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Coins depicting Britannia from the time of Antoninus Pius up until her final fleeting appearance on the currency of Britain at the beginning of the 21st Century

79 files, last one added on Nov 30, 2020



A variety of coins ranging from Antoninus Pius in the Roman period up to the time of the Commonwealth following the death of Charles I

68 files, last one added on Sep 08, 2021



The Kingdom of Macedonia was centred on the plain in the northeastern corner of the Greek peninsula, at the head of the Gulf of Thermai. In the 4th century BC it achieved hegemony over Greece and, under Alexander the Great, conquered lands as far east as the Indus River, establishing a short-lived empire that introduced the Hellenistic Age of ancient Greek civilisation. This gallery contains Macedonian issues from Amyntas III to Alexander the Great.

14 files, last one added on May 24, 2021



A range of Roman coins including those which commemorate specific historical events as well as City Commemorative and Divus/Diva types.

84 files, last one added on Apr 30, 2020



Greek Imperial (Roman Provincial) coins struck at Alexandria, Egypt from the time of Nero until the issues ceased in the time of Diocletian.

19 files, last one added on Jan 02, 2019



A selection of imperial coins up to the reign of Carinus.

29 files, last one added on Feb 01, 2019



A selection of coins from the reign of Probus, with special thanks to Martin Griffiths (maridvnvm) for his help with some of my attributions.

20 files, last one added on Oct 03, 2018



Coins issued by those who ruled during the period of the Tetrarchy initiated by Diocletian.

20 files, last one added on Jun 21, 2018



A selection of coins issued during the reign of Constantine I and Licinius I

37 files, last one added on Feb 28, 2021



Coins struck during the reigns of the family of Constantine up to the reign of Julian II.

34 files, last one added on Sep 16, 2020



Mostly issues of the late 4th to early 5th century

48 files, last one added on Jan 08, 2020



18th century tokens first appeared in 1787 and were struck in large numbers over the next ten years. They began as payment for workers in the manufacturing and mining industries of the early Industrial Revolution but proved so popular that pieces for general circulation were soon issued.
At the beginning of the 19th century official coins were again in short supply and by 1811, penny, halfpenny and farthing tokens were once more being manufactured. These tokens became extremely popular and were accepted locally as a regular medium of exchange until they were all banned following the great re-coinage of 1816.

59 files, last one added on Feb 07, 2019



Historically, a jeton was at first just a counter, then a sort of small medal and finally more like a token.
During the Middle Ages, jetons were only used as counters for calculations on a lined board similar to an abacus. After the Renaissance, especially under Louis XIV, they were issued as small medals depicting the great events of the king's reign. They were very popular during the17th and 18th centuries and became collector's items in France and the Netherlands, the first catalogues date from the beginning of the 17th century. Collectors were especially interested in them as a source and illustration of history, which was sometimes called building up an "histoire metallique," a history in metal.
This gallery primarily contains jetons issued during the reign of Louis XIV.

9 files, last one added on Jul 25, 2018

FORVM - Linked Items


Nothing to see here.

62 files, last one added on Sep 08, 2021

14 albums on 1 page(s)

Last additions - *Alex's Gallery
60 – 61 AD, IRON AGE BRITAIN, Tribe: Iceni, AR Unit, Struck under Boudica (Boadicea)Obverse: No legend. Abstract Celtic style head with slit for eye and no ear facing right. Three pellets below head, branch emblem behind neck.
Reverse: No legend. Celtic style horse facing right, lozenge-shaped box with pellets on outer corners below horse. Section of large elaborate wheel-like object above horse, pellet below horse's tail.
Class: Icenian O
Diameter: 14mm | Weight: 0.9gms | Axis: 10
Spink: 434

