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Home ▸ Catalog ▸ |Greek Coins| ▸ |Geographic - All Periods| ▸ |Gaul||View Options:  |  |  | 

Ancient Coins of Gaul

Gaul was a historical region of Western Europe during the Iron Age that was inhabited by Celtic tribes, encompassing present day France, Belgium, Luxembourg, most of Switzerland and Netherlands, the Po Valley in Northern Italy, and the west bank of the Rhine in Germany. About 390 B.C., the Gauls invaded and sacked Rome. In 222 B.C., Cisalpine Gaul (the region between the Alps and the Po Valley) was conquered by the Romans. The best description of pre-Roman Gaul is in the first chapter of the Commentarii de Bello Gallico, by Julius Caesar, which begins: "All Gaul is divided into three parts, one of which the Belgae inhabit, the Aquitani another, those who in their own language are called Celts, in ours Gauls, the third. All these differ from each other in language, customs and laws..." Map of Gaul

Massalia, Gaul, c. 475 - 460 B.C.

|Gaul|, |Massalia,| |Gaul,| |c.| |475| |-| |460| |B.C.|, |obol|
Massalia (Marseille) is the oldest city of modern France, and was founded around 600 BC by Greeks from the Asia Minor city of Phocaea.
GA95211. Silver obol, Chevillon OBM-1 (fig. 29); Brenot Period 2, 1; Furtwängler Massalia, Em. VI, pl. III, 4; De La Tour 511; SNG Cop -, gVF, toned, nice metal, weight 0.889 g, maximum diameter 10.1 mm, die axis 0o, Massalia mint, 475 - 465/460 B.C.; obverse archaic head of Apollo left; reverse crab, M below; ex Forum (2016), ex CNG e-auction 368 (10 Feb 2016), lot 4; ex Poindessault-Vedrines (31 March 1997), lot 339.; very rare; $480.00 SALE |PRICE| $432.00
 


Gallic Celts, Carnutes, Beauce Area, c. 41 - 30 B.C.

|Celtic| |&| |Tribal|, |Gallic| |Celts,| |Carnutes,| |Beauce| |Area,| |c.| |41| |-| |30| |B.C.|, |piastre|
The helmeted bust on the obverse is derived from that of Minerva on the Roman Republic denarius of C. Vibius Varus, 42 B.C. (Crawford 494/38, Sydenham 1140).
CE89589. Bronze piastre, CCBM III 119, De la Tour 7105, Delestrée-Tache 2473, Scheers S-M 324 ff., Blanchet 274, aVF, green patina with darker fields, some bumps and scratches, light corrosion, weight 2.923 g, maximum diameter 16.2 mm, die axis 270o, c. 41 - 30 B.C.; obverse PIXTILOS, helmeted head left, the neck adorned with a torque, branch left, ornaments above; reverse PIXTILOS, lion running left, tail curled above the back, two ringed pellets above, stylized bird right below; ex CGB Numismatique Paris; scarce; $230.00 SALE |PRICE| $207.00
 


Belgic Celts, Bellovaci, c. 100 - 57 B.C.

|Celtic| |&| |Tribal|, |Belgic| |Celts,| |Bellovaci,| |c.| |100| |-| |57| |B.C.|, |AE| |16|
The Bellovaci, among the most powerful and numerous of the Belgian tribes of north-eastern Gaul, were conquered by Julius Caesar in 57 B.C. The name survives today in the French city of Beauvais, called by the Romans Caesaromagus. The Bellovaci territory extended from modern Beauvais to the Oise River, along the coast. When Caesar learned the Bellovaci intended to conquer the territory of their Suessiones neighbors, he decided to oppose them and prove Roman superiority. The Bellovaci were surprised by the arrival of Roman troops but, despite his force of about 30,000 men, Caesar was intimidated by the size of the Bellovaci forces. Neither initiated battle. The Belgic warriors set traps in the woods for Roman foragers. Caesar called for reinforcements and built a bridge across a marsh to position his troops within range of the Bellovaci camp. The Bellovaci retreated and then attempted an ambush. Caesar learned of their plan and had reinforcements ready to attack, but the Bellovaci were defeated and their general Correus killed, even before he arrived. After the battle, the Bellovaci were impressed by Caesar's clemency but some of their leaders fled to Britain. Belgae_Map
CE92095. Bronze AE 16, cf. Delestrée-Tache I 307, CCCBM III 1, Scheers Traité 601, De la Tour 7276, VF, attractive olive green patina, obverse off center, weight 2.676 g, maximum diameter 15.8 mm, die axis 270o, c. 100 - 57 B.C.; obverse figure running right, ornaments around; reverse human-headed horse galloping right, one large globule above and another below; ex CGB Numismatique Paris; rare; $230.00 SALE |PRICE| $207.00
 


Gallic Celts, Uncertain (Lemovices?), c. 100 - 50 B.C.

|Celtic| |&| |Tribal|, |Gallic| |Celts,| |Uncertain| |(Lemovices?),| |c.| |100| |-| |50| |B.C.|, |obol|
The tribe and mint that issued this obol type are unknown, but the Lemovices struck quinarii with similar types, including a human head above the horse on the reverse. It is possible the Lemovices also issued this rare type.
CE89067. Silver obol, Delestrée-Tache 3699; cf. CCBM II S404 ff., De la Tour 4561 (Lemovices, severed head series quinarii), F, well centered, toned, etched surfaces, weight 0.633 g, maximum diameter 10.8 mm, die axis 180o, uncertain mint, c. 100 - 50 B.C.; obverse female head right in classic style; reverse horse galloping right, small human head right above; ex CGB Numismatique Paris; rare; $195.00 SALE |PRICE| $176.00
 


