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Coins depicting Britannia from the time of Antoninus Pius up until her final fleeting appearance on the currency of Britain at the beginning of the 21st Century arranged chronologically.

79 files, last one added on Nov 30, 2020
Album viewed 63 times



This album contains coins associated with Britain ranging from the Iron Age up to the time of the Commonwealth following the death of Charles I, arranged chronologically.

82 files, last one added on Mar 08, 2023
Album viewed 34 times



Macedonia was centred on the plain in the northeastern corner of the Greek peninsula, at the head of the Gulf of Thermai. In the 4th century BC it achieved hegemony over Greece and, under Alexander the Great, conquered lands as far east as the Indus River, establishing a short-lived empire that introduced the Hellenistic Age of ancient Greek civilisation. This gallery contains Macedonian issues from the time of Alexander I to Philip V arranged chronologically.

16 files, last one added on Dec 28, 2021
Album viewed 21 times



Justinian I, also known as Justinian the Great, was the Eastern Roman emperor from 527 to 565. His reign is marked by his ambitious attempt at the restoration of the Roman Empire achieved by the partial recovery of the lost territories of the Western Empire. Justinian's general, Belisarius, swiftly conquered the Vandal Kingdom in North Africa and then, with the aid of Narses and other generals, he conquered the Ostrogothic kingdom and restored Dalmatia, Sicily, Italy, and Rome itself to the empire. The praetorian prefect Liberius recovered the south of the Iberian peninsula and created the Roman province of Spania. These campaigns not only re-established Roman control over the western Mediterranean but also increased the Empire's annual revenue by over a million solidi. The coins in this gallery have been arranged in order of denomination, highest to lowest.

18 files, last one added on Feb 23, 2023
Album viewed 14 times



A range of Roman coins including those which commemorate specific historical events as well as City Commemorative and Divus/Diva types arranged chronologically.

84 files, last one added on Apr 30, 2020
Album viewed 26 times



Greek Imperial (Roman Provincial) coins struck at Alexandria, Egypt from the time of Nero until the issues ceased in the time of Diocletian arranged chronologically.

19 files, last one added on Mar 09, 2023
Album viewed 14 times



A selection of imperial coins up to the reign of Carinus arranged chronologically.

28 files, last one added on Feb 01, 2019
Album viewed 10 times



A selection of coins from the reign of Probus, arranged chronologically. With thanks to Martin Griffiths (maridvnvm) for his help with some of my attributions.

20 files, last one added on Oct 03, 2018
Album viewed 7 times



Coins issued by those who ruled during the period of the Tetrarchy initiated by Diocletian arranged chronologically.

20 files, last one added on Jun 21, 2018
Album viewed 5 times



A selection of coins issued during the reign of Constantine I and Licinius I arranged chronologically.

37 files, last one added on Aug 16, 2022
Album viewed 12 times



Coins struck during the reigns of the family of Constantine up to the reign of Julian II arranged chronologically.

33 files, last one added on Dec 29, 2019
Album viewed 6 times



Mostly issues of the late 4th to early 5th century arranged chronologically.

48 files, last one added on Jan 08, 2020
Album viewed 7 times



18th century tokens first appeared in 1787 and were struck in large numbers over the next ten years. They began as payment for workers in the manufacturing and mining industries of the early Industrial Revolution but proved so popular that pieces for general circulation were soon issued.
At the beginning of the 19th century official coins were again in short supply and by 1811, penny, halfpenny and farthing tokens were once more being manufactured. These tokens became extremely popular and were accepted locally as a regular medium of exchange until they were all banned following the great re-coinage of 1816. Tokens have been arranged in chronological order.

59 files, last one added on Feb 07, 2019
Album viewed 79 times



Historically, a jeton was at first just a counter, then a sort of small medal and finally more like a token.
During the Middle Ages, jetons were only used as counters for calculations on a lined board similar to an abacus. After the Renaissance, especially under Louis XIV, they were issued as small medals depicting the great events of the king's reign. They were very popular during the17th and 18th centuries and became collector's items in France and the Netherlands, the first catalogues date from the beginning of the 17th century. Collectors were especially interested in them as a source and illustration of history, which was sometimes called building up an "histoire metallique," a history in metal.
This gallery contains jetons from the reign of Louis XIII to Louis XV but primarily contains those issued during the reign of Louis XIV. Coins have been arranged chronologically.