The first known recorded example of this coin was made by William Stukely, an English antiquarian whose ideas influenced various antiquaries throughout the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. Stukeley published over twenty books on archaeology and other subjects during his lifetime and he is regarded as an important forerunner of archaeology for his emphasis on methodically measuring and documenting ancient sites. He died of a stroke in early 1765.
The theory that this coinage was connected with Boudica was originally reported in 1987 and this was endorsed by R D Van Arsdell, an authority on the Celtic coinage of Britain, as Boudican in the 1990's. At the time though this was disputed by many in the numismatic community, some of whom continued to rely on older studies that lumped all "Face-Horse" coins together in a group dating before 20 A.D.
However, John Talbot of the University of Oxford carried out research on these issues and, as his die-link and hoard work gradually progressed through the 1990's into the early twenty-first century, these coins were confirmed to be the final coinage of the Iceni. As Talbot's findings were only gradually revealed over a period of time, the accepted dating used in some dealer catalogues did not always keep up with the latest information. During his studies, Talbot discovered that coins from several die sets are only found in the Boudican Rebellion hoards. He also confirmed that these coins were struck in abnormally great numbers for any Icenian issue. But, because he was not certain that this was enough evidence to date the coins to 61 A.D. he suggested only that they could have been struck any time after the Claudian Invasion of 43 A.D.
However, considering that it is still the case that these coins appear in uncirculated condition in the Boudican Rebellion hoards, that some die sets are known only from the hoards, and that to date none of these coins have been found from secure contexts earlier than the time of the Boudican rebellion, the current consensus is that the 1987 report was essentially correct and these coins must have been struck nearer to the date of the Boudican Rebellion than earlier, possibly in connection with the financing of that rebellion. The conclusion now is that these coins can, with some confidence, be attributed to Boudica.

2 comments*AlexSep 08, 2021
Queen Boudica was married to Prasutagus, ruler of the Iceni people of East Anglia. When the Romans conquered southern England in AD 43, they allowed Prasutagus to continue to rule. However, when Prasutagus died he left a will dividing his lands between the Roman emperor and his family. The Romans decided to rule the Iceni directly and confiscated all the king's property. When this was contested they are said to have stripped and flogged Boudica and raped her daughters. These actions exacerbated the widespread resentment at Roman rule.
In 60 or 61 AD, while the Roman governor Gaius Suetonius Paullinus was leading a campaign in North Wales, the Iceni rebelled, other tribes joined them, and Boudica led a major uprising against the occupying Roman forces.
Boudica's warriors defeated the Roman Ninth Legion and destroyed the then capital of Roman Britain, Camulodunum (Colchester). They then went on to destroy Londinium (London) and Verulamium (St Albans) killing thousands in the process. Finally, Boudica was defeated by a Roman army led by Paulinus. A great number of her army were killed and, though Boudica's fate is unknown, she is alleged to have either died in battle or poisoned herself to avoid capture. The site of the battle which brought an end to her uprising is also unknown.
The photograph above is of the Victorian statue of Boudica (Boadicea) situated on the Thames embankment in London.
*AlexSep 08, 2021
The Iceni were a tribe located in eastern Britain during the Iron Age and the early Roman era. Their territory was bordered by the Corieltauvi to the west, and the Catuvellauni and Trinovantes to the south. In the Roman period, their capital was Venta Icenorum at modern-day Caistor St Edmund.
Julius Caesar did not mention the Iceni in his account of his invasions of Britain in 55 and 54 BC, though they may have been related to the Cenimagni, whom Caesar notes as living north of the River Thames at that time. The Iceni were a significant power in eastern Britain during Claudius I's conquest of Britain in AD 43, in which they allied with Rome. Increasing Roman influence on their affairs led to a revolt in AD 47, though they remained nominally independent under king Prasutagus up until his death around AD 60. Roman encroachment after Prasutagus' death led his wife Boudica to launch a major revolt from 60–61. Boudica's uprising seriously endangered Roman rule in Britain and resulted in the burning of Londinium and other cities. The Romans finally crushed the rebellion, and the Iceni were eventually incorporated into the Roman province.
Archaeological evidence of the Iceni includes torcs, which are heavy rings of gold, silver or electrum worn around the neck and shoulders. The Iceni began producing coins around 10 BC. Their coins were a distinctive adaptation of the Gallo-Belgic "face/horse" design, and in some early issues, most numerous near Norwich, the horse was replaced with a boar. Some coins are inscribed ECENI, making them the only coin-producing group to use their tribal name on coins. The earliest personal name to appear on coins is Antedios (about 10 BC), and other abbreviated names like AESU and SAEMU followed. The name of Prasutagus also appears on some coins as PRASTO.
*AlexSep 08, 2021
2nd - 1st Century BC, IRON AGE BRITAIN, Tribe: Durotriges, Base AR Stater, Struck c.40 BCObverse: No legend. Abstract head of Apollo made up of pellets and lines.
Reverse: No legend. Crude disjointed horse with three tails standing facing left, large group of pellets and “coffee bean” symbol above, single pellet below.
One of a small group of coins found west of Cheriton, south east of Winchester.
Diameter: 19mm | Weight: 2.89gms | Axis: Unclear
Spink: 366

The Durotriges were one of the Celtic tribes living in Britain that issued coinage prior to the Roman invasion. They occupied the largest hillfort in Britain, Maiden Castle, until around 100 B.C.

