All of these types are known from unique specimens, except for the AVG in oak wreath type with just two specimens cited by the A&C, the present coin being the second one listed. In all, only five no mintmark specimens for the entire issue are recorded in the A&C - with this latest addition four of them now reside in my collection.

Ted Buttrey wrote in the RIC II Addenda the following concerning the no mintmark issue:

'I’m not terribly happy about this. It’s a convenient way to draw together several pieces which lack the mintmark, placing them after the completion of the ΘΙ and ΘΥ Groups 3-5 and the inception of Group 6 with ΕΡΗ —. But why should they have given up on a mintmark in mid-course, when all of Groups 2-9 are marked? The choices are – (i) mintmark on coins worn away; (ii) engraver forgot to add mintmark to the dies; (iii) issue deliberately produced without mintmark. Assuming (iii) for the moment, the new Group takes the place of fnn. 46-47, pp.162-3, and fits here nicely with V’s title for Groups 5-6, and T’s for Group 6, But I have no fixed opinion, and await the appearance of others of this variety.'

I lean towards iii being the likeliest option - if accidental, why do we not see no mintmarks specimens throughout the series? Why are they only dated COS III? IMHO, the likeliest explanation is the no mintmark denarii were deliberately struck, albeit rather briefly (perhaps only for a few days), prior to or just after the COS III ΘΥ issue and before the much larger EPH issue was struck.
4 commentsDavid AthertonMay 29, 2022
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RIC 437 Drusus, Restored by Titus Æ As, 9.40g
Rome mint, 80-81 AD
Obv: DRVSVS CAESAR TI AVG F DIVI AVG N; Head of Drusus, bare, l.
Rev: IMP T CAES DIVI VESP F AVG REST; S C in centre
RIC 437 var. BMC 286 var. BNC 298 var.
Acquired from Aegean, May 2022.

Titus struck an extensive restoration series of bronze coins of Flavian approved past emperors and imperial family members which reproduced the original coins in their entirety. While this veneration of past coinages was not a new idea (Vespasian copied past types on many reverses for the precious metal issues) it was quite an innovation to copy both the obverse and reverse of these past coinages. To do so likely had a dual purpose - one, to recoin types that were being recalled or falling out of circulation and to keep their memory alive, and secondly to link the Flavian house with those past revered personages. The meaning is quite clear on the reverse with Titus declaring he has restored (REST) this coin. Drusus was the son of the emperor Tiberius. This coin faithfully reproduces a similar type struck for him under his father. Curtis Clay has observed "The rev. legend on restored bronzes of Titus generally starts at upper right if the type is merely S C surrounded by one or two lines of legend, but at lower left if an actual old reverse type is reproduced along with the regular S C." This as is one of those special variants that faithfully reproduces the old reverse type.
David AthertonMay 28, 2022
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Domitian RIC-710Æ Semis, 2.90g
Rome mint, 90-91 AD
Obv: IMP DOMIT AVG GERM COS XV; Bust of Apollo, draped, r.; in front, branch
Rev: S C in exergue; Raven stg. r. on laurel branch
RIC 710 (C). BMC 453. BNC 484.
Acquired from Den of Antiquity, May 2022.

Domitian's smaller bronzes rarely feature a portrait of the emperor. This semis from 90-91 sports a bust of Apollo on the obverse and, appropriately enough, his divine messenger a raven on the reverse. Perhaps an allusion to Domitian's support of the arts.
David AthertonMay 21, 2022

Random files - David Atherton's Gallery
RPC2420-.jpg
RPC-2420-VespasianÆ Diobol, 8.85g
Alexandria mint, 69-70 AD
Obv: ΑΥΤΟΚ ΚΑΙΣ ΣΕΒΑ ΟΥΕΣΠΑΣΙΑΝΟΥ; Head of Vespasian, laureate, r.
Rev: LΒ; bust of Isis, r.
RPC 2420 (8 spec.).
Acquired from CGB.fr, September 2020.

This diobol struck in Vespasian's second regnal year features a bust of the goddess Isis wearing a headdress of cow horns enclosing a sun disk. The cult of Isis was very popular during the First Century and was given a particular boost by the Flavians, likely owing to Vespasian's lengthy sojourn in Alexandria prior to his arrival in Rome. Tellingly, Vespasian and Titus's joint triumphal procession of 71 at Rome started at the Temple of Isis where they had spent the night, a good indication of how important the Isis cult was to the Flavians. I think it's no accident this ethnic type was chosen as a standard reverse design for Vespasian's Alexandrian bronzes.

Nicely centred with good details.
1 commentsDavid Atherton
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Domitian RIC 99AR Denarius, 3.40g
Rome mint, 82 AD
Obv: IMP CAES DOMITIANVS AVG P M; Head of Domitian, laureate, bearded, r.
Rev: TR POT COS VIII P P; Minerva stg. l., with Victory and spear; at feet, shield
RIC 99 (R). BMC 25. RSC 592a. BNC -.
Acquired from Pars Coins, eBay, 20 January 2016.

A rare coin that is part of the first issue of 82, but the last to be struck on the old standard. After this issue Domitian would increase the fineness and weight of the denarius as part of a coinage reform. Minerva and Victory did not become one of the standard Minerva types that were struck year after year until the end of the reign. It made its last appearance in this issue and is the scarcest type of the series.

Struck with new dies in superb veristic style. A really beautiful denarius showcasing the fine technical and artistic craftsmanship of the Rome mint.
8 commentsDavid Atherton
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Titus RIC 06AR Denarius, 2.80g
Rome mint, 79 AD
Obv: IMP TITVS CAES VESPASIAN AVG P M; Head of Titus, laureate, bearded, r.
Rev: TR P VIIII IMP XIIII COS VII; Ceres std. l., with corn ears and poppy and torch
RIC 6 (R2). BMC p. 432. RSC 270a. BNC 1.
Acquired from Marc Walter, eBay, 25 August 2012.

Minted in 79 AD after 1 July, this is an early denarius, indicated by the absence of P P (Pater Patriae) in the reverse legend.
The Ceres reverse is a carry-over type struck by Vespasian in 79 before his death and adopted by Titus after he donned the purple.

A type that is quite rare and hard to come by in trade. A reverse die match with the RIC plate coin.
7 commentsDavid Atherton

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