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The Maccabees were Jewish rebel warriors that took control of Judea, which at the time had been a part of the Seleucid Empire. They founded the Hasmonean dynasty, which ruled Judea from 167 BCE to 37 BCE, as a fully independent kingdom from about 140 to 63 BCE. They reasserted the Jewish religion, partly by forced conversion, expanded the boundaries of Judea by conquest and reduced the influence of Hellenism and Hellenistic Judaism. Independent Hasmonean rule lasted until 63 BCE, when the Roman general Pompeus intervened in Hasmonean civil war, making it a client kingdom of Rome. The Hasmonean dynasty ended in 37 BCE when the Idumean Herod the Great became king of Israel, designated "King of the Jews" by the Roman Senate, effectively transforming the Hasmonean Kingdom into the Herodian Kingdom - a client kingdom of Rome.
|Parthia took Judaea in 40 B.C. and made Mattathias Antigonus their vassal King. Antigonus bit off Hyrcanus II's ears to render him ineligible for High Priest and sent him to Babylon in chains. Herod fled to Rome but returned with Roman support and took Jerusalem in 37 B.C. Dio Cassius says Antigonus was crucified but most accounts say he was beheaded. |
On this type the inscription is almost always retrograde. The Paleo-Hebrew inscription reads, in two retrograde lines, from left to right: MTT/(YH) (Mattatayah). On this coin the last two letter, the second line, is ligate (combined like a monogram). See Reading Judean Coins in NumisWiki.
|The Paleo-Hebrew inscription reads, from right to left, as follows: YHWHN/N (Yehohanan) H (the) KHN (Priest) [H] (the) / GDL (high) H (the) (HH)B/R (council) H (the) YHD/YM (Jews). See Reading Judean Coins in NumisWiki.|
|This type has a Greek letter A above the Paleo-Hebrew inscription. The inscription reads, from right to left, as follows: YHW(HH)NN (Yehonanan) / H (the) KHN (Priest) H (the) GD/L (high) W (and) (HH)BR (council) H (the) / Y[H]WDYM (Jews). See Reading |Judean |Coins in NumisWiki.|