*AlexAug 02, 2021
The Durotriges were one of the Celtic tribes living in Britain prior to the Roman invasion. They were one of the groups that issued coinage before the Roman conquest. Their coins were abstract and simple and had no inscriptions, so no names of any issuers or rulers are known. Nevertheless, the Durotriges presented a settled society, based in the farming of lands surrounded by hill forts, the majority of which seem to have gone out of use by 100 BC, long before the arrival of the Romans in 43 or 44 AD. Constructed initially around 600 BC, the Durotriges ultimately occupied the largest hill fort in Britain, Maiden Castle, which encloses some 19 hectares (47 acres). Around 100 BC though, for some reason habitation at the hill fort went into decline and became concentrated at the eastern end of the site. Maiden Castle appears to have been abandoned after the Roman conquest of Britain although the Romans later built a small temple on the site.
The tribe lived in an area centred on Dorset, south Wiltshire, south Somerset and Devon east of the River Axe. Their territory was bordered to the west by the Dumnonii; and to the north east by the Belgae. The area controlled by the Durotriges is identified in part by coin finds, few Durotrigan coins are found in the south eastern tribal areas, so it would appear unlikely that they were acceptable there. A recent coin hoard found on the Isle of Wight, however, would seem to indicate that the Durotriges might have had some influence at least over the western half of the island.
The Durotriges' main outlet for trade across the Channel, strong in the first half of the 1st century BC before drying up in the decades prior to the arrival of the Romans, was at Hengistbury Head. The numismatic evidence indicates a progressive debasing of the coinage suggesting economic difficulties in conjunction with their declining trade.
*AlexJul 31, 2021
2nd - 1st Century BC, IRON AGE BRITAIN, Tribe: Cantii, AE Potin, Minted 100 - 30 BCObverse: No legend. Crude outline of head facing right; pellet within circle in centre.
Reverse: No legend. Crude lines representing a bull facing left, crescents above.
Flat Linear type, Class 1
Found, Thames Valley region, England
Diameter: 17mm | Weight: 1.9gms | Axis: 3h
BMC: 667-714 | SPINK: 63

The Cantii produced the first coins to be actually made in Britain.
These coins were cast in strips which were then cut into separate coins and as a result often retain characteristic cut edges from the runlets which joined them together.

3 comments*AlexJul 25, 2021
The Cantii (after whom Kent and Canterbury are named) were the major tribal group in the South East region of England, bordered by the Atrebates, Regni and Catuvellauni.
This region was heavily influenced by continental cultures on the periphery of the early Roman world and this resulted in the Cantii producing the first coins actually made in Britain. These are known as “potins” and they were produced between the mid 2nd to the mid 1st century BC. The earliest versions are known as Kentish Primary, or Thurrock, types. Comparatively the later types, like those from the recently discovered Hillingdon Hoard, are of the “flat linear” type, which uses simplified and abstracted images. Similar coins from the late Iron Age have been found, but in much smaller quantities.
The word “potin” is of French origin and is used to describe these early coins which were cast in clay moulds from a copper alloy with a high tin content. They would have been shiny and silver-coloured when new, and though occasionally examples have turned up which retain this colouration, most coins by the time they get dug up have a characteristic black patina from tin oxidation. These were cast in strips which were then cut into separate coins and as a result often retain characteristic cut edges from the runlets which joined them together. The moulds themselves were made using “master” matrices of copper alloy which were cast with the design for one side of a coin in high relief and pressed into the clay. A rare example of a mould of this type was found a few miles west of the Surrey border in Hampshire.
The designs of the majority of potins found in England derive ultimately from coins produced in the Greek colonial Mediterranean city of Massalia (modern Marseilles) in southern Gaul in the late 4th century BC. These coins featured a head of Apollo on the obverse and a charging bull on the reverse. They were originally imported from the continent and later locally copied in the mid 2nd century BC, in the form of what are known as “Thurrock” types, which adhere closely to the original design. Later forms, known as “flat linear” types, greatly simplified this design into deep abstraction, ultimately reducing the head of Apollo to an outline and the bull to a trapezoidal arrangement of lines
We don’t know what these coins were called by the people who made them, or what they were worth in fiscal terms, but they are generally only found in south east England, which probably reflects the limits of the political and economic influence of the Cantii themselves. It isn't even clear what the role of these Iron Age coins actually was, though it is likely that they assisted in the maintenance of some kind of social power structure. Coins were not generally used as day to day currency by the people of Britain in the 1st and 2nd centuries BC, so apart from any monetary transactions, their range of uses probably included the storage of wealth, use as political tribute, and / or votive objects used as offerings to the gods.
*AlexJul 24, 2021
1485 - 1509, HENRY VII, AR Penny, Struck 1485 - 1500 under Archbishop Rotherham at York, EnglandObverse: HENRIC DI GRA REX AN. Crowned and robed figure of Henry VII holding a lis topped sceptre in his right hand and a globus cruciger in his left, seated facing on throne, the one visible pillar of which is topped with a lis, all except the king's crown within a circle of pellets.
Reverse: CIVITAS EBORACI. Shield bearing coat-of-arms of England and France on cross fourchée, two keys below shield.
Diameter: 17mm | Weight: 0.6gms | Die Axis: 3h
SPINK: 2237

