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Herod Antipas, Tetrarch of Galilee and Perea, 4 B.C. - 39 A.D.
Herod Antipas is best known for his role in the executions of John the Baptist and Jesus of Nazareth. Antipas' father, Herod the Great, designated him to succeed, but the rule of Judaea was at the whim of Augustus. Antipas and his brothers Archelaus and Philip, all raised in Rome, were each given a part of the kingdom. Antipas was given the title Tetrarch and rule of Galilee, Peraea, and Jewish Trans-Jordan. He sponsored grand construction projects at Sepphoris, Betharamphtha, and his new capital Tiberias on the western shore of the Sea of Galilee. Antipas divorced Phasaelis, the daughter of King Aretas IV of Nabataea, and married his sister-in-law and niece Herodias. The divorce led to war with Aretas, in which Herod was defeated. John the Baptist condemned the marriage, for which Antipas had him arrested and executed. The Gospel of Luke states that Jesus was first brought before Pontius Pilate for trial. Pilate handed him over to Antipas, but Antipas sent him back to Pilate's court. In 39 A.D., his nephew Agrippa I accused Antipas of conspiracy against the new emperor Caligula. Caligula sent him into exile in Gaul. Accompanied there by Herodias, he died at an unknown date. All coins of Antipas were minted in Tiberias, the capitol city he founded c. 19 A.D. and named for Tiberius. All his coins are rare and very rare in better than poor condition. They were minted with an inferior alloy that was particularly susceptible to corrosion and wear.