9 files, last one added on Jul 25, 2018
Album viewed 49 times

FORVM - Linked Items


Nothing to see here.

59 files, last one added on Feb 01, 2023
Album viewed 21 times


15 albums on 1 page(s)

Last additions - *Alex's Gallery
PHILIP II as Caesar. AE Tetradrachm struck AD 246 at AlexandriaObverse: M IOV ΦIΛIΠΠOC K CEB. Bare headed and draped bust of Philip II facing right.
Reverse: No legend. Asklepios standing facing left, sacrificing over flaming and garlanded altar out of patera held in his right hand and holding staff, around which a serpent coils, in his left; in left field, LΓ (= regnal year 3 0f Philip I = A.D.245 - 246).
Diameter: 23mm | Weight: 11.9gms | Die Axis: 12
Not in GICV
1 comments*AlexMar 09, 2023
195 - 211, SEPTIMIUS SEVERUS, AR Denarius, Struck 210 at Rome, alluding to BritanniaObverse: SEVERVS PIVS AVG BRIT. Laureate head of Septimius Severus facing right.
Reverse: VICTORIAE BRIT. Victory advancing right, holding wreath in her outstretched right hand and palm branch in her left.
Diameter: 19mm | Weight: 3.5gms | Die Axis: 6h
RIC IV: 332 | RSC: 727 | SRCV: 6382 | SPINK: 650

This coin commemorates the success of the Roman campaigns in Scotland during 209 and 210 culminating in the death of Severus at York, England, in February 211.

1 comments*AlexMar 08, 2023
JUSTINIAN I, AR Anonymous Half-Siliqua, struck c.530 at ConstantinopleObverse: No legend. Helmeted and draped bust of Constantinopolis facing right.
Reverse: Large K within pelleted circle.
Diameter: 15mm | Weight: 0.7gms | Die Axis: 12
Bendall, Anonymous, 8c. | Vagi 3051
Not in SBCV or DOC

The issue of this particular coin has been tentatively dated, based on style, to around 530 and struck in connection with the bicentennial of the founding of Constantinople.
According to the late Simon Bendall, type 8c is the commonest of all the anonymous types, the majority being quite crude, very light and obviously of sixth century date.
These issues are a copy of a type issued by Constantine I for the foundation of Constantinople in 330, but with the bust of Constantinopolis facing right rather than facing left as it did on Constantine's coin. There seems little doubt that the type was originally resuscitated by Justinian I on the anniversary of the 330 issue, presumably c.530. However, as the overall type is commoner than any sixth century silver coin bearing an imperial portrait, and is of varying degenerative styles and weights (the smallest specimens being the crudest) it would appear that some numbers of them must have continued to have been struck after 530, perhaps even as much as 50 or so years after. A number of theories have been put forward regarding the dating of these but, due to the scant archaeological, epigraphical and hoard evidence presently available, the exact date or dates of issue of individual coins of this type has so far proved to be inconclusive.

5 comments*AlexFeb 23, 2023
1st Century CE, IRON AGE BRITAIN, Tribes: Catuvellauni and Trinovantes, AE Unit, Struck c.10 - 40 at Verlamion under CunobelinusObverse: CVNO - BELIN. Bare head facing left.
Reverse: TASCIO. Metal worker, wielding hammer, seated facing right.
Diameter: 15mm | Weight: 2.24gms | Axis: 3h
Spink: 342 | ABC: 2969 | Van Arsdell 2097

