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Coins depicting Britannia from the time of Antoninus Pius up until her final fleeting appearance on the currency of Britain at the beginning of the 21st Century

79 files, last one added on Nov 30, 2020
Album viewed 22 times



This album contains coins associated with Britain ranging from the Iron Age up to the time of the Commonwealth following the death of Charles I.

75 files, last one added on May 20, 2022
Album viewed 18 times



Macedonia was centred on the plain in the northeastern corner of the Greek peninsula, at the head of the Gulf of Thermai. In the 4th century BC it achieved hegemony over Greece and, under Alexander the Great, conquered lands as far east as the Indus River, establishing a short-lived empire that introduced the Hellenistic Age of ancient Greek civilisation. This gallery contains Macedonian issues from the time of Alexander I to Philip V.

16 files, last one added on Dec 28, 2021
Album viewed 12 times



Justinian I, also known as Justinian the Great, was the Eastern Roman emperor from 527 to 565. His reign is marked by his ambitious attempt at the restoration of the Roman Empire achieved by the partial recovery of the lost territories of the Western Empire. Justinian's general, Belisarius, swiftly conquered the Vandal Kingdom in North Africa and then, with the aid of Narses and other generals, he conquered the Ostrogothic kingdom and restored Dalmatia, Sicily, Italy, and Rome itself to the empire. The praetorian prefect Liberius recovered the south of the Iberian peninsula and created the Roman province of Spania. These campaigns not only re-established Roman control over the western Mediterranean but also increased the Empire's annual revenue by over a million solidi.

10 files, last one added on Aug 07, 2022
Album viewed 3 times



A range of Roman coins including those which commemorate specific historical events as well as City Commemorative and Divus/Diva types.

84 files, last one added on Apr 30, 2020
Album viewed 17 times



Greek Imperial (Roman Provincial) coins struck at Alexandria, Egypt from the time of Nero until the issues ceased in the time of Diocletian.

19 files, last one added on Jan 02, 2019
Album viewed 7 times



A selection of imperial coins up to the reign of Carinus.

28 files, last one added on Feb 01, 2019
Album viewed 6 times



A selection of coins from the reign of Probus, with special thanks to Martin Griffiths (maridvnvm) for his help with some of my attributions.

20 files, last one added on Oct 03, 2018
Album viewed 2 times



Coins issued by those who ruled during the period of the Tetrarchy initiated by Diocletian.

20 files, last one added on Jun 21, 2018
Album viewed 1 times



A selection of coins issued during the reign of Constantine I and Licinius I

37 files, last one added on Aug 09, 2022
Album viewed 4 times



Coins struck during the reigns of the family of Constantine up to the reign of Julian II.

34 files, last one added on Sep 16, 2020
Album viewed 2 times



Mostly issues of the late 4th to early 5th century

48 files, last one added on Jan 08, 2020
Album viewed 2 times



18th century tokens first appeared in 1787 and were struck in large numbers over the next ten years. They began as payment for workers in the manufacturing and mining industries of the early Industrial Revolution but proved so popular that pieces for general circulation were soon issued.
At the beginning of the 19th century official coins were again in short supply and by 1811, penny, halfpenny and farthing tokens were once more being manufactured. These tokens became extremely popular and were accepted locally as a regular medium of exchange until they were all banned following the great re-coinage of 1816.

59 files, last one added on Feb 07, 2019
Album viewed 31 times



Historically, a jeton was at first just a counter, then a sort of small medal and finally more like a token.
During the Middle Ages, jetons were only used as counters for calculations on a lined board similar to an abacus. After the Renaissance, especially under Louis XIV, they were issued as small medals depicting the great events of the king's reign. They were very popular during the17th and 18th centuries and became collector's items in France and the Netherlands, the first catalogues date from the beginning of the 17th century. Collectors were especially interested in them as a source and illustration of history, which was sometimes called building up an "histoire metallique," a history in metal.
This gallery contains jetons from the reign of Louis XIII to Louis XV but primarily contains those issued during the reign of Louis XIV.

9 files, last one added on Jul 25, 2018
Album viewed 20 times

FORVM - Linked Items


Nothing to see here.