1 comments*AlexJul 12, 2021
LINK TO COINThomas Rotherham, Archbishop of York
Thomas Rotherham, also known as Thomas (Scot) de Rotherham, was an English cleric and statesman. He served as bishop of several dioceses, most notably as Archbishop of York and, on two occasions as Lord Chancellor. Rotherham was educated at King's College, Cambridge, he graduated as a Bachelor of Divinity and became a Fellow of his college where he lectured on Grammar, Theology, and Philosophy. After his ordination as a priest, he became a prebendary of Lincoln in 1462 and then of Salisbury in 1465. He moved on to powerful positions in the Church, being appointed as Bishop of Rochester in 1468, Bishop of Lincoln in 1472, and then Archbishop of York in 1480, a position he held until his death in 1500.
In 1467, King Edward IV appointed Rotherham as Keeper of the Privy Seal. He was sent as ambassador to France in 1468 and as joint ambassador to Burgundy in 1471, and in 1475 was entrusted with the office of Lord Chancellor. When Edward IV died in April 1483, Rotherham was one of the celebrants of the funeral mass on 20th April 1483 and immediately after Edward's death he sided with the dowager queen, Elizabeth Woodville, in her attempt to deprive Richard, Duke of Gloucester of his role as Lord Protector of her son, the new King Edward V. When Elizabeth sought sanctuary after Richard had taken charge of the king, Rotherham released the Great Seal to her (though he later recovered it and handed it over to Thomas Bourchier, the Archbishop of Canterbury).
Rotherham's mishandling of the seal was perceived as indicative of questionable loyalty and led to his dismissal as Lord Chancellor. He was replaced by John Russell, who earlier had also been his successor as Bishop of Lincoln. On 13th June 1483, Rotherham was charged with being involved in a conspiracy between Lord Hastings and the Woodvilles against Richard and imprisoned in the Tower of London, but he was released a few weeks later, around the middle of July, after Richard's coronation as King Richard III. Rotherham was re-instated as Chancellor in 1485, however he was dismissed shortly afterwards by Henry VII and retired from public work.
Rotherham died of the plague in Cawood near York on 29th May 1500. His remains were transferred to a magnificent marble tomb in York Minster in 1506.
*AlexJul 12, 2021
Flavius Valerius Severus Augustus was a Western Roman Emperor from 306 to 307. He was born in Northern Illyria (now Albania) and rose to become a senior officer in the Roman army. As an old friend of Galerius, that emperor appointed Severus as Caesar on 1 May 305 and he thus served as junior emperor under Constantius I in the Western Roman Empire.
When Constantius I died in the summer of 306, Severus was promoted to Augustus by Galerius under the rules of succession established under the Tetrarchy. However Constantius I had died on campaign in York and his army in Britain had acclaimed his son, Constantine I, as his successor. Although furious at this elevation, Galerius wanted to avoid any threat of a civil war so he compromised by allowing Constantine to bear the title of Caesar.
When this news reached Maxentius, the son of Maximianus, he revolted and declared himself emperor at Rome,
Galerius sent Severus, at the head of an army which had previously been commanded by Maximianus, to suppress the rebellion. Maxentius asked his father to re-assume the purple and rule the empire with him and Maximianus, who had been reluctant to abdicate, readily accepted. When Severus arrived under the walls of Rome to besiege it his men deserted to their old commander forcing Severus to flee to Ravenna. Maximianus offered to spare his life and treat him humanely if he surrendered peaceably. Severus complied but, despite Maximianus' assurance, he was displayed as a captive, imprisoned and later put to death.
*AlexJul 09, 2021
317 - 326, CRISPUS as Caesar, AE3 struck 323 - 324 at Londinium (London), EnglandObverse: CRISPVS NOBIL C. Helmeted and cuirassed bust of Crispus facing left.
Reverse: BEAT TRANQLITAS (sic). Altar, inscribed VOT IS XX in three lines, surmounted by cosmic globe with three stars above; in exergue, PLON.
Diameter: 20mm | Weight: 2.8gms | Die Axis: 6h
RIC VII : 275.

