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Herod Archelaus, Ethnarch of Samaria, Judea, and Idumea, 4 B.C. - 6 A.D.
SYMBOLS ON THE COINS OF HEROD ARCHELAUS
Anchor: The anchor was adopted from the Seleukids, who used it to symbolize their naval strength. On ancient coins, anchors are often depicted upside down, as they would be seen hung on the side of a boat ready for use.
Cornucopia: The cornucopia was a hollow animal horn used as a container. One of the most popular religious symbols of the ancient world, the cornucopia is also know as the "horn of plenty." The cornucopia symbolizes abundance and the prosperity of the nation.
Caduceus: The caduceus is the wing-topped staff, with two snakes winding about it, carried by Hermes. According to one myth it was given to him by Apollo. The caduceus was carried by Greek heralds and ambassadors and became a Roman symbol for truce, neutrality, and noncombatant status. The Herodians were friends to Rome and the caduceus was an appropriate symbol of that relationship.
Galley: The galley refers to Archelaus voyage to Rome at the beginning of his reign. His father had modified his will, naming Archelaus younger brother, Antipas, king. Archelaus sailed to Rome to appeal and was awarded a large share of the kingdom and the title ethnarch. The galley reminded those that thought to challenge him that he had the backing of Rome.
Grapes: Grapes, the vine and wine were an important part of the ancient economy and ritual. Grapes were brought to the Temple as offerings of the first-fruits and wine was offered upon the altar. The vine and grapes decorated the sacred vessels in the sanctuary and a golden vine with clusters of grapes stood at its entrance.