53 files, last one added on Jul 25, 2022
Album viewed 15 times


15 albums on 1 page(s)

Last additions - *Alex's Gallery
Struck A.D.321. CONSTANTINE I as Augustus. AE3 of Treveri (Trier)Obverse: CONSTANTINVS AVG. Helmeted and cuirassed bust of Constantine facing right.
Reverse: BEATA TRANQVILLITAS. Globe set on altar inscribed VOT/IS/XX in three lines; above, three stars; in exergue, PTR
RIC VII : 303
*AlexAug 09, 2022
Struck A.D.320 - 321. CONSTANTINE I as Augustus. AE3 (Follis) of Treveri (Trier)Obverse: CONSTANTINVS AVG. Helmeted and cuirassed bust of Constantine I facing right.
Reverse: VIRTVS EXERCIT. Two prisoners, hands bound behind their backs, seated back to back beneath trophy. In left field, T; in right field, F; in exergue, STR (Second Officina, Treveri).
RIC VII : 279
*AlexAug 08, 2022
JUSTINIAN I, AE Follis (40 Nummi), struck 545/546 at CyzicusObverse: D N IVSTINIANVS P P AVG. Helmeted and cuirassed facing bust of Justinian I holding globus cruciger in his right hand and shield, adorned with rider galloping right spearing a fallen enemy, in his left; cross in right field.
Reverse: Large M, cross above and officina letter (B = 2nd Officina) below, A/N/N/O in field to left of M and regnal year X/ЧI/II/I in field to right; in exergue, :K•YZ
Diameter: 34mm | Weight: 19.22gms | Die Axis: 6
SBCV: 207 | DOC: 171b.3

Justinian I introduced the system of dating on the Byzantine bronze coinage in the 12th year of his reign (Regnal year 538/39).

546: On December 17th of this year the Ostrogoths under King Totila plundered Rome and destroyed its fortifications. The city fell after almost a year's siege due to the capture, near the mouth of the Tiber, of a grain fleet sent by Pope Vigilius and the failure of the troops sent by the Byzantine Empire under Belisarius to relieve the city. After sacking Rome the Ostrogoths withdrew to Apulia in southern Italy.

*AlexAug 07, 2022
Struck A.D.321. LICINIUS II as CAESAR. AE3 of RomeObverse: LICINIVS IVN NOB C. Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust of Licinius II facing right.
Reverse: ROMAE AETERNAE. Roma seated facing right, inscribing XV on shield set on her knees: in left field, P; in right field, R; in exergue, RT.
RIC VII : 154 | VM : 9.

Struck to celebrate the 15th Anniversary of the reign of Constantine I.
*AlexAug 06, 2022
Struck A.D.327 - 330. CONSTANTINE I as Augustus. AE3 of ConstantinopleObverse: CONSTANTINVS MAX AVG. Rosette diademed, draped and cuirassed bust of Constantine facing right.
Reverse: CONSTANTINIANA DAFNE. Victory seated on cippus facing left, holding palm branch in each hand, head turned away to right spurning kneeling captive at foot of trophy before her. In left field, Z; in exergue, CONS.
RIC VII : 35

This coin most likely symbolized the defeat of Licinius (the Greek word for laurel is daphne, and laurel wreaths were signs of victory). The legend of the Dafne coin would actually translate as 'Constantinian Victory'.
The fort on the north bank of the Danube, often cited as being commemorated on this coin, could very well have been named "Dafne", after all a fort alluding to victory seems more than appropriate and is not without precedent. However, the fort can have no connection with the Dafne coinage, other than the use of the word "Dafne" because the Dafne coins were probably issued as early as A.D.327 and the fort was not constructed until around A.D.330. It seems unlikely a coin was issued to commemorate a fort that was yet to be built.
This coin replaced other reverse types for Constantine and was the only type issued for almost three years exclusively in the name of Constantine, this is an important point. If this coin commemorated the building of a fortress, three years would be a very long time for a coin to have been issued. Becoming the sole ruler of the Roman Empire, however, might just merit a special coinage! Also the adjective CONSTANTINIANA was never used except on this issue, the word is unique to this series. It seems most likely, therefore, that the Dafne coinage commemorates the A.D.324 victory of Constantine over Licinius rather than any other event.

The above comments are from Victor Clark's
"Constantine the Great" website.
*AlexAug 05, 2022
Struck A.D.320. LICINIUS I. AE3 (Nummus) of AquileiaObverse: IMP LICINIVS AVG. Laureate head of Licinius facing right.
Reverse: DOMINI N LICINI AVG. Laurel-wreath around VOT•XX; in exergue; AQS.
RIC VII : 86. Weight 3.3gms.

This coin is one of those struck in c.A.D.320 to commemorate the fifteenth anniversary of the reign of Constantine, which was also celebrated in the West as the fifteenth anniversary of Licinius.
*AlexAug 05, 2022
Struck A.D.322. CONSTANTINE I as Augustus. AE3 of AquileiaObverse: CONSTAN-TINVS AVG. Laureate head of Constantine facing right.
Reverse: D N CONSTANTINI MAX AVG. Laurel wreath encircling palm branches either side of VOT • XX; in exergue, AQP.
RIC VII : 104

