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9227: Christoffer Wilhelm Eckersberg 1783-1853: Hector's farewell to Andromache, 1813-16. The Thorvaldsen Museum, Copenhagen.

Leaders means, in most cases, "rulers." Rulers no longer participate in battles, but from Homeric times until the 19th century AD rulers had the habit of risking their own lives in the battlefield. See the article Homeric and Post-Homeric War Leadership (also in Greek: ??????? ??? ????-??????? ???????? ??????).

In its resistance against the Achaean invaders, the city of Troy was assisted by a number of allies, coming mainly from different parts of Asia Minor. The list below shows all commanders on the Trojan side.

Agamemnon was the leader of the great host that sailed against Troy because he was the most powerful king in the West; and although there were many kings and dynasties in Hellas, he was their overlord. Later, his son Orestes 2 extended this power even more. As it was in the West, so was in the East; for Trojans were called those who were under the sway of Priam 1, whether they came from the city of Troy or not. Thus there are those who have counted nine (9) dynasties, which recognized Priam 1 as their overlord, and which together ruled a large part of the coastal regions of Asia Minor and beyond.

One of these (1) is that of King Mynes 2 of Lyrnessus, a city east of Mount Ida that was sacked by Achilles; it was here that Achilles captured his sweetheart Briseis.

Another dynasty (2) is that of King Eetion 1 of Thebe, father of Andromache, who married Hector 1, crown prince of the dynasty of the city of Troy (3). In Thebe Chryseis 3 was captured. It was she whom Agamemnon kept, refusing to give her back to her father and humiliating him, who came as a suppliant and was a priest of Apollo, thereby calling upon himself the wrath of the god, who came from heaven darker than night, although he is called the bright one, and decimated the Achaean army by plague.

King Altes of the Lelegians represents yet another dynasty (4); he was the father of Laothoe 2, mother by King Priam 1 of Troy, of Lycaon 1, whose cuirass Paris wore in his duel against Menelaus. Lycaon 1 was killed by Achilles.

Aeneas represents the dynasty of Dardania (5), the region north of Troy.

Pandarus 1, who is remembered for having broken the truce between Trojans and Achaeans by shooting an arrow at Menelaus, is said to represent the dynasty from Zelia (6).

The dynasty of Asius 1 (7), son of Hyrtacus seem to have shared with the dynasty (8) of the sons of Merops 1 (Adrastus 3 and Amphius 1), the region about Abydus and Percote, north of Troy. Hyrtacus married Arisbe, who was Priam 1's first wife, and his son Asius 1 was killed by King Idomeneus 1 of Crete.

It is uncertain whether the ninth dynasty is that of the island of Lesbos, which Achilles sacked, or that of the Mysian Eurypylus 6, son of Telephus, son of Heracles 1. Eurypylus 6 was killed by Neoptolemus (see also Map of Greece). 



Peoples they led


Acamas 2


Thrace is the region between the Black and Aegean seas.

Acamas 2 was son of Eusorus. Ares assumed once the shape of this Thracian leader in order to exhort the Trojans against the Achaeans. Acamas 2 was killed by Ajax 1. (Hom.Il.5.460ff., 6.5.ff.).

Acamas 3


Dardania is a region about Troy.

Acamas 3 was a lieutenant of Aeneas and served in his company together with Archelochus (see below). Acamas 3 was son of the Trojan Elder Antenor 1, who was known for advocating for peace. According to some Acamas 3 was killed by Meriones from Crete, but others say that it was Philoctetes who killed him. (Hom.Il.5.70, 12.100, 16.342ff.; QS.10.168).

Adrastus 3


Adrastia is the region on the European coast of the Hellespont near its entrance to the Propontis.

Adrastus 3 is son of the seer Merops 1, who had tried to dissuade his son from risking their lives in the Trojan War. During the war he was captured alive by Menelaus to whom he said that his father, being a wealthy man, would pay for him a rich ransom. He was killed by Agamemnon or perhaps by Diomedes 2. (Hom.Il.6.37ff., 2.830, 11.328).




Amphimachus 3


Caria is the southwestern region of Asia Minor.

Son of Nomion 2 and brother of Nastes. Either he or his brother Nastes was killed by Achilles. (Apd.Ep.3.34ff.; Hom.Il.2.871).

Amphius 1


Brother of Adrastus 3 (see above). He was killed by Diomedes 2. (Apd.Ep.3.34ff.; Hom.Il.2.672, 2.830).

