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Home ▸ Catalog ▸ |Greek Coins| ▸ |Greek Imperial| ▸ |Judaea & Palestine||View Options:  |  |  |   

Roman Provincial Coins from Judaea and Palestine

Coins of Judaea and Palestine are also presented in our Judean and Biblical catalog section. Here all coins of Roman Judaea and Palestine are grouped together and listed from highest price to lowest. In our Judean and Biblical catalog section coins are organized by types and rulers and are presented with additional historical information and biblical references.

Judean Kingdom, Herod the Great, 37 - 4 B.C.

|Herod| |the| |Great|, |Judean| |Kingdom,| |Herod| |the| |Great,| |37| |-| |4| |B.C.|
The eight prutot was Herod's largest denomination. The style of this scarcer variety is somewhat schematic. The vertical legends are also unusual. This is an appendage group type (O2/R3) as discussed in the Feb '05 Celator.
SH08332. Copper Hendin 1169, Meshorer AJC 1a, MCP O-I-04, Fontanille Celator Feb '05 O2/R3, HGC 10 651, VF, areas not fully struck, nice green patina highlighted by buff earthen fill, weight 10.14 g, maximum diameter 28.0 mm, die axis 0o, Samaria mint, 40 - 37 B.C.; obverse HPΩ∆OY BAΣIΛEΩΣ (Greek: of King Herod) in 3 strait lines, tripod, ceremonial bowl (lebes) above, LΓ - P (year 3 of the tetrarchy = 40 B.C.) across fields; reverse military helmet facing with cheek pieces and straps, wreathed with acanthus leaves, fillets and star above, flanked by two palm-branches; scarce; SOLD


Judean Kingdom, Mattathias Antigonus (Mattatayah), 40 - 37 B.C.

|Mattathias| |Antigonus|, |Judean| |Kingdom,| |Mattathias| |Antigonus| |(Mattatayah),| |40| |-| |37| |B.C.||AE| |24|
This large bronze type was meant to impress the population and improve support for Antigonus against his rival Herod the Great.
JD14047. Bronze AE 24, Meshorer TJC 36h, Hendin 1162, SNG Cop 64, SNG ANS 185, HGC 10 646 (S), VF, nice green patina, weight 14.98 g, maximum diameter 23.6 mm, die axis 180o, Jerusalem mint, 40 - 37 B.C.; obverse Paleo-Hebrew inscription: Mattatayah the High Priest and Council of the Jews, around and between the horns of a double cornucopia; reverse BACIΛEΩC ANTIΓONOY (of King Antigonus), ivy wreath tied at the top with ribbons hanging down; scarce; SOLD


The First Jewish Revolt, 66 - 70 A.D.

|First| |Jewish| |Revolt|, |The| |First| |Jewish| |Revolt,| |66| |-| |70| |A.D.||shekel|
Discontent and inept rule led to open rebellion in 66 A.D. The Romans, distracted by the Civil Wars following the death of Nero, were unable to put a speedy end to the revolt. But in 70 A.D., Titus captured and sacked Jerusalem and destroyed the temple.
SH33191. Silver shekel, Hendin 1358, aEF, weight 14.324 g, maximum diameter 21.6 mm, die axis 0o, Jerusalem mint, year 2, 67 - 68 A.D.; obverse "Shekel of Israel" in Hebrew, Omer cup with pearled rim, date above (year 2); reverse Paleo-Hebrew: Jerusalem the Holy, stem with three pomegranates; SOLD


The First Jewish Revolt, 66 - 70 A.D.

|First| |Jewish| |Revolt|, |The| |First| |Jewish| |Revolt,| |66| |-| |70| |A.D.||shekel|
In 67, Vespasian arrived in Ptolemais, along with Legio X Fretensis and Legio V Macedonica to put down the Jewish Revolt. He was joined by his son Titus, who brought Legio XV Apollinaris from Alexandria. By late the spring the Roman army numbered more than 60,000 soldiers, including auxiliaries and troops of king Agrippa II.
SH28932. Silver shekel, Hendin 1358, EF, weight 13.496 g, maximum diameter 21.7 mm, die axis 0o, Jerusalem mint, year 2, 67 - 68 A.D.; obverse "Shekel of Israel" in Hebrew, Omer cup with pearled rim, date above (year 2); reverse Paleo-Hebrew: Jerusalem the Holy, stem with three pomegranates; SOLD


The First Jewish Revolt, 66 - 70 A.D.

