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Coins depicting Britannia from the time of Antoninus Pius up until her final fleeting appearance on the currency of Britain at the beginning of the 21st Century. The coins are arranged chronologically.

79 files, last one added on Jul 25, 2023
Album viewed 84 times



This album contains coins associated with Britain ranging from the Iron Age up to the time of the Commonwealth following the death of Charles I. The coins are arranged chronologically.

83 files, last one added on Aug 19, 2023
Album viewed 42 times



Macedonia was centred on the plain in the northeastern corner of the Greek peninsula, at the head of the Gulf of Thermai. In the 4th century BC it achieved hegemony over Greece and, under Alexander the Great, conquered lands as far east as the Indus River, establishing a short-lived empire that introduced the Hellenistic Age of ancient Greek civilisation. This gallery contains Macedonian issues from the time of Alexander I to Philip V. The coins are arranged chronologically.

16 files, last one added on Mar 27, 2023
Album viewed 25 times



Justinian I was the Eastern Roman emperor from 527 to 565. His reign is marked by his ambitious attempt at the restoration of the Roman Empire achieved by the recovery of many of the lost territories of the Western Empire. Justinian's general, Belisarius, swiftly conquered the Vandal Kingdom in North Africa and then, with the aid of Narses and other generals, he conquered the Ostrogothic kingdom and restored Dalmatia, Sicily, Italy, and Rome itself to the empire. The praetorian prefect Liberius recovered the south of the Iberian peninsula and created the Roman province of Spania, re-establishing Roman control over the western Mediterranean.
Justinian I left many legacies, among them the reform of Roman Law which had a strong influence on the development of laws throughout Europe. The reason why Scottish and English laws are different today is because, in the medieval period, Scottish Law was more closely modeled on the Codes of Justinian.
This gallery only contains coins struck during the lengthy reign of Justinian I so I have arranged them in order of denomination rather than the chronological arrangement that I have used for the coins in all my other galleries.

24 files, last one added on Aug 03, 2023
Album viewed 18 times



A range of Roman coins including those which commemorate specific historical events as well as City Commemorative and Divus/Diva types. The coins are arranged chronologically.

84 files, last one added on Mar 27, 2023
Album viewed 33 times



A selection of coins from the reign of Probus. The coins are arranged arranged chronologically.

20 files, last one added on Jul 24, 2023
Album viewed 11 times



A selection of coins issued during the reign of Constantine I and Licinius I. The coins are arranged chronologically.

37 files, last one added on Aug 16, 2022
Album viewed 15 times



Coins struck during the reigns of the family of Constantine up to the reign of Julian II. The coins are arranged chronologically.

33 files, last one added on Jul 24, 2023
Album viewed 8 times



Coins issued by those who ruled during the period of the Tetrarchy initiated by Diocletian. The coins are arranged chronologically.

20 files, last one added on Jun 21, 2018
Album viewed 8 times



A selection of imperial coins up to the reign of Carinus. The coins are arranged chronologically.

28 files, last one added on Feb 01, 2019
Album viewed 14 times



Mostly issues of the late 4th to early 5th century. The coins are arranged chronologically.

48 files, last one added on Jul 23, 2023
Album viewed 10 times



Greek Imperial (Roman Provincial) coins struck at Alexandria, Egypt from the time of Nero until the issues ceased in the time of Diocletian. The coins are arranged chronologically.

19 files, last one added on Mar 09, 2023
Album viewed 18 times



18th century tokens first appeared in 1787 and were struck in large numbers over the next ten years. They began as payment for workers in the manufacturing and mining industries of the early Industrial Revolution but proved so popular that pieces for general circulation were soon issued.
At the beginning of the 19th century official coins were again in short supply and by 1811, penny, halfpenny and farthing tokens were once more being manufactured. These tokens became extremely popular and were accepted locally as a regular medium of exchange until they were all banned following the great re-coinage of 1816. The tokens are arranged chronologically.

56 files, last one added on Feb 07, 2019
Album viewed 115 times



Historically, a jeton was at first just a counter, then a sort of small medal and finally more like a token.
During the Middle Ages, jetons were only used as counters for calculations on a lined board similar to an abacus. After the Renaissance, especially under Louis XIV, they were issued as small medals depicting the great events of the king's reign. They were very popular during the17th and 18th centuries and became collector's items in France and the Netherlands, the first catalogues date from the beginning of the 17th century. Collectors were especially interested in them as a source and illustration of history, which was sometimes called building up an "histoire metallique," a history in metal.
This gallery contains jetons from the reign of Louis XIII to Louis XV but primarily contains those issued during the reign of Louis XIV. The jetons are arranged chronologically.