Antiphus 4


Maeonia is a region in Lydia about Mount Tmolos in Asia Minor.

Son of Talaemenes and a Gygaean Nymph. Antiphus 4 is brother of Mesthles (see below). (Apd.Ep.3.34ff.; Hom.Il.2.864).



Archelochus, son of Antenor 1, served in the same company as Aeneas and Acamas 3. He was killed by Ajax 1. (Apd.Ep.3.34ff.; Hom.Il.5.70, 12.100, 14.465ff.).

Ascanius 3


People of Phrygia.

Son of Aretaon and brother of Phorcys 1. (Apd.Ep.3.34ff.).

Asius 1


Percote is a city in the Troad opposite the Thracian Chersonesus.

Asius 1, called Phrygian leader, served in the same company as Helenus 1 and Deiphobus 1, sons of King Priam 1 of Troy. Asius 1 was the son of Hyrtacus and Arisbe, Priam 1's first wife. Asius 1's son Adamas was killed by Meriones during the war. His other son Phaenops 3 came from Abydus, a city in the Troad, and was one of Hector 1's dearest guest-friends. When Apollo once addressed Hector 1 he took the shape of Phaenops 3. Asius 1 was killed by King Idomeneus 1 of Crete. (Apd.Ep.3.34ff.; Hom.Il.12.94, 12.140, 13.384ff., 13.570ff., 17.582).

Chromius 2


Mysia is called the northwestern part of Asia Minor.

Chromius 2 or Chromis 4 was son of Arsinous 1 and brother of Ennomus 1. He was killed by Odysseus. (Apd.Ep.3.34ff.; Hom.Il.5.677; Ov.Met.13.257).

Ennomus 1


A seer, son of Arsinous 1 and brother of Chromius 2. He was killed by Odysseus. (Apd.Ep.3.34ff.; Hom.Il.2.858; Ov.Met.13.260).

Epistrophus 2


The Alizonians were Trojan allies, inhabiting the Troad.

Epistrophus 2 has been called leader of the Alizonians and of the AMAZONS. He was son of Mecisteus 3 and brother of Odius 1. Epistrophus 2 was killed by Achilles. (Apd.Ep.3.34ff.; Strab.12.3.22, 13.1.7, 13.1.61).

Euphemus 2


Son of Troezenus, son of Ceas. His death has not been reported. (Apd.Ep.3.34ff.; Hom.Il.2.846).

Eurypylus 6


Eurypylus 6 is son of Telephus, son of Heracles 1 and Auge 2, the daughter of Aleus, son of Aphidas 1, son of Arcas 1, son of Zeus and Callisto. Eurypylus 6's mother has been called Laodice 3, Argiope 4 and Astyoche 4. Laodice 3 was daughter of King Priam 1 of Troy. Argiope 4 was daughter of Teuthras 1, prince of Teuthrania, a region near Mysia. Astyoche 4 was daughter of King Laomedon 1 of Troy, that is, sister of Priam 1. Eurypylus 6 was killed by Neoptolemus. (Apd.Ep.5.12; Dio.4.33.12; Hom.Od.11.519; Hyg.Fab.112; QS.6.120, 6.136, 8.200; Strab.13.1.7, 13.1.69).

Glaucus 3


Lycia is a region on the southern coast of Asia Minor east of Caria.

This is the man who is remembered for having exchanged his golden armour for that of Diomedes 2, which was made of bronze. He was son of Hippolochus 1, son of Bellerophon. Glaucus 3 was killed by Ajax 1. (Hdt.1.147; Hom.Il.6.232; Apd.Ep.3.34ff.; QS.3.278).

Hector 1


People from Troy.


Hippothous 5


Aboriginal people, inhabitants of Greece

Hippothous 5 led the tribes of the Pelasgians against the Achaeans in the Trojan War. Hippothous 5 was, some say, son of Pelasgus 2, son of Triopas 1, king of Argos. Others say that his father was Lethus, son of Teutamus. Hippothous 5 was killed by Ajax 1. (Apd.Ep.3.34ff.; Hom.Il.2.840, 17.288ff.).



Ethiopia is the land south of Egypt, but Western and Eastern Ethiopians must be distinguished since Memnon conquered the East.