|First| |Jewish| |Revolt|, |The| |First| |Jewish| |Revolt,| |66| |-| |70| |A.D.||shekel|
On 9 June 68, the Roman Emperor Nero committed suicide four miles outside Rome. He was deserted by the Praetorian Guard and then stabbed himself in the throat.
SH48298. Silver shekel, Meshorer TJC 202a, VF, toned, weight 13.250 g, maximum diameter 23.1 mm, die axis 0o, Jerusalem mint, year 3, 68 - 69 A.D.; obverse "Shekel of Israel" in Hebrew, Omer cup with pearled rim, date above (year 3); reverse stem with three pomegranates, "Jerusalem the Holy" in Hebrew around; SOLD


Jerusalem or Tyre, 42 - 43 A.D., Jerusalem Temple Tax Coin

|The| |Temple| |Tax| |Coin|, |Jerusalem| |or| |Tyre,| |42| |-| |43| |A.D.,| |Jerusalem| |Temple| |Tax| |Coin||shekel|
The Temple Tax Coin.
Shekels of Tyre were the only currency accepted at the Jerusalem Temple. When Tyre's coins were debased under Rome, shekels marked KP were likely struck at Jerusalem to maintain good silver coinage for the annual temple tax. "..go to the sea and cast a hook, and take up the fish that first cometh up; and when thou has opened his mouth, thou shalt find a piece of money: that take, and give unto them [the temple tax collectors] for me and thee." Since the tax was one half shekel per man the coin would have to be a shekel to pay the tax for both Jesus and Peter. Matthew 17:24-27.
SH79730. Silver shekel, cf. CNG auction mail-bid sale 61 (25 Sep 2002), lot 860 (same controls, otherwise unpublished, this date is recorded for a half-shekel, RPC I 4700), VF, nice style, toned, tight flan, reverse die wear (most evident in the H in the date), weight 13.949 g, maximum diameter 26.6 mm, die axis 0o, Jerusalem or Tyre mint, 42 - 43 A.D.; obverse laureate head of Melqart right, lion's skin knotted around neck; reverse TYPOY IEPAΣ KAI AΣYΛOY (of Tyre the holy and inviolable), eagle left, right foot on ship's ram, palm frond behind, Phoenician letter beth (control) between legs, PΞH (year 168) and club left, KP over PKE monogram (control) right; missing from references and major collections - the CNG coin is the only other year 168 shekel known to Forum; SOLD


Jerusalem or Tyre, 12 - 11 B.C., Judas' 30 Pieces of Silver

|30| |Pieces| |of| |Silver|, |Jerusalem| |or| |Tyre,| |12| |-| |11| |B.C.,| |Judas'| |30| |Pieces| |of| |Silver||shekel|
Judas' 30 Pieces of Silver
"Then one of the 12, called Judas Iscariot, went unto the chief priests, and said unto them, 'What will ye give me, and I will deliver him unto you?' And they covenanted with him for 30 pieces of silver." - Matthew 26:14-15. Shekels of Tyre were the only currency accepted at the Jerusalem Temple and are the most likely coinage with which Judas was paid for the betrayal of Christ.

After the coinage of Tyre was debased under Roman control, some experts believe Herod the Great began to strike "Tyre" shekels in Jerusalem. These coins were of cruder fabric and style, but maintained the silver purity required to pay the temple tax. The Jerusalem shekels have the letters KP or KAP to the right of the eagle and dates range from PH (18/17 B.C.) to PKE (69/70 A.D.). The Greek letters KP or KAP are probably an abbreviation for KAICAP, Greek for Caesar.
GP94922. Silver shekel, RPC I 4645; BMC Phoenicia p. 248, 192 var. (beth vice aleph); Baramki 79 var. (same); Rouvier 2088 var. (same); Cohen DCA 920/115; HGC 10 357, VF, attractive style, centered on tight flan, toned, slight porosity, light marks and scratches, weight 13.619 g, maximum diameter 27.8 mm, die axis 45o, Tyre or Jerusalem mint, 12 - 11 B.C.; obverse laureate head of Melqart right, lion's skin knotted around neck; reverse TYPOY IEPAΣ KAI AΣYΛOY (of Tyre the holy and inviolable), eagle left, right foot on ship's ram, transverse palm frond on far side, PIE (year 115) over club left, KP (Caesar) over BN (control) right, Phoenician letter aleph (control) between legs; from the Ray Nouri Collection; SOLD


Jerusalem or Tyre, 20 - 21 A.D., Judas' 30 Pieces of Silver

|30| |Pieces| |of| |Silver|, |Jerusalem| |or| |Tyre,| |20| |-| |21| |A.D.,| |Judas'| |30| |Pieces| |of| |Silver||shekel|
Judas' 30 Pieces of Silver
"Then one of the 12, called Judas Iscariot, went unto the chief priests, and said unto them, 'What will ye give me, and I will deliver him unto you?' And they covenanted with him for 30 pieces of silver." Matthew 26:14-15. Shekels of Tyre were the only currency accepted at the Jerusalem Temple and are the most likely coinage with which Judas was paid for the betrayal of Christ.

