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Home ▸ Catalog ▸ |Greek Coins| ▸ |Hellenistic Monarchies| ▸ |Nabataean Kingdom||View Options:  |  |  |   

Nabataean Kingdom

The early Nabataeans forsook all building and agriculture because those who possess these things, in order to retain them, are easily compelled by the powerful to do their bidding. Rather than fight invaders, they would go into the desert, where only they could survive, and wait for the invaders to leave. Aretas II was a contemporary of Alexander Jannaeus. Aretas III was the first to issue coins, which he began after he defeated the Seleucid army in 84 B.C. and the council of Damascus asked him to govern their city. A Roman army under Marcus Aemilius Scaurus defeated Aretas III and besieged Petra, but paying a tribute, Aretas received formal recognition by the Roman Republic. The kingdom was slowly surrounded by the expanding Roman Empire, who conquered Egypt and annexed Judea, but wealthy from incense trade, Nabataea paid tribute and retained independence. The Nabataeans fought against Herod and also provided forces to the Romans during the Second Jewish Revolt. After the last Nabataean king, Rabbel II, died in 106 A.D., Trajan incorporated Nabataea into the Roman province Arabia Petraea. One of the latest known Nabataean language inscriptions, from 191 A.D., records "...This in the year 85 of the Eparchy [Roman Rule], in which Arabs destroyed the land." It seems likely that raiding Arab tribes extinguished what remained of a weakened Nabataean culture. In 747 A.D. what was left of the Nabataean cities was destroyed in a major earthquake.The_Treasury

Nabataean Kingdom, Aretas IV, 9 B.C. - 40 A.D., Barbaric Imitative

|Nabataean| |Kingdom|, |Nabataean| |Kingdom,| |Aretas| |IV,| |9| |B.C.| |-| |40| |A.D.,| |Barbaric| |Imitative||AE| |14|
Aretas IV was the greatest Nabataean king, ruling S. Palestine, most of Trans-Jordan, N. Arabia, and Damascus. Al-Khazneh,one of the most elaborate temples in Petra, is believed to have been the mausoleum of Aretas IV. Paul mentions Aretas in connection with his visit to Damascus (2 Corinthians 11:32). Al-Khazneh, one of the most elaborate temples in Petra, is believed to have been the mausoleum of Aretas IV.
GB94966. Bronze AE 14, Al-Qatanani 141t6 (die match, barbaric style), Meshorer Nabataean 68A; cf. Huth 77 (official style), Barkay CN 150c (same), Schmitt-Korte 38 (same), VF, dark patina, highlighting earthen deposits, obv. off center, reverse edge beveled, small edge split, weight 1.482 g, maximum diameter 14.1 mm, die axis 0o, unofficial mint, c. 2 - 24; obverse laureate head of Aretas right; reverse two crossed and filleted cornucopias, Nabataean het ros monogram (Aretas) between the horns; from the Ray Nouri Collection; extremely rare; $250.00 SALE PRICE $225.00


Nabataean Kingdom, Aretas IV and Phasael, 9 B.C. - 40 A.D.

|Nabataean| |Kingdom|, |Nabataean| |Kingdom,| |Aretas| |IV| |and| |Phasael,| |9| |B.C.| |-| |40| |A.D.||AE| |14|
Possibly struck in the year of Christ's birth! Jesus was born sometime between 6 B.C. and 4 B.C. Matthew describes King Herod as the ruler during the time of the Nativity, and Herod died in 4 B.C. Later, in order to kill Jesus and eliminate him as a rival king, Herod ordered the "Massacre of the Innocents" - the killing of all male children in Bethlehem aged two years and under. This means that Jesus may have been up to two years old already by that time, and this also sets the Nativity between 6 and 4 B.C. This type was issued in the names of Aretas IV and his daughter Phasael, 5 - 4 B.C.
GB94965. Bronze AE 14, cf. Al-Qatanani 178t1; Barkay CN 118a; Huth 82; Meshorer Nabataean 64; BMC Arabia p. 10, 35; SNG ANS 6 -, aVF, black patina, highlighting earthen deposits, tight flan, scratches, remnant of a pre-strike casting sprue, weight 1.710 g, maximum diameter 14.1 mm, die axis 0o, Petra (Jordan) mint, 5 - 4 B.C.; obverse laureate head of Aretas right, Nabataean H (het) left, O (ayin) right; reverse two cornucopias crossed and filleted, two pomegranates dangling from tops above center, Nabataean PS (peh sade) monogram (Phasael, Aretas' daughter) in center; from the Ray Nouri Collection; scarce; $180.00 SALE PRICE $162.00