9 files, last one added on Jul 25, 2018
Album viewed 68 times

FORVM - Linked Items


Nothing to see here.

62 files, last one added on Feb 01, 2023
Album viewed 26 times


15 albums on 1 page(s)

Last additions - *Alex's Gallery
1100 - 1135, HENRY I, AR Penny, Struck 1125 - 1135 at York, EnglandObverse: HENRICUS : R - . Crowned bust of Henry I, facing three-quarters to left, holding short sceptre topped with fleur-de-lys over his right shoulder.
Reverse: -- ULF : ON : EVERW surrounding quadrilateral figure with concave sides, each angle terminating in a fleur-de-lys, over a cross fleury with pellet in each angle, all within beaded circle.
Possibilities for the moneyer “ULF” include, amongst others, HEAWULF, HARTHULF and HEARDWULF.
BMC Type 15 "Quadrilateral on Cross Fleury" issue
Diameter: 20mm | Weight: 1.4gms | Die Axis: 2h
Flan chipped and cracked, legends largely illegible.
Found near Womersley, West Yorkshire, England. Recorded by UKDFD, February 2012, # 36152
SPINK: 1276

In 1984 David Walker pointed out that only 11 of the 106 moneyers of type 14 recorded in Brooke's BMC were also known at the same mint in type 15, and that the number of mints declined from 46 to 19. J D Gomm suggested that this apparent upheaval was the result of Henry I's assize of moneyers in 1124-25. Brooke disputed that on the basis that he did not believe that type 15 could have remained in production for around ten years until the end of Henry I's reign in 1135. However, Gomm's suggestion has now received strong support from Blackburn's analysis of the activity of moneyers in the reign of Henry the first. This analysis has shown that the turnover of moneyers between types 14 and 15 was substantially greater than that between any of Henry I's other types. Blackburn also estimated that the loss of moneyers caused by the assize is likely to have been about 80-85 against the 94 victims of the purge recorded by the Margam annals which he thinks might have included mint officials whose names did not appear on the coins as moneyers.
1 comments*AlexAug 19, 2023
JUSTINIAN I, AE Half-Follis (20 Nummi), struck 529 – 533 at Antioch (Theoupolis)Obverse: D N IVSTINIANVS P P AVG. Justinian I enthroned facing, holding long sceptre in his right hand and globus cruciger in his left.
Reverse: Large K, Large latin cross to left dividing letters T–H/Є–U/O/P; officina letter to right of K (Δ = fourth officina).
Diameter: 28mm | Weight: 8.4gms | Die Axis: 11
SBCV: 225 | DOC: 208.6

Much of Antioch was destroyed by a great earthquake on 29th November 528 and, following this disaster, the city was renamed Theoupolis.

530: In the spring of this year Belisarius and Hermogenes (magister officiorum) defeated a combined Persian-Arab army of 50,000 men at the Battle of Dara in modern Turkey, and in the summer a Byzantine cavalry force under the command of Sittas defeated a major Persian invasion into Roman Armenia at the Battle of Satala.
531: On April 19th, at the Battle of Callinicum, a Byzantine army commanded by Belisarius, was defeated by the Persians at Raqqa in northern Syria. Nevertheless, Justinian negotiated an end to the hostilities and Belisarius was hailed as a hero.
532: On January 11th this year anger among the supporters of the most important chariot teams in Constantinople, the Blues and the Greens, escalated into violence towards the emperor. For the next five days the city was in chaos and the fires that started during the rioting resulted in the destruction of much of the city. This insurrection, known as the Nika riots, was put down a week later by Belisarius and Mundus resulting in 30,000 people being killed in the Hippodrome.
On February 23rd Justinian ordered the building of a new Christian basilica in Constantinople, the Hagia Sophia. More than 10,000 people were employed in the construction using material brought from all over the empire.