*AlexFeb 01, 2023
CUNOBELINUSCunobelinus was a king in Iron Age Britain from about 9 CE until about 40 CE. He is mentioned by the Roman historians Suetonius and Dio Cassius, and many coins bearing his inscription have been found. Cunobelinus controlled a substantial portion of south-eastern Britain, including the territories of the Catuvellauni and the Trinovantes, and is called “Britannorum rex" (King of the Britons) by Suetonius. He appears to have been recognized by the Roman emperor Augustus as a client king, shown by the use of the Latin title Rex on some of his coins.
Numismatic evidence appears to indicate that Cunobelinus took power around AD 9 after the death of his father Tasciovanus, minting coins from both Camulodunum, capital of the Trinovantes and Verlamion (Roman Verulamium), capital of the Catuvellauni. Some of the Verulamium coins name him as the son of Tasciovanus, a previous king of the Catuvellauni. Cunobelinus' earliest issues are, however, from Camulodunum, indicating that he took power there first, and some have a palm or laurel wreath design, a motif borrowed from the Romans indicating a military victory. It is possible that he was emboldened to act against the Trinovantes, whose independence was protected by a treaty they made with Julius Caesar in 54 BC, because problems in Germania severely affected Augustus' ability to defend allies in Britain.
Cunobelinus, however, appears to have maintained quite good relations with the Roman Empire, he used classical motifs on his coins and his reign also saw an increase in trade with the continent. Archaeological evidence shows an increase in imported luxury goods, including wine and drinking vessels from Italy, olive oil and “garum” (fish sauce) from Spain, as well as glassware, jewellery, and tableware from the wider continent, all of which, from their distribution, appear to have entered Britain via the port of Camulodunum. Rome's lucrative trade with Britain was also reported by Strabo, according to him the island's exports included grain, gold, silver, iron, hides, slaves and hunting dogs. It seems likely that Cunobelinus was one of the British kings, mentioned by Strabo, who sent embassies to Augustus.
Cunobelinus died about 40, probably within a year of that date, as he was certainly dead by 43.
Traditionally it has been suggested that the “Lexden Tumulus” on the outskirts of Colchester was Cunobelinus' tomb, but without evidence confirming that, it is also possible that the tomb was built for the earlier Trinovantian king, Addedomarus. Interestingly there is a second tumulus, though this one is not so well known, 665m to the northwest of the Lexden burial mound, on a grassy area in the middle of a modern housing estate. This tumulus, known as ‘The Mount’, probably dates from around the same time as the well-known one at Fitzwalter Road, Lexden.
*AlexFeb 01, 2023
1st Century BC - 1st Century CE, IRON AGE BRITAIN, Tribe: Trinovantes, AE Unit, Struck c.10 BC – 10 CE in Camulodunum(?) in Essex under DubnovellaunusObverse: Head facing right, hair(?) lines on head divided by clear centre parting.
Reverse: Horse prancing left; complex pellets and circles above and below.
Diameter: 13.5mm | Weight: 1.61gms | Axis: 3h
SPINK: -- | BMC -- | ABC 2413

Very rare uninscribed bronze unit of Dubnovellaunus found in Essex. The type is designated as a “Dubnovellaunus Centre Parting” bronze unit in ABC (Ancient British Coins), and to date (January, 2023) it is unlisted in any other major reference works.


1 comments*AlexJan 28, 2023
It is generally thought that Dubnovellaunus succeeded his father Addedomarus as king of the Trinovantes somewhere around 10-5 BC and ruled for several years before being supplanted by Cunobelinus of the Catuvellauni.
In the Res Gestae Divi Augusti, a British king called Dumnovellaunus appears, alongside Tincomarus of the Atrebates, as a supplicant to Augustus in around AD 7 and, given the chronology, it is indeed possible that Dubnovellaunus of the Trinovantes is the same person as the Dumnovellaunus who presented himself to Augustus. The spelling variation is due to a Celtic, rather than a Latin, interpretation of the ruler's name.
It is worth mentioning that the authors of ABC (Ancient British Coins) also think that Dubnovellaunus of the Trinovantes could possibly be the same individual as the Dumnovellaunus who ruled in Kent in the 30s - 20s BC, they suggest that he could have been a Cantian king who later gained control over the southern part of the Trinovantes and that therefore he might have ruled both territories north and south of the Thames estuary for a few years. It should be noted however, that Van Arsdell, an authority on the Celtic Coinage of Britain, emphatically disputes this.