Memnon came from the East with a significant army to assist Troy. He is son of Tithonus 1 and Eos (Dawn). Memnon was killed by Achilles, but he was made immortal by Zeus at his mother's request. They say that he was buried in the neighborhood of Paltus in Syria. (AETH.1; Apd.3.12.4-5; Apd.Ep.5.3; Dio.4.75.4; Hes.The.984; Hyg.Fab.112; Ov.Fast.4.714; Ov.Met.13.579; Pau.10.31.7; Pin.Isth.8.54; Pin.Pyth.6.32; QS.2.100ff., 2.494, 2.540ff.; Strab.15.3.2; Try.31).



Brother of Antiphus 4 (see above).



Brother of Amphimachus 3 (see above).

Odius 1


Brother of Epistrophus 2 (see above). Odius 1 was killed by Agamemnon. (Apd.Ep.3.34ff.; Hom.Il.5.40ff.; Strab.12.3.22).

Pandarus 1


A city in Phrygia, Asia Minor near Mount Ida.

This is the man who, induced by Athena, broke the truce between Trojans and Achaeans by shooting an arrow at Menelaus. He was son of Lycaon 3. Pandarus 1 was killed by Diomedes 2. (Apd.Ep.3.34ff., 4.1; Hom.Il.2.827, 3.85ff., 5.295; Hyg.Fab.112).



A Thracian leader. (Hom.Il.2.844).



Queen Penthesilia of the AMAZONS came to aid the Trojans, but was killed by Achilles and he, after her death, fell in love with her. Penthesilia was daughter of Ares and the Amazon Otrere, who was the first to raise a temple to Artemis in Ephesus. (AETH.1; Apd.Ep.5.1; Hyg.Fab.112, 163; QS.1.19ff., 1.619ff, 1.671; Try.35).

Phorcys 1


Brother of Ascanius 3 (see above). He was killed by Ajax 1. (Apd.Ep.3.34ff.; Hom.Il.17.312ff.).

Pylaemenes 1


Paphlagonia is a territory of northern Asia Minor.

Pylaemenes 1, son of Bilsates, commanded the Paphlagonian infantry. He had a son, Harpalion 1, who was killed by Meriones, son of Molus 1, son of Deucalion 2, son of Minos 2. Pylaemenes 1 himself was killed by Menelaus. (Apd.Ep.3.34ff.; Hom.Il.5.576ff., 13.643).



Led the Pelasgians together with Hippothous 5 (see above). He is said to be father of Lethus.

Pyraechmes 1


Paeonia is a region in Macedonia, northern Greece.

Pyraechmes 1, from Amydon (near the river Axius) was killed by Patroclus 1. (Apd.Ep.3.34ff.; Hom.Il.16.287).

Rhesus 2


Rhesus 2 is well remembered because he came from Thrace to fight at Troy and died the day after his arrival, killed by Odysseus and Diomedes 2. Rhesus 2 was the son of the river god Strymon 1, either by Euterpe or by Calliope (these two are MUSES). Yet others have said that his father was Eioneus 2. (Apd.1.3.4; Apd.Ep.4.4; Cic.ND.3.45; Eur.Rhe. passim; Hom.Il.10.435; Parth.36).

Sarpedon 1


Sarpedon 1 is the King of Lycia, to whom Zeus granted life for three generations. He was the son of Zeus and Europa, or of Zeus and Laodamia 1, the daughter of Bellerophon. Sarpedon 1 married a Theban woman and had children by her: Antiphates 4 and Evander 3. Antiphates 4 was among the companions of Aeneas in Italy and was killed by Turnus during Aeneas' military campaign in that country. Evander 3 succeeded his father in the kingship of Lycia, and after having married Deidamia 2, another daughter of Bellerophon, he had a child Sarpedon 3 by her. Some have said that it was this Sarpedon 3 the one who fought at Troy. Sarpedon 1 was killed during the Trojan War by Patroclus 1. (Apd.3.1.1-2; Apd.Ep.3.34ff., 4.6; Dio.5.79.3; Hes.CW.19A; Hom.Il.16.502; Hyg.Fab.112; QS.4.290; Try.25; Vir.Aen.9.697, 10.470).



Leader of the Dardanians. His death has not been reported. (Apd.Ep.3.34ff.).

Related sections

Apd.Ep.3.34ff., 4.4; Hom.Il.2.816-876; QS.1.19ff., 2.100ff., 6.120; Strab.13.1.7ff.