1 comments*AlexAug 03, 2023
JUSTINIAN I, AE Decanummium (10 Nummi), struck 550/551 at AntiochObverse: D N IVSTINIANVS P P AVG. Helmeted and cuirassed facing bust of Justinian I, holding globus cruciger in his right hand and shield in his left; cross in right field.
Reverse: Large I surmounted by cross, A/N/N/O in field to left and regnal year X/X/IIII in field to right; in exergue, THU followed by • over Π with a slash through the last letter's right side.
Diameter: 24mm | Weight: 4.79gms | Die Axis: 6
SBCV: 237 | DOC: 255 Class D | MIB: 158

Regarding the mintmark in the exergue, the letter Π with a slash through its right side and tiny o or • above is an abbreviation for "polis". The slash is like the English apostrophe denoting omission of letters, as in the word "can't". Therefore, together with the letters T (Tau) and H (Eta), the mint-mark reads as an abbreviation of "Theoupolis"

Much of Antioch was destroyed by a great earthquake on 29th November 528 and, following this disaster, the city was renamed Theoupolis.
*AlexJul 26, 2023
1713 Anne AE Pattern FarthingObverse: ANNA DEI GRATIA. Draped bust of Anne facing left.
Reverse: BRITANNIA • 1713 •. Britannia seated facing left, left arm holding spear and resting on shield, raised right hand holding olive-branch; exergue blank.
Diameter: 22mm on thick flan. | Weight: 5.1gms. | Die axis: 6h
Peck 732

All of Anne's farthings are patterns, no farthings were issued for general circulation during her reign. The portrait of Anne on this example was designed by John Coker (1670 - 1741). Coker joined the Royal Mint in 1697 and became chief engraver there in 1705.

Although Anne farthings are generally very rare, there are at least six distinct pattern varieties known to exist and there is one variety, dated 1714, of which, according to Peck, between 300 and 500 coins may have been produced. The fact that such a large number of these farthings were released in the last year of Anne's reign may be because the type was about to be produced for general circulation at the time of Anne's death on the 1st of August. Sir Isaac Newton was Master of the Mint, and he had high ideals about the quality of the coinage, and the Anne farthing is certainly vastly superior in striking and design to the pieces of William III. The old figure of Britannia used since Charles II's time was discarded in favour of a sharper high relief design in which the bare leg on the former figure of Britannia is covered up, reportedly on the orders of the Queen.
Recent research has indicated that this coin was possibly minted in Derbyshire under licence from the Royal Mint with the intention of alleviating a shortfall of low denomination currency locally. Unfortunately no mintage numbers have survived but it appears that very few good examples still exist. All the other known farthing varieties are certainly patterns, and were never struck as currency for general circulation.
*AlexJul 25, 2023
1771 GEORGE III AE HalfpennyObverse: GEORGIVS.III.REX. Laureate and cuirassed bust of George III facing right.
Reverse: BRITANNIA. Britannia facing left, seated on globe, shield at her side, and holding spear and olive-branch. In exergue, 1771.
Diameter: 29mm | Weight: 9.6gms | Die Axis: 6h
SPINK: 3774

This portrait of George III was designed by John Sigismund Tanner (1705 - 1775).
*AlexJul 25, 2023
JUSTINIAN I, AU Solidus, struck 545 - 565 at ConstantinopleObverse: D N IVSTINIANVS P P AVG. Cuirassed facing bust of Justinian I wearing plumed helmet and diadem from which two pearls depend on either side. Holding globus cruciger in his right hand and shield, adorned with rider galloping right, in his left.
Reverse: VICTORIA AVGGG A. Victory standing facing holding long staff topped with staurogram in her right hand and globus cruciger in her left, eight pointed star in right field; in exergue CONOB. (The letter after AVGGG in the legend indicates the number of the officina, the A being the first officina on this coin).
Slightly clipped
Diameter: 20mm | Weight: 4.08gms | Die Axis: 6
SBCV: 140 | DOC: 9a
1 comments*AlexJul 25, 2023
1169 - 1214, William I "the lion", AR Penny, Struck 1205 - 1230 at Perth or Edinburgh, ScotlandObverse: + LE REI WILAM•: Head of William I facing left, wearing crown of pellets, sceptre to left, within inner circle of pellets. All surrounded by outer circle of pellets. Cross potent in legend.
Reverse: + hVE WALTER: Voided short cross, six pointed star in each angle, within inner circle of pellets. All surrounded by outer circle of pellets. Cross potent in legend. (No mint name on coin. Moneyers: Hue (cognate with the modern English name of Hugh) and Walter, the Edinburgh and Perth moneyers working jointly)
Short cross, phase B. Late William I and posthumous issue struck c.1205 to c.1230.
Diameter: 21mm | Weight: 1.3gm | Die Axis: 6h
SPINK: 5029

