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John II Comnenus, 15 August 1118 - 8 April 1143 A.D.
John II was the oldest son of Alexius I and succeeded to the throne in 1118. He was a good and capable ruler and did much to further the Byzantine Empire. He recaptured lost territory and added territory to the Empire. He attempted to curtail the trading privileges given to the Venetians but was forced to give up this idea. His reign was brought to an early end when he died in a hunting accident. His youngest son, Manuel I, succeeded him.
Byzantine Empire, Theme of Chaldia (Trebizond), Constantine Gabras, c. 1126 - 1140 A.D.
Constantine Gabras (or Gavras) was the governor or doux (duke) of the Byzantine province of Chaldia, centered on the Black Sea port of Trebizond and its mountainous hinterland, the Pontic Alps, in northeast Anatolia, now part of Turkey. Gabras rebelled against the Byzantine emperor John II Komnenos and ruled Chaldia as a semi-independent prince between 1126 and 1140. Following the dissolution of the Byzantine Empire by the Fourth Crusade in 1204, the region became the center of the new Empire of Trebizond which survived until falling to the Ottomans in 1461.BZ95865. Bronze follis, Bendall Trebizond (NC 77), pl. 7, 28; DOC IV Trebizond p. 433, 14; Hendy -; SBCV -, F, uneven strike with some weak areas, reverse off center, earthen encrustations, weight 1.146 g, maximum diameter 16.5 mm, die axis 0o, Trebizond (Trabzon, Turkey) mint, c. 1126 - 1140 A.D.; obverse cross fourchée within circular border; reverse cross fourchée within circular border; rare; $310.00 (€254.20)
Pure gold does not tarnish or tone and sometimes ancient gold coins are found looking just as they did the day they were minted. Gold that is less than pure with a small amount of silver in the alloy can tone slightly red in the right environment.SH90885. Gold hyperpyron, DOC IV-1 1a; CLBC I 3.1.1; Morrisson BnF 60/Cp/AV/1 ff.; Wroth BMC 10; Ratto 2094; Grierson 1064; Sommer 60.1; SBCV 1938, gVF, scyphate, light rose toning, flattened, weight 4.251 g, maximum diameter 33.0 mm, die axis 180o, Constantinopolis (Istanbul, Turkey) mint, 1118 - 1122; obverse Christ seated facing on throne without back, wearing nimbus cruciger, pallium, and colobium, raising right hand in benediction, Gospels in left, IC - XC flanking head; reverse +IΩ ∆EXΠOTH − Θς MP, Half-length figures of John II and the Virgin Mary facing, holding patriarchal cross between them; John wearing crown, loros and akakia, manus Dei above him emerging from clouds; the Virgin nimbate, wearing pallium and maphorium; ex Munzhandlung Ritter; SOLD
John II was the oldest son of Alexius I and succeeded to the throne in 1118. He was a good and capable ruler, and did much to further the Byzantine Empire. He recaptured lost territory and added territory to the Empire. He attempted to curtail the trading privileges given to the Venetians but was forced to give up this idea. His reign was brought to an early end when he died in a hunting accident. His youngest son, Manuel I, succeeded him.SH90889. Electrum aspron trachy, DOC-1 IV 8d; CLBC I 3.2.2; Morrisson BnF 60/Cp/El/3; Wroth BMC 46; Ratto 2098; Grierson 1068, Sommer 60.5; SBCV 1942, aEF, scyphate, flan crack, weight 4.119 g, maximum diameter 33.1 mm, die axis 180o, Constantinople (Istanbul, Turkey) mint, 1122 - 8 Apr 1143; obverse IC - XC (Greek abbreviation: Jesus Christ), Christ enthroned facing, throne without back, wearing nimbus cruciger, tunic and kolobion, raising right in benediction, Gospels in left, triangle of pellets at each end of cushion on throne; reverse IΩ/∆EC/ΠO/TH on left, Θ/ΓE/ΩP/Γ/I on right, John II and St. George standing facing, both holding a patriarchal cross on three steps between them; St. George nimbate, in military garb and with left hand on sword; dot (control symbol) below the tablion of the Emperor's chlamys; ex Jean Elsen sale V 116, lot 747; SOLD
Bellinger, A. Catalogue of the Byzantine Coins in the Dumbarton Oaks Collection and in the Whittemore Collection, Vol. IV, Part 1: Alexius I to Alexius V (1081-1204). (Washington D.C., 1966).
Berk, H. Roman Gold Coins of the Medieval World, 383 - 1453 A.D. (Joliet, IL, 1986).
Grierson, P. Byzantine Coins. (London, 1982).
Hendy, M. Coinage and Money in the Byzantine Empire 1081-1261. (Washington D.C., 1969).
Marchev, V. & R. Wachter. Catalogue of the Late Byzantine Coins, Vol. I, 1082 - 1261 AD. (Veliko Tarnovo, Bulgaria, 2011).
Morrisson, C. Catalogue des Monnaies Byzantines de la Bibliothèque Nationale II, 711 - 1204. (Paris, 1970).
Ratto, R. Monnaies Byzantines et d'autre Pays contemporaines à l'époque byzantine. (Lugano, 1930).
Sabatier, J. Description générale des monnaies Byzantines. (Paris, 1863).
Sear, D. Byzantine Coins and Their Values. (London, 1987).
Sommer, A. Die Münzen des Byzantinischen Reiches 491-1453. Mit einem Anhang: Die Münzen des Kaiserreichs von Trapezunt. (Regenstauf, 2010).
Tolstoi, I. Monnaies byzantines. (St. Petersburg, 1913 - 1914).
Wroth, W. Catalogue of the Imperial Byzantine Coins in the British Museum. (London, 1908).
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