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Herod Archelaus, Ethnarch of Samaria, Judea, and Idumea, 4 B.C. - 6 A.D.
Son of Herod the Great, Herod Archelaus inherited the southern part of his father's kingdom - Judaea, Samaria and Idumaea. Jerusalem was his capital. Augustus denied him the title king and gave him the title ethnarch, with a promise to name him king if he governed well. He was so unpopular with his subjects that Augustus deposed him, banished him to Gaul and annexed his territory. Judea, Samaria, and Idumea became the Roman province of Iudaea.
Lot of 5 Herodian Kings of Judaea Bronze Prutot, c. 37 B.C. - 44 A.D.
Prutot (singular: prutah) of Herod the Great and his son Herod Archelaus.JD97396. Bronze Lot, Lot of five prutot of Herodian Kings of Judaea, Samaria, etc., 14.5 - 17.8mm, gF or better, Jerusalem mint, c. 37 B.C. - 44 A.D.; the actual coins in the photograph, no flips or tags; $290.00 (€266.80)
This is a scarcer variety with the inscriptions transposed. EΘNOPXOY (Ethnarch) is usually on the reverse and HPω∆HC (of Herod) is usually on the obverse. BMC Palestine lists 15 specimens of the usual variety and only one of this variety.JD97424. Bronze prutah, Hendin 1196a; BMC Palestine p. 233, 26; Meshorer TJC 74; RPC I 4917 var. (Ethnarch on rev., Herod on obv. - the usual type), gF, broad flan, highlighting earthen deposits, a little off center, part of edge ragged, weight 2.098 g, maximum diameter 17.2 mm, die axis 0o, Jerusalem mint, 4 B.C. - 6 A.D.; obverse EΘNOPXOY (Ethnarch), bunch of grapes, with leaf on left; reverse tall helmet with crest and neck straps viewed from the front, small caduceus in lower left field, HPω∆HC (of Herod) below; scarce; $225.00 (€207.00)
Grapes, the vine and wine were an important part of the ancient economy and ritual. Grapes were brought to the Temple as offerings of the first-fruits and wine was offered upon the altar. The vine and grapes decorated the sacred vessels in the sanctuary and a golden vine with clusters of grapes stood at its entrance.JD97316. Bronze prutah, Hendin 1196; Meshorer TJC 73; BMC Palestine p. 232, 10; SGICV 5539; RPC I 4917, aF, nice green patina, rough, off center, ragged edge, weight 1.854 g, maximum diameter 16.2 mm, die axis 180o, Jerusalem mint, 4 B.C. - 6 A.D.; obverse HPω∆OY (of Herod), bunch of grapes, with leaf on left; reverse EΘNOPXOY (Ethnarch), tall helmet with crest and neck straps viewed from the front, small caduceus in lower left field; $60.00 (€55.20)
The galley refers to Archelaus voyage to Rome at the beginning of his reign. His father had modified his will, naming Archelaus younger brother, Antipas, king. Archelaus sailed to Rome to appeal and was awarded a large share of the kingdom and the title ethnarch. The galley reminded those that thought to challenge him that he had the backing of Rome.JD97353. Bronze lepton, Hendin 1197, Meshorer TJC 72, RPC I 4916, BMC Palestine p. 233, 27, F, green patina, slightly ragged flan, weight 0.978 g, maximum diameter 15.1 mm, die axis 180o, Jerusalem mint, 4 B.C. - 6 A.D.; obverse H-P-W (counterclockwise), prow of war galley facing left; reverse EΘN (ethnarch), surrounded by wreath; $38.00 (€34.96)
Burnett, A., M. Amandry & P. Ripollès. Roman Provincial Coinage I: From the death of Caesar to the death of Vitellius (44 BC-AD 69). (London, 1992 & supplements).
Fontanille, J. Menorah Coin Project, website: http://menorahcoinproject.org/
Hendin, D. Guide to Biblical Coins, 5th Edition. (Amphora, 2010).
Hill, G. Catalogue of Greek Coins in the British Museum: Palestine. (London, 1914).
Meshorer, Y. Ancient Jewish Coinage. (New York, 1982).
Meshorer, Y. A Treasury of Jewish Coins from the Persian Period to Bar Kokhba. (Jerusalem, 2001).
Meshorer, Y., et al. Coins of the Holy Land: The Abraham and Marian Sofaer Collection at the American Numismatic Society and The Israel Museum. ACNAC 8. (New York, 2013). RPC Online - http://rpc.ashmus.ox.ac.uk/coins/
Sear, D. Greek Coins and Their Values, Volume 2: Asia and Africa. (London, 1979). Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Denmark, The Royal Collection of Coins and Medals, Danish National Museum, Vol. 7: Cyprus to India. (West Milford, NJ, 1982). Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, USA, The Collection of the American Numismatic Society, Part 6: Palestine - South Arabia. (New York, 1981).
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