William I was crowned on 24th December 1165, he came to the throne when his elder brother Malcolm IV died at the age of 24 on 9th December 1165.
Early in his reign William attempted to regain control of Northumbria which had been lost, in 1157 during the reign of Malcolm IV, to the Anglo-Normans under Henry II. He thereby lent support to the English barons who rebelled against Henry II in 1173. In 1174 however, while actively assisting the rebels at the Battle of Alnwick, William was captured by Henry's forces and taken to Falaise in Normandy. He was forced, under the terms of the Treaty of Falaise which he signed in December, to do homage for the whole of Scotland and also to hand over the castles of Roxburgh, Berwick and Edinburgh. Edinburgh, however, was later returned to him as part of the dowry of Ermengarde, a cousin of Henry II, whom William married in 1186.
The Treaty of Falaise remained in force for the next fifteen years until the new English King Richard the Lionheart, needing money for the Third Crusade, agreed to terminate it in return for 10,000 marks. William also attempted to purchase Northumbria from Richard, however his offer of 15,000 marks was rejected due to him wanting all the castles within the lands, something Richard was not willing to concede.
Relations between Scotland and England remained tense during the first decade of the 13th century and in August 1209 King John decided to exploit the weakening leadership of the ageing Scottish monarch by marching a large army to Norham on the south side of the River Tweed. William bought John off with the promise of a large sum of money, and later, in 1212, he agreed to his only surviving son Alexander, marrying John's eldest daughter, Joan.
William I died in Stirling in 1214 and lies buried in Arbroath Abbey, which he is credited with founding in 1178. He was succeeded by his son, who reigned as Alexander II.
William I was not known as "the Lion" during his own lifetime, the title was attached to him because of his flag or standard, a red lion rampant on a yellow background which went on to become the Royal Banner of Scotland which is still used today.
William I died in 1214 but although Alexander II was 16 years old when he came to the throne, it would appear that he continued his father's issues for some 15 years and struck no coins in his own name until around 1230.

*AlexJul 24, 2023
Struck A.D.276 - 282. PROBUS. Silvered AE Antoninianus of Rome. Obverse: IMP PROBVS P F AVG. Radiate and cuirassed bust of Probus facing right.
Reverse: IOVI CONS PROB AVG. Jupiter standing facing left, holding thunderbolt in right hand and sceptre in left. In exergue, R thunderbolt B.
Diameter: 22mm | Weight: 4.3gms | Die Axis: 12
RIC Vii : 173
1 comments*AlexJul 24, 2023
Struck A.D.360 - 363. JULIAN II as Augustus. AR Siliqua of ArelateObverse: D N FL CL IVLIANVS P F AVG. Pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust of bearded Julian facing right.
Reverse: VOT X MVLT XX in four lines within laurel-wreath surmounted by medallion containing eagle; in exergue, PCONST.
Diameter: 18mm | Weight: 1.78gms | Axis: 6
RIC VIII : 309
*AlexJul 24, 2023
1st Century BC - 1st Century CE, IRON AGE BRITAIN, Tribe: Catuvellauni, AE Unit, Struck c.25BC – 10CE at Verlamion (St. Albans) under TasciovanusObverse: Bearded head facing right; VER anti-clockwise in front.
Reverse: Horse with sea horse tail facing left; pellet in ring, and trefoil motif above; VER below.
Diameter: 15.2mm | Weight: 1.97gms | Axis: 3h
SPINK: 243 | BMC 1714-21 | ABC 2658


*AlexJul 23, 2023
1st Century CE, IRON AGE BRITAIN, Tribe: Atrebates, AR Unit, Struck c.25 -35 under EpaticcusObverse: EPATI. Head of Hercules, wearing lionskin headdress with paws tied before neck, facing right; pellet in ring behind.
Reverse: No legend. Eagle standing facing, head left, on serpent; dot in circle at upper right.
Diameter: 12mm | Weight: 1.1gms | Axis: 10 |
Spink: 356
Coin found in Hampshire, England. Old repair