Flavius Julius Crispus was the eldest son of Constantine the Great, he was given the rank of Caesar in A.D.316, at the same time as Flavius Claudius Constantinus (Constantine II), Constantine's eldest son with Fausta, and Valerius Licinianus Licinius (Licinius II), the son of Licinius I.
This coin was struck in connection with the fifteenth anniversary of Constantine the Great.
*AlexJul 05, 2021
309 - 313, MAXIMINUS II as Augustus, AE Follis struck 310 - 312 at Londinium (London), EnglandObverse: IMP MAXIMINVS P F AVG. Laureate and cuirassed bust of Maximinus II facing right.
Reverse: GENIO POP ROM. Genius, turreted, standing facing left, holding patera in right hand and cornucopia in left; in right field, star; in exergue, PLN.
Diameter: 22mm | Weight: 4.00gms | Die Axis: 6h
RIC VI: 209b | SPINK: 715
*AlexJul 04, 2021

Random files - *Alex's Gallery
Kingdom of Macedonia, Alexander the Great, 336 - 323 BC. AE Tetartemorion (Dichalkon / Quarter Obol). Lifetime issue struck 336 - 323 BC at an uncertain mint in Macedonia Obverse: No legend. Young male head wearing a taenia (diadem), who is sometimes identified as Apollo, facing right.
Reverse: AΛEΞANΔPOY. Horse prancing right; mint-mark, below horse, torch.
Diameter: 16mm | Weight: 4.25gms | Die Axis: 7
Price:338 | Sear: 6744

This coin is a Type 4 (horse type) bronze Quarter-Obol (two chalkoi). This likely was one of Alexander's standard bronze denominations, half the value of his Herakles/weapons bronzes, though not seen as frequently. This specimen features a torch as a mint mark, this mint-mark was included with 34 other mint marks by Price in his work.
Struck A.D.324 - 325. CONSTANTINE I as Augustus. AE3 of AntiochObverse: No legend (Anepigraphic). Laureate head of Constantine I facing right.
Reverse: CONSTAN/TINVS/AVG in three lines; wreath above; SMANTB below; • in exergue under A of SMANTB.
RIC VII : 57
1 comments*Alex
Kingdom of Macedonia, Alexander the Great, 336 - 323 BC. AE Hemiobol (4 Chalkoi). Struck 336 - 320 BC, possibly under Philip III at Miletus in Macedonia.Obverse: No legend. Head of Alexander the Great as Herakles, wearing lion-skin knotted at base of neck, facing right.
Reverse: AΛEΞANΔ•POY. Bow in Gorytos (a case for bow and quiver) above, club below. ΠΥΡ monogram control mark below club
Diameter: 18mm | Weight: 5.79gms | Die Axis: 3
Price: 0335

Alexander the Great reigned from 336 to 323 BC. Price supposes this coin to be a lifetime issue and Sear concurs stating that the issues that are more likely to be posthumous are the ones bearing the title BAΣIΛEOΣ. Thompson however, has proposed a posthumous date of 321 - 320 BC (Thompson series IV) based on the compound ΠΥΡ monogram used as a control mark.

It is difficult to interpret the die orientation in these issues because not only is it unclear what the Ancient Greeks would have considered "up" with respect to the reverse design but modern scholars are ambiguous on the subject as well. I have, however, assumed that the modern conventional orientation is with the name reading horizontally, and therefore have described my example as having a 3 o'clock orientation, the "top" of the reverse being aligned with the back of Herakles' head on the obverse.
1 comments*Alex

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