The Temple Tax Coin
"..go to the sea and cast a hook, and take up the fish that first cometh up; and when thou has opened his mouth, thou shalt find a piece of money: that take, and give unto them [the temple tax collectors] for me and thee." Since the tax was one half shekel per man the coin would have to be a shekel to pay the tax for both Jesus and Peter. Matthew 17:24-27
SH86527. Silver shekel, RPC I 4659; Prieur 1419 (3 spec.); Cohen DCA 920; HGC 10 357; BMC Phoenicia p. 248, 200 - 201 var. (different monogram right), VF, toned, tight flan as typical for this issue, bumps and marks, weight 14.180 g, maximum diameter 25.0 mm, die axis 0o, Jerusalem or Tyre mint, 20 - 21 A.D.; obverse laureate head of Melqart right, lion's skin knotted around neck; reverse TYPOY IEPAΣ KAI AΣYΛOY (of Tyre the holy and inviolable), eagle left, right foot on ship's ram, transverse palm frond on far side, letter between legs, PMς (year 146) and club left, KP over monogram right, uncertain Aramaic letter between eagle's legs; from the David Cannon Collection, ex Beast Coins; SOLD


The Temple Tax Coin, Tyre KP Type Half Shekel, Jerusalem or Tyre Mint, 33 - 34 A.D.

|The| |Temple| |Tax| |Coin|, |The| |Temple| |Tax| |Coin,| |Tyre| |KP| |Type| |Half| |Shekel,| |Jerusalem| |or| |Tyre| |Mint,| |33| |-| |34| |A.D.||half| |shekel|
POSSIBLE CRUCIFIXION YEAR COIN. The Bible does not tell the date of the Crucifixion, but based on Biblical clues, the Jewish calendar and astronomical evidence many scholars believe it was Friday, April 3, 33 A.D. John the Baptist began his ministry in 28 or 29 A.D. and the Gospel of John points to three separate Passovers during Jesus' ministry. Jesus was executed on the orders of Pontius Pilate, the Roman prefect of Judaea from 26 to 36 A.D. This limits the years to between 30 and 36 A.D. John P. Meier's, A Marginal Jew, cites 7 April 30 A.D., 3 April 33 A.D., and 30 March 36 A.D. as astronomically possible Friday Nisan 14 dates during this period. Isaac Newton, using the crescent of the moon, determined the year was 34 A.D. but John Pratt argued that Newton made a minor computation error and 33 A.D. was the accurate answer using Newton's method. Using similar computations, in 1990 astronomer Bradley Schaefer arrived at Friday, April 3, 33 A.D. A third method, using a completely different astronomical approach (consistent with Apostle Peter's reference to a "moon of blood" in Acts 2:20) based on a lunar Crucifixion darkness and eclipse model arrives at the same date, Friday, April 3, 33 A.D.
JD40425. Silver half shekel, RPC I 4693, Prieur 1463, BMC Phoenicia -; only one coin from this year in the hoard, aF, weight 6.249 g, maximum diameter 20.4 mm, die axis 0o, Tyre or Jerusalem mint, 33 - 34 A.D.; obverse laureate head of Melqart right, lion's skin knotted around neck; reverse TYPOY IEPAΣ KAI AΣYΛOY (of Tyre the holy and inviolable), eagle standing left, right foot on ship's ram, palm frond behind, PNΘ (year 159) over club left, KP over BA? right, Aramaic aleph between legs; very rare year; SOLD


The Temple Tax Coin, Tyre KP Type Half Shekel, Jerusalem or Tyre Mint, 64 - 65 A.D.