1 comments*AlexJul 23, 2023
Struck A.D.367 - 375. VALENS. AR Siliqua of AntiochObverse: D N VALENS P F AVG. Pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust of Valens facing right.
Reverse: VOT X MVLT XX in laurel-wreath; in exergue, ANT.
Diameter: 18mm | Weight:1.9gms | Axis: 2h
RIC IX : 33c.
*AlexJul 23, 2023

Random files - *Alex's Gallery
The Iceni were a tribe located in eastern Britain during the Iron Age and the early Roman era. Their territory was bordered by the Corieltauvi to the west, and the Catuvellauni and Trinovantes to the south. In the Roman period, their capital was Venta Icenorum at modern-day Caistor St Edmund.
Julius Caesar did not mention the Iceni in his account of his invasions of Britain in 55 and 54 BC, though they may have been related to the Cenimagni, whom Caesar notes as living north of the River Thames at that time. The Iceni were a significant power in eastern Britain during Claudius I's conquest of Britain in AD 43, in which they allied with Rome. Increasing Roman influence on their affairs led to a revolt in AD 47, though they remained nominally independent under king Prasutagus up until his death around AD 60. Roman encroachment after Prasutagus' death led his wife Boudica to launch a major revolt from 60–61. Boudica's uprising seriously endangered Roman rule in Britain and resulted in the burning of Londinium and other cities. The Romans finally crushed the rebellion, and the Iceni were eventually incorporated into the Roman province.
Archaeological evidence of the Iceni includes torcs, which are heavy rings of gold, silver or electrum worn around the neck and shoulders. The Iceni began producing coins around 10 BC. Their coins were a distinctive adaptation of the Gallo-Belgic "face/horse" design, and in some early issues, most numerous near Norwich, the horse was replaced with a boar. Some coins are inscribed ECENI, making them the only coin-producing group to use their tribal name on coins. The earliest personal name to appear on coins is Antedios (about 10 BC), and other abbreviated names like AESU and SAEMU followed. The name of Prasutagus also appears on some coins as PRASTO.
307 - 337, CONSTANTINE I, AE3 struck 324 - 325 at Londinium (London), EnglandObverse: CONSTANTINVS AVG. Laureate head of Constantine I facing right.
Reverse: PROVIDENTIAE AVGG. Camp-gate with two turrets, star above; in exergue, PLON.
Diameter: 21mm | Weight: 2.85gms | Die Axis: 6h
RIC VII : 293 | SPINK: 728

The Killingholme Hoard was discovered in a field between Killingholme and Habrough on the south bank of the Humber Estuary by a pair of metal detectorists in the Autumn of 1993.
The initial coins of the hoard were surface finds, many of which were found before the hoard itself was discovered. In total, there were 1504 coins found in the topsoil, and another 2753 found buried in a single clay pot.
The top of the pot had been cut off by ploughing, which had caused a large number of coins to be scattered around the field. Nevertheless, the remains of the pot were found when the coins packed in it were detected. The pot had a diameter of about 20cm and within it were thousands of coins.
One of the finders reported that the coins appeared to have been carefully arranged inside the pot, and seemed to produce a spiralling pattern. Unfortunately, the coins were emptied into a bath for cleaning so any chance of researching this arrangement was lost forever.
The coins that constituted the hoard were bronze reduced folles, most of which were struck between the 320s and the early 330s, during the time of the emperor Constantine. Though the coins came from several mints in the Western part of the Roman Empire, most of them were from the London mint. It is thought that the hoard was probably deposited around 333/334 AD.
Because, in 1993, base metal coins were not counted as treasure, the coins were returned to the finders who sent the bulk of the coins to be auctioned off by Spink of London. Fortunately, prior to being sold, the coins were recorded by the British Museum which acquired for itself 86 coins from the hoard.
After the recordings were completed, though the finders kept a few coins for themselves, the remainder of the coins were sold off in batches. It has been rumoured that many of these coins went to the Italian luxury goods producer Bulgari, who used them to make jewellery.
Such a process would not be permitted in England today as, following the enactment of the Treasure Act in 1996, the Killingholme Hoard would now fulfil the criteria for "treasure" as outlined by the Act.

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