The Trinovantes were one of the Iron Age Celtic tribes of Pre-Roman Britain. Their territory was on the north side of the Thames estuary in the present day counties of Essex, Hertfordshire and Suffolk, and also included lands now located in Greater London. They were bordered to the north by the Iceni, and to the west by the Catuvellauni. Their capital was Camulodunum (modern Colchester).
Shortly before Julius Caesar's invasion of Britain in 55 and 54 BC, the Trinovantes were considered the most powerful tribe in Britain. At this time their capital was probably at Braughing (in modern-day Hertfordshire). In some copies of Caesar's Gallic War their king is referred to as Imanuentius, although no name is given in other copies which have come down to us. That said however, it seems that this king was overthrown by Cassivellaunus, king of the Catuvellauni, some time before Caesar's second expedition and that Imanuentius' son, Mandubracius, fled to the protection of Caesar in Gaul. During his second expedition Caesar defeated Cassivellaunus and restored Mandubracius to the kingship. Cassivellaunus agreed to pay tribute and also undertook not to attack him again.
The next identifiable king of the Trinovantes, known from numismatic evidence, was Addedomarus, who took power around 20 – 15 BCE, and moved the tribe's capital to Camulodunum. For a brief period, around 10 BCE, Tasciovanus of the Catuvellauni issued coins from Camulodunum, suggesting that he must have conquered the Trinovantes, but he was soon forced to withdraw, perhaps as a result of pressure from the Romans. Addedomarus was restored and Tasciovanus' later coins no longer bear the mark “REX”. Addedomarus was briefly succeeded by his son Dubnovellaunus, around 10 to 5 BCE, but a few years later the tribe was conquered by either Tasciovanus or his son Cunobelinus.
The Trinovantes do not appear in history again until their participation in Boudica's revolt against the Romans in 60 CE. After that though they seem to have embraced the Romanisation of Britain and their name was later given to one of the “civitates” of Roman Britain, whose chief town was Caesaromagus (modern Chelmsford in Essex).
*AlexJan 24, 2023
JUSTINIAN I, AR 250 Nummi, struck 540 - 542 at RavennaObverse: D N IVSTINIANVS P P AVG. Diademed bust of Justinian I, wearing imperial mantle, facing right.
Reverse: Large CN (= 250 Nummi) within wreath.
Diameter: 14mm | Weight: 1.07gms | Die Axis: 6
SBCV: 313 | DOC: 334a

The Ravenna mint was active from the conquest of the city by Belisarius in 540 until the fall of the Exarchate of Ravenna to the Lombards in 751.
3 comments*AlexJan 22, 2023
195 - 211, SEPTIMIUS SEVERUS, AR Denarius, Struck 210 at Rome, alluding to BritanniaObverse: SEVERVS PIVS AVG BRIT. Laureate head of Septimius Severus facing right.
Reverse: VICTORIAE BRIT. Victory seated on shield facing left, holding another shield resting on her knee in her right hand and palm branch in her left.
Diameter: 19mm | Weight: 2.35gms | Die Axis: 12h
RIC IV: 335 | RSC: 731 | SRCV: 6385 | SPINK: 651C

This coin commemorates the success of the Roman campaigns in Scotland during 209 and 210 culminating in the death of Severus at York, England, in February 211.


5 comments*AlexJan 22, 2023
JUSTINIAN I, AR Half-Siliqua, struck 534 - 565 at CarthageObverse: D N IVSTINIANVS P P AG. Diademed, draped and cuirassed bust of Justinian I facing right.
Reverse: VOT / MVLT / HTI in three lines within wreath; below, CONOS.
Diameter: 16mm | Weight: 0.7gms | Die Axis: 6
SBCV: 253 (Siliqua) | DOC: 280

On September the 15th 533 Justinian's army, led by Belisarius, entered the city of Carthage and brought it back into the Roman Empire after 98 years of Vandal rule.
1 comments*AlexJan 09, 2023
1st Century BC - 1st Century CE, IRON AGE BRITAIN, Tribe: Catuvellauni, AE Unit, Struck c.25BC – 10CE at Verlamion (St. Albans) under TasciovanusObverse: Bearded head facing right; VER anti-clockwise in front.
Reverse: Horse with sea horse tail facing left; pellet in ring, and trefoil motif above; VER below.
Diameter: 15.2mm | Weight: 1.97gms | Axis: 3h
SPINK: 243 | BMC 1714-21 | ABC 2658

*AlexJan 06, 2023
The Catuvellauni were an Iron Age Celtic tribe in Britain before the Roman conquest, attested by inscriptions into the 4th century. They are mentioned by Cassius Dio, who implies that they led the resistance against the conquest in 43CE. They appear as one of the “Civitates” of Roman Britain in Ptolemy's “Geography” in the 2nd century, occupying the town of Verlamion (Roman Verulamium, modern St.Albans) and the surrounding areas of Hertfordshire, Bedfordshire and southern Cambridgeshire. Their territory was bordered to the north by the Iceni and Corieltauvi, to the east by the Trinovantes, to the west by the Dobunni and to the south by the Atrebates, Regni and Cantii.