|The| |Temple| |Tax| |Coin|, |The| |Temple| |Tax| |Coin,| |Tyre| |KP| |Type| |Half| |Shekel,| |Jerusalem| |or| |Tyre| |Mint,| |64| |-| |65| |A.D.||half| |shekel|
One of the last issues of the type and apparently unpublished!
SH26439. Silver half shekel, Prieur -, RPC I -, BMC Phoenicia -, cf. RPC I supplement 4680 (full shekel), VF, weight 6.474 g, maximum diameter 19.8 mm, die axis 0o, Tyre or Jerusalem mint, 64 - 65 A.D.; obverse laureate head of Melqart right, lion's skin knotted around neck; reverse TYPOY IEPAΣ KAI AΣYΛOY (of Tyre the holy and inviolable), eagle standing left, right foot on ship's ram, palm frond behind, date (year 190) and club left, KP and HP monogram right, Aramaic beth between legs; extremely rare; SOLD




  




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REFERENCES

Burnett, A., M. Amandry, et al. Roman Provincial Coinage. (1992 - ).
Fontanille, J.P. Menorah Coin Project Website. http://menorahcoinproject.org.
Fontanille, J-P. and S.L. Gosline. The Coins of Pontius Pilate. (PA, 2001).
Hendin, D. Guide to Biblical Coins, 5th Edition. (Amphora, 2010).
Hamburger, H. "Minute coins from Caesarea" in ATIQOT - Journal of The Israel Dept. of Antiquities, Volume I. (Jerusalem, 1955).
Hill, George F. Catalogue of Greek Coins in the British Museum: Palestine. (London, 1914).
Hill, George F. Catalogue of Greek Coins in the British Museum: Phoenicia. (London, 1910).
Kadman, L. The Coins of Aelia Capitolina. (Jerusalem, 1956).
Kadman, L. The Coinage of Akko Ptolemais. (Jerusalem, 1961).
Kadman, L. The Coinage of Caesarea Maritima. (Jerusalem, 1957).
Kindler, A. The Coins of Tiberias. (Tiberias, 1961).
Meshorer, Y. Ancient Jewish Coinage. (New York, 1982).
Meshorer, Y. A Treasury of Jewish Coins from the Persian Period to Bar Kokhba. (Jerusalem, 2001).
Meshorer, Y. City-Coins of Eretz Israel and the Decapolis in the Roman Period. (Jerusalem, 1985).
Meshorer, Y. "One Hundred Ninety Years of Tyrian Shekels" in Studies Mildenberg.
Meshorer, Y. Jewish Coins of the Second Temple Period. (Tel-Aviv, 1967).
Meshorer, Y. The Coins of Aelia Capitolina. (Jerusalem, 1989).
Meshorer, Y. "The Coins of Caesarea Paneas" in INJ 8 (1984-5).
Meshorer, Y. "The Coins of Dora" in INJ 9 (1986).
Meshorer, Y. "Monnaies de Raphia" in RN 1976.
Mildenberg, L. The Coinage of the Bar Kokhba War. Typos VI. (Aarau, 1984).
Mildenberg, L. "Yehud: A Preliminary Study of the Provincial Coinage of Judaea" in Essays Thompson. (Wetteren, 1979).
Prieur, M. & K. Prieur. The Syro-Phoenician Tetradrachms and their fractions from 57 BC to AD 258. (Lancaster, PA, 2000).
Rosenberger, M. The Rosenberger Israel Collection Vol. I: City-Coins of Palestine: Aelia Kapitolina, Akko, Anthedon Antipatirs and Ascalon. (Jerusalm, 1972).
Rosenberger, M. The Rosenberger Israel Collection Vol. II: City-Coins of Palestine: Caesarea, Diospolis, Dora, Eleutheropolis, Gaba, Gaza and Joppa. (Jerusalem, 1975).
Rosenberger, M. The Rosenberger Israel Collection Vol. III: City-Coins of Palestine: Hipos-Sussita, Neapolis, Nicopolis, Nysa-Scytopolis, Caesarea-Panias, Pelusium, Raphia, Sabaste, Sepphoris-Diocaesarea, Tiberias. (Jerusalem, 1977).
Rosenberger, M. The Rosenberger Israel Collection Vol. IV: The Coinage of Eastern Palestine, and legionary countermarks, Bar-Kochba overstruck. (Jerusalem, 1978).
Sear, D. Greek Imperial Coins and Their Values. (London, 1982).
Spijkerman, A. The Coins of the Decapolis and Provincia Arabia. (Jerusalem, 1978).
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Denmark, The Royal Collection of Coins and Medals, Danish National Museum, Volume 7: Cyprus to India. (West Milford, NJ, 1982).
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, USA, The Collection of the American Numismatic Society, Part 6: Palestine - South Arabia. (New York, 1981).

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