Nabataean Kingdom, Aretas IV and Phasael, 9 B.C. - 40 A.D.

|Nabataean| |Kingdom|, |Nabataean| |Kingdom,| |Aretas| |IV| |and| |Phasael,| |9| |B.C.| |-| |40| |A.D.||AE| |14|
Possibly struck in the year of Christ's birth! Jesus was born sometime between 6 B.C. and 4 B.C. Matthew describes King Herod as the ruler during the time of the Nativity, and Herod died in 4 B.C. Later, in order to kill Jesus and eliminate him as a rival king, Herod ordered the "Massacre of the Innocents" - the killing of all male children in Bethlehem aged two years and under. This means that Jesus may have been up to two years old already by that time, and this also sets the Nativity between 6 and 4 B.C. This type was issued in the names of Aretas IV and his daughter Phasael, 5 - 4 B.C.
GB94969. Bronze AE 14, Al-Qatanani 178; Barkay CN 118b; Meshorer Nabataean 64; Huth 82; BMC Arabia p. 10, 35; SNG ANS 6 -, VF, highlighting earthen deposits, scratches, flat edge area from sprue cut, weight 1.521 g, maximum diameter 13.7 mm, die axis 0o, Petra (Jordan) mint, 5 - 4 B.C.; obverse laureate head of Aretas right, Nabataean H (het) left, O (ayin) right; reverse two crossed and filleted cornucopias, Nabataean PS (peh sade) monogram (Phasael, Aretas' daughter) in center; from the Ray Nouri Collection; scarce; $180.00 SALE PRICE $162.00


Nabataean Kingdom, Aretas IV and Phasael, 9 B.C. - 40 A.D.

|Nabataean| |Kingdom|, |Nabataean| |Kingdom,| |Aretas| |IV| |and| |Phasael,| |9| |B.C.| |-| |40| |A.D.||AE| |13|
Possibly struck in the year of Christ's birth! Jesus was born sometime between 6 B.C. and 4 B.C. Matthew describes King Herod as the ruler during the time of the Nativity, and Herod died in 4 B.C. Later, in order to kill Jesus and eliminate him as a rival king, Herod ordered the "Massacre of the Innocents" - the killing of all male children in Bethlehem aged two years and under. This means that Jesus may have been up to two years old already by that time, and this also sets the Nativity between 6 and 4 B.C. This type was issued in the names of Aretas IV and his daughter Phasael, 5 - 4 B.C.
GB94765. Bronze AE 13, Al-Qatanani 178; Barkay CN 118b; Al-Qatanani 178; Meshorer Nabataean 64; Huth 82; BMC Arabia p. 10, 35; SNG ANS 6 -, F, dark green patina, highlighting earthen deposits, weight 1.812 g, maximum diameter 13.3 mm, die axis 0o, Petra (Jordan) mint, 5 - 4 B.C.; obverse laureate head of Aretas right, Nabataean H (het) left, o (ayin) right; reverse two cornucopias crossed and filleted, Nabataean PS (peh sade) monogram (Phasael, Aretas' daughter) in center; from the Ray Nouri Collection; scarce; $130.00 SALE PRICE $117.00


Nabataean Kingdom, Aretas IV, 9 B.C. - 40 A.D.