Tasciovanus appears to have become king of the Catuvellauni around 20 BC, before the Roman conquest of Britain. Ruling from Verlamion (St.Albans), for a brief period around 15–10 BC, he issued coins from Camulodunum (Colchester), apparently supplanting Addedomarus of the Trinovantes, but it appears that following the arrival of Augustus in Gaul he withdrew and again issued his coins from Verlamion.
Tasciovanus was the first Catuvellaunian king to issue inscribed coins, bearing “VER”, mint marks for Verlamion. He was also the first to renew hostilities towards the Trinovantes, flouting the long-standing agreement between Caesar and his own grandfather Cassivellaunus.
Tasciovanus died around AD 9 and was succeeded by his son Cunobelinus, who ruled primarily from Camulodunum.
*AlexJan 03, 2023

Random files - *Alex's Gallery
1272 - 1307, EDWARD I, AR Penny, Struck 1296 - 1306 at Berwick-on-Tweed, EnglandObverse: + EDWAR ANGL DNS HYB. Crowned bust of Edward I facing within circle of pellets. Cross pattée in legend.
Reverse: VILLA BEREVVICI. Long cross dividing legend into quarters, trefoil in each quarter of inner circle.
Undated Penny, Class 10 Berwick Type II (Local dies). Issues from this mint are quite rare.
Diameter: 21.5mm | Weight: 1.0gms | Die Axis: 2h
SPINK: 1415

In September 1290, upon the death of Margaret, Maid of Norway, there arose a number of claimants to the throne of Scotland. The Guardians of Scotland, who were the de facto heads of state until a king was chosen, asked Edward I of England to conduct the court proceedings in the dispute because the late King Alexander III had been married to Edward's sister, Margaret of England.
John Balliol, a descendant of King David I, was chosen and he was inaugurated at Scone, on St. Andrew's Day, 30 November 1292. But Edward I treated both Baliol and Scotland with contempt and demanded military support for his war against France. The Scottish response was to form an alliance with the French, invade England, and launch an attack on Carlisle.
After the failure of the Scottish attack on Carlisle, Edward I marched north and, on 28th March 1296, he crossed the river Tweed which borders the two countries, with his troops. On the following day he marched on the town of Berwick, which was Scotland's most important trading port and second only to London in economic importance in medieval Britain at that time.
Contemporary accounts of the number slain range anywhere from 4,000 to 20,000. "When the town had been taken in this way and its citizens had submitted, Edward spared no one, whatever the age or sex, and for two days streams of blood flowed from the bodies of the slain, for in his tyrannous rage he ordered 7,500 souls of both sexes to be massacred...So that mills could be turned by the flow of their blood." - Account of the Massacre of Berwick, from Bower's Scotichronicon.
Berwick's garrison was commanded by William the Hardy, Lord of Douglas, whose life and those of his garrison were spared after he surrendered and the English took the castle.
Berwick was recaptured by the Scots in 1318 but the town changed hands between the two countries several times during the following years until it was finally captured for the English by Richard, Duke of Gloucester, the future Richard III of England, in 1482. The Scots however, did not accept this conquest for at least two centuries after this date as is evidenced by innumerable charters.

2 comments*Alex
Struck A.D.180 under Commodus. DIVUS MARCUS AURELIUS. Commemorative AR denarius of RomeObverse: DIVVS M ANTONINVS PIVS. Bare head of Marcus Aurelius facing right.
Reverse: CONSECRATIO. Eagle facing left, head turned right, standing on bar.
Diameter: 17mm | Weight: 2.9gms | Die Axis: 6
RIC III : 266
Featured on Wildwinds.

Marcus Aurelius died at his camp in Vindobona (Vienna) on March 17th, A.D.180 after a week's illness. He was succeeded by his 18 year old son, Commodus.
1813 "LION" AE Halfpenny, Walthamstow, Essex.Obverse: HALFPENNY. A lion walking left; 1813 below in exergue.
Reverse: Britannia seated facing left holding olive branch and trident, a shield at her side, small BCC below shield, all within an oak-wreath.
Edge: Plain.
Diameter: 28mm
Withers: 610

The principal die engraver for this token was Thomas Wyon the elder (1767–1830). About 1796, Thomas went into business in Birmingham with his brother Peter as a general die-engraver. From 1800, he carried on his business from London, where he engraved many dies for tokens, and in 1816 he was appointed chief engraver of the seals. He died on 18th October, 1830.

This token was issued by the British Copper Company, a Welsh based company who, in 1808, bought the Walthamstow site beside the River Lea. Walthamstow is now a suburb of north east London.

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