This coin is one of the issues struck to commemorate the fifteenth anniversary of Constantine's reign.
*AlexAug 05, 2022
Struck A.D.312 - 313. CONSTANTINE I as Augustus. AE Follis of TicinumObverse: IMP CONSTANTINVS P F AVG. Laureate and cuirassed bust of Constantine facing right.
Reverse: MARTI CONSERVATORI. Mars standing facing right, leaning on shield and holding vertical spear in his right hand; in left field, star; in exergue, T T.
RIC VII : 12
*AlexAug 05, 2022
JUSTINIAN I, AE Half-Follis (20 Nummi), struck 527 – 528 at AntiochObverse: D N IVSTINIANVS P P AVG. Diademed, draped and cuirassed bust of Justinian I facing right.
Reverse: Large K, Large latin cross to left dividing letters A – N / T – X; officina letter to right of K (Γ = third officina).
Diameter: 28mm | Weight: 5.8gms | Die Axis: 12
SBCV: 224a | Not in DOC

This coin was struck prior to Antioch being renamed Theoupolis following the great earthquake that virtually destroyed the city on 29th November 528.
*AlexAug 04, 2022
JUSTINIAN I, AE 16 Nummi, struck 527 – 562 at ThessalonikaObverse: D N IVSTINIANVS P P AVG. Diademed, draped and cuirassed bust of Justinian I facing right..
Reverse: Large AISP; cross between two stars above; TES in exergue below.
Diameter: 23mm | Weight: 5.93gms | Die Axis: 6
SBCV: 177 | DOC: 98c.2

Regarding the letters AISP on the reverse of this coin, it is generally accepted that the "IS" of the inscription equates to "10+6" = "16", a denomination used only at Thessalonika. However the meaning of the letters A and P is still uncertain despite having been the subject of much scholarly debate.
*AlexAug 03, 2022
LINK TO COIN*AlexJul 25, 2022
JUSTINIAN I, AE 16 Nummi, struck 527 – 562 at ThessalonikaObverse: D N IVSTINIANVS P P AVG. Diademed, draped and cuirassed bust of Justinian I facing right.
Reverse: Large AISP; chi-rho monogram above “I”; TES in exergue below.
Diameter: 23mm | Weight: 5.92gms | Die Axis: 6
SBCV: 178 | DOC: 98d.5

Regarding the letters AISP on the reverse of this coin, it is generally accepted that the "IS" of the inscription equates to "10+6" = "16", a denomination used only at Thessalonika. However the meaning of the letters A and P is still uncertain despite having been the subject of much scholarly debate.
*AlexJul 22, 2022

Random files - *Alex's Gallery
309 - 313, MAXIMINUS II as Augustus, AE Follis struck 310 - 312 at Londinium (London), EnglandObverse: IMP MAXIMINVS P F AVG. Laureate and cuirassed bust of Maximinus II facing right.
Reverse: GENIO POP ROM. Genius, turreted, standing facing left, holding patera in right hand and cornucopia in left; in right field, star; in exergue, PLN.
Diameter: 22mm | Weight: 4.00gms | Die Axis: 6h
RIC VI: 209b | SPINK: 715
Struck A.D.364 - 367. VALENS AE3 of ARELATEObverse: D N VALENS P F AVG. Pear-diademed draped and cuirassed bust of Valens facing right.
Reverse: GLORIA ROMANORVM. Valens advancing right, dragging captive and holding labarum; in left field, OF; in right field, I (1st Officina); in exergue, CONST.
RIC IX : 7d
After his succession, Charles quarrelled with the Parliament of England, which sought to curb his royal prerogative. Charles believed in the divine right of kings and thought he could govern according to his own conscience. Many of his subjects opposed his policies, in particular the levying of taxes without parliamentary consent, and perceived his actions as those of a tyrannical absolute monarch. His religious policies, coupled with his marriage to a Roman Catholic, generated the antipathy and mistrust of Reformed groups such as the English Puritans and the Scottish Covenanters, who thought his views were too Catholic. He supported high church Anglican ecclesiastics and his attempts to force the Church of Scotland to adopt high Anglican practices led to the Bishops' Wars, and helped precipitate his own downfall.
From 1642, Charles fought the Parliamentary army in the English Civil War. After his defeat in 1645, he surrendered to a Scottish force that eventually handed him over to the English Parliament. Charles refused to accept his captors' demands for a constitutional monarchy, and after temporarily escaping captivity in November 1647, he was re-imprisoned on the Isle of Wight. Although Charles had managed to forge an alliance with Scotland, by the end of 1648 Oliver Cromwell's New Model Army had consolidated its control over England and Charles was tried, convicted, and executed for high treason in January 1649. The monarchy was abolished and a republic called the Commonwealth of England was declared. The Parliament of Scotland however, proclaimed Charles I's son as King Charles II on the 5th of February 1649.
The political crisis in England that followed the death of Cromwell in 1658 resulted in the restoration of the monarchy whereby Charles II was invited to return and, on the 29th of May 1660, he was received in London to public acclaim. After 1660 all Charles II's legal documents in Britain were dated from 1649, the year when he had succeeded his father as king in Scotland.

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