|Nabataean| |Kingdom|, |Nabataean| |Kingdom,| |Aretas| |IV,| |9| |B.C.| |-| |40| |A.D.||AE| |12|
Aretas' daughter was married to Herod Antipas, Herod the Great's son, and the Tetrarch of Galilee. This coin resembles a coin minted by King Herod and the reverse probably depicts the golden bird Herod placed above the entrance to the Jerusalem Temple. But the political alliance and family ties celebrated by this coin were broken when Antipas left Aretas' daughter to marry Herodias. In response to this breach and personal insult, Aretas attacked and defeated Antipas' army in Galilee and brought his daughter home to Petra. It was Herodias' daughter, Salome, who requested John the Baptist's head on a platter.
GB94750. Bronze AE 12, Barkay CN 154a, Meshorer Nabataean 91, Al-Qatanani 130t1, SNG ANS 6 -, Huth -, BMC Arabia -, VF, ragged flan, light deposits, porosity, reverse off center, weight 1.032 g, maximum diameter 11.6 mm, die axis 0o, Petra (Jordan) mint, 5 - 6 A.D.; obverse Nabataean het ros (Aretas) monogram within wreath; reverse eagle standing right, head right, wings closed, Nabataean het ros (Aretas) monogram left; from the Ray Nouri Collection; $125.00 SALE PRICE $113.00


Nabataean Kingdom, Aretas IV, 9 B.C. - 40 A.D.

|Nabataean| |Kingdom|, |Nabataean| |Kingdom,| |Aretas| |IV,| |9| |B.C.| |-| |40| |A.D.||AE| |14|
Aretas IV Philopatris was the greatest Nabataean king, ruling S. Palestine, most of Trans-Jordan, N. Arabia, and Damascus. During his reign, large religious centers - also serving as banks and trade clearinghouses - were established on the Hauran, in Petra, and at Avdat. Aretas was married to Huldu when he became king. Her profile was featured on coins until 16 A.D. After a short gap, the face of his second wife, Shuqailat, appeared on the coins. Aretas's daughter married Herod Antipas, tetrarch of the Galilee. When Antipas took another wife, Herodias, Aretas's daughter returned to her father, who went to war against Antipas and defeated him. The episode led to the beheading of John the Baptist. Antipas appealed to Tiberius, who dispatched the governor of Syria to attack Aretas. Paul mentions Aretas in connection with his visit to Damascus when he had to to be lowered from the wall in a basket to escape. Al-Khazneh, the treasury, one of the most elaborate buildings in Petra, is believed to have been Aretas' mausoleum.
GB94730. Bronze AE 14, Al-Qatanani 149; Barkay CN 150i; Meshorer Nabataean 73A; Huth 78; BMC Arabia p. 10, 34; Schmitt-Korte II 44; Lindgren 2522, VF, dark green patina, earthen deposits, well centered for type, weight 2.322 g, maximum diameter 13.5 mm, die axis 315o, Petra (Jordan) mint, 8/7 B.C. - 15/16 A.D.; obverse laureate head of Aretas right, Nabataean het (Aretas) left; reverse two crossed cornucopias, Nabataean ayin between the horns, het (Aretas) left and right; from the Ray Nouri Collection; $120.00 SALE PRICE $108.00


Nabataean Kingdom, Aretas IV, 9 B.C. - 40 A.D.

|Nabataean| |Kingdom|, |Nabataean| |Kingdom,| |Aretas| |IV,| |9| |B.C.| |-| |40| |A.D.||quarter| |unit|
Aretas IV Philopatris was the greatest Nabataean king, ruling S. Palestine, most of Trans-Jordan, N. Arabia, and Damascus. During his reign, large religious centers - also serving as banks and trade clearinghouses - were established on the Hauran, in Petra, and at Avdat. Aretas was married to Huldu when he became king. Her profile was featured on coins until 16 A.D. After a short gap, the face of his second wife, Shuqailat, appeared on the coins. Aretas's daughter married Herod Antipas, tetrarch of the Galilee. When Antipas took another wife, Herodias, Aretas's daughter returned to her father, who went to war against Antipas and defeated him. The episode led to the beheading of John the Baptist. Antipas appealed to Tiberius, who dispatched the governor of Syria to attack Aretas. Paul mentions Aretas in connection with his visit to Damascus when he had to to be lowered from the wall in a basket to escape. Al-Khazneh, the treasury, one of the most elaborate buildings in Petra, is believed to have been Aretas' mausoleum.
GB94746. Bronze quarter unit, Meshorer Nabataean 81, Al-Qatanani 159t1, Barkay CN 134, Huth -, BMC Arabia -, SNG ANS 6 -, F, dark green patina, deposits, weight 2.094 g, maximum diameter 13.5 mm, die axis 0o, Petra (Jordan) mint, year 10, spring 1 - spring 2 A.D.; obverse laureate head of Aretas right; reverse Nabataean inscription (quarter) within wreath; from the Ray Nouri Collection; scarce; $120.00 SALE PRICE $108.00