Monnaies grecques en Gaule, Le tresor d'Auriol et le monnayage de Massalia 525/520-460 a. J.-C.

|Greek| |Books|, |Monnaies| |grecques| |en| |Gaule,| |Le| |tresor| |d'Auriol| |et| |le| |monnayage| |de| |Massalia| |525/520-460| |a.| |J.-C.|,
Greek currency in Gaul. The Auriol Hoard and the coinage of Massalia 525/520 - 460 B.C.
BK13582. Monnaies grecques en Gaule, Le tresor d'Auriol et le monnayage de Massalia 525/520-460 a. J.-C. by A. Furtwängler, TYPOS III, 1978, p. 336, 4 maps, 8 pages of diagrams, 44 plates, international shipping at the actual cost of postage; $140.00 SALE |PRICE| $126.00
 


Gallic Celts, Sequani, c. 58 - 50 B.C., Time of Caesar's Gallic Wars

|Celtic| |&| |Tribal|, |Gallic| |Celts,| |Sequani,| |c.| |58| |-| |50| |B.C.,| |Time| |of| |Caesar's| |Gallic| |Wars|, |quinarius|
In 71 B.C., the Sequani hired the Germanic Suebi under Ariovistus to cross the Rhine and help them defeat the Aedui. The Sequani were worse off after their victory - Ariovistus deprived them of a third of their territory, threatened to take another third, and subjugated them into semi-slavery. The Sequani appealed to Caesar, who drove back the Germanic tribesmen in 58 B.C., but at the same time obliged the Sequani to surrender all that they had gained from the Aedui. This so exasperated the Sequani that they joined in the revolt of Vercingetorix in 52 B.C. and shared in the defeat at Alesia. The Sequani refused to join the Gallic revolt against Rome in 69 A.D. and drove out rebels who invaded their territory. In recognition for their loyal service, Vesontio (Besancon) was made a Roman colony.Gaul
CE89066. Silver quinarius, CCBM II 346, Delestrée-Tache 3245, De la Tour 5405, Forrer 204, VF, toned, strike a bit flat, typical tight flan, weight 1.895 g, maximum diameter 14.1 mm, die axis 105o, Vesontio (Besancon, France) mint, c. 58 - 50 B.C.; obverse helmeted head left (Roma?), Q DOCI (Quintus Docirix) before counterclockwise; reverse bridled horse galloping left, Q DO[CI] (Quintus Docirix) above, [SAM F] (Samulali Filius, AM ligate) below; ex Frascatius Ancient Coins; $140.00 SALE |PRICE| $126.00
 







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REFERENCES|

Allen, D. Catalogue of Celtic Coins in the British Museum. (London, 1987-1990).
Babelon, E. Traité des Monnaies Grecques et Romaines. (Paris, 1901-1932).
Brenot, C. "Marseille et les réseaux phocéens. Remarques sur le témoignage des monnaies" in Atti delll'IX convengno del centro internazionale di studi numismatici - Napoli 25-27 Ottobre 1996. (Rome, 2002).
Burnett, A., M. Amandry, et al. Roman Provincial Coinage. (1992 - ).
Castelin, K. Keltische Münzen: Katalog der Samlung im Schweizerischen Landesmuseum Zürich. (Zurich, 1978).
Chevillon, J.-A. "La Phase Postarchaïque du monnayage de Massalia" in RN 169 (2012).
Cottam, E., et al. Ancient British Coins. (Norfolk, UK, 2010).
de la Tour, H. Atlas de monnaies Gauloises. (Paris, 1892).
Delestrée, L.-P. & M. Tache. Nouvel atlas des monnaies Gauloises. (Saint-Germain-en-Laye, 2002 - 2008).
Depeyrot, G. Les monnaies hellénistiques de Marseilles. (Wetteren, 1999).
Furtwängler, A.E. "Massalia im 5. Jh. v. Chr.: Tradition und Neuorientierung" in Massing-Petit.
Furtwängler, A.E. Monnaies grecques en Gaule. Typos III. (Fribourg, 1978).
Kellner, H.J. "Keltische Münzen: Bemerkungen zur Situation der Forschung" in Passauer Jahrbuch 26 (1984).
Lindgren, H. Ancient Greek Bronze Coins: European Mints. (San Mateo, 1989).
Lindgren, H. Ancient Greek Bronze Coins. (Quarryville, 1993).
Sear, D.R. Roman Coins and Their Values, Vol. One: The Republic and the The Twelve Caesars 280 BC - AD 86. (London, 2000).
Scheers, S. La Gaule Belgique: Numismatique Celtique. (Louvian, 1983).
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Denmark, The Royal Collection of Coins and Medals, Danish National Museum, Vol. 8: Egypt, N. Africa, Spain-Gaul. (West Milford, NJ, 1994).
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Deutschland, München Staatlische Münzsammlung, Part 1: Hispania, Gallia Narbonensis. (Berlin, 1968).
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Deutschland, Münzsammlung Universität Tübingen, Part 1: Hispania-Sikelia. (1981).
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Deutschland, Sammlung der Universitätsbibliothek Leipzig. (München, 1993 - 2008).
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, France, Bibliothèque National, Collection Jean et Marie Delepierre. (Paris, 1983).
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Great Britain, Volume III, R.C. Lockett Collection, Part 1: Spain-Italy. (1938).
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Great Britain, Volume IV, Fitzwilliam Museum, Leake and General Collections. Part 1: Spain (Emporiae, Rhoda) - Italy. (1940).
Victoor, R. Roulles Celtes et Objets Assimilés. (Rosendaël-lez-Dunkerque, 1989).

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