Nabataean Kingdom, Aretas IV and Phasael, 9 B.C. - 40 A.D.

|Nabataean| |Kingdom|, |Nabataean| |Kingdom,| |Aretas| |IV| |and| |Phasael,| |9| |B.C.| |-| |40| |A.D.||AE| |14|
Possibly struck in the year of Christ's birth! Jesus was born sometime between 6 B.C. and 4 B.C. Matthew describes King Herod as the ruler during the time of the Nativity, and Herod died in 4 B.C. Later, in order to kill Jesus and eliminate him as a rival king, Herod ordered the "Massacre of the Innocents" - the killing of all male children in Bethlehem aged two years and under. This means that Jesus may have been up to two years old already by that time, and this also sets the Nativity between 6 and 4 B.C. This type was issued in the names of Aretas IV and his daughter Phasael, 5 - 4 B.C.
GB94963. Bronze AE 14, Al-Qatanani 178t1; Barkay CN 118a; Huth 82; Meshorer Nabataean 64; BMC Arabia p. 10, 35; SNG ANS 6 -, F, black patina, highlighting earthen deposits, weight 2.189 g, maximum diameter 13.9 mm, die axis 270o, Petra (Jordan) mint, spring 5 - spring 4 B.C.; obverse laureate head of Aretas right, Nabataean H (het) left, O (ayin) right; reverse two cornucopias crossed and filleted, two pomegranates dangling from tops above center, Nabataean PS (peh sade) monogram (Phasael, Aretas' daughter) in center; scarce; $100.00 SALE PRICE $90.00


Nabataean Kingdom, Aretas IV and Phasael, 9 B.C. - 40 A.D.

|Nabataean| |Kingdom|, |Nabataean| |Kingdom,| |Aretas| |IV| |and| |Phasael,| |9| |B.C.| |-| |40| |A.D.||AE| |13|
Possibly struck in the year of Christ's birth! Jesus was born sometime between 6 B.C. and 4 B.C. Matthew describes King Herod as the ruler during the time of the Nativity, and Herod died in 4 B.C. Later, in order to kill Jesus and eliminate him as a rival king, Herod ordered the "Massacre of the Innocents" - the killing of all male children in Bethlehem aged two years and under. This means that Jesus may have been up to two years old already by that time, and this also sets the Nativity between 6 and 4 B.C. This type was issued in the names of Aretas IV and his daughter Phasael, 5 - 4 B.C.
GB94971. Bronze AE 13, Al-Qatanani 178t1; Barkay CN 118a; Huth 82; Meshorer Nabataean 64; BMC Arabia p. 10, 35; SNG ANS 6 -, F, heavy earthen deposits, tight flan, reverse off center, weight 2.604 g, maximum diameter 13.3 mm, die axis 0o, Petra (Jordan) mint, 5 - 4 B.C.; obverse laureate head of Aretas right, 2 pomegranates hanging down, Nabataean H (het) left, o (ayin) right; reverse two cornucopias crossed and filleted, two pomegranates dangling from tops above center, Nabataean PS (peh sade) monogram (Phasael, Aretas' daughter) in center; from the Ray Nouri Collection; scarce; $100.00 SALE PRICE $90.00


Nabataean Kingdom, Aretas IV, 9 B.C. - 40 A.D.

|Nabataean| |Kingdom|, |Nabataean| |Kingdom,| |Aretas| |IV,| |9| |B.C.| |-| |40| |A.D.||AE| |14|
Some writers maintain that the horn of plenty should be written, in the singular, cornucopi, and in the plural, cornuacopi. U.S. English dictionaries, however, typically spell the singular, cornucopia and the plural cornucopias.
GB94739. Bronze AE 14, cf. Barkay CN 151b, Al-Qatanani 153t2, Meshorer Nabataean 76, Huth -, SNG ANS 6 -, BMC Arabia -, F, black patina, highlighting earthen deposits, tight flan squared by sprue cuts, weight 1.391 g, maximum diameter 13.7 mm, die axis 0o, Petra (Jordan) mint, 4 - 3 B.C.; obverse laureate head of Aretas with long hair right, Nabataean het (Aretas) right; reverse two crossed and filleted cornucopias, caduceus or scepter in center H (het) on shaft above cross, O (ayin) on shaft below; from the Ray Nouri Collection; $80.00 SALE PRICE $72.00




  



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REFERENCES

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Barkay, R. "New Nabataean Coins" in INJ 16 (2007-8), pp. 92 - 99.
Barkay, R. "Seven new silver coins of Malichus I and Obodas III" in NC 166 (2006), pp. 99 - 103.
Barkay, R. "The Coinage of the Last Nabataean King, Rabbel II (AD 70/1-105/6)" in NC 174 (2014), pp. 29 - 44, pl. 6 - 7.
Barkay, R. The Coinage of the Nabataeans. Qedem 58. (Jerusalem, 2019).
Barkay, R. "The Coinage of the Nabataean Usurper Syllaeus (c. 96 BC)" in NC 177 (2017), pp. 67 - 81, pl. 13 - 14.
Barkay, R. "The Earliest Nabataean Coinage" in NC 171 (2011), pp. 67 - 73, pl. 4 - 5.
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Cohen, E. Dated Coins of Antiquity: A comprehensive catalogue of the coins and how their numbers came about. (Lancaster, PA, 2011).
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Hill, G. A Catalogue of the Greek Coins in the British Museum - Arabia, Mesopotamia and Persia. (London, 1922).
Hoover, O. "A Reassessment of Nabataean Lead Coinage in Light of New Discoveries" in NC 166 (2006), pp. 105 - 119, pl. 27 - 30.
Hoover, O. Handbook of Coins of the Southern Levant: Phoenicia, Southern Koile Syria (Including Judaea), and Arabia, Fifth to First Centuries BC. HGC 10. (Lancaster, PA, 2010).
Hoover, O. "More New Nabatean Lead Issues of Aretas IV" in INR 7 (2012), pp. 107 - 113, pl. 13.
Hoover, O. & R. Barkay. "Important Additions to the Corpus of Nabataean Coins since 1990" in Huth CCK. (New York, 2010), pp. 197 - 212, pl. 17 - 18.
Huth, M. Coinage of the Caravan Kingdoms, Ancient Arabian Coins from the Collection of Martin Huth. ACNAC 10. (New York, 2010).
Huth, M. & P. van Alfen. Coinage of the Caravan Kingdoms. Studies in the Monetization of Ancient Arabia. ANSNS 25. (New York, 2010).
Meshorer, Y. Nabatean Coins, Qedem 3. (Jerusalem, 1975).
Plant, R. "The Coinage of the Nabataeans" in Seaby Coin and Medal Bulletin, March 1979, pp. 81-84.
Robinson, E. "Coins from Petra etc." in NC 1936, pp. 288 - 291, pl. XVII.
Schmitt-Korte, K. & M. Cowell. "Nabatean Coinage - Part I. The Silver Content Measured by X-ray Fluorescence Analysis" in NC 1989, pp. 33 - 58, pl. 11 - 17.
Schmitt-Korte, K. "Nabatean Coinage - Part II. New Coin Types and Variants" in NC 1990, pp. 105 - 133, pl. 10 - 15.
Schmitt-Korte, K. & M. Price. "Nabatean Coinage - Part III. The Nabatean Monetary System" in NC 1994, pp. 67 - 131, pl. 10 - 12.
Spikerman. A. The coins of the Decapolis and Provincial Arabia. (Jerusalem, 1978).
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, The Collection of the American Numismatic Society, Part 6: Palestine - South Arabia. (New York, 1981).
Tal, O. "Coin denominations and weight standards in fourth-century BCE Palestine" in INR 2, pp. 24 - 28.

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